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The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 









second edition: 







OF iSSi. 

' We are of opinion/ wrote the Court of Directors in Early 
1807 to their servants in Bengal, 'that a Statistical un j r er s the 
Survey of the country would be attended with much ^° 6 mp * ny ' 
utility ; we therefore recommend proper steps to be 1855. 
taken for the execution of the same.' The despatch 
from which these words are quoted forms one of a long 
series of instructions in which the East India Company 
urged a systematic inquiry into its territories. The 
first formulated effort in Bengal dates from 1769, four 
years after that Province came into its hands ; the latest 
orders of the Court of Directors on the subject were 
issued in 1855, three years before the administration of 
India passed from the Company to the Crown. During 
the interval many able and earnest men had laboured at 
the work, manuscript materials of great value had been 
amassed, and several important volumes had been pub- 
lished. But such attempts were isolated, directed by 
no central organization, and unsustained by any con- 
tinuous plan of execution. 

The ten years which followed the transfer of the Efforts 
government of India to the Crown in 1858, produced a J"^ 
new set of efforts towards the elucidation of the country. 1858-69. 
Conspicuous among them was the work begun in 
1866 under the direction of Sir Richard Temple, when 
Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. 1 The 
controlling power in England had now passed from a 
body of experts, the Court of Directors, to Parliament 

1 Executed by Mr. Charles Grant (now Sir Charles Grant, K.C.S.I.), 
of the Bengal Civil Service, sometime Member of the Viceroy's Legislative 
Council and Foreign Secretary to the Government of India. 

VI 11 



by public 


and the nation at large. Accurate and accessible infor- 
mation regarding India was become, under the new- 
system, an essential condition for the safe exercise of 
that control. Accordingly, in 1867, the Viceroy, acting 
on instructions from Her Majesty's Secretary of State, 
ordered an account to be drawn up for each of the twelve 
great Provinces of India. 1 

^ The Provincial Governments struck out widely diver- 
gent schemes for conducting the work. It was as if a 
command had issued from some central power for a 
Statistical Survey of all Europe, and each nation set 
about its execution on a separate plan. It became 
apparent that vast sums of money would be expended, 
while considerable uncertainty existed as to the results. 
One local Government started on a scale which, if gene- 
rally adopted, would have involved an outlay of £100,000 
for the District materials alone. The head of another 
Province himself 2 carried out the work, expeditiously and 
at scarcely any cost to the State ; but on a system which, 
although admirably suited to the territories under his 
care, could not be applied to the rest of India. Mean- 
while, the commercial community and various public 
bodies were pressing upon the Government the necessity 
of systematic organization, with a view to ensure uni- 
formity in the execution of the work. Without such 
uniformity, the Council of the Asiatic .Society pointed 
out that, when the local compilations came to be finally 
digested into the General Account of India, there would 
be no basis for comparative statistics, and much ' of the 
original work would have to be gone over again de novo! 

1 These Provinces, or rather political divisions under separate admini- 
stration, were— (1) Bengal; (2) Bombay; (3) Madras; (4) The North- 
western Provinces and Oudh ; (5) The Punjab ; (6) Assam, in 1867 
included in Bengal ; (7) Central Provinces ; (8) British Burma ; (9) The 
Berars, under the Resident at Haidarabad ; (10) Mysore and Coorg ; 
(11) Rajputana; (12) Central India.— Orders of the Government of India, 
No. 1758, dated 19th October 1867. 

2 Mr. Alfred Lyall, C.B., of the Bengal Civil Service, then Commis- 
sioner of West Berar; now Sir Alfred Lyall, K.C.B., and Lieutenant- 
Governor of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. 


The Viceroy arrived at the same conclusion ; and in Renewed 
1869, His Excellency directed me to visit the various jggo ' 
Provincial Governments, with a view to ' submit a com- 
prehensive scheme for utilizing the information already . 
collected; for prescribing the principles ' to be thenceforth 
adopted ; ' and for the consolidation into one work of 
the whole of the materials that may be available.' 

In carrying out these instructions, I found that the Causes of 
series of previous efforts had failed from two distinct failures, 
causes. In one class of cases, a central officer of rank 
and ability had been appointed ; but he had not been 
supported by adequate machinery for collecting the 
local materials. In another class, the District Officers 
had been left to work each on his own plan, without the 
guidance of any single mind. The first class had failed 
from want of local organization ; the second, from want 
of central control. 1 The task set before me consisted, in Two stages 
fact, of two separate stages — First, a ' local inquiry,' con- WOT \ im 

1 The Governor-General in Council thus summed up the previous efforts, 
in a Resolution dated the 8th September 1S71 : 'Three distinct series of 
operations have in time past been undertaken or encouraged by the 
Government, with a view to obtaining trustworthy accounts of the country, 
such as might form a Gazetteer of India ; the whole representing a very 
large outlay, commencing as far back as 1769, and one of the efforts 
costing ^"30,000 for merely collecting the materials for part of a single 
Province. From a variety of causes, all more or less proceeding from 
defective organization, this large expenditure, while accumulating isolated 
materials of great value, failed to yield any systematic and comprehensive 
result.' The Resolution then reviewed the fresh operations ordered by the 
Secretary of State in 1867: 'Various schemes were set on foot to give 
effect to these orders, some of them so costly as to be altogether dispro- 
portionate to the results to be obtained. But His Excellency in Council 
observes that excessive costliness is not the only unfortunate effect of the 
want of organization, which left each local Government to invent a scheme 
of its own, irrespective of what was being done in other Provinces. There 
was, in fact, no unity of plan or central supervision, and the results did 
not contain the materials required for the comparative statistics of the 
Empire. . . . Widely different schemes have been propounded by the local 
administrations, some of them involving a very extravagant outlay, others 
of too meagre a character. Each local Government has given its own 
interpretation to the work ; and the experience of the last few year? 
shows that, in the absence of a central organization, the cost of the enter- 
prise will swell to an enormous total, while the same heterogeneous incom- 
pleteness, which rendered all previous efforts infructuous, will again result.' 
VOL. I. b 


ducted on a uniform scheme, throughout each of the [then] 
240 Districts, or administrative units, of British India : 
Second, the consolidation of the materials thus obtained 
into one book. The first stage could be effected only 
by a Statistical Survey of India ; the second is repre- 
sented by The Imperial Gazetteer. No basis existed at 
that time for either of these works. A Census had 
never been taken for British India ; and in some 
Provinces the different departments of the same Govern- 
ment grounded their financial and administrative de- 
mands on widely diverse estimates of the population. 
Plan for a Accordingly, in 1869,1 submitted to the Governor- 
Sm-vJy^ 1 General in Council a Plan for a Statistical Survey and 
and an an Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1 It endeavoured, First. 

Imperial r 

Gazetteer, to eliminate the causes of previous failures, by providing 
a uniform scheme, a local mechanism, and a central con- 
Its objects, trol. Second, to clearly define the objects of the present 
undertaking. These objects were partly of an admini- 
strative and partly of a general character ; namely, ' for 
the use of the Controlling Body in England, of admini- 
strators in India, and of the public.' Third, to secure the 
co-operation of the Provincial Governments, — lukewarm 
heretofore in such matters, — by respecting their indi- 
viduality, and by modifying the uniform scheme to suit 
the circumstances of their several Provinces. Fourth, 
to collect the materials at once systematically and 
cheaply, by enlisting the unpaid agency of the District 
Officers throughout India under a central control. The 
Government was pleased to approve of this Plan, and 
to 'secure for the execution of the design the super- 
vision of the designer.' 2 
Extent ' The operations,' wrote the Governor- General in 

operations. Council, ' will extend over ten separate Governments 
which, with their Feudatory States, administer a terri- 
tory of 1 \ million square miles and govern a popula- 

1 Printed at the Home Secretariat Press, 144 pp. folio. Calcutta, 1870. 

2 Proceedings of the Government of India, dated 8th September 1S71. 


tion estimated at 200 million souls [since found to be 255 
millions]. The work represents, therefore, a series of 
local inquiries and comparative statistics, spread over 
an area but little less than that of all Europe, ex- 
cepting Russia/ and a population then exceeding that 
of all Europe, less Russia. With a view to securing Median • 

. , T . . . ism of the 

uniformity in the materials, I drew up six series statistical 
of leading questions, 1 illustrating the topographical, Survey, 
ethnical, agricultural, industrial, administrative, and 
medical aspects of an Indian District. These have 
served as a basis for the Statistical Survey throughout 
all India. With a view to securing punctuality of 
execution, Provincial Compilers were appointed, each 
responsible for getting in the returns from the District 
Officers within the territories assigned to him ; for sup- 
plementing those returns by information from heads of 
Departments and other local sources ; and for working 
up the results into the Statistical Account or Gazetteer 
of the Province. In this way, the unpaid co-operation 
of the administrative staff throughout the 240 Districts 
of India was enlisted, the best local knowledge was 
brought to bear, while in each Province a paid editor Its 
was answerable for the completion of the Provincial working. 
Account on a uniform plan and within a reasonable 
time. The supervision of the whole rested with me, 
as Director-General of Statistics to the Government 
of India. During one-half of each year, I visited the 
various Provinces, especially Bengal, which I retained 
in my own hands as Provincial Editor in addition to 
my duties as Director-General. The other half of each 
year, I devoted to testing and working up the results. 

During the past twelve years, the Statistical Survey The 
has been conducted throughout the whole of British survey of 
India. The District forms the administrative unit in India - 
India, and the Statistical Survey furnishes an elabo- 

1 Circulated to the Provincial Governments, under the title of ' Heads of 
Information required for the Imperial Gazetteer.' 



