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HE Imperial Gazetteer of India. 

W. W. HUNTER. C.S.I., C.I.E.. LL.D.. 

MBKMMiWaM. Of *T*T»TK< TO TO* OOVUnmUII ttr laiKA. 

..... i 07 4 9 







IXi&Xi {^f<fo/ian). — Division or Coin mission ership in the Punjab, 
E>etween 39° i' and 32' 4' N, JaL, and between 70° 36' and 74" a' 
;., and comprising the four Districts of Multan, Jhang, Mont- 
LV, and MuzAFFARrrARH, each of which see separately. The 
3n is bounded on the north by Shdhpur District, on the east by 
iwdla and I^hore Districts ; on the south by the river Sutlej, 

separates it from the Native State of Bahiwalpur; and on the 
ly the river Indus, which separates it from Dera Ismiil Khin 
•A, Area (1881), 70.295 square miles, containing 25 towns and 
villages, with 297,668 houses- Population (1868) 1,477,936; 
\ 1,712,394, namely, males 936,356, and females 776,038, Total 
K in the thirteen years 1S68-1881, 234,458, or i5"9 percent, 
er of families, 359,294^ Average density of population, 84 
s per square mile. Classified according to religion, there were in 
-Muhammadans, 1,385,782, or 8o"9 per cent ; Hindus, 304,164, 
7 per cent- ; Sikhs, 20,314, or V2 per cent, ; Jains, 63 ; Parsis, 
hristians, 199S; and * others/ 6. 
tin Division contains 25 municipal towns, with an urban popula- 

9'95 per cent, of the total population of the Division ; while of 
:al of 4364 towns and villages, 3413 contained less than five 
'd inhabitants, and 6 1 2 from five hundred to a thousand. Average 
nder cultivation for the five years 1S77-78 to 1881-82, 2397 

miles; cultivated area in 1883-84, 2519 square miles. Total 
;e in 1883-84, ;^29i, 630, of which ^^154,727 was derived from 
id-tax.— For further information, see the District notices for 
4N, Jhang, Montgomery, and Muzaffarcarh, 

, X. A 


Mdlt&Q i^Mooitan). — A ICritUli District in tlie l.ieutcnart-Governor- 
ship of ihc Turjab, I>m^ bctwec^i Jtj" 3j' and jo" 45' n. JaL, vA 
bctwccn7i'4and 7;' 54" 30' e^ long, Atr.i in i83i, 5SS0 square milctj 
gju^fulalic^n ui the sarnc >c^r, 33JiV^4 jia^oiLft. Mttlutn forrot ihe 
Nouthcm IDistrici of the Blri U^b. U is bounded on the north bf 
Jhang District; on the ca&t by Montgomery DisUict; on (lie soulHby 
Bnhiwalpur Stale, from which it is icp^rnlcti by the StitTej; and f>n tb* 
west by Mu^afTargarb District, from which it is separ.^tcd by ihc Chcn-ili 
The administrative headiiuarteri are at the city of Multas. 

Physmi Aif>ccts.-''\\\^ Disuict of Miihin consists of aa obtuse 
wedge of land, endowed by the conflLicnt streams of the Chciiiti 
and the Sutlcj, which unile al its south western cxlreinil^. The 
irregular triangle thus cut olf iiei wholly within the Biri Doab, but the 
l>istrict boandariea have been anificially prolonged across the Rivf in 
the nortli, jto as to include a poition also of the Rccinu Do^U The 
pa>l or present courses of four of the great riveis of the Punjab dctW' 
mine the conformation of the MJliin plutcau. At present, the Sutlcj 
fonns it* souiliorn and the Chenilj its north- wesiern boundary, while 
ibi? Rivf inlt'Tsecl^t fis extreme northern angle. Along the banlu of 
these three modern streams extend fruiges of cultivation, varying 

width from 3 to 30 miles; but the interior presents the usual 
barren appearance of the Punjab tableland. Mid way between the 
boundary rivers, a high dorsal ridge enters this District from 
MoNTciOMKRV, forming a part of the sterile region known as the hir. 
It dips into the lower plateau on either side by abrupt banks, which 
mark the ancient beds of the Rivi and the Bea^ (Diis). These two 
rivers once flowed for a much greziicr distance soudiward before Joining 
the Chcniib and (be Sutkj th^n is now the eaac \ and their url^Euul 
C0LiT«e may still be distinctly tmccd, not only by tTie filgnfi of former fiuviol 
action, but nUo by the extstence of dried-up canals. The Rivf i^tilL dings 
to its anf icnt watercourse, as obscned by fSencral Cunningham, and In 
seasons of high flood finds lb wny as far as M tlltan by the abandoned 
bed. "^Vhen the District was thus abundantly intersected by four 
mighty rivers, the whole wedge of land, exec|>t the dorsal ridge of the 
ifdr^ could obtain irrit^ation from one or oihcr of their streams. Nume- 
rous vilJagci then dotted its whole surface; and A! Miixudi, m the lolh 
cenltir)-, describes MtlUin, with oriental exaggeration, as surrounded by 
ijo,ooo hamlcta. At the pioein day, the Beas (liiib) is to[a]ly lost tO 
the District j the Ravi merely waters a small curneri and tlie only rich 
cultivation is thai whicb stretches along the Chcnab and the SutlcJ. 
ElM?wh«Te, a wild jungle cf hru\hwoud covers the soil, which. iKou^ 
naTumlly good* reciulres abundant irngilion to bring it under efficient 
tillage. Numerous canals supply waler from the Snllej to the 
surrounding country. Pools or /^i/j collect during the rainy weather 


■^r boU.iwi f;>rmcd by the old waicrcours-t, anfl are utiliied 
by cmbanlcnwnts and aniiiciil channels for fcnilJiing die neighbouring 

Tht general a*|W<:t of ihc District ma/ l>e t)riefly dexcribed as 
follows: — Suiting from the present banlcs cf the Chtmib and Sutlej 
riv«TSt is a strip of land subject to thr annual overflow of Ehosc rivers 
during the lains- This stnp exlcnda inland iboui three miles from the 
SutlcJ, and rather further from the tjanlcs of the Chenib and Rdvf, 
This Uact u intcracctcd hy the canals^ but doctt not generally receive 
moch canal water. Rcyond lh\\ rivcmin »tri]> comei a belt of higher 
land where wells cats be sunk without dtfTtciilty, the waicr being from 
irt to ;io feci l>e1ow th<- surface? ; and cnniiJ irhgriiion ia ateo generrilly 
plentiful The breadth of ihis belt depend.^t chiefly on the canals. 
^Vherc there arc none, as in most parts of Sarai Sidhu tahsU^ it is not 
more th^n four or live miles acro&s ; abng thcChcn^b. where thccnnaU 
run almost puallcl with the river, it is sii or seven miles; and alotig 
the Suilcj. where the canaU strike more inland, it is upwards of ten 
milc^ farther Inland and extending up to the hdr^ the country i% 
known as the FUwd, Where water i» reached by the canata, the culti- 
vaiiou vs ^ood ; bat where there ^rc no i^anab^ it t« only hi fjvuurablc 
hoUow apota where drnlnn^c waiter collects thai well* can be **orked 
wiih any profir. Filling the centre of the District cornea the bftrrcn 
pbtcflu of ih« Mr. Ilie tdr landt are principally A\-ai1ab1e for p^turv ; 
and ihc proccedi of the gracing tax form an important item oJ Govern- 
ment revenue- The »aleorjr'''f (chrified butler) J* a lucrative source 
of income to the pastoral tribcv The only valuable anicleB of jungle 
|iTodvce art sojjt^ an imjnire carbonate of soda, Mllpcirc, and vegetable 
dyes> Kai^ar, or nodubr limestone, is Tound in certain localities 
sparsely scattered over ihc svufacc Of wild animals^ wolves are very 
common; and during the live ycais ending i$8j, ^tJ3 was paid in 
the shape of rewards for the de^ruction of 350 wolvei. 

Hhi^rj. — The diy now kn»wn asi Millldn probably bore in ihc 
carlksit times the name of Kasyapcpura, derived from KaT^ajia, father 
of the Aditya^ and Daity^i;, ihc Sun^gods ;u)d Titans of Hindu myth- 
ology. Under r:iriou« Hellenic forms of this ancient desigrLaiif>n, 
MdTtin figures in the worka of Hecatams, Herodotus^ ar>d Ptolemy, 
(tcnenl CunninithatLi believes thai the Ka^[)eir;ea of the lafc-nained 
author^ being the capital of the Kus|tttir£i^ who>e dcminioat extended 
from Kashmir (Ca^mere) to Muttia, must have been the principal city 
in the Punjab towards the and century of our era. Five hundred years 
earlier, Mdliin appears in the history of Alexander's invasion as the 
chief seat of the MalU, whom the Macedonian conqueror utterly sub- 
docd after a dcHpeniie reiiatanee. He lefl IMullp oa S^tiup ;it MiJMn 

ctf; but it scenis probable ihut the Hellenic £K>ivcr in thU di.-itani 



f|uarter soon cnine lo An end, as the country appcare shortly aAcrw^iilt 
to hnvc passed under the rule of ihc Gupta Jynasiy of Ma^.i^ru. 
At a later period, Creek influence nuy once more haw extended W 
MUltin under the Bacirian kings, wba^ coiru aie occasioDjtlly found 
in the DUtrict The early Arab geop'aphen meniion Mdltin li 
forming pan of the bcingdom of SinO, ruled over hy the f^irooui 
Kiji Cliach. PuTiog hU reign, the well kiiown Chinese Huddbsi 
pilgrim, Hiiicn T»Angt viaited Mdlt^n, where he fouiid n golden inugt 
of the £un, from v/hich C^eneral Cunniagharii derives die modern nimr 
of the city, ihouyh other authoritJei connect it raiher with thai <>f ih/ 

Sind caily fell a prey to the a£Kre«sivc Muhamniad^n power, snd 
M;lltin District, hkc the rest of the kingdom, was conquered fbt 
the Khalifat by Muhammad Kasim. Puring the decline of the 
Khalifa, their influence naturally ^rew weak in the remote Promct 
of Sind 1 and about the close of the gth century, two mdeiKndcnr 
kingdoms sprang up, with their capitals at Mansiim and Miluo. 
A naiive Arab <lynasty of Amirs cuniinuecl to reign over the countl]r 
about the junccion of the Chen^b and tlie Sutlcj, unul ihc rUc of ^ 
Chaznf Empire. 

In 1005, Sultdn Mahmi^d laid siege to city, and having c«- 
quered \\, with the whole of Sind. continued thereafter to appoi&t the 
governors. After passing for a time under the dynasties of Sumra and 
Ghor, the District regained a brief indeixrndence ir 1441, under 
Shaikh ViiKaf, ^d oflicer appointed hy the people themselves. But 
when the Mughal princes consolidated the whole of Upper India into 
a single Eimpire, Mdltan p-isscd under their wider sway; and it 
remained the capital of one oJ their suifahs tiJl the imperial or^niation 
fell to tneces* On Nidir Shih's invasion in 173S-39, ZaWd KJiin, a 
Sado/>u Afj^han, wa?t uppuititcd by ML;1iaMiniad Shjh to be Nawdbof 
MLlltin. 11c founded a family which long continued to rule in the 
BJri Po.ib, in «pitc of freejuent interruptions by Mardthid and 

The history of the District during the latter half of the 18th centUT^ 
comprises the usual tangled details of Sikh and Miihammadan dynastic 
revolutions and internal warfare. At length, in 1779, Muzaflar YAij^ 
one of the Sadozai family^ succeeded in obtaining the go^-ernorship of 
Mclhin. Though constantly harassed by the Bhangi Siklis, he managed 
to develop considerably the rescmrces of his Provmcc, Ranjit Singh 
several times attacked his capital, but was compelled to rciirc At 
length, in June 1S18, the Sikha comiuered the uify, after a long siegCi 
by a deaperatc assiuJt, in the toursc of which Muiaffar Khin was abin, 
with five of his sons. 

After iMissing rapidly through the hands of two ar three Sikb 


orcmon, Millin DUtiict w» made over in 18*9 to llic famous 
iwan Uall, lo^cilKr vith ihc modern DtaLria» of Dcr^ lanUU Khin, 
era Chili KMn, Muufitar^,irh, aad Jhang. Tl^e whole country had 
Jmcvt ft«(umed the a*|>«:t of a deucrt from frequccit warfare and 
IpolLition ; bui Diwin Mall induced new inhabitants to settle in 
Province, excavated numaous canals, favoured commerce, and 
restored prosperity to ihc desolated tract. After the dcaih of Ranjft 
Singh, however, quaneU took pUce between S^*an Mall and the 
K^uhtnir Ri)i ; and on the iitli of Septemtjet 1^44, tl)^ forn^er was 
l&CtlJy shot in the brem by ;i soldier. Hii »on ^f lilrij succeeded to his 
govcmor^tp, and ahc to his quarrel niih the authorities nt l^horc, 
'l*betr coDitunt ci^icilonji ai Lisi Induced hjm to tender his resignation. 
After the c*uiblishmcnt of the Couacil (jf Kcgcii^y ai l^liure. iLb one of 
the rcstilca of the first Sikh wjir, diflficuUit:* arow belveen the Diivin 
Mdlrij and the Brltiich offictalf, which culminatcrd in the murder of two 
BnCiith offifrr*, ami finally Ird to ihr MJlfrfn r<*hrliioTi, That episode, 
together with the second Sikh war, belongs rather to imperial than to 
local history. It ended in the capEureof Mdldnaml the annexation of 
the whole of the Pjnjab by the Brtti?th. The city ofTered a resolute 
defence, but, being stonned on md January 1349, fell after ^everc 
lijhtin^; and though the fort held out for a short time lunger, it w:is 
lurreodered at discretion by Millr^j on the amd Janunry. Mulr,1j wik% 
pac upon his trial for the murder of our officials, and, being found 
guilty, was scntenixd 10 de:ith ; but this iwnaUy waji afterwardi com- 
muted for iKit of trjnaportation, 'llic District at once |aaacd under 
direct British rule. 

Pi^Utthn^ — The first regtilar Cennis in 1S55 returned the numlwr 
of inhabitants of M lilts n District ai 411486. That of t868 disclosed 
a total population of 473*^68, showing an increase of 6o»88i, or I4"7 
per oenL, in the thirteen years endinx tSGS, At the last enumeration 
in i8St| the population of the District ^n-as returned at 551,964, or a 
furth(-r increxte of 79,696, or 16 9 per cent., between j863 and 18S1. 
Thi^ increase i-i largely due to immigration, caused by the immense 
ckvclc^nKnt of canil irrigation in late years. 

The results of the Census of 1881 may be briclly summarixed £li 
follows: — Aici of DiAtrict, fSSc* square milcSf with 6 towns and 
1^87 villoi^i number of hoLl1ca^ 117,098, of which 931599 were 
occupied, and ^^,499 unoccupied ; number of fami][««» 1 15,847. Total 
1hOf>ulation, 551,96^1, n.imdy, males 304,517, and female* 247,447- 
I'rojiOTtion of males in total pepuiation, 55"i per cent The average 
density of the poi>ulatbn thtou^houc t)ie District is returned at 94 per 
square mile, h muttt however, be Temembercd that neaily half the 
whole area consists of great paniurage grounds, Ihc property of Govcm- 
iDcnt, and scantily inhabited by nomad ^ra^ient. The aica included 



within villngc bound^irici i:i only 2923 3C[uarc mites, jtnd on thai sa 
the density of population is iZ& ]>cr »quar<; mile ClAsniiicd uxardi9| 
to sex ftn<^ dgc, there were in 1681 — under 15 jcars of a^ b««i 
Ti9,^«8, and girU 101,141; toial children, V9<t,6^9, or 40 pcrc^oLcrf 
the {ropulaiion: 15 ye^in and upwani^, mnl» 184,9^9, Jind Cmul9 
146,^06; tola! adti1», 331,295. or 60 per cent. 

Rdis^n. — CInssilicd according to religion, Mubammadons numhcrc^ 
435,901, or 78-9 per cent- of the District popula^on, while the Hinda* 
arc reliirnecl at 112,001, or 203 per cent. The remainder is mjideup 
of— Sikh*, 2085; Chmtian*, 1861: Hr&Ift, 63; Jains, 47; and 'o(hcnr' 
6. In the follovring return of the prlnci|u1 caftte* and tribes 't ^'^^ 
be remembered that nenrly every casle, although generally pouesKfis 
a dcininaitng preponderance of one nrligion, alio induiks nivsr 
aiemt>cr« cf other leli^ioniip Thuj, the JjIia, numbering 10^951, ui 
the Rdjputs 59,627, are almost entirely MuhmmnndAns, with ft tprinklb^ 
of Hindus; while the Arora* (76,842), Bril^miTis (41 S3), ^nd Kh*!tiT^ 
(9798) ftrp Almost exclusively Hindus, wiih a slight Muh;unrnaiii.i 
dement. The other leading tribes and caMtrs jin*:ludin>: l>oih Muhui*' 
madans and Hindus) arc— Chuhra, 29,489; Amir, 23»gSi ; Julilu. 
*J»753 ; Mocbi. 16,596 ; Kumbhar. 13,716; 'larkh^in, itfc9i5;CbJ- 
hoa, 11,453; Macbhf, 9610- Mirisf, 7510; Nai, 6035; Ka8sab,59T4i 
and K-hojali, 5640, The Mtihaminadan po|rulation by race, as ii- 
tinguished from descendants oC converts, comprbea Oatuchfs, 1^,547; 
Shaikhs, 12.649; I'Atfians, 9067; Sa>7ids, 8908; Mughal^ 4601 ; and 
IMiidputrn^, 1^1 5- According (o -=tect,tbc Muhamm^dan^ arc retunicd 
as follows: — Sunnis, 431^656; Shijia, 3S30 ; Wahibis, 79J and iM- 
speciAed, 336. The Christian population J numberei t96tj of vihom 
1709 are Kiiropeans, 110 Kurasian*, and only ^^ Natives. 

T<*wn iind Ruroi Pvpuiatim^ tU. — Miiltdn DiMfict contains 6 mant 
cipal towni — namely, Mui,tan Cii"v, jjoptilaiion 68,674; Shuja 
645S; Kaiirob,4So4; Jaui.pvr. 3875 ; Tai^niba, 2331; and I)u 
VAPCR, 2041, These towns contain a total urban iK>pulation of 88,0831 
or 15'9 !>« cent, of the District population. Of the IJ93 towns 
and vilhgi^s comprising Miillin District in iftSi. 997 contained less 
than live hundred inhabitants ; 1 89 from live hundred to a thousand ; 88 
from one to two thousand ; 11 from two to ihrec thous^ad; 6 from 
three to five tfiousnnd ; and i upwards of five tliuu*iand. The villages 
are nearly all situated in the img-nted lowland tracu bordering 
the great rivers, the sterile bar tract eontaining only a nomadie 
population of graziers. As rcpards oceupaiion, the Census Report 
mumed the adult male population under the following seven main 
classes: — (1) Profc^ional class, including fill Government ofticials and 
scrvante, civil and miliiary, 9717; (2) domestic and menial class, 
5504; (3) commercial and trading class, including carriers, 11,500; 

DOdl H 



b) agncultuiail ^uicl pastoral clata, inclutjing gardeners, 74i943 \ (5) 
JuslTial and mAnufoctUTing cIa^ -46^3^3 > (6) indefinite and non* 
Lidive daw, »J.^59; (?) itnspocified, ^5,473, The UuiguAga 
iHc great mijoiity of the [>Dpul:itic>n ti a <Ii;iJ«!f:l known ns Jatki 
ML^llinf, claut^l hy many ja a rfialcci of Sindhi, between which 
aguage and Punjabi it occHptcs an IntcrmcdtAtc posiiion. Numerous 
i» occur thrwtghoui the DulricL Tho^ At Ataki have been identi- 
Ecd by Crcncnl Cunningham with the* City of the Brachmans/lnkcn by 
Jcxandt-r during his invasion of India, 

Ap^iaiitMr<. — '\\\z returns of 18JJ3-84 state the total area under 
Dcni for land revenue at 3.735,561 aae«. Of thU :Lrca, 5i8,&2i 
«t!<c Tdumed a;; iindcf cultiviligu; 3,021,277 acrt:» a^ grazing 
I, Of land cap*ibic ©f being brought ;mdcr cuhivntion , -ind 145,462 
a£ unculiL^^abfc wa*tc. Cultivation hw steadily though not 
pidTy lncre»&cd «ince th« British aan«xation. The chamcior of 
agriculture remains slovenly, a« \\\t Jit trihrs who (compose the 
of the runil ]>o|)uhtion bivc not yet lost their predatory and 
storal proijenHties- Only uhcrc Mindu capitalists of the Aiora, 
khattrit or Daniyd ca£tcs have obtained a hold upon the soil, floes the 
tmsbandry reach even the ordinary' standard of the Punjab plains. III- 
iloughed Und, seldom manured, town with seed broadcast, and pro- 
locing thiti or irregular crop*, shows a mnrkcd contra*: to the fenilily 
which might natiirAlly be expected in a District, the cultivated portioru 
uf which arc to Abundantly iirigatcd. Near the rity, hcuc-vcrj r-.ipitAli^t 
fArmcr^ lui/c brougfit their cMAEcs to n high state of <:ulLivdtion, The 
ovaking of the wooden PerAEon wheel, wc^rked by bullocks, And lifi!n>; 3 
steady nipply of wnrcr from the wellv, mny \^ in<^u:int1y beard around 
Mtiltin, from before daybrf'.ik lf> long after dusk. 

'J'be ftrea und^r various crops in 1885-84 (including lands bearing 
ilouble crops), for the two great harvests of the year, is rcLumcd as 
follows; — A^*i>/— Wheat, t37.9ii;/^f/', 5&,<>s8; baxle/, 4S01 ; gram, 
11,050; peas, 38,514; manifit 3*93; otlsecds. 5005; drugs and 
apices, IJ31; miscellaneous, 4(j.o&7 acre*. A'Aari/ — Kice, 13.709 
acres; MJfa, 11,224; f^'"^* 359^ » other cereals, 525; pulses, 4059; 
oil'Scetb {tiff, 12,978; cQlten, 34,413; indiyu, 62,392; %ugat-uuic. 
-953 J ^^ mUccHancous, 495 acrc9< Of these, indigo forma the most 
important commercial Majile, it'* cultivation having been largely 
ciu"oyragcd by the Diwfin S^iw^n Mall, and bter hy tho British 
Covcmmcni. With the exception of one small European concern, 
there are no tnd^ bctoriet in MiiUdn. Eai:h well, where indigo is 
grown, has its own vats ; the in.iuufacture is carried out on the spot by 
the urmi^ifdr and hit a^Utnnts ;ind the dyx, made up into bulls, is 
bou^t b>' traders who come in the cold weather from Bombay and 
Kil>u]. Sitgahr-cane forms a ver>' valustbic cropi but with the exception 


of a. little grown in the neighbourhood of Miiltin city u (odder fet 
CommissariAt ctcphant^ its cuUivaiion j^conlincd to a few x'iUaga 
Shiijibid Msils Cotton occupies 2 considerable proponion «f 
kkarij area, but It ig grown almost entirely for home conni 
The average proUucc ^\ aac of ttie various aop» va» rctuiDcd 
roHottit in i8d3:^Ritc, ^00 ]b^>; iiiJij^, 31 Lbs.; cotton^ 104 Ibft; 
wheat, 752 lbs.; tnrcrlot gtainR, 472 tbs. 

frri^tlon extends over 336,^57 actcs from Govcmrncnt kax\^ ncK 
and over 97.73a acres supplied by private cnterpriw, mninly fron mtS^ 
Rencj are almost universally paid in kind. Umklilcd labOQiets ire 
paid at Ibc rate of from jjd. to Qd. per diem, while: akillcd taboocn 
receive from i *, to is. 6d- The average prices of foodgraini for IwCBPr 
years ending i88^is returned as follows :—U^cnt, \%\%^n i)Crruf«,of 
7s. 3d per cwt. ; barley, ajj sers per rupee, or 4s, 1 id per cwt. ; pvv 
19 j j*rr per rupee, or ss> SJd. per cwt. ; Ai/rtf, aoj «'/:f per rupee, « 
5s. 5 Ad. per cwt. ; and jodt^ ao| ur% per lupce^ or 5s. 5d. per cwl 

Cf/mmtnt and Trudt^ <:U. — The tily of MiSltin forin:^ the jjieatl CCBB- 
mcrelal centre of the Districi, but there are also hdsdr$ at ShtijiUdi 
Kahror, Sarii Sidbu, Talamba,, laUlpur, cind othcrr s;oullef 
lowm. Thenre ihe surplus prtiducc of ihc Disitict finds it* way to ik 
markets of Multav Ctrv (^,p,). The chief articles of trade are sujit 
and indigo from the lowlands, and wool and s^i from the pasture tasdi 
of the Mr, Silk and 6ne cotton fabrics are produced at M^iabi 
coarse cotton cloth for home consumption is woven in every villigt 
Indigo is aUo largely nianufacuired from the raw materijd. WodhA 
and cotton pjlti rar^jets are largely manufactured in Miiltin city, whkh 
has also a wide rcpurntion for its blue nod green glared pottery, aail 
GQamel wgik. The M;Htan branch uf the Sind, Punjab, &nd Dcftii 
Railway, opened in 1864, connects the city with the Northern PunjaU 
and has ita terminus at Ramowili, a temporary station on the left bank 
of the Chenib, two miles beyond Shtr Shrth. The ii^icmicdiiEc 
stations im the line within Muk^n District arc Channu, Knchi^kbii, 
KhanewiH, Rashida, Taupnr, MiSltan City and Cantonments, Muol&r' 
ib£d junction, and Shcr Shih \ total length, 74 mile& The Indus 
Valley Stale Railway, opened for traffic in 1878, starts from MdliAn 
cantonments, and makes use of the Sjnd, Punjab, and Delhi R^wayas 
far aa MuuiTar^Md Junction, whence it run^ south, with stations at 
Buch, Shtljdbdd^ (jchwild, Lndhran, and Atlamw.lhari, where it leaves 
Mtiltin District, after a course of 61 miles, by the Empress bridge oter 
the Sullcj, and passes into U.thilwalpur Statu Tlie Guvcrriment tele- 
graph line from Lahore to Kardctii (Kurracbec) passes ilirough Mtiltin, 
nnd a branch line goes to Dera Ghdxi Khi£n. Telegraph lines alao ran 
along the wholf length of the railway, wirh offiro^i at ea^h Hiation^ 
The j)rincipa] lines of road radiate from Multan to Shci SJmh, Jhoiig, 


■h«rc, Mail&i, Kahror, Bahiwolpur, nnd Sukltur, with numerous 
Hnch liiws and GrDi$<oaiUr>' trai;k«. Total length of m^ialleJ roads, 
[1 iiiiJ«s; unmetaUL^l roadt, 1131 miTcs. Wntcr commuiiJcaEion is 
forded l>r the Sutlej. Qienab. and lUvi rivers, which nre navigable 
ghout the vhole of their leti^ih of 145 miles. With ilic cxcepticjn 
ibc railiva)- bridge over the Suilcj, none cf ihc rivers arc bridged, 
lit ihere arc fcnicn at all the chief crouings. 

A^miaiitntiit^ti.'^'Yh^ Dihtrict is under rhe control of the Commit- 
net of the Miiltin Division, who i* stationed at Miilclfi city, Th« 
linary head quaners buIT cf the District comprises a Deputy Commi** 
jonerp with a JiuiicialA&siitant, an Assistant Commissioner, and two extra- 
sistant Coininmioner&, 1>esidcs the usual liscal, constabuUT>^ and 
licaJ officers. Each iahtii iit in charge of ft /aMh/4r, assisted by a n^i^ 
jiJddr, with a village stafT of |>ctty revenue olfiixts, Thcie arc two 
itumtfy or subordinate civil judges, both of whom hold ttieir courts at 
Mtlltdn city, and exercise Jurisdiction over the whole ni»tikL llie 
ejiccutive bUlT U suppleuieiitcd by a c^iloumcnt magbtr^ite, And 
a beneh of honorary magistrates in the city. The total impcrUl 
revcnoe >n 1S73-73 omounEcd to ^91,042, of which sum the Undt^tx 
contribiit<^ X^J.4S6. In 18S3-S4, the total land rcvonur of the 
District was returned at ^101^715, of which j^s6,a8a was dcriveU 
from the direct Und-tax. The other principal items arc grazing dues, 
salt, emcotns, an<] sumpt. 'ITic total direct income of the T^ower 
Sutlej andCbenib Inundation CanaJs' Division in 1873-74 amounted 
tOj£r},i47. A small proxincial and loc^l revcnui* iif al^ raised tn 
t!*c District la 1883, the number of civil and revenue Jud^i 
aonOflAted to 13, and tlut of magistrates 10 jj. The imf^erial iH^licc 
force En 1823 eonaiKtcd of 646 men of all riinks, suifplinKniud by a 
inunkipdl polkc of 333 men, and a cantonment con^^labulary of 3$ 
men. Besides thefto there is a force of 604 vilbgc ^haukiddrs or runit 
police, who are maintained by a cei^ levied on the villagers, Thi< 
TfittI machinery, therefore-, for the prf^tettJon of person and pro|icrTy 
numbered 15JI |>clicemcn, heine i to every 3'S square miles of the 
area and every 363 of tlie popubtion. Besides the District Jail and 
lockup fcr the criminals of the District there is also a central 
jail *i Milltan, which receive* longtcrm prisoners from other parts 
of tbe [JivUion. The total number of inmates in both jaiU in 1SS3 
wax 4630, and the daily average 1313. 

Education remaina in a very backward «ate» the Muhammadan 
population bcin^ eitpccially aj>athetic \\\ this matter. In 1S81, the 
Cgiou» returned the number of children receiving instmction at 
7141, of whom the Hindus contributed ^% per cent., though they 
only amount to lo per cent, of the whole population. The total 
number of schools under the iupervision of the Education Depart- 



ment in Multdn DbiHct in 1SS5-84 wa» 79. Of these 9 aie TCpr^ 
scmed by the DUtrkt school and \\% branches m Miiltin city, 1 is 
the rnilwiiy school for FuToj>c4n» nnd Eurasiaiu, 4 arc ftidcd niiasioiiarr 
l>0)'3' school, And 4 Arc aK]c<l mluionAry ^irU' schooti. All the othen 
nre vernacular a^hoolft, a of tfe middle and 59 of tVie ^irimarv gnde. 
Thf touil rnmber of puiMls attending the^te school* in 1S83-&1 
^^■a* 3914^ with nn avcraRC stlendancc of 3o5a Hewde* these, the« 
were Ji iticliKcnoiis schools, witb 14S pupils inspected by the r^epon- 
ment. The uninspircted indigenous schools include— 394 school* 
where ihc Kurin alone is laugbt; lit schools where Persian b taugbi 
together with the Kunin ; iS Sanskrit «;hooh; 13 Arabic school*; is 
Mahij-tnl or commercJnl srhoi>ls, where 1 high sitandard ol anihmcuc 
is taught ; and 7 Gurmukhi school's. 

For fiscal and adminiatraiive purpoiieft, the Disirkl is divided iMo 
3 /ir4f//j, having ihdr head'<)uar[cri at Mdliin, ShtljAbid, LQd)iran, 
MaJlai, and Sordi Sidhu, The C iQunicipa) towna of Mct-TArr, 
Shi;jab.\i>, KAiiKon, Tuuvmua, JAi^truH, and Danvu-itr had an 
aggregate revenue, in 18^13-^4, of ^1 t,t£t> being at the average me 
of 2%, M. per head of the popniUiion (^3,0^3) wiihin municipal limit*. 

Mtdi^al Aspah.^-'XViz climate of Mdliin is prorerbLil. even amonE 
the hot and dusty Punjab plains, for iii heat and dust in the dr>' 
season, althou|;h tfie uold weather is very jjleasnnt. I'iic anoiul 
mean tempcraiuic is ahcmc 77" V. In 1SS3, the ihennoinetcr in Mix 
ranged from a maxtmam of iii^" to a minimum oi 65'2' ; in July, 
from a maximum of 105"9' to a minimum of 708' ; and in Oecembeti 
fn^m a maxtmutn of 75*9* to a nimimum of 37*0', The average wtnuiil 
rainfall is relumed byihc Meteorological Dcpunmcnt at 7*17 inches, flat 
for 1883 being 6'5 inches. The lotal number of deaths reported In 
1883 was 16,530, being at the rate of 30 per thousand j of which 1 1,5**^ 
were assignrd to fovcTR. The DiMriri rontiims fi <!<ivemnient 
charitable dispensaries, which afforded relief in 1883 to i%^i% {H^onat, 
of whom 1926 were in parients. fl-'or further information tcf^nrding 
Mijicin, sec the G<tut(t€r 0/ MuMn Distrid^ publishod under the 
authority of the Punjab Government (l-ahore, 1884); the Pampt^ 
Census Htf^ri for iJ^Si ; nnd the several annual Administration and 
IJepartmenlal Re|>ortt of the Punjab Uovcrnment.] 

Mdltdn.— /"ff^jf/ in MJbdn IMstricc, Punjab, strcirhing from the of the Chctiib, AriM, 949 »ju<trc inilc^ with jS? towti^ and 
villages 3'i5<" houses and 16,147 families. Population (iS6d> 
1 38^573 ; (1881) 170.610, namely. mak« 9S>374, and fenmlCK 
75,136. Increase of popubiion since 1S6S. 3*,338, or 33-3 per *rem., 
in thirteen years. Classified according to religion, there were 
in 1881 — Muhammadans, ijj,S3i; Hindus, 44.0FO; Sikhs, 0,15; 
Jaiiu>4^^ Pants, 63; Chrlfstians, 1763; and 'oibcrs/ 4, Of the 287 


and vilhgCJi, 335 contain less than (ivc han<Ircd inhAbttant^t :ind 
3S betivccn five liundrcd and a thousand, uhilc only 24 contain 
A population exceeding a thousand souls. The average area under 
culiivaiioa for the five years lU?;--;!^ to 1881-^2 Is returned at 190 
eqtiare miles, or 121,601 acres, the area under ilie i^nndpal cropK being 
«A fc^lovs: — Wheat, 44^433 nctc»;/Jifo 12,672 acres; colton, 12,096 
acres; iodigo, 694 1 ocrca ^ ^{/^^i 599J a<re3; rioc, 4864 acres; borlc)', 
a6i6 acres; ^m, *457 Acr«s ; aod vegelable^, 7159 acrei> Revenue 
of the takiU^ jC*7*4S<>^ ''*hc -idnimi-ttmive stalT, indutTing the officers 
Attached la the DivtMonal and f>Utrict hcadt^turrci^, c<imprUeK t 
Commusioncr, 1 Deputy Commi^ioncr, 1 Judicial Assi^nt Com- 
innsioner, 3 Asjistmt or cxtra-Assifitant Commissioners, 1 Small 
Cause Court Judjje, 1 tahsi/d4r^ 1 mttmifs, ^ind 1 honorar)i magisiratc. 
These ofikers pr*4ide over 10 civil and 9 criminal courts, Number of 
police circles {Mnd:\ 3; strength of regular police, 144 men ; village 
watch OT rural police {^MauJtidJnjt 95. 

Mlilt4ll iAfifi/fan}, — Cit)', municijialliy, rind ddinimMrative hc^iV 
qunrtct^ of Miiltin District, Purjjib ; ^iiuntcd in Inl. ^o" 12' ?*-, and 
JoQ^ ?•* yo' 45' FLf on .t inr>tjnd, the accuniuUtcd cic-brls of ages ^t n 
dutduice of four mile* from the pre*eni left bank oi the Chen-ib, 
encloied on three ddn h/ n wall from 10 to to feet ir height, liut 
oiien tovrardft the *oulh, where the dry bed of the old Ravf intenenet 
bcEweeii the tovm and citadeL As late as the days of Timiir, the Ravf 
%octn% to have flowed jxi^t MiUtan, joining the Chendb lo miles 
Tower down ; and the original siic consisted of two islands, which 
ate nov piciurcsrjttely crowned by the city and citiidel, at an 
elevation of some 50 feet above ihc surrounding country. The 
foniikatJofls were dismantled in i&$^, hut the Ton atill remains 
a place of some strength, and is occufMcd by a Europ&in garrison. 
l^ofgc and irregular subufb^ have |;rown up outside the wall since the 
amoxation in 1S49. Within iho city proper, one broad />J:Jr, the 
Chai^ runs from the Hus.'tin ^.ile for a <|ii3rTi.^r of a mile InEo Ehe 
rcntic of the city, ending at the IValf Mubaiiiiiud g^iie, from which 
three broad streets lead to the various gates of the city. The other 
streets are narrow and lortuou*, £>rtcn ending in rv/s-^r-sjc. 

Mtillin n a town of great antifpiity, being identified with the ciipitnl 
of the Mall^ nhooi Alexander coru^aercd in his invasion of the Punjab ; 
t>ut the history of the city is Included in that of Mvliax Di^^rRicr. 
The princijul buildings Include the ^hrinc^ of ihe Muh^^mtn^dan 
saint^ BabA-ud-dln Aiid Rukhivulalaui {of the Arab iribc of Koresh, to 

jch the rrc(>h?t iKlcmged), vrhi<:h stand in the citadel, Close by 

the rcmoiru; of an ancient Hindu temple of the Narotinha Avatar of 

inu, raMed Pahlndpiin, pani.illy blown dnwn by the rvi>loiif>n of the 

magazine during the Gicgc of 1S4S-49. The great temple of 


the Sun, from which Ccncml Cunningham chMives the name of 
city, once occupied the very tniddk of the citadcZ, but wa^ dcstro}^ 
during the reign of the zeilojs Musalmon Emperor Auraogzeb^ wb» 
erected a Jjiind Nfo^jiJ ur *c4llK:dfiU luuiiquc ' ui jib pUcc^ Thrt 
moKjuc aftcrvrords became the powder magaEine of the Sikba, and tr» 
blnn-n up OS mcntionvd Above. 

The population in Miill^n rity and suhurha (ricduding thc^ r»1to^ 
merits), in 1868, wa* 4J4S5. or including canionmenis, 54.65^ 
In iSSi, the total population of the city and suburbs was %'\^A,^u 
namely, males si.oSS, and females >6,^8^, or including cnntonmeno. 
681,674, of whan 38,988 were males and 29,686 females, Cluofied 
accordtn)^ 10 religion, tht: total population of the city and cantoniaeoS 
in 1881 consisted of— Muhammadar*, 56,194; Hindus, 19,962 ; StkK 
661 ; Jains, 46 ; and ' others * (m^iinly the European civil and raitiuij 
population), 1711. Number of houses, 12,617- Municijial rctirnw 
jn 1875-7O, £6^^^\ in 188^-84, ^io,ji4, or 35. 6}d. per head •( 
population (57,471) within municipal] timiti. 

The civil station of Miiltifi, which lie* north and west of thcciijr 
proper, contains n court-house and ircasiir^'. Commissioner's offioei, tbe 
dwellings of the civil residents, jail, post-office, church, icl^raph ofiM^ 
dispensary, staging bungalow, and municipal hall with dock-ii 
Besides the public institutions, tlicre i.s a branch of the Arj-a 
in the city, which numbers about 100 members. There axe 
railway niations at Miillin. one at the city, and one ai the 
cantonments. Withm ihc fort, and overlooking the town, i* llic 
plain, massive obelislc, 70 feet in height, erected in memory of Mf- 
Vans Agncw atid Licutu^n^iit Anderson, two British ofiiccrs, murdered 
in April 18-48, at the uutbrcak of Miihaja rebellion- Tlic Church 
Mis^iioaiary Socit^ty maintains a station at Mdltin. East of tho dty 10 
the Amkhas, formcrlyihc audience hall and garden houso of the Hindu 
goveninr^ of Miilrnn, now used as the tahiilt building. North of 
this is the cenotaph of the Dfwan Sawan Mall, and the l^urop<gtii 
ccmcwry, A Hue public gurdcn lies to the west of the city- 

As a trade centre, Mdltan ranks of linti importance, being con- 
nected by rail with Lahore antl Karachi ; and by the Rivf, Jehloiu 
(Jhdum), and Chcn^b with the whole central Punjab. It therefore 
collects into a focus all the trade of the I'rovinoc with Karachi 
(Kurr.u-hcc), and, tlirough Karachi, with Europe- Large quaiiEiiics 
of raw piodu*,e were furmerly ihi[ipcd by country buats and by 
ihc McJinera of the Indus flotilla, and ol' the Sind, pLinj.Tb, and 
Delhi Railway, from Sher Shdhj ihc port of MUllin, to Karichi ; but 
the steamer service has ceased since tKe opening throughout of the 
Indus Valley Siite Railw.iy. The loeal merchants correspond with 
lifiiu in all |>arts of the f unjab, west of the Sutlcj, and in moat of the 

I office^ 



itftlkr lown» wilh any cx[^ot\ iratlc \ and ihcic is probably no bigc fimi 

j|1 Lahore, Amiit^iar, JalAnUiiar, Pind UdJan Khdn, or «vcn Bhi«:^iii 

nd Oclhtr which hA« not its dgcntK aE Miiluin. 

The trade of VfilMn rnnipri*o*£ rvrry artiric nf proHiirv, nunufnrltiTr, 

ind consuinptioii in the whole Province; the chief imports bcin^ 

ottoa snd other ptcce-izoodft ; while the main staples of export are 

f, cotton, mdigo, and wool Leaving out of con&iderarioti vhat 

city requires for it« oun m^^ tlic use of Mulcin a* a iratle ctnlri* 

ecms to be lo collect cotton, wheat, wool, oilseeds i^ugar, an<l indigo 

horn the surrounding country, and to export them to the south; to 

civc fririis^ drui;}, raw siUt, and spices from Kandahar traders, and 

' 1XVS9 ihein on to the ca^i. 'the Afj^hiii tr^idci^ tAkc back iiidi^u, 

European and country cotton cloth, nugar, and shoe^ MiiUin receives 

£un>|>can picccgoods and European wares gcncr;i]1y, and diKtribuics 

to the weciem Diitricts and in itt own neigh l^ourhood The 

Dtal value of the inipoTEs. as shown in Ehemumcipal returns Tot iSfii-8>, 

' jC^71-435* ^1^^ of iht export*. ^400,121. The chief local manu* 

>aiire« ore sdk and cotton weaving and CAriH-t-inakinfi ; country shoes 

'arc also made in large quantities for c\portation. The glared pottery 

I and cnimel vork of MiSltin, although not indusiric* en a Urge scal^ 
h:ivc a hii*h reputation. 
MiUUkIL — Cantonment m Mtlitdn UisiHct, Punjab; 1} mile eait of 
|ke city. Lat. 30* 11' 15' N., long. ;i* iS' k. Pqiulation (t8Si) 
] 1,305, namely, m.ile^ 7900, and femnlea 3303. Urnully occupied by 
a KurO|>ean regiment of infantry and a baUcry i>f .iriillcry, and by tm> 
ri^^imc His of Nati^-T infantry. See previous article. 

MtUtto. — ^Town in Phir State, Hhop^war Agency, Central India; 
situaie<t nn the KadantDhar road, 5 mites from Badndnar and 36 from 
Dhir city. The residence of a fhdkur or chief, who in relnied to the 
Rahtor KiipuE chiefs of KatUm State, and on this account enjoys the 
high consideration of the people. He holds ag villages from Dhir 
State, for which he pays a iribtuc of ^1804, The soil Is rich, water 
is alnindant, and opium and wheat ore produced nt conuderable 

»qiian lilies. Revenue of the chief, jQ^200. 
Hundargi— Town in Gada^' Suh'diviii[on, DhjCrwiir PJstricE, Bom- 
bay PrcMdency. Population (l&8i) ^626. Mundnrgi ia aimatcd at the 
base of a hill on nhtch Mands a ruined fort, nbout 24 mile^ south eattt 
r of Cadag town. Ii^ f>o«ition on the Xiz-im's frontier has h<:1p^d it 

>lo £T«>w into a laTj^e market town. Post-office, and (wo KchooU with 
365 ptijiiU in i8S^-S4- 
Muadhrt— Town in larori fahsU, Uhand4ri District. Central Pro- 
vinces. Popublion (1881) ?3i4i namely, Hindus, 1046 ; Kabirpanchfs, 
1^4 ; Muhammadans, 91 ; and aboriginftl tribes, 52. 
Mtudltuia.— Town in Uohana tahsU^ Kohtak Disuict, Punjab; 


Mtuitcd en the GohJlru-ranfpal rond^ 6 miles from Cohim Uvil 
FopjUtion (iSfli) 5469, DAiDcly, 5130 Hindus ^^K Muhammjidaik 
uud 51 Juina. A Un^ iigiicuhuial >illa]$e vatticr Uun a touri, 
titg no commcrcul or administrAtivc impoftaucc. Po^t-oflkc 

HuDdra.— Port in tb< Native State or Cut^h (ICfl^ht^h), Bombtf 
rrenjilency ; suttated in laL 22* iS 40" K,, and long. <!$' 52' jo" K.,00 
ihc couu of ihe Clulfof Cutch, zq milo south of Bbdj, the capiul of 
the State. Population (1872) 7953 ; (i&8i> 8900, rumcly, 4iS<) nuln 
and 4711 females, Hindus numbered 3241 ; Muhimnudans, 4350; 
Jains, 1J07; and *othcn,' 3. There ts no made road from the pc^ 
to the to*'n, whkh i& ji miles dsianr The fon, which is siiuaicd 
2j mites north of the porr, contains a white mos<iue distinguishable a 
good v!'XY ofl". 

HEutJgBpdktun {Afitrm^afdkity — Vilhgc ID Atuki|>alli iJltti, Vi 
patam DiMnct, Mddns Prc^dcncy ; stluiLicd in hi. 17' 3S* jr., ind 
long, 83* 3' 30* E,, in rhe fertile proprieiciry estate of MungapdLam. 
PopuUiion (iS8t) 5367. Number of houses, 1330- Hindus numbered 
5115, :ind Muhaminiidans $2. The esuie originally comprised 8 
vtlUges, paying a /vM^itsA (revenue) of ^^465, hul his nov bcfO 
incorpotnicd with the estate of Anakipallt, 

MUQgell — Western /aAsU or Sub-division of llilas])ur iHstrict, 
Central Provinces. Area, t6i3 sqnarc miles; number of ^itla^ 
lai J ; houses, 89,713. 'I'oial population (1S81) 322,1 r?^ namely, malci 
i5S,to6, and females 164,011, Average dentil) of popiLlation, 199'^ 
perKunn |xr square mile. Of the total area ofthe/o^if/, 5iibC(uate 
arc compri«d within the rcveniie-frce c^tAtes (zitmftJJris) of Pani 
nnd Kaniclt, Icrtt'tn^ an area of 1 102 squnTc mitc^i with a populatioD 
^43,391^ forming the Oovernnient portion of the Sub-division. Even 
of this area. 2&^ square miles p:iy neither revenue nor quitrcrt, and the 
total area assessed for Government revenue is only 81S sfiuarc mil 
Of, 472 square miles are uTider culitvatlon, 2^^ v\\r,\rt: miles a; 
eullivahle but not undirr tillage, and 63 square miles are uncuJti^-a! 
wn«te. Total Govenuncni land revenue, including lool rates ar*d 
cesses, ;£"i»'93. or an average of Sgd, per ailtivated acre. Total 
rcntAl paid by cultivators, ^52,614. or an average of is, 5^ per 
cultivated acre. In ifift3, Munj^eli /a/ai/ comained 1 civil aixl 3 
criminal courts, 3 police circlcH {f/tj/tdj), 5 outptJst btAtions {^AaMJds}, ^ 
regular police force numbering 67 men, and a village watch of 7^1 

Mungeli.— Town in Ililaspur Pistrict, Central Provinces, and hesul- 
quarters of Muneelf iah^l; situated in laL 22' 4 n., and lonjj. Si' 44' 
E, 36 milts west of Bii:lspur town. Population (1881) 4757^ namely, 
Hindus, 3S63; Kabfrpanihis, 41;; &:itndmis, jjo ; Muhammadans, 

"Ml _ 


53 ; Jain*, 4 \ and aboriginal tribes, 65- The river Ajtar wjtijH rourul 

rcc siJc« of Miingcli, whkh lic^ on the direct from Lilitpur to 
alufpur (Jubbulpcre)> and carries en an increasing trade in cereal^ 

t, ami ikirx^ Folicc suiion-housc and town school ; 1 large 

larketi ate held wcckljr. 

Muiigir.— T>inrict, Sub-divUion, and town in Ikngril. — Set Mow- 

Munir. — Tovtn in Ballia Disirici, NortK-Wcstcm ProviMr^.— ^ 

^1 OStiiy. --Vilbfc and ruinii m Etiwah District, North Western Pro- 
^pinces p sitiutcd inbt. 2(>' 53' 45' ?j., and long. 79* 12' e' e., on a plain 
^R4 miles norlh-cjist oi Euu-ah lown. Population (18S1) 2391. J^^rgc 
moumJt idcnb5cd by Mr Hume with the Munj taken b/ Mahmild of 
Ghamf in 1017, after a desperate resistance on the part of the Rijpui 
^arri&un. Local tradition connccu ihc site with the wars of tJie fin> 
<ii\\u jukI ttie Kauravaa, tliruni<:lcd in the Maftdl^haraSa^ when the 
Itijd of Milnj and hia two »on> fought on the aide of U^ji Vudhi^hchir^ 
The iKHitiofi of the grgat gateway 3nd traces of two bastionfi are still 
pointed out- Ciinmiii sqiinre well, built of sculptured blocks The 
luound forms an inexhaustible quarry of ancient bricks, from which the 
villagers construct their hut». 

Hm^piir. — I'euy State in KJthiindr, Bonil:>ay Presidency, — Sft 

MtlBoll — Town in llelgdum District, Dombay Presidency, — Stt 

Hatiabiffanj.— Sub-division of Dacca District, Bengal. Area, 401 
w^uarc mtk^ with Sas villaf^e^ and 58,614 housen. Population (iS&i), 
nules J4i,44),unJ females 278,006 ^ IquI, 5191447. ClA»tAcd accord- 
in^ to rdig»on, there were- MtihAmmitdans, 175.329; Hindus, 244,c8fi^ 
and Chrisiiam, 30. Average dcnuty of population, 1095 person s f>cr 
M]u;tre mile ; villages per squart> mile, a'o6; i>oniOni ptT village, 65c ; 
houtes per squire mite, 150 ; persons per hous;t.-, ii-8. Thifi Subdivision 

fiisisU of the 2 police circles of Munshfganj and S^Hnagnn In 1SS3 
contained 4 civil and magisterial courts, a regular police of 52 met), 
id a village watdi of KOi men. 
Monyenu— Ki«r in Kistna District, Madras Presidency, One of 
lite Urge attluents of the Kisma ri\er, rising in the Ni/dm's Doininionr^, 
and ]Mning the main stream al>oiit 20 miles above the ani<:ut nt He^- 
wido. h Lro»ci tlie high rcKid tu Haidarakl<l (Hyderibiid), 35 miles 
froui, uid nonh-wc»t by vest of, Uczwddo. It i-% fordablc, e^Cc^Jt fur a 
few days in the miny season. 

Htirid^b&d. — Diitrict, fahtlK and town in the Nonh-Wcitcrn 
m. ='-■-. *v^ Moradabad. 

bfUL— Toun in Unao Diitrict, Oudh ; situated 36 miles 



from Unao tcwn, and 19 from S^l^pur, on the HJiidoi road 
to Imvc been founded about joo ^'ean ago by Murid Shct K^i^ 
whom the pkcc i» named, PopuUiion (iSSi) 41491 n^mcl)*, 
H^nduft and 1704 Mit»ulmin», reudmg to 59 bhck ukI 930 
houxeiG. !{i weekly marlcet, and 3 annual rcltgioui fairs; vcnuoll 

Murddnafirar,— Villigc in Mecrut (Mcraih) DUtrici, Norih-AVawi 
Province*. Distant from Mccrut city 18 miles souiVweA, and" 
sution on ihc Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, Poptilaticn (iSSfl 
4393, nami^ly, Mu)ummadan>i, 24S7, and Hindus, 1906. I^oui»kd3oe 
jreaiKago by Mird Muhammad Mafid Mughal, whose mAusolcum 11A 
exiitSp T^irgc uirdi \m\\x liy Toujulcr ; school, police dation, pcst- 
lUfiicc. A weekly market is held cwry Tuesday. \ 

Unrar&L— VilU^'e in Mvir^bid^tbid Ditttrlct, Bcriga] ; Ixom «hlc&> 
the gicAlcr part of the drnan rice crop, al^no^ cvclusivnly produced XKMr-. 
the R.irh of western half of the District, Li exported to Calcutta. LiC* 
'4* ^7' 15" N., long, fi;" 54' K MiiMT-ii i* a (;t;4iinii on the Ra^Kr 
Indian Railway, distant from Calcutta (Howrah) 15s miles. ^^ 

Murasaapiir.— Town in Partabgaih (Praldpgarh) District, Oudf^R 
4 milt^s from Mdiiikpur, on the road from that pUce to Rdi Bsnt 
Pqntlalion (1S81) 15271 namely, :oij Hindus and 514 Mtutalaiiiv* 
Adjoining this village is the inhtir of Nawabganj^ a flourishing (nm 
mart, the annual sales at which amount to an average of ;£jjoo. 
Large fair on the occasion of the DasaAara festival, attended by ah:"": 
30,000 people Cottoti-pfLnling ib caiiicil on to a coii^i^cmbtc ciunu 
<jovcrnment school 

Hur1>lld. — Sub-div-Uion of Thina District, Bombay Pre«idei 
Area, 351 ^qn^ire miles, eontaining 171 vHlagL-ft. Population (tS)*) 
S7'><>3; ("^J*0 ^3.93-11 namely, males 33,84^ and f^^malcs 31,0^11 
occupying 10,715 houses. Hindus number 61,8^4; MuhanimadanSt 
1640; and 'others,' 480. The people are mostly Thakurs, KoUs, ajid 
Mardthds. Land revenue (18S2), ;^9oa7. This Sub-divUion lies iti 
the caal of the District ; most of it is very hilly, and fairly wooded. 
It i% difliculi 01 access, and suffers from the want of means of exporting 
its produce. The water supplied by wells is fairly good, but scanty. 
'II1C cliniate is tjpprcMivc though not unhc.iUby ; *ftcr the rainit, how- 
ever, Jt is ftvcnsph. Of the 351 square mile^i, 10 J are occupied by ihc 
lands of alienated 01 pirt -alienated villages. The remainder contai&i 
137,495 acres of rultJvahlc land, i6,49& acres of Govcmrment fore»ts, 
61,072 acres of public pastures and forest lands. 7875 acres of grass, 
and 4820 acres of village silcs, roads, pond?, and river-beds. Of the 
total arcA of the Government villages, ;i7,76o acres, iilienaied land in 
Government villages occupied 341 acres. In 1880-S1, of 101,691 
acres, the total area of occupied land, 50,273 acres wcreralloiv. Of the 


rS7*J 1 

M2i 1 


5t^t9 ocrcA, \$i acres were twice cropped Grain ciopa 
upied 4^,7^4 acres; pube«, 4S31 aerc^ ; oil-seed^ ^66^ ftcres; 
rci, iji; ; nnd iniscelUu^oU£ c^O(l^ 74 Aerei. In tSHo thrrc wrre 
80 boldingi whh nn average nr<M nf 14} acrr«, :in<l an avl^t^ie^ reniaL 
£\* S«- 3j(l. In i8S,i the Subdivision coniaincti 1 civit and 2 
imjnal courts ; police circle (thdft4), i ; regular police, S' "wn» 
Hurd&ri.— Toivn in TJrord tahsU, Bhandiri District, Central Pro- 
cess Population (i^Si) 2142. Hindus numbered i755;Kablr- 
nthis, 7i>4 ; Mulummaibiu, 45 ; and abori^nal tribct, 50. 
Uordemr,— I'ort m Honiwir^L;tHiivi»ion, Nonh Kinan Ihurict, 
Jjijuil>a} Presidency; situated in \ax. 14' 6' n\, and long, 74" 36' k, 13 
ii>>lci«ouil^ o(Honi«dr,azidiii ilie BhiltLul/f/A The rocky promonLory 
i»itingoucinti>tlicacaiscrovned by atctnple And n ruined fori ; nnd, ni 
ita foot, 00 Ihe abore^ » a jtinali bungalow, 'i'lie port i* tlie sm^ll bay 
to the 4ouih-cau of tbt rockt, viih the vLllagm of Koikinf and Mawatii 
*^iacctit. Two schools. Population (1881)^185. Annual average value 
">*" trade dnring the five yeare ending 1881-S3 — imports, iCtfl9<*; 
^'tiiorts, ^1793, In 1881-83, the ImporEn were valued at j£^ii39; 
^^ cvpons at jC66o, Murde«war is one of the lix \\otU forming; llic 
^^OfiiwirCiitfoin* [>m»iofi- 

UorffOd-— Ton n in the Pani£^rh Subdivision, ilclgdum Dis^trici, 
^^i^jnilwy i'rcsiUencj ; situated 17 miles cast of Belgium town, in iau 
^■S* S3,' 55' »., and long. 74' 58' lo' E. Populatiou (iSSi) 4895. 
^'"turgod » a coDtiidenble market for cotton and g^ain. and a sniatl 
^*u«titeu u done ia printing coonc cloth. A Tair is held annually, 
itjended by 300 to 400 people. Port-office, 
^^ MnrUcmnJ.— Tovn in BL-igalpur District, Bengal ; situated 1 3 miles 
^■tuA of Madahpunt.0D the DdiJs river, which has now L>crcnic the main 
^KchoDDcl of the Kuhl Lart;e Aif ctfr. Near the village arc numerous ^A<f/f 
^fcv famdii^'pLicei. utbed at diirencnt times of the year for the purposes 
^bf trade, accordin|[ to the height of waccr in the river. Imports — sail, 
^^9picc&, uigir, iron, and Fine lice ; expurtx— noe, oilseed, a liulc cotton, 
and ccarse saltfietre. 

BIuni&d."VdUige in Coorg, Scuihcrn Indu ; Miaated on ibc Mer* 
^^uraCanminore lotitl, 9 iiiilo ftuui Mcfkii.i. lloLd-quantis of the 
^B^^tisatligdr of Kaunin^urnitd, IV^vcllcri* bun^'aloir, and villa^x school 
^witb I03 pupilv, PopuUlion (rSSi) 91 j. 

UuiT^ iAfamy — Nfirthorn li/tvt/ a( Kinnl Pinili [)i«1riclr Punjali, 
lying between 33'^41'30'and 34'' 5' 15' N, lat.. and between 73' 15' and 
73' 38* K. long., and compriun^ the forcstdad ninge of hills on which 
tbe sanilarTuni of Mejrrf.r h builL llic Murree chain of hills consisls 
cf a ftcriea of lidges, moiily of ^rey nand^^iunc and icd clay strata, 
running t^outh-westvard from the raDey oi the JeMum (Jhelum). On 
ibc noflbcm borders of K^ival PindL Uistrict, the hills culminate to a 


i8 ^^^"^ liVRJi^E, 

height of about 10,000 feet in the mounlaiiu beyond the Mum 
saniunum, nnd stretching onwards into Hudrd, bknil at laxt irubibe 
snowy ranges which shut in Kashmft. 

Around Murree the scenety ia rich and varied. The mounuia^Kla 
are clothed wiih forests of uak and pine% which arc, as qsubI, mat 
dcti^c cii thcjr nonhcTO slope* ; nnd Uiesc* &ct ofT by the rich viIkT* 
below, and the background of the «nowy Kashrnir ^angc^, fomt a. pros- 
pect which cannot be equalled in many fMru of the lower HinuUay^ 
Farther v>iith rhe hitli rhangi* in n*|w-*ct. They are Icis* lofiy ask 
mo:c irregular. b»t arc *till adorned by heautiful trees : their «fMpci 
become more diversified, the valle>-s broader, and there i» more crM^ 
vation. The villaifes and hamlets are picturesquely i^aeed on ik 
hill-aides in nookn or on projcciing spurs: vhile occasionjilly iht 
luins of an old oasEle recall tlie bygone i]>1endour« of a Otu^ibr 
chief, or a fort [he l>Tanny of the Sikhs. Still farther «outh, the trtO 
are less lofly, and graddally givc^ ])lacc I0 bnishvrood ; the hillt au( 
rounded, nnd the scenery more ume nnd uniform. Gradually io^» 
the bills approach ihc southern frontier of ihc District, the length of the 
ranges grows less and less until, near the borders of Jchlnni DiftncL 
only a narrow bne of upbnd s^pniaie^ the Jehlara river from the phini 
The moflt northern of these paralW ranges within Riwnl Pindi Di<mVl 
projects far out into the plains a% an i^^olaied ridge a few hundred fctf 
in hciiiht. This ridge passes west^^ard^ about 10 miles to the north of 
Rdwal Pindi ciiy, and ends in some siony eminences two miles vest 
nfthe M.lrgalla pa^s ^^^d the (jrand Trunk Road At the MJi^alb 
pass ihcTC is a handsome monument and fuuntain, erected to iht 
memory of (ieneral John N>chnbon, killed at Ihc stonning of Uclhi^ 
the monument can be seen for miles on either side of the pass; and 
the fountain, to which water n carried from a perennial fiprinj^ is c 
l^rcai boon to travellers. Hctc the range meets, or ili^htly overUfat 
die cxin;mfty of -inothcr range of hills, that of the Chilt-i Tahir, which 
enters Riw;il Pindi Difitrirt from the direction of the Indus. 

Total arrn of Murrec taM/, aio viuare miles, with 94 lowm 
and Villages, 6399 houses, and tiCx^ families, Population (iSSi) 
39,1 98, namely, males 2Z, \ 35. and females \ 7,063. ClasiUied 
.-iccording to religion, the population consisted of — Muhammadanti 
36,6ao; Hindus. 1987; Sikh», 175; Christian»p 414; and Jains, j. 
or the 94 towns and villages, 72 contained le^s than five hundred 
inhabitants 18 between five hundred and one thousand, ftliile four 
had a population exceeding one thousand. Of the 3JO square miles 
(ompribing the tahiU, only j6 bquaie miles, ot 12 j>cr ccnr.. are 
returned as the average area under cultivation for the five yean 
from 1877-78 to ififti-8a, the principal cropn being — Indian corn 
SjSti acres, and vhcai 4085 acres. R<^vcnue of the tahtll, ^£76^ 



T7»c a^mintttlratU'O tiiiff consists of on AMi.itartt Coramissloncr and a 
iahiittt4r, who prcncJc over 3 civil and a f^riminal C0Ltn«. ^^umb(^r of 
liii\\cer\Tt\v^(tf:dndi\2\ liircngth of rcgiiUr polkc forre, 79 men ; runl 
yoWn- u/tauMJiir$\ Si irca 

^■Muiree (/l/irm). — Saritarium snd htll Htation in R£wd Findi 
■klrkt, Punjab, and head<quaners of Murre*; /vAti/. I^it. 53' 54' 3^* 
" long. 73* 16' 30" E, Sitti3ic<l on 3 ritlgc of ilic MrkHKR HiLL% 
;S 1 7 feet Above *ca-kvcl Muttcc forms the grtal norlhcm sanitArium 
for ihc Punjab, and until 1877 wa? the oftUnary summer resort of ibc 
loral Go\-cmment. which has now forsaken ii for Simla. The site was 
selected in 1850, almoM inimcdintcl) after th;; anncj^Uoii uf ihc PiO' 
vincc, an<l building opcnitiom commenced at yncc. In 1851^ tcni' 
ponwy ac^oiomodation vras provided for a detAchmenl of troops ; and 
in )S53, pcrmAnciit barraekt wcfc creeled. The station grew mpidty 
in ^teand papulation, .ind now nitractf Targe nun-ibcr^ of visitors fron 
Lahore, R£K*al Pindi. Pcsh.iwar. and the plains generally. A road, pasa- 
BbU throughout by u-heeled eonvcyanccs, connects the sanitarium with 
Wwal Pindi city, [li«tant about five hours' joumty- The houses cro«Ti 
the summit and «idei of an irregular ridge, ccmmnncling magnificenC 
views over forest-clad hillsides, into deep \-3llcys sLuddcd with villager 
and cultivated fklds, with the snow-covered peaks of the Kiishmlr 
nmses fts a background Btu;id and easy roads imcr^ect the station. 

Tbc cUmatc U well adapted 10 the coniititutinn of Englishmen. The 
lowest recorded tcmperatiirc i* it* K, the highest 56', EanhquaUca 
occur almoiil annually. Kpideniic cholera h!\R twice appejucd: in iS^8 
it comm tried great ravages among the soldiers of the European dej>fit; in 
1867 K attacked the native population and visitors. Conimisiioner'n, 
Assistaot Commmioner'f, and tahsi/ddr's court; po»t and telej^mph 
offices ; branch trcafit;r)' ; charitable dispen^ry ; four hotel?;, three kept 
by Europeans. Churrhes of ihc Anglican, Presbyterian, and Roman 
Catholic denominations English and Pdrsi shops ; branch of the 
AJbaruc JJank of Simla ; Club \ -Assembly Rooms j Lawrence Memorial 
Asylum, for the education of sons and daughters of European soldiers. 
A school for childicn of rc-iidenta is transferred to Rawal Pindi durliLg 
the cold weather. A brewery e«cablUhed in 1S60, the property cf an 
En^iih company, doci; an cxtcnfiivc business- BrUk imports of food- 
anff^ during the Mimmer monThw from R.fn'iil Pirdi and Ha?.iSrsl* 
Municipal revenue in 1883-84, ^joSg. During ih*? height of the 
seaxon, the population of Murrec probably amounts 10 about eight 
thousand. The Census of February iSSi, which wus taken in the 
depth of winter, TCprcseni* only the ptnnanent population, and nkcs 
m account of visiton. That Census rt;turncd the |xjpuhtion at 2489, 
Bnely, HuhantmiOans, 1374; Hindus, 703; Jains, 3; and 'others/ 
41 1. Number of houses, 410. 



Mnrree Hilla. — Range in K^wfil Pindi District, Punj^ib, uiiig 
Ihcir name fiom tl;c aanitaiiuin wliicli crowns one of chtir pnnci|al 
ridges; utii^tted between 33" 53' 30' and 33* S4' 3^" >*■ ^t, oil 
bctH'een 73' ag' 15' and 73' 36' 30' E. long. They form \ senescf 
Literal ftf)ur>; of the Himabyan syjttem, running dowii from Uie niA 
Kj-nhmtr (Cashmere) and Mazini chain at right nngles lovonls dc 
plains, with a general direction from Dorth-east to south-wcsi. Tlw 
loftieai |>cak6, behind llie naniuriuiu of Kurrcc, attain a lici^hl «f feet Thence they- nlrctch down lo the Murrec ridge iKmAI 
whose highest ]iortion, the Knshn^ir Point, hn^ an elevation of 751; 
feet above sea-teveL The house* of European midentn r^virr ifM 
space of %\ miles to Pindi Point, 7 j66 feet in height- Farther woA. 
the hills change in aspect. The rich and varied scenery of Mimte, 
with its pine-clad mountains, deep gtens> and distant gtimptes ef tbe 
snowy range, gJve^ place to a less grand but perha;ix more jjJcttire^K 
and romiintic country, consisting cf angular hifU, divided by brcoiiei 
and cultivated valleys, with hamlets perched on projecting spar^ or 
hidden in nooks upon ihc hill-side, while the ruined castle* at ihcrr 
smnimiis rt-call tht- foruKT ^ireanicss uf some (jliakkar or Sikh chieftala. 
Still farther south, the trcca yield to btushvt'ood, the hilh grow umc 
find uniform ; and at length, near the borders of Jchbni (JhcJum) £^ 
Irict, only a narrow line of upland separates the valley of the JehlaiB ri*W 
from the great alluvial plain of the Punjab. See nUo anU^ MtlHiiE 
Tahsil, which necessarily covers j^art of the i^ine ground as the ptiCMAt 

MuraAlL — Town in Ah'garh District, Noilh-U'^cstcrn Province*; 
situated in lat, 37' 34' 40" n\, and long. 77' 59' e., on the Mutm 
(Mathura) road, 7 milct wc5t of Hithras (Hattras). and 34 &otith-vefi 
of Aligarh town. Population (iK5j) 4703. Residence of a familyc^ 
Jil Rdjds, whoic present representative is Rij;l Gh:in%y,1m Singh, grand- 
sun of the lute Rdji Tikaui Singh, CS>I. Fori, dismainkd in \Z\\^ 
Agricultural and rather ncglccicd town. Two schooU, police aUtian, 
pou -office, 

Mtirehiddbad {^faht^SAhxid or M/.wtf'.iA./y).— British District in 
the Lieu tenant- Governors hip of Bengal, lying lietwem 33' 45* 15'' and 
34' 5?' V. lal,, and between 87* 43' and 83" 47' t- long* h fomtt 
the north-western corner of the Presidency Division, and is bordered 
along its eniiK frontier from north to south-cast by the main stream of 
the Ganges, locally known as the Padma, separaiin^: it from Maldah 
and Rdjshahi Di«lrict ; on the south by Bfrbhilni ; and on the west by like 
Santdl Pargands. The area was returned in t358i at =144 square miles; 
and the population at i,;f36ji^o persons. The adminisiratiic head- 
quarters are at BAftHAMj-t^n, but Mukskidadad Citt b tlie moat 
{populous place in the Di^trici. 




Phyiical Jt/virf.—Thc TyUtrirt n divided into two n«rl>- cquni por- 
tion* !>>■ ihc river Khagirathi. the anciem channel of Ihc Ganges which 
Aows due north and souths The two tracts form a sinking contrast lo 
each other in their geology and agriculture. The country west of the 
Bh^girjthf^ Inown at the RJih, forms a continuation of tlic hard cky 
and nodular limcstonci which extends through tJic ndghljouring District 
of lffrt>hiim from the mount.nin* of Chuii.i Nagpur The general level 
i& hiiih and slightly nndiilAling, bu; intcrs|>ci5cd with Mis ur bruad 
marthc^ ind scumcd hy hill tujicilt^. at fti^ny poiinn the formatioit 
tctmiDacc^ in clay diJf^ overhanging the BhdEglriLlhL Tlic soil of the 
Rdrh tract h gicyifth or reddiili, mixed with lime and oxide of iron ; 
and bwlft of /iT«-f^/'or notliilftr limfttonc .ire iictitt*Ti*d here and there. 
The nvcTS arc Ibblc lo sudden ffcshcis but they never by the entire 
country under water for any long space of time. The fields, therefore, 
do not poMcss the fertility of a deltaic tracL They rarely produce 
more ihan one cro(> in the year, the dman or winter rice. 

The Bigri, or eastern divirion of Mur*hicliil>*-id, differs in no respect 
from the ordinary illuvial plains of Ka^Icm li he* enclosed 
within the Ganges, Dh;lgfrathi, and Jalangi rivers, and is also internectcd 
1>y minor o^ahootsof the Ganges. There Ate a fcvr pctniAncni »vT?mp> ] 
bui the whole countiy Is Icw-lymg, aiid \iah\c to annual inundations, 
which sometimes* as in the present year (1885), are so severe as to 
cnnw wMieftprmd «ulfenng, but Lt«ually do no mote than deposit a top- 
dnsfiing of inexhaustible fertility. In variety of crops, this portion of 
the District is not surpassed by any part of BcngaL The dus or caily 
rice crop forms the great staple of ai^cullurc, A second or cold- 
urestber croji is also yielded by many of the fields. 

la the north-west of the District there are a few sraail detached 
hillodLSf which are said to be of t)asa]tic formation. The river system 
is constituted l>y the Ganges, it* offshoots and iribiitaric*. The (langea 
or Padma furnH the eastern boundary of the District along its entire 
length, but nowhere enters it. Its hanks are extremely mbjcet to 
rtllovion and diluvltjn. Jt is navigable throughout the year by bo.'lts of 
four tons burthen, ar^d k n^whcrp ford.ihlc. The only mnrts of im- 
portance on the Miirshid,1brfd side of the Ganges are Bha^^u'dngoli or 
Aldtall and Dhuliin. Ilie offshoots of the Gouges on this bank com- 
pr»c the Hhdgirathf, Bh.iirab, Siiilmdri, and Jalangl. The Bhigfrathf, 
which branches oFF fnim the parent Mream near the police station of 
Sulf, is far Ihe most important river in Mun>htdabid. Though now 
only navigable during half the year, it carries a targe tradc^ and Sovs 
pott all the ancient and modem sites of incercst in the District* U% 
dlADnel undoubtedly represents the original bed of the Ganges, and 
also the farthest aoulh-wcucin limit of the Gangetic delta. The 
Dhigfrathf retains the sanctity which the Great River here tosea ; and 



until ihc ojKning of the r^Lilway it formed the Tnnin Uncof comnn! 
lion with Hchnr and the Nonh-wc^ On M c^st or left bank 
situated Jingipur^ Ji^ganj, Muishiddbid, Kiaimbazdr, and Barhampa; 
on the right bark arc to be seen the ruins of BddrMt and RingjinttL 
From the "koA^ the Sin^ joins ihc Gingcs ; And ihc I^li, BiMloi. 
Dwarki, Ilrdbmim, Mor, :tnd Kuiyi uliicnatdy tind thcix way into tkc 
Jihig(rath[ by nvjnK*roufl intcr-cctnntjcuons. Th« left bank ofthA BU^ 
r,*thf 1* embanked along iti entire length, except for tlie firtt ^5 nnltf* 
which arc tinprotccled. There are no cands in ihc l>irtricL 

The mincnil products of Murshidibid arc entirely godIiikkI to the 
elcvalci western tnct, known is the Rirh. Iron is foimd in pbcev 
bitt not in sufficient quantity to repay amelliiig. Calcareous earth catied 
ghittin alsQ occurs in several places, and is extensively used for making 
lime. Kankar or nodular limestone crojxs uj> generally over Ihcvesicra 
half of the DjsiTicl, ,ind is applied to road-making puqxMeK, Jtn^ 
products consist of laiar silk, beeswax, medicinal roots snd dnj|^ 
<ind lac ^ the lac Inject \ii domc^ttiealcd on jute pli^nt^ and the Butca 
frondoaa tree, by jungle tribca of Sancdla and DhiSngiirs. In tbc wuib' 
west of the Disifict, at the confluence of the Mot ;ind Dwarki rii<r^ 
tliere is a tract of lowOying country, about tfi square miles in estcnii 
known as the Hejak which is med for pasturing oittle. During the 
rains it is covered with water, and yields crops of iins and horo rice; 
but during the dry season, the Goilds utilize ii for |>asiuriMg laige henk 
of cattle. Besides the Hejdl, there are numerous smaller pasturage 
grounds scattered over the District, Wild beasts are now very uncotntnon 
in Murshidabidj and arc yearly becuming more and more scarce, 
being driven away by ihe advance of cultivation. Several kinds ofdeci 
are, howevLTf found in ilie Rirh tract, 

Th^ History of Murshidibiid District centres round llic city of the 
Eanie name, the latest Muhaminadan capJt^il of B^jnga!, and stil) the 
tesidenre of tht titular Nawih. In 1704* Mitrshid fCulf Khrfn, alio 
known in English histories as J^fnr Kh-in, cih-inged the seat of Govera- 
nient from Dacca to the little town of Maksud.ibiid. where he built a 
palace, and called the place after his own name. This change wii 
undoubtedly determined by the iiupcriar position of the new ca|Htal» 
with reference to the growing wants of the administration, Dacca had 
Ecncd \i% purpose a^ a froniier station against the inroads of the 
Arakan and Portuguese pirates; and danger in that quarter was now 
terminated by the i:ont|t]cM of CEittugong, and the rvlinquinbuient uf 
all designs upon the independent kiJtgdom of As«am. The rising 
importance of the European Settlements on the Hiigti, togctlier 
with the growth of commerce and manufacture px Kd^Imbdzdr, were 
sufficient reasons to determine a wise rulor to jiost himself permanently 
on the main line of communication between the \x\i\iti Ganges vilk 

anges vaiky 


\vA the !W.i, il A ^>ot u-hirh w.u -ilso the tiiosi rf in hi* wide 
dominions. And Munhid Kuli Khin, by birth a Brihman, by cduui- 
tkin a courtier, va5 one of the most able adminisUatars thai c^cr served 
the Mughal Empire in lime of peace. Only second lo the Nanab in 
eit^Ushing the iinj>ortAnce of Muraludib^d, wan the Jain tianker, Minilc 
Chand jAgat beth, by whose poredoniLD.'Ltmg intlutncc as a fimnder the 
rtiHlcnce t>X ihe Gtjvemor became also the centre of the revenue 
coltolionv for ihc three Province* of Bengal, Bchar^ and OnssiL 

The dynasty founded by Munhid Roll Klun did nol cc'r^iinue in 
(^ Jircct line beyond two gcncrationA ; but vhi-n AU Vardl Khdn von 
ihe throne b>- conqueu ui 1740. he found Munhidibid tc be movt 
tonvciuemly situated for miinraintrtg hit hold ii|iOn tht? rebelli(ju*i Pro- 
vince of Ornfo. and subsdiucntly for keeping the plundermK Marithi 
^lonetDcn behind the frontier of the BhdgirathI river. Uuring ilicsc 
troublous times, the city itself never suffered euhcr from domestic 01 
^urejgn tvar. Each successive prince, after ihc Eastern fashion, built 
fur hiDself one or irore new palaces; and the great family of Jagal ^eth 
preierved iheir position as State bankers from ycneratiori to gcncratjot). 
Oa entenn;|t Murshidibdd after ilie victory of PL-UAey» Colonel Clive 
Vrote; — *'llii> city is as cxicnsLve, populous, and ricti oi the city of 
[londorij nilh this difference, that there arc individuals in the jirst 
infinitely grcat4'r property than in the lafcl city. , . . ITic 
ills, if inetinKl to destroy the Europeans n^ighc have done so 
VTth sticks and stones.' 

Eren after the conquest of Benj^al by the BritL'tb, Murshtddbid 
Teinain<?d for some time the scai of administration. Plosscy was fought 
in 1759. just beyond the present southern limits of Murshidibdd 
District; but thai battle was not regarded at the time as interfering 
with Muhommadan independence beyond the substitution of a sub- 
urvicnt Naw.Ab for the savage Sirijud-dauli Ihe on!y appareni 
reauh vas tlut the cominertial Chief of the lactory at Ki^imba/ii 
wus superseded by a Political Resident to the Dorbdr, who took up his 
quancrs noarer the city, at Motfjhfl, — ' the Pearl I-akc/ — in the palace 
of a former NawiU In 1765, ihc East India Compnny received the 
grant of the ^tednf or financial administration of Bengal, Bchor. and 
Urisia £rom the Mu^thal Emperor, Shdh Alam, a^ the prize of the 
victory It Baxir ; and in tlie fcjllowing year Lord Clive, as Governor of 
Ben^l, presided in |>erson at the J'unyd or annual settlement of tlie 
revenues. But Ci'cn on this occcaston, the young Nawab sit on tlie 
mtitnadj "iftixYi the Governor on his right hand- The entire wi>rk of 
adaiinistrauion stiJ remained, without serious check or supervision, in the 
hands uf the Muliamtiudun ullioals; ujid Jj^at ^lli coLiiirmed to be 
he State banker. The Brst^eat reform was effected in 1772 by Warren 
lasting vho removed the Supreme Civil and Crimioai Courts from 


ft4 MURSiflDABAD, 

MurahidibJ<I lo Calcutta. Afict an experience of three yews, te 
tiibunal of cnminal Justice wai re innsferred to Murshidibdd ; atrfi 
vas not till 1790, Qn<ler Lord Comwotlii, thai Ijoth the etitire reveve 
and judiaal »ta^ was ultimaiely fixed it the j)fe«ent CApital of lodii 

The Mint, the rccognbed emblem ofiDctropoliunprc-cnimcncebihr 
East, vas abolifhcd in 1799. About the same d«tc, the ctvil ho^ 
quATtcn of the DUcncC vrre iruufctrcd to BarhAmpar* which had \^^ 
from the firit the »itc of the inilttcLry cantontnentft. MunhitUbdd otr 
wfl* ihu* left only a« the residence of the Vawih Naifm, a denfieniiluiC 
cf Mfr J:*far, who till \%%3 retained cntflm m.-irls* of sovereignty vrthia 
his pabcc. and received a pension of /^i6o,ooo a year. The last hcUtf~ 
of the title was for many years resident in Enijland- On his rrtum U> 
India, he abdicated his position in favmir of his noru «bo sixectdeft 
htm, but without any sovereign rights, and on a diminiihed pensiott- 
"I'he title of the present desccmlanl of the once independent mien of" 
Bengal, Bchiir, and Orissn, is now stmply that of 'Nawiib Bahidor of^ 

The importance of the Di»triei of MuT»hi(lil»i<l declined with ih« 
dccAV of ita chief city. When a Collector wjn firat appointed lothr 
charge in 177J, its area extended over the neighbouring s*i*f /wnAf rt( of , 
Rxrhhdm and Pishnupur Thcue outlying irart^ hitd alway*! hrcn noti 
for lawlessness ; and for the better .administration of justice they 
ii nail y severed from MuTshidabdd in 1787. The Oiatrict wa$ thi 
reduced to very much ii?i present sixe ; Ujt the irrei;:ti!artty of 
western boundary line* which marches with Bfrbhtim^ has been ad 
slant source of perplexity to the local ofhciak The historical inicretf 
attaching to the ruins of Kasimrazar, and to Barhawpur, which his 
now ceased to be an ini|iortant military station* has 1>een explained tindtf 
those beading^- In rS75, the District of Murshiddbdd was trannferrcd 
ffojn the Division or Coniniissioncr*hi|> of RAjshihi co the Presidency 

PfCj^f. — Farly estimates of the populnliofi, ranging from iSoi to 
[852, which were based upon no trustworthy data, uniformly returned 
the inhabitants of the District at about one million. The Cenwis 
of 187a returned the real population of Murshidiibirt, on an area 
corresponding to that of the present District (1144 square mil<rs}, at 
r,ai4,io4. .\x the last Cenius in tSSi, the population was Ascertntned 
10 he i,a*6j9o, sliowing an increase of only 13,686, or t"04 per cent, 
tnihe tune years from 1^73 to 1S81, This very small increase is partly 
due to the ravages of fever, which pre%"ai!ed virulently ia MuishtdibAd 
during the »utunin of 1 83o ; but it also denote* the dec;iy of 3 once 
thriving commercial centre, and the dccrcitaing populniion of a grcftt 

city. — Sff MUBSHIDAPAD ClTV. 

The rewirs of the Census of iSSr maybe briefly summarized 

mmanzed i^s 




number of h<KiB«, ijiJ.oa?. of irhidi 257/^67 wr^re occupied, and 
zOrCi6oanomspAfrt Tmalpopiibtifin^ 1,2:6,790, namr1y,naW5R£,4B3i 
and females 640,307 ; proportion of tnalcTs 47"56 per cent, Ax'erage 
density of population, 572'3 persons per squaic mile; Iowps and villages 
per sqairc mile, i'67; peraona per town or village, 34*; Iiouacs per 
silturemil^ 1397 ; inmntcH [ler occupied houiie, 4*7. Chisilied accord- 
ing to sex -in<i igo. iherc were— under 15 year* of a^e, boys 343,088, 
and gills 1*7,376 ; loial children, 470,464, or 383 per cent, of the 
population: 15 )'canand upwards males 343,395, and females 413,931; 
total adults, i56t3I^j or 6f7 per cent, of the population. 

/tf/ixif'n. — One of the suqinacn first JiflcloacU by the Census of 1871 
vastKiE the Muhammftdansforrn a minority of the population. E^'en in 
the rtty and Aoburbs of Mur«hidibid ittelf, they ore oiitnuml^ereii 1iy 
the Hindu*, and ihcy predominate only in the agricultural tracts in the 
nonh-enn and south-eaM of the Diatrici. In iSSi, Hindus numbered 
634,796, or 517 per cent- of the population ; Muhaininadans, 589*957, 
or 48'! |)er cenL ; Jaim, 675 ; CEirisltanH, 470 ; Brabinoft, t4 ; Buddhist, 
i; and aboriginal tribes »titl professing their primitive fiilbs, 877. 
The general character of the populatiur is nnxcd Dengalfs ol the 
tielta, hill tribes from Chutifi N-lgpur, and the |>eailiar Hin<tu nantes 

Behaf arc all represented ; ivhilc the presence of the court bos 
tntroduced Rdjinita fium the Northwest for military service or imde, 
Afghani and Pcninns from beyond the frontier, and a body-guard of 
Halxhfii from the ea^t co:ist of Africa. 

Tnlrf^ CasUi.tU. — Besides the 377 aborigines rtill profewirg their 
primiti^^ faiths, the Ceruua of 1881 returned ^5,350 others of aboriginal 
desrenl, lui included as Hindus in the rebfiiouB classi5cation. Of 
Hindu caktei^ proper, ibe Hrdhmans nimiber 33,935 ; Rijputs, 8955 ; 
iydi, "4.333; ^"*l Kij-arthsi, 15.655. By far the most numerous 

Ic » the Kaibartta, too. 55 5 in number; following on which, ta 
''numerical order, come the Sadgop, 36,9^7; K\k}:^\±, 35.411 ; Bdgdi, 
30,568; Cliamdr, ?J,5So; Tinti, 19,818; CbandrtI, 17,97^; Koch, 
17,582; Nipit, 1 3,493 i SiJfi"T 13,038 ;Tdi, ij,o88; Kumbhir, 101487; 
Mil, 96S7 ; Barhai, 9673; Katnnak^ir or Ix>hjlr, 8953; Kalu, 8641; 
Hari, 775j; Tior, 7739; Pom, 7505; Madak, 7*53; Dhobi, 7048; 
Mallab. 6765; and Jugi, SJ4et. The nnrivp Cbri^rian* number 250. 
Among the Hindus are included the Vaishnavs, numbering 25.0,^4 ; the 
Jairit, who are e5|w:ially influential at the trading centres of Azimganj 
and Jiiig^nj ; the Brahma Samaj, which ba# a regular niceiingOiousc at 
Bdvlonpur; and other minor sects. 

T»w$t^ tk. — For a Bengal District* Munbidabad contains a fair share 
of lai^ towns ; but it appears certain that the urban population \% not 
now 00 the inareaae, 1'he five following places arc reiumed in the 



a6 ^^~ MURSfiiDABAD. 

Census of i88t as each coniaimrg :s. popuUlion of more thin 5000^- 
^[L'R£lfl^AlL\D Cirt-. |>oi>uliuon %'^^l^l ; Bariiamfur, )jt^05 ; Kixin 
or J^mU'Kandi, io,66z; Jaxcipur, [^,187 ; Bcldanca, 5455, Tbe 
ksi is a mere a^grei^ace of rural villages. Other pUc« of aome iapon- 
ance arc — the river murU cf Jiaganj and AziMr.ANj, lituatcxl upiioat: 
one another on the Bhifgiratbi ^ BiiAffWANGOLA (UUl anil Ntrw} jaj 
IJkui.iam on the Ganges*; the railway stations vf Mukakai antl Nauuiu^ 
The urbdtn population appcan to be stca^ly dccicaun^ In i8;i|( 
towns contained a population cxcevding livv thou^nd, with an 
gale of ioS,473 inhabitant!^. In >KS3 there ivere cnly 5 tovoa exo 
Jng fivr ihnii&and, rontiinin^ a \i\\^\ uHian popublion of 89,1^01 
7'> per ccnL of the total population of the OibtrlcL Thit decrcKC* 
although largely owing to the falUni; ofT in the population of Mtsi^ 
ibad since ihat cliy ceased tu be a metropolis, is also due to the doca? 
in the wea\'m^ trade, cau^d by the introduciion of Knglisb piAl^ 
goods. The intereAts of the Disrnct liave now become almost ^x^ 
^i\<L\i\\\xxoXy instead of manufacturing, .Sues of biiitorical inccnfl 
include Kammka/ar, with the neighbouring ruins at Kilkapur and 
Sa>7id4bd(J ; Badkihat or Ohi^tilbdd, RAK<iAaiAi t, and ihc Ixaitlc-fickl 

The town* and \-illagc9 are thu« classified according to sitt in 
ihe C*n\u* Rpptift '^OtiC of a total of 3585 vilU^^cis, 1711 (contain lew 
than I wo hundred fnh£ibjtant«^; ia66 from two hundred tofive hundrc<l; 
46:1 from 6vc hundred to a thousand ; tai from one to two thou&aad; 
I J from two to three thousand ; 5 from three to fi'it^ thousand ; and 5 
more than li^ thousand. As reganis occupation, the Census Rq^ort 
returned [he mnle population under the following 6 classes: — (') 1^ 
fesBional and oflicial class, 14,662; (3) domestic servants, inn aad 
lodgin^'house kee|jers, etc, r 4^539 ; (3) commercial class, including 
bankers, mc:rdirmt&, carriers, c^tc, 21,8(^9 ; (4) agrli^ultuntl and jwior^l 
<:bi3, including gardeners 201,090; (jj manufaciuring and industr^I 
cUm, 61,046; and (6) indufiriitc and non-productive clasai including 
ma](? children, '^l^A.'^l- 

AgriiuUiire^ — RiceronsliTuies the staple crop throughout the DUtrict; 
the Jjn<7'rorlaie rice bcini- prev.ilcnt in the western half, and the f^«/or 
early rice in the eistem» To this fatter tract also arc mainly con6ncd 
the second or cold weather crops, consisting of wheal, barley, and manjr 
^■aricties of oil-seeds and puUes, It is estimated that these latter crops 
nowhere form more ihan 10 per cent, of the food supply, and in some 
pans only 3 per cent. Jute is but little grown ; and the cuilivatiiwi 
both of ii)di|jo and mulberry for silkworms Is on the decline. The area 
now under mulberry is ctiim^ted at About. i;,ooo ^crcs. The use of 
mamiru and the practice of irrigation aie limited to the Rflih or n-esicm 
half of the DiiiiricL Water b conducted o\'cr the Helds from tajika . 


rtual vAlcrcouncs WtXh and wuficial canals do nol exist V«r>' 

Rule fp«re bnd remains th^t b;vi noi been brought unUvr the plougb- 

I neuknajtcd tbat ibc Anrragc produce of an acre of land vines froiit 

; !n 40 cwt^, »rr<^rdirkg n^ it (trodufx^ one or two rro|K ; the vaJno is 

It a from £\. loi 10 jC4- The rates of R*ni in Mursbid:ibAd arc 

ov, IS compared with net^hbouruiK Disiticts> nor have ibcy been nmch 

^tf3ha;iccd by tbe etfeci of recent JegiNiation. They vary excecdinglyi 

Grding to the po«itton of ihc field, the quality of ihe crop groinn. and 

asocial tutiuofihc cultivator. According t^ an oflidal nriurnt dated 

ti2, tbc rates paid for high lands suitable for tiits or early rice, nuige 

i£. 6d to }&. 6d. per acre : those paid for low lands suitable for 

iM Of Utc ike, run^c from xt^ Od to ^1, iw. per acie. Laiid« grow- 

; special crops, auch as vegetables i^dcn produce, cLc^. in ihe nctgh- 

of ibe euUirators' homc«teads p^y I'rom jQz, 3». to ^a, Sf, 

acre. There U iinlc thai w peculiar in ihc land tenure* of the 

)i«tricl, bc>'Ond the rdmnAi or clccr-park^ held rcvenucsfree tiy the 

Vaira'b. and the cuUivatinj^ tcnute known as nt^artJi or /a4lh/amd^ 

Jtng to vhich the nfyir/ p^tys rent, not for his cmire holding, bm 

' for the bnd actually cultivate^!, ihc amount being determined by 

nature of the crop grown- Thi* tenure U niainly confined to the 

'Hcjiil tract, in the southwc^l of the District, watered by the Dwarki 

river, and io «>idc of \\\Q€/t3n or alluvial accretions on both sidcK of 

the Bhdgfratht There is also a lenure, in which the rent is paid in 

ktnilf called ^ktrg-fai^ according to which the rdyat pays to the landlord 

one-half of the produce of h;» ticlds, instciul of money. The HuVtnreu- 

dation of ciitatcs has been cairied out into many stages, their peculbr 

rharacter and incidents dilTeiin^ in the several /fiJ^f^f J. 

The ordinary rales of wn^en have rben somewhat of laCc year^, but 
ihc |mce of food appears 10 have incrcascJ in a yet larger raiia 
Betnxxn 1S58 and i&Ko the wa^ of a common coolie are reported to 
bflve iocreastfd from 6«. to 3s, or 9$^ per month ; of an agrLadtural labourer, 
from 8b- to los,, paid partly in kind ; of village smiih»i and carpcniera, 
Irom 11^ to t6s. and 18s. ; of totfn artisans^ from 13^, to 15s. or jQi 
]»er nM)nth. On the other lianil, a table giving the prices of ccmmon 
rke during a pextud of thirtyfour jeant, between 1S36 and it}6«;, alions 
an average for the fir*t twenty ycara of *»- jdn per cwl, againat an average 
for Ihc lad fourteen ycar^ of 4s. id^ per ctn. For the twelve yeout 
1S70 10 i^t» the nverage price of common rice wai about 19 ttrs per 
njpce. or 5s. 11 d. per cwt In iSjo, the price of common rice was 
AL lid per cwt.; in i$66, ihc year of dearth, it had n»cn as high as 
iS& ad.; in 1S74, the rale vas 9s. ad. per cwl ; in 1H7S, 9ft. per cwL ; 
in iSJ^t (an unuitially £:ivcurablc year), 4^ 4d. per cwt.; and in 
1&83-54 (an tmfavourable year), from 4s. 8d. 10 8s, per cwt. 
MunhidibdUl is not specially liable to flood or drought, and the 


dUTering cirfunittancM of ilie two halve* of iUt country tew! to mtitSSj 
the intensity of cither calamity. In addition, the means of comimmio 
tion and the activky of local indc arc sufficiently ample to prctwi a 
loc^i] fcarciiy from develofung into famiDc In iS66, in 1S74, nndipin 
in 1SS5, Murshiddbdd by on the border -land of distress, but 11 ncQhcr 
j-ear wai a large »y^tcni of Governn\ent relief ref|uired. The popubtion 
mainly depends for it«food supply upon the ifmanrki: ciop; and iJ the 
price of rice wcrctoriv in Janu^iry to 6s. lod. pcrcvt., Uiac shouUte 
rc^TiJciI as a »i^n of ajiproaching scarcity. 

Matitfoiiara^ c(u — The manufactures of Mur^hidibdd «rc not in « 
l^ovirifthing sitale. The windicg of silk is still the staple indostty, but it 
h.tfi fiicadily declineci Gince the day when the Company clcxed llbeir 
gTtfat fnctoty at Janjipur in 1835- At present, serinalture b motf 
common in the south-ca«i of the Distiict, and a considerable qtUBliiy 
of cocoons ire imported from neighbouring Districts to be wound of 
there. There n^crc in 1N73, 45 filaturei under the mnnagemeol of 
Ktiropcans; and the number of bawns, including those belonging U 
natives, nas about 5000, employing 10,000 persons. The out-tion of 
raw ailk in 1871 was estimated to be 146,000 lbs., worth jfi6«,oeo 
valued ai the bw price of 14a. per lb. In j8Si there vcrc only ajsUt 
filatures under nun}|>can management, besides 73 in the hands of 
nAEive:! ; giving cm plj^y men t to an avenge of 3904 )>crAon«, and yieldiag 
an outturn of >55f3o8 lbs. of r^w silk, of an cuimatcd value <if 
j^ti8,7i6. The weaving of silk cloth w al9o ronducicd in acrtral 
villages, the annual prndnrtion being abflut 100,000 pieces, ralued it 
j^fio.ooa The material condition of the wea^vnf U v'Cry low, IiuE^ 
cultivition has never recovered from the imfortunaie di$turt)anoes o( 
i860. At the present time, the annual ouilnrn from twelve concetm 
nverages about aaoo cuts., valued at ^70,000. In i8Ri,the out-torn 
of indigo vas only 1047 c^vts., valued at ^j3,47i. \\ Murshidibdd 
city and Barhampur there are special industries of ivory-carving, bed- 
metal work, and ^old and silver embroidery. The skilled arti:ians thus 
employed arc in comfurcablo circumstances. 

Mur&lndihdd occiipica a favourable position for trade, both by river 
and rail ; and some of the Jain merchants of Azfmgan) i.ikcr.irk among 
ihe richest men in Bengal. There is also a brisk road traffic betve^it 
the differenl pnrti of the District. Owing to the gradual silting uj) cf 
the river bed. despite the constant -itteniion of ihL* engineering staff, the 
through trade on the Uhigfralhf has greatly fallen off in nxcnt years. 
During the ten year* from 1840 to 1850. the traffic rcgi«crcd at Jangi- 
pur amounted to an annual average of nearly 400.000 tons ; for the ten 
years endirg jSSi-Sj, the registered traffic at Jang^por toll averaged 
only 170,000 tons. In 1881 the traffic wns on?y 151,000 tons, the 
Iowc:it since 1874. The tolls paid at Jangijrar f-^^r the ten jcars cndii^ 





8t-Sjav'«'ragffd^75ji jjcrannujn^ According lo ihe ret umi( fumU^ieJ 
lh« old rpgi«rfltif>n Ayttcm, VlurKhidAlijJcE sundc Eivdfih among the 
igal DUnicta in the total value of its cxt^orts and imports. In 
1S76-77 the txpom were valued nt ^^'i.oao^iij. of which £^^}^M^ 
m» carried by river aiid ^466,452 by rail i the imports were i-alucd at 
^739,90^^ of which j£s»3i036 wa* e^nied by river and ^ji6,8;o by 
laii. The toul exixirt of rioe was 1,061,900 maurtds^ cf gram ^\m\ 
putsci 342,400 mauitds, of whea: 1^(4,300 maandi^ of silk Jo»';77 
meuritfs (valued at j^5'S.85o). nnd of indigo 1560 maunds (valued at 
^£31,200). The chief iicin^ of im[>or[ wcic Euro|>c<iii [jiece-goiKl^ 
(^300,550), atmont cnUrely conveyed by ml; salt (ijd^ooo tnattn^f)^ 
chicly conveyed by river; raw coaon (^2.100 maunds^ valued at 
jto3"'5^)" The four lending mart* nrc thu^ arr«^rgcd :-*MiinhJdAbad, 
eici>ortft <in )S;6-77) ^119^000, imjiorl? X,*%*^^^\ Eh^iliin, ei:pori« 
j£68,ooow imixirtt ^t i8»ooo ; Jan^tpur, c^}>ortfi and imports, j^ 
each; Jiiginj, cKponn j^.^S^ooo, iinjiorbi ^113^000. Owin;: to an 
alteration in the J^stem of vq^istration, details of Dintrict iradu arc not 
aviilablc for a later year than 1876-77. 

Tlic little Stale railvay from Nalhati to Admganj runs ior about 
14 mites within ilie limils oJ Murshidibad In 1871 there were 13 
)innd])ial Ufvesof road in ilie UiMnct under local niana^cment, with a 
touJ length of tSs milr^r maintained at m ;mnuaL cost of £^^i^ In 
addition, 44 miln of the main road 6'om NadiyJ to Bha^wdngoUi 
pOAsift^ through Barharnpur. were undiT the charge of the Public 
Workft Department. Since that date, the introduction of the Road 
Cm* has given a great impulse to the extension of means of cotn- 

AdmmitfrafkK.—Xv^ the year 1870-71 the net revenue of Murshid< 
^libdd District amounted to ^'19^,046, towards which the iajid-tax eon- 
ifibutcd ^133,061, or 69 per cent ; the net expenditure was ^57,692, 
or leu ihan one-third of the revenue. In 18^3-^4 the six main items 
of revenue yielded ^176,81*, a* follows: — Land revenuCi ^£114,335] 
esciM.% ^15,864 i alatnpti, ^2;.9;8 ; ref;islr;iuon» £\i,i\\ road cc», 
£fiit^t andmumdpal taicsrj£5996. la i3S3ihcrc wcrc^ covciuirtcd 
oAccrv fitationcd in th« Di^triei ; d magifileriat, 9 civil, and 8 revenue 
courts. For police purposes, the DiHtri<:r is divided into 35 iMmU or 
pt^ifo eircle* In 1SS3, tht? regular District and town police for« 
umbered 785 men of all ranks, maintained at a total co^ of ;jCi'^947' 
here was also a rural police or village watch of 4034 men, maintained 
by the villagers thcm«clve«' The total inachincrj'. therefore, for the 
proteclionof pcno& and properly, consisicd of 4S 19 ofiiccrs and men, 
giving I man to ewry o'w of a square mile of the area, or to every 
>S5 persons of the population. The c&timatcd total co^t was ^36,369, 
avenging j^ii, 6s. per square mile, and jtl. per head of populatioa 

30 UrUKSHfDAfiAD. 

Miirnhidihrid Di^rrict Iwfi nlwaye Uomc a had r«puiMion for cettiin 
classes of crime, vi^. JakJifi or robbery and hoil«ebreikJn(. 
In 1 88^ ihc toial number of persons convicied of any olTence, grcM 
or small, vas 1^70, being 1 |>erson to every 43S of the iwpubtion. 
Dy far ihc greater proportion of the cunvicttonN were for petty otfencfi 
The DUtrict conulns one jatl and (no lock'iJ|>5, In tSSj, tbe atei^ 
daily nunilicT of prisonen was t6i'96, of whom 11 were fcmalA 
These figwrcs show i prisoner to every 7573 of the popuUtion. 

Education Jiasuitlcl)' extended during lecent years. In i856ih«re 
were only 6 Inspected schools, attended ly 7 1 7 puptl*. By 1833 ihoe 
numbere hnd rben to 439 schools, with upwards ^ 13,000 pnpiUi 
»lit>wing an average of 4-9 square milcii lo each school, and 97 puptls 
tu c%-ery thousand \^i the population This grent incTcn^e i> due to the 
extension of the granton-aid rules to the Af/^^'/Jj or village schools. 1 
reform inaugurated by Sir O. Campbell in !&7*. The above figusei 
are exclusive of uninspected and unaided ftcUooIa. The Cetisii^of 
fSSt relurutd 15.S45 boys and 423 girls as under instruction, beiidtf 
37,967 males ind 815 female jblc to read and write, but not unto 
initruction. Among )|>edal institutions may bc mcmioned— the 
Burhampur College, founded in 1S53, which nov icache? up to the 
i\\\K Avt^ course of the university eA^aininiiUuni the NJzfLmat CoQc^ 
limited to the cclurmion of the relatives of the Nawdb; and lh« 
Ni;rdmat free ichtjol in Mvinhidibid city. In 1883, the av-erage daify 
atiemlanre at ihe Bnrhampor Collrge wn^ 30 ; tho rort to fiovemmtnl 
was £i^l$, or an average of ^ji, us. for each jjupil 

The Distric: is dindcd into 4 administrative Sub-d i vis ions » contain- 
ing 23 thdtitii. There are 6S pargattds or Fiscal Division^t, with *n 
aggregate in 1S83 of i^Z^ revenue-paying estates, owned hy 10,75; 
proprietors and coparceners, each estate paying an average land 
revenue of /j%2, Ss., and each proprietor ^'m, 10a. i« tJovcnimcnt. 
In 18S3 there were 5 civil Judges and ic stipendiary ma^siratcs ; ibe 
maximtim di&iance of any village fioin ihc ncar^M court vtas 3J 
miles. There me 5 munlctpatLtic? in the District — MurshiddlMld city* 
Barhainpur, Kindi, Jangljjur, and iJcId.-ingd wtih a total popolotkHi 
of 89,44) person^: their aggregate municipal income in iS83-fl4 
was relumed at ^7418^ the average rale of taxation hcinu i*. 4d. |>«f 

Mtdka/ A^puis. — The climate of Murshidibad docs not differ from 
that common to Lower Bengal, eicepl that it experiences, 10 some 
extent, the burning v^inds of Central India during the hot season. The 
mean atmospheric prc*i^ure of the year is returned at 29715; llie 
annual average temperature at 7S-6' F. In 1SS5, the maximum 
leinpcr.iture recorded hy day was ioyi\ in the month of May; the 
minimum by night mi& 46-j'", in December- The average annual 



TainfAl] cw«r i jmod of Iwcntycight yearn ii; 56-0 Irchrt. The minr^llJ 
in iRSj irw only 40 Inchw, or jo inches below ihc average, " 

As TGifArd« health, Murshidlhdd District ranks i>erhupK below the 
^ncral stmdnrd of Heni^aL The «Ufzmni pools forinc^l l>y ihc HhA^C*J 
raihi during ihc drj' scn^on constitute a pertnnial source of nalAiL'L;1 
and cholcm i« nrcly absent from the cit>- and suburbs of Mtirshid^bid, 
EnUrgement of the splccti is found in nine out of every ten cases j 
obMfved. Hle[>haniutsu and hydrocele arc al^ cndcnnic It k cn| 
recortl thnc not only the trailing cinporiuiii ti( KibimMj^dr, but .ilfO 
Mvctol ^outi^hmg weaving vill^rgew, h^vc been abMjluicty depopulated 
by malarious fever vitliin the present century. The vitAl stAtiatics 
vbov » death r^ie during 1883 of A4'67 per thousand. 

There were, in i^&^, five charltAble dlsprnsnries in the District, at 
which 1076 tn-door and 34,099 cut-door patients were treiled during 
the year. Inhere is a Govanment lunAcIc ai&ylum at Barhampur, con- j 
au^Ktcd otJt of a portion of the old hanackf in 1S74P fForfunher|| 
information regarding Murshidabid, see T^f Sfatistiox/ AicouHi ^ 
Brnga!, by AV, W. Hunter, vol. ix, pp, 1-165 (Vriibner & Co., London, 
1876); Tht Staiiiiual and Gi^^rnphicai Hipoff oj Munkiddbdd Diitriit^ 
by Colonel Gasiretl, Reitnue Surveyor (1B57); Rtport on the Rix^rs <>f 
Btngai, by Capuin W. S, Shemill (1S5S) ; tlic Bengal Ctmui Reports 
fix 187* and 1681 ; and the several annua! Adminifttraiion and DciMiil- 
mentjil Rei>ort8 of the Bengal Government,] 

Hurshidib^ Sub-diviflion.— Si/fr ot hcad-quarten Sjb-divi&ion 
of Mur>hi<Uliid Di*tncU Bengal. ArtM» 997 ^^quare milet ; ntimhfr 
of towns and villager, 13S1 ; houses, iijjtS. Poputatiun (iS3r) 
SS><74St of whom 360^614 were Hindus, 290,671 Muhainmadajns, 
40? Christians, and 58 of other religions. Number of jicrsons perj 
square mile, 553; village* per square mile, 1-4; houses per square j 
mile, us; itimate* per house, 4^9; propgruon of males, 48 per cenul 
'litis Sub4]ivi»on comprises ihc to police circles of Sujrtganj, Govi- 
biiir, BftrwiOt NawiLda, HariliafpJra, Jolangi, Goivis Daulatbdiir, 
Uokaran^ -ind Kaliinganj- In 1S73 it contained 7 revenue and nia^iii- 
tcri^l courts. 

Marehid4b4d Sub-division,— Propcily the City of Murahiddbrid 
Sub-divi<tion. — .Wl.AL«*r.H SfttniTisiov, by which name it is distin- 
guifhed (Tom the S^idr Subdivision of Mur^hiddbdd District. 

Mttrshidabad (or AfakiudU^d).—Yx\t^<:\\xx\ city in the District of 
the same nariii:- Bcn|{al ; ahuatcd in 34' 1 1' 5' n. Int., and SS' iS' 50" ^ 
lon^, on the left tvink of the f)h;igirathl Murshidibid i« still the most 
j)0)iulou« town in the HiMrirt, though its historical importance haa 
entirely departed. The diminution in the number of inhabitants pro- 
taUy commenced immediately from the date when it ceased to be the 
<a|jiuil ui Bengal, in 1772. Wc have no estimate %>{ the population in 


fthow? 6s,y% but it mu»t ha\-c been vcrf great The cifcumference 
extcHMvc saburlM lus been jhu a£ high as 50 miles; hut the Urget 
dimcrE&ions 04" the crtjr proper iit 1759 ^t ^d ca have been 5 lub 
along the Bhdgfrathf in length, and ^\ mile* in lireadth on cachbok 
of the river. In th€ beginnin); or the; presiini ceittury, by which tine 
the decay of the cUy hnd alrrad)- fict in, nc have seiXTAl estimaics erf 
the popublion , but wc neither knovf the ate^ whi<.h ibe city wsi thca 
9uppoacd to covcr^ nor the iriodcs of enumcrabon adopted In 1S15, 
tht ncjmber of houses vf'js eaiiriiAicd at 30,000, ^t\d the total popvh- 
tion At i65,ooQ<ouU- In iS?9, iht^ MagUtrjto, Mr, Hawthorn, Wunud 
the city ix^inibiion at 146.176. Jn iSj7,Mi. Adam found the inhjibri- 
anu of Mui^hidabid ciiy to amount 10 114*804 penonv, which thon 
a decrease of nearly 15 per cent, m eight yeart. 

At the lir»t regular CeTmi!& in 1S72, the |K>])j]jiLion of Mcmhidafaid 
t^ty had dwindled down to 46,152; jind ai iht la&t enumeration in 
1881, to 39i33i« 'ihe old dty, however, compruod a much te/gcr 
aret than ii included in the tnunicip:i1 boundaries of to-day. Clasuiid 
ftccoriiinf; \\> rcti^tuti, the: i>opubtioii in iS$i con'^i^tcd of^^Hindidt 
17,719; Muhuinni;xi)ajii, 15.^1$; and 'uthcn/ 694. The city of 
Murshiddbad has been formed into 11 municiiJiaUty undcT Act li. of 
1868. Gto«s municipal income in 1S76-77, jC^777 i i"i "SSj-Sj, 
£SSS5'' average incidcnrc r»f tn^-itinn> i*. 4jd- per head. The 
ofllt^ial En£lJ:th name for the muJiicipAliiy h I^lbdgh, tlie nmme also of 
the Sub-diviiion of which it is the centre, I'he n^unicip^tl boundanet, 
as fixed iuanoitficationof Crovernmem dated i-jilx March 1869, include 
i-j villages on the riglu or vc^i bank <if the Bhagiralhf, and i6oriI!a^ 
on the left bank of the nver. 

T^ History of Murshid.iliid city \s ihe history of Bengal during iJie 
iSth century. In 1704, ihc great N.awdb, Mui^hld Kulf Khan, fixed 
the >eat of Ciovern incut at llie city which he <.^leJ by hin gwn tianx. 
Murshidibjfd h^ct up 1o the |>re:tcnt day coniinucd to be the rcnidcncc 
of the Nawib of Bengal ; hut Jt lia« lo»t .nil histodcal imponuurc nnce 
1790, in which yoar I^rd C.ornwallts finally inniyferred the suptvine 
rriminal juri*<liciion to Calcutta. The old name of the pUrc wj5 
Mnksud^b:td or Mukhsoosabad, and it x% stated by 'I'ielTent baler to 
have been origmally founded by the limpcror Akbar. In i6g& the 
Affehins from Orissa, in the course of their rebcDion, advanced a* far u 
Maksiitldbdd, defeated 5000 of the imperial troops, and plundered the 
town. The neighhouriny town of Kisimhaiir is said to have been 
saved from asimibr fate by Lhe intercession of its merclunu. The place 
uas called Murvhidilxld by its second founder ; but the old name yet 
hngeiNand \% »aid to be still in constant u?>c amon^ ihcMLihumniadajii. 
Jl lA reguUrly fc|iclt Muxudavad in ihc early F.nghah Records, sa late u 
tfaeyejir £760, Tfadition icl^tcs that Murshid Kuli Khin moved 

1 moved hi^_ 


ni«nt la this place through fear of Prince Anm-us-Shdr. who 
attcmpccd too&^Assinaic him at Dacca- Ii ^eein* more piobaMc 
it he was induced to take Lhti fttep by political considerations, 
icci hid lost its imponaiicG, for ihtr Ma^hn and tl)e Portuguese 
no longer dan^rom ; and the battles of ihc Bhi^inthi a(Tonle<l 
more cential poitilon for Ihc maii,igcment cf the ihrcc Province* oi 
;igil, Bchaf^ and Ori^sa, The nev city also was situated on iho 
of UAde, along which the trcMsuio of India were now bci;inning to 
id ihcir way to the European settlements on the HiigU ; and il com- 
idtfd the tcwn of Kisimbd/ir, where aJI the foreigners hnd ini|>ortiint 
toneiL Moreo%"f*r, ihf citii^Tion in those daj^^ wa« rcgarrtrrl as vrry 
ilthy. The further histoo' of the city is involved in the sketch of 
general hinory of Mitrshidaoad District. 
T^ Cify and tts ^^iVi/ir^.— Murshid.'lK'id exhibit* at the present 
ly but it« trace* of its former grandeur. The chief object of 
icdon is the palace of the Nawib, on the banks of the river, <in<l 
marly in the ccnire of the city. It is a large and imposing pile of 
bvUdings in the Itahaa style, and its proportions are by some pre- 
ferred to tho>e of the Government House at Olcutta. Ii took ten 
years in building, nnd was completed in 1837^ at a cost of ;^i07,ooi>. 
Tlic architect was General Mflclcodi of the Bengal Engineers ; but nil the 
other pcrfions cn^ged or the work were rijicives. The edifice itself 
k called hy the natives the Ain^ Mahil; and, together with other 
bcildtnss enclosed within the same wall, it Ik known as tbe Nijcimat kUA 
or fort. The i^alace is 435 feel Ion;:, aoo wide, and 80 high. It has a 
splendid marble Roor, and eoniains a banqucting-hall 3<jo feet lon^, 
with sliding doon encased in minors. ' In the centre of the building; is 
a dome, from which hangs a va^t and most superb chandelier of 15a 
branches, presented to liie Nawrib by the l^ueen. Beneath stands a 
beatidful ivory throne, with painted anil j^jiided flowers, a specimen of 
the perfection i^f timt ivory work fgr which MunthiOJMd v^ fAiiioui. 
Hung on the walls are ponrnit« of the present Naw^iib, his ancestors, 
and his ftona.' — (Thrt^ ^/a /ffWu, vol. i. pp. 79, 80) The ww./W, or 
priVAte Apartments, aro situated to the right of tbe nain entrance, and 
in the rear of the psbce. Within the rtamr enclosure h the Iniii&mMn 
^— pr 'hotue of prayer/ which is built directly in front of the northern 
^Krindpal dx^. Outside the ArVi, and a short distance on the left along 
^K)c rood leading to Barhampur, is a ma^ifjcent ran.^e of coach-houses 
^Rnd itoUhig for horses and elephants. The Ni^imat College, which 
has been boilt exclusively for tbe education of the relatives of the 
Nawlb, tt a cost of^^Soo, is. situated m the opposite direction, a little 

I way up llw rirer. 

^K '["he prcKni I mimbira dates only from A.ii, 1264 (a.i>. 1^47), a& is 

I^Vdcnotcd by an inscription composed of the letters of the wordv, * The 

VOL, X, C 



Groi'C of Karbala.* Il is itself a line straclurc. being conskknlilr| 
larger tluin ihe Imimbdra at UugK ; bui it ogcuptcs tht place of the , 
far more ceiebiatcd buMfug erected by Slrdj-ud-dauU, wh>ch i» 
dc»^ribcd in a lutivc Llironlclc ( TariJefi t-Siawturii by Stfyyid Mi ; ; 
ir^nsUtcd by Profcuar BlocKm.inn, pp. 97'-ioi) . — * It was built < 
<-Arc And reverence, AIuliAmmodan worlctncn only being cmplo^'cd and] 
HindiK excluded. Tho NaiirjJb laid ihc fir^t stone with his owa huuLJ 
und pm lime over it, after which the u-orkmen commenced- Id the 
midst of tlie Imimb.'fni, a piece of ground called wadind was du^ €QI 
to the depth of a man'« stature, and filled witli earth taken fron tht 
holy place at Knrbaln. On all four sidc$ were roonu forming a sort cf 
cloister* On the east were vestibules facing towards the wc«t, vil^ « 
pulpit and a place set aside for a sort of chapter-house, where the 
elegies on Husdin were read- In the \<c%i of the building there w«re 
i&imilar %r>til>u]t::i (Ucing toward the eu^t, in which were nearly a hurdrcd 
f1.ig«, <ind the sacred cofliEis made of Mlvcr, gold, gla», and wooi 
During the Mukarram^ the Kurin was here chanted day and ni^hi, aal 
at fivcd times during the oilier months of the year. The cloiatcrt in 
\}\e north and of the building were coniitructf^d on a similar plat; 
hut these contained only the out-olBces, etc, where hundreds of wort- 
men kept themselves in readiness during the Muhjrram to illuminate 
the place- Tlie verandahn of the second storey contained Kcrceiu of 
mica, Ijehind which the lampH hun^ On ihc screens were piauns 
of men, animals, am! Ibvvcrs, which had a striking effect when their 
transparent panes were illuminated from wuhm. All kinds of ehao- 
dcliers, in large numbers, were placed in the vestibules, and also Indiin 
Lintju. Ill the north and south vestibules were twu icprcM^ntiitioai 
uf the Bur^fg^— the hone on which the prophet ascended to hcdTczi, 
with a human face snd a peacock's tail. The length of the laHs 
re,iched to the roof of the housei VVclUpoIiiihrd lihicld^ and chiaa or 
silver plates were fitted into the tails, lo represent the eye* of a 
|>eacock^ feathers. Swords, sabres, and daggers were arrai^ed in 
diderent patterns around these shield^ and hundreds of wax candles 
made the whole a dozding and s|ilendid objecL All these costly 
trea«urc*ff bvished upon the temple by Sirdf-ud-dauli with so 
much pride, were lurned into ready money by Mir K-iMm. This was 
not, however, to relieve his own neccsaiiies, — a motive which would 
have bcemcd sacrilege to one ao [cUg^ious a^ Mir Kjisini, — but to 
Aflifliat the poor cf the city, and to despatch a nuniUx of indigent 
Muhanmiadan* on a pilgrimage to Mecca-* Thi?i building ws^a Aod- 
dcntally burnt to the ground during a display of fireworlcs about fbrtf 
years ago. 

Whilst the present Imamb-'^Ta w,-is building, which is said to hat-e 
CO»t ;£^o,ooo, the workDK-n received their food in addition to ihcir 


and when U vrgft fmiKhctl a present uf a Oojbic tbawl and 
hjndkcrchioC At the season of the Mukarmm^ ji <iftily diairibu- 
lon of food nuntcts lixrge crow-d^, who arc drawn logeiher in 
ic evening by fireworks and ill tons. The N-twdb attend* one 
y'st ccJcbnUion, ind ukcs his seal on a black cariiet, ov4!r whi<:h 
white embroidered coi^erlet \% ftpre^d, and a bbck rjg Ukc£ th^ 
icc of the usual bolsier After the reciuiJon of ihe customary 
sherbet and spices arc handed round. Other cunous pncticcs, 
utiar to the sect of the Shifis among the Muhflmmitdam, accom- 
pan> ihii fcttiva). On the seventh day of ihc Afiiharram^ the ImlmbifK 
turned into a harcrm, and all ihe Ucgam^ attend. They place cWxim 
the Nattib, attoiilin^ \\9 (;u»Ion], and a chain tuund hiK ncck> 
undri.ds of n-omcn. hi^h and low, receive prescnU from the Dcgams, 
vho are said Eo di&thhuto thoueontis of rupees, 

1'he imperia) miuic forms the xrtosx strikiog emblem of royal dignity 
Still in:&intained at Nfur&hidibid. It may aill be? heard in the irarly 
morning sounding from thegreit fortified gateway which leads to the 
fuUcc. This peculiar strain of in^tnimenUl miuic, which w.'vs allowed 
by the Delhi Emjicron to all suM^drs (deputy governors) as a mark 
of d«le|j;iued sovereignty, is frequently alluded to by tlic native 
chronider* a* the public accompaniment of each itnprtant event in 
the history of the Navlbs, 

like lUft Festival 1^ still celebrated at Mur»hidibid in honour 
of Khwdji Khur, th« name given by the T^luhmiEiiadiLrTs to the 
profbct EJioj. With this saint jta connected the celebrated cuMum 
of launching tiny tight'«hips on the river, which may bo acen to 
^reat advanla^ on the Bhagfr.tElii. On cerL'tin nlghift in iht^ rainy 
reason, thouundft of little rafts, each witli its hnip burning, arc floated 
down the strcAnx. Their construction U very simple. A j^lece of 
plantain or lamboo Ixars ;i swcetmual or two and the lamp. This 
l^e is rendered more inclutesque by the unusual presence of the 
U'onKn, who arc allowed out of doors for the occasion. Tlie Nawih 
]>3Jticipates in the show with much magnificence on the lant Thursday 
of the month of Bhidra (Septetikber), wheu tlkc European resident:^ are 
invited. A nft of loocubiu »iLuare is cunaUucteU of pbnuin ticvs 
«nd bunboof, and covered with eanh. On this is erected & small 
:rVMt boanng on its walla alt martner of fireworks. At a given signal 
Aft is bunched and floated to the fartlier «ide of the nver^ whun 
Itreworkfi are bt off, their redecCinn on the water producing a 
^imost boiuttful effecL 

Aport from the Nizinut ^j'/J and the buildings connected therewith, 
there is but one other structure worth notice now standing in the city 
liToper 'ITiisis the mosque erected by Mani Begam^ in the vicinity 
of the Mtib^k hlantil, formeily called the Kandil Bd^h. The 





I>ecii]iarity of this mosque vas its ILbcnlity of vorship. On oiKii6c 
jmyers were coiiductcd according to iht HanaH riu of the Sunni «ea 
while on ihc other side were being observed the religious cenmooio 
of itie £)hij^, the Court »ecL 

Tkf Gmtrui j4jj>ivt of t^ Cit^ is Ihu* Oescnbed by the Rewtnie 
Surveyor (ift6o): — ' .Vumcrout brick t«iildinf:s stand aU along 
banks of the rivcr^ north and no nth of the juUcCf which bebng I0|< 
tijid are chiefly occupied by^ the relatives end Adherents of the Nftfib. 
Many others, Horue with pretfy gardens, nre scattered about in the 
T.mgTed maze of jungle, hovels, holes, and tanki wSich lie to tbe 
eastH'arcI. Standing en the top of the palnce dome, the loftiest pbce in 
the District, and leaking over the cit^ and it^; «ubtiTbs, little meets the 
e}-c but a dense forest of bamboos and trees of all kind& Hardlfi 
clear spot is to be seen, It is only when one turns to the west ih« 
the river and the high land in the norlh-weit of the District p«stflt 
open tracts. A stranger, as he Mood and ^zed, would never ima^ I 
that below wis a dense mass of human beingv of all clas^t, crovdtd 
together in every (L-?H^riptiuti of house ond hut. Tlicrc axe no delined 
limits to Murshidahad na a city, nor » any part known especially bjr 
this name- Ic ir^ given indiscriminately to a collecii<in of temples> 
mosqoe«, handsome brick hou«e«H gardens, vatled enclosures, HoveK 
huts, and tangled jungle* containing the rnin^^ of edifires that have 
Kt>rnng itp and decayed around the many palaces of the formci an^i 
l^rc^nt Nftwabs of Murshidibdd/ A 

Motijhlt^ or the Pearl Lake (a name also api>l]cd to a lake in Kasbmfi^ 
and another in l.ahore)^ is about i miles south of Murshid^bdd. Dr. 
b. Hamilton stales that it has been one of the former windings of the 
river ; but others are of opinion that tt was fonned by the cxcavatioos 
made to procure bricks for building the houses, which vere at one 
time sitrrounded by the lake in the form of a horse-shoe. Tt continiK?^ 
to be a beaulifiiJ spot, hut hardty a relic remains of itn ancient 
magnificence It ^eems to have been fir*t chosen as a residence by 
Niiij:ish Mnhaiumad. the nephew of Ali Vardi Khan. It ii moie 
celebrated, however, for the palace built by Sinij ud-dauli at an 
enormous expense- The materials were |iarl)y brougbt from ihe niins 
cf GauTi and a few arthcs are sltll left, constructed of the bUd; 
marble (or rather hornblende) which once covered l^e tombs of the oh] 
Palhin kings of Bengal. The following story is loM of its completion, 
to explain the name of Man^iirganj, by which it is commonly known : — 
*A» the building was nearly finished, Siidj-ud-dauU Invited Ali Vudf 
tu vce it When he came, Sirij-ud-dauli lucked him up in a room. 
and refused to release hrm unlaws the aamn^drt there paid a fine for 
their land' Thi»i request the Naw.ib was con^pelled to grant, and $ho 
to allow to his peiubnt grandson the privilege of erecting a ^rai^i^j 


iiu gtaniry ihc [>coplc c&Llcd Majibdi^an}, or the Granary of the 
i^ktoricus, i.t. Sinij ud<UuU, who oulwitlcd his grandfather. T};i! ahtM 
xtoiie<i on Ma occasioin i% tM to have nmounted to Kk- 501^597/ 
It VAK from Motijhil thnT Sir;ij-tid-HAu]i, in 1757, mnrrhed out 
the \mxIc of PUs^cy ; it was in the pnlacc her& thai Colond 
re placed Mtr Jafar on the niQsnad; and it was again at Motijhil 
that Lord Clivc» as ihtdn of Bengal, Behar, and Oriesa, held the 
int Englbh Punyd, m 1766. Mfr Jafar fived his residence on the 
I brtbCT sk!e of the rivt^^J and Motljhfl — or Muradbigh, as the 
I place vas ftometiitie:^ called^ from the riame ol a second palace in 
ibe neighbourhood — now became the home of ihc Englisli rolitical 
Re»idcjit at ihe couri of Mur«hid«lUid- One of the lim to till thi> 
j oflScc wu Warren HftSLinga. Subsequently, durini; rhe y<:sr« <T7>^73* 
I Mr, John Shore (afterw^ird^ Lord Teigonioulh) lived at Motijhil, where 
be amuied himielf by improving the grounds and studying the Oriental 
laifruagcs. He described hi^ Hfc there in the following words : — ' Here 
1 enjoy cooing doves, whisihng bbckbirds, and purling streams. 1 am 
j quite solitary, and, except once a wctk, see no one of Christian com- 
plexion.' In I78s-a<)lhe headquarters of ihe English were removed 
from Motijhil to Miidaptir, prior 10 thcti ftual transfer to Barhampun 

The J*»ny<i or annua! settknient ol tiie revenues o( Bengal was 
annually held at Moiijhfl, until it wa& ubulished in 1772^ when Che 
Khil^ or Treasury was rciDovcd to Calcutu. U was a ceremony of 
fttatCt ai which all the great saminiidrf attended in pcnton, and paid 
A sort of homage to the Nawdb. Kkiinis or prt-^eiitK were distri- 
buted, which were regarded a* a confirmation of iheir appoinimeni ; 
and the rent-foll of the Frovini.cs wa* then fixed for the year. A form 
like the Puny4t is bCiU kept up at the kaihan of every zaminddr^ 
but the Govcniinent ceremony has nc\cr been re-cstablLshcc). Chvc 
auached great iraijorunce to this institution, and raised a special 
revenue collection in order to defray the expenses^ but in 1769 the 
Court of Directors proliibited the giving of presents* In 17O7 the 
runyii wai hcltl at Motijhil with |>ccuhar pomp- The Nawab was 
»caied on the masnad^ widi Mr, Veri:btT the Guvi;rT]U[, on his righl hand, 
lite laitcr in ihc strongest manner urged the minibtcrs and laLidholdcn 
to give all possible encouragement to the clearing and cultivating of 
Lmds for iSc mulbetry. On this occasion, khilais were difstrihuted to 
the amount of Ri. j i 6.S70, Some of the items were — for the Governor 
and hi& Council, R& 46,750; for the Nltdmai. Ks. 3S«Soo; for the 
people of the Treasury, Ri, 33,634; for the Zamfndar of Nadiya* 
Ks. 7357 ; for the KAji of Birbhiim, Rs« 1200^ for tlic Rijd of Bishnu- 
pur, Rs. 7i4- 

Kkuih Bdgh^ iht iiatdtJi cf liapf-intss^ the old cemetery of the 
^navabs, he» on the right bank of the Bhdgfntihi, oppo&Jte Motijhil. 


Tht follo'^'lng f!c*icTlption is based upon notes by Captftin Lsjraii 
quoted in the Report c»f the Revenue Surveyor:— The cemcWfyconriiB 
cf three n^nlled endoaaret. The outer of these is entered by a gatc*3j | 
from Ihc cast side, m front of vhich arc the rums of an oM jArfj; wbth ! 
forrocrly led down lo tbc IlKigirathi, when that nver ran urder the «llfc 
The channel is now nearly half a mile The viU EiciD^ihc 
river is loophoJcd for musketry, and flanked by occ^gDnal Icutiook 
The grooTida iii^ldc urc: all UiJ vjut a^ j;ujdciiH, with hedge* bordcfiif | 
the watk» ; and ihc flower* grown in the beds scn-c to idom the tombt 
Many fine Irenes aIao oiTord a delightful Khctdc to the explorer. Tncr^ 
cti fre<ro pnint, almost obtii«ratod by dAmp snd neglect, may «till be 
seen on ihe wallv Tn thc^ fmtcr cndosurc ihere are eighteen tomb*, 
cnly two of which have any inEcnption. These two have ihe aww 
verse from the Kiiran, the one in Persian, the other in Arabic. The 
middle of the three enclosures is the principal cemetery, and contiim 
(he remains of the 'good Nawib,* AIJ Vardf Khin, and of his gniH^ 
son Sifdj-ud-dauli Besides the mausoleum, there are a moscjue vA 
two other buildings set apart for the female descendants of the dead, 
who Mill retain charge of the ccmcccry. Spread on the tomb* are dark- 
coloured cloths or palls, spangled with gold and silver flowers ; fresh 
flowers arc strewed djily on and around them, and lighia arc Jtcpl eon- 
linvially hummg. This cemetery was first endowed by Ali Vardi Khan, 
who allotted R*. 305 monthly, from the rolWtioni *if the villages of 
Ennddrdeh and Nawibjjani, to defray the expenses oX keeiiine the 
place in order. After the murder of Sir;?j-ud dsuli. his widow, the 
Begam Luif-ulnissa, who had accompanied her husband in his HigM 
to Rdjmahiil. and had been afterwards banished to Dacca with other 
ladies of the courti was subsequently recalled and placed in charge of 
the cemcterj" of Khush B;igh. Here she remained till her deatb, 
receiving, in addition to the Rs. 305 already mcnlionetl, a personil 
allowance of R5, 1000 per mctjscm. She now lic» buried in the 
irmusoleum by the side of her husband, but the charge \% *tiU held hy 
lier dc*cendaf^ta, who draw pensions from the Government Iroasuiyal 
Harhanipiir ForsTcr m^ntion'^ in 1781, that aiuf/tis were emplojed 
here to olTer prayers for the dtad, and the widow of Sirij-uddauli 
used often to come to the tomb and perform certain ceremonies of 
mourning. The entire cost of the e^tablishmcnl required for main' 
taining the buriaUground is now defrayed by the English Government, 
The third and innermost enclostire contains only a lank, the fornier 
riwellini;;-placc of the attendants, a ff^wM^rfr-^^Mff or travellers' hornet 
and a well. This latter is no longer used, and has been walled up; 
for it is said thai a/rv^fr accidentally fell into it and vtmy. druwned, 
which caused its waters to he polluted and accursed 
To the north-caii of Motijhfl, and immediately outside t!ic city 

Uunhidibdd, 11 the Kuttatu, containing the tomb oi Munhid Kulf 
Khin, tfr^TPii for him by fbtcvd Hindu kbour It iauid lo have been 
conMructcd after the model of ihe great moiqiie nt Meci:a, And la* iwa 
ifdcDdid mmareta 70 feet high. The Nnu-ib U buried 3I the foot of 
ftc stair, so *f to be trampled on by every one who passes up. The 
Kvtm;i U described by Hodges, 3 traveller of 1780, as 'a grand 
seminary of Musalmin learning, 70 feet scjuarc, adorned by a moBqtje 
*^trh rise* high above all the surrounding building* Irj this ndgh- 
iii>jrhood was the f opkh:ini, the arstnal of the Xaw^ibf, which Tormed 
^t csMCin j^-iLteway of the diy. A cannon bid been placrcd 1>etiveen 
^|> jwing trccn, Hhkb )uvc now grown up^ And tlicir branches 1i4Tpc 
tsmbtned to till the gun high above the ground. BcRitAMPVR, the 
mil hod^quarters of Murnhiddbdld, and formerly » mtlitaiyeantonmcnt, 
» dealt with in a ^epant^r arride. 

Ihtdi, — Hurahtdilidd city, with iis Rnhurb of AzimgaSJ, on the 
opposite bank <A Ihc BhiEifathl, is the chief ccmrc of tragic and 
manu&cturc in ibc District, Though the great bflnking house of 
JdgBt Seth hu loQg ago fallen into dcc^y, the Jain nien:hant« of 
McnhidJbdd stiti rank as the wealthiest of their cla^s in IJcngaL 
Thck dealing) in gold and silver bullion are cspc<!ial]y large; and 
9aome of tbcTf number almost monopolize the local traftit: on the 
Brahmnpuim, as far up as the nonh-easi frontier of Aissam. The 
pnndpal indutitrieit of Mur^idibid arc tboae fostered by the luxury of 
the nati\-G couxt- Carving in vfory, conducted with much skill and 
itnixhr 11 an ohl spccialily cf the city The c_iTvcn can turn out any 
aftirle to nrder^ frvim the»mflll**it Europcintoytothestate-lhrone of the 
Navrab. Other roanubciures arc the embroidery of fancy anides nith 
gold and e3vM!r bee, the weaving cf silk goods, the making of musical 
umraments, and hookah-pipes. In the year 1876-77, the total value of 
the T^iuered rii-er trade of \f unhidaliid city v-'as returned at ;^i 54,^99. 
Among the exjwrts vnlned altogether at ;£r*9,7Si, ihe chief ilems 
were raw silk (^£^45,000), rice (j£;37,ooo),gn»m and pulse (^^10,000), and 
wh«U (j^7ooo). Th« imports w'erc valued at only ^24,940, Including 
nigar and Mb (each ;^5ooo)> -ind picfc^ood* f^^jooo). <)*ing to an 
alteration in the iyAtcm of registration, no ttadc slatislica nte available 
ir MTirshldilxld city for a later year than 1876-77. 
MartfttiLpitr. -^ T^if/ttJ of Amr^oti niitrict. Bcrar Area, 5 10 
si;uare mild ^ contains 1 town and 256 villages. Po|;>t;lalion (1S67) 
104,65s: (id3i) tio,573^ namely, STvl^a males and S3,*3i females, 
Of iSi'26 persons per square mile. Number of houses^ 19,630. 
HiikIus numbered 99,264; Muhammadans, 9333; Jains, i9>9> 
PirB(a,33; ^khs, 16; Christians, S ; and Buddhist, t. Area occupied 
by cultivaion, 343,847 acres. Total agricutmral population, 7^*953- 
Tbc AiVtf* contains 1 civil and 3 aimiaal couru ; police circles {thdndf), 


3; regular police. Si lucn ; vilJage watch {<haul^Mrs\ 174. Toul 
revenue, ^.16,869, of wliich £y>^A^^ is derived from land- 

Hurtas^por.— Town in Amrdloti Dittnct, Bcrir^ and a sbtica 
on the Nogpur line of the Great Indian Pemnsuh Railway \ auoinl 
in lat 30* 44' v., and long. 77* 75' e., 30 miles wcsi-scutb-wcst ff 
Amrloii town. Popuhtion (litSi) 4887, Large quantiiiesofconon ,.. 
sent here from Karinja and other places for carriage to Boiii^j 
Muri^uiijiur is the Uc^d-i|vmrtcn> uf Muna/Jfpur t&h^L Tr;tvd]«ii' 


Murwdr&.-Northcrri /^Afi/or Subdivision of Jib^ilpur (Jubbulpcrt) 
Oittrirt, Cenliak Piovinces- Area, 1176 ((iiwre mile*; nwmhff of 
tovk^ns and village^^ 513; hou&ea, 40,749. Total populaiion (1881) 
'S7»7Jf>i naincty, malc^fr 70,473. and females 78.243- Average dcnafy 
of population, 134 persons ptr s^iu^irc mile* Of llic total area of the 
tahsU^ 157 square tnilcs pay neither revenue nor Iribute, leaving 'Jte 
assessed area at 1019 square milc^. Of ibesc. 510 square miles are 
returned as under cultivation, 346 v|uarc miles a^ cultivable but dM 
under tillage, and 253 square miles a« uncultivable waate. The total 
adult agricultural population (male nnd female) was returned in 18S1 
at 1^7,^64, ur 4'"^5 per i:cnt- of ibc wliyle populaiiL>n of ilie tahU, 
Average area of cultivated and cultivable land avail.\blc for each adult 
cultivator, 7 ftcre^ Total Government land revenue, including local 
raie» and ce**e» levied on the land, ^54*7, t*r an average of Sjd- per 
cultivated acre. Total rental, including ccs«cs, paid by the cultivators 
X?;,i7o, or an average of is. ^jd. per cultivated acre. In 1S83. 
Munviri /tx^// contained 1 criminal and 1 civil courts, j police circles 
{thdnM\ and 11 outpost stations (fhaukU\ a regular polke foac 
numbering 1 1 1 men, and a village v^atch of 374 {^hauktdirs), 

Murw&r4. — lown and municipality in Jalnlpur Uiscrici, Central 
Province^ and head-nnariers cf MwrwSrd tahiU ^ >iiuaicd in laL 23" 51' 
w., and l«n^. So' ifi" k,, 57 mile* nonli-easl of Jabalpur cjiy, on the rofld 
to Mfrzipur. MiirwAta* w>iich in 1872 waa a mere a^iculiuraj tillage 
with 3SS5 inhabitants, had by iS3i increased to an important ooot 
mercial town, with -x population numbering 86 is, and composed of 
— Hindus 707^ ; Mohnmmadans, r 155; Jains, 114; Kabtrjiontliti, 
ISO ; Satnamis, 36 ; Christians, 6 : Pir^fs, a : and aboriginal tribes* 7;. 
Municipal revenue in iSSj-Sj, ^^590, of which ^£535 uas deri^vd 
from taxation; averajje incidence of taxation, is. 3|d. |)cr head. 
Murwira has now become an important metcaniile centre, viih a lai^ 
trade in grain, oiUeeds, lac, hides, leather, ^hi^ iron, lime, piece-goods, 
salt, sugar, tobacco, and ^>iocs. The town contains a Go\'emment 
school ; and the Kaihua river is here crossed by two ime bridges, one 
on the northern load, and the other on tlie Jabalpur Ijnanch of the 
Kcut Indian Railway. 



MU8afirkii&]i& — Tahtil or Sub-division of SulbCnpur Distnct» 

Musirl — Tiiiuk or .Svih-HiTision in Trichinopoli Ui^Trirr, Mitdnt« 
adcnqr. Area. 74^ square miles, conuinin^ 1 town and 222 villages, 
ilaiion (1871) asSii^J; (1S81) 259,068, n^Eiicly, 131,262 inalci 

id 135*8^6 rcmales, occupying 46,321 hotiiies. Hindus numbered 
250,081: Mubammadana, 5585; ChmtiaiiK, 4397; and 'oUicnt,* 4- 
MuMfi Sulwiivision lies north of the KHvcri river. The vilLige:« 
tAkvDg the lurik of the Kdvcrit being hcII irhgnted by channels from 
ihu ri^xT, arc fertile- The ccnlrc and northern portions of the Sub- 
divUiofi aic, *s a mlt, unirrigiitcX In iidtliiion 10 the KJveii, the 
AyytT ftod the KAcaipotidnir irc the onlf rivers of any impott^ncc. 
The country is generally H:it, the only range cf hills being the 
Pachamaiaic TIic aoiI is bLsek in the hoilowc, and rtd on che higher 
torch and in the neighbourhood of the bilk The rates of assessment 
on irrigated Lands range from is. ta 14s ; the rates for uniirigated 
lands from ^d, to 7^. In tZS^, the Sub-division contained 3 criminal 
courts t 10 polke stations {i^<Sadj) ; 79 regular police. Land revenue, 

MUBiri. — Town in Mu^inSub-divi^^ioTi, Tricinnopoli District, Madras 
PfeiiiJcnt) ; headquarters of an AsiistHini Collector and ^ iahsUddr, 
Situated on the Cau very river, t^ miles from Tridiinopoli town, and 
almost exactly opposite to RuliiiZai station on ihc Erode Branch of 
th« Sooith Indian Railway, A considerable amount of traffic from th« 
Sub-divi<iion » carried on ;it this station. I^L 10° 57' a., and long. 
78' jfi' 56' K. Population (18S1) 4088. Number of houses 9SJ. 
DispCDtar>^ and post-office. 

Unsk&rft. — Nonh-WeHtem fahsU of Hamlrpur District, North- 
^Vtr>teru I'rovincet, lying along the south b:ink of the river Ifetwa. 
410 iK[Uarc miles, of which 224! are cultivated. Topul^ion 
(1881) 79,817. Land revenue, j^t5»33o; lotal Government rcvcnuCi 
^£17,185; rental paid by cultivators. jC^I^IA^^ average incidence 
of CovcrnmcQt rc*«ntic, is. 2d. per acre- This ia/isU was formerly 
known 9a Jaliipur, in 1S85 it Lvntained 1 vivil and 1 criminal 
coun; ouftt>er of police circles (MJjvt/j), 5 ; regular police, 48 men; 
village watch or rural police, 1S9. 

HlUtOOrM {M^^uri). — Town and sftniinTiiim in Dehri Diln Dis- 
trict, North-Wcstcrn Province*. I^L 30' 17' 30" v., long. 78' 6' 30" E. 
Stands on the aest of a Himdlayan peak, among beautiful and varied 
irouniain scenery. Maisuorce formv prartlcally one station with 
DAUtt, where there h a convalescent dc|'4jt for LDT0|iean troop,s, 
liihed in 1827. Elevation above scA-lcvcl. 74J3 feet. Large 
ntiiiri>e» of vintors during the sutnmcr months. Protesiani and Roman 

tholic chuxchest three or four private schools, public library, masonic 

H Hi 



lodge, club, voliinloer corps, hiwr*ry, 3 )unkft, 3 hoiels. niimeraut 
boardlng-hojKes. The Botanical Girdcns, c(ubli«hcd by Gov^cmment. 
have been purchn«cd by the municipality. A summer home for 
ftotdicrs* children was established in Mussooree in 1S76, and provides 
accommodation for about 100 ch^drcn in the hot w«MbCT moothE. 
The iMnd, Punjab, and Dellii Raihvay ha\e aUo a school at MQCSOOtoe 
for the children ol Uieir European emplo)'^*. Charitable dispensary. 

Muisooree \% the summer had-nuanen of the Trigonometrical 
bi^tnch uf the Survey gf IndiiL. The population flactuatcv greatly, accooI- 
ing to the season of the year. The Census in February i88r wa* 
taken in the depth of winter, and returned a total population of ptP- 
manent vesli^ents of Mussoorei? numbering 3106, namel}', Hindus, 1019 ; 
Mtihammadans, 644; Christians. 440; Jain, 1; and 'othen,' a. In 
September (iSSo), during the height of the season, a special CcnsK 
was taken which returned the population of Ma&dri at 765a, and of the 
adjacent cimonment of I^ndaur at 442S; total, ij,o$o, namcljr, 
Hindus, 6406; Muhainmadans, 3082; Europeans, ^355; Euraftians, 
181; Native Chmtians, 43; and 'others,' 12. Muoicij^l income of 
Mussooree [1883-S4), ;^33&i. of which ^^3303 *a» derived from 
taxation. Tor funhcr details, see Lamiauk, 

Mostaf&bid. — Noith^ivesicri taAM of Miinpurl Dislnci, North- 
Wcstcm Provinctrs, and conterminouB wllb MuHUf^bdd forgitnd ; 
lying in ihe centre of the Doil> upbnd, and watered by two branches 
of the Oanpes {'.anal. Area, 311 *(iuare mile*, of vhich iSi are 
cultivated. Population (1871) iSS»47^ ; f ift8t) i6a,?oi, namety* 
males 88.8S4. and females 73,317 ; increase of population since 1871, 
6715, or 4'3 per cent, in nine years. Classified according to religion, 
there were in 1881 — Hindus, 150,036; Muhammadans, 93S0 ; Jain*, 
37S0; and 'others,' 5. Of the 370 towns and villages comprising 
the (€/tsii^ 1G4 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. I.and 
revenue, ^^29, 1 50; total Government revenue, ^£32,643; rental jiiid 
by cultivators, ;^45r3io. In 1^83, Mustafitbjtd /aAiU coniaincd 1 
civil and t criminal court, J police clrcIcA {f^dnds), A regular poUcc of 
43 men, and a villa|*e watch or rural iwlice of 370 thaukUtdrt. 