The ioo 
of the 
Survey ; 



rate account of each of the 240 Districts. The Pro- 
vince is the administrative whole in India, and the 
Statistical Survey groups all the District materials 
into fifteen Provincial Accounts or Gazetteers. Such 
a work, if it is to furnish a basis for administrative 
action in India, and supply data to the Controlling 
Body in England, must be at once comprehensive 
and minute. The District and Provincial Accounts 
will form about 120 printed volumes, aggregating 50,000 
pages, of which 90 volumes, making over 32,000 pages, 
were issued by 1880. The operations have (1881) 
been completed throughout 12 Provinces and 210 Dis- 
tricts, representing a population of about 190 millions 
of souls. 

The Statistical Survey of British India (18S1). 

N T u mber 

V ols. 

and Pages 

Area in 










1. 1E81. 




1. Bengal, . . . 






W. W. Hunter, C.S.I 

2. Assam, . . . 

53,S 5 6 





W. W. Hunter, C.S.I. 

3. North-Western 
Provinces, . 

V 86,528 





(E. T. Atkinson, Esq 
-(A. C Tupp, Esq. 
(H. Conybeare, Esq. 

4. Punjab, . . . 






E. J. Cunningham 

fC. M'Minn, Esq. 
(Dr. Selons. 

5. Oudh, . . . 






6. Central Pro- 

vinces, . . 






Sir C Grant, K. C.S.I. 

7. Bombay, ) 

8. Mud, ) 

39'. 832 





(J. M. Campbell, Esq. 
(A. W. Hughes, Esq. 

9. Madras, . . 






The District Officers 

10. Berar, . . 







11. Mysore, . . 






L. Rice, Esq. 

12. Coorg, . . . 






L. Rice, Esq. 

13. British Burnn, 






Captain Spearman. 

14. Ajmere and 

Mhairwara, . 


39",88 9 




T. D. La Touche, Esq. 

15. Aden, . . . 
Total, . . 


2?, 722 




Capt. F. M. Hunter. 






Note. — The area and population include Native States under the administration of the 
Provincial Governments. The number of Districts is taken from the Parliamentary Abstract 
for 1877, except that Aden is added, and the number for Bengal is reckoned at 47, being the 
actual number of Districts dealt with in the Statistical Account of Bengal. Slight altera- 
tions have since been made : but the figures will remain substantially the same, till the 
results of the new Census are known. Mysore was returned to Native Rule in 1SS1. 


[Since the foregoing table was prepared in 1 88 1, the 
Statistical Survey of British India has been completed 
in 119 volumes, aggregating 54,504 pages (1885).] 

The Feudatory States and Chiefdoms, exceeding 300 Statistical 
in number, with 50 millions of people, were from the first ^Native* 
placed outside the scope of the Statistical Survey. In Statcs - 
these territories it was unsuitable to attempt minute 
investigations, which the native princes would have been 
likely to misunderstand, and able to frustrate. Accord- 
ingly, my Plan of 1869 restricted the Statistical Survey 
to the British territories, but pointed out that the 
Native States must be included in the ultimate compila- 
tion for all India, that is, the Imperial Gazetteer. Steps 
were therefore taken to bring together the information 
already existing regarding the Native States, and to 
supplement it. In States temporarily under British man- Excep- 
agement, this was quite practicable ; and Major Powlett's l °™ r _ 
account of Alwar supplies an admirable specimen of tumties - 
what may be done under these circumstances. 

Apart from such exceptional cases, I found that the Five great 
300 Native States of India had to be dealt with in stated! 
five great groups. The first and most numerous class 
comprised the States and Chiefdoms which are in 
political dependence on the Provincial Governments. 
These States have accepted a large measure of British 
supervision, and the Provincial Compilers were able to 
draw up fairly adequate accounts of them. The second 
group consisted of the Rajputana States; and two 
valuable volumes have been collected regarding them by How dealt 
Mr. Lyall (now Sir Alfred Lyall, K.C.B.) when Governor- separately. 
General's Agent. 1 For the third group, including the 
Central India States, I did not find myself in a position 
to bring forward specific proposals ; and in the case 
of several of them, this book will add but little to 
the sum of human knowledge. In the fourth group, 
or the territories of the Nizam, efforts were made at an 

1 The Rajputana Gazetteer, 1879-80. 

early stage to obtain the necessary materials from His 


i F - ro l\ tier Highness' Government. The fifth group consisted of 

Frontier and Independent States, such as Afghanistan, 
Burma, and Nepal. Some account of such States would 
be expected in the Imperial Gazetteer of India. But 
any account of them, drawn up from official sources and 
issued under the authority of the British Government, 
might give rise to uneasiness among the Princes who 
rule those territories, our neighbours and allies. After 
full consideration, it was decided that no special inquiry 
should be made with regard to trans-frontier Indepen- 
dent Kingdoms, and that no official documents should 
be used. The articles upon them in the Imperial 
Gazetteer are, accordingly, a mere reproduction of 
accounts already before the public ; and for them no 
responsibility attaches to the Government. 
Median- Of the five groups of Native States, therefore, the 
ployed "for ^ rst was satisfactorily dealt with by means of the Pro- 
the Native v i nc i a i Compilers ; the fifth can scarcely be said to have 
been dealt with at all. In the three intermediate groups, 
many isolated efforts were made, and a special Assistant 
was deputed to me in the Foreign Office, Calcutta, with 
a view to putting together the materials already exist- 
ing. His labours were afterwards supplemented in the 
Political Department of the India Office. But the con- 
Its imper- fidential relationship between the Government of India 
and its Feudatory States, the dislike of the native Princes 
to inquiries of a social or economic character, and the 
scrupulous delicacy of the Foreign Office to avoid 
grounds of offence, have rendered a complete treatment 
of such territories impossible. I beg that those who use 
this book will believe that the occasional meagreness 
of the results, and the inadequate treatment of certain 
Native States, are due not to want of anxious effort on 
my part, but to the conditions under which I worked. 
In some cases I have had to fall back on the old 
materials compiled, at the expense of the Court of 

feet results. 


Directors, by Mr. Edward Thornton in the India House, 
and published by their authority, in four volumes, in 
1854. 1 As a whole, therefore, the articles on the Native 
States represent a much less exact method of inquiry 
than those on the British Provinces. They will be found, 
however, to mark a material advance in our information 
regarding Feudatory India. The basis for more system- NoStatist'. 
atic operations, a Census of the Feudatory Territories, ^Survey 

r * * of .Native 

docs not exist ; and a Statistical Survey of the Native States. 
States still remains unattempted. 

[Including the less exact work thus done for the 
Native States, the results of the Statistical Survey of 
British and Feudatory India, now (1886) make 128 
printed volumes, aggregating 60,000 pages.] 

The two primary objects of the operations were The three 
' for the use of Indian administrators,' and ' for the the^ork : 
use of the Controlling Body in England.' The 128 
volumes of the Statistical Survey were expressly com- 
piled for these purposes ; and of the twelve years 
which have elapsed since its commencement, the first (1) For 
eight were devoted to that part of the work. But^hS 
these 128 volumes, although by no means too elaborate strat01> : 
for administrative requirements, are practically within (2) For 
the reach of but a small official class. The third trolling * 
object of the undertaking had been defined in my ^J "J . 
original Plan, to be 'for the use of the public ;' (3) For the 
and the remaining four years of the twelve have been pu 
chiefly occupied in reducing the voluminous records 
of the Statistical Survey to a practicable size for 
general reference. The result is now presented in 
the nine volumes of The Imperial Gazetteer. 

1 Under the title of A Gazetteer of the Territories under the East India 
Company and of the Native States on the Continent of India. (4 volumes.) 
This work, excellent at its date, was compiled between the years 1844 and 
1854; Mr. Thornton being paid a sum of money by the Court of 
Directors in addition to his salary, • it being distinctly understood that the 
copyright is to vest in the East India Company' {Resolution of the Court 
of Directors, \%th February 1846). 



steps in 




■ chance 

List of 

The first 
of the kind 
for India. 

System of 

Previous Gazetteers had described, with industry and 
sometimes with eloquence, the famous cities of India, 
its historical sites, and great Provinces. But in the 
absence of systematic materials, they had to depend 
on the chance topography of tourists, or on a place 
happening to find its way into the records of the 
India House. A petty hamlet in which some traveller 
had halted for a night, or any locality which had formed 
the subject of a correspondence with the Court of 
Directors, stood out in bold relief; while great tracts 
and rivers, or the most important features of large 
Provinces, were passed over without a word. My 
first business, therefore, was to take care that every 
place which deserved mention should be enumerated ; 
my second, to see that it received neither less nor 
more space than its relative importance demanded. 
With a view to the first object, I sent circulars to 
the Provincial Editors and District Officers, calling for 
a return, upon clearly-stated principles, of every town, 
river, mountain, historic site, religious resort, commer- 
cial fair, harbour, or other place of importance in each 
District of British India. This list I checked from 
the Statistical Survey, and supplemented with many 
places which, although of no local significance, had 
obtained prominence in the literature of India. 
Eleven thousand names were thus arranged in alpha- 
betical order. No such list had ever before been com- 
piled for Her Majesty's Indian Empire. After being 
thinned out, it was printed in a folio volume, and for- 
warded to all the Local Governments in India, with a 
request that they would ascertain that the enumera- 
tion was correct as regards the territories under their 
care. I finally revised the list by the light of their sug- 
gestions, and selected about 8000 places for treatment 
in the Imperial Gazetteer. 