Muit&fibid.— Town xn Atnli;(Li (Umballa) District, Punjab, Lai. 
30' I ^ \., long, 77' 13' R Lies on rofld from Sahjlnanpur to LudhiiiuL 
Small citadel, the residence of a Sikh Rijl 

Mastafebid.— Town in Faiz^kid (Fyz^bAd) District, Oiidh ; sini- 
atcd J9 uiiks from Fai;tdbad town. Population (1S81) 2377, nameljTp 
Hindus, 1337, and Muhammadans, 1050. The Oudh and RoHt- 
khanri RaiUay passes through the village. Two Hindti temples and 
ime mosfjue. 

MustifiLbAd,— Town in Salon /^W/, Rii Barcli District, Oudh; 
BitUAtcd 3 miles noith of the Ganges, and jo from Kai Ifareli tovn, on 



road from Salon to Mdnikpur. Fonncrly a flnuri^fiing pTnce» vi'iiYx 

ny handsoiDC buildingf and tombs. Rijd Djirshan Sin^h plundered 

Uie town in the later y«artoriucK-erutc,and since then it ha* declined 

Popuhtion (tSSi) 3528, namviy, 1566 Hmdas and 961 Mus^ilmins. 

Viil-n^ school 

ftL^tin^{Mat^urd). — British District in the Licutcuafii^GovcmoT' 
^^hip of Che NoTih-Wcstcm i*rovinces» lyinR between 17' 14 30' and 
^Kj* 5S' n. lat^ sod between 77" ig' 30' and 7S' 33' k, long. Area, 
^^p4S>'7 ac]UjUT milcv ropubiit>n (iSf^i) 671,690 iicmonn. Mmtra 
Habnns the nonh wctIcto t>isifict of the Agra Division- It i* bounded 
on the north by the Punjab Dlatrict of Gurgion and the North- 
X\>*tem Province! District of Aligarh; on the enrt by Alignrb *nd 
Elah I>ii^riet»; on the <o«!h by Agra Distrirt ; and on the wcM hy 
Bbanpur Stale and Gurgdon Di&trict, The administraiivc htad- 
qcancTs arc at ihc city of Muttba, on the riflht bank of the Jumna 
fjamuni). Muttra \% mentioned by Ptolemy as the *Mcdoura of 
the god& ' (MuSovpa 1} tw ^tZw)^ and by Arrian and Pliny as ' Methcia ' 

^B fAjfsKo/ Asft^.—lht Difitrict of MutiTa comi>risc« an iireguiar 
^Ttiip of tcm!or>', lying on cither side of ihc river Jumna (Jamun4}. 
Tlic gciicij) level ii only broken on the south -wc?it cut angle, alun|g 
the Bhartpur rronuer, by low ranges of limestone hilb, no\vh<jrc riaing 
to more than aoo feel above the plain, the general ctcvatic»n above 
cra-)eird faliitif; frnm ^^f feet in ih? norih-nnrTh-wr^l tn ahont 566 
feet in the soulh-southwesl, fnllowing the course of the Jiunnn, 
'flic chief natural peculiarity of the Districl U the want of rivers. 
The one |>erennial stream, the Junma, divider it into two not very un- 
equal portion^ the easicm tract containing about 640, and the western 
About Sio square miW 

The eastern half ot the Districl, comprising the M;lt, Miihihaii, and 
Sdddbid takslis^ presents the usual features of the Gangctic Dodl*, con- 
friMin^; for the must pari of a rich upland plaioj abunJantly irrigated liy 
wells and rivers, and iraverncd by distributaries of the Ganges canat 
Iti loxiiriant crops and Wilful orchards indicate the fertility of (ho 
toil; hut it f>OB«cues little historical inierfit, and owes its pTesent 
pro«|3eri[y chiefly to the scnirity of Hritish nile, Ahove Bhadaura, 
semtl old beds of the Jumna have transformed themselves into 
b^^ootu. The western or uans-Jiimna portion, on the other hand. 
compnaif^ the Kofli, Chhita, and MuCtra tahfUs^ thoitgh comparatively 
unfavoured by lutiire^ is rich in mythological associations and anti- 
T]tiuian remains* The aipect of ihi^ sacn>d tract, where the divine 
brothen Krishna and Balartma graxed their herds, i* very disappoint- 
fng to the traveller. The crojiB arc sr.ifity, and the Lifgcr foreNt 
axe not found. The duat Ifci deep on every load and Acid* 

and the slighlesl bieaih of air slirs it up into an impenetrable bit i 
i'or cL^hc ntontlu of the year, the Jumna shrinks to the ciimcasiom of 4 
a mere rivLlei, meondenng through a waste uf sand, and bounded br R 
nionotorout flats of amble Jand, through which the hill torrents hi«e 
worn Mony ravines. During the nlns, however, when piijjtiiiu duefly 
vmt the sacred site! which arc found throughout the whole moi- 
Jumna tract, ihc river sweUs to a mighty stream, a mile or mwc in 
brcudllM the Itriupurdry lorrcnb und V-ikxa arc filled to ot'Crtonflf; 
green folutgc sprvndi ovci the h^ircn rocki and bills; and tbe dvi? 
pbin becomes a waving mass of verdure. 

The nir9i] inhabitants avoid hamlets, and live in larger Kcmi-forti6cd 
villaj^es. This centralisation of the people i* due partly to the quality 
of the water, which in oiJilyin>; sjfou is often undrinkabk ; pOJClt !■> 
the )ifrciil sanctity of certain tracts, but rhicfly to hisrtorical cau*r^ 
datinji from the last century, when such birongholcU were necetiSJiiyW 
protectthchusbandiDenfromthconslaughtsofJatsand Maidtha^. Be 
one great need df ihe west Jumna traci is waier. 'llie rainEiU l» 
indeed few channels by which lo e^cai^e, and the fields arc giveo ibc 
advantage of almost every drop. But the general saline clmrancict 
the wclU icndd them u&ele^ when no lain falls to freshen thcrn- 
Whcrc water is pkntiruL, as in ccmin tracts of Mutlra taA^Uf iJw 
induury of the Jat caltivnlors is amply repaid ; and the comitnietion of 
ihe Agra canal and ils bmnchcs which interaect the tract from end W 
end, has proved a great advantage, 

Ihc only navigable waters arc the Jumna river and Ihe Agn cuyL 
Until within recent years, the former used to carry from the north la^ 
quantities of salt and cleaned cotton ; and from the t^a^x, larg< 
qtiantiliea of rice, supar, tobacco, and spices. The MuUra and 
Achnera, and the Mutira and H;lihras Railways have to a Uigc extent 
superseded the river a» a means of communication, and mcrchandbc 
navigation i« now cxUenwIy ^inall. TItc whule length of the Agra 
main cjin«tL i» navigiiblc, and a special navigation channel about H miles 
long connects the main canal with M ultra town. Large suinc hnvt 
been spent on rendering the canal navigable ; but, sa far, it venu 
doubtful whethei the receipts will cover the iniereit on the ouilay. 
What traffic exists on ihe canal is chiefly through traffic between Delhi 
and Agra, or places beyond. Agra and Delhi are the termini of the 
navigable portion of the canal. 

TlU ver)- recently, nearly the whole of Muura District consisted ai 
pasture and woodland, and many of the villages stilJ stand among 
encircling groves. But the new roads constructed as relief worlds 
during the gicat fdiULuc oi 1*137-38 Uirew open aiaiiy Uige iratls 
of coumry, and the task of reclamation hvi Mnce proceeded tapidly 
under the auvpices i>f Government. The sheet of water Icnown as Uie 

MUTTJiA, 45 

Noh Jhfl w a *!w;impy lak^, about a milc^ casi of ihc Jnmna, in ibe 
noiibem i>ortioii of ihc Doib tract li has ^n average kn^h of 2} 
mikst wilh a breadth of j|t but swells in the tamy sca^^on orer a much 
larger area. 

There is *r,ircrfjr anj foren timber in the District, and neatly all 
the vood nay be chiMCd as fuel. 'I'he arei under groves is quite 
iosignitkaiit, occup)-ing only 5 per cent, of the Oisttict area. Thatching 
grass \9, plemifuJ. The seeds, fruti. and bark of many tretrs are used for 
medicinal p^r|A>M.s f<'i dyein^^ or ^^ foud, Sj.[iilaiorK\ fit foi building 
purpo»cis 1* procurable at tuto pUces on the iwcstcftj bofdcr of the 
Distnet, at Dortina and Kandgion, where low rocky hJUs crop out 
abov« the wirfacc of the ^onnH Thin «onc. however, h not much 
tised, except b^ the canat officers for bridges and other works on the 
A(Era canal. KanJtar or nodular hme&tonc is abundant throughout 
Muttra, but that obtained from the country cast of the Jumna is 
larger, hirder^ of better colour, and in thicker itraia than that found in 
Ihe vcstem division. 

The wild animals most commonly found are leopards, wolves, 
hyjetias, wild hog, and ni/i4t\ j?rindpally in the western hilly tracts 
along the Bhartpur tx>rdcr. 

iiki^fy. — The central portion of Mutira Districi forms one of tl»c 
most tacred ipots in Hindu mythology. Thu circuit of 84 k^i 
around Gokut and Brindiljan hears the name of the RTAJ-Mandal, and 
carries vith it many assoriatiooK of the earliest Aryan times. Hi?re 
Krishna and Balarimn, the divine herdsmer, fed their cattle in the 
forest lo^ttires; and numerous relics of antit^uity in t^c towns of 
MifTTRA, GoBARDHAS, GoKL'u Mahahas, and Brinimba>i *till attest 
the sanctity wilh which this holy tract was invested. In addition to 
the short article on (iokul, which had to t>e written before the 
author visited tht: place, a short account of that famotj^^ rivcr-sido 
village will be fi>und at the end of the l^^n^er aniclc Mahasan. 
During the Buddhist period, Muttra became a centre of the new faith, 
and is mentioned by ihe early Chinefto pifgriina in their ilincTaries. 
After the iav:i*ion of Miihmiid of Ghn^ni in 1017, the rity fcU into 
tnugniftcanre till the reign of Aklur. 

Thenceforward its hi^ory merges in that of the )itt« of Bhaktpur, 
anil only ac<iuircs 1 separate individuality with the rise of SuraSj 
Mall In i7TJt Badan Stngh. father of that famous adventurer^ 
pToclaime^i himself 'eader of the Jdts and took up his residence at 
Sahir, where he built a handsome palace. In his old age he distri- 
bated his possessions among his ions, giving Ihe south western portion 
of Bhartpur to his youngest, Partib Singh» and the remainder of his 
doni>n>oi»,imludingMuttra,iohiscldcM,SurAJ Mall. On Badan Singh's 
^^^aih, Surij Mall rooved to Bhartpur, and as<Ltmcd the title of RajkL 

4« ^^^^^ AfUTTRA. ^^^^^ I 

In 1748. the Mughal Emperor Ahmad SIdh mvited ihc Jit leader 10 1 
join wiiH Holkar undor th« command of ihi: Vvazir Safdar Jan;, ifl I 
su|iprc»iing the Rohilli rebclticm. When Safdar Jang rcvDltd (» I 
Oi;d»), Surij M.i]l nnd hu Jits threw in ihcir lot nich t^ Wufr,«liie I 
Ghaif-ud-(^iD, the imperial gcncr&l, obtained the help of the Matiibik I 
tSafdar Jang retreated 10 Oudh, whereupon Ghd/fud-dfn Uid siege 1 
' Dhdinpur, but, mifitnistinj; his Mar^thd allies, Gorily returned to Ddb; j 
dc]>oiicd Ahtuad Shih, and minted Abnigfr Ji. tu the throne. J 

When Ahinud Shih Dunini invaded India in 17571 Salter JaUt | 
Kliin cndcAvourcd to levy tribute from Mutini^ but Imdiog ihil J 
the people withdrew into their foru, he fell back upon the eOSy I 
phmdrrrd Its wr^ilth, and moiiAacred all the mhahitAnts upon whom j 
he could Ia>- hands. Two ycum UUcr, the new Kmjurror was munltni 
and the Afphdn invader once more advanced upon l>elhi. Ghiu-d- 
din fleil lo Muitra and lihartpur, and orginized the Hindu confcdcwT 
of Jiis and ^UnI1hds which shattered itself in vain agdnst the foirt^ 
of Ahmad Shih at Panipat in January 1761, Surij Mall, howeiv. 
wiihctrcw hia forces before the decisive haute, marched on Agra, ejected 
the MarltliiU, and made himself master of the city. 

Ahmad Shih had pbccdthe haj^less Shdti Alamon the thvoncof Delhi, 
and the Jdt leader thought ii a favoiirahlc opportunity to attack the R> 
hitli Woifr. Najib udd^uli, M.-irchin^ to Sh^hdera, 6 miles from Delhi, 
he was surpriicd. captured, and ;>ut io death by a small fvariy of the 
hnpeiialists. Two of his sons, who succeeded to his command, wete 
successively murdered, and the third, Nawilj Singh, after losing A|^ 
during Zi^bita K.hin*fi rebellion, died in 1776. The Ibunh son, Raajft 
Singh (not to be confounded with the more famous Sikh Mabiri)i)» 
inherited Bhartpur with only an insignifjcarn strip of territory, 

IJuring the contest between Sindhia and the K:t)put princes in lyftK, 
the former obtained the aid of the J^is in raislrtg the siege or Agra, iben 
held by Sindhiu'b forces, and besieged by OhuUm K.idir, Muttri Uid 
Agra thus fell once raorc into Sindhia'A hands. In 1803, Ranjh Singh 
of Bhartpur joined Lord Lake in his campaign againat Sindhia, wiib ft 
force of 5000 J;fl horsen^en ; and vT|>on the defeat of the Mariihis, ho 
received as a reward the south-western portion n( Muttra. with Ki^han* 
gaih and Rewdn. But in the following year. Kanjit Singh gave 
shelter to Holkar, vrben a fugitive, after the battle of Dfg (l>ecg). 
This led to the first siege of Bhartpur by Lord L^kc : and although 
his cajMtal was not taken, Ranjit Singh loit the tenitory granted to 
him in [803, ajid the whole of Muitra District thus passed under 
British rule. 

Thenceforward Multn remained free fruin historical inddenU til! die 
Mutiny of JS57. Ncw:& of the Mccrut ouibrc.ik reached Muttni on 
i4ih May in that year Tno da^s later, sonic Biioripur troops arrived^ 



nuuchnl for Dcllii under DrtU^li oRkcrA. The force halted at 

lodil on the f6ih; and on the 30th the :ic|^oys sent Id escort the 

re froQi 3i1ultm to Agra proved mutinouB, to that the offici;d« were 

Lp(1l«d lo fly and join ihr ironp^ .11 Hodil- Shortly afTCTwnrclfi, ihe 

nimt force likewUc oititinLcd* and (he Europeans ded for thdr lit«s, 

c M.ijzUinte relumed to Muuri, and» after vainly vUiting Agra in 

inn;h of aid, remained wiih the friendly Seih* (native bunkers) lil! 14th 

June- After the mutiny cf the Gwatbr contingent at Altj^arh on snd 

3«]j, Ihc Ni'nuch (Ncemoch) insurgents, marching on Mutira, dro^-e all 

tiK Europeam into Agra. The whole eastern portion ot the District 

n rose in rebellion, till 5tb Octoberi trhen the M.-tgiscratc made 

ci{)cdiuua from Agra, iztiid oapturvd the rcU;! leadci Ueukain. 

Cobncl Cottons column shortly .afterwards proceeded through the 

I)istnet 10 Kciii, piiniihin^ the insurgent villAgGS; aiul after its return 

to A^ through Muitra, no further disturbances took pbce. 

P^puhticn. — The Census of 1853 returned the number of inhabitants 
of Muitra at Stii.go'), At the enumetation of 1865, the population of 
the Dtitiicl oi it then &iood was Sozjoj, or at at preaent conitituied, 
668,187. In iSp, the total population of the present DiKtrla wax 
returned at 757,460 pcrsons> being an incren^ of 1 14,373, or 1 7'i per 
cent., during thcu-vun years from 186510 1372, The la«t enumeration, 
m iftSi. returned ^e population of Mutira Di^itrict at 671^690, showing 
a decrease of 110,7701 or 14' per cent, in the nmc ycotrs between 
iS7> And 1881. This large falling ofl' la aiicTibed to the ejects of 
fjmice caused by drought Ln 1S7S, and lo an outbrc^ik of epidemic 
fcrer in 1879- 

The re«ulu diftclo^ed by the Census of t88t may he briefly 

summarised a^ follows :—* Area of District. I4S*"7 *4Uitc miles, with 

7 toirn!i and S4S villages ; number of bouses, 85,949. Total fiopula- 

■ lion, 671,690, namely, males 360,967, and females 310,723; proiniriion 

Hu males, 53*7 per cent Average density of population, 462*3 1ler^^)n^ 

^Kcr Mguare mile ; vdlages and towns per square mile, 0*5^ ; persons per 

^fvillage, 7S6 ; houset |^r ^qiiarc mile, 59*1; mn^att^tt per hou%e, 7'S. 

" Cla&^fkcd accord^g 10 sci and age, liie population comprises — imder 

15 yeATK, bop j;i4,io6, and giils 101,738 ; total children, ^^5.644^ or 

33-6 per ecnL <A the Dl^itrict population ; 1 5 years and upH-aida, niales 

^^^36,861, and fenial«£ 308,985 ; totnl adults, 445,846, ur 66^4 per c^nt. 

^^g Reiip^n, — At rr^arHit religion, Mtitin Mill rem.iins nn t^sst^niully 

Tlindu District, the old faith still counting 611,6^5 adherents, or gi'i 

l*er ceoL, as agiinst 58,088 Muhammadans, or 85 per cent* The 

remainder of the population is made up ef— Jains, 1594; Sikhs, 45 \ 

and ClvBUans, ^i^. The chief Hindu castes were represented as 

folloK« ;^Brdhraani, 118.149; Rijpuls, 55,131 ; Baniy^, 39,7 i4j; and 

Kiyasihs, 4015. 01 the lover classes ol Hindus, the [jrind[>al cajtc^ 


48 -^^^^m: ji/i;rTJfA. 

in numencal order nrc as follows:— Jit, 117.365; Oianidr, t^lvSr 
KoH,iS,309; Gadiria, 15.559; Barhai, 13,835; Nii. 13,402; BtangL. 
iir54J» Kum!>har, ii.oi6j Mdii, 7541; Gdjar, 7150; Ahif, 6013; 
Kabjir, 5873 ; Dhobi, 5676; and Mallah, 5056, The MuhjUiuiudUN 
are divided According to sect into— Satim*. S7i733i ai^cl Shiis, 356, 
Rijljuis numbtriuK 51S4; Mtwatis, 1906; Jit*. 174; and Giijan, i* 
arc found among the Muh:tmin^An ])0|>Ljl4iiion. The Ok'u^uBi 
include — Kuropcanfl, sf>x ; Kurasjara, C9; And Kotivics. 57. 

T/ni'N tiHii Rurai Pi'pu/atton. — Seven towns in rSSi cont^nfd 
|io]iul.icton <^xref^ding 5000 souls, fuiincly^Mim-HA, 47,4^3; liftiV! 
i(A?7. 31,467; Kosi, tt,23t : Makaiian', 6183; Kursanda. 6oi£: 
Ckhata, 6014 ; andSAKiK, 5190. These towns conuin A loial urteit 
population numbering 103.594, or 15-4 per cent of the District populi- 
lion. The S4S villages, ivith a total rural population of 568^6, ate 
daitsified according to si/e as follows: — tS6 contain lee tfiin ivD 
hundred iniiahitants; 375 from two to Ave htindrcil ; 234 fron; b^ 
hundred 10 a thousand ; lai froin one to two thousand ; J4 from iv> 
10 three ihouvind ; jdU iS from three 10 five thousand. As re^r^ 
occupfttioni the nn.ilc popuUtion ifi returned under the fotlowiif »ii 
classes: — (1) Profoeeional ar^d official clajA, 10,743; (>} domcMe 
tervantft, inti and loJging-hou<e Jteepen, 179S; {3) connTnerdal cbs^ 
including merchants, traders, and carriers, 7452 ; (4) agri^'ultural sod 
pastoral class, t46,474; (5) jtidustriAi .ind manufacturing claasy 57,25^; 
and (5} indefinite and non-productive ckss, induding labourers and 
male children, t37,245. 

Agnfufturf. — Out of a total area of 145a square miles. 1048 square miles 
were returned as ctiliivatcd in i883-84» 172 square miles a* cuUiiihble 
waste, 103 Sf]uare miles as barren, and 129 squaie miles a% non-asses9ed 
and revenue-free, Jifdr, bdjr&^ and cotton form the principal crops for 
the a^utumn harvest {khaHf)^ while wheat, gram* ^nd hartey cumtitnte 
ihe principal staples for the spring harvest {fait). These require but 
little iltili or trouble in their cuhivaTion, nor do they demand anifidal 
irrigatioti- The more valuable crops, such as !(,ugar-canr, tobacro, 
indigo, and vegetables, occupy only a small area. In the western 
fiar^tiffdf, n narrow belt of land extendji for aliout j, to 5 miles from the 
border, followed by a light but strong loam, which prcv^ls up to tKe 
Ibft of the sandhills skirting the Jumna valley. Close lc thekc low 
ridges, the soil becomes much lighter, ending near the river in beds of 
pure sancL The loam, ihough friable and easily wotked, coatAjns quite 
enough clay to ^Ive U body. Ini^ation from tanks is not pncdsed, and 
nu &tna1I streams pa.Bs through the DJstricI ; but di^tribvilaries frocn the 
(ranges canal vratcr part of the U<tih far^atiJs, while t lie Agra Gmil, 
which now iraverse* the whole irans-Jumna tract, will ^r<;ad fertilitr 
through the dusty plain of the Braj^MandaL 

Tlie muc of \ht popubtSon Arc f;iir1y well ofl*. I'he Lut iettlctnent of 
the land revenue prc«ied li^fhtly upon the Diiitfi^L No very ^^vcre 
famtnc has occurred Utdy ; the harvtats have yielded well; and ihe 
peasants are thereft^re tn better drcum»iances ihan (hose of ncighbout- 
ing DisTTicu, The tenures of bm) do not reaiiily fall under the standard 
lTp«s of the North-Wcsicm Prorincet, Iwing held under iiriperfea 
>pccie«of;«rW;r4/JWarLd ff^yJMra, The greater miinber of citntet 
arc split up jnco infinjic^mal fraciion» ;Lmtjng ihe whole village oom^ 
ntunity ; and the small ranncrs, who till their own scanty plots, foriii 
a very large clais, vhUe the number of nonpioprkury tukivaiora U 
jjroponlonitcly small. Most ofihc hULi^r Itave no hereditary rights, buL 
hold as teikaiit^at will. 

Of the total male adult agricultural popuktion (143,500) of Muttrjt 
T>ii«iric^ 3<HS44 Sirc returned as landhoMcr^ 1199 as estate seT\'ants; 
8^,640 as cultivators, and a6,ioS as ajrncuhural labourers* Avenge 
area euliivated by each aduU male agriculturist, 51a aoes. The total 
Agricultural populatioin, however, dependent upon the soil for a liveli- 
hood numl>ers 347,757, or 558 per cent, oi' the DiMnct iH>pubtLoa 
Of the total area of 14537 sc|uire miles, 1333 s'|uare miles are 
atscssed for Gov-cmmciu rcvcnt^'p lotal Governti^eni assessment, 
iRclflding nuea and cesses, jQii^S^^^o, or an average of 5s. O^d. per 
coliivatcid acjc Total rental |xiid by cultiviiturA, intluditiK rate% and 
eesMa* ^261,728, or an average of js, ijd. per cultivated acre. 
Wagefi rule a£ foLlnw^ ; — Coolict and unskilled bbourcTt, ajd- to 3 jd. 
prr diem; field h.TrM*. ijd, lo jH. ; hrickbycr*! nnd tarprnler^ f>d. to 
ts~ Women obtain about onc-frth le«s than meo, and children from 
one-third 10 two-thirds. Tlie prices of food-grains in January 1884 
were as follows:— Wheat, 17 J Jrrj |icr rupee, of 63. 4d. |ier cwL ; best 
rice, 7 wrj per nipec, or i6». per t:wL ; yi^rand gram, 2^serj ]ict ru|>ce, 
*>r .|s. lod. per cwi- ; A(/>w, 2X 5:rs per ru]>ee, or 5*. id, [icr cwt ; and 
barky, 2$ Sfrs per rupee, or 4s. td. per cwt, 

A'atura/ Caiamiius^ — Mutira has often suffered severely from drought 
aod faiiiine;. In iStj. 1}%*: pu/gtirni uf ^A\^v wjl« a i^ciiin: of gre^it 
dntteoa. Many pcr:»on» perished of hunger, or sold their wives and 
ehitdren for a few rupees or a single meaL In iSa^-siS, all the western 
DUtrirt^ nf th*- North- Wrstorn Provinces were visited by a terrihle drought, 
which specially atHicted Mahiban and Jalesir (now in Agra District). 
In 1337-3(1, the famine prciscd severely JF>t»n the Do-ib portion of Hurua, 
and also on tlie south-western hill tracL In 1860-61, only half the 
luual (|i]antity of land was Inigated, and only the irrigated area produced 
a harvest. Many of the [icorer cultivatortt left the Distnct towards 
the dote of t86o, ind only one -fourth rcturnwL The deaths from 
stanaiion averaged 497 a month in the first c^uarter^ and 85 in the 
second (quarter, of 1661; but in July and August they fell tu ^ 

VOL. X. D 


The Uftal number of dcaihs frcin sUfT4tioo vu rqwrtcd at ito] 

The l:ut f^xmine occurred in 1877-78, in wrhic^ Mtittra and A^j 
oifF^rcd more And for a longer pen'od than the other Districts ofihf 
Divinion, the morlj^lity in \fuUra for 1878 being higher tkaa ifi lOjl 
*iihtff DiKtiict of the North-\Vc*tcm Provinces, reaching the cuonooa] 
proportion of 7 r5^ per tt>ousand- The rainfaU from June to Scptcnte ] 
1S7; was only 4-30 inches, a^ against 18-2S inches in the pfccc^^l 
year, and even thai was below the average. The deficiency in tbeiuBiJ 
afTecEed the main food f:rcpK, which are moiitly raided on imiTngtKd| 
land*, the irrigate^l trorts l;eing chiefly rc*cTved for the more lumwe' 
cultivation of siigar, Indigo, and cotton. Thus, in consequence of *t"U« 
%oivinj^«, }>ricc& roTic ftoni early in July ; and In Sc}>tcn>bci 1877 povtht 
di»tre!Gt began to be manifevied. The autumn <rop, on which t^ 
poorer peo|]le depend, failed absolutely, and common granu vcfe iitf 
prorurahlr. The loral dintrew was aggmvaled hy cmwid* of refugtO 
from ihc a*^Joining Native Stmts, who were attnw^ted by the bflic 
of the many charilablc institutions existing both in the city iticU 
and in Bhanpur, RelicI" work* were started ai diAerent places ail 
over the District in October; but the climax of the famine wasiw^ 
reached till July and August t87S, when the average daily attendance 
at the reUef works wt4 Jo,4ti,v Ihe jioorhouse Jor the relief of ibcs: 
unabTcto work was not closed till June 1^79, having aiTordeU R'lkf i» 
J95.824 fuupcr^. 

Commerice and Tradt^ ft{. — The T)iscrict, being mojnty agricullsnL 
ha» little external trade, and no manufacturer of imfwrtancc Th« 
Fjist Indian Railway tmverses the extreme eastern border of the Doih 
par^atui-u and haft a course of 7I miles within the District, with t 
station, Aliinikpur or Jalesar Road, The lieht railw^iy on the OKtrc 
gauge system, row connecting the East Indian line with Bhartpur, rtias 
from Hilhros road station on the main line, through Hathra's, to Muttn 
<^iiy, a distance of tq miles. Ii has 3 stations within Muitra Di!Arxt,at 
Liarahna, Kiya^and Muttrn. A continuation of ihin Une has aUobecD 
i:on.structecl from Muttra to Achnera in A^-ra Uiiiirict, a (JiMjncc of ij 
miles, with ittationii ia.1 Bluinxi and Tiirkham within Muttra District. 
Total length of railway comniEinirjtlbn, 40 miles. Ten metalled roads 
within the niMH<:i have an aggregate length of 1 76 miles : the chief are 
the Agra and Delhi, Muttra und Bhartpur. and Hdthrat roads. The 
unmrlilled ItneK tomprite 115 milex of ' lirftt'ClaKic,' and .ft^t mHes ol 
' second <1 ass ' roads. 

Adtaimstrathn. — The District of Muttra, x% an adm]nisira.iiv« unit, 
(lat*:s only from the year 183a, when it was formed out of .\gra and 
Sadibdd. The District staff usually consists of a Collccior- Magistrate, 
Joint Magistrate, and Ansistant Magistrate — all £uro^>eans; together 

vmh r DeF>uty Magtttmte, <j eoAsUJJrs^ and S special \fa^i9tratC3 — aU 
MtrtM. Muur« U comprbcd in the juriadiciion of the civil and MMions 
l)id^ of Agn ; and the tub-judge of the s^tmc city aUo ckctgUcg clviI 
I fMtcrt within th^ Dti^trirL At Munr.^ itself Is a wuntift or nvil roiiri 

I Tfae lota) Amoum of revenue, imperial, locals and municipal, raised in 
ItheDntrict in 1676 amounted toX334,i?^; the land^msc contributing 
ft i£"j3.3S4' In 18^5-34, the total imperial revenue of Mutlra Disfrici 
B Eatiudbg local ind inuni(:i|>al fu nils) amounted 10^191,735, the chief 
I irons being ss follows: — Land revenue, jC^^\,^z'^\ stamps, ;£83a6 j 
I ""^ iC49^9\ provincial r:itc*, j^io^i^-j \ assessed taxes, ^4479^ 
I icgiitntlioiia £^yi't \ luij IrngjiliQn and nAvi^xti'cn, ^37^4- Tlic 
■ Didrict id aub»dividcd into 6 /aA&i/j, containing in 1 8S3-S4 an aggrcgAtc 
I 0/ 143S efttaiei, paying an average land revenue of J^i 1 7 each. 
I TVlotol strength of the regular and municipal police force was Sg^ 
I nicn, miinLained at a cos: of ^^i$i. of which jC549S w^s paid from 
I ;rorincia] and jC^^^S from olhcr sources ; being 1 policeman to every 
I 17 square mile and every 787 of ibc po]>uhtion, che cost averaging 
I £$, i>SL 6d per «tiuare mile, or 3 jd per head of the population. The 
I D^riajailat MattTaconLiinedin 1883 a daily average of 196 prisoners, 

cfvhoRi 1S4 were m^ictt and 12 females. The nistric:t contains 15 

in^icria! and 6 local pottofficcs, together With 5 lelegnph stations 

bdo«igin£ to thcditTcrcni rAilway companies. 
Education watt corned on in ]88o-8[ by ^loGovemment, municipal, 

aod uniidcd miisionary and indigenous schools, with an aggregate of 
6486 papil*, being i ichool to every 7 square mile* of area, and 9-6 
]iupila to every ihou^nd of the population. The stVd or high <jchool in 
Muttia city was attended by J44 pupils in iSSo-Si. Middle-c!ass 
Anglo-rermevlar schools exist at Arinp, Farah, Brindatjan, Kosi, Chhau, 
Mihiban, and SiidibdA The Government schools, which in ifiSo-81 
nombertd 136 with 5161 pujiln, had increased to 155 with 560J 
pupl:^ in 1883-S4. No itatiKttcs of private unaided schools are avail- 
able for the latter year. The three nninidpal towns of Mutlra, ISrindAban, 
and KoM had an aggregate revenue in 1883-84 of jC^$iit of which 
^7199 wa:^ derived froui octroi ; ^vcr.igc iiKidcnce of tu^ation, i«. 7jd. 
per head of the |>opulation (87,714) within municipal limits* 

Mfdmi Asp^s^—Ttx^ climate of Mtittri is dry and hot, owing to 
ihc pfoximiiy of the sandy rieteris on the wfst. Crcit i^xtrir^ines of 
lemperflturc occur, the cold of winter being comparatively excessive. 
,«rhik hot wind* blow from the west with great violence during April, 
ay, and June, 'llic averagt: riinf:ill for a period of thirty yeirs ending 

881 amauDtcd 10 25'4S inches ; tlic m^i^imum during this period being 
^37 inches in 1867^ and the minimum, 11-3 inches in i860 (the jear of 
^mine)- No thcmioiiictrical returns arc a^-ailable* On the uhole, the 



climalc i« considi^red healthy, perhapi on accouut of i:» dr>Ti«Gs and 
llir filiHcnrc of perrartnent pnndii or torrrntt in ibe rtry s^auin. The 
average registered mortaliEy during the tivc yc^n cndms 18S3 allows a 
death-rate of 46*47 per thousand. Government maintains 5 charitable 
di^}jen&arics — at MuHra, Brinddban, and Kosi — whkh afforccd relief 
in 18S4 to a total of ^4,759 persons, of whom 571 were in-poticnts. 

Muttra (iVii/Aw^O— Head cpartcrt tahsU of Muttra Discrict, North- 
Western l*iovinc<;s, conterminous with the pdr^^tHti of Muttra. It 
occupies the south-western portion of the District, stretching from ibc 
Jumna on the e^^^t to the foot of the Bl^npui hilU on ihc noftl»' 
urest The Ctri Rij, a hill about 5 niik:i long, ne^r Goliordhin, 
with a maximum height of about too feet abovt- the burtounding 
pbin, ]« (*f the greatest sanciiiy, Iwing .-iM-ociated in myih<>lt>gJad 
k'gcnd with the god Krishna, in whose honrmr numerous tein]Jes 
tiave been bulk on the hill In the eait of the tahsU^ the Jumna'i 
influence U ap|)ari^nL for tliree m\\t^ inland ; and Low alluvial soil, 
ravincSf And sandy downs are ^o\ix\<\ •\\qx\^ its bmk. Fron] this poaiH 
up to the neighbourhood of ihc lihartpur hilU, the whole country is 
one uniform plain, withotit a single river or stream. 'Hie average 
tlcpth of water below the surface is 49 feet, and in certain tracts in the 
noKh-west, a§ Tor as from 50 lo 62 feet. Thi^ renders the sinking of 
wclU a mutter of cunside ruble eiipcnae, ind until recently irrigation *a4 
little resorted tp. The great need of the country — water — boa now 
been £up[>Iicd by the Agm Cnnal^ ^hlch runs down the ccnm of the 
tahsil for a length of 16 mjici, and ha** proved a greai boon to the 
agricultutist. The principal crop^ are tobacco, sugar-cane, gram, cotton, 
and barley. Biijra and jodr are also largely grown, as is vrheac, 
although this Inst crop h iicarccly seen in the neighbouring iahiUs. 

Population (iS.Si) 330,307, namcrly, males 117,905, and females 
ro3,403 ; av<!rage density of jrfjpulaiion. 549 persons per sipiare mik. 
Classified according to religion, Hindus number 1^,699; Muham- 
madanfi, 2^»905 i Jains 3Ji I Christians, 328 \ and 'others,' 44. Of 
the 231 icjwiib and vJILigcti compn^iiii^ the hih^ii. \iv couiaJo Icbs thin 
live hundred inhAbitanta; 73 bctAX-en fire hundred and a thousand ; aod 
33 between one and iive thousand. 'I'wo tovn« contain a population 
exceeding five thouiandj nmnely, Mntlra (47,483) and Brindibjin 

The total area cf Mutlra tahsU, in 18S1-S3, VfUS 396 s<|uarc miles, of 
which aSi J ftquare mileK ucre cultliated. Area assessed for Go^-x-m- 
mcnt revenue^ 332 square miles t^amely, 254 square rnrles cuUiii^tal, 
74 square miles cuhivable^ and 24 sqtiare mtlcs wn^te. Of the toiaJ 
cuhivalcd area at the lime of the recent land settlement, 30,059 acics 
were cuhivaled by the propneiors thcm&etvcs as »>or hoiuc^lcad Luub, 
10,132 acn:« by tetiaiit^ with occupancy iighti, 59,320 acres by tenanEs- 



l-will, while 1505 acre* were rtrnt&oc grams made by saoiS/tJJrs. The 
pnnripal hn<Itf<) proprictoni arc the Jitt, who arc alKO the bcM culti- 
vaion, and hoW 35i5ia arfo«; Rriihmnn^, 3i,R-6^ Jtrros; Rajpur*, 
27,352 acfrt; Baniydi, 17.715 flcrcs; Kdyasih*, 6774 aaei; and 
Muhimmadanst 4^36 acre*. Govommcni Und revenue 
(tS8i^8}), ;£33jiJ. or including loc-4il rales and ccmc* levied on 
Lind* jfjS^ooi. Total reriUJ, including rate? nnd cc^cs^ ^*^^>S70' 
In 1884, Muiim /(tAj// conUincd (including ihe District hca^-quarccr 
count) I civil and 8 criminal conns ; number of ])ohzc circles (Z^fnij), 
10; strtngih of regular police, 179 men; village ^vaieU or rural police 

Hnttra {Mti/^«rJ).^Ciiy, muniripalit>, ^ncl atlmiiiisirativc hcacl- 
I qusrlcm of Multm Diairict, X'orlh Western Provinces ; silH.tted in Ut, 
^p?' y>' '3* w-t ^^ ^o^S- 77' 43' ^S' «^i on the right bank of ihe jMmn-i 
^■pamuni), about 30 mife* al»flvt A^'ra. Fa-Hian, th<» Chinese pil^rimi 
^PneniJonx it ait a centre of the Buddhist faith about 400 A,a ; and his 
succCMor lliucn T»ian^, aboiit 650 a,d., also records ihnt it contained 
20 Buddhist inoiiasteri<*« and 5 tir^hmanical tcmplcsn 

llie antiquities of Muttra have been «o fully described by Mr 
Cirowsc. in his volume cnliiled Afathuni, that it is unncccssaiy to 
do more than reicr to them here, "J'he Jamd Masjid is now restored 
vUh white plauer, and in j>ait wieli encaustic tiles. The view from \\s 
minarets ifl very line. Mutta city ^i^c» like a mud fortress from the 
bank of the JtimnA, f^tuddcd with striking white edifices — iHc river with 
its bathing ^k^tt m front. The 'Id gah or Katra has not been restored ; 
but iu liard red land^ttone walls still atand, with the planter modelling 
and graceful omamentitidn f^ill vUihle imiide. It has been identified 
with the *)(e of the ancicn: lluddhist monastery of Upa^upta, and 
marks oneof Ehc oldest religious spots in India. It stands on a lofty 
but mined platform, commandin];; a nol>le view of the surroimding 
coimiry. The magrjilicem masomy lank known as the Palara-kund, 
with high walls and stejw rism^ about fiHy feel from the water, i< 
still in good preservation. The water lic5 about forty lo sixty feci 
bOuv the mounds cf ruin* which siirroutid It. A fringe of f^pai, /i/nt, 
and banyan trees ovcriop* the masonry walla. Tliiee ^rcat flights cf 
sione steps lead down on three sidei to the lank ; and un the fourth 
side ihore is an inclined pLine, originally of red sandiiionc, row replaced 
in \yxft liy Inick*, fnr hones to de»«:end to drink. Muttra cont.iJn^ many 
relics of the Iluddhist faith, and its whole atmosphere breathes the 
gcotle religion of Krishnx The charity of the inhabitants and pilgrims 
to the aninsal creation has encouraged «wanns of monkeys in the city, 
ad innunverable tuitlei in the river olTtfie h^ihi\^ ghiits. The earved 
^adeit of the houses in fitic white stone and wood, wrih the richly 
aanented houte^ of the great merchants along the principl streei^r 


render MuttrA one or the mosl inlcrcAling and oniitic cities of moJctt 

Mutira W3* sAck^ by Mahmiiil of Chajrnf, with t«Tnble itT(K«T> 
1017-18. Aliout 1500, Siilun l/itli utteiiy (le:itro;cd ill 
the ihriiies, temples, and images ; and in 1636, Shih Jahin 2|jpoiatol 
a governor expressly 10 ' «tamp out idoUtiy ' in Muttni. la \Wt1^ 
Aur^ngzcb Tisiicd the city, and dcsuoycd many temples and shmOi 
so that the existing remains date lack for the iiiosi part oni>"toiht 
penod of Jat supremacy. ($tt Muttha District,) Some tdia 01 
the Buddhist buildings nuy still, however, be traced. (S^ Mvttiu 
I>iyiicLi;r,) Muttra vi\\i again plundered by 25,000 Af^hdn catali; 
belonging to Ahm;td Shih Abdilf in 1756. The j>iintipAl Kirtirir^ 
edifice* in<:Iudc the SatJbiirj {or ' Towct of ihc Faithful Widow .1, 
built by RJj.i Bhngwin Dia ta 1570; thejaind Masjid or fno«quc of 
AM-un-Nabi Khdn, built ia i66j; the ma£(]ue of Aurongieb. built b 
r669on the Kite of the temple of Kusva Dcva; and the modem lemplesof 
(iata-»irr (1800), Dw^ra Kadli]s(t8t5], Dije Oobind (1S67), and HidU 
}Cmhra(i87i). Mmtra siill formsagrcat centre of Hindu do'Otiuo, 
and large numbers of pilgrims flock annually to iu fesiivils. The str- 
rounding country teems with associations and legends of the divine 
brothers Kriiihna and Jiahr;tm.i, i^ho dwijit in the neighbounng plain. 

Population (1872) 59,381; {1881) 57,734, including Lh« area 
wilhiii municipal limns, ^^^jOifi, and the c.xntannicnt?i, 2708. Ti>c city 
proper eoniaincd a tolal poi.>u(jition of 47,^83 in 1S81, namely, nulo 
74,650, and females 23,833, ^ ^S^^ ^'^^ ^^ railway connects Muitnt 
with the East Indi^kn main line at Hdthras station^ The Cavrnpur- 
Achncra Railway also connects the town with Cawnpur, Agr% Bh^npur, 
and Rdjput^na, Guverniiicni ofilices. couri!&, charitable di^peiia^-, 
high school, jail, telegraph station. Municipal revenue In iSSj-^S^, 
/iVl^l ; from taxes, ^4787, or is, Sjd per head of population (55>oid) 
wiihin municipal limits. 

Wuvattapalai.— rj/Wit in Travancorc State, Madras PresideiKjr-^ 

Muw&Dah.— North -eastern i&hsU of Meerul (Merath) DiMnct, 
Vorth'U'i'atem Provinces, lying along the vc»t bank of chc G«»ig«t 
aiitl including lh<j ancicrt city of Haslinapur. — -Sn^ Mawana. 

Miuafrarabid — Town in K-^ishmir (Cishmere) St*to, Norihem 
India. Lat, 34' z\ n» long, 73' 13' f. Stanch al the confltienre 
of the Jehlam wiih the Kishtii Ganga, jui^t beyond the Huini 
border, Im)>oitant as commanding ilie entrance of the B.utAUttA 
Pass. Ferries over both rivers. Fort built by Aurang^cb^ and sub- 
Ecquently replaced by a stronger one under the Af^hin Gcrernor, A^^ 
Muhammad. ^| 

MttzalTargarll. — IJi^trict in the Liculenant-Ciowmorship of the 


Pua)xb, lying bctirccn aj' i" Had 50' 46' 45* K. laU and bciwoen jo* 
Sj'anU 71' 49' E. long. ^Vrea, 3139 square milcj, Popukttoo (t88i^ 
33M05 I>er»onfi. Muutfiorgorb fami« the we&tcmmoi^t Dietriot of lh« 
Mtilrin Diviuon- \i U hottndcrl on iho north b/ Dera Um^^il KKAn 
•Uid JKang Districts ; on the casi and souih-c3si by il^c river Chendb, 
^hich wparaieft it from Miiltin Ui?;trict an<! Bahdwiilpur State ; and on 
tbe vest b>' the InduK, which «eparalc« it from Dcra Ghazi Khan 
iHstrici. MucafTargarh t* divided tmo three /Mji/;— Sananwiin. winch 
iiidudc^nll the nonhern portion of the Diauici, c^ccpiing a narrow 
strip along the right bank of the Chcnab ; Ah'pur, which embraces the 
fiouthcm portion of the UisUict; and MuzJlTargarh, the cemre. The 
Di>tncl ^luiidk tliirteemli in order of area, and twetity-ci^hih iu order 
of population aniong ihc 32 Districts of the Punj-ib, and comprise:) 
j'94 per ocnL of the total arca^ and i 'So per e«nl. of the total popu ^ 
laiion oftheLiQutenant-Covernorshipi The adminlatrativc head-quarter* 
a« ai the town of MTJHAFFAfcr.AftH, 

Phyiuai Aifedt. — The Dislria of MuzaiTargarh occupies the ettremc 
toutli^n apex of the Sind Sigar Dodb, the wi:iIge-aha|K;d tract between 
the Indus and the ccnUjent waters of the Tivc Rivers or Panjnad. 
locally known a* the Chcnib, The District stretches noTthward from 
their conduence in a narrow lidge of land gradually widening (or abou; 
tjo milcft, until at its northert; t>ordera distance of some 55 miie> 
inicTTcncv between their clunnek Its shape h therefore chat of a 
lolcrablf regular triangle, viith the ba^ retting againjil the ci^lndu^ 
portion of Dera laniAil KhAn, The northern half of the District con- 
sists of the valley of the Indu* on the west, the valley of the Chenib 
on the ea*t, while the wild thai or centra! d«ert of ihe Sind Sigar 
Oolb Gilonds for a conKtderahle distance down its mLIst. This aiitl 
pUteau, rising like a b:tckbone in the centre of the wedge, has a width 
of 40 miles in the excrcmc north, and terminates abruptly on either 
side in a high bank, about 10 miles from the present bed of the InduSt 
and % mile* from that of the Chcniib. As the rivers converge, ilic thai 
gradually contracts, until, about 10 mile* south of Mu^Hargirh town, 
it disappears Altogether Though apparently an elevated tablehndf it 
is resUjr composed of setjarate sand-hiEb, whgsc intermediate viLlleys lie 
at Jt lower level tlian thjt of ihc lndu\ and have at times been flooded 
by the burattng of the western Wrier ridge or bAnk, Scattered -tmiJ 
this wasic of «and heaps, a few good pIot& of Und occur, which the 
ee>sele94 InduMty of thcjat cultivators ha» converted into Mnilin^ 
Acids of grala 

The border strips which fringe the thai towards the rivers are for 
the moil pact under cultivation j but wide reaches of barren soil, 
cspcaally en the Indus ^ide, often separate the tilled patches with a 
towering growth of Jungle grass, glistening stretches of white saline 


efflorescence, or stunted thnibs of t&marialc. South of the /W 
plalcau, the space between the riven contract to a width of lo mtlcv 
more or less subject to inundation frmn side to nide. 'I'he middle 
tract lies sufficicmly high, as a rule, to escape excessive Hooding 
while ti remains on the other hand, iritliin the reach of easy inigatioiL 
'llib portion oi ihe Disirin, acLordingly, comuMs of a rkb and pro- 
ductive country-, thickly ituddcd with proftpcroua villngc^i. But la tie 
extreme south, and in some other parts, the floods from the tiro riven 
spread at times across the whole intervening met. On nKiiing, tbQ- 
leave tuxurinnt pasturage for cattle \ and if their suhsidenrc taktt 
place aufficientl/ early, magnificent crops of wheal. pcis> and gram ut 
tailed m the citltivaied portion. The towns ^and on high sites or 
nrc protected by embankments; but the vilbfEeit .scattered over the 
lowlands arc exposed to annuil innndatJons, during whirh the people 
abandon ihcir gra^s-buill hiits, and lake refuge on iroodcn pUtXoras 
attached to e\'ery house, where chey remain night and day till the fioodt 
autjside. Numerous pools, supplied from the flooded rivers* cover the 
surface of the District The Indus jmU the Chenib once united their 
»trcninx far to the north of their prcKrnt contltjcnce. In the time of 
Timiir, the junction look place ai Uchh, 60 miles abov« tho existing 
confluence at Mithdnkol. Throughout the cold weather^ large herd4 
of camels, sheep, and goats, belonging chiefly to the Pi^vindah n>erchants 
of AfghinisUn, graze upon the sandy waste of the thai. 

The principal rivers of Mu^afTargarh are — (i) The !nih;j; which focmi 
ihc western boundary of the District for a distance of 1 to miles. The 
stream, which is two miles broad in ihc cold weather, is swollen in the 
hoi weather by the melting of the Himilayan snowg, to such an extent 
us to overflow its banks lar and wide. Ihe depth of the main channel 
varieii from about 13 feci in the cold weather to about 34 feci in the 
aummcri The current i^ strong and rapid, and thin, together vt^iih the 
tendency of the n^'cr to form Islands and ihoaK renders rtavigation b)' 
boats very difficult. The most remarkable feature of the Indus » the 
gradual shifring of its stream to the west. At one tjme, the river no 
Houbt flowed down the centre of the thai dcscrL In the middle of 
ihc District are numerous villages, now far away from ihe Indus, to 
whose proper names are added terminaU denoting that at one time 
they stood on or near the river bank ; and the inland portion of the 
District lit full of waiercourse5 which were once beds of the Indus, 

(i) The Chknap forms the eastern boundary of Mu/^ITargarh for a 
length of 109 miles. This river, though locally known as the Chendtk, 
has received the waters of the Jehlam (Jhcluni) and Rivf, liefore 
reaching this District, ard i» more correcily the Trinib. After il hai 
flowed three-fifths of the distance down MuRaff^rgath, \\ receiver the 
united Sutlej and Beas (Bias), and becomes the Panjnad or Fiu 

^tx'crs, ttunigH it rcniimi^<; to he rjll^d the After ii5 junciiofl 
ihc Indus> ju« beyond ihc southern borders of the Dinma at 
-Mithinkot in Dera Ghizi Kh^n, the combined waLert became for n 
»hon distance the Sdtaid or Seven Riven, composed of the five riven 
of the Punj:tb, plus the Indus ind Kibul rivcr«. The Chcnib ia 
narrower and ks» wipid than the Jadus, with a depth of water voiytng 
trom 15 feet m winierto 30 feet in sutnmer. The stream shifts very 
much, and navigiUon is difficult, but not so dangerous as on the Imlui. 
Ifoih ttic Indus mdChenib carry sitt in suspeiiMun in their watcm, and 
during the flood?i dcpptit it on the adjacent land^, which it greatly 
fmilices, O<x:uiorally, however, destructive inundations occur, vrhlcli 
do great hxnn. 

Besides ihe normal annunl oversow of the rivers, which supply natural 
irrigation to nbout 150,000 acres, a Kcrieu of Government tntindahon 
csnaJs, taking off from side chnnnels or branches of the Indus and 
Cbenib, a£brds irrigaiion to over 300,000 acres. 1 hcsc canals were 
nearly all excavated bf native rulers, and mon of them dale from the 
early years of the present cet^tiiry* 

Ei^teen forctt iracis, with a total area of 97,150 acres, are undei 
the mana^ciDcnt of ihe Forest Dcp.irtmenl, but arc unreserved. 
Although vilh an inappreciable rainfall, Muut/T^rgarh District is full of 
vcgciaiion of gre^l variety* The date yAhity i^<i//t or kArf a r {FU<xnix 
S>lvcstris). is largely cultivated, and the fruit f<jnns a staple food of the 
|iop4iUtioii durit^g part of the ye^r. The trees pay a tax lo Coveranient, 
tvhich yielfU a ronsiHrrahlr rrvirnue. The limhrr and other Ire*^ 
common in the District include the following; — Tak/i or shiittam 
(DalbergiaSissoo), which grow with great luscuriance; two fine avenues 
of these trees lead from Mu/afTargajb, one, 5 miles long, to Sher 
Shih feTr>\ and the other, 11 miles long, to Khingarh. Kikar 
(Acftda araluca); skarinA or sirit (Albi//ia l^bbek) ; /tvff^ or kanJii 
(Protoi>is spicigera), the commonest tree in the Districl; ukinh 
(Tamarix nrticubta] ; pilfhM ox jhau (Tamorix diolca) ;/*i/ (Salvadora 
olcoides) ; jhil {SaU.idora peisita); and hurinh or kariUi (Populu* 
eiip^tnttica). Other irets oomnion in MuMiTargnrh arc — IHpai (Ficua 
religiosa); >or (Ficua bengalcn»is) ; girdndh or amaitas [Cassia fiatula) ; 
/(Tftfrxr (Cordia myta); roftira (Teeoma iindiilata):^Mrfi (Cordia rothii); 
jamuif (£ti{[enia jambolana): dhM or r4r//4m (Butea yrondosa) ; and 
s^rAdn/'na (Morir^a plci>"gospcmia). The giirden trees include man;;oeN, 
snales, api>lcs, oranges, limes, and Jigs. 

There are no metals found in Muzalfargarh, and the mineral products 

"are unimportant, Kankar or nodt^Iar limestone occasionally occurs, but 

in such nnall (juantities a.t not to be worth collectmff. Earth salt used 

lobe largely manufactured under the native Oovemments, but this la 

uom prohibited. The majority of the dcficendanu of the tjld au/tarSs 

55 MV£AfFARQA£:iL 

or sali-makcn have liken lo agriculture, and othcn to 

I'igfis are often met with in the dcDve jungles on the bank» cf tbe 
Inilu.s, towards the soticli of the DisUKU They do cotuidcnUc 
chmagc lo cattle, but rarely attack man^ unless in sdf-dcfcncc. Wohx* 
arc found throughout the District, and vild hog ire extremely oonocDom 
especially on the banks of the rivtra. The only deer in the Obtrkt ire 
ho£-decr, tlic Indiaji gazelle, and the tvAm[MlccT, The Last » »ca1>' 
extincL JacknU nnd foKc» Arc common. Harca arc very tare* Octcn 
arc found in tnc aouih of tlio Dutric^t. Hotlgchogft are common. 
Mungoosc are very common. Hog and deer ore occationatly taken by 
nets of munj rope .tuiniorttfd (\n polr* driven into the jpYvund. The 
ft&me bmb include florikcn. sand-^.Touse* black and grey paitru%r* 
(juail, nnijie, plover, many varieties of duck and teal, n-atcr-fbwl, etc 
FinH of an excellent quality abound in the rivers, and afford a means 
of livelihood to a Urge number of people, 

Jiisiory.^-yi\xm.^\x^M't\ District hardly |>os3e^es any distina uuub 
of its own, having always forn^ed part of the Mullin i'TOvioee, whcue 
fortune^i it has inrariAbly followed. Dtjring the Mughal period, it vu 
included in Akbar'a mrkdr \it Mitliiu ; £tnd wlicn the Duriiu Ecnpiic 
superceded th^t of Delhi in Norlh-Wcsicrn India, MujaiTivrgiirh Jell to 
the new power, with the rc^t of the Province. Itt Im Muhamnuidjin 
ruler, Mu/^ilTar Khan, the Afghan Governor of Miiltin under the 
Durini dynasty, gave his nnmc to the present head^^uartcrs tovit, 
which he enlarged and surrounded with a wali. The southern and 
middle |K>rtions of the District, however, vrerc in the hiuidt <tf the 
Xawdb of Hahjfwalpur, only the extreme north being held by Muia^r 
Khln. During the long struggle between the Afjjhdn Governor and 
ihe Sikh« [iti Mt'MAV Dr^VKicr)! the UucalTai^arh peasantry sobered 
(uuch in thccauscof their ruler; and in iSrS, the aru\)- of R.injit Singh, 
adv.iiKrin^ for their l^nat aiuck u[jon Mdluu, siQimed the ino towns of 
Mu«alT;ir^.uh and KbXnt'^irlu Thcnccfunh the northern portion oTthe 
District parsed under the rule of the Sikhd, :md was adminUtercd tiy 
Diwin Sitt-an Vlall and his son Miilraj. Tlic southern half, however, 
>tii] remained in the hands of the HahAtwalpvir Nawabs, ;^'ho held it » 
indepeudent chiefs up to the conquest of Dera Gh,v.f Khdn by Ranjk 
Sinith. But afit.r thai date ihcy accepted a lease of the whole District 
from the Sikh Mahriraj.1; and the Nawdb failing lo temit the annuai 
amount in 1S30, Ranjit Singh sent General Veniura to take charge of 
his conquests, and the river Sutlcj (Sallaj) was acccirted as the boundar}' 
between the Sikh Kmpirc and the teiritortcs of Bahawalpur, 

The Sikh Hupreimcy remaUied unshaken uniil the Mdlcin lebeUion 
and the anncxjition of the Punjab in ^$49, At (he first distribution 
of the Province for adniinistracive purposes by the Hritiah authuiitica., 



tovm of KhingarH. ii mil«« souiJi of MufafTar^rli, w^s ulcoicd 
\ hcad-qiutrtert of a DiMrict Wtiait ihc cIoi« of ihc >-ear. hoiAr«rver» 

chcMcn *Jtc vas carried avay by a Hood upon the ClicnAb ; and as 

ingarh wiualfo sitiutcd at an inconvenient di&tanrc from the main 
road between Mtliin and Dcra Ghn^i Klun, the hcad-quartcrt were 
fi^cd at ^[u/aifargaJh. Subsequent transfers of territory to and from 
I^ah and Jh^tng brought the Pistrici into its present shape in i86t \ 
Ai>d the name wsu then ehjin^ed irom Khdn^^orh to MunfTargarh* - 

J^uiaiim. — The C^mua of 1855 returned the lotal number of 
inhabitanta in Khingarh Di^fici, ax then coini>o%cd, at 211,920, or in 
th« area cojnpri^ii^ thcprc^hi MuufTarg^rli DisiTict, at 351,104. The 
next Censiu m 1868 gr»vo the j^opUotion of the present PUtrict at 
398,180, showing an [ncreiEte of 47,076. or iS'i ^er cent., since 1S55- 
At the la^ enumeration in t8Jfi, Monigoinc-r^- I>i&trict contained a 
popubtJon of ,1,^3,605. Supposing the Census for the earlier ycais to 
have been as accurate a^ that of i88t, thcMr ^gures ^how an incrtase 
of population of 87.501, or 34 '9 |»cr cent., in the »6 years since 1^55. 
of which 40^415, or i3'6 i>cr cenL, represtintt the increase in the second 
period of 13 yeant between 1^68 ar^d 18S1. One of the principal 
otASCS of jacr«aie is thus slated in ihe Ceni^us Report : ' MuiaflTar^rli 
hax dcvdoiJcd of late years more rapidly than almost any other DJKtiict 
in the Province ; the soil i« naturally fertile, canal itrigatlrjn haf been 
enonaouftly eUcndcd, and it i? not nuqiTtMng that lite iiumigracts arc 
nearly three litncs au nuuierouK ,-lk ihc cmigtanu. . . . The high 
percentage of maW fiivm? In vliow ihc f^mnW rmiptation hat htTn 
chiefly lempomo* v/bilc the iiuinigraiion £|)i>eais to have been in a 
creat measure permanent/ 

The rewiUi* oi the Censu* of iSSi may he brielly summarucfl as 
follows : — Area of District, 3139 square miles, with 9 lo^vns and 685 
nllages, or rather groups of houses and lumlcts ; number of houiei, 
6j,3t5; number of tamilies, 7*J98. Total population, 338,605, 
namely, malei 184*510, and fenmks 154,095; proportion of males, 
54'5 per cent. Averj^je deiiMiy uf ihc pu^julattoii, loS pctTtons pel 
w|uare mile; number of villagics per n^uate mile^ 0-33 } populaiion 
p*r town or villsge, 488 ; hou4cs |>er tttuare mile, 33 ; Inmaiea per 
houve, 5'4. Clarified according to sex and age, there were in 
t^i— oimUr rs yearx of a^e, boy* 76,781, and girls 64,038; total 
children, 140,819, or 41'^ per cent, of the population: 15 years and 
upwards, n^^es 107,729. and females 90,057; total adults, t97,7S6, 
or 58*4 percent. 

M^li^ui .ZJnw>tfi.— Clawified according to Tclifiion, the Muhim> 
madanft form the great bulk of the popdation, numbering 393,476^ or 
S6'4 per cent of the District population, (lindot numbered 43i397< 
or ia'5 per cent*; and Sikhs, ^78*, or 08 per cem.; Jams^ i\ ; aud 


Chrislians, %%. The principal Muhammaiiin tiilKs include— SiTpdi' 
6938 ; PAthins, 5959 ; Baiui:h(s, 58,356 \ and Sluikhs, 5016. Tb«c 
nrc the Muhammadans by race dcKCent. Tlie following; tribes ^lA 
casics are mainly Muhanitnadans by conrcTSion in the times of the 
early Muftalinan invasion, and most of ihcra still contain a pio- 
ponion of Hindufi. The Jats, tJic most numerous claw in the Ubirici, 
forming the f^cat mass of the agncuUural populationi nucuber 
»^9i35» ; Rijpuis, 7y6i \ Kurobhir*, 6629 ; Juldhi*, i^.^^S i Chun*, 
I ijjia ; Mochb^ 1>J©3; Tarkh^rnT S0J4 ; Mallahs, 7967 ; Charhou, 
6318; Aratnifi, 3991; and MiriEia, 3634, According to se^rt. the 
Muh am mad An It conniM rtf — Si.mnf4, 390^054; Shii«, ^378; Wahibis, 
f8 ; Fantizis, 14 ; and 'others.' 2. The Sayyids and PacHdns rank 
highest in general csiimaiion among the Muhammadan population, 
owing to the inHuence of Mu/affar Khin, who pve «*tates to many of 
his compatriots. The Balilchfs fona the bvillc of the population along 
the InduA, wh<:re they cuhivate the «oit, and also rai^e large herds of 
cattle and camdst ; many of Ibcm bear a bad rcpnlalion fox |)redaiory 
habits. The mass of ihc agricultufal community, especially in the 
cusicrn portion of the District, consists of Jits* but the word litre 
hardly poa»e?iiic!i any ethnical aignificincc, being infli^cnminately applied 
to all the lower Muhammadnn cultivating ca^ica. 

Ah a rule, the Muhannnadans, c*>peciaily the RahicHi^ and Jjtt*, are 
very lax in their religious observances. Sr>me of their ceremonies are 
borrovced from Hindti ritual, and amone certain thbefi a Brdhman priest 
as weCl as a mttUa asvists on ccrtAin occaMons^ The Shaikhs and 
Pathan« arc the strictest Muhamraadans, but even they are said to 
have become Ji good deal Hinduized. The worship of the Muham- 
madans has been diverted from Allah the One God to that of their 
pirs or saintly men, who are credited with the ability to procure the 
o[>jects of the disciples* vows Sainis' shrines are very numerous in 
Mu/„ifr;ir^arh, and pilgrim;iges to tlieni aie icry common, being made 
both afl a rcltgioLis duty and for amusement. 

Throughout the Oisirict, the Hirjdus have si.mV inro a pot!ti{>n of 
eomplele social insignificance, with the exct^nlion of th^ Arorsis or 
KarArs, numbering 33,837. who fiirin the shopkeeping class in all the 
villages, and have doncmucli to develop o^'nculiure by sinking velk 
Thtf other castes, exclusively or almost exclusively Hindus or Sikhs, 
arc— Brill m, ins, 1S41 ; Mahlam^i, 3945; I-abanas, 2315; Od» iS6j ; 
and Khalins, 1608. The form of Hinduism most prevalent is tbat of 
the worship of Viishnii in hi« Krishna incarnation. 

Timm and Kurai FopuUUion. — Muia^argarh does not contain a 
single town wiili U|jwards of five thousand inbabicims \ but the fulluw- 
lOg Jiinc pla<je» liavc been LgnstUutcd mUEiiGt]>a1ities — Mi'£ArrAiiOAti», 
27:0^ KiiANOAHn, 3417; KnAiRruR, 3609; Aupur^ '555; SitAUR 


Sut.TAV, 5137; SiTVUB, 7035; J*Toi, ?o35 ; Kdt Al>r, ;S74 ; flnd 
lUiRA DtxPAVA, 1779- 'loul urban population. 91,8561 or 6*4 p«:r 
cent, of ihc DtiUict population. Thccniirc population. however. includc<i 
within the municipal limiis of the above tovn», numben 24,936, or ;'4 
per cent, of the Districi population. Of the village*, or collet:iioiH of 
turnkts compriftiDfi' the rural popubiion, 346 contiiin lets than iwo 
hundred inhabitants; so^ from two to li\-e hundred; 150 from ^ve 
hundred 10 a ihoLJ.*uui(J ; 66 from one to two ihcusAnd ; iS from two 
to three thouund ; and 6 from three to ftvc thoui>aiid inhabiunts. Av 
rc|;Anl> occupAiion, tiic Ccnf>U!» of i88t divided the adult male popuU- 
t ion of MucafTEtrgiuh into the foUowing seven main claiises — (t) Pro- 
fcviiotudand official<:l^S J32' ; (^) domestic and menial dass, 1098; 
{^} commercial class. 2241 : (4) a^icultural and pasior-^l rlas^ ST'^79r 
(5) indufttrja] and rnanufaeturing cli^* 25,6^2 ; (6) mdclimteand non- 
prodtictive cb», 11.2,17 > ^"d (7) iin»]>cci6ed elass, 6G21. 

AgnnUhirt, — ^The area under cuitivation in 1383-S4 amounted to 
^S3.95 J 3cfcs, of uhich ajG.ooj acres were impaled from cinils, while 
146,950 acres depended for waicrtuppl)' upon the natural inundations 
of the Indus »nd the Chenib, or upon private wells. Of the remammg 
area, 169,0^6 acres in the tfuti tract are utilised for grazing pur|K]se;s \ 
9a4,504 acres «rc still available furcuhiv;itiuti ; while 5ii>525 fierce are 
uncuHivabJc waatc The rainf;LU <A tlie District is 50 slight that no 
crops Gtn be grown in reliance upon itt precaiious aid. Water, 
howvfver, i* e^-erywhere plentiful, eicepi on tlie high iho/ in the norih. 
A network of canal« and mtnnr d]j(trtbu]:inr-s mirrsecu the whole low- 
laiid, worked by Persian vhcfU where the banks arc high, but used for 
inoKxlation during the floods* The Distnct> indeed, siiffcrs, not from 
want of waicT, but from want of proper control over it. The canals 
have all been dug tn- the j>eof)le themselves, and exited for the most 
pan before the Hritlih annexation. A ftroall commiiiee, elected by 
contxiUilones, mana^c*( the clearing of the channcU and other 
imilar duties, under Government supervision. 

'11jc !>Uple crupb include wheAi and bjricy fur die ruM ^z aj'iiui; 
harvc^it, and various inillcta for the kharif or autumn hArvc»t. In the 
northern tmct, a small amount of indigo, eotton, and nugar^ane is 
added ; in the «onth, a ^Teatcr qu.intity of thciie commercial crops U 
ntifted : while in Lhc ccutral bell* around Khingarh* they are produced 
in much larger proportion, with a c on ca ponding diminution in the 
reread 'Ihe fo^lowinjc liat Khow« the area under each crop in iSSj 
(inrltiding landsyielding two crops in the year) :—iV*/^'— wheat, 191,605 
aaes; barley, lo.ojo; peas, 34»i7S; gram, iJ,oo8;yWr, 15,735; 
fwa/ur, 6301 ; oil-sccds (chiefly musurd), 17,970; drugs and spices, 

4» ; Tcgetable^ 7S5 ; and miscellaneous crops, 25 1 7 acres : AAarij— 

c, 34i$i2 acres; ^jra, 15,504; other luillel^, 748; pjUcs, 6^^6; 




il-seeds {ill), 0901 ; cotton. aojoS : insli^» aOi740 : ^iigarrai^c, 55*0; 

ejpuiblc^ 245 ; ^^^ niisccUaiicous crops, 1136 acres. Of noo-food 

s, indigo formt the Riaat lucrative &iaple. The average oct-oin] 

cracrc of ihepnnd|ialproduaa u-aa returned as frflon^ in i&S^-S^:— 

vhca(, 737 lbs. ; rice, 506 Ihs, ; inlerbr grains, 4J0 Ib*t ; co!too, ^93 

lbs. ; indigo, 33 Ibn, ; unrefined Kn^rU'wr), 1510 IbiL The agricultural 

stock of VIuEaflbirgarli District in 1S83-S4 wits rciurDc<^ as uiuJcz-^Cow> 

and bullucks i63,itj4; lirjtsc^, 2319^ ponies, 1594 ^ dor^keys, 7241 ; 

sbcc]>Qncl gonbi 100,505 ; L-ameU, 5^60 ; ploughs, 4J,rao. Horse aod 

clonktj' si^iIUons were iriroduccd into the Diiuicl in 1880, to enccorigc 

breeding, whirh hatl bof^n prrvbuily neglected; and horv fair* are 

now held annually at Mu^affar^arh station. 

Most of the land is cuhivatcd by tbc proprietors in penon ; and 
rents, where they exist, are almost uiiivtraally payable in kind. No 
material difference in wirlfiirc cwits between tenants vriib occuj>ancy 
rights and tenants at-will. I^nd is siill so abundant, that occupancy 
rights have- no attraction, and tenants |irefer not to be tied to the Land, 
bui to be able to change their culiivaiion when they like. At the time 
of the scttlcriicnt in Sjin.lwJn taMty Applications were common by 
tenAHEs not to be recorded a^ having rights of occu[>ancy, though llicy 
were by custom eniitled to per(ii,inon1 po&se«?ion. Tenants are tagerly 
MHight aflt^r, and, a< a nil^, are free from any ailempis at extortiivi on 
the part of the Landl^rdK, altboujfh some prcprietom &tudy to gel their 
tennnCs into their debt in order to obtain & hold o\-er them. Indebted- 
ness isconin^on, both ^'unong proprietor!; and tenint^ but to a mnch 
greater extent among the Muhammadans than the Hindus, This 
difference in indebtedness is due to the difference m the habits of eacit 
class, the Muhammadans being often spendthrift and improvident, 
and without any tither source of income beyond agriculture ; while the 
IlindLis are a thrifty cbiks, ;ind tbuite who tjwii and c:u]i[v;iie land almon 
alwAji^ conibinc trade ^nd money-lending with the cuUiv^iion of theii 

The Hass nf day-bbnurers con^iists mainly of wandering fimltiec from 
Khorasan (tChuiasan), who immiyTaie temimrarily for the winter, and 
leave for their own homes as ^oona* »;?ring sets in. They receive iheir 
wages in grain at raw returned at 20 lo 24 lbs, |)er diem ; and these 
rates do not appear to have risen of late years. Skilled labour in the 
towns is paid at the rate of about is,, and unskilled labour at from id,. 
to 4Jd. aday. Pricesof food grains ruled as follows in J,tnuaryiSS4 : — 
Wheat, 1 5 iffj per rupee, or 6s. jd. per cv-'t. ; barley, 29 j<rrf pei rupee, 
or 3?*. iod. per cm.: ^ram, ^3 sen per rupee, or 4s. lod. jjer cwl ; 
Jcdr^ 15 stFi per rupee, or 4s. 6d- ptf twU 

C&mmtrct and TraJi^ eic — The mercantile cliMses of MudfTargarh 
display great apathy with regard to distant trade. The carr^mg butincsa 


ct*t anti west lt<-<i «ilircly in the hnniU of ihc Povmclih mcrrhnrt* 
i4 Kliori^n (KhunLsin), The chief Artick^s of export include wticat, 
sugar, cotton, indigo, and ^i/, which arc sold by the culiivaiorfi lo the 
j^'tly dealen in ihe vflla^^cs, who again dispose of them to the 
PovindabiL Tl\t iin\toTi!f> comprise English piece-goods, iron, lime, «Jgar, 
man/If, rork-fmlt, etc. The only town with any commercuil prcEcnaions 
if KhaiipuT, m the extreme sotitli. OmeiN lorni the mux\ meini of 
transport, whcdcd vehicles being practicil!)^ unknown* SnuflT is monu- 
f^ctUEcd tlitou^houi the DJbirkt ^cucr^Uy, but m{>rcc:»pvcia1ly hi Alipur, 
vrlieoce considctalilc [)uanciu» fmJ their way to the Dcr;tjit and Balii^ 
waipun The only other manufActurtis cansiat of country cloth ard 
tottnterpancs, dale k^f mau, and paper 'Yhc principal road j« th.ic 
froin Mijlidn to Hera Cthiri Kh.-fn, crowing the Chonab at Sher Shab 
*crt>\ and running through Muzaffarpur town. The Diftirict contains 
altogether 1 2 nulcs of metdled and $24 miles of unmctallcd road ; and 
watet com mun teat inn ]« afforded by the Indus and Chendb rivers. 

Admimitr^ltcH. — The District MiLff ordinarily comprise* a Deputy 
Commisstoncr, 1 Assistant.and 2 cxtra-At«istant Coin mi^si oners ^ together 
vith the tiBUAl fi&cal, medical, and coiulabulary oHicials. IVo munsifs 
or tubordinaic civil Judges are stationed in the District. The Imperial 
icvcnue in iSjj'-y^ amounted tu ^63,543, of wliidi ^uln the Und-t.ix 
(mdodtn}; fljctiiating revenue and gracing ux) coniribuicd £s^\li^* 
In r8S3-S4* the Imperial revenue amounicd 10 ^7i,66Si of which 
jCi>%^'^S was dcnvcd from fucd l^ind revenue only. Mu^raffargArh 
combined in i8Sja total of 9 civil and revent:e judges and 11 magiv 
tralfrf. During the ume year the Imperial j>olice force numbered 369 
officers and men, besides a n^unicipal constabnlaTy of 45 men. llie 
toul nuchinery, ihcxcforc, for Ihc protection of person and property 
comnicd of 414 men, iKing at the TJitc of 1 pohccman to cvciy 76 
»<iuarc mdcs ofarca and every 818 of iht |iopulation. The liiMrict 
Jail at Mujcalfargarh received in iSSj a total number of 583 convicted 
|iTiM>i>eni, with a daily average of 62. Education Mill remains in a very 
liockward ataie. The lot^l number of children rcreiving iiiairuutiun in 
iSj5 wan r974, and the coat of the schools was returned at ^640. In 
1 883-^14 there were only >9 schools ui^der C^veminent tnfipection, 
attended by 1545 pupik Tliis is exclusive of indigenous village «chooU 
uniiupectcd by the KducAtton Department* which in iZ%2 were returned 
as ntiin1>ering 3S1, attended by 1189 pupil*. The Ccn*us Report of 
iSSi nrtumed 5379 boys and \72 girl^ as nnder tnstniction, besides 
10,598 moles flnd r45 females able to read and write, but not under 
in&lructioii. As usual in the Punjab, the Hindus coriiribuce a far 
larger pioponion of Kholars^ relatively to ihcit numbcra, than the 
^tuhammadans. For fiscal and administrative purposes the District is 
subdivided into 3 (ttAiUs, having t!ir[r head -quae icrs at Stniwin in the 



nodli, MuJtalTa^arh in the centre, and Allpur in ihc south. Munich 
i>alitic5 have been established \\ ihc ten towns or villagi^ of Muxaffat- 
garh, K-bin^rh, Shahr SulUn, Jatoi, Alipur, KhitJiptir, Sitj)ur, Kinjir, 
Kol Adu, and Daer^ Dfnpdna. Thdr nggTcg;Ltc income in 1855-^4 
arnounied to £^^z%S>, or an average of as- per head of the popuUtion 
(^3/^93} >v^i^iQ municipal limits* 

Medical Aipcid. — Tlie DuItlcI \a uauitually hut and ilry, but no 
records of icn^pemurc cjdbt. The average annu^ rainfall for * |>Gfiod 
of iw*r»lj'-one years emiing iSSi amounicd to imXy 5-9 inchest^ 
maximuni ditring that period being i3'4 inclie^ in 187^—73, and '^ 
minimum, f'2 mches in 1S66-67. In 1S83 the raiu^ wxs 3^7 inches. 
Remittent ;Lnd imermittent ft:ver£ and skin diwases prevail vridely, 
Smallpox is now uncommon, and cholera alJ but unlu>own. I'he 
total number of deaths reported in iSSj antountt-d lo 1 1,790, or 35 j«r 
thousand Five Government chariuble dispcnf^ries, at Musal^arg^rb, 
Alipur, Khdiigarb, Kot Adu» and Rangpur, aiTorded rctjcf in 1S83 to 
43,96b persons, of whom 703 were in [micnls. [For further partictilars 
re;gardiii^ MuzalTargjrh, nee llie 0<ts^tt^r vf Mazaffar^arh Distrut^ 
]>uLili«hcii under ihc ^luiltority of Ebc Punjab Go^'ernmcni (Lahore, 
1&£4) \ Mr> B- StAck^s Mcm&rattd^tn uftfn O^ryv/r/ ZanJ SeU/^M^Hti in 
ffu itmf&rarily S^ttied Partt of Britifh Indiii,^ 330; the PnnJ&h C^ntut 
R^ptfri for 1S81 ; and the several annui\l Admini-ttration and DepArt- 
menial Re|K>rlsof the Punjal* Gove mine nu] 

Miizaffaigarh. — Central tahsU oi Mu^affar^th Disuict, Punjab; 
situated between 39" 40' and 30' j6' n,, and bcWecn 70' %x' and Ji* 
26 30" Kh long. ; consisting of the middEc belt between the Cbenib 
and the Indus, south of the ihal^ and fertilized by the annual inunda- 
tions of boib rii'ers. Area (lii^i), 925 square miles; number of 
towns and villages, 391; houses 3o.o5:>; fafuilies, 32,171- I'opa- 
Uiiun (i36H) 130,724; (1S81) 146,835, n^iindy, nialtrn 80,351, ^"^ 
fcit^nlca 66,534, showing a total increase sintic i$6S of 16,161 aoub^ 
<^t 1A-3 per cent, in thirteen years, ChuoiJ^cd according to rcligioilp 
ihefc were in 18S1 — Muliammadsns, 175, Sio, or 857 per Cent; 
Hindus, 30,390, or 13 9 per cent. ; Sikhs, 631 ; J;un*» 11 ; and rbriitrbnii, 
33. Of the 39 1 towns and villages, aS 1 were mere hamlets of less than 
Ave hundred inhabitimts; 74 vilhges contained between five hundred 
and a lhou:iand; aS from one to two thousond ; while S hjtd upwards 
of two thousand inlubittnti. The average area unilcr cultivation for 
the five years 1S77-78 to iSSi-^; was 369 square miles, or 173,352 
acres, ihc area under the principal crops being— wheat, ^4,693 acres; 
liee, ^584 acres ; yV'Jf-, 651J ncres^ if^jra^ 4787 acies; gram, 451^ 
4crc»; tmih^ 36^7 act ca ; cotton, 15,643 .icrcs; indigo, 10.083 ^*-re»; 
and *ugArcflnc, 3350 acre*. Revenue of the ff^^i^fjC^7,^S^ 'ITic 
administrative stafi't including officere aitaclied to the DJsLikt head- 



fjtiJiTteT«« ccnsTAt« of a Deputy Commlsjiojier^ 3 Assistant or cxtra- 
Ai»lstnni CommJttioner*, 1 tahsUddr, and 1 mtinsij. The« officer* 
preside over 6 dvil nnd 5 crimitii! rnartii. Niimher of police rtrrle-i; 
(fAdnJi\ 6 : strength of regular police, tos men ; village watcb or rural 
police (ckanJUddn)^ 157 men, 

MuafllEtrgariL — Town, municipality, and ac^minlstrative head* 
luaners of MomffArgarh Dintrict, Punjak Situated in lat, 30° 4' jo" 
N., and Ion;;. 71'' 14' i^,, on the road fmin Mdltan [o Dera Ghnzt KMn, 
6 milei ftora the ptcient coldwealher hcd of the Chendlx llic town 
derives its lumc from MuzafTir IChdn, an Afghan Governor of Mdltdn, 
who fmcd Ilia re^idciLce here uUuul i7ys. Populaiioo (iS8i) tjto— 
narodx, Hindus^ '59'^ MuSammaJatis, 1064; Sikhv, 36; Jains, 7; 
* ocHcTS,' 91. Number of houKct, 703- Municipal income (1885-84), 
j^4 f 7, or 3R Avengc of ^«. t Jd- per head. 

MnufTaTgarh consists of 1 fort built b/ Nawdb MuzafTar Khin, 
formed by a circular'^Kaped wall 50 feet high, enclosing a sj>ace with 
a diameter of 160 yards; and of suburbs, which surrountl ilie fori on 
all sides, KO as to nearly conceal it from view. T1ie fort wdl ha:; 16 
butMttsi, and battlements aU round It l« built ^^ith a veneer of burnt 
brick, whicJi has peeled away in many pbces* and a backing of mud 
over 6 feet thick, i he road fiom MUEtin entering the tovn cuts otf a 
fecgmcni at the north end of the fori, wlildi i* bisected Ijy ilie main l^sdr 
Ttinning north and >outh. The houses within the rortification arc bLiilt 
with burnt briekswhcte they face the street, but elsewhere generally with 
mtid. They arc chiefly occupied by HtnduH. The suburbs round the 
fort are ^ener^tllymud'buih. They are more extensive on the *{oijfh side, 
where they are occupied by the poorer MuHammadans, On the north 
stdc live the Diiiirict officials. The principal sireets have been paved 
with brick, but the pavement generally r^rquires renewal- Prinking 
water b obtained from wells outside and inside the town. Mu^afTargarh 
fort was stormed by the army of Ranjit Singh in 1818. Ii became 
the head-cjuartcTs of the District administration under th& British 
Cov^emmeni in iS 59, after Khingarh had been abandoned in conse- 

^^jueiiee of inundation, l^hc llugds of the Cbendb arc now approaching 

^^blu£iRargaih, arul ir) 187^ they destroyed a considerable portion of the 


^P The town po«ie«<«« no manufartures. and the trade is of a purely 
local character. The proximity to Milltin city interferes with the 
function the town would ctheru-ise perform in the Collection of agricul- 
tural produce and the di»tribuEion of Eurojican goods. Tlie public 
boiUfings corisiu of the unual Government courts and ofHces^ police 
Stttion, sanSi or nati^-c inn^ church, |>o?^t-ofTice, dispensary, iravellcrs' 
buDgilow, and tfae municipal hall with it« pubhc Hbraiy. The public 
buildings and dwellings of the European residents are situated about 


fl quarter of .1 mile north of the town, at the ioterficction of the Deft 
CiMH Kh^n and Alipur rodtd^ 

Huz&fTLrkhdna (^Musafirkh4tna), — Tah^ or Sob - dirision of 
SuU-inimr District, Oudh; l)Ound«d north hy Rim Sanehi Gh£t auid 
l^]lcin[)ur (<3Mis, c^st by Sult;bipur, south by Riipur, and west bj Slloa 
and Mahinijgnnj. MuuifTarkh^lna comprises the 3 fargams of I^uli, 
Jagclhpur, and Gaura Jfttniin. Area, 396 square mileSr of which 214 
arc culltvatcd. Population {iS6g) 347.726; (iSSi) 331,379^ namely. 
males 106,984, and females 1 14,^45, showing a decrease since 1869 of 
26,497^ or of 107 ^JCi cent, in twelve ycara. Clarified according to 
rcli^ioiiT there were in 1881 — Hindus, 186,552, and Muliammadaiu, 
34,677. Average dcnsiiy of population, S56pcrst>nr, per squire mile- Of 
the 433 tovnsand villages comprising ih.^ J>argatsA, 373 tonuin leu than 
five himdTcd inhabitants, l^nd revenue, ^.fiS.odj. In 18JE4, Mucaffar- 
khina /^i^jf/ contained t civil and 1 criminal court, with 4 police ciides 
{thdniis\ a regular jiolice force of ,^2 men, and a vllloiic watch or mnl 
poliCL- of 9;6 chatiHdiirs. 

MtLSaffamagar* — District in ihc Lieuicnant-G^vcrnorsbip of the 
North 'Western Provinces, lying between J9' ii" 30'* and 39' 45' 15* 1*. 
Iw., and bclTveeo 77" 3' 45' and 78' 10' 45" i; long. Area, 1656 
square miles. Population (t5St} 758,444 |jenon&. MuxalEunaj^ ba 
Diittiict of the Mccrut (Meralh) Division. It !x Ijounded on the norlli 
by Sfthiranpur nixtTicC ; on Ihe by the river Gjingc^ fcpanuing » 
fiwil^nauT District ; on the south by Mccrut (Merath) District ; and 
on the wcM hy the Jiimivi (Jnmunil) ni'er, separating it from the Punjab 
District of Karnil The administrative head-quartets arc at tlie town 


Physical Aspects. — The District of Mu/a^arnagar lie* near the 
northern extremity of the Daib or givat alluvial plain between ibc 
Gan^s and ihc Jumna, and shares to a large cvtcni in the general 
monotony of that level reglou \i% central porUon consists of an 
elevated plateau, cut into three imequal divisions by the rivers Hindan 
and Kdii N ad J, whose confluence lakes phce near tlic southern Iwtiiidary 
of the DisIricL The first of these divisions, that lying dose along the 
bank of the Ganges, is covered in its northern part by one continoow 
itwamp, whirh results from the overflow of the litilc riwr Soldo! and 
percolBlion from the Ganges Canal. 

South of this marshy tract sirclches the khddar or !ow4ving valky 
of the Ganges, over which the river runa freely in every dircctioD, 
frequently changing its course, and rendering cultivation hazardous 
or impracucable. At places patches of tillnge may be seen amid 
the rank vegetation with which the khAdar is ovcmin, but the 
greater pan is densely covered by coarse gras»c3r intenperscd with 
occasional clumps of tamarisk. In ihl^ tract, too^ |>erco1ation from 





the G&agcs Canftl is working cvjI, and village afVcr vill;tge h:u been 
injured by lh« increasing marsh area, tcnjcrmg year by year fresh Aelda 
ufelci^ and cjtu«ing cultivjttii>n to dwindles. Carul irrigjiLUon has mad« 
the upland so much more allractive to cultivalori, Ji is diffif^uU to 
keep the inhabitaots oClbc valley ti> the tract that they have occii|!4^ 
frotn time ifnmcmodal. The populaiiou is iaid lo \k here decreasing, 
umI wild anJmab to be increasing, so that between the deterioraiion of 
the soil the su|JCnor aitraciioiu ht)d oot eUewherc to tenants, and the 
iDCFeasing difficulty of cultivation, the future prospects of this tract arc 
not prombin^ 1 he ifiddar^ howervcr, will always be & UAeful giving 
ground, and it may perhaps t)c made to yield a larger supply of tlnabcr 
for the plough;* and sugat mills of the pruiipctoua upbnd th4Ti it iloK^ 
MX present. 

This lowland valley is succeeded on the wc«t hy the ]ir«t of the three 
central plaieam, irttf^nding as fur as the Kali Nadi. It is reached by a 
low terrace, deeply cut i^ito r;ivines by the surface drainage, and of 
tittle a^culttiral value: The upiand region is naturally sindy and 
unfertile ; bui w is watered and enriched by the main line of the 
Ganges Canal, which enters the District from Sakaranpuk, and gives 
oCTthc Andp^ahr branch ncsr the village of Jauli. Under the influence 
of inigation, the sod is rapidly improvingf and the character of the 
aops has been greatly raiaed 

The next division, parsing westward. Is the triangular upland 
CBClosed between the valley:^ of the Hindan and ihe YS\i NadL 
These minor ritrc^m-'K flow in deep channels j but the soil is naturally 
fertile^ and the water obtAined fron* wells is siifticient to turn it 
into a highly culiii^ted [rad. The Deohand branch of the Ganges 
Canal was introduced into the HindanKili d^ti^ a few years ago. 
The [and is high throughout the ceittre of this tract, and is naturally 
fertile, but the water-level ii, 3s a rule, at a great depth. The eastern 
and western portions of this central highland %\o\yt down to the 
rivers on cither side, and arc there marked by much broken 
^iind, amd a tendency, especially in the south, to an increase 
of ravines which cut into the good land above The lowland 
along d>e Hindjin \a tiioikcd b^ atcepei b^nks, is larger in area, 
broader and more fertile than that of the Kdii Kadi. Along the latter 
river, sevoral caitates have l>ccn injured by the appeaTan<:c of rth^ due 
to cxettiive ^atnration, and the overflow of the river itsrlf in time of 

The westernmost plateau is that which stretches between the Hindan 
and the Jumu, and lA watered by the Easteni Jumna Canal. In the 
Deig^bourhuod of the Jumna, Enudi of the land is covered with dhdk 
Jtinglc, ihroogh which occa:slonal oases of light sandy soil crop out ta 
little elevated bosses; but elsewhere the labour of the villagers and the 



nprvAd of iirlgaiioD have been auoccAful In inducing a high state of 

On ibc wholc^ Although MoxAflunAgar ic not vo flourUhing jif th^ 
fich DistricFs lo the south, its cOTidilicn if fiir Above ihc zrtf^ffi c( 
Indian runi tracts In the north-eastern comer, hou^vcr, fts above 
stated, the spread of svk-anips i% npidly dnvio;t 1>ack the ctjltivalor« 
who«c place in iiHuq>ed by wild hog and h<^-deer. Meamres ut 
being tjkcn for the redAinRtion of this neglected re^on b^ the 
deposit of »ll, ivhkh will doubtless prove cicccpHonally fertile, oving 
to the mass of organic debris brought down by (he flooded Solinl 

/^w/tfri. — Tradition represents MuHEaffaniafiar as having formed a 
portitjn of the pjEndav;i kingdom nliidi had its u^pilAl at H^i»lJod|ntr ii> 
Ihc Adjoining District of Mnr.htrr, find at a more historical date as 
being included in the dominions of Prithwi Raj, iheChikuhin ralerof 
Delhi. Autheouc history fim ihomrs us the country around \f maflaf> 
nagarat the timeofthe MusalmJn ronqirest in the 13th t^entury, and 
it remained a de|>endency of the various dyn:Lilie« who ruled at Delhi 
until the final dis,to]uticn of their empire. The carlics: wax'c of colonist* 
probably consisted of Aryan ^tlcrs, Brihman and Rdjput They 
were succeeded by the Jals, who occupied the whole southern portion 
of the Distnct, where their descendants siill fomi the chfef Undowning 
dws. At a later date, the Giljars took possession of the poorer tracts 
which the Jdts had lefl unoccupied, and ihey too are still Lo t>e found 
as samMdrs, Ttruilly, with the MuhamraodAn irruptions, bodies <4 
(shaikhs, Sayyids^ and Pathan^ entered Muuiflamixgar, and pftTCdled 
out amongKt themseWes the Trmnindt^T of the territory. 

Timiir pctid one of his sringuinary visits to the Disirtct in 1399, 
when all the intidel inhabitants whom he could capture were mcrci- 
le^iily put ttj the sword Under Akbar, Muxalfamajear wa» tnchided 
in the iarkdr of Sahiranpiir. During the i;th century, the Sayyid 
fomily of Rarha ro^e to great emincncc% and filled many important 
offices about the court. Their ancestors arc ^id to hat'c settled 
in Muj^^fTamagar nbovit the year 1350, and to h*ivc enjoyed the 
patronage of (he Sayyid dynasty which rufed at Delhi in the suc- 
ceeding century. In 1414, Sultin Khizt Kh^ln confencd the control 
of Sahdranpur on Sayyid Salim. the chief of their fraternity; and 
from that tinic onward they rose rapidly to territorial power and 
court infltumcc, llnder Akliar and his successors varioiift hranche* 
of the Birha stock became the leading landowners in the Province. 
They were celebrated as daring military leaders, being employed 
by the Emperors en all ser\'ices of danger, from the Indus to the 
Narbadi (Nerbudda), h was mainly through their aid that the 
victory of Agra was won in 1707, by which Hahidur Shath nude good 
his claian to the imperial title. The part which they bore in (he 

terolntion of 17J3, when Farulch»iyyar was elevated to ihe throng 
belong! lo the general lnstfir>' «f Inclirt At a rrwan! for the impnrtflnt 
scmce» rendered on ihai occasion* Sayyid AbdullA wa* appointed 
Wazir cf Ihc Empire, juid Sayyid Husiin All was made commander' 
in<liief On iheir fall in i 734. the power of the Barha family be^n 
to wane, until, in 1737, ihey were almost extcnmnBied, on a pretext of 
rebcJlioua desi^ni, by their inveterate enemy ihe \Vav;lr Kamar-ud-din. 
I During the whole of the disastrous iSih century, Mu^aftainagar 
^ ^uSernl froai (he same Sikh incuTsions which devo-staccd the reinaiiidei 
of th-c UpjKr Du^ The Sikhs were a^&i^lcd in ihcir raids by the Giijara, 
whoM roving Aemi nomad life m4Ldc them ever ready to join in rebellion 
against the ttt^vcrnmcnt of the time. A* regularly aa the etops were 
cut, Sikh chieftains poure<l thtir predatory hordes into the Dolh, and 
levied nn orgnnized bbi^k-maiL The rountry was dividend 1>etween 
Ihem into repular circuit*, und each chieftain collected requisitions 
from his own circuit only. It was during this period of unNeiilcd 
and anATchic tnficcunty th:tt those mud forts began to spring up which 
became in time so characteristic of the Upper Doib. In 17SS the 
DistJict fcU into the hands of the Mardihdi, under whom the famous 
miliUfy adventurer, George Thom;L:i, wat appointed 'Warden of the 
Marches' and endcAVourcd with some success 10 prevent ihccunsunt 
raids across the Jumnn. The Bcgam Samiu of Sardhina in Meehltt 
Dis^Titrcr held large possessions in the southern /^argands at the end 
of the last reniury. 

After the fall of Ai.rnAtiii in 1S03, the whnlc Doib as far north as 

^^be Siwilik Hills came, without a blov, under the power of the British, 

^bid Muui^imagar wa« at first attached to Moraddbdd. A linal Sikh 

^^BvasJOQ occuiTcd in the following year, encouraged by the advance of 

^^olkar's forces ; but it was pfom[>t]y suppressed hy Colonel Burn, 

who drove the intniders back across the river* In 1804, MuzafTamagar 

was included in the new District of 3ah4ranpur; and in iS24f the 

nucleus of the present District was formed by the creation of a sub- 

CoUcctorship with juiisidiclLoii over ij out of the c:t[slm^ 17 /^ar^andi. 

^Jio GTCDts of imporlancc disturbed ihc pcticc of Mneafljrnagar for 

^^■ttny yean after the conquest The constnietion of the gre^t canals 

^^^va VI impetus to agriculture, and the soeurity of British rule allowed 

the coltivaton to repair their fonunes, which had sufTercd greatly during 

the long anarchy of the Sikh and IVlarithi strugt^lc. 

The finrt incident which broke the course of civil administration 
was the Mtiliny of 1857. On the news of the otitbreak at Merrut, the 
Mif^ttate of Muxadarnagar, intluenccd by c:^^ggerated re|iurl5 of a 
gneial rising thioughout the Dodb, i^ued orders that all the public 
olftces should be closed- litis measure naturally produced a general 
ipreaion that BritUh rule n'as suspended At fr^t there was no 


open rebellion, and The semblance of govrmmcnt wa* kepi ap, but 
plunder md incendiarism Aent on unmolested At length, on the itst 
of June, the 4th Irregulars rose ir revolt, and murdered their cocn- 
manding officer, as well as anotlier EuTopean, after which ihejr mArched 
off to Shim]?, Five days later, a parly of the 3rd Cavalry arriixd at 
ihe town ; and on the first of J%, Mr, R. M, l-xlwards came in from 
Saharanpur wiih a body of CiCrkhas, and look charge of the Admlnbira- 
tion. Vigorous measures were at once adopted 10 rcpresn^ crtme and 
cdlcct revenue, ihc good ciTccti uf wlndi iKtJime quickly sppir<»t. 
The wc*icrn fargantif^ however, remained \n open revolt ; and tfic 
rebels of Thdnd Bhaw^ln attacked Shimli, where they ina£«:iCTed ii% 
persons in cold blood Reinforcement shortly after flrrifed frocD 
Meenit; and Thind Hhawin, being evacuated by the rebels, hid it* 
walls and gales ra^cd to the ground. After this occun'cncc no aoUt)le 
event took place* though the troops were kejjt perpetually on the move, 
marching back and forwards along the bank of ihe Ganges, and 
watching the muiineers on the opposite shore. Order *tu reftoied 
long before the end of the Mutiny. 

/^/tt/tfftVff.— In JS53. the population of Muxaffarnagar wits rettimed 

at 672^861 persons- The Census of 1SS5 ithowed aii liKfcasc 10 a 

total of 683,213 persons. In i8;2 ihc population was rctitrned at 

690,107 (on the present area of ihe District, 1656 square nu!<s}. The 

last enumeration in 1881 diedosed a further increase of the population 

to 758,444, being an ad^-ance of 68,337, or p'^ per cent,, in the nine 

years between 187a and iSSi, The results of the Census of 1881 may 

be briefly summarized as foUovs r — Area of District, 1656'! square 

miles, with 16 towns and 896 villages; number of houses, 97|Oi8L 

Total population, 753,444« namely^ raales 409,436, and feinalet 

349^008; proportion of males, 54 percent. Average density of the 

population, 45S persons per square mile; towns or villages per 

square mile, '55 ; persons per town or viliage, 833 ; houses per tquaue 

mile, 585; Inmates per bijuac, 78. Classified according to aev and 

age, there were in 188 r — under 15 years of figc, boys 149,319, and S"''* 

ij2,fl65; totn! children, 377,1 84* or 35-9 per cent, of the population t 

15 years and upward?, males 260,117, and females 2^6,141 ; total 

adults, 486,260, or 641 per cenL The excessive preponderance of 

males must be set down, as in so many other cases, to the former 

prevalence of female infanticide, which Government has done all in 

its power to suppress, but which has not yet been entirely stamped out. 

In 1874, no less than 94 villages were still on the 'proclaimed list' 

under the Infantjcidc Act In 1881, out of a total of 133,141 of the 

auspectud castes (]ix% Giijars, RhIjpliis, Tagl% and Ahirs), the per- 

centage uf femaleK was as low as 42't per cent. 

/d^/i^/f. — As rcgnrd-j the rcli^ous classirKatton in 1881, Hindus 


were mufncd as nutrbpring s,^5,046t or 70'5 per cent of the poi^ula- 
tion- Mchammadans numbered 113.S41, or a8"a per cent, Tlw 
renuinderof the popiilaiioD consirts of— Jams, 9316 ; Sikhs, 1S6; and 
Chnstitni 54. Of the higher closies of Hindus, the Brdhmans 
numbered 42,100 in iSSi. The Rijpuu are numerically a small body, 
reckoned it only ao,o56 person*, but they hold large landed property 

i^in ihe DimicL The lUniyi^ arc unusually numeiou-s being letumcd 
■^ 33»445' Many of tbem arc Jains, An<l ihcy form sk wealthy and 

[prosfKcuiu mercantile cvmrnunity. llic 'other Hmdii c.iMcs'afcsct 
down at 1 total of 439^4351 composing the immense m.ijonty of the 
popdIalioD. The ChamiLrc head the liu, ns usual in the Doibv with 
'^7.794 person*; their position is sliTI srarrrly rcitinvM) from that of 
niral serfs, and tJicy form the labouring class io the District. Xexl 
come the Jiis, numberinj; 7i>468, who hold a large portion of the soil 
as wnAn^x^ and are an active, enterjjfisiiig, and intelligent iribc. 
The Gtijais, 16,957 in number, and Tagia [1317S5) arc also among the 
lindowTten in Muv^iffirrvig^r. The other principal Hindu castcf in< 

^cliule — Kahdr*, 45,49s ; Ithnngis, 39,34$; Kachhfs, 12,939 ; Gadiriasi 
>4r3J3; Kumbhirfi, i5t^3o; tJarMis, 11,167; ^^^^1 ^^^^\ and Mdlfs, 


Of the MuMlmia population, ihc Shaikhs arc far the moat numerous \ 
most of them being the desccndam^ of convert;; from Hinduitm^ The 
Sayyid*, once the dominant la^e, ;iro now rapidly sinking in the socid 
icale, through improvidence and bad managcmcni, which have led 
tbem to mortgage or Tesif;n their estates 10 Hindu Baniy4s» 

TvtffH 4Tiri/^vra//V>^vj^//£Mr.^Mu£a5arnagar contains a considerable 
urban popalation. In 1881, iixteen towns were returned as each contain^ 
ingapopubtionexceedingflvc thousand. These are— Kairaha^ 18,374; 
MuzAPrARNAGAit, the civil station and administrative head-quaners 
of the District^ i5i09o: Khandala, 11,109; Tuasa TlitAUAN, 762S; 

KlIATAUU, 7574; SHAMU, 7359; MlHAMPLTRj 7^67; Ja1>A1^HA1^, 

^59'j Ja:csat», 6184^ BuDHATiA, 6231 \ Bkukakhkr], 6195; Tltr, 
5735; JkanjhaKa, 5655; Sit^uli, 5391 \ CirAftriiAWAi, 5300; and 
CANGSftU, 5275, These sixteen townK contain an aggregate of 127,059 
inhabitants or 16-7 per cent of ihc total population of the District. 
Most of ihcro. hoiTCVcT, are rather overgrown villages than towns in 
the strict Kfise, as the greater part of Aeir inhabitanls subsist by 
a^culture or its sjbsidiaiy operations The 912 towns and villages 
ate thtjs cbsii6ed according to si/e — 195 are mere hamlets with less 
ihaj) two hundred inhabitants ; 273 contain from two to five hundred ; 
341 from f^ve hundred to a thousand ; 1 19 from one to two thousand ; 
49 frora tA-o to three thousand : 19 from three to five thousand; 13 
fiom five 10 ten ibouaand; wTnle 3 lowii) conuin bciwccn ten nnd 
twenty thousand inhabiuntSL Hindi \% the ordinaiy language of the 


inhibitanis of the k^ddar tract, while Urdu is coaimonly spoken hf the 
peopk of the uplands 

As i^rds occupation, the Census of i8Si returned the male popQ- 
UtJOD of MuxalTamagar Diainct under the foltowing ftu headings : — (i) 
Profeuional class, including miliuiy and ofHcUls, 5319 ; (3) docoe&iic 
cbv^ indudlng inn and lodging-house keepers, 1404 ; (5) commcrdal 
cUhs, including bAiikei>, mcrdiajiit, tradaa, ditlcn, cic, 8597 > (4) 
agncuUural and pastoral claM, mduJing gardcncnn 161,945 ; (5} manu- 
factuiing and industrial ckut, incladtng niUfiuu, 78,391 ; (6) iadefinrtc 
and non-prodactnie cla»» comprising gcncnJ laboorcn and male dnl- 
drcn, 153.SS0, 

Agrkultute. — Muiaflamagax is essentially aa ajfricuhural Dbcria, 
but tillage has not yet been carried to so high a ;>itdi at In some other 
portions of the Do.lh. In 1^7 1* out of a total area amouDting to 
<'033.468 acres *J39i735 acres wea* under cuitivaticn* Id iSSj-^ 
out of a total area of 1,060,561 acres, 707,380 acrcs> or 667 per c e oi, 
were under cultivation, of vhich jOM^'' ^rcs vere irrigated from the 
Government canals, and 93,470 acres by private InlgatJon from wells, 
while 447,104 acres vn:TC untnigated. Of ihc uncultivated area, 
300,663 acies were returned as gra;:ing lands, or cultivable, while 
'53,518 3CTe« were uncultii^able waste. In the rahi harvest, the chief 
crops Jtro wheat, barky, millot^and |<ulsc. The Wif^harvesi includes 
some of these grains, l>esides sugarcane, cotton, and indigo; it is the 
most important bodi as regards the extent of cultivation and the value 
of crops. 

I'hc be«t lands produce two harvests in the year. In 1871 there 
were 214,813 acres under wheal and barle^', 54,154 underyWr and 
biijra, 44t757 under rice, 32>7^i under cotton ; and 43,829 acres nerc 
planted with sugar-cane. The ci>rresponding figures for iSS3-*S4 
shuw a Lvnsklcrable advance in i:uUivA(ion. In year, wlicat and 
b.irtcy occupied 299,936 acres ^ joiir and hdjra^ 65,104 acrca^ rice, 
40,765 Acrc«; cotton, 39,396 acres; sugarcane, 54*645; and indigo^ 
5717 acres. The use of mantjte is increasing. Irrigatioa is widely 
practwd hnth from wrll* and carnlft In 1SR3-R4, ro fc»vr than 
166,806 acres were watered from one or other of the great canals, 
Under their influence there has been a steady increase in the cultiv-ation 
of the superior crops, such as cereals, sugar-cane, and cotton, to tfic 
exclusion of the poorer pulses and millets. Some harm has been done 
by over-saturation and the efflorescence of Ihc destructive rth s!^\ \ but 
this is now being remedied by a Government drainage system. 

The condition of the peasantry is comfonabic, and the village 
comtnunlties arc jn'o^ipcioua and inlcUlgent, espeually among the Jdis 
and Cdjara. Moat of the land t3 cultivated by hu^lMiAdincn having 
rights of occupancy; while the number of tcnanis-at vill 1$ rapidly 




frlmtng tiruIeT tJic jffovUiom of rcccni Icgisbticn, The prtt-ailing 
tenures art llic ^'ariolls forms of pattuUri, which may be *3inc]cd inio 
three da&ses, perfect ancJ Inipcrfeci fatiidM and ^^^iiv^jtifm, ^xk^ are 
defined as foUows. Where the «c]);ir2ie shares of each individual are 
knovm as so rna&y portions of a ti^ha^ :md arc so recorded in tlic 
f roprict;tTy register, but while a joint respon^tbihiy of all the shares for 
the general liabilities conuiiue&, ihc tenure is called imperfect /fl/z/rfiir/. 
Here, although the Joint respon»it>iUtT remains inisct, the accounts 
of each individual «harc ate kept »cf ^arate ; aA Mjori l13 tlic commoTi 
land {^ihamilai) U divided, ihc tenure becomes perfect faitUdA. In 

iproocsccJ'iime the land bccom^i trinuicly sub-dinded, anci the land 
illf ID each mari'it potAv-tiion becomes the measure of his right!, 

'-flod lioice arise the hhdyiuhara tenures. There is a growing tendency 
for separate ownership to replace the old comTnunal system. 

Of the local male adult agricultural population { 159^30 j) of Muxaffar* 
nagaj, 43,841 arc returned as landholders, 1356 as estate servant 
681,355 as cuhivaton, and45»85f>a£ .'^t^Ticultural labourers Avcngcarea 
cultivated by each raab adult agricuUuriit, ^'33 acres. The total popula- 
tion, however, dependent on tliesoit numbers 430,946, or 56'8> percent. 
of ttie total ]>i»tTLa popubticn. Of u tf^ial Distitct uiea of 1056'! 
»(tuarc milc^ 79-j aquare miles are held rcvcnucftcc, while 15768 
s<)uafe miles arc atacascd for Government ruvenuCr '>f T^hich ioi<)'8 
ciusrv miles arc cultivated, 333'6 square niilci are available for cultiva'- 
tkm, and 333'4 srinarc mil?^ are uncuitivabb watte Total fiovem* 
ittent aascssment, including local nties and ccs«efi levied on Ihc land, 
jf 144.503, or an average of 4s. 4^d. per ciiltLvatcd acre. Amotmt 
of rental paid bjr cultivators, including rsies and cesses, ^£2091065, 
or an average of 6s. o jd. per cultivated acre. Rents are more frequently 
paid in kind than in cash* In the latter case they often >'ar)- vith the 
00^ As a whole, they run from 7s, 6d to 13s. 6d per acre for 
inlgsted lands, and from 3$^ 3d, to 5s. 3d per acre for unirrij^uted 

The aTcra^c oui-turn <yi sugai-canc per acre is about 15 cwta., 
valued at ^7, 4s. ; that of cotton, about 1 civt. a qntn, valued ut ^a ; 
and that of wheat, about 9 cwl*., valued at £^x, io«l Wagw and price* 
have both been on the increase wncc the Mutiny, proi)ably kecinng 
pace with one another Bricklayers, carpenters, nnd smiths rccei\-c 
about 9d, a day; and unskilled labourers, about 3d.; boys, ijd< 
AfETicuhunl labourers are generally paid in kind. Prices ruled as 
follows in 1^4: — Wheat, i9t nrs per rupee, or 5s. lod. pa c^. ; 
panit *5j Sirs per tupec, or 4s, 4ld. j>ct cwt- ; bade)-, 33 jc^j per 
rupee, or 35, 5d. per cwl \ jodr, a^j sers per rupee, or 3^. 1 1 Jd. per cwt. ; 
AJfVtf, 13 sm per nipee, or 4s. lod, per cwt ; common rice, t j s<rs 
per rupee, or 9». 4d. pet twt. \ and bc»t ni;c, 6j wiy or 1 7s. 4d. per cwt. 

Na!ural Cakmities.—'Vhe Ganges ai»d Jumna (Jamuni) ocdsiooaUr 
shift their di:inncl«, and thus cause destruction of villages on tbttr 
banks; while \ht Himian and its tributary the Kdb' Nadi are both 
liable to floods which, in the lU-defined ravine of the latter ttreaoi, 
often elTca considerable d^m^i^e. .MuEaffarnagar vufTered alftO, before 
the opening of the canaK from famines, cauiKd by drought ; but this 
source of distie^ ha^ Uxn greatly miu^tc()» and its danger (<A the 
future minimi/ed, by the spread of imgation. The scarcity of iS6o-6t 
preyed lea; severely on this District than on many others; and in 
186S-69 the dilTerenre was siill ntt^rie marked. Ijirge «lorc« of gnm 
were hoarded in the grain-piis, and the cxislencc of these supfilies 
contrilwted to keep down prices. But at the close of the year iSdS, 
wheat had risen to 9 itrs per rupee, or us. 5(d. per cwL. ard measures 
of relief became necessary. From December tS68 till October 1869;, 
an average of 195 persons were dwly employed upon famine works; 
while, for the greater portion of that timej 53 jwnons received gratuitoas 
relief daily. Tdeverthelcss, grain was abundant, an<l continued 10 be 
exported in large tfuantilies; and sucb di&trc» as e\i:ttcd was due 
mthcr to the c;(tcTna] demand llun to falling ttuppUe?, 

Ofmm^riV and Tra^f^ 4U. — MuiafTamagar i* almost entirely on 
agricultural District, and its trade is accordingly confined to the raw 
materinl which it produres. Jalildb.-td i; the great gr.iin-nuirt of the 
surrounding country. In average yean, Mu?affarnagar can spare abotit 
So.ooD tons of food-grains for export The means of coromuQlca< 
tion, though not quite so good as in the region iromediaiely to the 
south, ari" yel amjile for ihc |ireatfnt resources. The J^incl, Punjab, and 
Delhi Railway runs thrt>uj;h the heart of the District for 26 milra, 
and has two siaiions withm its boundaries— oi^c at KhJtauli and the 
other at Muzaffamaear towa There are 60 miles of ' tlrsi-class,' aoo 
miles of 'second-class,' and lao miles of 'third-cUiH' roadsk Much 
traffic abo passes by the Ganges Canal, on which Khatauli i» the chief 
commercial de|>6t, 

AdmrnittrathtL. — In 1S60, the total revenvu* of Mn/affamagar 
District was returned at^u^.T^S : of which ^^101.616, or more thin 
two-thirds, \vas derived from the land-tax. and about ^10.000 frotn 
canal collections. At the same date, the total expenditnre was ^37,&86, 
or Utile more than one-founh of the revenue. In 18S3, the total 
receipts had risen to jf 165.408 ; of which sum the land-tax contributed 
;£ra3,2i7,or three-fourths of the whoIe> sLimp^ realised j£ri,oS8; 
cxdse, ;^7445! provincial rates, ^£15,559; assessed taxes, ^Ji^3; 
registration, ^13*7; irrigation and navigation, £22^^. Tliough the 
land revenue has been constantly rising of laic years, yet it atill 
presses lightly on the cultivators, as the increase of value, owing to 
irrigation, has more than kept pace with the higher rales of assttsnieai; 

M»d fiirtlitT tmproimnent may he cxpectef! in future years. In 1883 

^tfae Dislrict was administered by 3 covenanted civilians, and conlamcd 

fcf in^sterial and 10 revenue courts. The reeular District and town 

olkc numbered 66$ men of all f-rades in 1883^ being t policeman 

every J47sqtJ<ire miles and every 1135 inbabiianis; the total cost 

of maintenance vnu j£6j50h ThU force was aupplemcnled by 1322 

village waichmci {fhaH^ddn\ whose maintenance entails an expcn- 

diture ot £^^^1 per annum. The total machinery, iherefotc, for the 

protection of person aod propcity consisted of 1890 men, iii^inlaine<l 

at ft cost of jC*^797t being an average of r poLccman lo every o'SR 

aquar« mile and every 401 inhabitants, and an average cost of 3(d 

per head of the population. The number of person* convkied of a\\ 

offenee« in 1S83 wn^ '.l^U <^r t ronviciion for every 557 inhabitant^- 

The criminal administ ration of Mu;affarn-igar Asas formerly beset 
with difficulties^ on account of the numerous gipsy ccmmunitiea who 
frequented the District ; but a more vigorous system at present exists, 
asd the vont clan of vagrants has been settled in a colony at Kid^iuli, 
under police surveillance. There is one jail, the average daily number 
ofpriftooen tn which in 13^3 iras 159, The total number of piisoncre 
admined was 654- The cost per prisoner was ^4, 143. xod., and the 
average earnings of each amounicd to 15s. 7jd. 

Education \a making but alow pro^rt^ss. In iSAo there were 5159 

.children under imtruction. In 1870 the number of schooU wat 

turned at jio, and the pupils at 6507 ; while the sum expended upon 

luoition was ^aa82. In 1S74 the schools numbered 443i ^^^d the 

Tpupils 7401 ; while the sum dcvoled to education had risen to ;£3«48. 

In 1883-84 there were 128 schools anendcd by 4115 sdiolars under 

Government inspection. This is independent of uninspected schools, 

which are included in thtf Jigures for the earlier yean. The Census of i85i 

returned 6014 boy* and 90 girls as under instruction, besides JI.315 

^—jpales and j6i females able to read And write, but not uadcr instaictton, 

^fe The IMtlHct Is sub^divided into 4 fnhiUs and 17 par^ands^ with an 

^Kl^grcgste in 1^3-84 of 1345 otaics. each paying nn ivcragc land 

^Keveaue of ^66. The District conUins 3 municipnliuea — MuzArrAR- 

KACAir, KAVnHiJi, and Kairana. The aggrt-^jnttf revenue in 1883-84 

amounted to ^3168, of which ^afi^a was derived from taxation, and 

their expenditure to £^2i%\ the average incidence of municipal taxa* 

ibn was is^ i^d per heul of the population. Besides the rej^ularly 

constituted municipalities )C\era] other towns levy 1 house-tax for 

con»er%iney, aniiar}\ and police purposes. 

Setmtary Wj/ci-//,— The climate of Mu*affamagar is comparatively 
cool, oiling to the proximity of ihe hills. The average heat is 
decidedy grtaut ihan m Sahdimnpur, thi^uxb jjciccptibly le^a than 
Hccrut; but no tiicimomctilcal observations arc available. The 





averajTc rainfill, for a period of upwards of thirty ycnrs ending i8Si,wis 
32*13 inches. In 1S81 the r:tmf:t]l n-AS a; inches ^ S'^3 inches 
below ihc average. The principal endemic diseases are maUnous fevcn. 
dysenicr)', and diarrhcca. Fever also occurs in an epidemic form \ and 
cholera aad Hoialt-pox frequently vbil the Disinct. In 18S3 the toul 
number of deaths repoTicd w^ £1,109, ^^ '9'57 P^ thousand of the 
jH>pulaiivn ; uiidofthciei 18^399 werca»igitcO to fever alone- Th«vtul 
atj.ti>tic» for the prcviQUa Ave years showed an ai'erage death-rate of 
^7-94 p«T thousand. The ctttle arc occ^is iona I ly attacked by epidcinic« 
of rinderpest, pleuto-pn^un^onia, und foot-and-mouth disease. In 18^7 
it was computed that 10 per rrnL of the raille in Mu/aHTimagar died 
from disease- Two charitable dispensaries afforded medical relief in 
1883-64 to 371 in-iloor n^d ]3,i;7g out-door pntienis. [Tor further 
information regarding Muzaffjrnjftjr, see the Gautta'r 0/ the Ncrtk- 
IVesUrH Prtjvinca, by E. T. Atkiiistjn, Esr|., C.S,, vol. iii. (GovcmiDcnt 
Press, Allahit>id, 1876), pp. 439-749; ai*o The Se/flemati Rffort of 
Muzaffarnagar Vistnct^ by Messra* A- Cadcli, A. Colvtn, and S, N, 
Martin (1873) ; the Omm Rtpori cf thf North- Wtsttrn Pr&vhuts for 
i88[ i and the tcvcral annual Adminiairation and DcpaMinenul Repott^t 
of the Nonh-Wcalcrn Trovinccs Government.] 

MusafTamagar. - Nonh-eafitcm i^Mi of MuEaff^nagar DUtrict, 
NorlhAVt'stom Provinees t:om prising the five/d^gpJBJJOf MtJflll&nttgaf, 
tlujIitTi, Charthawal, Purchhapur, ond Gardhinpur; stretchiiig from 
the Ganges beyond the Hindan, intersected by the Sind* Pudj^ and 
Delhi Railway, and watered by the Ganj^ Canal Area, 457 square 
miles, of vi^hich 306 are cultivated Population (1872) i74,4?7 ; (tSSt) 
:02,;o7, namely, males 110,864, and f^malt^ 91,845; increase of popu- 
lation since 1877, 28,280, or 16^2 per cent, in nine years. Clasai6ed 
according to religion, ih etc were in iSSi — Hindus, 144,669; Muham- 
tnadans, 36,i3&C ; Jains, 1278; and 'others/ 74. Of the 265 towns 
and villages cOLiiprising the takiU^ 1 42 coutam le^& cTun five hundred 
inhabitants. I-and revenue, ;£29.965; total Government rcvtnue* 
j£34»8j6; rental paid by cultivator*. ^75,869; incidence of Govern- 
ment revenue per acre, 25- ojd li» 1S83, Muzafiarnagar tahdi con- 
tained 13 civil And criniinal courts {including the headquarter courts 
of the District), s police circles {t/tdntU), a regular police force of 208 
men ; municipal police, 73 ; and a village watch of 333 ehaukiMrs. 

MuzaSamagar. — Town, municipality, and a;1niini^trative head* 
<iuaner^ of Miic.tftarnagar Histrict, North-Wcstcm I'rovince*; iltuaied 
in Jat. 19* 28' 10' N,, and long. 77' 44' R., on the military rmd from 
Meerut to Landaur. Station on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway* 
Pupulalion (1872) 10,793; (1S81) 15,080, namely, males 8814, aod 
femaJe» 6266. Hindus number 897a; Muhammadatu, 5710; Jains, 
349; Christians, 35; and 'othcrt,' 14. Area of tonn site, SSo acres. 




Municipal income (1SSJ-S4), ^1756, of nhich jC*S4^ '^^* derived 
frnm t;)xftlion; averngc inri*1cnr<* of i;iitAtif>n, i«, ^Jd. per bead- 
MuzafTinia^ was ffiunde<l by a son of Kfuzaffar KhSn Khdnjahdn, in 
ihe rcijtn of ihe EroperoT Shih Jahin, about 1633. The lowrn is closely 
built, 2nA crowded wh *jnaJ! narrow Lines. DUtrict court. tahsUi^ 
Jiil, schools, telegraph oAxe, rfispenaary. Fonnerly notorious for 
ftver, but great sanitary improvcmcnls have lately been effected, 
Tnde in ngricuUunl produce. 

Huzaf^rpitr. — Disinci in iht^ Pacnd Division or Coram issioner- 
ihip uf hcXvAty under ihc Jarisdiuion of the Lieutenam-Govcmor of 
BcRjEal, fbrming the wcatcm portion of the o^d Pi^trict of T[rhdi, which 
woa cplil up in 1875 into the two present Di.'^tncis of Darbhang^ih and 
Muiaflirpiii-. Mujstffarpur cxtc-nrls from 35' 30' 10 afi' 5*' 30' K, lai,, 
and from 84' 54' 30' to S5* S7'3o"f, Jong. It is bounded on the north 
by the Independent Slate of Nepdl ; on the east by Darbhanflah 
Dbtrict; on the south by the Ganges, which separates ii from Patni 
DisiTict ; and on the west by Cbamparan District aiid the Oandak 
rifVTt which separates it from Siran Oislrici- Its greatest length from 
ROfth to south is 96 Ritles* and ic« greatest breadth from cast to west 
48iiiilet. Area, 3003 square miles. Poi>uhticn (18S1) 2,582,060 souls. 
The chief town and adraimstraiive head-quartcra of the District are at 
MiuaSaipur town, situated on the right or south bank of the little 
Candok river. 

Pkytkaf Atp^dt. — MtiTnflarpur DiKtrict con«iHtfi of three separate tractt. 
The vytith^m irart inrliMesthe H.-tifpiir Stib-diviMfin, and so much of the 
Muuffirpur Sub-division as lies on the ligbt bank of the Burf Gandale 
tiver. The land is for the most |urt high and «1l;;htlv undulating; 
and the ftoil, which coatitts of rich mould and sand, produces most of 
the opium, indigo, and tobacco grown in the ni-sirlrt. Of the cultivated 
area, tvo-fifths is rice land, and three4f\hs \s under rab}^ hhadoi^ and 
non-food cropi The central tract, occupying the area between the 
Burl Gandak and ihc Baghmati rivers, is low and subject to inundation, 
and the Svil ioii^i*ita of alluvial mailer nnxed with nth muirlcl^ Of the 
cultivated area, thrcc-fifthi is rite land, and two-fifths ia under mixed 
oo|>fi. The northern tract between the !3jgbmatf and the frontier m 
also low, and in many pUce« marshy, the soil consisting of sand and 
day, with an admijiture cf iron. Of the cultivated area, three-tifths is 
rice land, and two-fifths \% under mixed crops. 

The principal rivers 01 streams which interftect the District arc the 
Baghmatf, Burf Gandak, I^akhandai, and Rya- 

Of the two lotmdary ri^-eTs, the Ganges requires no remarks. The 
Clher, the Gandak, is a large ard very rapid river, navigable in the 
rains for boats of icoo maunds up to Ldlganj, and for tots of 500 
wiakndi up to Sihib^anJ ^ bui in the dry season only boats of sod 

78 ^^^ MUZAFFARP^R. 

maunis jir3«-t np and flown. In the raini^, tKuts arc onT 
carry hairioads up*strcam. 

The Bdghmati enters Uic District from Ncpil at a point 3 miles 
north of Manidri ghdt^ or j; aiiles norihm-esi frotu Sitimirhi, and after 
Homing ^oucli ^^est in a more or less irrtgular course for some 30 oitles, 
strikes ofT in a !<outh-eaiteily dtrection, and leave* (he District i>car 
H.iiha (ao miles e;i*cof MuKiflarpiir tovn). At its nearest l>cnd, ;>. by 
Hatbsiiri ghdiy the nvcr runs 10 milct nofth-cut of MutalTupur. 
Ii is navigable in the ratns from tbc fzucittci 10 Mantda for boats Oif 
350 manrtdst from Maniirl to Giighiri for boats of 500 mamads^ mmA 
aA«T passing Gaighiti (iS mi1:^« «Ni«t of \fu2airArpur) k becomes 
navigahlc for boats of 3000 maun/ts. In thr dry i^cnson th« BAghnuti 
LS fordablc, and in some pbccs not more than kncc^ccp. 

The Burf Gandak enters the District from Champiran near lUn^pur 
(20 miles nortli-ueM of MuzalTarpur), and flows in a aocith easterly 
direction and almost parallel to the Baghmati till it leaves the District 
near I'uwi (30 miles soulh-easl of Mu/affarpur). The town of 
MUKafT.iquir stands on its right L*ank, The river is nayigal>lc in the 
rains for boits of [ 000 maundt up to Muzaffarpur* and for boats of 500 
maufidi up lij Bary^tpur. In the dry sc^cn only boat:) of 100 maurnds 
can get up to MuTalTirpLir. [iotli thU nvcr and the BaghrDati arc very 
apt to shift their courn^. 

The L,nl;hnndfli enters the District from Nej)ilnear Ilhanra (rSmifcA 
north of Sitimarbi), passes through the town of Sicamarhi. and thence 
flows In a south-easterly direction, skirling the indigo factories <A 
Dunira, Runi Saidpur, Ouror, and Tiwinh, and joins ihe Bd^unatl 
near li.iiha. The stream rises and falls very quickly, and itt cuncnt is 
lapid. It is nat'igable in the rains only for boat* of 500 mounds up to 
Siidniarhi, during which season large quantities of oil-sccds are sent 
down for transport to Calcutta. 

Tlic Bya issues out of the Gandak near Slhibganj (34 miles north- 
weat of Muiaffj-rpur), and Ho^-s \n a south-easterly direciian po^t tlie 
indigo factories of Dure:L, Serdya, Cbak Daulat, Daianlcn, KArhAri, nnd 
Chitwdrn, and leaves the District at Jandhira (30 miles eootli of 
Mti/affarpur), The head of the stre^ini has much ^Ited up of late 
years. The Bya is largely fed by drainage from cJtcnru and attains 
its gre^Ltest heiglit ^bcn the Ganges and Gandak are both in flood, being 
filled by inundation from the former, and being checked in its course 
by the high Vp-aters of the hiier river, which it joins a few miles south 
of DaUingh Saiai (in Darbhangah District). Ordinarily, the sUream is 
not navigable, but m the rains ji is navigated throughout its entire length 
by boat* of 100 maunds. Formerly the stream \^as much used for 

The most imporuni of the minor streams arc the Pjrina Dar 




mat( a!i<i th^ A<ihw,'lra (known ai it npproac>i« Darbh-nngnh 
Disirict bjr ibe lume of Licile Bi^hmatf), which flow south^arcb fTom 
IfepiJ, at some 6 or 7 miles' disuncc from Sitimarhi, on the wc&t 
•nd east sides rc^jicctivel)'. These two streams are invaluable for 
irripUJoii in ycara of drought, when scores of dania arc ihxown across 

F&fulati&n,—^X)\t population of Mu^f^flarpur District, ;ls at present 
conuktuted, after tlic division of Tirhut into the two separate Districts 
of MucAfTajpur and D^bhangah in i$75i amoiimed in 1S72 to 
3,145,408; white in tS8i ihc popuUlion waa returned at 2^582,060, 
showing on increase of 356,653, or 14*9 p«r cent>, In nine y«ars;. The 
results arrived at by the Census of iSSi may be briefly summarucd as 
loltows; — Area of District, 3003 sr^uare mtles, vith 16 town.s and 5)3^ 
vitlafECi; number uf houses, 380,810, of which 368,354 were occupied 
ToUl popuhtion, 2,581,060, namely, males 1,365,731, and females 
i^i'^i-J*?' Proponion of males in loial population, 491 per cent.; 
afengc density of population, 8598 persons per square mile; 
villjges per square mile, 172; persons per viljage, 501; houses per 
sqtiue mile, i36'8 ; inmates per house, 7. CUts^itied accufdlng to sex 
and age, the populauua In i88t cijmprised— 15 ye.irs and iindert Ijoys 
515,063, and ^irh 499,880 \ total children, 1,014,943, or yf) per cent, 
of the population: 15 years and upward^ males 74o,6&8, and female? 
8iG,449 ; total adults, 1,557,1 17, or 60 3 per cent. 

Rfii^fftt. — Classified nfrording to religion, Hindus number a, 165,380. 
or 877 per cent of the population ; MuhaniTnadans, 316,308, or 121 
per cent. ; Ar^d Christianit, 373. The higher classes of Hindus include 
— Br^bmans, 96.206 ; Babhans, military and cultivating Brihmans, 
<7>i^33; Rdjpuis, 167,594; Kiyasths, 4^»SSJ ■ and Baniyis, 30,a6i< 
Antony the low castea. the most numerically important are the following : 
- — CkxlEis, 399,127. the most numerous caste in the Distncc; iJo^ddhs, 
179,827; KoeiU, i4>iSS'; Chimilrs, 11J.837; Kuriufs, iiS.n;; 
Mi3is, 89,863 ; Kjindux, 8i»i5i ; Dhanuka, 51,773; Nunij^isj 41,6:6; 
I^hiiS 38,897 ; NftpiU, 38.641 ; Muaahdrs, 33,657 ; Kumbhir*. 
33,408; Tatw^s, 31,715; 5unr(s, 31.656; Kalwirs, 19.039; Dhobfs, 
***433; KahJi*, 15.573; Tdntfs *S»9*" ; Sonera, 13^899; Hinds, 
21.553; Barhais, 16,191; ISariifs. 12,350; Pisfs, it. 690; M^iUs, 
ii>S43> Madaks, ics7i2; Gareri^, tD,$3o; and iJoms, 10,047. The 
abon^nal population numbers 19,496, but they are returned as Hindus 
in the religious classification of theCcnsusv Ca^terejcciicg Hindus, 
6514. The 36 most numerous Hindu castes contain in all 96-5 per 
cenL of the Hindu population of the District. 

Te^t(m flffrf Rttral Fopuiation. — MuiafTariiur District contains 
sixteen towna with a popalutton exceeding fi^e thous:mdf namely — 
Mv«ArrAfcPUK,poi>ulaiion(i88t)4ij46o; lU/irvB, 15,078 i Lalcanj, 

T5 M'0'}^^/''KnPUgi V 

T6,43r ; MoiiVAtt, 7447; Sarsuvdha» 6S05 ; SrrAMAftni. fius; 
Ghataro, 5983; Jajwarau. jScS; Bamilwara, 5796 ; Ka\*ta, 5617; 
Seohar,54:S; jARAycs:;^: Maxikchak, 5166; Easantpur. 5107 ; 

l>BAKAfU, 5052; SlXr.HARA BU2:f»«» 5031, ThCW KlXtecO tO»IlS 

contain a total urbnn iwimlalion of 15^1714, or 6'i per ceni- of the 
inhabitants of ihc District, leaving 2,433,346^ or 9J'9 per cent, for tiw 
rural popuUtiotL The Census of tS3i dastificd ihc 5154 towm acid 
viltagefl according to size as follows:— 1474 contained Icm thaa two 
hundred inhabitants; 1941 from two to five hundred; 1153 from ftvc 
hundred to a tbous^ad ; 3&6 from one to two Ihotuand ; 6S frotn two 
to three thousand; 16 from three to five thousand; 15 firom five to 
ten thousand ; and 3 from ten to twenty thousand inhabitants. 

Ai regards orrupation, the malo popnlntion was relumed in 1881 
under the following six classes : — (i) Professional and official, 10,635; 
(i) domestic senants, lodgin;; and hotel keepers, etc. 4^1447 ; (,l) coro- 
mcrcifll, inchding raerc>ianis, traders, carrier*, etc. 32,151; (4) 
agrictiltur^I and pastoral, including gflrdencrs, 456,404 ; (5) manuftc- 
turers and artisan^ 77>335; (6) indefinite and non-productive dtts, 
comprising general bbourers, male children, etc.| 646,861. 

The maccri^l condition of the people U for the roosi pan poor, 
pii:jcip:illy by reason of ovcf'j?opjlalion and coracqucnt low wagei. In 
the southern jarta of the Hdjipur Sub-division, whether from the more 
advanced state of agriculture^ the superior fcniliiy of the toil, or other 
causes, the reiTtivator* are in good circumsmniTft ; hut in mofll partf 
of ihe Biftirict the condition of the mass of the people i* phched 
and stinted. For the improvement of the purely labouring cUsscs. 
it is difficult tn suggest any measures. The supply of labour Is much 
greater than the demand ; and the natural consequences of this state 
of things can only be mitigated by emigralion on a Large fcale, or by 
temporary immigrations to thin!y-pcopled Districts at times of ban est 
The latter practice already prevails to a certain extent, and, with the 
ln<:rea&ed facilities of uavclting afforded by the Tirhiit Stale Railway, 
will, ii is hoped, become more popular ye^r by year. Although the 
prices of food-grains have risen very considerably during the present 
century, thctcages nf fieldUbourers have remained «tationary, i antra 
and 1} /ifiiM per diem being still the usual rales paid to able-bodied 
laliourers at the present dny. Owing to an insufficient protection to 
the interests of the cultivators, much of the profits that should 
have been theirs has been swallowed up by other cla^se^ The 
result is that in good years the majority of the cultivators enjoy a bare 
sufficiency of the necessaries of life, while in years of short bar\'&cs 
they suffer privation and sink deeper and deeper in debt. 

AgriatUun. — Statistics are not avjiilnhle reg.Trding the area tinder 
cuUivaiioii or that of the principal crops ; but ihc itmuductory pxragrapb 

In the section of ihis artkle dealing vrith the ph>'9ical aspects hiiefly 
mentions the pm-ailinj; ciofK in the clffTercnt tmcts of the District 
CerUiR figurei it^rciing s|icdal crop^ «uch as poppy and tobacco, aie 
given below. 

Maraifaciwres.—T)\Q chief manufactures of Muaaffarpur District aie 
iDdigo, saltpetre, opium, and lobacca Suc)i otlier roantifacture^s as 

f exist arc merety conducted to the small extent Tec^iiimd for hginc 
Indi^o cuUiintion t^as carried on Jn Miwaffiirpur Di^irict in 1876-77 
{the Iaic!iI yc%t for which staEiatics arc available} at 31 fAccorics arid 38 
(Hic-vorks on an area of 74.719 ^^fAi/ (the local high4 being 4225 
square yards), at an outlay relumed at X'9°'943- ^^^ outnim 
oincunted to 8356 maunJi in i876"77» an unfavourihle year for indigo. 
I Silt|ietrc relirLin^, under a £)^tcm of licences, \% an importetnl manu- 

I lacture Tn 1876-77, the number of licences granted amounted to 
i6,4S6l The saltpetre refiners derive very large profits from their 
business as lliey buy crude *altpclre it low rales (*>, from 4s. to 6s. per 

rmaanti) from the Nuniy.-b or nukeri, refine ii by a cheap and ea«y 
f rocc^ and seU it in Calcutta, prnbably making a prolil of more ihan 
cent, per cent. Eich Nuniyi family cim^ ai\ Average of aboiil las. a 
month during six months f>f the year ^ biit nftcr dcducEiona for rent 
and certain exactions, the t-aminga inyst be reduced to Ss. a month. 
I The Numjris, though the most industrious and honest class in the 
I Otitrict, are :hc poorest of all workmen. 

Poppy wa* cultivated on 57.577 highdx in 1S76-77, yleldin^za total 
out-turn of 6567 mauitds of opium. The average oul-tum per big/id is a 
little under 9 lbs,« whichf at the Government race of 5s. per lb., gives 
the cultivator a rclum of about ^'t, 5*. per MgM. The out turn 
varies vety grcaiiy in the H^jfpur Sub-division from 4 to 40 Ibn. per 
AjfAf, ihe averaj^e bcin^ about 1 a} lbs., as againat an average uf about 
8 1b». fur tlic rcttt of the Di^tcict Tlie ratc% of rem for poppy lands 
tury from 4a. to joa. per highd. In the poorer lands the cultivation 
ii hardly profitable; but many culti%'ators grow a small patch of opiunt, 
more for the sake of the proteciion they receive from the Opium 
Depirlmenl, than for the profits dcriveil from the culiivaiinn. On the 
other hand, the profits on g<xHl land^ are very Urge, sonLetimcs as 
high as £$ or Xfi per bigM. 

Tobacco b grown en an area estimated at jo.oqo bt'ghdit the average 
cost of cultivation being put down ai ^2, and ihc average yield at u 
maunds fvcT hi^hd. Tobacco is a very exhausting crop, and the land for 
iiH production rctiuires to be cl\anged every two or three years. The 
acarciiy of manure renders Itdtiuhiful whciliet it will be luund practicable 
to introduce tobacco cuhivaiion on a Urge ^cile iji Mu^atTarpur, c^«:cpt 
rln the vidnity of tomns, where nighi soil can be purchased. The 
vol- X. r 

fi MUZAFFARPUR^ ^^^^^^^M 

L-crop, howcvCT, it a rcmunertuive flne, where il *^n be raided, the 

'average return bciag ^i, i6& |;ct highd. Tobacco mj^nufactiirc b 

laigdy cairried on at PuBi* Il was originally started by Government 

^U ar experiment, ind afterwards made over to a European firm ir 

"^OlcutLi, who have established tlie maiiulactun: on a ^ticces^ti) foooitg- 

Thc E^j«i tobacco manuractured inio calces iftet Eurof)efln and 

American methods bear* a high repiiation- — i^tc l'U3\. 

M<nm &f Cemmunuotion. — The Dislrici \% well provided with roads, 
the most imporunt bt'mg ihc road from H^jJpur vi<i Mu^afiarpur cowu 
and 5(tiina:hi to Soiib^Ti^ on the (ronlier, vbi<:h, thuu|;h bearing three 
duttnct names for its various scctionG^ really forms o<ie continuous line 
of 93 roller in length. Next in importance come the roain which 
connect Mw^affarptir tovn with I)arbhiinj(ah and Motihari, and 
with Siran rifl Rcwnghit Altogether ti main roads (including those 
already mentioned) radiate from Mu-ea^arpur town to the limits of 
the Dlstrici, and these roads arc connected or croMted by namcroits 

Mu/alTarpur District is intersected by ihe 1 irhut State KaQway, and 
by a branch connecting Muxatfarpur town with Hdjlpur on the Ganges 
in the south of ilic DjMrlci, ojjposiic Paini. Another branch from 
M^^anaipur lown lo S(Umarh) in tbc nurtli uf ibc Diatiict near the 
NepdL boundary haa been (1885) surveyed, and estimates sLibmiticd 10 
CovernmenL for the work. 

A/fminiatrittioH. — The six mnin sources of rVistricc revenue in 
1SS3-S4 aggregated ^]7J.S65» of which the land reventit* contribmwi 
^^57,165; excise. /aJ.J^S; stamps, £iiA^\ ; registration. £t^t%x 
road ce!«, ^£13^055 ; and municipal inxes, £j{q%^ Total charges of 
cimI administration, as repreienied by the cost of olHciaU and police. 
^25»509. In 1883-84. Mii^HilTaqiur District contained 15,055 revenue- 
paying esl,itt^, ownetl by 75,riS separate proprietors and co-pr 
ccnera ; average revenue paid by each estate, jQ^. 9s. id., or b>- each 
iniJividual shareholder, £\^ (is. The Distrin police force [regular and 
munidpal) numbered 48J officers and men, maintained jlI a cost uf 
j^7775» beiideB a rural police or village vaich of -)5;S men. imimaincd 
by the bndhokk'Ts and villagers at an f%iim;ited total cost of Xi5,»86. 
The total number of prisoners received in the Di^tri*^ jail during the 
same year was to45. I^^c daily average prwon population being 159- 
The District school, which is of ihe tim claw, contained a total of 
36opupJlHon die3ist March 1SS3. Schoolsof a lower cUs^ numbered 
^851, with 13,556 pupils. Mi]nid])atltie£ have been established at 
MuzalTarpur, lUjipur, L-ilganj, SiEimarhi^ atid Mohnar. Total munici- 
pal income in 1885-S4, ^4761 ; the average incidence of taxation 
being jod- per head of the population (97.951) wiihjn munidp-il limit*. 
Charitable dispcnmncs arc j>iationcd at Muta^arpur, Hdjfpui, 5jti- 


onarhi, and Sursind, n-hich a^ordcd mcillcal rcHcf in 1885 lo 485 
■^ tn-door and *7»?39 outdoor ^aiitMiEH. Average onuunl rainfall at 
Muuir^ifpur town, 4647 m<.hes, 

Husaff&rpQT- — Htad-cjuartcr* Siib-Hivision of MLl7*^f^lrp^Tr District, 

I Bcogai. .liL-j, i3iS M|uarc miles; number of lowns and vilUj;cs» 

M43: bouBes, 145.191. I'gpubiion (i&8i},ma]cs50E>.Qo6,and females 

518.719; toL-il, i>o]9,635r namely, Hindus, 891,143; Muhamnudaas, 

<J7«»S3; and Chmiians, 309. Density of populaUon> 83; i^crsons 

per M|i]arc mile; vjllages per square mtk, r(>8; houses per square 

^B^'^^i I'^t persons per vllUge, 499; persons per house, 7*03. This 

^HBt]b-di vision voinprificfi die three thJtbSs ur police circles gf Mu/Jiifarpur, 

^^Paru^ and KaEri. In iSSj jt conE;iincd 4 civil and 5 criminal courla, 

witli a rc^lar polio; force of *4J of ail r^nks, and a vjllogc watch or 

ninl police aggregating 1991 men. 

Hozftff&rpur. — Chief lown and admlnistralive liead-riuaiier* of 

MiJZjJTAr;iU; Di-slrict, Beng^; situated on the right or south bank of 

ic Utile Gindak, in ht. s6' 7' 23" n,, and long, 85' j6' 53* it 

'opulaiion (1872) 38,^23; (tSSi) 43,460, namely, males 2J,8oa. and 

iftlcs 191658. Classified according to religion, there were ia 1881 — 

Indus, 39,748; Muhammadans, ij.479; and * others,' ^^i- Area of 

mn site, 2500 acres. The income oi the Muaaflarpur municipality in 

1883-84 acuounled to ^£3296, of which ^'914 tras derived Uom 

tiuation i average incidence of luiiatioD, la. 4}d- per Itcad. Municipal 

income (1876 77)^ j^-9oS; cxpcnditurCr ^£3163 ; avumgc incidence 

of taxation, 8Jd, [>cr head of popubiion mthin municipal hmlu. 

^^ The tovm is clean, htu\ the streets in many cases broad and well kept. 

^Htuning principally from c^i lo wesL There is a good coUectcmte 

^Bnd court-house* a j;;il, di^pen^ary, and several iichoola, some of the 

^ncst of w^idi src supportc<l by the Hcliar Scientific Society and the 

Dhanna Sitnij. The hdsars arc large, and markets are held daily. 

Roads run to Hijipur, Lilgnnj, Rewdghlt, SohansighiU, Motihftri, 

Sftiroarhi, ind on to Nepdl, Pupri, Kamcaul, DarbiiAngah, ?iUa« and 

DaJstatuaiiL Con&iderdhle trade is carried on by the Liulc Gandak. 

wbkh rhri^, if nightly improved, would admit boats of 500 muufidsy o( 

about to ions burdcitt all the year round. Near the court buildings 

U a lake of vhf'v, ^-hich is fiiniply an old bed of the river. To 

prevent tlie turicni from cutting aw,-jy the ground near the offices, 

an eiiilunkn>ent irat thrown acrofta the lake lowards Uiiidpur, The 

rivcx has not been able to force Its way into tlic lake, but lE has cut 

very deeply into the high bank nc^ir the circuii-hou^e ; and unleitt it 

changes itscoui^, or protective works are erected, it will prob^hly in 

lime break through the suip of Land winch at present intervenes 

between it and the lake. In 1871 the town suffered much from inun- 

dotioct. 'iitt i^incipal religiotjs btiildings arc two Urge temples in the 




centre of chc hti^dr^ dcdicntcd one lo RJnia and hii wife Sfti, dnd lli« 
other to Siv-i. 

Muzanf. — Southern suburb of I jhrtTC cily, Punjab; lying i;outh of 
An.irkalli, An<] rrintainmg many of the houxes belonging to th« dvil 
liintioi. PopMlalion(i38i) 7,toi, 

Myan-aung. — Township in Hcnzida District, Iravjidi Division, 
BritUtt Burma. To the ^vesiwatd. near the Arakan range, ihc coanuy 
is mountainous, and |iroduces valuable limber. Between the lover 
slopes oiihii VWh and the Inwadi, it U \o^, and was fcnncrly subject 
toinundatioi) ; ^ large tract, liovvcvcrjs now protected by embank ments- 
Fojjubuon (1S76-77) 40,975; (iS^i) 44.JK; villages 151; grow 
ictcnitc, ^^111485. or the gro&s tcveiuie, ^(>79S is dcneU fruin 
land ; ^35 j 7 ffotn ct]>JtatTon tax ; and ^4^ fnsm tbc fi*hcr>- rcvcnric. 
I^cal cv(ve£ contribute ^£90, Tlic area culiivnted in i8St-Sa va« 
39,149 acres* moslIyuni!ernce. In the t^am^ year thr agHrnlTiiral^oefc 
was as follows ; — Horned rattle, 19.765 ; pigs, 878 ; goat^ 130 ; rdoughs. 
51191 carls, 419^- s'cdgcs, 1349; ^^^ boats, 157. The tovnship is 
divided into 6 revenue circles. 

Myan-aung.— Town in Hcnrada District. British Bimna; flicuated 
in laL iS' 16' 50" N>, and long- 95' 32' 20" e., on iberi^h: bank of ihe 
Irawadi (IrrawaddyJ, I'cpulation (iSSi) 5416, of whom 5160 arc 
Buddhi»tVi 191 Muhammadans 43 Himlux, and 73 Christians. Houses, 
981 ; revenue, jj^i 1 S6, Kwnncrly the bcnd-quarlcrs of Hcnuda, ibco 
eallcd Myan-aung DiMrict ; i^ontnins coun-houftcs and the usual public 
buildings, and is the seat of an Assistant Commissi oner. Founded by 
the Talaings about t J50 A.n, and cJiHed by them Ko-dwut. Captored 
by the Hurmcse conqueror Alanng-paya in 1754, who ga^^ the town 
its present name of My^n-flung, 

Myauk-bhet-myo. —Township in Sandoway Difitrlct, Arakan 
nivision, British Burma. Area, 1540 square miles. Popublion (1S76) 
19,530; (1S81) 23,757 ; gross revenue, ;^5oi5. It occupies ihewhole<rf 
the northern (lortion of SandoAay from the Ma-i river to the Kwet4aung 
spur, and i^ for the mo*t pan mountainous and forest-clad- In 1S75 
the area under tullivatiwn was 15,05s acres, or iibout 23^ s<|uan: mttes: 
in i83i it was 171964 acres. The chief products arc rice, tobaccoy 
cotton, suf^ar-cane, Jibres, beteTf etc Tobacco, vc£^ab1e&, and iron- 
wood are eiiported to Kyauk-pyil : small trade in cattle. The people 
arc pri ncijw I ly engaged in aKricuUure; a little salt is mami&ctured ; 
and ihe weaving of cotton doth for home u»e n carried on in every 
house. The only road in the township is the one across the , Arakan 
Yomas to Taung-gup ; communication is maintained I>y LkxiU. Jn 
iSSt the agricultural stock comprised 12,749 horned cattle; 656 p^; 
15 goats; 5S60 ploughs; 41 carts; 1 ^edge; and 960 boats. 

Myaimg-mya.— Seaboard lownshif) In Ha»se;n District, Triwadi 



imsion, BniisK Purmi. Anra, 1734 square miles. The coast*Une 
consUtd of a ilai And *andy l»cach, t>orctered hy K^a^ jilains, vxiying in 
width ^om A <|iMrtcr to half a mtic From the <:cpast as far north as 
the Kok-ko channel, the countr)- \% uninhabited tLinnj^ ihc ntins; 
at other seasons icmpomry iishing hamlcl^ arc c^lablishid hy the 
jnhabiunts of tlic villages fanhcr inlund The Lower pL>rtion of the 
country, especially to the easiward, is low and intersected by tidaJ 
creeks, who<* banks have a deep fringe of heavy forest. From the 
Kuk-ko nurthwuds, the cuuniry gr^^IuiUy ruc», il^c intrk^uzy uf the 
crcck5 diminishts, and the size of the plfunii and pcrnifincnily inhabii- 
Abl« f|>otfi iticreauc. In iho western and central i-oruon of the town- 
«hipv north of La-hwuE'ta, in tC iS' v. liL, iKl- land rises into tim.ill 
well-wooded hilU; and Jiere smnll tracts of rice cultivation appear, 
which, Euther north, in the centre of the town&hiiK increase in si^ce. 
In the north 'Wc«em corner an outcrop of magnesiin Hmetfonc 
forms low hills, which arc densely wooded. The extreme nonhcm 
portion conijsis of a narrow tract of low ground, which stretches 
1^ 15 miles norih-nonlL'e:i«tj between the Pya-ma-law and the Myaun^- 
mya creeks. 

The mo«t tmporunt strcanis, besides the numerous creeks in tlie 
to«ci ponioft, Jirc the >fvALiNG-MYA-HAUNG dnil the Vw£, whkh tn^th 
kave the Myaungmyd at the town of that nonie, the Mvauno-MVa 
itself, aiKl the Pva-mvlaw. This Lo^c iu one of the inouthi; of the 
Irawadi, whirh it Inive^ at SWe-Iaung in th& inwnship of the same 
n-ime m Thon-kwa District, and reaches the sea by two mouths, the 
Pyania-law and the Fyin-ihalii. It ia navi^ble by river steamers 
thioughotit its entire 1erf;th; iu mouth, whcie there is a Tonnidable 
bar, ts 4 miles wide. 

The towruliip is now divided into eight revenue circles. In i&76-y;, 
the po<puhtkin was 34>9>4 ; in iSSi, it was 45,343. The gross revenue 
in tS3j vxK ;^t9iiS2. 

Myauug-mya (formerly Tl^i^gyi). — Town and head-quafleis of 
the MjTAung mya lownahip, Doisctn Dtitricti Ir:iwaE|i Dtviiii^n, British 
Bumia; situated in Ul- 16* 35' H., and long. 94* 51' i:.,on the Myaung 
fuyaercck. Population (taSi) J315; rtomher of hoii*cs, 374. It wax 
th« seene of the fir*A rising among die KarL-r» in 1353. Myaung-mya 
coniains a courthouse. iK>lice nation. n^iiket> and n Urge pagoda with 
an iaia^e of Gautama Bu^ldha. Revenue (tSSi->Sf), jC^^2. 

UT&IUIIf-inya.- -Creek in Bavtcin District. Iraw4idi Division, British 
BuTina, forming the northern boundary of My^iung'myatownship. This 
chanoci leavta [)aca near Ot-i*o, in laL 17' .1' n., and long. 95' 16' F., 
and ruis south under ^-arious names, tili, turning westward a little eatt 
of Myaung-mya, it takes the oime of that town. It is navigable by rtver 
MCAntcrs vt 300 tuns burJcti U^iw a abort di^tt^incc abo^e Mvao^o-mva ', 


in il3 upper course, lar^e 1>oat» can pass at all seuom with the flood 
ti<ie. !tn exircme len^ih vs, 15 miles; ihc chief branch is the Tha-ve- 
bon, the of the Ywt 

Myaung-mya-haonif,— Creek ir the Mj^ungmya lownship, Bostcia 
Dislrici, IfLiw.idi Division, Brilisb Burma ll leaves ihc Tha-yc-bon » 
few miks Irom its noiilicrn mouth, and, flowing tn a generally »outli west 
direction^ falls iaia the Bassein River by two mouihf^ the nonhera 
called ]Vbun^-|;yi, and tlie »ouihcrn, Pin-U'ga-lc U ia tidal m llie 
dfy Acanon, and navigable by boats of light draught. 

Mya*wa-dl — Portion of the Kiimil los'in6hi|>, Thaycl-mjro I>i*tnct, 
Iniwxidi DImion, British Btinna. 

Hye-bon. — Townshij* in Kyauk-pyd Diitriet, Arakan Diviiion, British 
Buriiu; comjjrising i^ revenue ciicles. Fopulaiion (tS;;) 19.607; 
(iSSi) 19,640 ; villages, 134, In 1881 the lard revenue wa*^J*79; 
capitation lax. ^^^o\\ net las, ^11*; local cess, £^i^ Gross 
revenue, ^5956, Area under culiivaiion, ja,4S7 acres, of which 
2ij9to acrci were under rice, and 9a under tobacco. The agricniiBrAl 
Slock was. in the aameyear — horned entile, 9709: pigs> 7^6; goats '*; 
ploughs ^333; boats, 1530. The he:id-i]iwners \s, at Mye-bon, on an 
laUnd formed by the numerous creeks which intersect die ftoiith and 
eotith-ca^C portion of Myc-bon township. 

My9'd6- — Towndiip in Thaveimyo ni«lfici» Irav-ndi Diraion, 
Briii^li Bunna InL iS* 50' 3" to 19* ^9' 3' n., and long. 95* 13' jo" 
to 95* 5S' ^ Area, 922 square miles. Populacion (iSj6) 60,700; 
(1S81) 65»if}j. Hounded on the north by Uppt-T lUtrma ; on the ca-st 
by the Pegu Yom,i range ; on the south by Vrome District ; nnd on ihe 
west by ihc river Irawadi (Irrawaddy)- The cultivated area in i8&i^> 
was 35,949 acres; gross revenue (1881), X9^^^* 'X^\'^ township 
includes 93 registered viUagi; tracts, divided into 13 rc^^Due circles. 
On the British annexation of Pegu in 1S51, Mye-d^ wa.i divided into the 
3 township* of Njaung'biii-teip, N^a-iaik, and Myed^. The firtl n 
said 10 have been founded by a Shan king of Ava in 1438 A.t>» ; and 
the family uf ch^ Myo-thUgyi, or revenue officer, is the oldest in ch« 
District of 'i^hayet-myo. The total revenue under Bumiese nile may 
be set down al ^1729, besides annual 'prcscnCn' to the fourt at Ava, 
Mye-dc, the former headquarters of the township, is now supcr^ed by 


Myit-ma-ka. — A stream, rising in Promc District, flows southward 
through Tharawadi and Hanthawadi District?*, Pl-;^u [>iviaion, Briit^h 
Burma, Myitma ka is \\\t v.\i\^t portion of the Hiatna River. 

Mylt-ta-ya. — River ot B.tssein llislrict, hawadi Division, liritiKh 
Bumij \ xxv^^ in iht cj&tcrn slopes of the Arnk-in range, -ind, after a 
«outh-nou(h-cAU course of about 30 miles, fatU iriiD ilic Ba&sein Rive.r 
by two large mouths nearly 3 miles apart. These con be entered by 

boats of 50CO ltu«hc;U burtJeTi> nnct in high windt the inner [xiiNnfie 
round the island '\i preferred by nati^-c boatmen to the open Ba^cin 
river, there nearly three miles broad About 4 miles inUitd, ihe 
nonbem mouth niccives a larg€ p:>rLion of the draiaage froro the 
Arakan Hilfa^ btougJit duwn by the river Taw-gyi. 

Mylapnr {AfaiJa^r or Sainf Thifmi). — A lutivirb of the city cf 
Madras. The nAnte is spelt variously — Mayi/^puram^ or Peacock 
Town ; M^t/ai/mrktm^ or Moiiint Town ; MfHufur^ Afiru/ur (by the 
l*onugucsc), and Afet/aftfr in the T^hfai^ii Majahttdia, II has bccri 
f-uggcficcd tfiAt It it the SMi/afian of Rashfd-ud-din, but more recent 
iiuiuirer* lavcur the identifiotion of Negapat^m with Ma/i/attan^ The 
great Titntl clafi«ir, tht' A'um/, i« «aid in hnve brrn ATitlt^n in \fylapUL 
A legend relates that >[>Upur foimed the i>nnci|>al scene of the 
labours of Sr. Thomas in India. The shrine, regarded a^ the lomb 
o^ the apostle, was viUted by several iravdlcr^ in Elie J3th and 14th 
ccnttiries. It attracted the IVrtugucKe to this spot, and gavt the 
Pori'jj^ut'st* miJH; to it 

MyUveraOL— Town in Khm^ Di&triclt Madras Pre^udency.— <Vf 


VjU^ (or Mt>fim), — Petty Suie In the Khiai Hills, A:s&am. Popu* 
Ution (1881) 13^351 ; revenue, ^193. The presiding chief, whose title 
is Siimj i% named V Hain Nfdnik. Prinelpal products^r[c«, potatoet, 
miltct, Indian eom, ginger, sfh-f'hhng (an cdihlc root), fiiigor-rnne, and 
cinnamon. Iron x% found; the manufactures consisi of bavkcif and 
^on implements 

Hyo-haoiV* —*■ Township and to^vn in Akyab District, Arakan 
Divisum, I^wer Burmx^^ Mro-iiaunc. 

l^twk-bliet-myD.— Township in Sandoway District, Arakan 
DiviMon, Lower Durma. — 6'*^ Mvaukuhkvmvo. 

Myoong-myEL— Seaboard lownahip, town, and creek in Ba&^in 
2>i'itr[ct. Irjwddi Division, J^wer Burma. — S^ Mvacng-mva, 

Hyonng-mya-houilg.— Creek In the M]pung'mya lownahip, BasscJu 
t>ib.lnct, Ir^wadi Dimion, Lower Burma. — Sec MvAlfNC mva itAUNC 

Myvord (or Miihtsh-urti^ * HiifT^ilo town/ the eommonty accepted 

rivation beixig from hfuhah-iUum^ the bufTilo-hcAdCTl demon; cor- 

iptcd to Mahfsk^r, and to Mysore. J/tffijJr),-'N alive State in Southern 

odia; situated between 1 1' 40" and 15" n» bt., and between 74' 40" 

and 78' 30' E. long., surrounded on all sides by British territory. The 

adminictrative headquArten arc at Basgalobr, but MvsoRt Citv i<t 

the capital Tbc Mahirdji resides in the two cities alic^rnately for 

several monthi in the year. The cantonment of Bangalore i-t now an 

II * lasJgDcd ma' fotmiDg the civil and military ^t^tion under British 

^kidrtiinblntlion. I'he following t^ble gives the «tatistica of area ^nd 

^Bfauuiation, accOTding la the Census of iSSi ; — 





[A€t:ording tc the CtasHS Hefcrf.Y 



Ana in 








Bwinlanr . 
KM7r> . . 
T&mkuT, , 

Toiftl, . 

Hamn,* . 
Totri, - 

Shimon, . 

Totil. • 







M» = 










S,ilSf i »39-a^ i-4j8,57a 



85-365 400.7JS 
6o.foi 3».3»? 
70i7S> ] 3A3W 

■ 11 



716.990 1,104.365 



17.6SS ^ T33iaoo j4.i%.iES j 169 

^ The tieurei given tn thi* uble refrt 10 Feliru<ry iS5l, one tnonih bcforf ihc Sai* 
wAi hjuidcd OYtr lo itn ruiWc culcr. Since ihcii there ha^ hf^a A redUtribulicA of the 
(ciniory- The old Dlviaiona wert aWlishcEli nml the rotmer cighi Dbuktt nete 
reorgftnued into aix Disliiai in |88J, a» vn^U-i. The popukdon fiKure^ |«rti b<kiw 
are those of Ihc Cciuut or iSSi, but on Iht aew ULit rici inu. 



BAOgaJorc, . 








Shimoga, . 







'Of ihe lotal jfea»hown, lS>77jJ w|"ftrcinUc»h*v< bccii 4un-<yed ljy ihc Kcvcntje 
Satycy Dc|mriiiicnl. 'llic TcitiiJiiUcT, Sg^^l »quue mUcs, !« ihc ippfviinUOc and 
of [he untnrvryed portion o( tht Suie. 

Physical A $ptctt. — Mysore, ,is at present cansiliuted — for it should 
be remembered thai the limits of the Slate hnvc viried yrcatly from 
time lu time — H an uniJulutm^' t^blc'lancl, broken by ranges 
of rocky hills and scored by deep mviiic? ; sUuMcd in the nnglc vphere 
the Eastern and Western Ghdts converge into the group of the Ndgtri 






HiEb^ Hw genenl elemion of the country increases from about aooo 
feet above SBei-tevd, aionfE the nonhetn and southern frontiers, to about 
3000 feet at the centra) vrater-i^nrting which aepantcfi the baun of the 
Kmna (Krishna) from that of the Kivcri (Cauveryl- This line of vater- 
parting divides the coutiiry intj» two ncoxly cqii^il parts, ;i little north of 
the 13th degree of Intitudc : and various chains of hilLt^ running chlcdy 
t)or;h and south, subdivide the whole into numerous vallc>'s, widely 
dtfl^'fiug in afiajjc anil ^xte. 

An intcTc^tidg fcAturc of the country. And otic of great importance 
from on hiMorical point of view, i^ the Urge number of isoUicd rocks, 
CJxWtA ^r^gf orrf/w^(ffoni the SnnskrJt Jhr^i. 'difficuli flf aiccpss'), 
which are found tn all larts, and which often rear their heads as 
stiipendooi monolithi 10 t)ic height of 4000 or 5000 feet atx)ve tlie 
level of the SM. These rockw, from ihc cirtrumstancc that their 
summils ^crc|ueiitly afford 1 plentiful uipply of good water, were in 
former d^ys used as hill forircwes to domineer ovci the adjacent 
plains ; son>e of them — and in priicular Nan'DIDrug (4810 feci) and 
Savaxoru; (4024 fcri) — have been the scene of many a hard-fought 
content, while ICaoaldhljg obtained an evil fame a» a Stale jjrison. 
The eight highest pealu in Mysore arc MoUiiu Giri (6317 fceO> 
Kudurimukba<6it5 feci), Biba Bddan Ciri (62 r4 fcct)i Ktilhatci (6155 
feet), Rudra Ciri (5(19? f«t), Pushpa Cm (5616 feet). Mcrti Gudda 
(5451 fcci). ^Voddin CrUi^da (5006). Four of these hills are compmtd 
In the Bada Hui>an or Chandritdrona range, a maamficent cluster in 
the shape of a horsc-&hoe, in the centre of which is a rich but pestiferous 
valley <^lcd Jigar. 

Mysore i» naturally divided into two regions of distinct character 
— the hill countT)', called the Malndd, on the west, conlined 10 tlie 
tracts bordering or renting on the Western (ihiu ; and the more 0|>en 
country, known aa the Miidin, comprising the greater imri of the 
State, where the wide-spreading valleys and pbins arc covered with 
nurocToou viH^g^j aiid populouft towii^ The Malnid is a picturc&que 
land of hill aod for eat, presenting most diversified and beautiful acenery. 
With reg a rd to the Miid^ or open country, the rocon^ of n-atcr-vupply 
arvd the prevailing cultivation give the character to iis various parts. 
The level plains of bJack soil in the north, grow cotton or millets; 
the tracts in tlte south and we&t, irrigated by channels drawn 
from rivers are covered with pl-^ntHiiitins of sugar-cane and fields of 
rice ; tho^ irrigated from tank^ are studded with gardens of cocoa-nut 
arul aieca pilnat; the high-l}ing tracts of red soil, in the eaft. yield 
ra^. and siintUr dry crops; the stony pa^ure-grounds, in the central 
portions of the counti)\ are covered with coarse grass, and occasionally 
relieved by aliady groves 

tVaUr SfiUicfi aaJ Irri^^atian. — The drainage of the counlr)-, n-ilh a 

slight exception, finds iu way to the Bay of BcDgaUand b divisible tnto 
three j^reat river systems, — chat of the Ke^t^a ^Krishna) on lh« aonh, 
the Kaveri (CaLvery) on the south, the two Pkns-RRs and the Palar 
on the eoKt. '1 he on!>' strcaim flowing to the Arabian Se^ tst those in 
certain tr.-icis in the norihwcst, which, unttmg in the Sharanii, hurl 
themselves down ihG (-hdia in the nfk.igni^ccnt falls of Gcnoppa ; aad 
some minOT streams h\ Nagar and Manjaribidp which flow into the 
Gdigiu v>n*X the NcU4V4tu A litic drawn eaU &ciij Iiamitjj4ndrtig to 
Nandidrdg, and thericc south to Aneltal, wiih one from Dcvar^fdntg 
north to Piviigida, will indicate approximntclf the watervhifd sepaadng 
rhe three main river basin*. From the north of thin ri^lce flow the 
TusoA and th<r Rhadra, riaing in the Western ChdU and uniting in 
the TuNflABHADRA, which, wilh lu tribiiiir)' the Hacari or Vcdavad« 
joins ihe Kistna beyond the limits of M>-*cre, in Sri SdHa, oeair 
Kimiil From the south of the line, the Hemavati with itsaffliMnt 
the YagachI, the Lqkafavani, Sheusha, and Akkavati flow into Uie 
KivcTi (Cauvery), which, rising in Coorg> and taking a soiith-eastCTly 
course through Mysore, receives also on the right Ixint the Lakshman- 
TIRTHA, the GuNUAi-, the Kavuani, and the Hoknij-koli: before 
quitting the tcnilor)'. From ihc cast of tlic tine, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of NandidnSg. spring three niiin AttcamA, forming a 
aystem which Lassen ha^ designated * die Trlpotamie des Del:han«,' 
namely, the NoKTiiKaw Pinvkk (with it* tributaries the CHiTftATAir 
and PArAGHNi), which discharges into the sea at Kellore ; the SouTHKaN 
Pbvnkk, which ends its course at Cudd^lorc ; and belucen them, the 
pAiAii, whose nioulh is at Sadras> 

Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of the Mysore rivers arc 
navigablcv but timber is floated down the Tunga, the Bhadra, and the 
Kabbani at certain reasons. Most of the streams are for<Iible during 
the dry months, or can be crossed by rude bridges formed of logs or 
ftonex thrown itcros^ fn^m boulder 10 bonlder, Duiing floods, traffic 
over the streams is often suspended until the water mbudei. But 
throughout the rainy ^cnson they ^irc generally crosacd at the appcanteJ 
ferriet by rafiSt ba*lsft boats, caroe* or ferry-boats. Men alfto tone- 
lime* rro*ft by Mipporling themselves on enilhen polft. Though 
useless for navigation, the main slrcams, e^iiecially the Kiveri and its 
trihutaric^i support an extensive system of irrigation by means of 
channels drawn from immense dams called anicnts, whicb retain the 
upper waters at a high level and permit only the overflow to pais down 

There are no natural lakes in Mysore ; but the strc^imi which gather 
from ihc hill-Mdes and fenili/e the valleys arc at every favourable pcwnt 
emb-mked m ^urh a manner aa to foim scries or chains of re>crvoii»j 
called tanks, the outflow from one ai a higher level supplying the next 





lower, anfl so on ill rfotvn ihc f f>ur*e (if the *trtim ;it short intcTvals. 
These tanks* varyin;; in «ire from small ponds to extensive lakes, are 
dhpened thraii^houttbc country to the toul niimbtr of ,^7,683: and to 
such an crtcnt has this principle of ftorin^ water been foIlo'A'cd* tl^nt it 
vould now require some ingenuity to discover a site suitable for a 
new one. The largest of these tanks is the Suli^kekl, 40 miles in 

The spring heads, called faf/^arx^j, form an imporuint feature of the 
hjrdiogniphy of tJie north-caNL They e-\Ecrid throughout the l>or(!cT 
region) situated eoit of a line drawn frotn tCorugiri to Hiri^dr and 
Mollralmuni. In the southern |jans of ibis trACt the tpringn may bo 
UppM in the sandy soi) ai short distances apart, nnd the water rists 
close to the surfoce. Nortbwnrcl, the Mjpjily i* not *o pkntifiil When 
the water is obtained, it is cither conducted Iv nanow channels to 
the fields, or a well is constructcil, from which the water h raised by 

C^phgy, — ^Thc gcolopcal structure of Mysore is mainly hypogene 
schtstSi penetrated and broken up by plufonic and trappcan rocks in 
CfCTf form of intrui^ion, and overlaid wHh occAsional patcties of latcritc 
and /aa^fior (i^]L:.irc;ous dqx)s[T^), and, to Lhe north of the :nuin ^xinX 
line, with bUck coiion-smN Tlic grAnliic up1ieava!s axe Jccn either in 
precipitous domc-thn^jcd monoliths, in low atcppcs, or in unflxdating 
layers, wpAriteJ by tii&surcit nnil joints, so as to present nlniost a 
stratified appearance. FVtarhrd cuboidal mas*es may he observed, 
B0( onV weaihcrina by concentric exfoliation into spheroids on a large 
scale, but avtuming in their decay most fantastic forms. The i^rtrvailinR 
graniie is composed cf quarli> felspar, mica, and hornblende, in varying 
cocnbinations ; but we also find syenite, pfotogtne, pegmauce with it* 
resulting kaoUn, and poq>hyniio, hypersthenic, and amygdaloidal 
granites, with serpentine in eruptive maines, or in dikes and veins, 

Trai^ein ruck?^ in tbc form of bx^all^^, greenstone, fehlone, and 
elstone pgrphyries with other combinations, arc to be seen Himilorly 
penetrating ihc ^ci»s; and niicvi and chloride schirts in di*Tupling or 
intrtislTQ masiet, in low dikci, and extensive cverfloH^s- The e:xrth, 
resulting in the *h;ji>e of an open loam, ttarying in colour from n ligbt 
red to dark chocohto, is not only highly fertile, but overlays the altered 
j^d«s» etc, in such a way as to ensure cxcclleni drainage. The long 
Tow dikes arc numerous round Ban;;alore, and at the head-waters of the 
Arkdvati valley, where their intrusion is greatest, and where their decay 
conoeniric exfoliation and lamination may be distinctly traced, 
vcintt too, may be ob«ened running through the isolated gr-mitic 
rnfff which forro so striking a feature of the country, and around the 
cf which fnllcn portions from ihc bare ^timmiiv pic»cnt lingular 
naasea of amorphoua furnin. 



The greissic rocV abotit Bangalore ;)0S£C6$cs great econorcuc valu«. 
being cAi>ily iiuanit^d froiii the iturfjce. and wcU adapted for fine aKh* 
work by the mere yiroccxM of himmer^dtesuDfi. Certain porphyries. 
luEiall^ and granitoids yield ciccclU-nt building material for ordinary 
workj IjiH rciiuirc Lhiscl-drcssing. The Taruvckcre basalt bears a higli 
|>ohsh. The gneiss is also f^c^ucmly traversed by graoitic or quaitxose 
veins, when the component minerals are scgrcgntcd and crystallhed* 
the mica occurring in plates, the quarti in amoTphous noduk:i ur Itcxa- 
hedml priMiis, and ihc /c)ajMr couipattcd in bcda <A varied colouridg* 
Milky quarts is abo segregated imu Ur^o beds cont^iinng ncstt and 
seamfl of iron-ore and arrtcihystine cry«ca]. Tourmaline, beiyt. gamns 
fichorl, epidote, actinoUic, agaicH, ribhon-j^ispcr, rh<*n, and tundxy ochres 
are procurable in various places Jroii-OTc of pure niiahiy, and occa- 
sionally magnetic, i» abLindant, vhife magnetic Uon-sand o^-crb>7 the 
country thtcbty about the Higalwddt Hilla. 

In tho Tungabhadra valley, day slate and the softer shales arc com- 
mon, and in this direction long stretches cf black cotton-«oi[ arc found, 
Beds of limestone and sandstone arc to be seen at imeivaU in the 
northern pan of the State, their dUooniinuiiy and dispenion bcmg due 
to plulonic di?)luibaJicc ujul ^ubw^quent dcnuddiioii. Latcritc is foumi 
near Bangalore in amall quantilic?^ and ptcntifuUy in Shimoga DistriOt 
where it occurs in detached blocks, the prevailing colour being a 
reddish broAvn. Ic la used for building purjioReti and as road metal 
Kartkar is found in tracts penetrated by basaltic dikes. t>cing met 
with in nodular m^^^ses and friable cnncretion^ \n day and gra^vl abo^x 
the rocks, at also in irre^jiilar overlying beds. It is used for lank em- 
bankmenls, and also burnt into lime. In the alluvium covering a inct 
of country near ^ctmangnlam in Koldr, gold is found i:i the form of 
small fragments and dtist \ and the auriferous nraia, on being voribed, 
are now^ after many trials and lo&ses, proving remunerative iii some 

HUtvty, — The early hLstt>ry of MysorG is invglvcd in obacurStyi but 
light has been iHr(»vn on ii by numerous inscriptionri on stone and 
copper found throughout the St.ile. Various places inetitioncd in th« 
MithMhtiraht and MAatdyiffta have been identified. Myson? wi4 the 
kingdom of the mythical Sugriva* who^e general, Hanuaiin, aided 
Kdmi in his expedition against l.:mka or Ceylon. At 3 later period. 
Buddhist emissaries appear to have visited the country, in the 3rd 
century i.e. The Jjins established and long maintained their iupre- 
jnocy in Myson:, and have left several lichly wrought temples and otlier 

In the earliest historical limes, the northern j)nrt of Mysore was held 
by ibc Kadaniba dynasty, vklio^ capital, Banawd&i, is mentioned by 
Ptolemy; they reigned with more or lew splendour during fourteen 

:^ysoj^£. 93 

c^nhtrit-^, thrtugti Tnttcrly ihry bco'imc fcodilnrics of The r.halukvas. 
The Kongns or Gangas, who were contemporary vrith ihc Kadatnbas, 
govc5TKcl the «>mhem part of Mysore wiih Coimbaiorc, Their capital 
was at ftrst at K^ut in ibe Unct Dhuki, and aftfrwarcN at T^lkad 
on the Kiveri, »hcre their d>i:a»ty wja smb^^riecl l>y the Cholai in 
the oth century. The numerouK mKripiiont of thii family indicute 
ihat ihc cirlicT sovereigns professed the Jain foiih, whkh, Ahoul Ihc 
3nd ccotufy xn., ivas relinquished Tot Bnthmani^m, Another ancient 
r*cc WAS tlui erf Ihc t*;iUavaa, who held a portion of ilic eastern Mtlc 
o( Mysore, but were overcome by the Ch;tiukya3 in the 7th century, 
though they mjiintained a Urong rivnlry till the lolb. The latter 
pnwrrfiit dynatty ram** from thi* north of IndiH in th*r 4th rtntMry. 
and conQiHrcd an extensive territory, part of which they retained till 
the dose of the lath i-entur>\ when the BalUk chiefs ovcrihrcv them 
and Annexed whu renuined of their dominions. The Cholas do not 
appear 10 have ruled in Mysore for more than a century and a half, 
Anoiher line of kin^it, :he Kjlachiinat, was equally sliortliveti. 

llic Hoy^ala Kalkab king^, who [VTOfe^i^d the Jain faith, were an 
enicrpriting and warlike race. I'hcy brought under their dominion all 
the vi'e^tem, <:eTLEEat, And »iouthcrn parts of the Slntc && now c^^ittfnjc, 
beside* portions of Coimbutore, Sdilcm, and Dhitrvirdr. They ruled till 
ijror at Uwirdiamudra (or DttdrJcdztt/i Pafan), now Hakbid ; but in 
that year, Malik Kifur. the funeral of the RniT^eror Ali-ud-din of Delhi, 
look the Billdla king prisoner and sacked the town. Sixteen ycar^ 
later Dwardsamiidra was enEircly de!«troyed by another force, sent by 
Muhammail Tuj*hUk (cf, Briggs' Firis^tia^ vol, i> pp. J7S"4M)- 
Several temples ^kiill remain, both of tEic eailier Jain period and i>f the 
later kinjcs «ho reverted to [!rihmani»nx Anions; lhri:e latt, the 
Moysalcinara Temple ranks a* one ol the architectural wonders of 

After the subversion of the Hoysala BalUla dynasty, a new and 
|TowerfuI Ilimju tovercignty aroic at VijAyanagar on the Toii^bhadra. 
Tliia rxiy waa founded in 1536 by Hakk;L and Bukka^ said to have 
been txfo high officiaU of the court of Warangil, H.ikka took the 
title of Harihan. and gave to his dynasty the name of Namnha, 
belv'een whom an<l the Musalmdn kings of the BkEhmani Hne there was 
continuouf rivalry, leading to frequent wars, which continued even afte/ 
the disnwmbcrmeni of the B.^hmani kingdom. In 1565, four out of 
the five Musalman kingt of the Decca/i united a^ainfit Rdma (Uji, 
the to\^ereigti of Vijayanagnr, who was defeated and slain in the 
bmous battle of T^likot (1565); and h]% descendants, after m,tiniaining 
their authortty f^r some iimc ^i Pcnukonda and Chandragiri farther 
Boutb, lieeame eatinct i!i a luling houjtc. During the feeble rule uf the 

LSI Naninha princes at PcnuLonda, the petty local chicfii, generally 

^^JasI NaninI 

chilled pdUj^drs^ nK»eried th«tr iiKlepenUcuce, of ;vhoiTi tlie mi»i ua* 
|iortuni wcTc ihc Wodeyar of Mysore in liic stjuilj, ihe N4yak of Kebdi 
in the north, the Niyak of EEahm (Manjaribdd) in the west, and the 
Bcdar chicb of Chhaldnig and Tahkcrc. IVffdtyar is a pltinl or 
hononfic fof m of oiUya, a Kanatcsc word meaning ' lord ' or ' muccr/ 
In t6io, Kiij Wodeyar of Mysore, cmboMencd by the wcakneu of 
Tirumal, tlK- viceroy of ibc decaying Tv'arsinha dynasty, seized ibc 
furiTvu uf SirrLEiguiJatnitii and Uiua Ijjd the k>uLid^U<^p uf ihc present 
M>notc Sutc, — ^ ahfi Mvaone Disikict. 

Rij Wodeyar vnu the ninth in succcKtion from Vjja)^ Rij, i^iio It 
tai<l to have been a Vddav:) Kithnitny^, »n<) lo have rome wiih hiA 
broiher Krishna Rdj from Dwaikd in Surdahtra or Kiihiiii:ir in 1399, 
in the palmy dayn of the VljayanaKar monarchy, and to have obtaioMi 
possession of the chtef^hip of Hotbrnim, near MjAOte. Prior to the 
fkcizure of Senngapat;im liy Kitj Wo<lc>ar, it U SJiid thnt a fort had been 
erected ai Pan^crc. to which had been given the name of Mysore — or, 
more corteclly, J/ii>/jA-wr**, * buffalo town/ from Mtthf^sk - dstira, a 
buffalij headed monster destroyed by Kdif or Chitmundf. who under 
the lAiiirr name is the tutelary deity of the Mysore family. Allhmi^h 
SerLng-t|>ai:im became the capital, the RAjii have altrayi been Lnoun 
in history Aa the Rajfts of My^iorc. The capture of Sctin^apacam by 
Rdj Wodoyar vas tht? prelude to fuTlher acqiji>ijlion>i by tivo of hit 
«ucce«>tOTt, Chdma Rij n.nd Kanlhi R^j. The Ijltrr, who rdgned from 
1638 to 1658, was noted as an eliident adminlitrator. During the 
intcn'alv of his warlike expeditions, he introduced a tolerably succtssfiiJ 
revenue Kttlemeni, fortified his capiLal, and CKUbUshcd a mmt wberdn 
hum cr pagodas were struck in hii natne, which continued to be the 
currem national money unul tlie Muhirimmathin usurpation (t?6i). 

The next ruicr but one, CHikka Deva R.-lj, during a long rdgn of 
thirty -four years, made his kin^dLjni one of the most powerful in 
Soutlicrn India; and in his lime, in lOtJ;, the Slate re%icn rcvencd 
to Vitthnuiaui from the worship of the /it^m or emhlcm of tlic gcd 
Siva, which h,id hidterto been in vogue from the limes of Krishna Rii^ 
At ihe death of Chikka Deva Raj in 1 704, the Mysore Slate comprised 
the prt-^cnt Districts of Mysore, the louth of Ivadilr, and Tdmktir, with 
p.irt of Bangalore, besides Colmbatore and Salcni DistricU in the 
Madras Presidency ; that is, a icrritory now producing a revenue of 
about j{J», 000,000 After two more princes, the direct line failed in 
1731. The next Riji, a collateral relative named Cliimarij, ras im- 
prisoned by the Ualavdi (or Commander-in-Chief) and the Diwin 
in the pcstilcniijil fortrcaa of Kibdldriig, where he soon died ; and a 
diMant iclaiive named CEnkka Krishna Rij «aa put on the tluuLe in 

It UM£ during the rcign of this chief that the jacnoua Uftidar All 



mmped tbe masita^. his miliiary prov^ess, wiih ihe wealth seijced by 
him at Bedjiiir in 1763, luvin^ mode him the first penana^e in the 
State. But hU dynasty was a^ brief as it was brlllbnt, and its history 
is too TTcU knovn to need rcdial at length. What the father won, the 
son lo^ ; and on the defeat and dc.ith ul '1 ipil Sult-in at the ucgc of 
ScrineapataiD in 11^% the English conquerors restored to the throne 
a representative of the aacient line in the person of Krishna Rij, son of 
Chiiua Rij of Aiakutdia. Frum 1799 to iSio, tlio Kija being .1 minor, 
the administration wa^ conducted b/ Pumaiyn, a M.-irithd Brihriun of 
great ability, who ruled with a vigorous hand and filled the State coflcra. 
But irhcn, on his rctirctneur* the youi^g chief wa* invested personally 
vitfa soveicign authority, he soon dissipated the wealth accumulated by 
his minUter, and commenced a career of mii^^ovcrnmcnt wlitch ended 
by the Brit l&h authorities assuming in 1S31 the aJmininMiion in his 
name. On hii denme in 1868 he was succeeded by an adopted son, 
the third child of Chikka Krishn;L Aratu of the IJettada Kote branch 
of the royal hou^te, the new sovereign being Installed tinder [he title of 
Chima Rdjcndra VVodeyar. 

When the govern men I was fjrsl taken out of the hands of Krbihna 
RAJ, tvro CommiiiAioccrs were nominated to represent British auihority. 
This arrangement, ho wcTcff proved embarrassing, and Colonel Morrison 
vras appointed ^ole (^mraUsioner in May 18J4. He w^alTnoit imme- 
diafely sueeeeded by Lieu tenant- Col on el (af[eru-ardd Sir Mark) Cubbon, 
who ruled the country with diMin^Euishcd ;Lbilily and success untd 1861. 
The (rt>vcrnment of India then resolved to introduce a system of 
ad tnimst ration more in accordinccwltlithAt in force tn British tcrritor)\ 
The Court of Diicctots had ordered tlut the mode of government 
(hould be one which could be worked by naiive agency; but it 
w^ almo^ from the fir&t, found necessary to appoint three European 
officcn to sti]>eHntend the admmlstiatiQn of the then three great 
Diraioti» of the State. In j86i, ilie Ilritish regulation syMcni wa^ 
more fully iniToduccd, and the European st^lT wa^ increased. But on 
the Tccogntiion of the claims of the adopted aon to suceeed to thv 
throne when he came of :ige, arrangements were gndtially made for 
re«fganijring th^ ndmrniMritivc constitution of Mysore *o a* lo adapt 
it for the fnttire government of the Mabdr^jd by native agency. On 
the 35th MoKh iSSi.lhe Mahirdji Chiraa Rijcndra Wodcyar was 
duly ixmalled by the Governor of Madras, representing the Viceroy; 
and the Chief Commi&^oner handed o^er oflicc to the new Diw;in. 
Excepting Uic disappearance of the titles of the Chief Commissioner 
and the General Sccreiary, few changes in the meihotli ol admmi- 
stratioD then took place, 

Prtsemt jV'rt/f'iir /ItfmintsOtifitm. — The following is a general view of 
the administration a»calabli<»hcd tn 1881 on the rendition of the country 

TO the Mitliirijd, wItIi more rc<^nl rhangr*. The bws, and ihc raiin 
Tiilc( for the traiisaaioD of public business, in f<]rcc A.X the time of the 
transfer of the governing i>ower, remain until altered by competent 
Atitlioniy : and any mateml :itteration must be imde hy regular and 
formal process, with the concurrent-e of tie Oovcrnmienl of Inda- 
All a4^i>eAAnient« of land revenue, and all jiroprietaTy righti ai>d tenum 
jireviously acknowlcxlged by the State, are upheld by the new nitu^ 
GovernmenL No demand on account of ia>:c« and t\o appropnitkio 
of public monty can be m;tdc, cKCcpt by regular proccw atul by the 
reguUrly cont^tituted authorities. The Mahdrdji'» private looome 
is kcpE permanently iiepftnic from the revenues of the Suite. The 
M-ihiriji [Raided by a Council, which deals with all the more importaol 
:]dmmistrative mea^tures "nth pTr>iv)&itioR( involving refiTcicc to the 
Government of India, and wtih nominations to the tnosL rcs-ponaible 
offices. The chief executive officer in the Dfwin, who U fx cffim head 
of all departments, with a secretary fgr each of the iirindpal onev. 

The judicial department U entirely separate from the excaidvc; A 
European chief judge, with two native judges, form the chief court, 
exercising the functions of a High Court Tbcrcisa Civil and ScKions 
Judge at Mysore, and another at Shlmoga; while at Bangalore, ihc 
dutiirt of that a[j]>o]nLment are iK;rfDrroed by the jiidj^c^ uf the chid' 
court in turn. The otdinar)' magisterial work of each District is 
managed by a Dcpuly Commissioner, a Judicial Aftsifttant with one 
or more munsifs for civil wort, tjyA atfiii^i.iys {tJitih officers) for 
petty case*. The police are largely under the control of the Dbtrict 
inagLstrates. aided by a police assistant in each District. One of 
the four regimcnls of Nativ-c Infantry ha* been disbanded ; while the 
three regiment§ of Silladir Horse have been formed into two. In the 
Survey, Settlement, and Educational Departments, native agency is 
being largely suhstiiuled for that of Europeans. Considerable 
economies have been effected in the Jail Department, and in all 
branches of the Public Wurbt Deimriment, wherever jiracticabk^ 
European oBicers have l>ecn rejilaccd by nalivcii- 

A Representative As^^cmbly is annually convened at Mysore at the 
clo£« of the Das^ra festival (corresponding with the Durga-pdja of 
Norlhern India), compoied of two or three of the most influeitiia! 
private residents in each t'Uuk, Before thU meeting, a statement 
(which take*^ the phue of the old annual reports) is made l>>" the 
Div.;fn of the chief adminislrative remits of the past year, and of the 
principal mt.'asuiespropo&ed for the coming one. Snggestionsare invited 
from the members and their representatives of local want.s, which are 
disposed of at the time or regisicrcd for in^iuiry. Ihe proceedings in 
English arc ttanslated into the vernacular so as to be understood by alL 

/^ef^utathn. — At;cording to the Census of 1S71, the Lutal pojjulatioii 


Mfs«rc ihtn ainotintcd to 5,055,412 persons, dwtUing m 1.013,738 
jstt, wi*l m I9>530 villages or townahipsL The total area was 
taken at 27,078 sriuare miles, or 2355 more ihan for the Census oi 
s88i. The arei shown in 1881 is 24,753 square miles; and ihc 
pc^wlation is rcEumccI at 4.186,188 person^ dwelling in 733t3oo 
houses, and in ^7,655 lo^-ns ^nd villager. The &gurc» of 1S81 yield 
the foUowtj^ averages : — Persons per square mile, 169; villages 
per square mile, 071 i pcisons per vtlUise, ^37; houses per squiire 
mile, 36*46; persons per house, 5'7i- Clasiificd according to scat, 
there «ete 3.o&^^%^2 malc« and 3,100,346 females; proportion of 
msle, 49'Jlprf fern. C1]is«i6ed according to age, there were — under 
isyeais, 767,091 boyi and 770.432 gi'ls; toial children, 1.538,425, 
or 36'$ per cent of the populaiion: 15 years and upwards, :, 3 17,851 
malcf and 1,32^,914 femalcn; toUi) adults, 2,647,765, or 63*3 per 

TNe foiloH-inj; 1% the relifjiouN clait^iicntion .-tdopted: — Hindnv, 
95*133^' ^^ 94'5 P^*" ^^^^- i M"hammadnns, 200,484, or 48 per cent* ; 
hristians, 29,249, or 07 per cent. ; Pirsfs, 47 ; Sikhs, 41 ; BuddhisUi 
y- Jct 1; and 'others,' 21, The Chri^ian populaiion, 17430 of 
whom rcMfle in Itangalorc city and cantonment, admiu of several 
principles of subdivision. Out cif the total, 5tSS were returned as 
Enrcspennfi, 304oa«Eura<innii, and >i,09i at; native converts. Accord- 
ing to another principle, 7^47 are Protestnnts, and 20,510 Roman 
CatboUca, leaving S92 unspecified. 

The ethnicial classification affords the following results : — Br^hmmSr 

162,657; Kshaturiyas, 13,^51 ; NTardthas, 41,239; Jain^ ioj6o^ other 

Hindu CAftcf, sub-di«dtd into trading classes, agricnimra) caMeSr 

artisan castes, miscclUneous cii^tes, n-andering tribes, out-caste.^, and 

non-Hindu aboriginal castes and tribes, total 3,958,286. Taking the 

^bopulation, excltjsive of the Brahman or priestly, and Kshaitriya or 

^Hnilitjry, and writers' cosies, the Census gives the followmg caste cliiiiai* 

^^BcAtion : — Among the Vaisyos or Indi&g class, the Kcmatf^ were 95,985, 

^^Md 'Oflher*,' 138,6^9 ; SatJnii; (servants in Vishnuite temples), 16,873 i 

Disins and other mendicants, 3736 ; Rrichrvirs (athletes and fighters), 

770S; Ranffifs (calico printers), 3493 ; Lingdyats, 47<^h269 : Woklfgas 

(azricultural lalaoiirers), 803,521 ; others of the agricultural class. 

138,622; Ktinchiglrs (brass and copper smiths), 82,474; Kurubdrs 

(shepherds), S9t.965; Upp^trj (salt-raakers), 84,583; Tiglirj (market 

pirdencw), 44.2S3; Gollirs (cov.'hexds), 57,916; IdifiArs (toddy* 

drawers^ 84,407; Heyigirs (weavers), 167,755; K-Umbhirs (potters), 

31,269; Agas-irs (washermen), 69,978 ; Gonigirs (sack - makers), 

1531 ; Darjis (tailoi^), 5991 ; Niplls (barbers), 30,376 ; Ganigirs (oil- 

csscr»)t 39,449; Korachdrs, Lambari^ Jogia, I>amb*ros, and other 

3Ln6ering irtbcs 53,782^ out-cajttcfi, 6>a,?45; non-Hindu aboriginal 

vol- X. O 


i I ■"" I 

upaiions ] 
J.1 ■-t>^^H 

ca^t^i antl tribes. 5718, oninely, Iraligar*, ijji) ; Sf>ligar% 1596:11^ 
Itctta Kummbafi 3893. Muhammadans Mrcrc classified as foliovs: 
— Sunnfs, I79>3q6; Shiis, 4u8; W^dbis, sifi ; Pindars, 5055; 
Labbays 4656; Mappilas, 385; Dairas or Mahadam, 3777; and ] 
' others/ ^Ssi. 

The Census divided the male population as regards occupations 
into ^ix main groufis : — (i) FroEea^onal clas«, including Stole 
and inemto^ of the loamed profe«Mon«, 90453; (?) domestic 
. ¥!Lnts, jaa and lod^iny-housc kGC|>ciSf 15. ^'ji (3) coiDtDdciid disx, 
including banltcrs, (ticrcluttts, c^trrietft, etc., 45^366; (4) ftgricalnral 
cUk«, including sh^^herds, 1,00^,836; (5) mduetriAl cUa«, induding 
sll iiiiniif;icEurers njid artisans, 173,936 j and (6) indefinite and noii- 
prDdurtivc c!as5, romprising all male children, general laUourcw. and 
persons of unspecified occupation, T97*049' 

Of the 11 tov^'n^ and 17.6^4 villager in M)'sore State, 11,496 
contained in iSSi less than two hundred inhabiiants; 459} from 
two to five hundTcd; 11S9 from Hvc Imndred to x tbou&and; 777 
from one to two thous^tnd ; 50 from two to three thousand; 30 
from three to live thousand; 15 from five to ten thousand j 3 
from ten to liHeen thousand ; and 3 mort tlian fifty thousand. There 
fuc £Llio^cthcr 3i tuwns wil^ n^orc than ^o^q inhabitantf^ bhowin|{ a 
total urban population of 346.3*7 pcrsontt, or 83 per avA. of the 
population of the State, The five largest townti an> — Bav7Caloh£, 
iHipul^itinn of cily and ranlQnraent* (ifiSi) 155,857 ; MviOfte Tnwv, 
6o.sg3 ; S»iimoga, 12,040; 3i£itiNGAi*Ai'A\i, 11,734; and Kolak, 


/-f/A^ Thfe;.— Of the wild tribes, the Bcita (Hill) Kurubaa are the 
moat numerous. They live in the woods in small coininunitics called 
MMs, their di^elljngs ht\t\^ merely sheds made of branche:» of trees. 
Of late yews they have lost mucii of their former ahyncia, and bcddcs 
felling wood for the Torcst Deparliuent, seek employment on coAec 
jjUnlAlicns, They still rcuin their love of »port, bcin^ excellent 
forcnicrs, zind well acqu.tinied with the hahitt» of wild bcaata. 7^ey 
hav<; no principle of cA8t«^ but each cotiiinuiiity is govemed by A liead 
man, who is generally the patriaTch of the village. ITiey arc avcnw 
frnm cultivating the soil in the careful manner practised by most 
Mysore peasants, contenting themselves with sowing a little milleL 
Like some other wild tribes in India, ihcy ate credited with possesdnfi 
magical powers, which, added to the inaccessibility of the rctreala in 
which they have taken refuge, may have tended to preserve them from 
titter extermination. They Arc dark in colour, anJ short in statuiei 
but have not so savage an appearance as some of the wilder tribes 
In Central India- Their luuf^ coLtrfC liatr groivs to a length of 15 
inches, and iji drawn off the head to ihe bic^k, and faitcucd by a 






pM^cc of String. The women a« rurcl)- «ccn, and do not work wilh 

A hcinrh of ibc Kiimb^f, cilled ihe Jenu (Honey) Kuriibri^, aubsift 
almost cnlirdy on forest products, and occupy theinselves in collecting 
honey in the jcingtc. Having found oui the irec where the combs 
are, they climb an adjoining uee^ and, placing a potc between the 
two, contrive to creep Along i; with a torch in their hand, and ibcn 
&mok<; out ihc bees, Both men ind women of this sub-mbe are very 
un|>rcpossessing inap|>earance, their features being cciise and irregular, 
nnd their hair hangin^j down in a dishevelled mnntt The IraUgars 
»ccm to be ^mother tribe closely resembling the Jcnu Kurubo^. The 
Soligain arc a occluded rAcc* who &pcak Kinaic:^ ^ ilicj' are remarkable 
for their hecnncsa of gigbt. and tfkill m irftckin^ wild animiilfl. 

In the Malnid, the aborigint-c are called Hollaru [from the Kinare«e 
vord Ma, a field), ami have from time immemorial liccn rural serf^ 
sttacbed to the fann& of the feudal hcid-mcn. One branch, called 
Mjinnilu (from m4nmt, land, and dlii, a slave), used to be «old with 
the land, and were spcci^ed in the leases; while another, called 
Honnilu (from ^tfnmt, gold), were transferable with or without the 
•oil The price of a nun and woman was from J^^ to £$ ; and it 
was calculakd that thcse^with a pair ol bultock», cguld cuLtivaie lo 
acres of laiuL Their master maintaineil them, living them 3 lbs. of 
lice daily, with double thin amo^uiii on fca^a d4>», and an annuaJ supply 
of dochcs and btuikcts, to which vcrc added presents on mnrria^L-. 
Tln^ children who wete bora belongi*d lo the lord of the soil. The 
Holiaru Uvq in huls in ihe neighbourhood of the farr:ii« and gi^nerally 
]X)ftse3S small gardens for kitchen produce. They arc a stout and 
healthy race, with broad features and flat faces, and generally cany 
ftboul with them a wood-knife. 

The Wokliga cultivators are divided into more than 50 sub-classes ; 
iliey form the backbone of the population, and for skill and industry 
are tinsurpasied by any agriculturists of India. The majoniy ofMpofc 
Itrahnuns belong to one or other of the Pancha Dravida or five southern 
mlics tiamcly— <0 Kamdtaka, (a) Telinga or Andhra, (3) Dravida or 
Tunil, (4) Marithi, and I5) Gujardilii. Tlie^e nunics indicate the 
countries from which the various sects originally came ; and they »till 
ntv their native languages a^ their ' house-tongue ' in their own honieft, 
thou^t of course, lhc>' speak Kdinarese elsewhere. 

Hindu Se<ts, — ^The three gn^at sects of oriliodox Hindus are called 
respectively— *{ I ) Smdrta, (2) Madhava, and (3) Sn V^iKhnava. The 
^nutJta hold tfat the creature it not separate from the Creator but 
partakes of His essence, the doctrine hence being called advailam ; the 
Madhava, on the contrary, say that the Creator and Jiis creatures atc 
sqonte, their doctrine being called tftMifam (dualism) ; t^'tiil5t the third 

l«o MYSORE. V 

<ec^l combhe ihe tloctnnes of the Ia-o foTmCf, hoKUng All the ctoalurc. 
sqwii^t** fmm ilir Crrftt'>f rfnring life, hrrnrnt^ ahnorti«l into Hts 
essence after deaih, the doctrine being called vrsisA/a a/ivtsitam. Of 
the tinonhodox sccUt, the ti]0M influential is that of the Lingiyats; 
they (ieleii Br.-ihmnn^, and jicnerally hold aloof from C^vcnunent 
service, being chiefly occupied at traders, and, indeed, taking the lead 
in commercial |iiirsEiits in the northern fiart of Mysore. There an; 
aho many Jnins; their high priest reside* at SrivanA Belgola, in the 
French Rocks Sub-division of Mysore Distria, where there is > coli»sal 
statue q( Gomatc&hwara. I^c Jain Icinples are called Baviis, in Ktuch 
are to be ^en the statues of their Tirthankaras. 

Lanj^ifai^g, The language fipoken throughout Mj-sore, except in Kolir 
and the ea*tirm tide of ChitnlJnSg, ir Kia^rese ; which is the verniruhr 
of ftj nnillions of people, "rherc nrc thre<? dialect?; of Kinarese' — (i) 
Purvada Hale Kannada, or the archaic Kararcse of inscriptions caHJer 
than the end of the 7th century ; {t) Hale Kannada, or old Kinarese 
up to the end of the 14th centiiiy, in which were wTi[ten the older 
sacred books of the Jains and the majority of the Mysore stone 
inK-rijitions ; and (3) Ho^a Kannado, the existing language. 

A^^iiu/ture^—Tht whole of Mysore State has not l>een Mirveycd by 
the Revenue Surrey DepanmL-ni, Thr following figures iTKlude boih 
the surveyed and itn*iurvcyed portions of the State, and must be ic- 
^;trdcd ns only approximate. The total stca of Mysore State is 34,733 
square miles. Of this area in tS8o-8i, approximately 7055 square 
TJiilcs wi^re under cultivation, 5717 square miles were niltivahlr wa^te, 
and the remainder, 11,951 square miles, or 4^ per cenL of the whole, 
were unculiivablc waste. At the close of 1879-80 there were 
3,gii,Sj8 acres of cuiiivablc waste land remaining unapptcprUted, 
and 219,095 acres having been resigned or resumed by (iovemmeni 
during the year iS8o-5i, there waw a total of 3i73o»9ii a l res available 
for cijltivation. Of this, only 216,173 ^^c* were Lak^n uj); thu* at 
the close of 1S80-81 there were j»5t4,748 acres unuiilijedt The area 
under actual cuUivntion wan 4,^80,674 acres, namely^ 554,751 acres 
under rice, 11,058 acres under wheat, and 3,139156^ acres under other 
food-gmint, such as ra^^ gram, and other ceresU and pulses. Of the 
remaining 565,304 acre*, 1471464 were oecupied by oil-ftecds ; 135.54' 
by cocoa-nut -ind artcanut ; 150.165 by coffee; S*<'7S by vegetables: 
10,89^1 by colion ; *4,076 by sugar-cane; 12.986 hy tobAOCo ; 9619 
by mulbcrr>" ; 533 by pepper; 2671 by fibre* ; ajid 178 by lae. About 
Soo aaes were planted with potatoes. 

In 1884-851 out of a loial area of 4,474,057 acres of cultivated 
land, 3,Ji9»4S7 ^^^res were occupied by ragi and other dry crops; 
597»443 by rice; 163,877 by oil -seeds ; 131,689 by cocoa-nut and 
aicca-nut; 141,71; by culTge; a7,4;2 by vegaables; 31,385 by cotton; 





^M9Z V cug&r-cflnc; loOT^ ^f vHeit; 6068 b^ tobacco ; uid tlie 
rcouindcr by mulbeny, pepper, fxhst^y »nd lac, ia tmftller pro port ion^ 

Average met of rml nnd prodnrc nrt^ ai; fd1ow« : — kcrnt per aCK 
for rice (iS8o-^i), los. 6(!. per annum ; for wheat, os, oJcL jjcr annum ; 
for inferior grains, including ragS^ 3s. 6tl ; for cotton, 3s. Sid. ; for oil- 
seeds, 5s, 3J<J. ; for fibres, 35, ajd. ; for sugarcane. 13s. ; for lobacct\ 
6s. 3Jd. Produce per acre in i3So-8i, of rice, 1170 lbs.; of wheat, 
831 lbs- ; of mgi and inferior grains, 10S7 lbs.; of cotton, 391 Ibi ; 
of oil-seeds, ^34 lbs. ; of ordinary ftljrct» 414 Ibn. ; of su^r-cane, 1510 
Ibi, i of tobacco, 397 Jbs* The prices c^jrrcDt of produce in iMo 
were as follows pcf mtiaW of 80 Ibb, ^ — Rice, 5s. 3)d. j whcnl, 63. id ; 
cotton, ^>, 3s, lid. ; frugar, ^1, 1 lu. ; &ult, 8a. io]d. ; gram, from as. 
10 5«.6d.; rtfjf, u. iijd. ; ^J/,6%, 7i<Li beans, 3*. lojd. ; lobacco, 
jC^, 10s. 4{cL; moU^es, us. 3d. ; ghS, ^9, t6s. o}d» A p&lr of 
bullocks cost from ^i to j^ao ; 2 sheep, from ^i. to X'l ^ ^^^, from 
id. 10 lojd per f^r of a lbs. ; iron, 16s, per maund of 80 lbs. ; and 
silk, about ifii per lb. The vages of Ubour ia 1880-81 were— 
(or unKkiiletl ht>ciLr, from 3d. to is. 3(1. per diem ; for skilled labour, 
from <A- to *s. per diem. The hire of a art per day varies from i& 
to 3S. ; of a score of donkeys, from 38. to 15s. ; and ol a boat, from 
IS. to 8«. The agricultural stock of the State was in 18S0-S1 retained 
SI 3,444,906 cows and bullocks; 1,719,088 sheep and ^uts ^ J^i'J^ 
donkeys; 39.480 jHga;43i5 ht>Mw»i 14,156 ponio; 563,314 ploughs; 
68,153 eofts; and 118 hoaU. 

Jta^ IS the staple food of ihc maj^ of the people, generally ?*nC4?n in 
lite shape of a pornd^e or piidding. called hittti. This crop Ik entirely 
dependent upon rain ; ami therefore a scanty ratr^fall, at the time vhen 
nin is wanted, is productive of much distress. Nor would artificial 
irrigation afford a remedy, inasmuch ^s the led soil en which rags 
fiounsbes is noi found ia the valleys watered by channels and lank^, 
or only to a limited extent. On the other hand, ra^ is a very hardy 
plant, withstanding successfully a long drought, wZilIc the grain keeps 
for many years. 

Tlic more valuable products of the soil, other than grain ciopo and 
oil-seedSr which together occupy 90 per cent, of llie whole eulrivated 
arcO| ve the following :— The amca or betel nut is produced by an 
elegant e4id<ycnoii« irec, grown in shaded .in<] ff^nced gardens where a 
good supply of waier is available, and where shtltcr Is afforded from 
high irindiL In 1880-81, arcca-nuU to the value of ^£169,806 were 
exported Irom the Stale. 

Although the cotfec'plant is said to have been introduced into Mysore 
by Bflbd BiidiD many generations back, the first successful attempt to 
cultivaie it en a large scale was made by Mr. Cannon about forty- 
live years ago. The succe^ of Mr Cionon's experiment led to the 

OCGUpotioD of ground in Mnrjaiibdd t4/n^ by Mr. Crccn in 1K43- A 
wide fleM of enterpri^tr h»s «mce been openerl 10 European pi«ivicrs in 
MAnJAnibdr) nnil nxher wtMt^m fJ/u^s^ vshm the? c^nditifwft nf a mmfit 
tempemture and an cie%-jilion of from 3500 to 4000 feet arc lo be 
procured. Natives have also genenlly taken to the cultivation^ but do 
not pay the same atlenlion to the prq^aration of the ground and the 
growth of the plant. Clearing for st plantaiion ts a troublesome and 
expensive process. Constant care is needed during a whole yc-ir to 
]>roduce good plants from the seedlings ; and although a few benrks arc 
gathered in the founh nnd fifth yeai^ (he phnter r^in hardly expect to 
rcftli^ a full crop till tlic seventh or cigbdi yciir, when the ouL'lura is 
about 5 or 6 cwt& per acre. The produce from native plantatBoa* i* 
probably, on an avenge, not one (juarter of thiiL The bcTri«« 
when picked are pulpetl, nnd after fermenting for one day, to remove 
saccharine mntter, arc wathcd. cleaned, and dried, and put tn bags 
to be sent to Bangalore or the western coast for curinfi and exporta- 
tion. The number of plantations bcld by Europeans in iS7S-;6 vaa 
301, with an area of 32,638 acres; native planters held *3.943gardaiSi 
with an aT2Z of 80,487 acres. In 1S83, the number of plantatfoRS 
held by Kuropcans was 4^9, with an area of 4t,37<) acic*; fulive 
phnier^ held 33,791 gardens, wiih an area of 99,893 acre*. The loial 
number of gardens was 33,380, covering an area of 141,373 acres j 
yielding an out'tum of 4,561,397 lb*., v;ilued at j^>49oa'- ^^ "884- 
the number of plantations held by Europeans vrw 539; native planien 
held 33J43 gardens. 

Sugar-cane is grown throughout the State «lierev*r means of irriga- 
lion are available, but especially about Scringapatam, near which, %t 
P\LHALM, there was till lecently a large European tictory for refining 
jaggery. The out-turn of sugar from jaggery is calculated at 50 |>er 
cent., and of the refuse about 30 per cent* is iiti1i;tcd for distilling 
rum. The value of the jaggery and sugar made in Mysore in iS8o-J^i 
was estimated at ^r57,739, 

Cucofl nut palms are grown extensively in gardens. The trees b^n 
to produce nuts when seven or eight years old. As each tree bears for 
«ixiy years, and produce?! annually from seventy to a hundred nuts« the 
euUiv;ition is reckoned very profitable, provided that water in found 
tolernbly near the surface- The export in jfL8o-$i of fresh cocoa-rut« 
from Mj-sore State wasvaluedat ^,^10,457, andofcocon-rotoil alX^'^' 

The attempts to rear cinchon.t have been fairly aiccessfu!, there beinc 
two plantations, of which that at Kalhatli, on the Babi Biidan Moun- 
tain, contains more than 30^000 trees, and the other, on the Biligiri- 
rangan Hill, 3000 trees. The only species which has hitherto been 
found suited to the climate is C suceirubra, J^ttcn; C- CaltaiySt 
IV^ddt//^ and C Condaminea, f/im^,, hatting failed. 


IlfYSORE. 16J 

Tn Chilaldrdg Ditfrirt, where bl.ick soil is commonly met wilH in 
ihc rwrtbcm Mlitkf^ a gon<l do^I of cotion i« grown. A Goi^rnrnent 
fann was e5£ab[i&>ied to prfimoie tlie culiivntion. but (he resulis were^ 
»n«atiifactory, and the enicr|>rise was ronscquci^tly Mopped. Tobacco 
of a fine quality i^ j^rown in Has^in Dislrict, but has not received 
special aitention. Cardamoms are in some placcc propagated by 
cuttings of the root, and elsewhere by fetllnj^ trees of the primeval 
foreftUon Ihc Western Ghats, when the plant sjirinL:* up spontaneouslv- 
This cultivaiion i^ now attracting the atienuon of Kiiroi>ean planters ; 
but thougti a valuable comniodii)'f iIk; demunJ for cardamoms i^ limitedi 

In th« US. High or Govcrnmcni Garden at D^ngEtlorc, attempts have 
been made vith M>mc Miecens ro grow vanilla, cocoa, rhea, ipecacuanha* 
and various oth^r exotic p^aT^^^, while the culiLire of npples, pcflchct, 
fitnwbeiTien, and oihtr fruits has b«n greatly impToved. The vanilla 
plant, wilhojt any i>articular attention or care further than ft:rttlixin;f 
the blottoms, ha« leen fmind to yield freely; but the dilViculUev 
in curing the beans have not been o\-ercome. 

toMd 7>wvr<7,--Thc land tenures in Mysore are so far peculiar, that 
vrlKTcas in the plain districts the rdvahvori system |>revails, in the hill 
tracts the Und is held in t\^args or faima, and not in separate fields. 
In the level coontry, the soil is classified as irrii^ated arcl unirrigaicd, 
thcfonner being called ' wel,' and the lailct 'dry* laud, each producing 
diflercnt kinds of cropK. C^ardcn land in cUued separately. The 
po«ise«uon of this last, or of irrignCed land, al^^ayfl carrieii with it a ]>ro- 
prietaiy right : bul it wtiuld appear that 'drjr'lnnd fiirmerly belong p< I 
10 the State, which could at any tirae reimme it for any public object 
without comfieasation- The rdyafs receivwl paf/as^ which were yearly 
renewable* being ntber running accounts ihnn real Icahc* ; and aa the 
Tiles were often arbitrarily fixed at the pleasure of the s/idnafiAttg or 
vtll^^c acconntant, great discrepancies were found to exist, and groM 
partiality was commoTi. 

To remedy this capricious and complicated mode of assessment, it 
«aa detciniiaed in 1863 lu InUoditce the system of Survey and Setile- 
ment purtued in the Bombay Presidency, accordingto whiL-hthc survey, 
clarification, and nsscfisment are disposed of in their several branches 
under th* wpcrrision of one responsible head- The process is not 
expeditious, ouing to the great c^ire and discrimination required to 
ensure a imstworthy cL'UKification and an equitable assessment; but as 
ihc lease* hold good for thirty yc^r*, aad give a comjjtete proprietary 
right, a substantial boon is conferred on the cultivntors. The limits of 
the «ifvcy 'numbers/ which. t:encrally s|Jcnkiog, comprise .1* many 
fields or as much land as can be ploughed by a pair of bullocks, are 
shown by mounds of earth called bdndhs^ at the comers of each 
* number* and slang the sides. 

In iS66,an /vtm Commission vas fotmcd for ihc purpose of ifiquiriog 
inro the rcnl free holdings, the inJmddn tecuving fresh ^ronlSt which 
specify the amouni oftiuit-rent wliere such is payiblc. In ]8$o-3i> tlu^ 
f/idm Commmion cloned iu imiuinefl. The number of imi/n bndit 
confirmed! were 57tMH, of whidi 57,726 were enfrandiL^^ and 162 
unenrnnchiscd ; of whoic villages there were 3095 confirmed ; t i^^oa 
«rrfw lands were resumed for invalidity of tenure; and 4658 ca«* 
were Strutk oiT" as neilhcr idciitifiiible nor cojuycd. Tin: total cxsnt 
of tht Commi«xon to the close of 1S80-S1 amounted to ^^95^3$^, 
while the toul nddiiion lo the revenue during th« tonus period w^n 

In the Maltidd. alihougU for admtniuraiive purposes there are 
nomiTul vJltagL's, the .igricultunKU do not Uve in cornmunities* but cAcIi 
rent-|i;iyer has his uwn farni» and his own bbourcn^, who were (briociiy 
serf*. The absence of any orgiini^tion like ibai of the Ayagdr 01 
ffiira BnioH (the la village officials), which prevailed in tbe plain 
Hisiricts of course threw all authority into the h;mds of the pdt4i or 
farmerp who, so long as he paid the Governinem demand on hi* farm, 
»a« pracEjcally utnnipoteni, except when erinici of a gr^vc nature 
look place within his jurisdiction. In ihc wilder part of the country^ 
the hcfl<f m(?n received fronj ihc State grants of rent-free land in recog- 
nition of their feudal xEatus, The rural slavery whirh mninly upheld 
this system ws* aboUshed by order* of the Governm^ni of India; 
but it docs not seem to have been of a specially oiipre^ivc kind* 
the Piiteii^ as a rule, treating their serfs r^ithcr as menial servants thin 
a* slaves. 

The Malndd farms comprise, besides rice lands and areca-nut ^rden^ 
a certain projiortion of wood for timber and fuel, and gra^n^ ground 
for cattle, the woods in M>me instances heinj^ exlcnsivc forests called 
ksins^ in which strc grown cclfce. pcj>per- vines, and oiher producu. 
Sivappa Nilyak of KcbUi, who rukd over ihc Nag-ir countiy in the 
middle of the 1 jlh cculury, fixed the Govcrmneni ^Hate of ihc produce 
at ontr-third, taking as the b£isis of his valuation the quantity of sved 
requited lo sow a definite area of land, called locally the Mjit'ari (from 
t^ijd, a seed). The loial as-sfssmcnt, called the s/tist^ leem* to ha^-c 
been equitable: but his succcsj^ors, and notably Hatdar AU, added 
%'aTjous cAlra charges called pafti, amounting to oocthifd more, which 
bore heavily on the landhclder. The new settlement is rcciiljing this 

The only other tenure of importance \% land granted for coffee 
cultivation, on certain s])ecified ccnditionn a$ lo the pbntaiion of a 
fixed number of plant* every ye«r, pnd the payment of ;m "excise' at t 
rupee (js.) |;er cwt. Such grani!* have virtually been ijj&ucd under the 
guar^tntce of ihc Bniti^h Govcrntncnu and arc tliereforc as valid aa 





anyotbcT lea&Cfv provided lh;tl the coii<Jluon« referred to h^^ been 
fniffy compli(;<i intK The paym^iu of 'eK<:J3r-' hns reccriEly been 
superseded by xx\ a»euinimt on thr rnllivaieil are^. 

Coffee landi arc nowCiSS^I held on nnMrca^a5s<:ssmcnt— either at 
I rupee {2%.) per acre with a gturanicc for 30 yc^rs on the terms of Uie 
Survey Scnicmcfit; or on a permanent asscMinem of 1} rupee (i*.) i>cr 
acre to Uiose who may desire ii, on the terms of tlie Madras Coffee 
Land Rules, reserving to Go\'emment the cUim to royaJiy on valuable 
mineral product^ namely, metals and precious stcnci, Nearly all the 
Lu£c planters have adopted the permanent tenure. 

Gnua Land*, merely for purposes uf pdstuie and grovth of fuel or 
gnuMi* for fodder, arc gmnUtl on a M:pi»T;ttc asacasincnt of 4 Annas 
(6d-) per acre, provided thty arc in clearly defined compact blocks, 

Tht J^mjnt pf i'&-i6-^%. — The drought which affected all Southern 
India in it'jt-'j^ fell nJth especial severity ui;jon Mysore. From 
October 187s to October 1877, four iuccesiiie monsoons failed to 
bring their fuQ 3up|)ly of run. The harvcic of 1875 was gencratly 
below the avemge, and remiittiona of revenue were found tict:c$«aiy; 
bat it ITU not till towards the close of 1S76 that famine wai recogniacd 
to be abroad in the land. The crops of that year, in some )un% had 
yielded only onc-clghth ; and even in the less stricken DiMricta of 
I-Iaxun bjkI Shimoga, under tlie IVciiern Ghdia, only one-half of a fair 
harvcM v^a leathered The administration promptly opened /clLcf< 
yrofXtAt aed ap|iealcd to the -is&iHlancc of privnic charity, ItuC here, a» 
ebewhere, the calamity suddenly swept onward with a rush which foie- 
light could not anticipate, and which measures of palliation were unahle 
to cc^ with< Actual sLar\-ation, with its attendant train of diseases, 
KKm became common. The miserable inhabitants, losing all traditions 
of social cohesion, flocked into Bangalore by thousand:^, only to die In 
the&ueetaof the cantonments. On the other hand, grain wa$ poured 
into Bangalore by the Madras Railway ; but ihc means for bringing the 
food to the hungry mouihs were madequaic. 

When the rains of 1S77 again held olT during July and Augusl, the 
croirda at the relief centres lntieui»ed, and ihc muttality Ux^ldc vciy 
great. It was in these circuinsianccs, at the beginning of September, 
that the Viceroy vititcd Bangalore and directed the adoption of a 
cystem of relief UiKcd on that followed in the Bonib-iy Prcaidcncj-. 
The labourers were to l>e concentrated on large vork»; and the relief 
csUblishmcnt va& f^enerally auj^menied 

The suflerin^c reached its worst in September 1^77, when a total of 
280,000 penons throughout the State ivere in receipt of relief, of whom 
only 34,000 were employed on wofks under professional suijervision. 
In that nontb, the famine deaths reported m the town of Bangalore 
avera^d about 40 a day, while dout>lc that number perished daily in 


lherpli/"fc^mpft,indhotpitaTt- In October iSjj.thencrih-eaflmonwon 
broke with a fair ntinfall, nod niltivndon at hst became |>oi£si1>le. The 
»urvivorsreiumcdtoihcir villages, to commence ploughing with the few 
oxen that remained to them, and sow the seed supplied by Bnglish 
bcnevdence. ;Vs ihe year 1S78 wore on, despite some alarms of a 
recurrence of distresi in March and April, relief openuons ftxre 
^(lually contracted ; but tt will tnke many years lieforc Mysore recoTers 
its normal condition of prosperity* It is e^ijma:cd that one-founh of 
the total (jopnlation, or about a million, were swept away by Man-ation 
or diitcaaci the monalhy among caitic is returned at a quarter of a 
ntilHoo; besides crops the value of which wouW have been nine and 
iHrcc-quarter millions stcrUng. The total amount expended by the State 
fin r^mini? rclicfj as rctufned by the Famine Commiswon, wau about 70 
I'ikJis (jCj 00 fioo) ; besides remissions ofbnd revenue, which amounted 
to aS IdHs (^380,000), The invested surplus of many years, amount- 
'"fi ^^ ^^^^^i^oo, was quietly abtorbcd ; and a lo^in of was 
ftdvanccd by the British Government. In Addition, 1 sum of ;£i5£iOoo 
was allotted to Mysore out of the Mansion- House Relief I-und- 

Manufactures, — The manufactures of Mysore are not of great import- 
ance, as the people are mainly agricultural. The chief manufacture is 
ihai of iron, for which there Is a foundry at liingalore, besides petty 
local furnaces. The metal is found vu great quantities in many parts of 
the State, by digging in the lower hills which inEenccI the country 
from north to south. The smelting furnaces arc of a rud<; but ^ffecdre 
ch.vBcier, and nt present supply all the requirements of the cultivators 
But the ore is so rich and abundant, that it Keems probable thai 
improvements in the ]irocess would he attended with profitable results. 
The annual produce of iron from the numcroui; mines of the State b 
estimated at 57,608 matmds^ or 1343 Ions* The manufacture of steel 
hAS not hitherto been successful, owing to the fact that the fusion is 
imperfect umil the metal has been twice subjected to the fusing procev. 

Tanning is a com[>aratively new industry, but is rapidly growing. 
It is tnoatly carn<;d on by Muhanmi.idans. Pajier-maLEn^ ha^ died 
out The manufAclurc of glass bangles or bracelet* has long been 
successfully carried on at Maitod in Chiialdrdg Difitriei- Raw silk 
was formerly produced in considerable quantities, c*ipeciilly in the? 
neighbourhood of Bangalore- This industry, bo*e^e^ dwindled 
almost to nothing, owing to an obstinate disease amnngil tlie silk- 
worms. It is now said to be reviving. Amon^ other manufactures, 
the red morocco leather of Harihar, the blanl:ei> of Chitaldnig, 
Hind the carpets and jewellery of Rang.ilorc deserve mention. The 
dyeing carried on with vegetable products in Bangalore will compare 
favourably with the aniline dyes of Europe Cotton-s|^nning by the 
); _ 'is almost a thing of the (ivisi, and worsted thread has to be 







obulncd from England. A woollen factory vab stt up ot BnngAlorc, 
and though it wiK worked by hand at first, it \% now Icing replaced 
hy nuchincT}'. The total rsttmated value of mantif^irhirr's in Iho Stftic 
WAS, in id8o-St, jf 638,163 : ^"t ibis esiinuEc is merely approximate. 

Mints and QuarriiS,— Iron is worked in Bangalore ; and ihc exist- 
ence of gold-bearing rocks has been discovered in the north-hest of that 
DUtricL Great attention ha* recently been given to goM prosj^ect* in 
Kolir, and in the preient yc-nr ( 1 8S6) success seems to be at bsi reward- 
ing the cipiul and labour thai have been eiq>cndc<l on the enterprise- 

C(7i«M«nY.-^The follcwnng are the chief aTttcles of trade, ihc figures 
being tho&c of tbc Admin iMmcion Report of the Slate for id3r>-Si : — 
Exports — coffcCf ^99,403; areca or bclcl-niit, ^1^9,806; raj;!^ 
^115,410; rice and paddy, ^561,1^3; gram, ^88,979; cotton, 
^16.55$; piece-good*, ^68,5°^; coarse cloth. ^^6450; jaggcjy sugar, 
^8o,Sgo; fine sugar, j^'ifi.iSa ; gold. £<)(ioo; tobacco. ^10,167; 
*^11^- jf^S 1.000: cardamcms, £iCyA^i ; pe|>iwr, £\2,^^\ \ beieMcaves, 
jC^S^t^A' Impom— picce^od*, ^^^336,71^; silver, ;£5i.6o9; coarse 
cloth, ^39,^59; wheat, i;(55.37J; goI<l,^42,37'5; 001100.^^64,573; 

rice and paddy, j^i68.43o;arcca or betel-nut, ;^32,a97;roA'''i;^3®»45»l 
'^'^^ ^*5'9iS; pepper, ^^^6,541; tobacco, ^19,556 ; coarse MJgar. 
j(^ai,oi4; fiacsugar,X9^S7-' silk,;£;i3o,aoa ; betcMeavcs;C^59i^*^' 
The local value of the imporiji for the year is letumed at ^1,549,64$; 
and of the exports, p^),xo2,SC6. 

The trade of the Stale h thm of a limited character; and, as nnight 
bo expected in nn agricultural country like Mysore, it is chicRy in food- 
gnins and other articles of Icc^l produce. Coffee cultivaTed in Western 
Mysore It hrgcly exported to the western cout, and d^ence shipped to 
the Furopcan m.-irket, where it enjoys considerable favour BanKa3ore 
is the great trade cnire;>6t of ihc whole Stale, Local traffic it carried 
on mostly at the weekly markets or annual fairs (sanffs), which supply 
the place of shops. A good deal of areca-nut, gro^'n in the Bombay 
Presidency, parses through Mysore, where ii pays duly, to Waldjapel 
and Aroot in Mailras. Sandal-wood, whkh is a Siate monopoly, is not 
vhovm in the ahovi? rettim^ as the income derivi:d from it fcrm^ part of 
the rcirentic of the Forest DcpartmenL The receipts under thi.'^ head 
Auctu4tc gTcady according to the demand for the wood, but the avcr^^c 
innual inronie diiiiiig thirty year* has been nhoiit ^13,000. 

/fa^iifs art J /fiji^'ayt.— Ahoitl $$ miles of the Bangalore Branch of 
the South-Wert ^^nc of Madras Railway are within Mysore State. The 
Mfsorc Government has continued, on the metre gauge, a branch 
line to Mysore city, a distance of 86 miles. During 1SS3-84, the 
detailed plans And estimates for a farther extension south to Nnnjangad 
<i4) miles) were ready. The Mysore State contcmplatesconstrucringa 
throng line on the metre gauge from Bangalore city to the southern 



fo8 MYSOUE, 

cvttns,if>n of ihc Southern Maiiih:! Railv^y triA TdmktSr, TiptiSr, 
Ajjjmirur, and Davangi^rc, about 210 nilleL O^ thiA lhroai|;h line. 54 
miics had been opened for public Iraffic up to the «nd of i&S^- Thus 
there were (18S4) in M>^orc mo miles of railwa]? beknging to ibc 
State ; while the Madras K;ii1way, in ihcir Bangaiorc branch )ii>e, had 
About 55 miles in the St^ie. The 140 miles of State railwa)' have been 
hid down at a cost ol ;£055,ooo, or about ^4500 a mile;. To Banga- 
bre, a« tlie main centre, arc broui^hi by ihese lines the greaU'r pan of 
the njffcc, arcca-mit, anil gtlict f>iodu<:t5 uf the «e!»Lcrii ;ind Docth- 
wcatcrn tJ/uh, An excellent network of Trovinci*! and District road*, 
vith an aggregate length of 30^9 miles^ p«mi«3teb the State ; and grcAi 
•ittention hta been paid lo the numerous passes leJLtlin^ throitigh xhtr 
(ihdt,^ lo the Low countTy in North and South KAnara, the prind|ul 
of these Itncs being the Gcrsoppa, Kofiir, Haidargarh, and AgtimbJ 
^'JtJe roads in Shiinoga, ilic Bund or Kodckal Pass on ihc frontier of 
Kadur and Ha^an, and the Manjar^bdd j^/td/ in the tJ/ttJk of that 

/ffrrfrtit and SxpertJitH/r. — In 1791, the gross revenue of Mysore 
was rcltjmed by Tipii Sultan at 1,419,500 pngodas^ or say ^f 400,000. 
In iSo^-o^, under the management of the Dlwdn Pum*iya, the revenue 
had iiBcii to ;^74o,ooa, but it ripidlj fcU when ihe laic Mah^ij.i took 
the govcron^ent into his own hands. In 1SJ3-34, llie first year of 
British adminlEtraiion, the amount realised was only ^550,000^ A 
coiintlrss number nf vemiious imposts have since heen abolished, and 
personal debts of the late Riji liave been |>aid olT to the amount of 
^750,000, The rcvenui; now stands at more than a million sterling, 
although during the |>eriod 1S70-80, ^mine ha« caused con^derablc 
tluctuaiions. In iSl^o-S 1, the actual amount of receipts n'oa ^1,009, 524* 
the chief items being — land revenue, ;£7ai.334 ; c^kdri or excise, 
,£931984; sayar or customs, ^ijii'^S^ » imhtarfa or assessed taxet, 
^^37,052 ; forests, j£^6S^o59; law, police, and jutticc, ^10,04^ ; 
stamps, ;C4^7SH. The following were the chief items of cxpcndiiure: 
— Civil aclminiuration, ^85^,500; British 5u1)iSLdyT ^^^45.000; public 
woiks, ^106,999 J military foice, ^75,438 ; Riji'5 personal expenses, 
^35,745 ; religious and eharitnblc inslilutrons, j£'37>47^- 

In 1883—84, the actual amount of receit-^ts ^as ^ r .063,557, the chief 
items bdng — land revenue, ^733.447; excise. ;^iaj.973 ; forests. 
^6^,7^8; stamps, ^46,508; cubloms, ^ 28,34 ^ ; assessed Uxes 
j^2$iI44p In the 5arac year the total expenditure amounted to 
;^»-<>"3.55t> showing a 5ur|>lLis of ;^4g,6o0, including j£i6.453. ^^ 
surplus revenue of the Assigned Tract The following were the chief 
Items oi ex |>enditure : — Subsidyr^^ 2 45^000; civtl hftt^X^^^i^^^* '^^erest 
on public debt, ^49,123; miliury force, ;^73iSoo; administration 
(land levcmic chaiges)» ^^150,447 ; 1-^w and jusiicci £^A^^^^1 \ police, 






j^45,»i8; public worts, ^95,6oc; TcUgious and cTiAniable inttltuiioDS, 

Zfvtf/ /S/jirfr.— For tbe maintenance of District to^uIs and other local 
«>b}ecti, a cess is levied of i ainna in the rupee on the land revenue, 
and on certJiin minor collections. The former cess of i anna iu the 
rupee, nlso k-vicd on inigaied lands for the nudntcntncc of the tanks 
in each District, is now merged in the land revenue, of wbich ore- 
seventeenth is sel apart for irrij^aiion work*. The amount collected 
on account of local funda in 1S75-76 wa% ^^51,706, and in iSS^~S4 
^7*ii57i of which 24 jicr u:m. was set for the support gf village 

Afutii^^Ji/in liftvc been esCftblUhed at all Diatrict Fiead quartern. 
Th« local n'jmbcT of miLnicipalilies in 1SS0-S1 was S4, ;i« against 77 
the year before. The lotal popalation within nmnicipal limits war, in 
i98i, 503,444. The municipal committees In iftSo-Si <\>nsistcd of 
tx affido meinlxTx and non-official member who arc nominated by the 
l^rcsidcnE of the Board nnd approved by the I-ocal Covemnicnl, In 
1880-Si there vcrc 341 Tncinbers on the various local boards, S9 of 
whom were tx ^iao. The toul munidpal tncomc in rSSo-8i was 
^43,1 i3t a>id the expendJiure j£35-2*S- The income ii chiefly 
dtrnvcd fruni gciroi duties, and taxes un hiiuacs and Kbops. In 
iftfic^Si, ^16^307 wai derived from the former ai>utcc, and j£ro,5io 
from the bUcr. Traders paid for licences, ;^4a7i- The number of 
miinidpaTilies in iSS3'-S4 was S6; total T^c^\\y\% jQ^%%^i ; ami cxpcn^ 
ditiire. ^a6,(So3- 

FuNic iriV**.— Prior to 1S56, most public work* not of a icchnical 
chancter woe executed by the civil olHcers, great attention being paid 
to tanks and 10 the main communications of the State. Tlie out- 
lay firom iSji to 1856 was— on irrigation works ;^335,ooo; on loads, 
;Cj87,503 ; and on buildings, ^6c,ooo. Since the institution of the 
Public Work* Department, the total outlay during twenty years, 
exchisive of eitabliihracnt, was ^1,890,915, of whidi ^967,491 was 
assigned to communir-iiions, _:^5i8,oi7 so a^culiurc and iirigiiicn, 
and ^*9ip?93 t<^ <^ivil buildings. Even before the time of the famine 
fl|>ecial attention had for several ycar^ been given to the restoration, on a 
regular t)'Ste!nn, of the more important tan1c<: anii down to 1879a «um of 
j£ao8^3(7 wa.^ sjwnt for this i>ur[»oie. The Public Works expenditure 
in i88o-3i was £%t%,7%i. In addition, ^155, 715 was sjient on the 
Mysore Stale Raih^ay. The Budget Grant for 1SS3-S4 was ^153,600, 
ofwhich;^95,ooowasfor Provincial service works, ^48,500 for District 
works, and ;^io, 100 for inigaiion works. 

fiffnat.—\Ti i863-<i4, a forest Conservancy Department was inin> 
duced, which has materially conduced to the preservation of valuable 
timber, vhi^e reserving the ri^ht? of culcivacor:> to trees on ilicir 

holdings plnnled by thoinselve* or previous occoiiicTip undal-vood 
excepted 1'hcrc were in i&So-Si, 643 squnrc miles of reserved 
forcsU. In addUion, great numbcis of trees bavc been pUni«d alonf 
roads and in villages. The revenue of the def-Mncneni in iSSo-St 
was ^68,0119; and of this, jCs2,336 was derived from the sale of 
sandal -wood, 171S tons of which were collected during the year. In 
1SS3-S4 there were S98 square mtlc* of reserved forests, and aibout 
70D square miles of unreserved forcsis. The revenue of the Forest 
l_>c|Jartnient in 1833-84 was ^37.^97- 

Ptfiiiai /^tta/Ui<s, — The plan of extending potit^ communicationt b)r 
Oficnmg village oflices under the Uo^/i or village tehoolmftsten, ku 
beeo auempted with some success. There are now (1S8]) in th« Pro- 
virice^ 180 offices', and a new postal line is bein^ eiftabtisfed 10 bring 
the coffee distria of Koppa into more direct communication with 
Chikmagaliir, the hcad-fiuariera of Kadiir District, When this u done* 
the postal lines cf the Province will aggregate J477 mile* in lei^b. 
Jn iSSo-5i, the number of paid letters carried vas 1.167^15. The 
annual revenue from all postal sources in 1S80-S1 was j^fiSi; the 
expeDdilure was ;£i 5.965 ; so that the cost to revenue of the postal 
departmcm was ;^IQ,78* f^r the year. 

/uiticc^ — ^Thc B/siciii of judicial procedure, Iwih civil acd criiaitul, 
is now assimilated to that in force in Dritish territory. In fonacrday^ 
/tai/M/^'fi were largely retried to for the adjudication of ciTil eft»% 
and great blirnde was given to ihe officers presiding in the rourtt. 
The greater part of the civil work is now (1884) performed by Hhmtifs, 
having jurisdiction in suits up to ^100 in value, with small cuiie 
powers up to jCs 1 ^^'^ ^y subordinate judges, ivho dispose of suits 
between £100 and jCs^° ^ ^^' these officers being obliged to write out 
their decrees themselves. !n appeal cases, the opportunit)- of appearing 
liersonally is aUays aftordeJ, The number of muHsiJs in iSSo was 115, 
or au average of two for every fdiuk in the State- The number of civil 
cases decided in 1880 was i7,4^<. of which 53 per ccnL were uncoti- 
iGsted- The total value in dispute was ;£"4tSio^ In Ukc ^anie 
year, (he total number of criminal oflfenee^ (great and nnall) was 
9695; the numlier of per^oni brought Co trial wa« tA,9ft9, of whom 
93^3, or 487 per cent., were convicted, being 1 person convicted of an 
offence uf w:*me sort to every 45^^ of the population. The number 
of prisoners in jail at the end uf 1880 ivas 21261 of whom $7 were 

The number of civil caHcs decided in i88j was 141085, with a value 
of^i&8,»47, of which nearly three-fourths were uncontested. In ihe 
same year, the total nnmbcr of criminal offences (great and smali) w-a* 
9138; the number of persons brought 10 trial was 18,059, of whom 
6006, or 32 \y*^i cent-, >vcrc cvniJetcdf being i pcnon convittcd gf ao 





tffenet of some Mrt to eveiy 697 of the popubii^n. The nombcr of 
pnsoncrs in jftil at the «nd of tSSj was 1309, of whom 68 were fcinak^. 

Prior to i$6^ Utile attcDtion was paid to jait discipline, the coDvicts 
being employed in gangs in the construction of roads ; but all hhour is 
now, with nre exception^ iiitcauiural. A iintclaa^ (irison, on the 
l^nopticon principle, wa* in that jeat erected at Bangalore-, the convicts 
being taught vanou* manuftifitures, iiidi as making carpels, lent*, 
bUnkcts for horses^ bctiilen -iniclc^ reiiuircti for jail purposes ^^^ ^^0 
printing, lithography, cAr|ientr), etc. The diy c^irih sy&tcrn for sciva^t; 
h^ been introfluccd witfi grcAC aucccss tbc refuM: being uied in ihc 
prison g^irden. The total coM of the jails in iSJto was ^) 9,850. 
The net coti of inaintatning the convicts aver;^i: ^^6, loi. per head 

yWwp.— The police force consisted till a recent period of the aEicicnt 
nlbge watchmen, and of the kanjoi^iir peons, who vitxt the remains 
of the armed militia of the countr>'. Thou^^h they had a good know- 
ledge of the criminal cla^e^ in their several beats, they had no s|>:cliI 
ttaiiung or organiution. In 1866, the kamiarhdrs were superseded in 
Bangalore Uistrict by a constabulary under a European officer. Ste|»s 
have been taken, whik preserving on an improved bads the village 
|>o1icc, to iiiLrodttcc a superior < lass of intu intv the icj^ulor pt^hcc, ly 
giving them better pay. A (lollce assistant in each l>i;tirict ha» i\\c 
management of the lc>cal police. In iSSo-St, the force consisted of 
510 nfBreni and ifoAi mc-n^ rmployed in the nita] Dhlrirls and la 
municipal towns and cantonments. 'ITte co^t was X59,997, of whirh 
^5i,4(>4 was paid from Ihc general revenue andX75^5fnjm municipnl 
fimda. Tbcsc figures show 1 policeman to every 916 of the population 
and to ever)' 5*4 square miles of the aiex 

Miiitary.—}Ay>ntt ^jayi a yearly i^uhsidy to the British Government 
*>f £j45tO«:»<^^^"*i>ially to be rabecl to ;C35c,ooo» for the maintenance 
of a force fox the defence of its territory. The existing strength of 
tliis force is— tlic hcJid-quartct^t and a battery of horse atliUery, and 
3 6eUl batteries ; a rcgimcm of Euro]}can ciivalr)- ; zt regiment of Euro- 
pean ial^jitiy; the Se^d-4u:Lrteis and 4 cuni)>aiiieti of uip]>cr3 ; a 
rcginKnt of Madras csivaTry ; and 3 rcgimonii of Madras N.itive 
lnf;intry,— ^1] stationed in Ihc civil and military st:ition of l*nngaIore. 
Before the rendition of the State, irooi^! wen: stationed at French 
Ki>cks, near Seringapatam, as i^cll as at B.^ngalore. 

The local force in i^£o-3i coDsiatcd of 1106 (in 1S83, 1160) 
horsemen called siUaddn, divided into 3 rcgimenti ; and 3 regiments 
nf fool, called Afr, numbering 1831 in 18S0-81 [190S in i8Sj~84)» 
1'he si!ia4drs have at various j^erlods done good service. \n 1807 tZiey 
wrre a Biru«ig Inidy of 4000 men, but their eHidcricy gradually declined, 
A few ycaii ago, coosid^mhlc rcductioa^ were made in their strength, 









while tJio«c who rcmninrd were beiii^ cloihcil and armed, ajid tf 
whole force was brought under proper control l^e siUaJdn arc| 
employed at outposts for intcroa! leairiiyj and do useful wwk in ' 
aiding the police in the pursuit of criminals. The Hr arc the rcroaim 
of Hntdar Alfs army, now exclusively ero]>loyed in j^uarding trcisiine* 
and jails, and in escorting treaiture. They are a very serviceable and 
ucU-conftuttecl body of men. The Bangalore Rifle Valuntcer Corptj 
had, in t8fio-S],;t strength of 415 men, of whom 177 uxre cflicicnL 

Jifisshas. — The Roman Caihotic population of the Province \%\ 
estimated at 20,0^9, of whom 18,063 arc na^iv^ft. The Roman 
Catholic miMion <s,isM compriecs 56 parochial churches, b«sid«s 9 
cotlegJAl and 7 convcnnia.1 chapels. There are »3 Furopean and 6 native ^ 
miinonaries, presided over by a Bishop, subject to the VicarApostolic 
The London MiasionajT Society has s Protestant mission srationK. Its] 
operations are carried on by 3 European missionaries, t native priests, 
8 native preachers, and 47 ischool teachers, There are 15 Wesleyan 
mission stations. 

Eiiuiatii/K.—\Jxx\t attention va^ paid to education in Mysore before { 

1554, although some schools had been opened by the Wesleyans ; inj 

1555, the Government expendilme amounted to only jC^^^^ ^^ 
185S, the present Central College n-a^ csl.ibliKhcd at Urnigalore. tn 
iE6t, a normal school^ aod in the iiexi year an cng;i^e(^^ng ichool, 
u-ere added ; while ediicafion begin to spread through the outlying 
Districts. In the yeai i368, a system of primary education for the 
masses was introduced, which has attained a great and deferred 
success. Ie consisted in the esublishmeni of a school in ev^ry one of 
the 645 koblii {or minor fincal units) of the State, the cort of the 
scheme being met by a contribution of 24 per cent, from the Local 
Funds. The teachers were paid Rs. 7 a month, or ai the rile of about 
jg8 a year, the people pTOviding school accommodation ; l>ut no fees 
were levied from the scholars, the result being that the ^cliools became 
very popular. In if^75-76, the total number of tchoob of all clones 
in the Stale wa.^ 724 Government schools, 1 14 aided schools, and f J50 
private gchools : grand total, aiSS a^^hools, with 54,191 pupils— earclu- ^1 
sive of 7 school^ with f)7n pi)piU» imdt^r the miliEnry anthorltio;. ^| 

Latterly, a further educational advance has taken place. Kxpen* ^^ 
diiure has been mere largely thrown upon I/^cal Funds, which non* 
bear upwards of half the cost 0/ instruction, relieving the State to 
the extent of over £(>oqq, .\ satisfactory feature in this advance is 
Ihc increased receipts from school fees. In 1&80-S1 the educational 
income was £^^^2s^, of which ^^4 163 was collected from feef and the 
sale of bocks, the remainder representing the contri!>uiion from Local 
Funds and munitipal committees, The number uf SeaIc and aided 
schools in iSSo was io37| as againM S58 in 1S75-7I1; the number 



of pupiU in iSSo WAS 43.^57. Of (he whole number, however, cnly 
1^1 are educated up 10 the univeTsit)v>taiidariI. The Mtal outlay on 
edticaiion tn iSSo-^i v:ki jC^9-9$^' '^'^^ returns »how i Stale or 
aided school to every s 2 S square miles, sncJ 10 pupils to ever)' thous^ind 
of the populatiojiH Female education k aho said to be growing in 
popularitT. In 1880, the number of girls under insuuclton was ^944. 
'Vht: Census of 1S81 returned 64.^3^ boys and 3636 ^jirU as under 
instruction, together mih 109,965 males and 544O females not under 
instruetioo, butalik to rt^ad oiid write. 

In 1863-34, the tutal numbei of schoolji of all da^acs in My»jtc 
was 937 State fichooU, 197 aided schoolsij and 1254 private «chooU ', 
,0chooU, with 63,490 pupils. Of the wholi! numWr of 
,4(61 iverr^ boys and jSfS f^r1& Tbe^ figures show 1 
school to every 10 square miles, ^ind 15 ]>U]>ila to every thousand of the 

AfeJiVa/ /lu/ift/tuJfij.^'Vhe mcdicil InMitucions consist of 3 genenl 
hospitaU, 17 ^JsjH.-nsitr]cs, ^\'itli a lunatic asylum (140 inmates), and a 
leper hospital (34 inmates) at Bangalore- Number of v^iccinations, 
94,010. In 1880-81, the total number of patients treated was 156,9891 
of irbom 3515 ftcie in-paiicnts. Maternity boBpitals ba\'c been opened 
ai MyK>ic ^id B;ingalorc. Great iuipiovL'mcni had t^en place in tbu 
Fcgibtratfton of vital iiati»tic3 of the general population. The number 
of births registered in iSSo-Si was 87,315, or acS per thousand 
of the population. The binh^iate was in thr proponinn of 106*5 
male) to cTCr>' too females. The number of deaths recorded was 
80,391, or IQ'07 per thousand As usual, the greatest number of deaths, 
ii^^tbifds of the whole, ^vere A-tcrtbed to fever. [For fuither information 
regarding Mysore State, see the GaitHcen^f M}'SQre^ by Mr Lewii Rice, 
2 xoXs. (Itangalore, 1877).] 

lIyiore(or-Wj*riA-wrtf, ' Hunaloiowti,' the generally accepted deriva- 
tion being from Mafush-iUura, the buffalo-hcaded demon : corrupted 
10 Ma^ihiir, and to Afahur, Afyivre). — District forming the ^outbcin- 
moftt portion of Mysore State, included in the A&htajjrim Uivlaion; 
nttiaied bctw(;cn 11^6' and ta° 45' s'. kt^, and between 75' 56' and 
77* 14' K. long. ArKT, 79S0 SfjuAfc mile*, and a popuUtion, according 
10 the Census of i85i» of 901,566 persons. Ikiundcd on the nonh 
by Hassan and Tdmlciir Disliicis of Mysore Slate; cast by Bangalore 
District of Mysore State and the Madras District of Coimbatoa- ; 
^ulh b)' the Madras Dislricus of Nilgiil and Malabar; and west by 
Coorg. II1C adminiiirative head - quarters and residence of the 
Mihdiijd arc ac MviOftt Tows'. 

J'hyMoi Atpt£is^ — The Disirici of M>^re has been desaibed as an 
BiuluUtang Dble-land, well nooded and fertile, and watered by ]jcrtnni;il 
streann, w'hkh feed numerous artificial channels. There is n gradual 



fall in ihc \<\'c\ oi t^c i>lain Trom weal lo ca«t, following the courfic of 
the Kiveri <Cauvj;r>'J ; and ihe extreme *outh, along the ikirt* of ihc 
Nilgiri Hilln, i« ocrtipierf hy *t /ani/ of marshy and dense jungk. 
l,ofty mounl^iin fange% rovcred with primeval forcM*, >hut in ibc 
District on the H'^stern. the southern, and the greater part of the 
eastern frontier. The only break in this birricr is where the Kireri 
Lbursts throtigh the Ghdts and forms the ^Icbrated fJtUs of Sivasa* 
pnudram. The hi|;hesi range of htlU ]a the Biligiri - rifigaii to Ihe 
souih-ea^t, which attnin a height of alioiit 5000 feel :i1>Dve tealevei 
The general elevation of ihc |ibieau varies from 3500 to 2800 feet 
The great river of the DiMricI is Uic KAVtRt (Cauvcryl, which in 
ii»cru]ne33, in nanctity, an<1 in picturc^uc features is (cjtrccly »iirpai«cd 
throughout Incii^ It riseft in Coorg, and croisefl the District of 
\f y*oTe from west to ea*i, flowing by the aneient eapitih of SeringapaUm 
and Talkad. At the Distria boundary it encircles the i«bnd of 
Sivasamiidram, ncnr the magnificent waterfall of that name ; and finally, 
after forming the no less sacred island of Srirangam, ii reaches the Hay 
of Bengal through the fertile delta of Trichinopoli and Tanjorc, ihe 
two main arms being called rcspeclivdy the Coleroon (KoIidan)aDd 
Ihc Kiveri (Cauvery). Its chief tnbutarieft in Mysore Uisiria arc the 
Hemavati, I.okapavani, and Shimsha on the left bank, and the 
t,AK-SMMAP<-rEKTHA, KAiihANf, -ind HoNNU-HoLK on ihc tight. All ihcsc 
nIrcAnia, as (^cU aa the main rivers, arc abundantly used for irrigation- 

Thc geological formation principally consi^ifi of gr^inite, gnci«4, qjartx, 
syenite, and hornblende In some phce^ these rocks are overlaid with 
laterite. Trnn aboundn in nil the hills, and is extensively smelted and 
worked into a cteat variety of impIement*H ,Stone* containing magnetic 
iron arc especially valued for medicinAl purposes. Cold is washed in 
insignlficani tjimniiiics in some of the hill streams, Other mineral 
substances applied to a practical use are talc, aabestos, flint nodules, 
and potstone. The prevalent soil throughout the District is a red loam, 
but the more fertile "black conon-aoir is found in the south-easL A 
^eat belt of foiCAt t-Jtcnds along (he western fronlier of the District 
for 3l diBtance of about So miks, vai)'ing from ^ to 6 milcn in width. 
Besides the common forest treeSj sandal-wood, teak, and hlnckwood are 
to be seen ; the date-palm ;ilso is very abundant. Kvcn the most highly 
cultivated tracts yield a plentiful supply of wood for fuel. There are 
altogether i3o square miles of forest reserves, for the must part in the 
He^ada Dex-anakot fiUuk. These forests harbour henis of wiUI 
elephants, which owasionaUy commit great devastniions on ihc culti- 
vated Gelds. In recent years^ however, their number? have greatly 
diminished, owing to the spread of agriculture ; and since i863 orders 
for their strict preservation have been in force. A Jifi€d*fa part>, in a 
single day in 1S74, captured a herd of 55 of these aniiuals, including 

.vy'soRE DisrnicT. 




■ 5 tiukcTK. 11gci9 and bison arc aUo numcrQus, but ihc annual 
number of (Icaibf from wil<J ht^i^ his nov been reduced tt> a low 
average. The other wild atiimala include bears, leopards, s<imhhar and 
spotted deer The principal vingcd game are pea-fowl, jungle-fowI, and 

/fislory.—lhQ history of Mysore District h mainly identical with the 
gencrnl history of the State. 'I'he banks of the S3<^rtfd Kaveri (Cauvcry) 
abound in legendit, associated with ever^npid and island, sone of which 
refer back to the times of the Mahdbhdrata. The earliest mention of 
Mysore b found on a tablet of the Buddhist monarch Asoka, 345 it.c.» 
but the idenEiticaiion is somewhat doubtful. "J'hc first authentic record 
leiens to the city of Talkad on the Klveri, near the eastern portion of 
the Dtslrict, irhicb wai the cajiiiul at one liiitc of llie Kon^^s m CS^ngan 
Htm of kiog^ who ruled in Southern India from the 3rd to the ^ih 
renttiry A,i>. The Kon^us or CJang^u were KUccce<!#d by the Cholis, in 
their turn owrthrown by the Hoy<Ala BnlUla cJynasly, who have left 
tnany moaumectK and in^rriplionK throaghoul the District- The chief 
cities at ilsi» period ^rrc Tiikad, Nagnrapura, Dorasamudm, and 
Soinnithapura. In the 14th century, the Hoysala Ballala linecime to 
an end, and the Vljayanagar sovereigns became paramount throughout 
the South Their viceroy, known as Srf-ranga-riyal, from his residence 
at ScTTngapaLain, levied tribute from the surrounding country so far 
as it dkj not fnli tinder the dominion of seniiindepcnOeni feudatory 

Among these Ceudaiory chiefs* the Wodejajs of Mysore graduaHy rose 
into protbinence- The family cnnnoi boasi of iiny great aotiquily. The 
lirst of the name U said to have ;irTived, from Dw^irkd in KilhiJwir^ as 
an adTenitirer 9\ the lilllr- vill.if^e of Hadaniru in the I4lh or 15th 
century, and to have won the hand of ilie heiress of the locjil pdl^sdr 
by his chivalrous conduct. It was not till 1524 that the fort of Mysore 
was built, on the site of a collage formerly named Puragcre, and named 
AfaAts^iim, bulTalo to^^n^ from Mahesftdsura^ the bunfalo-headed 
mon«er wliose destruction \% the most noted exffloit of the goddess 
VJdi. The Wodeyars henceforth rapidly ^rew m ]HJwer, umd in 1610 
they otnaincd possession of Scringapoiam fr»m the last of the Vijaya- 
ru^r viceroys, wheihcr by force or siratngem is unccruin. From ihis 
event may be dated the foundation of :hc Hindu kinijdom of Mysore* 
vhich continues to the ]n^nent day. 

The ^Vodeyar» nppenr always to liave remnined on good fermst with 
the Muhamnudan invaders^ who about thifi timr r^me di^wn from the 
north. The Bij^pur armies under the Mardthi Sh.^hji did not advance 
so far as this remote corner; bin when these armies were overthrown 
by the Mughals; the Wodeyflr of Mysore contrived to obmin his share 
iA the plimder. In 16E7 he purchased from Kisim Khin, the general 



of Aurang»b, lt>e fuil of Butigalorc for ihc sum of £y>^ooo \ find in 
1699 he obtained from the; !>clhi Emperor the right of Bilting on an 
ivory Ihronc — -to this day the bad^e of royalty Jn Wyiore. On the 
death of Chikka Pcvn R:ij in 1704- li"* dominions cxlcndM (torn the 
Kouih of Coimbatorc to the middle of Tilmkiir Di&tnct, and froiB the 
borders of Coorg to ibc Karndltk Ghits. It will be observed (hat these 
limiu are mach narrower than the present State of Mysore; and, raote- 
over, tlie sovereign rights of the Rdjd were );rcaiiy impaired bj the 
»emi-independence of his many feudatories. It \\ to the Mtjsaljniin 
usurper Haidar Alf that Mysore owed both its wjdeit extension and llie 
organised empire which tolerated no subjects bui slaves. 

From lljc beginning of iJic iSth Lcntuiy, the Wodeyars fell uudei the 
control of their Dalawdia or hereditary Mayon of the Palaoe. And this 
eireumstanee rendered it the more easy for Haidar AH to super«ede 
their authority, and finally tn rnls in hit own n.inio ; while the reprt- 
scntalivcs of the old Hindu dynasty were kept as State prisoners in 
tiieir own palace at Scringapatam, The usurpation of Haidor Al! is 
generally dated from 1761. It iss matLer of im^terial hi.story how, after 
the death of Tipii in 1 799, the Marquis of Wellcilcy resolved to restore 
the Hindu dynasty in ilie person of a Loy fo;ir years old ; how, in 
1S31, the Briijsh assumed the direct adnunistTaiion of the Stale, and 
in 1&81 restored the same to Native rule. In i8ii, Bangalore wa* 
fiA^rd upon as ihc niost healthy station for the Euro[*ean troops, and 
iis the head-quarters of the civil government* though Mysore viill 
continues to be th« c;hpirul of the Mahiraja, who resides in both toirn^ 
Ut different seasons of the ytjar. 

PopuIati4}n.—\ kMna-mmdrl^ or house enumeration of the people, 
iti [853-54, returned a total of 602,040 scuIe, exclusive of the jtf^fr 
fjf Yclinddr. Ttic regular Census of 1871 showed the number to be 
943,187, giviugan increase over the corresponding area of 57 percent, 
in the interval of 18 years, if the earlier estimate oin be trusted The 
Census of 1H81 made the following rettirn* :— I'opiilaiion. <]02,566, 
namely, males 44J,iT9» feniak-s 459,387; density of population i>cr 
M^uire mile, 303 ; villages pei aiuarc mile, o'ji ; houses per »<yuarc 
mile, 57a; persons per house, 6+ The Dinria contained 2137 towns 
find villages, ^.-onsisting of 13^,9)3 occupied and 31,721 unoccupied 
houses- i'he decrense in the jtopulalion is mainly due to the faniiiie of 
iS7fj— 77 ; during which Camint?, it is estimated, thf-rr had been a lo** 
(if about a million of lives in Mv-sorkSiair (^,r.). There were in 1&81, 
under i^ycars of age, ) 74,644 boys and 171.734 girls; total children. 
346,37s, or 384 per cent, of the District population. The adults 
numbered '^8,535 males and ^Sy^^sj fcotales; total, 556,iS8, or6i'6 
of the population. 

All the pcpulation figures in this ankle, and all a\cnigca and pet- 





<^eiitagcs calcubtcd iherefrom refer to Mysore District a$ con&titul^d 
in Fcbruaiy iSSi^ ont month before the renilidon of MysoTC Stale to 
ihc MaUriji, In 1833, however, there was a rcorKaniiation of 
OistrictA, ihc formcT Districts of Cbiulclriig and Hass.nn being 
aboUabcif, and their territories disinbuicd among other Districts. The 
rcsulu of the change, so far as regards Mysore District, is to make up 
a population of ta^4,0%y for the reconstituted Dlsirici, In the 
absence of later hgurcs, however, all statiHiici given jn thi^ article, 
except ^'Ucte oitierui^e iOaied, refer to the year of the Lut CenKua, 

In respect of occtipation, the Ccruua of 1 B$i divided ihc male popula- 
tion into th«foUovrmgMx nutingrvupEc— (]) rrofes^Lonal clais, including 
StAtc offci^li of ever)' kii»d -ind member* of the Ic^Lrned professions, 
16^405; (j)doin<^tie 4ieTVAntA> inn and lodging'hou^e keej>er*, 217S; 

(3) commercial class, including b^nken, merchants, carriers, etc., 7,^88 ; 

(4) agricuhural cbss, including shepherds, 197.966; (5) industrial clas», 
Including all mmufacttircrs and artisans, ^5-^79 > ^"d (6) indefinite and 
unproductive class, comprising all rvale children, general labourcn, and 
persons of unspecilied occupation, i9j}r9^.V 

The religious dimion of the peo|>le in iSSi :thowed — Hindus, 859,001, 
or95'i |3cr oetLi* ; Muh;im[nadan5, 40^91 6» or 45 percent. : Christtans, 
s6o^o< ©-^ per cent, ; P^fs, 36; *^<1 Sikh% 10. The Hindus were fuillicr 
ttib-dJTidodf according to the two great scct^, into wor^hippersof Vli^hnu 
and in>r3hipper« of SJva. In point of ca^te^ Brahmins numbered 33,008, 
chiefly belonging to the Smnrla sect; the claimants to the rnnk of 
Kshacinjahood were rctLirned at s6g2 ; among the Vais^-as, the Komads 
««e 3a6Si and ^others' 18,175; Jains, >St9; Mar^thds, 3723; 
Satdnis {serrin^ in Vishnuiie temples), 2616 ; Richew,ir% {athletes and 
filters), 19:>8. Of inferior^n, the moM numerous is the Wokligas 
(>5^^97)> *ho arc agricultural bbourers ; ^ethers' of the agricul- 
tural class, 6777; Kumbas (shepherds), 89,131 ; Bestars (fishennen), 
^4tl7^l Uppdrs (salt - makers), 20^476; Gotlirs (cowherds), 4216; 
Vaddirs (stone'ina^ona, svell-^iukerA, Uiik^di^^as), So^*) ; Kuncliigfirs 
(br^AH and copper amiihs), 3166; Ncyi^soa (wea^-cra), 3i»67j ; Idigars 
(toddy- drawers), (^363; Aguai {washermen), 14,313; Ganigdirs (Oil- 
prtficers), t '.$'5 ; Knmbini (pnltcrs), 10,056 ; Na|iit« (l'-"*'"hen), 6304. 
The Lingiyats, who have always been very influential in this p^rt of 
the country, were returned at 144,523, of whom many arc classified as 
agrirtitturist^ though trade ii the special occupation of the sect. Out- 
caMCt wtTC returned at 154,69^; wandering tribes, 1573; aboriginal 
non-Hindu tribes. 4355. 

The Muhammadans muster strongest in Mysore 'li/w^, and are almost 
all returned as Ueccani (Uafcshmi) Muhammadans. They arcdi&tri- 
bulcO by the Ccnsiu Into 33,060 Sunni^, 10^7 Shiis, 100 W^dtbla, 



30S9 Pinddrfe, 2573 Lablioy*, 1646 Daira or Mahidavi ; and 'olhw* 
hhihAmniAd^ns, 421. Out of the total of 2603 Chmtunit, \%^ rere 
returned as Europeans and %t\ as Eurasians, leaving 2198 for nauvv 
converts. According to aiioiher |>rinci;>tG of divUion, there were 634 
ProttstanU and 1969 Roman Catholics. 

Mysore Distna cont:iJns 2137 town^ and villa^s, with few houses 
ct the better clafis, or over ^'50 in value- 01 ihc total numbci o( towns 
and village:^. S45 contain less than two hundred inhabiiants ; 793 from 
iwoloUve huiidrctl; 351 ffon) fivchundK-dlo one thousand ^ no nom 
cnc to two Ihttusaiid \ 19 fiijui twu to three thousand \ 9 froai tlircc to 
five thouMxnd ; 3 from 1i%'c to ten thousand; 1 from ten to fifteeo 
thouiiandj and 1 more than fifiy thousand. The town of MvsoaF-, 
which is described in the following arlicic, rovers an area of about 3 
square iDiles, and contains a total iiopuTation of 6oȣ92 persons.. The 
four followinjc towns aino each contain a ijopulatfon of more t)ian 5000: 
— Serincapataw, 11,734; Mai.valu, 5078; HuxsURor Dod-Hd&5iSr» 
5670; and >Ja\janc;m>, 5Joa. There arc altogclher eleven mtmid* 
jialitics in the District, with an aggregate municipal revenue in 1880-Si 
<'f jC9^3' Of ihc intcrcsung sites may be mentioned Talkad, the 
ancient metropolis of Souihcrn India, now covered vith blovrn sjind 
thftl has driAed from the bed of the river K^vcri (Cauveiy); tlic aocieitt 
city of TiKKANAMUi; the old cantonments at HiROD£or French RoctS ; 
And the hill of Chamunui, with its cob^^L figure of tlie vacred buU 
of Siva, The eeJchrMed falU of ihc Kdvcri near StvASAUiir>KAH lie 
just beyond the Mysore houndary, vrithin the Madras Distria of 

Asriculture.—'X\az mnin cultivation of Mysore Disuici coDiists of dry 
crops, though there arc es|)ecially favoured tracts where the ^cility of 
irrigation permits rice to be grown, The great food stajilc i* rugi 
(Eleusinc corocana, Gtn'fn.)^ whicii is preferred b/ the labounng 
classes to rice, on account of its strengthening qualities. It is csii- 
nuied that 4^, will purchase enough of \\\vs, grain to sustain a ouit 
fur f>nc nionih. The Mr;iw of ru^ fumishe?, aUo, the bc»t fodder for 
cattle. The crop^ both wet find dry, are generally clasi^cd as hain 0* 
kt\r^ according to the season ; l>ut it is not usual to lake both a halt* 
and a kdr crop off the same land, Ifain crojw, lioth wee and dry, 
are sown in July and August; kdrvi^i crops in Sei«embcr, and kir 
dry crops in ApriL All crops car be grown as cither hain or har, with 
the exception of certain sorts of rice, cotton, v^heati gram, and many 
vegetables, which are grown as hnm only. Among misccUaneotis crops 
raised only in certain localities, may be mentioned tobacco, cotton, 
and sugar-cane. CofTee culiivation has been atiempted, but w:th bitle 
success. In 18S3 there were 85 plantations owned by n^tivett 
occupying 133 acres of land, yielding an approximate out-turn of 1400 





Tb«. : estimated valLi<: of llie yjcl<l, ^50. The culilvatton of mulberry 
;)Iko h:)4 j^rcally f^illcn off, owing lu ihc |inrsUipnt mortaTily among th« 

Out of a total atiM of 19S0 square miles, toi)6 sr^uarc miles arc 
reivmed jU umlcTCuitivaUon; i64S([U2rc iniiesa»cuhivablew;i^tc ; and 
ij^oMjiurcmtleaasuoailtLvabtc waste. ThefolbwingsUtisticsarcfroin 
Tetunis made in 18S&-81, the year before the rendition of the State: 
— Area under rice, 61,119 *<^es; wheat, 6796; other foodgrauix 
56^*455; od-ftced^ 3^,121 ; vegeiabtcs, 4497 j CDCcaniit and areca- 
"tic, 13,947; coicon, 1733; nugar-cane, J41 ; and niulbary, 3141. 
t'bc corrojioniling ligiirtrs for 1SS4 nhow a conaidetablc iiicrca^c in 
cuhiiration. In ihnt^ rice occupied (npproximaEely) 103,015 ^'eres; 
wheal, io>3J3 atrc*: other food-grains, 875,^13 Acres; cotton, 711 
seres ; colfee, 153 acres ; and sugar-t^ane, 76a acftt. 

The average rent peraac for rice land in i8S&*^i irw 9s. 3d ; for 
wheat land, 5$. 4dH ; for bnd producing inferior grains, ,se. 4d. \ for land 
producing cotton, oil-seeds and fibre*, 5*. 4d.; for sugar-cane land, 
9s. 4d. ; and for tobacco land, 5s. 4d. The average produce of an 
acre of rkc land b 1393 lbs. ; of wheat lands, 574 lbs. ; of land 
producing;; inferior grains, 830 lbs. ; of cotton lands, 984 lbs, ; 0I oil- 
seed lands, 630 lb& ; of sugar-cane Unda, 1 1 35 lbs. \ and of tobacco 
laiKb, 840 lbs.. Current prices In 1880 |?cr tnannd uf 80 lbs. were 
a3 follows — for ncc, 6^; wheat, 4s, tod.; cotton, £,^t sugar, ^i, 
I IE. aid.; Kalt,9K. lod- ; gram, ^mjs. 7d. to 6s. id. ; raf^^ Js. 5d. ; ■///, 
js. 7d. ; tobacco, ^3, 7s. ^d, : unrefined sugar, 13s. ^d ■ and ghi, fh<- 
Indian substitute for butter, lard, etc., £,1^ 1 js. 8d A plough bullock 
costs j£3, a tlieej] ?»- 3)d. Iron sells at 13s. per So lbs., and, silk at 
1 7s* 6d* the tb. Skille<i bbuur costs \^, 6J. a day, and unskilled is. 
The hire of a cart is is» 6d. a day, of a donkey 6d., and of a boat as. 
The agricultural slock is returned at 6488 cart^, 931587 ploughs, and 49 

Irrigation b industriously practised wherever practicnble, by means 
of aiiillt-uil chiimcls di4wii vff by anLi-uti^, or dairi^, fioiii the Urge 
rivers. On the Kiirerilh[:r€arc9of tlicsc anicuti^besidca 7 on ihc Laksh- 
maotftUuL, aitd 5 on other streams. The total Icngtli of channels i« 
497 mile^. watering an Area that yields ji revenue of ^£37,500. The 
total number of tanks is 1978. Owing to the fertility of the soil, 
manure 11 leas necosary than in other DistrictSn The common cattle 
of Mysore .ire of a poor dc?icnption, but Uierc are iwo or three famo;LS 
br€cd«. Korcmofit among these i* the amrita maMiy which Is said to 
have been selected by Ilaidar .\K for mililarj- piiq^oscs, ;md is slill 
carefully nuintamcd by the Stale- I'hc characteristJcs of this breed 
are sice, endurance, speed* soundness of fcei* and a light colour. 
Two other local breeUf^ difTering from die nrntita mahdl^yz^'^ by the 



Bbfcnce of ihorotigbbred qu>ilili^. arc known as haittkdr and m^dh^ 
gin. The toul live siock of Mysore UiMnct (TSS4) is icmrncd at 
60^,927 cows and bullocks, *t: horses. 3975 poniex, 7280 donkcrs, 
698,754 sheep and goals, and 5725 pigs. It fas bctn obierved ihai 
(he jungle tribe of Kumbas are in :he habit of donK-sticaling ihe j^ung 
of the wild hog. 

Manu/acfurgs^ tte.—1h€i chief indusiriei ot Mysore IHsuict artccn- 
cenirated al My*ore diy^ and al Ganjam. Ihe modem quancr oT 
SctingnpBUtni- 1'hc articles nuidc aie cuiion cloth of fait <|tia!Jiy« 
him^/is or countiy blankcUi coanc pftpcr, and (U^nr. Cotton- wtavbg 
nnd the mniiufntctiire of pottery rind brass-ware nre corned on in most 
villages^ to m^l the loeal demand- 71ie winding of raw ^itk \% a 
declining industry. At HuNsUR there were formerly Gowrnmcnt 
factoiics connected with the Coinmi5s:inat Dqiartment; aind ai the 
present time leather articles (boots, knnpsacks, ctc^). fine blankets 
and cam continue to be produced there by workmen who maintain 
the training they received. The tannery is now in the h;m(U of 
an enicrpiising native. At the same place, also, there arc extensive 
pulping; n'orks for colfec, which u sent from the Coorg planiaiJoos- 
Falhalli was fi>riuerly the itiie of another im]>cirtant fauory, knuwu a3» 
the A^Ltgrdm Sugar Works, where ibe jaggery produced by the niytU 
from fugar-cane and the d.ite pnlm refined. Thi^ faciofy obtained 
honourable inwards at se^reral exhibitions in Hurope> but it has T\ovf been 

'J'he principal exports are food-grains, oi1'S<:eds, hctel-leaf, sugar, &i1k, 
tobacco, hides, sandal-wool, and sheep j the imports arc piece-goodv, 
hardware, salt, gAi, cotton, and wheal. There is a great demand for 
gmin in Coimbatorc and the Ni'Igiri Hills, and a considerable Hade 
lit conducted with Bangalore and Madra.t. In the ,^i mines of the 
i)i,ftncc the output ol iron in iS3o-Si was worth X4^'- Ijoc^\ traffic 
h carried on chiefly at weekly m;irkeis, and a large nutnbcr uf the 
traders are Mus,i1mJns. The merchants residing at the town of Mysore 
belong for the tnoat part to the Kunchigar eaite. The chief annual 
fairs are held at Si:ftiwiJ\rATAM, Gasjam, and Chunchaxkatta- The 
totnl length of State road« i* 17S mile^ and of Distrirt roads 637 
miles. AbotU 46 miles of the Mysore State Railway pastes through 
Mandvfi and Ashtragrim MMs to Mysore city, the present termintis 
of the line, 

Adminiitratkyft. — In iS8o-Si,tbe total revenue of Mysore DisErict 
amounted to ;i^i49,97S. The chief item was land revenue, j£Jioo,a6i, 
By 1883, the total revenue of the PistTJct had mcreased to ^194.355, 
the chief items heing — land revcntic, _£iJ5,029j forests, ^£^13.108; 
and *»Wrfr/ or excise, jQl^^^^l^ Th^ District is divided into 14 id/ttks 
or fiscal divisions, with 1 17 Ael'iit or minor fiacal unils^ In 1870-71, 




e toUl cumber of revenue paying e*utes was 55a, owned by >S,9S5 
T«gitt«Te(l propnetdrc or (Yipnrr<rn*^rt Thoni? figiiK-Ji t\c not include 
ihejdipr of YcLAMiLK in the southeast of the District, containing an 
^^^ ^ 73 square mitc6 — a very fertile tract, which was granted as an 
hcrcdiuiy fief, rent-free, by the British CJovcrnmcnt to the Dfwin 
Fiimaiya in 1807. During jS8o^ the average daily prison population 
of the District jail was %aS'^> and of the fdlnli loclc>u]is, 13*3; tota1> 
35^'5- of whom I5'4 were women, showing i j>er3on in Jail 10 cveiy 
=517 of the i>cptJbdon, In the s^imc year, the Disirici jioUce force 
numbered 53 ofHccrs and 570 men, n^aintAmcd at an ng^rcgAtc cott 
of ^^7153- Thc« figures ahcw 1 policeman to every 4J Hqudirc miles 
of area or to every 1449 peruoruF of ihe population ; the cost being 
jQ2. St per 4C|u,iie mile, and reariy ?d, per licntl tii pupnlatJon- 

The MahArija'g college, situated at Mysore c^ij, had in iSSo-Si 
mi aventf-e daUy attendance of 3; scholars, llie number of schools, 
Gmxminent and aid«d, in 1880 waa 174, attended by 5947 pupils, 
being 1 school to every 17 square miles, and C6 pupils to every 
thoQsandof thepoi>uLition. Of the 174 schools, Sare g)rls*, with 371 
pupib- These figures are exclusive of the tdink schooU and of a Jail 
scho<^ cdw-titing 392 pupils. In 1883 c here were 184 schools, with 
S515 pupEs. The Census of 1S81 returned 10,495 boys and 341 
girls as under in?ttruction, togcthci with ^r^^oGj mnlcs And 791 females 
able to read and nrtte. In i65d-8i there vrcru two priming presses, 
both in Mysore dty. 

MfJifit! Aiff/it, — The rlimale of \Tysorr is hnttrr rh^n th^T of the 
TKighbouKng Difilrict of Bangalore, and exhibits greater extremes of 
lempeniture* The mean anntiul temperature is a tittle above 77* F. 
The annua! rainfall, calculated over a ijcriod of 38 year^ is 18*9 
inches, of which the ^ater j^ortion f.ills iKtween August and October ; 
May al»o is a rainy month, In i85i therainfiill was returned at 278 
tiches, of which 6 inches fell in October and 5 in Mny. It has been 
ot>scrved that the tracts lying close beneath Ehc NHgiri Hills And the 
WcUcro GMl» teceivc Icvi rain thun the open cuunlty. 

The pxctaleni disease is maJorious fever, which is generally nmen- 
able to treatment. In special tmcCs, however, such x%i the inland of 
Seringspa:ani and the titrdt lying beneath the Nllgiri HIIU, it is 
complicated with enljrgcment uf the* spleen and viscera] congestions. 
Europeans are most liable to fever during the cold months, from 
December 10 February. Both Kiiropenns aiid natives enjo)- the best 
health during' the previdenccof the south-west monsoon. Outbreaks of 
epidemic cholera, when they occur, generally commence about the 
moMtfa of April The vital suiistics arc far from trustworthy ; but it 
may be mentioned that out of a total number of i4.49<> deaths reported 
tn 1880, 9636 were assigned to fever, 1058 to bowel complaints, 451 to 


sinall-poiif nnd 47 lo «nAkc-btt(? and wild bcflsiCi;. Tn )8So« the HAi- 
rdji's Hospital ai Mysore ciiy was aifCTded tiy 866 ia-paticnU, of 
whom 106 (lied; the out-iuiients numbcrexl 15.594. Toul inoomeof 
ihc hospital, ^1237; of 01 her dispensaries inilic Di strict » ^^205, [For 
furiiier infomiiUjon regarding Mysore, see the GauU^r of Afysortj by 
Mr. Tx'wis Rice, a vols, (liangalore, 1877),] 

I MysOTft.— Tii/f/A in the centre of Mysore Dlurict, Mysore Sute. 

^Area^ yj4 square milet(, of which 152 are cultivjtted. Population 
(ifljj) 126,930; (iSSi) 120,172, namely, 59,013 malcn ind 61,159 
feiaulcB, tonMstLD^ of 104,389 liindtjs, 14,^04 Muhammjidans, 1533 
CliriatiaiiT:, 36 P^rsfs, and 10 Sikhn. All ihc Pirab, Arul the great 

LDaajorJty of the MuhumniadanK and Christians, are found m the city of 

PWysore. Revenut^ ('8S3), cKcltmivc of water ntei, ^9485, Tlie 
country i» watered hy two small triht:Urie'i of the Knhbani. The 
princif^al natiinil feature is the Chimundi Hill, ^489 feet above lea- 
levcl- 'Vhc /J/tfi contains t criminal court ; police circles [thdfmiU 6 ; 
regular polinc, 184 men; chauHddn or vilbge watchmen, 264, 

Mysore (or Mahcsh-um^ ' Buffalo town/ the generally accepted 
dertvaiion being from Mahesh-dsura^ the bunalo-beaded dciuoos 
corrupted to Mnhuhur, and to Mais/ir, j1/vj(7/r).— Capital of Mysore 
St;itc Situated in la' iS" J4' N\ lat., and 76" 41' 48" il long,, 10 
miles south by wt^t of Si:rmgapH^tam, Ihc Census of i8p returned 
the tijtal number of inhabitants at 571815^ that of 18S1 at 6oiX9>* 
Of the population in iSSi, 28,979 ^^''^ males and 31.313 females. 
Classified According lo religion, there were ^5,669 Hindiii;, 13.288 
Muhammadans, 1189 Christians, and 46 unspecified. The total area 
is about 3 square miles, spre^id over 3 suburbs. The municipal 
committee is presided over by the l)e[»uty Conunissioner. wtlh ihc 
Town Magistrate as ViccPresidcni. Most of the municipal revenue 
is derived /rom octroi duties and taxes on houses and shops. In 
1883-84, the total municipal income amounted to ^£7147, of whidi 
£a$^^ ^^^ derived from octroi duties, and ^£1785 from taxes 
(chiefly on houses and shops). The loial cApcaUicurc in the ianie 
year was ^"6714, of which ^3403 was for police, ^535 for public 
worka, ^1473 for conservancy, and ^719 for collection, etc The 
Bangalore ' U laic am :ind (Ootacamund) high-road runs through the 
city, from which also roadi diverge lo Malvalli (eistward). the Wainid 
(westward), and by way of Yelwal (north- west ward) to Cooi:g 
Hassan District* 

Gfnerat A%p€<ii^ Buildings^ etc, — Mysore city is situated at the foot of 
the Chdmundi HdU in a valley formed by iwc parallel ridges running 
north and south. The general line of drainage is towards the sotith, 
and in the rainy season the surface water runs ot! rapidly mto a large 
Unkt called after Deva R^iji* 1'hc fort alone drains into the DaLavii's 




Comminder in-CKieff) tank, 4 n^k^ Tarthei south. The «tTc>eu 
generally afe hxt^xtX an<i regular, excciit in the fori. The niajoTily of 
the houtesare tiled, and lonie of them arc sujjstaiuiol buildings, tu-o or 
three stort>-s h\^K wtlh terraces. Ailogcthcr. the city has a and 
prosperous look, and of Intcyc^irs someone public buildings h^vcsprung 
up, while the efforts of the municipal board have greatly improved ihc 

I'he Ion stands in tlic south of the city, forming a ^juarler by itself. 
The ^round'plan i^ quaclnw^ubr, each of the sidei> being about 450 
jr*rds l^jng' The defences consist of a >t;iiic wnll, ditch, and glacis, 
lh otiiworlcs and flunking towers ; but ihcy mc mc:tti and ill^planncd 
In the ini^ior U th« paldce of the Mahdrij^i, built since iSoo in an 
eirmvagam atyle of Hindu archiiecture, nnd adurntd inside with a fe^r 
paintin|;s executed by a European ArtiM. The front, tawdrily painted 
and supported by four wooden pillars fantastically carved, comptise* 
the Scjjc or Dassara Hall, where the Mahdntja shows himself to the 
people on great occasions seated on his throne. This throne is the 
j^iincipal object of interest in the palace. It is made of fig-wood, 
L^-erlaid with tvory, atnd is generally stated to have been presented to 
Chikka Deva Rij in 1699 by the Miihummail^in Ki[i]>eroT Aurang^cU 
The ivory Wah since been covered with guld :ind silver pl^iinj^i Htougbl 
with the customary figures of Hindu niythology- To be seated on this 
throne constitutes ihe coronation ceretnony iu Mysore; And the State 
appeUaiJOA of the Mith^j^ u Stmhdian-diiJiifijft oi 'ruler enlhToned.' 
^KXhe only Mbrr rooniic in thi- i«ilace worthy of mcnlion are the ambiU 
^^vi^ta^ with floor of (hundm and doors overlaid with richly caned ivory 
and silrcr, where the late Mnhardji used to receive his European 
guests; srut the Fainted Hall, with massive walls of mud, which is the 
only relic of the original palace destroyed by Tipu SuUiu. The build- 
ing ind its surroundings have undergone many improvemenis of late, 
while a ne<v palace for the Mahirdji ha.s been erected at Bangalore. 
TIte Feiiiainder of the area enclosed within the fort is covered 
^^^iih hou»c^ which ore mostly occupied by members of the royal 

^H Opposite (he western gate of the fort j« a lofty and handsome 

^Hpoildrng known u the Ja^t^n ^TohAn Mahil, which w.ia erected by the 

^pste Mahir^ for the entcnainmcnt of the European officers. The 

oppcr storey is decorated with grotesque paintings of hunting: scenes. 

kTbc houses of the European residents are for the most part to the east 
pf the town. The old Residency, built by Cobncl Wilks in the 
beginning of the present centory^ h now c:alled the I^wer Residency, 
ind IS used It^r the Sessions Court and the Representative Asicmbly, ai 
well as for the accomn;odation of the Mahicajji'a European gue»is. 'I'he 
e^cnt Rciidency, fir^i occupied a^ such by Sir James Gordon a* 



teuaidian to the MAh:{rijdE, is more to the xouth-ea^i. but on a loRkr 

Mtc^ which coiiiinuncli X splendid view of ihc whole di>\ The 
buiMing now the official residence of the Divin wis on^iiully built 

||iy the Duke of Wellington (then Colonel Wcllc&lcy) ^ his own 


/listory.—'Wif:. site of the town, according to local mdiikm, was 
formerly occupied by the village of Puragcrc- In 1S*4* •* fon wa» 
creeled b)' uuc of the corlic^^E of ihc Wodcynt line, iuid called MaAuh- 
HTiif buflToJo town, from Afahak-^sHi-u^ the bulTolo-hcadctl monster Uain 
by Chimundi or Kdh'. ThU fort rcmamcd the capital of the Wodcytus 
iinfil they obt^ilned posjes^on of Seringapat am m 1610^ Tipd Sulltfn, 
in furtheranre of his design lo obliremtc all lnc« of the Hindu Rdj. 
raved the town to the ground, and began lo build a foitrc» on a ndgh- 
boating hill, tc which he gave the name of Na?arabid- On hU down- 
fall in 1 799, the present fon was rehuilt on the old site with the very 
stones that had been removed byTipu. The late Maliriijd, who was 
then as nn infant Mileninly jilacetl by ihc English on the fig-wxjod throne, 
coDtinucd to rcMde here until hts cJcaih in [S68. His profuse cxpcn* 
diiure stLinulaied the trade of the town. Since the Brtiish occupation 
in iBjt^ D^NOALOKfi ha,^ been the ac^l of aduimbttatioti. 

Nsftf (nr J^iif), — An arm of Ihr Bny of Hcngal, forming a portion 
of the western boundary of Akyab Disiiict, and st'iiarilirg the Province 
of Lower Burma from Chittiigong in DensnU 'NaafMa the BcngaH 
name given to the estuary, which is known tothe Bunnese as the Anauk- 
ngay- It is about 3 r miles long and 3 miles broad at its mouth, shallow- 
ing considerably towards the head- Lot. no* 45' n,, long, 9a' 30' C 
The island of Swahpuri, which protects the entrance to some extern 
from the monsoon, finds a place in history as the immediate fosits Mii 
uf ihe first Angli>Bijnne»c wan Iti Supiemljer 1^2^% a small Jkiiish 
dctachmcm, then otcupying the isUnd, was attacked by the Arakancftc 
troops under the Kiji of Kamn, .ind this led to the war of 1814-95. 
Numerous rocks and shonis rcrt<Ier iheentrancv^ fo the Najif eitoary 
dangerous. Feny-boaia |>ly rugubrly between Maung^daw, in Ankan, 
and the Chitlagong side. O^ the coast lie the uninhabited St. Martin's 
and Oyster Islands. 

Naaf (or Anauk'Ngrj^y, the 'Little Wc^t Country 0.— Township in 
Akyab District, Ar.ik.m Division. Lower Runna ; lying between the 
Naaf estuary on the west, the Ma-yu Hilis on the cast, and touching 
tbc Bay of Bengal towards the south. I'hc northern portion \% but 
sparsely inhabited, and is covered with forcsu 'J'lic central part is 



well cultivated ; and tlic southern U a njirtcin'. landy ir.icl, wMcli form* 
good gr^Jtifi^ ground for cittlc. Naaf u divided into u revenue 
circlts, with it* bead quartera at Maunc-haw. Popubtion (iSSi) 
53,804; numherof vilbgev, 344, Toial revenue (tSSi-Ra). ^^13,350; 
^^namcly, land revenue, j?^8oo8 \ caplution-Ux, ^4737 ; fisheries, jf jc; 
^bolt, jC^2\ snd local cess, £1^1- ^^'^ under cukivation, 41,416 
^Kirrcs, of s^blch 38,000 acres arc under rice. 

^1 Nab&dwip, — Town in Nadiyd District, Benpl.-^^ Nadiva 

^^ Nabagatlj;{L— River of BcngaJ, an ofT^hoot cf t!ie Miiibh^lngA in 

I N^di):i DiMria. After entering Jcs^or w\ its western boundary, ihc 

riircr (lowi, f^i^t c^bl and then southc^Al, past jhAnidah, Mij^ura, 

Nahiu. Naldl, nnd LakahmlpdUa, till it mccl^ tlic Madtiunnti on tbti 

exinenn« eJUt of th« Dijitrlct. The Nubagan^d has long been com- 

pleiely ^htit ij]> al itfl head, jand cannnt now be Irtred bryond a 

svunp 6 miles from its former source, which w^^ at Damurhuda. It 

£s di>'irLg up yeu by year, nnd in the hot season ik unnavig^ible. In 

December, however, boats of about j tons burthen can still pass up to 


^K llilAA.^>ne of the cis-Sutlej States under the j>o1itica] control 

^Bof the Cvoveroment of the runjal>, lying between 30' 17' and 30' 40' 

^Kt. Ut, and between 75' 50' and 76* so' il long. Area* 93S square 

l^^miles *ith 5 iomds and 4S1 viUagcs ; number of houses, 43,019; 

I number of families, $^,^1^' Toial j/opulation (iSiJi) 261,8^4, 

^Kiumcly* maid i45f>55i ^^^ females i\0fi6^\ proporti(>n of males, 

^™55'4 per cent ; density of popntatJon, iSi peraoni |>er scjuaTc mile; 

persons per touTi or village. 530; person* per houf*e,4'6. Classified 

according lo religion, the poputaiion in 18S1 consisted of— -Hindus, 

|^_i3So7*; Sikhs, 7;»6&3i Muharamadans, 50,r7S; Jains, 375; and 

^■Chmliins, rS. 

^H Tlie Tulinj; family is descended from Tiloka, the elde&t son of Vhul, 

^Pa Sidhu Jil, who foundtrd a \x\\^t \\\ the Nibha territory. The Rrtji 

of JInd IJhind) in de^rended from ihe same branch, and the Kdj* o( 

PaiidU is descended frotii RUma^ »ccond tun of FhtiJ. These three 

£uni1ic3 are accordin^y l;nowa as the Phulkiin houses. The hialory 

of the State n of little impoitance until after Ranj(c Singh'^ dvSutlcj 

camp^gnfl of 1S07-0S, when it appeared that the Sikh eonqucror 

would be (Atifificd with nnihin^ Ic.^k tlun absotiiTe !iU|>remafy nvcr the 

^Kubolc country to the north of the Jumna, On this, the Kija of 

^B}^'abba applied 10 the English for aid. He received Colonel Ochicr- 

^Blony on hi^ arrival it Nubba vtih the utmost cordiality; and in 

^■May 1809, the ^late w:u( fonnally taken under British protection, 

with the other cii-Sutlej Statt:*. The Rdjd Jaswant Singh was a 

futhfo) ally of the British UD\xrrninenc ; but after hid de£th, which 


occurred in 1^40, his son, Rija DcWndra ^ngh, M tl>e iinie of (he 
lirKl Sikh war in 1^45, symp-ilhl^ed with ihc Sikh mvatWs, nnd his 
conduct in reg^ird to cairi;ige .ind supplies required from him Jn 
accotdsncG with trc-icy na^ dilitoH' ^Tid suspicious jq the c:aremc. 
Previous to ihc battles of Miidki and Kcrozshdh, only 31 ciiii«ls and 
68t matmds of grain were furnished, while after iho^ Actions supplies 
were ftcnt in abundance, and after the final viaory of Sohrion the 
whole ruiouTCO^ of l\\t NibZu htnte Mttt ])laced at the ditpoial of the 
Drittth Governmeni. An ofTicial inxTsiigation wa.^t made into thcconduci 
of Ihc Ndhha Cliitrf^ wiih the result that he w^ deposed and assigned 
a pension oi J^^<3oo^ fCAx. His eldest Kon, Bhupur Si ng li, waA placed 
in power* 

At the time of the Mutiny in 1S57, ihis Chief shoved dUlin- 
guishcd loyalty, ;md w;is rewarded hy grants of territory 10 the value 
of over ^10,000, on the iisuit condition of political and natliiary 
service at any time of general danger. Rajj? Bhaipur Singh died in 
iit63. and was succeeded by his brother, Bhagwln Singh, who died 
without issue in 1871- By the s(i>ia4 of May 5, j86o, ti was pro- 
vided that, in a caae of failure of male heim to any one of the three 
fhulkiin houses, n successor .should Iw chosen Irom among the 
descendants of Phui, by the two other chiefs -ind the representative of 
the British GovernnicnL Accordingly Hira Singh, the |jre3cat Riji, a 
Jd^rddr of Jind, but of the sum* family aa the laic ruler, was then 
selected as htf successor. He is a Sikh of the Sidhu Jai tribe, and wat 
born about 1843, 

Tlie supposed gros* revenue of Nibha State in iSSj was ^65,000 ; 
principal product*— sugar, ccrcaU, cotton, and lobacca The estimated 
military force, including police, consists of 12 field and 10 other guni, 
50 artil)er}'mi^n, 560 cavalry, and 1150 infantry. A twzitrana is pajr- 
nhle to the British Co\erninent on the succcMion of collaterals to the 
Chiefchip, and the Chief is bound to execute justice and promote the 
welfare of hh subjects; to prevent m//, slavery, and female infanti- 
tiide ; to co-(j[jeraie with ihc British Govcrnmeat against au enemy ; to 
furnish supplies to troop* ; nnd to grant, free of expense, land required 
for railroads and imperial lines of road. On Ihc other hand, he ia 
guaranteed by the Government in full md unreserved pott^ession of 
his territory ; and he has also powers of life and death over hift «uH- 
jecis. In the succession to the Chirfship the rule of primogeniture 
holds. The Rdj4 of Nibha is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns> 

NAbba.— Chief town and capital of Nibha State, Punjab, and re«i- 
dcncc of the Rdjl Population (i38i) 17,116, nnmely, Hindus, 8351; 
Muharamadans 6090; Sikhs, 25:6; Jains, 147; and Christians, j> 
Number of houses, 5245, Nlbha town is ihc only place ol any import- 
Aiic« in the StatCn 



blgaHJ.— Vilbge \Tk Mimpuri Districi, Korih-Wcitem Province* ; 

Grand Tnmk Road, ^\ milcx ca«l of Mdinptiri (own, l^r. 37' 

11' so* N-, long> 7/ ig' as' k, Po|mbtion <i8Si) 1040- namely, 

Hindus 916, aod Miihammadans 133. Police ouijiost ; mrii (nach-c 

Nablgaiy.^Village and police slalion in the soutH-cAJit of Sylhct 

i.As«im, on the Rirak branch of ihe Surnii river Exports lo 

I'Of ncc, siMpdfi nials, and oiUecds. 