During the interval which elapsed before their 
replies could be received, I drew up model articles 


showing paragraph by paragraph the method of treat- 
ment ; and I got together the missing materials for 
Provinces where the Statistical Survey had not suffi- 
ciently advanced to yield them. In this way, I placed in Model 
the hand of each contributor to The Imperial Gazetteer 
the names of the places of which he was to treat, 
together with the complete materials for dealing with 
them, and also an exact mould into which those 
materials were to be squeezed. 

The value of the work, as a guide to administration, Defects of 
is impaired by the fact that its figures cannot be as an r ' 
brought up to date. The basis of Indian statistics Admini - 

° r strative 

is still the Census of 1872, taken a few months after Guide- 

t-v- r* 1 11/-- book. 

my appointment as Director-General ; and the Govern- 
ment has decided that the publication of the Gazetteer 
must not be delayed, with a view to obtaining the 
results of the new Census of 188 1. Even the Census of 
1872 does not supply a uniform basis for the whole 
of India ; and in certain Provinces I have had to 
work on enumerations taken in 1867, 1868, 1869, 
and 1 87 1. Much labour has been expended in bringing 
up the economic statistics to a more recent date, with 
the help of Administration Reports, and by special 
inquiries. But the length of time necessarily occupied 
by a Statistical Survey of a Continent, nearly equal 
to all Europe less Russia, rendered it inevitable that 
the results should refer to different years during its pro- 
gress. My figures represent substantially the population Period to 
statistics of India in 1872, with the administrative and ^atTsdcs 6 
trade statistics from 1875 to 1879. ^ n some cases, even refer - 
this degree of uniformity has not been found practi- 
cable ; in others, I have brought the facts down to 18S0. 
But the reduction of the statistics of India to a uniform 
basis must be deferred for a second edition, after the 
results of the new Census are obtained. 

In its other aspect, as a book for general reference, the 



Its defects 
as a general 

in history. 

The true 
history of 

Where it 

is to be 

Imperial Gazetteer is also less perfect than I could have 
wished in several points. The Governor-General in 
Council found that the task of collecting the admini- 
strative materials and statistics would prove a burden 
quite as heavy as he deemed expedient to lay upon 
the Local Governments. The historical aspects were 
expressly left to the voluntary research of the Provincial 
compilers. From the first, one of the Local Govern- 
ments objected even to this moderate scope being 
allowed for matters not directly of an official character. 
The emphasis which the Governor-General in Council 
laid in 1875 on the responsibilities of the Provincial 
Governments for the tone and contents of the work, 
seemed to several of them to render general disquisitions 
unsuitable. Even in the Provinces of Bengal and 
Assam, which I retained in my own hands as Provincial 
Editor, every sheet had to receive the sanction of the 
Local Government before it was printed off. Many 
topics of social or political interest were excluded ; and a 
general introductory volume, after being in part printed, 
was not issued. 

But if the history of India is ever to be anything 
more than a record of conquest and crime, it must be 
sought for among the people themselves. Valuable 
historical materials had been collected for the Statistical 
Survey; and in 1877, the Secretary of State for India 
decided that a wider scope should be allowed me for their 
use in the Imperial Gazetteer. I have done my best to 
give effect to that view ; and it will be seen, for the first 
time in these volumes, that every Indian District has its 
own history. The true territorial unit of Indian history 
is, indeed, much smaller than the British District. For 
example, he who would study the history of Oudh must 
search for it in the pargand or parish; in other parts of 
India, the zaminddri or estate is the historical unit ; in 
others, the chiefship ; while in a few, the rural districts 
were mere appendages to the great cities. Had it been 


permitted me to subject the rural annals of India to 
systematic inquiry, as I wished, a rich harvest would have 
been gathered in. The historical accumulations made 
by the wayside, in conducting the Statistical Survey, 
have proved of much value. But in attempting to 
incorporate them into the Imperial Gazetteer, I have Some 
had frequently to choose between using materials which, jjUJd^ 
owing to the earlier instructions, I had been unable to 
test ; or rejecting statements, in themselves new and 
interesting, but which, in the later stages of the work, I 
could not personally verify. 

The latitudes and longitudes have, with a few excep- Geo- 
tions, been revised by the Surveyor-General's Depart- dSails^ 
ment. 1 I have to thank General Sir H. Thuillier for 
many years of friendly help, and Colonel J. T. Walker 
for more recent assistance, in the geographical details. 
Areas, distances, and similar details have been taken 
from the latest scientific measurements ; but the 
frequent changes in the jurisdiction of Indian Dis- 
tricts introduce an element of variation difficult to 
eliminate. In some cases, averages will not work out Element- 
correctly, as in the rates of local taxation per head, of error- 
where the municipal area often differs from the town 
area taken for the census. In other instances, the 
items will not add up; as in certain Districts where the 
religious classification of the people does not yield the 
exact total arrived at by the general enumeration. There 
are not very many discrepancies of this sort, and no 
labour has been spared to get rid of them. But in several 
cases I cannot go beyond the figures supplied to me by 

1 The longitudes require a constant correction of minus 2h minutes 
( — o° 2' 30') to reduce them from the adopted value of 8o° 17' 21' for the 
longitude of the Madras Observatory, on which they have been based, to 
the value of 8o° 14' 51', which was determined electro-telegraphically in 
1876-77. It is not improbable that some further minute correction may 
be hereafter made ; and the Surveyor-General has deemed it undesirable 
that the values of all the individual longitudes should be altered, until the 
final determination has been arrived at. 



the local authorities; and although I may see that there 
is something wrong, I am unable to set it right. I beg 
that those who may come after me will, in improving 
on my work, remember the conditions under which it 
has been done. When it was begun, no one knew 
exactly the population of a single Province of India, or of 
a single District of Bengal. In the latter Province alone, 
the Census of 1872 suddenly disclosed the presence of 22 
millions of British subjects whose existence had never 
previously been suspected. The population of Bengal 
and Assam, up to that time reckoned at 40 millions, 
was ascertained in 1872 to number 6j\ millions of souls. 

Spelling o 

of trans- 

f The spelling of names of Indian places has long 
formed a subject of controversy. Without a uniform 
system of rendering them, an alphabetical Gazetteer 
could not start ; and one of my first duties was to lay 
down a system for transliterating Indian Proper Names. 
In existing Gazetteers of India, the same word appears 
under many forms. The best work of this class gives 
eleven different spellings of the same town, not one of 
which is exactly correct ; and in order to be sure of 
finding a place, the inquirer has to look it up under every 
possible disguise. The truth is, it requires a careful 
study of the vernacular languages of India, and some 
knowledge of Sanskrit, which forms the key to them, 
before one is able to spell local names correctly in the 
native alphabets. It next requires a well-considered 
system of transliteration in order to render such names 
into the English character. For it must be remembered 
that the Sanskrit alphabet has fifty letters or signs, while 
the English alphabet has only twenty-six. Thus, the 
Roman alphabet has but one letter for the consonant 
11; the Sanskrit has four letters for it, in its various 
modifications, as a dental, lingual, palatal, and guttural. 
On the other hand, the Indian alphabets attach a 
uniform sound to each vowel ; while in English, the same 


vowel may have several sounds, such as u in but, put, 
curc\ rural. Indian names can therefore be represented 
only in a loose and popular manner in our alphabet ; 
unless, indeed, we manufacture a new Roman alphabet 
with additional letters, by means of accents over the 
vowels, dots under the consonants, italics, or similar 
devices of typography. 

A recognition of this fundamental difficulty should System 

. adopted 

make an Indian spelling-reformer moderate in his aims i n this 
and patient of opposition. I first collected about 15,000 w 
names of places, written out by competent natives in the 
vernacular character; and transliterated them accurately 
on the method adopted by the Royal Asiatic Society. 
But the multitude of accented vowels and dotted con- 
sonants convinced me that such precision was im- 
practicable for popular use. I therefore re-transliterated 
them on a more simple system, discarding dotted 
consonants altogether, using as few accents as possible 
over the vowels, and abstaining from liberties with the 
alphabet which would give it an un-English look, and 
perplex the ordinary reader. My object was, not to 
write a paper for the Asiatic Society's Journal, but to lay 
down a uniform system which might afford a practical 
settlement of the long dispute about Indian orthography, 
by being adopted by all fairly educated men. 

The task was complicated by the circumstance that Difficulties 

1 of the 

three systems had co-existed during nearly a century, task. 
For two of the rivals a good case might be made 
out. Popular usage had drawn at random from all 
three, and a number of important places had thus 
obtained an historical or literary fixity of spelling. Well- 
known names of this last class, when transliterated in 
an unwonted fashion, or by a rival method, had a strange 
look, which afforded scope for pleasantries. Yet one 
system had to be accepted and resolutely adhered to. 
The method which I have adopted does not attempt 
to represent the fine distinctions of the Sanskrit con- 


sonants, such as the dental and lingual d. But it 

TOwJS rm attaches a uniform value to each vowel, namely, a and 

sounds. u as in rural ; e as in grey, mediant ; and i and o as in 

police. The accented d t i, and *£ represent the long 

forms of the same vowels in Sanskrit, or the sounds in 

the English words far, pier, and lure. 

with" Some Indian names, however, have grown so familiar 

historical as to render a rectification of their spelling impracticable. 

spelling. Such names have been considerately dealt with. I 

found that they arranged themselves under two classes. 

In the first class, the popular or historical fixity of 

spelling had so hardened and set as to preclude any 

alteration whatever; thus, Calcutta, Madras, and 

Bombay. In the second class, it was possible to bring 

the spelling somewhat nearer to the uniform system, 

without destroying the historical or popular identity of 

the word. For example, the multiform terminal pur, 

pore, poor, poore, a city, might be uniformly given in its 

correct Hindi form as pur, even if the body of the word 

could not be rectified; while the similar termination 

nagar, nagore, Hugger, nuggur, naggore, etc., a town, 

might be uniformly rendered nagar. Such a system, 

like all compromises, was open to the strictures of both 

the extreme parties— of the scrupulous purists on the 

one hand, and of the obstinate upholders of the old 

confused spelling on the other. It commended itself 

to the intermediate body of reasonable men. The 

Government of India, in 1870, accordingly promulgated 

my system of transliteration in the Official Gazette, and 

formally authorized its adoption. 

Introduc- It remained to organize machinery for enforcing- its 

tionofthe , « , „ , b 

system. general use. Several of the leading Indian journals 
expressed their willingness to adopt a uniform system 
of spelling which presented no typographical difficulties. 
Up to that time, the same place used to appear under 
diverse forms in the different newspapers, and was 


often variously rendered in different columns of the 
same journal. A printed volume containing the correct 
spelling of all Indian places was circulated to the Press, 
to literary institutions, libraries, publishing houses, and 
to the official Departments. But the chief sources from 
which Indian news is derived, and from which Indian 
orthography emanates, are the Government Gazettes and 
Administration Reports. The official Gazettes in India The new 
give much of the information which in England would adopted for 
be communicated by Her Majesty's Ministers to p" b °?!£ al 
Parliament. Each Provincial Government has its own lions - 
set of Reports and its own Gazette — the latter some- 
times swelling into a weekly folio of over a hundred 
pages, filled with State papers. The Governor-General 
requested each of the Provincial Governments to 
draw up a list of places within its own territories, 
spelt on my system. These lists, after receiving his 
sanction, were to be published in the Gazettes, and to 
be thenceforth adopted in them and all other official 

The Provincial Governments carried out the principles Provincial 

. , . . r . r lists re- 

of transliteration with varying degrees of uniformity, v i se d by 
and took widely different views as to the number ofg^* e ™f 
names which had obtained a popular fixity of spelling, men* of 


This was inevitable ; and the Governor - General in 
Council, in revising the lists, endeavoured to remove 
divergences and to attain the maximum degree of 
uniformity. Owing to the number of languages and 
alphabets used in India, the work extended over nearly 
ten years. The Provincial Governments have been 
induced to reconsider their first efforts ; and in each 
new edition, they have approached more closely to the 
lines originally laid down. In one Presidency, indeed, 
the latest revision has advanced beyond the limits of 
accuracy which I had thought practicable. Throughout 
India, every year sees the uniform system of spelling 
more generally introduced ; it has been accepted in the 


Parliamentary blue-books at home, and is irresistibly 
forcing its way into the English press. 
Spelling Meanwhile, the Imperial Gazetteer had to march on. 

Imperial The Government decided that the publication of the 
Gazetteer. w j 10 i e WO rk should not, in any circumstances, be delayed 
beyond the year 18S1. The proof sheets had to pass 
under the revision of the Secretary of State in Council ; 
and most of them were, accordingly, printed in 1879 
and 18S0. I therefore did my best to arrive at the true 
spelling of each name, starting from my own lists in 
the vernacular character, and usually accepting the Pro- 
vincial lists as drawn up by the Local Governments, 
when they arrived in time ; although not delaying the 
work by waiting for their final revision. 
Provincial It sometimes happened that adjoining Governments 
adopted different renderings for the same word, such as 
a river or a border district ; while each Government 
introduced variations in revised editions of its own 
list. If an attempt were made to introduce a uniform 
system of spelling proper names for all Europe, similar 
delays and difficulties would arise. It must be remem- 
No bered, too, that India has no common alphabet, like the 

alphabet Roman alphabet in Europe, but a variety of local 
in India. cnarac ters, which render the same word by different 

Thus, apart from the difficulty of dental and lingual 
forms ; the commonest of all terminals, pur, a town, 
is spelt with a short 2t in Hindi and by most of the 
Sanskrit family of alphabets, and with a long 11 in the 
Urdu alphabet, derived from Arabic sources. Dialectal 
Dialectal variations also play a confusing part ; a universal 
place-name like Sivapur or Shivapur, being hardened 
into Sibpur in Bengal, and softened into Hiwapur in 
the adjoining Province of Assam. It will therefore be 
possible to discover instances in which the rendering of 
a name in the Imperial Gazetteer differs from that 
ultimately sanctioned by the Government of India. 



But candid inquirers will, I hope, find the degree i f 
uniformity which has been arrived at by the Provincial 
Governments and myself, more surprising than the 
occasional variations. 

I must not let this work pass from my hands without Acknow- 
cxprcssing my sincere thanks for the help which I 
have so liberally received in its preparation. It has 
been officially described as the only example of a 
national undertaking of the sort, being carried out 
under the uninterrupted direction of one mind, from 
the initial District Survey to the final alphabetical 
compilation in a Gazetteer. But such merits as it may 
be found to possess, are due in large measure to the 
zealous and friendly help of my fellow-workers. I feel Thanks 
especially grateful to the District Officers throughout District 
India who have supplied the local materials. On their 0fficers ; 
unselfish labours the fabric of this work, as, indeed, 
of the whole Indian administration, rests. The Pro- to the 

o • • c- Provincial 

vincial Compilers of the Statistical Survey, enumerated on Compilers. 
page xii., have also my sincere thanks. In particular, the 
volumes of Mr. Atkinson on the North- Western Provinces; 
of Mr. Campbell on the Bombay Presidency ; and of Mr. 
Rice on Mysore, form models of administrative research. 
Mr. Hughes' work on Sind also deserves high praise. 

The condensation of the Statistical Survey of the Pro- 
vinces into The Imperial Gazetteer has been conducted 
chiefly in England, where the cost of literary work is much 
less than in India. In that task I have had, at intervals, 
the aid of Mr. H. P. Piatt, Fellow of Lincoln College ; Thanks 
Major - General J. Clarke, formerly Commissioner in coadjutors 
Oudh ; Mr. J. S. Cotton, late Fellow and Lecturer at £ n ^ ng " 
Queen's College, Oxford ; Mr. Grant Allen, late of 
Merton College, Oxford ; Miss Alice Betham (now 
Mrs. Mackenzie), sometime Acting Tutor of Girton Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; Miss Margaret Robertson ; Mr. G. 
Barclay, M.A. ; the Rev. E. Cunningham, M.A. ; Mr. 

VOL. I. C 



to former 



Philip Robinson, late Professor of History in the Govern- 
ment College, Allahabad. I shall ever look back with 
pleasure to my connection with this able and friendly 
body of fellow-workers. To Mr. Cotton, and to Mr. 
Charles Dollman who has been my assistant throughout, 
I owe in a special manner my thanks. 

Apart from the literary compilation, I have endea- 
voured to bring the best practical knowledge to bear 
upon the revision of the work. My obligations in 
this respect to distinguished Indian Administrators are 
too numerous to be specifically detailed. But I desire 
particularly to thank Sir William Muir, formerly Lieu- 
tenant - Governor of the North-Western Provinces, for 
his kind revision of the article on those territories ; Sir 
William Robinson, sometime Acting Governor of Madras, 
for his contributions to articles on that Presidency, 
and for his untiring friendly help ; Sir Robert Mont- 
gomery and Sir Henry Davies, sometime Lieutenant- 
Governors of the Punjab ; Mr. Lewin Bowring, C.B., 
sometime Chief Commissioner of Mysore ; and General 
Fytche, C.S.I., sometime Chief Commissioner of British 
Burma, for their personal contributions to, or revisions 
of, the articles on the Provinces which they formerly 
ruled. Mr. J. H. Batten, sometime Commissioner of 
Kumaun and Garhwal, supplied in chief part the articles 
on these Districts. Many other retired administrators 
have, in like manner, enriched my materials with mono- 
graphs on the territories in which their life's work was 
done. In each of the principal articles, I have tried to 
get the sheets revised by the person with the largest 
administrative experience of the Presidency or Province. 
To Colonel Yule, C.B., the editor of Marco Polo, I am 
indebted for scholarly and most generous aid in all 
articles which deal with the mediaeval history of India. 