Nabinagar, — Town in Sfiipiir Disirict, Oudh : siiuaicd 5 miles 

fiorUi-ux^Ai of Ldharpur touiu Populaiion ( c SS i ) 2^34. Head- 

quartCTv of the t6iukJ4r cf Kaicaar, whoac residence Js ihc only 

mafionry building in the village- lV>imdc<l about two centuries ago 

^b;r Nab( Khin, ton nf Nawib ^^nJAr of Malih-ihid. Captured 

rty or sixty years aficn^-ard'^ by Caur Kijpvls. tvho have heltl it ever 


Nabisar,— Town in the Umarkol tdluk of the Thar and I^arkar 
['District, Sind, Roinbay Presidency; situated in lat- z^ 4' n., and 
^long. 69' 41' f^t 50 miles south of Uiiiarkot» iind connected by load 
with Nawakot, JtidA, Uainib, SamJra, Harpar^ Mitti, and Chelar. 
Head-quarters of a tappdddr. Contains a police thdnd^ liovcrnment 
school, ttharmstUa, and po^i-ol^cc. Population (t8Si) under 2000^ 
chidty engaged in agriculture, cattle-breeding, and hUi export tude in 
gkL Manufactures nr weaving and dycmg. Local and triin^iit trade in 
cotton, cocoa-nuis, grain, c.-tmelsi cattle, hidc^ ^"S^r, tobacco, wool, and 

Maboir Nil {I^fiyas^iX — Pass in Kashmir (Cashmere) Smte. Northern 
India, over the range of mountain!! bounding the Kashmir valley on 
Jhe cast l^t. jj' 43' N., long, 75° 34' r. (Thornton)H Elevation of 
crest above sca-lcvcl, 1^,000 feet. 
}Si&t^Mr iUiihpur). — TTiiding village in Bfrbhum Disirict. BcDgal, 
re<:entTi trjnsferrcd from Bardwan, 
If&ChAtigaotL-'Ancient toiAn in Wardh^ tahiU^ Wardhi District, 
Cenir^i Pruvincc»; situated in lat. jo' 4;' n., .iiid long. 78' 32' e., a 
^^ uiiks sotith of Pulgion roilivay itaiion^ and 31 miles from W^jdhi town, 
^■foputation (iSSt> j<>t5, chiefly ngricuhun,^ts. Hindui^ number ^035 ; 
^^ MuharnmadaiH, 186 ; Jains, 1 t i : and followers of ab^^riginal religions, 
tB> The jtfnfi (native inn), with its strong stone walU and gateway, 
resembles a forli and was once succef^sfully held by the inhabitants 
against the P^ndari*, Jl contains a well, a car\'ed stone on which records 
that the building was constructed four centuries ago by Hadshih Lar. 
Evtry Thursday a market takes place in the sqnsre in the centre of 
ihe town; and on the 4th of Aswin Vadhja (end of September) a 
irly fair is held tn the temple of Furanik. N^cbang:lon has a ^'ood 
(town school, and is a police outpost 


Kachiarkovil (aUo called Srhi//ij\Mtur).—TQffn in the Srivillipuulr 
tiiluk oi Tinne^dli Dislrici, Madras l*rc*itlenc>% laL g' 30* ^5' K., 
-lonji:. 77* 40' K. Popululion (18S1) 1345; number of liouse:)^ 286. 
Tbcre is .1 fine pagoda here. 

Nidanghit.— Trading village in ihe Kilni (Culna) Sub-divjaon of 
Daidwdn District, Bengal 

N&daan — Town in Kitf^ DJsirict, Punjati, situated in Ut. 31' 
4(3' .V,, anUlong. 79' 19'F.., on the IcA Mnk or the He^ (Biia), }0inUe4 
*ouih-v:isL of KJngra town. lIe.ids|uaEier» of \\\c jd^ir uf the late 
Riji Sir Jodliblr Chind, vho vxs recent!/ succeeded by his son 
Amar Chand. Popubtion (1S6S) 1855, Not sepordttly rctunved in 
the Ccn«iifl of 1881. Once 1 tivouritc midente t-f Rdji Sansar 
ChnnrJ. who built himself a paUcc al Amtar, on the river Ijank, one 
tnitc from the town, ^herc he held his cotirt during the shimmer. 
Hondsonic lcm|jle and covered well, Jdxlrdtlr's police station, post- 
oHice, school-house. Manufacture of soap and of ornamental bamboo 

NadigiOIL— Town in Datii Slate, Baghclkhaiid Agency, Ccniral 
India. Population (iSSi) 5475, namely* Hindui, 5071, ami Muhom 
nud^ns, 404- 

Nadiyi(AW^*'fl. Na^niMp), — Ulatrkt m tlieLienlGni^iat-Govcfnvr- 
ahip of Bengal, lying between 33' 53' 33" and S4* 31' n. bt* Aod 
between 88" ti' and 89° 34' 41* n:. long. Area, 3404 «i}iJArc miles, 
Popnl.ieinn^ arcording ro ihc Ccnsua of iS8t, a^oij.S*; soul*. Nadiyi 
District forms the northern portion of the Presidency Division. It i% 
bounded on Ihe north by the District of Rijshdhi; on the ci»t by 
Pabtii and Jessor ; OD the south by the Twcniy-foiir Pargani^; on the 
we^t by Blrbhtlm, Bardwdn, and Htiglf; and on the north-we^t by 
Munluddh£d. The boundary lines are formed iirinciiMlly by rti-crt— 
tile radmi (at present the main stream of the Ganges), scpantifig 
N:idiy^ from Pabnd and Kaj»hihf; the Jalangi» marking the boe otf 
div'isign with Murshidibdd^ and the Bhdgirathf, founing the «e^ern 
boundary of the District, althoughi o^in^ lo cliungett in the course of 
the loAt named li^-e^, a atrip oMand l>vl<>nging to Nadijd, and comprising 
the town of Nadiyi and a few ndjaf^ent vtllagei, now 1ie« on the liirthot 
bank of the river. The Kahadak forms ihc south-eastern boundary, 
separating Nadiyi from Jessor. "I'he Di»lrict lakc^ its name from the 
loffo of Nadiva or Nabadwip; but the administrative head^uarteni 
and chief town is Krishnagar, on the Jalangf. 

Physimi AiptcH. — Nadiyd \% emphatically a DIUTict of great riven. 
Situated at the head of the Cangetic delia, iti alluvial *uifacc» though 
$ti)1 liable to jieriodlcal inundation, hax been raided by ancicni deposits 
of sih KUlTiciemly high lu be ])ermanent dry land. Aa opposed to the 
»uami>a of the Sund^irban? f,^rihtT seaward, its soil ii agiiculiurally 





ilas*ed as ' hjgfi Uad/ btrartng cold weather crops as well u rice. The 
nven have now ceased their work of laidmaktng, and arc in their turn 
befpnning to sill up. Along ihe whole north-e.istcm boundary Aohts 
the rult stream of ihe Padiiii. which in here the mam chaonel of the 
GAKGt5 ; and all the numerous wacerwayi of the Distclct are ofishoois 
of tiut great river. The BitAuiRATHi on the eutcni border, and llie 
Jalakci and the Matah^ianga meandering through the centre of the 
District, are ihc chief of ibc&c otf^oots, and arc called distinctively the 
'NadiyA Rivers.' But the whole surface of the counuy is inccriaccd 
with a network of minor sircaiuB, connnunkating witli one another by 
«idc chftiineb. The Jabn|;i fl(jw>i pust the civit atauon of Krbliuj^ar, 
and faiU into the nha^frathf opposite the old tovn of Nadiya. Its 
chief olTihoot is ihc BttAiRAD* The Matabhanga, aficr throwing; off the 
PAWr;Asr, the Kumar, and the Rabadak, bifurcates near Krishnaganj, 
iDto the Chukki and the IcHHAUAxr, and tHereafier bses its own 

Alt of thc«; rivers -ire naviRable in the rainy season for boats of the 
Invest bunlivn ; bnt during the rest of the year they dwindJc (iown io 
shallow Mrcomfi, with dangerous Snindbankf and bars* In former times, 
*ihe Nadiyi Rivers' a^ordcd the regular means of communicj^tion 
between the upper valley of tile Ganges and i^e seaboard; and the 
kcc|^Dg open of their cfaanneU aiilt forma one of the mobt iiiiponant 
dutacft (if Government, l^he chbunite mea^turcs adapted fui Lhit vbject 
villbe found fully dciicribcd in thir ^fatisiical A^iffuni c/ £fnga/ {voL iL 
pp. t9*3a>. Tolls arc levied at Jangipur, HantXhiU, and Swanipganj, 
to the amount of aboul jQio,oqq a year, and a consideraNe proponion 
of this retcnue is expended on re[uir:(« etc. by the engineering staflT. 
Bui though much of the trade of tlie DLttrict tiill coined down to Cal- 
cutta by tlib route during the height of the rainy reason, t)ie lin^^a of 
the EasI IndiJin and l^istern bengal Kailwny^, and nivo the main 
itnaiu of the Ganges and the Sundarban^ route, now carry by far the 
larger ponton of the trathc. In ]^8j-£4, the nt;mbcr of boats plying 
o<i ihc'Nadi)'d Rivera" was rcmrncd at 65,813, of a burden of 957.075 
umK and CAi:yitLg utigo to t!ie vsilue of jf^JiSyO^t^i. The tvlU levied 
amouQied to ^30,090, and the expenditure incurred in keeping the 
riven open, in e^taljIUhment and maintenance, wlu jC^-*%^7' 

Resideit the larger rivers mentioned aliovo, NadiyiC Dislrict rontains 
a large number of minor channels {kJtdh), and of Mis or swampn. 
Keclamatkms of river or marsh lands have not been c^ried on in 
liadiyi Disihct on any exienKive or Hysiematic plan; but the marshes 
bigely utilised for the cuhivation of the long -stemmed varieties 

rk^ or u reed and cane producing grounds 

River tnf&Ct consisting chicHy of grain, oil-seeds, and molnssc^, is 
^lu^r carried on at ihc rblloning towns;— (i) On ihc lihdg(raihi; 

VOL. X. 1 

t36 V|H NADIYA, ^^^^^H 

Kilfganj and Nftdiy<i« t1)C kttcr of which, fllihoagh ihc ancicfit cipiiUJ 
of ihe District, iJt now of l^ss importance .la tt'gards irade than U*e 
former. (3) On the Hdf^li— Sintipur and Chagdab, ihc btE«r al*o a 
Ktaiion on ihe Eastern Hengal Railway. (3) On the JaUriKi— Kanm- 
pur, Chiprd, Krishnagar, and Swafiipganj, (4) On the Matibhingi — 
Munshigani, KrivhnaRanj, and Dimurhuda. (5) On ihe Chumf — 
HinslchdU and Rdnaghii^ the latter also a failway sution. (6) On 
the khhiniati — Nondganj, Bingaon, and Gopdlnj^ar, (7) On the 
Pangdsf or Kuniir — Alaindingi, also a railway auiion. (8) On the 
Padmd — Kushiia, also a railway station, 

Leopnrds and wtld hog are ]>lcntLful in ihc Disincc, vriih an occa* 

vsiona] tiger ; snipe and wild duck, arc numerous in \\\c swunps. 

* Snakes abound ; the numhcr of deaths from snake-bile being about fire 
hundred per annum, besides about fifty other deaths annually from irild 
animaK The river fisheries form an imi»ortam item in the weiilih of 
the District, and there is hardly a single town or Urge vrllafc without 3 
number of fisher-families. Fishing as an occujation is carried on upon 
a large sc^le in the Padma near Kushtii, whence an almost ditly 
exportation of hihd and other fish takes place by rail to Caietitia. 
commencing at the end of the rainy season, and lasting till the end of 
the cold season, 

Nis^ry. — ^The family of the Nadiyd Rijis is one of great antiquhy 
And sanctity* They trace dcicctit in a direct line fruni Bhanananl)ftD, 
the chief of the five Brihmnns imported froni K^naiij by Adisur, King 
of Bengal, A&, moreover, the family has figured somewhat eon^ 
spicuoufly in history, their annals are more imere^iing thnn tunal 
'I'he most celebrated of the line was Mahjiidjd Krishna Ch^tndra, who 
came to the s^^di in 1728, and is described as the Ma:ccnas of bis 
time — a miiniftcent patron o( letters^ whose delight it was to entertain 
and converse wiih distinguished fartdits, and who tost no opportunity 
of bestowing gifts of money and land upon men of learning and pieiy. 
So famous was his bounty that there is a Bengalf proverb still current, 
that he who does not possess a gift from Krishna Chandra cannot be 
a genuine Bnfhman. At the lime when Sirij-ud-dau!.! was in anns 
against us, Krishna Chandra took the part of the English ; and in 
recognition of bis services. Lord Clive conferred on him ihe title of 
Rij«ndia Rah,<, and prespnTfd him *iith 12 guns used at Pla»cy, 
wliich are still to be seen in the palace. 

The successors of Krishna Chandra inherited, a« a rule, his love of 
letters, and men of piety and leamin^r have always been received 
yr\ih favour at the Nadiya Coun : so that the town and District have 
j;i3dtially acquired great fame a* the home of philosophers and partdiis^ 
The town is also regarded as peculiarly sacred^ being the btrthplacc of 
Chaiianya, the great Vaishnav rcfortncr, in vrhoae honour 3 festiral 




ttltendci] by four or tvtt ihouwnd ToITowcts, and Id^tiug twelve days ■• 
held «\'OTy January or February, Bui it in iiot only on account of the 
fame and sancitty of tb ancient capital thai the District of Nadiyi » 
interesting ; It posscKtcs hiiitoKral nttnciiom alike for natives and 
E^sKth. Here was the capital of Uikshman Sen, ihe last Hindu king 
of Bengal ; and here was— for il no longer remains— the battle-ficid of 
Pbvi<n-. where, in 1757, Clivc defeated the Muhammadaii Nawdb, 
'Ilx: wiicTs ol the Ehagitatbi have swept away the actual scei>e of the 
baitk, and only a solitary tree reittainK to mark the spot vhere Clive'ft 
famous Mango iirove once Mood. 

In i860, NaOiyA District na^ ihc principal scene of the indigo riot* 
htch occasioned ao niLKli excitciuent thjouglioul Lowcf Bengal. Soon 
'nfter ihc firei European planters t^stabUshcd thcm»clv« in the Dimrict, 
a fteling <A jealouty aro«e among the lat^e native landholders, who 
found their inflntnfie suflV-rmg in consequence of the jjrcsence of the 
new-comers. They accordingly endeavoured to raise in the minds 

the cultivators an ill-feeling a^^ninst the planters, and against the 

cropi Constant quarrels followed, and the planters, filing 10 

from the courts, had recourse to ughiing the naliv* land- 

IdcTft wirh band« of clul>aien. They aho began to purchase, or to 

obtain sutj-tenures ;>f the lands adjoining their factories, so thnt they 

ighl be w much a* possible imiependcni of unfriendly zamlnddru The 

tcr* however, look every occasion to create a feeling of dissatisfaction 
mmong the indigo cultivators, and not without auccesfi. Unfortun&lclyi 
loo, a number of circumstaticc^ combined tc intensify the biuerne«a 
thus engend<:red. Crops had, for some years previous to r86o, heen 
poor ; prices were low ; the rdyati were in a slate of chronic indebted- 
ness : and owing 10 an inacase which had taken place in the value of 
other agricultural produce, the cultivators saw that it would have paid 
them belter to grow oil-seeds and cereals than indiga Collisions 
became comTiK>n ; and such wan the excited state of the peasantry, that 
a spark was all that was Te(|uia'd to set the indigo districts in a blaze, 
llw crsis was brought about l>)- some illtlisposed persons starting 
a rumour thai the Government had Sedated ii&elf against indigo 
planting. The District »«as for a lime at the mercy of the ct: I li valors : 
and th'>sc rayaSs who had lands lown with indigo in terms of their 
contracts with the factories, were leiied by the niob and lieatcn Thr 
Bengal Got^ernment succeeded in quieting the disturbance, and 
a Commission was appointed to inquire into the relations between 
the planters and the cultivators. Indigo cultivation in Nadiyi 
received at this time a blow from which it has never altogether 

/V/«/irA>«.— Owing to numerous changes which have taken jilace in 
;Die area of the District jurisdiaion, the results of early aucmpta made 

IJ* ^ NADTYA. ^ 

to enumerate the population of Nndiyji would, even \t tftey couM be 
considered accurate, be of no value at the prefeni d^j^. The £nt 
Inatworthy Ct^nsus was tnkcn in 1 87 a ; and according to that etiiimcni' 
lion, the [lopuUiion. on the area of ihe District » at preienl con- 
stituted, consisted of i,Sij.79S pcnons, inhabiting 351.017 houses 
and 3691 villager, the average density of the population being 530 per 
square mile. The la<»t eimmeration in iSSi discloud a total population 
in Nadiyi District of 3,017,847, showing an increase of ^05,052, or 
ii'ji per cent., in nine years. This increa'je i* the largest returned 
for any Disirict in the [^residency Division; and the CoUccior ;* of 
opinion that it rcprcscnis merely the natural incxex^c of birtlib over 
dcath»p aided Xyy a Loniingent of pilgiimb wTio wcic enumerated in the 
l>istrict on their way la or from a religious fair at Nadiy^ town. The 
District, however, suffered severely frr>m fn^ilariouB fever tn 1SS0 and 
iKJlt, and it hat been estimated the deaths from fever alone 
during the eight months preceding the Census cf 1S81, amounted to 
60.000, or nearly 4 per cent of the population. The Cen*us Com- 
missioner, therefore, thinta thai the increase 1* more apparent than 
real, and i^ probably due to the faet that the enumeration of 1S73 
wan not fto well taken in Nadiyil District as had iireiiously been 

The result:; of the Census of 1S81 nay be biielly sumnurjied as 
follows : — Area of Djstricti 3404 si.]iiarL' miles, with 1 1 towns and 36S9 
vi]Lif;cs^ number of houacs, 3781033, of which 360,(^86 are occupied 
and 17,346 unoccupied- Total population, 2^017,847, namely, males 
985,945^ and female* 1,032,603; propoirion of malcii, 488 i>er tent- 
The prcfionrtcrnncc of females is due to the fact that a considerable 
number of male* belonK^^fi '^ ihe District are employed in Calcutta, 
only visiting their homes at intervals. Averaj;e density of population, 
599-8 persons per square mile; number of towns or Ti1b{^ per 
s']uare [nile, fog ; person* j>cr towi or viUagCt 545 ; houses per square 
miic. III ; inmates per hou*e, 5"6. Classilicd according to sex and 
age— children under 15 years males 420,836, and females 590^392 ; 
total children, 811,228, or 43(1 per cent, of tlie District population: 
15 years and upwards, loalcs 564,409, and fcmctlcs 64^,710; total 
adulti, 1,206,619, or 56*4 per cent, 

Utiij^ion. — Classilied according to rcHgion, Hindus nuitbered 
^'^4^773* ^^ 4*"8 per cent.; Muhammanatis, 1,146,603, Of 568 per 
cent-; Christians, 6440 : Brahmoi,23; and •others," 3. 

Hindu hifih CTslcs number 106,721, namely, ilrihrnans, 59^894; Raj- 
puu, 6047 : and KayasEhs. 40,780. The loircr castes of Hindus in- 
clude the following — Kaibarlu, the most numcroas caste in the Dis- 
trict, forming the bulk of the Hindu agricultural casirs* I36f0(>3 in 
number; OwiU (cowherds and mtllcmen), 93,382; Nipit, ^3,234; 



Madafc. J%J4i; T-oUr, 15.24'; Kuaibhir, n>,i77 ; J*l!yo, 19^52; 
SadBop» t^A7*; Baniyi, 17,70^; Kahi, 16,179; '^^^U "^'S*; J«sC 
*S*77S*- Ma!< i4,sS4; K4pilf, 13,308; Sund, i:.796; Dhobf, i<M95 ; 
Barhai, 10,446; TAnlf, 7807; M*U. 65<j8; Hirl, 6415; and SoniT, 
591& The aboriginal and sctni-iborigmal tribes, who arc all icti]rn<;d 
aa Hin<!u« by religion, mdude—Chamirs, 61,05s; Cbandils, 45,780; 
Ba^U 42,^6; Koch, IS.33S' Bhuiyi, 703; Bhumfj, 134; SantAI,J9; 
and other :iborigines, 14,35'^- Caite-rejecimg HiMuk niimUer ii,3iE4, 
of whom 11,330 are reiurned as VainhnaviL 

HutOTlcall)% ihc VniNlinavs arc merely worshipper* of Vishnu, who 
agree In rccognuing Chaitanya, the grcAt VmAhnav reformer of the 
sixteenth century, st& their ij>tntuAl founder. But many of Ehcm 
o|>on enicring cfi« ««a r^nounr« iheir family an<t friends, and 
fbfiD a coonmunily which is now gcnerslly Terognl^ed as a dt&tinct 
caste Startit^i! from a basis of rclieioiis hrolherhood and perfect 
equality, ihcy have developed distinciions and da« barrier* amorij^ 
tkietftidv«, almost as stringent as those among the general Hindu 
community which they have quitted. The lown of Siniipur, in the 
Riiul^t SutMlivisioat is held saacd by them as Ihc residence of the 
descendants of Adft^hya, one of the iwro fir*i dlsdplesof Chaitanya. 
TIic Vuishnavv derive ihcir rccmiu mainly frum ihe lower fank.> of 
Hindu society, l^hc ncct has degenerated from its former high 
standard of faith and morsls, and holdn a very low place in popular 
mimation. A large proponJoo of iHem live by begging, and many of 
the femalea Hy prtittitution. 

An intCTcslinK sect of Hindus has iu home in Nadiya District, 
namely, th« KartSbhAJis. The founder of the sect waa a labourer 
named Bim Smaran Pdl, a Sadgop by birth, who lived in the village 
of Gho«hpirj, about 3 miles from the present railway station of 
Kinchripirl Here the members of the sect hold their gatherings j 
assembliiig, in October and No^-ember, to the number of forty or fifty 
thousand, to fjay homage to their spiritual head, or ^ar/it An account 
of the teneu of thi» »cci will be found in the S/a/rst/fa/ Aaount of 
/K^j^^(VoLii.pp, 53-55). 

The Muharamadnns of Xadiyd Difilrict erceftd the Hindus in 
number, being returned at 1.146,603, or 56-8 per cent, of the District 
popuhtton. Their tocial status is not high, and they are mostly 
cultivators. A few ate petty landed proprietors or rcspccublc mcr- 
chants and iradcn ; but the Hindus are generally better off than the 
cofTesponding dasi of Muhammadars. The existence of a Urge Musal- 
mdn fiopulatior in Nadiyd is accounted for by wholesale conversions at 
a period antcnor to ihc Mughal Emperors, during the Afghdn supre- 
macy \ and also to the fact that ihe District wa^ the highway between 
the great Mnghal capital!) of >tur»bLi^dt>id and Dacca. 

Le Tht only form of sect-iTiiniRni which the Nfuhammaflan religion has 
rdevtloiwd in Nadiya, is a rftthcr powerful Farfiii or WjUiibI puritan 
community. These are not now a disbyal body, and are not 
returned as a aefiarate Muhammadan aecl in ihc Ceftsiis, Half a 
century igo, the case was very diffetcri. Tlie fanatic leader, Tuu 
Miydo, found in N-idiyi in 1831 a *ufficicm body of (IJsaJTeclcd t-arairi 
husbandmen, la lead him to set up the standard of revolt, ai^d for a 
short lime to defy ihc British GcvcmracuL 

The Christian cc>m]Liumty la 1881 nunilxrrcd ^3440, compnung ^ 
European^ 0; Eunsians* a:id 6304 native converts- By sect the 
Christian population is relumed rifi foUoirs : — Church of England, ^444 't 
Protectants, 10S4; Epi^eopalJatu, 15; Roman Catholics, uon; Bapcivt*, 
3*4 ; Church of Scotland. 30 ; other denominations and unspeeiiiedi 
341. These figures do rot exactly agree with those obtained from 
other sources, as tlie Church MiMionary Society claims 6iaS natn'c 
converts belonging to iis MissicnK at Krishnagar town and out- 
stations, latere is also a Roman Catholic Mission at Krishni^ar 
established in 1856. with a nunnery attached to it. concerning which 
no statistics are available, but which is l>elieved to have a fotlowtng of 
about five hundred converts. The majority of the Christiins cam 
their living as husljandmen, and a few as constables, secvant^ and 
vernacuhr teachers, or as prc-ichcrs in connection with Uic Mwsion. 
The sta^ of ihe Church Mission Socieiy in tS8i connsted of 3 
European and s? native preachers, 61 native Chriihfln and 33 non- 
Clirisiian teachtrs. The Mission inaintaini a theological and training 
school at Krishnagar, wtlh 2$ pupils in 1881, besides 45 cxceUenl boys' 
schools attended by 2057 pupils, and 19 frills' schools witJi 50a pupils. 
The Church of England Zan;£na Mission Society also mainiains 4 girts* 
schools, with 149 pupils in iSSi. 

Totvn^nd Rurai PopiiUihm, — Nadiyd District cont^ns a consider- 
able urban population. The following eight towns are municipalities con- 
taining upwards of ^ve thou?^ndinhit>itantsln 1S81: — Kklsh^agak, tl»c 
civil station and Bdminjstr.itlve hcad^kiarlcrs of the District, popuUtion 
27.477; Santtpur, ^9,687; Nadiva or Mabadwip, 14,105; Rubiiiia, 
97r7; C hag r>A)i, 8989 ; Eanachat, 8683; Kismarkuai.i, 6041; and 
MiHBPUP, 5731. Resides the foregoing, there are two other muni- 
cipal tovrns, conlriining less than five thousand inhabitants, naniely, 
BikNAfiAB, 4302: and Jagult, 10S5. These ten towns contain a 
total urban population of 119,840 souU, or 59 per cent, of the total 
District population^ leaving 1,898,007 as forming the number of inhabit- 
ants in the rural villages. It is a curious circumstance rcgaiding the 
town population, that where;is the Muh;unmadans form the majority 
of the population as a whole, ihey are invariably in a very contideiabte 
minority in the towns. Thus, while the Muhaiumadans comptisc 56'S 





per cent, of the general population, in the eight Urgest town« men* 
tiooed aba%'c ihey only ftrnn a5"5 per cent- 

Of the 3700 towns and villages in ihc WBtrict, 847 arc returned as 
eontu&ing less than two hundred inhnibitams ; 1506 from two to live 
hundred; 958 from five hundred to a thousand; 315 from one to two 
ihou&and; 48 from two to three thousand j 8 from thre^ to five 
thousand; 5 froni hve to ten thousand; and 3 ufjwards often t^ou«aiKl 
inhibiumi}. A5 regnrds occupation, i\\t Census divides the male 
population into the foltowtrg »ix cU^ses: — (1) Professional and ofl'tcicil 
clauj 19,344 ; (2) domestic scTvanU^ Inn and lodgirg-housc kcciJCta, 
«ec^ 14,616; (3) commercuL classr including merchants, traderSt 
caniew, etc, 33,i»> ; (4) agricultural and pustoral class, including 
gardener^ 37r,i63; (5) manufacturing ajid industri^i class, inrluchng 
artiiuis, 103,699; (6) indefinite and non-productive cUss, compmintc 
genera] labourers and male children, 443,403. The general condition 
of the people has steadily improved of laie years, as regards clothing;, 
living, and other comforii. 

Krbhnagar, which is tite admin istTative headquarters and chief tovn 
of the IJiitvict, U situated on the jalangi river. A Government College 
was established here in 1846. The ton-n is noted for the manufacture 
of cAt,clleiit eolouix'd i:la> fjguiics. NLtJiy^, [he ani^icui capital of 
the DiHrict, wai formerly situated on l!ic cast bank of tlie Bhiigirathu 
but. o«in|; to chongei of the river-course, it now lies on the west bank 
of ihe ntream. It ha^ alwa>-K b^en felfrbratr^d for the sanctity atid 
leaiDtDg of its partJits. Reference will be made further on to tlie 
&moils i&it or indigenous Sanskrit schools of Nadiyd. The battle- 
6eld of Pi-ASSEV was situated within this DistricE, but the floods of 
the EU^raihi have washed away the scene of that memorable engage^ 

Airicuiian. — The staple crop of Nadlyjt, a« of most other Districts in 
Bengal, is rice, of which there are four crops— namely, (i) the 4us or 
autumn crop^ reaped in August and September \ {2) the dman or winter 
crop, reaped in November ; {3) dtfr& or spring rice, hanestcd in March 
ot April ; and (4) j4Ji^ the late Autumn crop, cut in October or 
November. Both the Jinan and the l^ro rice require transplanLttion. 
Among the other cereal and green crops are wheat, barley, oil-^ccdii, 
X<^, Bram, chillies etc The fibres grown in Nadiyd are hemp, flax, 
a>tton, and juic This last is not fjrown to any great extent, and the 
produce it inferior in quality to that of the caritcrn Districts of Bengal ; 
the average out-turn of the fibre per acre is from la to 15 cwts., and 
Ihc gross value is estimated at abotJt £1^ los. per acre. Sugar-cane, 
ind^^ t<^cco, lurmaic, umlt;erry, and/cfrj are among the other special 

Indigo b the chief export sUpk cf the Dlsiriai there aic two 

cn^p«. one fiovn in Apn] or May and roapcd in Augmt or 'Scptcnber* 
and the other sown in October and rt^ped in July. The IdoI dye is 
ohiaincd from the sprtne sowin^i^, which 2U0 corer the largest area. 
Though rice covets by far the krgcr portion or the cultivated landi 
second or coMwcalhcr crops of pulses, oil-sccds and wheat, grown on 
dui land, are more coramon in Nadiyd than in any other Dtstiict of 
Eastern Bengal. h% a matter of lact, enough rice ianot povn in the 
Pisihct to satisfy the local demand, whicJi is mci by impoiiation from 
the aoEith. In some pajt«i especitilly in the Sub-divt&ion of Chuiidin^, 
the cultivation of chillies or ton^'pcpper fonn» an important feature in 
the rural industry, a« the peoaont rehes upon this speeial crop to py 
the rent of bis other fields. 

The oui-Tum of rice per acre varies, acrording (o the kind of land, 
from 4^ cwis, 10 13 cwts„ valued at from 1 2%. to £\^ i6s. TTic extent 
of cultivable spare land in the District is very umall. Irrij;aiion is only 
practised in the event of a deficiency in the rainfall, and is effected by 
means of small watercourses, the cost being cstimnie^l at about 4Sv 6d. 
nn ^cre. Manure, consttrting of cowdiing or oil<ake, 15 used for lands 
not adjacent to riven, nor watered by them. 

The rent of rice land ranges from %%, 10 7s. iSd, an acre ; the rent of 
other kinds of land varits In difJVfcat psils of the District, ind attofd- 
ing to the crops produced- Kcnta of all kinds have risen grcjttty since 
the Permanent Settlement in >793i being now in many fOfls of the 
nistrici double what they thpn were, and everyu-here 30 per cent, 
higher, A well-io-do husbandman can alTord 10 spend from £^\^ ros. 
10 ^t, \i%. a month on the comfortable living of an avcrage-sutcd 
household. Small cultivators are jEcncrally in debt About five-eighths 
of the husbandmen in Nadiyii Disirici hold their lat^ds with a right of 
occupancy, but Almost all of them arc liable to enhancement of rent. 
No class of small proprietors citisia who own. occupy, and cultivate 
their hereditary lands without cither a superior landlord above, or a 
sub-tenant or labourer \ix\^ti them. There iv a tendency in the Disuict 
towards the growth of a distinct class of day-liibovirei?, neither po^sc^Mng 
nor renting land- Thc«e mcnj termed krUhnfis^ when employed in 
agriculture^ are paid sometimes in money and sometimes m land, but 
do not receive any share of the crops. Women are leldom employed 
in agricultural labour, but children arc engaged lo look after cattle, 

Wnges have doubled during the last twenty years; cool fes and agri- 
cultural day-labourers at present earn from 4id, to 6d a day- The 
price of the best cleaned rice is 138- 8d a cwi., and of the common 
quality, 5s. a cwt. A large proportion of the cultivable area of Nadiyd 
is held on utbandl tenures, — that is to say, without lenses and lor a 
single season only. The general custom is for the bu«bandman to get 
verbal permission 10 cultivate a eenain amount of land in a particular 



p1ae«, ai a talc o^ccd upon. While the crop is Biill en ihc ground, 
the land is mcasur^ and th« rem aBsrsaecl on iL Th« ctTcm of bnd 
remaining in the handft of ftuperinr landlorrln \% s^iid to be less than 
half that subld to intermediate holders. 

Natunxi Cafamitits. — Blight* occur every year in Nadtyd, atl^clcing 
particiUr crops, but not on any ei^tensive scale. Floods arc common ; 
and, after what has been said above of the rivers of ihe Di«tic(, it 
will be readily understood that they cauwc mueh damjig«. The mosc 
severe Hood in recent limc^ occurred in 1871, when the Hhigirathf rose 
and fell ihre« lime^t, and the other river* twice. Fortunmely the rising 
of the waters vas *o slow thai there was very little los* of human life ; 
but the number of cattle which died wna estimated at 100,000 head, 
and from a half to two-thirds of the rice crop wa* lost. 

Kadi>-i suffipred Keverely m the great famine of t866, Thenfr was 
a serious drought in the Distrtci in 1^65 ; and at the end of October 
of that year the Collector reported that prospecls were very frloomy, 
the price of dm rice having already risen ircm 4s. id. a cwt in 
the previous year to 8s, I'he harvestinf; of Ihe dman or winter 
crop brought a flight tem|>orary re^ef; Imt tn the spnng of tS66 
great distress ^ptin pcvaited, and from Apnl to C>rioher ot that year 
Govemn^ent and private relief were nei rtR:try. Duniig that period, 
twcmy-fijur principal centres of relief were at one time or artother in 
operaiion, in addition to Mxteen minor (JeputB at which food was dis- 
tributed. The aggregate number of persons who received gmtuitoui 
rolref was 6oi,iJ3, and the aggregate number employed on relief-works 
*" 337*059. The total cost of relief during the famine, including half 
Ihe nunouni spent on relief-works, wa^ jC594S, of which Government 
paid £a^s^ 

MamiJaOurts, Tr^d^, i-A'.— The manufacture of indigo dye under 
European supervision, to which reference has already been made, stilt 
remains the chtef industry of the DiMirict. The outturn of indigo in 
iSSi-83 amounted to 3536 mmniix. Cotton- weaving is everywhere 
on the decline, especially ai ihe town of SinUpur, where in the 
beginning of this century the tommerciol flgcui of the Company used 10 
purchase muslin to the annual value of ^150,000. Sdntipur muflLin la 
ttin exported to a small oxtent. Sugar- refining by European methods 
ha* proved un^uires^ful ; hur scvera.1 rpfineTir< tn n.niive hands exist at 
Siniipur, to which the raw material is brought from the neighbouring 
District of Jcssor Other special industries arc the m-ikingof brass- 
ware, particulady at Nadiyd town and Mihrpur; and the moulding of 
cby figures at Krinhnapr. 

The Oisiria of Nadiyi is very favourably situated for irade. On the 
north and west it b bounded by large nvers; while the numerous 
streams which inienect it all become navigable for a considerable 

138 NADIYA. 

[lonion of the year. The Eastern Hengal Railway Ton% north thtOQ^ 
the District for n distance of nearly 100 miles; And the Cair-weailier 
roads arc also usually good. Accordin£ lo the registration rheums iur 
1S76-77, tbe aggregate v^aluc of the trade of Nadiy^ amoutits to more 
than ^4,000,000; but a laige proportion of iKU repre^eitta traffic in 
trannit, included twice over as iin}}om Dnd ex[>ort!t. About half the 
lutul 15 set down to the single mart of kusNTlA, where the nitlway lirst 
touches the main stream of ihc Ganges. In 1876-77, Kushtia received 
from the *uiroundJii^ tountry »ilk valued at jf 568,000. indigo £1 1,000, 
limliCT ;^6o,ooo, rice ;^6o,ooo, oil-accd* ^^38.000, sugar ^^33,000, 
turmeric ^^50,000, jute ^39,000; while it took from Cotcutta< for dtt' 
Iribution, piece-goods valued nt ^344,000, and saU ^t},ooo. No 
trade siaiistics are available for any Utcr year than 1876-77. Other 
important marls aie Hanskhiif, Sintipur. Chigdah {which has given its 
name to a sjiecial kind of jute In the Calcutta market), KumdrkhalJi 
Chiiidangi, Rrishnaganj, Baguli, and Alamddngi. The chief exports 
of local produce are jute, linseed, wheat, pulses and grim, rJce, lontC' 
pepper or chillies, sugar anJ tobacco. 

The only institutions in the District worthy of note sre the Wr, or 
indigenous Sanskrit schools* In these idusmrdl (Hindu social and 
religious law) and n^tfyn ([ogic) aic taught ly kamcd /tz/rtfi/j tu eager 
pupils, attracted, often from considerable di^tancea, by the ancient fame 
of these institutions. A valuable report on the Nadiyd tiAt by Professor 
R. B. Cnwell (Calcutta, tSfi?) rontainf a fii1l account of the schoolisthe 
manner of hfe of the pupils, and the *orks studied. Professor Cowell 
describes the tot as consisting generally of *a mere cotlectioD of mud 
hovels round a quadrangle, in which the students live in the most 
[mmitive manner possible. . . . Each student hofi his own hut with 
his brass w;iler'poi and mat, and fi:w have any other furniture.' A 
student generally remains at the Wfor eight or ten year& No fees arc 
charged, and the pandits depend for their livelihood on the presents 
which tlieir fame as teachers ensures them at teli^ious ccfemonies- 
Mo3t of the iifis in Nadiy*i town, but there are also a few in the 
surrounding villages. No regiiiters oi attcodancc arc kept, but it ia £aid 
that the number oi tc/s ns well as of pupils is graduaily decreasing; la 
> ^7 3* the number of these schools in Nadi)-i and the neighbonrhood 
waft seventeen ; In ifiSz th^y had decreased to ten. 

Administration, — In conse<iuence of the important changes of juris- 
diction which have takon place in Nadiyji, it is impossible to present 
a trustworthy comparison of the revenue and expenditure at different 
periods, The area of the District is at present smaller by a third than 
it was in 1790. The land-tax in the latter year was ;ijJ3S»995; *" 
1850, It was^i[7»449; in 1870, it had fallen to ^£101,755; and in 
1S33-34, 10^91,105. The tat^l net revenue in 1S09-10, the first ye^ 






focwfuch a babncc-AhccI is avaibUlc, was ^lai.ii^; in i$50"5if it 
haxl iwn to jf 139J55; and 10 1870-71, 10^17^,579, In i8«»-83. 
the six main itemaof Governmem revenue aggrt^tecl ^(69,132, made 
tip as follows: — J^ind revenue, ;^ 1 07.032 ; cxcisCi ^^i 1.708; *Umti*, 
;^34iS^9; regisuation, jC^7^4 ' 'o^*^ <^^*^ jC*'^7^ > niunicipal taxes 
^fii88. The expenditure has increased in a siill greater ratio than the 
revenue. In 1809, the net expenditure on civil adniint&tntion was 
^£17,917; in 1850,11 had risen (eKcIusive of police expenditure) to 
^£29,76*; ill 1S70, it had further increased to ^58,410, also excludinjj; 
police. In i8Sz"S3, the Loul cosi of the Di^trici oiTicials and police 
amouBted to j^34,3<lo. While ihc Govcrnmcol net revenue in 1870 
was oneihird more than it wa^ in 1809, (he net expenditure Incrcaacd 
more than threefold In the same period. Sub-dtvUion of property has 
gone on lapidly under British rule. In 1790, the numlwr of ei^iateft in 
the DtUiict W3H 361, held by J05 proprietors, laying a total land-tax of 
;£'JS*995i the average payment from each estate being j^ssij and 
from each proprietor, ^^663, In 1883-84, the total number of estates 
waa 3806, held by 10,704 proprietor*; average payment from each 
estate, jC^h 9S- 4i^'i i>nd from caeh proprietor, ^3, los, 3d. 

Proicuion to person and property hns steadily increased. In 1793 
there was only 1 civil court and 1 coven.nntcd English officer in Natliyi ; 
in iSoD there were 39 Gourt!> and 1 covenanted otiicers ; and in 1883 
the number of magisterial courts yoA a6, «nd of revenue and civil 
eouru, 18, with 4 covenanted officers. For adrmnist/aiive and police 
purpoites;, the DiBtrict it divided into six Sub-divistons and thirty police 
drctes {tk4j9Js\ ai follows: — (i) Krishnagar or hcad-nuirlcrs Sub- 
diviiion, eompriaing the dx f/tdnds of Kri^hiiagar. Kdlfganj, Lakshtpdri, 
Chaprit KrtfJin:;^anj, and HinskhiU; (i) Rinifthit Sub-divisioOt com- 
priflog the four thdnds of Rilnigh:lt, Saniipur, Chigdah, and Harin- 
ghdii ; <3) Bing4on (Bongong) Sub-division, coinpriainj- the hrt thdms 
of Bingaon, Mahcshpur, Ganapoin, Sarsha, and Cjiigh;lti; (4) Kushtil 
Sul>-din»ion, comprising the six thiinds of Kushtul, Naup'-ir<1, Uaubtpur, 
Bhadulia, Kumirkhdtf, and I^haluka; (5} Mihrpur Sub-diviMon, com- 
prising the four iJiJmh uf Mtiir|iur, Karimpui, 0;in^nl, and Tehatla ; 
and (^) Chtiidingd Subdivi^iion, comprising the five Mmh of Chudd' 
ingi, Damurhuda, Alamdinga, Kilupol, and J^bunnagar. The regular 
police forr*^ in 18JI3 ronsistcd of 695 officer? and men, including 362 
employed in municipal or town duties, maintained at a total cost of 
^{[11,319. There i^ also a rural police or vdlage watch numbering 3404 
men, maintained by the landholders and villagers or by rent-free grants 
ci ^trncc {€AiUniM) lands, nt an estimated coNt of ;^ 16,247. The total 
ttrei^Ui cf the police of all classes and ranks was, thciefurc, 4189, or 1 
inan to every 481 of the popuklion, m^ntaincd at a total estimated 
cost 0/^27,4(10, eqtial to a charge of ^£8, is. 4dp per square mile of 

14* WAmKf, 

U)utrict arcn, or ^\<i, per lifiid of ihc poptilation. There arc 5 jaik nnc! 
'lock-ups in the Ilistrict ; the average daily jail pojiuUiion in 1&S3 was 
2CJ. or t criminal al^va>-s in jail (o every p<)4o of tfie popuUtioo. The 
average ^innua) ccrtt of maintenance per pnsoner was jf 6, 9s. 

Education h^tt made r^pid ])iogrcis5. In 1S56-57 there were only 

19 Governmcnl and aided srhoois in (he District, attended by 1^65 

pupilii in 1H71-72, just pfior to the introduction of Sir Ueorgc 

CampbelVs reforms, which hfid Ehc effect of including village schools 

■within the Stale sysieni of editcatioa, th? nunjber of schools w&s 353, 

'vilh 91 JO pupik By iSSj the number of inspected schooU had 

further risen to about 750, and the number of pupils to over 90,000, 

Khowing t Aehool lo every 454 eqiiarc miles, and 10 pupils to every 

thousand of the population. The^^ figures exclude the uninspccied 

|TtlIiLge 8chool4. and the Church Mia^ion Society*^ and Tanina Mission 

^ schools referred (0 on a previous page. The Census ReikOrE of iSdi 

returned 2^,443 boys and 1046 girls as under instruction^ beiides 

54^71 malc^ :ind 1716 females able to read and wriic* but not under 

instruction. The Government College at Rrishnag^'ir was attended in 

i8S3-£4 by a daily averse of 53 pupils; the total expenditure was 

^^2343 ; the average cost of each pupil was ^^44, 4s. The number of 

c^iidj'duto frum thi» college who jJiesentcd thcmsclvc:! t'Jt tbe First 

Ait:« examination of the OilciittA University wan 14, of whovn S putted. 

l-'or the B,A, degree) 4 pa»scd in the third division out of 6 cdikdtdates 


The ten mtinrci[)alitie* already named had in 1S83-84 a gro** 
municipal income of ^7555, the es^penditure beinfl ^6732; average 
niic of munictpol taication, is. ijd- per head of population. 

AftJi'aiJ Aspects. — The average monthly and annual rainfall at Krish- 
nagai town, for a period of twenty years ending 1S81, is returned as 
follows: — January, 050 inch; February, i'i6 inches; March, i"09 
inches; Ajinl, 269 inches; May, 6'Sa mchea; June, io't9 inches; 
July, 10*49 inches; August, 11-55 inches; September, 7^7 7 inches; 
October* 4"fio inches ; November, a-38 inch ; and December^ o'i6 Inch. 
Total annual average, 57-43 inches. In i8Sj, the total min^l was 
46*93 inches, or e9'5o inches below ilie average. No thennoflndrical 
return* arc available, but the average annual mean temperature is about 
77' V. Being a low-lying plain doited over with many sTvamp«, Nadiya 
suffers much from endemic fever. A very s^cre outbreak of C]»deraic 
fe\'er occurred in 1864-66, Krishnagar and the neighbouring villages 
sufTcred very severely. Another and a more intense outbreak of epidemic 
fever caused no less than 661IS7 deaths in iSSo, and 74,32a in ttiSi, 
Besides remittent and intcnmltent fevers, smallpox, diarrhcca, dysentery, 
and cholera are prevalent in NadiyA. Cattle sulTer from ulceration of 
the hoof, whicb^ ibougli s^^nieiimcs epidemic, is uqx generally faul, and 


j\'^2)/r/? suB^DU'Tsror/ AND town: 141 

throat diwafc of jl serious type. There urc S charitable dispcn- 
m the Difruict, which in tSSa afTorded roli«f to 394 in-door and 
iS,755 ou1-(4oor pAtienis. The tota.1 numl>er of regUtcred deaths in 
Nadi);i District in iftSa was 79,459. er|ual to a r^ile of 19'57 (h^^ 
thou^nd of the population, [Per lurthcr information regarding Nadiy^ 
Bcc Th4 Si^Hsticai A^^unf 0/ B<Ngai, by W, W, Hunter, vol. it pp. 
1-165 (London. Triibncr &l Ca, 1875} i Rfp^rt on tlu NadtyA Rixnrs^ 
by Captain J, Lang (i84;-4S); the BingQl Ctnsui R^orts for 1873 
UMl 18S1 ; and the tpeveral annual Administration and DqiartmenUl 
Reports of the Bengal CrOverrmcnt.] 

KadiyCL — Sudr or hcad-^iuartcr* Sul^divbion of NidiyA District, 
Bcn^d, coiJij'fi^iiig the six police t^irrks {thdi^di) of Kri»hnagari 
Kdligan;, Naluhipdrd, Chaprd, Kriuhno^^ftn), and Hitnskhdii. ArcA 
(iDdtitJve of Kri«hn:igar» the heLd-qu:irter« tovrn of the Difttrlct)^ 701 
«(]tLirr tnilcv, with s tovns and 544 villages, aoil 70,57^ hotises;. 
Population {i&7^) J34.076; (iSSi) 374-973. showine an Jncreaiie 
of' 4o,Sq7, or ]j'34 j>er cent., in nine years. Clasdfied according 
to religion, there ^"ere in iSSi — HinduH, 205,298; Muhamnudans, 
'671378; Christians, 2^95; an<l 'others,' 2, Number of pcrsot^s per 
square mile, 535 ; 10*^5 or villages per square mile, 78 ; (wrsona 
per lown or village, 687; houses per square miie^ 107; inmates 
per house, 5*3; proportion of males in tDtal populalion, 48'5 ]>er 
cent In 1853, thiH Sub-divjHjon contained, including the Dintricc 
bc^-^junrtcrs courtit, 5 civi) ;knd revenue and 10 magisterial couit», 
with a rc^lur police force of 265 men, and a village watch numbering 


lladi7& (or N^akidii4p), — Ancient capital of Nadiyi ni&tricF, 
Bcn^l, and the residence of Lakshman Sen. the la^t independent 
Hindu ktn^ of Itenj^aL Situated in lat. 33' 24' 55" n., and long* 
8S' aj' 3' c^, on the west bank of the Bhitgftathf. Area, 147J actea. 
Population (1881) i4.>05i namely. 13,716 Hindus, 3S4 Muhatn- 
madans, and 5 Christians. Mtinkipai income (1876-77), ^3:8; 
(■S83-84)»;£44^ofwhjch^36j was derived from taxation; incidence 
of tATCAtion, 61d. per head of population within municipal Hmiis. 

According 10 local legend, the town wa^ founded in 1063 by 
LakfthnUD Sen, ^on of ItalUI Sen, Kin^ of Bengal He i» nald to 
Have been indiircd 10 chnng« the ^ito of hi^ capital from Qaur by the 
itupcnor vanctity of the Bhigiraihf at ihi* spot ; but no doubt he wa* 
really ptifibcd onirards by the growint: power of the Muhammnd.Tns 
vtho tooli Nadiya and finally D\'crlhrew the native Hindu dyna-^ly under 
Mahammaid BikhtiyAr Khctji in 1203. Nadiyi has lorg heen famous 
for Its unctity and learning. Here, towards the end of the I5tli ccn- 
luiy, iras bom the great reiomicr Chailanya, in whose honour a festival, 
attended by some 4000 or 5000 VaishKav«, i« held ui the month of 



Mdgti (Jaminry or Febninry) every yenr TTie fiinioijs tah or Sjtvisknt 
schools have been referred to in the article 00 Nai>iva District {w£/f 
suprd\. In the historical section of the «ame nrtidc will be found 
some account of the Rijis of Nadiyi whose dcsccndani now resides 
at KrishnojiEar 

Nadol (or Nadt>i\ii\ — Town in Jodhpur Slate, Riji>ucina. l^c 
is^at of :in imjiortant t)ranch of the Uhauhin clari ol Ajmere Irom a 
very early parried ; nnd with The fttirroLindin^ di^iirt, of which ii was 
the citpiul, for centuries nn ubjcct of cotitcniioii bc:twccn the $tACc» of 
Maiwir (Udaipur) and M^rwir, Rio L^kha of Nadot was one of the 
Rajput princes who tinsuccessfolly opposed Mahmiid of Ch^xikt in his 
fnmou( expedition to Somndih. The fortress, or rather it? reraAins, 
stand on the declivity of a low ridge, to the west of the town, with 
squftTC towers of an ancient form, and built of a curious conglomerate of 
granite and gneiss, ofwhict) the rock on which it stands iscomposcd* 
Nadol was once :he capital of the province cf Codwir, and is now 
known chiefly for its architectural remains. Of tlicse. Tod i^Annoli of 
Hajdsthdn^ vol i, p, 59*^ ; second edition, Madras, iS;3) wys : — 

' It is impossible to do full justice to the architectural remains, which 
arc well worthy of the tiencil Here cverv'ihing shows thai cJic Jain 
f.tUh vkAs once prcdomin^int^ and thnt their .tns, like ihdr religion, were of 
a character i^uite distinct from those of Siva- The temple of Mahivira, 
the last of tbeii tweniy-four apostles, is a v^ry fine piece of archueeturc. 
Its vaulted roof i&a perfect model of the most ancient style r>f dome in 
the East, i>robably invented anterior to the Romaa The principle is 
no doubt the same as the first ^ubsiiiuic of the arch, and is that which 
marked the genius of C?esar in his bridge over the Rhone, and which 
a))i>ears over ever)' moutitain torrent of the ancient Hclveiii, from whom 
he may have borrowed it. The principle is thai of a horiarontal instead 
of a radiaung piessuTC. At Nadol, the stones are pbccd by a gradual 
projeaion one over the other, the apex being closed by a circular key- 
stone' The angles of all these projections being rounded off, l^ 
spectator looking up ran only describe the vault a^ a series of griultiaily 
Jimimehing amultfls or rings converging to the opei. The eifect \* 
very jilea^ing, though it furnishes a strong argument that ihe Hindu* 
fiT*it became acquainted with the perfect arrh through their conquerors. 
The tcrun in front of :he altar of Mahnvfra is exquisitely sculptured, as 
well as several statues of marble, discovered about one hundred and 
hfty years ago in the bed of the river, when it changed its course. It 
ia not unlikely that they were buried during Mahmdd's invasion. But 
ihe most singular structure of Nadol is a reacrvoir, railed the thanna 
luwii, from the cost of it having been paid by the returns of a single 
grain of pulse {channa). The excavation is immense ; the descent >s by 
a flight of grey graoiic Steps, and ihc sides are built up from the same 



mAterlaU by piling blocks upon blocks of enomtous magnitude, without 
\hc least cemcBl/ No ttatisiics ^re avnibble as to population, 

VU (or Anaak-ngay). — j^n arm of the Bay of Bengal; also a 
township in Alty^b l>istrict,^6Vr NAAf. 

N&gi Hills. — Bntish District fomiing tbe southeasterly corner of 
the Province of .\s&am h lies between 25* 13' and td' 31' ». Iat.« 
and between 93" 7' and 94' 13' E, long., bnng a mountainous border 
land between the settled District of NDVi-gon>; m the l^ralimaputra 
vaAey and the semi-independem Slate of Manipur. The approximate 
area is returned at 6400 K^u^rc nii]»> The poimbiion is variously 
C9t)nuitcd at from 94,380 to ijo,ooo souls. The adminUtrativc head- 
quarters are at the station of Kohimn, 

Phyiitai Atfidi. — The DiMnci forms a wild enpanne of forest, 
mounLiin. and sTrcam. which has np to the present date been only 
imperfectly explored The valley* as well as the hills arc covered with 
ilense junKle, and doited with small lakes of deep water and shallow 
marches, which all contribute to engender a very virulent type of 
o>alariotJ3 fe\*er. It is csiimalcd that virgin forest covers an area of 
about j8oo square miles A considerable tract, called the Nimbar 
Korefti, has recently been brought under the conservancy rules ol ifie 
Forest Depailment ; but the greater portion is still a paihleis waste, the 
wcure home of Urge game. The jungle product?! co1le[:ted by ihc 
wild tribes comprise beeswax, a variety of cinnamon, several kinds of 
dyes iind various fibres which arc utilized in weaving. The mineral 
wealth has not yet been fully a^rcrtamcH. Coal is knou'n lo exist in 
fic^-eml lor^bties on the Reneini Hills, and limestone is to l>e obtained 
along the banks of the Nimbar and Jatnund rivers. Chalk and slate 
have also been found. It is rumoured that silver exists in the hills- 
btjt ihc Nagis thcm*elvc* are indifferent 10 ihe value of any of the 
precious metals, or of jewels. Hot ^HpringK have been met with in 
many places. The wild animals include ibe elephant, rhinoceros, 
bnfliilo, *ild ox or giiyaK tiger, leopard, and many kinds of deer. 
Ijirge fi*h of j^ood flavour abound in ihc hill streams. 

The chief rivcT> are the pAVAMi, IJmaw^?vwa»i or Dhansin't and 
Jaml'NA, whteh all become navigable during; the rainy acnnon for »nia]I 
boon. Each of thc*c has many hill streams for tributaries. The surface 
of the country ha* not i-ufiiriont inrlinnifon lo discharge the entire local 
roinfidl, which stagnates in a chain of marshes at the close of the rainy 
Mosoiu Tlie i>Tinciiial hilh are the KF.yGMA isnd Bareu ranges. The 
Renfind rai^e* situated in the west of the Ui?ftnct on the right hank of 
llic Dhancsw»ri river, attains .in elevation of from jooo to jooo feet, 
It is covered with forest and underwood, and the slope is very steep. 
The Biirel Mountains run up from the frontier of Cachar^ crossing the 
District tn a north-easterly direaion. Their greatest height is at the 

144 UTAGA fflLlS. ^^^^^^^^ 

peak of Japvo, vhich is .ihcui tc^ooo frd above sca-lc^-ct On the 
boundary of ihc District they arc saddlc-backcd in sh^pc, often 
bristling into sharp ridges, with sttcp and almosc inacoesiible slopes. 
In the interior they roU out into table-shaped spun vrith ynusy sides* 
Through this nn^^ie tie>'erdl ya^^et kad into Uie St^te of ^lamjHir, ilong 
Lwhich hill ponies oin be led ; a^d it in said that fio imapemtde 
'obstacles exist to the construction of a good rood. 

Hhfory, — The Nlga Hills wctq formed into a separate District 
Lunder a Ucpuly Commissioner in 1867. Even at the present dj»y thia 
rtnct ho-i not been coniplctcl/ sun-cycd, and it conniitutcv one of the 
leo&t orderly ponions of the whole Dritifth Emigre. It is inhibited 
Lslmoftt entirely by the nb(»riginAl tribe Inovn as N^a, vho will bo 
'described more particularly in a subsequent paragraph. It is uid that 
they maintained peaceable relations with tlie native Ah^m kingH of 
Assam ; but soon after our occu|}atbn of the Province, they com- 
menced a xeries of dei^redatiors on the Districts of Nougong and 
Sibs^ir towanJs the north, and Otclur on the souih-^icst. Uctwcca 
the years 1833 and 1S51, no fewer than ten armed expeditions (rerc 
despatched to chastise ihcm in tlidr native hlUs. Apart from their 
nLLiurcbl inaccessibility and the wide range of country over which ihey 
Wiander, the Niga^ were protected by reason of a djploniatic difficulty. 
Their hills bolder the lerrilory of the Raja of Manipur ; and it w|i» 
considered un.idv-isable to mise nny tjue^tions vkith that State, vhoM 
first treaty with the British dates back as early as ij^j. 

Our policy towards the Nigds has uniformly been directed to 
establishing political control rather than direct go vt^mmeuL In 1&67, 
a Deputy Coniimi^'isioner wa» firsl stationed at Simaguting, and a 
portion of the N^i^i Hilb wat constituted Un certain purposes into an 
executive Ptstrict. This was rendcrctJ necessary by the continual raids 
of savage N;tg^ tribc« on British villages in the pklns, no less than 19 
of sucli inroad* hiviag occurred between 1^(53 and 1JIG5, in which 133 
British subjects were killed, wounded orcorHcd off, necessitating frequent 
reialiatoty cApedltionEi against the olTcnding tribes It wa« thought that 
by the e«tabli&hnient of a Kritith fitatlon nithln the hillt, a c«ntrn1 
position would be secured, from which pc-acefiil infTuenceft might 
gradually be extended over the Nig^s, who have dway^ manifeiied 
predatory ins[in<jl& and ru^^L^ed independence. The sy^tt^nuttic explora- 
tion of the country was also held out ai an object of scarcely secondary 
importance. The eastern limits of the District H^^re fixed at the 
Dayang river ; but it was not intended that the country on the farther 
bonk, also inhabited by Nagd tribes, should be re^rdcd as beyond the 
frontier of Sritiah India, ^incc thai date, surveying parties have been 
constantly engaged in ascctt^iuing the ^scogmpbicil outlines of thiv 
wide &lrctch of country, vhich po3sc?i9e:s both political and phptca! 


tntPT^V. as conKimintc ihc w.Ucmhod which scpnraie* tl« valley of 
Assam Crom ihc mounUin gltns of Upi^cr Burma. 

fiutilcspitcail precautions, the i^i^s have illu^itr^ivd their traditional 
charactirr as succe^s/iil juni^k* fighters in more than one dctcrmincJ 
Mtack upon our survey jiarties. In 1S73, a party under Captain 
Samuclls and LteutcnAnt Holcombe explored the ci^iem hills, which 
cxitnd ticyond ihe IWyang river towuril.% the Fatkli ranE^c. Ihe Ndgis 
vctc fotintl to be somewhat sut|nciou« and sulky, but it vr^s hoped that 
AlicT tn<jtc mtimau: inicrctjurM; ihey wuuld Ix'tomc convinced of our 
pani^i- intcnuor:%. No altow of actual hoAtitJif waa mftnifctlcd ; Viut in 
the following cold season, including the beginning of 1^75* tlie icene 
changrd- The Nig."!* turned out in force, the i«rty vnxs t«rround**d, 
and Lieuien;int tlolromlK- and his fnllnwcr^. to the niimhc'r of riKhCy, 
^*crc trejciienm«ly nia^SAcrcd» In the western hills, bordering on 
Manipur, ^mtiUr sympcotna of ill-will ucre manifested. The survey 
pcniy under Capiain Iluiler. who had done mL>te than any other single 
man to open out tl:U connii)\ was atiatked on the ni^jhtof ihc 4lh 
January 1875 by the people of Wukhi, under which village his camp 
hod been fentied. I'hc Attack vra« made in great force, but was 
jifumptly met by a coanic-r attack, and the village was lircd and 
occo|Mcd^ TUc a^ertiined lo»of the Nd^lb n^s t8 killed, and aU their 
property wa9 cxpturcd ; on our siUi; 4 men were tilighlty wounded. 
Again, on the loih January, Captain Uutkr wat attacked in open day 
hy from 400 10 ^no \-^gri»i» tvho werp easily driven oH^ with heavy 
low. Laief in the same year, however. Captain Btitler was cut off 
and killed 

In 1577, the Anginif NAgis of Mczuma raided upon a friendly Nagi 
tiUa^ in North Cachar, killing l> and wounding 2 persons, the cause 
of the Atta<:k being a feud of thirty yc:trt' Tftanding. A& the tribe 
refused to give up the raider*, an cTC|>cdition was »ent *ig:iinst ii, and 
the oflTeiiding village was burned. These events led to a review of the 
position which the British occupied in ihe hills ; And in iS-j$ U was 
iletctnined by Colonel Keatiagc, then C'omniia^ioncr of AiHacn, with 
the Ap|>roral of ih« Covc-mmtnt of India, to abandon Sdma^uting, a 
luw :ind unlierthhy *itc on the exiremc ed^c of the Ang^lml country, 
and to fix t^ future hcad-qunrtcrri of the Political Oflirer at KohiniA, 
in the middle of the group of powerful AngimL villages which it was 
s|>ecially necessary to control 

Iliu chan);e was carried out in the cold weather of 1878-79, but 
mtlkatkint cf further trouble soon preiiented themselves. In October 
iftycj, Mfp Danunt, the iJeputy Commissioner, nccomianied by an 
escort of 11 sepoys and $c armed police, proceeded to the powerful 
ind suongly foriilled village of Khouoma. On re^tching the g^tc of the 

ll.ige, Mr. Dania:it wu at onee shot dead|»nd d volley vns |>OJied 

Vol. X. ^ 

into the r;rort, who turned :tnd flcfH, fi^llf>wed \yy the Nigi*. Of A* 
ctrort, J5 were killed And 19 wounded. The Nigis then proctcdeij Xo 
besiege ihe e^rrison in the Kohima siockade, who were reduced m 
i;rca[ sUaus for want of food and water. After a Noclcadc of IwtUt 
daya, tlie siege was mised bv the opportune arrival of 3 force of 
Manipun troops, uiih n small body of itejjoys under Colond JohnBtoiK. 
Political Agent of Manipur, 

A regiiUr military' campaign ag^in^c the NigiU enftue<J, which Uucd 
till March iSSo. Khooonu was taken on ihc sand NovcnU>ci "879, 
but the dcfcndcta rctKaTcd to n very miotij; po^ttion f^ovc the vtlla^< 
on a >pur of J^pvo, where they maintained ihemselves till the end of 
dte campaign. Jot«om;i wa^ captured on the ayth Mot-ember, and 
; every one of ihc 1:1 villages whirli had entered into the eoaliiton 
againetus was either occupied or destroyed. The xnoM notable c^ent 
of the war however, was the daring raid made in January i&So, by a 
^ariy of Khonoma men from the fofi above ihe village, at the time 
licleugticred hy otir troop*, upon the tea-ijarden of Biladhan in Cachar, 
n^orc than 80 nnile-*^ di'^liinl, where th^^y killt^d the Manager, Mr. Biyth, 
and 16 coolies, plundered what they could, and burned e^'er^thing in 
the place. 

On the a7lh Mjircb, ihc fori above Khonoma submiELcd, and the 
e:<pcdition wa^ at an end* Fines in grain, cash, and labour were 
imposed upon chose villages which took part against us ; llie Nigic hod 
to nimcndfr the firearms they wcrr known to poiwc^s, and in Rome 
instances the removal of a villafic from a fortified and inaccesniblc crest 
to a site below was dtrectc^d. khonoma was rased to the groiund, and 
its site occupied by an outpost From all villages an aj^recmcnt wji« 
taken to pay revenue in the sha|>e of j mannJ of rice and 1 rti|)ec per 
house, 10 provide a certain annount of btiour annually for State 
pur]K}StJ5, and to appoint a heacl-rnan who should lie responsible for 
good order and for carrying out the wi»hc« of Government. 

After ihc do^c of ihis, ilic twelfth and l^it, expedition* the whole 
policy to be auJoptcd in dealing with the KXgd^ wof submidcd by the 
Chief CommiaBioncr to the Government of India, who in February 
iSRt finally decided thai our position at Kohima should be retained, a 
rogimcnt pcrmancnily stationed in the hills and the District admim<^ 
lerod as British icrriior>'. Since that date, the hi&toty of the Nigi 
Hills has been one of the progressive establishment of peace and sood 
order, and the quiet submission of the Nagds to our rule. 

The Sub-division of Woklii wan first o|>eneil in 1875. The station 
IN silnated in the country of the [Jiola Nagd^^ who are separated from 
the Angdnii^i by the Rengmas and Semas, The village of Wokhi hod 
on several oc:ca.sion% nuackcd suney parties sent into the hills, and it 
waa determined to occiipy the site to seeuic our position there. The 

mcA mils. 


l,hotd« IwYC no connection whh the Angdmix, who do not pa** through 
their country in visiting the plains. 

The hounrlAnc« of the Nn^ HilU Hi^rict, as nf>w seccled, were 
finally gaxcttod in July i8S}» 

J*iffiu/aeto/i,e!c, — Neither the regubr Census of 187a nor tbatof iS&i 
was extended to this l^strict An estimate in iS55{r.'ivc the total popu- 
Utionor^n l]>eNd^;llnhesat :iboLit At the timcofthcSun'cy 
in 1871-;!, an cnamcnilion of the inhabitams dwclting under Brliith 
autboht)', conducted by Captain Umlcr, ascertained atoial of69,9J3; 
hui no details arc available, and ific cnurocrauorv is admitted 10 be 
Tcry iaacLumte and intuui|iktc. The Cciwus of 1881 returned the 
civil and military |>opuhiion of Kohima village and sLition m 1^80, 
namely, 1351 malct and 29 (ctnaX^. Hindus nunibcred 1359; Muham-- 
in;idAns 94; Chmiiojift, 95; And 'oth«ra,', a. For the hill tracts 
scnemlly, thf estimated number of vilb^jcs wa* returned at ^31, and 
the population of N'i^i tribes rou^lily imi down at tjz,ooo. For the 
purposes of revenue a^^seisnnent, the number uf hoii^^ci in moUufthe 
Kigivilbget were counted in iBR^^and the lolbwing estimates arrived 
it of the population— Angiml Nigds, 35*000 ; Lhotd Ndgrifl, 34,000 ; 
Semi Ndpis 8000 ; Kachha N^igis, 9000 ; and Kengm.4 N%^, 8000 : 
total estimated Nd^i population, 94,000. In addition to the Ndgas, it 
is estimated that tliere are — Avaainese, 1000 ; AEianiyds, 400 ; Otchails, 
3500 ; Kukis 2600 ; nnd Mfkftn, S800: iquI 16,300, ur an c^tinuted 
fmnd totti of 110,300 for the whole Disirict. The Mflcfr iHbc arc 
rcEmrkable for the extent to wltich they herd together ; it is no un- 
rrimmon riricumM;inc« to find tl^ree or even four families, in no w^ay 
related in each other, re^idin^ itniler the s;tme Tr>of. 

T^ Ji^ti^Js. — Under the Rencric nan»e of Ndgd ts included a large 
nutDbcr of vlrtujlly independent tribes, who are in sole accu]>alton of 
the hill country from the northern boundary of Cachar to the banks of 
the Dibing rivci in the extreme east of the Province of Assam. The 
explanation of the term i^enerally accepted is tliat which derives it 
from the Bengali Nonkta^ meaning 'naked;' bui some authorities are 
inclined to ronncci it with n^^a, ibe Sinkktit fur 'nnakc/ an nrij^in 
vhkh lu^ctt* nn Af-xocintion with the wclMinown Aboriginal tradiiions 
of Central India. The variou* tribes of Nagria arc all apparcnily 
fprung from a common stock of the Tndo-Chmese fnmily of nnttoni, 
and aJl lire much in the ^ame primitive ?itate; yet they now spealc 
dilTefent dtaleetf^ which are so distinct from earh other that villajfe^ 
IjinjE tnrccly a day's journey afurt can only commnnic^ate through an 
interpreter iiiing a foreign tongue. The Htitish Di^lrict is inhabited by 
6vic tribes knoun as ihc Ang^mi, Rcngm:t, Kachha^ Lhota, and Semi 

The Recgmds are a small and inoffensive chn, occupyLng the hill 

148 JVACA mils. 

rvigc of the same narnc- At tbc present <1uy ihey can scarooly b< 
dUtin^uibhcd from the Mfkirs among trhom they live, and ihey carry 
nn n river tt^ffir hy mf».iii^ f»f ihr Jamtma uxft »'nh [)mg;ftt{ uadaiL. 
There arc also g Rcngnii villages situated due north of Kohima. 
These villages form a strong and united community, and for a long 
period prevented the warlike An^rof tribe from raiding on tho timid 
LhotiiL Tr^iiitLOn atatCH ihat t)ie R«n^n)i Nif^ii^f ortginally occupied 
the higher ranges cast of the fJhnncswari, but were forced to tiy to their 
present home* in consctjiicncc of iiucMinc feud* and the attack* oJ 
other and more powerful Nigl tribct. Their x'ilUigcs arc small, and 
with a few exceptions undclci^dcLl, ahhoitgli fiom ihcif t>cin^ sJtudilcd in 
the mid&t of heavy forc»t jun(;lc arid dcn^C underwood, vriihout rotdsi 
-they are very Jifficult of access. Be^des rice, a eonsiderjible (luanticy 
of cotton is grown in the hilU, which t» bartered for salt, bell*, heads, 
hoe%etc., lo BengaU hawkers from Now'confi, The Reinrini^ acknow* 
' ledge a plurality of gods, to whom they make sacrifices of co^r*. pij;*, 
and fowk Marruge isa civil contract^ and merely needs the consent of 
iht: girl and her parent?t. The only ceremony con&iais of i feast given 
by ihc bridegroom to the whole village. 

The Angimiand kindred Kachha dan of Niigi« dwell rc-jjjecUvcly 
in the south'catit and foutE^wea of the District. They are an athletic 
and by no means bad-looking racci with brown completion, flat no»cs 
and hi^h cheek-bones. They arc brave and warlike, buc also trcachcf' 
ous and vindictive. Their dre*s consists of a darlt blue or black kilt, 
ornamented with row* of cowne shells, and a thick cloth of home manu* 
faciurc thrown over the shoulders. As ear-ornaments, lhc>- wear tmks 
of the wild boar : but the most coveted decoration of a wairior Is a 
neck-coliar made of goat's hair dyed red, and frin.(e<l with the Iodr 
»calp^ of slain enemie:^ Stringi of viiriouv* coloured bcaO« ornament 
their necks in front, a conch shell being suspended behind. jMjo^^ the 
elbow are worn armlets either of ivory or plaited care, prettily worked 
in red or yellow. JtcUccu the ealf and ihc knee are bound pieces of 
finely cm cane dyed black, the calves being encased in )(^in^ of 
cdue similar to the Arjiitet^> The hittr j^ gencially cut )i|uare in fiunt, 
and tied into a knot behind, with a plume of eai;le or toucan fcnthcrs. 
The k7omen are shoit in «t:ilute. f^lout, and extremely pUin featured. 
They have ro perform all the drudgery of the hmisc, lo woA in the 
fields, hew wood and draw water, besides weaving the clothmg required 
for the family. 

The national weapons arc a spear, a shield, and a ^^4? or billhook. 
I'hitftlaKt also ^^erve^ ai a sole im[dement of agriculture, and for all 
domcstte purpo^c^ The «haft of the »pear i^ twined wjih plaited cane 
and coloured hair. The shield if 5 feet long by iS inches broad, the 
framework consisting of split bamboos^ covered In front with a bear or 



ItfjcT *kin, and ptotccccd behind by a boards When proceeding on A 
fnray, tUey inviriably c-irry » large itock of Oiaqj.pointwl bamboo* a 
few inches in length, intended lo he wtick m \\\^ jjroHnd to r<i:irfl tho 
pursuit uf an enemy. Of recent yc-irt, m.-iny have succeeded in obtain- 
iug iiuns t>r mullets, and ihc possession of firearms is the supreme 
desire of every Nrigi. Although Ihc importation of arms aud ammuni* 
lion i« protizbitcd, the Ndgi* manage to obtain supplies of rative 
nuintifaclured guns from Mani|>uL 

The Angdmi villages aic invariabiy Ijuih on the summits of the hilts, 
ind are Jiironglj' fOTtified wiih Rtone walls, stoclc.idc*, and tlitches. The 
approachcK, aUo, arc fornxd b> a species of coveied way, »o con- 
^^L »iruoicd 3^ to admit but one ])Ct^on Jt a time, and gu^irdcd by ma^iMve 
^H door«, and «en1riei- The nuinb^T of houses in a village varici from 
^H to to looo. They an.- built with long gable rc»oft, and eiive« almost 
^V louchine the jroiind, In dimensions, they an? sometimes 50 fcret locf; 
^1 by i^o feci broad, and axe (generally divided irto only two rooms. 
^B The religious ideas of the N.igSs are of a very vague order. Some 
^B *ay they believe that if they Iiave led good and worthy lives in this 
I world, their spirits will ^y away aiid become f^tars ; but that cbo»e who 
have lived evilly are compelled alter death to pass throtigh seven 
Mjurate exMtenees as spirits, and arc finally liarsformcd into 1><:e*- 
Othcn^ a^in, H;cm to have no Idea whatever of a future slate* and 
«hen lucfcloncd on the subject reply, 'Our bodies rot in the grave, 
and there ban end of it; who knowu more?' In common with the 
»borigtnef of Central India, thty are extremely Kupsrstttions in the 
^—^ tnauer ofomenK : and all their eerem on ie?^ and sacrifices are directed, 
^B not towards a benevolent supreme power, but to appease the virath of 
^■"IHiniCnms malignarLi spirits and demons. Their mode of taking an oath 
^fit to place a ^pear-head cr the muzzle of a ^un between ihcir lecth, and 
r to imprecate on themselves destruction by that weapon if they are not 
speaking the truth. They inter their dead in a special buryinj^-^roonff, 
and over the grave of a chief erect a *tone tomb 3 or 4 feet high. 

The Ndfpb cannot be sai<i to fiowess any oi^anized form of polity. 
Each coKnmunitj hfts certain chiefs called /V«Wj ; but ihe auihority of 
thcfic chiefr it little more than iiominAlt and the office is not hereditary. 
^H-71^rr one maxim of jumprudence is thai blood once shed can never 
^^^ expute^I* tfitcept hy the death of the murdfif r nr nre of his nearest 
Tclatjvct, HeiKC blood-feuds last from generation to getiemtion, A 
iKiCiecable feature in the^c internal ctuarrels i^ that the whole of one 
vilbgc is ttldom ai war with the whole of another village ; but dan it 
HI feud with cbn. and it may thus happen that a sinfile village contains 
two hostile cUm inlhin it* wall*, with a neutral clan living between on 
good lemii with both. '[ he N^^gas are fond of hunting, and esteem the 
ITesh of the elephant at a great delicacy. They secure their gfime by 

XAGA a/lLS. 

pitfaHlniw covered 0\-eT\t'Uh hrancl^es and loaves oftrees. ThebollofT 
of [he pii is filtetl mlh sluip tinniboo «pikc4t «o that fin^ AnimaJ Ming 
into it is transfixed and killed Thctr only agficultural iin|>1ciiients arc 
a licavy, long, square-headed dii&oj hand-bill, and a light hoc. Their 
system of cullivaiion is that known ^ijtm^ which requires that fnsh 
ji.itches ofjungle should be doared by lire e\'ery three )'C3TE. But in 
ihoHc wnges wlicre the hilU have a gentle slope, lerracci arc ctii frum 
ihe biwe Xq she summit ; ond the ^amc UnU i:i cuminuuiL»ty cuUivuicd, 
t>cmg trrigfUcd b^ anitidal chanucU along which wAicr b often con- 
ducted from eonHidernblc dit^tanccs. 

TMe ICtilih aro comporaiively recent IniiuigranU into the N^gii HtlU 
from the monntainft bordering on Tippcr^h and CHittagong, They 
Torm wh^it is known as the I^ngtung colony, and arc a short, hardy, 
and n-arlikc race, much feared and n;spccied by the trilics among vhom 
they dwell. Their villages are ail situated in dense jungle, and gene- 
mlly on high ridges with water near at hand Some of ihe princtpt 
villages contain as many as two hundred houses, biiill on platforms 
raised three or four feet above the grcunj. ihe huuaes are buiU 
wholly of bamhocs. And generally divuled into two a|>aftmenU; The 
chief? TCfidcncc is, of i-ouEsei much Urger, and buJU with large posta, 
and thatched vrith gruflH and bamboo leaves intermingled. The drcs* 
of the Ktiki* 14 of the scnnlictt, often consisting of nothing beyond a 
lar^ cotton shawl or sheet [(Mdfir), either wrapped round the loins, or 
hanging down from the shoulder to the knee. The women wear a 
short petticoat reaching from the waiat to the knee, with gcncfilly a 
second petticoat tied under the armpits, but this is frcqucndy dis- 
carded for a ^mall coiton ichawl thrown loosely over the shotilders. 
They arc of excessively fiUhy habiis, and disease and death are oon* 
Jtantly among Ihcm. 

Tlic Kuki's.ireJhc only tribe in tbeNagi HilUwho have a recognised 
head, whom tbey tall Aausd; his wirnl is law, and he ts the arbiiiaior 
in all quarrch and disputes, 1'hc cbicftainsliip and title arc hereditary 
honours^ defending from father to $on, Thciridcas as to religion and 
a future state are very vague ; but, like nearly all savage tribes, they 
believe in the cxiilence of evil fipints or demons, whose machinations 
are only to be averted by sacrifice. They also seem lo believe in a 
future Mate of rcmbution, and in a plurality of ^oda. Tlie principal 
deities worshipped arc called Tevae and Sangroii, to nhom fowl^, 
pigs, and Hce spirits are offered in saerifice on occasions of sickness, 
famine, or other afflictions. They believe that when the spirit leaves 
the bcNiy, the angel of death conveys it away. If a good life has been 
led in this world, the soul is transported with a song of triumph to the 
gods, e^cr .ificr lo rcuiiiin at c:ise. The sinnei^ hijwevcr, is suhjea to a 
variety of torturer in the next world— to impalement, hanging, immcr- 


ticm in Itoilmg wattr, elc. The Kukis ar« vtry fond of ihc clia*c. and 
arc d|>cit liuntsjiitfn, dcstmying mnrc wild 1k^e1« ihan Any nthirr enl»r 
in ihc )>istr>c(. Wild dcphams arc killed for ihc sake of the lusks, 
which find a reidy sale in ihc maikcts. 

Bows ai>d arrows, spcart, tn^ j^iias form ihcir weapons. They arc 
vtTy fond of war, noi apparently for tlie mere sake of plunder, but to 
gratify a spirit of revenge, or to jirocurc headit for religious ceremonies 
on the death of a chieL Like aU other uild tritjcs, iheiT knowledge of 
nAt coosistb bimply in Mtqin^ng their cncnues. They surround the 
place to be Atuckcd in ihc night-tiuic, and ai break of day ru»h in from 
evQfy cjuaner and mAvsacrc indiAcnminatcly all they come acro«s. I'hc 
*ma]| clan rvstdmg widim the Nigi Hills arc naid to have lived 
ptaccMf for sever.i) years pait, and there in every pro^jtibility of their 
eontinuing to do *o in fiiiurc. One of their cuMoins is. on ihe death 
of a chief or hcad-mai:, to smoke-dry ihc body and keep it for two 
months, aftcf %hlch it U imcncd with grand honours, and a great feast 
B given 10 the whole clan. Rice and cotton are the chief products, 
vfaicfa are cultirated on thcjiim tysiem, but in a manner dilTercnt to 
that foUoved by the Cachans and Nigi?i, who take three or four »iic- 
cesUve cropc from the same land ; ihc Kiikfs. however, take only one 
crop and clear fresh ground every year. Men, women, and children 
arc inveterate amokco. The women bciw iJic licavic&t burdens of life- 
When not employed in hotjschold duties, or in the cultivation of their 
fields, ihey work at their looniK, weaving clothtfor the family, while the 
men Mt ahntit hflAking in the Minn 

Tkt Aiikin arc the most peaceful and industrious of the hill tribes, 
and labour under the imputation of cowardice because they arc icu 
varlike and vindictive than their neighbours They jnhabii the lower 
hills, usually within a day's journey from the plains; and since our 
annexation of AssAm, they have been recognihecJ from the first ai British 
subjects, and rendered hablc 10 pay a house-tax. W Hhin the limits of 
Ihc Niga Hills District, ihc Mfltfrs arc estimated to number Sfioo. In 
llic nei(ghtKwring DtsUitt of Now^ong they niinibcrcd 47»477 person* 
in 18S1, dweUing in the Ijorder tract specially known a^thc NUkir \i\\\», 
Th«y live, not m organized communities, but in solitary huis or imall 
Kamleis, a« many as thirty individuals aometime*; occupying the itame 
bouse. They carry on a brisk traffic with Bengali traders, bartering 
their cotton, end silk, and various jungle products for salt and pece- 
goods. As is also the case with the Cncharis, they have recently fallen 
■ndcr the inAuenccof Hinduism; and^^iimor religious instructors 
of the Vishnuite sect arc new very busy among thciu. 

Next to titeciviland military administrative bead-quarters at Kohims, 
*J)e following peaces are csltmated to contain over two thousand in- 
babitaats >^Kohima (the Angimi vilbge), Viswema, C hand uma^ and 



Sephiina. Dimdpur. cm ihc Dhancsirari river, idxrat 15 miks din 
from ttie civil &ution, which h^ recently been crenud a police outpofll* 
hasbecomeihehomeof a fewMdrw^rfand Muhamnuulantrailiers. Up 
10 1876, live villages orctj|>icd hy Anglmf Ni^i«, and cnc vilUf^ of 
KnchhA Nigds, h^id been Kutjjcctcd to ihc jijiymcrLt of n huiisc-tu- 
Ify i6^j, ^9 Angimf, a^ Kachha, 8 ScmA, 9 Kenj^md, and 54 l.boci 
nllagcs were aiscs&cd for hou^e-iax at 1 raie of Rs. 3 pet hou^e. 

AjirituUnrtj <i£. — The st4^i>lc cro|j grown ihroughoui tlic htlb b rkc, 
which yiclrlii iwo hftncjto. The ktti crop, corroponding to ihc <**/ of 
ihc pbin«r is sown broadcAtt about April, and reaped in July. Ic can 
be rultivited on any detcription oJ fore«t lanJ, and yit'Ws a roaiv 
^nin, which in ronnnmeil lorAlly. The /A#v£f orMfdi rrnf> corrtoifonds 
to the aJ^ of As^m and the ffvrtf'i of Bengal. Ie requires good soil and 
careful irrigatioa It is sown about Junc,lransplanted in ihc followin|t 
month, and harvested in Novej«ber, Of recent years, a considerable 
extension of rJcccultivatbr han taken place, especially In the neighbour 
hood of SdmagLiting ; but at least threc<lbunh» of the Divirici «rea is 
stilt uncultivated waste. The other food crops comprise Indian com, 
two ^mall species of grain called surAf and Ji^sMf, &nd virious vegeublcft. 
Pouioes were in trod u Led by the Deputy CumitiisMorief in 1869. Cotton 
cultivation is restricted to the lovr<r ranges lying north of ihe Bdrcl 
and Rengmi Hill^ which are chie£y occupied by Rcngmi Nagii and 
MfltJnL The tea plant in indigenous to the country, but the general 
State of insecurity, combined with other causes, has hitherto Jccpl 
P!uropean capital at :i <lisLincti The only agnculturatiioplcfDcnts used 
are the diif or hill knife and a rude Jto^/i or ho?- No animals arc 
rec]utred for the primitive methods of tillage; but oxen oJ ^evcnil 
breeds, pigs» goal^^ ^"d even dogs, are bred for food or barter. Ini- 
gaiton h extensive!)' practised, both from natural watercourses and 
artificial channels. In only two villages is the tiovemment revenue 
raised by mears of a rent itssessed ujxjn the cuhiviiled land; and in 
Iheie cases the rales are as follows : — For ^stf or homestead land, on 
which %-cgcliiblcs, etc aic raised, rs* Sd, per acre; nt/i/ or lowland, 
(suited for the valuable crop of /^di rice, as* id, |>er acre ; /arin^^ti 
or high land, suited for kexi rice and a second croji of mustard seed or 
pulses. IS. 8d. per acre- The natural calamittes of flood and drought 
are practically unknown in the District ; but the rice crops occasionally 
suffer from the ravaj^Ji oi insect*, rats, and mice. 

There are no regular rates of wa^es or of jiricet in the DislricL 
Prior to the formation of Sam:tguiing into n civil station, the Nigia 
were entirely ignorant ofihe value of money, and all trade wai conducted 
by barter, bven at the prei^ent day, copper cotns are looked ujwn with 
su«T>iclor in the remote villages. The Nagds had no native standards 
of weight or measure mcnir but the mauuJ and i<r of the plains have 




navboen generally inlroOuccd. In 1S71, oTctinar^^ di>-Ul>ourtrv could 
not be obuiiMd for 1«» l)um <>d. or 91!- a day; skilled arti^ni^ vrho 
ire trnporti-d from Aiu^m or Urn^ril, <3rn>nmled j^i, lo*. a nsonih. 
In tSSs-Sj, xhc phcc of unskilled Libour wa« rts high a« from li- to >a., 
uid skilled rtitisan^ obuincd from 2^ Co 4s. per diccn. The excettive 
rate cT vages, indeed, forma ihe great obstacle to the car7tng out of 
public imprcnemenls. In March 1871, beat cleaned rice sold for jCi 
per cvtt common rice fi^r 9^. 4d. per ewt, and common unhii&kcd 
paddy for 4& per c«l. These pnccs. however, vary greatly according to 
the seaMin and the state of the narktn. In 1885*^4, the price of 
common rke mti 10& 1 id. per twu 

Mamt/aO^nrt^ ttc^ — TSe manufaciuring Induatrictt of the Nitga HEIU 
ar« tolely confined to the production of ihe few rude articles required 
for domeitic use- The most impoTtant U the wea%'irig of coarse thick 
cloth of mrious paticms. the prevailing colours being dirk blue, with 
red and reUow strifjcs and brown, vith black stripes. The material 1^ 
eiibcr cottoti, the fibre of a plant of the ncitle *pf;cjes, or ihc bark of 
a certain creeper. The wea*-ing i* done by the women, on whom also 
is laid a full share of the burden of agricuhund operations, as well as 
all in-door work. The only ironwork consijrts of the forging of ddos, 
taddfis, and&]jear headf. 

Trade is generally conducted by means of bnricr, and ha* increased 
very much both in Amouiii and complexity of recent ycnrs. There 
arc no permanvnt markcU» and the profits aje entirely in lh<i h^rnds 
of M^rwdrf and Muhnmmadno traders, iJuring the rain*, warer com- 
mimicatiOR is available by meant of the principal rivers. A tolerable 
rood, 67 mita in length* exteniln frrjm SimajfUting 10 the river 
mart of (k»lrighit, in the Oistrkt of Sibs^i^ar ; and there are several 
posses across the somhein hills mto Cachar and Manipur, over which 
ponies can be led A good bridle road has now (i88j) been opened 
out &om Dtmipur to Kohima. The local products available for export 
comprise rice, cotton, cloth woven from tlie nettle fibtc, ivory, beeswax, 
and various dyes obiainetl from the jungle. In exchange, salt and iron 
arc imported ; bui the one great desire of every N4gi. U lalisfy which 
be wfll nm any rbk and fjay any price, is a gan and ammunition. 

AJmintstrait&tt^ — The Uiatrltt hns been farmed tio recently, and ttill 
remains in such a backward mqic of nviliiaiion. thit the reverine bears 
A vety sntAll proportion to the e^pcndimrc. In 1^^69-70, the receipts 
from all sources amounied to only £^^"1* which total, however, shows 
an increase of more than eleven-fold on the year but one previous ; 
the hou«-Ux contrihuied jCaZ^. anil the bmd-tax pn)|>er. £,$$, The 
expcndittirc on civil administration in the same year wai j£<^i'0. 
In t8St-82, the hotise^tax and land revenue combined yielded a total 
revenucof^i496,aiidin \^^-^j^ di £2^2^. Thcoihcr miinitansof 



revt!Due in 18S3-S4 comprised excise, ^5^9 \ tttan^P*. jC^^S; etepTiant 
mahah^£^^j^^\ and fisheric^^ ^30, Seven t!urofiejnn0icenjuvsutiov>ed 
in the Disirict. l-or police purposes the Nat^i Hills b dit idcd inio tbc 
Kohtcna, WokhA, and Dimdpur fMnh^ while outposts rirc sutioncd ii 
Hcnim^, S^maguiing, Pcphima, Kcmphima, and PhcrinaaH The poltcc 
force, which is organised on a semi-mititary ba^s, numbers 460 ot)iccr» 
:ind men. A rc^gimciit of Native infantr)- i.s also quartered in the DiBUiU. 
[ tor Junhcr mrcnnatton a-g:irdJng the Nigi Hill*, and the races inhabit- 
ing the iracij sec Thi Statiseuai AtcoHHt ef Assaniy hy \S. \\\ Huntei, 
voh ii pp. 173-199 (Triibncr & Co,. London. 1^79) ; Rtf&rion Smm^ 
Ofi^ratr't'M tn ihc Ndga Hills in lAjs-yS, by Licul, R- G. Woodlhofpc, 
R. E. ; and the annual Adminir;ttation Reports of the Ait&iim Govemmont] 

NagaX— Vilkgc in DcIim nUn Dimria, NonhAV«iero Province*. 
LaL 30' aj' N., long. 78- 10' E. Situated on the Carhwil tiouruhr>', 
close to n small river, wluch is utilized for numerous milk 

N^aUpiir.— I-ow hill ran^i^e in ChenK^lpat IH»trict, Madras, lying 
between 13^ 54' and 13' 27' 40" n. laL, and between 79' 49' and 79* 
51' 50' K. long.; connected with the S^ittiiwad HtlU on the nortli, and 
the Ndgari group on the west. Avenge height, about iSoo feet, 
BlufT ridges and becilmg crags here and there witting up into shar]> 
Lipvting pc:iks, arc the cJiaractcnstics of the range- Highest peiLk, 
ijoQ feet. Three ^ig-vung paascs cross the range. 

Hdg&nutngala*— Tt^/r^'^ in Hassan District, Mysore State. Ard, 
313 svjtiarc milcK, of which 75 arc cu]tiv:itcd. Popubtion (l*7') 
74,702; (1881) 53,S70f namdy, ^5.446 malo^ nnd 3^,434 frmalc*, 
Hindus numbered %2^*^%\ \ Muhanimadan^* 901 : and 'others,' t8. 
Land revenue (1S81-82), exclusive of water rates, jJ^7(Si& or ^ per 
cultivated ncrc. Expenditure on administration for iSSi-Sj, jC'oji. 
Sheep-breeding is very cxlensivcly carried on. also the tnantjfacture of 
brass utensils by the Jains at B^llur. In 1883 the Aj/jv^ contained 
I cTiminal court; police circles {^thdndi), 5; regular police, 44 men; 
villagL- waicli {(haukiddri\ 306. I'oial revenue, ^12,673- 

K&gamangalaH — Vilki^c in Hassan Distnct, Mysore Siuic; Mtuaieil 
in bt. 1;^ 4g' lo" >,, and long. 76* 47' 40" r., 61 milci byroad »ouih'C^i 
of Hassan town, nnd a8 miles north of Seringiip.iCAni. Head-^tiartcre 
of theXMgamAngaU/tf/i//. Population (1881)3397, '^"^ ancient town, 
containing the remains of se^-enil temples and royal bui)ding?i- 
Fomicrly the residence of a line ^i Piiles.^in- Ihe timer fort is said to 
have been erected in la;:* ; the outer foriificaiions arc assigned to 1578. 
In 1630 it was captured by the Hindu Raja of My*ore» The whole 
town was sacked and reduced to ruins by the Mnr^this duting the 
war with Tipii SulLin in 1791. 

NAgapatnam-— lowfi in Tanjore, Madras Presidency-'— ^;ff Nkca- 





(or Ji4/'*as^')' — Town and ancient cnpiul of BJrbhdni 
t, Rmgil. \M. >3' 5^' 50' NT,, lon;j. Sj' >>'45' fc Formfriy 
of considerable imponance aa the metropolii of the Hindu princes of 
EktbhUm, prior to the cun^jueni of i^ngal by the Muhamniadans in 
1703 A.D. In 1244 it was plundered by ihe \jT\yi&. The site of 
Nagor ii now covered with crumbling house*, mouldering mo^iqucs, 
aod weed-choked Unki; the ancestral palace of its R-'ljis has ahiio^i 
Callefi mio ruirk&. North of Ihe town, ard buried in dense jungle, are 
the remans of an ancient mud fort iaid to have been built in ihe b^i 
ctrntufy ju s deface ii^iiiKt the Morithds. 1'be famous Na^ar wall or 
entrenchment, cxicntling in :iii irrcgubr and bn^kcn line vound the 
town for II dlii^tncG of 31 miles, is now undergoing n rapid proceu of 
decay. The ^ft*i/t or {;aieway« have long ceased to be capaVle of 
defence, and many part« of the wall have been w^hed almost level 
wiih the ^ound hy the annual rains, 

HaffAr<-Vfl/t»n', the ancient ^Thcllyr')- -Seaport iti NcKaiiatain /rfM; 
Ta&jore District* Madras Presidency ; situated in lat, lo' 49' j6' n.» and 
lottg, 79' 53' J4* H,. 3 miles north o^ and officially included withiii, the 
Ni«ArATAU niunicij>ality. The harbour Ls conveniently situated at the 
mouth of the river ^'cHiJ, and a eontiilcrable trade is carried on (in 
native vessels) in arcca-nuLs &l>icc^ timber, and ponies, mith ttie Strain 
and Burma. Tile average annual value for the five yvdfs ending in 
1S83-S4, waa ^36^864 for imports, and ^£6545 for exports. In 
1SS3-S4, (he imports were valued at ^61,745. of which j^6o,So8 
came from foreign pom \ the exporu were valued at £tMi, of which 
J^iibb were to foreign ports, 

Nagiir has a celebrated n)osquc with a minaret 90 feet hi^-h, and is 
reioncd to during its annual feMival by Muhammadan pilgnmK from all 
pattsof India, 'ihe town, wi^h a small territory surrounding it, was sold 
by the Ri)i of Tanjorc to the Dutch at Nega(>atam in 1771, but was 
soon aAerwards wrested from them by the Nawdb of the KarnSlLk 
with the aid of the English. Ji wis afterwards restored U> the Rjljd, 
w bo made a jitani of it 10 the English in 1776, In the campaign 
uf 17&0-31, food AU])]Jli<;^ were obtained hence i\ii the Uitii»h troops. 
Haidar ceded the pUcc to the Dutch, from whom it passed to ihc 
English in 1781. — (For mumcipal nnd poj^ulation details, see NBaa- 


NA^ar.^Kiverof Konhcm llcngaL ApiiroachJng DIndjpur Dlttnct 
from Pumiah at its extreme nonhcrnmort puint, it flows southward for 
about ^0 miks, matking the boundary between Din^ijpur and Furniah, 
till it folb into the Mahanakda (lat. 25' 39' 45' ^ » I^^J^K- ^^' 1 ^■)» 
at the point where the latter river first touches on Din;:!jpur. Navigable 
by large cargo-boau during the rainy sea^oa Cbcf iributincs— Pdiki 
and KuliL 'V\\t bed of ihe N'dgar is rocky £n the norths but bcccmc« 


bandy tov'ftnis its touthem section ; the banks arc sloping and for the 
^niMt part tinculti^-atccl. 

Nagur,— Small river of Northern Bengal ; mw in the north of Bogra 
Ui^trict, enicn Rijsliahi, ami aficr <! course of about »o nftilcs in the 
Jatlcr DtMrict, falU into ihc Cur, which h the name given to the i;niu;d 
fitrcAins of the Atfdi and Jamuna. 

Nasar. — Divifiion of Mysore State, Somhcm India, comptlsing 
ihc tlirc** Uistricts of SaiMOCA, KjlDCR, and CsiTAumvc, each 
of which see sepanitdy. Area of Nagar Diviiion, 11,651 square 
milc^ ; inimbcr of villigcs ;tnd lownv, 4766; nunibcr of occupied 
houses, xi6,999; and of unoccupied hou»e^ 351959^ Population 
(1^71) i,364»j6t ; (ifi8i) 1,304.365, rijtmely, 6r8.98t maliM and 
585.384 fematct Nnm^cr of |icnori pt-r square mile, 103; lownt 
And vill:it;;ci( per ^tipare mile, 04 ; ocmpied huii:tfs per square 
mile, td6; and persons per occupied hou:^, V5> Hindus num- 
bcfcd 1,146,470; Muhammadans, 55,0*8; ChTistiani, 3864; and 
'others/ 3. 

"SKgdX,— TJ/uk of Shimoga Diairict, Mysore State. Area. 494 
sriuare miles. Revenue, ^16,057. Population (1581)43,665, namely, 
33,659 males and 20,006 females. Hindu* numtxrred 41,663; 
Muhammadans, 650; and ChriMians, 15^ In 1^3 the /J/w* r.wi- 
taincd I civil and i criminal couit ; politic ciTi:lcs {/AJmfjjt 8; re^l^r 
police, 53 men. The country is decBcly wooded, and ia almost enclosed 
by hills- Chief products, rice and Jirct^a^r^ut. 

N&gar (or /M/jt'tr). — Village in Shiinopi nistrict, MytorP State. 
Southern India. Lac. 13' 15' n., long. 75' 6' K, In i64<>, Na^ir, 
under the name of Bedniir, became the capital of the Keladi chieftains, 
who tT^tn&fcTred the s^i of their Government from Ikkkrl It attained 
great prosperity, and was sttoni^ly fortified with a wall 3 miles in cir- 
cumference with CO gates. Uhen racked by Haidar All in 1763, it 
U said to hive yielded a booty of million* MerJing. The conqueror 
named it Haidar Nagar, established hh arsenal here, and contintJcd the 
niiai ,it H'hich the flf^t Haidtri )jagoiJas were itrutk, Ka^ai frulToed 
durini; the wars witJi Tipii SuhJn, and was lUo an object of attack in 
the insurrection of 1830. It has Utterly benelited by the opening of 
TOAds acro4* the j^^/ifi^ and is the head-quarters of Nagar /J/uJt. The 
name of Na^r, by which the old flediiilr is now generally known* v^s 
given to it io ibe days when it was boasted to contain a /tiH (100,000) 
of housei 

Naffar.-^Town in the Kdlu Sub-division of Kangra District, l*unjab ; 
situated on the left bank of the Bcas (Itids) river, 13 miles due north 
of Sultdnpur, the head-quarters towa Fonner capital of the Kulu 
Kijds. and now the residence of the Assistant Commissioner. 'I he 
ancient palace of the Rdjd& crowns an eminence looking down ujnn 



from a height of about i tliousAnd feet. It commands n 
liifkrcni vl«^', and iuelf fomis a sCiiltrng fcntiire from the town. 
Higar.^Hiil fangr, covered with forest. l>etwten Jntialpnr (Jiibtul- 
t}ore) Aud Mondld Distrkis, I'rovincK. The valky of the 
Narhidi f Nerbudda) Iie^ below. 

NagarbaJti.— Town in Darbhangnh District. Bengal ; sitLiMcd on 
the cjst bank of the LiiilcOandak, in iat 15^ 52' 15' n., and long. 85" 
51" 30' t, ao miles south of ihc town of Darbhangah, Population 
(i^t) J070. KCKUis lead to Milmagar, to Bjidspur for Darbhanguh, 

I ltd to Kuseri viA Jitwdi|>ur indigo factory on the oppo^iit; bunk ol 
Ik TJvtrr. Thdnd, nK^hool, and hdsdr ; bi-wcckly luaiket. 
Na^ardh&iL— Decayed town in NAgpur DiMrict, Ccnirat Provljiccs. 
Nigari— Hiil rangt in Korth Arcot District, Madraa ; forming the 
itrtme %outh-tfastHy sjiur of tht Ka»!ern Chits, and ton^iKtmg of 
alteati and hardened sandstone KOme hundrciU of feet thick. \tp- 
heavc<l towards the ca:tt in pc-rt>cndicular precipices by granite or gnct&s 
rocks, which arc inlcrscctcd by dikes of serpentine trap,' — (Cox.) The 
sandstones are of various colours, chiefly pale red, yellott> and white, 
both in large and snull grains. The formation is similar 10 that of 
^Iflblc Mountain at the Cajie o( Vtoo^^ Hope, near which coal and 
^^Biamt>iid cojtgfoutcratct have tJCcn fourul. 

^B Ntigari Nob*-— Principal |>eak of ihc Nagakj Hills, North Arcoi 

^^Pi^ir<c, Madus Presidency. 1^1. ij* a*' 55" s., longn 79' 39' ja" K, 

Elevation aboTO the »eii, a3 34 k-^i. Although 50 inilci inlami, this hill 

is vbiibk from the ica in fine we.iihcr, and it n rccogniwd hndmark. 

At the foot of ihe hill a the village of N.igaTi (papulation in 1S81, 

5565!. near Nijcari station on the north-west line of the MLidras Railway, 

Nagan is a very busy place, visjttd by merchants from Madras for the 

purchase of rice* indigOr and ground nuts. Therice raised in thendgh- 

bouihood is of Miperior quality. Ndgari has the latest fair In the 

IJistricL Ii vas once a city mere than a m^le in diameter. 

^K Na^r Eh&S. Village in BaMi /aJisi/, Huii Dmtnct, NorthAVesIern 

^^^oviijccs. i^^l. s6' 42' »., long, %3' 43 K. Situaicil on ihcnorihcrn 

bank of the Chandu Tdl Lake, six miles ^i>Liih-we?^i of (I.isii town, 

Nag^r Kliis » suftposcd by General ConniiigKiTn to bo identical ^ish 

jtiv7 uiK^icnt Kapili'VJitu or Ka|>ila-ragarii, iht* tradiiional biithpbc^ 

Gatitama Buddha, although the Mte of ^u<ldha's lnrlhp]ar« in 

SouUfuL It w«» certainly the capital of a (jaucnma principality in 

)4th century, and remained the scat cf a line of Gautam Riiis 

Dl 1858. when their estates were confiscated for rebellion, Fopulaiion 

Nigarkoil^Town in the Sutc of Travancorc, Madras Presidency- 
au fi' It' N., Long. 77' iS' 41' 1:. A suburb ol Kotdr, once the scat 

of ihe Travanfor^ Cfiv^mmcnt, Jind row the he:id-f|ii:irtcrs of 3 Dtnirici, 
wiEh courts and other C^ovcmmcnt olliccs. Ii h nisc the centre of ft 
brge ChriHtian po|>u!ation. llic London Mission Society has a good 
sthool and imniingjiress here. Ndi^arkoii pubUshea the only news- 
paper in the Stale ; and ha* a repuiaiion for (inc Uce-work, done t>y 
the Mission converts 

Nagar Sot- — Ancient iovn\ in Kingra District, I'unj^ib* — ^ 

Nagar PArkar.— 71//i"^ of ihe Thar anU PStiur DUtrict, Sind, 

. liuiiibay pTCkidciicy, IjordL-ring on the R^nn of Cuich (fCichctih). 

I Population fiSja) 33,^59 ; (iSSi) 37,51a, ntLtncly, iOt379 ^^^ '^^ 
17,133 fcmnluK, durelling in 1 town ard 3 villo^tn, consisting t>( 6636 
orcupieti Iidue^s. Hindus nitmher 10,160; Mtihammadiin^ it, 192; 
Silch«, 25 ; nboriginil tribes, 15.365 ; and Julnt, 870. Grmn re^'cnue 
(tii^iSi), jCa$4^ ' afc^ in ***3^ asscsied 10 land revenucj ;ffli,no 
acres tbe ^hole of which was under cultivation in i^Si. In iS$5 the 

iiJ/itk contained 1 civil and 3 eriminal coum; 17 Mndj or poike 

r circles : 76 regular police, 

Nagar Pdrkar— Chief town and municipaUty of Nagar Pirkar 
/ii/it^r Thar and r.Mar Dl^tuict, 5ind, Bombuy Presidency; sttimtcd in 
lat n' 3t' y., and long. 70" 47' 50' ic, i^o miles south of UmarkOL 
Cciincctcd by good roads with Islimkot, Mittl. Adigion^ riuSpur, 
Bir^ni. and Beh in Cuich (Kachchh). Headquarters of a mikMti^rkdr 
and tapfdddr, with the usual public building* and po*t-officc. Popula- 
tion (i3t8i) 1773; muninpal revrnu*^ fiHSi-S^), ^5*9, Mannfai^lwres 
— wcavinfi and dyeing of cloth. Local trade in cotton, wool* grain, 
cocoa-nut's, pieccgoodg, hides, tobacco, and metaU; tranut tnde in 
^r:)in, camels, caiilc, wool, and ghL The town it l^elieved to be of 
some antiquity; abcut a mile Histani is Sardh:Sra with .1 temple to 
Mahidco, and a spring sacred amon^; HinduiL In 1^59. Nngnr PAHcjtr 
vas the scene of a rebellion, for the suppretiaton of whicha British force 
was despatched from Haidanil»dO (Hyderabad?. The ringleaders were 
tiMn*pnrlcd for ^ Icnn of year*. 

Nagaur.— Town in Jodhpur State, RAjput^na; floated m lai. 17* 
f 1' ij' ^., and long- 73' 46' 15' b., in a jungle covered plain; distant 
84 milen north-we*,i from Nnvidbrid (>Ju»eeTdbj&d), and 75 northeast 
from Jotlhpur niy, Nagaur was firsc occupied by Cianda, chief of 
the Rahtor Rdjpms, about r^Sa \.d. With a valuable adjacent lerri- 
tory, it was for centuries regarded as the appana-e of the heir to the 
gadi of Jodhpur It was several times occupied tentporarily by the 
Musalmiu forces, — once notably by Akbar m 1561, who conferred il 
on the ciiiel ol Bikdner; it was however, Hub^el|uently recovered by 
Jodhpur. It was at one time so priis])erous that ti is said to have jxiid 
^£7500 annually Umiu cgmmcrciaj imposts ;klonc. At least one-quarter 

; nonr in ruins prcscniing n c^nfiEi^ec] rnn» of fnllcn hoiKcK 
ris. such aa one might cvpect lo encounter in some city of 
th« dead, (lut tcarcdy lo be -secn in a town containing some 30,000 
jnhabiunts. A superior breed oi CAttIc is reared m th« neighbour- 
H^garali.— RivcT in the Madras IVcsdcncy.— Sr E^ttfcb-LiVA. 
HigSTaram. — Estate in Ycrnagudcm Mia^, Godavin District, 
Madras I'fCMdcncy. I^t, 17' 13' 40" N., long, iir 22' jo' E- POpula- 

Pm 41SS1) 5S39; number of houses, 1182- ConFiists of 40 hill 
llogc*, inlubilci^ chiefly hy Kois, ;ind from one of these villager the 
i*U receives its TAmc* The villn^ of Nd£;avarani h&a a dilapidated 
HagdirjTim.— Viltige in Cachar District, A*«m ; iituated on the 
felt 1);ink of the ^SondJ river« 1 mile north of Lt« ronllLionce with the 
KukhminCand 14 mi!cs ^outh of Silchfir, n^lth which it is connecied 
by a good road' lr\ Jfrnuary iS7i,a BcngaH settlement here ^as 
cut lo pieces by 1 parly of Lush:(is. This outrage was an incident in 
the nud which led to the iciributivc Lustiii expedition of the following 

Ha^eiy.— Vill&ge and raitway siadon Ui Nonh Arcoi District, 
Miitliji Hiesidcncyp — Sti Nauari Nose. 

Naglna.— N'otth-caatcm /a^j// of Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North- 

Vctttcrn Provinces ; conMRting chiclly of a nuhmonunc and wcU-WAlcred 

rt, bcriUnng en the G:'thwrfl Hills, and comprising the three /r/r-' 

~^tf«f^ of Nagina, TUihapurdi. and AfAilgarh. A flat plain, well watifred 

by screamt, wtch a hi£h average pruduf livenesssand a remarkably den«c 

population. The prevailing features aie *u^'aT-fiel<3s and numerous 

mango-groves. The coumr>" is well f^upplied with meana ofcommunica- 

tnin, and rine unmetallcd roads converge on Nagfna town, the head- 

iIoancTS of the tahsii^ And thi: largest town in Uijnaur District, Area, 

474 square luiles, of which 3Xi> square miles arc returned a« under 

<njlti^'atioa< Pot^uhtion (i^7>) 165,116; (ifiSt) 170,075, namely^ 

nuLc^ 90,554, and females 79,52 r. Cln.sMfictl .iccordmg to rdi^ion, 

^^thcrc were in 18S1 — Hindus, 1 13.489 ; Muhnninintiftns, 56,541 ; Jaina, 

^M3 ; and ' othert,' i>. Of the 465 vitlflj^cs eompming the tainU, 383 

^^oniain lew than five hundred inhab!(ant*L Land rtfventnf, ^56,610 ; 

totaJ Co^'emrrenc revenue, including local rales and cesses levied on 

Bf*d. /.y>t\%<^\ renial paid by culitvaior*, j^4-'?.t6o. In 1883, Nagina 

^htii contained 2 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 5 police circles 

(fJiJ/nh% a regular police force of 70 men, a town and municipal police 

of 50 men, and a villa^'e watch or rural police of 392 {/(attkiddn. 

Magtna* — Town and mumcipahly in Hijiuur (IJijnor) District, 
4onh'\Ve*(iern Provinces, ami head-'iuarrers of Nagina raAtU ; situnied 
iUl a^' if 5' N.,and long. 78' 2&' 50" t:., on ihc ri/ad from Hardwdr 


to Monid^Mit, 4!% mi!t?« noHh-vtKt of ihc I.ictcr ti^an, Kag(iu vav 
founded by the Palh.'fn-^ between 174S ;iiid 1774. who builc the fon. 
now used tu 1 tahsith 'I'hc rown was sacked in tSos l>y the RoHlli 
freebooter, Ami r Khdn ; and in iSr] ii bccrrimc ihc hcad-quarlcrs of 
ihc newly formed District of Nonhctn Moradabdd till 1824, when the 
head-quarters were removed to Bijnaur on the eon^titution of the |»r«' 
5ctK DUtrict Population (1^71) 19,696; (ibSi) 2^503, lumdy, 
maleft 10,375, and females '0,178, ClasHifiecI according to rdigron, 
the |)(jpLkUu^n in i5Si cQ]n|>tiHcd — Mviluuim^id^tiiEs, 13,178; Hindus. 
7280; Jnins, j3; and Christiflns, u. Municipal revenue (i8d3-&4). 
^lafOi of which ^1159 was derived from taxation \ avenge incidence 
of tuxalTon, IS. lid. (x^r hoad- Kagfna wan fomiti-rly celebrated (W 
itK manufacture of gun barrcrls ; it is now note^l for ittt cloth^ hempen 
rojK' and sacking, ebony-caning, gLiss-wnrt". iuid matchlocks. The 
prmnpAl trade is the eK[x>ri of sugir. During the Mutiny of 1S57-5S 
the town w^s ihc scene of several conHicCs, as wellasofihe final defeat 
of the lubds on the 2isl April 1858, which crushed out the rc\x>lt in 
Htjniiur JJi^irici. 

N{hgkaDda(;V'ir'^fi/j(/<7}. — Va:^ in Kumharsain State, Punjab, I>^ng 
in LiL ^t* 15' \,, ^nd lon^ 77^ ji' k,, over a ridge jmicccding iroC- 
wani from Haiiti peak. Elevation above scalcvd, goi6 feet. The 
place 18 much frequented \>y visitor* from Siml.i on aecount of the &ne 
vi^w to he obtained of the snowy range. A ^'c 11 -supplied d^ik bungalow 
ix mainiiined for the convenience of ttavdler^. 

Nafifode {Naz^udk or Uckakra). — Petty State under the Raghcl- 
khand ARcncy, Central India- Bounded on the north-ect« b>' ihc 
States of Sohawal and Kewj, on the c.iM by Kewd, on the soinh- 
ea*t by Maihar, and on the west by Panna. Area. 450 square mile*. 
Population (jSSi) 79,629, namely. 35,646 males and 39,983 females, 
of whom 05,070 were Hindus ; 190* M uhammadana ; O79 Jains; 11 
ChriiiiLana; 1 Sikhs: and 7965 aboriginal tribes of whom 2129 
were Gonds and 5S36 Kola. Revenue, about ;f]5,oo&, of which 
j^7060 lA alienated \njd^rs and rcli^ioua and charitable ^ant:<. The 
Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) extension of the Hast Indian Railway paries 
thfough the State. Nagode was originally inrludcd, as one of the feu- 
datories of Pannrt, in the jj/ji?^ granted 10 Kaja Kiaori Siii^h. Buta« 
the Slate had been in ihc possession of the Purihar aitceitorK of 
Shcordj Singh before the esiablishment of the pou-er of Chhntar Sal 
in Hundelkband, and the family hud never tveen diiipoutsscd cuhct by 
the Bundela Kijjis or hy Ah Hahadur, a sanad was given to L^ 
Sheoraj Singh in 1809* confirmmg htm in the possession of his teni- 
lory. He wa^ succeeded in iSiS by his son, BalbMdra Singh, who 
wa-'t deported in iBji fur die JiiuEdcr of his brother. R^ighiibjiHl, SOQ 
of Ualbhadri, wan then a minor, and the Slate waa therefore tcni{>cr:irt1y 


lalicn iu>dct Brituh 3<intinlsintion. On Ati^iinng his majority in tS^S, 
Raghubind wiua in»utlcd. Th*; Rijd rendered good flcmcc dunng the 
Mdiid}', and was ren';irded by * grant of land from the confiwaied 
State of Hij<'raghogflTh. th^ 'Jg^f of artoption, ami fhr hontiuf of a 
uJute of 9 guns. Rnghubioil died in 18741 »nd was st^ccccdcd by hU 
son, Jadho Biad Singh, the present Rdjd, who U a Furihar Rijput. 
The milit^r)- forc« consists of 2 guns and ij6 infantry and police. In 
ibe Pivuidlngi of tht Askik Smfty 0/ Bertha/ for i874» page 109, will 
b e fouiKl an accouni of the antitiuiiics of ihis Slate- 
^t Naffode. — Chief town of Nagodc Stile, in Ba^hclkh^nd. Central 
^^ndia; aituaied m lai. 24* 35' 45' n.» and long. So' 37' 55" t,. on the 
route by Rcvi froiu Sd^r (Saugot) to Allahdbdd, no niJlcs oouTi- 
wcat of Jabadpur (Jubbulpurc). She of a cantonmcot foe Bntbh troops. 
Th«rc ii ft fort heto, in which the Raji once fesided, built on the 
AttTttta a Ciibotavy of the Tons, at an elevation of 1099 feet above the 
lerel of the wa. Nagode wai abandoned as a caiuonment in i8r6, 
ftnd about the Kime time the Riji left the town and Look up hi^ 
residence at Uchahra. Na^'^tte town h^ consequently lost much of 
its inspor1;tncc ^ the population (18S1) haJt dccicai^ed to 4S7S, and 
houses both in canconmenls and the town ate Jailing into disrepair. 
Nagodt is on the road from Satna to Nowgong, 17 miles from the 
^former, and S4 miles from the latter place. 

^B H&gore. — I'own and port m Tanjure Di&tncc, Madras Presidency, — 
Sec Na^'AR, 

N^Otluuu — Tovn in Pen Sub division, KoUha District, Bombay 
FreAidcncy; situated in laC- i&' ja' 30" n., and long. 73' 10' 55' K., 
t4 niile« from ihe mouih of the river Aniha, which is navigated 
Ijy steamers up to Dharamtar ftrrs, 15 miles below Nigoihn;u at 
all timc« of the tear. Al TJharampur iiassengers and goods are Iran- I 

shipped to miu/swdi (lateen -rigged smacks) of burden up to so tons. ' 

and carried up with the Aood tide 10 N^gothna, The paE&cnger 
affic for the Southern Dcccan and Konkdn is considerable, and cargo 
, also brought up by boats of 80 tons bufden and under The channel 
beeii much improved by the removal of rocks, A road, 70 miles 
lenglli, lum from this pbcc to Malublcswiir, and aiiothei running 
i)roft*t joini the Bombay and Poona road at the foot of the Bttrghae* 
the bc^nriing of the sixteenth century Ndgothna belonged 10 
otanEl. On the defeat of thr frinrc of nnjnrrft by tb<? Poringuese, the 
jhlKturhood of Nigothna seems to have pas.*e(i to Ahnudnagar, the 
[Uca of the Portuguese. In 1636, the Mugbals handed the Ahmad- 
nagar Konkin to Bijifur. About ten years later ii passed lo Sivajf. 
Ii If called Ncgotan in a treaty between ihe Briti&h and the Peshwa in 
1739. N^^hiu u 15 miles south of Pen and 40 mik-s souih-wcM 
bom Bombay. Average annual value of Iradc during the five years 
^m VOL. JU ^ tf 

I J 


Gn<!ing i68i-S< — imports, ^£6800, and exports, ^^39,090. Port- 

N&gpQT, — nivijtion ot CftmrnUsionprehip of the Central Provinces 
comprising ihc Districts of Nagpur, Bhaxdara, Ckakda, Wardha. 
and Balagkat, all of which 9ce separately ; lying between iS* 40' and 
2a' tK> N. laL, and between 78* 4' 30' and Si' 9' E. Icng. The Dmdon 
is bounded on the mirth by ChhinclDvin, Seoni, and Mandii UUtrict»; 
' on the ea»t by Rdij>ur Divtrict and the Naiive Sutc; of Kawardhi, 
Khairrtgarh, and K.inkcr; on ihc south by the Niilm's Dominions; 
and on the west by ihc Amn^oti and Wiin Districts of Bcrir, The 
Nagpur DivUIoii contiin^i an aita of 1:4,940 square miltrsi, vith ai 
towna und 8100 villages, atid 580,86^ hctuscf^ Population (1S72) 
3,411^278; (iSi>i) 9,758,056, namdyf males ifJ^JiP^^Si and femalct 
T,374,37r. Totnl tnrreaM^ of population in the bine yean 187a— iSSi, 
346,778, Of I4'4 percent. Average density of population, 114 7 persons 
per square mile ; towns and villages per square tnilr, "34 ; i>eTsons per 
town or village, 355; houses per square mi]era4'i6; pcntons per hotne, 


Chssilied according to religion, Ihe population of Ndgpur Division tn 
tSSi consisted of-^Hindus, a,257,ao&, or 8i'8 jwr cent. ; Muhamma- 
dans, $4,595, or^pciccnL r tv^ibiqxintbis, 19,270 ;Satn^mIri, 639; Sikhs, 
37 ; Christians, 5428 ; Buddhists, 6 \ Brahmos, 6 ; Jains, 735S } Pirsls, 
189 ; Jews, It ; non-Hindu aboiigiiKS, 388,334, or 14 per cenL ; and 
* others/ 6. The total aboriginal population by tiibc, ^^ disdngutfthcd 
fr>m religion, numbeii; 441,838, namdy, Goods of diflVrant cl4n«, 
438,761; Baig^s 1)669; Kawirs, 9402; Korktis, 661; Kols, 197; 
and Bhilft, 48. Of high caste Hindus, Brihmans numl>er 44,54a, and 
Rajputs 26,960. The mo^t numerous ca-Me in tl^c; Hivtsion \% the 
Ktirmi, the principal cultivating claas, rtlunKd at 407,950, the other 
l>ret JO n derating ca^^tes ranking a& follotvs in order of numbers: — Mabir, 
including Soriosi, a <:lasft of we-ivcrsj <iay'Iabourcni, nnd \illagc watch- 
men, 307,691 ; Teli, OJl-prcssers, i6t>,o6i ; CJawari, cowherds, canraen, 
cultivators, and fieid servanrs, 101,739: Mirlr, gardeners and cultt- 
vatoi^i ioQ,66i » FowdLF, aj^mutturlM^ \A Rdj^ut dcrictnt, 90,098; 
Kosbtf, weaver^ 81,971; Dhimir, 6^ennen, watercarriers, domcalie 
servant^ palanquin-bcai^rsnver'StdeeultivatonT and rearcrfiofthc t^dr 
siUcworm^ 78,aiS; Mthfd, weavers, village watrhmcn, .ind niliivators 
68,516; UiM, gardeners, 5S.S06; Kallir, Including Sunri, di&ulknc 
winc'scllers, cultivators, traders, and monej'-lenden. 54 463 ; XjoAhi 
landholders and cultivators, 42,456; Mini, cultivaton, 39,313; Nit, 
barbers, 31,575 ; Sunir, gold aiul \iker smiths, 31 J98 ; BarMi, car- 
penters, 251984 ; Mar^iihi, cultivators, soldiers, and domcttJc savants, 
>S.3^8 ; Ahir, catlle-rearersj dairymen, culcii'atorf, farm servant^ etc, 
3ij633 J Cbamdr, skinnen and leather dealers, 20^747* 



Vijfpvr DivifiiOQ contams a considerable urban population, residing 
J I inum« ii'ith iipw:)rdw of five thousand inh.ibitnnts, aggregalinfi 
aO^>S4. or JO'8 r>er cent of the whole Divisional population; leaving 
a,45^S72, or S^j per cent., as represenUng the rural or village popula- 
lion. Of the Sioo mnl villages, 43^0 contain Less than two hundred 
inhabiunt«; 9561 have between two and five hundred; 994 between 
fi^-^ hundred and a thousand; aSS from one to Ihrcc thousand; and 
37 from ihrec to five thousand A« regard* occupation. Ihe Ccmtu* 
divides the male population into the foHowing six main classes: — (1) 
Pruf<:iMicn;dt military, and otfidal dass^ 3ji945; (3) domestic cla&h, 
ioeludiag inn and lodging-house keepers, 15*719 ; (3) commercial cla^a, 
mcludit)^ merchants, ludcrs, comers, etc., ^2,234; (4) and 
juitloral cla^ iiKlmiing gardeners, 603,569; (5) induMrial nnd arlitan 
£la&s» 116,094; |6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising 
general labourers and male children, 4^0,714- 

Of the adutt male and female agricultural population, 27,570 are 
reitirned at landed proprictom ; 496,057 as tenant cultivators, of whom 
142,050 arc tcnanU without permanent rights, 65,316 are tenants at 
fixed rates orwiih rights of occui)ancy, and 288,691 ^^ assistants >n 
home ctiliivaiion ; while 526,410 agricultural labourers, e&caie agents, 
(aim Uiiliis, eie,, bring the total adult agricultural po[JUlati(jn of the 
Nigpur Division to 1,051,060, or ^'i |?er cent, of the DiviMcn^l 
popuLiiion \ average urea of cuUivatod and eultivablc land, 9 acres per 
head. Of the toul ftTc:i of ^4,040 s^^uarc miEcs, i£,iS8 square miles 
are assessed for Govcrnm^^ni land Tpvenuc, of whidi 6243 sf|uare miles 
are returned a» undi:r euliivation, : 1 10 square miles as cultivable, and 
4^35 v|uarc miles a» uncuiiiviibic waste, "["otal amount of Government 
osscssDvent, including local ratc« and cesses levied ori land, ^^3>>^07t 
or an avenge of it id per cultivated acre. Total amount of rent 
actually pajd by cuUivitors, ^371,305, or an average of is. lojd per 
cultivated acre. Total Govcrnracni revenue from all source.s in 1 SJi3-i!4, 
^4i3,Sia Justice ii afforded by 50 civil and 55 criminal court*, 
inclt3ding the head-i^uurtetv courts and oflice^ of the Chief Comniis- 
aioner of the Central i^ovmces. [Tor further Information, sec ihc 
fte|iarate articles on the Districu comprising the Division enumerated 

Nigpur.— District in the Nagpur Division of the Chief Commi** 
siooerahip of the Central Provinces, lying between 2o'36'and 2i°43' 
N. Ut., and between ?£' 17' and 79* a,i' £. lonjf. It form^^ an irregular 
tnangie, with iu eastern base resting on Bhnnd4ri, its northern side 
bounded by Chhindward and Seom, and il% sctuih- western side by 
Wardhi. At its south-eastern angle k adjoins Chjtndi District, while 
on the vest its apex touches BerAr. Population in iji8i, 697,356 souU* 
rca, 3786 square niile^ The adoiliustrative head-ciuarcers of tht 

1*4 PTAGPUR DfStAfCt. ^^^^^^^H 

Centra! PtovmfC«, as well ni of the Division and Districl of NigpiiT, 
.nre at Nagpur Citv. 

PkysiraJ Aspffrt,^1\\e District of Nacpur \\t% immc^jiatdy below ihe 
great table-land of the Sdtpura range* lis noriherr frontier Js one con- 
tmuous chain of Mllft. At its weuem extremity thr» chain conmu of 
^pun fn3in the S.itpuraft ; but farther ea^t, thote mountain* themselves 
forro the bourdar>\ A second ^^^i division of hiils shuts in the District 

I on the sonth-wcstcm side, reaching its highest point south-ncst of KitoL 
where the hill of Kharki risc^r almost 2000 f<ct alxivc sca^lcvcl. Across 
ihc country thuii cncloticJ^ a third r^ngc run» from north to itouth, 
ixirtlng It into tivo great plains of very unequal nijtc, which, with the 
hills that bound thcm^ occupy nearly the whole of the I^KtricL In rhit 

* Tnnge the hills are bare :ind sterile, with nigged and often grotesque 
outlines. They culminate in the height named Pilkipir, rftpQ feei 
above the sea. Towards the Bouth>ea*tt, however, the boundary of 
Nigpur rims at some distance |}elow the second hill chain, thus ir>c]ud< 
ing within the njsirict the richly cultivated valley of the Nind river on 
the southern side of the hills. This trad naturally belongs to the great 
Wardhd cotton field, of which it forms the moat eastern and elevated 
pan. The three hill ranges must all l>e regarded as offshoots belonging 
to the Sitpursa on the iiurth. They nowhere attain any great elcvatiuit. 
While the heights themselves are rocky and sterile, the valley* and 
lowlands at their feet possess a ri<^h ni;d fertile soil. In the midst 
of barren hills, coverei3 only with loose boulders and low w*nib, the 
traveller unexpectedly look* down li^Jon valleys studded with fruit- 
trees, and smiling with corn and garden cultivation. Strips of biKhly 
cultivated «oil rise from the plain lelow, and creep through the Korgcs 
and up the hillside, until they suddenly lose themsc!]ves tn rock and 
brushwood. In the contrasts thus offered between hill and dale, Jurgle 
and homestead, desert snci garden, the most sinking feature of the hill 
scenery is to be found. 

Of the two great plains, that to the west uf Pilkipir slopes dowu to 
the river Wardha, beyond which lies East RcrAr. This wcitcin trart 'm 
watered by the Jam and the Madiir, on their way to join the W^rdhi, 
and contains the most highly cultivaJed land in the Uittrict ; every- 
where it abounds with mango and other Iniit trees, and teems with the 
richest garden cultivation. The great plain on the eastern side of the 
rilkd[ftiir range, at least six times larger than the other, stretches away 
to the conhnes of Bhandara and Chind£ It consists of a itch 
undulating country, luxuriant with mango groves and trees of all sorts, 
and dotied towards the east with countless small tanks. lu; geiKfsl 
slope is towards the Waingangi, which tlows for ;t short distance 
between Nag|-ur anr] Bhandiri Through this plain the perennial 
kttcam of the Kauhiin (which receives ihc Tench, ihc Kolir, the 





Wan^ the SuT, and lite Bor) fiown between high hAnks, in ■ niTraw 
niKl deep bclon' the >urUcc of the count:}, along a ^nncly bcil, 
Tc<l here itod there wiih ja^ird ledges of rock, \xi a iTood, the 
wat^n «w«ll with eKtnLOfdt»ary rjipidiiy, And poiir down in impctuo).Ls 
tMT^iiU 10 the Wamgingi^ H^re and th^e rJ^M a Hilary heighi, 
such fts the Haldolf Hills in the Kouth-eut, 1300 feet high; ihc 
itches at ChipgarH and Bhtoki^nd; iind* in the north-cnst of the 
net, the sacTcd hill of K^mtck. The last attains an ckvacion of 1400 
feci above the sea. It is in the form of a bor»e-fihoc, with the heel 
towards the soutb-<*asL At its outer extremity, towards the norlh, the 
cliff b scarped^ rbing theer from the aLjout 500 feet On the 
^umcait are the old fortress and the lem|»ies; Lielow, in the hollow 
itmcd by the inner tides of ihc hill, and embosomed in groves of 
and tMnorind, resiles a lake, iu margin adorned with temples, 
id cncloGped by broad IligHts of Hte^^ of hewn stone, reaclnng down 10 
waler From the summit, the prospect is wide and magnificent, 
ly, in iHe middle of the plain standa the isolated little hill crowned 
the Sfdbaldi fori, commanding an extensive vicvr. and intercMing 
\i from its historical associations and its gcoloj;ical importance 
Within the bmit* of the horizon, as seen from Sitibaldi, every 
oiation belonging to the District \% 10 be found. Indeed, the circuit 
a few hundred yards presents an epiiomc; of the geology of the 
'eninsula. On the hili-top, ihe -surface \% ?itrewn with noduhir trap. A 
yards below, in the £carj>ed face of ihe hill, may tie traced a shallow 
lyer of frcah'iratcf fortnation ; beluw ttits, a sol^ bluish tufa, which 
.«o mio a porous amygdaloid, and dee|>er, into an exceedingly 5nc 
augitic grcensionc. At the base of the hill, beneath the baflnti, is sand- 
stone ; and below the wndsione, gneiw- This jLixEa|iosiiion of volcanic 
and plmonic rocks, enclosing between tlum the wreck of a vast sand- 
stone formation, ini«tti the geology of Ndgpur with parucular interest. 
Otct more than half the area of the District, tra]) i.s the Kiirface rock. 
The serrated outline of the italihf Hj!U, near Hhindori, indicates the 
crystalline formations which extend down to Cuttack, as ilie flattened 
summits characten/e the trap. In the upper part of the WanA valley* 
and northwards from Ndgpur up the bniuit^s of the Kolar, the Kanlun, 
and the Pench, sandstone formations i^redominate. In Jionie few pan^, 
OA at Mauodd, and near Umrcr, beds of latcriic occur on the surface. 
Tbc superficial deposits are the rt^ar or block cotton soil, and the red 
sotl, Th« former it found slmont untvcni.'Llly wlih trap, and seldom 
exceeds ij feel in depth. The red soil is sometimes as deep va 50 
feet, and occurs witli plutonic rocks, sanditEone, or iatcrices. Neither 
dcfxisit is fbssitifcrous. 

/foA^fj.— The first rulers in this part of the country are said to have 
been tbc mythical Gaul£ chieftains, whose exploit! yet live in the song^ 



of ihc villjigcrs. Out lusiorlcal knowledge of Nigpur, faovcvcr, begins 
with the i6th century, when t^ic Duiriet foTincd fj&rt of the Gond 
kingdom of Deogafh. J-itba, ihc firtl Rij-Cond ruler who raided 
l>«low the (thnu, perhaps at younger brother of ihc Deogaih fcmg, 
constructed a etiong fonrcss on the libiogarh Hill, commanding the 
chief passes from Chhindwiri to the plains of N:^ur. The numerous 
Gond fona which now smd the Disukl with their ruins, were probably 
buitt by him and hU dcsceniiants to protect new hatches of scttlcre. 
while the country- around was being brought under the plough. Three 
or lour generations Later, ahouE ApD. iToo^ Itakht Huland raised the 
Deogiirh kingdom to ils greaiest prosperity. His succcwful wars 
widely expended hU dominion, while the connection he formed with 
Delhi, aud his freedom from religi<jus prejudices, led \\\m to encourage 
the immigrution of axtifiecrs and agnculturiatx, both Hindu and 
Muhammadan. Not least of his ichievemenn wag the foundation of 
the city of Nig|iur, which was walled in and made the capital liy 
Chand Sulian, the next king. On Chand SultHn'« death tn 17^9, Witf 
Shdh, a natural son of Bakht Buland. iisur^jed the throne- The widow 
of the dead king called in Raghuji Bhonsia from Berir, to support her 
two soni, Burlian Shah and Akbar Shiih. Wjili SLih was slain, and the 
rightful heirs placed on the throne. Raghuj( then retired to Uerdr. 
Dissensions^ however, speedily arose between the two brothers, rcuiliing 
in a bloody civil war. 

In 1743, the elder brother invited the supjiort once more of Raj^bujf 
IJhonaJa, who was again 5U<:cc3>?tfuU Akbar Shih was driven into exile, 
and Hnatly pnisoned At Haidirabad (Hydet^b^d), But this lime Rag- 
huji did not retire. He noiv constituted himself protector ; and while 
BurMn Shdh retained the tille of Rija, with a pension, both of which 
his descendants have since held, Raghuji took ;i]l real power into bis 
own hands, and, making Ndgpur hb capital, quickly reduced all Deogarh 
to own his authority. The nominal supremacy left to the de]>osed 
princes was probably intended to show that the Uhonslas hdd the 
Nflgpur territory from the Gonds, and not, like the other chiefs of the 
Marath;^ confederation, l>y favour of the Peshwi. Nevertheless, in 
1744, Raghujf took advantage of the difliculties in whtch the Pcshwi 
found hitnaclf, lo obuin fiotii him a sanad confcrnnji the n'ght of levy- 
ing tribute from Dcrdr to Cuttack. In 1750 he received new x^v^*^ 
for Berir, Condw:tn:i, and BengaL By his successful foneigD wan, the 
first and greatest of the Fhonsk princes extended hi5 rule over a wide 
country ; and he was still in his full career of aggression when he died, 
al Nagpur, in March 1755, 

Raghuji was succeeded at Nigpur by his eldest son, J^noj^, while 
Chindji and Chhatfs^rh were given as an appanage to 3 yotinger :(0n, 
named M:tdhujf. Jinojf at first dn'olcd himself to settling the territory 





him hy his fAChcL but when hosrilhiei began between ihe Niuim 
the youthful Pcshwd, Jdnoji sold his supirari to each side by turns* 
At lost, disgusted by hia 1reachcr>', the Peshwd and the Nizim in 1 7^5 
united their forces against J jnoji, burned down N^gjmr, and forced the 
Riji to disgorge the greater pari of ibc money he had received, l-our 
j-c:us htei, a treaty was concluded between Jjtnojf and the Pcshwii, in 
which the dependence of the Bhonsbs was fuHy acknowledged- 1 brec 
jTfars aflcrvards Jinoji died. Before his death he had adopted hia 
ncpSew Ra^huji, the 1011 of Madhuji of Ch:&ndi Dm w[nlc Mudhujf 
viih hm von were on their way to Ndgpur, Sibdji, another brother of the 
late king; fci^cd the vacnni throne* The civil war trhieh folloured 
eT>ded on the batiTe-fiey of P^'(r»Hig.'ion, whcr>r VfAdhtijl killed his 
broihcr with his own hand, Madhuji then governed as rtgenl foi the 
rest of bis tif& In 1777 he Tint entered into rebtlons with the English, 
to whom be displayed a friendly jK)licy throughout. His death look 
pUce in 17SL 

Hitherto the dominions of the Bhonsbs had enjoyed ^Trat prosiJeriiy 
under tbcir rough And soldierlike rule. Justice wa^ well ^zdministervd, 
crifnes were (cu-^and the people comfortable and contented. The reign 
o^R^l^ujI IL biou^hi vriJi it other tiine^, 1l bei^^sa ^ucceWuUy with 
cxtcaaionj of the Nigpur power, and with clo^e rclationa with the 
J^ngluh. Jn 1793, Mr. Colebrooke was appointed Resident to the 
court of Raghuj{. Before long, however, Mr. Coiebrookc withdrew, 
and Ra^htijf aniied with Sindhia to oppose the Kritish GovernmcnL 
The b&ttles of .\ssa)'e and Arg^on (Argaumi shattered the forces of 
the coniederuefi ; and by the treaty of Deo^aon, Raghuj£ lost nearly 
a third of hi^ kingdom, and engaged to receive permanently a 
Resident at Nagpur. Rut the Kaja now cnJcnvoured to extract 
:10m his diminished territory a revenue far beyond its means; 
Snd his exactions, together ^iih the nids of the Pindaris, iiiierly 
solated the iirevcrnt Diuricl of N^i^'imr. Raghujf died in jSi6. 
YA Mjn, Ihcbhnd and paralysed Pawojf, soon lifter became perfectly 

A contcft for the regency betneon the widow and ApA Sihib^ the 
nephew of the latt? Riji, ended in the Micce^s of the latter. A few 
moaiha bte"! the R:iji was found dead in his bed, poisoned, as was 
subscquenlly proved, by hiis couf^in and successor. As soon ajs K\A 
Sahib fch himself safe on his throne, his bearings hitherto 50 cordial 
to the British, entirely changed. His avowal of friendship with the 
'eshva, then in arms agaiiut the British^ together with the conccntra' 
ion of his troops at Nigpur, at length induced the Resident to summon 
hai force be could, and to occupy the hill of Sitdbaldi. During the 
36lh and a7th November t3i 7, the amal) Knglish army had to endure 
repeated attacks of the Nigpur troops, and at one lime were 



driven from ih^ smaller of ihe two etiimencM wKk>i fornn the SflibiMl 
portion. A dcftpenLtc Irglit, however, finntly ended in the cocnpl«ie 
dcfe^it of (he enemy. ApA Siliib attempted to disavow any connection 
with ihc RtCark ; but the Hcsidct^I h^td bc(?n strengthened by frwh 
troops, &nd he now demanded the surrender of the Kiji, and the dts- 
bandmem of his army- The first point was conceded ; tAc second 
viixi not gained till a battle had been fought clo^ to Ndgpur, m which, 
after an otntinaie resUiance, the Mar^thls were utterly xniied. At 
fir^t it w^ii rcr?io1ved tu reUiii A^^i Sihib on the throne, subject to the 
control of the Br!ti!th ; but his fre^h intrigues, and the distsvcry of fais 
complicity in the miardcr cf his cousin, cawaed his atreat. Api Sihib 
sut'ceeded, hotrcvcr. in escApirtg to the MahAdeo HilK and ultimately 
made hti w^iy to the Ptmjaix A grandson of Raghujf n., ^ill of tender 
years, was now rained to the throne urder the title of Kajthuji iil 
During hii* tninority, llic Resident administered the couit:)'ti[l 1830. 
On the death of Kaghiijhii. without issue in 1S53, thcStaitwasckclanjd 
to have lapsed to the British Goveinnient, and was admiaistered d9vn 
to 1861 by a commiswon of officers under the Committioiier of the 
•Nigpur Province/ 

When tidingH uf tlic Mutiny readied Nigpurin May 1857, a sdieme 
for rising wis immediately formed in the linesof the incguUr cavaby, 
in conjunction with the Musnimans of the city. TTio ni^i of June the 
13th was the time agreed upon, and the accent of a firf-balloon from 
the city wu* to give ihe signal to the cavalry, Me^nrim^ to allay *iifc 
picion, the cavalry formally volunteered for service against the tnutinccrs 
in Upper Indiru On the i.^lh June, a few hours before ;hctirnc fixed, 
a squadron received orders to march towards Sconf t% pn of a force 
moving northward from Kimih( ( Kampiee). This took ihcTi by surprise, 
and they at once sent a tlafdMr^ named Ddtid Khdn, to the tnrantry 
lines to rou^e the regiment. iJ:ti1d Khdn wn-*(, however, seized by die 
fint man he addressed, It was now discovered that chccavalr)' were 
saddling their hoTHes and the aUrm lic4:an)c general \ the ladies were 
sent for snfct/ to Kdmthi, and troops summoned front that placc ; 
cannon were brought up to def«nd the aTiienal, and the [un> on ri>e 
Stlibaldt Hill got into po*itton- KveryThJng new depended on the 
letnpcr of the regular infantry and cavalry. WTicn TJcuitnant Cum- 
berlege went to lake command, he found that the rcgimcni had fallen 
in of their own accord, ready ro execute any orders. The conspimora 
in the city now knew i hey had failed, and the lirehalt[X>nwas nerer 
sent lip. The cavalry too lo^ all heart, and unsaddled thetr hor^e^ 
Subsequently they were turned out without anus, and with the regular 
infantry and cavalry in front and on each flank. Several of the native 
officers, logcthex with two Musalmins of the city, both men of high 
birth and position^ were cijn^-iijtcd and hanged from the rampoils of the 




fon overlooking xhe cJey. On the a^ih June, ihc irregular Cii-alry were 
diurmcfl, and the men tcjJt under sunriUancc in Uirit own line*. In 
Ko^^mhcT they were again armed, and «mptoyed loward^t Samt)al|>ur, 
where they peHbrmcd their duties weLK A M]u-idron> whirh was coni- 
posed almost eniircly of Marilhis, appears to have been im])Iicaletl 
in this afTair e-quftlly with the Mu^ilmans. In this crim, the jiidgnicnt 
and resolution of Mr. E!li« Atid hh coadjutor, Mr. Koss, averted a great 

In tStii, the 'Nigpur Province' was amalgamated with ihe'Sd^ar 
and Natliodi Tct^ito^c^/ the <KholG forming Ihc present Oniril 
Prorinccs, with ihc hc«d-<)u&rtcts of ihc nd mini miration at Nagpur 

Popniaiitm. — A rough enumemEion in iS66 returned the population 
cA Na^>ur District at 63Q,34r, The more careful Census of iS^a 
diKloscd 6.11,109. The U&t Census ir 18S1 returned a total popula- 
tion of 697,356, shelving an increase of 66,247, o' ><*'S P*=f ^^ViV^ 
a considerable portion of which is due to ioi migration, ouing to 
extended trading; iaciUties and railway advanta{:es. The results arrived 
at by the Cencu$ of i33i may be briefiy summatiicd as follows-— 
j\rea of Distria, 3736 N({uare miles, with 9 towns and t675 village^^, 
and 145,593 hvusc?s. Toial popuUlion, 697,356, namely, males 
351,756, or 5o"4 per cent, jind female* 345,600, Average density 
of population, iS4'a pcT£on« jier square mile ; villages per Si^uare mile, 
•44; pcrvini per vilUge, 4151 house* per square mile, 3S'5 ; persons 
per hoasCt 4"8. CUsiificd arrording to set and age, thene arc — under 
15 years of age, males 129,632, and females 155,342; total children. 
>54.954< or 36-6 per cent, of the Disuia population : 15 years and 
npwtrds, males 222,134, and females 220,258; toial adults^ 442,392, 
<^ ^3*4 per cenL 

Jtdighn. — Gassified acccrtltng to religion, the population of N.-tjcpur 
Pbtrici comists of— Hmdus, 598,441, or 85"S per cent,; Muham- 
Tiiadans, 39,765, or 57 percent, ; K^bfrpanihls, 7371 ; Samlmls, 41C ; 
Jains, 3564; ChrisEians, 48(;u; Pir^i^, i;d; Trahmos, 6 ; Duddhisu, 5 ; 
]cw% 4 \ abongrnal tribeti nearly ill Gonda, 4^,750, or 6'i per cent, of 
tb« population: and 'others,' 6. Among Hindu castes, Brdhinans 
number 3i,c2S^ and RijputK ii,3ij. Chief among the lower casies 
of Hindus arc the following: — Kurmf* the principal culEivating dan. 
and roost numerous caste in the Districi, us^^is^ Mahir, S2,o66; 
Telt, 54i49i ; Koshtd, 37,733; Mdli, 27.610; Mehra, 18,^84; 
>Iardthd, 12.S23; Gawaii, 12,256; Dhimdr, 12,222; Barhai, 11,527; 
Nil, io,aoi \ Sunri, 8993 ; Sonir, S975; Lodhf, 7956; Chan^di, ^^$$\ 
Pbobf, 6875; Haniy^ 652S; Gad^ria, 59^9; Barui, 5425. The 
Muhammadan population are divided according to sect into — Sunnfs, 
36,086; 5hii3, 1141; Wihdbfs, 35; Faiai^ls, S; and 'others' 495< 



The Christbfi! comprise— Europeans, 1446; Eurasians. 630; ImJo- 
Portuguese, 66 ; Natives of India, 2503 ; and unspecifietJ, 405. 