A separate Archaeological Survey is now at work in 
India ; but only a very small portion of its results 
reached me in time to be incorporated into the Imperial 


Gazetteer. The existence of that Survey precluded me Why 
from independent researches within its jurisdiction. I 
hope, therefore, that the next edition of this work will 
deal more fully and accurately with Indian antiquities 
than it has been in my power to do. But the reader will 
find how deeply my pages are indebted to the Reports 
already issued by General Cunningham, the head of the 
Archaeological Survey ; and to Dr. Burgess, the Archaeo- 
logical Surveyor for Western India. Mr. W. Recs 
Philipps has assisted me in the revision of the Madras 
articles, and supplied interesting materials regarding 
the Christian population. Mr. Buchan, the secretary 
to the Royal Scottish Meteorological Society, kindly 
revised the section of article INDIA which deals with his 
branch of science. My obligations to other friends, too 
numerous to enumerate here, are mentioned in the body 
of the work. Finally, I beg to tender my thanks to 
their Excellencies the Viceroy of Portuguese India, and 
the Governor-General of French India, for their courtesy 
to me while visiting their territories ; and for materials 
placed at my disposal by the chiefs of their respective 

I cannot close these acknowledgments without re- Revision 
cording my sense of the fairness with which I have L oca i 
invariably been treated by the Governments that have j^^' n ~ 
had to supervise the work. Twelve years ago, I laid 
down the conditions which I regarded as essential for 
the right conduct of the enterprise, and on which I was 
willing to undertake it. Very deliberately, indeed not 
till two years afterwards, were those conditions accepted 
by the Supreme Government of India of that day. But 
it attached to them a proviso that each of the Local 
Governments should be responsible for the general 
scope and contents of the Provincial Accounts of its own 
territories ; and the Secretary of State accepted a similar 
responsibility in regard to the final compilation of The 
Imperial Gazetteer. 





of the 


The diffi- 
culties of 

the situa- 

The result was that, as already stated, every page of 
the twenty volumes of the Account of Bengal had to 
be passed by the Government of that Province, and 
every sheet of The Imperial Gazetteer has been sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of State. But during the 
progress of the work, the personnel of the Local Govern- 
ments has changed over and over again. More than 
thirty Governors or heads of administrations have ruled 
the Indian Provinces, while four successive Viceroys 
and four Secretaries of State have directed the Indian 
Empire. Some of these great functionaries have held 
decided opinions of their own on many important 
questions which arose in the conduct of the opera- 
tions. The work, therefore, is the result of several 
not perfectly parallel forces. On the one hand, there 
was myself with a staff of fellow - workers, anxious 
to adhere to the Plan as originally laid down : on 
the other hand, there were a number of shifting 
Governments, local and central, some of them divergent 
in their views, and any one of them able to render my 
position difficult, and even, for a time, to impede the 

The delicacy of the situation was enhanced by the 
circumstance, that many points had to be decided in 
my absence from the head-quarters of the Government 
of India. From the first, during half of each year I was 
visiting the Local Governments, or on circuit through the 
Provinces ; latterly, I have been in England for con- 
siderable periods, while compiling the Imperial Gazetteer. 
I have to thank the Indian Governments, not only for 
the patience with which they have always listened to 
my views, but for the courteous reconsideration of 
decisions which they had arrived at in my absence. I 
undertook to see the work to an end, and I was placed 
in the best position for doing so. I have been enabled 
to examine the various Provinces of India with my own 
eyes, to study their local circumstances, and to travel 


over fifty thousand miles by every means of civilised 
and uncivilised transport. 

If I have brought to a successful issue an enterprise in 
which abler men had failed, it is due to the support 
which I have thus received. The Governor-General in 
Council, or the Secretary of State, might at any time 
have simply ordered me to adopt the methods or 
measures which seemed to him best. Yet not only has 
there never been a single occasion during the twelve 
years in which commands have thus been substituted Those 
for argument ; but orders, passed after full deliberation, success- 
have been modified or rescinded to suit what I believed ^ ted 
to be the requirements of the work. No revision by 
the Indian Government could take the primary responsi- 
bility off myself. This has been generously recognised 
throughout ; and the double supervision has never been 
permitted to give rise to a strain in the conduct of the 
undertaking. Whatever blemishes or deficiencies may 
be found in these volumes are due, therefore, not to the 
difficult double system of responsibility imposed by the 
Government, but to my own self, or to the fundamental 
conditions under which statistical inquiries have to be 
conducted in India. 

Now that the twelve years' work is over, and nothing The 

can be added or taken away, I feel those blemishes and survey of 

deficiencies acutely enough. When I started, I had J n ^ p> 

two national enterprises in my mind : the Ain-i-Akbari, 

or statistical survey of India, conducted three hundred 

years ago by the Finance Minister of Akbar, the greatest 

of Mughal Emperors ; and the military survey of 

E^ypt, executed by France in the first quarter of the The 

b/F ' , J l -French 

present century. 1 The former is a masterpiece ot survey of 

1 Description de L'Egypte, ou recueil des observations et des recherches i^>->- 
qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant l'expedition de l'armee Francaise. 
(36 volumes, 1821.) Twenty-one years were given to this magnificent 
work, four of them being devoted to local inquiries at the time of the 
military occupation, and seventeen being spent in working up the results. 


administrative detail ; the latter a brilliant effort of 

organized research. It was my hope, and the wish of 

the Viceroy — now, alas ! gone from this world — who most 

deeply impressed his personality on the undertaking, to 

make a memorial of England's work in India, more 

lasting, because truer and more complete, than these 

monuments of Mughal Empire and of French ambition. 

Separate The scientific aspects of the country, its fauna, flora, and 

Surveys of geology, already form the subject of elaborate volumes. 

India. For the mQst j m p 0rtant f them, such as the fishes, 

botany, geology, meteorology, and medical aspects of 
India, special Surveys or Departments exist. It would 
have been improper for me to intrude upon the ground 
so ably occupied. I have therefore confined myself on 
these heads to brief but careful sketches, such as might 
be useful to practical administrators, and referred the 
scientific inquirer to the separate standard works, or to 
the publications of the professional Indian Surveys. 
The work I have ever borne in mind that the work has been 
by India; paid for by the Indian people, and that it was primarily 
designed as an aid to the better government of their 
and for its country. Since the authority passed from the Company 
to the Crown, fundamental changes have taken place 
alike in the central control and in the local ad- 
ministration. As already mentioned, the transfer of 
the controlling power from the Court of Directors, a 
small body with special knowledge of the country, to 
Parliament, an assembly whose members have had for 
the most part no opportunity of studying Indian affairs, 
caused the necessity for a standard account of India 

' La France,' says the preface, after setting forth the brilliant and nume- 
rous staff of savants who took part in the survey, ' avait reuni tous ses 
efforts pour la conquete de cette contree ; tous les efforts des arts ont ete 
employes pour sa description.' The area dealt with was only a fraction of 
that now covered by the Statistical Survey of India ; the cost of the operations 
was many times as great. The results were sumptuously published under 
an Ordonnance du Roi, dated 1820, and dedicated to His Majesty Louis 
xviii., in 25 volumes of letterpress and 11 double folios of maps and 


to be more keenly felt. No book exists, sufficiently 
accurate and sufficiently comprehensive, to be generally 
accepted as a work of reference. Contradictory asser- 
tions can therefore be safely hazarded on almost every 
point of Indian statistics ; and Indian discussions com- 
monly lose themselves in a wilderness of irrelevant 

But if a standard account of India is required for Altered 
the Controlling Body in England, the altered con- f i n dian 

ditions of Indian service have rendered such a work Govern- 
ment ; 

still more necessary for the local administrators. The 
Company's servants accepted India as their home, and 
generally remained a long time in one District. But 
under the beneficent policy of the Queen's Proclama- 
tion, the natives of India every year engross a larger 
share of the actual government. The English ad- 
ministrators are accepting their ultimate position as 
a small and highly -mobilised superintending staff. 
They are shifted more rapidly from District to District ; provided 
and the new system of furlough, with a view to Jq Y ^ 
keeping them at the utmost efficiency, encourages 
them to take their holidays at short intervals of four 
years, instead of granting long periods of idleness 
once or twice in a quarter of a century's service. 
They have not the same opportunities for slowly 
accumulating personal knowledge of one locality ; on 
the other hand, their energies are not allowed to be 
eaten away by rust. An officer, who had spent a dozen 
years in one District, might have little to learn from a 
printed account of it ; but to the present generation 
of quickly changed 'officiating' functionaries, such a 
work is indispensable. 

The thanks, gazetted and private, of the Provincial Conclu- 

r Slon * 

Governments prove that the Statistical Survey has ful- 
filled this its primary design in India. I hope that The 
Imperial Gazetteer will be found to answer the same 
purpose for the Controlling Body in Parliament, and the 


English public. It furnishes, for the first time, an account 
of India based upon a personal survey of the country, and 
upon an actual enumeration of the people. I trust that 
it may transfer many Indian questions from the region 
of haphazard statement to the jurisdiction of calm 
The cost knowledge. ' Nothing,' I wrote in my original Plan, 
ance. n ° r submitted to the Viceroy in 1869, 'nothing is more 
costly to a Government than ignorance.' I believe that, 
in spite of all its defects, this work will prove a memor- 
able episode in the long battle against ignorance ; a 
breakwater against the tide of prejudice and false 
opinions flowing down upon us from the past ; and a 
foundation for a truer and wider knowledge of India 
in time to come. Its aim has been, not literary graces, 
nor scientific discovery, nor antiquarian research ; but 
an earnest endeavour to render India better governed, 
because better understood. 

For the first time in the history of our rule, an opportunity 
has fallen to me of finding out the truth about the Indian 
people, and of honestly telling it. Whether I have used 
that opportunity in a worthy spirit, and whether I have 
succeeded in the task in which so many previous attempts 
have failed, it is for others to judge. Sound knowledge is 
of slow growth, and no intensity of effort can do in twelve 
years for India what centuries of local research have 
accomplished for Europe. But when I compare the basis 
for future effort created by these volumes, with the absence 
of any systematic materials when I commenced the work, 
I feel that the first and most difficult stage has been 
passed. If the statistical survey of the Mughal India, 
conducted by Akbar's Finance Minister, had afforded 
such a basis, it would have proved invaluable to English 
administrators. What would European scholars not 
give for a similar account of the Roman Empire ! The 
territories dealt with in these volumes far exceed the 
Provinces which paid tribute to the Great Akbar, and 
contain a population exactly double Gibbon's estimate of 


all the nations and races that obeyed Imperial Rome. I 
leave the work to the charitable judgment of those who 
can contrast it with the efforts of Indian statists who 
have gone before me ; I also leave it with a sure con- 
fidence that it will be improved by brethren of my 
Service who come after inc. 

W. W. Hunter. 

Atril 12. 1881. 


The circumstances under which the Statistical Survey and the 
Imperial Gazetteer of India were undertaken, and the methods 
by which the operations have been carried out, are explained in 
the preface to the first edition of this work. That edition was 
compiled from materials collected between 1868, the year of the 
Punjab Census, and 1877. Its central foundation was the first 
attempt at a general census of India, conducted throughout the 
greater part of the country in 1871 and 1872. The present 
edition takes as its starting-point the last Census of 1881, which 
was also the first complete and fairly synchronous Census of 
India. Its administrative statistics chiefly refer to the years 
1 882-1 884, but in certain of the larger questions dealt with, the 
facts are brought down to 1885. 

Every article in the original edition has been submitted to the 
Provincial Governments of India, and through them to the 
District Officers, for criticism and suggestions. Valuable local 
information, received from these sources, has been incorporated ; 
in some cases, however, without the possibility of personally 
testing its precision. The vast economic and social changes 
which are taking place in India have involved still larger 
additions. The rapid expansion of India's foreign trade, of her 
internal railway system, and of steam factories, has profoundly 
affected the industrial equilibrium. Old centres of commerce, 
old staples of produce, the old domestic hand-manufactures, 
have in parts of the country declined. New cities, new marts, 
new ports, new staples, and new manufactures by machinery. 


have sprung up. The progress of municipal institutions and of 
Local Government Boards has, during the same period, tended 
to remodel the fabric of rural administration. In the ten years 
ending 1884, the latest date for which the final returns are 
published, the foreign trade of India increased from 102 to 157 
millions sterling ; Indian shipping (outward and inward) from 
4i to j\ million tons ; the number of telegrams from f of a 
million to ij millions; and the number of letters or articles 
sent through the Indian Post Office from 116 to 203 millions. 
During the last seven years of that period, the ascertained 
attendance at Indian schools rose from if to 3 millions of 

So far from representing ' the stationary stage ' of civilisation, 
according to a former school of English economists, India is 
now one of the most rapidly progressive countries of the earth. 
An effort has been made, in these volumes, to bring out the 
salient features of this great awakening of an Asiatic people to 
Western modes of thought and to the modern industrial life. 
In some cases, indeed, the detailed comparisons between present 
and past statistics may prove wearisome to the reader. 1 But 
without such comparisons, it was not found possible to convey 
a clear understanding of the existing problems of Indian 
administration and of Indian progress. 

Articles which, in the first edition, were found inadequate to 
the needs of commercial enquirers have been amplified ; or, as 
in the case of the HuGLI RlVER, have been rewritten from fresh 
investigations, conducted personally on the spot. In others, an 
attempt has been made to incorporate the results of researches 
published since the first edition appeared. Thus, in article 
INDIA, the chapter on Buddhism endeavours to exhibit the new 
lights derived from the Chinese and Tibetan records; while 
additional chapters on the history of Christianity in India 
(A.D. 190 to 1881), and on the growth of the Indian vernaculars 

The considerations which have guided the selection of the years for the purposes 
of comparative statistics are fully explained at page 457 of volume vi. 


x\.\\ 11 

and their literatures, have been written from original materials, 

supplied, in part, by the now completed Statistical Survey. As 
many of the subjects dealt with in that article arc still questions 
of historical or scholarly discussion, rather than ascertained 
facts, the author's views are offered on his own responsibility, 
and a personal tone has been adopted which is absent from the 
rest of the work. 

But while the present edition has thus been enriched by flush 
local enquiry, it has had to encounter a peril from which the 
original edition was exempt. The Government deemed it 
expedient that, in bringing out the first edition, the author 
should be placed in immediate contact with the printers in 
England. In regard to the present edition, it was not found 
possible to afford the same facility for the accurate execution of 
the work. The time necessarily occupied in transmission of 
printed materials from India to England and back has precluded 
the possibility, save in exceptional cases, of more than a single 
revision of the proof-sheets. It can scarcely be hoped that 
twelve volumes of figures and statistics, published under these 
conditions, will be free from blemishes and oversights. But the 
author begs the reader to believe that anxious effort has not 
been spared to secure the utmost accuracy attainable in the 

If the result should prove not unsatisfactory, it is due in no 
small measure to the admirable arrangements made by the 
printers, and to the circumstance that the corrections inserted in 
the proof-sheets in India have been checked in the final revise 
by Mr. J. S. Cotton in England. The author has also received 
the valuable assistance of Mr. Charles Dollman throughout the 
whole process of revision ; and of Mr. F. Bancss (now deceased), 
Mr. Stanley Shaw, and Mr. D. Atkinson during stages in the 
progress of the work. 

Special acknowledgments are due to Babu Jaikisscn Mukhaiji 
for the use of his large and excellent library at Uttarpara in 


Hugh' District. The facilities afforded by this unique storehouse 
of local literature, alike in the English and the Vernacular 
tongues, have materially aided in the verification of statements, 
the avoidance of errors, and the addition of new facts. They 
have tended to lessen the inevitable disadvantages under which 
literary work has to be done in India, separated by half the 
globe from those great libraries of reference, which more 
fortunate writers in England have at their disposal. 

W. W. Hunter. 

Uttarpara in Bengal, 

February 1886. 



has the sound of a as in 



has the sound of a as in 



has the vowel sound in 



has the sound of i as in 



has the vowel sound in 



has the sound of o as in 



has the sound of u as in 



has the sound of u as in 



has the vowel sound in 


Accents have been used as sparingly as possible ; and omitted in such 
words or terminals as pur, where the Sanskrit family of alphabets takes the 
short vowel instead of the long Persian one. The accents over i and u have 
often been omitted, to avoid confusing the ordinary English reader, when 
the collocation of letters naturally gives them a long or open sound. No 
attempt has been made by the use of dotted consonants to distinguish 
between the dental and lingual d, or to represent similar refinements of 
Indian pronunciation. 

Where the double oo is used for it, or the double ce for t\ and whenever 
the above vowel sounds are departed from, the reason is either that the 
place has obtained a popular fixity of spelling, or that the Government has 
ordered the adoption of some special form. 

I have borne in mind four things — First, that; this work is intended for 
the ordinary English reader. Second, that the twenty-six characters of the 
English alphabet cannot possibly be made to represent the fifty letters or 
signs of the Indian alphabets, unless we resort to puzzling un-English 
devices of typography, such as dots under the consonants, curves above 
them, or italic letters in the middle of words. Third, that as such devices 
are unsuitable in a work of general reference, some compromise or sacrifice 
of scholarly accuracy to popular convenience becomes inevitable. Fourth, 
that a compromise to be defensible must be successful, and that the spelling 
of Indian places, while adhering to the Sanskrit vowel sounds, should be 
as little embarrassing as possible to the European eye. 

W. W. II. 




Abar or Abor Hills. — Tract of country on the north-east frontier 
of India, occupied by an independent tribe called the Abars. It lies 
north of Lakhimpur District, in the Province of Assam, and is bounded 
on the east by the Mishmi Hills ; on the west by the Miri Hills ; 
but it is not known how far the villages of this tribe extend north 
towards Tibet. The term Abar, an Assamese word, signifying 
barbarous or independent, is applied by the Assamese to many 
frontier tribes ; and especially to those with whom they are least 
acquaint. Thus, the Nagas to the south of Lakhimpur and Sibsagar 
Districts, are divided into Abar and non-Abar Nagas. The latter are 
those whose settlements adjoin the plains, and are called by the name 
of the Dwar or pass through which their road runs; the former are the 
interior tribes, who have little or no commerce with the plains. The 
Abars, par excellence, however, who call themselves Padam, occupy the 
tract of country defined above. They constitute two main groups, 
called respectively, the Bar (Bor) Abars (or 'Great Abars'), and the 
Pasi-meyong Abars. The former dwell in the hilly country between the 
Dihang (Dihong) and Dibang (Dibong) rivers, having their chief settle- 
ment, Damloh (or Damroh) Padam, in the high ranges to the north of 
the former river ; the latter occupy the country between the Dihang 
river and the Miri Hills. The manners and customs of this people 
have been fully described by Colonel Dalton, in his Ethnology of Bengal. 
He holds that the Abars, together with the cognate tribes of Miris, 
Daphlas, and Akas, are descended from a Tibetan stock. The Abars 
are a quarrelsome and sulky race, violently divided in their political 
relations. In former times, they committed frequent raids upon the 
plains of Assam, and have been the subject of more than one retaliatory 
expedition. Since 1862 they have fairly observed the agreements 
then made with the British Government, by which they formerly 
received annually certain small presents of cloth, hoes, and other articles 

vol. 1. A 


(commuted into a money payment since 1880), and engaged to keep 
the peace along their own border. In 1880-81, however, there was a 
threatened migration of some Abar villages from the west to the east of 
the Dibang, where they would command the route taken by the Mishmis 
to and from Sadiya. In order to prevent this movement, which it was 
anticipated would lead to disturbances, the Government in 1881-82 
advanced a military and police guard to Nizamghat, on the Dibang, 
about 34 miles north of Sadiya. This move led to some acts of hostility 
on the part of the Abar village of Pado, and an attempt was made to 
surprise one of our patrols. The establishment of a line of outpost 
stations, however, checked any further aggressive movements, and since 
1882 the Abars have lived peaceably in their own villages. 