Timft and Hurtti Population.— ^i£\y^T Hmrict contains nine Iottis 
with a population excectling five thousand inhabitants, namely, Nacpvr 
City, 98,299; Kamiki (Kanipii)^ 50,987; Umrer, 14,347; Krapa, 
S465;RAMrKK, 7814; Narkhcr, 7<?6t ; Mohpa, 5515 ; Kaijiesii^ 
WAK, 5318; and Saoner, 5023, The total urban population iht» 
djscjg^cd amounts to 3011729, 01 over 39 per ccnU of the \Q\8X 
inhabitants, a ratio considerably higher than in any other Dtatrict of 
the Central Provinccfl. The 1673 villages arc thu* closst'ied: — SS9 
contain left« than tv'o hundred inhabitants; 574 from two to five 
hundred : T49 from Tive hundred to a thousand ; %% from one to two 
thousand ; 1 $ from two to thn^ thousand : and t ^ from three to 6vc 
thouH^nd. N.'fgpur District contains 3 municipa] towns^ witli a total 
population of t94,3c»7 souk; total municpal Income in iSSf-S^t 
;£j7,oS9, of which £t^fi^'j was derived from taxation, mainly octroi 
durics ; average incidence of taxation, 3s. i\d, per head of the mimi- 
cipal population. A* regards occurtation, the Ccmus divide* the male 
population into the following six main cb3&e%: — (1) Professional, 
miiitary, and official cl^i««i '3p5^3> (') dorncstic claaa^ including inn 
and lodging houac keepers, etc-, dr^s ; (3) commercial class, including 
luorchams^ traJer*, carrier*, etc., 9055; (4) agricultural and paitoral 
class, including gnrtEener^, ^26,353; (5) indusLn^l and ani&^n class, 
66,o8d ; (6) inde^nite, non productive, and unspecified class, compristng 
(general labourers :inri mule children. 128,612- Tlie m^ti^rial condition 
of both the agriculUiml and non-agriculiural classes hai greatly increased 
of late yenrs, owing to the increased demand for cotton in ihe I'^agliftH 
market, the extension of cuUtvation, the opening out of railway and rnwd 
[Communications, and a considerable nse in the prices of agricultural 
produce, aa well as in the tale of wages. 

AgrkH^fHre. — Of the total area (3786 square milea), 1932 vfcic 
returned in 18^3-84 as cultivated \ an^ of the portion lying waate, 7S9 
square miles were returned as cultivable; and 1065 tquate milcft as 
uncuhivable waste. The total area assessed for Governmenl rcvcrufi i« 
3005 scjuare miles, of which 1 783 square milca are under cultivation. 
474 square miles cuUivable, and 748 squBre miles uncultivated waste. 
The agricultural produce consists of three clashes— the raM or spfiflg 
rrcps, the kharif or rain crops, and the baghikii or gnrdcn crops. 
Wheat is the grand rabi crop, and was grown in 1883 00 343.226 
aaes. Other food-grains occupied 517,738 acres; while 198,561 
acres were devoted to oil-seeds. Of ihc jf^^n/crop*, by far the moH 
iinportam is coiloUj wliicli in J8S3 was grown ua 115,909 acr«L 
Rice occupied 33,417 acres. The gjrden cultivaiton, ^hicti is con- 
fined to the best black soil, produced sugarcane on 1288 acres, and 



tobttcco on 815 acTCft, betides vcgc(aW« ^if difTcrcnl kinds on 4539 

Of ihc 4^iiTt mjik nnd rtmil« :igricu1uim1 popuhtlon in i8ili, 59^^ 

were retftmed as hnded proprieion* ; 98,006 as icnant-cultivaiors, of 

whom i7,6Sr were tenAnUat-will, 14,209 were tenants ai fixed rales or 

^th riches of occii|unq', 61,315 ^^^ nntKUntit in home cultivation, 

and 104,393 vrtrc igricultural labourers E^tnic agents, form l^aililTH, 

^ shepherds, hcrdiinen, etc, bring up the lotat adult agricvUunil population 

^^of Nfigpur Districi 10209,568, or 50 per cent, of the District population ; 

^" avenge arcsi of cuitmted and cultivable land, 8 Acres per head Of 

Utc ycara, the condiiion of the huvbandmcn ban generally imprtjveJ, 

The rent rates per acre In i88j for the difTcrcnl qualities of land 

are reiurncd ns follows: — Land suited for vrhcnt or inferior gmin, 

9«. i>er icre; for nee, a%.\ for oti-teedf, is. ti^d. ; for cotton, 

js. jjd. ; for sugar^mne, 7%. ^\\. Total amount of fiovcmnicni a&scis- 

mcni, includrng local rates and ccwes levieil on the land, yJ88.os8, or 

an averaf;e of is. 63d per cultivated arex Toul rcnial paid by cultf- 

vatoffs, including rates and cesses^ jCi*7tS59- Average jiroduce per 

acre — wheat, 300 lbs. ; rice, 504 lbs, ; inferior grain, 306 lbs. ; oil- 

^K seeds, 144 ibsv^ cotton, 100 lbs.; sugar (s^r\ 500 lbs, J'he prices 

^Bpercwt vere— rice, 65. tod.; vhe:it,fs. id,; Unseed, 7&6d.;cottoai raw, 

^H IJ& 3d.; refined sugar, ^t, 16s. Skilled labourers received up to 

^^ 1%. per diem ; umkilled as low as 4td On the forest lajid*, which 

1 cover an srca of 310,000 acres, nio*i of the fine limber has been felled \ 

^B but under lh« present ^^sttrm of conservation, the saplings arc making 
P^lf procrcfs. Of foreit frulMr^eVi the moit iinportnnt is the mahud^ from 
\ tbe fioweis of which » distilled ddrH, the !<ptntuous liquor most used io 
the DlslricL 

Ciffttmtnt and Tradt. — ^Thc principal exports consist of raw cotton, 
grain and other agriculiural produce, and cloth ; the principal imporU 
are salt, sugar^ Engbsh piece and mi&cellatieous goods, cattle, hardware, 
and cutlery. The expom considerably exceed Ihc imiraris in value, and 
ihcreforc laii^e <jiULRtitie!i of goid and silver arc sent into the Dij)trii:t 
fium Boinbajr, The manufacture of common cuttun doth is dvehnin^p 
owiDg to the compciltion of machine-made goods from England, 
Kimtht 'w by far ihc largest entrepot for wheat, rice, and oihcr grain ; 
hrii the cotton produced in Nigpur moitly finds its way in HinganghAi 
in Wardhl District, or to Amrrfori in Hcnir, from whence it is trans- 
ported to Bontbay. There arcover 300 miles of mmic roads in NAgpur. 
The chief lines arc the northern road 10 Jabalpur (Julbulpore), the 
eastern road to Bhandira, the nouihtfrn rond to Chdndi, and the north- 
T»xrsicm road 10 Chhindwirl The N.igpur branch of the Great Indian 
Peninouta Railway leaves ihc main Une at Bhosdwal, and terminates at 
Sftdbaldi, the western suburb of Nc^gpur; it has a station also at Bori. 



Twentjr-ftix milca of this line lie: witbin the Wslrict, The partially 
open<*<l K£(gj>tiT'Chhati4g:irli RailwA}' alio iacer&eccn Nigpur Diitrici for 
a diHtance of about twemy-foiir iiiilr*. 

A^minis/raihtL — In 1861, N^i^pur v« fonned into a sepante 
District of ihc British Government of the Central Proi"inces^ It is 
Administered by a Deputy CommLssioncr vith AssUranC5 and tahsUJdn, 
To»l revenue in 1876-77, jf 135,3*0, of which the Und-iax yielded 
;£83,4i6; total revenue in 1883-84, £llA^^^S^ of which the land-tax 
contributed ^Si,5S i. Tlie pdndhn, a kind of house-tax, is peculiar to 
tlm \yxxi of the country. I'otat cow of District officials and police of 
all kinds in 18S3-S4, jC^9-^AS' Numbcf of civil and revenue jud^o 
of all son-1 wiihin the Dbirict, 18; magistrates, ts. Maximum distance 
from any village 10 the nearest court, 38 n)ile« ; average divtanoc, n 
miles. Number of police, 1005 men, costing j£i3,«i?; being 1 policeman 
to about tvery^} miles and lo every 694 inhabitants. The daily Average 
number of prisoners in jail in tSS3 wn^ 84S, of whom 52 nere females. 
The total cost of the jnils in that year wis ^5383, l*hc number of 
Government or aided schools in ihe District under Government inspec- 
tion was T97( attended by 11,502 pupils. During the year iS8j, no 
leHv than ti^ijt^i persons visited the Ndgpur Museum. 

Mtdi^{ Aspects. — The year is divided Into three sea&om: tlic hot, 
from the beginning of April to the beginning of June; the rainy aeaaoa 
sets in in June, and lasts till September, the Utter tnomh and October 
^*?ing generally close and sultry, though refreshed by occasiotial 
showers; the cold weather occupies the intervening months till ihe 
ensuing ApriL The :mnual mean temperature at Nigpur for a period of 
iwdvc years is returned at 787" F.. the monthly rnears being-* 
Januan, 68-6" ; February, 738^ j March, 8r8' ; April, SS?*; May.gj*; 
June, 862"; July, 791'; August, 79'; September, 79'i'; October, 
77-1'; November, 709'; and December, 67"4". In 1883, tlie tem- 
perature in the shade at the civil station was returned as follows: — 
May, highest reading ii7"7' F., lowest 75"5'; Jtily, highest 94"j", 
lowest 711'; December, highest 8/"2°, lowest 43"i'. The average 
annual rainfall is returned at 43 S8 inches. The rainCtU iit 18S3 
amounted to 61*45 inches, being 17*57 inches above the average. 

From ihe middle of September to ihe middle of December is the 
mo4t unhealthy pe-rlorl of the ye^f. The prevailing diseine is fever, but 
cholera is occasionally epidemic ; of late years, the ravages of small';KW 
have been materially lessened by vaccination. The total number of 
registered deaths in 1883 was s 1,456 {from fe\'er, 4587), etiual to a rate 
of 44^63 per thou^pand, as .i^^ainsl an itnnual mean of33'66 per thousand 
for the previous live yeans. N;^gpur has a lunatic and a leper asyiuiu, 
and a medical school; and during the year 1SS3, 10 charitable dis- 
pensaries afforded medical relief to 145,211 indoor and out-door 






piaticnis, [For farther JnformjLlion regarding Ndgpur Dlflttict, sec the 
Gauikero/ike Ctntrui Pr^nfu^s, hy Mr. (now Sir Charlei.) Grajvt, i)p, 
^9»"J4S (Nlupur, 1870}; ihc CVwjjw Rtport of th^ Ontrai Provimes 
for 1S81 1 Ihc StiiUmtnt Report of N^^piir District, b> A. R Ros*. 
Esq. (1S69): and ihc «cvcn1 Annual ALJmintstTation and Ucpartnicotal 
KciK)rtfi of the Central Provinces Govemracnl.] 

HA^nr.— CcDIial tah^I or Sub-division of Ndgj»ur District, Cen- 
tral l^vrncc^. Area, S5J »qture milcft, with 3 lownK, 41^ viJlng<s, 
and 53,806 houses* PopuUtion {it'jz) 344,616; (i5Si) ^68,479, 
namely, jnales 136,065, .ind females 132,414 ; average density of 
ItopuUtion. 315')' pcnon» per tn-iuarc mile. The iGtal adult agricul' 
luial populaiton (male and fcmsilc) numben 48*539, with on average 
area of 9 acre* of euliivarcd and niliivahle land to eneh. Of ihc totai 
ircA of the taksft {&$n square miles), 103 square miles are held revenue 
free ; while 749 square miles are assessed for Government revenue, of 
which 473 square miles are cultivated, and 115 ^quaie miles are avail- 
able for cultivation, the remiinder being uncultivable waste. Total 
sunount of Go\-eniirent land revenue, including; local rsiies and cesses 
levied upim land, ^£14,124, or an a\-erngc of is. 5Jd. per cultivated 
acre; amount of rent paid tiy cultivators. Including talc* and cesses, 
£^A*^^^' or .in average of is. 1 Jd. pei cuUivaicd ncre, Ndgpur fa^sii 
contained in 1883, 11 tivil and 15 criminal courts (including the 
r^iviaional and District head quarter court*], with 3 police stat[on:i 
(/AiWf), and 6 ouipof^t i^tionii (i/iavjkh)» a regular j>o]ii:e force S5 
strong. he<^ides a village watrh of 7 r 7 fhaukiddrt. 

Niffpor.— Chief town of Migpur DlsmcU and the seal of admini- 
soation of the Central Provinces ; siiuaced in the centre of Nijtpur 
Di^io, in laL ai* 9' 30' N ,. ami lon^. 79' 7' E., on a small stream 
called the N4g. The municqml limiu include, besides the city proper, 
the suburb of Silibaldi. the Kuroptan sUtion of Sitabaldi with Tikli, 
and a considerable area of land (chiefly black soil) undef cultivation. 
In the centre stojids Sftabaldi Hill, crowned with the fort, which com> 
inan<H a fine view vf the ttjuniry round. Below, on ihi: injrth anil 
wcat, lie* the prettily wooded ilaiion of SiiihaUli. Heyond, to the 
north, are the military linci^ and Midrs; and again beyond these* the 
i^tibijrb of Titli, onrp the hcadtpiarters of the Nigpur irregular force, 
but now occupied only by 1 f^^w bungalows. Close under the southrrn 
side of the hill it the native suburb of Sftibaldi. Below the eastern 
glacis is the railway lerminui. Beyond this lies the broad <;hcet of 
water knowQ a* the Jama Talio, nnd farther cast is the city, completely 
hidden in a mass of foliage. Three great roads connect the city with 
the Kuropcin station, two of which are respectively on the norlh and 
south banks of the lake, while the thirds the most noTthcm, crosses the 
railway t>y a bridge to the nonb of the tenninus. X he handsome tanks 



Bod gmdcni outbid c the diy wcrccomlmrtc^d E)y ihr Marithipffiiices. 
The three finest tanks arc ihc Jami TaUo, AmbdjimH. And TeKDgkbcri. 
which supply i considerable portion of Nigpur with water. The chief 
ganl<rn]i are the Moliirdj Bigli, in the suiion of Sftibaldf, the TuU( 
Righ, imidc the city, and the four stiburkm ^nrdcn-s of rjildi, ShAkar- 
ddra* Sonilgion, and IdingkherL Of the numerous iiindu temples, 
some arc in the best style of Mardihd aichitcciurc, witti elaborate 
carvings. The HhonsU palace. buLIt of bhck basalt, and profusely 
ornamented with wcL»d carving, was bmnt dunn in 1864, ;uid unly the 
great ^ Nokirkhina^ ' gate remains The tfimbi of the Bhon,<(la kingt ^re 
in the Suknwiri <[uarter, to the south of the city. 

Th* pnpiibiiion nf M^^spur city (including tht' military linca and 
tnimidpalit)') in 1872 was 84,441; >n 1881 it had increased to 
qS^^qq, lUTiaely, males 50.033* and females 4S.367, Classified accord' 
ing tc religion, there were in 1S81— Hindus, 79»84a ; Muhjimmadans, 
14,1 to; ChriKtianif, ^474; Jains, 959; Ri1>irj>anthift, 63; Satn^Sini&r 8; 
Pirsfs, 138; Brahmoa^i 6; Buddhists, 2\ Jcvs, 4; aboriginal tctigioas, 
737; un&pccihed, 6. In iSJJa-83. the Nigpur muoicipalily had an 
income of jf 17,870, of which j^is.oSg was derived from taxation, 
mainly octroi duties ; avct^gc incidents of taiuitJonT 3X id. jicr head^ 

Kn^'pur carries on a large and increasing trade, the chief imports bciiig 
wheat and other groin, salt. coiLntry cloth, European piece and mvA- 
cellaneous goods, silk, and spires. The chief ar dele of manufacture 
and L-sport \% cloth. The finer fabrics of Nigpur have bng twen famous 
and arc still, in spit^ of the comiictiiion of Knglisli ^lufT^, in great 
Te<iucsL Large weekly Uzdrs (markets) are held in the Gtirganj 
Squaie and in the GachI Pdgi. Most of the public oHices aie in the 
civil station of Sttal:aldii including tlic old Nigpur Residency, now the 
official residence of the Chief Commissioner, a plain but com[nodk)u» 
building in weU-woodcd grounds, and the ^ccicioriat. a lar^e and sub- 
Stan I tal edifice. The ciiy contains the Small Cauae Court, the JUA^i^, 
the Honorary Magistrates' Courtj and the police station-house*. Other 
insdlutions are — the Na^'pur centrnl j;ut, buiTt to contain 1060 prisoners \ 
the city hospital, with three branch d[5;>ensaTieii in ditTcrent quarters of 
the to*n; the lunatic osylam ; the leper asylum ; the S{tibaldi poor- 
house ; the Morris College; die City High School; Normal School; 
the Free Church Mission Native School ; Roman Catholic School ; the 
Bishop's School, for the education of European and Eurasian bojs; 
and the Railway School There are three public f<7nf/V (niii\e tnns), 
besides Kcvtral private dharnudUs lor similar j)ur|>oscs. 'Wxt military 
force consists of a small detachment from tJie English regiment at 
Kdmtbf (KampLce), the head -quart eis and wing of a regiment of Native 
mfautry, and a cotnjwny of sappers nnd miners. The foinicr garrison 
the fort {built in 1S19) \ the arsenal, jusi below the fort, coutatna con- 





ddcfttbte itorcii and fnunitions of wan Both town and fication affi 
coii«ider«d heilchy. 

Ra^^iil — Town in L«ckmiw njstnrt,Oudhi silruIed^ibouT midwny 
between the tnx) roads from Lucknow C4t>' to SulttEnpur and Rii Barcli. 
Population jiSSi) 4838. Annual hdt6r sales, abcui ;£5S5o. the prin- 
cipal uadc being in rice, whk:h is largely cultivated in the neighbour- 
hood Two schools, one for boj-s and one for girls. Said to have 
been founded by Rijd Nal, a Bliar chieftain, }^\t site of who^ foit still 
exists. It fell within ihe track of Sayyid Silir's invasion ; but it was 
AAerwards again left 10 ibe Bhars, who held it till they were expelled 
by the Kumhi^win Acntthii Rijputs, a branch of (he family cbUbli^hcrd 
at Ametbia Din^ur. They were Arterwardi expelled by the Muham- 
nuidJins, although they subsequently succeeded in redlining 1 portion of 
iheir ixKs^fisionsw SayyicU now hold two out of the three division* 
{tarajs) of the pboc. 

NAjflrtlL — Village in OarhwAlSlalei North- Western Provinces, Lat, 
30' 50' K.J long. 78^ 19' E. (Thornton) ; lies on the Budiya stream, a 
feedet of the jumna (Jamuni), close to their confluence. According 
to Hind^ belicfr the Ganges reaches the village by a sublcrrane;in 
course, arid breaks out in a neii-hbouring spring. 

H&baa (Strmur or 5<irwf>rj.— Nativt Sute in the Punjab. — ^t 

Ifihan. — Ctpiul of Sikmuk (^atmor) Hill Siatc in the Tunjdb, and 
lence of the R^ji; situated about 40 miles somli of Simla, at the 
wMtem extremity of the Kiarda Oiln, and from 1(5 elevatM position 
(3207 feet) vLtible from the plains at a considerable distance. Moor- 
croft describes it as cleaner and Jundsomer th:iii (he generality of 
Indian towns. Nihan is built on the utievent^resi of a rocky eminence ; 
the houses arc small, buih of sionc cemented with lime. The i<iji's 
dwdlin^ is a large edifice of stone tn the centre of ihe town. There 
are seven or eight houses built in European style outtide the town. 
One Ycry fine house, surrounded by a handsome garden, has betn 
lately erected by the R^jd fut liIs ljwji use- Several c.\ttllciiL liwuses ;irc 
used OA TcnE'houacs for the Kij^'ti guests, ftnd as rcaidcnccs for the 
turopcan ofltciajj of the Stat& Population (18S1) 5^53, namely, 
— Hindut, 4*45 ; Muhammadan«> 985; Sikhf, to?; Jsins, 5; and 
'oahcrs/ 16, Number of houses, 9J7. Large^ well supplied l>dz4r^ 
ddk bunb!a(ow, i sardis^ dispctjsary, school, and an iron foundry 
worked by the State. On an eminence adjacent to the town, a new 
CBiiloninent ha.s been laid out for the R^ji's troops, Nahan whas 
occupied by the British during the Nepal war of 1814^ and at the clone 
of the campaign vr.i« restored to the Kij^ o( f^imiur, Iroiu whom li hud 
Ucen wrested by the Giirkhas. 

Nah&nk — Petty Sutc of the Pindu Mehsvis in Rc^i Kintha, 


BomhAy Presidency- Arei, 3 squ^ro niles, with, inciu^liog MaHdEn, iKvft 
vilLiges. Held jointly by two prd»priet<>r«, cMIrd thdinrs. Re%-enuie, 
£(>o ; tribute of ^2, 1 os. is paid to the Oickuvir of Hiuoda. 

N4i^4on Ribahi (or Naydi^ion, or Nawa^donY—Vcixy Suttf in 
Btmc!<.l, Central India. Bounded on the south by the Cbhaiar^ 
|)ur State; on All other sides, il lies within Hamirpur District of ibe 
North-Western Provinces, The area wjs estimated in 1875 at 16 
square miles, the population at 3^60 pernors, anil the revenue At 
^£1037. The |>opulaiion m 1S81 wxs 3365. Lakshman Singh, one of 
Ibc banditti leaders of Ilundelkhand, having been inJuced to surrender 
after aome resistance on jrromisc of ^rdon, Tcoci^'cd tn 1807 a sansd 
for 5 villages. On hid death in iSoS, he was suocecded by his son 
J-igat Singh- In 1S50 It wat decided that ihc State i« held merely on 
a life tenure, and ought to have been rcstimcd on the death of I..aksb- 
ni:in Singh. Il was continued to Ja^at Singh, however, who had been &o 
long in possession, on the distinct understanding that it iras to lapse 
iflbsoliitely at his death. At his earnest request, the Goremment 
allowed his widow, Thikurain I^rii r>utaiya, to ttuccced after hU dcstb, 
which occurred in fUd;. 

N&tlULtt {Nythaft(e). — Tovn anc3 municipality in the Dittrici of the 
Tffcnty-fouf PiTgani-s Bengal. 1 Jl. 22' 53" 50* n.. long, ^Z' 27' 40' t 
tiiation on the Eastern Bengal Railway* 13^ miles front ColcutU. 
Population (1872) 33,730; (iSGi) 31.5334 namely, males 10,655, and 
fcmnlcH io,S73. Classified af^cording to reli^on, there vere Ja iSSi — 
Hinduo, 1^,695; Muhammiidan*?, afli?; and 'othen;,' ai- Area of 
tovrn lite. 6680 acres. Municipal revenue (i 871], ;^66o.4S> ;(iS83-84). 
j£\ 341, of which j^i 185 was derived from taxation ; average inckleinee 
of taxation, is. ijd per head. Bench of magistrates;, sub-registry office, 
English and girls" school. 

N4ikdis, The— A wild forest irilie found in Panch Mahiih Dis- 
irici, and in the Kewi Kinlha Agency, Bombay Presidency, Of the 
ongin of the Naikd^ two stories are told. One, thai their ancestors 
were grooms to the Muh^jniEiidUan nobles and merchants of Ch.impiner, 
who look to the forests on the dccjy of that city towards the clo«: of 
the siuccntH century. 1'he other ciatcc thai they are descended from 
an escort sent by the Riji of Higldrt to the Rdiji cf Champinf r 

The Niikdas are generally small in stature, thin and wirj-, remarkably 
acltve, capable of enduring fatigue, and not wanting in courage; black in 
colour, with dark eyes, square faces, and irregular features. Kacept the 
chiefs and a few others in (iood circumstances, who dress like Kijputs 
or Kolis, the men wear a few jards of dirty ragged cloth round the 
loins and a second cloth round the head The women wcaro^'cr the 
ihoulder^ a robe or idri of a dxirk blue or red colour, a petticoat, and 
someiLmcs a bodice. Except tin and brjsi eai-iings, the men wear 00 



omamenK The women wcir tin ciir-rmgi;, ncckUccfl of beads or 
shclK And bnu« bangles rind ATmletS mivcli like those worn by Bbll 

Their chief fnorf is rndi^n corn prueV l!ic welllodo *omeiime$ using 
coarse rice. Except the ass. crow, and snake, few forms of flesh are 
^bidden the Ndikdi^ They cat large black ants, scjuirrels, and 
monkeys; cvvn in large towns the sight of a Niikdd is said to be 
enough to fnghien away the monkejs. For niontha in each year, after 
ihcir Mode of grain is finished, most of them live on wil<l fruiis and 
roo[*k They arc much given to mahnd Kpiriis^ and at their festivals 
drink to excew. Though the Niikd-i?* cntciirrion and innk among ihc 
Tctv lovrcdt clashes, their tovicb, (bough avoided, is not held to cnusc 
pollution. They are labourer* and wood-cidtent A few have bullocks 
and plough*, and till regular fields. Bui mofci ftf them i>nit(i?;e only 
the rough nomadic tillafre, burning down the brin^hwood on the hill- 
side^ and sowing the coarser millets araonc the ashes. 

Niikdds show no respect to Urah mans, and care little for Bnthmanical 
riiei, &slv, or feasts. The objects of their worship arc spirits and 
ghosta In honour of the spirits whom they invoke by various fantastic 
nimcSv itcy fix teak posts in the ground, roughly blacking rhem at 
the top into something like a human face. Over these |>o«!i they 
unear milk or red le^d, and net luund thcin rowv of Kmall day hordes* 
^fArriagei and deaths arc the only oecasions of ccrcnnony' A uidow 
may marry again ; on utich ocrWions ihero is no ceremony. The 
NdikdAsdo nor intermarry wJrh any other easte. l^azy^ thriftless and 
lofid of drink« ihcy are most of them deeply sunk in debr. — Stt 

Hibt— Small village in S^lon tahiU^ Rrfi Tlareli District. Oudh ; 
rituated ao mile* from R4i Kireli town. ro|>uhtion (iSSi) 789, all of 
whom arc Hindus. The hcivlquancrs of a branch of the Kanhpuria 
ciait, reported to be the most turbulent K.'ijputs in Oudb. Uitrin-; 
naiive rule, constant fighting took place between the landholders and 
the kings iruu|jb: and fn 1S57, the NJin {iUakd*\rs joined the rebel 
soldiery, and plundered the station of Par^^hidepur, 

Haiiia Rot. — Vi11ai;e and rrunicipality in Shakargarh iahsU^ in 
Ourdi^piir Oiariei, PunjaK Population (r88i) 145a, namely. 984 
Htbdus, 449 Mubammadans, 16 Sikhs, and 3 * others;' number of 
houftcv, 407. A third'Clas^ munici|>a]ity, with a revenue in i$8o-8i 
of jfSo; expenditure, ^79; average incidence of tax.itioti, is. lid. per 
head of the population. The village contains a police station {thdmi)^ 
poa-ofBce, and school. 

VilDi TAl--Hill station in KumSun District, NorthAVeslern Pro- 
Tincet^ Lju, 19' ^^' 7t., long. 7<>^ 29' 35' c Picturesquely situated on 
the banks of a beautiful little lake, which nestles «mong ttie «|>urs of 

TOL. X. % 


the Himdlayo*. Favountc sdnitArtum and Bumm«T report of European* 
tVom the plnini;, ft \% >lso the hcjid-r]iinrt«rn; of the GnvcTBment of the 
North-western Provinces during tbc hot leather. KxquUite Accncry 
among the surrotmding hills. Elevation above sea-levd, 6409 feet 
I'he po;>ulaUon incrc^cs Urgcly during the height of the season. 
In Febiuaiy r38i, the Census TcturncJ the pofmhuoni then at its 
lowest, at 6576, namely, Hind^i^ 5^39; MLliammadanj, 81 1; aind 
ChmLunit, iz6. A !&j>cciul Cen&uft taken m Sct'lotntKr i5$o, xt the 
h<;ight of ihc H'a>on» a-tumed 1 toul popiibtion of 10,054, made ap 
nti follows:* — Hindus, <i862 ; Muhanicnaijnn^, '74^^ Eiin>pC2os, 1348; 
EumsiaiiB, 34 i Native Chmtlanst 5;; And *othcn/ 5* Municipal 
Linconnc (13^3-84), ^49551 of which ^4194 Vp'aa derived Irom taxation; 
P ttverflge mcldeiice of taxation, Ss. 4^, per head. 

On the iSih September iSSo, Naini Til was vidtcJ by a violent 

r cyclone and rainstorm, which nrsulted in a landslip causing the death 

pDf 4> Europeans and 105 natives, tlie toial dcsiraction of ilie 

injbHc AKsemlly Rooms, ."leveral bouses, and property ta die value of 

^so^aoo. Sin<:e thift disastrous oecurrence, a con])>1ete system of 

drainage and of proEecitvc works ha^ been carried out by the muDici- 

Lpalityat a cost of ;^7o,ooo, and the station is now in a better and 

F safer condition than it iva« before the landslip occurred. 

The NAini Til iniUiary convalc&ccnt depfil, cstabli^ied soon afiei tJic 
^f(tI]n>% has accotnmodiitien for iibout 350 European invalid ooldicra. 

Nai&valL — Town in Bdndi State, Kajjiutin:) ; tlcuited 30 miUa 
norMi-east of Hilndi town. Nninwiih i<i a town of sonic consequence, 
and is surrounded by old fortifications and a ditch kq>i in £>ir 
]irtsenation, and flanked on its northern and western lacej by Lar^ 
tanks, from which the fosse ean be Hoodeil at p1ea«ure. It contains 
ao guns of sizes chJetly of h^ht calibre; only a few arc mounted. 
Pc^tiladon (iSSi) 5354, namely, Mindus 4545, and Mobaniinadnns 

Niyafgarh. —Village in Cawnput Disirict, Nonh-Wcitcrn Provincei. 
[,ac. 26' iS' N^i long' ^o* 36' e. ; distant from Cawitpur city 16 miles 
M^ulh'Cajit. Popiibtion (iS8t) iozo> Cbie^y noticeable l^r the ruin& of 
a palocoB in mixed Indian and Europeon style, built by General Martin, 
the well-known Frenrh adventurer ^nd partisan «oldier, who ajiia»cd 
ft rondderaMe fortune- 1-ocal manufaciure of indigo grown in the 
surrounding co unify. 

Nt^al^ub JhH— i^rge straggling lake or inareh in Gurgaon and 
Delhi Districts. Tunjab, lying between 2S' ^6' 30" and 28* 34' N, lat., 
and between 76' 56' and 77" 4" 30* £. long. Its length, including lU 
various branches, measures about 46 miles, and wiien full, in OctobCTi 
ii submerges more than 17,000 acres. Torrents Irom the Uurg^on 
Hills, and si^veral cbauueU in Delhi District^ feed the lake, which is 





then dmirtod into (be Jamuni (Jumna), by means of an cscafic channel, 
fto A« CO allo«' of Gultivaiion on the submerged Und. Only pAttial 
suocefts )w»wpvrf, has attcndtrd these operations, owing to the u-;int of 
sufficitnt (all The scene of an impoitant defeat of iho rebels \if 
General Nicholson during the Miitiny of 1857. 

N^ib&beid.'— Northern taki^t or Sub-divjaion of Bijnaur (Bijnor) 
District, Notth-VVesiem Provinces, lying between the GAngcis and the 
l^ar^uil HiUft, and comiiming W^t: pargandi of Naj(babdd, Akbardbdd, 
and Kirat|>ur. Aica, 494 &qu;irc miletf of which 16S arc cultivated. 
PupuUtion (iSja) 141,685 - (t83i) 133.561, nairelyt males 71,676, and 
females 61,883^ decrease of po^uUilun ftincc 187^, S174, or 57 pet 
ccnL in nine years. Cla^t^ed According to rchgion, the population in 
18S1 conktttted of— Hindus, £6,594^ Muhamm;idan% 46,870; Jams, 
i:»i ; and N^ers,' 31. Of 369 vlllagcft coin|)Osing the tahsilt 315 coiu 
lained le^s thaa five hundred tnhahiiAnts. GovernmeiiE assessment. 
j^j*,,^04, OT including local rales and cessts levied upon land, 
^35,004, Id 1SS3 the iahsU contained 1 civil and 2 criminal courti, 
with 5 police Mations {//tdmis)^ a rcgjlar police force of 63 men, a 
muiucipjd and town police of 55 men, and a village and road police of 
30; i-Aauiuiiirs^ 

N^fbftMd.— To«'n and municipality in Uijnaur District, North- 
Wcsieiu Pruvincei, and head-cjuarteri of Najibibid /nM/. Situated In 
ht- 19' 56' 50* K., and long. 78* 23' 10' ic, on the banks of the MiVm 
Noidi slreaix), 31 ttiilcs stOLith-ctut of Hordwdr. Population (iSSi) 
>7t750, namely, ra^tlcK 9109, and females £641. Hindu* numbered 
9SS5 '' Muhamiaadans, 8o&(>; Jains, 1 14 ; :ind Christians. 12. Area of 
tovD site. 339 acres. NajJbibad wai founded by the Naw^b Najfb-ud- 
dauli, trho erected the h;indiome tcjuare ^tune fort of Pathargarh, 1 mile 
castof llie town, in i/55> Histombisahandionie building* surrounded 
by numerous apartinentt; and the Kotbt Mubjirak U;in>'ad> new used 
3S a rest-house, remains as a moDumcnt to him within tlie town. To 
the r*orih standi the tomb of his brother, Jahingir Khdn. The town 
suU retains many a memorial of i'athdn magnificence, now put to 
ignolrie UiC%. AMratfanui twelveduoted pavilion, probably a summer* 
house of the o^d rulers of the town, was a few ycar« ago aaid to be 
used as i ^laughtCT-houtc. The thoroughfnics are mostly paved with 
brick, *nd the Sanitary Commissioner rejjoried in 1S75 thar the "fine 
KhofM and rhiialile cleanly roaiiw:iy» would Tie a credit to any 
town in the I'rovince,' 'Che prtncipa] place of businex'i is a i>aved 
sqture at the intcr«:aion of four cross roads. The public buildings 
comprtsc the usual Sub-divisional courts and ofliccs police station, 
di»peruarr, foat-olHce. and Government school Uugc through trat^c 
in timber from the Bhibar forests 10 the north. Manufactures of brass, 
copfier, aad iron work, matchlocks, blankets, cotton cloth, and sho^. 


IniportA of gram ; exports of sugxr. MsrVeli aro Ti^ld tvicc i wcelc. 
Munieip^l rti-enuc (i?lS3"Jl4), j^iftn, of which ^1631 was denied 
from taxation; avenge incidence of Uxati^n, is. iDjd. |>ct bead of 

N6ka— Village in Baahahr (Bassahir) Sialc, Punjab. Lot, 31' S*' 
w., long. 78' 40' E. (Thornton) ; lies i\\ the Kuniwar HUls, 1 mile from 
ihe left bank of the Li, or river of Spiti. Chiefly noticeable as being 
the highest inhabited place in the principaiity. Elevation aboi'e sea- 
level, 11,850 feet. 

Nakodar.— Soutb-wcstern tahsli of Jilandtiar (Jullundur) Dntiict, 
Punjab, lying along ihe bank of ihc Sutlej (SatUj), between 30* 56' 5^' 
and 31" 15' N. lai.» and between 75' 6" ij* ond 75' 39' t:. long. Area, 
343 square niLles ^'itb 306 lownn And vlilageit] y>,i^l hotjttc^, and 
44>53o famili^&. Total popiilnfioTi, 194,069, naniHy, males 105.4>4> 
and fcm.ilei &8,(i45- Mubanimadans form the bulk of the popu- 
lation, numbering 118,617; Hindus, 58,5^0; Sikhj;, 16,705; Jaiti^ 
154; ami CbiisUans, 3. Average area under cultivation for the five 
years 1877-78 to iSSi-Sj, 206,53a acres, the principal erop* being the 
following — wheat, 76,376 acres; gram, 25,444 acres; Indian com, 
13,117 acres; jodr^ 1^*673 acres; tnoth^ '6,794 acres; &u^ar<ane, 
ia,Z34 acres; barley, g 174 acres; cotton, 8871 acre* ; rice, 1319 aata; 
and lobac<:o, 1091 acte>. Revenue of the tnhtil^ ^^^8,654* 1\k 
adminTAtrativc ^lAff consists of 1 iahiUddr ^nd \ mnmnf^ prc&iding oter 
I chminL\] and 3 civil couru ; number of police circles {th^tuW)^ a \ 
fttrenglh of regular police, 35 men; besides a vtlbge watch of 372 

Nakodar.— Town and municipality in Jftlandhai(Jullundur) Difitrict* 
Punjab, and head-quarters of Nakodar tahsU ; situated ir lat 31' ;" 30" 
N., long, 75' 31' E,, about 15 miles from Jdlandhar town. Population 
(1881) 843£, namely, Muhaminadans, 51 17 ; Hindu5i3i93; Sikhs 73 ; 
Jains, 100; and * others/ 3, Nnmlwr of houses, 1196. Nakodar 
is said to have originally belonged to Hindu Kambohs but it 
has been held during hiMorical times by 3 family of Musalmin 
Rajputs, on whom it was l inferred in yi^ir during the reignof J^liaagfr. 
They were ousted early in the Sikh period by Siudir Tim Singh, 
Ghaiba, who buill a fort, and mode himself master of the «unounding 
territory. Seized by Ranjif Singh in ifli6- TakiU'u police station, post- 
office, dispensary^ larM : grant-in-aid vern-icular school, and several 
indigenoits iKtys' and gtrls' schools, lirisk trade in ^ain, tobacco, and 
sugar. The town is well paved, and has a thriving appearance. Ottl- 
side the town arc two large and handsome tombs, dating from the tcign 
of the Emperor Jahdngir. The later tomb, bearing date 10*1 Hijta, is 
the burial-place of ihe religious adviser of Shih Jahin, but it is not 
known who \% buhed in the earlier lomlx tioth are embellished on the 




oiibidc with fine encaustic liUs, And the earlier one conuins some well- 
preserved paimings. Municipal tcvenue in jS83-S4f ^4091 or iijd. 
per head of population wiihjn muTikipal limtti. 

Nftkpur, -Town in Faixihdd (Fyzibid) 15i?clrirl. Oudh ; stlualed 
on the Ton* nvcr, 5* miles from Fai^bdd town. Population (iSSi) 
3905, namely, 1810 Muhammadjins and Z0E3 Hindus* Founded by 
Mulummad Naki about 300 years ^go. 

Nakur,— south-western tahtUoi Sub-division of SaMranpur District, 
North-Wesicrn Provinces, lying along the east bank of the Jumna 
(Jamuni), and watered in part by the Eastern Jumna Cannl; conv 
pruing the par^andi uf Nakiii, 5ululnpur, SaT^d;vAr» .tnd Giugoh. 
Area, 423 square miles, of which aSS nie cultiv.-iied- Popubtion 
(1S7J) tS^oaj ; (1881) 301,622, nimely, male^ ioS,^jS, and femoIcK 
93*3^4 I loi^l increaie aince 1871, if,6oo, or 66 per eenL in nine 
years. Hindu* (1881) number i3o.4K>i; Muhnnun avians, 68»Soo : 
Jains, aJ7S; and 'others/ 6a Government land rcvcnne, X'6.169, 
or including local rates and cesses. ;^2q,4S5. Total lenial paid by 
cultiv^tOTH, ^41,893. In 1884, the Sahit conlaincd i criminal cotirt. 
5 police circle* {/Juimfi), a regular i*olice force numbering 71 mcii» and 
359 village fMa^kidtirs. 

If4L— rcily Dhil Stale in the Mchwas tract of Khindesh^ Bombay 
Frcstdency. Population (i8flt) esiimated ai ^40 persons; supposed 
giou revenue, j£^iio. The principal produce t^ timber FroMi its 
poniion id ihc centre of forcai, the climate is unhealthy. The chid", 
a Bhll, WIS educated with hi:; brother at the Kukormanda !£cho(>l. THe 
Umily in matters of *ucceiaion follow the rule of primogeniture; they 
live at the village of Vighipini, 

N&L— Lake in Ahmadabid District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
between 12* 45' and 12° 50" 15" n, lat,, and between 7^" i' 45' and 7;' 
y 9* L lorift, about 37 miles southwest of Ahmadibdd city. Estimated 
area, 49 square miles, — (For a description of the lake, see AHMADABAf 

DtSTRtCT, iVJTJV, vol. i. p. %^.) 

Kalagartl (or f/iHiiMr). — Onc of the Punjab Hill States*— ,Snr 

N&iagftrh. — Hill range, Punjab. — Ar Chin rPUKNL 
F&Up&ni (or A<T/jAxf).— Hill fort in Dchra Dun Dialrlct, North- 
Wevltrn i'loxinccs. Lat. 30' ao' 30' n,, bng. 78" S' 30" v. {Thornton). 
Hastily thmirn up by the diWlEhiis on the outbreak of the w^r nf 1^14. 
Perched upon a low Him:i]ayan spur, about 3^ tnilei northeast of 
Dchii, Attacked by General Gillespie, who fell wtiile leading the 
sconning patty ; desperately defended for a time, but evacuated by the 
enemy after a seccnd assault, and demolished shortly afterwards by the 
British, Elevation above ^wa-fcvcl, 3^86 feet 
Ifilatwir {or 7Af /'orty Girnirw). — Town in Bijipur District* 

. i8» mLSAXA^NAlDftUG. V 

BunibAj PrrtifJcncj" ; hiiiuicd 56 miles cast by norih of KAlidgi, in lat. 
16' t4'4o'H,, ancUonp, 76' 19'so' t Population (iSfti)4^> Three 
tempIcA with four inficnpiions, on« of which contain* th< name of 
the Western Chalukya King Jng^idek^mfilh n. (1138-1150). In 
t8oz, NdlatH'ii waa plundered b/ the chief cf Shordpur in the Nuini's 

Nalbani (lilijrdly • Tht Rftd Fortsry—UXtiXid in ihe Chiika I-m:!, 
bengal. I-aU 19" -t r so" N., Inng. 85* so' F, About 5 mild in circum- 
ference, *nd nowbcru mom; than a few inches above the level of ihe 
water. ITic island is cndrcly uninhabited, but is regularly vjsiud by 
panics of ihatchcrs, for the sake of its abundant growth of reeds and 
hii,'h i:ra^5t'S. 

HftlbirL— Trfijjing viltngc and police stxticrn in KjfmnJp Kairicti 
Aftflnm. I^t. 36* 25' 55' N., long, ^i' 37' 45" ic Situated in thai 
portion of The District norih of the Brahmapulra, nnd on the fioclh 
bank of the Nod Nadi, ne;ir the road 1e;idmg 10 Barpeti. a»d about 
30 miles from Gnuh:itf (own. A bi-weekly niaikct is held here, and 
in the cold weather the Bhiitiis bnng down ponic5| blankets, madder^ 
eic» for jalc or baner, 

NalbM. — Village in ihc Disirict of Dnrnng, Ai«im; about 20 
miles nofth of the Sub-divisional town of Mangaldii Cont^ning the 
^ids or storehouses of several Mdrwdrf merchants, who trade wJib the 
Cacharf population. 

KttLchha. — Ruined toivn and hcad-^inarters of Nnlchha /a^^wf-f , in 
Dhdr Staler Central India; situated in lat. 22* ^5' n., nnd long. 75' 
»8' K., on the roule ffoni Mhow (Mau) to Mandu, a; mil« fimith-vest 
of the former ax\A 7 north of the httcr. 'ITie situaiion— en ihe southern 
verge of the rich open tAhleUnd of Mdhvi— is very picturesiiue ; a 
small stream riio'^ near ihc town, which is also well supplied with water 
from tanks ^ind wells. Sdx6r. Some of the ruins are very finfr 
Thornton sfiys thst when Sir John Malcolm converted one of the palatial 
ruins inio a summer residence, a tiL;rew and her cubs were dri^'co out 
of one oi the apartments. 

Nalcbltl. — Municipal village In Bdkaigan) District, Bengal ; situated 
on the river of the ^amc name, in Ui. aa' 37' 55" m.^ and long, 90* 19' 
jft" X, Scat of a large trade; chief cxpoiii— rice and betel-nuts; 
importa — ftahi tobacco, oil, and augnr. Pupublion (tSSi) a69a; 
munici|jal mcome (18S3-S4), ^178. 

NftldnSy. — Fortified town in Hstdar^Md (Niidro's DominfrOfts), 
I^cr;in. Chief town of Naldnig District Population (iS3i> 318a. 
The following account of a visit made to the fort in 1853, by Colonel 
Meadows Taylor, is taken from Tftt Stury 0/ My lift (pp. sS6, 2S7) ; — 
' The fort of Nnldntg was one of the most interesdnj; places 1 had ever 
seen. It enclosed the surface of a knoll or plateau of basalt rock. 




wHich juncd out into the vAllcy or ravine of the smal! ilvei Bon' from 
th€ mAin {ilatenu of iho country, and was almoBC level. The Miles of 
this knoll w*rc sheer preclpicvit of basalt, here arwl there showing dis- 
Eiftci columnar Ami [niKmAtic formation, anit \^rying from 50 to 200 
feet in height, ihe edge of ihepbtcna being 200 feet more or less above 
ihc rivcT^ which l!o\vcd at the base ef ihe ;>recipice on Iwo sides of the 
focL Along the crest of the cliff, on three sides, run the ft>rtifj(:atioTii— 
bastloci-s and curtnin^ nlternMcly, some of the Ccini^er heing very 5mily 
bujli of cut and dressed ba:(alt, nnd Urijc encugh lo cany heavy guns ; 
nnrt the par:ipel* of Ihe machicoUiicd curtains ivcre cvcrjwhcTC loop- 
holed for mu^ctry. On the vest side, the promontory Joined the 
nuun ^laieuu tiy a socciewlut coaCizKled nc:ck, a]^o strongly furtified by 
a high rampaii, with very roomy ftnd moMiic bastions, below it a 
fams«^braie, wiih the »iamc ; then a brond, deep, diy ditch, cut for the 
rnCKt p,irT ont of the basalt iUelf ; a covintertc-ir[5, about »i> or 15 feel 
hi^h, with a covered way ; and l>eyond it a glai-is and es;>1anade, up to 
the timtth of the town. 

*'rhc entire circunircrcncc of the enceinte might have Ijcen about 
a mile and a hjilf; and the garrison in former times mu&l have been 
vci>' largc» for nearly the whole of the interior was covered by ruim^d 
walls, and had been laid out as a town with a wide street running up 
the centre* All the walls and bastion* were in perfect repair, and the 
effect of the fort uutMde wjui not only grim and massive, bui esveniially 

'Kaldnig held a memorable place in local history. Before the 
Mttfialm.-tn invAtion in the t^ih ccntory, it belonged to a local Rflj^, 
who may have been a feudal va<isal Df the great VJi\A\ ol the Chalukya 
dynaMv. 250 to 1100 a.d.. whose capital was Kaly^m, about 40 miles 
distant; but I never could trace Its history with any certainty, and 
during the Hindu period it wasonlytraditionAl. The 11;tlimanidyna«ty, 
1351 to 1480 K\*.y protected their dominion* to the wc*l by a iinc of 
massive lorts ofvhicb Naldriii^ was oncj and it was believed that the 
former defences, which were iittle more than nnid walls^ were replaced 
l>y ihera with fortiHcacions of scone, Aflcrwaids, on the dinsion of the 
Bdhnufii kingdom, ia 1480 a,i),» Naldrd^ Tell to the lot of ihe Adil 
Shibi king* of BijAp^r ; and ihcy, in their turn, greatly tncrearuxl and 
Str«nglh«ned its defences. It was often a point of dissension between 
the AdO Shahi and the NiMm ShAhi pot* nlfltc-s— lying, as it did, npnn 
the nominal frontier between Bijdpur and Ahmadnagar — and was 
besieged by boch in turn, ast the condition of the walls on the southern 
face bore ample testimony, a* well from the marks of cannon-halls as 
from breaches which had afterwards been filled up- In 1558, All Adfl 
Shih visited NaldrtJg, and again added to its fortifications, rebuilt the 
vrestem ^ce, and constriKted an enormous cavalier ncir tbe eastern 



^nd, wMch was upwards of 90 feet hi^hr with scrcrd lustioiu on the 
f^dge^ofthe cUfT; but hit grcritrKt work w.ifl the erection of a stone 
dmn across the n'vcr Bori, whtrh, by retaining tho vntcr ibovc it, 
afTt^rclcd the garrison an unliiiiitctl supply,' 

'['he District of Naldni^ \vas one of those surrendered by the Niam 
to the British Governnient under the ireity of 1853. h was restctefl 
in 1S60, 

NalganglL — River in Butdan;! District, Bcrjr. The Nilguifid 
^rtsea ncnr UuMini town, v,in^ p^st Malkapur (bt 30' 53' re., lon^ 76' 
' 15' E.) to the Wagixx river, which joins the PUma. In the hot sc^tson, 

the Nfilguti^a dwindles to d mere chain of pooU 
L NaI^^il — P^Lss in Boshohr (Ba3<«jthir) State, I'unpb, over the nuigc 
&f mountains bounding ICuniwar to the south, I^t. 31' 19' a.. Uwg. 
78' 17' B. (Thomlon). A stream of the fiamc name flows nonh<eia 
fiom the pass to join the Baspa. Elevation iliove sei-level, 14,891 

Nalia.— rcltyStflTc of the SankharaMchwi*, inRcwaKaniha,Bom- 
baj' rrcsidency. Area, i square mile. Held jointly by two proitfietors, 
called thdJ;wrs. The revenue is estimated at jClA> <uid iributc of 
JC?,, t^s. is paid to the tJdekvi'ir of Baroda. 

Kaliya.— Town in the Abdasa bub-division of Cuich State, Bombay 
Preiiiiicncy. Lat. 33* 18' »,, long, 68'54'&. Population (1881) 5304i. 
Hindus numherctl 23^6 , Muhamnuduna, 1937 ; and Jdin»t 943. 
Natiya is one of the mont thrLving towns of Cutch ; walW &nd well 
built. It h-i* ft cla&8 of prosperous tradcn, being the rctidcnce of 
Tclired native merchants who hai^c made their fortunes in Bombay or 

Nalkeri. —State forest in Coorg. Teak anJ other ^oods arc cut here 
and <:,irti:d lo Mysore. Area, 40-2 square mik*. 

NAlknAi— Village in ihc territory of Coorg, and at one time ihc 
caj^iul oi tiK- Stale under Rrija Dodda Vira Wjcndra, the heto of Coorg 
independence. Lac. 11" 14' v.. long, 75' 42' K UiMance from Mer- 
k.ira, the Coorg capital, 24 miles. The palace, built in 1794, is dow 
partly u:icd for public ofticca. Close Ly is a haiidbomc Uttlc pdiiUioiH 
erected by the Rdji in 1796 for the eclebratioo of hb oecond morri^^o 
with A'lahddevnninia. Behind towers the majestic mountain of Tadiin- 
datnol, in rhe U'citem Gh.its. 

NaUamaldis C ^/'^i'^ /^///i').— Range of hills in Karniil District. 
Madta?* Pa-sidency ; situated between lat. u' 4.V and 16' 18' s., and 
between long, 78' 4^" and 79" 36' t, ttrctchinK from the Kisina ntcr 
to the southern frontier of Karnijl Dinrict. The continuation of the 
Naltamalaisr south iivard in the Cuddapah Disuict, is known as the Lanka* 
mold range. The average height of the Nallainaldis b between 1500 10 
3C0O feet above sea-icvd. 1 he greatest elevation is attained by a 

d«tachc<] |Kak callc<l Baitvnikord^, 3133 feet hig?i, uUialed^ailward of 
the nuun nngc. The hi(;hett point in the main r^nge l<i tht Gimdli 
BrabmrfiWArAm Hill, 304^ f<er The Oiindhkama, Zampalcrtj, nnd 
Palcni rivers rise in this hill, near a ruinctJ temple of Urahnicswaram- 
Thc second liighe^l pL'ak in the main range is Errachclcma. The 
evtem slopes rise for the most part almo&t Abruptly ; along the 
western base of ilic hills runs a iarai, or zone of jungle from 5 10 10 
mUcs broad 

Gi»iffg\\—'\ht Geological Dcrartnicni have named one of ihc four 
Sub-dirujofis of ihc large Cuddapah sysicm of rock^^ <>vct 30,000 feet 
bi thfckncui *tlic Nallaiudlii gruup-' Thj& ^loup consUt» of Cum- 
bum aUles superimposed upon ihc Uiirenikoncla quirtxitc^. The 
sloies, »o called, arc noi Mifinolemly regular in cleavage or firm in 
teiture to be of .*tny economic u«e. Under the lerrr quattrite are 
included various kindft of aher<^{l ilefrttal utcV. The railway cut tingn 
hare di5cIo»e<l a fine semceablc sand.sione in the main ridge- Untlcr 
former Govcrmntnis, le^cl and diamond mincfl were worked near the 
western entrance of ihe Nandikanama Pass- Recent cxiicriments with 
the lead-ore have shown thai it contains a high perceniage of silver. 
'Wooix'or Indian steel h manjfactured in villages near Ihe weM cm 
bav tA Ihc southern jiortion ol the range Jroin ore quarried out of the 
tDcun ridge. Mint weapons of nide form have been found Ga»t of the 

/tf«Aff. — ^Thc &uoa of the NallflniuUi» ia abundant and vaHed. 
Game includes tigcns, beant, Icopardit, niml'Aar, bpotied and rib-faced 
deer, hill antelope, gajielle, wild hog» pea-fowl, jungle fowl, jiartridjfe, 
quail, and imperial and green pigeons. There are also two or three 
kinds of wiki cats, porcupines, and Malabar sciuirrcls. 

Im/ia^ihtnfi. — Tl\t only inhabitants of tlic Nallamaldis are an 
aborigiiul race, the Chcnchus, in number about 1000, and a broken 
tribe of about 50 Vanadis. Tiie Chenrhtj* are savages in the hunting 
stage. The men wear noihJng but a narrow strip of cotton cloih round 
the loins; the women arc clothed like Hindus, but more scantily. A 
Cbenchu man, who has not lost his primitive habics, alwayif caities an 
aKC aihing In his gir<llc. and bow» and arrows in his hajid Recently 
several <»f ihe tribe have been employed ns police and watchmen. 
"I'hey are an inofTcriKive people, oatily managed by judicious treat- 
n>ent; but al«o easily roused to vluknce, and traditionally addicted 
10 petty ihefL The Chenchus live in small hamlets, along the bnsc 
and lover spurs of the hilU. Their hul?^ arc of primitive but neat con- 
struction, lometimes dome-shaped, sometimes resembling n^aggon-tUts. 
Their food is roots and berries, tanurinds (pulp and stone crushed 
into a mass and mixed with woodash), milk, etc. ; but the>' also eat 
piiHt which tliey obtain honestly or by theit. At the foot of the 


Xnllfimabils arc a few sUinding catnpa t^r ia>tJas of Banjirdtfl, who 
combine ihe trade of granen ami dllle-d^siWni wi(h tUe occasional 
practice* of cflttlc4ifiing and duroity, 

L Rrrsts. — The area covered hy ihc NalhmaUis \% about fii'C to »ix 

nftousand square iniies, the whole covered with forest. The general 

ehAiacEenstlc of the timber h dennty and hardness of texture, owing 

I>T0bab1y to the light rainfall, which ai-er^-es helwoni 40 and 45 inches; 

Yet forms of vegetniion charactcrii^tir of regions bountifully fed with 

moisture are fotind lo ;i considerable extent, -ind in that respect the 

hills are snid 10 bear a strong reseinblAncc 10 the Siw:fc]ik range. The 

princifnil timber Ueeti ate the Nuffamiiti (Tcitiiinjilia tomcntooA), live 

|BpQCLDien9 of 'Icrminalia bctlcrica, ye^ (tlardwickia binata). siriman 

ri(Anoge]Ssus imiiolin), ^tgi {Picrocariiuft Marsurpium), teak, the wild 

mango, and others- Under the nystem iniiiated in iSJli, the revenue 

derived from these forests doubled itself ai onoe, rising to j£6ooo iter 


RoaJs. — Two road» jjracticable for wheeled traffic cross the ran^ 
1'hc nonliem is an old military work known afi the Mantraulakanama 
or Dormal ^^lss (not to be confounded with the Domial Pass across 
the Lankamatd rargc in ('uddapah). This pass, aAer lying for 
many years neglected and :m|.iassab]e, was opened i^in in iBJj- 
Thc boutbem road is <:alled the Nam>iilakaxa (f-n). Tlic Bcilary- 
Kisln.t Static Railw.-t), now \n course of coa^tnicnon.ninjiappro^tiTnauly 
parallel u> the Kandikannma Pnss rond, and interacts it near the crcflt 
of the paes> This rnilw.iy will be taken through the main ridge by a 
tunnel, 600 yards long, which will be approached on the we^ by a 
vi:iduct that will he the hightfst as yet built in Im^lia. There are two 
or three britUe (>nihs acroM the Nallamalii^t. Of these; the one rooirt 
u«cd is ihc VcUgodekanama, 32 miles long, which runs between the 
two abovc-nanied carriage roads. 

7>w//f/.— Three Hindu temples of great renown are situated in the 
Nallamaldis, namely — (i) Srishailain (the Parwaitain of early auihoritics) 
on the Kislna river ; {?) Mahn^indi, builE around a hot spring a few 
miles ngrth of ihe western end of the Nandikanatna Poh \ and 
(3) Ahobiibin, fiiciurcsqucly situated near the southern frontier of 
Kiim^n Dislritt 

M^iiienl. — Want of water » seriously felt in the Nandikanama Postt 
through which bfiFh the main carriage road and rlie milwAy run. In a 
le*s degree the same want is felt throughout the whole tract The 
deficiency of water, the nigj-tdnes* of the t^ronnd, and the uahcalihi- 
ncss of the chninte dtiring the cold and rainy scdioiu accmint for the 
desolation of this beautiful hiil range. 

Naltig;iTl — l-ow chain of hill^ in Cuttack District, Bengal, 3 miles 
south of the Assia range of hills, from which it is separated by the 






Kn1p4 riv^r. The Naltiglrf chain hu tM^ pc4k» of uncriual lieigbt, 
and 1»an little vcgciation, t^xccpt a few valuable (Jind^l wood [rl^e»f 
thfr ort^jr on«« fotind in Orissa- Naltigin ift fAmouH foi iu BuddhUt 
TCtDaitift, M)m« of which ir^ in a farr tiate of preiervation.— (For 
detail^ f^^ Sfatisfioii Afrount 0/ BfftgaK vol xviiL i>ij. 94-96.) 

H&znakai.— 7JJ/«^ in Slkni District, Madras Presidency. Ar^ 
715 square mil«. The nrca Imble to revenue is distributed a* 
follows: — GovcmmctiC vilUges, >93ii75 icrcs ; mil/ah and shrotrum 
Tilbgcs, a2i>6j6 acresv llic extent actually under cuhivation in 
r^y^tredri villages is I04,s'^7 acres, paying ^18,959. Kambu on dry. 
and rice on wei land* form the staple culiivacioD ; but other gram 
eropft, AS ttiriij^o, '^Ji^t '^*^^ i^t^Jtm, arc largely grown, lirigatton ia 
carried on fiom the Knvcri (Cauvery) channels and *mal] river*, 
and from 163 tnnlcs, 80 minor rc^crvoin, and 6303 irclls. Irrigated 
area, 10,551 ^'^'re*, attet«ed at ^^167. Population (18S1) 154,577, 
rnnnc]y» 1^3,365 malm and 13*1^12 I«^nn;i1es, occupying 53.949 
houses, scattered over 3 touns and 353 villages. Hindus numbered 
^5^3*51 Muhammadans, 3336: Cbrisiiiins, S75: and 'others/ i. 
The north-easTcrn portions of Ndmakal fJM are mountainous, and 
iw souih-weitern area ih flaL The general aspect is tireary and 
uninierestinj^. In 1883 the d/uk contained i civil and 3 criminal 
couns; police circles {thduds), 11; regular police, 89 men. Land 
tevenur, /■34.607- 

NAmakal — Town iu Salem DistiicI, Madras Presidency, LaL 11* 
13' 15' N>. long- 78* ij' 40" K. Population {1881) 5147 j number of 
houses, 1043. Hindus numbered 4540 -, Muliamm.idArtE, 5S1 ; and 
Chnitiantt, ^6. Ndmakal ie tl'c headctuaneTs of Kiniakal tSIuk^ 
and the rrii^Jenceof a De^mly Collector. It is liuilt at the foot of 
a fortified rock (the Durgam), which m^ ;joo feet above the plain, 
and b very dtfficuU of acccM. This citadel was of some importance 
in the Mjwre campaigns, and its outer wall* are stiil in good j^reserva* 
lion. It was captured by ihc Knglish in 1768. only to be lo*t again 
a few months later to Haidar. Ndmakil is held in much honour by 
Hirtdtif. Local traciiuon marks it as the abode of Vishnu. The 
ireavcrs of Ndmakal form a numerous community* 

HUUl (-^rvw/). — Town m Miduwih /<7/ii7f Bannu (Buniioo) Dis- 
trict, Punjab; situated on the eastern alopc of the ^alt Range, in lai. 
j»* 40' 15" n.j and long- 71' 51' B, Namal is the chief town of the 
Pakkar iUlu or estate, a wild tract of country much intersected by 
rivine<L Tht^ vnlbge Unds are irrigated by several hill torrents, which 
nilc clofiC to Ihe town to form ihe VVdlii naia. The population of 
Kama] vas telumed in i363 at 5010, hut it is not given 5ep.inktcly m 
Ihc Census of iSSi. ihik bungalow. Near Namal arc two curious 
s!nictures shaped like senCry-boxe;^ and nujiposed to be dolmens. 



K&mbar, — River in the N^ HilU, Assam ; tnhvt^ry to th« 
IMiuneswati (DhariMri) nver In one portion of lut course il forttiS a 
fine waterfall, passing over a reef of litnrttoTi*- rock, n<?3r which are 
some hot spri^igs {pun^). It has given its name to an extensile forest, 
which lies bet wt;eii die MikJr Hills and the Dayang (Doyong) nrcT> 
and coLiiprises an area of about 590 fltjuare miles. The Ibre&l 
U a G<jvcmment reserve, but as yet (1883) very little of it ha& been 

Nfljnbiyur.— lown in Satyamangalam fdiui^ CoimL>atore IJi&uict. 
Madras Presidency. Lai. 11* ai" 30' n\, long. 77* 2j" t. Populaiiott 
(i9Si) 5741 ; nutnber i>rhouM:s, ijva 

NuiiL — River of Assam. — Sft Nosal 

Nuida Dovl — Snow-clad mountain pealc in Kttmiun DjtCrict, 
North-Wevtern Provinces; one of the higher Himalayan suromiix. 
lai- 30* 2z' s., long, 80* 1' t ; elevation above iealevel, 25.661 fctl. 
Almost conical in shape. The summit is in^iccoMiihlci 'I'lie Hindus 
regard the cbud which usually rests on the |>eak as smoke from the 
kiichcn of ihe goddess Nando. 

Nandair (NaHder). — Town in the Niiam's Dominions oc State of 
Haidardbad (Hyderibad), Dcccan ; siiuatcd in lat. 19" 9' n., and long. 
77" 36' 50' E. I'opulauon (iSiii) 14,091. The head-quarters of 
Nandai: District Is situated on the lefY or north hanlc of the Godivari 
river, on ihc high toad from Haidiuibid liiy to HinguU, 145 mile* 
north of the fomtcr. Nandair vira^ at one time foniticd, but the walU 
arc now in ruins, Il wlis founded in commemoration of the Silth 
Guru Gobind, one of the grandsons of N.inak, who wa< a^issinated 
in i7oS-og. 

NandaktyA.— River in R-ij^hihi District, Bcngil. an oiTshoot of 
the Bab.Mt which it leaves at Nandikujd factory, aid rejoins after a 
nearly semicircular course (for the la&t sue inilea of which it passes 
through the centre of the Chalan Mi). During the dry seaAon no 
water escapes from the N.indiikuji ; its only point cf contact vnXh Ihe 
waters cf tlic^// is ai Kichikata, where it receives ihcni through the 
Bingungdi, and carries them with il on its way to the Brahmaputra. 
The conilucniA of the Nandikuji arc the BfLtdnai and the Atiii, tlie 
vk'aicrs of the latter being divided between it ond the Gur ; both rivers 
are op^n :ill (he year rounds nnd are navigable by boat& of from ao to 
34 tons burthen. Thj^sc streams convey to the northern Dutriets the 
miscellaneous commodities of Calcutta, and carry back reltim cargoes 
of rice. 

Nandan Sar. — Lake in Kashmir (Cashmere) Stale, Northern Fndia; 

siiuaied wicli four others on the north side cf the Tir P:Lnjit Mountain, 

close to the Nandan Sor pass. Forms the source of the Haripur river 

" of Hindu pilgrimage. Lat, 53" 37' n., long. 74* 40' e. 




Nandarthdu (or -A'flyc''</*rf«),--Dconycd lown \r\ NAgpur Oittirict, 

cnlril l^rovinc«rt ; sili]:3T«d m h\. 71* si' N., and long. 79' at' S^, 4^ 
milf^ from Rimtclc, jiisl off th<^ n)d Kimthf (Kamptrr) rnnd- Popula- 
tion i\ZZ\) 3614. namely, Hindus. 31^5 ; Kabirpinthis. 35; ; Muhanv 
roacbBfi, 133 ; Jains, 46 ; and aboriginal religions, $^. Formerly a 
cavalry <;taiion of the Ndgpur R^jds. Outside rlie old castle^ in adton 
vas fought when the Bfjtish tieaiegcd Njigpur in December 1S17, 
The ichool i* well attended 

Nftn-daT.-^Smafl pagoda in S.mdow.iy District, Arukan Divi.sion, 

iwcr TJuma : siiuated on a hill about half a mite north of Sandowny 
town, and uid to hivc been builc by Min Dr.i in 763 a-d. (two ytirs 
later than the neighbouring An-diiw], Xo coniAJTi a rib of Gautama* 
Kcttivalt held here in March, June, and October. 

Nander. — Tc*m in the Nixam'* Dominion*, HaJdarJU-id (Defcan). 

Si'? NAsrAiiL 

Nan d(f ad-— Town in Belgium District, Bombay Presidency. — 5*^ 

HAndgAon.— Sub-division of Nisik District, Bombay Presidency, 
437 :iipiare miles, containlni; 8S villages. Population {18S1) 
30,399j namely^ '5*535 niales and i4,S64 females, occupying 5664 
houses. Hindus nuinbered 35,^1^4; Muhan^madanft, 1794; and 
'other*/ 37*1. Land revenue (iSSa), £11^^^ The Sub-divi«ion, 
»toated in the south-east corner of the Dibtrict, )» bounded on the 
nonh hy Malegaon Subdivision ; on the cast by K-hdndctth Dintfici 
;ind Nijiin'i: territory ; on the touih by Veolo ; and on the wciil by 
L'h^ndoT Sub-division. The north and went arc rirh and Icvrl, but 
the south and casi are furrowed by ravines and deep stream beds. 
The eastern haU is ihictly covered wiih at^jan trees (Hardwlckia 
binata, R^\h.); the western half is open, with a sparse growth of 
bUKhe«. Chmate dry and healthy. Water supply abundant, the 
chief rivers being the Pdnjan and the Maniid. The north-caslem 
line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs through the Sub- 
iTisfon. In i&8o-^i there were 35*^4 hohJings, with an average 
a uf 5» atrts* and an avci*njc rental of ^i, 19s. 3d. 1 incidence 
land'tax, at)out 43. 7}d. per head of the whole population^ In 
8i| of 107,761 acrc« held for tillage, 13,00a were fallow or under 
Of thr rcm.iining 9'|,759 acres, 96 were twice eroppod- Of 
,^55 a<:res, ihc area under actual cultivation* ^ain crops occupied 
S,4s8 acres (59.555 under (f^Jra, Pennii^etum typhoideum, Ricft.)\ 
pulxes occupied 4507 acres; oil-seeds, 7390 acre* ; fibres, 3989 acres 
(3958 under co<:on) ; and miscellaneous crops, 511 acres. In 1884 
Sub-dimion contained 2 criminal courts ; t police circle (//rffli); 
regular potkcmcn ; 135 village watchmen. 
Nindg&oiL — The chief town of N^indg^n Sub-divi'sionp Ndslk 


District, Boniljfly PrffKiflttiry : «itu:iled atioiit 60 fnil« north -<^ast ) 
Nifiik town, and a ftalion on ihc nonh-eAstern line of the Great 
Peninsula Railway Population (iSSi) 4416, The railvay Nation is 
Gonnccicd wiih the Elloka ^^szs by a rood 44 miJes tn length. The 
town has the ordinary Sub-divisionAl revenue and police offices, and a 
post-offictr. Near the railway station is a travellers' bungalow, 

N&nd^olL — Kcudaiory chicf&hip attached to Kiipur Disuict, 
Cenini I'rovincei. The chicf»hi|> cxinsists of 4 pargands^ namdft 
N^Liidgjion and Ponj^argdon to the xoulh ^ PitiiJidi, 30 tuilca to tlic 
north, At the fijot of the SiEetckn Hills, jind separated from Nindgion 
by the KhaLril(;arh /jf^riTjvJ and that part of Dongarg^rh which belongs 
to the IChotrigTirli chif^f; Mohgjoii, nhout 50 miles to cHc north, A 
very fertile far^'ui, lying between the DhamdA and Deort>ijti Ahdiia 
farj^nds ; and Evhamarid, belonging to Khairig^irh. Area, 90s 
&([uaTe miles, with i town and 540 villages, and 481351 occupied 
hoa»e». Population (i£8i) 164,331), namely, males $i,7i7,and fenialcs 
8;/»2j ; density of populaiion, 1816 persons per square mile. Of the 
total area of the Slater 441 i^quare miles are cultivated; and of the 
portion lying waste, a88 square miles on rettimed as cultivate. 
Principal product^^ncc, wheat, gram, h>dif^ oilseeds* and cotton; 
pLtiiLipal itkanufattuic— coLiiJic cloth. The uri^iiul ^xaxv. mas iiiade in 
1733 to the family priest of the Kd)5 uf N^pur, but additions took 
place in 1765 and iStS. The chief is a bairagi, or rc]i|{iooft devotee 
Snppospd gro« revenue, j£t 4,653 ; tribnie i* payable of ^^4600- 
Mahaut Chisi Dis. the late chief, who died tn November 18S3, 
is described as an able, energetic, and enlightened ruler. He «as 
succctrded by his son, a promtKing young mani during whoEC 
minority the adinini-stration of the State is carried on conjointly 
by hit mother and the Diwan. The NagpurChKatugarh Railway 
pawe* through Kandgaon, ind has caused a considerable infiux 
of traders, and a general incrca&e of prosperity, combined with 
a use in prices of food-grains. The lait^ chief built a coiiirona]>le 
d^ik bun^.ilow close lo the railwfiy ilfition ^ and al?to eon«tnj<:ted Ufgc 
gruiti st<jr<rti und feeder roads at eonsiiicrftblc cost) bc-^idcs havmg ^jicnt 
nearly ^3000 in digging and improving tanlu. The military force of 
the Stile consisis of j elcphanln, 1 00 horse*, 5 cam^ la. and 500 infantry. 
Eight schools were attended by a dui'ty average of 263 pupils in t&83« 
and the desire for English education '\% reported to be incrcisiAg. 
QoQ^hdzdr; dispcn&ar^. 

Nandi (.Vw«x6).— Village in Kolir nisirict, Mysore Slate, at tlie 
nortiieuMern base of the hill fort of Nandidrug. Popubltoii (iSSi > 
637, Since 18^5 it has ceased to be a military station. An aiicAcnt 
temple, dedicated to Bhoga Nandiswara, has some InKCnfKioits in 
l)»c Ci.\ntha character. An annua! t;iUlc fair, held at the Sit^-ratri 





fntival, h attended Hy 50,000 pcmon^, ftnd last* for 9 da}-*. Th*^ bc^t 
bullocks bred in the country .irc brought here for sale, to the number 
of lOyOOOh For many years prUcs were distributed by (Government on 
thu occaiion, * The £|>int of cotn]ietiiion was most graEifying, and no 
owners in any pan of the world could have hecn inort e^^fcr to attmct 
ittcntion than the rdya/t :Lt NamJt.' As much a« ^too is somctiniL'S 
olTcred lorji pir of draught bullocks. Smcc 1S74. th? Government 
CaiUe Shov h&s been tmnifcrrcd to BangnLorc. 

Nandtdl — TJ/u^ or Sub-division of KaradI (Kurnool) Disuici, 
Mudrj3 l^ioidtncy. Area,«bout S94 aquarc miles. Pupubtlun (tSfJi) 
jStsSst nomclyf 39,6SS males and 38,594 females, dn'clUng in i town 
and 91 villagcii, containing t7(I4J hou^cEn Hindui; niimbcred 
^5>7^5'i Muhammadans, 10,935; ^^^ Christians, 1643. In iSS^thc 
id/vi contained i civil aod 3 crionnal courts ; police circles {tAdnds), 
14 : regular police, loa men. Land revenue, j£ifi,8o6. 

Kandiil (from W^W/; "The llull/ the form in which Siva Js 
wonhipt)ed in the Ctdcd Districts and Mysore)* — Town in Kartiil 
(Kurnool) District, Madras Presidency, Lai. 15' 39' 30" N-, lon^. 78* 
51' 4<r b Population (iSSi) 8907, occtJpying 3005 hojses. Hindus 
nucnbered 5749: Muhammadans, 3112; ^nd Christians, 46. Nandiil 
i» ihc head < quartet :» uf Namlidl iJ/ui, and aho of a Deputy Collector 
and other European ofHccr?. li contain* 9 Stvoitc po^odaa^ And is a 
prosperous pTace, surrounded by highly cuUivatcd Mdi, 

NftndiiUmpett (A^«./W}.— Town in CudiJapnh (Kadapa) DiHricI, 
Madru Preii*lcncy, l^t. 14' 43' 30" N'-» lony. 78' $2' 15" E. Poiju- 
latioo (iSSt) 3iiOi number of houses S76. N anil ia lam pet t was 
formerly a place of sense importance, but nov b only a moderate- 
sized agricultural village. 

Naodidrtig {jVu'iUj/tfrvff^).—l>mwn in the State of Mj^sorc, com- 
prising the three Districts of Bangalore, Kolar, and TuukuRj each 
of which see separately. Area of Nandidrtig Division, S212 square 
miks; 773S towns and villa^ea; 270,9^1 uccufucd and 68,091 unoccu- 
pied bou»e?>. Population (1871)2.073,547 ; (1S81) ij54i.4>N namely, 
76^,2^6 male* and 7Si,eS5 females. Number of per^^ons per iiquorc 
mile» 1S8 ; townu and villa^c^ |>cr square mile, Q'9 ; occupied houses 
per tquare mile, 31 '4; and peraons per occupied house, 5'5. Hindus 
ituvbcred i,4>M5>; Muhammodans, 9JtSS5 ; Chrisliars, ai.jSg; 
Pir^f^ tt : Buddhists, q ; and Sikhs. 6. The Division was formed 
in 1S63. hy the addition of Tdunkiir to what had been previously 
known a-s the Bangalore Division^ 

Handidnig (bierally ' TA^ f/i// F^ri of XafidI,' the sacred bull of 
Siva).— I'ortitied hill in Koldr District, Mysore htatt^ ; 31 miles north 
of Bugalorc, 4&10 feet abcrve sea-level. Lac. 13' la' \f n,, long- 77* 
43' jS* E. The summit forms an extensive pUteau, in the centre of 



which 15 n tnnk fed by iierennial springiv The Umt\ curroundmg thf 
mountam, c:r>venng an area of 7 square mile*, and iiirrKlnHng bTg« 
linibcT'irccs, been reserved by Oovcmmcnt. In the immediate 
neii^hbourhood are ihc sources of many brgc rivcra. The temperature 
avenice* 10 degrees bv-'er ihan on the plain below. Ksodidnig fic« 
cast and west^ and is connected by a low Hd^e ^-iih an Adjoining bin 
ft few feet lower than itself, knovn as Bayne*' hilL The chief af^roach 
is by a bridle pftih from the bottom of the saddle on the south up the 
western face. There arc also two steep footpaihs cui in ihc rack. 

The Tort is buili una hujjcbluck of gneiss, running up periiendicuhrly 
to z. height of 1500 feet. It U protected by a double line of ramputa. 
The c^rlicnt forti5c£ttious were erected by the Chik-bnllapur chic&; 
but the exCcni^ive worlts whote TiiiriK nov croim ihc citmrnit vere 
eonsTrtioied by Haidar Ali and Tipii Sulldn. A cliff is siiTI |)oinied otit 
ns TipO's Drop, from which prisoners are said lo have been hurled 
N^ndidmg w:is stormed hy ihe I*^ili^h army under Lord Corawallk in 
1791, ThesJdes.ireprccipitou*. CKfcpt on the wcsl, where the defences 
had beeti strengthened by a Iriplc line of ram^rts. Battering cannon 
were moved up the lower slope with cttrcmc difficuHy, in the face of 
a formidable ttre from the upper walls. Hut after a bombardment of 
31 days, two breaches were reported practicjiMe. 'Hie storaiiing {Jurty 
was headed tjy (general MeJowa in pcraonf dcid the ass^uk was delivered 
bj cleat mtionlight on ihe morning of the 19th October An entrance 
into the inner fort wa^ elTccicd after a fharp ^miggle, in which 30 Aoldters 
were killed or wounded on the Rriiish sJde, chiefly struck by*tonet 
rolled down from above. The entire lo«i during the siege wa« 1 20 rociv 
The salubrity of the sjiot ha* led to it* becoming a summer resort for 
the European oflicial^i of Bangalore. The large house on the summit 
was creeled by Sir Mark Cubbon, Resident at Mysore in 1854, At the 
uf>rth-east base is the village of Nasih. 

Haadigima. — TdM or Sub-division of Kistna District, Madras 
Presidency, Area, 649 square miles. Population in 1881, 107,26^1 
namely, 53,677 males and 53,61 c females, dwelling in 1 town and 
171 vilUgcs, consisting of 18,659 houses Hindu* numbered 99.977; 
Muhammadars. 6659; Chrisiians, 650; and 'others,* a. In itJSj 
the tdluk contmntrd n criminal <^ourtS- Total revenue, ^^18,984. 
The fAIuk has mnny Buddhist remains sc^itiered over it. Near throe 
of Us villages diamonds have been found The heid -quarters of the 
U\M are at the villAge of Nantligjma. Population (1S81) 2662; 
number of houses, jSIh 

Nandigarb. — Town in the Kh,inipur Sub-division of Belgaum 
Dislru.t, Bumbay Presidency. Lat. 15" 24' k., and long. 74° 37' e. 
Population (iSSi) 79ta. Situated 23 miles south of Belgaam town, 
and atiout 7 south-east of Khinipur. Nandigarh is an imponaot trade 




centre : the chief import* are nrec.i-nuts cnf:(j.TnnU!, cncoarut oil, 
date^ and sal:. Thetc anidc* are bouiiht in exchange, from nntive 
Chmtinn trn<i<-rs of Go-i, for wheat an<i other ct*"*"- Nol far from ihc 
lown i* ihc mined fort of Pr-iUtpg^irli, built \>y Malln Snrj'n Dcs^i of 
KiuuT in tSo9. Nandigirh contains a post-ot^cc and three schools; 

cckly marJcct on Wedn<nidays. 

HandUcaiiaina. — fas^ in Cumbum (Kambham) ffi/;^'^^ Karniil 
[(Kurnool) PisUict, Madras^ \s\i\^ in Sal. 15" 23' 30' n,, and long. 73' 

VE* ^ Cainc^ the m^iin riMil ftoin K^irni^l lo CumljuiiL and tlie 
caiut at Ongolc over the NntlamaUi btl1« j height, about iftoo 

t above soa-lcvcL The Jiellapy'Kisini State Railway, now in course 
ronfiniction, rm^T^cct* this ro:i(I near tht? rresL Formerl/ lead 
diamond mines were worked tiear \\\g entrance of ihe piftft; 
it ^experiments with the lead-ore have shown lb.^t n ci>nuins a 
high perccnT;igo of silver The (jass is nwidx used for ihc transport 
of adit, and naj utilised during the recent famine for carrying grain 
from the ro.i^i to Kamdl- 

NandJkotlctlr, — Taluk of Karndl Uisiricr, iUdras rrcaidency. 

xt^ 1323 square miles. Population (iSSi) 7^,741, namely, 36^75 

TD;al» and 35^^66 fcmalcra, occupying t4T70i li^UbCb hi 113 vilb^en. 

Hindus numlcred 62,348^ Muhainnvidans, 9770; nnd ChriMians, 6/3. 

lftS5 the iSluk contained i criminal courts ; police ciicles {iMttfidi), 

yi reg^br police. 81 men> Land revenue, ^1^,055, 

Handilcotkdr. — Town in Rarni^l fKumooli IJisirict Madras Pieii- 
Jji- 15' 52' K, lr>nt;. 7S" j8' jT 11 PopuUtion (t88i) 1175 ; 
iberof houses 636H Head quarters of Nandikotlcdr tdluk; fort 

N&ndod- — Capital of R4jpipla State, Bombay Presidency. Lat. ai' 
54' \., long. 73' 34' t- Situnted about 32 niil» ca*t by north from 
Sura t. on a rising groiand in a bend ol the Karjan mtr- Populanon 
(i«72) 9765; (i»»i) io,777» namdy, 56*5 in*ilc* and 5153 females. 
HincloH numbered 7409; Muliammadan&, 1607 ; Jaftis loj PjIfsIs, 13 ; 
OtxiitLins, i;and 'otherst' 1736. An early aa 1304, the M(ih,iminudan» 
ore said 10 have dri^-cn the Nandod chief Jrom his capital, and nmdc it 
the head <jiijrier& of Oi^c of ihcir di«tri(:u, building a moRc^uc and lEsmng 
coiiL The cblel^ though he had »iiKc the fall of the Muhamaiarlan 
poircr (1730) recovered most of his leniiory. never brought back his 
csptal from Rdj|ilpla to Nandod until 1S30, 

NaBdora^^Town in Partdbprh ( Prat:i)i^arh) Di-^tiict, Oudh ; 
situated 3 miles north oJ the tjangct, and 2 froin HiKir town. Population 
(i8St) J953. ruincljt iSSi Hindus And 1077 Mttsaimans. Contains the 
large^i^frof ]Alganj»ac which produceio the value of about ^^jo^ooo 
is w>ld annually. Village scho<jt- 

H^dtira. — Town in Buldoij^x Dl^ifici, Bcrir i a biatlon on the 
a^pMT branch of the Crvat Indian Pemn^ula Railway, Luu 30* 50' n., 

VOL. X- -s 


long, 7fi* ji' E,; 3*4 miles from RoTiibay. ?opub(io« (iSSt) 6:4,1* ' 
namdy, 5660 Hindus. 985 MuRalmin*. 85 Jaiim, 7 Sikhn, 5 IMrsi^ 
and 1 Chri-sn'an- 'Vhf. Daj-^Sn^ngi river divide* Nindiira Buiutj 
(Orent NiindtSm) From Kinddra KliunI (linb N^irdiSm). It is ftud 
that N4riduni, then only a sranll village, was rCTOitcd to by some dyers 
about 100 years Agch to escape Irom the oppression of a df^fttu^^ 
nimed Fakfrchand; but more probably, «hcD Mahidiiji Smdhu 
plundered the pargatid of Pimpal^don Rdjd in 1750 \,ix, on his way 
10 Pooiia from the expedition .tg^nst C;huldm Kddir Beg of DelH 
inany refugees Sketilcd here. Since the e%ijtblisihiiient of a mlwa} 
HUtton, the weekly loarkcl hu bccnnic pcrh*ip» the most impoftADE 
in the District ; the »ilcs on market <3nys amount le aboal £^i^^ 
Staple commoditicK— ^otTtsn, rom, radio, nnd cloih. The Dayjingnngi 
suppliet^ unler cxcr^pt in the hoi fi^.iAOn. when it 11 obtained from 
welk Kdnddr a contains 3 Government schooU, one of vrhicb is for 
Mulmnimad.ins, a sub-registrar's office^ pOKt^officc, rc$t-ho\i5Ct dUpenstryi 
and jioUrc st:ition. 

Nandurbir,— Sub-division of Khandesh DiMrtct, Bombay Pret 
dcncy. Arcn, 674 square in i1es> containing i town and 195 tilbgea. 
Population (1S72) 45*385; (iSSi) 6^,866, namely. 31.773 nvnie« and 
31,094 females. Hindus numbered 32,457; Muhammadans 33'^- 
and 'others,' 37,<>Si. Land revenue (iaS3>, ^£^'^^75- 

Thiv Sub-^ virion, flcquiTcJ by the tSriti^h In ifitS, is bounded cot 
tb« nonh by the Tipli ; 00 the coct h^ Virdcl ; on the ftouth-vc«t by 
Pimp,Tlnrri nmJ on thr wr^ by Rirorfft tcrritoiy. The watrrviipplT 
of the region is scanty, the streams of only the Tdpii and the Sivi 
bsting Ehn>uKhotit the year. Averaj^e rainrall. 79 inches In iS6i-4^ 
the year of the Mir\'cy settlement, iherc were 1447 holding vrtih dn 
average rental nf ^4, 4*. :ijd,, and an average area of 39 acres; 
incidence of land -Ux per hend, aljoui qs. ad. In [S7S, loS^ti^ acrei 
were actually under tillage, and oi" these grain crops occupted 747736 
acres, of which 30,413 were under MJm and 11-^64 tinder wheat; 
pubcs uccupied 11. 715 Aoci^ i oil-T^ccd\ 1^1,501 aiiies of ubich 7850 
were under giugclly; fibres 941* acres, of uhich 901J wxrc tinder 
cotton; and mirfcellaneous crop*. 1749 acres, of which 1124 were under 
ehillicA. ImEiort* :ire snlt, cocoa-rut^, and tpires, 

Nandurbir.— Chief town, nnd municipality, cf tile Kondurbdr Sub- 
division, Khdndcsh Distrirl, Lombav Presidency: situated 31 miles 
north-west of ThuUi, in lat, 21° 23' 10' n., and long. 74' iff 45" t_ 
Po|JuIaLion (1SS1) 6841- Hindus number 5044; Muhammadant, 
14^8: Jntns, 4; at^d ^othcrs^' 365, Municipal income (i$S3-S4), 
^395; incidence of municipa) taxation, is. Sub-ju<igc*» court, pof5i- 
othce* and dispensary; number of p;ttLenis, 5099 in 1&83* Formerly 
Nandurb>ii carried on a con.tiderabic trade wi[b Surat, bat a large 




portion of iht^ now ^ii«Ia iis way co^t^vard U> the noitli-coKl line of the 
Great ladbn Peninsula RQLln<:ty. 11)c cxporifl ore couon, lintccd, 
wheal, gram, and gra«K-oi1 i impciri*— salt, cocoa-mns a"^ spices of all 
ktndfv The slapli^ indu^lr)- \\ t>ii^ extmction of dII from n, gnui Inown 
AS n;jrA. about too stilU hdng nt vrork. This oil h^s lonfr httcn h^-ld 
in repute a* a remedy for rhcumMisin. Nsndurbflr is ort of the oldest 
towns in Kfiindcfth. It was obinined by MnK-irak, chief of Kh4nd«h, 
Ifom the niU-r of Gujarat in 1536. In 11)65 ii was a place of coti- 
](Icnb1c prosperity, renowned for its grapes and mcloni;, In 1666, an 
^ngh^ factory was established at Xandurbir ; in 1670, 11 had become 
so imporum a iradin;^ centre, that the Kn^liah factory was removed 
hitltcr fi(?Lii Ahni^idilid^L It ?«uii%c'|UctiiU- ^ufrcrcd iti cumuitin with the 
rest of K.hind»h during ihc troubles of llaji Rio's ndc ; mid when it 
come into the potsotdion of ihe Ftritiah Government in iSiS, the town 
wais m^v^ ihan half deserted- It containi many old mosques atid 
remains of ancient buHflings. Ac^ciirding to looi traflitlon, Nandurbdr 
was founded by Kand (^auli, in who-ie family it remained until wreMed 
from Ihem by the \ftih3mmadanx under Saminrnoin-ud-dLn Chishtf, 
ttsusted by the Pfr Siy)id Atn-ud-iiin. 

Hasenwar. " Mountain in K.l^hmf^ (Cai-hmere) fitatf, Northern 
IndLL J^iL 3^1' J t' N., long, 74* 50' H, (ThomioT^). One of the loft;- 
range boundirg the Kashmir \'alley on the nonhxa-^t. Over ttc sides 
Iie« the Uand:ir|jur Paa^ into llbct, at an elevation of about 1 1,000 feet 
above aca- level. 

NangdnL 1'ctty Stitc of the Snnkhcra Mch^^'d!l irr Kcwd K^nthn. 
Hoitibay r*Tcsidency. Area, 3 square mile*, with 3 vilbgc*. He!d 
jointly by four proprietors entitled ih^knn. Kiitim-itcd revenue in iS3», 

ii7; trilnite of /."i30 is paid 10 The CdckwJr of Baroda. The 

e is very poor, the shareholders bciii^ little mere than common 

biubandmen. Tto people ar« chiefly Bhils, raising only the cuarser 

'\ more ea^^ily prown CTop». 

Nangamb^am4'— Suburb of Madras,— ^^r Madras Citv. 

Ntogoneri^-T^i/f^ or Sab-divi*ion of 'linncvelli DIstfict, Madras 
Presidency. Area, ^<>i squatv miles. Pi>|tiil3ijon (iSSi) 174>347. 
namclyt $4<'43 matca ^nd 90,10^4 fcmalcn, dwelling in 217 vjUnges 
(ino%lty hatnUi.)). and occupying 3T$"J9 bouses. Hindus number 
136,813: Muhainm;id2njs ^99? : Chrisunnn, 1^,520; ami 'others' ii. 

fangunrri tdluk ocrni^r* th*- whule ^jf the extrtnie south t.f ihe 
ricL The soil is composed of red clay, loam, and sand, except 
inft a narroir strip parallel with the sea, where white sand |»rc%'aiis. 
Palnn-ra groves occupy the ca^l and south of the hUnk : from I'"cb- 
nury 10 August the juice, which flows from ihc flower spathc cut 
acroc^ n baiUd down to brown sugar before it has time to fenncnt, 
tbe centre of the Uiuk arc many laolcs. both nin fed atvi 





Biipplled by channels from the mountain ttrcami \ innunicr.iWe *clK 
under whirh small paichc* of two to three acrf-t nrc ttiliiv^ited ; and 
dry cultiviiion, poor and inicmiptcd by fnlloKS fomctimc^ for two 
years out of ihrcc- Tfic grcai un^c of bills bordering the idiuk oo ihe 
west U slfikingly [jiciurts<iuc, rising to 5000 feci above scalcvcl, ihc 
lop^ densely covered with IbrcM. Sevcnd colTcc estates nestle in the 
mor« »heiiercd valleys of the higher elevaiioDS. In i^j, Ndnguficri 
tiUuk conuincd i criinin^i] courts; (lolice cirdes (Mnds), 14; reguTor 
IKjii^rt", 94 men. Land ruiTnue, jCs^^S^^- 

Ninguneil — Town in Tinncvcllj District, Madfas Prcsidcticy, 
Lax. 8' 29 zo" Hm long, 77' 44' & Population (iSSt) 4414, mnndyt 
t^indus, 41S4; Muharamadan^ 74; And ChrUimns, 156, Kumber of 
hoi)!(cfi, >*^;7^ Ninguncri U the h^ad-qi carter* of Nan^neri Xrf/wi", Mid 
h:i^ .1 richly endowed tcmplcn W cckly fair. 

Nanjanffad-— ?^/M' in Mysore Disirici. M>'Sorc SlJitc. Area, 176 
square milts, of which 104 arc cultivated. Population (1S71) 64,555: 
fjSSj) 6S.451, nainely, 33.597 inalo and 34,854 females Hindus 
numbered 66,669^ Muhainmodan.Y, 1777; and ChrtMun^ 5. In 
18S3 the ttiltii contained i criminal court; police circles (/^cf/iifX 3 < 
regular police, 35 men ; viJiagc watch {chaukidiSrs), 377. Toiai revenue, 

Na,njaiigad {' Ttrwn r/ /Ac Stftiiiou^r i*/ PoisoK^' »o cAlIeU from 
one uf ihc attributes of Siva),— Town in Mysore District, My»or« 
Slate; iituat^d in I:il ij* 7' jo' N., and long, 76' 44' il, on both 
Ikfinkfi nf th<? K.ib!i;mi ami (jundal Mrr-ini«, 13 milrs hy rnad unnh 
of Mysore city. Population (tS8t) i2<^3, namely, 46S0 Hindus. 531 
Muhamnudans, and 1 Christian. Hcnd-quartcrs of Che Nanjanicad 
fdiuk Said CO be idcniical with the city of Xaf;arapura, founded 
during tlie 8rh century by a king from the north, and ^liortly aftem-ardi 
taken by a Chola monarch. Now celebrated for the temple of Siva, 
umler his name of Nanjandeswara. the preient building, ^hich hu 
siiiprrseded a smaller one of remote anliiiully, was erected Ly Kanchtlri 
Nanja RAja, the i/iJt'ii/i or prime minister of Mysore aljout J 740, aiid 
(embellished by ihc t/iK'^a Purnaiya. It ts 535 feet long by 160 feet 
broad, end Kiipported by 147 colutnnsp Some of the %urc« arc canred 
with ({rent eUihorat ion and dclit^ifv. The ibrJnc receive* nn animal 
allowance from the Slate of ^jojo. Car festivah arc held mriDthly 
on the day of the full moon, two of which, in March and November 
are attended by thousands of devotees from all paiis of Southern India. 
About a mtle from Nanjangad is a fine buni^olow, fittached to the 
Mysore Residency, near which is a stone bridije over the Kabbini, 
consinteted 100 years ago. An extensive to|)e ol magnificent .ind 
shady tree* extends from the bungalow 10 a dist:ince cf j mile along 
ihe rigl^t bank of the KabbatiL It boa been proposed to connect 

Naiijangad with ^fysorc by rAiLwit)', and tbc Line 13 now bcin^ 

^B Naojar^'patnl— 7)i/ft^ or Sub-diviiiLoii of Coorg, South India. 
^^HnSt ib^ *ai^Sltc mitcH ; nitmljcr of vilU^fS, i jj ; nunhcr of hoiuc^, 
P^[)H>9^ Topulaiion (tS8r) }6,gS4, namely. 36,ciS Hindusi S^oi 
MuhannfedftnSt 4 Jains, scad i6i Chrisimn^. Included nmon^ the 
Htndtii Sic 5383 naiivc Coorgs, KiiijarajpjLina occupies ihc north- 
eait of Coorg^ and i^ bounded on ihc casl by the KAvcri (Cauvcry) 
rivtr Tcflk and sandalwood are found in ihe jungles. Jn ibc oi>en 
country towards the Kavcri, 'dry' grams, such as r-J^iV avarc^ and 
itti^rtt aic cutiivaicJr and 'ilao ^ram, curiandtfr, and a lilllc tub^iccu 
Some Jinc c<^frcc c^ti-itci have been opened cjut ne^ir J^inbur ;ind 
SoQworpcc on the Mcrkira-Kodltpct road, Headqnaitcrf oi iahrk^ 

WfliHiTlftm — > T.ifnh or Suli^Lvi^ot) of Tanjore District, Madra* 
sidency. Arta, 279 K(|uaTc miles. Population (iS^i) 77o,:o2, 
aiDCly, 104,052 mnlcK and 1 i6>t;o feinalirf^ dwctlin;^' In 397 villnt^es, 
iikI occupying 41,143 houses. Hindus numLcrcd ^0^,317; Mukini' 
madan^T >i.^77; ChristianSf 5967; and 'others/ 41. In iSSj, tlic 
tdiuJt contained i civil and 2 criminal conns; police circles 7; nnd 
reguLir police, 70 men. l-aod revenue, ^i^'^^^- ^^^ hcad-quancrs 
of tbc tdiuk b at tbcvillaL^e of Naisnilain, about 15 mde^ nonh-west 
of Ncgaijgitaiti. ro]>uUti(jn (t3St) 2851. 

HiapAltL TaMI or Sub-iliviiiion oi B^ihrciich Diutricl, Oudh ; 

siluaied bclwecn a;' 59' and sS* 24' >r. lat., and between Si° 5' and 

81* 52' JL long. Bounded on (be norrli and cast by ibc State of 

Nepdl, on tlie soutli by Bahiaidi and Kaisar^aiij tahsUs, and on the 

*csi by NixMun tahsiK Arr.i, 1C37 M|uare miles, of which 445 

ar« under culiivation. Population (187a) 239»459 ; (i88t) 270,721, 

namely, males 141,999, and f<-nialefi %i^i2Z\ total Increase nnce 1872, 

^^1,263, or 13-1 percent, in nine >rars; average density of population, 

^■61 persons per square mtlCv Classified according to religion, there wcrc- 

^^b 1861 — HindusT2i9,Sio; Muliammadans, 50,549; and 'others/ 362. 

^VTumbcr uftuwns ami villages, 547, uf which 350 c^jntamcdir; iSdi Icm 

than 500 inhabluints^ 'T\\\% iahsU comprises ibc 3 par^^ands of Ninpdrd, 

Cb^irda, and Dharnianpur, ^nd a considerable portion of ii iii covered 

wirh (lovcrnnicni reserved forest*!. Revenue of rhc fithiif, ^33,4»9. 

In 18S4. Ninpiri contained 1 civil and 3 criminal courts; 5 police 

circJe^ itMnds); a rcKular fiolii^ force of 80 men, and 762 vilbgo 

Ninpir4.— /-I'Stftf^ in Ihbraicb nisirict, Oudh; boimdtd on the 
^north !>)■ .Vq)il, on the east by Cbarda, on ihc south by liahmich, and 
^bi Ibc wc«t liy Dharmani^ir and tbc Gogra river. Area. 533 square 
^%iles; extreme kngih, 38 miles; breadth, 24 miles, Tbc eastern 

^158 J^ANPARA TOfyX H 

ponion lie* high, and fofms pari of ihc walcrshed of the :wo rivCT 
sy*ilemaof ihtf RdpH and xht^ Cogrn. ITn? u«srcm h.ilf u a portion 
of The bwin of the biicr river and iu aiHueni the Sarju, aiwl has 
been furruwei] tn all dircclions l>y old bet^ of ihcw streams m 
their w;iTi<Jcrings over the country. Thla section is pcculiaily Cetille, 
havirg a rich ycl light alluvial soil, which require* no tnigiticn xad 
but liule labour to yield the finest crops. The far^ani is not m> 
well wooded as its ncighbo;in to :hc south, ;jnly i"7C per cent, 
t bcin^ grove land. 'Ihe proitiraiiy of ihc Jungle tract*, boAcvcr, in 
«omc degree coI]l|Jcl1«.^tes for this diawLiaOu 'Hieic i« an imincnse 
proportion of cuUivabk waste land, which covers aij square mile*, a* 
compared uith 257 square miles of cultivation, in a total area of i^^ 
Mjunre miles. Img-ilion there \% none, except in the higher villfl^t 
to the cast, where, as in Bahraich /ktrgfttt/i, there is every faciiqr 
for irrigation, the water lying near the surface* Population (iSRi) 
i68.<)4a, namely, 88,587 males and 80,355 females. Principal crops 
— batlcy, rice, and Inilian corn. Of the 311 vHlagca com]>ristng the 
parxand^ 306 arc Mil under t4iultddn tenure. The main road frooi 
Habratch to Nepdiganj passes through Ninpiri town, and sccood-U»ss 
roads run from Ninp.iri to Motfpur (i6 iniics), to Rhingl (19 miles), 
and tu Khairi^Mt (la miles). Governmeni vernacular town achoolat 
XJnf4r^ ,ind 8 vilagc schools. Two post-offices and two poUoe 
sjtaiions. 1'he nuctc^ua of \h\* present c&tate of the Raja of N'inpaEnl, 
rnmpriiiug n^-irly the whole of the pjrgijmi, eonsisied of a grant of 5 
villages to an Afghin oflTcri namrd Rasdl Khnn, who was comiDis- 
sioned by Shan Jahin to coerce the Banjaras. a lurbukn tribe irho 
had long disturbed the peace of the country, ITic family gradually 
eMcndcd their possessions; the present Rijd is the seventh in descent 
from the founder, Rasill Kbin. Nanpiid was only constituted a 
distinct pargand after tbe BriLisli annexai:on of Oudh, having pm^iously 
been nearly all included in parj^rtd llahraich. 

N&nptLr^— Town in Baliraich District, Oudh, and heai-(|uancrs of 
Ninpdri taAd/ and pai-gan*l , Mtuated irk Ut. ^7' 53' N^, and long. Si' 
31' 45" K., 31 miles north of Itahroich town, on the road to Kepilgso}. 
Tradition stn.te^ thai ihe town was founded by Xidhii, an oil-fieller, 
whence the name Nidli.-iipnrwa, rorrupted into Nidpard, and latterly to 
N-inpird. About 1630, an Afghan officer in the service of Shib Juhia 
having received a grant of this jind four other vilbgcs, laid tbe founda- 
tion of the present important estate. ropul3tiofi(i869) 6&1S; (t8Si) 
7351. namely, Muhammadans, 4643 ; Hinduti, jfod; and ' olhere,* 2, 
Area of town hite, 379 acres, Munici[ial revenue (1876-77), 
£2^3; (itt83-«4), XSS^ <5' which jCzi^ was derived from octroi; 
average incidence of taxation, is. ojd. per bead of population. Con- 
sidexable traffic in grain, [injbcr, and firctt'ood. A \ahublc tiade with 

Rpil ]3:k»^e5 through Ninpdia, ihe iin[)Orts being rt-iumtd at a1;om 

^2^,000, and tbe eicporta at ;^2o,ooo in value. The prind|>al 

!>uLJcIing5 arc the R£ji'» TCAidcncCi s Hindu Ccmplc£k4 mosques^ the 

If, j^olicei-Uiior, wm/, and school Nanpant is a fiouHshingiown ; 

nd now that it i* w staiion on ihc ncwIy-opcncd nulway from Painif* 

the itace wiJL (ioubtic&s rapidly ^row m imporlaricc. 

Nans&rl— SmaJl chicfthip in hhanddrd UiJitnct, Central rroviDces ; 

miles south-east of K^mihd; comprising g vilb^^^s^and occupyii>g 

Bn &rca of ^599 acr<e^. uf which 5878 ate under cuUirdtbii, 

Popubtion (t&Bi) 4771. The chief a a. Ilrdhman, descended from ati 

SdaJ Jamily attached to the IaIc Nigj^ur Govcmmcnu A large 

vet^Vly markci for cAn\c ii bHd at Kahipar, on ihis esute- 

N&lita..~Vil]3gc in Kouh SLiie, Rajpittina. Popubtion (iSSi) 
1&S9- Situated in bt. 2^' 12' n., and l^n^^ 75* 51' £.« on ibc route 
^_iroiD Kouh tohn to Udndi (}loondee)> 5 mtl» northwest from Kotah 
^Knd 19 south-east from UundL 'Jhe palace of ZSWrn Singh, formtirly 
^Kn^nutcr of the Kotah State, i& situated here, and Nania at one; 
Bbtnc a nourishing town, when fail of '/Ahm ^mgh's numerous adhercni*. 
The place is now tiidc more ihdn an agricultural village, and the palace 
^mi^ ^"e apccimcu of a Rijpui toonial icMdence) and us ^aidena aic 
^pblling into decay. 

Naodwdr, — Forcil reacrsc in the norib of D-tnang ]>isirict, Afiwni, 
l>'ing between the Bhorolf and B:ir Dil:i^i rtvtjr^ and bounded north 
by the Aki Hilk Area, Sa nqirarc mile*. 
NMjriOD-— OiMrirt of Assam. — S^f Nowgonc. 
^^ lFftOg!&01L—SvitMli vision of RijsliJhi DLstnct, Bengal, com^nsing 
^pbe three police circles {ihdnds) of Naoi^don, ^Tanda, and Tanchjjur. 
^^Vrea, 603 square mJlci, wiih 1362 vitlaj^ea, and 43.06J houses. '\\>U\\ 
population, 36&,5;9, namely, males i34f4.>5, and fen^ales 134,144. 
AveitLgc density l>1 popuUlion, 443*4 pcF^on.t {>cr s^quare mile. Cla^i- 
Dcd according to religion, there were in iflSi — Muliammadans, 
^^5i3^^ 9 llindtu, ^IfiOA \ ^^^ Chiisiians, 14. The Siib-diviiion con- 
toin^i > crinuMl court* a regular police force of 5^ ineD, ctnd a village 
wfltd] or rural |>o]iec of 640 chan^U^rs* 

NaogAoiL— VJla^e in Rijthiihf Distrirt, Bengal, and hcad-tjnrtrtcr* 
of Kao^ort SulKlivi.sion ; s^iiuated in bt- 24* 45' 30* s., aid long. 
8S' 58" 30" P^ on ihe west bank of the river Janiun,! Important as the 
centre cf ihc gdrtjd (licrap) culiivaiion of Rajsh^ihi; it h from this 
small tract of codnLi>- thai nearly the whole of India if »uppticd wltli 
tbe narcotic Fopulaiii^n under 5000. 
I^K Haonagpnr.— Town in Vixagapatam District, Madras Presidency, 
^(population (ifiSi) 1467, Houhe.H, 321. 

NapokltL — AVjM ur ndiuiiiiMtative hcad-i|uatterA uf PadiiulkrUd 
'JuJt^ in i\^ tcrriiory of Coorg. LaL u" 19' N., long. 75*" 44' v.. 


l>iifanl from \fcrVira 15 miles, Population (1S81) 896. Anglo-ve?" 
nacubr school, with 55 pupils in iSSi. Tiro roids lead to Mcrkiro, 
(?ntf viii Muniid, the other ri^ BettakerL 

Ifar.— 'J own in ilie Pctlid SulkdiviMon of Buoda Slate, Bombay 
rrc-sidcncy. 1^11. 22" 28' N,, lorg, 72' 45' E- Popabtioa (1881) 
73^8, School and two tfAarmsdhSs. 

tXixz, EasteiTL — An imjiorunt water channel in Straf, Bombay 
I PrcsWency ; risintr, as believed by some, in the floods of B:ibi«al- 
pur Stale, und lunninK southward suctcwivcly ihrough the Rohn 
Sub'di virion of Shikirpur Di^trkt, Khixirpur Sutc, and the Thar and 
Pdrkar Distriel. The main source of supply of ihe Eastern Kira 
is Mill uridL'lermined The first ^pcll-donncd head orriir* At IChiri 
near the town of Kohrl, whence the Aire:i»i runs aliuo^t due south 
through Kh.iiqmr, afterwards entering the Thar and Pirkar District, 
where the ch-innL-l is in KOnic filacer broad, and in oihers scarcely 
percept iblc« At Naw.nkoi it divides into two channcUi tlie la^er 
proceeding in a southeasleily direction to Wango^jogot, where h 
meets the FiSran ; the other skirting the fool of the l har, and joining the 
Piiran below Wango B&xHr. In the valley of tlie Kastcm NAm there 
are aLiout 400 lake\ and chi^rc h i^ood rc^iAon for helicviiig that this 
canal vm in former years entirely fed by the floods of the Indns. 
I,ieutcn.'Lm Fifv, in his Report of 185?* slates thai the stoppage of the 
vi-aiersu|)ply of the iirtam, whieh was attributed to a dyke pnt aeiot« 
the Nini in Upper Sind, had in reality arisen from natural causes the 
qiianlity in Home ycir^ being so <;xeL-s*ive, and in other* so deliuent as 
to prevent cullivaiton. Actinj; upon his acivice, Ciovemment con- 
structed a supply channel from the Indus ncir Kohri; and, later on, 
excavations were made in the bed of the Nira %o as to ficiliute the 
flow of the water southwards. Further iaiprovemcnts were elTecicd \yf 
crecunj; a scries ol embankments on the right side, to arrest the o\er- 
How. The principal cariah in connection with the Eastern N^a are 
the Milhrjfu (123 nitlc:i long, inclusive of branches), the Tlur (44 
mile.s), .ind ihc Dlm^-a (15 miles). The returns furnished for the firM 
edition of ihis work i^hoivcd that the aggrogate eosi of these workt 
up lo the er^d of i8;3"74 amounted to ^^74,749 ; the receipts in the 
Mtnc year were £7j6,y2^, and the loial charge* (exclusive of interest), 
^66,094. The gross income was thus 84 per cent, on the capital 
cxjMrndtfd, and the net receipts 60 per cent. The area irrigated was 
1^4^93 acres. The cont of the entire works when completed is 
estimated at ^1,063,827. and the net revenue at jC6fitS33- At the 
close of iS83-3;, it was reported that the proieciivc embankments 
wtre a^Ivaneeri, and the land wa^ recovering from the floods of past 
year*. The works would now begin li> show a gradual but steady 
increase u[> to their full cnpabiliiies. The supply channel would be 






f^ccpered lo ensure 3 proper raH supply for all ihc existing canals in 

M&ra, Western. — An iinpomnt w.'ttcr channel in Sin<3, Bomtiay 
Prcwdcnty; is^um;^ from ihc Imfus (l.iL j?^ 29' N., long. 65' ao' lc-)» 
tfhJch it tnj<< <;lost; to ilic village of Kaihia in the tdUtk of Ldrklidni. 
After a southerly counc through ponions cf ilic LArkh.'liin and 
l^bd^M tdluh of Ijiikhdnn Sulj-divjajor, it enicrs ilic Wchar Sub- 
division hy ihe tdluks of K.ik^r, Tr^jr^ imd Mtlur, ,iml, alter a course 
0/ 138 milrt, fulls into Ihc nonhcin side of l-ikc MaiH:lihar, in the 
Sehvrin Sub-divisiun of Kardchi Diiitrict. The VVcitcm Ndm iti a 
nntoral channel artiticially improved ; and, being navigable for river 
Loait throughout it* cniirc length, fjciwecti May and S«ptembcr, it is 
preA^rri^d lo ihc Indus a* a boat touic during (he Hnodft, a« the current 
u not «) wrong a^ in the river About 17 can,iU hranch dircrtly from 
Ihc Western Nara, 4 being in I-dikh?ina, 7 in MchJr. and 6 in Schwin 
Sab^ivi^on.'i. Flood* from this channel occur at limes, and in parts 
prevent the cultivation of rice. The ^Vc^tc■^n Nira is for purposes of 
siipchntendciice, inekided in the Ghar anil Kitniclii ennal system. 
'I'be rcttimt furnished for the first edition of thi» work showed a 
revenue rcati/cd in 187^-74 of £,2,0,^^1^ against an expenditure of 
^^3339^ leaving a proiii or surpUis of ^36,98*. No later reiutn* aie 

K&rad. — A nankc given to three different atrc^ims in Rdjahfthf Dis- 
triti, UengaU (i) The first is * small oITshool of ihe Changes, whirrb it 
Iravci a frir mile* bdciw thr tnwn nf R-impnr Bcaiileah, and thence 
do^s into the Mtisd Khan near Puiiyd. A short distance north of 
Tutiyi, (j) anoiher stream, also called the Narad, though in no senw; 
a continuaijon of the former waiercoiir«c, leaver i\\^ Musi K.hin. and 
flow^ casiwanJ past Nattor. It is navigable for a great part of the year, 
lis chief tributary from ihe south ii (j) the Ndrad, a branch of the 
Nandikujl The united ureaim fall eventually into the Atrdi JUM 
above Its junnion with the >JaniL'tkujd. 

KtbTUBSk — Town in Jjiptir SUlc, Rajput^nn , dtMAnl 40 miles wcjvC 
from Jjipiit city. Contains *evcral temples of interest, and famous as 
he bcacS^quarteis of (h« sect of DddJ Pantlifs, from whom the foot- 
>o1d»en f^r the Stale, called Nigat, aw obinmtd- "Ihe sect 1^ not very 
nutiierouv and profcsw-* to Krorshipone God. unrcpmeniod by any image 
or without a temple; ihdr saints arc rdibatcs, and maintain succes- 
sion by adoption. The Nagns number between 4000 and 5000; lo 
ihcir fidelity^ daring, and moral influence us toldiers, is attributed the 
st«adiastne^ of the general army of the Jaipur State to the British 
catise during the Mutiny ol 1^57. 

If&rtjEga^l (iV^rrf^idffX'"'/). ^ Sub- Division In Dacca District, 
L Ar^-a» 641 :u;uare mites; number uf toun« an J vitb^esi 2064 j 


hcfa%tt, 54,704. Populition (iSSt), naXt^ 340,754, ai>d fcmal^l 
339,873; total, 470,65;. Claisi^cd aocordiftg to reliston, the^l 
vrcrc — Muhammadans^ 3^4*439; Hindui, 132,037; Chrutum, 3243; 
and Buddhists, 38. Ai«ra|>e dcD-niiy of pojiubiion, 734 pcnont |^r 
square mik; lilbgev f)er»|uirc iiuk,3*22j j»cr»ota per vill^c, 22$; 
booses per »)tuTe mile, S7 ; iier^^iu per house, $'7. TUs Sub-dinMon 
coaipnues tlic three police circle* (Mnds) of Nirainganj, Kdpganj, and 
Kjiifmri. In 1^53 ii contained t civil cxnirt and an honorary magb- 
trux-'s bcndi, witti i crimiitoJ ct>un. The police ibroe consisted or 
^3 rcguUr police of all nnk^, and 803 rural potioe orviUage vtauh- 

NirAiBg&qJ (A'J^dyaujiam/). — Town in Dicca Dittrkl, Bcngil ; 
sitUAtrd in bt. >3' 37' 15' v,. an<l long. 90' 3?' 5' t. on ihc wtsu-m 
bank of the Lakhmid. ai its confluence with the Dhale^waif; and. with 
ii& /t^iJrs, extending for about 3 miles alon^ ibe river. The mtuiici- 
paLity alio tiKfude« Madanitavj. PopuEation (1S77) io,9ri; (1S81) 
tJ,5o3, namely, inalr^ T55^> and females 4950. Hmdm numbered 
^3^4 » Muhanrniadans, 6160; and 'others,* 34, Narain^nj with 
Msdang&nj hoi been constituted a lUGt-cTass ruunici|XLltty. Muntcipal 
income (r8S3-S4), ^^3095, of which ^1966 wai derived from uxadon; 
dvcta^c incidence of lax:ilioii, 3». t }d- j>eE Iie^d of jiopuUlioii, Niriia- 
ganj i% distant from na<:c:n 9 milc^ by Lind« nrd nbout 16 or tS by water, 
and IE in reality the poic of iKit city, including Madanganj, a Lirtle 
lower down on the opposite bnnk of the river. In the neighbotirhood 
axe several forts Imilt hy Mfr Junila ; and almost nppoiite stands ihc 
Kadam Ra^til, a spot held in ^reat rqjutc among llt^ pious Musalniiiis 
in thj« part of Lbc counlry. 

N^niinganj ]>o»sesse« regular steam conmiunicAtion with Calctitu 
direct, i\ith the nilway station of Cjo\LANt?A, wiih the Assam valley, 
and with th^^ tea Districts of Sylhci and Cacliar. A consi<1cnblo trade 
Is also carried on Iti cotintry boats with Chittagon^, and Ji bas been 
]>ru|iosed to eaLabliiih a stcanier-^ivtce to that yvn by ineaim of tlie 
Mcghni. The chief business of N^raing^inj h the collection of country 
pn>ducc,-'cfipcciall^ juiCj from the ncighhourtng r>ifttriet4; aiid tlicdiuri- 
bution of piece-goods, salt, and oilier European ware«. M.iny Engli^H 
and a few otber EuropL-an firni^ arv rngaged in ihU biisirfess, but the 
bulk of the trade is in the hamb of native merchants. There are 
several !4Cc:ttn -presses btrloni^jn;; to Europe^ins, for the jueparation oi 
jute in balet. 

The tolftl value of tlic trac3c of Ndrdinganj, according to the 
registration returns of iS;G-77, amounted to considerably more 
than iwo millions fiterling ; but this figure includes many exports 
and imijoris twice over. The exports alone were valued at jij;', 
the thitf items being— juie, ;£478,oooi tkc, ;f 141,000^ ptccc-goods^ 

^ k 




j^7fi,eoo; g;*It, ^67,000; tobacco, j^34,coo; raw ccttoD, ^ji.oca 

j'ilic iinpati-H wCTC valued at ^i,53-S,ooo, inrlutting — jnio, X47**'0O® 
^/^- Ininsii tncle) ; piccc<iiood«, ^j J4,ooo ; salt, ^^1*4*000; nw cotton, 
'121,000; tice, j£^iJi,oco; ^upaT. /gS-ooo ; oilseeds £l*^^^\ 
tobacco, ;£66,coo. 'J'hc figures do not include ihc subsidiary port of 
3i4adAnganj, which hid a bubincss valued at ^1 70,000, The imfoits of 
jtJtc are derived in almost equal quantiiie.s from the adjoining; DiBlricts 
of Maiinansingh and 'lii»fjcr3h, and ln>m IJaccn itsell. The exports of 
iwic are all seiil to Calcuiia, either diiL'ti by Mcnmcr and country boai, 

for l>y niUayfrom (icdlanddL Id i&70-;7,<juI of a lot'il c-ipurt uf 
1,600,000 mauHdf of julc, 6;o,coo were de^paiehcd ihiougb HoilnndH, 
57D1CC0 by ccunEiy bone, arii 360,000 direct by ulcaiiier. In i^77-7Si 
the total eiporl of j[ji<? had risen to 3,137,000 maum/!, or almost 
cxacdy the aamc <ii]aniity at thit exported from Sirij^anj, No later 
statistics iirc avaiUUc, but mde, cs]>ccifll]y in jute, has hrRcly increased 
of bte yean. The trade with Chittagong chictiy consist* of ihc export 
of (obacco, food-giain, and oil-seeds, and the import of raft' rotlon. 

^which has been grown in the Cliittagong Hill Tracts. Nirdinganj forraa 
terminus of the t\tvi Dacca - Mjiii^an^in^h Railway Ju&t opened 
[December 1S85). 

Nir^joL— Vill^igc in MiJnapiir Dbtrici, Bengal; vittuLinJ un the 
Pal^pdi, a ^nLoll Mrc«m, in lai^ a* 34' S" n., ai;d long. 87* 3^' 4' k. 
S^emt of a higc manufacture of coUon cloth and mats. Popubtion bc- 
twe^^n joooand 3000, but not separately returned in the Ccn.misrjf 1R81. 
Nirakal,— Tiiwn and pnrt in thtt State of Cnchin. Madras Presi- 
dency ; Mtuatcd in tat. 10^ 3' 30" s., ,ind ionj;, 76' 13' e., 3 miles west 
of Cochin city, Population (1881) 4254. The place owes iis imixirt- 
aticctoa so-called mud bank, which stretches about si mile« bcaward, 
and is 4 tniles long. Within this, vessels can run in the worst of the 
£0Uth-vfc«t monsoon, when all other ports on the are closed. 
This mud apparcaily breaks the force of the sea, for the waier within 
I calm when the weather \n at its roughest outside. During the famine 

"of 1877. the port wan murh u>cd in the nionKQon H:a^un for landing 
grain, which vns then conveyed by b:ick water to ibc railway at Tirur, 
and 10 to the diurcwcd Disirictb- Coasiiay bieamcra call here rcgiibrly. 

KiiraVnl is mentioned av the seat of a considerable Christian popul.iri^n 
y Fra Paolo BaHoloniea 
NariL—Su Mi vision of Jei;sor District. 15cn;pl, lyinfi between la' 
5' 45' and 13' =t'N. lat., and between 89" 25 and 89' 51' 30" E. lon^. 
jea, 4S7 square miles; villages, S02; houses, 36,440. Popula- 
tion (iSSt) 3JiS.i72, namely, r73,8ofi Hindus, 151,341 Mohnm' 
madans, and J5 Christians. Number of persons per square mik% 673"^; 
\-jlUges per square mile, i'C4; houses per square mile, 77; inmates 
boose, 9 i projicrtion of miilea, 4<j'7 per cent Thi^ SuL-OivisLOn, 


wMdi rompritei lh« throi? jKilice drcles {thimitj o( \nr-41» T-oliJgara, 
and Kalia, conl.iincd, in tSSj, j civil and rcvctinc and 2 magisierial 
cQurh, with a force of 61 regular police, be«iJc^ 57S vilbi^e watchiiKn. 

Naril.— Tun n in Jcssor nibirici. Bengal, and head-quarters of Nanil 
Sub-division ; ^Ittiatcd in bt. 35* lo" K-,dnd long. 89' $2' 30' £>► 73 
miles ca4i of Jesaor town, on \hv Chiird river, wliich is here vetj' deep, 
and afiorda a ic-^utar route fur Iat^c boat^ throughout the year. COD- 
I tains the UHual ^ub divi%U>nal otfu-ci. Tu-o bi-wvekly marl^ei* are beM, 
but ihc irjdc i* entirely b*;il. The Nar^l family Jir?; iIk- fr« bnri- 
holders of JebAor DiMrict, and have alnjiys been noicd for tbcir 
libcraLily. Several workK of public uulhy have be«n coiutrucicrd by 
ihtvtL A good vebool and charllable di^peniary ve also maintained ai 
iheir evpfnsc- 

Nar&olL — Agnculiural town in UiMri tuftsU, Moradilidd Oi«tr>ct, 
Norih-Wc'&iern Provinces ; siiuaCcd in lat. 28* 39 N.,and long. 78' 45' 
E.. 5 miles east of ibe river Sol. Po|>ubiion (18S1) 5069, namely. 
Hindus, J053, and M idumitiatiana, 2016; number of houses, 709. 
Nfirdoli i.s an old Kijpnt village in the jJOEnevtion of the Bafgfyar 
family, the descendants of Rijd Pratap Singh, Market held on 
Mnn<l,iy4 .ind Thursdavs. Eleraemary school. 

Naraaar^pet.— Tfii'tf^ \jr Sub-divinion of Kisma District, Miidnu 
Pfc'itidcncy. ArwL, 7 j 2 sf |tian: milctt. Populotion ( 1 &Si ) 1 34,791, 
namely, 65,168 males and £3,633 females, dwelling in 114 vtLlagcti, 
canKiRlin^ of 31.909 hniisf^ Hindiit ntimhrrrd 110,36s; Muhom* 
madans, 99901 ClinstianB. S^ai; and * others,' 3^ The head-<iuariert 
of the tdfiii: U at Aildru, now called Xaiasardopci ; po|fiilation (18S1) 
3918; number of houses, 9S1. In 18S3 the /rf/tf> contained z criminal 
courts; police circles {//r4mfs). 7; rej^ular police, 56 mca Total 
revenue, ^i's^***'*:- 

Narasinganallilr.— Village in Tinnewlli Uuinct, Madras Preii- 
dency; ^itiuicd in Ut. S' 43' N., and lon^ 77" 43' k., 3J iniles we-ti of 
Tinncvclli town. Population (i33i) [714 ; number of boutcs, 441. 

Narasinha-an^adi. — Town in South KinarA District, Madrft« 
Piesitlt-nry, -S^^ ) wtM.wMt. 

K^i^yanadevarakera. — Town in HoKpct A/A/>, IWlliry Distiict, 
Mnidras Presidcnry. Po^iid-Uinn (iSSi) 3669, of whom t74T arc 
males and to^5 females ; number of houses, 945* Hindui numbered 
30S4, .ind Mvih.immadans 58;, 

N^riyanavanam.— lown in North Arcot DimHcI, Madras Prest- 
doicy. La. 13' 37' v., ion^ 79' 38' £. Population (i83i) 3913, of 
whom 3776 were Hindus ; number of houses, 692. Situated 3 miles 
eaat of Putidr station on the north west line of the Mudrav Kailu^y. 
Nirilyanavnnam is one of the most ancient places in North Arcoc ; 
U Is believed to Mand in Mhax w^u otkc a foiest much frei^uented 



by Vishfiti. Three miles souih of the lowji are tUc rcmaina oF two old 
I Nkriyan^apj.—Sii Mi vision nrd tou-n in Dflcca Piatrirt, Bengal. — 

Nftrbadft^ — Division or Commi»^oncrship of the Cenim) Pro- 
Tttices; lying between ii' 41' and 13' ij' n, lac. and between 75' 50' 
and 79' 35 E. long. ; and comprising the five Distnciii of Homiano- 
AiAD, Narsimghpcr, Betvl, Chhintwaha, and NiMAK, .ill of which 
«x separately. ISounded on the north by ihc Stales of the Ccninil 
ndia Aj;cncy, aiid S%,ir and Damoh HistncEs ; on ihc casl by 
abalpur (Jiibhutpoic) -ind Sconf DJMilcCs^ on the ^outli hy N%[iui, 

mrAoti, Kilichpitr, Anil Akoli DUtrico ; nnd on the we»t by Khdndcah 

lurict, and Sialics of ihe Central India Agenc)-. 

The Karbndi DlvUion contains An area of 17,51,^ Kqnare miles; 
1 tcm-as and 6m4 vill.igcs ; number of houHe«, 363,44-1- Total 

pubtion (iSSi) i,76jjo;. namely, males cjooj^o, and females 
^^'-375 i proponion of malc^, 5ro9 per cent Average density of 
population. 1007 peisons per sfjuarc mile; number of persona per 
town or village, 2S6 ; bouses per squaie mile, 20"75 ; inmates per 
house, y&$. Classified acccrdinj^ to s^x and oge, the Census returns 
— under 15 years of a^e, bojs 36&,o50, and girls 345.785; total 
children, 71 it34i> ut 40'i jjcr cent, of ihc whole ptii^uluiion : j^ years 
and upwards, males 534i^74i and females 516,590- loul aduli^ 
,051,764, or 59^ per eeni. 

^//«'*"'— ClMsifiedaecording 10 religion, Hindus nitmber 1,7^6,613, 
Of 7i'9 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 76,$36, or 4*3 per cent ; Kabfr- 
fiantbfs, 9S44: Saln;lmi<, S5 ; Jain*, 7536; Christmns 17^*5; Pirsis, 
141 ; Jews 5< ; Sikhs, 13 ; iind non-Hindu aboriginal Iribes* ^Soi^SS, 
or ii"6 per ceni. of the population. The total aboriginal population, 
however, by race is returned at 476,007, as follon^s :— Oonds oi 
different iTihcit, 338,3U; Koikus, ^1,716 ; Uhils, 36,38*; Kanwdrs, 
16,075; ^tolf I374;iia^'ar3, 1015; Kharrias, IJ35; Mughiits* 403 ; and 
*oihcts/ 34. 

Of bigti-ca^tc Hindus, Brahman^ number 79*956 ; Riijputs, 102,700; 
Bbdta,4Sa5; Cofains, 7467; Kiyosths, 6951; and BaniyfL^ 9a,d$Op 
The Sddra, cr low-caste Hindus, include the following:— Kxirnif, the 
mofl nnmeroujt raaie in the Division, 1 18,757 ; Ahir, 75*083 ; Mebri, 
67*213; Lodhf, 49*3:3; Chaoiir, 4M** i Balihi. 43.^85 ; Gujar. 
41,699; Tcli,4i,334; Kirdr,35,44>; Bhoer, 29.838 ; Dhimiir, 28,485; 
ibt, 26.394 ; Nil, iSi^,19 ; MiJ^ 2J,8S5 ; Barhii, 21,54^ ; Sondr, 
i8,*9c; Lohir, i8."S5; KallAr, i;,8o4I Kaiiyi, "7,015; Dhobf, 
14,41*; Kumbhir, 13,937; UanjAri, 12,187; CadirLi, 9937; Hisor, 
91 jo; Kori, »493; Mardihd, 7347; Dflntf, 7191; Koshtf, 5966 ; and 
Mahdr, 54^5- "^*^ Mubammadan setts inelude— Sunrtfs, 7^,^58^ 




Shi^ ^537; Wahibfs, 80; Koriiib» 3; nnd unspccif)c<1, t6;8» Tltc 
ChriEtiAn comnuinity ii; rciurned nA follows : — Ron^nn Caiholici;, 960 ; 
Church <yf Knglinil, 350; KpUropfl linns, 134; Pre^bylemns ^6 1 
Pmteslanls not distinguished by sect, 41; Wcsk-yans, 30; M«hodi3(s, 
si; and 'others 'and un»f>cciAed, 163, According to another claisifi- 
caiion, the ChrLslians comptuie— Europeans. 564; FunuUtts, r;8; 
Indo-PortugncscT 91 ; Nniivci of India, 748 ; and unspcdfied. 105. 

TowHitKii /^unil Poful^tion. — Nirlada Diviiiion contains 11 towns 
with a population exceeding 5000 inhabitants — namely, Burhlnpur, 
^0,017; Hoshangibld, 15.863: Khandwi, 15.142; HartU, ii.J«3; 
Nutiinghpur, ic>,j/^ ; Cljhindw^r^, SiiJo ; GaUiuwirU, Snw ; Pdnd- 
hurnii, 74^9? Scbigpur, 70J7; Sconf, 6998; and Mohj;ion, 5180- 
Total urban population, 135,441, or 7 'a pcroeni. of ihAt of the whok 
Division, Of th« 6*03 niTal villager, 3558 coiHain 1e« iharr two 
htindfffd inhabitant*; tSi)6 bawecn two and five hundred; 547 
bet^'een five hundred and a thousand; 190 Iietween one and three 
thotmnd; and \2 between ihrve anil five thousand inhabitants. As 
regarfis Qccupation, ihc CenitB dlvideit tbc male pcpniation mto the 
following %\x main classe*:— -{1) Professional, militan', and official claims, 
12,344 ; {*) domeslicr ebs*, inn and lociging-honsc keepers, clc, 9001 ; 
(3) commercial class, indiiding banker^ mcTchanis, traders carricn, 
cic,t i5»77Si (4) agrEUdnir;]! ;ind [>aMorAt class, including gardcnenv 
380,118; (5) manufAciLiiing And induMrii&l c)a*ts, including afliUitAt 
iao,6oi; (6) indcfinito and nun-jirotluetivv c]ci«4, conopri&ing general 
lahoiirens and male children, 153, 8;8. 

^^intJtur^, fU, — Of the total ares nf the Divjfiion (17.513 squire 
miles), 53^6 sriti.tne miles were retumcd as under cultivation in 18^3- 
84; 4351 squivre milcfi a£ cultivalle, but not under culiivation ; and 
7876 Htiuate miles a? unculiivable waste- The principal crops consist 
of wheal, 1, 186,461 acres; rice, 69,517 acresj oihcf food^f^ns, 
1^776,101 acres; oiUeedi, 258.504 acres; coiton, 144,370 acres; and 
sugar-cane, 17,561 acres. Of the total adult mate and female aj^rl- 
cultiml ptijHihlion in tSSi^ Uindcd proptieloni numbered 1^,196; 
tciiAiLla with rights of occupancy, 63,839 i icnani?L-at<wi1l, r4i,959; 
a-^atants in home cultivaiion, 900,931 ; agrieulturaT labourers, 307,660 : 
while *hcphcrds, e&tate agenn, farm bftililTs elo., bring the total up to 
639,319, or 3626 per cenL of the Divisional jjopulation- Avrragc 
area of cultivated and cultivable land per adult agriculttiri^, 10 acres. 
Total amount of Government land revenue assessment, incltidktg 
local rate* and cesses levied en land, ^154,316, or an average of 
lo^d. per CHhivated acre. Total rental p,iid by eultiv.nors, ^^34^151, 
or an average of is. ttid, per head. Communication U aiforded bf 
II38 miles of made road^, 387 miles of nilvray^ and 494 miles of 
navigable riicrs. 




AJmiaisfrattart. — Total revenue (1S8J-S4) of Narfcada DivUion, 
277,011$; tolM ctysX of of!icL;iU and police of ttW kindjt, ^$1^964- 
btticc K Administcivd hy 44 Hvil anrl 5^ nrinitral roiirli. Total 
h of regular and Wwii poltc^, 1145 men. Average daily number 
^iTffrisDnen in jail C1SS3), S4^'4:!' Total number of Govcnimcnt- 
impcctcd schools {1883-34}. 349, villi iT.^^S pupils. The Cetisuft cf 
1S81 tctumcd 16,336 bo)-s and 482 glrlnas unrler insJnirtion; besides 
37,930 males and 714 females able to read aa<I wriic, but not unclcr 
inmuctiDn. [Vox furihcr details, sec the accounts of the difTcrert 
DisiTicis in their alphabetical order] 

Harbadi {Nerhuijtt^ Nurtnadd — the NftmaJus of Plokmy» VWuw- 
rraJins of ibc Ptrif/Ms). — One oi the great riven <if India, Iraditionall)' 
jcg^rdcd as the boundary between Hinduvtin rrupcr and the Deecan. 
it rises (lat. aa' 41' h., long. 81* 49' i-) in the dominions of the RAj^ 
of Rcir^, and, aflcr a we«tw-ird course of Soo miles, falls into the sea 
(laL at' 38' S-, long, 7j' jo' E.) btlow Broach in the Bombay DiUnct 
if that name. lis saiirce Ik >it Amirkanlak, a massive flat-loj>pcd htll, 
13 feet above seii-level fonniny the eastern terminus of Lhal long 
rai^ vhich nmn acnx^ the middle of fntCia from ueM to east All 
nxind lies a wild and desolate cciuntrr; but a lillle colony of priests 
have rcJtrcd thcit temple* in the middle of these mighty solituilcs, to 
guojd the souKc^ of the sacred river. Tlic N^rbadd bubbles up gently 
ia a small tank in one uf the undulating glades on the summit ^f the 
iDOuniatn. Then for about \hw& milea it meanders through green 
meadowy receiving the water* of coiintle** ij.iring*, till it reathe* the 
edge of the Am.irk.intak plaEcau, where it falU over the black basaltic 
cliff in a Klistenlng cascade of 70 feet, cjilled Kapila-DhAra. A little 
farther on i« a smaller fall, known as Piidhdhira, or the Stream of Milk ; 
the myth beinj; that here ihc river once ran with milk instead of water. 
After dc^cendin^ some hundreds of feet by falls and rapids from the 
ights of Amarkantak, the Narbadi enters the Ceniral I'rovjnces, and 
vinds round the lulls of Mandld, till it flows under the walls of the 
ruined jfcalarc (jf RdmiKi^ar. .\t lliia point the NatbadA has rcn a 
coune of neady a hundred miles ^i^d received lhcdTaitia4;e of un exten^ 
we hjlt country. Its swollen wait-rs flow in several ehanneb, between 
vrhich nte wcoded iidjind*; ; wfnle in mid stream, peakc and ledges of 
black trap protrude in all direction*- The b.nnk* are rkiihrd with 
thick foliape to the wjttcr's cdje, and on every side hills shut in the 
hortfon. Hut below Rimna^ar for -scvcnil miles down to Mandld, the 
m-er fiQ^\ in an urbrokcn expanse of blue water between banks 
adorned with lofty trees. Of all the pools or rcj.ches {d^hi) in the 
rhxTS of the Central Provinces, this is the loveliest. 

Below Mandid, at Uwdrij^hdt, ivhcrc the 'Irunk Road crosses from 
Jabalpnr (Jubbuliwre) to Ni^^ur, the NarhadJ river wearr the look of 

I tht 

indurtry ; for at ihis pOEHi are collected many hiindrM^ log* of limbef 
cut m ihc forcsU. lo Iw floated down Ihc stream to ihe miiti of 
Jjb;i1pur. About q miles lo ihc touEh-wctt of>Jtlpur> the Narbadi 
fTingt itself tuintihuou^ty over a ledge uiih a fall of ihiriy feet, colled 
Dhuindliira. or the Misty Shooi; and ihcn enters on a tiaTTOtr channel, 
cut through a masa of marble and basalt for neatly 2 miles, and known 
QN the * MarMe Kccki/ The rivtrr, whidi above thL& |>otiit had a 
breadth of 100 prds, i* Jierv comprinacd within 10 ysj^ and flom in 
a sivLrling MrE^am bcivrccn ui-iiblc blkilts from ^o to So feci high, till, 
C9ca]>in^ from us glittering priAon, it a|>rc;Ld» out once qiotc in a bro«d 

The Narbatli now leaves the hill countiy behind, and enters upon 
the fertile \Mty, over joo milo^ long, whirh includes Narsmghpur and 
the greater part of Iloshangabid Districi. This is the fir»t of those 
wide alluvial basins, which, aiccrnaiing with rocky gorges, give M 
varied a character to the river's course. Probably they were origiiully 
lakes, more or lets closely connected, and fed by a slc^u'ly flowing rirer, 
duwn which dayi^y sediment wa.s carried, and gradually and uniformly 
di&tnL>uted over a considerable extent of country. On the conglooKmtc 
and clay thuK dej)oaite<l, lie so feet of the rich alluviumi known u th^ 
rv/aroT hl^ck coiion-sotl of CcmrAl Indi.i. F<LS»ing under ^ great rail- 
way viadoci, vith massive pier«, the Naibadii Hows along lhi» valley, 
which 14 shut in hetwern the parallel ran|;e« of th« Vitidhya and Sit- 
pura mountains* During the rainy season, the river anfords the mems 
of a brief and prticarious iraftic At l^-irmin Ghrfr. after the rains, the 
receding waters leave a broad space of *and, where, every November, 
is held one of the largest fairs in the Centra? Provinces- The Narbadi 
now 60WS |]aat the coal pits of Mohpani and the iron mines of Tendil- 
kheri, past cotton fields and plains clothed twice a year witii waving 
harvests, past Ho^hangabad, and the once famous towns ol Handid aiid 
Nimiiwar, pst Jogfguh, where it rushes wkh clear rapids riglit beneath 
the batitcnient5 and bastions, till Jt once more enteta the jungle in the 
District of N'imjJr. Emerging from these wilds, it flows in a deep and 
violent Btrc^m pitfit ihi; lacred ii^land cf MAVUitATA, crowded with 
Sivaiie temples, aad i^teep witli cliffs, from which dtrvotees were wont to 
dash Themselves on to the rocks in ihe river bebw, 

Durinfi the pass^i^e of the Narbada ihrouKh the Central l*ro\inces. 
several falls interrupt its course. At Umari;!, in Nar^inghpur District, 
h a fall of about 10 feet ; at MaTjdhjfr, 35 miles below Handid, a UM 
of 40 feet ; and at Dildri» near Piinaso, another hU of 40 (ceL The 
NarbixiU is fed principally from the south side, as the drainage of tlw 
Vindhyaa tableland which bounds the valley on the north Is almosi 
entirely nurthwards. ]e^ ^^liiiLtpol ^diluents are the Maknir, Chikiir, 
Khanneif Biirhner, and Uanjar, then the Tfmnr, the Soncr, Sher, and 



4yAIiIiAI>A H/IE/^. 

le Biidhf. Kordmi, Machni, Tawa, Ganjiil, and AJQil> Oo llie 
;ht, ihc Narbadii receives, Atnon^ other*, the mounuln ureaim 
iaidi, GauT, and Himn. 

At Makrai, the N^irbAdd finally leaves the tabk-lnnd of ^falw.i Xo 
enter upon ihc broad pbin of Oujardt. I'or the lirgt 30 miles it 
separates the Gackwdrs icrriiory oi Baroda, on ihe right, from the 
State of Rdjpfpla, uu tite Icftj and thcit^ for the rcmaiomg 70 itiiles 
of its counet Including many wlndfngn, it interaects ihe fertile Dlatrict 
of BroAch. Ic« average brc;tdtb here varies iu>\i% about half 0. mile 
to ft rnilc- Bciow Bro^icb riiy it gr:L<Ji]al]y widens into an estuary, 
whose dhcres are 13 miles apart where they fall away into the Gulf 
ofCimbiiy. The inllucnee of the tide is fck as fir up as i<i>anpur, 
about 35 miles above BTo;ich. At the mouth of the e^tuar>\ ft]>Tliig; 
tide* tomctimc* nsc to the height of 30 feet. In Bro:ich Di^lrict^ 
the Natb^d has cut for itself a deep and perm,iiiem bed thro;igh 
Ihc hard fdluvid soil. The nght or nonh bank is generally high 
and prccipitoufl, but is gradually being e:iten a^vay b> the present 
set of the tmrtnt. The left b;ink is Juw and sliciving. The fair- 
weather level of the river \^ about 3i feet bul^w the aurfit^e of the 
plain, and e>cn the highest flood.^i do hut link damage to the :>urround- 
\ag country. In thia pan of its course the Narbadi receives ihrec 
tribolnriei — the K.'ivcri (Ciiitvcry) and Amrdvaii on ilie left, and the 
Buiihi or) the right. Opposite the mouth of ihe Bukhi lies a br^c 
uninhabited i«knd, called the Alia BeL This has underj;:one maiiy 
change?! of btc years and now ha!S an area of about jj,ooo acres, over- 
grown with dcn^c jungle. The total length of the Narhadii, from its 
source to the sea, is 801 miles; and the total area of its drainage bssin 
19 estimated at 36^400 s^^uarc miles. Its maximum Hood discharge 
has been calculated ai 3,500,000 cubic feet of water per second. The 
velocity of the cuneiiL iii the dry ae^ison at Broai:h city vi leut tlian one 
mile an hottr. 