Abazai. — Fort and village on the north-western frontier of India, in 
Peshawar District, Punjab, 24 miles north of Peshawar city, on the 
left bank of the Swat river, and 1 mile from its exit from the hills. 
The river, here 150 yards wide, is crossed by a ferry, and is the highest 
point in British territory where a ferry is stationed. The fort, which lies 
between Abazai village and the hills, was constructed in 1852, and has 
been very effective in preventing raids by the Utaman-khels and other 
hill tribes upon British territory. It consists of a star with six bastions, 
and a square keep in the centre, all constructed of mud. It is sur- 
rounded by a ditch 30 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The wall is 16 feet 
in height, with a thickness .of 10 feet at the bottom and 4 feet at top. 
The garrison ordinarily consists of 100 infantry and 50 cavalry, and the 
armament of one iS and one 12 pounder bronze gun. The total 
population of the fort in 1881, including camp servants, was 220, of 
whom only 7 were females. Abazai village is a picturesque place of 
about 130 houses, well wooded, and lying on the banks of the river. 

Abbottabad. — Tahsil of Hazara District, Punjab, comprising parts 
of the mountain valleys drained by the Dorh and Haroh rivers, together 
with the hill country eastward. The hillsides to the north and north-east 
are covered with forest timber. Inhabited chiefly by Kharals and Dhiinds 
in the east, by Jadiins in the centre, Tanaolis in the west, with a large 
and scattered population of A wans and Giijars, the latter in the hills 
and the former in the plains. Lat. 34 n., long. 73 16' e. ; area, 714 
square miles; population (1881), 135,486; land revenue, ^6248. 
Local administrative staff : 1 Deputy - Commissioner, 2 Assistant or 
Extra-Assistant Commissioners, 1 Tahsildar. These officers preside 
over 4 civil and 4 criminal courts; with 6 police stations; 92 regular 
policemen, and 137 village watchmen. 

Abbottabad. — Town and cantonment in Abbottabad tahsil, and 
head-quarters of Hazara District, Punjab. Called after Major James 
Abbott, first Deputy-Commissioner of Hazara, 1 847-1 853. Picturesquely 
situated at the southern corner of Rash (Orash) plain, 4120 feet above 


the sea, 63 miles from Rawal Pindi, 40 miles from Murree (Marri), 1 17 
miles from Peshawar. Lat 34° 9' 15" n., long. 73° 15' 30" k. Popula- 
tion in 1 88 1, Hindus, 2 151 ; Muhammadans, 1649 ; Sikhs, 306 ; 'others,' 
8^: total, 4189, residing in 918 houses. Nearly two-thirds of the 
population live in the cantonment, and about a third in the civil 
station. Municipal revenue in 1881-82, ,£383 ; expenditure, ^365. 
Garrison lines exist for the Gurkha Battalion, a native infantry 
regiment of the Punjab Frontier Force, and a Native battery of 
Mountain Artillery. Head-quarters of Frontier Force Staff. Water 
supply abundant from wells, except for three months in the year, when 
it is very scarce ; the water is impregnated with lime. Bazar, District 
court-house and treasury, lock-up, dispensary, staging bungalow, post- 
office, telegraph station, small church. Snow falls occasionally from 
December to March, but rarely lies long ; hot weather from May to 
September ; rain falls in almost every month of the year. Principal 
disease, intermittent fever, chiefly in September and October, attributed 
to irrigation of rice fields. 

Abdu. — Town in Sakkar (Sukkur) taluk, Shikarpur District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 27 50' 30" n., long. 68° 50' 30" e. Head- 
quarter station of a tappaddr. Population under 2000, the Muham- 
madans consisting chiefly of the Koreshi, Mahar, Machhi, and Sumra 
tribes; the Hindus are chiefly Brahmans, Lohanos, and Sonaros. No 
trade or manufactures of any importance. 

Abhana. — Village in Damoh tahsil, Damoh District, Central Pro- 
vinces, situated 11 miles from Damoh town on the road to Jabalpur. 
There is a large tank here, abounding in fish and waterfowl. Good 
encamping ground in the neighbourhood. Population under 2000. 

Abiraman. — Town in Ramnad estate, Madura District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 9 26' 30" n., long. 78 28' 45" e. Population 6278, 
principally cultivators ; Lubbays (Labhais) are numerous; houses, 1207. 
Chief industry, cotton-weaving by a numerous weaving caste ; consider- 
able trade in grain, cotton and cloths. Situated close to the large lake 
of the same name ; 13 miles s.w. of Paramakiidi, in the jurisdiction 
of the sub-magistrate of Mulukolatiir. Possesses a good supply of 
drinking water and a fine irrigation tank, used by the Maravar and 
"Vallalar cultivating castes for extensive paddy crops. Old name, 
Nail dr. A local superstition declares that within an area of two miles 
of the town, snake-bite is innocuous. 

Abji. — Town in Naushahro taluk, Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency, 9 miles from Naushahro. Founded about 
1750 a.d. Lat. 26 52' 30" n., long. 68° 1' 15" e. The population, 
which is under 2000, is mainly agricultural. A small trade in grain 
and sugar. No manufactures of any consequence. 

Ablaglindi. — The western pass from the Ramandrug plateau in the 


Sandiir State, Madras Presidency. The stream, which afterwards forms 
the main feeder of the Daroji lake, enters the valley through this pass 
from the westward. 

Abor Hills and Abor Tribe, Assam Frontier. — See Abar. 

Abu.— A celebrated mountain, Sirohi State, Rajputana. Lat. 24° 35' 
37" n., long. 7 2 45' 16" e. j 45 miles n.e. from Disa (Deesa), and 
50 miles n.n.e. from Siddhapur. Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod, 
formerly Political Agent in Western Rajputana, and well known as the 
author of The Annals of Rajasthan, was the first European who visited 
Abu, and, for practical purposes, he may be said to have discovered 
the place in the early part of the present century; for, as he 
expresses it in his Travels in Western India, 'the discovery was my 
own. To Abu I first assigned a local habitation and a name, 
when all these regions were a terra incognita to my countrymen.' 
Although regarded as part of the Aravalli range, Abu is completely 
detached from that chain by a narrow valley about 15 miles across, 
in which flows the western Banas ; and it rises from the surrounding 
plains of Marwar like a precipitous granite island from the sea, 
with a base about 20 miles in length, enclosed in a broad belt of 
dense jungle. The top spreads out into a picturesque plateau, about 
14 miles in length and 2 to 4 in breadth, broken by fantastic peaks 
and surrounded by a natural wall of granite. The natural features of 
Mount Abu are very bold, and the slopes, especially on the western and 
northern sides, extremely precipitous ; on the east and south, the out- 
line is more broken up into spurs with deep valleys between. Advantage 
has been taken of one of these valleys on the east side to make a cart 
road from Rukki Kishan to the top of the hill, about 1 1 miles in length, 
which will shortly be the main line of communication with the plains. 
Highest point, Guru Sikar, or the Saint's Pinnacle, in the northern part of 
the plateau, 5653 feet above sea level. There are two marble mines on 
the hill, but the stone is of too crystalline and hard a texture to be 
worked. Abii is the summer residence of the Governor-General's Agent 
for Rajputana, and a hot-weather resort for Europeans. The ascent is 
made by a good road from the Abu Road Station of the Rajputana State 
Railway, on the east side of the hill, the distance from the station to the 
Abii post-office being 16 miles. The station, with an English church, 
club, barracks, hospital, and Lawrence School, is charmingly situated 
near the s.w. end of the high undulating plateau, being nearly 4000 feet 
above sea level, and some 3000 feet above the plains below. There are 
two rocks near the station called the Nun and the Toad, from their 
curious resemblance, in outline, to a veiled woman, and to an immense 
toad. Loftier heights surround the station, and a beautiful little lake, 
about half a mile long, called Nakhi Talao, — popularly translated the 
'Nail Lake,' but more appropriately the 'Gem Lake,' — lies 3770 feet 

ABU. 5 

above the sea. In 1822 Tod described this water as 'about four 
hundred yards in length,' and the counterpart of the lake three miles 
above Andernach on the Rhine. 'It is,' he writes, 'surrounded by 
rocks, wooded to the margin, while the waterfowls skim its surface 
unheeding and unheeded by man ; for on this sacred hill neither the 
fowler's gun nor the fisher's net is known, " Thou shalt not kill " being 
the supreme command, and the penalty of disobedience, death.' ' 
Great changes have taken place on Abu since then ; the Nakhi Takio 
is still a beautiful sheet of water, and from different points in the walk 
surrounding it, delightful views are obtained. It contains a few small 
tree-clad islands, and a bandh or dam has recently been built across the 
gorge at the west end (where the overflow runs off), in order to increase 
the depth of the water, fears having been entertained that it might run 
dry, or nearly so, should an exceptionally light monsoon occur. 

The eastern end of the lake towards the station is shallow and weedy, 
but the other portions are deep, the average depth being from 20 to 30 
feet, and near the centre towards the dam, about 100 feet. But though 
there is now a finer sheet of water, the beauty of the lake scenery has 
somewhat suffered, as the wooded islands have been much submerged, 
and their trees nearly all killed. The fishing in the lake is inferior ; 
there were formerly only two kinds of small fish, the singhi and gardi, 
but some murrel were put in a few years ago, and other sorts might be 
added with advantage. Numerous otters inhabit the lake, and it is 
doubtful whether they would allow the fish to grow to any size. The 
origin of the name of the lake is doubtful. According to local legends 
it is said to have derived its name from its having been excavated with 
the nails of the gods, who dug a cave in the earth to protect themselves 
from the giant Mahik Asiir, who had obtained the favour of Brahma, 
by his intense worship of the deity, and had become all-powerful. 