Throughout JCti entire course the Xarbadi draint rather than naterft 
the country through whirh it flows, ll is therefore no^vhorc ntilircd 
for irrigation. Navigation is confined to the lowest section, which lies 
ivithin CujardL In the height of the rainy season of 1S4:. a British 
officer succeeded in making h\% way down stream from Mandlesar^ in 
the territot)' of Indor ', but the perils tlircugh which he parsed are so 
great as to close the rtjute to commerce. The hi^hf^t paint to which 
narigjition ordinnnly extends is .iljout 15 miles above Lhe Makrai Falls. 
In the rainy icaion — from Jtjiy to September — boats of considerable 
tODDO^ arc able to sail up as hx £,« Tdakwdr^, abuut 65 miles ;it>ovc 
BroAch city, auiaccd by the regular soviLh-wcnt monsoon. Sea-going 
ships of about 70 ion* ffequent the port of Broach; but ihcy arc 
entirely de[>endezit upon lhe tide, at ihey erinnot come up in the 



monsoin, nnd during the 6xy *;ea*on tWt U nf> depth rf fr«b initirr. 
'J'hough the foreign IratJe of Broach has greally bllen off from whit 
it was in early days, thi$ decline ilocs not seem to be due to un* 
favourable change* in the channel of ihc Tivcn The author of ihe 
Pcfif'ius (isi century A.D.) dwells upon the difficuliy of getting tip to 
Barugaia (Broach), even by the help of fckilfuJ pilots, uid nwvirg 
only wtth the tide. Fryer {i6So) tell* a very similar story; and Hcbcr 
(1835) S3y?t ihai no vesseU lari^i-T than mcderatvIy-^iKed lighten eould 
cro»» I he bar. 

jSccording to local Legend, Jt ivas believed that the goddess of the 
Narbad^ woLild never sufTiT her stream to be crotsed by a bridge. 
The Bombay and Biiroda Railway Company, however, tucceeded in 
proving the falsehood of this legend. Their first bridge, near (he city 
of Broach, btguii in rS6o, vii\.% seriously damaged by a flood in 1864. 
and though ihe repnirs then required gufTcrcd from another flood in 
iSOS, by 1871 the bridge again stood complete, after a total evpendi- 
turc of £\'}o,coo. The unprecedented flood of 1876, which rose 
to a hcighi of 35 feet above high-water mark, washed au'ay j6 spani, 
or 1600 feet ou: of a toul length ol 4150 tcec. llie iroffic was 
carried on a Ici:ip4jmry Mructure ; and a new bridge wa?i Lximniefkced 
about 100 yard^i farther up-vtrcam, and completed at an cittimatcd CM 
of ^575,000. AlTogeiheT, the btidging of the NarbAdi cannot have 
cost this company much less than n miliion sterling, TTiere are besid*J 
three olher bridges over the Narbadd, one at MorCakka on ihe MilwJ 
branch of che RitjputJnaOiliiw^ State Railnay* the second at Hoshing- 
db.'ici on the Bho[idt State RaiH-ay^ antl the third where the ri^'er b crotsed 
by the Great Indian PenlnKula Railway about 34 miles from JabalpUT. 

In religious i^ncttty, the Narbadi ranks only second to the (j^nges 
among the xwcr^ of India- Accordmg in the Racd Pttnita (Rcvii 
being another name for the river), the sanctity of the Ganges will cease 
in the Samvai year 1951 (1895 a,d.). while the purifying virtue of the 
Narbadi wilt eontinuc the &irue throughout all the ages of ihe world. 
So holy in the water, that the very pebbles in itrt bed are worn into the 
shape of ihc cmliWm of SJva. Few Hindus u^ould dare to fors»"«i 
themselves, sending in the Narbadi with n garland of red flovcrs 
ro;md the neck and some water in the right hand. The most merito- 
rio:w am that a pilgrim cati pcrfornj. is to walk from the iea up to the 
source at Amjrkaniak, and then back abn^ the opposite bank. Tht» 
pilgrimage, callcil farikram or /radaksha^ta, ts chiefly undertaken by 
devotees from Gujar;tt and the Deccan, and \z\t% from one year to two 
years in accomp!J9hn>ent. In Uroach District, the most sacred spots 
arc — Sukalilnh, with its ancient banian tree; the site neat Broach city 
where VJi)i BJIt iicifoi tiicd the ten horse sacrifjcc \ and tlic templet at 
Kartid :ind DliaUbhuC. 








Taregal — ^Town in nMrw:^r Diitrict, Bombay Presulcncy; situate*! 
SS niJ^s t-iWt of l}h,irv,-dr lown, in LiL 15' ^6' n., and long. 75* 
54' K- Population (1881) 6071. namely. 542J Hindus and 640 
^[iihjniniacl.ini. Narc^al is nn old lowti with temples and inscriptions 
dating from ihc cTcvcmh toihc thirteenth ccniviivA-D, Weekly mar kcta 
on Monday. Scliool with 191 pupils in 1SS3-S4. 

Nargnud. — Town in IJhdrwdr IJi^tricL, JJoniliay Presidency ; ititu.ited 
60 miles ejit of Belgiium, and 3J miles nonh-casi of IJharwir town, in 
l«L 15*43' is' N., and !<jng, 75' ^5' 30' c Popuhllon (i88r) ;Sj4. 
^^virusify^ll^ Hindus, 1049 MuliAinmad^ns, and 51 Jains. Kargiind 
is A nmnici'iul tr>wn, wiih an income (iSSa) of ^^7$, Thot](;h not a 
nianufacturlng lown, it is a busy entrepot of trade, tvhcre the incrchanls 
of Ohdrvr^r and North Kinara exchange rice,, ?;pjces, and other 
acTJcuUural products. N.irfiiind was one of ihc earliest possessions 
wr«ied from the feeble grasp of the Muhnmmadan kings of Bljipur 
by the Marathi rulers of Sdtira. It was subsequently banded over 10 
Kdmrio Bhdi'e, with some surrounding village.s. Oti the comiuest of 
the J'eshwi"* territory by the Bribsh, it was n.'stOTCtl by them to Didiiji 
Kio^ the chief then found m pos»cs«ioa An agreement wat concluded 
wilft hinSf by whii:h he w^ls c^icmptcd from tlic ]>aymeni of his former 
tribute of j^547< from aa^ar^fttt or presents (?n oct-isloiis J»d fiom 
rendering i^rvicc, on the conditioris of loyalty to and dcp<^nclcncc on 
the Bntifth Government. Tliis petty principality, containing 36 town* 
and villages with a poimlation of aliout 35,000, wa< ;it the \\xwe of xhxi 
Mutiny in 1S57 held by Hha^^fcaT Kao. ttfias \\6bx Sahib. Affected by 
the disturbances in the north, the chief rose in open rebellion, and 
inurd^cd Mr Manson, the Commissioner and rolnical Agent, Southern 
Mardthd country. An English force was despatched at once to Nar- 
fplnd \ and, after a short but decisive engagement, the fort and town of 
Nargilnd fell into the hands of the Englisb. The tortitications have 
$incc been dismantled, and the fort h^A been rendered untenable by 
deiiroying some of the chief reservoirs. Foar scliuoh, with 3C0 pupils 
in 1385-84. Post-ofiicc. 

Narhl—Agriculiural town in Kor^niidih /^^j//, Ohd^fpur District, 
North.We«em Provinces; situated in !at. 25' 4?' 15" s,, and long, 84' 
4' 15* R>, 3 mtlc« north of the Ganges, and 36 miles east of Ghjlj:ij)ur 
toVD. Population (iSSi) 541S. namely, Hindus 5172, and Muham- 
nudaDS 143. Number of houses 799- '^^^ village is the principal 
residence of the Bemwir DhUmhir clan. 

H4ri— Town in Chandd District. Central Provinces.— ^if Neri. 

NftrUd. — Sub-divuion of Kalra Ulstrici, Bombay Presidency; 
situated in the centre of the DistricL. Bounded on the north by 
Kapadvnnj ; on the eait by TUd.sra and Anittid ; on the; auuch by 
BaradJt lerriiotT ^ and on the wcM by Matir and Mchntad^lbid. Area, 


ai4 square miles. Population (iS;^) 151^8^; (1881) i6i,sd 
namcty, ^£.899 m.ilev and 76.357 females, dwelling in i tovnis andl 
villages, comaininfi ,19,^56 houses. Hindus numbered 143,165; 
Muhammadana, 18,712; and 'othcr^i' 127^1. Of the it>ia1 arcs of 
J24 square miles, seven arc occupk'd by lands of alienated vilbgc*. 
The remainder contains 121,359 **^'^*> ^^ IV^ 1*^ cent., of occu|iie<l 
land; 1675 acres of cultivable waste; 7034 acres of uncvltmbk 
u-oste ; and 71S3 acres of roads, rivers, ponds, and villa^ sites. In 
1 24,034 ucrcn^ the area of occupied Laud and cuUiv:LLIc wa^lc, ihtrc are 
66,791 Acrcd of alienated bndx m <iovc-ra[ncnt villnges, llie Sab- 
division wiis surveyed and settled in 1B65-66. I^hercwcrc then ao,638 
holdings, with an averagt' area of 6 arres, and an ai^ragc rental of 
^1, 151. \\^ The total area of cultivated land in 1876 irjs 4<K056 
acres, mostly under grains {bdjnxy rice> milleis. and wheat); 199 acres 
were under colton. In 1S83, the land revenue was ^^35,144, The 
Sub-division contains i civil and 4 criminal courts; |K>l]ce circle* 
(/blinds), a ; regular police, 100 men ; village watch (chatikMrs), 693, 

KariAd-— Chief town of the Nariad Sulj-division of Kaira DJsirict, 
Bombay Presidency, and a staiioQ on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India RaiU'ay; Mtuated 19 miles south-east of Ahmadlbid. 
LjiL 2^" 40' 45' N., long. 72" 55' 2<r £. Population (1S81) j8rj04, 
namdy, t4i773 ^^l^> ^'^d 13,531 females. Hindvu rtumbercd '34978; 
Muhammadans, 401S; Jains, a 18; VAcs.\^ jjj and Cltrlsiians, 38. 
Nariad is a muuicipality ; income (1SS3-84J, ^^1931; inadrnre of 
Lixation, i^. 2id. per head of |>opulaiioD. Small tau^e coun. sub- 
judge's courtj post-ofHce, and dispensary. The head^iujiricrs of the 
chief revenue and police officers of the Sulxlivision, The town ii 
the centre of the extensive tobacco and ghi imde of Kaira Distria, and 
contains a cotton mill. There is al^a Govern men t model experimental 
fonn. Including the High School, there were in 18S3-84 eiglit 3x:hoo1s 
with 1931 bchijlars, 

NAnkelbftri4 — Village in Jcssor District, Bengal; situated on tHc 
Chitri Tivcr, 6 mdca from Bdgbapdni. One of the scats of llie Jc&sor 
eugflT tnde. 

KarishA. — Town in Dacca Distrirt, Hcngal LaL 23" 33' 45* «., 
long.90' it>' 4$'^. Population {188 j) 6377. namely, males 2898, and 
females 3479, 

Narkher. — Town in Na^pur District, Central Pro%inces ; 52 mile* 
from Nagpur city, on the Betill road. Population (t88i) 7061. 
chicly agricultural. Hrndus numbered 6498; M uhammadans, 457; 
Jaina, 8a ; and aboriginal trilies, 24. NaricheT has a good market- 
place, school, and polite buildings, and ihc river is embanked with 
masour)\ The place ii surrounded by beautiful giove^, but isredtOQcd 






Nannadi. — One of tbc grcui river* of Indb, — Sc€ Nar&apa. 

NuiUUa.— Ilitl foriTc?4 in AktiU 1>i*tuci, BiTilr. La[. ai' 14' 30" 
F-, lorg. 77' 4' jj" ii» Situated 10 idiIcs to the north of Akot. 
KsmiU is the highest point in the Di^tnct. fitairdlng 31 &t f^CC 
nborc sea -level, and formn a sort of atlvanced otitwork, about 1 
miles soutli of tlic main v/a11 of the Giuilj^nrh r.tnge. A centntl 
fort occupies all the nppcr pblc-au of the hill, while Iwo smaller 
fortt f feliAgarh and Jifsrabild) enclose two considerable spurs running 
«ii at opiKQiie atigles on a lower level, and in the direaioo of the 
length of the hill, which is from norih-easi to aouEh-^vest. The ram- 
parts which extend over a distance of several miks, consist geneniU/ 
of a wall from 25 10 40 feet hi{^h, wiih 67 Ibukin^ Eowera. There are 
»ix laf;<c and twenty' cine Mn^ill gutc,^ l-'our t^nly uf the nineteen 
Unki within the walla held water ihrovighoul the year. The fort also 
rortiaing four very eurtuiis stone cistt-rns^ cov-ercd in by a mascinry 
platform |>ien:ed by small apertures. On this platform are the reraaina 
of aichcK. The water in the cisterns is remarkably swEet and cooU 
They are suiJposcd to have been built by the Jains who ruled the 
country- before the Musalman conqiiest, for many J.nJns drink no water 
on which the sun has fallen- The old palace, a mosque called after 
Aurang7cb, an armoury, a iwelve-doored pavilion, a music hall, and 
other buildings, all more or less in rtJins^ occupy the irtenor of the 
central fort- Perhajis the most beautiful architectural (eature is the 
Sluhnilr j^tc on the suuth^ whidi ik of while i^undaion^', with projecting 
b.ikx>nic« on cither side i the open stone lait ice- work, the rich cornice, 
and tracery and pandlirg, with *tone-Cut verses from the Korjln, are 
admirable specimens of Pathin workmanshijx The walls are now 
filling into niin :ind the fort Is uninhabited. 

Narora.— Town in Buland^thabr Di^strict, North-Wc^tem Provinces. 
Lat, ^8' IX' )*,, long* 78* 35' 45" %. 

Harol — Town and municipality in Pathdnkot tahsSf^ Gurda^q^ur 
Disuici, Punjab; stuatcd in the trans-Rdvi tract, in lal- 32' 17' ^o" n., 
and long. 75' 30" E., halfway bL-tueen the Rivf and the hills. Popu- 
lation (tjl^i) 3706, namely, 203^1 Hindus, i&6^ Muliammadans, and 
4 5:kh«. Princiital mart in the fertile submontane bcU known as 
Chnk Andar, and the Itjcal collecting centre for the products of the 
hills below vhich it lic& Exports of rice and turmeric to Amritsar 
(Lfmrtnur) and Lahore, Municipal revenue in 1383-S4, jQa4^% or 
It. 4i'L fwr head of population wtihln municipal limit!*. 

N&row4L — ^Town and munjc:i\iliry in Ktah /(7^r//, St^lkot District, 
Ftjnjab. Kit. 51* 6' s., lona, 74' 55' v.. Distant from Siilkot town ,15 
wiles south-cast formerly hcad-quartcrs of a fahsil, now removed 
Riah> Population (iSSi) 455S, namely, Muhammadans, 3935; 
idus, 1429; Sikhs, 151 ; Jains, 34; and 'others,' 19. Number of 



hcoiKS, 657* Pgsi-officc, GQtfcmmcnt school, police suitoD, mtrnsifs 

court, cinJ rcst-liouac N^owil tovn hoe tccn much impirOT<t<3 ol 

t^te years ^ many of ihc houses ore built of brick^ the principal 

ttreels paved, and the drviin.ige attended to- The Church of Kngbnd 

I Mission have estjibli&hed a small seiilement of Nniive Christians h«TCi 

I and keep up a middle-class school, which rt^ceives a municipal f^^nt <A 

I £$0 a year- The jjrind;jal Irade consists it: the export of agricuUural 

produce, but ihe tonn is chiefly fL-tmoits fcr ^\% leather work; nibre 

Kiddles and shoes of itiipcrior qunlliy |j;;ing made hcrc> and s<nt to 

AmriLsar and other lar^c commercial centres in the Funpb. Good 

copper and brass s-csseU arc also made, and there Arc a few Knshmiii 

sealers in the town, who make />fisAmiua shawl edging, which is sent to 

Amriisar fur lak. Munii;ipal income in 1883-84, jCs°5f °^ ^^ 4*^- 

per head of the town population. 

Nftirakal.— Town in Cochin, M^idras Presidency. — Siv Karakai. 
Narri, — S-iU-minc in KoMt District, Punjab; one of the *crie* 
extending along either bank of the Teri Toi river. Lai. 33* 11' 15' K., 
long- 71' ij' 30" E.; lies on the soulhern side of the raigc of oil- 
bearing hills norih of the river, 31 miles wl'« -south' west of Malj;in 
mine, and 34K miles soutb-south-wcst from KohAt town. The quanic* 
of pure rock-s.ilt extend over an area 2 miles long by half a mile broad. 
The mineral is excavated by blasting, and the mine is rcsoncd to 
by Afrfdis, Khauks, Ban^gashcs, Mohmands, and Sw'dtfs. I'rcvemivc 
e^ublthlutient of 13 men. Formerly a Government military out pu!(t, 
held by a dct^ichmcnt from the Kohit garrison, but now abandoned. 
A\-iiijagQ annual Government salt revenue for the six ytan ending 

Naraajuiapet. "ToiA'n in CanjJm DiMrict, Madras IVe*iflency, 
Population (1 88 1 } 8730, namdy, Hindus 8223, And Muhammadans 7. 

Naraipur.— ZJ/;-^ in Codivari District, Matlra* Presidency. An», 
437 square! miles. Population (18S1} 200,153, namely, 9^*59^ nules 
and I03o6[ females, dwL-lling in 2 lowns and 137 ullages, and occupy* 
^^K 33*7^5 houses, Hindus ntjmbcr 196,040; MuhammadarLS, 3619; 
and Chnstuns, 494. In 1 $&$ the /d/uk contained 1 civil and 3 criniinal 
courts ; police circles {tMruis)^ 6 ; rct^iilar police, 08 incn. Land 
revenue, ^^58,659. 

I'he Wuk lies in the ^outh of the District, and hajs a seaboard on the 
touth. There are 3 ntain canals used for irrigation and navi^iion. 
The Vflsisht, -in afflucnl of the Godivari, runs through the Muk, Pro* 
ducts— rice, pram, yams, betel, cocoa and areca mils, tcbacc(\ and 
sugar-cane. Principal indu&iry, toy-making. 

Nara&pur {NurstipouY-^loyiVi in Goil.'ivari District, Madras J'rew* 
dency; siiuaicd in laL 16' j6' 30' n., and long. Si' 44' 30" l, at the 
mouth of the Va&ishta Goddvari. Popiilation (iSSr) 71S4, namely. 






in(3u5» ^^5^1 Muhainci^ci-imi, 8^9; and CbT^tlans, 94^ Once ^ 
rUhing port, l>ul now nearly cul oiT froni the st-a by the extcniion 

if the Cvodivari cU'tla. NnrtSptJT U th<* hcjtd-qtj.'trrcrs of the! Narxiinjr 
Ai/«>t atKi coamins the couns of a Sub-M,igislratc and DjsiricC munsij^ 

.nd several CovctiwikiH offices. There U a mission csEablishmcnt and 
a fine markcl-pbcc Toy-making and cloth-dj^clng. The Dutch cstab 
lishcd thcmach cs here in i G65, and had an Uoa foundrj'. The English 
occupied the north suburt), MdJ/itxvtipMdyam (whence the tr^de name 
Jfit^a^//tim), in 1O7;, and maintaint^d thdr faciury ihere tor 150 y«ar3> 
There b itlill u good Uoat-building business. Trade (in country bnttoms) 
with liunna, foimcrly of alioul j£io,ooo n ycM, but now Linguiah- 
ing. The flvcmgc .innua] vnluc of the imporis for the five ycAra ending 
iSS3-$4 was ^711; iinJ of ihc e^tports^ j^»^59. In JSS3-84, the 
impons were valued ai jCa^, all from jwrts in India; the exports at 
X6'6> *^f which >C^5 **'^*i from fofciipi ports. 

Naraill^lUL^ Dome-shaped rock m Scorn" Uistrirt, Central Province*, 
ribin^ i&o feci out of ihe Waingangd valley. The temple on the to|i, 
ncrcd to Naisingha, an iticam.^iioti of Vishnu, contains an image of Ehc 
gO(L A village of the «ame naciic lies below the hill. 

Haninghgarh.— Native state uiukr the Hho^jJl .Agency, Central 
India. .\ica, 6;j !i<iLare inilet. Population (i&Si) ir^^s?, namely, 
malen aaj 52,007 females, occupying 17*507 houses, ac:tttcied 
over 1 lonn and 416 litlj^c^. Hindus number 100,952^ Muham- 
mad-tAf, 4958; Jains, 31S; Sikh, i; and abi^^riglnal iriUes, 6198, of 
whom 3104 were Minis, aSaS UhlU, 353 Detwilb, and 14 Moghiita. 
Reventic, ^50,000. Parii^a Kim, the founder of the Nari^inghgarh 
State, succeeded his father Aiab Singh in 1660 a.d. as niinistcr to 
the Kiwal of Kajgarh, In 1681 he compelled the Rawal to divide 
his territory with him, and Narsinghgarh thus became s. se[>3rati^ 
chiefship. The Slate pays ^8500 as tribute to Holkar, under the 
mediation of the Briush (Government. The chief receives a tankfia 
(or pecuniar)' ailo wane e m lieu of n^hts over land) ot Half K^. 1200 
{inf jQtio) fiom Sindhi.t, And anoihtrr of "R.^ 5100 (^ly^^Siv) from 
ihc Sutc of DcwJ^. ThcM: sums arc icceivcd and p^id through 
BrictUi PoliticaL Agent- The chief \s an Urmt Kijput, and holds 
'the title of Riji, which wa* conferred on him and hJit heire by the 
Srili^ Government in 1^72 ; hi; is r?ntiil<rd to a snUite of 1 1 guns. A 
militaij force js mainliincd of ro guns, 14 ariilicryntcn, 98 cavalry,and 
615 infantry, 

N&rsiligbgarL — Chief town of Narsinghgnrh St.itL% Bho|>a1 Agency^ 
Central India. Lai, 23" 43' 30" a., long- 77* i' ^o k. Population 
(iSSi) 11,400; namely, ^207 males and 5193 females. Hindus num- 
ber 10,398} Muhamtnadans, iL86; and 'others/ 116. Narsinghgarh 
R a riaing ground at the edge of a lake^ Above ihe toiivn on a 


boldly scarpcU hill siaiids ihe fort, which waa buElt in i^do bj' Achal 
Sinj^h. The p^ilaccoflhcchiefis in ihc fort- Posl-officc, diipcmair, 
and hof(p[inl 

NarsjnfftigarlL — Ancient \owx\ in Damoh District, Central Pro- 
fincts ; liruated hi I.Tf. ^3' 59' v., and long. 79' ?6' e., i? mi!*H north' 
west of Uimoh town by the river Sunir, and on the route from Sigar 
Mo Rewi, The Muhammadan^, who buih the fort and mosque, called 
it Nasnttgnih, and the M^iith^ gave the i)rc&ent name. The latter 
erected a second fort, which the British troops partially des<ro>-cd m 
i^^T^ PolJLC statior. 

Narainghpur.— -i>istncc in the Chief Commmionership or the 
CVnirjl Provinces lying between 22* 45' and 23* 15" N, laL, and 
IjL'twccn 7S" 3^" and 79* 3S' £. long- Itoiinded on the north by the 
Stnic of Bhop^EI, whh S^gnr (Saugor), Damoh, and Jabalpur (Jtibbnl- 
;jw>rc) Dutricl^; on the east by Seon/i on the south by CHhindwilri ; 
and on ihe wtit by the mtsz Diidhi, which separate* it from the D'siHct 
of Ho&hanj^bdd. Area, 1916 square mJle^. Po|]utation in iftSi, 
3^Si>7.l> Ihc ttdminUtrative head-quaitcra are at ihc town of NAit- 

PApua/ Aifff/.—Thc District of N"ar»inghpar forms the nppcrhalf 
of the Narbadd (Nerbudda) valley |jToi>er. The fit^t of those wide 
alluvial basins which, alternating with rocky gorgeK, give u> varied a 
character to the river's course, opens out just below the famous Marbk 
Rucki at Bhcrighii, 15 milcf east ufthc Dbtrkt bounOaiy, aniJ cMeitdb 
wcstn-ard for J15 mile*, including the whole of Nnr*ingh|)ur together 
with the greater pnrt of Hoshfingibild. Prohabty ihcfc bn^ins frcre 
originally lakes. itTore or les^ intimately conntfcted and fed by a slovly 
flowing nvtT, down which cl.iyey sediment was rnrxied, and gradually 
and unirormly distributed over a corrsiderablc cJcpansc of cottnlr>". On 
the conglomerate and clay thus deposited, lie jo feet of the rich 
alluvium known as the rt^arox black coicon-soll of Central India. 

As originally constituted, Narsinghpurvcas confined 10 that part of die 
valley which is defined by three rivers— the Narbadd on the north, the 
Sdoner en the cast, and the Di^dhl on the west; t^^hile the ^tpura 
hctghis ^hut it in on the south. Btii since its furTnutioa, l)ie District 
ha& bcL-i] ciiUrged hy the .tddtLii>n of two iMjbtcd tracts across the 
Narbadi. Of thc^^ the casternaio&i is an inngnific^ns patch of hill ai>d 
ravine; that to the «'e^ is d sntall but fertile valley, cndosed by th« U 
river in a crescent'sha|>ed hend of the Vmdhyan tntjgc To speak of 
the Vintlhyis, however, as a range of hills, is incorrect. Seen from the 
south, ihcy present an almost uninterrupted scries of headl.inds with 
projecting promontories and receding ba)'^, like a weather-beaten coast- 
line ; but these form the abrupt termination of a table-land stretching 
a^ay to the norlh in gentle undulations, and not an independent range 




of hitlsL They afTonl a fine exaEn]>k of clifTf, once formed by the 
dcmiding Aciion cf j^horc-^^i^kvcn, bul now far iiiEAiid. Rijiplc-maiking, 
olmorit totally absent in the other aondstonc p^ups of Ccnual Tntiifi, la 
found iilmoAt everywhere ihroughout the Vincihy:tn ttriet in exlr^i- 
ordinary perfection. Twice in NaD-inghimr ihc Vindhyan headlands 
t^nnt on ihe river bed, ard (wire oiK-n out into the hnylikc curve* which 
conaiiiiite the trans N.irbada portions of the DisiricL 

The fftcc of the Sritpura range overlooking the valley from ihc south 
is gcneraUy regular, rising nowhere mote than 500 feet above the plain. 
The hills run in a line almost itiralkl to the Karbadi, at a diBtancc 
from it of 15 or 30 niiie* j and the intervening space lorms the greater 
pan of the Dlsuict. Aiong the valley, ihc rich level i^ seldom broken, 
except bj occasional mounJ^ of gravel or kankar (nodulat linicntunc), 
which offer acTviccablc village aites. Any inc<|ua1itic3 of surfofC Are 
generally lumeJ to account for the construction of tanks and ret^rvoirK, 
often adumird by the gnccful domed temple^ which lake the place of 
the needle-shaivd spires common in the Hindu shrines of IIp|>tr India. 
Nearly every villa^^ is embellished by its deep mango groves, and old 
///M/ and tamarind trees i and indeed the commonest t-illage natnis 
are tboAe derived fnjm trees, Tliua such names as Piparii (thc/z/r?/ 
vilbgc), Imalii (the tamarind village), and Umarid (the ^*ild fig village) 
abound throughout the Uisinct. After The rains, the black soil softens 
into a siilT bog; but m the winter months^ the valley presents the 
appearance of ;l broad Mrip of bml, wulk-d in on eithci aide by low bill 
ranges, and green from end lo end with young wheal. 

A» soon a« the limits of the black soil are passed, the country changtu. 
Delow cither range of hilU, but more esj>ecially on the S4tp»rfl uide, 
arc broad belt* of red ^jravelly soil, which mtnge thiough woody borders 
imoUie lower s]o[>c» of the hi};hUmds. In these tmcts, the Mhcat of 
the valle)' gives way lo ticc, sugar-cane, and the poorer rain-crops; 
the vitlaigc roofs arc of thatch instead of iile ; forest trees lake the 
place of mango grove*, and reservoirs are replaced by mountain 
atrcam*- Hut though less productive, the country has become more 
piauresque, with its river gorges, and its open sladcs, covered with 
short swaid, and dolled whh old uHxhuii tree*. 

TIjc hill cuu:itTy of ttic Uisititt is inwgnifitunl in extent, being tieady 
coofiDcd to the smaller of the iructt; north of ihc Narbadri, Nor are the 
forests of import^mce. Probably no IJistrict in the Centrfll Provmces 
is sodevoid of extensive nMstes and such as exist sre too ncce^Mhlc for 
jungle produce to be abundant, Narsinghpur presents ft^w attractions 
to the sportsman. The junftles are ill stocked with large game, and 
remarkable for the scarcity of their birds. 

The Narhadi i* fed almoM entirely from the south. lis pnncijini 
alflucDU arc the Sher and the Shakar, the latter of which t^^as once 

knoum by the nrmic of Saarct pig, tijl a Muhamniadan of rank look 
jjjiy on the Kiroam, :in<1, cii^plying imo lE a cnri'toad of 4UgAr, gained 
/or it a more Iionoiuable a|>j>e]laiion. The fail from ca^t to west h io 
i^radual tZut, except whtrn in flocKl, the NurLiacId erects slowly alODK 
its nuirow bctl of bnxalti with ]ircd|iUou« banks on each sid<- ; but 
ihc Sher and Sh.iknr ;irc mounUin torrents throughout. ^Vilh their 
tributaries, ihc Micha-Rcni atid ChitdRcwa, they rifie in the SAtpunu, 
ami \Kiur through rocky channels, fringed on cither hand with a k'Hc^ 
orravlnea Here and therf, however, their teds oi*cii om into Hoall 
oaseii of rich aliuvi^l deposit, which are cultivated like gaidens with the 
liner kinds of sugar-cane and vcf^ct.d>lcs. The Sonar rcacmblca lhc»c 
ctrvams; but the Diidhi and ll^ini-Rcntl flow cdonQ sandy ehar^nck, 
ntihrcd only for ^n occasional melon bed- All these rivers, including 
the Narbiidn iiscif, rise with exTr^iordinar^ rapidity in tinnc of flood; 
and even th« tiulc Sinj^hri has mere than once inundated the town of 
Kandelj, and c;iuf{cd stcriouit loss uf life and pro^ierty. 

J/isti>r}\ — The hiatory of Narsingiipur is ihc history of an outlying 
nistriel- The great Sangriin ^;ih, the forty-eighth Raji of the Oathi- 
Mandid line (-fcy Mandla), extended his dominion over Nanin^chpur 
and the surrounding country, and buitt (he forircss of Chaiirag^i^. 
Situated on ihc cre^i of the outer range of the Sdtpura uble-^and, 
embracing within iu circle two hilla, and supplied b) nurtierous tanks 
and wcUtt, t1u9 stronghold is Wa a furt thun a huge fortified <:ainp; 
and it ha« been the theatre of luo^t of ihc historic Kccnet enacted ad 

After the defeat and heroic death of Queen Durgdvatl in 1564, 
Asaf Khdn slonned Chauri^rh, and aeixed the enormuus booty of 100 
jOTiofguld coin and looo elejihants. Probably (his expedition iii^ 
opened out ihe valtcy to the foreign immigralJ^Ti which has reclaimed 
it from barbarism. In 1593, when the liundela invasion under Jujlhir 
Sin^h look place, Prem Nilriyan sustained a siege of some months in 
Chaurigarh ; nnd it was not till he had been treacherously as»wtssinatcd 
that ihc ffjitJC^J) fell. At Chauii^Arh, jdbo, Naihai S<i, the l\^i of the 
Cf-iriiJ MandU bnc, took refuge when pressed by Mor^jE, the Mui^thd 
Governor of Sigar (S^AUgor). The G^jnd prinee was betrayed, and ended 
his days in TrnprisonmL-nl at Kurii, while hit dfiminions fell into the 
hand^ of his conquerors in 1781. I'hcir admtni.^tr.uion laMcd Cor 
seveni4jcn yearN and is only remarkable as havinji caused a considerable 
influK of Hindu Smmisrants from the north, The Sigar Governors 
were in their turn expelled by the powerful Bhonsb KAjis. Before 
occupying NarsJn^hpur, Lbe Ndj^pur army overran Hc<shang^bdd ; and 
thai IJisirici, left utterly tlcltncdessj wa* periodically plundered by 
the Pind.-Erisand the Nawdb of Bho[)dl until idoi. The diitreu thus 
occasioned resulted, in iSoj and 1804, in actual fai:iine, a:id forced ^ 



number of people inlo ihc luorc secure anil prosperous District of Nat- 
vin^pur. In the >-cara 1807 to jSio, similar acccaiions were received 
from Bhopdl, which had been ravaged ly AniiV KMn And his PInddHs. 

Thui recruiied, Nar^mghpiir nlL-vincil a ricgrcc of prosjicriry whi<:h it 
had never known Won*, Unformnalcly, this happy period proved 
iMniienL In 1807, N;irsin^hpur and Hoshangdb^d Districis were 
nadc over to Nawdb Sddit AU KMn. for tiic partial support of the 
frontier force. Soon afterwards i*>'^ remiiUnKt* proniisc<i him from 
Nigpur began to fail; while the camjiaigiiit he wa^cd again^ Atnfr 
Khin involved him in fi^nhcr fin;tnciat difliculiics, which gave rise 10 
Increased taxation, itpccdtly followed by all kii;d« of irregular extortion. 
AMien main force failed, /rffr/j or village bead-men were lenijncd by 
titles and drcA»c« ef honuui to bid a^^inst e^ch oibcr; while, to meet 
ih« cAie of merchants and others unconnected with bnU* courts of 
Justice were created, whose whole staff consisted of a guard of toldieTs 
and a few ready witnc*sr.<t The only crimr of whirh thty took 
cogniunce H-as adaltcry, and ihcy threw on the wealthy defendant the 
burden of establishing hii innocence. 

British mle in Nariingh]iur dntes from 181S, In November of the 
preceding year, on the fir>t intelligence of the treachery of Aj>d &lhib, 
Brigadier- General Hardymnn wa:> directed by Lord llaMingH to advance 
his ftwce from the frontier of Kcwd in the direction of N.igpur. On 
hearing of the success at Sicdbalclt on the i6i!i December, he resolved 
10 iJike up a position near (iddarwjri, to ml off ihc fiigiiivch fioni 
N^^ur. Reinfoicemcnt* were aoiordingly nent to a detachment 
already itaticned a: {^dtkrwir.l unOer Lieu tenant -Colonel Macmorine, 
who was tho* enabled to attirk and defeat the Srinagar garrison, 
consisting of jooo fool and 4000 horse. Chaur^^garh, however, still 
held out, and was only evacuated on the approach of the left division 
of the army under Brigadler-Gcneral Watson, The country was then 
in an exhausted condition ; and the recent disorders had nearly ruined 
aJI except iIjc predatory castes. Of the three pnncip^il J'ind.iri leaders 
of the ■ ^indhi^ Shihi/ two^Chitd, a chief who led 5000 horsemen, 
and Knrfm Khin, who commaniled more than 1000 — formerly held 
pos&c^ions in tlie District. Even in (!a[>taiii Skcuian's time a gang 
of Tliag* OT profcsiitjna! «irjngkt> lived within 400 ya^da nf bis couit- 
hotue ; and the grovc^of Mandei^r, 12 milci from Narranghpur, forroed 

leof the great<»t iftU or pUcce of slaughter in India. I'hcsc factsj how- 
evcv^ oalycameio light in 1831. In dealing witH the Discrict, Slccman 
was strengthened by the wise liberality of Mr. Mobny, the chief civil 
authority of the Province ; and each i^uccassive settlement of the land 
revenue lightened the hurdenK of ihe agricultural cla!<«, till in 1835 they 
were in a portion to nrap the full benefits of the lirit long teioi scltk- 
mentf irhich vos made on terms of great bherality, Sccuie at once 


from foreign mids and domestic cxnction^, the people Iiavc i^oft-n nch ; 
and the wcfiCcm pnrr of the DUiriei, thoiig[h ihc? most recently dei'clo|icd, 
mnjr hear com[iarison uiih most similar irarU m Indin. 

Pofuldthit. — A rough enumeraiion in iS66 returned the popubiion 
of Nonini^Iipur at 3^6,796 persons. Tl:e mere c^ireful Census of 1871 
disclosed 339*395- '''^ ^*** enumeration in 1S81 Teiurned ihe total 
population of Narsirghptir District ai 365,173, showing an increuG 
since tSya of 25.77S, or of ;"6 per cent in nine years. The Kcneml 
results arrived ai by the Census of iSSi may be briefly sumraarwcd as 
fulbws: — Area of District, 191C square inile^, inith 2 towns and 9S5 
vilh);es and 791765 l]i>u^cs. Total pcipubiioni 365.173, namely, 
males 186,635, ^^ 5^'' I'^f renc, And female* w'^iS,**, or 4S"9 \rct 
cem. Average dcn&ity of population, 190*6 persons per squ.irc mitei 
vilUges per square mife, '53; persons per village, 370; hO(H«« per 
square mile, ^i'6\ persons per house, 4 '6, Nanunghi^Lir ist ai oncc 
ihe smallest and the most densely populated District in the Cential 
Provinces. Classified according to sex and 0^. there were in 1881— 
under 15 years of a^c. males 74,2x4, and females 67,807 ; total children, 
147,031, or 38'9 per cent, of the population; 15 years and upwar<ls 
males 112,411, and feinales 110,731] total adults, fi3,i4>, or ^t'l 
per ccnL 

Cla:^ilied according to religion, the Hindu* in i8St numbered 
305,137, or S3'6 per ccm.of the population ; Muhainmadann, 13.425,01 
37 per cent; Kabfrpanthis 411 \ Salndml», 14 ; Jaina,f 170- Pir«!«,3 ; 
Christians, T03; and non-Hindu aboriginal tribes, 4Jt9><>i O' '* !<' 
cent, of the IJistrict poptjUtion. The loinl alx>riginal population by 
race ts reiumerl at 63,731, of whom 46,645 were Gonds and 15,903 
ICawara. Among the Hinilu*( in iSSi, Hr^mans njmbeted 16,696. 
and Kijpttti^ >5>6o3 ; the tna^is of the Hintiu |>^ptilatlon consisting of 
the following castes: — Lodhf, 33*197; I^her or Mahar, iS^sifts 
Chimdr, 17,9^8; Dhrmar, 14,408; Kachhi, ^.152; Ahfr, 12.355; 
Kirar, i i,S66 ; N4i, 8043; 'J*-'^^t 7735; Baniyd, 7467; Kurmf, 7181; 
Barhdi, 5^79; Sondr, 5311; and Dhobf. 5046. Of the Chri«ian 
population, 50 ore Europeans, 9 Euiaslans or Tndo-Ponuguese, 31 
NaLivts, auiH 13 unspecified 

Owin^ to their isolation, the residents of the valley have AAiiumed in 
dress and ajipearaace a distinct type from that of the picturesque raew 
of Upper Indi-1. Though generally well grown, few are eonipicuon« 
for sLiture or physical appearance ; nor does their cofituine i>ecoine 
ihefn. Among mt-n, the lavounie colour of the an^arkhii or long coat 
\% yellow, wjth a gr^'cn shade from the mahud dye- The sleeves arc 
Eumed back on the wrists, and the waist<loth is worn on or below tSe 
hips> This, with a white turban, constitutes the usual dress of a 
prosperous peasant. The chiefs affect the Mardchi turban, tted so 



much on one ride as tilmoa lo cover one e>-e, or, what appears lo be 
the Cond fashion, a turtun comjKised of innum^ahle folH$ of ctoth 
twisted Uke a rope. Their dress seldom matches ihcir prcteni^ionft, 
and some cf the oldest Rijift and ThHkurs might be taken for poor 
)iea%ant«. Il is true that titles of honour are so common a^ to hare 
in«t much of their significance- There is in NArsingh])ur neither the 
strianess of ritual nor the social rigidity which pre^-ail in )[indusidn 
Proper. Among Brdhmans, ihe Kanaujids stJIl mainisLn their tradi- 
tions; but the Sanorids, who lake a hi^h rank in Upi«:r India, in 
Narsiaghpur are very \nx, forming conncctiona with women of other 
co^ie*, and negleeting ttie nccctics cf Hindu rituaU 

T^wn ami j^w/^j/ P»*/tf/*7//W— There were, in iS8i, only s towns in 
Naninghpur TJiitrietwiih n [»epuIation exreeding 5doo.<— Mark ik<;i< pur, 
the Difttricc capital (tJOpulatJon, \o^222\ and GArjAicwA»A (8100). 
Besides the above, three other towns have been created municipalities, 
namely, KAURiA<pojmbtion, j295),Tf-ndu'KHOa (2977), and Chkind- 
WAKA (3519). Thci^e five towns disclose a total urban population of 
18,113. ^^ Vl P^ ^cm. of the District population. Total raunicipal 
income (iS&a-^j), ^a^77. of which £zaS^ was derived from direct 
taxation, mainly octroi duties; average incidence of taKatiun, is, 8jd- 
pcr head of \h*t town popuUtiun. Of the 982 minor villages, 461 
cofttAin IcM than two hundred inhabitann ; 37$ from two lo five 
hundred ; 137 from five hundred to a thousand ; 44 from one thousand 
lo two thousand ; 10 from two to ihrco thousand ; and \ from thf«e to 
five thotifianrL The male population i^ thuK dividnl nrcording to 
occupntion^t) Professional clats, including civil and mihtary, 3913; 
(s) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 2991 ; (3) 
commeTcial class, including bankers, merclunts traders^ nnd earners^ 
3039 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 68,702 ; 
(5) induf^rijl and manufacturing class, 34,054 ; (6) indellnite and non* 
[productive, com|jrising general labourers, male children, and persons 
of no specified occupation, 731937- 

Agm*^iart.—0\xi of the total area of 191C square miles, yy^ vjunrc 
miles arc cultivated, and of the portion lying waste, 230 (n^ojire mifcs 
are ntumed » cultivable^ and £9= «cpuirc miles ai unculrvable 
watte; 4^55 acre* are irrigated, entirely by private enterprise- Wheal 
forms the iiaplc ciop of the District, occupying (\f\ iStli) 269,674 
acres; ao..i75 acres were devoted to rice, and 279,947 to other 
food-grains, while su^r-cane was grown on 2059 acrciii oilj<eals 
on 20,550 acres, and collon 01 J7o03 acre*. Most of the cotton 
is produeed, not on the so-called black coitonsoil. but on ihc light 
undulating lands near the banks of rtvcrs and tuUds. The out-ttjrn of 
wheat from average land is aEx>t]t 420 Ibt. per acre ; of rice, 400 lbs. ; 
of inferior grain, 455 lbs. \ of sugAr (g^r)^ 560 lbs. ; of cleaned cotton. 


E99 J^AHSmGH^C/H- 

60 ll)». Rotntiort of crops is not practiiecl ; liul when the sotl showi" 
sifn^s of ohaustion, ^ram or 5om<- oihcr pulse is substituicd fox whe«t 
for two or three ycflrs. Cullivalors dare not leave their lands fallow, 
even for a single year ; for the ground would be tmmcdialcly occupied 
by rank iitUs gr^s:^, which no exertions on cndicaic til] ii has run u^ 
course of about ten yean* Irrigation ;ind ai&nure arc U5c<l only for 
sugar-cane and v«getablea, 

Of ific ii>iix\ adult a^rkultuiul jiopuUtion in i85i (1 I5r530r or 3>'64 

-per ccnL of ihc Disuict popubtinn), 2455 ^crc returned oa landed 
propHcic>r«, i ),o6< ^is pos^ct^Ring jights of orcupAncy, 1O1759 sg tctuntfi- 
at-will, 43,^^57 as assii^lflms tn home I'oltivation, 59,716 a* Agnnultufsl 
labourers, while the rennaindcr is made up of gruiers, tenants of un- 
specified Ktatu^ tfKUte agents, etc. Area of cultivated and cultivable 
larid nv:;iLib1c for i^ncb adtilt aj£ricu1turi!(T, 7 nereis Of ihe to4:il area of 
the DlxtricI, 1916 square mile^, only 170^ squnrc milt^ Are axt<::i$cd for 
GovtTnmcnt revenue. Of these, $79 square miles arc cultmtcd, 193 
square miles an: citltivabic, and 5^6 square miles are unculuvable 
waste. Total amount of Government land revenue assessment, ioclud- 
iTig loc^ rates and ccsst^s, ^£44,716, or an uvcm^^e of is. ^Jd- per 
culii\'atcd ncr?. Tot^) rental paid by the cultiv^tons ^95,894, or an 
avenge of 3s, o|d. per cultivated acre. The rent mtcn per ncrc for the 
difTercnl qTialiiic^ f>r l.ind arc rctnrncd as follows; — I-ind suited for 
wheat, ss. 6d. ; for rice, 4s. 3d. ; for inferior grain, is. ;Jd. ; for su^r< 
cane, 53. 6d. ; for cotton, 3s. 6d, ; for oilseeds. 4s. 4d. The ordiaaty 

► price* of produce per cwt, in 1881 were as follows ;-^ Wheat, 51, 3d. : 
rice, 8s. lod, ; and cotton. 38s, ad. The wages jicr diem of a skilled 
labourer avernge about 9d. ; of an unskilled labourer, 4^d, lo 56. a day. 
Cornwene ^W Trade. — Narsinghpur nnt! (Jidarwird are the only 
[lading towns of the District. A considenible tralfic, however, chiedy 
in English cloth, lii^ urnnmcnis^ nnd cojii^cr uicntib, t^iktrs place at an 
extensive f.iir, which i* hdd yc^dy in November and DLCcmbcr on the 
sands of the NArb^d.'t at Chiit, 14 miles from Narvinghpur. 
Hitherto, the only export of fomequence hai been cotton. 'ITie manti- 
factures consist of hra** -infl bdl-metal vesHelt at rhichli; a Icind of 
atani(Jed ctjtton fabric at Gadanvard ; and tasar silk -intl laddle^loths 
at Naisinghpnr, The mineral resources of ihc District give Ksc 10 
an important industry' among the Gond inhabttarts. At Mohpini, 11 
miles froni the (Idtlarwdri railway station, excavations for coal have 
been m:ide with succc^ in the gori;^ by wliich the Chiti-Ken-i leaves 
the Hitpura table- la nil, The tnctl^od of finbtcrmncan work pursued 
is ihnt Icnowr bj' the name of ' pilbr and siflll;' and the produce 
\^ a sUuitg non-toking coni, f.iirJ| cITcctivc a.s a ^Icarn fucL A aniaU 
vein In Sihor^ Gli^t, on ihc Sher riv«-, aho supplier coal, n;;id to be 
hard and jetty, and free from pyrites of iron. The naost viluiblc iron- 





pits are on xhe north of ihf> Karb^d^ at Tcndiilthcn. and produre ore 
of excellent citialtty. From the c.vclusK-^ employment of ch:irco&l In 
sn^cUin^, the town i^ free fracn smoke, and only the ceaseless dink of 
hammers dbtmguishes it from the agiiatltural vitiates of the TuUey. 
All these mines arc leased by the Nnrbj*cJ.i Co*iI ;ind Iron Corrpany. 

Besides the high-road ffoui Jabalpur towards Bombay, which runs 
through ihc District from cait to west, itic chief lines of communica- 
tion are ihc route northwards across the Narbadd and through aii 
opening in iht: hills tuw^irdn Si^ai ; the ro-id suutliwarda by Srinag^ir 
lomrdi Sconi ; and the rcxid by H^iraf lo Chhindwird. None of thcnc 
roads ha; yet been metalled, and they nre onty j)£inial]y bridged, so that 
they become imi^mr livable during tHc rainy sj^asno, The Creat Indian 
I'eninftula Railway ijaasea through the District from cast to west for a 
toUl length of 70 miles, with stations at Chhindwdri. Korakliel, Nar- 
singhpiir. Kareli, Sihora, M;»ndeKir, and GdtlarwArd. During the rains, 
the Narbadi, Diidbf Shakai, and Sher afford mcnns of transit by water 
for au miles 

Adntinistratwn, — In i56r, Narsrnghpur was formed into a separate 
i>iiirict of the British Government of the Central Provinces. It b 
admtDJKtered hy a Deputy Commiviioncrf with A^'^^tjstanl^ iind iaftsUddn. 
Total revenue in 1876-77^ £t%^'$^A* "f which ihe land-tax yielded 
^4»,>65, Total ooflt of I>i*erici o^erak .ind police of all kinds^, 
^13,^6?. In 1SS3-B4, the total rei/cnue of Narsinghptir was^67. 181, 
of which ilie land-Mx contributed ^4*.305, Total cost of Di^irirt 
of!ici.nU and police, jtiJ.t56. Number of civil and revcnuir judge* 
tif all ttcn* within the Di*trict (tSSj), 7 ; magistrates, 17. Maximum 
di^itce from ai^y village to the nearest cotirt, 32 miles ; average 
distance, 10 milci. Number of re^lar police, Dittrict nnri town, 360, 
costing £a^II% being r policeman to about every 5 square miles 
ani to cTcty lojj inhabitants. There was also in 1SS3 a rural police 
force or viUagc watch of 1127 <haui:iddri. The daily average number 
of convicts in jail in 18S3 wat 86, of whom 6 were females The 
tola] cost of the jail wa* ^508, The number of Covernmtnt or aided 
adiooU in ihc District under Government inipectW in \%%^ wnn 8S, 
attended by 454a pupils. 

M<di£At Asftfts. — In 1S76, ihc average temperature in the shade was 
returned from obtenation^ taken at the civil station of Nanin)<h|>ur as 
fotlotn : — May, highiMl reading 1 1 1' R, lowest 95" ; July, highest 86', 
lowest 74'; December, highest 78", lowe*t 5^'- The average annual 
rainfall for a period of 15 years ending 1881 amounted to 4684 inches. 
In 1S83 Ihc rainfall was 65"SS inches, or 1904 mches above the 
average- The prevailing di«:ascs of the District are malarious fcvera 
and bumel complaints ; but cholcr.i and «mall-])c\ occasionally prove 
fatal to Urge number*. In 1S83, three cliarltabic dispensaries a^ordcd 



nedictil relief lo 1 7,4 16 h-door and out-door pitienis. Viu! stMiitii 
showed in the «amc yc^r a death-rate of 3S'95 per thousand, the mean 
of the preceding five years being 37'76 per thouund [For further 
infomuiion regarding Nareinghpur, sec the Ctntrai Frex^n^i Gauttctr^ 
by Mr, (now Sir Charles) (iranr, pi>, 3S4"3iO (Nigpur, 1S70); ihe 
Ctmm K<pori ef ift4 dutrai Pnnincts for 1S81 ; ami ihe scvtnl 
annuAl AdmlnL»imiiijii and ]>cpArtmcQUl Rcpons of the CcDtnl ?r^ 
vinccs CovcrDmcnt.] 

Harsin^bpor. — Tbe «aatern iAhsU or Sulvdivrtion of Nming1i|»ir 
Pi^lrirl, Ct'nlT;it Provinc't't. Arei, 104? *qiinrc niilet, with I tnwn 
ami 53S vill.igc^ ami 4'. 9=2 houses, ?opu1ncion (iSji) C4S,5&o; 
(iSSt) ]7S«3 -id, namely, ni;ilc5 89,34^, and femalct 85,993; increase 
of population since 1S73, ^6^56, or tSo per rent, in nine years. 
Average density of population, i63"3 persons per square mile The 
total adult ^griculiitTal population [m:)le and female) in iS3i nombered 
48,4041 or 376 per cent of the whole Sub-Divisional population ; the 
average area of available cultivated and cultivable lan<l being 8 acres 
l^r utluU agncuUurist Of tlic toul area of the fd^i7(io42 ^nare 
mUe»), 135 itquarc miles arc held revenue free ; vrhilc 907 square miles 
are assessed for Government revenue, of lA-hich 483 vquore vnilc< arc 
returned an nnder ruUivaiion, and 1)5 fiqnnre mileiK as available for 
riilclvation, the reroainder being uncuttivable uaste. Total amouci of 
Govomment bnd revenue, including local iatc» and cc&^a levied on the 
land, ^33,763, or :^n average of is. 4^d. per cultivated acre: Amount 
ofrent, including cesses, i>aid by the cultivatont, ^4iS,5t4, or an average 
of 3&. ii|d. per cuiti^'uierl acre. Narsinghpur Sut>-diviMon contained 
in 1883, 5 civil and 10 criminal courts (fnrluding the Di«tnct head- 
i|uancr courts), with 4 police circles \tMms\ and 10 outpost futioRS 
^hamkii)^ a ii;^u]ar police force nuinbcriiJg 12 r men, aod 649 vilhige 

Harsinghpur (with /Conduit). — Chief town of Nareinghpur Dbtrict, 
Central Provinces; situated in l-nl. 27'^ 56' 35' N-, and long. 71)' t^' 
45" E,, on the river Singrf, which has been dammed tip lo supply ihe 
town tt-iili Hater. TTie town was formerly called Gidarii-khcri, or. 
under the Mardthd&, when it became the hcad-quartcrs of their force 
in the Narbad^ (Ncrbudda) valley, Clihoti Gddaruirl It look its 
present name after the erection of a large temple 10 KaiMnha, one 
of Ihe incarnations of Vishnu. \x is an important entrepot for the 
grain and cotton trade of the KarbatU valley. Population (1873) 
L3,iii ^ (iS3i) 10.23I, namely, mates 51341 and females 5088. 
Hindus number 781 f>j >tuhanim^dans, 1846; KAbfr|]aAthiS, 54; jain^ 
316J Christians^ 69; Pirsfs, 3; nnd aboriginal tribct, 13S. Muni- 
cipal rcvctiue (iS3»-S3), ^^967, of which ^815 was di.-rived &om 
tojcaiion (octroi dutiesj; average incidence of taxation, is. 7jd. per 


head of town population. The chief Government bulMings arc ihc 

courts and ofTicci of the Dc|juty ComniUiiontT and the poUtc hupcr- 

.intcnddiE. The town has stXr^ a jni), a dUpciu.-irj, a ira%'cllcra' 

BgiOow, and it HAtivc irrtvdlers^ rc«l-house \ besides n post oBicCf wtU* 

^ Titt^fudeJ DiitTicl ioliooT, !*'o private «rhrtols, and a police school 

NarsiniT^P'^-^^^'^^'*^ ^'^^^ '^^ Oris?»a. BentaU lying becvecD jo' J4' 

and 20* 37' N. lilt,, and between S5' and 85' 16' 15' K. long. Bounded 

. the north by a raige of forestchd moantnint, which sejianiie it from 

ogul and Hindol ; on the w*t by DanimUi ; on the south and nouih- 

Tteal by the M:ih4nadi river; and on ihc west by Angvil Area, 199 

square mitc^ with t(>t villages, and a total poimLiiion (iSSi) or32,5ti3 

S011I9, nuncly, malc« 16,378, and fctnales 16.^05. Hindus number 

57,47;;, and Muhanmiadans 110. There U a sprinklmg of aboriginal 

Kandha and Taa!ii^ in ibc Sutt:, but tticir numbcrts arc included in the 

gCfwrnl Hindu |]Opulrttion, and they arc not shown icp.iratcly. Thu 

^janncjjttl *cat of local commerce is Kanpiir, with hi-wcckfy markeU, 

^Hnd trod^ in gr^n, coiton, oil-«ccd«, and nugar-can^. The State was 

^■bunded about ^00 y&ars ago by a R^jpul, who «W ihc former chief. 

^■tyicld« a yeoily revenue of ^1600, and luys a inEmce of jQ^AS to 

the Briiiih Go%-emmenL The State coniriins several srhools; the 

^^Uji's militb ccn&iAi of a force of jS^ men, and ihe police is 196 


NftninSfapnr. — I'rjncipnl village of Narsinghpur SUtc, Onssa, 
^^^ngal»aad the residence of ihc R.lj.l l-at, jo* 2^' Nh, long, 85' 7 

^H Narsipur. — T%Uf^k in Hasuin Diflirici, Myson: State. Arca^ 476 

^^^uaic mikft, of which 37 art; cuUivzited. I'opuEalion (iS7r) 4^.345 ? 

(i8iti) 3^,117, namely, 15,51s mnlpS and ii^>599 rrmalfs. Hinc^iic 

number 3I,j68; Muhammadans, 84^; and Christians. 7, Land 

lev-cmie (t&Si-Sa). ciclusi^-e of water nites. ^5380. or 4H. $i. per 

^Koliivatcd acre* Expenditure on internal tiUuk administration for 

^RsSi-^i, JC^(>S' ^^'iiicred by the Hemavati. ami b\' the irrig^iiion 

cbanneh drawn off from thai river. In 1883 the ttiiuk contained 3 

^^limtiul courts; police circles {thdnifs), 7; re^jiilar |x>licc» 6r men; 

^Millase wutch [ehauMddrs), 453. Total revenue, £iA,-i^y 

^M N&nipiir (l^nown as //<*/<' iVlrrtf-7:*if'-. to diiilinj^uish it from Timma' 

^^kidatu Naraipur),— TowD id lla»an District, Mysore Sutc; wiu^Hjd ill 

Ut. 11* 47' ST., and long- 76' 16' 40* tt., on the right bank of the 

Hcmat'ati river, 7t milc^ sonthcatc f>f H^K^^n lown ; head- quarters of 

the Karsipur/if/A>. Popril.iiion (jilSi) 4647. Tlie fortwaslniDt ir» ti6S 

by a local chief called Nansinha Niyak. And annexed to Mysore in 

iii67. It is the rewdence of ihe a'^'"' ^i the Madhnva UrihnmnB of the 

UttATtlji branch. Flourishing manufactures of cotton cloth and gunny 


VOt. X V 



ibftni , 

Hftnlpur (known as Tiruma-t^dafu). — Tdtuk or Sub-dlvi^ion cf 
Mysore Diatijclj Myacrc $UUc^ Arc^ 377 a<|uare miles, of wbicb 157 
juc cultivated. Population (iSji) S*,3tij {18S1) 67^57*, lumcly, 
33,356 male* and 34,^16 females. Hindus number 65^190; Mo- 
1iaminarl-in!(, jtSo; and Christians, J. Tlie t^iluk U extensively 
irrijpitcd by channels drawn ofF from the be<i of iht Kdveri (Cauwr)) 
Tivcf by anicuts or dfiititi. It was formerly known under the name 
of Tnlkad. In 1S33 the tdJuk contained i civil and 2 cnminal 
courts; police drclts (t/4^ndi)^ 7; tegular police, 67 m^; village vitch 
{{^aMJdn), J78, Revenue, ^16,079, 

Narsipar (known as nmmai^udtUtt^ or ' The mosl holy UnioOj' la 
diuinj^uUli ii from Hole Naksipur). — Village in Mysore Dlsuict, 
Mynu£c Sibttc; situated in tuL 12* 12' 40' ^-^ itnd Ivng^ 76*57'ii'£^ 
iS niik» xauth>ca»t of Mysore ciry, at the confluence of the KAbbofii 
river with ihe K^Sveri (C^ui'ery), Papulation (tS^i) 1419. Sme« i 
tiefld-qiuriers of ihe Tdlcad /i/v/\ now knouTi a^ NArsipur tdhik. 
s:icredspot, containing two ancient tetnpleit. One dedicated toVi^ntl, 
under his nafuc of Cunjd Narasinh;}, was repaired by the Dahw^i cf 
Mysore nbotit joc years ago, and now ha« an annual allowance 
from Government of ^96, The other, situated between the jmictioa 
of the two rivers and dedicated to Agasleswara, receives ^iSi a 

N&rukot. — Native State in the District of the Panch Malab, 
<jujardt, I^;mki)' PrL'»idency. ^rcj, 143 3«t|uarc [iiilv«- PopuUtios 
(i&Si) 6440, distributed in 53 vilUges, and occupying '3'3 hov&c&< 
Hindus number 4216 ; Mulummadan^, 57 ; and ' others,' *|67- 
Nirukoi i^ cnc]osc<i l>y the lands of Chhoti Udepur. Rewd K^Qthi 
Agency. The rulm^ family are Koh\ and the iahabitann Are of two 
trlbeR. RoU:^ ^nd Niikdds, 7 he latter, who are a turbiilent race, ctoedy 
allied to the Bhfis, have on several occaM^^ns by their unruly habits 
given considerable trouble to the Government, but of late )x'ars have 
been remarkable for peace and good order. 'J^hc country' ii wild, 
covered with low hills and thick forests. There is a fair supply of 
water* chlctly from i>onds and wells, whose nuniber is being gradually 
increased. In 1^74, specimens of lead ore were obtained^ but in die 
o^nuLon of the Suijctintcndcat of ihc GcoLugic^l Survey ihcy vr<Te not 
rich enough to encourage further search. The soil ia capable of yield- 
ing A larger out-turn and bcUcr cropA than it does under the pre»eM 
rnde tillage. Of the total ar?a, onefounh i% uncu1ti\^ble, being moEtly 
hilly ; one-fourth is culiivablt; waste ; and about onc-hulf i» ruliivated. 
In 1378, a considerable area of cultivated land wax thrown up, owing (o 
the death, desertion, and Jnsolvt^ncy of cultivators, and the loss of their 
Jive stock brought about by two succcssiirc bad scnsons. Tlie JocaJ 
cultivators arc Ndikdda and Kolis, who formerly lived chiefly by ih-ood- 


culling Tbcf ore bi^gmning to scitlc to tnort regular tillage tind to 
u(c of the plougVt. 
Tho NAikrl-i^ of N^rukoE usi^d t^ hc notorious for their predatory 
habits until iSj6, when ihc Criiish Government look over lhc:ir manage* 
mcnt rrom the Giekw^ ; but on furEiishing &ecufity for gooil bchaviouri 
tbey were jjardored and left unmo1»te<l. In 1&29, however^ on the 
oflicc of tlic Political Agent being abolished, the G^ekvvir's Government 
again loak up the managen^ent, but $0 o|>^reue(i tlie people that in 
1S37 ihe^ broke out in revolt, and a British force had to be engaged 
to suppress it. The chief then oiTered half at hi» revenues 10 be taken 
under the protection of Go^c^nmc^l, wlikh off^r, At first rcfuricd, was 
ftftcrwvija Accepted to provide funds for the nunagcmcnt and TC<'Ovcry 
of thd State. The people noon i^uleEed down, but unsettled by ihe 
movements of the rebels in 1S5S, tSey rose and attacked several foru. 
Tliey a^in rose in i&6d to establish 1 Naikda kingdom, but were 
dispersed, and the leaders caught and hanged. Since then ihete has 
been do di&tufbaucc. Jamqugkoka is the largest place in the State. 
Tlic chief resides at Jhot^var, a village half a mile to the north-wesi, 
and yjxy^ an aniiuat tribute of j£^ to the Gdekxvlr of Uaruda. T'he 
eatUte i^ managed by the Hriuah Govcnitnenl, who take half the total 
revenue (c-?^tinmtcd at ^600 annuallyj, the rcmiinmg hnlf going to the 
chief under ihc agreement made in i839< The State contains a 
dbpensat>' aud a vernacular school, l^hc Collector of tlic i'ancb 
MaM]« District U the ToUticAl Agent. 

Narw4r (iVifrjcdr). — "J'owa in Gwalior Slate, Central India; Mtu^ticd 

I bt- »s' io" a* s., and long, 77' 56' 57' k_, on the right hank of the 

J«r Sind. on the route from Kalpi to Koiah, 153 miles south-west of 

ncr md i6g nonh-cast of the latter; 44 miles south of Gwalior 

Nan*-Ar is a town of great antiquity, and although ntjw decayed, 

waa ODCC a place of much splendour. Nishido, which occupied the 

site of the preicnt NarwAr, was founded by a Kachwaha Rdji in 295 

A-Ul ; and in the ^ih century, (he K;icliwah:is of Narwar are mcnuoncd 

asDiarcliing to the defence of Chittor* The fort, a fine and ni;tssive 

^^AnjUuie, «a» built, According to FcrLshto, in Ujc oiiddlc of the i^tli 

^fccnturyf and was soon afior captured by Naitir-ud-din, after a siege of 

^Hpcvcral months. In 1506 it vi-AS ag^n blockaded and taken by Sikandur 

^^Ijodit King of Hrlhi ; ^ncl, tome lime l.itrr, U -ippeJirB lo have fallen 

a^n into the hands of the Hindus. Towards the end of last ceniur>" ihc 

Mardthi^ ;;ained possesion of Nanvdr ; and it was guaranteed to Daubt 

Kio Sindhia Ly the treaty of AlUhdb:id in 1S05. l:i 1S44 it was, with 

the annexed icrritor)-, anesaetl ly the Government of Gwalior at 

j^j3»50o 2 year. The river overflL^ws annually during the rains, 

leaving ntimerouv swatonp^ round the town. Magnetic iron-ore is found 

in the neighbouring hitls. 

HaCflTinir.— Tou-n m Ahhjar jo-TAtido hUuk, Hih Sub^mnon, 
HAidaraihad FJUtrlc^ SinJ» Honibiy Presidency- Population (iSSi) 
33o6. Tn(!e inHicniricirf. Sm^tU doih nianuficlure Police lines, 
re^t'hcu^e, |>09^[-offici;, nnd vcm.iculor v^aoX. Tlie town is of xtr$ 
annt-nt constniction, nnd said tt> have been Imilt in 989 a-D. 

N&sik {A'«»iVu of Ptokm})' — British District in the Bombay Fresi< 
dcucy, lying bctirccn 19' 34' and 20' 52' H. lat, and between 73' iS~ 
and 75' e; long. Area. 5940 square miles. PcpuUiion in lASr, 
7^1,706 ]ii;r%on^. BoDniit^d on lh« north by the DibUicE of Khindcsb; 
un tijc cait by ilic Nium'5 Dutniniotm ; on ibe south by Ahrnadiuf^ i 
and on the wc^ by Thinn DUtrict, the territories oS DboruDpurT 
SurgAnA, and (he KhdrKltsh Ding^ The adminiEtram-c hcad-cjtiartcrv 
are :i[ XAiilK fowji. 

PAysicat Aspetis, — \\'iih the exception of a few villai^cs in the west, 
the Mholc hislficl is si»iale<l on a lablelnnd, at an e!evatron of from 
1300 to jooo feci above the tc.x The western portion, from noah to 
south, called tfdng^ is generally m\it\\ divided by hilts, and inlcTKetiM 
by ravines ; and only itic ^implcsc kind of cultivation is possible. The 
eastern portion, called dts^^ ls open, fertile, and well cultirated. I'be 
Chindcr range 0/ hills forms the watershed of the Wstrict, and divides 
the valley uf llic tiiriM ffoiii the valley of the GiKlivari- It iitrelrhn 
from Pemt eaat into the Nij^n/n Diiminion^T and t% croucd by fcveral 
fair pasflcK. The most important of thc&c Likct iianamc from the rangOi 
and i& traversed ty ;i first'^lass bridged and mclnllfiJ roadn E*M of Ra- 
Inidi. the Chdnder range erases to be a barrier All Mreami of any siie 
to the «outh of that ran^eare tributaries of the Godavari — the principal 
ofthexe being the D^rna, Kiidwa, Deo, and Maral^in. To the north of 
the vatershed, the Gim:) and itK tribituryibe Atcsam flow throu^b 
fertile v:i!lcys into ihc 'I'J|ni. With the exception of the Sahyadri 
mountains, which run north and sotith, the gcncml direction <^ ibc 
hill ranges in Ndsik is from wc^t to C'ctbi. The District contains several 
hill forts, the scenes of many engagements during the Marflilii vars. 

Tlic geological formation is trap — bed* of baaall aliernatin^:^, scemin^y, 
quite horizontally with amygdaloid, the ridges of the hilU everywhere 
caL>pcc1 with tampAct haRalt, and the i^kpet l>e1ow the ojiper basilic 
escarpment formed by the weathering of the softer amygdaloid No 
minerals arc worked. Except in one or two Sub-division*. vbere 
black soil is found, the soil is poor and stony. The foresu frhich 
formerly covered the Sahyidri hilU have ne;irly disappeared, but evtiy 
clfort is being made to prevent further <iettruction, and to re-dothe 
some of the hiiU. The forests thit rem:iin cover 1600 sqtiarv miles hitl 
^ contain fi;w timber- tree-* of valtie ; or the other hand, there is a good deal 
of vafuablc coppice teak, and much wood useful both for house-building 
anJ firewood. The Disuict generally la very destitute o( trees. Of 

NASJX. 229 

vild animal-^ tigcn, leoparila, bean, anlclojies, and ai^otlcd deer are 

UitUry. — From the sn<l century o.c to the and century a.d. the 

District wn» und«r rulers, noubly ihe AndhrabriiyiU, who pntfonued 

HtiddhittD, And lome of whom nrc itipjxj^cd lo ha^t^ a cajiiial aX 

Paithan. I ro miles bdow Ni^k. Among other wdy Hindu dynasH« 

wercihc ChalukyaMhc Kdihods, andthcChandorand DcoRid JadAva*. 

I^^'l'hc Muhammadan pcrigd lasted from 1295 to 17O0, during nhichthc 

HCtstrict was successively under the Viceroys of Deo^iri (Daulalibdd), the 

^Bahmanii of Kulbar;;n. ihc Ntcim .Sh;ihi^ of Ahniritlti^Kaf, and the 

^^btughaU of Aur^LUjflbdd. I'hc Mariiha a«ccrLdcn<:y bKlcil Irom 17O0 

until tSiS, when the liritish power crushed ihc last of the Pcahwis. 

^tmx tliciii mice only ha% ihc peace of ihc Dl^jtrlct teen disturbed — 

once in '£43, ichcn scrtou& breaches of oxtlcs uioac on die hiAugliter of 

.1 cow by s-ome Etiiop'.'ans in Nisik ; :ind u^iijn in 1S57, when Gcm4> 

^^Rohillis, Arabsj and ilhfls gathered under the outlaw, Uhagojl. 

^h /^fiuli/iint. — The Onsui; n^tums of 187* disclosed a total population 

^^>f 7I7i755> that of 18S1 a total of 78r,2o6 persons, residing in t tovm 

jiikI i6j5 village^ and in isjfiiC occupied houses; unoccupied houses 

ere returned at 29,736 ; density of the poimlaiion, iji'Si persons per 

quarc mile ; villages jjct square m\\t^ o'z ; houus per square mjle, 25*6 ; 

ns per TJltage, 47J ; v*^rsons per ttousc, 6'36, U^siJied according 

"tj sex, there were 397,404 tnalci and 3^3.802 females; proportion of 

males, 508 per cent Clissiflcd according to age, there were— tinder 

^H5 yutrs, culcra 161^846, and fctn^lcs 161,401 j total children, 331,247, 

^^>r 42*42 per cent, of the population : and of 1 5 jcora and upwards there 

vfcTc 3:27,558 nules and 223,401 females; total adulu, 449/J59* ^^ 

57-58 per cent. Rt*li^irtU< (^ivisionK — Ifindui^ *^^3)573; Mi3Nnlm:ln-% 

.294 : Firsts. 288 : Christians, 2644 ; Jews, lot : Jains 7^09 ; Sikhs, 

Buddhists, 2 ; and aboriginal tribes, s<>^^7> almost all BbUs. 

|indua were divided into the following luain cartes and social 
Dft I*— Brihmanfi, ^9,053; Rijpuia, 7003; Berads, 291 ; Bhan- 
rfs, 56; Oiamirs, 10,003 i Uarjfs, 7492 ; Dhdngars, 34,889; 
3029; Xais, 741^; Jnng;Lm«, 466 ; Knnbin, 276,359 ; Kolis, 
i; Koshtfs, '<^3 : Kurabhirs, 4508 ; Lingiiyati, 1608; Loh^rs^ 
5877; Milis, 25,094; Mings, 6323; Dhcrs, 70^35 [; Sondrs. 9540; 
5ot&r% 7437 i Tcli^ 11,158; and BanJArda, 19.^93- The Muham- 
madans were divided thus — Pathins, 50S9; Sayylds, 1794; Shiiikh% 
27,641 ; and *o(hcrt,' 770. Of ihr 2644 t^hnstian.t, 13S1 were Episco- 
palians, ro2i Roman Catholics, and 147 Prcshyicrtans. 

As regards occupation, the males were distribuied by the Census 
of 1881 into the following six main i;roups: — (1) Professional classy 
including State officials of evc^y kind und luc^mbcr^ of the leamed ]iro> 
fesiicHiSt ii>5oo; (2) ccmmetdal class, including bankera merchantftj 



carriers, etc, 3897; (3) domestic servants, inn anJ lod^f^-Houie 
kccpcrti, 5J^4; (■!) agnculiuml and fiastonil flao- inr.iiUing gArd^wn, 
1 56,(^95; (5) indiTnrrinI rb<4«, inclmlinfE all ni.nnitfjrttirrn; >n<l artisaitf* 
30.S43 i ^ntl (6) indcrifiite and nonproduciivc class, comprisirc mal* 
children, K^nL-ru] hboureis, and persons of unspecified occupationi 

>7t.i3^ I 

Of the 1633 towns and vilbgeK In Kd&lk Distnct, 558 ^bUfllH m 
18S1 lew llun 300 inhnbitnnb ; 656 from two to five hundred; tM 
from five hundred to cnc thousand ; 86 (rom one to two thousand ; 1; 
from itvo to ihrcc thousand ; 13 from tbrce to tvc ihou&tnd ; 2 frooi 
five to ten diuuMiiJtl ; l fiuin ten l*> ^ftecn tlioUNirid; 1 fiofii fifteen to 
iwcniy thousand; and 1 irom Iwcniy to fifty thousand. The towni 
with a pt^pulation over 5000 , ire — Nasik (24,101); U£Oi.ALr, eanion' 
nieni (vnriabTer aceording to troops cantoned rir fjw/e to Boimba^); 
Ysoi-A ( 1 7,6^5 ) ; Maleg\o> (10,623); Malccaon", cAntonraent (vari- 
able); SJ^NAR (jp6o); and hiATpUEi (6306): of which pbces j arc 
nunicipAliliCBk I'rimljak, aEno n municip;itiiy, has a population of j'^^^ 
The totfil municipal mc:ome oi the District (1882-83) "* *^^795t l^T^ 
from a municipil pnpul.iticn of 70,^79, the incidence of munidpil 
taxaiton Iwng as, 3d. jwr head oJ the municipal population. 

It iH chnrnctcrisiic of the population lo collect into small cocnpoKt 
villages. Except the village dealers, carpenters, siniihs and a fev 
other*, traders arii) artisan* arc almoM cxclusivcl)' cvjrifincd lo the 
towns, 'Ihv labourers olso constitute gcnctoUy an urban class, ina*- 
much Si th<:re avc not many cultivators who arc sufficiently wcll-to^ 
TO employ hired labour. The vilbge hovi*^* range in res^elcibility 
from a tlirce'Stonefl hiiihlin^ (rfriffd) to the onhnary Indian hovcU here 
called //w/'ifi. The T\ii/ii or mansion consists of a hollow square 
building, of which the rooms and offices form the four sides, and of 
which rhc centre quadrangle, open to the sky, has in a few casts shrut^ 
and a fountain, but more often forms *4Tabling for the cattle. Part of the 
roof left rlat and proEectt^d by a par^ipLn serves as a pleauni lounge 
when the heat of the "lay is over On many roofs a few steps will lead 
tt> A Mised platform commanding a view of the; neighbourhood, and 
open to any brcc^^c that may be blowing* TIlc large central room cf the 
house is used aa parlour and dining room. The omallcr chaniben are 
rhe cooking-room, store-room, lyingin room, and family shrine. The 
zamifta or wf>mi^ii's fjuarler* arc generally Reparated from the rommna 
dwelling, Furniture i* scarce, but it is becoming customary to prwidc 
a cbatr for chance visitors of distinction. A swinf: is common, 
usually there is a wooden bench. Wooden stools and numi 
cooking pots complete the c*iuipment Daily life i* much the 
amoni; labourers and indmdars^ who are t}ie Inndownerr or gentry 
the District. All c1as^& rise with the sun and work until noon. Then 







ihcy rest for an hour or two, taking a mca! and a sifsfa^ Work is re- 
commcnccJ ac two, and goes on uiilil dusfc, when another meal is 
Ukcn. Bed -time is bclwcen nine and ten. 

The inhabitants of the western viliA(;«, at ihe fool of the t^rdivitdri 
biHs, arc lu a great ext<:nt iuigra:t>ry. Their ^jcor lands seldom yield 
crop* fur mote than two yearn at n lime ; and often in ihe hot wc.ilhcT 
— their stocli of gr^iri running low— th^ arc compelled to retire lo the 
fbrc^l and sup[>ort ihemsolves by felling and carrying limber, feeding 
on fiih, berries, and even r^iot*. Every ea*te, from ;i Rrihm:in to a Bhfl, 
forms a more or [l-ss complete community- The chief hill tfilics arc KoIts, 
BhUji, 'Hi.lkurx, Wiirlif, md Kdibodk The Kalis are more civilised 
and more generally engaged in ngticuUure than ihe test; the BhUs 
arc |>oor culttvalors, MLbmung chiefly by gathering and selling forest 
produce — timber, honey, and lae; the Thdkurs and WarHs culti- 
vate a little, but almost entirely by the hoc. ThikodEs, or catechu 
makers, are the won^i ofT, and poorest-looking, of all these itibes. 
The Munvirfx, most cf ^h<;im .ire sciid Lo have come into the Diittriet 
during the \ixM fifty or >ixty ycorSf seem gradually to drop thdr 
px.-crdianties and xirc now scarcely to he distinguished from other 
Hindus. They liave taken to wearing the lleccan turban and 
oniioary thnc% and are elean in their dress and hal>its ; ihey even 
wear iheir hair a* oihcr Hindu*, and speak Marithi^ the common 
lan^^tgo of the District They engross the tr.ide of money-lend ini;. 
^*he Ma%a1mdnft are neady all of foreign origin, and arc for the most 
pan (cttlcd in toivnE. Many of ihe Sunnfs, "who numbered (iSJ^r) 
j4,S87, an* niesscngcra and policcmcni others arc employed in weaving. 
agriculiUFe, and as labourers. The Shiis, who numbered (1881)389, 
re more frequently shojjkeepers. 
Agfiat/tMrr. — Agricnlturc supported (iSSt) 511,713 persons, or 65*5 
per cent of the popolaiion ; only 301^416 %vetc agriculiurnl worken. 
Of ihe IoLaI area of the Disuicl (5940 squnre miles), 3573 square mile* 
■were eultivaied in 1881, of which [79 si;:iirc mile^ were non-rcvennc- 
paying; the remaining 3394 square miles, together with £30 square 
mile^, the area cultivable bnt unoccupied, were assessed for revenue, 
making a tola^ of 40:4 square miles ; the \mcultiv.ib!c area was 1 737 
sqtiare miles. Total amount of Government assessment, including local 
rates and cesses on land, ;£t4a,585; average incidence, including local 
rates and cesses, is, ad, per cultivated acre. Average aren of cuhivablc 
and uncultivated land per agricultural worker, 8'g acres. The bnd of 
ihe Dbtrict may be divided in four eUsscs — the reddish black mould 
dloog rivets I a. light bkcic soil higher up ; a brovrn soil, ^tiffer and less 
deept found on ihc higher lands near the Chits; and highest and 
lightest of all, light brown or red, of^cn sfrewn with houlders, and 
misccd with lime. A second crop is not often raised Manuie 




is invariably used for all garden crops, but mrely for otfiers. Owr 
47,000 aac3 arc irrigated, the cost per acre vnryir^ rrom 21 to j£io. 
Ini^ation is generally iraciiscd where water U obtain.iblc near the 
%uirai:c, uati where a Jam uiii be ihruwa acro» ihc ^iie^iiii^band lU-cn. 
The mnin work* arc the Pilkbcr^ Vn^ili, and OjKar Timb^t camls, 
ihc fir*t-naracd bcmg newly built at a cost of^ 14,87*. 

On! of^, 389^838 acres the rotal area of GovefnnnrntcukivabV land, 
1,^58,197 acres, ox 66"6i per cent, were taken uji fur cuUtv^ition m 
1881-S2 ; of ih«c, 340.393 acrcn were fallow or under jcraas. Of 
the remaining 1^^24,2^3^ acret undrr actual cultiv;it)on (6409 acres oJ 
H'hich were twice cropped), grain occupied 1,310,643, or 68ti \<t cent; 
pulses, 154,76^, orS04perccnt, ; oil-weds, 168,876, or 877 (scrceni. ; 
tibnrs ^3.B63, or t'24 per cent,; ^nd mUccUaiieous crops, a6<i,OTo 
arrcs, or i3"8a per ccnL Btijns is ihe Maple food of the peopte, 
VineyardH arc fecund in Nimk and Chdndcr SuNcIh moiit. In lt>c:al]tica 
vhhcrc there ii good bbck soil, whe^t, cgtion, grim, and tuncr^ and 
where water is nvaibblc, sugar-cane, grapes, figs, guji^u^, and plantaiiu 
,ire grown. Potatoes were introdoccd tnto the District alxwjt 1837, 
ami tliough at fir^t disliked W the (xfojile, are now in rtfi|Me!it. On 
poor iOJlyW/- and bdjra are cultivaied. In iS8a-^3 the avriculttnal 
stock amourtetl to 64,080 pIoui,His, 14,361 carr>if**! carts. 11,719 iitIJii« 
cans, 2o3,S8j bullocks, 195.372 cows, 56,663 biUralocs, 12,640 hoftc«, 
387; asses, ?i6,74(3 sheep and goatl 

Naiural dtta^'dtUs. — The grcac Dur*d<levi famine, lauing from 
1396 to 1407, is said 10 have caused as much injury in Nd.'iik as v\ ibc 
Southern Deccan; and the memory of it has never bet^n obliterated. 
Families arc aliio locally recorded \vs listing occuned in i4tia, 1520, 
and 16J9, but ihc severest of which record fcm,iin& was the famine 
of 1791-93. Liberal remissions Ly the Pcsliwi. the piohihition of 
grain exportation, and the regulation of price*, alEeviatcd ihe mttery. 
Tn 1803-04, the rai-ages of ihe Pmdjirfs cauiu'd Mieh fcircity. that a 
pound cf grain is snid to have cost if. 4rl. Ten thousand people died of 
hunger and its incidcnul maladies. The scarcity of 1876-77 caused 
great distress. Special mcasuttrs of rclier were taken, and ai one 
period ueaily 1 8,000 persons were employed on toad*. In the 
villages two kinds of tickets were ^iven to the people, tin ^d 
paper* The holders ol tia tickets were allowed full rations of one 
pound of cooked bread and pulse, white to pa|K;r lickct-holden 
a smellier cjuaniiiy^wab issued- Children Hcrc given half a pound. The 
tickets were issued at ihc relief works up to half-pust seven in the 
morning, the Tate comers getting paper ticket*. The total expenditure 
on famine relief during the continjAnce of the seareity was reckoned 
at ^47,967, Every now and then in the District a frost destroys 
or damages such crops as plantains, grapes, etc, and hardly a yeu 



occurs in which «omc part of the District doce nol Buffer from 

want of ram. Pan;al inundations frequently occur, and the flood of 

^b^7>— when the river at Nasik rose over ii feet above its ordinary 

^Bb^'cI — caused great daina^^ Recently, loeo&u have committed strious 


Jiai/u\i)S, ttc. — The com miiniwl ions of the IJislrict hive been 
improved by the opening of the Great Indian Pcmn^ula KAilwAy In 
i$tii, and by ll:c l>|kii[i)^ of the lucjil Dliond and M^Lniu^d Sutc 
RAilwjiyin 1S7S. The fcrmcr line cnlcni Naiik at I^ai|>uri, And on 
the 1 10 milcfi for A'hich xi paisci through the DUtrict thcr<; are 1 1 
ctattrmK. Thr letter r.iilway< a rhurtt line connecting Mnnm;Jd 
in NA^ik Districi. 16^ miles from Bombay north-east section, with 
Dhond in Poona Disirici, 167 n^ilcs from Bombay south-ei^^t scciioti 
of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. This choid line is 145 
milei long, with 3 stations in NJstk Dlslrici. Besides the railway 
Hqcs running through the DiKtrict, there are about 468 miles of good 

Thidi^ Manufaaurcs, itc — Cloth and silk goods arc woven ehicfly 
at VcoU, and thcjKC sent as far :\s Itomb^Ly, Poon.i, Sdiira, and 
Sholdpur. The value of the annual exporrn from Vcola is caltu- 
Uie<] to amount to 15 !4khs of rupees (^150,000). I'hu silk 
indastry at Vcob supports 40^0 fumiiiciL Thi^ indunry und^ the 
I^JhfuhaTnmad^ns snd'Mar^ith.'fs was a monopoly, which was sci aside 
^■py a dedftioQ of tl^e Bombay High Court in 1S64. Blanket-weav- 
injE provpen In the District, but a former intJtiilry of pai>eT-inakLng 
has died out- Copper, brass, and silver vcsseU arc largely manu- 
factured at Ntbil: it«clf, and thence sent to Dombay, Poona, And 
other places The principal articles of export arc grain, oil^secds, 
molasses, a little cotton cloih and silk good*, hemp, copper, btass, and 
silver ware, A great quaniity of grain, chiefly who:it. Is bought up by 
agents of I^ombay firm:^, at Li^talg^um, on the cjitway, 146 miles from 
Bombayi v-herethere is a permanent coni^tant markcL Nearly every day 
from February to Mjiy about 500 cans, ancl a* many more |wick 'bullocks, 
come laden with uheAt nnd olhi^r grain, chiefly from the Niiiin'« 
DoDunioni. Some of these tike away ^ali. I'herc ii al^o a considerable 
export of prden produce, onions, garlic, and bct^l-teave^ The cliief 
imports are raw ^dk, cotton thread, copper and brasa, augar, gtoceries, 
and saltn 

Before the introduction of the railway, there wo* (chiefly along the 
Bombay and Agra and the Ahniadnagar and Poona roads) a large carry- 
ing trade through the DistrkL The Banj^lros or Lamins^ and others 
iriwhoic hands tlila tntlHu rested, have sulTercd uiucli by the change* 
Suchof ll>eaiAi remain have taken to agilcuhurei The chief 1r:ifBc with 
^ interior proec*d* through tile ancient Thai pa^a on its wayto Bombay, 

AVcctly maifect^ nrc held &t every town, smd in manj' of the laif^cr 
villages. Besides these weekly markets, fairs arc held each yc« in 
ccnnection ^vith certain icmptes and relifcious places, which prtxke 
, Tcry much of the nalure of (he nurkeift, but arc larger, and the variety 
-of goods displayed is greater. They usually lost fOT a week « a 
rortnight, and ntlr-ict great numbeTs nf peoj^le, tten from coittidcnWc 
distances. In i88j-8j ihe loinl valueof the expotuof the Ulstnctwas 
jC^S^'^^^' "^^^^ ^^^ ^^ inicicsi gcTienlly v.irics from 6 ti> tS pet c:cQt. 
per annum; but in ihc case of \iO0T culttvaion, it is nomrtJme'* a« 
high 0.S 34 i>cr cent. Unskilled labourers cam 4|d. a day, brickUycn 
and carpenten is. 6d, The current prices of the thief ariicle* of fftod 
during fR8a-8j weri% for n nipee (3&.)—/tHir llnd'tan millet), 47 1h&. : 
wheat, 34 lbs. ; rice, 26 lbs. ; ;ind Jff/ (split \x&^), ^4 tb«. 

Admiftistratfon. — The revenue raised in 1881-82, under sll he;ids— 
imperial, local, anii municipal — amounted 10 ;^>j8,505, or, on a 
population of 781,206, an incidence of 5a. lod, per head. The land- 
idx (orms the principal source of revenue, yielding ^14'. 54^ **^ 
6i"9i per cent, of the total revenue. Othi?r important items are 
stamps^ excU?, and lec:i] funds. In 1882-S5 Ibe land revenue was 
relumed M ;f 109,800 ; Mamps, £\ 7,100 ; excise, ;£io,5oo ; aiul 
licetjcc-tax, ^3180, The District locfll funds, created Mncc 1 €65 for 
work* of public utility and rural cducaltoo. yi«lded in 188^-83 a total 
of jCo^T^' Tht^re arc 6 murjicipaliiicK, with an aggrrgnle population 
of 69.926 persons, Their receipts are returned at ^^648, and the 
incidence of taxation varied from fd, to 3s. 6d. per head. In tSS^Sj 
the municipal receipts were jC^J^S* 

The ridminisi ration of the District in reventje matters W entntsled to 
a Collector and 6 .^sittant^, of whom 4 arc covenanted civilians. For 
judicial purposes. N;&<^ik is included in the jurisdiction of the Judge of 
Thina. There .ire 7 civil courts, which decided 11,801 miIh in 1S76, 
and 35>3oo in 1882-83; 33 o(Ti<:cr« share the wliuinisiration of criminal 
juaticc. The total strength of the regular police for ihc protection of 
peraon and property consisted, in 1881-83, of 739 officers and men. 
gtvinR I man to every 1071 o{ the population. The total cost u-ai 
^13,605, equal lOj^'a^ 5s. i>d, per square mile of area, and 4d- per 
head of the |>opuiation. The number of persons convicted of any 
offence, great or small, was 1581, being 1 person 10 cwry 491 of the 

EdtJcation has widely spread of late years. In 1855-56 there were 
only 17 KchooU, with i;6H jnipils. In tSHi-Sr there were 351 schools, 
with 1ZJ44 nnmes on the rolls^ or an average of i school to every 6'5 
inhabited vUlaj^c^. The Census of 18S1 returned 8664 males and 357 
females as under JnMruLtion ; and ?o,Sjo nmles flnd 469 feipalei u 
able to read and write. In 1S83 there wcrc^schoob, 293; scholar?, 



r4t>95, Tlicrc i*, on an average, one village with a achciol to 

tflrh »4 tnjuarv miles. There are 3 libraries and reading -room*. 

iTwo vemactlar ncwHiin|>er% wcrcr |ii]h1i^ht:d wrckly in the DittnVl in 

^tdicai Asfiftts.—lht rainfall is liable to grcal variation according 
Ito the distance from the GbiUv The average rainfall ai Nd&ik town 
Muring the five years cndini; jSSi was S9J inchea. The prevailin;* 
di»casc^ are fever and skin affecnoivs. In iS8i-^j, six diapenaane^ 
atlbrdeil medicLil relief To 120 in-dccr and 41,063 out-door patients, 
and a 1.684 |Jcraons were vaccinated. Vital statistic* showed a death* 
rate of 22-4^ per thousand- [For further informalion regarding NAsik, 
6CC the C*»tfitcfr iff ih€ Bomkiy Pr<suitnfy\ poblislicd under Govcro- 

»tncf>i ordcn, and compiled by Mr J- M. Campbell. CS.. voL xri., 
Ki«Ik Dwtriet (fiovemment Ce^ntral I'ress, Bonihay, iSSjJ, AI*o the 
Mmx^ C^rtsur /^fj*firf (or i^S I ; and the fcvcrni annual Adminiitr.ition 
fend Dcpartnxrntal Reports of the Bombay Government] 
NAiik.— Sub-division of Niiik Disuici, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
465 square miles, containing 2 toivn* and 154 viliafi;es. Population 
(1871) 9?»I77; (l8Si) 94,980, namely, 4^0*5 males and 46.467 
females. Hindu-t numben-d 85,644 ; Muhanmi.idan^ 5326 ; and 
1^^ • others/ 4010. LamI rei^nuc (iSSa)* ;i^7940. 

^V The $ub-dtvi»ion k sitjalcd in ihc southwest of the PiMricL 

^BSoundcd on the ncjrth by the Peint, Dindori, and ; on the eiuC 

^^^>y Niph.'lii and Sinnar : on the south by I^at]:juri ; and on iho west by 

' Thida Dislrin. The general chantrter o( the iurfhce is undnhumg, and 

the vest is hilly. In ihe Oarni valley the noil is deeji and rich. The 

Bombay 'Jnhalpur (Jubbiilpore) Railway and the Hombay-A^m hij^h* 

^■Toad traverse the Suh-divisjon» Climate varicit, but on the whole is 

^fiieallhy; average rainfall^ ij inches, W.Hcr-supply good, except near 

the Sahyidrit, Besides the Dama, the God^vari waters the Sub- 


In iSSo-Si there were 5982 holdings, with an average area of 

aS a<:rcs paying m avctaj:e assessmeul of jC^j tOa.; incIdencL* of 

,tbe land-lax, about 3s. |>cr he;id. In i8So^i, of 147,649 acres 

eld for titb^, 24,196 acrcn %vere fallow or under ^rasA. Of the 

nining 123,455 acre*, iSSft acres «ere twice cropped Of 125.541 

■cres, the area under actual cultivaiion. ^ratn crops occupied SSjjr 

icres; pulses. 17,180 aae^; oiUeeds, 16,974 acres; fibres, 400. all 

^ under brown hemp — conon is not j^^rown; and mificelbneoui cfopit 

2656 acres, of which 1102 acres were imdcr sui^ar-cane. In 1885 

the Sub-di%ision contained i civil nnd 4 criminal courts ; police circles 

^(tkjadt)^ 3; regular ]>olice, S7 men ; village watch (chaukiMrs)i 154. 

^B N&sOl — Chief town of N^tk District, Bombay Prcsidency; 

^■eiiuaied ia tat- 19' 59' 45" W-j and long. 73* 49' 50' c, 4 miles 

336 jVAS/A^ f/EAD-QU^lRTEKS. 

nOTth-wcKt of t}ie Ndaik road sEAtion of tlie Great Indiftn Pcnin- 
iiula Kfiilway. Among Hiodus, Nibik b coiiMdercd a s]>ot of special 
inicrciit And holiness;. Alx>Dt 30 miles Irom lU source, the nvcr 
(lodiv.nn, llowzng t^.tsiwardi; throTigh a groiifmr vmnll hilli^nimx fthnrply \ 
TO the «r)uth, aiid, after passing in that direction for about a mile, a^in 
swerves suddcnl>' lowrnds ihe east. Here, on boih sides of the ritcr. i 
but chiclly on \X% right or suuih-eastern bank, li^ the tovn of Nisik. | 
^long :hc right \nnk, the t<mn :iErcldi<:^ for about a mile, spreading j 
over three small hliU that rise abru]Hly ironi the river-side- ITic build- ; 
ing«, covering an area of ahoin 2 square m][cs,are divided into tmo 
main pans — the new town to the nonh rind rhc old town lo the south. 
I'liougli, accunlhg lo trn^tdiUoJi, a jjbcc of extreme amiC{uity, ihc old . 
town of Niaik ia withoul ruins oir buildings of any Age. In »t>]c itnd 
appearance, the hoUKcfi do not difTL-r from the nov (quarter, bitle of 
which i< more ihan a hundred j-^aw old- 1 

Pincbwati, the potiion of the city on the left bank of the river, in 
extent about oncsevcnOi pan of the whole, has several lanje temple) , 
and substantial dwellin^^, o^ned and inhabited chtelly by Brdhroani^ 
between Pinchnati and the old town, the river bonk^ are f^r about 400 
yards lined with m.ii^onry Mails .and fhghtit of Mone steps. On both ' 
MtieK, places of worship fringe the liank^, and even the t)cd of the 1 
Kircam is thickly dotted wiih temples And shrines, Thuugii ihc town it 
not ualled, the Mrcti^ opening on the river and kading to the southeta , 
and wefitcm suburbs are ornamented wJih gatcx^'ay^i The stteeu arc t 
for the moit jiart nnrrow Lind c^TOokcd, and the bouFseSi l>udi on pttnthi \ 
ff or 3 feet high, have ahiio*t all an upper fli^or, and moit of thein more 
than one storey. The fronts of many arc rich in vcllrarvccl woodwork, ' 
and the vrholc pbce has an air of wc.ilth and comfort not to be seen J 
in man)' Dcccan towus. ' 

Though, since the misfortunes of K4ma and Siti, Ni&ik hat ranked ' 
among the most sacred places of Hindu pilgrimage, its early Hindu 
rulera do not ieem to have raised tho town 10 any |)osiiion of wealth or 
importatice. '1 he Mu!^;iln)dnft made it the hc:id'r]uarteni oT a IJivisioa 
and are ^aid to luvtr piutciied the tuwn by bmldi^ig a fort, and to have 
fostered ili irade, introducing ihe ni,tnuf^c(urc of paper and other 
industfiefl. On the ri^ of the Marathd power, Ni«iki chosen by the 
P(;shwria ai; one of their capitals, intrtfastd in sjzt* ,iiiJ wealth. At firrt* 
under British ^overanKnt. it passed ihroiigh a lime of drpri»*%ion. Rut 
of late yearft, the opening of ralLwjiy communication and the establish- 
ment here t>f the head'cjuancrs of the iJisirict, have added much to itf 
wealth and prosperity. 

On account of the great number of pilgrims who visit its shrines, the 
population of Nasik varies much at drfftreni limes of the >^ar. The 
fixed population would seem to increase but slo;>'iy< I'hc rctumi for 


W \^t>^\^ a lolal of »t,a6o, of whom 6067 wrrt* IMhrnanis, u.T^fi 

H oAer Hindus, 3009 Mu&almins, 5 Pdrsis, and 55 Chrisiians. In iS?;, 
1^ ihtiohabhanu numbered t2.<^s<) : and in i38i, 27,cto, including >q6o 

■ d«tIJrng in tbe caiiionmcTU of DcoUli, Of ihc loial number, ^1,579 
I •rrc Hindus, 3754 Muhammad-ins, 127 Jains, 1191 ChrislianSf So 
I hnti, and n9 'oth&riL' Fcinakv numbered 13,994, n:id malet 
F *«76; the cantonment of Dcol.ili rtrturning 1091 female* and 1S78 

The iodUMiics of NaMk nio'mtain tomciMng of Uil-lf foimci iinjiort- 

AAce^ tlihou^, oiriiig tr> tbc comiKlition of maclnncry, ihc nianufaciurc 

^ paper ha» greatly declined. Neither wool nor siLk is woven in 

L \M, liut cotton hand loom weaving U tXxW carried on with succetuc, 

■ indm brns* and copper work Nisilc wnfcs first among ihc towns of the 
^bay Frtrsideacy. The colion -weavers can only earn about 6d, a 

L dayfor 20 days in the month; women assist, and c^nni about t^d. a 

I ^y. The old nnd new |>alaccs of the Pcshwa accommodate the 

I CoBeaor'* court and the niunici|al and olher public office*. There 

■ ireiljo a subordinate judge's court, a high and ^ vcrnncular schools, 
I '^ post and telegraph ofliccs. Besides being the head-quartern 

'tJUiun of ibc DisiricE, ihc town is also ihc scai of il\c clu'ef revenue 

■ukI puliue ofli^cib. Thcie are ihii liavellcri' buii^aluws. Tjie 

ft miDtcipality ^as established in 1864^ and raised to a city muntci- 

■foliiy in 1874. Income (i8Sa-8j), ^4^54; incidence of muniripnl 

Uaxikon, 3«. i}d, per head within mnniri|i,i1 limitfl. 'Vh^ inromc i<4 

chiefly drawn from octroi, a house-tav, a saniiary cess, and EolK It^ 

hills near Ndsik are twx> sets of rock-cut temple*. — a email seiies about 

k miles to the cast, and a larger series alxitiT 5 miles to iht west of tlie 

Town. The climate is hedtby and pleasant. 

N&sir&b&d (or Maimattsingh). — Head- quarters Sub-djvjsion of 
Maimansingh Dimict, Bengal— Ai^ Majmansingh Sub-divisioh. 

Hasir&bM (or Afaimansiftg&), — Civil sta:ion and administrative 
headquarters of Main;ansingh Dikinci, Bengal; situated on tbe west 
bank of tbe Brahmaputra rJvcr (crossed here Vy a fcrrj-J^ in Ut. 14' 45' 
50' w., and long, 90* a6' 54" e. Population {iZ^\ ) 10,56 r, numely^ males 
7613, and fi.-males 3938^ Muh:immadans nLimt)err^<T 53^71 Hindu* 
5180; and 'others,' 74. Area of town site, 960 acres. Muniripal income 
(i870* jCaIXX (1853-34I, ^i<556, of which jC7>fi was derived from 
taxation; average incidence of uvation, ts. 5Jd. per head of the town 
popubtion, Nasiribid it of no gre^t commercial im[K>rtance, as the 
Br;ibmaputra is only navigable by large bouti during the rains; nor 
is it noted for an^ histoiical event, 'i'hc only nntitpiitici of any 
interest arc two Hindu temples. The town contains good English 
and vcmacular schools, and a charitable dispensiry; small o^unleipal 
alicc foi^ce- 


NaalrihAd — Subdivision of KMndeth District, Bomhay Pirti- 
deucy. Area. jiS square mi ics, containing i townsi and S6 vilUgeK. 
Popubtion (i^7J) 60,109; (i83t) 69,526, namely^ S5*4iT ntal«^ aikI 
34,099 females. Hindu!! number 60,622; MuhammadinK, 6735; aiul 
'others,' 3179. l-and revenue (liS^^j), ^£22,845. 

llic Tdiptift the Vd^liar, and the Gtrna bound the Sub^ivitioti on 
the north, com, and wc«t, and :xrt pca^nntal strcftTn& The counuy 
is a rich black plain, most of which is highly cuhivatcd, CUoiaic 
hciiltliy; average ralnfjill, 307 in^ihcs. In 1659-60 the survey settle- 
ment was introduced, ximl dbcloacd 6S09 holdingn, with on average 
extent of 17 J acres, paying an average auctiiimcnt of ^a, t6c 3d. ; 
incidence of Inn^-tflv, 7k SJd- per hend Of the loiai area of %\% 
};<|uare miles, 158,089 acres were returned as lultivable at the time of 
the revenue survey: S2j:;g acre) imcuUivable ; 3001 acres under 
grass; and 10,403 acres of village »ites, roads, riveni, and sirx-am^ Of 
the 158,089 ;icres of cukivahle hnd, 12,761 acret were alictiAled Uiid& 
Of the remaining 145,328 acre*, the area uken up for cultivation in 
1S78-79 was 119,031 acres, Grain crops occupied 71,588 acres, of 
which 3M^7 acres were under ^Wr, and 31,390 under NJra; puhcs 
occupied 290a acres; ujl-sceds, O677 acrct>, of which 4043 were under 
linseed ; fibres, 30,619 acres, of which 3<»»59a were tinder cotton; and 
mjscellaneous cro^vs, 6145 acreij. 

Haslr&Md, — lown in the N'a^irili^fd Suh-divi^tion of Khind«sh 
District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 7 miles south of Bhjdii station, 
on tht: Nonh-T-Jisicrn Line of the Gtcai Indian Peninsula RaiU'ay, and 
8 miles souih-i^est of JJhus.1wal, Lai. ao' 58' 30' S">, long. 75^ 41' 30' E- 
Population {1881) 10,243, namely, 3119 males and 5114 females, 
Hindus numbered 7693; Mubaramadans, 2195; Jains^ 200; and 
■ others/ $$. The town is noted for the manutacture of glass bangles 
by MusalnUns, There are several okl mosfjues in the iieijjhbourhood. 
Jau^au.n, the hedd-^ujxrtcis of the Sub-divisiou, lic^ about 6 miles to 
the west No^r^bdd was acvcnil timcti harried by the Bh£l« of the 
SdtmilA range before the occupation of the country by the BritUh. Tn 
iSoT it wns plundured by a frechnoler narncd Jilha, and a^'nin, just 
before the great famine of 1803, by one of the Feshwi'i deputies. 
After this the village wall was built by one of the Purandhari family, to 
whom the town was given in grant. 

Nasiri.b4d,— Cantonment in Ajmere-Men\".W, R.-fjputina; situated 
in iatn id' iS' 45" N., and long. 74' 47' e., on a bleak, open 
plain, slopii^g casiwnrd from the AravaUi Hills. Population (i8Sj)cf 
cantonment, JS3S; oi town. 18,483: total, 51,330. namely, 11,461 
nmtesand 9858 Jeindea. lliJidus iiuinbcreJ 14,843; HulammAdans, 
5033 ; Chnslians, 1029 ; jaiji», j8i ; Pirsis, 44; Jcw^ 73 ; ftnd Sikhs, 
17. Area of town and cantonment, 8'5 vi^uare milcfi. The station, 



vhkh Vds laid out Jn if^iS by Sir David Oditerlonjr, Mrctclies over a 
itnile jn Icn^h, and ha» upon iu out^kirii a native LumHi irregularly 
f budt Lines cxi«t for a lattery of Royal Anillcry^ a rcginLcnc of Euro- 

p«*n tDfaniry, a regiment of Native infantry, and a tqucidron of Native 
[ClTSilry. Nasiraliid \^ g.irri'ioned by ironfitt of iho Uombay army. 

)ratnage good; water brackwh and insuffidcrl in quantity. The 

tTOOi« at Nasinib^Ld mutinied on aSth May 1S5;. but ihcy niL-l with no 

icncouragcment from the people, and marched away to Delhi without 
■itctnpiing toaaaclc Ajmcrc A station on the Milwd line of the Ri}- 
putina-Millwi Sliic Railway, Post-office. 
NaglribAlt— ^'f/»>t ii^ Mehar ^ut>-divi«Jon,Shikdrpur DiMrict, Siod, 
Eomt>ay Pre>(d*nc/, lying between 37- 17' and 27" 33' n. laL, and 
67' ^4' and 68' 6' k. long. Arci, 343 stjuflTc miles. Po]iubUgn (1873) 
33>597 i (iBSj) 46,178, namely, 25,163 males ard 21,115 f^riiAlOf 
Ldwelling in i town and 54 villages, containing 64013 1iou><e«. Hindus 
ItlunibeT 179? 't MuhammaJanx, 40,844 \ and Stkh^i, 3641. Gross 
i!veniie ([882), j^i3,5i9. Area assessed Eo land revt*nuc, 58,629 
crci; undei actual cidtivaticn, 4^635 acres. The t4luk in 18^3 
ntjined 2 criminal courts ; police circles {fkirids\ 4 ; regular police* 
1 33 men. 

NaairAbii— Town in Nasfiab:id itUuk, Shikdrpur District. Sind, 
Bomhay Presidency ; niiualed in lat, 27* 23' N., and long, 67' 57' 30" E., 
an the Chilo Cinal, 10 mite^t ea^t of Wanih (t^*^ chief pljce in the 

tidiHk)^ 7 frouithe nearcM railway KUtiiin, Badra, on tht^ Sind, Punjpib^and 
X^clfai line, and 14 north-ca»t of Mchnr. i lead-quarters i>f a fti^f^atiiir i 
contains a Kiogirg burgalow, post-ofBcCi and police lines. TopulaEion 
under looo. Local and iran&it trade in rice. 
NasirAbAi^'l'own in Salon /nhiL Rai Rareli DiMricr, Oudh; 
situated 14 miles ronhcai^t of Salon, and 16 iiiilci from Riii Uaicli 
town, in Ur. :6' 15' n., and long. Si*' 34' r. PojiuUtion (18S1) 3596, 
namely, Muhimrrtadans 1815, and Hindus 1781, New ^isaV, Oovcrn- 

imcnt ^-crnjcuhr school. 
Nasri^ai^.— Town, naunjcipal union, and police outpost station in 
Sh-i^atjL^d JJj^uicE, Bengal; siitiated in lat, 25' 3' 15' N., and long. 
84' 22' 25' E., on tlie Koelwir-Uehrf ruad, aluUL half a mile from the 
rivd Son. PopulaliQU^iSSi) 6^6 3, n;miely, Hindus 4256, and Muham- 
tnadAn.^ 1807, Municipal income (1883-84)1^1^6 \ fivcragc incidence 
of UJuiion, C>|<l. per head of lown population. The central town 
of ih« c^Mrheaced Govi.^rnmem estate of \Mh\ MatiM Dakhsli. l^rgf^ 
trade m 1>ainboo» and wood, and considerable manufacture of sugar and 

NasvAdL— Petty Sute of the SJndkliera Mehw.-i^ In Rewi Kantha, 
Boailjiajr Presidency. Area, 19J Mparc mitc^i eonlainin|c 27 village*. 
Estimated revenue, ^1000; tribute of ^£'69, ss. is jwid to the 


Giekw^ of Baroda. The ducr is Aylcd l^dkur. The Aswati ri^^ 
divider the citUktc Into Iwo nearly ^<^v^ paria, nn open plain on llic 
nortK but Romcwh.ii Uilly and tliicUy woodoU in ih« south. 

Nitdgarh-— Village in \\\^ Disifid of the Twent)-*four Par^^andf. 
Den^L Manufactures of brj&ii and irfm work. AuJcd vcmaculat 

N&te-puta. — Tovi-n in Shol.-Spnr Dislrirl, Fonib.iy PrcsidciKy; »tuatcd 
in I.-II. t;" 53' 40" .s., and long. 74" 47' ^6" t., 43 miles irorth-wcM of 
PandhArpur. 66 miles east by norih of Satira, and 78 miks west by 
nonh of Sholdpur lown. Ndie-puia is situated on the Poona-SlioUpot 
road, nnd is ^nul to hiivc btrcn founded or rabeil fiuni a viiLig? to a 
market- J jla re by M^ilik Sund-ir, a Mhmani minister (1542-1490). Th< 
weekly market i« held on WcdncftcJAjr, at which about j^i9f joo worth 
of goods arc CMimatvd 1o change handa Annually. About i^q loomi 
prepare bbnkeU valued at j^%oo a year Poisutatioa (i&Si) ^361. 

Nithdw&ro,— Town in the Slate: of U(Jai[»utfOodcyporc)oi Mcyvir, 
Rajptiuna: simatcd 2% miles norih-norih-east of Udaipurciiy. on the 
rijj:htbank of the Bands. PopuUition (1881)3458, namely, Hindus 7906, 
and Muluminadans 552. NMihdwira iw one of the inoit famous Vish- 
nuite shrinc's in India^ [iosse^:ting the original image of Krishna which 
was worshipped flt Muttra (Matliuri). When Aurangxeb endeavoured 
to fool out the worship of Krishna -it Matburd, the Rdni K^j Smgh of 
Udaipuif ubiiui i^jyT. obtained penni^^ion lo bring the lenoAvncd idol 
to Mcywir; and it was c'icortcd with vast pomp by the route of Koiah 
ftnd Rampura, until at lei^glh, afur entering the territory of UdAipor. 
the rharioi- wheel* of the giid sTnrk fist in n pince called SJarK m lh« 
ficf of Dilwilri. Tlie Riu of fJilwrin, one of the »iMccn grcit nohk"?i 
of Meywcir, dcclaa'd tliai l>y this omen Krishna had intimated his nish 
that this should be hi^ rc^deacet and immediately conferred on Nithji 
(the idol) aU the lands of the village; and the pious gift was subse* 
qucntly confinncd by his overlord the Rand. Nat)ijf was rcmo\-ed from 
his chariot; in due time a temple was erected for his reception, and a 
^cat toAn of many thousands of inhabitants f>rew up arout)d it, and 
was called N:iihilw.-iM, 'the portal of the Lurd Kn^fchna.' rrom the 
ridge of hills on the ca*l, where Lirgc herds ^X tattle pAXc, to the )hank« 
of the Bands on the wc^l, the^e precincis of tlic god hive nlwayn been a 
Sflnctuar^, within which no blood can be shed, no arrest made, and 
the criminal is free from pursuit. Rich offerings are sent here from 
every corner of India, and crowds of pilgrim* flock to the wcred shrine- 
The guardians of the shrine belong to the Vulabh.icharya sect ; and the 
image is one cf the seven famous itnaijes posH<!wed Ijy ihU division of 

the votaries of Krishna, [For further account, see Tod's Annats tf \ 
MJJsMn, voL i, pp. 449-4591 snd edition; Madras, 1873-] Niih- ] 

to be the terminufi of a branch tine of the RJiputHruMilu'd 

Nat-maw. — Village in Henrada District, Irai^'adi Division^ Lower 
Burma; siiuaied in lat, 17' 34' to" n,, and long. 95' 30' 30" E.»on ihc 
(wnk of ihe NiMnaw sticini. Population (iSSi) 800; number of 
ht>iMeft, 147, 

INattOr* — Stib-divisiun of Rdj^hdhf District, Beng:]], Ijing btluecti 
•4* ^' y>' aiiti »4* 48' If. Ifll,, and bciwccn 88' 53' 15" and 89° 13' 30" 
E. long, Are.1, 814 square miles; villngcs. 15S0; houses, ^3»733- 
Pftpubcirm (18S1) 470.51a, iiaraely, males 3*8,6^5, and females 
»4i,887 ; person* per s<iuare mile. 578; villages per fiquaic mile, 
i"94 ; i>enona per village. 357 ; houses pet siiuare mile, 107 ; penoni 
per hoii»> 5'6. Classified according to religion, the population in 
iSSi consisted of — Muhnrnm^dans, 359,523; Hindus, 110,983 ; nnd 
Chraiians, 6. 'Vh\% Sub-division includes the 4 police circles {fhdniU) 
;of NaitOT, Uardigdon, SingM, and Ldlpur. In i88j it conUuncd i 
ivil and 4 criminal courts ; a regular police force of 100 men, and a 
village uatch of 11J4 ihmtkiiiiirs. 

Nattor — The ancient cajntal of Rjphilu District* and at present the 

heAd-^tuiirtcn of Nattor Sub division, Bengal ; situated on the nonh 

of the Niiraii river, in bt, 34' n^' tj" n,, and long 89* a' ai" k. 

Ttfi central sitiiAiion ltd to its being nnade rhe early seat of administra- 

tton ; but owin^; to its unhealihiness (die town being built 00 low marsh 

bnd recliimed froEn the river), the? head-C]iiaTtcrs have been transferred 

to Ramptk HEAtJiKAH. JO miks distant. Pojiulauon (iSRi) 9094; 

namely, Mnhammadans, 5368 ; Hindus, 37^1 ; and ^others/ 5. Muni* 

cipol income (1883-84), ^799, of which ^740 was derived from 

taxaiiofi ; average incidence of taxation, is. 7id. per head of the town 

popubuion. Natter Is a cotnpaci town clinging close around the 

if or palace of the Nattor Rijus, who rose into power lu the 

tier half of the b« ccnlur)% and gradually obtained posicssion of 

moAl the entire Diitrict. Their estate now holds only the third or 

h rant !n Rij&h^ht 

»tlbatpnr,— Village in Benares District, North-Weit Province* ; 

itiated in lal. 2^* 14' 48" n., and long, 83° 27' 40" E., on the banks of 

Karamn.isa rircr. here crossed by a fine stone bridjie. Population 

18S1) 948, principally Musalmins, Brihmans, and Ehuinbdrs. Bdx4r, 

staging bungalow, and masonry sanii. 

HaOg^OD. — A British c.intonmcni in l^undellchand. Central India. 

Sit NcrtfccoNa 

Hool mrttL — Gorge in Belgium Dittrio, Bombay Presidency, — 

VaUp&da. — Town in Canjim District, Madms Presidency. Lat. 18* 
V,, long. 84' io* 50" %. Population (ifiSi) 1835; number of 
VOL. X- Q 


the anmu! i 

1ioii«ct, 5S9. The place is Double for its salt maDnfacture* the 
value of which is about ^100,000, 

Kanshahra {A'f^'sA^ra ; also called IChahd Khaiiak (ahsO). — Tahit 
or butt div;.MLin ol i'cfihiv^-ar iJ^stnct, i'unjal), con^iKimg o£ a small uait 
nonh ofthc Kdbulm-er, andofa larger trace stretching ftOt:ihii-ard:( fros 
the Kabul rivci to ihc Indus, on the Kjli^ii LorJcr. Area, 54S viiiofc 
RiilcA, writh 12 1 lovrna and villages >3t939 hottoc*, and 17,5 to fanHlici. 
Population (i8&t) 90,5^4, narn«ty, malea 5>)373i and ftrmalcs ^St^ii ; 
avenge clen*ity of popuhiion, 165 pfrrii>nt jicr *qunn; mib. CU&faSfd 
according to rdigion, tlic population ron$ii«t$ of — Mtiharumadans. 
Sr,96i ; Htnduj, 7005 ; Sikhf, 56$ ; and ChriKtians 1050. The totil 
average area of cultivated Und for the five years 1877-7S to iSSi-S;, 
if returned at iii si^uarc miles» or 70,853 acres, the principal cropi 
being ihefolfowing:— Wheat, 30,353 acres; barley, 22.^^1 acres j/tfrf'', 
3$S4 acres ; and cotton, 963 acre?^ Revenue of the taht'ti^ j£^S75- 
Theadmliii^trativc'StarTcomiitU ofa faAsUddr^viho presides over t civil 
and I criminal court, llic At^i/h dlvidrd int^ 4 pdice culIci {tAJvdi), 
with a rr^^jlar police force of 57 nicn^ and a. rural police or vilU^ 
V-iCfh of 156 <hiink\4drs, 

Naushahra {Nau*^htra).—^<i-Kx\^ ^^antoDincnt, and cit-il fliaiioo b ^ 
Pcshiwar Dj&tnct* Punjab, and head - quarteri of the Naii^duhn cr 1 
KhaUd Khaluik iahiU: nilualed in JaU jj' 5g' 50" k„ long. 72^ ''45" a, \ 
on thf right bank of llie tLibul river, 2 7 luiics cost of IVshawar city, 19 
miles Kctit of Actock, and 15 miles south of Hoti Mardan. l^e can- 
tonment lies in a small snrnJy plain, 3 miles in vidih \ surrounded on 
the east, south, ind west by hills, but open on the north tonard the 
lUbul river, there aic lines fur a Hriitih rcj;imE!nt, a regimc-nt of 
Native ciivalry, and another of N;itivc; ijifantry. Bdsdr^ puhcc sLition, 
saniif po»C- office and lelcgnph o6lkca; Proicstant and Rocoia 
Caibolic churches. 1'h^c arc two to^-ns of Naushahra, the iMiiw 
towTL being on ihc left b-ink of the river, about 3 milc^ abovu thtf 
cantonment, and connected uilh it by a bridge of boat<i, which it 
maintained dl the year round. A first-cb^s staging bungalov is 
vttiuted close to the bridge of Uoals, and in the cantonment is a statioa 
of the Punjab Nwrihtrn Stiic Railway. The drainage is effectively 
performed by rnean^t ctf natural ravines and a good and whole^nK 
viatcT-sitpply is obtained from the river, as wcU as from vclb. Popu- 
lation of Naushahra cantonment (i3Si) 5473, namely, niales 4345, 
and females luS, The native town of Naushahra, on the (^positc 
bank uf the river, C9ntain&{id3i) a separate i^opuhtion f»fjk>9:>, naiaely, \ 
males 3^79^ and females 361 1, Including the cjtmi>nmcDt and 
native town, Naiif^hahra contains a total population of 1 3,963, composed 
at follows: — Muhammadanij, 903a; t[indiis, sSao j Sikh«, 93 ; and 
'others' (almost exclusively European Iroop&J, 1018, The native lo' 


BlUira is picturesquely siTuatcd, and is a prosperous agTicultural 
vkh cxccnsltc lands irrigaicci from wellSi and a good Govern- 
mcni school. 

NaostLalira {XiKVsheray^Twfa in Haiitra District, Punjalx— 5^tf 

^L NauhAAn}*— Subdivision of KaidiirdhM (Hy<Ieribid} District, 
'^ind, Bombay Presidency \ situated bviwccn Uil a6' T 30" an4 a;' 15' 
Ni, And bctwt-en long. O7' 51' and 68' 54' s- ArcJ, 2939 square riiilcs. 
Population (iSya) 119,596; (i83i) 197,149 persona. Bounded on ihc 
north and weil hy the Indus ; on the ccut unci north-east hy Kluirpur 
Stat*^ and Thflr nnd P.'frknr District; and on the smith by Hiin Sub* 

Physimi AspfiU. — N^ushahro consists of a wide alluvial plaiu, strcich- 
ing iiom north to south, broken only by the forest lands bordering the 
Indus. The irrigation system comprises 98 canals, of which aj arc 
main feeders. The chief are— the Mahrab, 36 miles long; the Dddwah, 
52] mites lon^;:, which ta| a the Indu:^ at Mtth^lni, and laiU otT at Vinl 
Duhri ; ihc N^rai, 30 inilos lon^ ta|j|)in^ the lndit& in Mohbal D^ru 
forc^i the AU-bflhJr Kachcri, 30 tnilca long, tnpping the Imlua at 
Nikdr ; and ihc Iligw^th, ^*l\ miles long. The Knsmt was dug during 
ih* rule of NJr Mi:hamm:id Kalhora, and tipened cut from a dhnndh 
■ftxr (j^il.diah, a fjicl which tt-nds tii show tKnr thi.- Indu* formerly 
tended farther castw;ird, the old bed being still traceable ^t places. 
amc and tish arc abundant The forests of this Stib-div t^lon, some of 
jrhich arc very extensive, arc ij in number, and covera total area of 
^5,169 acrc^ yielding in 1S73-74 a revenue of ^6147, \v\ 1S7S of 
^10,595, and ill tSSo of ;^4Si8. The dccre-ise in the last year was 
3ve to the abolition of the Indus JlotiUa, which had been a large 
C0DS11UICT cf faeL 
^K liuivry, — 'Vi\^ ciirly biatoiy of Nausbahro cannot be stuurylcil fram 
^BtiAt of the Province it-tclf. On the division of Sind aiiion,:^ the Tatpur 
chiefs after the decisive battle of Shjihpur in 17B6, when Abdul Xabi 
Kllhora was defeated by Mfrs Faich AH and Ruslam Khrfn» the/^r/y^ff^Jj 
of Kandiiro and Nausbahro fell to the share of M^r Sohtjh Kh;in 
Talpur, and formed a iiortion of Khairpur St^tte. ThJi chief died in 
1830. and dif^eHfion:^ then broke out between his sons Mir Rustam and 
%ix Alf Munid, vhich in 1842 resulted in a battle, when the latter was 
Id 1S4J, Ail Murdd obtained ihc dignity of Rdh, or lord- 
at; aad Naushahro and Katid^rifo rcnjaincd in his ])osse^ion 
till 185*, when, m consequence of misconduct, they were confiscated 
incorporated with the Haidardbdd Colledoracc. 'X\\*^i.^ p&rga«d:\ 
. ihc iAluks of Moro and Sakrand, constitute the modern Sab^ 
liviaion of KaUfhahro. 

f. — The popubiion in 1S56 was estimated at 107,3^6 


Tlw CCoMtt of 1877 i c mr aeJ tl at st^^^of vtes i85.5>i^^| 
UfiMlaiinftaBd 14^75 HMml Thai of iSSt reliinieJ « at x^i^Jf^ 

I randft 103,3^ Bales and 9}f75' fcankf^tlwdbieia 35,501 hood* 
ftcittopJ in 5 tovm sod 351 vilfaB**- Tbe m^js of pcnom per 
iqBaDcmk»63, MnhaMiiMdaiii ai mbcrpd 167,164; RiBdK,i5,6x>; 
SilcH >S,666;aboripad lnbcs,58o;tiidClirittns,t7. IWp^ctpiI 
MfllttBMttdaii uftct RprcMiBied an the BaUctii,]itSt S«dli^«^ 

[SanridL Tbr pfTfiilfng bflgvage, bodi ipofccn aikd wntaoL la SU^I 
Natire iniden tQ« the HiiMh-Sbdhi dur^ocr^ The HtnAas »e coo- 
fined t9 the tQwiUi and form the trading camiciana^* The dicf tpra» 
Afc KA3rot4RO, KAV^nAtiao, TitAJttj Stui^ BitmtA, and KottOi 
THcte are 7 Ciir* bdd in th« Sab-dnriaon. 

AgruMitHrt. — Thf nvKt roniDon fbrm of trngatiton a by tbe ^iltfffbtr", 
or Fenian wheel. Ulica the rain£ill b abundant, a larte cQcai of 
bttrdni^ or rain bmJ, 1-^ brouzht under tilbiee. The moat Eestile k>9 in 
NaoifahFo u bond in the Kancturo Muk, The cubnable land beM 
iny^/f/'cOTenan nrea of about Si,oi6 acres, of irfikb 4itS2oaacaan 
if] the Moro tdhik^ and 16,084 m a pan of the SaibaiM] tdhUu The 
■urvey was obmplebed to 1863; and the sccelemeot iras tatrodnced 
between ibc j'ean 1SG4-65 and r&6S-69, in sofoe bstaDces fx nine 
and in oUurn fix ten ycjr%. A roi^-d settlement va» intiodaood w 
the Sakrand lHuki in 1S7S-79, aod in the three rcnuinio^ iUUbls an 
iSSi-Sf, in cvciy cas« for ten years. Area nMC«Md to land revenue 
(i8fts-f{3), «i9,T4i apTc*. The tot-tl arcfl of cultivable CovemmenI 
bnd in the Sub-division \% 955.577 acres, but of these ooly 174.466 
a<TC« were actually tinder cuhi%-3Uon in 1&83-S3. 

Manffadum. — The chief tnanufacEurei arc cottoo doth, coarse 
paper, soap, oil, coloured cLiy rinp for women's omamcnU, taddleft, 
and wilL The trade of Naushahio is principalt/ in gram and other 
agriculiural produce, and i% alino«t entirely carried by the Indus and 
the canab connected with that lii-cr, The imports compmc wheat 
and rice, metals and metal floods, »ug3r, and European plece-(ood& 
Estimated value of c^ipodbf ^40*300; of impotts, ^44,000. Nau^hahro 
haa al«o a coneiderabk transit tnLffic tn dried fruits, woollen and conkets 
hair clothi;, carpt-l*, *iilk, and emhroidt^red gcod«, hor*e*, and a«ea. 
The total length of reads in the Suh-division is about 8^a milciS, of 
which Qi aie postal and trunk line^ The Dif^Hct post from Hiidirdbid 
lo Kandliro pawes through the town of Naushahro. where thctc b a 
auh-post'Ol^ce. Thercarc 16 ferries, of ^hich ]4arc on the lndu& 

Rftrtnui.—'Vht imperial revenue in iBSi-fta wai ^48,201 ; the local 
£l^^l ' l<^*^'i -£S't499' '^^^ ^^^^^ re^-enue yielded ^39-883; <fMifi' 
or excise, ^1:67 i stamp*, ;^i786; regirtration, ^^231 ; postal, ^£837 ; 
fines, ^45»; forcM*, ^£1963; liccntciax, ^^x^x inicre»t» ^63; sdi 
and miticcUancous, ^^j. The local one anna ecu o>i land yielded 



j«574; five per cent. yi(f/r c«s,;^JSa; lUhenia, jf^^So; arid fcrrii:?, 

'191, The SuWivmon of Naualuhro, divided into the 4 tdittks of 

rKamltiro^ Nfiushihro^ Moro, and Sakrand, i% administered by an Assist- 

tfint Colleftot and Suli'dtviiiionAl Magisintc xvich drst-cliss powcrft. 

ITh«re jsone dvil conrt u4th ils hcad-qunrtcrsrtl Maushaliio town, subordi- 

Inatctotlie Districi Judge of Haidarabid. Tlic police force numl>en 

in all 143 mcn» bdng i constable to every 13^5 of the populailoa 

There is asuljordinaie jail ai Nau-shahrolown; number of police circles 

\\fh4nds\ i\. The lotal number of scHooh (1873-74) >* ^h ^"^ 

Uai pupils; of these, 19 are Govemment inMimiioiK. Ttiere in no 

1 Avails. The 5ubHlLvision conUin^ 5 niLinicipalitieSi vIjl Kan- 

dUn^ Kaushzihio, Thiiru Shih, Bhiriii, ami Mcjra TUcit ^igi^tcj^aic 

TVCeifAs in iSSi-Sf were £fil^\ flnd in 1883-84,^7705 i he incidence 

^of municipal taxMion vuricd from ^Id to ts. 5d. 

CfimaU^tir. — The rainfall in iSSj amoiinled to 7'«J3 huhe^. The 
IChicf disea&ei are fever*, bowel ri>m[))nintK, and piilmimary nfTtfcUftns. 
[The only mediod institution is the dispensary m Tharu Shah. 

lbasbahia--2^A4'in Naushahro Sub-dlvUion, Haidardbad (Mydcr- 
J) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency, lying between 26' j6' and 
t^'<i ^. lac, and betweeii 67' 54' and 68" 2%' e. long. Area, 531 square 
, nitle&. I'ojwlation (1873) 72J11 ; (iSSi) 61,395, namely, 3<t3<^jnialeft 
99,93a fenule^, dwclbng in 2 townft and 103 villages, containing 
11,101 houses. Hinduii numbered 5313; Muhainmadans, A%^1^$ 
Sikhs, 6767 ; abonginol tribes, 771J ; and Chiiati^iis, 1. Gro^ revenue 
(iSSi-Sa), ^19.308, Area under actual cultivation, 59r^9^ acres. 
I In iSS^-Sj the td/ak contained 1 civil and 3 criming] courts ; 7 police 
tcIm or ikd/tdf^ 35 regular policy 
fansh&hra-oTown in Naushahro tSiuk and Sub divi.sion, H:iidar' 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency'; situated in Ut. j6" si' xV-, 
nd long, 10' 8' £,^ close 10 the PaLro;ewdh Canal, and on the main 
from HaidariMd city lo Rohri; 15 miles nanh-casi of Mom 
Iffjood roads toPhul, Mithani, and Pad-idan, Residence of a wj^/i^/AtfA- 
k^r kJid ^ ta/fiaJdrj and contains the usual putilic buildings, with jailj 
achool, po«t-o(fice^ bungabw^eic Popidiition (i3Si) 3110; municipal 
revenue {1883-84), ^£184 ; incidence of iiJunicL|Rl tax:ttion, (xjd. 
Chkf industry, weaving ^ trade In grain and cloth, which arc annually 

itfxponed to the value of ^6o&a Nauehahro i& aaid (o have been 
founded about 170 yean ago. During the Talpur dynasty it was an 
[mportanl artillery depot of the MiVsl 
NftUsli&hro Ahnk—TJ/uH of the Sakkar and Shikarpur Sub-division, 
Shikdrpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency, Area, 401 *tiuare miles. 
PopuSaiion (1873) 48,226; (1S81) 55,7*8, namely, 29,803 inale* and 
25,9*5 females, dwelling in i town and 108 villages, containing 8960 
houses. Hindus numbered 6389; Mulummadans, 45,010; Sikhs^ 

^^ nuiei 
1^ IM( 




4*70; Chmtiam, ^4; nbonginal trihcs 7S Brahioo*, 6; ard Pini*, 2^ 
Cron revenue (t8*t-Sj), ^i?.7So- Area under actual cuUivaiiont 
5^331^ flfTc*. Portion* of this fd/ui siiflVr from diMsirous flood«, 

■ which hive m-idi; a tlc^eri ofwh-ii wa* formerly a Houn&hing coaotrj. 

'^mbanlctDeils have Ucdybcen con^lructcd, and h:Lvc to iconic exieot 
l^roved useful. Nuti^ber of criminal court*, 7 ; ]X>1ic« ct^c1e3^ j ; TC^br 

^pdice, 19 men- f-and Tcvcnuc (iSS*). j£i5>657. 

f Vantb&n Dub4.— Vilbgc in Champamn Districl, Bengal IjtL 16* 
41' "S'Tf., long. »4"3» K- 

Naras^ri (^V^rj^r/J.— Town in ihc lenitory of BarodOi Bombay 
Prcsidciw-y,— -S"ftr Nosaki, 

Nivpur. — Port m '^h,^na iJislrict, nombny Prciidcncy. Avcraf;e 
annunl v.ilucof indcdurin^fiv^e years ending 1S7S-79 — iniporu, jC*i^\ 
exports, ^^3755. Nivpur or Navslpur lie* iti Pancmbhi vilbgc, about 
4 mil^Jt ^oiTrh nf Triri pur. 

Nawabandar. — Port in Kd[lhid\r:(r, Bombny Presidency. — 5iy 

Nawibffan].— Central fa^sf/ of B:ircli (Barcilly) Districl* Norlh- 
Wesicrn Provinces, coi^ term Inous with the /vr/x'W'f of NavdhgaDJ; 
consisting of a it-ell-tilkd portion of the level RohilkhaTid pbiDf with 
a lew shallow ^roo\-ei cut thrrcin by numerous rivers and canals, vhieh 
form Its most snlicni feature. The firincipal of ihcse rivers, procecd- 
in^f from cxsi to wcsl, arc tlic follouing : — Dcobn, A|iK.1ra, pAJigailt, 
Bilhg\il> N^kutui, And Dcoranlya, vrlth scverel tributaries and irii^ation 
dibtnbuUry cinaU< Populiilion (187J) IJ4.776; (1881) 117,009, 
namr-fy, malcc 6^,931, nnd fem.ilM 54>o7i, Decreaae in popuUttnn 
since 1871, 7»74, or 5S per cent in nine years. CbsslBed according 
to religion, the pof>tilaiion In 1881 consisted of— Hindtw, 05>47o; 
Muhammadan*, 21.551 : and i 'other/ Of the 303 villages in iSftr, 
33J contained k'*HS than five hundred inhabitants ; 61 from five hundred 
to a thousand^ 12 from one to two thousand; and only 3 from two 
to three lhou!s<ind. 

Acconjing 10 the official statement In iSjfi^ NawAl)gunj faksU 
cont:;in«anftrca of S36^ sfiu.irc miles, ofwhidi 177 H|tf:irc miles wi;re 
then cukivaced. Of the totnl cultivated nrco, auiiimn crojii occupy 
73"'S I^'^ ccnt.f and spring crops i6'$^ prr cent. The principal 
autumn ttaplet nre rice, augnr-eane, and hijra ; and the pTircij>al sprinj^ 
rmp*, whr-at and barley, Thi* arefl irrigated, either by artifirul woric*; 
or by naiural overflow of alluvial landh^i* relumed at 57 percent, of ttic 
cultivated area. The Government land revetnie in 1S7B announied 
to j^32,So3, or an ovcr:igc of 4^ 7jd. per cultivated acre. 
Total Government laitd revenue, including local rates and cesi^cs 
levied on the land, ^25,242. E«timaced total rental |)ai(t by the 
cuLiivators (a large pn)f>ortion of which is paid in kind), JQs^^^k^ 



11 n 

The landbolding classes arc principally MuhAinniadnns, Kijrssihs, 

wurmfs, a(rd liTihinana, AlKiut 47 per cent, of culiivatc<i flrca is 

^tilled by Kuniii-\ %6 pa cctiL by Hiulinuin^, and 6 6 jjcr tent- by 

[^bamin. Tenants ^th rights of occupancy arc more than thre« 

jmcti A4 numerous £t« Any ovhcr claAs of cdtivjiors. So gar -boiling 

'\% ihc at%\y important muntifaciure. The chief loc^l marl* for Mirplns 

Ha>rodi]Ce are Naup":ilifr;inj, Senlhal. llaniiir, and Hafijfganj. the first 

^bnd b&t ht\nt 'Jtunlccl on the only road in the t^^hsU, the mcialZed 

H3uJc from i^aTt-l! to FiUbbit, and also on or near the newly opened 

PilibhfE bnTirh of ihc Oiidh and RohilkhantI Railwaj-. In 1883, 

Nawibgnnj tahsif combined 1 crimmal court, with 3 police circles 

{tk4nds), fl regular police force numbering 39 men, and a village waich 

^ct niral police of ttt) diauitidars. 

^^ N&wibgEq].— Town in U:ireli (Bareillv) District, Norib-Wcsicm 
Provinccftf and hc^d-quancrs of NAwdbganj iaAsi/; aiCuaied on the 
metalled road between Barell and Pibbhitf 19 miles north cast of the 
former town. NAw.lbgnnj was founded between 1775 and 1797 hy 
A«artid-dauld, Nawib of Oudh, Popttbiion (r8Hi) 43^3- Besides 
the usual taM/i co]Mti and ol^cei, Nawdbganj caniaia^i a firsi-class 

Kolice stitiOTij imfH-nal posl-cfiice, anfl Anglo-vern icu Li r school. 
NftwAbganj,— /'^/■^wrf in Kara Ilanki Distrkt, Oudh ; boimded 
n ihc nQTXh by Rjfmnngar ami Fniehpur, on the cast by nnrj'rtbad, on 
the »oulh by Panibganj. and on ihc wcsi by Dcwa f^argamU. Ama, 
^79 *f]uaTc miles, or 50.500 acres, of which 37.200 acres arc cultivated. 
ri,a;6 cultivable, and 5593 barrciu 'I'hc river Kaljdni skins the 
fiarj^nd on the north, ami Howk for ahnuE 3 nn1e?t within iis limits, 
ha\'»ng about 13 >ii1.igc5 on its hnnks. Populitiun <iSSi) 451798. 
namely, Htndtis 34,143; Miihnmm:LcbnK, iit&53; nnd * oihcn,' 3. 
ihe 76 rilbgei comprising \h*^ /tar^itfsd^ ^4 ^''^ hdcl under tdlukMri 
31 under wv/rati tenure. The princiial landholder is lassadak 
Khin of Jahangirrflidd, who tnvns 25 out of the 44 fJMif'irj 
es. trovernmcnl land revenue, ^^^^729. Pfincijxil nunufactures, 
D^ and cotton cloth. Commiim<^Eion i« affanled by the Oudh and 
tohUkhnnd RailnMy, the imperuil road from l-ndcnow to Taiulbdd 
(Fyj-^bad). md a road to Bahramgkit. 
^^ Naw&bgaiij.*-Cliicf town of Bara Bank! District, Oudh* ndjoining 
^^hc Li^il huiitju of Bat a Bunki ; siiualed 17 miles eajii of Lutknuw, 
on the road from thai city to l-aicAU-ld (Fyiibdd), l^t. »6' 55' 55' n., 
long. Si' 14' 35* r- The civil stAlitm and -^c!xllin^sl^Qlive head-qunttera 
of ihc FliKirict 1:1 liitualed <'n high ground a mile west of ihcr town, 
separated from it by a smalt stream, ihc Jamuriha. The t'round in the 
immcdiaie ncighbouihootl Is burrcn. and much cut up by ravines. 
Tlic Deputy Commissioner's court, ibe office? of the Assislam Engineer 
and tSie Assifunt Opium Officer, the jail, police lines, and a fc*' 


bungalows for the European icsidcnU* constilutc Ihc cnril »latioix 
'I'bc Government di5pcnaar>-, »d)od, and polJoc station Arc shuoicd m 
the nauvti town, NawabganjcoiiuunedApo|)ijbtion in 1869 of xo^6o6-, 
ami in idRr of 13,933, namely, malei 74i?> -inri females 6511. J 
Ch^ficd according io religion, there were in iSS* — Htndi:^ S640; ] 
Mtthamniadans, 4933: JaiDS, 344; and Christuns, 16. Municipil 
income (iS&3^4), ^1184, of which ^1112 was derived from taxation; 
average incidence of taxation, ta. sJd. per head of Hie icwn population. 
The mnin ttn;et of Che town iit bmad, with wcllbujll hou&cson either 
^idc. Lnrgc trade in sugar And cottoa. The Oudh and KohilkhaAd ^ 
Railway has a suiion at Bara Banki. During ihe Mutiny of 1S57, 
Navibganj w^s the scene of ;i sigtial tlcfcat of the insurgent uxmy by a 
Briiifth force under Sir Hope Gr^nt , 

Hawdbgai^.^ — /"arxand in Tarabganj iaJtsi/, Gonda DUtrict, Oudh; I 
bounded on the north by Mahid^a and Minikpur, on (he ea« by 
Kasti Disirirt in the North-Wmtrm Pmvinces, on the «ou:h by the ' 
rrogra river separating it from FaUibdd {Fyaabdd). and on the wc«t br 
/fT/^rd/rJ; DiKsdr and Mahideva. Area, 142 square miles, of which 64 are ' 
under cull ivatiun. ?o]ju]ation (1869)61,417; (1^1) 68,51 1, namely, 
males 36,341, .md female* 3*, 1 69- The prc^'atling tenure h t^iukdM ; 
the prirciiial hUaUdrs Ijcing Mahirdni Subhio Kunvlr, the vidow , 
of the late Mah^r^ja Sir Man Sirtgb, K.C.SL ; Kaj:t Knshan \MX 
Kim of SinhA CHdnda; and Mahani Har Charan Dis of lidKaatpui: ^ 
Govcritmeiii land revenue, jC^^S^ 

Naw&bgai^. — Town in Gonda District, Oudh ; situated a few mika 
north of the Oogra river, in ht aC^ 55' 45' K., and long^ S3* 1 1' 36' s. 
Knundcd in the last cenlury by Nawib Sh(ijd-ud-dauli ae a Idttir tea 
the supply of provisions 10 his Iroops and atlcmianis ^hen on hi£ 
hunting expeditions, and the largest grain mart in the District. 
Population (1869) 6131 ; (1881) 8373, reaidlng in 18 brick and 1^ \ 
mud-built houses. Classified according to reU^ion, the population in 
1S81 con&istcd of — Hindus, 6647 ; Mijhannna<l;in!(, 1 718 ; and 
Christians, S, MuTiicit>al income in 1853-84^ ^£,711, of which ^£215 
was derived from taxation; average incidence of ta^^anonj tijd. per 
head The town i:ontains 13 Hindu temples and j Muhimcn^dan 
mosques, a small sardi or Iravcllcm' real-house, awd 3 slIjouIb, Ii 
consists of a long street^ with shoprs and dwelling- houses on each side, 
in front of srhich are piled heaps of grain to attract the attention of ] 
dealers. To the north, the street Ijroadens on lo a good^^ed pbia 
which is bordered here and there by sttbstantial sheds fof tlie storage 
of merchandise, and serves as a standing place for the cans vhicb brtn^ 
down the produce of the /^ni/. The principal ex]iorts are rice, oil-seedifi, 
wheat, Indian corn, and hiJes, The impDrts are quite insigniticant, 
being coniined to »ialt, J^ngltJih doth, and pottery, from Mir^pur or 





<h.ig«nnmagar. Tlie tnde on leavin;; Nawd^anJ lakes two main 
ucciioiis — one by ibc Gogra xo r^iind ujiil Luwur Bc^ngat; tlic uibcr 
ihrough F.ijulbid io Cawnpur Aud ilic rouon cotiniiy. The main 
export by the laucr is rice» whik Bengal absorbs the grcnUtt part of 
the oil-^eeds, Indinn com, and Jii<i«*. 

NawabfraiU-— Town in IJnao Drsirict, Oiulh ; situateel I3 miles 
,k«iat oT Unao town, on the Lucknow rond ropubtlon (iSSi) 
ntmely, Hin<lu?> 2306, and Muhnnimn dans 400. Konueily the 
ictd'CjuarterK of a tahsU and police circle, but ihcsc having been 
removed, the plarc has decayed A large fair is hclJ c\cfy year ai the 
end of themot»th of Chaitra in honour of the goddo&scs llorgi and 
Kusahri, which atincts a lit^e ^atlierjn^ from Lucknow and Cnwnpur, 
Licsidc^ iht ix'ojjle of ihe neighbourhood. 
HftwabganJ (nor tailed the Xtiffk Damukpur ,%fitninYaliiy),^Tt^r^ 
nd mimic:|>alily in ihc Bat/jickpui Sub-tiivialoa of the iJJstricl of the 
IVctiiy four Parganis. Beng;iL Lat, a?" 45" 40" «.. long. SS" aj' 5*" e, 
opulation (187*) 16,5^5; (ifiSi) i7>7oj, namely^ males 9550, and 
,es 8153. Classified according to relif^on, the po|nilai)oa in iSSi 
nied of— Hindus, 14,050; Mukimmadan^s jfi'^T^'t ^"^ 'others,' 
*9, Municip:il income (18^^5-84), j£q66, of which ^926 was derived 
frocn taxation; avtrnye intidenrc of taxation, is. ojd per head- 
Muiticifial police, 5; men. Adjacent to Nawabganj is the small village 
i I'ama, from \*hencc the waccr^upply of Calcutta is derived 
N&W&bEaiU-^^'ill^c in Pumiah District, Itcngat ; situated in )at. 
5' 19' N., and long. «j* 17' e., 34 miles from Fitmiah town, snd 
1 J fjrom the banl;^ of the Oanfi^es opjiuMic KSihjbganj- It is considered 
to include the village of Itikhmfir^, which \k^ a mile tlialant; the 
wbok was let from 1^73 to 1S78 ns an inciigo fnrm, Popiilition not 
r^nmM in Ihi? Census, but cMimated at 1500. Primarjr srhnoh Tho 
town is said to Kive t>cen founded in order to protect the route from 
Pumiah 10 R^jmahal (the seat of Government in the later Musalman 
tiiMs), which was infc^ed by gangs of robijer*. Nawdbganj cnntains 
an old fort in rtiins, covering an area of about 80 acres. Exports of 
rioe, jute, tob:icco, indigo, and oil-sccds; impom of piece-goods, spices, 
brass and iron ware, etc, 

NawAda.— Sub-division of (layd District, Bengal, lying bet^^ecn 24" 
;c' 30' ajiJ 15' 7' ti. bL, and betweeu S5* ij' jo' and SO* 0' i- 
lon|;. Area, 1010 squaic mites ; villager, 1&17 ^ houses, 77iTS6. 
Population {iS7a) 444,99^; (iSSi) 4d8,4fiS, nartiely, m:i]cs 747,376, 
and females 146,161, showing an increase; of 43,49a, or g'77 per cent., 
in nine years. Tl)e Hindus in i8Sr numbered 439in7^ Mubamma- 
dans, 4^1369; and Christlanvi, 2, Avernge density of population, 
479 penons per square mile ; inhabitants jicr village, 268; houses 
square mJcj 84-<>; inmates per house, 6'3, This Sub-divisiiti^ 



coiapriacs the 5 police circles {fhdnds) of Xawida, Rij^ulf, aod Pakii* 
bardnirrdn. 1ft 1SS4 it conuined 2 courts, a nrgular force of 94 tncn. 
«n<l n vi11;igc watch numbering 385 ^AssfJtfJJrr. 

Nawid&v — Town in G«ji OUlrici, Bengal. hcad-*iturlcre of ibc 
Naw.'lij.i Stib divmon. nnfi » elation on the chord line of the East 
India Rnilway; );uuate<l in Ul 24' $3' 4'' N<, tmd bftg. 85* .15' I* c, 
on a branch of the river Dhanarjl Popubtion, 4811. Municipal 
tncome (1S83-84), ^107. Ht* a large and increuuig through tralRc. 
Municipal police force* >i men. The name of this town is thought to 
be a corruption of Natiib^dah. Before i!^ ncquinition l>r the Compfti))^, 
Kaw^Lt was ruled by ihc scnii'indq>en<lent Kijis of Hasdl. 

Nawad^ — Village in Midnapur Disirict, Bengal. J^t. sz' 35' 30* 
rv,, long. 87* 30' E- Poi>uUiLi>n between aooo and 3000, but not re- 
turned floparatoly In the Census Report. Noted for the m.-mufadurc of 
a su|n-rifir quality of *^anc su^jar : trade in ngriculiural |>rodu<.-<. 

Naw4g4oiL,— Hill rant-iT in Hhnnd^'ira I>iatrtcf, Central Pio\'inccs : 
riaing 300 feet above the plain, with eight distinct j>eak?t, known as 
the *Sc%'cn Si&icra :ind ibcir KiiEle bmihcr.* Though tcaniily ciotked 
with ve^'ciaiion, thc&e bills arc infested with wild animals. 

NawagAou— Artificial lake in EhanddrtS Distiici, Central Province*; 
s'uualcd m laL lo* 55' N., and long. 80' 11' e. ; 17 uiileB in ctcoid- 
fcrence» and with an average depth of 40 feel : surrounded by the 
Nawacaon Hiixs. Numerous streams supply the lake, which U 
closed by two cmbankiutnta, rca[>i;c-tii'dy 350 ainl 540 yaids in length. 
Cbimnd Pitcl, tbc ancci^or of the proprietor of Nawa|:don village, 
constructed the work, which now afforcLA mc-ini; of irrigniion for 500 
ocres of rirc and fiugar-c-inc hnd, -ind yields the proprietor an anmni 
income of ,^70 from this source- 

R&wa£r4oa.--SLite in Bunddkhand, North-Westcra Proviocca^ 
Af Naicaoh Rihahi, 

NawAg&rh.— Korl in Ba»bahr(Bu3KiKir) State, Pnnjab; oa a ndge 
streuhiijy ^<ni[h<:»it from the great range of MunUk^Lkrinda- Iji. 31' 
15" K.t \on^, 77' 40' II, Fortified with stockades and held by the 
Ciiirkhrifi {1000 strong), during tl>e war of iiLi4-i5 ; but the peo|>]e of 
Bashahr ^o^e againM their foici^n maitcrs, invested the fon, and com- 
pcUi:^! the ^amson to surrender, 

Nawal^arh. — Town in the Shaikhawiti DUtrict of Jaipur State. 
Ri)pLitdna, Di»tAni 75 milcc north west from Jaipur ctiy. Popubtiovi 
<iS8i) 10,033. namely, 5i66mntes and 4S66 fomalcs. Hindus number 
8; So. and Muhammadam 1152, The chief is a tributary of Jaipur, 
nt\<\ h:ts :i yearly revenue of ^7.100. PoM-fiftioe. 

N&W&lgtlBd.--Sul>-di vision cf Dhdrwdr District, Bombay Presidency*. 
Area, 562 sf^uare mile), containing a to^ni and 87 vitlagea, Popula- 
(ion (iS7») 104,700; (1881} 87,832, or 43,158 male* and 44'^7-l 





ing 16,934 houses. Hindus numbered 78,909 ; Muh-iin- 
maffons, 8145; nnd '<;ihci>,' 77S, Yt-iuly larjd revenue, jCi>^\^^^* 
Navdlgiind ia one of ilic northern Su1>-Uiviaicjn3 of Ubdrwar MiMrkC. 
li is an citpanK* of bbck soil, with ihnrc hiUt running from northwcsi 
to south-w^it. The u-nier-!Hijiply \% f:hicfly from river* j the rainfall is 
unccnain. Of the 56a nciuare miles so square mile* arc occn;>icd by 
ihe lands of ;tlicTiatcd villages. 1'he rest coniains ,i,u>*i* acres* or 
96-1 ] cultivable land; igSo acres of uncullivablc land ; 106 
acres of grass; 394 acres of forest; and 11,245 ^^^^ o^ village sitcv* 
rivcra, and ^ircimi;. In ihe 334,212 acres of cultivable Un<1, Arc 
^(4*025 acres of aliona.rcd bnds in Ciovemmcnt vilbges. In 188:^82, of 
240.108 acres, ibc whole area heM for tillage, 1420 acres were fallow or 
under grais. Of the 238.7S8 aercs actually under tillage, grain crops 
oecupictl 141,129 acres (82,906 lielng tender whest) ; pubc!^, 1 U083 
AGFCS ; oil'sccd^ 18,5^5 ^crcn j fihri^s f>7iS6(!f acres ; nnd miacellancoun 
crofw, 1S5 acres* Kawnlgt^nd Subdivision contained in 1SS3 three 
Cfiminal courts; police circles {Ihiin4$\ >; regular polic^i 47 men; 
villAge lirirrh ifh/iul*iJiirs\ 393, 

KawalgdJlA— Chief town of the Nawalgi^nd Sulhdmsion of Dhir- 
wAr Disirtcl, Bombay rrcMdcncy ; situated 24 miles norih-cflst of 
Dh^wir lown, in bt- 15' 33' 10" n,, and bnp, 75' 23*40' E. PopuU- 
tion (1881) 7810, namely, Hindirs 64&71 Muhammadans 1232^ and 
jain* III, Miinict|ia1 income (1882-83). ;^4^6 ; incidence of municipal 
laxanon, 15. id |>cr head of populaiion- rosl-offtce. 'Ihe town is 
celebrated for the excellence of its cotton carpels, and for its Ku|>erior 
breed of cauIc, which are chitflly add at the weekly in;trket on 
Tucada}^. Nunvalgdnd, with much «f the su rrou ndi rig country , formerly 
foeton^ed to a local chief called the De^ii of Na<vcx]gund- Ie wi,s eon- 
qucrcd by Tipd Sultin, and taken from him by the ManSthii:, who ^^nve 
the De^t'^ family a mainlenanee in Innd yielding ^^ajoo per annum. 
Three Oovernraent and two private schools, 

RftWaJpnr.—Peity Uhil Suie in the Mehwis tract of Khindcshi 
Bombay Presidency, Population {1881) tSo ; supposed grots revenue 
(1880), X77' PTinci|>al produce, limber. The chief is a BhiL The 
famjiy has no |ulcrn allcwiiig adoption ; succession follows the rule of 

Haw^nag&r. — Nailve Siaie of the first class on the touihern shore 
of the Gulf of Cuteh (Kiclii^hh) m die Hdlar division of Kdtbidwir, 
Bombay Preiidcncj-^ Bounded on ihc north by the Gulf nind Rnnn 
of Cuteh ; on the wcsl by the Okha Hann -ind ihe Arabian Sea ; on the 
eavt by the Native ^lAtr« of Morvi, Kiijkot, Dhrol, and flondal ; and on 
the south by the Sorath divl^ior of K;lihiiw:fr. Area, 1379 squ^tre 
miks- Population (1872) 250.847 ; (tSSil 316,147. TJie area ahonn 
is that returned by the Kdthiiwar Political Agent ; the C«\^^i^ «A v^'fev 



gives the area at 3593 s^u^ltc mika. 'Hic lutier auihorky returns the 
itiaIcs ox 163,462, and the females at i5^t6S5, dwelling in 5 tovns and 
6a6 viUagta, combining ^Cfit^^ hounc^. Hindus number 350,38? ; 

The territory lies htlweeh 11* 44' and aa* 54' N. Li[., and bctwct^ 
63' 58' and 7r e. long. It isgewerallv Ibi, hui alwut itto-ihirdsof the 
B.inia Hills are corLtined within ttv limits. Mount Venu, the bighesi 
point of the; Ihrda Hills is 2057 ftct above the sea. lrri^;itLon is con- 
ducted by means of water ctnwn from vst\\% by bullocks, and in some 
places by ai|ueducts from rii'crs. A ic«cr^~oir for the tlnnkuig su[:f>l7 
of the capita), and for purposes of irTig:ition,i&bcing built S milc« south 
of Nawinag^r town. The area will be about Ooo acres. Esjicoall) 
on the ciMBt of ilie Gulf U Qm\^\ aZvti^ nbidi llie tciiitoiy c>tcnd>> 
the dinuLtc is good 

Marble of difiTercnl <]u:i])t]ci> Ik fciund in the Kandoma and Bli^nwat 
ttUuks. Cop|icr occurs in the Knmhbjilia ^tir^av^i, hui does nut pay 
working cx]x:n&c9, Hopes are entertained that silver may be locnd 
in the island of Ajad There ate stone quarncs within the lii:nits <rf 
the State, and iron-ore is aUo found, hut the ptoJuction docs not pay. 
The | products are grain and aitltm ; cloth and silk arc the 
chief manufactures. The hnd ts mostly garden and thy crop, y*"rff, 
M/nr> wheat, and gram are the supk crops. Ihc wheat is prodiKed 
without irrigai ion. At Riwal about laoo acre* ate irrigated for ikc. 
Cotton, bugar-csne, and tobac«;o are niscd in ^null qu-iniitie^ A 
BBOAII pearl fishery lies olTthe coast on the »ouihcrn ahorc of iHc Culf- 
A trade in isinglass and shagreen is growing up ; and the fiiberid 
affbrd sole, ix>mfret, and u'luiebflit Mangrove swamp* line iHe 
shores of the GulC affurding large supplies of firc«'Ood, and pasttire to 
herds of camels. The A^tJn httorah is here said to grow wild, and the 
stalks of the blossoms when cooked to resemble asparagus in lastc, A , 
considerable number of people are em|jloyed as dyers. The dycs 
£;iven to the local fabrics are much admired, and their excellence ts 
traditionally attributed to ihc quality ol the water of the Kangnmti, *hich 
washes the walls of the town oi N^iwanagnr. The harboursof Jodlaand 
Nawinagar or Bedi are situated within th^r State; and there is Land 
commuLiii:Atioii by tarts and pack-bul]ut:ks» hoiae*, andcimcb. Until 
i36o, the NawsLnogar Si.itc wa« mfc-ited by lions, which pgLrticulatly 
abotsnded in the Bard.i and Alech Hills. In 1S60, however, vhen 
cannon were frequently fired in pnrsuit q{ the rebel Vighew, the lion* 
tl^id from the hills, and ar^ now only found in the Gir foreit, and 
(rarely) in the Girndr mounlaia near Jundgarh. Leopards, cheetahs, 
and nii^i are common. 

The present (i^Si-Sa) chief, or Jim, of Nawinagar, Sri Vibhiji, 
K-CS.!., is a Hindu cf liic Jitcja Rajput caste. He administers the 




pcnon. The JAreps entered KHhiiwAt from Cxitch, antl 
d the ancicni family of Jctwis (Pcrbandar), then estab- 
lished at Ghumll. Nawdnagar was founded by Jim Rin'al in 1540. 
The Muhammadans called it IsUmnagar, but tbe Jims have rcsiored 
the orig;innl rAme. The Jdni* are of the same family a* the Rios c( 
Culcb, 'I'he cbief &( Dhrol State claims to he clc*rencletl from a brother 
of Jim RiwaJ, founder of the Naw;inagar line, and RAjkot tK aUo an 
offshoot frotn this State* The J.'irn, in 1S07, executed the usual 
engagements to pay liibutc rt^^'ularly, w keep order in his knilory. 
and not to cncroacfi on his ncigbbourt. Tlic Jireja tribe vas, at the 
beginning of thia centtjr)', notorious for the »ysietuatic murder of 
female children, to avoid lh<? difficulty and expense of providing them 
with bii'ib;tnrts. Engagements were entered intn by the JareJA rliicfs 
in tSu to abandon this custom : and, under the constant watchfulness 
c( the Bhiish officere, it is believed to be now cxiinct 

Nawdnagar olficiaUy ranks as one of the ' ftist-class ' tnbutaiy States 
of Kithiiwai ; its chief, who is entitled to a salute of 1 1 giins, having 
power to tr}" for caiiiialofTenceaany person excejn British siibjtctR. The 
estimated gross revenue for the year ending tSSo-St was ^331, 851, and 
fortbc>*€ar i&ti^it^tS^j^"], the decrease being aimbmed tothe filll 
in the pfice^of pn:>duec, as the Slate icveiiLte i'i ^11 levied in kind. The 
chief pt)') a tribute oi ^ij,oii jointly to the Britiah Government, the 
Ciekwdr of Barodo, and the Naw:{b of Jundgnrh. He maintains a 
nilittty forre c*f 330J men. He holds a title anihon^ing ndoplion; 
and the lucccssion follows the role of iinmn^'enimrc. There are at 
present (1881) 6j schools in ihe ytate. with 5095 pupiU No transit 
dues are levied in the State. There arc 2j criminal and 9 civil courts 
in the Stale: The State cxpendiiuTc on useful public woiks wcs 
2i^'i54 in 1882-8.5. 

HawAnajar.— Chief town of Nawrfnagar State, KdihidwAr, Bombay 
Presidency ; situated in lat. 22" 36' 30" n., and long. 70' j6' 30' e,, 
310 mile* nonb-wcst of Bombay, and 5 njile^i cost of the port of Bedi. 
Topulauon (18S1) 35. 66 8^ namely, !0,o57 mnlc3 nnd 19.611 female*, 
Hindui number 34,009 ; Muhammadans, 17,280; Jains, 3306 ; 
Chrtttiant, 3a; Pintf«, 3a; and 'o(h<frs' 9. Founded hy Jim 
Riwal in 1540, The town is almost entirely built of stone, and 
is surrounded by a fort built in 17 88. is a flourishing' 
place, ncurly 4 miles in circuit, with a large trade- la the sea, nonh 
of the town, are some beds of pearl oysters ; but the pearls are of 
inferior quality, and the fishery a{ipears to be mismanaged. The 
outturn realizes about ^400 annually. The town is alio known for 
silken and gold embroidery^ for incense and jierfurned oils, and for 
the ijf'frv or red powder which is tt^ed m make ihc caste marks 
on the forehead of Hindus. The average annual value of impoitft at 


ndof ifi^ 


Bedl for the three yeusenJing tS?^-^ wm ^1^,773* And 

Nawanagar.— Old tovn in Thdna DtArictt Bomlmy Preudencj. 
SiituEcd to the east of Kalyan railway stniion, a littk beyond the dcw 
Dislnct bungnlow. 

HawAshfthr.— Souih-eAslcm fti^//of Jilandhar(JuUmidur) Disihct, 
Punjab, lying between 30' 5^" 15" and 31* 17" 15* N, laL, and between 
75* 49' 45*^n[l 76' 19' K- iua^. Atcn, 794 K^iuire miks, wiilt 1 town 
and fSs villages; number of hoiuo, ii^xS;; numb^ of familipc«, 
4^,583. Toul populttiion (18S1) 153,45^1 namely, nuilcft 99.54*^ 
find ffirAk* %.9'»- Average doniiliy of popnlatior, 634 persDnt pet 
square mile. Classified accordinj- 10 religion, the popubtton conxittt 
of — Hindm, ^S^goo: Muhamtnad^n.s 60,149; Silcha, 24,349; Jains, 
158; ;tnd ChiiMiaus, 2. Of the 183 to^vnf^ and vtllaj^, 157 contain 
less thitn five hundred inhabitanu ;Si fron live hundred toa thousand; 
35 from one to two thou^nd ; 9 from turo to five thounnd ; and 1 
upwards of icn tbousnnd inhabinnts. The average annual area under 
ihe principal crops ior the five yeare 1877-78 to ia8i-S> is reutmed 
am foUuwtt: — Wheat, 61,305 acres; jtfdr, 31,764 a,aeH; Indian com, 
'7»i7o-icrcsj gram, 6086 aero i mr}/A, 6012 acrei; barlcf, 5166 uncs; 
sugarcane, S766 ncrcs j and cotton, 3011 dcTca. Revenue of the 
ftthsi/^ ^3o.74>- The administration \% in the handfi of* fjiM/JJr and 
J nvtfvf^jr, irho preside over t criminal and ^ civil courts; number oJ 
police circles {tMndi)^ t ; strenffth of re^'ular police force, 61 men ; with 
4 vilb;:t: w:ilt:li or rural police of 316 ^aukydrs. 

Nawashabr. — Town and municipality in Jdbndhar district, Punjab, | 
and hcad-qiiarien of N.nw.ishnhr tahsi/. !-at, 31' 7' 30' n., long. 76* 
9' 30" E. Founded by Naushcr Khin, an Afghan, during chc reign 
of the Emperor B.lbar, Population (iSSi) 4960 ; namely, Hindu?;, 
J891 ; Muhammadans, 1978; and Sikhs, 91, Number of houses, 
328- Munkii>al income (18^3-84), jQi^^ ur an uvirrogc of 9A. per 
head. Nawanhahr is a thriving town, with paved sRcct* and sub^Un- 
tinlly buili hottsoa. It carricfi on a Large irado in sug^ir, and a Gon^ulcf 
nWe m^inufacmre in /r/n^h and other rottoti goodi 'i*hc public 
buitdingt consist of the u^ual /aJtsili courts and offices, post-ofhcc, 
middle school and ^'rla' school, and stirJi or native inn- 

Nawashahr. — Town and mtinidp^lity in AbbottiMd faJisU^ 
llazifa District, Punjab ; situated in lat- 34° 10' N., and long. 73" 18' 
45' K., on Ihe rond to ThanJi.'fni, about 3^ miles east of Abbottibdd 
lown. Populaiicn (1S81) 4J07 ; namely, Muhammadans 325t, and 
Hindus 1056, Number of bouses. 76$. Municipal iiccme (1883^4), 
jC^Sli ^^ ^'1 average of 3|d. pci hcud* Kh^ltn local trader^ allied 
with thoM: of Balakot, can-/ on a brisk busincM in salt fium the 
Jcldam mines, and in English piuccguodt, which are exported to 



HiualTAr^bid and K.i^hniir, whence large quantities of 

Nawibandar.— Port in KithLlw^r^ Bomboy Presidency; Stunted 
jn bL 51^ 2(> N., and long. 69' 50' r., i^ mites :iouth-e.iKt o( Porkintlnr, 
jind 15 north-weu of Mahadcopitr, on the south-west coast, at \\\^ 
mouili of the rivtr Bhadar, vhich during the monsoon is nnvigablc by 
boatu A>r ubuui 18 mJU::^ The puit Is avujbbic uiilj foi miiall ciaft, au 
the mouth of the nvcr is shollour sml rcck)r and dll^cuU of accc5>. 
PopubLion, 1343 in 187^1 :ind 10&9 in iSSt. The trade of ihc town 
is diminikhing on^ing fo the elTecis of the r.iiiwjiy c>t\ ihc impori trade in 
timber, which had its centre here. Imports in 1881— X'l'^fi; expona, 
jCz9-o. Ifn{jorts in 1882-83—^3^581 exports. ^1740. 

Na-wilL — Kivcr in Prome Di&tricE, Pegu Dimion, Lower Runna; 
formed by the junclion of iwo Mrenms, knovv-n as the Norlh itnd South 
^'3'win, The north Ni-win rises in the Pegu Voma range to the 
noith of the Pi-dauk spur, and flows down a narrow rocky vnllcy 
nj; on the plains. From its source to Sin-won village, its course 

noTth^wcu ; ihcnce it run» wc^E and ^giilhi-weAt till ii Joins ihc South 
Na-win, a mile south of Myo-ma village. The ^outh Na-win also 
r\AC% in the Pt^^t Vomas immediately Aouih of the E'n dauk spur, uliich 
fvrins the watershed belttcen these two streams up Co their union M, iu 
ih'west tutremiry. As far ns the moiuh of the Tin-^yi, n irrt'oin 
Iraining a lun^ and ftomewliai bell-^hapcd valley, and joining the South 
;Ka-wifi near V^tthic, the river has a south- westerly course, winding 
down a gorge and fed by mountain torrents. Thence it debouches on 
tbc plains, and, after a short north west course, turns iouth-wirit to 
fill into the Irawadi {IrrattaddyJ, in lat- 18^ 49' 30" n.. and lonj^ 
95* tS' t, near the town of Promc. The chief affluents of the 
Na-win, alter Us Junction with the South Na-win, are the Kauk-gway, 
X^w^lhaw, aiid Thlt-gyi. In the I10L season, ncurty XA ihe-*ie streams 
ar« dry; but durins; the r;iiiiA ihc)- bring down va:(| vclutnes of water, 
Khc drainngc of an irca of aboui 700 s^^uarc inilca finding '\\& way out 
by mc-inft of the Na-win. Thc^e feeder* nre only n.ivigable by small 
craft for a short time in the year. The Na-wio \% now ouinly nsed as 
a cliannet for tloatinj; down the valuable timber from the forests on the 
Voma ran^e. 

Nayi Bagnio— One cf the chief channels by which the Padma or 
main stream of the Ganges now discharges its w;iters into the estuary 
of the Me-(;hni- The Nayi U,i^ni is south of the Kirlindsa, and wiihla 
ihc jurisdiction of lUkarganj DisiricL 

NayA-Dtunki (or />jfw^i),— HeadquarterA Sub^livision of the 
Santil Parganin District, Denial, tying between aj' 48' and 14" 50' 
N, bt., *md between S6* 30' 30' and 87° 5S' 1:. long. ArcJi, 1436 

,aarc nfiilcs; number of village^ ^909; houses 5ii545* Population 


(1881) .^6j.i36, namely, males 182,390. and fcmikfl i8o,7t)& CUssi 
fied according to religion, ihcrc were in 1881 — Hindus. 187,193; 
Muhammadans, 8605 ; Sikhs, 54;Chmtiana, t?o8; BuddhiMs, 1^2; 
non- Hindu abori^ine^ i65>99)» of ^hom 155,854 were S;inrdls;. 
J346 Kol-s :tnd 6791 oihet tribes or uavpt-cifietL Average numljer 
of persons per «(|uarc mile, ^547 ; villages per tquAre nrtilc. 3*04 ; 
persons i^r village, 1^5; house* per square miie* 37'5; jjcrsons 
per ItoubC, ;. Tlic Sub-vlivi&ion consi&ls of Ihc single police circle of 
Naya-Dumkd. In 1883-84 it contained 5 ina^iBlcrial and revenue 
court*:, X general police forcv of 36 men, and a village waich of 703 

Nayi-Dutnki (or Dmnka). — AdminlstTatlvc hcadrjuaticrs of the 
District of the Sandl i'argaris. and niso of Nayd-Duralcd Subdivision. 
Bengal. I^i. 14* 16' x., long. 87' 17' 30" e, Dumki i* one of the 
oldest British stations in Bengal. It \% shown on the map of 1769 
as ' I>uincaw,' and u^as then a post o( ^'Ad/t:'ii/i |K>T)ce in the Bfrbh^m 
jurisdiclioD. In I79S> Dumk-i was tran^fenx'd to BhJ^alpuTp and wa* 
made the «(e of one of the four Kohisidnt poljcc thands for ilic regula- 
tion c>f the K.ljinuliil Hills. The n^icne frequently occurs in the old 
correspondence as Dumkah or Doomka, til) 1855, when it wu ftrat 
c:UleJ Nayi-Dumkiby l!ie officer commanding a detachment of troopi 
ttationt^tl here durmg the Sant-Hl rcMlion, It is only ocr-mionally 
called liy the latter narnr nf>v, nnd the present M.ition is on the site of 
the old i^hifwdii post. In 185J. Dumkd was made the head-qaarten 
of the Sanial Pargands District, Lut was soon aftcmards abandoiKd 
and Icfl only as the hefld-qnaricrs of ihc Huntki Sub-Dislrict- In 
1873, the Sul>Di&uict6 of the Sanldl Par^^aads were changed into Sub- 
divisions, and Uumkd ngain became the head -quarters of the ivhok 
District. It contains ilie office of the Deputy Comnimioner of (he 
Sant^l I'ar^anis, uhu is also District jucl^c; of chc So t>di visional 
officer, who i* a ,*iuhoTdinnte judge \ and of two other criminat and dvU 
COuna pLimki itself is only a itmall kdidr on the banks of the Mor 
river, carrying on a little Irade in local produce. European piece-good^, 
eir., with a population in 1881 of some 1500 inh:iliit,-intt. 

Nayig^on.— Stale in Bundelkhand, NonlvWcsccrii Provinces,— 

NayigAOD. — Town in Badaus.'i fahiU, Binda District, North- 
Western Provinces, lying in lal- aj' 3' 30' it., and long. 79' 37' 30' e,, 
on the route from Ajaigarli to Kalinjar, 9 miles northeast of the 
former and 6 somh-wcst of the latter. Population (1S81) 3011. chiefly 
hodhfs> The town is picturesquely situated in a fertile ^cU-wooded 
valley^ tut the heat in summer is said to be almost insupportable 
Village ichool. 

Nay4ff*rl'-^P**V State in Orissa, Bengaljying betfrveo 19' 54' 



3o'ftnd 3o' jq' 30" N. Iftt,. anil beiween 84' 50' 45' and S5* t¥f k. 
long. Area, 5SS square miles. Population tn iSSi, 1 14,6^3 jwreons. 
Bounded on the north by Kh:ind|>4ri Suie, on the o=iM by KiniHir 
Sute. on the ^^outh by Puri niiirici, and on the wat by Doipnlla 
State and the Madras District of Ganjam> 
Hk N;iya^nrh Stale is a large and valuable territory, with some wide 
^■tnict.s of highly cultivated land. Towards the south and soiuh-tMst 
the country is exceedingly wild, and incapable of tillage, but the 
Jun^k-i on the west niii^ht be profitably Wougbl undct cultivation. 
The State abounds in noble scenery; and a splendid tangc of 
hilln, varying from icoo 10 3000 feci in hgiglit, rune ihrDUf^ti It^ 
centre. U scnda rice, conr^ gri^>^i cotton, uugar-cane, and «i;vFral 
kinds of oilscoc!*ilo the nti^hbonring nislrici* of Cunack and Oanj.-im, 
A ica of the State, 5S8 »]uare mJIc^E. Total population (iSSi) ii^.6z3t 
namely, nialc« 57,S6i, and female* 56,761. Hindus number 1 15,512 ; 
Muhamm.idan*;, 361 ; and non-HJndu abon^int^ 949. The most 
numerous ,iborigin,tl tribe is thnt of the Krindhs, Ijut the great majority 
of the aborigiaal population arc relumed ts Hindus irk the reiigious 
cUsfiific&tion of the Census KcpotL The total number of villages i^ 
719, only two of which contain more than >ooo inhabitants, namely^ 
Nijgirh, 3S90; and Ituiiiau, 2133. Na>dgur]i Slaie w;ls fuurjded 
about iivc hundred ycnr» ago by ft scion nf the fnally of the Rijput 
Rijd of RcH-fib, It originally comprised Khandpdr.'t; but about two 
biindrcd year* ago thi* was cr^f^ted into an indcpondcni t^rrritory, 
nie annuiil rtvenue is estimated at ^3516 ; the irikitc to the British 
Gf>vemmeri is ^551- The RJji'a mtUiia consists of 61 men, and the 
police force of 495- There are 19 schools scattered tbrougboji the 

NayAkan-batti (or /Ar/Ji).—\i\h£c\n Dodderi ra/aJk, Chitjldrdg 
district, Mysore Stale Lat. 14' :5' 10' ^., long. 76^ 3*' Ji' K, 
opulation (iSdi) 1716- The residence of a line of fi.i/es'f''^t whose 
legendary history is asfociated with the breeding of cattle and sheep, 
Their tcnitory waa absorbed by the neighbouring chief of Chitddrtlg, 
shortly before tZio rise of llaidar Atf. Ndyakanhalli contains tho 
tomb of Tippa Kndr^^ a celebrated mahJ/'vrmha or «iint of the 
l^ingiyats who lived about 100 years ago. His car-festival is annually 
I attended by 15.000 people. 

^L Naytoagar. — ^funicipd tovn in Ajtnere - Merwira Dlstnct, 
^BUjpuiina,— ^^ Bfj\war. 

^H Nazir4.— Village in SihsigarDiittnct, Afjsam. I^L ;6* ^^' N., long. 

^M4^ 4^' E. i on the left hink of the Dikhu river, about 9 miles south- 

^Bsut of SibNjtj^ town. Im|iort>int an cont.iining the head-quarters of 

the .Assam Tea Company. The village contains several good houses, 

m n^ill, store for European goods, ^nd a Ucgc ^4tdr, 

VOL. X. «, 


NeddJJLvattam. — Vilbpc nr.t1 po&i siiiion in the N'il^ri HST^ 
Matir;i*i i'rcMduny, Lot. 1 1' aS" x, and loiig, 76* 56' t. Sunds sC 
the head of ihc Gudali3rf^<f/, leading from ^lahbar and the Wyniad 
coff«c dUtriciB to the Ntlgiria, about 5Sc3ofcet above Mcalevc), and 32 
miles from Utnkaniand (Ootacamund), Some important Co^'ernmenc 
pUnutton^ arc ^JUL'l1ed Iiere^ 

Hedonuiilgarh. — TJ/tt^ or Sub -division of TmvancOTc Scate, 
M^^nu Prc*i(3cnry. Area, 340 square niilca, Nedumangarh contains 
63^rf;^or vl]]a^CA» Popublion {1875)47,668; (iSSi)5J,jif, namdr, 
26,^6^ nialcs and 25,746 females, occupying >i|6j6 houtci. Htddus 
number 47.7C3 ; MubaramadanOi 36*7 ; aHd CHmtiant, 871. 

NeenmcK — Canmnmcnt arnl ti>wn in Central India. — Sv Kiw^CiL 

Ne^apatanL— Tli-'wHt or Sub-division of Tarjote Dbirict, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 239 square nufc*. Population (1S81) 216^67* 
nameiy, 101,463 males and 115,399 females, dwelling in 2 towns 
and 3*1 villages, and occu[iying 40,085 houses. Hindus numbered 
186,185 ; Muhammadnn*, 20,760 ; CHrisiians, 9902 ; ^-md * other*/ 20- 
In iZ^% the tdl'tk 4:om.iincd 2 civil and 5 criminal courts; police 
circles (/MjTrJj), 9; and regular police, 1&6 men. Land revenue, 
^^41^104. TIkcSoutb Indian Railway frottj Tiichmojidi to Nc^|>atAUi 
traverses thccountt}-. 

Negapatani[A'7^j/^/A?ff£ifli, * Snake town,* Ni^<im(tt (CSr.), Xi^ma 
Afftri'p. (l^iiin). ihe -1/*7//>Cj//^i»ofihc Arab geographer's <Yolc),nnJ 7>* 
City t>/ C^orom^Hdfl <:ii i\iQ early Porm^jueiej.—Town and chief port of ' 
Tanjorc District, Madras Presidency, and terminus of the South Indian 
Railway. LiL 10' 45' 37' M., lon^. 79' 53 28' t Popubtioa (witli 
Nagiir) in 1881, 53.S55. njimcly, 24,305 male* and 29050 feinalev; 
number of houteit, 8616. Hindus numbered 36,32^; Muhammadani, 
12,408; Christians, 5118; and ' others/ r> With the adjoining port of forms a muiucipftlity ; income in i8»3-84, ^4838 ; incidence 
of tajiacion, ibout i&. 4Ad a head. Among the principal buildings 
fire a Jesuit college:, a Wcaley^ui mission c;(:abli5hmcnt, and a large 
Hindu cempleft. 'Inhere is also a fine di^i^cnsary, erected and chiijtly 
maintained by local subseriiitionc. Ncgi|iaiain contains the coiirtftaDd I 
offices of a sub-judj:e, a Di^itrirt Jwivw^r/ a Head Asskiant Col lectori ' 
and a iahiUdtir : and the chief Government salt dep6l of Taiijort 

The port cantcs on -in active trade with Ceylon, Bunna, and the 
Straits Stttlement^ ; the imports conslitiing chiclly of cotton goods , 
and arecanuts. and the exports of rice and paddy. A««rage annual 
value of trade for the five years ending 1878 — experts, ;£^523,46c; 
imports. ;t3?0436. Imports (i88o-3i), value jC'45*9'^r exporW, 
value £^^(>.i2^^ Jn 1583-84, the value of the imports into Nega* 
paiiUn ivas ;£337,8S7 i ^^nd uf tlic exjjorb, ;(r5*^*^»547' ''"he import* ' 
were chii;lly white bleached picce-^oods (^26.000); apices (^(^87,000); 



coal fj^iti^ooo) r and ^nny-bfl^ (;^i4,o6o). TTic cx|}oils were chiefly 
fvinicdordycdcoUonnianufacEurcs {;^i66,ooo) ; live Mock (^50^000) i 
a:td^^/ (^(jooo). Kcg.tpoum WAS on^ of ihc f^rli^si ««ttl?mfnt4 of 
the Por(iigu«ie on tli^ Coromandc^l coaiL ll was t-iUen liy Jhc Dutch 
'in 1660, And by ihe Rnglish in 17^1. It w^s the rL^stdcfice of the 
Collector of Tanjorc from the cession of the Dtstrici 10 the Driti^ 
l>y treaty in 1799 lintil ihc year 1845. when the headquaiicis were 

I removed to Traii<iucbar, on the acquisition of thai place by purchase 
fc>n: Denmark. 
The |}0[>ubtion contains a large proportion (nearly 20 per cent.) 
of I^bb.iis, a Musalman [woplc lialf Arab half Hindu in origin, 
Ttho have dcvdo|icd a great cspcity for xx\\\\^ l*hcy arc a boldj 
^tctivc, ar»d Uirifty race, and have csiAbliftjcd proipcroua cotoi>ic« 
in Burmi and the Straits Settlcmentir with *vhich countries they carry 

»OTi a brisk trade. The harbour has a fixed fourth order <iioptric nhite 
light, en a white lower 79J feci ahovc the sea. Rainfall (iSSi), 
4? inches : mean temperature in shade, 66* F„ ming to loa' F, 
Negrais,— Inland in Bassein District, Lower Burma.— iSr Uaisg-gvj, 
Negraia.— Cape in Bassein District, Lower Burma. Lat. 16' i' 30' 
t-Jj,, and long. 94° ij' F. Cape N'egrais is the %fjuth-we4l ptonioiitory 
Df the coast of Ifasscin, The extreme southern point of that coast 
called Ihay-gin or Pagoda Point, beiaring nearly south-south-east 
ffirom Cape Negnis, distant 61 miles. Near K^goda Point Js a targe 
ck, with a bmal) pdgoJa ; red dilTs »trE;tch from it tovvard^ Cape 

Nekmard, — Fair held annually in Bhavanandpur village, Dinijpur 
toistricT, HcnpiL ^5* 59' k„ long. RS* x%' 30" K. It t.ikc* iu 
name from a Muhammadan fir or saint, uhose tomb is & place of 
pilgrimage. The fair lasts six or si*\eti day*, and is frequented by 
about 150^000 T>^nons. It » principally a cattle fair; but many 
of articles are brought for sale,— elephants from Dirjiling, 
al /anu, and As'^m ; dried fruits, en:ibro!deTcd Mnddlery, 
daggers^ svords, etc, by Mughals ;ind Afghdn^ ; blankets, ^-alnuCs, 
yiit tails, etc, by the hill tribe« ; Englii&h piece-goods, bras^ pots, 
hoohahs, cic 

PHelam&ngaUk — Tdluk in Bangalore District, ^[}'sorc St-itc. Area, 
»^9 st^u.irp miles;, of which 1)8 square mile* are cuUii-altid. Popu 
latioa (iSSi) 49,844, namely, 34,5^3 ma1e« and 75,371 females. 
Hindus numScrc'd 4f>>9^7 ; Muhammaclans, =637; Cliristlans, 314; 
and Bviddhists, 6. Total revenue {1833I, ^ii,o-ig. Soil — red mould. 

J shallow, and gravelly, dependent upon the rainfall; dry crops — ra^^ 
fa//ar^ jirtY, aid gram ; wet crops— rice, sugar-cane, and a little wheat. 
In 1884, the fMaJi contained 1 cnminal court ; police circles {thdnii)^ 
>tice> %i men; village watch i/fiakfiiJ^in), 129. 


Neddiavattam, — V^iUaf^e and posl *taufln in (he Nilgiri Hi!ls 
Mudms Presidency, T^L ii' aS' \., and lon^. 76* 36' E. Siands at 
the h^ad of the Gudaliir^'AdV. Icaciing ffom M:ibbar and ihe Wjnaad 
coffee dislricU to the Nilgiris, about 5SC0 feet above sc,vlcvcl,anJ J^ 
miles from Utalcamand (Ooucamund), Some importain Government 
l^Un unions are sUuaied here. 

NednmanffarlL — J^if/w-t or Sub > division of Tmvancorc Slate, 
Madras rre*i(1ency. Area, 340 square milcv Ncdumarijarh coiiuiia 
^Zkaras^x villages. Pofulation (1375)47,668; (iSS:) 52,^1 i,ii4iiicly, 
16,46^ Dialcs and ;5«746 females, occupying 11,636 house*, Ilinduft 
number 4Ti7iJ ; Muhammadans, 3637 ; and ChnMian?, S71. ■ 

NefiXnUCb. — Cantonment and town in Ct-ntral India,— 5ft* Kim^cw. 

Ne^apatftm — Tdluk or Sub-division of Tanjore District, Madras 
Presidency. ;\rea. 239 square miles. Population (iSSi) 216,^67, 
namely. 101^468 males and 315,399 females, dwelling in z towns 
and 3J2 villages, and occupying 4o,oS5 houses. Hindus numbered 
iSi3,iS5 ; Muhammadans, jo,;6o; ChriMians, 9903 ; and * others,* ao. 
in i^i^j the idluk contained 2 civil and 5 criiniiul courts; police 
circles (//i«/jiifr), 9, ^^^ regular police, 166 men. Land revenue, 
^(^41,104, The South Indian R.iilway fromTrichinopoli 10 Negapataiii 
IravcTte^ the country- 

Negapatajll[A"J^W/^//*jftM/rf, 'Snake town,* A'4'ijtf/f7j(Gr,),A'igp»Mtf 
Miirvp. (Uitm), the Ma/i/attan of ihc Arab geographers (Yule), and Tht 
City t]f CJwramand^l <if the cnriy l^artufjiip^r]- — Town and chief port of 
Tanjorc Disiricu Madras Presidency^ and icrminus of the South Indian 
Kailway. Lai, 10" 45" 37' n., long. 79' 53' 28" k. Population {with 
Nagilr) in iSSi, S3'^53» namely. 24,305 males and 29,550 female*; 
number of houses, 8616. Hindus numbered 36,32s; Muhammadans, 
12408; Chrisiiana, 5118; and ' others,' 1. With the adjoining port of 
l^agUT, it ftirms a municipality ; inciime in 1SS3-84, ^4838 ; inLi^lcnc* 
of taxation, about iSh 4)d. a head. Among the principal huiUm^'ft 
arc a Jcsiiil ccllt^e, a Wcslcyan inTssion esubli^hmcni, and 2 large 
Kindu icniplcs, There \\ nho a fine dispensary, cfcctcd and chiefly 
tnaintained by local Hubscriptioos, Kc-^apatam conulns the conrU and 
officer of a sub-judge, a District mttmif, a Hend Assistant Collector. 
and n takiUddr : and the chief Government sail dejwt uf Tanjore. 

The port carrion on an active trade wiih Ceylon, Burma, and the 
St;aiis Settlements ; the imports consisting chiefly of cotton ^tiods 
and areea-nuts, and the exports of rice and paddy. Average annual 
value of trade for the live years ending 187S— exports, ^512.460; 
imports, ^390436. Import* (iSSo-5i), value ^£^-45.916; exports, 
value ^j8tj,326. In 1383-S4, the vahie of the imporls inio Nega- 
paiam was ^337iS37;a"d of the exports. ^^566,547, The imp^jits 
were chidly nhilc ble;ichcd piece-goods (^J*i|0<^o) j apices *^S7,oooJ ; 



conl t^i6,ooo) ; and gunnj-bogs (;^i4,ooo). Tl>c cxjjoflswcTc chitlly 
printed Of dyed coUon manul^icuircs (;^i66,ooo) ; live Mocle (^^50^000) ; 
and ghi (^9000). Ne^fipatam was on^ of tlie cArllvftt aettlements of 
ihe rortugucic on ihe Cofomandcl coasL It wa* ukcn by the Dutch 
in 1660. nnd by the FngUi^h in t;Si. ll w.ts Lhc rcMdcncc of ihc 
Collccior of Tatijorc from lhc cession of lhc District to the Bruish 
by treaty in 1799 until the year 1S45. when the hcad-<janricr* were 
removed to Tranqueljar. on the acquisiEion of that place by puicha^e 
from Denmark. 

The pojiulation cxinL-iins a large proportion (nearly ao per cent) 
of I.JibtMis, a MuH^lnian people half Arab half Hmdu in origin, 
who have dcvclopcti a great r^ip;idty fof tr;idc. They art a bold, 
active, aiiJ thrifty liLce* and have cfitabUbhed prubijciciua (.olouiev 
in Burmi And the Strails Settlements, with whieh countritfa they carry 
on a briEt trade The harbour has a fixed fourth order dioptric white 
light, on a white towef 7f)J feel ahrnre the sea. RainfaU (]RR»), 
4; inches ; mean temperature in shade, W F.> rising to ica' I'". 

Ncgraii3'^I^*^«<l i" Bas»cin District, Lower Burma-— ^ Hainc^GVI. 

Ne^aiSn — Cape in Hassein DisJrict, Lower Burma, l^t, a6" i" 30" 
N,, and \\mz, 94' 13" e. Ca|>c Negniis is ^^^t sovith-wcst promontory 
of the coast of ItasMTtn. Tht extreme southern point of that const 
is called Thay-gin or Pagoda Point, bcirin^^ nearly south -south -cast 
from Cape NegraJs^ distant 6i miles. Near Pagoda Point is a Urge 
rtxk, with a ainal] jhigada^ red tUffs Mretch from il lonaid^ Ope 

Nekmard. — Fair held annu.il1y tn Eh^twdn;tudpur vil1:ige, Dindjpur 
District. Hengal. Lat, ^5° 59' x., long, 88' iS' 30" k_ It l,>kes its 
name from a Muhammadan pir or saint, whose tomb is a place of 
pitgrimage. The fair hs\% six or «cven days, and is frcqueiited by 
about 150,000 persons. It i.s principally a cattle fair; but many 
varieties of articles are brooj^ht for sale,— elephant* from D^irjihng, 
the Bengal tardi^ and A<sam \ dri:^ fruits, embroidered ^ctcjdlcr)-, 
daggers, swords, etc, by Mughals itnd Atj»h:ins ; bbnkets, ^ralnuts, 
ydk tails, etc, by the hill tribes ; English piccegtJods, brass pois^ 
hookahs, etc 

Hel&mangftliL — Tdluk in BangAlorc Disifici, Mj'florc State- Area, 
J09 ^qunire milcrj, of which laS squ^ire mile* are cultivated Popu- 
lation (i8St) 49,844, nnmely, 74,513 male* and 75,3*1 femnles. 
Hindus niimbcrcd 4*^,9^7; Muhammadan.s 5657; riiri«inii% 214; 
and liuddhisls, 6. Total revenue (18S3). ^1 i.o^tj. Soil— red moiild. 
shallow, and gravelly, dependent upon the rainfill \ dry crops— /w^, 
djf/ar, sdv^t ^"'^ 1>^"^ ; ^'^^ crops — rice, sugar-caac, and a little wheat* 
In 1SS4, the e4M contained 1 criminal court ; police circles {Mnds}^ 
6 ; rcjfuUr police, 51 men ; village watch {{^ab^Jdrs)t 129. 


RllmaDgala. — To^^n in Itangalore District. Mysore Sl^H 
Krtualfecl in lai. 13' 6' 10" n., and long. 77' *6' e,, 17 JvC\\e% by f3P 
norlh-wcsl from BangaTorc city, Hcad-quarterfi of the Ndamangab 
iiUiih Population (iSSi) 3741. Buili on the site of a mined ciiy. 
10 which iradition gives the name of fihumandana. A weekly fair 
on Friday '\% attended by 2500 persons. 

Nelaniblir.— Tfiwn (more comrctly a ^oup of hamlets) in Malabar 
DislrJcL, Madras Prcsidencyn — Set Nilamiwk. 

Nelambiir. — Town in Coimbaioie Districi, Madras Prciidcncy, — 

Nellidmp&tf. — Range of hills situated chiefly wlihin the limits of 
Cochin State, Madrai Presidency; ao miles souih of the town ol 
PAIgh^t. The Nrllianipaii range varies in height from 3000 to 5000 
feet above ?ca-Icvcl, At an elevation from rsoo to joeo feet, the hiD» 
arc covered vviih forests which yield nliijbl? timber, as well as car- 
damoms, ginger, pepper, clu Large quantities of honey arc ccllecied 
by the Kaders, a jungle tribe inhabainf^ these hilh, who are not 
unlike the Kitrumbaa of the Wainid. They live 01 roots and jungle 
|jroduce, on mice and other small animah. They have no fixed ] 
scitlementft or regular ocrui>ation, exccjx a little ha^kct- weaving. They 
grow a ?iniall i|uaiiiity uf rice. In 1R81 the Kadcrs numbered 6^4. I 
Coflcc hji» been grown on ihc|iatl hills aincc i860- At GrsC 
the want of Ubour was a great diltculiy. Of talc years, however, 1 
bboitr has been nhnnd.-uit, and cuUivation Imi consequently incrc^^cd ' 
In i8J^j there were r; planiaiions in the NHIi.^mpntJ rang<*. eoverin^ ' 
an atcA of 3251 acres, of which 19^9 acres were under mature, 
and 559 under immature plants. The approximate yield was I 
663,967 lbs. ; average yield per acre of mature plantit, 341 lbs. ; cort \ 
per acre, ;^a, 7*. d^. From Soo to 1000 labouiers were emplojcd on \ 
the plantations. The climate of the Nelliimpati range ift pleasant l 
duriag a part of the year. In June, July, and Au^'uitt ihe monsooa , 
vi heavy, and high winds IjIow. The annual rainfall averages 150 10 1 
ifjo indies. The thermometer ranges from ^5' F. to yo' F. 

Nellore (^Vi?//^/-), -^ Briti&h Distnct of the Madraa Presidency, i 
situated on the cisicm cr Coromandel coast^ berween 13' 35' and 15* * 
55' N- lat„ and between jg*" 9' and 80' 14' e. long. Oa Ac «ast it 
is washed by the Bay of Hengal ; its western boundary is fonncd by 
the Vclisjonda hills, which are ofTshoots of the liastern Ch£Ets« And 
which separalc it from the Districts of Karmil (Kumool) and Cliddapah 
(Kadapa) ; north t: is hordi-Ted by Kistna District ; south by North 
Arcot and Chcngal|>at (ChinglrpuO Districts, Total area, S739 square \ 
miles. Total population, according to the Census ol 1S81, 1,320,936 ' 
persons. The administrative headquarters are at NEt4,0Rtc Town, 

J^ysioil Asftxii^ — NcUorc District occupies a tract of low !and 

stretching from ihc t»a*c of iKc VcliganiJa htlU to the »ca< Its general 
A«p«ct is foibiUdir]{,\ The coasl-Ime b uniformly constituted by a 
fringe of blown saod. E'^orihcr inbnd, the country begins to rbc. 
But eFic so\] is rot naturally fertile, and a Lirgc arc.i of ihe DIslricI id 
cither ^ rocky waste or covered wiiK dense scrub jungle; few fine 
trees arc to be found in the nei^hbouThooil of village sites. Alon^ 
the i^estern frontier rises a b^uren ran^c of hills, whicli throA-s out 
numerous spurs into the pUin, 'Jhe liighcsi peaks nre Pcnchala- 
konda, rising to ost elevation of nbovit 3000 feet above sca-levcl, and 
the detxched hill or ^nig of UDAVAGifti, which has an elevation of 
3079 feet, and is a proniincm landmark m the District. A remarkable 
iMtuiiU fe^Liuie is the island t>f dKinAKiKuiA, a low ridge of sonJ 
which divider the Lakb or Pulikat from the niain se^- Inhabited 
chic% by scattered families of the wild tribe of Y^nadb, most of it 
hai never been l>iougTu under ciiltivarion ; but Madras city U regularly 
supplied with fuel fnim ihi* oiberwise im[jrafitable waste, 

Tlie chief rivers of Nclloreare tbe PtNSfcK, ihe St'VAKN'AMUKllJ, and 

I the OuM>i^KAMSfiA, uhicli all rise in the table-land above the Ghits, 
iind Hovt cast through the District to the sen. The numerous minor 
Btreams Archtilc more than niountam torrents, unavailable for irrigation. 
The I'cnner runs through the Disinct for a total course of about 70 
nilcs, passing by the town of Ncllore. hor nine months of the yeftr 
Ets bed* whkh is rocky amoujc the bilh but aamly lower down, is ahnusi 
dry, wiih deep puoU here and there, into which ihc fish collect. The 
scanon of flood (full or pavtiAi} luts aliogcther for about 90 days. The 
chief irrigation u-ork on the Penner is the anicut at Nellorc town, 
from whieh tn^o mnin dtann^U, with a syst^ni of sub-channels, are led 
olT oil the south bank. Another anictjt is in course of construction at 
Sungaru, 10 mik-if west of Ncllore town, whic:h will irrigate 1 large tract 
of country on the north of the river. The floods of the Suvamamukhi 
also supply a w^tics of irrigation chai>nel9- 

Throtighoui the District generally, the underlying rocks belong to 
the meiamorphic series, which occasionally crop* up in the form of 
gnei&s, schist, and quarts:, ami is intersected hy veins of quarts and 
volcanic rock%. The IC^t^tern Chiti, cni the oilier hand, are c^p|>ed by 
A scfica of ve^liraenLtry formntion, chiefly altered sandstone nnd sUte* 
known as the 'Cuddaj^ah Group,' Orgar^ic remains of fern-hkc plants 
have t>een found in several pbces. A band of laterite^ varying greatly 
in width, extends almost continuously for several miles inland, and is 
largely quarried for buildinjf rnaieria!, and for tbe metal of roads. 
Copjier was discovered in the western hills in iSo(. 'ITie ore was 
found on assay to yield a Urge percentage of inctd, and European 
c:a[>tta] was attracted to thi: spot. But the enterprise repeatedly 

oved unsuccessful, and no fresh attempt has been made since 1S40. 


Ircn-orc, clilcHy in the Form oT^and, in collected and smclicd, accord^ 
ing to nAiivc methods i^ ii>any pl-icc^ It is worked up into tool^ 
liiit no si<s*\ is tiianiiCicUircd Snltpetrc \% made tn several villages, hat 
in «ma]l riuanttiie^ by refming down the iiiTrE>ii« earth to be found on 
the surface. 

Wild Animals are corn parali vol >■ nrc in Nellore, Tificra are now 
alTflOBt unknown, except when a stray one wanders across the moua* 
tains from Cuddapah. Leopards, bears, ^rfm/^^rfj*- deer, and occasionally 
bison, are still to be found among the w«rcm hills. Antelope, spotted 
deer, and wild ho^^ are generally dmtnbuLed, while the small game com- 
prise snipe, duck, bustard, and lloriken. Vcziunious re]>tile« ubuiind* 
In iSSi, the total number of reported dc-itha fiom wild bcj^ta wa* 
I, and from snaUc-bilc, 117, The tottil amount paid in rewards for 
killing wdd beMt« and poitonout ciiakef was ^l6. The ligiirrrs for 
ifiSj were— deaths from wild beaslf, 29 ; from snake-bites, 99 ; rewards 
paid. £fi\- 

History. — Nelloie possesses no independent hislor>- of it* on'ii. In 
primitive times it formed part cf the ,indcnt Division of Tthng:in.i, or 
the TclugtJ-si>caking country, and passed successively under ihc rclc of 
the Yadava, C^alukyn, KalyAna,and Ganni>aiii dynasucs. Lying on 
the frontier of the Tamil country", and not (ar from Orissa^ it was 
frequently partitioned between the rival kingdoms which advanced or 
rctreatctl dutmg thin troubled pcrlt^jd. Many of the old [em)>]e» En the 
Disiri<l show by inscriptioiM chut thcj^ were built or restored hy Raj.i 
Krishna Deva-riyalo, the most powerful monarch of Vijnyanagar of the 
Nar.ip;iiti line, who reigned from 1509 10 rsjo. The e:irlieit chiofinin 
thai can be locnlifed in Nellore is named Mukiinti* who, according to 
ioca! tradition, lived in the nth centnry, and was iribuinry to the Choh 
Kaj.i^. Tt IS possible tb.nt the tract was to a certain extent uninhabited 
till a comparatively recent period, and bite the Districts of CuHdapflh, 
Bellary, Anantapur, and Kamiil, formed part of the so-c:incd desert of 
Uandaka. Hence, perhaps, the absence of any connected history or 
tradition, earlier tluin the time of the Chela kings, Aftei Mukunti, 
in the uth century, r.imc one Siddi Rilji ; aiiJ duiing the same 
period, the north of the District is said to have been under the rule of 
a number of petty chiefs, belon^in^ to the V'adnva or shepherd caste. 
The oldest nilive fimily now existing in NcIlore ts tbnt of the Rdj^ of 
Venkaiagiri, who profcs«L.^s to trace bark an tmbroken descent for 
iwenty-sevcn generations. The traditions of the family rcconnt nume- 
rous wars with the Muhammadans. who probably nrsi invaded the 
country under Kafur in 1310, ia the reii;n of AUiiddm; but it was 
not permanently conquered tjniil the lime of the Kuiab Shihi dynasty 
at Golconda in 16S7, when it was Anally brought under Muhamniadan 




The firel fact in the modern annah of Ncllore u tlie scUUmcnl of ihc 
KngHah at Akma<ios (Armcghon) in 1635, Ex{>cltctl by the Dutch 
from thcSpic« Is]an<Is b\' the Mo&F^arre of AniboynA m 1613, the Ejl^i 
InHi:) Compftn^ wii'i indurt^l to turn it^ nircniion cn the Cnromande! 
coast 'i'h^ earliest factories i^ere planted at Ma*ulipaum and I'clla- 
poll, nosT Ni;£iiu;utain, in 1611 ; ])ut fourteen years later, Mr, Franm 
Ofly, the future founder of Madras, being probably still pressed by 
Dutch rivalry, migrated foutht^'ard to the little vilU^c of DurjiiaTdp- 
patnam (or Durgarizapatam)- Here he built a fort,and called it* name 
after Armiigam Mudciliar, iHc hcad-msin of the village, who had shown 
hln» hospiuility, Founccn years afterwards, in 1639, Arraagon in iiv 
turn ^avc vh^y to Fort St, Ceoi^e or Madias j and its hJMoric nanic i$ 
now |»rc3crvcd only by an insignificant lii^hthouac. 

Nellore town ljT«t emerges into hi>tory during the Karndtitt wan of 
ihff iSth rrntury, when the Kngfish nntl rrcni^h were confestin^ the 
supremacy of ihc Ea^i. It formed part of the dominions of the Kawib 
of the Kamdiik, and possessed considerable strategic importance as 
commanding the noriliern high road and the paswtge of the Pcnner. 
In 1753 it H-as the apjuna^^e of Najib-ulL-i, a brother of the Nawdb 
Muhaziimad Ali, whom Cn^Ii^ti support had placed ii]X)n the throne. 
In that year, a mtliiarj' advcniurcr, named Muhammad Kom;iI, 
drove Najib-ulhl out of Nclbrc» and threatened 10 sack the llru- 
paii (Tripaity) Pagodi>, which had Lten pledkjed to the English. 
MiihflnitTiiid Koinal rcfmbcd tlic fimt detachment that was sent 
against him from Madras; but shortly afterwards he was defeated 
and taken prisoner, though with the to&£ of the English olhce;r in 

Ncllorc was the scene of a more serious atTai'r in i7<;7. when 
Najib-ulf^ himself rebelled against ihc auiliority of his brother, the 
Navib. An army of 10,000 men was inarched againtt him, including 
7l contingent under the command of Colonel Forde, which consisted of 
ICO KuTOpeans, 56 KaESirs (uc in Ormc), 300 Sepoys. 1 ifipounder, 
3 6p(Hjm!ens and a howttxer. Nnjib-ull^ left the town of Ncllore to 
be defended by a gairiiioii of 3000 men, as^iisied by 20 Frenchmen 
fiom Ma»ulipatam. Aficr a few days' boinbaidmcnt from the artillery, 
a breach was made in the mud wall* «"hich Colonel Fofdc ihou;;ht 
]>r^etieab1e ; but the »tormin^ party, compoiicd of ihc entire Kngliiih 
continj;enl, was repulsed with lo^i*, and Colonel KoTiie wa* shortly 
afterwards recalled to ^Udras. Najib-ulli remained in anus through 
the following year, and played off the Mariih;!* and Basdiat Jang 
Afipiinit the English* At last, in the beginning; of 1 759, when he heard 
that the French besieging artny under Lally had been compelled 
to withdraw from before Madras, he sent in his submission, and was 
rcai)i>ointed Governor of the District, at an annual tribute of 30,000 



pagof^as* He scaled this compact by putting to dcaih his French 

During ihe war* wiih HaidarAli. Ncllore i<ift{rr^l exicnl escaped 
tlie geneml devastation. In i7<)o, on the hienkinj^ ciit of the w^tr 
with Tipil, the English rc*oU«d to iirdcniike ihc direct management 
of the revenues of the Kurnittik, which had been long pledged to 
them by the N^awdb. Mr Dighcoti was appointed the fini Collector 
of NcUoTc, and Mr, Enkine of Ongole. At Ihe conclusion of peice 
u-iih Tipd in 1793, the adminiMrauoa was restored to the Navrdb; 
but it was |>erm;Lnenily asKumecl by the BritUh in i8or. Since ihftl 
date, the only dif1icuUic?( to Ifc encnunicrcd have ariM:rt Irom the 
intricAcica of ihc native revenue system, and from periodical vi»tatioDS 
of drought, 

Pofftiaiiim. — In 1^52. the population of th*r nirtrict was returned at 
St^QO persons, on an area of 7930 square miles. Tn 1863, the nitm- 
was 99^254, on an area of 8757 square miles, showing an at'crsgc 
denuty of 134 persons ]>er square mile. The regular Census of 1S7] 
was the first conducted on :iccur3ie prind[>te«. It revealed a total 
of r, 376,81 1 irhnbitant5. The Census of tS8i relumed a pojiulatton 
of I, £^0.736 souls, dwelling in 9 towns and 1679 vi1Iasc«, and tn 
^33,059 bouses. The loial area of the District was laken at S739 
square milci. Compared with the Census of 1871, ihcM %ure9 ahow 
a decrease in the population of 156,375, or it'3 per ccnL» which is 
Accounted for hy the famine of 1S76-77. The CcnKut %uTeft for iSSi 
yirM ihe following averages t — Persons per square mile, i39"7 ; i>cr»ons 
per village, 7i3'9 ; iwrsoosperhou^e, s'i ; villages per square mile, o'a ; 
houses per square mile, 3<)'o. Classilied according to sex, there were 
615,333 males and 604,904 females; prtJiioriion of males, 50-4 per 
ccnl» Cla^^ified accortling to age, there were— under 15 year*, 124,675 
boys and >i7»536 girls; total children, 44^,211, or 36 per cent, of 
the population: 15 years and upwards, 390,657 males and 387,368 
females ; total adults, 778,025, or 64 per cent of the population- The 
rcligiuuH division of tlic ix'u|jlc is as fyllows; — HimJua^ 1,133,031, or 
95"3 V^^ cent; Muhammadiins, 61,344, or 5*0 per cerit, ; Chmtiane, 
30,794, '^^ ''7 1^' cent ; and 'otherV 67. The Chmtian« are further 
sub-divided into 3^ KuTO|iean*, jao Eurauana, and 17, ^89 native 
converts. \n the case of 3153 Christiana, iHeir naiioraliiy lu* not been 

Distributed according; to easte, Brahmnm number 56,965; Kshat- 
triyas, 11,305; Shetties (traders), 58,058; Vcllalars (.igncultumts)^ 
418,049; Idaiyarii (shepherds), 103,016 ; KamTndlars(artisans), ai.435 ; 
Kanakkans (writers), 585; Kaikallars (weavers), 2'jfi(}$] Vanmyans 
(labourers), 10,383 1 Kushavan (potters), i3tS39 ; Satdnis (mjxed castes)^ 
J7,7c8; Shembadavans (luh^nuun), 30,338; Shinlns (loddy-drawcrs). 



I51167 ; Anibaiians (barbers), ij,$G9; Vdnnins (wasbcnncii)» 33,070; 
oihcn (ouuajtca, etc.), 317,739- 'Hic Mu ha 111 madam arc nub <3ivi<icd 
as follows : — Arabs, 1 7 ; Labbais, 337 ; Mughrtlu, 59 ; Pmhirw, 339 ; 
Sayyids 3^6; Shaikhs, 3290; 'ojhere,' 58,176. Of the Cbmtbns 

(>o,7Q4), S833 ATP r<^turned ti& Protestants; 749S us Bqitisis; 946 as 
Roman Catholics ; and 351 7 profess oilier creeds- 

The Census divides the male population irio sU main grouii* as 
regards occujiation: — (1) Professional class, indutiing Sraic official* of 
every kind, and members vf ihe learned professions, 17*655; {t) 
domesitc 5er\-ant-% inn and lodging ketpers, aHji; {3) commcrdal 
clxs!s including bankers, mcrchflnts^ c*irriers etc, 17,498 ; (4) agricul- 
tuml and pastoral class, including gardeners, 173,904 ; (5) industrial 
cla»3i induding aU iiianufAclufcns and arUSAns, too,j?i9 j and (0) 
indcflniie and nun prod uetivc class, compming all male children, 
genent Jabourcr«, and pcrsoni of uTispcciHed occti|uilion, 303^^05. 

"Gftlic tfiRS lf»wrs ,ind villages in Ncllorer Diurirt, in iJ^8t, 375 
contained less than tivo hundred Inbabitanis : 493 fiom two to ^ve 
hundred: 466 from five hundred to one thmi&and : 3^^ from one To 
two thousand; 60 frcin two to three thousand; !•} frotn tlirec thousand 
to five ihomand ; 7 from five to ten thousand ; 1 from twenty thousand 
^ fifty thousand. The following arc the most con.'iiilcrabic towns; — 
LLOR»(»7,505); Oncole(5joo); Vknkataciui(7989); Kahduk^r 
)j}; Addanki((>48i); KavaL!(49J7) ; and Gudvk (4*63)- NeUorc 
and Oiigolcure iuunid|julitit:^ vriilt an Aggicj^^lc inuorue in 1S82--S3 vf 
jC4719i incidence of inunidpal taxation in NclloTCf la. 0|d., and in 
Qngole, m. sJd. 

Four Christian missions arc established in the ni;tritfl — (i) the 
Roman Catholic Mis.iion, which has a cha|>el. with an endowment from 
land of about ^54 a year; (3) the American BafJti^t Mission, which 
(iates front 1^40, and h;Ls 3ftatiom; (5) the whool at N'dlore town 
for both boyn and girls, made ever to the Free Church of Scotbnd 
Mi»ion in 1848^ and (4) the Ilcnn.insburg laithenin Mission, founded 
rn 1^65, which now possesses d siattom, with 13 miMionancs from 

Amon^ the wild or aboriginal tribes uf Nellore, ibc Yanadis arc pro- 
bably the muM numcnjus, but ihe Census of i83i cnuincralca only 
148. They numbered 30,00a in 1865, and were to bi^ found in all 
parts of the District^ cicept in the extreme noTih ; but the link colony 
in the island of SrihaHkota has atiT:icied sjjecial interest. In 1835. 
when thi* inland fimt came into the possession of Government, the 
Vanadii were found in the nsosi degraded stale of savage n. Clovern* 
mcnt tnsiituted me^isuies lo ameliorate their condition, and to wenn 
them from their hnlf-tav^igc state ; but they still prefer their wild life in 
Ihc jungles, and refuse to cultivate the soil or rear cattle. They are a 



Telugu-spealcing Dravidian tribe, who have adoptetl Hindu practices to 
a coniiiderable extent; but ihey worship their own indigenous demons, 
and bury their dead. Other wandering tribes are the Yerukdlas, a race 
of Tamil origin, who hve by selling jungle produce and carrying salt 
and grain on their bullocks and asses; the Sukalis or Lamtjddis, who 
speak a Mardthi dialect, and also support themselves as carriers ; the 
Chenchus and the Dommaras, 

Agriculture. — Of the total area of the District, only about one half 
is under cultivation. The soil in tnany parts is poor and rocky ; the 
annual rainfall is scant)', and liable to periodical failure; the means of 
inigation are insufHcienL In the south and east, and especially in the 
neighbourhood of Nellore town, rice forms the staple crop, being 
grown wherever artificial irrigation is available ; but dry crops pre- 
dominate along the western border and in the north. The har\'est 
seasons depend upon the two monsoons, both of which contribute 
to the rainfall of the District, the south-west monsoon being most felt 
in the south, and the north-east monsoon in the north. There are 
therefore two harvests in the year — ^t punas or mudaru^ sown under 
the early monsoon from June to September, and reaped between 
December and March; and ^t pair a, sown under the late monsoon 
from October to January, and reaped between February and April. 
The mudaru comprises the greater variety of crops, but the paira covers 
the larger area. 

The following statistics for the/trj/( year 1291 (iSSi-82) exhibit the 
agricultural condition of the District from the fiscal point of view. 
Excluding the saminddri estates, concerning which no statistics are 
available, the area of the Government villages amounted to 46^8 
square miles, or about one-half the total area of the District. Of 
this, 3r59 square miles were assessed for revenue, leaving 1330 square 
miles of cultivable and 1655 square miles of uncukivable waste. 
The total assessment, levied on the occupied area, was ^z?8,899, being 
at the average rate of 5s, per cultivated acre. The area under crops 
(including double crop lands) was 1,068,025 f-^f^s, of which 984,661 
acres, or 92 per cent., were occupied by food-grains, including pulses. 
The area under each of the principal crops is thus given in detail : — 
Rice, 134,763 acres; cholam ot jonna^ 317,409 ; ragi, 36,501 ; Tanr^u 
or aliu^ 187,059; kamhu or sujja/u, 61,002; maize, 5260; oil-seeds, 
1992 ; indigo, 46,875 ; tobacco, 3813; cotton, 15,830; chillies, 45S6 j 
wheat, 130; cheyroot and other dyes, 160 acres. In the same year 
(1881-82), the average rates of rent per acre for land suited for ihe 
various crops was returned as follows: — Rice, irs. 8d. ; inferior grains, 
4s. 4d. ; indigo, 6s. 3d. ; cotton, as. Sd, The average produce per acre 
was — rice, 2183 ^bs. ; inferior grains, 920 Ibs^ ; indigo, 35 lbs. ; cotton, 
82 lbs. The average prices of produce in 1881-82 per maitnd of 80 



vlieat, 6fi. : inferior fticcl- 


lbs. were — rcc, 4', ; wheat, oe. \ interior itjcci-p«in 

jf 15, Ss. ; roltonT j^i. 8k- ; iftlt, As ; and su^nr, ^t, ion. The dwly 

rites of w:)£cs ncrc — for skilled Inbour, is^ : for un^lk-d lahour, 4(1- 

Of recent ycnrs there has been an upward lendencjr id ihe me of 


The irTi^tiiwn of Ncllore District is not comprehended under a 
single syhtem. I'ht: chief i^otk » tic AHicut \qnakat(t) acrois the 
l-'enncr river near Nc-l]i>re liiwn, roristnictcd in 1854 to |kfov[rie irrij/a- 
tfon for the lands Iting on the south hank. This anicm i* 677 >nrd»J 
Sd length, and duiin^ die floud of 30lh November iSSj. the highc*r- 
on ic^urd, h;]d 19 fccc 3 tnthc^ iif buler^ In dcjilh, pa^vin^ over it» 
crcsL Up to tSSO'St, the lol^il amount of cnpital cxjicnded en this 
undcnal:lng has been /^'74,i7-4; the grow income in thai year was 
j^i4,5rj*, ft'hicK after deducting tosi of pcpairfi, cic-, and interest on 
capital at the mte of 5 per cent., left a net profit of jf^4ooa The total 
net income from this work up to 1S81-S3 wa5 ^27,500. Anothcraniciu 
b now (1884) heing consiructed higher up the Penner, which w'tll| 
provide irrigniion for lands ncrlh of the river. The other Government 1 
irrigAlion works comprise 665 tanks, 84 river channel^ ^5 spring 
chaDDcls. 83 anicut5, nnd 671 wells. Among 6r<t-dAss tanks in the 
District, Kanigirt and Alli^r in the Nclloie uiM^ and Anantds^garam 
and Kalavya in the Atiiiiikiir hUuk^ descivc mention* In ift8i-Sa, the 
total irrigated area was relumed At 199,193 acres, yielding an auessmcnt 
of j^73-*)iS, the total amount expended by Government on irrig.ttion 
b^in(f jCSjj9. In addition, irripntion is cverjrwhere condnrtrd on 
private account, chiefly from wclh, tanks, and spring channels. 

Cd/tf(r,— The livestock Tctums in 1881-83 *ere as follows:— CallJe, 
257,110; goals, 131,337; sheep, 216,934; donkeys, 14**50; hoTse»j 
and ponit% 1015; and |iigs, 13.859. Dead stock— ploughs, 66,047;! 
carts, I3,6r4 ; and boats, 78. Neltore is f:irnous for its breed of catllf, 
which arc largely exported to neighlwDuring Ui&tricts. Hislohcatly, it Is 
said that the farmers devoted themselves 10 cniile-breeding, in des|>air 
oF obuintPij; renmncraljvc returns fruin a^jiieglliirc. The NcllonftJ 
bulloeks arc found in greatcal perfection in the northern i^Ms border^ 
ing cn Kistna District. The value of n good bull ranffes from jQi to 
jC^ty An annual rattlo thow is held ni thtf* vilLigr of Addanki in 
January- Sheep and goats arc chiefly found in ihe barren tdinks in the 

Ffrais. — The chief tanj;e of forest count!)' in Nellore Katrict lie* 
along the Veligonda Hilk on the eastern slo|Tes of the range in the 
/(i/j/jtj of RdpJr, Aim.ikUr, Udayagtri, and Kanigiri. In these forrstsJ 
the ltd zanders tree ( Ptcrocarpus santaliniis) occurs, a« well as Hard-'l 
wickia binsia, Picrocarpus marsupitim, and teak, with other valitabtel 
kinds. It is proposed to bring them Into the cUss of rewrred 



forests* The Lj;obtc<] bill ranges at L'dayngiri^ Kanigiri, and Chima- 
kuni, have akn be<*n propmcd, and a sciilctnent is in progre«L The 
iiex: in imponancc of the forcsifi of Ncllorc District is that of 
Srihnnbot^ island in Pulikat lake. This fores: has long been worked 
for the 8Uj>ply of fuel for the Madras market The chief tree* are 
Eugenia Jamholan.i, Pterospermum Hul>erifohum, and Su>'chnos Nux- 
vomica. Soap-nuu arc: ;iUo found and tamarind irecs in great Dumben, 
Minor prodncc, such as tamannd, str>xhninc jet'ds, and the dye pbnts 
Odenlanclia uinbellaia flnd VcntiUgo Madrasi>:iLina, are larj^ely ciporivd, 
Ono, ihc pioUucc of Calamus roung, Aicalbo scni to Madr^uk It; the 
plain Wuh ihc forc$t» consist of scmb jungle, aonie of which arc in 
good i;r9wth and vilunble for fuel and pQle» and th« finiall vood m<MC 
neccsmiry for native use. Very im[>oniint aUo are the Crtsuarina 
pInrtatLOns, which cover about looo acres of land on the &and 
dunes of the itea-coast, and nre now coming into tvorklng. Recent 
invcstii-aiions show that these plontntions make annually an incre- 
uieni of about 4^ tons per acre up to eight yean of ajiCj and 
that about 5000 tons may yearly be made available- A number 
of palmyra plantations and one of cocoa-nut have been m;ide, while 
many groves have been planted about the District. In some groves 
the cashew -nut (Anacardiuiu cccidentak) is grown > the ruts fttc 

/vainrtii Ca/amitks, — Ncllore, with a scint/ rainfall and inadct^uate 
mefinii of irrigation, has al^vay^ b^cn exposed to the cal.imities of nature. 
TVovght is tlie most eommon and also tlie mosi terhhlp rii-ta^cr, but 
floods of the Pcnner rJver and storms on the seaboard also contribute 
to ticpfci*?; agriculture. The years of actual famine fJnce the annexa- 
tion in i5oi, were 1^6-7, 18:9-30, 1X32-33, 183&-371 and 1876-78, 
In i5o4, 1S53, rS74, and iS8j, sudden inundations of the Penner 
caused widespread damage ; and destructive storms arc recorded in 
i5aoand 1857, The recent famine of :S76-78 was felt in Neliorewiih 
special seventy, for the District had scarcely recovtrcd from the Hijods 
of 1874^ There was an almost entire failure of crops. The oiily tracts 
which teahrcd any harvest were the northern ftiinks of Ongole, the 
tamSndiirl of Venkatngirif And a few favoured village along the ma- 
coast and in the south. By March <877, no less than 37 \yCT cenL of 
the culiivateil land was thrciwn f^utof ctiUivation, At llie same dale, 
the area under imli^o hud decreased from 5 7.000 to 20,000 acres, and 
60,000 cattle had perished In August of thai year, i9t,5D3 persons 
were in receipt of relief, cr 139a per cenL of the total i>opubtion. 
The distress was aggravated by the absence of all railway communica- 
tion. The indigo cultivation is now recovering, and in iSS^-ti^ there 
were over 4^,000 acres under this crDp. 

MiJnu/actur<i and Tr2d€.—\ii fonner limes, NcUorc was celebrated 




for lU textile fabric^H A specirility was the weaving of 'Muc la/am- 
fiorts* which found Ji rea<iy maricel among the ncgrne* in (he UV*t 
Indict. No cotton goods are now exported, but spinning and weaving 
for local consumption is still carried on in many vJllaftw. The total 
number of looma in iSSi-Sa was returned at 8815, and their estimated 
consumption wa9 39i.64S lbs, of cotton; the total value of their prodtjce 
was ;£j7,693. At \\xt villa^ of Kovtir near Nelbre town, fine shirl* 
ing^ ;vnd pocket'hanJkert^hieN can siill be obtained to order on a 
limited scale. Other industries are ihe weaving of hempen cloth, 
dyeing, the making of vessels of brass coj>|>cr, and bellinetal; the 
carving of image*, pillar?, and eati-whccU from stone ; and 
boat building. These are carried on only on a stmali scale. 

The trade of the Diilrict hns considerahly dc^TcsRcd since the lime 
before the opening of the rniSway, when it formed the high-rnid between 
theinlcTiorandtheBcacoast. Inthoseda>stliccotlonofCiiddapahand 
Karnul {Kumool) was brought down on pack-bullocks to be exchan;ied 
for the salt of NuHore. The sea-twmc tiodc, naw confim-d a]mf)St 
entirely to grain. Is carried on in coasting craft, though fonnt'Tly large 
»hip« used to cany salt to Bengal. In iSSt^s the total value of 
the exports amounted lo ^13,311; namclyj merchnndise, X'J»^7'» 
and treasure, ^140. The imporis were valued at ^'foj, consisting 
purely of mcrchandiae. The average annual value of eipurts fur five 
years ending t8*t3-84 was ^£171413: and of imports, jC^9^^- ^^ 
iBSj-S4 the value of exports was ;^I4,797 — the chief ilenia lieing 
grain, bnnes and ^ccds j imports, ^866 — chiefly rir^, hlark gmm, and 
tobacca The two principal ports arc Kottapaum and Iiamuklcula, 
both in the extreme nonh of the District. 

Jndigo, which is tTjanufacturcd almoec entirely by nactvefi, In aceord- 
'uice wiih wlut is known as the Bengal system, is sent Ijy land and by 
the tiuckinghan Canal to Madraii to the amount of about .^00,000 lbs. a 
year. Of recent yeans there has been a considerable decrease in the 
manufacture of sail, owing co ilie eirctjmst;incc that the foreign demand 
is novr supplied ftuiii oLlicr i|uartcra- In iSSo-^j, the tot;)t tjuuntity 
made w^s 605,691 ataundst or 32,17; lonsj valued at ^65,780; of 
wrhieh 340,697 maMnifs^ or S^ii tons, were exftoned by ±ei, and 333,531 
maundf^ or 13,391 tons, were despatched inland. In ifiSa-Sj, th« 
total quftntily made was 54'>i74 >naun4s, or 19,880 tons* valued at 
^108.235 : of which none was ex[K>ned by sea, hut 2341^1^4 f^auntts 
were de«}>iitched inland. 

There is no raihvny in the District, but one has been commenced 
which is to run from Tirupati (Tripatty) station on the north-west line of 
Madras Railway lo Ncllorc town. "I'hc chici means of land communi- 
cation is the Great Nonhern Trunk Road, which runs parallel with the 
coast through the whole length of the Di^tncU A branch knovkn as the 

Dorenal roadjcading to Cuddapah, strikes off from Nellore town, while 
another branch leads from Oagole to Haidanlbid. The Kriiiina- 
patam road connects Ncllorc lowi with the Buckingham C-inal, which 
for at least nine months of the )x^t \% in gco<l working oxi\^r. The 
eanal coDnccis the District with Kistna in the north, and with Madras 
in ilie south. 

Adminisirafi0n. — In i5fi3"S4, the total nci revcniie of NcHorc 
nistnci giniountcii to ^(£^401,294, derived frjm the i'uiluwiii^ Hjurvc^; — 
Land, j^ 150,4^4 ; s^ilt, ^£i^8Ji4 ; cxdac, ^13,036; licence tax, 
ji^'773; stamps, ^"St^JJ- The total ei^pcndinire in the tame yew 
was ^54,a6i, under the follou'ing heads: — Und-tat, jCii*»774; 
jii^tire, 6777; police. x^M^i provincial, ^£3150; salt^ ^iu64S, 
The District was fint ceded to the British in i3ot ; and for the ten 
years ending r 810, the gross revenue averaged j£( 81,573, so that it has 
more than doubled since that time. 

!n 13S3-84 the police force numbered 1 1 76 officers and men, main* 
tained ai a tots! cost of ^i3,8ii» These figures show 1 policeman 
lt> every 7 square miles and every 1037 oi the ijopulation, tlie cost 
being j^i, los. 7W. |jcr equate mile, and 2\<L pci htrjd of f>opjlaLion, 
The Nellorc pil contained in 1S83 a daily avcrit^c number of 174 
prisoners, being i prisoner always in JAil to every 9S39 of tlic District 

In 1870 liiere were in Ndloie District only i.jG school% attended by 
5178 ptipili. The educational siatiittcs for 18S5-S4 show a total of 
440 schools, attended by 11,000 pupils, being 1 school to every ao 
square miles, .ind 9 pupiU to evtry thousand of the po]xilalion. 
The Census of 1881 disclosed 13,04$ as under instruction, of whom 
810 were girls ; betides 53,383 not under instruction hut able to read 
and write, of whom a68i were females, 'ihe chief educational in- 
stitutions are the l-'ree Church Mission school, and tlie Hindu v\nglo- 
vernacLilar hij^lier tlos^ idiygl, iti Nellore town, hoih c^^tUted by 
^rant?-in-aidi Sixteen ntud\:iila pointed the mairicuUiion examination 
from them in iSSo^Si. In the DUtrici the n^ore ini[>ortant schools 
arc, the Govi*rnment middle cLi^^, nnd iht- itapri>kt Mission School ax 
Ongole \ and local fund middk-class schouh at Venkatogiri, Naidupct, 
and Kandakun 

The language spoken in Mellore is Telugu; and local tradition 
cbims for the District thai it i-^ the hcad-quancrs of Telugu liicra- 
Itirc, A list it ennmcroicd of 33 Ncllorc poets, including sonic who 
sre Klttl alive. The petty chidtains have always prided themselves 
upcn their ptronagc oflcncrs; and some of them possess old 
hburlcs. Tlic luost famoiis Ndloic authors aie Tbikuiia Somuya- 
Julu, nho troDHlatcd the Mi/iJl'/tJrtifit from Sanskrit into Tclugu, fuut 
id ^d to have floaruhed in tiie 1 ath century ; Molla, a postctf ctM- 



with ilie preceding, who tmnnlaied <h<* HiXHuiyam^ i and 
Pt^dfLina, the poiM-laurcate st ihe rourl of Rijd Krishna I)e»'a- 
ray.ilu (1500-30}. whose tcieni^iegardcd isihc Augusiancraof Tclupi 
jiociry. TTicre is one priming press in the District, at vhich the 
Ntlhrt GazitU i& publisht^d monthly in English and Telugti. 

M<iiml AsptctL — The climate of Nellore is generally regarded 
as dry and ulubnon^s helng subject to no ,sudder changes of 
temperature. The innsi trying season for Euiojkean?; i* Uie |>eriod (rem 
April to June, when the wcMcrly wind blow^ frotn the inland phieau. 
The nionihly nie^n tcmpciaiurc virks from ^boni 74" T. in Dcccmhcr la 
fio' in Miy. The District receives its minfctll from both the nortVcosc 
and thesuutli u'<^st monbuunn, thv former predoii)inuiing in thtr north, and 
\\\t bitcr in iht soiiih. The average aiintial rainfidl fur *ix yean tending 
1875 was returned at 36*4 inches, of which 22^15 inchi:^ were 
broutrht by ihc north-cast or early, and \y\i inches by the soLth-wc*l 
or btc, monsooa The rainfall in 1883-83 *^s 33'^ inches. The 
rainy monihf^ are June and July, October, November, and December 
Id the famine year of \^i<>-ii botti monsoons failed; and the total 
nin&ll amounted to only JS'ji inches, or a deficiency of ^\'\% inches. 
In 1832, however^ between May and December, 4S inches were j^uged 
at N el lore. 

The principal diseases ore intcrmltlcni fever of a iniM tj|*c, chronic 
rhcuimtti'Lm, Icprusy, clvph.inlia^is or * Cochin leg,' the curious alTcction 
of the foot known as Morbus enlophyticui pedis, cincerof the lace, and 
guinea- wi>rm, I.)inrrhri^ and dyiicnirry nrc rommon^ and hnth cholera 
and »niall*pox often tnake their appeanncc in an epidemic form. The 
dispensary at Ncllore town was ancnded in 1^80-81 by 396 in-door 
and 12,763 om-tloor patients. Total number of persona vaccinated 
(18S0), 13,073; total coat, ^j 1 8, [For funber information reg^irding 
Ndloie Distritt, see Manual nj the Ntlhn Dtstruf^h'^ Mr. J-A, C 
Hc»wcll, C.S. (MiJdra* Government I'rcs*, 1873), Also the ^tiUm^nt 
ArfHfrf 0/ NdUrt Dhrria^hy Mr, C, Rundn^^ 1870; ihc jlf adrift Ctmus 
/i<f<iti ioT 1881 j and the ^evci.i] iinnual AdnjinlMration And Depart- 
nivnt^l Kcporttorthe Madras GovcrnniencJ 

Nellora. — rtituit or Sub-division cf Nellore District, Madras Pre* 
sjdeficy. Are;!, 638 iquaru rnilet. Population (18S1) 163,740, namely, 
81,167 malfs and 83,573 females. Hindus ntimbercd 150,708; Mu- 
hammadaas iit894; Christians, it2t; and 'others,' 17, The tdiuk 
contains 1 town and 151 villages, wiih 33*975 house*. In Nellore 
ttUuk there ts comparativety little jungle; tbeic i» little cuhivatlon in 
the eastern vilbj^-:*, but a good deal in the wcMern. Two supplying 
channels from the souih side of tbc Ncllore anient, with numerous 
feeders :o the ditfercnt tanks bring a large area of rice land under 
cultivation. All land that be irrjj^aied \^ being rapidly taken up, 

«7a ^^^ N£LLCJi£ TOWI^. 



atic! the prosperity cf the cultivator is yearly increasing. Towardi 
ihe south tlic ground i^ high ami covered with brushwood. I^rgef 
quantilifi of htentc arc qaamed in the neighbourhood of NcUor«>! 
town, and ti.scd for building and fcjr the rqair% of mada. In tSSj j 
ihcrc were i civij and 5 criminal courts (including heid-quoiiers F 
courts); police circles (MfiiU)^ 14; regular police, 370 men. Totilj 

K«Uore (/W/tSar; AW/ij/ni^ the vilUgc cf ihc n<Ui tree, PAjr/latt-', 
thus Ajw///V-fl).^ Chief iovtt* of NeHore DiUrict, Madrai Prcsiderrty;; 
silualcJ in lal. 14* j6' 38* v.. long. So^ i' a?' ic, on the rii^ht iiank of. 
the Penner. 107 milea north of Madras. Population (iSSt) 37f505* ] 
namely, 13.357 males and 14.148 females; number of houscSi j 
5S0D. Of the |io]nihtion, 21,128 arc Hindu?, 4673 Muhammadans, 
700 Christians ami 5 'others/ Munidi^al income (1882-83), X,S^^U t 
of which £21^^ was denvcd liom taxation ; average incidence of taxi* 1 
tion, IS, 6jd 

Nellorc town, which ig traditionally said to be situated in the famous 
wildenicss DamMa Aranyam, js of considerable antiquity. Us ancient 
iiAnic was St^thafur ('lion cily')i later it wa* called J}ar;gttmtffa^ a 
name which s^urvivea in one of ti« »uburb5. tt was held by the 
Vcnkatagiri tumfnifdrs till the Mu^mdn period, and in 1750 fonncd 
n /atJjjfifrl rtf Arrnt. Iti 175J the town was !^ci«d by a freebooter 
nnined Muhammad Komal^ who was captured and executed iwe]\<e 
months later. Najib-ull^ the ftovemor, revolted in 1757. and the 
English fi>rce« under Fonle assisted in an un^icrcs^l siege of the 
town. The M:tralhi^ and the French both visiicd Ncllorc in I7s8< 
The tatter were rcceivetl as friends ; bet on the raising of the siege of 
Yon Sunt Cicorgc in the same year, Najibulld murdered all ihc French 
soldiers ia the town save one, and gave In bis aulmlasion to the 

In 1787, "n'hiie a peasant waa ploughing near the town, he atruck 
upon the remains of a Hindu temple, beneath which was found a pot 
rontiining gold rein*. About thirty rf these were ^Avpti from the 
melting pot. and they proved to be Roman aur^i of the and century 
A.D. ; chiefly bearing the names of Trajan, Hadrian, and Faustina. 
Some were beautifully fresh, but others were worn and perforated, ai if 
they had been used ai personal omnmcnts. When the anicut across 
the Peimer wa* being constructed, the workmen engaged in excavating 
a Iwd of laieriLe lound several cofho'i, appnrcnily of bumi day, 
embedded in nuarte. Some of these coflins contained more than one 
boilj each ; and when at first seen, the bodies were in a perfect state of 
]>re»c nation, although they quickly crumbled to dust. There were abo 
found with them 8}w»ar he:id^ and other implements. 

The town of Nellore ts tolerably He.m and niry. The houses 



irregularly built, but there Arc some good sirccl^i occujiicd !^ the 
''ti^eatihitfT inh.ibitJLniH. Sinco ihe esUti>]iahmeni of the Municipal 
Cdmmiiitinr in ififi^, much has be^n done towaMs removing thpmo*! 
paicni sanitary defects. Tlic hcu^t* of ihe European residents arc t>n 
Ihc south of tlic luwn, ^long the bank of 3 brge tAnk, on th« faUhcr 
side of which mcs the temple-crowned hill of Nai^^inha Konda, 
The offit:cs of the Collector arc in the old fort ; opposite *tanf!* the 
yuAict office, which was formcHy a range yf barracks, The hospital, built 
in 1S50 by public &ub«cnption and Govcrnnienl grant, is now under 
the control and management of the mLinici|>altty. Uther charitaNe 
inatltutiojnn itidudc the ia/t_^arkftiim^ or jKJorhaune for native^ which 
receive* jn^ini^ Uovcniiocni gr*nl of £2^^ \ and the Kuropcar Toor 
Kund, supported by voluntary sobscfiptiona, ^hkb dif^ributct about ^^4^ 
a year in grants to European vaf;rant«, Chriit's Church tva« built in 
1S54-66 at a total ca-vt for malerial of ^450, convict bbotir being 
given by Government. It is in the (JotHic style of architecture, wiib 
A chancel ami two ai^lc* ; there ^trc sittings for 138 persons- The old 
ccmctcrj' has about 160 tombs, the oldest of wMch date* back to r785. 
Among educational esiablishmcnts arc a school for European and 
Eurasian children ; a large boys' school and a girls' school under the 
charge of the 1- tee Church of Scotland ; and schools Jar bo)!^ and 
girls conducted by the American Bapii&t Mission. 

Nellore tovn is connct^icd with Madras try the Nortliem Trunk 
RoAd, and also by the newly opened Buckingham Onal ; and with 
the Mn(]ra8 Railway .it Rcnuguni.-t <it.itionf dist:int 70 mik-«. A r^iU^'ny 
U now under constniciion ^vhich will connect Ncllorc with Tiropaii 
(Tripatty) station on the north-west line of the Madras Railway. 

Neo Dhora (also called /i<iNf^ithnx).—VQs% in Kumaun DiMrict, 

Ni>rili'\VeJitL-rii I Provinces, over the HimJlajas into Hundes or South- 

H|iire%tcrn Tibet; lie^ in latn 30' 35' s,, and long, 80' 37' t., at the he:id 

^'^of the Dhciuli river Much frctiucntcd by Uhuti:is of Dliarma, who 

carry on a bri&k trade with liundcs by means of pAck'Shce[> and goaifi. 

'l"hcy export graio^ broad-cloih. cotton, hardware, and manufactured 

^_^oodh generally^ briii>;ii]g back in ietti[iisaU,|;old-dubl, borax^and wool. 

^HEIevatton Above scalcvcU about 15^000 feet. 

^B Keotlni— Tovn in Unao DiEtrict, Oudh ; litOitCd on the rl^bt 

^Pbnnk of the Sdi, a mites sntiih-wr*if of Mohan. The towti i* said to 

have been founde^l by a iJikhil, Riji Ram, who on a hunting cKpeditlon 

saw the ^)0t, and, aitructed by its beauty, cut at^'ay sonie of the thin 

grass that grew there, and founded a town \tbich he called Neotint. 

K,ii old dih in the place is still assigned a» Lhe iite of hts fort. It was 
dd by the Dikhiis till the time of KiSja Apre, who was driven out in 
the time of .Mahmdd of Ghaxnf by an army headed by Mfran MuKimmad 
nd /^hir-ud'din, whose descendants ^ill live here. A prosperous little 
vou X. ^ 



Muhammaddn tottn, with a popuIaEion in tSSt of ^yio persons* The 
schI ATDUDd the town \% extremely TicTi, and well cultivated with ciops 
of f4n creepers, poppy^ vegetables, spices, and medicinal hcrbG. 
Government school. 

Nep^— Independent kin^donnjududed in the iiouchemningeA of the 
HimjLl:ty;tit, l)cyoti<I the ncirlhern tjmmdAry of Britii^h Indi^. Xc|>it, 
tts ind<:]>cndcni icrriicry, i» bcjond the sirki sco|ic of ibis boolc, 
but ftomc account of i: n^ay 1>c cxpccic<1 in 7^t imf<ri<ti G^t^it^r ^ 
InJm. It would he unsuilnble. however, that any ai>penrance of 
official authority iliould aittch to ihii arcount of x )[>urHy foreign 
State. To prevent nich n mistapprchension, this article is confined to 
materials already before the public^ the chief of which arc "- — Colonel 
Kirkpatrirk's and Dr. Uiichanan's narratives; Sir C U. Aitchtson's 
TrealUi ami En^gematts ; and the cways of Mr. Urian lioughton 
Hodgson. With the Mnd permission of Mesirs. A. & C. Black, tlie 
article on Ncpdl in the BnfyclQj^ffdia Bnfanft$ca-^x\\<: ablest concise 
accouDC of the countr>' which has yet been made available lo the public 
— has Iwcn also lar;;cly m^rd for ilic |jurpt5a<;s of this wticlc. Altera* 
tions have been made vrich a vievr to bringing the faci« up to date. 

Thif groot authority oti Ncpil i« Mr. Rrian Hcughton Hodgson of 
the Bengal Civil Servfre, who wai for long R^tfidont at Khalmandtt. 
Mr, Hodgson's works form a rich treasure-house with regard to the 
history, eihnology^and lan^uascs of ihc country; its fiovcrnmenl in the 
pait, and its cnpabllitie^ in the future. A volume coiiiaintng t tnnda- 
tion of the ancient hintr^ry of the country by tuo native t'anrHts from 
the Parhafird, with an introducrion by Dr. Daniel Wright, late 
Residency ^urgton at Rhatmanciu, publifthed by the Cambridge 
University Press in 1S77, and hisioncal and descriptive skcichcs by 
Dt. Henry Ambro&c Oldficld, aho for many years jiurgcon at Khai- 
tnDDdu, arc available in recent yc<m. Sir Joseph Hooker and the 
brothers Scblagcntweit have fLfrni«hcd much valuable inforniaiion wJth 
regard to the physical features .ind natural prodticu of the Southern 
Himilayas— the region of which N"cpdl form* the largest terriional 

Bouttdarifs. — The nonhern !)Ounclaty cf Ncprtl marches with Tibet- 
It runs along elevated regions, which are for ibc most part desolate 
and uninhabited. This circumsUiiice probably accouncs for the 
absence of any scientifically defined frontier between the two cotrntrbefi. 
On the wcsl, the Kdlf or Satda river separates Nepdl from the British 
Province of Kumdun ; on the south west and Houth the British Districts 
of Pilibhft, Kheri, Bahriich, Ounda, Basil, Gorakbpui, Cbampiran, 
ShluvnfTftrpur, Darbhangnh^ Bhi^lpur, and Pum[ah constitute the 
botindary, the lin« of fronii«r running through ihc pbtnn at a varying 
dittanee (up to abom 30 milesj from the foot of the Himilayas, e«( 



fn the tas« of chc Diindwa bills above IvnMcm Ou^h, wlicrc the akirt 

of ihc hWh is l}ic liomidary, and of ilic SitTriC7>Ar hills above nnrih- 

wcsicrn Clmni|x(mr* tthorc the vratcrahcd of the hilla %t the boun<1ary. 

On the Witt, Nepil i* bounds by t>i« M*chi river, the Singitha 

Fti^S^ ind ihe hiU pnndp.ilily of SikkJm. Ktnrily speaking, the n^ime 

il applie* only to the valley in which KhatmnrnUi h simated Hut 

3UI this account, ihc irord is taken lo rcifc^nc the kingdom 

thidi Hie dominant race of Gdrkhalls has been gradually establishing, 

[for (he mc)»t part within the period of British rale in India, to the 

of the Hiindbyan w::tie»hed, and betv^en the rivers Sarda and 


Nep;£l lfC5, with an indiiuiion from nr)rth'wesi to iu:ii]th^ea5t, 1)etweeii 
the extremes of north latitude t6' 35'anJ jo* 17', and of eaM longitude 
80' 6' anJ SS' 14', Its j^Tc^test Icn^^'lh ia about jrf miles. The 
breadth varies from 70 to r5o milean The total afoa haa been conv 
puted at About 54,000 square inilet. The eitimutc of population 
nngcA from the Bniish C^overnmenrK aitisiiined toinl of 3,000,000 to 
the Ncpalcsc llarbdr's higher figure of from 5,200.000105,600.000. As 
there has never been a Census of the country, both t.<itiniate5 arc 
arbitrary, although there arc reason:^ for supposing the British figtires to 
' be nearer :hc truth. 

'I'he chief ad mtnifttrative divisions are:— In the hills: Bait^ri, Doti 
and Achatii, Tirmla, Saiiana, Uhaiig and Deskhm, Palpa and I'olthra, 
Giirlch;! and Kh-iiai^ndu, SindhiiEi;!, DhatLku:;!, Ham. In the T:LtHi: 

INayA Mulk (*new termor),' ceded in 1S60), Bat', NewAlpur and 
Chiiavffin, Pum Rira and Rotahat, Sirlahl nnd Mihtari, Suptj^ri, and 
>fuiang. With scarcely an exception, thete Distriet* are governed by 
(ftlrlihnH flffirer*. 
Aspateffh^ Country. — The ^rfaoc of Nepil is e^ftrcmely diversified 
Amot\g m lofty summils is Mount Everest (in the vcmacuUr "Dudk- 
Ci7^j:J,' i.r. the nan;;es of Milk), uhieh, with an elevation of 29,001 
feet, h the hit^heit known ^-iimniit of the globe, whiUt almost the wliole 

1moimt--iin H>-7(iem alon^ which the northern boundary run^t it at or 
above the level of pen> ftnow, All the mo^^t prominent peak* or 
groups of peak* stand in advance, or, in other word*, to the south of the 
elevated ground whi<:h fornix ihc souihcrn watershed of the S^inpu, or 

I great river of Tibet, and which t^, so to speak, the backbone of the 
mountain barrier between Tibet and India. TJ;e peak^ are connected 
-with the waierahed ; and from them ricljfei with dependent *pnn 
froject, which serve av lalcnl barricrt to the three great river basins of 
the Kiirnati. the Gandak, and the Ko^i. That basins have a soutls 
ward slojje, being broad at the top where they leave the southern 
nalcrahed of the Sanpu, and padunlly contracting like a far from ttfl 
handle. The similar slop^ of Uic hui^e ridges of Api. 




l>iwiJdgin, Gosamtliin, anj Kanchanjanga. and ihdr numerous Apurs 
And offshoou, which c^vtrmlc iHe cfTects of all other mtervcnmg 
ijicf|uilitic< of surfacv% howcvtr vii»i, duie ihe itcvcral group* of mourv 
tain sircAms hccwccn them Co con\'crgc until they unite and constiLate 
ihc thr« main rivers mentioned above. 
The valley of Khatmandu is drained by the comparaii^-cly email 
LAtreAm of die Bagmati, which rises on the northero face of the liilU 
r overlooking the capita] on the nc)ith. The drainage of ihe Tarii » fotf 
the moKt ]uri of purely local origin. \n this miiniatclj conncct^rd 
»y$tein of mountain* and rivers arc found at greatly dilfcHn^ elevations 
the t:or]5idcniblu valleys of Snmb, KhaimnndUt Poiihni, I>hang, 
Pc^khnt, and Oilccrwt^c;, su far a« i& kiiou'n, the hill country 
is cloie and confmed, abounding in narrow and deep tortuouB valle>'S, 
In ttection like a V. l^e average elevation of the valley of Khnitmiindu, 
' tneaKured hy thi* h;irom(-trT, i« nhout 4000 freL It t« of .-)n ovoid or 
vtfsg ^ape, with a maximum length from cau 10 nest of about 20 miles, 
aLid a maximum breadth of 15 miles from north to south. Although 
it in in no hii^her latitude than 27' 35' 10 37' 50' nonh, yet il enjo)-* 
nearly tlie siuiue dimaie ujt the south of EiEfO|ie. 'J'he average shade 
temperature in a hou&e at Khalmamlu in *&uinmcr varies from Si* to 
56" K At ^unrihe it ]» comni<jni) Lietwecn bo end 64', and nt nine 
in the evening it generally fluctuates from 70' to 75*. The tempera- 
ture varies necessarily wiih ihc t-levjiiou of the ground ; so that by 
ascending the adjacent mountains., the hc4t of the pbins may in 
the course of a few days be ejcchanged for the cold of perpetual 

AfC^mfiur^. — The product* vary with the climate. In some parts 
raitar« and |jatnboo». often of conuderable dmiensions, are seen, while 
other tincijt produce only oaU ami pine*. In several hill valla's the 
pineapple and sugar-cane ripen, whilst others yield only barley, millets, 
and similar grains. Kirkpatrick, from the spontaneous productioos 
wlitch he saw on ihc spot— namely, the peachy the raipfcerty, the 
walnut, the mulbeny, and others — thaus^i that all the fruits and 
esculent vegetables of ICngland might with firoj^cr aiicniLon be success- 
fully iai>cd in the niuunuiin vallc^-s of Nc)idl I^tcr cApcricxtcc in ihc 
gofdcDS of the British Residency tends to confirm his vtcw#, x\ irith 
ihd esception of September, there is not a monili in whJcli European 
fruits or vegetables of some kind cannot, with due care, be grown. 
In the warmer valleys the pinL'^ji^ile is good and abundant; so too 
is the or^niic, which ripens in wimcfp Some fruits in the bUh spoil 
owing to the ctcc^sivc damjjness of the rainy season. 

This moisture is, however, very favourable 10 the production of 
Indian com, rice, and other summer cro]i«. On many a piece of 
land three crops are grown in the year— wheat or bnileyt or buckwheat 




or muMard in lli< vrintcr, radialits or paWc or potaioca En the spring. 
and Indud corn, rw. or pepper during ihc minK- The hill* are 
hCfnictd v^rjr high up their ilopcfij and the field* thu* obtained -iiv 
chiefly utili/ed for pul*c< antl ccrciU, other ihe (ramplantfd 
rice, whi(:h is grown in ihc lower lands, and for muirtard. madilcr, 
Ufir-canc. and cirdimoms. The latter rc<iuire lo be ncir runtiiitg 
water. Ginger is a valuable product in the hill couniry l>eiweeii 
Nepal prrtpcr and ihe Kill river. 

Rice is eierywhere the main food of the people. Various dry 
rices are cultitutcd in Nq>41, under the general nnme of sh^^ 
>ouie of which, no far from rKxding hot vcaihcr lo bring ibem U> 
TimluriEy, arc a<:iitAlly raited in exposed siluations i whiUl others do 
nr>t rciiLiire, as in Ikngal, to be flooded, but Jlourish ia the dri^&t and 
lof^icet ^y^^s. 

■J hmLtKhiiEit the hilU, imrrHy ,i plonjth or a rarl U to be seen, hind 
Ubour Iwmg ihe almost universal agent for the prciarahoo of the 
Mfts^i store is Uid on the use of household and cattle manure, and 
of a blue unctuous- looking' clay which has rctnarkabie fertilising 
i^ualitic^ In the Tarii, the cJiiefcrop* are rice, opium, raj>e, linseed, 
lobacco, and uskur. Irrigation i* frcf|ueni ihrouq[hout the counlry. 

The most important ol the forcn trcc^ in the T'arii are the sd/^ which 
j« of great value for sleq)en and house lieatn^, owinic to Its durability, 
strength, Mtsightnes?;, and *i/e; (he Mimosa, from nbich ibe catechu 
of commerce is derived ; the jrVw ; and the Miti/tf, the wood of which 
U in niuch requc*ii for cart ax]c£. Cotton trees acaciaA, ^nd tree figx 
are not unfreipiimi. The hill fomm contain oak, holly, rhododen- 
dron, maple. cbc?iTnut» walntJt> (httmfi,t, homlwMm, pinfti, and fiis in 
ahundiincc; but the titnbcr ifi of liulc use, ctccpl lically, owin^: U> 
the inaccessible nature of the country. The cherry, the |KMr, and ihi; 
tea (ree, as well as the lauicl, the alder, the villow, and the oleander, 
arc all found wild 

The s|)ontaiieous productions of the toil inclade scrcral crjtblc 
roots and herbs^ which form a considerable parr of the susicnanoc of 
the poorer inhabiiantK, Several mediCLnal pUnLs are known \ and a 
rich variety of dyes ia procured from bitter or ororaailc woods, which 
aro held iri great cilltnatlon, The/Jtf7 n a species of hemp, from the 
leav^ft of which i* exprcrtcd a juice called fhantf, whirh ia a potent 
atrcotie, and possewr^s very vaUiable f]ua]itieK, burning i^ith a Jlime 
ah bright ,i« that of the purest mm. Its leaves are fabricated into a 
(iLjrc, Iron) which the Ncwars manufacture coarse linen, and likewL-^e a 
very strong kind of sackcloth. 

Ammali.—lLl.c mountain pa^ure, though not so good as in the 
low country, supports numerouf Socks of sheep, vhich migrate wtih 
the sc^sons^ in winter to the lower valleys, and in summer to the 

nyS NEPAL. ■ 

Him^I-iyan heights, where tliey fced upon ihe hcibAgeofllio^r- exlcnsivc 
tmcis which lie m the nciichbourhood of jierpecna] snovi^. The 6hcc]> 
m these altitLide:^ arc x}i conKklerablc siic, nnd h^ive fwe wool. Ill tbc 
knBB^HBts which arc frci]uent on or ncnr the sc^uihern frontier of 
SRIHRfroughout its uholc extent from the S;Lr(!:i to the Tl&ii 
(Tcv5t3), w^ild animals abound. IClcph^-ints arc siill found in consider* 
able numbers on the lower and ccniral hills, and ihcir captnrc i* the 
^rcat sport of NcpjiL The rhinoceros, ligcr, anti leopard abound in 
ihe fa^-^if and Ihcrc arc apccics uf l!ic: iwu Imici pccLliai to ll)c hills. 
Deer arc conimon thtoughout the country. The animal known in 
IScn^l by the name of the Ncp^l dog is brought from Upper and 
Ij^wcr Tibet, of whkh it \% a naiivt". Sevoral h.indsomc hirrf* are 
found in the niountiii:ous regions, particubrly pliea^ni^ {man^i^ Argus 
Dainjihyra) of golden and :(]K>Iled jiluma^ (lx>pho[>horn» ImpeyanuSi 
CcHorni!* Salyrn. Mek^jiis Sal)Ta). The (hiker, a sjwdc^of partridge^ 
i» well kngwn to Europeans in India. 

Mittf'-ah. — The stones and ores, (hat have been collcck^l, indicate 
the existence of a variety of mtncraU in the mountains of Nq»al. 
Copper is found quite near the surface of the earth, the ore being dug 
from open IrcnclieiE, so ibnt the work h cniiicly ftlop|icd liy (he raiuy 
Ae;i3i>n. These ores aic foinjd in atvcr.d vjiitlics -nid are >-iiti lo be 
unijEii^Ily rieh in nietnL Iron-ore tv al^o fuund neur the inirf^rc, rind 
i* not surp.iMed in purity by thai ii{ any other ci>unlr>-. Sul^jhur iit 
likrwini* flhnndrtnr, and procnrod in grwit qo.inild^, Sionc i* fcnind 
in ^rcat variety, particularly jasper nnl marble; but tlie houses ATo 
iinircr^ally Imric of brick, because ihe u^ of ^tone is impractical^ 
in a country where the roads do not admit of whoel-earria^ and 
where there is no navigiiiitm. A eonsiderable mais of lock-ciy^tal is 
said to exist near (iilEkha, and limestone as wdl as sbie abounds 
everywhere; yet limekilns are scarcer mud being the ccineni prclene^, 
because, as ihe natives as^scH, it answers hcticr in their humid dininte 
than mt>n:ir. 

Popu^ution. — The nuinerous Vidlcyst iiiLeisjJCrsed thjou;^hi>ui ibc 
mounlciiTia of Ncpdl are inhiibitt:d by a vanciy of rates, "i'hc aUtriginal 
tnhabitanU appear, from their phjitognomyT to be of Tartar or Chineu: 
origin. Iie.iring no resemblance toihcHindus cither in fca I urc«, religion, 
or injinners. The period when the mounuinous regions wcru first in- 
vudcd bvthe Hindus is uncertain ; but, according to the inoi^t authentic 
traditions, the date is supposed to have been about the 141)1 ccntur)-. 
In the eastern part of the country, abongioal tribes siiU remain; 
and until the predoniin^mce of the Gdrkhas^ they enjoyed unmoleMed 
their cuHtoni:( and religion, in Kuniaun, wliich lie& to Ihe we«t ot the 
Kill or Sarda n\'er, and which passed from Nepdlcsc to Bricisli 
iovcrci^niy in the early part of this cenior}', the case is different, 



atmo»t oil the inhabiianU clAlming a descent from Hindu colonict*. 
■J'hcy florriftJingly mntkr prmcijirtlly ff iht* two wptTicr rlftjjtcfi of 
Hin<ius. Brihmans and Kshaiuiyas, wiih iheir various sub-divisions. 

To the cast of ihc Kali, the chief tribes which pojisested ihc country , 
were — (j) Ma^ars, who ori^iiiaUy occupied the lowtf ]^ill* in the 
wcrtcm parts between the Bhcri and Marsyandi rivcrs» and vho. with 
ihe Giirangs nnd the Khus, form ihc majority of ilie GiirkhaU army ; 
(7) the GuTan^s, who^e home is between the Magnrs and the sno^^' ; 
(3) the Ncwars» who arc the aborigines of the valky of Khatmandu, 
ftnd whose atoui u[Ji>u^itio]i 10 the <dUrkhali invaders in the bbl century 
has dc]>nvcd ihcm of the chnncc of mihtar)^ itctvicc under ihcir present 
roasters : ihcy Arc good ngriculturi&ls, keen iTAiIcts, «nd leas backward 
in ihc methar1tc.1l aru th:m niMt of the other mountain tribes; {4) 
the Umbus Kiranifi, nnd, mhahtiing the hill country 
between Khatmnndu and the Sikkim and l^drjfhnj: froniLer; (5] the 
Bhutias to the north of Khatmanclu nnd the hmtn^iLiicd three tribes \ 
(6) the Kjijiwan, Dcnwars, 'J'lurus, and oihtr n]aUria-|>roof tribes 
belong to the low valleys and 'J'arii, l*ret)ominaiu over the above arc 
the GiirkhAUs, vhoK' principaL Brihmnn siib-di virions arc those of 
Pflnrc and U|>a(lhya, ard Kiiput sub-divisions arc those ol Khus and 
Thappa, The arceMors of the (iilrkhalfs wtrc mainly of Kijput origin, 
and are n^id lo have migrated from Ki)puiii^a during tlic aucc(;ii9C« 
of the Afghan houac of Gaur, nc the end of the laih ccnliiry A,n. 
Their first HiipJtayan home u^'a* in Kumitin ; and thence they 
^Rftdwlly movird eauu-irdv, ini^rmarrying with the hill u-omt^n, until 
tfl^ reached Giirkha^ where they remained for about a euuple of 
hundred years before their connection with Ncp.'il proper begnn, 
LiW all Iribcs of mixed race, they are great sticklers for the forms and 
ccrcnoonics of their primitive (Hindu) religion, And arc graduAlly, like 
their brothers in British India, absorbing into the fold of Hinduism the 
various aboriginal race* whom they have conquered. It is a mere 
question of lime when liudihiam, which is fiill the nominal creed i 
uf ni;ttiy Newark* Bhuiia.H, and oihci subject races, shall be wliolly 
merged in IJinduirtm, 

Lan^ js held by various tenures. The Rijd's immediate estatea luro 
chiefly tiiuated in the tiiirkha tcrrilorj', though iher* iit hardly any 
pnrtiiin of the liurkha ^onqiirstK in uhith the prinre ha« noC a[>pro- 
priated knd to his own use. Some of these domains are ocmipied by 
hu&bandmen. uho receive a share of the produce; ethers arc tilled 
by the neighbouring viiUjwr^ viiio are obliged to dedicate a certain 
number of day» in the year to this service. From this source the Rijd . 
draws all the suj>plics necessary for the support of his household- The 
BrAhmans also possess lands, the title to whicti ix gtrncrally derived from 
royal favour, These grants arc mosily rcnt*frcc, s^tlciblCi and hcrcdi 


•85 ^^^m NEPAL, H 

trtry : but they mny nevertliL"ltf« lie f«rfeiied for wrtain crime*. 
Anotticr icnMrc. found diiclly among ihc Nrwara, it the jj.iymeni of a 
considerable fine when iSc originai titles are renewed on the accea^ion 
of e:tcli prince. Ot!icr bnds pay a rent to ihe crown, or to Xhv/^x^'^ 
ddr (proprietor), in proportion to their produce. The bulk of the anwy 
is (laid by the assignment of lands renewed yearly. 

Mitiiary Fom^—kW ihc i^iartul tribes of NepAl are liable to military 
aeivice in times of public dangtr^ though all are not regulari)^ iTalned 
to diM)!!. There i;^ :ilso 4 standing irregiibr fori:c divpcntd throughout 
the ctkuntry, numbering tj,ooo cfTccitvc men, bc^idca A large body of 
KguUrs alvrays »tAtioned in *nd near the cApital» ntirnbering &bout 
17,000 effective men. These troops ire regnlarly trained, disciplined, 
and officerett after the manner of European tToo[]i%. I'he miteri^ id 
Bftoodibnt the drill is indifferently tinght, the firearms (Knfield iiflea of 
local manufacture) and accoutrements and dress, which arc on the 
European jkatlern, aro tincircd for, and the oflicerx have only an 
elemeniiiry knowledge of iherr diitiei*. The anillery mninty consists of 
small home-made field-pieces which would be of no value except at 
compimilvely close quarters. The Ncpdl Government is fully altre 
to the shoricomings of iw arroaracni, and loses no op[ioniiniiy for 
tinprcjveincHl wbitb may prewriit iliicif, A ^yMeui of aliuit scivitc ha* 
long been in force^ find it 'vs cnlculntcd ihat tbnrc timcti the number of 
men with the colours could .it \ nionih'fl notice be brought into the 

Hai'rnuf. — The ptihlfc revcnnr U derived fr^m bnd rents, customs, 
fines of various sorts, timber, monopolies, and minc^. Annual presents 
are roatJe by the subahs or governors, and by every one who approad»€S 
the roun; and ac times, as on the accession of a new sovereign or of a 
T(>)'^\ marriage, a forced coniribiition is levied from all lankK, even the 
sacred order, who possess free lands, not being cxcfppted- Aceordmg 
lo Colonel Kirkpatrick, who visited the country in 179*^ and who 
derived hit inform;Uion fiora good authority, the revenue actually re- 
mitted 10 Khfltmandu never exceeded 30 Mk/iS of rupees (^500^000), 
and it somciimct fell 10 s^ ^tU/is, M prciient it probably does not 
€Mrecd 100 A/Mi (^ijOOo^Dco) of Indian rupees a year. Bui in con> 
sidcnng ihe*e figure*;, the fact [hat the army h for the most pan paid 
in land must be borne in mind. This fcrm of paymcni represents for 
the regular troops alone al least 40 /d^As (^^400,000) annually. 

Commenr. -Vhc exEetnal trade of Ncpdl falls under two heads*— 
thai which h carried on across the Hiniilayas with Tibet, and thai 
which is conducted along the extensive line of the British fromier. Of 
the extent of the former trade, very liiile is positively known. The 
chief route runs north-east from Khaimnndu, and, r<iUowing tip a 
IribuLary of the Ko:ti, p^nso the I m 11 v ft on tier itjlion ^f Kuti or Nilaiu 


at an deration of about 14,000 feel abo\^ sca4c\'et Another route, 
also staning from Khatmandu, fuilovrs the main eastern stream of the 
Candak, crosses the frontier near the station of Kirang (9000 feetX and 
uttimateli- riches the Sanpu river at Tadam. This was ihe p-iih 
adopted by Captain Montgomerie's native explorer in 1S66. Both 
these mutes are extremeky difficult. The only beasts of burthen a\'ai1- 
able aie sheep and goats; and practically e^-er^thing but grain and 
salt is carried by men and women. The principal imports from Tibet 
are pasAmina or shavl wool, coarse woollen doth, salt, borax, musk, yak- 
tails or ckauris^ yellow arsenic, quick-siK'er, gold-dust, antimony, man/it 
OT madder, charas (an inioxicating preparation of hemp), various 
medicinal drugs and dried fruits. The majority of these articles pass 
through N'epil on their way to British lerrilofy. The exports into 
Tibet from Nepdl include metal utensils of copper, bell -metal, and 
iron, manufactured by the Newars; European picce^oods and hard- 
ware, Indian cotton goods, spices, tobacco, areta-nut and beteMenf, 
metals, and precious stones. 

The trade with India is conducted at various marts along the frontier 
line of 700 miles. The commercial policy of the Nepil Govern- 
ment, which is based on the requirements of the State treasury rather 
than on the principle of protection, subjects most articles of export and 
import to the payment of duty, which is heavy in the case of luxuries, 
and lighter in the case of necessaries. At every marl and on every 
trade route a toll station is established ; and the tolls are sometimes let 
by auction to a tkikdddr or farmer, A few articles, such as timl>er, 
ivory, copper pic^^ salt, cardamoms, and tobacco, are Government 
monopolies, which are usually granted to persons in favour at court. 
Trade in all other articles is free, subject to the payment of duties both 
on export and import. These duties differ greatly at different places ; 
but the local tariff is always well known to the parties concerned, and is 
said to be not oppressively varied. On the main route to Khatmandu, 
duties are levied according to an od vahrtm percentage on certain 
article;^ But the more common system is to charge a certain sum 
by weight, by load, or by number, according to the character of the 

The principal route for through traffic is that which runs through the 
British District of Champiran, with Khatmandu and Patnd for its two 
points of terminus. Starting from the military cantonment of Segauli, 
this route crosses the frontier near RdksiSl, and then proceeds through 
Samrabasa, Hataura, Bhimphedi, and Thdnkot to Khatmandu ; the 
total length being about 9a miles. Within British territory there is a 
good fair-weather road, which was much improved as a relief work 
during the scarcity of 1873-74; ^'^^ still more recently Segauli has 
been put into railway communication with the rest of India. Beyond 



the frontier it degenerates intc a mere carttraclc. As far a* Bhimphcdi 
(67 tniJcsj, li^ht cans can occntjon.-illy be uken; but m a matter of 
fact, the ^re^itcrr part of the tmffic is conveyed to Khimphc<li on pack- 
bulloclis nml ponies, and b)' coolies. Itcjond iJhimphcdi, coclies arc 
the only mc:Lns of carrlrigc available* Though a ponion of (he road is 
there tit for driving, there is h.iTdl} a cart 10 be found in the i\ho[c 
vailey of Khaimandu. What has been said ol this route applies to the 
oihuT mc;iDa of communication with Ncpil There is scarcely a matic 
ro^kd ill the tuuiitiy, but c;ui-% anO pack-biill^jckx frum Biitiah tciiiiory 
(rcely ]KLu to and fro dunng the dr> season. The nvcr« ore only uBid 
for lluiLttng down timber, 

Thr prinri|>,M aTiiol«« of cn^joH from N«pj(l aro the folTorinc;!— 
Rice and inferior gniins, oil-veeds, }:M (ir clarified butter, ponies, cattle, 
falcons for hiiwking, 7;Wr/rij ;i?f cage- birds, timber, o]>iuni, music, ekircta^ 
liOMX, tnadder, turpentine, catechu or cutch, juie, bide*, and furs, dried 
ginger, cardamoms, red chillies, turjtieiic, and fhahris or yak-iails- 
'I'hc chit:f imports arc— raw coiton, cotton twist, and cotton piece-goods 
(boih naiive and Kuropean), woollen crioth, sbawl^ rugs, itnnncl, silk, 
brocade, embroidery, sugar, sjjtces, indigoi, tobacco, areca-nut, vermilion, 
luf, oiJs, suit, a little fine rice, boRalocs, sheep and goats, sheet coppei, 
copjKi and br.iM orn-inieni^, bead*, miirure, precious sionc^i, guna and 
^inpo^'dcr for importing purposcib, cca fri>in Ktiindlun -ind llirjiling. 
Of the :kggreg:ite value of thiii trade, it is dlHicuIt to fonn even an 
approximate estimate. Khlmrate Mntliticjt have rettnlly been com- 
piled on the frontiers of Hengal, the Nonh-Woiern Provinces and 
Oudh ; but with a trade that f^isics by so many rlinnntls ^^d consists 
in many cases 01 articles of small bulk and Iii^^h value, registrition 
necessarily omits much. 

The foSlowing figures afford some indication of the general character 
of the transactions, 1 he babnce ol trade, which is alivays much in 
Tavour of NejidI, is adjusted by tlie iTnporiai^on of silver into tb^t 
country. Thin silver ia for the mo^ti |jar[ hoaidcd In ihcye^r tS??-'?^, 
ihc toLal impona into Nc|>^l from Uengftl were valued at ^455*^^^ 
[he chit'f itt-ma beii^g — European piece-goods >£'5Ji°°°; Indian 
piece-goods ^19,000 ; saU, ^31,000 ; tattle, £,^^,00^ \ sugar. 
;^i6,ooo; raw cotton, ^7000; brass and copper, Xi'-O^'^' The 
total exports into Bcn^l ivcrc vaJued At j^7oj,ooo, chiciiy consisting of 
food-grains^ oil-seeds, cattle, and timber. By weight, ihe total exports 
of lice and paddy amounted to nearly 35^000 tons, and of oil-seeds to 
nearly 13^000 tons. The piece-goods imported were almost ctuirdy 
r^stered in Champdran District. 

The corresponding sUtUtics for iS8*-S3 arc a* follows :— Value of 
lOtil impons into Ncpil from Bengal, ;t555.75J. the chief items Lieinj; 
— European piece-goods *£*^'»959i Indian piece-goods, j£'7iSo5i 



«*<.^34.t^4i caltlc,^i4,tt5; •■jgiir,j^i3,ii3j mwcotiOfi, j^ij,S6i ; 
hruwanJcopjwr, ^49,293, The IcHal ^xporU into Bengal foriSg^-Sj 
were vabctl rit i;7S7.at9» **»<^J" ^'-t"'*^ <v£4S'^95). "«■ {-^i5^"96). 
V^^l (£,My%^^)* ^idcs aiMJ sliim (j£50.o»>, ^Ai (jC3o,ooo), LiuMcd 
<;£^3>^)i airul limber (^97,185). Moiiuraauicd siJk goods vtrc 
impoflcd £roni Bengal in thesunc)ear 10 the value of^ii,iS6; m the 
pro'iousycar <o the ralue 0/^5355; and in 1830-^1,^5594. 'I'hc 
loul traftlc in tobucco between Nepil uid Betif^al was 2,500,000 lbs. Jrt 
respect of we^L The limtKrr tnule is cjuticO on mostly Ihroiigh 
Chiimpinin ; other routes arc ihrou^ Miiidi^ir in DarbhAAg;!, and 
Mtrg^xnj m Fun>ia1i. TJk viLue nf tbe uuL^kiib M:at lo Ncixil /loiu 
Bengal waj(;^33,64j in 1881-63, 

in 1877-78, the cot;U imporu into NcpdJ from the North W^ieirL 
Provificcfi and Oudh vrere vnlucd at ^£176,000, rhicfly piccc-goodfi, 
salt, metals, and sugar. The lotal exports iiuo ihe \orth'^Vestem Pro- 
liDces and Oudh were v\ that year valued at ^£352,000, tacluding food- 
grains to the aggregate weight of nearly 12,000 toDi. The correspond- 
ing fi^ra for 1&S2-S3 arc as folloirs :— 1'ota) imports into Nepdl from 
the Sonh-Weilern IVovincei, ^256,682 ; toul exports (rom Kcpit 
mlo the North'Wcsicm Provinces £..^l^Mo, The addition of the 
fibres for Lcng^ gives a ^and loul of ^£^1,666,000 for the regbtercd 
trade of Nepdlboih ways in iS7j-;8, and of ^f, 176*3^3 fur the same 
trade in 18SZ-83. The gain to Biiti^h traders en^^^^cd in the tralHc 
between the: North Western IVovin^cs and Ncj>il u oiliciallj cs^timatcd 
at ^100,000 yearly. 

Coinage and CurrfMQ-. — The rurrcnl silver coin in Nep,*!! h the 
makor, two of uhich go to the Mohri rvpee* 1'he intrin&tc value of 
the wirAar h 6 dnnJf 8 /^ies of Hrlllih Indian currency. Ih- Mohri 
rupee is not an .nctual coin, but merely a m;ttlcr of ;ic<:cunti il» minor 
denorainilions being as follows :^4 4/^r"i/* I //iv/ 4/1^=1 dnnd; 16 
iinmis^i Mohn rupee. Three different kinds of copper //*r arc coined, 
all orvhich circulate in IthtJsh territory. .Mong the tract from Bahriich 
to Champif:jn, the current coin of exchange is tlic lihUtuaiiui or 
Giirukhfurl fiu^ a a<]uarc lump of purified i^uppcr, roughly cut by hand, 
with on Apology for a stAmp i 75 of these coins go 10 the Indian ru|Ke, 
r»*p they sl^nd to the Indian /j>^ as 75 to 71 ; but ihcy arc w> pcipiilnr 
with the people. That trade's rannot p.its Indian//// into NVpil, ctcept 
at tlie rate of 9 piu for 2 dnn,is^ or a tJiiCDum at i in 8. H hese BAu/- 
H'a/jya picc are made at Tan^en, in ihe P^ii^a District of NepdL In the 
extreme e,ist arid norch-cast, the c-ominon coin is the black or Lt>h{ya 
piitt oi which 107 go to the Indi;ni rupee. These are of no betier 
shape or m;Lnufaciure than the Ifhiiixa/iya fia^ and they are of less 
value, owing to the large admixture of iron. There arc seveiAl mintd 
for their production in ihe eastern hills, the belt knoun being chu of 

114 imFAL. H 

Khika Macch,i, They are cotmnicnly met wiih in North Bohflr, frcwn 
ChftRi[)i(ran m I'umiah, 

In the; valtcy of Khaimardu, ihe thin or nevr pia, introduced in 
, a865» hflvc now nc.iH)- driven ihe Li'hiut put oni of circubtion. Thc>' 
arc circular, made by machinery, and fairly well sMni]>cd Their valui; 
IB 117 to the Indian rupee. Acconling to a report by Mr. Girdlesionc, 
ihe British Reaidenl at the Coun of Nepal the average annual ou-tiam 
of all the Ne]>ii<:»c niim?( durmg the roitr years ending i87S-;6 vaa 
ILS follow^ in terms of Mohri rufices : — Silver mtiharj, Ry^ 314.000; 
MfiufnvJfya fi<t^ Rs. 1 SO, 000^ Lo^iyix fiit^ R». 43.000; new /rfcr, 
Rs, if^iOoo. The coinage of silver used formerly to be much buger 
than it U now; but the Indian rupee has (^mduaEly C!C|il'11<?i.1 the naitvc 
m^har from the entire tmilh of iht- country. Tndiin currency noips ar<! 
in slight demartd ix\or\g the bnrclcr. In Kh.ilm3n(!u ihcy arc highly 
pH:rcd as a means of remiitance. usually fetching a premium %Mryin^ 
from 3 to 5 per ceni, Fornnrrly the bilb of the i,Tcac trading firm of 
Dhar:n NJfilynn were bou^hi up at higher prices even than currency rtoic»- 
I'hi^ firm ai^s a« Sintc banker?^, nnd hatt corr^spcmding hauvei at Patnd, 
ISonareii, Ownpur, and Calcutta. It suspended payment in ES73, but 
has since been re-cstnblishcd, 

Afaftkfa^nt,—'V\\<: Ncnara arc almost the only anisans in Kcpdil. 
The Newai women, as well as the men of the hill tribe of Magan^ wca>'c 
two sorts of cotton cloth, partly for home "hc and partly for exportation. 
Those who are not very poor vooHcn hbnkctc. which are nuinu* 
faciurrd hy ih^ Hhtitin?, uhn urir litOc cUe. The dress of thr higher 
ranks is not manufactured at home, but is imported: it consists of 
Chinese silks and Kurof>ean mjslJns, calicoes velvet, and broadcloth. 
The Newars are workers in iron, roppcr» brMs, and hell-metal; the 
chief se.'ils of the latier industry being Fatan and [ih.ilg:ion. One \k\\ 
manufadnred at this last place nieantred 5 feet in diameter. The 
Tibet bells arc sujKrior to those of Nep^l. though a great many bell- 
metal vessels of Ncpdl manufacture arc exported to Tibet, along with 
those of and copper. The Newars have al^o a knowledge of 
carpentry; but il ia rcmarkiible that they rarely use a mw, dividing 
iheir wood, when of any 9\it, by a chitel and mallet They manufacture 
from the hark of a shrub (dup^ifu) a very strong p:ipcr, remarkably 
well suited for |>ackages. They distil spirits from rice and other grains, 
and also prepare a fermented liquoi from wheat, maAuiU rice, etc, 
which they caU ruJ^s^i U i* made somewhat in the manner of malt 
liriuor, but Is more intoxicating. 

//ts/r>r)'.^VhG earl/ history of Nepdl, like that of moat eastern 
countries, U buried under amass o( fable. The inhabitants exhibit a 
bst of princes for several thousand years back, which is given in Colonel 
Kiikpntrit-kS work, but without any cviOcntc of its auihcniitity. Wc 



know, however, thai Kcpil wns ihc scene of Impoiiaiit rcvolulion^ 
though it tt-afi never KubJLigntc<3 by ihe Delhi Entjterors, or by an/ of 
ihe other great A*i.iiir ronqucrors. It h said to ha^tr been compJeicly 
ubducd in 1323 a.ix. l>y Hari Sitjgli, otil' of iht.- prinrc-s of Oudh, who 
'1 been driven ou[ of his own possessions by the r.iihdns, But ffom 
at period ihere exisu no accurate information respecting the dyna^ti<;s 
lEh niW (luring tht intcrwil, ot the race of princes who j;tivcrncd 
'pil at the titne of ihi: Giiikhall conquesL R^nji'i MaU^ kin>; of 
Hhat^on, wa* the ia^t of the Surja-bansi race, t>r Children ot the Sun, that 
igncd in NcpiU. In order 10 strengthen himseEf a^;iin»t hjs rival at 
h^xinAndLi, he formed an iiUbuiie with I'riihwi Nariy;in, which ended 
in the lovsof his dommicns, of whkh he u;;^ Mripi by h)h ally in the 
KeiL-u year SSfl, corresponding to 1 76S \.D. Tho comjucftt of riian, 
:in the toTlawing ycvr, made the Gdrkha& inaiterf of the whole valley, 
t was durins this Mru^glc that Capiain Kmlorh, wiih a Hritiih fore<*, 
■ndeavourtd 10 penciratc into Nejiil. But from the sickness of the 
troops A>^^ the dif^Qult iialurc of the country^ the enterprise n^as 

I Prithwi MarAyan died about ihrec years after the final conquest of 
Nepil, in the 1771, He left two sons. Singh Pratdp nnd Bdiddur 
Sbdh. Tiic former ol these succeeded to the throne, and conceiving 
a Jealousy of his brother, threw him into pri.son, whence lie wuh with 
dilficulty released by the interference of one of the :h|>irLtu:^l guides of 
the Cidrkha royal family, on condition that he nhoulU live in exile. 
Singh Pracip, aicer having extended his fatlicr's con^^iiciitA, ilied ir 1 7 75, 
leaving one son, Ran Bahddnr Shah, who was an infant. Bahadur 
Shdh, on the death of his brother, returned from his exile lo IChat- 
Riandu ; ami hivtn^ itlaced his nephew en the throne, assumed the 
office of regcEit. But the mother of the infant prince, Rijendra 
k^hmi^ contrived to siippbnt Bahidur Shdh in tlie regency, and to 
iUre the ficr:ton of her rival. Through the mediulijn, however, of 
of the priests, matlcrs were arranged, and liah;iditr Shdh was 
enabled to seize and confine ilic Ranf in his turn, Negictiiiig, how- 
ever, \\3 L\jEii:ilUl^ the tiiicf men of the 5[aic» he w.v^ .-ig-iiii driven into 
i^bmcnt, Jrom which he did not return till iho death of the princesf, 
when he reatflumed the regency without opposition. In the cojrse of 
bj% adminiumrion, the dominions nf Nei^il were extended to the Mechi 
river on the east, 2nd District 01 the west; nnd from the 
border of Tibet to the border of Hinduiiiin. 

Towards the close of the administration of Warren II;tsting«, the 
Oilrkhali sovereiicna were invobcd in difficulties with Tibet, which ircrt 
followed b>" a reference to China- The Teshu l*1raa of Tibet pro- 
ceeded to i'ekin, and died &oon after his arrival in that city. His 
iCFi Sumhur Ldmai taking advanUige of hi:^ absence, Hed from 



^_ cvei 


b.hdsA to tlic R^jj of NcpdJ, CArrytT^g along with him a conf.t<lcrak1d 
■quinlity of iFca&urc. Hi* reprwertaiions so inHamed the avarire of 
iht* Nrp:fl*'*i* frfiv^rnmf^nt th.iE ihcy matclittl a hotly of uoopi lowards 
LhisA* and cxioncd from the Inatn^a a tribute of 3 Z*i^/ of rupees 
(^30,000). In 1790 they sent a second iorrc, Vp-ho pllb^ecl the 
tcmptc5> and succeeded in earning off n large booty, though clOKly 
pursued by a Chinese army, and loiini? *ooo men in ihcii retreat 
from the severity of the wcailicr. Tiic Kmperor of Chiiu, as tbc 
terrestrial prolcclor and *j^tnlual disdiile of the I^moa, Incensed by 
these unprovoked nggrcMiun?^, dc»i*nichcd an army of 7o,oc3o men 
againsi the Nep^lcsc, who weic ovt-rlhrown in repeated b>aitlt3 \ and 
the Chinese army advnnccd Xo Noakot, wtchin sS inifea of Khatmandu, 
and 100 miles from ih« British frontier of BengflU A peace wa* at la*t 
concluded, on terms tgnf>minimi« to the Xcpilete, whft were compelled 
to acknowledge the ftuxcrainty of Chfna. and to refund the spoil which 
they' hnd taken from the LJtnns. It does fiol nppcar that tribute wns 
ever exacted. About this period (1752), 1-ord Comwallis concluded 
a treaty of commerce witli ihc Nepilesc. An aitenipt to improve the 
advantage thus gained was fmslrated by the indilTerence of the Giirkhatia. 
The c[ucenrc>;ert, Rdjendra J-akshmi, died in i7S6,when the care of 
the young R:ijA devoU-ed enlirtly on his uncle, Bahddur Shih, who 
was vtcciJ^d (;f enctiiii.i^in^ hitn in his dchauchcriesj, in hojH^ uf brit;ging 
him into contempt, and diu» securing to himself ihc supreme authority, 
in ihU expert.ition, however, he wjs deceived, as the K^jif, in 1795. 
when he l^^d entered itpon his twentieth year, suddenly annoTinted that 
he had re«)lve<l to assume the n-ins of go\-emmcnt- Me rendered him- 
self cxticmclv popular durinj; the first year of his reign. But this fair 
prospect nas speedily overcast* [ind the youth plunged into all the 
excesses of the most furious despotism and cruelly. He caused 
his uncle to be arrested, and starx-cd to death in prison. He daily 
tortured and muUliUcd hi» subjectti, and buheld tiieir sulTcnn^ with 
ravage jo^. In his outr.iges l>e nude no distinction of age or sev. 
Women of all caste*, even ThoNc belonging to ific K;icicd ittlIct, vrcTC 
aubjecicd to abuse Uo\\\ the vilcM ch.tT.Klcis. 

In 1795 a son was hom 10 him by a Brahman widow, who being 
taken seriously ili nevt yenr, and fmdin}^ her end ippronching, reminded 
the Rajit of the pn^diciioTT nf asirtilogers, that he would nr\-er romplMe 
his twenty-fourth ye^ir. and enlteaicd him to provide for the unprotected 
orphan they were nbout to leave. The R.1;i relying implicitly on the 
supcrsuiious prophecy, immediately, and in the most solemn maimer, 
before all the chiefs, abdicated the ilirone in fivour of his son, though 
illegitimate ; and an adfninistr:ition was then ap[>ointed, over 
which one of the Kdnfs was apfjomted to preside. 'I'hc abdicated 
monarch now devoted his whole lime to attendance on the favourite 




vidow, wIiOt rol-uitl)»tn Tiding all hla attention, and rich ofTcnng» 
ot the different tcmplc-i, booh ^ifterwardfi cipirfd. In \C\h afnidion 
he became *iiitte frnntic, nnd perpetrated atrocitic8, tbo bare mtfiiion 
i>f which stiU <*aiisc-* the Nriialc-^c to shiidder Among?:! v-tnoii* 
enomiiiics, he directed the sacrcd ictnple of Bhaw;ini to be demo 
lished, and the golden idol, which was a venerated objccl of wor- 
»bip, to be ground to dust; and when the soldiers to whom he had 
isnied the ordent demurred at such *n act of wcrikgc, he commanded 
boihng oil to l)e poured on their naked bodies. None were cxeiript 
from his ragft tvcn the chief members of the Uovcrnmcnt were 
scourged wnihoui mercy, and oihcrwi-sc tortured, A conspiracy w:w 
al laii furtncd a^Aizjii tlic iVKfciit, wlio, fnidiiig himjclf abnniloned, fled 
durini; the night, and ultimately reached Ucnarcs in May 1800, 

I'hc prcficncc of iHe Rajd on ISritich territory Aecmcd to afford a 
gotid opportiinily for hrinfring about rlnwr ronnertion with Nep^fl 
which bad long been the aim of the Government of India. A trrsty of 
alliance wa* accordmfjly concluded hy Captain W. 13. Knox, who 
vaA appointed as Brliish amhasMidor, and proceeded to Klutmandu 
in thnt ra|iaciiy in 1802. The terms of the treaty were favour- 
able to British inierem; the Nepdlese being anxious ro secure the 
influence of such powerbj! neighbours against the faction of the 
abdicated Rij:f, who ftill contended for his reftioraiion. But whatever 
advAmages were attained by this treaty, wcic ultimaicZy rendered 
nugatory by the Jealous opposition of the subordia^c oflitcts amon^^t 
ihc Ncpale*e, who were probibly instigated by their chiefs» the latter 
bluing entirely unable to i\\\i\ the obbj^lionis into which they had 

The RiMuTency at KHataiandn withdmwn it) 1804- About this 
time iHc abdicated munarch, Ran Muldur SWli, hy the able maruige- 
menl of his tnjeen^ whom he had alwa)-s ill-treated, was restored lo his 
^junbority. Uui as he continued to rule with his former barbarity, 
'TU of short duration. In 1805 a second conspiracy wji* 
formed against him, and he w^s aTisassinatcdn His clciih was succeeded 
by the most violent conflicts between the rival parties In the State, 
which ilid not tenninate unid nearly the whole of the nobles at Kbnl- 
mandu hnd perished. The fiur*-iviiig adhcrentH of ibe late Riji having 
at Icn^jth secured the person of his son, seized the rema of govcmmcnti 
pitlting 10 death siirh of the opposite party an remained. 

During all these intestine commotions, it is remarkable that the 
Oiirkhai Mill con tin lied to extend their conquests on every side. To 
the west of Khatmandti, they found ihe hill chiefs diAtractcd by mutual 
jealoutics, and by no means in a condition to form a league for mutual 
defence- The Gurkha armies very soon made themselves masters 
nithout the aid of artillery, of e%"cry hiil fortj from the Cianges to the 


Mi NEPAL ^^^^M 

Sutlcj (Saibj), When ihrirmovemcnU lint stCrtrtcd iTic notice cftr? 
Bmish Gov^mmai^ their general was creeling strong fons and 
ftt«ck:ide& ac convenient pcsitionf, Tianidy Almord, Srfnagar, and 
Maldun. I'he rrnntier loimrda the Sikhs wa^ a1«o guarded by a slroAg 
Xwm of fortified posts ; and lliiis; tJic mnsolitJatittn of the Cidrkha empij« 
proceeded with a ilo^v but *urc progrew;. The extensive tiaci which 
lies between Kbatmai^u ami the Suilej wms held in tirm Kubjcciion bjr 
a strong iniiiinr) fofcc; whilst lo the e-isi, the Sfkkini Raji was deprived 
cf h^df hilt icnit^irlcn, fim! C9m|jcltcd \o [lay tijbutc fui the Tciiiainder. 
To the iiorih, ihc progress of conquest wis resiriinccl by the Cbmcte 
p0W«r, with which ihc Gdtkhi ehicrfi had ftlrcady found thcmficlvc* 
unable to cope, and aUo by a lofry nngc of b.irren mmtnT.iin*- But 
the fertile plains in the south presented 2 more aUuring prospect, and 
i!reatcri>iuliabilities of aucce^ In a contest wjth a new and unineil 

'Ihc consctiucncc vas a scries of cntroathnicnts along the whote 
nortbern frontier of the British ;>o&ses»Jon»f e^I>ecinl1y in the IHstricis 
of Corakhpnt and ^ann. The Govcrniaenl remonstrated ag:tin«t these 
proceedings, and an invcitlgation into the respective claims of the two j 
powen waa commenced by Coinmi&^ic^ners jointly cho^cri ; the: lesuU of , 
whkh being entirety fjLVOumE)lc to the liritixh, a detachment uf regulars 
was ordered to take pofibcu^ioti of the deb-ttt^iihlc ground. Dxit thci« 
b^Ing viibdrAwn during the r^iny lie^ton, the t^hicf police ii1:ition upon 
the frontier was attacked by large bodic* of Nepile>e, and the officers 1 
were compelled to fly, with a loas of iS killed and 6 wounded. Shortly 
afterwards, a second attack was made on another police »titron, and 
several persons were killed^ after whit:h ihe whole body was withdrawn. 
In ifii4, wiiTwas declared. It is only nc<:e>sflry here to state gencr^llj', 
that the invasion of ihe (Iiirkha dominions was commenced on the 
western konUcr, beyond the Jumna (Jamutidi, and rear the Sutlej, the 
country there being consideied as easier of uccei^B than chc inountainoua 
barrier on the »ide of Uengfil. But the British troops, in attempting to 
iiorm ihc blockades and hill forl^ were rcpcaiedly drU^^n back with 
savcre loss. The most desperate resistance of [he enemy was j>crhupi« 
at Kahn^^a. ne^ir Hehra. Here it was thai General Ci\les|Me fcH, 
while encouraging his troops to renew the attack. 

In ii!Ji5, bir David Ochterlony assumed the chief Co tnmand. By a 
SLTies of skilful ojierations he dislodged the Gurkha troops from the 
fiLiriiJicd heights of Malaun, and uliitn^tcly so hemmed in their renowned 
commander, Amar Singh, and his son, that they were forced to aign a 
capiiubtion, by which they agreed, on being pcrmiiicd to retreat with 
their remaining iroops, to abandon the whole tcnuory west of the KdlL 
In Kuui^Ljii, dho, the Djiiiiih truupij succeeded in dtiving the enemy 
befijre ihem ; and, m consequence of th^c fu<;ec»e>, a definite treaty ut 




:e wx'^ concluded on the ?Sih iCovcmhcr 1815. But the ^ign^iuro 
of the Kija bcmg wttlihtld, it was deternuned to renew the n'lr, and to 
Mrilce fi deciuvc blow directly ai the capital of the coiiniry* Pre* 
parattons Tor this arduou^s cntcq>ritc were mado on a great scale, a 
force being assembled in SSmh numbering about 13,0015 troops, of 
whom 3000 were Europeans, besides a large bod}r of irregulars, 
amounting in all W over 33*000 men. 'J'hia formidable force tool; the 
held in ihe end of January iSiti, and advancL-d from Bettli directly on 
KiialiU4iidu. The greatest difTu^uhics were cncounicrcd, from ihc 
ruf;f;cdncss oi ihc country, in marching aiong ihc dry beda of torrents, 
through ravines, and in the face of precipices. The Gi^fkhas xn^e a 
bravt resktance, but ihey were dtfeaie^i in several severe encounters; 
and the IJrJtnh force apitroachcd whhin Llicce dajrx' march of Rhat- 
mindiu Decmina all furiher rcsKtanre vain, ah ambassador was sent 
to the British hcad-quarrers co »ue for peace ; and on March 4ih, iSiti^ 
the unratified treaty of the year 1815 was accordingly received duly 
signed. By this treaty ihc Ncpdlesc renounced all claims 10 the 
lemiory in dispute. They a3so ceded all the conqucits they had made 
die west of the Kdlf, And theie^ with the excepbon of Kum^un, 
ic Dchra Diln, and wmc other ;>onior5 of territory annexed to the 
Irili^h doEiiimons were restored 10 the Ttmilics of ihc chl^f^ ivlio liAd 
nigiaod there prior to the Gdrkha mva«ion, and who were now to rule 
VluaU of the British, 

.^tbeeburse of thi« cunte^. the KepdkHC h^d earnc^ly entrt-atcd 
the aid of the Chinese. Their upplioaiion beinij tr^inemltted by the 
Grand Ldma to Pcltin, an an*wt.T wai received, in which the Emperor 
of China expressed his connction that the Giirkhas had themselves 
been the cause of the war by their unjuaC encroachments, and declined 
all interference. After [»l-:icc was concluded ^vith the Uritish, the Chinese 
EmjKTor e:cT^t:^i>ed deep clleace aj^in&t the rulers ol Nepdl, who, bcmg 
merely tributaricxi tia<l presumed t<j make war or jiCace with the British, 
without thcsanction of their »U[ictioT \ and to Uickthuac lofty pretentions, 
ft Chinese army of 15,000 men, comnundcd by fxfc gcncniK and 
attended by funcuonarlcii of superior r^nk, usunlly fitationei at l.hdso, 
adA-nncrtd tow-irdi \hc Ncp^ilesL- tcrrfitoriM. At ih^ rcriuest of iheNepdl 
miniMeri, the British consi^nted to act as mediators. But in the mean* 
time ihcy ihemselvw elc-paiched a^^enti to the Cl^iTi*-**"^ camp, who 
succeeded in bringing about the restoration of the jircviouK relations 
belvcen the two powers. 

I In 1S16, Amar Singh Thappa, one of the (>tSrkha commanders 
«ho had so gallantly disputed the field with Sir David Ochtcrlony, 
died at the age of sixty-eight. To ihc last day of his life he was 
endeavouring, by every ait of m.-gotiauoii| to eKCJte amongst the 
iifcrcnt SLites a spirit of hostility against die Biiti»li, aa tlie comroon 
vou X. T 

cncfnic* of Indian independence. In November fSi6. the >oting 
Raja, the successor o( his fa;ber Kan Baliddur Shdh« died of small-pox, 
at the age of tweniy-one yeam One of his queens, and one of his 
concubmcs, together wtih fi\c fifinale attcnilantw, burned themselveft on 
the funeral pile along with the ccr|Kc. He left one «on, three ytax% 
of o^e, named RiJL-nilra Dikram Shah, who succeeded t^ui^ly to the 
throne, under the guardianship of the minister Bhim Singh Th.tppa. 

From this lime the internal historj' of Ncpdl presents little that can 
cicitc inlercil, "Jlic Ute I'miic MinUlcT, Jj^ni; Ba>xidur, who died in 
tS77t vroA well knoivn in E^n^Und, and received the honcKirt of x 
Grand Croes of the Bath and 2, Grand Contmandcrthlp ot the Sutr of 
India. He was the nephew nf a man who hail T^'tntti himself 10 a 
high position in the adminisiration of affairs. He murdered his uncle 
at the instillation cf the queen : a ntrw minislry wa& formed, and Jang 
Bahadur wai apjiointed to the command of the army. Shortly after- 
wardft, the new pr<;micr was assassin it ed, and the ^luecn, with whom 
he was a favourite, demanded vengeance. Jang Itahddur undertook 
the u$k, and eJiccuted it with aLicrity. An assembly cf chiefs and 
nobles being convened (i346) within the palace* Jang Bahddur, 
backed by a small force on which he could de[>erid, suddenly 
appeared among iheni, and did tKc work of mi)s:tacn:. Kourtccn of 
the hostile chiefs fell by the hand of the comm:Lnder -in-ehicf Before 
the dawn of the luf^cedmg day, Jang R.ihfidur wsn, invented wiih the 
office of Prime Minister, A conspiracy was formed for his de^uuciion ; 
but Jan§ seized and beheaded all the adherent* of the chief ccn?ii*initor. 
The queen was banished with her two youni;er sons; ami, (he king 
having accompanied them, the htirapiiarent, Surcndr^ ]iikT;im Shin, 
was raised to the throne, A feeble aEtcm[>i w^is toon aficrwords made 
Ijy the monarch to regain hiit kingdom, Imt the cncrg)- of Jang Uah^ur 
baffled il, and the king was made prisoner. 

Jang Bahadur alwciyt professed a friendly feeling towardiS the British; 
and at the comTUcnccment of the Mutiny in 1S57, he proved the 
eincenty of his friendship by reinforcing the Briiish army with a con- 
tingent of Giirlth:! troops, which did UMiful service in Uie recovery 
of Oudh, A* already mentioned, he died in 1877. 

A dynastic revoliilion occurred at Rhatmandu in NovemlKT 1SS5, in 
which the Prime Minister, Sir Ranodwfp Sin^h, General Jag-tt jawg. von 
of the late Sir Jang Bahiiiur, together with his own *on, Vadha Pratdp 
Jang, were murdered by Bir Sharadur Jjng, the head of a rival faciion- 
l^ir Shamsher then seized upon ihe penon of the young Mahirdjd, 
and CkiabUshed himsdf as Prime Minister, which in Ncpil carries with 
ii the iUffTcme power. The revoTinitm was crTcacd wiih complete 
suJpii^ie, and wiih no further bloodshed ilian tJie ihrec murders just 
roeaiioncd. Sir Ranodwip Singh and his pctny had been for vome 




time previously di^lruAlcd by the nobteii of the Sutc and by the people^ 
dintl xht change o( Government wo:: f|uici]y Acquiesced in by all cloiiteK. 
One rc«ulE tthich the revolution is likely lo pro<Iucc ia a thorough 
reform lioch in the inicrTi:il ad miniRt ration and ift tW foreign policy of 
Ncpdi. The sclf-UoUlion which ha* hitherto closed the country to 
Kuropcan travellers will posiibly be akindoned. 

N€r. — Town in Khdndch District, Hcniij.iy I'rusidcncy ; situated 
in lat. ao** 56' N., and long. 74' ^4' t,. on the soulhem or tight bank 
of the rinjhra rtver, i3 milc^ west of Dhulii. ropulation (i 881)9658. 
Ncr was formerly an important Muhamniadan town, and Muhammadan 
combs still line the main road leading into it. I'o«colTice, and engineer's 

V^T {J^rsirpan/). — Town in Wiin District, Bcr*r; silunicd north of 
l>irwa, and about j8 miles to the north-west of Ycotmil, in lat, »o' 99' 
N., and long. 77' 55' e. Noted for its dyers, who here carry on a 
thriving trade. Wrrlcly m.irkpt, poliee xtali^in, regtslrar'% officr, and 
S£;hf>ol. Population (t88i) JS75 ; houst^s, 86t. 

Ncrbuddft.— Division of the Ccnlral Provinces, — S^f NAKPAOiL. 

Nerbudda,— One of die great rivers of India.— &■<? Narbada. 

Heri (iVdn). — Town in Warord /a^sr/, Chdndi District, Central 
Piorince* ; situated in hi. 20' aS' s., and long. 79* 19" r.., 5 miles east- 
soiith-eiL^t of Chimur. The inhabiiuntR arc chicHy Marrith^ Topii- 
Uiion (18S1) 3364. namely, Hinditv, 3117; Muhammad.ini, :a6; 
non-Hindu aburigines, ui. Ncii consist of an old an^ a new (own, 
vith an eittten^ivc stretch of rice land between. There are manufacttirc^ 
cf brast and copper uten«iU and cotton cloth for export ; and a con- 
siderable traile it rarricH on in grain, gratcrie*, and salt The old 
town contains two ruined forts ; and an ancjcnt temple, uiih pitlarn 
*nd carvings like those of the cave temple* ai Ajanti, Some graceful 
Panchdl tombs, in which hiubaad and n-Ifc lie side by side» are of later 

Heriftd. — Town in Kaira District, Bombay Presidency.— *&« 

Herla, — Town in ^Valwi Sub-dlvUion, Sritdra District, Bombay 
Presidency i Mtuaicd 44 miles numb by cui of SdUra town, in lat. 17* 
6' s,, and lon^. 74" 15' R* Poputaiion (1881) 6807* namclyi Hindus, 
6605 ; Muh:imitiadan4, 142 1 and Jains, 60. Poftt-ollicc, ttavellerv' 
bungalow, vernncubr ichool, and market. 

Ner Pinglai— Town in Amrdoti District, Ifcrar Population (1881) 
6644. namely. Hindus. sSofi; Musalman*, 600; and Jains, 14S, 

Nerdr (^Virr/ir), — Town in Karur iJM, Coimbatore Dirtricl, 

Madras Presideocy. La*, ti* o' 15' n., long, 78* ir4o' R Popula- 

;lion (1881) 5610; number of houses, ia85. Hindus number 5467; 

iriMians, irS; and Muhammadans, >;. 



Nerwar.—Town in Cualior Stale, Ctnlrtl I«db.— .S>* Na^waIl 

NetAi-— River in the tiiro Hills Asaint— ^ Nitai. 

Netrivati— River in South K^nara Disirici, ^f^dtas Presidency; 
hic* in lat. 15' 10' 15' K., and long, 75" cC jo' i:_, and falU into the 
sea in Lit, IJ° 50' N., and long. 74* 52' 40' E, II ii formed by the 
junction, a: Uppinan^adi^ of luo streams, the Metritaii proper *nd Uie 
Ktimarddri From Uppinangadi ihc united atitom flows to M^n^lore- 
In Hoods the Nclr^vati is navig.^blc above UpiTinan^adi, and ai till 
times bciwcen that place and Mangnlore. 

BTertL— Port in Rdtn^iTi Diatria, BomhAy Prciidcncy. Lat. 15° 55' 
N,, long. 7 j' 3a' It, Nofih of Vcngovb, S mil«a ; »outh of MaU-in, 6^ 
mile*. Ranncll (173S) M]ggc«C«thal Ncvtior Nii-ti fort i* the ' Kitra * 
of Plolomj^nnd ibc *Nitrias' of PIby. 'ITii^ is extremely doubt/ul, 
for ihc place is nowhere mentioned as a trade centre- The fort it 
now in reins. It was stormed and captured by British iroopB in 1S19. 
Average annual value of trade during the five years ending iSSi-Si — 
imports, ;^;4o ; tx;n)r:?i, ^2050. 

lfeW&tgaQJ'CUm-Mah&r^gai^>— Two adj^cnt townn In Unao Dis- 
tiictf Oudh ; Miuatcd 2 miles cast of Mohan town, on the old Nawdbl 
Luclcnowrond. 1-it. aO' 47'10'N.. long. 4Jo' 45'ai'u. Ncw:ily;;mj was 
founded by Mahiiiji Newil Rii, tlie N4ib or Deputj' of Naviih Sjifd-ir 
Jang ; Mahinljginj. which adjoin* it, was btiih by Miihirdji Balkrishna, 
ihc blc linancc mini»ler of the cic king of Oudh, now living in retire- 
ment .-It (J.irden Re.irh, nr,Tr C-alrutt.r The town '\% njipmachtd 1^" :i 
long and hindsome bridge, which lerminates in an archway. The jC""/ 
01 mirket-place is about one-fourth of a mile bng. and ends in another 
archway, ixii^ing under which, a sharp luni to the ri^hl brings the 
traveller opposite a tliird arch, forminjiihe entrance into Ncwilgaiij, 
The hi-wctkly fhhiir, hi;!d in Mah*iiijfinj, \% une of the larg<%t \n the 
nei^hbourhooiL The sale% include uU the usual countr)- produce of 
grain, tobnceo, spiccs» and vegetables, wiih country cloth lunl Kuro[>ean 
piccv-goodsn. Tlicrc i» a scpAratc trade in brass vessels, «hich arc 
made in large <iitnniitie» at Kcwilganj. Population (iSSr) of the 
united town^ 30^4. 

NewiBft.—Snl>-di vision of Ahmadnngnr Districi, Bombay I'tesiJency. 
Area, 607 fiquare miles, containing 1 town and 144 village:;. Population 
(1872)02,418; (iS8i);&,t5S, namely, jt9J4Q males and .^St^og females, 
occupying 9049 houses, Hindu% number 09,597; iMuhammadans, 
3807; ,ind 'other?!,' 4954. The general character of Kcwisa Sub- 
division is a flat plain, gently sloping nonhwards lOH-ards the Godiviri 
lii-cn In the south and south-east, ihe country has a more decided 
slope up towards the Nagar ranijc of hills, an<l is deei>ly fi«ftuied 
by r;Lvinc-s^ duivii hLicli during h«:avy tuin^ the water rushes wiih great 
violence The drainage is wholly towards the GodAvari river, which 




forms ihc boundary of ihe Sub-divbion on i\\t nonh. One vilUgc 

belonging to the Nixdm lies ^oulh of the nvzt^ thus breaking; i\\c 

cominuouii baund^u')' for three miles. It h the rule to i>lough heavy 

lands every* Tho ganlen bud? arc generally manured, bui not 

the Jry-crop ktdfi of the jjhiin, though sheep me orcvtionally penned 

oil them. The lands du net nppc-iT to be allov^-cd .1 fnllow* A nyftiem 

cf crop chariKes i* observed, but ihcro lis not a sufficient variety of 

crops to ni^lmit of ,1 good rotation. l"hc arci under ral'i or laic croj^H 

js double thai under khari/ox early crops, 'Hie atca of jirigsttcd land 

ii|i am:il1. During the seven years coding iSSi, an annual nivcra^e 

pWWi of 157 acres was irrigated, Uf 193.^54 acres, ihe actual area 

under cuUivation In iSSi-Sj, grain crops occupied 165,203 acres 

[(70^&9i actcK ncrc under ^J/ra) ; pulicn occupied 15,8^3 acrca ; oil* 

iweda, 3*45 acres ', fibres, 7380 acres (7^79 at:rc» were under oatlOTi) ; 

end rniitccllaneoua cropts. 1543 aerc0> Land rcvontio (iS£^)i ^iS»]46. 

The Siib-dtvision tn 1S83 cot^tained 3 civil and 3 criminal rnurtii ; 

1>ollcc circle (MnA)^ 1 ; regular police^ 38 men; village watdi (Milled- 

Ncw&sa.— Head quarter tovm of Ncvriia Sub-divifrion, Ahmadnag-tr 
I>i*lnct, Bombay PrcMdency ; situated in laL 19' 34' w., long. 75' B,,- 
35 miles north'COit of .Ahmadnaj^ar town. Population (1S81) 3So4< 
Beside the Sub -divisional and police ol^ce», Newdsa has a »ul>judge^ 
court, dUj>en*iar)', and weekly ninrket on Sunday*, In 1290, Dny.inct' 
vats, the gieac M-iniih-i paetj wrote his cummcinary on the Dhij^wadiiiti 
ai Xcwiiu, ^vhidk he talU NivAs. 

Heyatankarai.— TJ/uX- at Sub-<liv]ston of Travnneorc Siate. Madraa 
Pfeiidcncy^ Arv:i, a 13 square miles ; vlllajjes or collcetfoa* of tilbges, 
kixrtrs, 151. 1'o]iu1nlion (1^75) to6,iaS ; 08^') iio.4ig^ namely^ 
S5<3i8 males nnd S5'^9> females, occupying 2^.012 houses. Hindus 
number So.4^4 ; Muhammadans, 5*57 ; and Christians. 15*709- 

Hga-pi-seip, — Village in Kan-aung townships Henzada Distrkti 
Irawadi Divlscon, Lower iiurma; siiuaied on the right bank of the 
Irawadi. PupuEaiion under 300. 

Hga-pd-taw. — i'ownship occujying the evtreme ftouih-!\ea:ern 
ijurtion of Ba^sein Di&irici, Jravndi Division, l-tnver Burma. It i* 
Uvidttd JAto tu/o very disstufilar tracts by ihc Arakjtn Von^a range, 
i ftoulh-eaitem one eonaisla of a large island (33 miles long by 7 
rl^roAd} lying in the Uaaoein river, and intersected by numerous inter- 
omunlcnting lidfll crcc-kt Off the Batoein niomh U Diamond 
nd; fariher out fo sea is the Ai.ciu^da reef Towards the north 
(he country is flat and covered with forest, whilst in the cxtrumc north 
the ^uiface is dotted with small Hindsione hills. West of the .Arakan 
range, nowhere more than i& miles from the sea, the whole country is 
> tnountainouSt the spun eiitending by gradual &Io^s to the sandy bc;tcK 


and fortning, as ai Caj^c NegraU, ruj;^d and sca-vasheJ escarp 
In a few |>larc% arc tmall rice phins ; but as a ruk such cultivation as 
exists is on the htUsirlc^ The Arakan Yomas attain no great c!c\-alio« 
in this township, Two principal passes crosi the range. The chief 
rivers arc the Mvit-ta-ya and the Thas-dwil I-arge vessels can enter 
: the bttcr and i^asi u]» about 6 miles. Ngj^UiAw compni«% j i revenw; 
cirdca. Population [1676-77) 10,037; (18^1)23,346. Gro3« revenue 

Nga-pii-taW' — Hc;id-qtinrter5 of Kga-pd taw tovmship, BaKsein 
Di^^riri, T,owor Burma ; siiuaietl on NgapiVtaw iitland in the Bas^oin 
river. Ji miles helnw BaKs<rin town. Popul.itioa (1S81) 93i. 

Nlfa-thaing^'ChaUQ^ (or j\i'*/-//;r7w^-iAjrtVff^), — Head-cjuarters o£ 
llie Nga ihaing'CliLiimg Sub-division of Itns&cin District, Iraw^di Divisiont 
Lower Bunna ; situated on the Bas^cin river, in a rice-prodtKing tract. 
Contains a coiiri-house and the usual public buildings. Population 
(1881) %iii - revenue (i58i-82), ji;iJ44- 

Nga-WOH-— River ia Pegu nivision, Lower Burma. — Se/ BASSEtiv. 

Niamti.^^Village in Shiinogil DiWrict, Mysore' Sime. — -Scr Nvamti. 

Hibdri. — Villo^c in the GAro llilb Distnci, Asaam ^ »iiuntcd OD 
the Jinan or easurn source of tli« Jingirim riveTi where it dcboucbM 
upon the plains of Goilpdrd. The fiJsiir h a centre f>( trade where lh« 
Glros exchange their hill products for rice, cloth, dried fis^i, etc The 
i^jt'dr or lowland rrnft of ihe same name contains valuable m7 timber, 
yielding revenue to Government ; and an area of 10 square milw wa* J 
proclaimed a Governnieni reserve b June 1S83 under the namo of the 
Jiniri Forest Reserve. 

Nibra,ll(f,— Pass in Biishahr ^Bussahir) State, Punjab, over the rangt 
^v|]icll bounds Kunlwar to the Spouth ; licit in lat. 31' ti' N., :ind long. 
78* 13' K,, between tv-'o perpendicular rocks, 35 feet tn height) and 
bears a striking resemblance lo a gateway* Elevation above sca-tcrcl, 
16,035 ^cet. 

Nichlaval. — Village in MahHrajganj la/isi/^ Gorakhpur District. 
North- Western Provinces ; situated at the meeting of several unmetalled 
roads and cross country tracks, ^r miles nortb-north-casl of (lorakhpur 
Utwn. Although the ^jopulation is not returned in the Census Report, 
Nichlaval i» a large atid important village, and the principal man in 
the north of Corakbpur District, from whence a larj^e export of ric«, 
both locally grown and from Nepal, takes place. The village ccniains 
a third-class police station, and District post'OlVicr. A few miles 
distant are the ruins of a casde or fort, the *ccne of a sharji fight 
duriiig the NepJIese campaign. 

Nicobarfl. — A cluatcr of islands lying to the aculh of the 
Andoman^, in the Bay of Bengal, between laL 6' 40' ard f»' ao' 
N., and long- 93* and 94' t. The area of the whole archipeUgo 

teiRgo 1 



[«mounl3 appToxiuialcIy to 426 iqUEirc miles, an^ tlic popukilion 
to about 6000 persons. Thi» group cousbu of S large And ta 
kmAU iftUnd«, oT whIcK the fi>]lowin^ nrv the principnl : — ChAuri, 
Tcrr^ssa, RompolLi, Tillnngtliong, C:ii"ona, N:incowry» TCatchall, 
Car-Nicolvir, the Lilllc \icot>ir, ami the OTCnt Nicdiar The 
largtM of ihcsc is the Great Nicolwr, which i* about 7,0 miles in lenj^ih, 
arnl bcinTcn 12 and 15 in brc.idih. The length of the othen m as 
follows: — C.iT-Nicobar. 6 miles; Tcncssa, la miles; Kalchall, 9 miles; 
Nancown-y, 4 miles; Caraoru, j6 miles; and ihc Litilc Nicobar, is 
i^il«. Nancowry gives its name to a splendid hatbour, which is formed 
by the islands of Nancowry, Camoru, ami z smaller one called TrinkaiL 
Many of the channeb whiuh nep»r:iit: the inhnds furm cxcclleni and 
safe passages for shipn. The niaibn established by the GovcmmcrLt of 

^indii in i%Ccf in thia group of ifrlAnci», is called KancouTy, It ii 
Hittinierl M the <oiitH-easc end of OmortA IiUnd, and on lh<^ noiih ude 
of N:incouTy harliour. The itation is supervised by nn officer, wh£> w 
periodically relieved from i'ort Bhir. The e»iablii*h merit, in 1K82, 
consiKicd of 50 nitivc troops, 37 police, and 255 conv-icts. the object 
of the sctilemcnt being the protection of trade anr1 suppression of 
Nincowry U the only station atnong the islands of the Nicobar 

/^irm/ ^i/^f,— Most of ihe islands are hilly, and some of the 

peaks attain a i:onsiderabIe hetghL OiherH aj^ain are llat, und cohered 

with fore^tsi of cocoa-nui trce»- AH of ihcm arc well wooded. In 

■ some of the islands, particularly Camortn and Naneowry, the forctu 

altcmafc with cctcnsive undulating pl;iins eovcred with n long coarse 

gMss, vhi^h in pbce« nfford excellent pasture for caiilc The valleys 

and itidef of the hilK to a con^tderahle height, are so thickly 

covered with trees that the light of the sun u never able to iwnetraie 

[through their foliage. Among the princii>al trees arc the cocoa-nut 

«cca pnlms the mango, the hrim or mtlhri, and a voriely of 

which grow» to an immense height, and would afford 

excellent material lor building and repairing sliips, 'Jropical fniits 

f^w in great nhurtdancCi and yams of fine quality and size. The 

domestic .inim.ih .iic dogs, ft[g?^,and a fen' fowls. Of birdt^.lhc NJccbar 

IfwaDow is the chief. It i^ the buildrr of the edible nc^ts, so highly 

Fva1u«d by the Chinese. All kinds of ^sK ;ibound in the waters around 

f'Uie island*, nnd thelMnxh are found in great quaniiiie^ The soil on 

[ihe ftea-shorc U compmcil of rand, cornl, lime, and vegetable mould, 

tmort or less ihirk ; the hills arc red cby. and ihe rtKk* lime, sand- 

I Btone, ,ird slate. Specimens of coni have been found in various \yxi\\ 

({if the Nicobars, and though dtlTcrlng in AiJpearance arc alike in nature- 

|Thc circumstance of iheir limilaiity ia an indication of the probable 

existence of one great bed extending through the isUnd& 





/'<»/«/tf//*wit — Il is difficult to<I«lcrminc the ori^^n of the Nkobarians- 
.In «omc features they r«enible the Malays, yet the shape of ilwir c^frs 
ME BO diiTcreni, and idejr manners and customs &o peculiar, th^t tht^y 
iDtist be coI]^ide^ed a» a sqiaratc racu Tht-y are of a co;ii>et colour^ 
well ^jrqmnioncd in their boclics, shon rather than tall, with 
Ctiinete eycC| small flat noscsi large mouths, thick lipf, 1:it;^c cars, 
scanty beard, and stntigh: black hfiir. Their vHlages are generally 
built tipon the beach, and consist of fifteen or nvcnty house*, end* 
house containing a fannly of twenty persons and upwaids. Thete 
Eiabii^uions are taUetl U|>on wouden pillarn about lo icet from ihc 
ground ; they arc round, and^ having n^i windnwn, look like bcc-h»'c8 
eovcrcd with ihoich. The entry is by a triip-door below, through 
whieh the f^iniily mount by a hidder, which U dntivn itp at night. 

Fishing fonns the chief necupalion of the Nicobarlans. Their food 
con&isu of pi^K poultry, turtle, 5^, cocoanutA, yania^ fruits and a 
bread made from the truit uf (he ttieiivri tree. Jn character tbey 
are laxy, cowardly, treacherous, anil drunken. They have com* 
mittcd repeated murders on the crews of vessels under the Uritish 
flag. In several instances ihc natives received the cicw hospitably* 
and vhcn die sailors were panaking ot refre&hmetl iliey guddenly 
rushed upon them and killed them before they had liine to act in 
defence- There nou ^ccrns liiilc doubt thai many vessels supplied to 
have been lost in the Ray of llengal were in fact cut off ^nd plundered 
by the njtivcs of these islands- Sinci* the British occupaiion of the 
Nicobnrs, however, ther* have been no caries of (uracy, andtheblanders^ 
genemlly s[)eakin^, luve lii^haved well 

The)- have no written lan^iuaec, and the dialects spoken differ so much 
that the )tih;tbiEant<f of ime island can scarcely make theniaelves under- 
Mood in another. Like other savage nations, the Nicobarians dread 
the evil genius, and ^xz much addicted Cosuper?>tition. They cnieriain 
the hi^h^st opinion of such a^ can read and wnte, and believe that all 
fcuropcans, by this (luabficaiion^ are able to |*erform acts more than 

The Nitobanans have a gicitt revctencc for their dead. Alihough 
ihcy do not possess a clear conception of inimortality, ihcy suppose 
that the soul of the dead »t:iyti for a tiino in the neighbourhood m 
which it li*cd. HuriaU arr rnndnt'ird with great mlemnity, nnd 
over each body a post is erected, on which are placed the utensils 
daily used by the deceased. The Nicobarians hold in dishonour 
simultaneous polygamy. 'Yhey never keep metre than cne wife, but 
have no icruj^le in dlsmissinf; her on ihe slightest pretext, and taking 
another, A perfect equality subsist; among them all. A few penons, 
irom their age, receive & certain measure of respect, but there i* no 
appearance of authority one over another. Society seems bound 




iQgcihtr rather \>y nmural obligntiuns conilnuaUy (xinfcircd and 

Agricuhure is qti lie unknown on the Nicobani. The soil ift nov^hcic 
cultivnted, though many valleys might be rciidt-red fertile with a little 
trouble. A (evt i^laniains, sweet limes, yams, and other vt^getablea 
for local consumifiion are, however, raised. At Nancowry 6ufticient 
-ftuiL and vejtet^l'lcs are grown fur local want*, and ex]Jtrimentfi have 
been made in the cultiv^tioTi of cotton and other tropical produce. At 
present the principal product of these islands is the cocoa-nut palnn, 
and iis rii^ nuts foim the chit-f exiwrt. Edible birds' rest*, tortoise- 
shell, amher^ns and irtpati^;; (the sea-slu^), are also shipped. The 
noTthem Ulands are said to vii^ld annually ten million cocoa-nui«, 
cf tvhich alH>ut one-half are exporicd- The estimated number CJC* 
j>oricd in »88i-Ss was ^,570,000, A* this important product » six 
limee cheaper here than on the coast of Bengal or in ilic Straus of 
Mnliicra, The number of Kngli^h and Malay vesiiels thai com<' to the 
Ntcubars fur cocoa nuis \% cfvery year increashji. In Ijarter, they give 
black, bltic, and red cloths, handkerchief);, cutlasses* IJurmc-^c Af^i, 
spoon«, spirits, tobacco, red noollen cap^ old clothes, and black liais. 
The rade in cocoa-nuts is canicd on chiefly by native craft from 
lliirma, the Straits Seitlcmetits, Ceylon, cle. Forty vcfii&cls, of an 
aggregate tonnage of 6176 tons, visited the islands for coco.i-niiis m 
i58i-Si, Ihc nuts arc still obtained by I jarier. The Importation of 
aiiiis, ^i]iniut;itiun, and spirits is prohibited. 

/fw/cj/^.— The fir>t Actcmpt at the coloniuiion of the Nicobars ttos 
Ic by the Dane* in [he middle of the last cetitucy, but the littte 
ly was (toon iwcpt away by fever. Still, notx^iihst^inding ether 
trnsucci^sful attempts, \\\t interest taken in the*e isUndn did not abate ; 
And in iZiS>y the Danish Hatz was hoisted at Nancowry, in the name of 
Cfiristion viu., King of t)enniark. On the death of the king in 1858, 
the Danish Government, considering the course of political e^vnts at 
home, gaw up the claim of possession. The report of an aiiack on an 
Knglish vessel, and murder of the crew, in 1S48, caused the British 
nuthoriiics in India to inquire into the truth of \\\\% tnl'oimation ; .ind 
ss there was c^cry leafton to believe in the stor>" related by the 
suTvivurs, ic wui thought jdvi<iablc to bring the island under our 
authority, so that «tcp« might be taken to check the piraticfil ptaciices 
of the i&landcn. In 1S69, the Nicobars wore annexed by Her Majesty-* 
Indian Government, and were placed for ndministr.ition jndcr the 
Supcrirtendt-nl of the Andaman Islands, tn 1*5; J, the Nicobars 
were included m ihc Chief Commissioncr^hfp of the Andaman and 
icobars, and in \%i(> a regulation for the peace ?tnd government of 
jilatvl^ was ]wissfd, which is still in force, Ini877,the harbour 
of Nancowry was declared a port under the Indian Ports Act ; and in 



1881, tbc uholf group of i&.lands wiis (i€cbrc<l a sdllcment for ibe 
]«irj>rtv^ of the nlwve rcguhlion. 

CIima(e.-*'X\\^ dense jungles, whic)) im|je{1e every current of free 
air, and eM«nsi\e niarshLS, render the climfltc of ihe Nicobars very 
unbeakliy. Tbc prevailing disease is irialnxious fever, i^hich has 
proved fatal to many of Uie colonista who iricd to effect a seltlcmeni on 
iheUbnd. The rainy monilw marit the predominant season cf the rear; 
even the tlncst months, Irom IJetembec 10 March, are not wiihoMi niin. 
The heaviest rains occur in May, June, and July, and the M»uih-wcsi 
wind b then very Mronj^, and frequently mca 10 a Mgim. The 
nnnual rainfull at Nancowry for the nine years ending i8Sj> woa to4'6 
inches hi 1S81 the r.unfLitl v^;\5 1^4*05 incheH. 

NidladaiU {NidJada^'aUy- — Town in TatiuLu i^/ttk^ Gi^ddvari Dislrtet, 
MddraK Frcsidt:nry ; vituaicd in lat. 16" 54'2S'';(.. and lonK.8t'4i'4i' 
E, ; 6.^ miles northeast by north of Masulii^atam, and about 10 tniJcs 
south-west frotn Rijmahendri (Rdjimundn"), on the Ellorc Caral, con- 
necting the Clodavari and KUma rivers. The fori was built under the 
orders of IbrJInm Shih of Golconda about 1550 ai>. Poindatton 
(18^1)3356, inliabiting 579 houses. Hindus number 297S, aiidMiihain- 
m-iilans 2^^. 

Nidhaidin — Village in Et^h iahsU^ Euh DUtrict, North-Wctiem 
Provinces- Populniion (1881) J&jj. Remain* of a fort hwWx by 
Khiitth^l Singh, the ^vrf^orrevenuo oHicer ofihe Nawdb of F.imkhaUid. 
JUUk traJe in griin, indigo set-d, and cotton. Police s(;ttion. post- 
oflirc. viMagi? -HchooL A small house-tax is levied for polier and ron- 
scn\incy purine w^ 

NidugalOit * Long or high st0nf').'~\'ty\\SxKftAy{\'\ in Chitaldnig Dis- 
trict, Mysore State, Lat. 14" 9' 21' n., lon^, 7;" 7' 31" e. ; 3780 feet 
above *ea-level. The residence of a line vt{ pdir^ars, whose founder is 
said to have hved in the i6ih centuryn They maintained a r[uali6cd 
Independence until swept aw;iy by Tipx^ SnUJn in 179*. The village 
of Nidiig^il on the north side of the hill has n population (iS&r) of 450, 

Highisan»— 7*j^.v;/orSul>-(Jivisioii of Khcii Uisiiict, Oudh \ Mtuuted 
bet^vgtn ^7'' 41'atid iS' 43" N. lat., iind between 80' 3t' 15' and Si' 
93' E. long, Bojndt-'d en the north by the independent Suite 
of Ncprfl, on the by Nanpir^t taftsi/, on (he south by Bi^iwin 
and Sit^pur takslh, and on the west by l^khimpur tnitslL Tlie 
hrtiesl but the most thinly iwpulalcd tahsU in ilie DisiHci. Area, 
according to the last Revenue Surrey Rc[>ort (1675-7S), 936 
s()uare tinles, or 599^1'*^ acres, of which 270,663 acres arc returned 
as under cubivniion, 23,1.669 acre* as cultivable, and 94*794 
acres as uiciiltivablc waste. Poimlalion (1S69) 235.496; (iSSi) 
268,306, namely, males i43«R3&, and females 124,468. 'J'otal increue 
of population since r569, 3a,&to, or ijS per cent, in ihinccn years- 




Classified .^ccofding lo religion, iherc were in iSSi— Hinflu*, 359,26$ ; 
Mijh;iminatlan3t '9.o*5 ; ar>ti 'olhcrs,' 13, Kuiiibei of villan«.i85< ^^ 
vliich joi contain leas thnn five himdrcd inhabitjint^. Covcrnmcrit 
U«d revcmic, ^"33,716, Nij^Ms;in fa^istl comprisea th<* 5 farganS$ of 
Firo^c^hiid. Ph-inrahn, Nighdsan, Kh^JTigiirh. nnd Villa. In 15X3-84 
tC contiincd \ dvj! and 4 ciimiiial conm, |>rc^i«lcd over by n (QhiMMr 
and 3 honorary iTi.i>'iMraif:H;niimbrr or police circles {/>5rfAtfj). 2; icgubr 
police. 45 men ; viiljgc waich or mnJ police^ 670* 

KigliiUaiL— Ai'^tfffrf in Khcri DislricE, Oudh, Bounded on ihc 
n<mh by Khiirigarh. from which il is separated by ihc river Sarju; on 
Ihc caM by Dhnurahra ; on the south by BhUr^ the Uhauka river mark- 
ing tdc boundaty ; and on ibe wcit by Pdlla. Thii/tffj,'W«*f, which has 
only been iccczitly cunMitutcd, imiws jMrt Qf the low pluin lictuccn the 
Sarju and Chaiilta rivcrj. Along (he banks of ihc*c rivets runs a brood 
/ringc of iarai or jungle, <^ansi^lii>g of kfmir, sktsham^ and ^hir ITCC9, 
which ia Tnimdntcd every year during the autumnal rain*. Belween 
mes a long rtdge of higher land, with a {[ood loimyMiil, forming a pbin 
varying from i to 9 miles in width. The far^and Is intersected \\y 
sntas or batlittflicTs of ihc Sarju and Chauka : and is covered wiih 
ranow semicircular marUies known as bhag^ar^ which mark old rivcr- 

The forests along ihc Sarju lagoon swarm with wild animal*; and 
of wild ho(^s, deer, nUi^dt^ and antelopes do great injury to the 
and ucrcc^nitute die constant watching of the rie1d!i> day And 
night, 1'iger^ arc scldotn found \ but IcojJiircb arc frcquciitly met irtth. 
Area ofthe/tf'yi»'''J, according to the Revenue Survey Report (1S75-7S), 
aj* square miles, or 149,077 acres, of which 68,33*7 acres nrc returned 
fl* under cnllivaiinn. 63,4^3 •ntrcs as cuUivable, and 17,267 Acres as 
UQCultivable wa.%le- The reserved forest area amounts to 15,971 acrcfL 
imct)tland revenue, ^6546. The prevailing tenure laAfMviyH; 
and 62 out of the 73 villages coipprised in xhc par^nd are owned by 
Chaulun Rijpuis, who are also the greater proprietors in the neigh- 
boufing/ff'Avm/of Bhilr. Popuhiion (1869) S7.84»; (i»8i) 67,a45, 
namely, Hindut &i,8o7, and Muhan-kniadans 545K. The population 
is scanty ; and owing to the aversion wiih which the country is regarded 
by people belonging to other [Mrt^ of Oudh, iheie it ample spare land, 
and Ictiure* arc extremely favourable to the cnllivator, T^ie only roa(j» 
in the /vff^'djv^f are one from PJlia on the east to Materd Ghii on th« 
vre^t^ whith i^ crossed at nght angle* at Balrdmjiur, and one from Strsf 
ChAt on the south to Khiiri^arh tin the- north. Ferries are maintained 
at sc^'eral points across the Chaulca and Sarju rivere. 

"Sig^hkti.—Par^iKd in Lucknow District, Oudh ; bounded on the 
north by MuhanUlganj fiargami,^T\^ on the south by the Sdi river, 
which separates it from Unao District This/iTrfir^ri is finely wooded 


155 J^fGOffAN TOJV.V—ymTOK- W 

Xo the touih And i\t£ir tbc tow'n of Ki^ohjin, biit to the nortKwcM h is 
K-iff*, nnd rovcnrd by wide barren |>lams. The soil along ihc Sai is 
li^hi and sandy, and also a!ong ihe kmks of ihc Bdnk ftiream, iriikh 
CTuttH^ ihc parj^ftd oh]ir(iK'ly from the ncnK -intl joins ihc Sii to the 
south of Nigohin- This sandy iand ^imoums to ao per ccnU of ihc 
cultivated area, and injuriously afTccts the general fertility. Except 
round ihc large vilbgcs, and in ihc souih-wc^E of the par^nJ^ the culti- 
vation is noi so high as in the rest of the Disrrkt Area, -jz 5A;iiare 
miles, of which 39 arc under cuhivation. i'oi>uiuiion (ittJJi) 52,331, 
naiikcly, males 10,487, and females i5,S44. (tovirmmenC land revenue, 
jCaj$4, equal to «xn incidence of j3. 9d. per acre on the cukiratcd area, 
a. 4jd. per acre en the anses9C<i orcn, or 2?. |>cr rtcrc on ihe total arcK 
— a lower rate ihan in any oiher fffr^titd of i,ij(.kf>ow. The tenure i» 
pTinci|ially diluM^ri ; out of 77 vi'bges fomiJMMng the far^nndy S^ 
hclong to tdiaUddrSy forming three e«Eatcs. The only t<i«n with a 
poijulalion exceeding 3000 is 5ls^MNn^ hut 7 othct* contain over 1000 
inhahnants, Schoolsarc maintained ia five vilLngcs, ihtt farxc^a \^ 
traversed by three roads — one running from Kii Barcli lo Lucknow, 
another from SiK^indi to Mohanldlganj, while a l^ird connects 
Nigohin and Si^lmdi with Lucknow through Uijnaur (Bijnor) on 
one side, and with hucknow aiut Suli^lnjiur ihrouj^h Na^rlm on the 

KigohtLa. — Town in LucVnow DiMiici, Oadb, and hcnd *|UftrUr^ of 
Xigohin /-arganJ,- situated 33 miles from Lucknow city, on Lhe road to 
Kd\ Tlnreli. Popiilation (eSSi) 196^, inhjiHting 365 hon*e*i. Itnih- 
mana are numerous, their [>rinci|ial means of KntiMiMenee btine the 
large groves surrounding the village, which Ihcy have alwaji held rent 
fret". M.irket, an<i Govcrnmeat vernacular school. 

Nigritinf. — village in Sibsigar Disirict* A^sam ; nr ihc kft oraouth 
bark of the Urahmapuira, about 16 miles north of the Sub-divisional 
town cf Cfolaghdi. Nigritinij is the ptmcipal garden of the Krahmo- 
puira Tea Company* It is also the poit for Golighdl, and a stopping- 
place for steamers plying on ihc Braliuiapulia, wliic^h here din^uibaik 
codicil and stores for the ica-gardcns, and take return cargoes o£ 

Hihilgarh Obak J&nfflft. — Town in Suli^npur District, Otjdh; 
j6 milfs wf'il of SL^lL^npll^ tnwn, on ihc niad ttj l.urknow. Populition 
(i$3i) 3016, nimcly, Hindus 1093, and Muhamniadans 9J3, Three 
Hindu temples; police nation; Govern mcni school, 

Nihtor.— Town in Ohampur /j^j//, Bijnaur (Bijnor) District. Nonh- 
Wesicrn Provinces: situated in lat. 19' 19' 30' N., and Jong. 7 S' 35' 
35" K., on the banlcs of the Gingan, upon the DhjLmpur road, 16 miles 
from Bijnaur town. Population (iSJJi) ^^^^, n;Lmely, Muhammadatis, 
7001 ; Hindus^ 343$; J;uns, 247; and Chmilans, 8, The timn con- 

mjA GAl-NrCESWARA.\f. 



\Air^ .1 han<3^oinc mu^quc, police ^criilon, poiAt olHcc, school* and s 
sar»ii or native ion. Markets are held twice a week, ^nd fnin tn March 
and July. 

Nyagfal. — Hill in Bangalore District. Mysore St.ite, crowned with 
miiictl forttficitEons. LaL 13" 15' k, long. 77'* 15' 20" E, The scene 
of much desperate Jighting chronicled in local tradiiioa 'I1ic village 
at the base cf the hill i^ now descried. 

JJila Sob (Bint Muurrfainsj.—Kznse of mountain* in the Derajii 
T>lvi^on of the Punjabi separating Den Um^ii Khln from Bannu 
DiMrici, and cuIminnUng in the pe:ik of Shaikh lUidin, in ihc Litter 
DiMtia (45 iG feet). Tlic Jdji^e <on»iM» of two divibioLis — ihc Dhiunni 
range, which 19 a concinu;ition of the M^^l^fri hills upon ihe D^u^nu 
frontier, ;ind the Shaikh Itudin range, which curves towards the north- 
west and nr^rih from the extremity of the Hhirtani hill* towarrb ihe 
Indus, and strikes the Ktjnm river in llannu a few miles ahove its 
dcbouchetncni. The principal passes between Dera Ismrtil Khdn and 
Uannu Diairicts aic thoec of Bain and Pcni, the former nt the western 
and the latter ac the eaaicm eitircmity of the Bhittani hills; there arc 
also scvenl minor pa&ses. Shaikh Budin h much hif;hcr than the rcEt 
of the rantje, and i» almost an iaoiaicd ML It is the saniiatiuni of the 
Dcfajdt. The Mfla Koh hilli arc dcvcid of cuttivaiion, and are much 
broken up hv ravines and prudpicev 

NilambUT (or i^^/i/m^rf/J,— Toirn in Palladam f*i/trJt, Coimbalorc 
Dislrid, M^drfis Presidonc)-, I-flt. to" 46' 15' x., long- 77* 38' jo' e. 
Popuhlion (1871) fiSii ; in iflSi rc^Jiifcd to $^Alt orrtfpying 677 
houses. Hindus numbered 3608; Muhainmadani. aa; And Chris- 
tians, t.;- 

KilaJDiblir (or A>/*r";^'>).— Town (or more eontCll/ fttgnnp of 
hamlets) in Erniti /d/hJ:, Malabar District, Madras PVedden^ lAt 
11' 17' y^y long. 76' 15' 45* E. Population (1881) 1I1384, namely, 
5980 nules and 5404 females, occupying 1500 houses^ Hindus num- 
bered a^ti ; Muhanimadans, 3444; and Christians, 19. Noteworthy 
for Its ^plL'iidld ic^k |jl;ii)tatioiis bclon^inj; lit Guveriuntriif- 

Nilapftlli (^V//^rt//j').— Town in Codivarj Dititiict, Madro-i Vim^ 
dency- Lat. 16* 44' v., long. 89* 13' z, ; close to the French settle^ 
meat of Yiinion, :ind ont of the En{{1»h fflrtories foendwl in 1751 by 
an An^lO'Frcnch aEteemenL Five miles south of Coringo. PopuUlion 
(iSSiI 3678: number of houses 77i- The factory was continued 
(although it uas agreed that the foixi^caiions should be removed) 
by the Treaty of Pondichcni (1754). 

KfliSWaram {Xtikdnta-Mzcaram ; also spelt Allistram). — Tovn in 
Cassergode tdiuk, South Kdnara Uistnct. Madras Presidcncj". Lai. 
13* 15' K,. long. 75" 9' 40"* E. Population {18S1) S505, dwelling in 
1C06 huusc?- Hindus numbered 7175^ Muhanimadaui, ijjaj and 

sot li'lLiMiRi ff/LLS. V 

Chri«Ti:)n^ 8- Residence of pensioned Rijas, The comtTicmmott 
town of Kdnan. and. according lo Wilks, the old limit of Kcrilo* 

NilBftri Hills (■^/ac^Vi'tfft/^iWt.— District ami range of mountains 
Madr^ PrcsnleiKy. The DiMrict of ihe Nilf^irts until recently con- 
Killed cxctu.NJvcly of a mcjuTitairi plaLeaii« lying M an avcra^ e!e\ation 
of 6500 feci, with an area i>f aSoul 725 ii«]uare milct. In 1873 the 
Diunct was increased by the addition of the Uchtcrlony Valley swction 
of S. Ei Wainad. In 1877, the parishes {amsams) of NambaUkcd, 
Cheramkod. and Maiianid, in thv ^Valnd.d tdiuA of M^Ubar, at an 
avcrA{^ elevation of 5000 feci, were uilded to the Dt%tncl, which 
now may be said to Ue between 1 1' 12' and 11* 37' K. laL, and 76' 
iS'and 77" 5' iL. long, Th« NHiftri llilU nktrict, with the exception 
of Madrns Cliiy, i« the smnllest in the Macim? Prcsidenry. lis extreme 
len^h from north to south is ^^6 miles; its width from east to weiT, 48 
milev Area, 957s<iuare miles. Population (tSSt) 91,0^4. Bounded 
on the north by Mysore (Maisiir) St:iie; on the east and aouth-eott 
by Coimbatore District ; on the south hy portions of Mabbar and Coim- 
batorc; and on the west by Malabar, The administrative hcad-quirtcn 
arc nl Utakauand. 

Jurhdktion. — The NilgSri Hills formed part of the District of Coim- 
baioic Ull iSji, ttlu-rt the gJcAter portion w^ts iraniifcrfcd lo MakUir, 
In 1S43 they wciv ic-iiiinafefrcd to the jurisdiction of the CollecioT 
of Coimbatore, of which Ujatrict they formed a Sub-division till x%t 
Aiigiut i86i%, when thry were ennxlitnted a kcjuimIc Hisirirr, »nd 
pUccd under a Comnissioncr. who. in .iddiiion to his revenue functions 
as Collector^ was invested with the powers of a Civil and Sessions 
Judj^e. Under him was an iUsistant, who had the powerii of a District 
Maj^iMrate, Jtidge of Small Causes, and District ffWff//;^ There were 
tiv'o Joint Ma^isirato^, one at Utakaniand (Ootacamundl and one at 
Wdlingi*jn. I'hc latter was abolished m 1879, On rcbtujtry itt, 
1S8 J. radical change^ necessitated by the rapidly increasing impoiuncc 
and devulojinjcnl of the l)L»tiicl, took jilacc. The Ccjniukisnoner 
became Collector, District MagiMratc. and additional Sessions Jud^; 
the District and Sessions Judge of Comiljatore becoming al^o Jtidgc in 
the Nflgiri*. The Assistant Commissioner was m.idc H^^d'Afttiuant 
Collector nnd Mngistnte, and a :(ul^)-Jud^e and a trea^nry deputy 
CcUcctor were added CO thir upper ^cafT, while the subordinate cstabltsh- 
ment was materially strengthened. A deputy ta/tsUJ^r n^as further 
added at Utakamand 10 the two already existing at Coonooi and 
Giidaldr, the jolnt-magistracy of Utakamand Iwing abolished. 

Ctakamand waa a 'mtlitiry bdsdr' under a Commandant tin 
J840. It then iKcame at civil station ; it is now the admini.strative 
head-quaners of the N'flgiri DUinct, and iht: ^ulumer cjpiul of the 
Cov^mntcat of Madrjt&. The Nilgiri Difirict contAin^ j Sub-dimtoos 


miCfRI Jf/LlS. 


or mdi^^ vi£. PcrangAnaJ^ ToJundd, MckandU, ICuEulaiuinld, and St^gih- 

IfiiSiiyy. — Nmhing « Icntiwn of ihc CJiriy hifitrtry of thpw* Hills^ and 
the tcKral tribes arc singularly destitute of tiadiiions rcnnhin^ back 
beyond comparatively recent times. Caims and cromlechs found all 
over the upper plateau put it beyood doubt that at a very early period 
some trilx'S inh;jbileJ the counlry. and ihe ethnological isolation of the 
Toda tribe conCirms this. The^r belief is iha: itieir own anct'slon W(;re 
autochthones. There is no evidence of iheru having been any *overetjin 
ruler amongst them ; but according to the other hilZmerit about a 
century bcfuit: the reig^n of Haidiii Ali in Mysore, three chiefs ruled 
in Todnnad, Mukinad, and r<rarif;ariiid, willi ihtir atron^^bolda 
respectively at MaUikota, Hulikaldrug, and Koldgiri. It is not ud^ 
reasoiiable lo sup|>ose that the Ml]« formed part of the Kongudcsa or 
Eascern Chera country, and so pa<»sed to Mysore in the I7ih ceniur>^ 

Haidar Alf appears to have seized two of the forts, \\z, Htillkal* 
drtigand MaUikota, which command iX-m passes into tlie Colmbatore 
and Malayilain countries, .md, after having strengthened and garrisoned 
them, controlled the hill iritjes, anJ imposed upon ihem hetivy taxes. 
Il is said that Trpii, when tic made his intursions into Wamhd. ascended 
the hills through the ScgUr g^dr, and occupied the fort nt Kot-lgin. 

The Nilgiris were fjrai explored in 1^114 by Mcs«r& Keys and M'Malion 
of the Survey l)e]rartiTicnt Five years later, Mcusrs, Whiali and 
Kindcrslcy of the Civil Service ascended (wKilc in persuit of :i hand of 
tobacco smugglers) thro\igh a pati; near Kotigin, thereby becoming 
'acquainted with the existence of x tiblc-land possessing a Kuropean 
climate.' A year after (idzo), Mr. Sulhvan, then Collector of Coim- 
batore, invited the attention of Government to Utakainand as a sanU 
tartum ; and m iSzi he liutlt the first English hotise on the plateau. 

Physiml As/^t/s.^'i'ht original District conttiiited of a Ubiedand 
encloj«cd between two ranges of hiiis, ihut described by Mr. Brcefcs : — 
'The mountains rise abrtiptiy for two-thirds of their total height, pre- 
senting from the plains below almost the aspect of a walL The interior 
of the plateau c<jnmLs chiefly of gra^iy undulating hdUdividcd by narrow 
volley*, each of which invariably contain* it stream or a «hvamj&. In the 
hollows of the hillsides noetic small bc.iuiifui woods, locally known 
ii« tholes.' The Miminit or plateau presents a n^o^t v:Lried :incl diversi- 
fied oftpeet. Although the undulating surface nowhere appra;iches the 
character of a champii^n countr>', and frequently breaks into lofty 
ridges and abrupt rocky einiueneeii, it may l>e calied a plateau, and is 
practicable lo a degree ^Idom found in mounCain tracts of equal 
cie\'aiion elsewhere in India. On all sides, clie descent to the plains 
is sudden and abrupt. The average fall from the crest to the gencnti 
level belovf is about 6coo fcct, save on the north, where the base 



of tbc NjIriti mounlain* r<^nU iij^on the clcv.itcd hnd of AV^imJid 
Mysore. These Inal-ninn^d iraciB sWnd between aooo ajid 5000 ftf«t 
abo^-e the k^cl of the sea, and thus ronn, as it were, a su*p by which 
the main descent toff^ards the sea ii broken. 

Frr>m the Waindd and Mysore pbteaux, the Nilgiris are scpanttcd 
by a broad cjKieniivc valley through which the Moydr river 'flows 
aTtcr descending from ibc hills by a fall at Ncddiwaiiam in the 
north -ivcst angle of <hc placc:tLL The tsohuon of this iDotintaia 
tcrrilL^ry wuuld be coinplctei but for A mnguUr ahaip and prccipii^tu 
ridge of granite pcale?t, which projects fracn the boae of a remarkable 
cone called Verramalii on the A^nlem crett of the nnge^ And, taking 
K west by north coiir^ rtiward^ ihc r^a^t, unites itself wilh the 
^ range popuUrly called the Wc&itm Ghdia' (Ochtcrlony>. In Ihc 
SQUtVwcf^t anE::leof the Nilgiris are the Kilnda hilU; and »purs from 
this range run southward to a conilderuble diatance. The OchterLony 
valley nnd the rec«nily added amsams of SouihcaM Waindd lie 3000 feet 
lower* and con«ut of a teries of broken %':illey£r once forc^-dad through- 
out, but now Kttiddcd wilh ccffec-girdenR 

The highest peak* ;irc— Dodabctia, S760 feet ; fCudiokod, S501 feet ; 
BcvotlicLU, 3488 fccii Mikurli, 840J* feet; Dlvarsdabcll, 8580 feet; 
KUiidA, S353 fcctj Kiiiidftmogc, 7816 feet; Utakimatid, 7j6t feel; 
Timbrabctc.i, 7 59a fcct ; Hok;ibb(?iUf 7367 feet; Urbetla, 6915 feet j 
Kodonid, 6815 fcct; Devabeita, 6571 feet; Knu&giri, 6571 fe« ; 
Kiindnbfila. 6555 feet: Dlmhaiti, 6315 feet: Coonour (Kdniir)^ 
588a feet; Rangaswdmi Peak, oppo^ce the Gazz^lbaiti V^s^ 5937 
feet above «a level. 

There arc %\x well-known passe?^ or ^'Ai/j by which ihc Diatrict 
communicates with the neighhouring Provinces, viz, the Cooccor, 
Segdr, GiidaliSr, Sispriri, Kotagiri, and Sundapatti. The first three 
Wl the fil'ih arc prai-ticnbtc for wheeled iralHc, The Coonoor 
gJiifvs the piincipnl at'prtja<:h ^ and the road is of rasy gradient and 
well inudc. The Kotagiri ^Ad/ has been miLch impnivcd a» tu 
gradient, nnd ranks next to Coonoor and Cddnldr in point of import* 
nnce. The Segir and GiSdaldr f^if// give acceu to Kytore and 
Wainid. The Sisp.'lra or Kdndr g/ttU is now nbAndoncd, owing to 
the 'openinfj of a new road ftom Uiakaimnd to Ncddiwatlam, jaid 
thence s. new x^tSf which joina the Government imperial roads JU 
Gijdaldr ru^ining down the Karkdr g^iii at Ndaxnbdr and Mirobxt' 

The only rivers in these hill* are the Mov^r, which lisea at the foot 
of the Nilgiri i>calc and Hows into the HJiavini river near Danayak^n- 
koiu in Coimbaiore; the P^ikaua, which, after taking a northerly 
course, djM:ti^fgcs iuclf into the HoyAi (diMancc from Makuni peak 10 
titc falU, about 10 inJIcfi); and the UnvrL^ii. Ncir the travellers' 

KiLGmr mils. 

i5ungalon', the Patkira la flboul 40 yards wi^c during dry wcallicr, and 

contains a successioi) of deep por>b divided b/ shallowE, in which nro 

Inrgo boulden of rock. The bed, which ic gravelly on the ford», i* 

generally covered hy n fine retl ?.inil, u-ith whirh the water appears im* 

pretct^atcd. The Hcypur flows inio the sea near Calicut lowrt- 'The 

headofthis <itrcam l5 formed by the drainage of the elevated tabular 

mass of bfUs, which occurs to the nonh-west ai Neddiwaimm : and 

though it descends the face of the hiltn ;it no great distance from the 

fall of the Moyir, the intervention of a sharp spur <lIveTt« tt« course 

jinto an exaetty opposite direction, forcing it over the ridge called the 

[Karkiir oc Ycrramalili Hills, to find ii* way to its etiibouchurc on ilic 

in tujsL ' (Oclitcrloiiy). Suiue of l?ic main fccdeis of tlie DliAvani 

Sver, which joins the Moydr below Mettapotliem, take ihvir lisc in the 


"ITic only Iftkeof notr in thnt sit l.Tink.imand (7^*0 feet above the 

^levcl of the sea), which is nearly 1 miles long. It is fcnned by an 

flitilicial embanknienl, thrown across the western outlet of the valley, 

I by which the water* of the Dodahetta streams are dammed uj?. This 

|lj^e >s one of the di^tinaive features of the Mation, and round its lunks 

is the favourite drive. Similar lakes might, no doubt, l)e formed tn 

many other valfe^f;. There are no inL]Lgc:!nQui4 fi^h on [he plateau, 

|atcept minnow*. Tench, carp, and trout itrc, howevcrj being: accltmo- 

In the Waiu.^U, the miiAtir or Indian salmon is found in the 

' water?* of ihe Moy^r and Bcypur, 

The pbteau U chivl^y gratu hnd studded with sAcids or Bmull woods. 

I On the Kiindas, fhe-^e shMi increase in extent; and f>n fhe lower 

[slopeK, the foreiiU Iweonie den^e with t\i\t timber-trees, such as sSi 

j^}mtBl kim (Plcroi'jrjiUH Mariiiptum), jack (Artocarpu* 

fcSti), Urawood [Ualbergia htifolia), tenk (Tcciona gnndis). 

[The forest ai^a in the Wain^d portion of the District is about 150 

square miles; on the higher ground. Eucalypti and the Australian 

wattle have been largely planted. The forest revenue was formerly 

I^bout j^TSOC ; in i8S*-S3 it was about ^jooo. 
The iAoiJs on the plLiteau are evergreen ; and [he tints of tlie young 
Icftvo which come out at different seoaona, but chiefly in spring, arc 
very rcmnrknble nnd bcatJtifuL Kach species hus itn own shade of 
green and iu partiridar sea*ir>n when the yonii^ foli^^ mme^ one. It 
U diffievdt to «ay which is the mosi common or most characterisiic tree 
in these tfn>his , and, indeed, their comp^isition varie* greatly with 
elevation. It will he convenient to he^in wiih oric of the most widely 
difi^Bcd trees, Michelia nilagirii-o, the tiia fhampa of the hills locally 
known as shtm^angan^ which jzradnally corcrs itself with large white 
flower* in July, and continues the chief ornament of the sh^ids until 
,Octot;er. At oiber times of the year, this tree is remarkable for the 

VOL. X- >^ 


MsricV Gtti^n with vhich the gToun<l under the tree U strcvn, Th^ 
foliage of ihc Michclia is of a light green colour, and conimsU with 
the dark green cf mo&t other ^itccieft. Three kinds of £j£enU form 
u sttiking contTaM with the Michclia, with ihcir dense dark green 
fuliage, compostd of maxttcK of thick leathery atonmttc Ic^ws. Kugcnu 
Enonlana, with Urge broad leaves, the shoots &harf)1y quadrangular; 
Eugenia calophyltifoliat with smatl stiif tilunt leaves, making a fl^itish 
<Icnsc crovm \ and Eugenia Arnottlano, with larger pointed leaves 
and an abuiiiJance of ^AhiiK blosMJUis which come out early in apriD^* 
Other apcuett with dark green fuliaj;c arc Ilex Wi^liiiitno, with red 
berries, Ucac demiculata and Ilex GArdcniana, large trees belonging 
to the eamc genus tu the Knglibh holly. Several Hpceics of Elccoearpus 
' Vfilh targe handsome leaves, which turn bright red tjcfori? falling, and 
most elegant tloweis, arranged in long branches, ihe petals white 
cr pink and deeply cue. The fruit of thc«c resembles the olive, 
«nd is eaten. SidcroxyloD clcngioidcs, a large tree with small white 
blo^orn^ similar in structure to, but much smaller than, the nta^nd 
ofCenml India, lo the natural order of which it belong The ftuu 
IS made into a |nckle» and is eaten with curries, Mcliosina jjungeni^ 
with large ribbed leaves and upright panicles of small white t>lossomfi 
witj(.li an: an crnamcnt to the liilU in »piing,anJ wbkb Oj^ain c^milc out 
into l^owcr alter ihc raina, Ciiinaunjinum zcyUnicum, which boConUr* 
identify os the same vjiecies oi; the L'eybn iihruh, the bark of which 
i« the cinnamon of rnmmerce. with »hining Ir^ivcti, easily disiinguiKhed 
by their aromatic srcni. and three ]»romincm vcinj; running from base 
to apex The cinnamon bclong:i to the same n.ittiral order as the true 
Laurel, and there are numerous trees of the same order in the tfu^ds^ 
all easily known by more or less aromatic leaves. One of them, 
LitssKi /cylanica, \% distingulsheti by it* pale bluish-green leave*. 

Two trees ol the same orUei to which the Cameliia and the Tea 
belong, remarkable for their handsome flwwers, arc the Gordonia obtusa, 
which adorns the shoMt near KunUr in the months of June and 
July with iti white llower^. In the centre of each flower is a mua ot 
golden yellow nnilers, resembling the Iltiwer of Lhe tea bush. Tlw 
other is the Ternsiromia japopjc;!, with cmooth shining leave* and 
elegant yellow flowers. A third tr^e of the same order is the Eurya 
japonica. with clusters of small white Howcrs in the axils of the leAvcs, 
a handsome tree widely distributed over Kasiern Asia, extending as far 
zs the Fiji Islands. Euonymus crcnuktus, a line tree with dark brick' 
red blcissoms closely allied to the English spindle tree, and with its 
capsules stmilarly 5lka|ved, is another uf the ihoiJ trcei near Uiaka- 

Oucsidc the existing forests, isolated trcct arc often found in 
ravines, or near vULi^vt where tlicj have been [protected, ilic remains 



of fonncr jhiflds. Tlicsc trcc5 are genciAlly Eld^^carpu^ the IVuit of 
which, like ft plum, U eaten, while the luberculaud ttoncs of other 
species of the fiame f[cnu« arc strung up for necklaces, knovrn a« 
ruJrak (KltDOCirpti* Cranitrus, J^tiX^.) All over Iniia ; or vhey belong to a 
%cx\m not yet mcniioncd (Cciti*). a deciduous tree, of *hich one aiiecicK, 
the rJtasIf of the Konhwcst Himalayas, U iinportaiU on account of its 
fumishini; fodder for tattle. One of the commonest trees of the North- 
west Hinidbya», the Khododeiidronarb(jrcLmi, ii^^ihundnmonthcNilgiris 
above -in elevation of 5000 feet. It i& found out«idc the iMds, often 
associated with the red inyftlc(KhodoniyTtti5 tomctito«a),jlso oiled the 
Nfl^iri gooseberry, the fruii being e^Ltcn, and being in appearance some* 
whjt likt a jiugscljeriy. At lower elevation^ for iiisttaiicc nejtr Kundr, 
the rhododendron i» associated with Vacciniuin Leichenauitti, which 
bean bcnchcfi of dsirk purple edible berries in summer, following after tx 
grest show of p.ile rose-col oitrt^d bloKsomK, The tree belongs to lh« 
same setius as ibc English whortle-berry. 

The shrubs and herbs of the sho/*is are ns varied as the tree*. On 
the edge of the forests, where there is plenty of light, there are generally 
masses of Leucas land folio, with heads of white woolly flowers, In 
the dark shade of the sho/ds the underwood con.^ists of the small 
bamboo and Urge shnjb!« of htrobiianthes, which, like the bamboo, 
nowcTS cnl) after periods of from five to fifteen yrars, and aflcr flower- 
ing dic3* down- On rocks and among bru9^hwood in rapines Is the 
cKitming And swcet-sccatcd Ndgiri lily (Liliiim nikgirJcum), with long 
white flcwerBg eontaining un abundance of honey. Grissy niopeu arc 
covered with a ira.nll Struhilanthe^, with hard iiiff leaves and inauc« of 
bliie Sowcrt, which it is ^taid have given these hills the name of ihe 
like Mountains. On crassy slopes above 7000 feet, the Anaphalis 
nilagirica \s common and often gregarioun over considerable areas. 
It is a small shrub with twisted stems, long masses of grey tufted foliage, 
from which stand out numerous slender stalks bearing clusters of woolly 
yellowish -white flowers. One of the moit charactcrislic heib* of the 
plateau i* 1-obelia excelsa, with thick erect stems, c^arrying large tufts 
of long nairow hairy leaves, and iu spring thick cylindrical spikes of 
pale blue flowers. 

Among a great variety of shrubs, the species of brambles frequently 
occur. Rubut moluccanus, with mtind soft Iravos bas pink flowers 
and no fruir. Kubus ellipticu.s, with lernate leaves and round leaflets, 
has white flowers ami yellow berries: while Rubus laiiocaqrus. with 
while stems and pinnate leave*, Has pink flowers and black hairy berries. 
The liTst is a widely spread species found thrtivighout Bengal, Assam, 
Burma, and the Indian Archipelago ; the two others are common in die 
North-west Hioialayaa, 

Large game, especially tiger, beai^ simbkar^ and ibex were once vety 


plcrttrfiil on tlic platrriu* hut rnnMnnt ami toci often unv;>0Tt&inaTi1iK 
sboottng has icduced the number sadl;-. Leopards. h>'xnn«, wild 
hog, porcupines, jungle sheep, and hares arc still found in &ir 
altundancc, as also woodcock, sripc, spur- fowl, jungle- fo«'1, and 
jjenfowl. A dose reason has l>e«n e«Iabti»hcd bv law (1S79) foe 
ihe preservation of deer and othtr useful ^i^ede^i or (jamt 

Pofu/atitm. — The firsl cnutiier.ilion of ibc niKtricl was made In 1848, 
when thcpopuhlion was rtrmrneU ai 1 7,057, disiriljutcd over 420 sijuarc 
miles, giving a propornon of 40 per k^juatc mile. According lo ihc 
Cciuu» of iSyip the inhut>iULnts numbered 49,501, The number of 
hill Iribcft, cscludve of the Kvrurnbu, was, m 1^43, 7674; in t866, 
inrliisivc of Ihi* KiinimhaR, 19*^91 ; ami in 1S71, 33,364- 

The most recent Ccn?ius thai of Vcbruary iSJ^t, discIose<I a tolal 
popuUlion of 1)1,0,^4, of whom 50,976 were males and 40,058 femalcf. 
These l]|^res include a Wainid population of 25.440. The area is 
9SJ square ini!es; numlier of towas 2, and of villages S; occupied 
houses, 17,844; unoccupierf. 3746. These figures show a density of 
95 |ienon« to the square mile, 19 occupied houj^es to the square mile* 
and 5'i (icrKons 10 each house The general |K>pulation hajt incren^d 
»incc 1871 by 4">533' The Census returned a> under 15 years of agCp 
16,474 boys and 15.379 j;irh ; total children! 31,853* or noirly 35 per 
eent. of the po]>ubtion : and ns 15 vcars anti ever, 34^503 males and 
74.679 females; total adults, 5gjSi, or over 65 per cent. 

C1a£si6ed according to religion, there were 78,970 Hindus. 5531 
Muhammadans, 84SS Christians 34 P.irsis, 6 rt-tumcd as rheists, 
and 5 'others/ Distributed imo castes, ibc Hindus are thus sub- 
divldeJ :— Brihmans, 440 ; Kshatlriyas, 107 ; Shetiics (tntders*, 2827 ; 
Vcllibni {apiculturists), io,533; Idaiyars (shepherds), 3463; Kam- 
mdt an (artisans), 1760; Kaiinakkans [writers), 153; Kaikatars (weavers), 
419; Vanntyanii (Idiourers), 2609; Kushnvans (pctters), 357;Satii]rs 
(mixed t:a3Ccs)j 841; ;;ms (fishermen), 391 ; Sli^nan^ (todd)** 
drawer*), 165 ; Amb,^llans (bnrbcrs), 147 ; Varmilnii (washermen), 547 ;, 
Pariahs (ouicn&tes), 10,397; 'others/ 33,7*1- The Miihammadana 
are sub-divided into ii Arabs, 198 Labbays. 140 MiSppilas, y Mughal*, 
131 Pathdns, 39 SayyiJs, 375 Sh.iikhs, and 361S *oihers.' Of the 
whole Muhammadixn population, 2186 are Sunnis- Amonu the Cluis- 
tians, 357 art; British-born subjects, 395 other Bnii^th Kid»ject^ 451 other 
Europeans or Amcrirans, lora Eurasians, 5462 natives and 316 
* other*/ According to another principle of claMificition, there were 
5111 Roman Catholics, 967 Protcnants, and 2410 others of various 

As regards occupation, the Census divMen the male population trilo 
six miiin gioupa, as follows: — (i) Profc^iotial dau, including State, 
civil, and mitiury otHcials of every kind, 1305, or 1*43 of the whole; 

mzGiRi mils. 


(3} domestic senants, inn mid lodging keepers, 1738, or 1*91 per 
ccnr, ; (3) commercial dnw, including banken, merchants, and 
i.urncrj, Ji;;, ur 13 per ccni, ; (j) iL|;TkiiUur3l and pastoral class, 
including gordcncr^ '2,031, ^' '3'5 P^^ ccDL ; (5) tDduMrt^l cbft>, 
including all manufikciurcTs ^nd arliaana, 3^'3» ^^r 3-97 |xr cent. ; and 
(6) indefinite and non-pro<5uc:tive clats, cimiprising all nraale children, 
general bhmtren, and persons of unsp&citicd orciipntions, ii,fTa, or 
23''9 percent. 

Tiie bnguagcs spolcen arc EngUsh, Kinarcse (with iis dialects, Toda, 
Kola, and Itad^n), and Tamil Tlie number of the Hindu population 
fciumed as 'othcTs' (42^ percent.) are all aboripnal tribes belonging to 
the Nflgiria. Of ihetr number [33,5^7) Rada^Li» are returned at 74,130 ; 
IruEars, 946 ; KoUk, 1065 ; and Tfxlas, 675. llie increase noiiceaWe 
in the decade wnce 1871 U moi^tly due to Immigrnifon, the coffee and 
other pUnC;ilion^ of ihc DjMn'ci nurAciin^ br^c numbcis uf coolies 
from the neighbouring DistrictH oi Malabar (1416) and Colmbatorc 
(7534], and from the Native State of Mysore (21,334) ; and although 
ihe m^ijority rpuirn ni ihc end of (he scAion, a small pro|>ortion remain, 
Of the total populaiion of rii,oj4» ihc Cetrsus fctumcd 51,551, or 
56-41 per cent., as people bom in the District; while elsewhere 
in ihc Madras Presidency were found 1189 Nilgiri people. Thai is 
to say, 2"26 per cenL of those born in Nilfiiris had migrated. The 
balance of emigrants and immigrants left a gain cf 38,494. The 
emigrants had gone almost cxcbsivcly to the neighbouring Districtft 
of MaUbdr {108) and Coimbatorc (475)- The principnl towns are — 
Utak\maN'i> fOotacaniimO), jiopulaiion (l88i) i JiiJS^ including 
IxtvcdJilcj CocjNOuK (KUniitV pupulation 4778. Wellingto?* can- 
Eoninent, population 1735, The local districts (w*fi)arfi Paraj/canad, 
population tSf)i6; ToriAVADj 11*557; Mekanad^ ja,74o. Tlie larje 
majority of villages do not contain above a fcfl* hondred inhahiuints 
each ; and even these arc groups of scattered hamlets rather than 
villages. Utdkamand and Coonoor arc municipiliiics. 

Hii! Tribes.— Ti\e bill tribes are found on the Kllfiiris— the Todns, 
Badajpis, KoEa,s Kurumba^ and Irulas, the first tluec being peculiar to 
thii range. 'J'he most intereMing of all these tribes are the Todas, who 
arc described by Ochtcrlony 3* ' tall, well-proporiioned, and athletic' 
' Their boldj indcjicndcni carriage/ he contitmcs, ' and lindy moulded 
and MLicwy limbb aticst that they are sprung from no ctTcminatc eastern 
race \ while the a<|uitine noae, rece<iing furchC'^d, and rounded profile, 
combined vrith their black bushy beardiE and t^i^brows, gi\'e thc-m a 
decidedly Jewidi aicpecL Their dieKs \% sk peculiar sk their habits and 
appearance, consir^ting of a single cloth, a sort of toga, which they 
wear after a fashion well calculated to set off to advantage their 
muscular forms, being dbpo^d about the pcnon Uke ibc plaid of a 


SootcK HighUnclcT, The costume of the women h much the same oa 
that of the mert, ihe Xo^x or numSe 1»cing A'rapped uround them fio 
Afi to cover th<^ entire pcn^nn frrtm <hrt«1i1rf ic nnl:!^. In h^iUitit the 
Todas are very dirty and indolent. They practise polyandry, n woman 
marrjin^c all the brothcra of a family. Females number about 3 to 
every 5 males. 1'hcrr sole occupation is cattle-herding and dairy «^ork. 
Their food consists of milk, curd«, gM^ nnd rlifTcrcnt milTetn and ceteah.' 

Their laTigu.ific seems a mixture cf Tamil and Kanarcse* and is 
classed hy Dr. CnlUwcIl as a separate language of the Uraviilun 
family, lying bctvveen Old Klnarese and Tamil Dr. Oppert finds in 
it a tluiia' iifVmliy to Tclujju. The Todas wurahip; besiifcs ihcir dairy 
buffaloc*, »e\ctal dcitict, of which the ptjncipal arc lUnadev* or the 
• belly-god,' and the • huniing-god/ They believe that after death the 
soul goes TO Om-itorr or Am-norr^ *thc great or other country/ 

The Toda hamki* or villa^i are called manJs or M{?ffs, and are thus 
described by Hn Shorit ■-. * Ivach mtt'/J iisualk comprises alioui five 
buildings or huts, three of whidi ate tined as dwellings, one as a dniryt 
and the other for sheltering the cilvea at niij;hL These huts are of 
a peculiar oval pcntshapcd construction, usually to feet high, 18 feet 
long, and 9 feet broad The entrance or doorway w $1 inche* in 
height 3nd rS in width, and is closed by means of a solid slabof irood 
from 4 to 6 inches thick. This is inside ihc hui, and slides wi two 
Btotit stakea, I'liere urc no other openings or outlets of any kind. 
The hoii5er> arc ncac in appcar^inc?, and are built of bamboo clooety 
laid together, fattened mtU rattan^ and thatched. Eich budding ha« 
end walls of solid wood, and the sides arc covered in by the pent roofinit. 
which slopes down to the ground* ITie imerior of a hut is from 8 to 
15 feet sr|uare. On one side there is a raised plaifomi or ^ifl/ formed 
of clay, al^out 2 feel high, covered with ileer or bulTalo skins, or some- 
times with •! mat. This is used as a sleeping pi ace. On the opposite 
&ide is a and a slight ekv:;tion un which the cooking utensils 
are placed. Outside* an enclosure of loose stones is piled u]\ 2 or 3 feet 
high. The dairy, which is also the temple of the waW, is slightly hrgcr, 
and Gonuina two apartments KparaLcd by phnking ; one pint is a sioPo- 
housefoTj"^/* milk, and Gunb.' In 1S67 the number of iwtJijAiira* to6^ 
with a population of 704, In iS7r the total number oi the Todas was 
returned at only 693, — 105 men and aftS women ; and in iHSi, at 675, 
of whom %^2 vfcTc males and 295 females. 

The Badaga* or Vadagas (from Ba4nkH or Vtufaku, meaning 'north ') 
ere supposed to have come from the north, in conseqvicnce of famine 
and persecution, about 500 years ago, after the dismenibcrmenl of the 
Vijayanagar kingdony They constitute the most numerous, wealthy, and 
civilised of ihe indigenous irioes, and arc described by Dr. Shorn as 
being al^ the faia-st of alL 'i1ie men, he say», dothe themselves much 

NiLGiRt mrx& 


like tlie natives of ihc plains, with hcnd nnd wAi»t cloths ^ shcci being 
used as a. wrapper lo cover ihe ahoulder* and btxly- Th* women wear 
a vih\xt! rioih fiit^ned by a oord imder ihp arms, leaving bare ihc arm* 
and shouUler*. ami the le^* bdow ihc knees. 'I'he hair is ilirnwn ^ark 
and knotted loo*dv on the njjjc of the neck. The Badagas arc parlial 
10 Qinamcnt^ und ucAr ring^, bracelets, armlets, nccklcis, and car and 
no*c ring* of bras*, iron, or silver, 'I'hcy pay a tribute c-jlied ptdu to the 
Todas. Their chief did consists of Xvni/iand iiimi, two innutriiioufi 
cereolE, Their language is an old K^narcse dialed. In reliyiun they 
arc Hin<Ius, iheir principal deity beinj; Kangaswdnii, whose temple i» 
faitualeil on the summit uf Ran^a^wjlim |^ak» ih<- e^munimo^t point of 
the Nilgiris j they d»o worship m.iny mfcrior dLviiiicJcs mole And femiAlc. 
In T871 they ntimbered if>,476 sottis; and in 1S81, 34,130. 

The Koia< (properly Gauhatars ; from the Santkrit gafi. a ^ctw* 
and Afl/fl, ' slaying/ r>, e^w-killer*) are. according to Shorn, "wdl made 
and of loIer:ible height, rather fiood -featured and littht^sklnned. with 
shapely heads and lonp loose hair, elongated lace* viih sharply defined 
features, ihc forehead narrow but prominent, the ears flat and lying 
close to the skull. The women arc of moderate height, of fair baild, 
and not nearly so good-looking as U)c nier. Most of them have pro- 
minent I ore heads, snub noseband a vacant cx[jrcssion/ The Kotaa 
practise agneultiire and various handicrafts, and are good carriers ; they 
[lerfonii inenial ofUccf for ihe l^od.'u and 1)ad^g;i>s and, like the Utier, 
pay a fcuJn (o the Todfls, They M'orship ideal g'^di which arc net 
represented by any imaj-e. Their language xh an old ;ind rude dialect 
of the Kinare*c, but wiihoui the yufUiral or [lecioral sound peculiar to 
the Todn«. ' The Kotas have al>oul 7 villages altojfeiber. Six of these 
arc located on the hills, and the seventh is at Giidaliir. Each viliaRc 
contains from 30 to 60 or more huts, of tolerable siae, built of mud 
walls, and cohered with ihe usual ihaLch gross, sometthAt Alter the »tytc 
I of native huts in the plains. The arrangement of ihc dwellings i* far 
\ ftom neat. The floors are r.\iscd from i to 3 feci, with a short verandah 
in front, and n fiai or seat on either side of the door' In 1&71 the 
I Kolas numbered irta ; and in t8^t, ic65> 

Tl»c Kuruaibas (' »hepherd« '). ihc nio« undrilised of the five tribes, 
dt'^erihcd by Shortt a^ 'small in stature, a<]ualLd and uncouth in 
nr-ince, with wild maLtcd hair, and alm<wi nude bodie*, 'l*hey are 
[ diekly 'looking, pot-bcllicd, large -mouthed, prognathoiw, with prominent 
Outstanding teeth and thick lips. The women have n^uch the same 
features as ih^ men, slightly modified with a small pug-nose and surly 
I aspect. They wear merely a piece of cloth, extending from under 
jthc arms to the knee; but some have only a waist-cloth. Both 
Vmen and women wear ornaments of iron, brass, various seeds^ shelly 
Iftnd giflss beads a* ear-rings necklets, armlets> bracelets, rings, etc. 


Thifir villages :ire tcnneil mutfa^ anil are t;cner,tl]y focated at an 
clevalion of jooo or y>oo feel, in mmininjn <.kfu, {^Iti^ or (brcGtS. 
A Kunjmba house is one long aparimcni, cxlending from 30 to 50 
feel in lengih, scarcely 5 ftci high, loo^ly and icaiuily ttiatched, 
walJed rtTound by brushwood or bamboo pbilings, and divided by the 
same into sc\'cral aparrmems, each not exceeding & or 10 feci square* 
Tlieie b neither door nor <loi>r-ffamc, bui the huts iirc shut at iiiglils 
by placing plAitings of bamboo or brusbttood af;ain&t the aprning. 
Tlieir language is a corrupt Tamil. The variout graint, chilUes^ 
Indian rorn, yama, and some of the commonest vcgclablcs ar*? grown 
by them in small quantities; but, as a rule, ihcy do net tuiilvaie. 
They have a very va;tuc form of religious belief, but they worship many 
n^imral oh^ctv Thone Kurumbas. who live en ibe hilU^ officiate as 
priests lo ihe Ifcidaga*, 'Vhcy arc a superstitious rate; and while 
they keep .ill the other iribes of these bills in awe, they themselves 
lear the Todas/ Besides cultivating on a small scale, ihcj- collect 
in the jiin^rles several kinds of grain, fruits, soap-nuts, myrobalan^ 
dye-Uirks, shtd dcei-horns, mouse-deer, aquirreli, lotioiscs, 6di, 
mi^diunj) bcrbtt, nicits, btjncv, and beeswax, which tbcy barlcr on the 
.plains for grain and doth. A gang of ihcm htc employed oa the 
ECovernrnent cinchona planuiions at NeddlwaUam, and some few have 
heen met with in the coffee estates near Kotig'tri and Gddalur The 
Kurumba^ on the Nflgtri Hills numbered 613 in 1871, and 31^5 in 

The Inilas (or ' benighted ones,* from tht Tamil word sraf, ' darkness') 
live on ihc lowest slopes and forests extending from the base of ihc 
Nilgiris to the plains, and arc not, strictly speaking, tnhabtiants of th« 
hills, nor arc Ihcy recognised as such by the other idbes, ' They arc 
tolerably good-looking, very much superior En phytique 10 the Kurum- 
bas, and in honic leapecta exen to the Koiox The women ajc Miong 
and istoutly built, ftnyihing but prcpo^chfting In appearance, and very 
dark skinned. The men wear no clothing but a Jarf^uti or waivibond in 
ihcir nwa home« ; but when working on the plantations fhoy wear cloths 
like olhcr natives. The women wear a double fold of wr^sppcr cloih, 
wluch cMcnds from the waisi 10 the knt'cs; the uj'i>cr |>art of their 
bodies with their bosoms, are nude. They are fond of ornaments, and 
wear urin^ of red and whrie bL-ads about their necks, thin wire brace- 
lets ^nd armlets, with ear and nose tings.' They arc an idle and 
dissolute tribe, alihou^'h in physique well adapted to hard manual bbour. 
They u»c animal food of every description, and are expert hunts- 
men. Their language is a rough Tamil, with many Kinarcsc and 
Malaydlam worda. The Iru1a» on the NMgui llilJrt numbered 1400 in 
1S71, and 946 in iSSi. 

With the exception cf the Iriilas and Xurumbas, nho^ owing to their 


miCIRT ff/lLS. 


ouckss and Vfan<Jciin^ life, arc always jxrar, the hill Uibc» ^rc id 
very comfortAblc circumstnnccs. The Badnga^ who Arc tin iitdubirious 
i^ultivaiing peopl«> aw rapidly bucoming vealihy, an ihc itnpr^^vcd 
character of iheir liousci and extencied holdings testify. 

Agrimiiurt, — The cr(fj>s grown on ihc Niljeins include wheal, harley» 
and oiher cereals ; pcAS. beans, potatoes, g.iilic, onions, muatani. cn^tor- 
o\\ tccd^tctc* Two and someiimesihrcccropa of |x>tatocscan be taken 
o/T the soil in ihe course of a year ; and tlic cuUivaiion o( this root is 
now growing bCo much importance, bui la not free from the anxieties 
pecuhar lo poEaia-growin^ cKewhcre. The area under jxitAtues in 
j882-j$j »-a» Soi ;;crt^ Besides poutoev, pens, torni|>$, cibba^t^ft, cauli- 
flower, Ijceuout, cclcrj', parsnips^ artichokes, and nearly every variety of 
Enghsh ^cgetAble ^row well- Of fiuitA, the gr^pc, plumi Biasil clicrry, 
raspberry, apple, peach, jiear, and orange arc grovn. In *omc forma 
and gard<.-n«, managed by Europeans, oot*, lucerne, and clover have 
been mlrivntrd sue c£?sa fully. Dairy farm* are w(jrki?4t protilably, 
but a small industry in silk that once promised well is now all but 

Sfraa/ Op/j.— The commercially imporiani products of the N'Ilgirl« 
arc coffee, tea, and cinchona. 

Co^u cu/iivaficn was introduced on these hills about 1844, having 
already been established in the Waindd and in Coorg. The number of 
coffee planiaticns in 1^75 was :j6; in TS77, 213; in iSSo,354; in 
'SS"i 375 T ^nd in 1883, 459. Of the 459 csi-itcsi, 359 arc in the 
Nil^iria proper, 24 in ihe Ocbtcrlony valley, and 76 in South-cAftt 
Waindd. The^e are exelusive ^f several hundr«dft of s^a\\ tiative 
clearings. The eiitatci; mntaincd in tBK3, 35,1 jS acres of colTcc land, 
of which Ji.Sfj; were fllrendy planted, and 19,786 acres were in full 
bearing. Tbccost of cultivation pctacrcundercoflcc wa*from;^to to 
£11 in 1881 ; froroj£"6, ia». to jjSin 188a; from ^6, 6:1. to ;£i 5, 121, 
in 1883, Tbe averafje yield per acre was 426 lbs. in t88i ; 350 lbs* 
in 188*; and 358 lbs. in litSj, These figures refer 10 mature plants. 
The approximate coJTt-e ytcid of the Nflgin plantations was 10.015,619 
lbs- in iSSj; 6,003,778 lbs. in 1S82; and 7.085,391 lb*, in 1883, ITieir 
prctcni value (1883) may be estimated at over a ULilliun sterling ; and 
ihc flnnudl out-turn tkfcx^cs about 4000 tons of coflcc, which at present 
piices would yield about ^300,000. They give eimploymcnE to 10,000 
or ij^ooo labourer. There aie about 150 European coff*e planters 
and estate su peri n tend enr< in the OiKtnct IlcMdes these, many estates 
are owned by natives of India. 

Tta Cu/fifat/on.— Three varieties of ihc lea-plant are cultivated,^ 
the China, the indigenous plant of the Assam and Manipur valleys^ 
and Uie hybrid I'he hybrid la the most useful variety. It combines 
a great deal of the hardiness of the China plant with the vigorous 


Tkr If ILLS. 


growth, sire, Kaftn^u of Ica^, nm! ^v^i jwiHluotivtfie** of ih^ imligcfi<l^^| 
It seldom bears suflicicni seed lo hinder iu out-turn of leaf, and |rUBV 
more than iwicc aa much leaf as (he China plant. It i* also poa>e4«ed 
of a more vigorous con«iiution than the indigenous plant of Assanit 
and n less llaMc to disease. 

The imprtrssion ihnc ilie tcn-pTant Kucceed<» best in a cold climate 
is erroneous. Tea plan (s du noi gmw frcvly or mature their seed so 
vrdl At a hij(;h elevntton .i?i ih^^y <lo lower down ; and the plant rais4»] 
from feccd «o grown ^h;irc« to w»mc c\lcrn the- wcaknct^i of the parent 
pUnc. In ihc we^ian kalf of ihc NHgiri^ the p1nniMir>n» arc, a5 a niUi 
situated at high elex-ations* Thuir growth and yield aie eurtailcd by 
the col<! damp windi of the iouth>«teit monsoon, and by the ^harp dry 
winds and nightly frost of ihc rold sciKon, The fervency of ihe dtruate 
there checks the plants to such an extent that bushes live yearH old 
show less ^-igorouB growth and constitution than plants of half of that 
age grown at the same elevation on Ihe eastern slope of the hill*. 
Tho lands besc suited to sutceisful culiivaibn of the tea plant lie 
along the southern nnd eastern dopes^ One of the safest le^s of the 
suitability of a plot of bnd for tea eultivaCion is a luxunant ^owth of 
ihe cotnmon bucken fern (Ptcris nquUina), as ii indicates suHicient 
moisiUTC and litliiic^^ uf Mill, wlUi f^ood dnttna^x. Iri repaid to ihc 
by of the land, the it-M the sloi-c the better; flat lanrti poSKSfing 
good drainage and not nubjuct to frosts, site the rvk^iX suitable. 

The first oprrarion jvrfurmrd is the clearing of the naniral growth on 
the land to be opened out. It is nccessm' in forest hnds to leave 
belts from 20 to 30 yards wide on all exposed ridpes ; or on the more 
open lands, to plant belt* of quicJt-gnawing trees (Eucalypius, etc), lo 
check the violence of the monnoon sales. Sleep slopes arc terraced ; 
and dr^iinet] at intervals to break the force of the heavy rainfall. 

The ^pots choaeti for the reception ol ihc pbnts nre Ihcn nurlced out 
with pegs or slips of bamboot. Cylindrical piis of :S inches in width 
and depth are du^ at a regular di^^uncc a|>.iTi« j^encT.illy 4 feel by 4. 
When the holes have beca cx|>o^ed to ihc air for a bhott timCi and the 
monsoon rains have r^et in, they are refilled, core being taken that only 
ihe hest soil is returned and that it is free from roais, wucds stone*, 
etc. The soil i& heaped to <ome height in the rentrc. 

Planting is effected in cither of the two following ways— {t> pbmin^ 
Ihe seed in situ, and (t) transplanting seedlings from nurseriei /n situ 
planting is performed by sowing three or four tea seeds, germinated or 
fresh, in each pit, and subscqucndy thinning them, when a or 3 inches 
high, leaving the strongest ^fo^'^f in the pit. Those renuived lerve to 
till up vacaneies, or are planted in a nur.^tery ft>T ij»e {luring Che follow- 
ing scasoa A practice now coming into fnvour consif^Is of raising 
geTmin.iled seed in smnll ba«kct» of sptii bomboi^s, and afterwardi 



iiKrcnihg ihcnn to the pit* ihcy arc xncAnt to occup]r< The outer 
oring of biimboo »oon tots, .tnd allows frc« passage to the Literal 

The ycaf after iilaniinp, so ^nnn n^ the sprirp shower* set in, llic 
ung plans ccmmencc lo shoot freely. Umil ihcy have attnincti a 
height of from : 8 to 34 irehcK they are left alone; but when the 
cenire nn<] mnm lateral f^hoot^ show an undue ten<]ency to u;>ward 
gTou'th, they arc cut bacV. A* far a* i>os«He. the plants should be 
immcd to a single stem for at least 6 inches alwvc ground A nlijhi 
rurfacc trimming about the middle of the southwest monsoon, followed 
^y a somewhai severer one at the end of ihc nottli-enst rains, will jiro- 
b:ibly be fuuntl sufTKicrl duriny the hceund year. A touple of months 
or tjo flftcr this accnnd trimminj^^ a crovfd of young succulent &)vools 
■pring up all over the fiurfacc of each plant ; and when these have 
ntttincd A fnir length. *ay frnm fi lo ft tnrheit. ihr ujiper ItaVf* nre 
picked The greatest care niuM be taken to allow the htcfal branches 
to grow unchecked. Fron» aA 103 feel is about the best hei(;ht at 
which to mainuin the surfjcclevel of the plants at pnintng, Thi* 
allows from i to ij fed of upward growth durmg (he course of the 
picking lieason. 
.Abot» Jiily, the plaru are old enough 10 undergo their first sy^te- 
latic pruning. The bcM time for pruning is from early in June to 
'the middle of AuguM ; and it is generally nbout ibi* seastm th:it the 
>ccd crop of the preceding jxar has mAl\trcd, and that of the coming 
soason Has found ii« fJoi^er buds. Excepting at very low elevaticnt, 
hard iiruning is not adviiahle. The growth at the higher elevations is 
not suffirirntly strong to enahle ihc phnts to s^t^nd it. Severe pruning 
once in three or four years is sufficient : and in old estates ahotild be 
lurcompanicd by forking atid mfinuring wherever practicable, 
\ The firs: le^-^rden on the Nilgiri iilaieau was opened in 1R51, 
The number was 3S in 1875; 53 in 1877 ; 79 in 1880; 86 in iS*i ; 
&nd {exclusive of loiae small gardens recently merged into larger 
plantations) 77 in isti. Area tinder tnaiiire tea-plant*, 3714 acres 
in tSSa; under immature plants '55^ acres; toiiil, 518^ atnrj, an 
compared with *39J acres in 1875. Area taken up for tea-pl^ntmg 
bm not yet planted, 4373 acres in i88»» The produce of the gardens 
was sao^ojo lbs. of tea in 1S75, and 8s3»386 lb*, in i88a i average 
yield per acre of m:iliire plant^ 145 Ih^ in T875, and 3xi> lbs. in 

■ There arc now (1S83) 78 lea estates aggrcgatinjE iit7fi4 acres, of 
which 4773 acres arc plarie<1, and 33a* m full bearing. The 
value of these estates may be estimated at from ;£50,ooo to ^7 5,000, 
the Approximate annual yield being about 510.1S0 lbs. of tea in 
.883 j the average yield per :tcre of mature plants In 1883 was 154 

Iba ; tlic cost of cultivation, ^^4, 10*, lo j^i;, los. per acre; thi 
cost of manu^ture per 111 vrai z^d. to 6d. An cxpcfimcni lias 
rccfnlly been made of teagrovin^ on i^rass lands, ll is too early to 
I)redict the result, but if it is even moderately successful, the lea gnidcns 
of the ^if]gtm [imy be (.Icvdopcd tiimo!^: iitdefiniiely. About 4500 
hand* arc cm[>loycd on the several lea estates in the l»t«rici. 

Cimfmna CuitiihUion. —'V\iQ Madras tiovernmcni commcnecU the 
c^pcrimcEiUl t:uhivuiiu[i uf cmi^limia ljji the Nil^jrb in 1S60. The 
pUmt waa specially iritroduccd from South America l>y Mr. Ckmentfl 
Markham. A wocnicd rapine above ihc Gov<:rnmcnI gardeoK on the 
nodahctt.i ranjo, ar an d-v.iiion of heiwccn 7600 and 7900 feet, iKia 
selected as suitable for the growih of such varieties as require high eleva- 
tion, Kor sficcics requiring a waraicr aad muistcr climate, a forest gkn 
was chosen ui Wddiwauam above Giiduliir, on the north-vesiem slope 
of the hills, a an elevation of about 6000 feet In 1862, two other plan- 
tations were c»tahli»hed oa the wooded slopes on either »ide of ihe 
i^aikira vatcTfjill^ having an elevation ahom ihc same n* that of Neddi* 
waiiam. These plantations arc known as the Wood and Hooker 
estates, the fo'iucr beiiTg named \\\ honour of the ihcn Secretary of 
State for India, and the Utter after the celebrated botanist and Dixetor 
of Kcw Cardcn^ Towar^U the end of 1863, a fifth |>lftntaDon was 
opened out nc,^r Mcllciinda, ahour 9 miles «>iuh of Aviil.inchi bungalow, 
at an elevation of between 6000 and 7000 feet; but thi.s estate was 
abandoned in \^t\ by order of Governmcntp 

The four existing fiovcrnn^eiit cinchona plantations, namely, the 
Dodabetia, NL-ddiwattam, VVooi), md Hooker estates, occupied an 
area of 2610 acres in iZ'^i^-^a,^ and contained a total of 1.315,444 
trees. The total cost to Government up 10 March iSJJj amounted lo 
j^i55,S5o, and the total receipts had amounted to j(;340i4SS, show- 
ing a surplus of ^S4,636, "I'he amount of bark collected in i&Sj-^j 
«i<s i3SjC»:6 lb»., and Jn 1883-84, 186,65* lU, The reecipis in 
iS8i-Sa were ^52,484, but fdl 10 ^^20,842 in 1&S2-83. owing to 
a de£t.rucii\e monsoon period. Half of the crop colEectedr sile of 
seeds, etc, sold in 1SS3-84 reftli/cd £,^^\i, whilo the cost of main- 
tenance and other expenses amoumtd to /^g4iS, 'l"his succeis 
fihott-s that the undertaking has passed out of the region of cxperi- . 
ment; and already private enterprise has followed in the steps of ' 
Govetnmcnl, and there are now 4 or 5 private cinchona-gardens planted 

With record to the culti^ition of the cinchona pbnt, seed from I 

plantaiiomt where natural facilities for hybridizanon eiist, ]« to be jire* ' 

fcired. The growth of hylirids is jienciuUy stronger, white they hnvc a 

tendency tov^ards a grcntcr secretion of alkaloids. Hybrids of Cftn- | 

^^ dominca and Succirubra also pan.ikc in great measure the vigour and J| 

Ik d 



strength oftTic true Succinibm, nn<I yield b:irkwlio.^cnc:hneisinquiniiie 
alLaloitl}- a]ii)fo^lmatcs to thai of the Lftrk of ihc best v«:icUirH uf 
Candominco. The nacurnl tcn<Jcncy r>r the Nflgiri cinchonai to pro- 
duce Miong and rich hybrids is thtf moKl promising fentuTC of the 
cultivntion. The ii*e of gunno, sulphntt' of ^immonb^ nnd fann-yart! 
litter as manure, hns resulted in grcati/ incrcamng the secretion of 
alkaloids pariiculaily in the case of the varieties known as Crown barks, 
in which ihe supply in some cases has been doubled. 

The ordinajy process of ii^atheriiig the bark is by stripping the tree, a 
(ffOGOS which i» thus described by Mr. M'lvor, a former superintendent 
Of'MwpliintattQiis: — -' .\ bbourcr ])roi:eeds to an eight-year-old ircc, and, 
reaching ^^\s as far as he c^n, makes ^ horizontal incision of the required 
width. From cither end of llii^ incision he imva a vcriical inci^iion to 
the gremnd, and then, carefully ramn^ with liii knife the bark ut the 
hofiionul inciaion nntil he can saixe it with Sin fingtTn» he Mrips off 
ihc bark to the ground and cuts it oif. The strip of bark then fre- 
sents the fippeamnce of a ribbon more or lesi lon^ Supposing the 
tree to be of 28 inches in cin:umference. the labourer takes ribbons, each 
ij inches \\ide. . . . As soon as he has removed the sinps, he proceed* 
to mos» ihc trnnk all round, tyin^ on the moss with some fihrev The 
decorticated iriicrvals are thus excluded from light ivnd iiir. This 
exclusion of light and air from a stem |>artiall^ bared of bark, acts in 
two na)"* — (1) it enables a hcabng process to he raiiidly sec up , . , ; 
and (i) it increases the secretion of c|uinin<; in the bark renewed under 
Its prutcctjun. ... At the tntd of six or twelve moatlifi ibe bands of 
hark left untouched at the Rnt stripping are removed, and the intervals 
they occupied on the trunk arc momed. At the end of sa months, on 
an ai'cr.igo. the spareq ocriipicd hy the rihbont nnginnlly r-ik^n are 
found to he covered wiih renewed bark much thicker than the natural 
hark of the same age; and thii renc«-cd bark can be removed and a 
fresh process of renewal again fostered by niosi. In another six or 
twelvt njombs, the renewed bark of llie natural nh]>cn>4 k-ft at Ihc first 
stripping can be taken, and so on. Harvests are obtainable from the 
trunk, alicmatcly from ibc spaces left at the first ^tri]>ping and Ihe 
spaces left by the second stripping. Experience docs not ihow any 
limit to ihe taking of these hiirvc^ts ftoni a tree. Of coutse it is under- 
stood thai 2t every stripping the ribbons taken are longer than at the 
preceding stripping, bccauM; the tree each year increases in hcighc 
and bidk, and therefore the lop of every ribbon consists of natural 
hark and tlie lower part of renewed bark,* 

Another method of collecting the bark is that rccenlly introduced by 
the Dutch in Java, namely by aaaping or shaving off the outer layers 
of the bark, leaving the inner layer to protect the {ambium. The 
alleged advantages of this system arc said to be — (t) that it in\oh'es the 



^removal of only the TsIn^Sltf portion of the hnrlc; (i) that all ctich in 
pemoved; (3] ihit the bark is renewed in a shorter period ; (4) that ihe 
Ihcalth of the nee is noi atTcctcd ; and (5) that the protection oT R1095 b 
not essentia] for renewal 

It is neces&ary that the bark «bodd he dried in partiat shade, as the 

action of iiunLight and trxpo:iur« to tlic ht-^it o( a fire dinitifMite the 

I alkaloidit^ Shed« with KheLvd ol hnml^jo tatliSi io aft to admit ol' a free 

^current of air, should be crcaed in convenient loraUticf*. ^\^lcr^ the 

bark is toU-mbly tXry, ic '^houlii be |.<lai:i:(I in a rouin artificially healed 

aoaa tv cvapurutc the rcioaininj^ mu^Murc In il. The room niay be 

hcattfd by flu«9 cr charcoul i%rc^ but the i«Tn]i«rature should not be 

Lpcrmittcd in riitc above too^ F. Careen bark of tolcmbly mature age 

■loses abovit twtvthirdi nf it* wcijiht in ihc pitK-«s of drying. 

The bea mode of packing the bark for ahipmcnl to Europe h in bigs 
m:\ilc of i^^unny eloth, consisting of two la>CTS, vith an intermeduite 
coating of tar, wbich ensures the puiijose of uniting the layers and 
effectually excluding moisture. 

Ordinary Ov//.— "Jhe total area of the District is estimated at 957 
square miles — 678 on the pi:ilciu, 39 in the Ochlcrlony valley, and 340 
square miles in the W^tlndd addition, h is noi accurate^ known hour 
much of this arva ta actually ujidcr LutLlv;uion, as, owing to the ULiycteot 
systems upon vshlch land is granted. Ihc Government accounti in one casc 
sbow the area of estates ulEliuLit reft^rvrcc to the exicnt cultivated, and 
in other ca^es the area cultivated is the only figure recorded. The 
Census of 1881 returned loi Mjuarc miles is ^cultivated/ A regular 
BUTvey of the District has now (iSS^) been completed, and a revenue 
settlemetit is in progress which is alt but completed, except as regards 
the Soiiib'CiUt VVainddt where the operations have not yet commenced. 
The Adininisiration Report of Madras for iSS^-^j returns the area 
actually cultivated In the Nllgiri Hills in that at 70,153 acres. 
Of these. 19.S51 acres are shown a* under coffee* 5a&3 under tea, and 
a5a» under cinchona. Wheat occupies 6543 acres ; rice, 23^8 acres ; 
rti^, 4'04 atTcs ; othct ccicals, ^8.064 .icica ; pulses, 63 acre* ; potatoes, 
Soi acres j \-c^eiables, 100 acres ; oriioDs, 11^4 acres; and mustard 
seedj 24 r neres. 

Wages are htgh. An ordinary unskilled labourer eam& (^^^3) 
about S rupees (i6k.) a month; skilled labourers, la to 15 rupees 
(a4S. to JOS.) ; handicraftsmen, ^5 to 35 rupees (^a, los, to ^3, los.) 
when in full work. At particular seasons on the co^ee and tea gardens, 
wages are very high» but the ordinary rate is 4 or 5 J/tnJi a day (6d. 
to 7id,) for pickers. The ordinary wciglU for grain in the ^xdr h a 
uroi about a pound ami a half, or half the usual Madras measure. 
The prices current [fct maimd of £0 lb*, were in iS&a-Sj as follows: 
— Rice, 7s. J wheat, 9^. Sd. ; ragi^ 3*. jd ^ other cereals, js, ; potatoes, 


3 '5 


Cg. 4d. ; ftilt, 8«. 3d,; and sugar, ^3. ColTee wa^ C\d. ^nd ten Tt. 
lojd, per llx Cinchona sold ai 3*. 1 jd. jior llv The live *tock of the 
pLMricE tomprUcs — cows, 9538; bullocks, S776; bufliiloe*. ^640; 
iioncst985 i Iconics, 537 i donkcyfs Jafi; 5hcc|>. 948; goau,^;!; pig», 
Co: deadstock— ploughs, 4657 ; Andairtfi,485. A plough bullock cosU 
j^3, 10s. ; And a fibccp. 6s. 3d. Carts can be hired for is. a day. 

In carJy iradiiions of the country, the evidence of ihc gudu or 
manorial Ice paid to the lodaa by the immigrvLni agriculiuni races 
wh(i Ijave ^cttfcd in ihc cououy (a ^iKta |i.iid, even by Govcnimciit, 
fjt the uttupaii(>n uf the Kurupcan »ctt1cmcnt» oa the hilla), and the 
Tusvarchcs of the officers cady connected with the ailminif^tnition of the 
nimTiet.^-all point to ihc fact that ihc nomadic race of Todat vcrc iho 
imincnnorin] and ackrowlcd^cd owners of the hill pUtcau, over every 
part of which ilicy p;uiiured and still pasture, except where occupied, 
their large lieidtt of buffalues accordini: to the season. The Enj^lish 
iiile, however, found the cultivable valleys and hiUsides on the eaat 
:ind south — the more genial tnicu of the hills — nione or 1e«s com- 
jiletely occupied by villages of immigrant races ^^o ciiricd on the 
lude cultivation of dry grains within their rural limits. Much as was 
the case mih hill tribes throughout Southern India, wide areas were 
w-Lupicd, ami extensive faliowi iici-csaJiily llic lule. These Jf;ii*:olEufiil 
vilUgd pnid gndu to the TodA», and a moderate veIIo^l^ tribute for 
tliib cultivation to the State, ftom time to time. Conditions were not 
much altered, Mvo as respcri^ punctuality of p;iymen[ and more ri^td 
assc^menl of extended cultivation* during the lirst half-century of 
Englisli ruk. 

A rdyahfdri settlement has since been gradually extended to the 
village hindholdcTs on the hills. All land within each village, held 
exclusively, is entered in the individual patta or notice of demand, wiih 
its avsLgncd assessment, and muu be relin<|ui&hcd unli!ss pa^d for ejtch 
yefir. subject to sale in case of retention and final default. 

The VVjsic L^ud Rules were introduced in 1863, with the object 
of faciliuting the flcquisiiion cf Innd for plantation purpo^ics and 
the like- The block of hod selected by the applicant is, aAer three 
month«* Bdverti*ement, and after demarcation and survey, sold to thij 
hlgbttt bidder, whoever he ma> be. The assessment — S anniU (ts.) 
^ per acre on grass, and 2 rupees (.y:) on forest — is payable after three 
years in the Waiaid, and five years on the plateau, when the land 
is taken tip for the cultivation of special products, such as tea, 
colTcc, an<l cinchona. Such lands are redeemable in fee-aimple t>y a 
single p.iyment of twenly-rive times ihc assessment, a privile^f which 
does not extend to land occupied under the old rules and without 
auction. The loeal Governmtmt, wlicii aonutitjnmg the introduction of 
a levenuc tcttkuient \^\o the Disliict in M^rch i8di, directed the 


temporary relaxaiion of ihe Waste I^nd Rules, so far te to aliow 
planters and native culLivator* to take ww durinj; the currency of the 
settlement, watte landH adjoining therir holdings, without auction or pay> 
mem of price, but subject to on annual a^sc^smcnl of i rupees (4s-) per 
acre in thccasc of plamcrs, ;tn(l io*f»fl^j (is. ^d.) mi acre in tbc case 
of native tritKS, Under this rule, which vas liberally interpreted, a 
considentble area of unappropriated Govcmmcnc waste laud has been 
taken up. 

The wide and immcmoral posturc-poundi of the Toda rice — pracli- 
cfllly the whole uiii\ppTOpH:ited ArcA of the plaicnu and the hitl ».1opcs^* 
Kive nfltnrally remain^^d itnassefised to :iny land'nv, although Uvgcly 
occupied by cattle : some 15.000 or 30,000 head being now nuiniained 
on them. The natural pasture is eicei»ttonally coarie and InnutritiouSt 
and the climate of the western :ind northern trarlH of the mnge, 
which arc especinlly pajtoru!, is so ungenial ii» lo close Ihem [lortially 
against licrds for scvtrral months of the year; and further, the area of 
unapikTopriatcd land has become seriously narrowed. Tipii Sultin is 
believed to have asserted a right to pasture the cattle belonging to the 
Mysore State on the hill*; transit duties were levied on the x^, in 
which the Toda^ traded with chc lowlands ; and a kind of m^tatfa 
tax has at time? bt'cn levied on the cattle of this tribe, but no 
Bcidement or lanil-lait has tjecn extended to iht-tc pn«uret_ Since, 
however, a demand for land for European occijpation hs* sprung «p on 
the hillH. thesiG wide pasture lands have practically been dedarcd 
OovernmcnE waste, available for sale and appropriation by Government. 
However^ to eadi mand or Toda hamlet ia reserved a 50-acre block of 
pasture, with a proportion of furcM for shade. On this, a rental of 3 
6nfidt {3d) an acre '\% payable^ This represents a teten-ation in all of 
some 7000 acres, so that to cich adult malcTotla there is an allowance 
of ovi:r 30 acres, rr^ctically, ihe Todas graze their catdc o*-cr nil 
waste landj but the reservation has been gtamcd to compensate for 
the gradual enclosure of private catiLtes. The Toda n.i*crvc», how- 
ever, arc intended exclusively for ]>aitturef and all alienations are pro- 

In the Kuropean settlements* a few bulldinj? grants, made before 
1863, are held on cjuit-renls redeemable on twenty vcars* |>urchase ; 
l>ut more recent grants are subject to the general conditions specified 
above, and arc not allowed to exceed 10 acres in extent. Another 
tenure in the District is that of the mrfwj or glebes of vilbgc officers, 
the a^s^efiamcnt on which u*cd to be paid dircrt by the occupants to the 
village officers as their remuneration. These have now been amalga- 
mated with the Gyvemmcni budi; the /cZ/ji/Jr paying the revenue to 
Government direct, and the village officers rccciring m ticu a money 



Trnnafcn of land are frcriucnt and cuy. Hctwccn ndtjvci, these arc 
l^encralty cfTecicd by tf)c traditional form of con%-c)^ncc, nnd in* 
limaird lo the Settlement officer, Dul tl€ European practice of 
ronvcying by stamped and regtsiered dot^ument b becoming popular. 
The price of land, of course, varie* very much according to class — 
good forest Kind in the Waindd and Ochicriony valley sometimes 
leacbinf* ^loo an acre ; but £,2 to j^io an acre is the average auction 
j>rite for cofTee lanfl. The price of land in the Selllcment of Uta- 
;|wnan(1 hn-s of late risen very considembly owing to the increased 
demand for building sites. 

NntHiijl CQlumUits. — No famine is ever known to have occurred 
W^iii the Nil^iri Dlitlrict. But high piicfa in the platnn alTect |jnctj» 
Ii4re ; and ii 1S77* serious diatrcas was felt .-imong the poorer clasac*, 
luuropean as well as native. 

Meant of Cpminumcation. — The nt<jfrii"t, nntwilHiilandrng the diffi- 
culties of construttion and repair, is fairly supplied with toads ; but 
much yet remains 10 be done in tliis respect before the country is fully 
opened for the introduction of European capital There arc altogether 
mote than j8o mile* of road bridged and open for wheeled traRic, of 
which 180 are en or leadinj; to the phteau, and nearly 82 in South-east 
WainatL The princj]>al Nilgtri iinei are the Coonoiar^'A^j/ roacl, and 
Ihencc to Utak.imand, 7% mile^; Utakamnnd to Karkanhali for Myiorti 
36; toG^daldr, 30; Coonoor to Kotjfgin, 13; Utakamaml to Avulanchi, 
T4; l^oXi^^\t\ ghdi road, 20. Several other gMtt and plateau roads arc 
tnaintained for pack bullocks, but are not practicable by cartas A 
railway from KilUr, at the foot of the £h4i, 10 Coonoor (Kilndr) had 
been |j:iiaran[eed hy Cjovemn^enl under certain condition), and the 
protpectuftofthe Company had been published; but ihc promoters failed 
to raise the required capital on the terms sanctioned, uml have made 
(1SS3-&4) fresh propoaali to Government. 

Manufaituns and TV^/dV,— There arc no special manufactures in the 
District, except the weaving of a coarse cotton cloth by the Badagas. 
Several Kuropean indtiKtrlcs exint, for local purpose* solely ; and there 
arc tvru brewerEc3. l^hc trade conxixt» ia the; inipurl and &4k uf Kuiu- 
pcan goods nnd food-sCufTa, and the export of tea, coffee, and cinchona, 
And M>inc garden produce. The principal mnrkct^ locally called shandy^ 
cf the DiitricI i» held at Ctakaninnd every Tncsdny. At Connoor a 
shandy iK held on Sundays and Tuesday*, and at Kotifiiri on Mondays. 
The Kadu fr^ltval of the TodaH, at which is performed the annual 
ceremony for the dead, which consists of dancinj; and ^laup-htenng 

iflklocs, is held in difTercnt localilic*. The Badagai and Kotaa also 
Lve annual festivals, which are attertdcd with dancing and music, 
sacrifices of ahee|), buflaloej;, etc. 

/jrj//fi^/^fl/,— The Nilgiri Library at UlaJiainand and the LawTcnce 

voi- X- -*. 


^>^ mLGiR/lmls. H 

Aayljm di Lo%'cdAle an: th« only insUtutiOTia dcacrviDg noike. The 
former posseiscfl a hnntbome ]:»uilding, erected in 1S59 at a cost of 
j^jSooj iu annua! income ix ^740. ^nd it contaiH rending and 
u'ritirtg rooms and <ihotic 10,908 vclnmcs. Hic l^^iwrt^Ticc Ativlum, like 
other infttituiiom of ihe same name, is intended for children of Bnlbh 
soMicn:, whether orphans or not, Jl accommodaic* at pm^nt 590 
chihli^n (330 hoys and 60 girls). The children aic housed, fed, 
clothed, and edticnted. They are taught trades, and employment is 
found ibr most of them on leaving. Telegraph and survey classes, ' 
carpenters', tailors", and niioemakcrs' shops, and a farm nre attached to 
this insiicuiton> It is supervised by a Printipal .^nd a Co[nmtuc<:» and 
\v,vt in\ iniuiiic frum iill M>uri.c^ of aLkjui ^jo,uoo, dcriicd froin ihe 
cndowoicntft of the military male Orphan A3)'luui of Madras Govern- 
ment granu, and ]>rofitK on induitiie^ An English ncwtpapcr it 
puhltvhrd in the ni^trict. 

MontifHtnttii RfmatHS. — The antiquniian interest in the NitaJri Hilb 
principally centres round the mde stone monuments mentioned in a 
previous paragraph. Such relics arc gcneriilly situated in commandii^ 
situations on the summits of hilln and ridgt^ Some of the older 
agrams^ or funeraJ circles, an now u^ctl l>y the To<3as, have been 
opcnctJ, and loiiiid to contain weapons, pottef)-, clc. The bcit ancient 
bronses and weapons have been found in TodanM and i'^rangamld. 
A large number of rude stone monumenin^ — caims, Harrow*, klstvacns, 
and cTomlcr.h^ — arc found ^\ over the pLic.iLi, and ihcir origin hdu 
been mach discussed- The cniraa arc of scvefal form*, — one commonly 
caltod the dT3^^''well kintS, eonsiMf of ai eiicuiar u'all; othert aeem to 
have been rej^nhrly built up, but the circle \% enclosed by a Heap of 
rough \ooht t.\<yxye^. t<omeume4 Imilt more c^ircfuUy on the inner side of 
the circEe, or faced inside with larger siab^ but sloping outside into t 
tumbled ht-ap. A thinl kind consists merely of a circle, sometimes of 
long ilcne* laid round on a sort of ridge, ^lo|>ipg inward?, somciimci 
of common rtru^h stones embedded in the surface soil. The kis^vaens 
arc situated helow Koidgiri. In these is found pottery with a rich red 
glaze, and many of the clay figures arc represented wiih a high Tartar 
licad-drcis. These remains, *ays Dr. CaUiwell. are not claimed by any 
of the races now cjsisiing on ihc hill*, and accm to be of considerable 
antiquity. One of the cairns of thi» dtMtcriptinn opened by XIr. Hicckt 
had an immcn^ie ire^. growing out of >i niid over if, which was estimated 
to be at least Soo year* old. The most numerous of these remains are 
the cairns and barrows, which resemble each other, and which arc found 
most oflcn in groups and on the tops of hilU anil r:dge:s. A few may 
be seen on the eastern sides of the Ktindas near the Avalanchi 

In recent researches, more than 40 of these cairns have been opercd^ 


N/LG/RI mUS. .343 

were found to contain bronze vcsacla, such is vases, urns, etc., 
mcKlic uicnbil&T ^Itt/cd pi;lUry, aJid apcaf-htadit. One ibi^ory 
atcributcs them ic S<'>-thian ancestor* of the TgdMi but ^galnitc ihis 
is the fact that the Todat offer not the slightest obj^tion to thcM 
rem:^ins being opened and thciT content* crimed aw-iy, Tlioiigh ihcy 
use them as burial- pi aces, thc>- ihcmaclvcs attribuiG iheir origin to a 
nice who lived anterior to them, and soiuetlmes to the Kunuubas. Dr. 
Shont wntcs : ' It is i^encrally believed by ihe natives that ilic.ic cairns 
and cromlechs are ihe work of the follower* of the Pdndbn kings, wlio 
at one time rul?d on ihe Nilgiri^ The K;idng2$ likcvrw believe this, 
M-hilc some o( ihem aitnhute them to I he Kurumbas. 1"hc Kcv, Mr. 
Metx is also of Ihe latter opinion^ find 1 am inclined to coincide 
with this ^entlcmin. \Vc kn[>w that the Kuruinbas A'crc at one chne 
scattered nil over Southern India, and wcfc driven by their eomjueron 
to the ji»ngl*s and hills ihey M. pre^^ni occupy. Dr Caldwell perhaps 
riglitly cnlli them ^^Stytho-Uriudicar' remains ^s ihcy appear to 
partake both of the Scythinn and Druidical in structure, etc Similar 
leDnains are found in most Madras Districts, and indeed Jn many other 
paitt of India/ There are traditions on the Nflfiiri Hills of an old 
race of Vedd^s apparcnily the same as the Veddas of Ceyloa 

J'onsts. — ITie forestn of the NilgJri Hill* are of four clashes — 
(i) Those of the eavtern and southern sloL>eii; {2) the n^rihem slopes 
and Moyir t^alley; (3) the -Stjuih-east WiinAd j (4) the ihi>fds of the 
plateau. !n the first arc founj deciduous foto-i wiih teak, Anugel«%us 
TcTmliuilia'^, and other trees on the piojccting ftouihcrn spurs And 
slopcfl, while the valleys are filled uitb fine forest of partly ever^rccnt 
partly deciduouit growths In ihete valleys, the chief tree is Pserocarpus 
MariiipUim, but noiieenble among others are Mi-sua ferrta, Cedrela 
Toona, Chicknissia tabularis* and Bi»chofii;t javanica. The second 
region contaim chietly deciduous foreitt trees, wtth a fair amount of 
sandal-wood. The third contains timber of large si:fe, chief among 
which are teak and l>hckwood (Dalbeq^ia lattfolia), PierocArpus 
Marsupiuffl, Terminalia tomentosa. and red and *liilc cedar. The 
forest of the sfsi>/ti is fjuiie dilkrcnl, 1 hesc sfwlis arc patches of thick 
forest along ravines ant! watercourses, and sepaiaicd by graw lands or 

I downs. The foie»t ti, low. the trco rarely reaching 50 to £d feet in 
height, The trees of the s^^lis arc described in a previous section of 
this article (pp. 305-J07). 
Certain fthreM tracts are being selected for legal reservation. The 
jAo/Js are vtry slow in growing, find old trees are not easily replaced- 
.\rrange(rcnl% have been made to [lant the fjuick-growing wattles 
(Acacia melanoicylon and deallma) and the Australian blue -gum 
(Llt^calyptus globulus), Plantations of these trees have been formed 
near Utakamand, Cooncor, ai;d Wellington. 'JTic chief arc 'Arambi' 




«nd 'Bathri' at "Utakamand, 'Old Forest' and 'Band! shotd^ at 
Cogtiuor, and 'iCillia* ncJu WclUngion, These itccs CTpccblly the 
Eucalyptus, grovr very f:i»N and tat fit to cut al ten years of Age, being 
|}]<rn often loo feet hisii, ^viih a girth of ? lo 3 ftet or cvon more^ 
The nnntinl increment of Ktuvilyptu* h.u heen n.ieertainH lo be about \% 
ton* per acre per ann«m ; thai of vrncttcs^ 6 Ions. Iliew planiattons ate 
being worked in rcfiiiUir rotation for the supply of fuct on the plateau. 
The produce of the Wainid and Moyar forests consists of te.ik log* 
(which are brought for sale to Uiakamand). sandal-wood, and mj-ra- 
bolama. The receipts from foreits in 1S74 was jC^figi; in 18S1, 
^4110; and in 1S83, £^%•^'^' 

Aiminhtration^ — The total revenue ftom nil sources in 1868-69, 
the year in w]iii:1i the NiTgiri C^jinmiEfition w.i.t fintt citdMi^licd, vr«» 
^10,063^ and the cupcndiiure on civil Admini«ralJf>n, ;i^5*.9ofip tn 
'^74 75, the revenue had inereated to ^^^NSo?. Jind (he expenditure 
to ^£41-491. In tSSt-Sj, the revenue wa* ^50.105, and the expcndi- 
i^T'c -i^^JtSpJiO' The difTerent items of revenue in 187-i-JJ and 
iSSi-^j were thus rcturnc^J — land, £^H\ in 1874. and £if3^ in 
i85i ; i\bkdri or excise, ^7*76 in 1874, and j^i6t389 in 1881: 
forests^ jC=*^9* '^ 'S74, and ^41 u in 1881 ; and post-office, £,2^^h 
in 1874, and £,2^M*) in 1881. Expenditure— Admin istnlive and 
public dcpanments, ^10,155 in 1874, and ^17,455 in 1881; law 
and justice, Xfi%A^ in 1H74, and ^^651 in 1881 ; eccl^ia^ticAl snd 
niediciil service*, ^7505 in iS74» iind ^^67^7 in i38i ; ?»u|XrrannUAtioi>, 
etc. aliowances, ^^3061 in 1874, and j^^46o in i8fti ; land rci-cnuc, 
j^S7>o in 1874, and ^ja^e in 18S1 ; forests, ^^6586 tn 1874, And 
^1550 in t88i ; posi-ofRce^ ^i7,?47 in 1874, and ^977 in 1881. 

The numlier of crmns in 1875-76 was 6, and of civil and 
xc\'enuo cour:s 4- The figures in 1881 ^ere — ma^iMerial courts 9, 
revenue courts 4- The agi^^gate stren^jth of the police in 1S75 was 
141 men, rndnt;tined sx a cost of ^^119^- The nuinher of arrests 
was 373, with 231 convictions. In iSSi, the force consisted of 179 
men, costing ^4:^86. Number of arrests (1881), 1706; convictions 
(including summoned ca^es), 1S23. There aie a prisons in the 
Pistriclj the jail at Uiakamand and ihe Europe;m prison. Tliere arc 
alstJ 3 suliMiliaty j.iils, one al Wellington, one at Coonoor (Kiindr), and 
one At Gii<lahir, The average daily numher of prisoners diuinjt 1875 
waft 470, and 380 in t88i, Ouc ofa population of 49,501 in 1871-7^, 
3990, or 8*1 |»er cent. (366 of whom were females), could read and 
write. In iSSi, out of a popubtion of 91.034. iHe number who could 
read and *riie (includins 1000 femile*) was 5775, or 6"j( per cent 
Among the hill tribes, education ha.s made hut little progress, TTic 
only two Furopean schools of imporlnnre are the Ijiwrence Aiyltim, 
LovcdalCi and the Greeks' Memorial School at Utakamand. The 



former ha» been alrc^idy rcfcrnrd 10 ; the latter, founded in niciiiory of 
ihc fir^t Coi»n»9»lr>ncrf i» an efficient middk-chsis school. 'J~hc total 
TiumU;r of in^titutiona (includirtg the vernacular «chooU) was 45 in 
iSSj-Sj, with iS6g piipiU; e*K|>cndi[iire thcfcon, jC^i*^SA- '"^^ 
Census of 1 38 1 returned 1765 (of whom .fij w^re ^\r\^) as under 

M€di<ai AspeHs. — Situated as the NMgirU are, at an avei:ige elevation 
cf 6oo5 feet ; e<|mdisEanE Irorn two -sea^ ; sharing two monsoons ; and 
isolated from mountiiint cf simihr height, they poitscss a cUinaLe 
which, for ct|uibihty of tcmpemiire, for mildly invigorating quahiie«, 
for great salubrity, and for iaimuniiy from the disturbing influences 
common to the clmiatc of most hill nations is almost unrivalled within 
the trt)pic!i« The average tcin|xrtfiurc deduced ftuiu the nteari o^ 
twenty hvc months has been fued at 56' F. The hottest season is in 
April s.nd May, bitt itt occurrence dcpcndR upon the character and 
jprrifwl of ^ning fn of the souih-rtcst monscon, The c^tri-mc rangr 
of temperature, from sunrise to a p.h^ Averagci commonly i^' !*'> 
ihrou^hotit the year. In i8Sr, the maximiini at IVtllin^on was 
So'i', and the mmimum 37"3'- 'I'hc mean temperature in thai year 
vaft (y\\ "I'hc rainfall at WclHtiglon in the same year wa* 4846. 
The average annunl rAinf^U for seven years ending 1S81 was 45 Incho. 
'Jhc year before 18S1, however, there was an iiverage fall over the 
District of 70 inches. There are only two dispensaries in ilic Di^trkl 
— at UtaLinund and Cuonoor. The Kuropc^n pupukut^n aulTcr chiefly 
from fevers And rhcuckiailsm. [For further information regarding the 
Nilgiii Hills, and the tribes inhabiting the tract, sec iHc Mannai ^f iht 
NUgifi Ditfria^ by H. B. Grigg, Es<j,, CS, {Government Vre^s Madras, 
1880). Also Ah Account a/ th^ Peimitht Trittti and MQnumcuH cf 
the Nii^iris^ by the late J. \V, IJreeks, Estp, CS. (Allen & Co.. London* 
■&73); the Madras Omus /iif>prl iov iSSi ; and the several annual 
inistmion and De[)artnicnt:i1 Reports of the Madras Govern* 

Milgiri. — Native Sute of Crissa, Bengal, lying between 21' iS 30' 
and 21' J?' N, lat.^and between 86" ^9'and »&" 51' jo' e. long. Area, 
a;S square miles. Bounded on the north and west by ihe State of 
Morbhauj, and on the ca%t ;ind ^outh by Halo^or District. Onc'third 
of the area cqumMs oI uncultivated mountain land ; one-third of waate 
junglvj and tbe remaining third w under culu\-ation. Vnluable 
qtiatijed of blaeic stone are wnrlcfd, from which are nia<le cups, howU, 
platter^ etc. Populatitkn in iSSii, 50,97*, namely, 45.005 Hindus, 
j(2 Mtisalm.'fns, ^^6 Chrisirans, 65J Santdls. and 6^60 non-Hindu 
aboriginal tribes namely Bhijmijs. The toul number of viltaj^es was 
returned at 148. The capital and residence of the Raji is Mtu.ited in 
Ut li' 2f sq" h., and long, 86' 48' 41" e. The Sutc yield* a rci'enuc 

l/ie A 

■ "^ 

^M onrl 1 


3*8 yiL A^AG—mMAC/r. ^H 

e^^iEnilej] :il ^±1791 nnd piiys fi tribute Q^ jCs9^ '^ *^^ BTiEinh Covenv 
meni, Tlio R:<j;4\ milirin ronKitil^ of aR men, and the police force of 
76 meiL The Stale contains iS schooK 

Nfl H4(r. — Ijkc in Kashmir (Cashmere) State, NortKem India, 
f-tving Hue 10 -A stream which joins the Jchbm (Jhdum) near IJAniniolti. 
Situntcd in lit. 33* 48' »., nnd long, 74' 47' & (lliomton)! on the 
north-eastern declivity of the Pfr Panjal MountAin, ai miles south-west 
of Srinagar Held in great veneration by the Hindus 

Nflphdmilrl (or Bdgdogra). — SutHlivision ol Rangpur Dbtrict, 
licii^ah Atcj, 638 square miles ; number of toxins or villA|;cs, 592 ; 
houses, 56,609. Topidation (188 1), males 226,484, and fcnutea 
913,002; total, 439,486. ClAj^Siiftcd according to religion, there were — 
Muhcimftindnn», 319,906; Hindus, 319^36* ; ChrittiariSr 3' I J*""** 
47; Buddhists. tS; RMhtiio, 1; Santjili, la ; other ahongincft, sy; 
unspecified. 71. tJensity of populniion. 689 pen,on,i per stpiare mile ; 
viU.i;iC-s per st^J^ire mite, "61; personii |ict village, T121 ; houses per 
s<]iinn? mile. 90 ; persons jjct bouse, yZ. Thj< Sub-division cotnpri»es 
the three police circles {t/iAndt) of Dimla. Jaldhnld^ and Darwinl. 
In 1SS3 it contained 1 critninal and 3 civil courts, with a regular police 
of 89 of nil MMks, and 9f»2 rural police or village luichmen, 

Nllphlmdrt. — Village in Rangptir District, Hen^al. heacl-quarierft of 
Nilphimiri Sub-div^ion, and a Matiun on the Northern Bcnpd State 
Railway, A purely agricultural village, of no imporiancc except » 
t\\€ h*iid-quarii*re of a>>ub-divtsion, 

NilviUa.— Petty Stnte in the GohoUvrfr division of K^hhldwiir, Bom- 
bay I'rirsidency : consisting of i vUbj^e, with 2 separate triULte-ittyers- 
Estimated revenue, jf 245 ; tribute of;£5i, 2Sl is paid to the Tiritlsh 
C»ovetnment, ami jC'5- ^*' '^ *^^ Naw:(b of Junifg^rK The in- 
habitants nrc pnrc Kithf*. The estate lie* rj miles north -north -west of 
Lathi railway station on the Bhaunagar-Gondal line. Area, t s^juare 
miles. Population (iSSi) 51a, 

Nlmach (-^ww;tt'^).— A town and British cantonment, in the terri- 
lory of G;^aIiof, ur the jjuh^essions of Sindhta, in Ceniial India ; situated 
in bt- i^" 27' ^18" N., and long, 74'' 54' 15' K., on the north-western 
border of Mnhv-'t^ and at a short distance from ihe boundary separating 
thflt tract of roiJTitry froi« the St»te of Mewar in R.'tjpuiif^a. AI»o a 
Bl.ilion on the RdjputJna-Mdlw.l Stato Railway. The British territory 
here wa* formerly limited t^ the site of the cantonment and some 
acres adjoining, f^oTd l:jy Daulat Kdo Sindhia in 1S17, according to 
the provisionH of the trenty of Gwnlior concluded in thai year, as 
space retiuired by the Hriiish Government for stationing a force in the 
Milwi territory. Hy a bier treaty, however, some more land in llie 
vicinity was obtained A small fort has been constructed 10 accom- 
modaic the families of the military when called to a distance un dury ; 




IE u at praent used as a magaciDC. The climate of NfmacJi Is 
ogre«btc, nc%-cr cxhibiltn}; eilhtir extreme of heat or coM; even oC 
the hcttcAt ««ARon the nigVitfi Arc generally coaV It« elevation abo^^e 
Kca-lcvel is 1613 fccL NfmAch occupies mfng ground, ihe canton- 
ment boundary being dose under the walls of ihe city. The diy \% Ihe 
head-quaners of a District of Owalior. In iSSi the pDpulation of tl^e 
ciiy was returned at 5 161, namely, Hindtts 4>5T r Muh^nim;id.iiiSf 938; 
aiul' other*/ 66. I'opuhtion of the cintotimcnt (iSSi) 13,069, nnmely, 
7576 males and 5493 females. Hmdus Dumbcred 903*; Muham- 
madans, %%\%\ and 'oihcrs/ including European*. 819H Nlmach is 
disuni lis "^ll<^ norUi'WCit of Mhow, 371 south-west of Delhi, 318 
*)ifuth'we&l uf A{;ra, 306 mtle:» vnaX. of SiL^aCj 11 14 imleit weiiL of 
t.'atciicta r/(t AllahAh^d and SiCgar< 

Kimal,— Town in Itunnu (Bunaoo) Disirici, Punjab — -S!« Namai- 

Kiroir. — nUtncc in the Chief Commii'*ioner»hijj of the Central 
PrciviiKi^s, Uintr lii^tuec^n 21' 4' anrf 2j' *6' N. lat.^ and between 
;;■ 50' and 77' i" k. long. It forms the westernmost District of the 
Central Provinw-*; and is bounded on the north and wc^t by the 
lemtorics of the Raji of Dhdr and of the Malmiji Holkar, on ihc 
south by Khirdesh Di^liic: and West Bciar, and on ihc east by 
lloshangdbdd. Area, 3340 square miles. Pofmlatjon (iS5i) 331.341, 
Th6 headqiLitter^ of \\\t DiMrict arc at KhANDWA, which is ra|)idty 
ukln^: the [)Licc of HijkiiAM'riK a* the ]irindi>al town. 

fhyuiat Asf(^fi. — The modern Dislncl of Niiudi consists of iwo 
river valleys, parted by a range of hill*- It includes but a small 
portion of the nneient Hindu Province of Pranl Nirair, which occupied 
the whole of the Narbnd^i (Ntrbudda) %'nlley, lying between the 
Vindhya hills on the north nnd the Siftpum ranpc on the *outh, for 
about 22^ miles, from 74° to 77' jo' £. long. On Ihc other hand, the 
Tapti vallcT was no part of old Print Niniir. btJt belonged to the 
Hindu Province of Talncr» subsequently called by the Muhainmadans 
Khdndcsh> The northern section of the Dialrici in the Narbadil valley 
js broken by low irregular hills, and nowhere present* the open level 
surface of the more ferule Diatricts higher up the river It is drained 
l^y the Sukti, Abna, U'ani, Bhdin, nJldf, arid Phiprdr, whkh unite in a 
considerable Mrcnm, the Chhotd Tawi, before joining the NarbndA; 
and by the Ajn^ll, Kiveri, and Bdlctir, which fall directly into that 
ifiver. In the north-ea*! corner of thi* section cf the Uiitnct, a large 
tract of waste extends along tin* ChhotA Tawi and the Narbadi ; but 
ihc rest of this region is fairly well cultivated, thotij-h the banen ridfccs 
which cut up the country in every direction prevent it from preienting 
u nourishing appearance. Its average elevation above the sea is 1000 

The southern section of Nimir Districtt in the Tdpti valley, b more 



open and fertile. Towards the west il is carefully cultivaltfd. Cut 
higher up tlit: valley, ihc bnd, though exceedingly rich, Ik-* uiicily 
desolate; and instead of ihe thriving villager which occupied it during 
ilie MuhftmmndiLn period, now only a few Kurkds carry on a rude 
tillage here and ihcrc in a deadly c]im;LLe. 1 hix part of Nimdr has an 
average elevation above ihc sea of £50 feet. Jhe irr«!gutar and 
bnjkcn range which divides ihc two valleys of the Narbadi Jittd the 
r^I>ti, h^is a width of about 1 5 luilcs. ll ih the only pan of ibc great 
liilly backbone of the Central Provinfci marked in map« w the S'itpura 
chnin, which h rcalJy known by that name to the people. On ilfi 
highest point, ahout 850 feet nhovrr the plain, :in(t 3300 fett nhove 
sca-]c\-e], stands the fomess of AsiRautH. coniTnandlni; a pass through 
ihe hilli which has for ceniuriea been the chief highway between Upper 
India and the Uectafi. The Hatilji, anoiher branch of ihc same great 
range, with a hc^ight above tea-le%«l of from 2000 to 3000 feet, foim the 
southern bcjund;»r>' of the District On their other face they rise 
steeply from the plains of Berar ; but the ascent horn ilic 'i'iptt valley 
is long and gradual, including some plateaux of considerable extCQi* 
with excellent soil here and there. Geologically considered, the 
country con^iiMs almost entirely of trap. In far the greater portion the 
traps are hori/^ntxl -, but in the low hilts west of Adrgarh there is a 
strong southern dip, in plajrcs amo^tniing to 15'. Coal \% onrirely 
wanting; but ifcn-orc is found in rhe Ohar forest near Pundxa tind 

Of ihe cxtensii'e forests in Nimir, the only tract reserved by Govcm- 
mcnt i?i the Pun^ forest, uhich stretches for about uo miles along 
the south bank of the Nirbad.'i, and ecntains very Ane young teak 
(Tcctona grandis), besides stxj (Tenninaha tomcnlosn], and anjam 
(Hardwlcki:! binata) of great sije. The south-castefn corner of the 
Dutrictf in the Tipti valley, is nlso covered with a promising young 
forest of tcdk And other timber, over nn arcA of about 400 square 
miles ; and a similar forest exists in pargat^4 Chindgaxh, north of the 
Karbadi- There Is, beside*, much bnd overspread by low jungle. 

Timers arc numerous, and an? tnsily got nf ;ilong mewl of the livent in 
the hot season. Cattle and gime being easily procurable by them, the 
Nimdr timers seldom become regular man-eaters, Bears. leo|iards, and 
wolves ate conmion in some parts, and aUo jifwM^rrand s|iotted deer. 
The Upper Tdjiti valley is a favourite hauni of the bison (Bos front- 
alis), and Jif^ifr and wild ho;{ abound Lhrotif;hoLit [he District Oi' 
small ^amcr ^tainted partridge, quail, hare«, and peafowl are the chief- 
Jungle-fowl arc found in the Ta|ni valley; and the large rivers yield 
excellent fjAh. A shooting t>afty has only co bring tents nod horics to 
the Ldl'bdgh railway station, wlicrc cart-cnrrioge is always Available 
for liii^ and march 15 or 10 miles up the S^Iohni valley, Bouth-ejut of 



Hurltinpur, lo be in the centre of t. v^y sportunan^a paradise. - h U 
ii«clo«<, hovfcvtr, to attempt such on cxpc<^ilion ctalict than &1at^b, 
when ihc jungle grnui ii; burnt 

The piinriiui] places of interest in Nimdr Disiricip besides AfiIRGAIIH, 
arc— Khan'DWa anrf Raver, in the Narbadd valley: Bvrhanpir. in 
the valley of the T^pti; and Makdhata, ihe Uland in the Naibaili 
^cred 10 Sivs. 

History. — NimdLr has always been a border land. Even its hill tribe* 
belong to two diMinct r^ccs^ the BhfU and ICols of Wc^icrn India 
here meeting chc Gonds and Kurkiis from the cnsc. The earliest 
ftguics, wheihcr cf legend or history, are those of the Haihd kings, 
who ruled Ft4iit Niniit ftum Mdlnamalf, Lire luudvin Mulicvwar, till 
they were opelled by the Otahntans. The ncvr rulers introduced the 
worship of Siva on ihc iiil.ind of Mdndhitfi. At iinc the Itrahmnn gods 
found siip[u>rt^« in (be Chanhitn Kjijpins, who held A^frgaih, though 
ihcir capital WOK at Makivati (Garba Mandia) : but suhse<juently rhc 
Pramira Kiiputs who founded the K^'at liuddhlftt klnj^dom of Mdlw-i, 
seixed Asfrgnrh. A branch of this fanUly called l;ilc held the fortress 
from the 9lh to the lath century, and .ire often eommeinoraled by the 
poel Chand as leaders in the Hindu armies Iwttiing m Northern India 
sgainst the Muhamniadan invader J>LiTing this period, the Jain 
religjoQ, a Bchi&m from Buddhism, prevailed in Nimar, and numerous 
renuiii^ of itnely carted Jain temples siill exlat at Khandwd and near 

Before the invasion of the Muhnmmadans. however, ihe Chauhints 
Appear to have rct^overed A&irgarh and the tOLit hern part of the l)iKlriet. 
In 1195, Sultan Al^-ud-dfn, returning front his Ix^ld raid into Ihc 
Deccaiv took that stron:jhold» and put all the Chauhins but one to the 
td. About this time. Northern Nimdr c.^me into the possession of 
til, Aid Rdjd, whoBc descendants ftrc still to be found in the chicfa 

^BhAms;arh, Mdmlhilta, and Silinf, Ferishta, indeed, iclates a *iory 
of a »he|rherd chief called A^ mlinL- over all Southern NimAr, ai>d 
L>uilding the fort which from As;^ the Ahir (a herdsman) took the name 
of Asfrgarh. But It i« almost certain that the country was wholly in the 
hands of the Chaiih^n and BhtUU RJJ^& at ilic time of tbc Muham- 
luadan <:un(tueflt. 

About 13^7, Northern Nimir became |>art of the independent 
Mubfiimmadan kingdoro of MdlwJ, with jt« tajiiial at Mind iS on the 
Vindhyan hills, Refore ihii,in 1 570^ Malak Rilji Kirdkhi had obtained 
Southern Nimj^r, then unconquered, from the Delhi Lmpcror. He 
icduccd the Ta[}ti valley; and was succeeded by his son, NasJr Khdn, 
mho captured Aslrgarbj and founded the cities of Kurhanpur and 
ZaindMd. For eleven generations, from 1399 to 1600, the Tirukhf 
dynasty of Khdndeih ruled at Burh^npur^ but their powerful leiijhbours 


330 NI^fAfC. V 

or Guj^rdt and MJlw.'t r«Q<]«fed Uwir ind*pend€nrc liltir mote thin 
nnmirul, anJ Kiirh-'lnpur WM *e%*n»! time* ita^lccd by ms'Adintf anuiea. 
In t6oo, the s^L-st Rtn|>LTor Akbir annexed Nimdr and KhandctK 
capUiring AsiiXArh l)>- blockji'lc from linKadnr Khdii» the last of the 
Finikhis, Alcbar divided Northern Nimarintoibc Diitricts of Bi)igarb 
and Hnndi:(. and Attached it to the SitStjh o