It is during and just after the rainy season that Abu wears its most 
charming aspect ; the streams then flow fresh and full everywhere, and 
ferns abound. There are also several waterfalls, that at the head of 
the Rukki Kishan valley below Hetamji being especially fine after a 
heavy fall of rain. 

The great mass of Abu is composed of rocks of primary formation, 
the mountains having been formed by an upheaval of igneous granitic 
rocks of crystalline structure and concrete texture, consisting mainly 
of syenite, ill adapted for building purposes and expensive to work. 
The absence of limestone on Abu is a serious inconvenience, as all 
lime required has to be brought from below, rendering building on the 
hill very expensive. 

The slopes and base of Abu are clothed with dense forests of the 
various trees common to the plains and to the neighbouring Ardvalli 
1 Tod's Travels in Western India, pp. 115, 1 16. 

6 ABU. 

range, interspersed with great stretches of bamboo jungle. The plateau 
is well wooded in parts, but in the neighbourhood of the station many 
of the hills have become denuded of timber. Since 1868, however, 
attention has been given to forest conservancy, and the cutting and 
burning of trees and shrubs on the summits and upper slopes have been 
prohibited with beneficial results. 

No complete account of the fauna of Abu has yet been written. Of 
the larger carnivora, tigers occasionally stray up the mountain, and 
panthers and black bear are more commonly met with. The smaller 
beasts of prey are not numerous ; hyaenas have occasionally been seen, 
but the jackal and fox never. The sdmbhar is the only deer which 
ascends the hill, but the spotted deer or chital is common at the base. 
Porcupines and hares are tolerably plentiful. Snakes are not common 
on the summit, the cobra and a species of viper being the only deadly 
snakes. The insect life during the rains is also less abundant than 
on the plains. Grey quail and snipe are to be seen in the cold 
season, but jungle fowl are scarce, and the partridge is rarely found. 

The climate of Abu throughout the greater portion of the year is agree- 
able and healthy. During the hot season, which commences about the 
middle of April, the temperature has been known to rise to 98 in the 
shade, but this is very unusual, as the thermometer seldom exceeds 90 ; 
and, owing to the dryness and lightness of the atmosphere and the 
absence of hot winds, the heat at this period of the year is not generally 
trying to the constitution of Europeans. The following figures give the 
mean temperature in the shade for each quarter of the three years ending 
1880: first quarter, 62 F. ; second quarter, 79 ; third quarter, 73 ; 
fourth quarter, 66° : annual mean, 70 . It is supposed that the tem- 
perature on Abu has increased since the hill was first occupied as a 
sanitarium, owing to the reckless way in which many of the summits 
have been cleared of timber, and to the consequent drying up of 
several springs and streams at an early period of the year. The 
rains usually commence with thunderstorms about the middle of June. 
During this season fog and drizzle prevail, but the temperature is cool 
and pleasant, and there is none of the stifling damp heat of the plains ; 
the climate also is healthy at this time. The rainfall is generally 
heavy, but not excessive, and varies greatly from year to year. The 
average for seventeen years ending 1880 was 68 inches. The rains 
usually cease as they begin, with thunderstorms, about the middle of 
September. There is a good deal of fever and ague, generally of a 
mild type, during the short interval of warmer weather following the 
autumn monsoon. Throughout the cold season from November to 
March, the climate is very healthy and bracing, and fires are required in 
the houses ; the temperature at this time seldom falls below 40 , and the 
average is 6o°. On the whole, Abu may be considered as possessing a 

ABU. 7 

good climate, combined with the charms of beautiful scenery. Earth- 
quakes are frequent. 

Perennial springs of water on the summit of Abu are singularly few 
and small, but good water can be got in almost every valley within 
twenty or thirty feet of the surface by sinking wells through the clay. 

The civil portion of the sanitarium consists of the Residency of the 
Agent to the Governor-General, and forty or fifty scattered bungalows 
occupied by members of his staff, the Government offices, visitors, etc. 
The military portion affords accommodation for about 200 men, 
including quarters for 26 families. Like most hill stations, Abu is 
nearly empty of European residents during the cold season. The most 
noteworthy public institution is the Lawrence School, one of several 
institutions in different parts of India, founded in 1854 by the late Sir 
Henry Lawrence, for the education of the children and orphans of 
British soldiers. 

The permanent residents are not numerous, and consist mainly of 
Lok cultivators. The shopkeepers and artisans are Musalmans. The 
Chamars work as coolies, and do all the thatching, tiling and building. 
The Bhils also work as coolies, and bring grass, wood, etc., into the 
station. The whole population of Abu during the summer season may 
be reckoned in round numbers at 4500, at other times 3500. 

The crops grown on Abu include wheat, barley, Indian-corn, pulse, 
rice, and a few inferior grains. Potatoes are also largely grown and 

The native revenue officials consist of one kdmddr for the whole of 
Abu, with a ndib under him and two thdndddrs, all paid by the ruler of 

In and around the station the roads are good, and most of them 
adapted for light carriages ; the principal one runs to the Dumani Ghat, 
known to the residents as ' Sunset Point,' overlooking Anadra and the 
plains on the west side of Abu. There are also several bridle-paths by 
means of which many of the most beautiful views on Abu can now be 
enjoyed with ease and comfort. The heights of various positions on 
the plateau and in the station and its immediate vicinity are as follow : 
Ramkund peak, south of the lake, 4354 feet ; Amada Devi peak, north 
of the lake, 4721 feet; church, 3849 feet; Residency, 3930 feet; 
Kue-ka-Pahar, at the extreme s.w. corner of the plateau, 4598 feet; 
Deoli hill, 4335 feet ; Bemali peak, 4542 feet ; Parok, on the south-east, 
4572 feet; Achalgarh, 4688 feet; Naira, 46S6 feet; Jhaka, 5196 feet; 
Nagara talao, 4933 feet; on the north-west the plateau is precipitous to 
the plains of Sirohi. 

It is as the site of the most exquisite Jain buildings in the world, 
and as a place of pilgrimage, that Mount Abu is celebrated. Tod styles 
Mount Abu the Olympus of India. The following details are con- 

8 ABU. 

densed, principally from an account furnished by Mr. Burgess, Archaeo- 
logical Surveyor to the Government of Bombay. In the thirteenth 
century, Mount Abu, the ancient Ar-Buddha, 1 was held by the Parmars 
of Chandravati, vassals of the old Hindu kings of Guzerat. The site of 
Chandravati, a little to the south-east of Abu, — once a splendid capital, 
— is now indicated only by mounds of ruined temples and palaces. The 
Muhammadan Sultans of Ahmaddbald first, the Thakurs of Girnar more 
recently, and up to the present day the head-men to whom the chief of 
Sirohi grants charge of the village, have carried away and burnt into 
lime the marble slabs, columns, and statues, so that few fragments are 
left except such as are covered by debris. 

Although Abu is not one of the greater Jain tirthas, or holy places, it 
can boast of at least two of the most beautiful of Jain temples. These 
are at Deul\va>a\ or Devalwdrd, the place of temples, about a mile north 
of the station. 2 There are five temples in all, one of the largest being 
three-storied, dedicated to Rishabhanath, the first of the twenty-four 
Tirthankars, or deified men, whom the Jains worship. The shrine, 
which is the only enclosed part of the Rishabhanath temple, has four 
doors, facing the cardinal points. The image inside is quadruple, and 
is called a Chaumukh, a not unfrequent form of this Tirthankar. On 
the west side, the temple has a double mandap or portico, and on the 
other three sides single ones, each supported on 8 columns. The 
corners between the domes are occupied by 6 more columns, which, 
with the 4 columns added to each octagon to form the square, give 
1 6 on each quarter between the lines of entrance. Over the square 
formed by the pillars on the lines of the inner sides of the octagons, 
rise the pillars of the second story, whilst the walls of the shrine are 
carried up to the roof. This form of temple, with its four approaches, 
ample domes, and shady colonnades, is a fine type of the Jain style of 
temple architecture, and from it, by very simple modifications, the 
other prevalent forms may easily be deduced. North of Rishabhanath's 
Chaumukh, and on a raised platform, is another large temple, without a 
spire, but with a roofed mandap, which is locally known by the name of 
Benchasah's. South-east by south from the Chaumukh is a third temple, 
enclosed by a high wall, and known as Dailak, or the temple of Adisvara 
(or Rishabhanath) and Gorakhalanchan. 

To the west of the Chaumukh stand the two finest temples of Abu : 
the one known as Vimalasah's, dedicated to Adisvara, or Adinatha, 
another name for Rishabhanath, the first Tirthankar ; and opposite it, 
on the north side, the temple of Vastupala and Tejahpala, dedicated to 

1 Derived from the Sanskrit Ar, mountain, and Bziddh, wisdom. 

2 These temples are now under the management of the Committee of the Jain 
mahdjans of Sirohi, who collect the revenues, which they devote to the current 
expenses and repairs of the temples. 

ABU. 9 

Neminath, the twenty-second of the Tirthankdrs. The date of the 
former seems to be given in an inscription in which the following 
sentence has been read : 'Samvat 1088 (a.d. 1031), by the blessing of 
Amba, Vimalasah built the temple of Adinatha : this plate records its 
repair in Samvat 1379 (a.d. 1322), on Monday the ninth day of the light 
fortnight of Jaistha.' Several inscriptions over the shrines around the 
court are dated in Samvat 1245 (a.d. 1188), and record their dedication 
to Sdntinath, the 16th, and Aranath, the iSth Tirthankar, by ' Yasod- 
havala, of the race of Pragvata,' or his family. 1 Both the temples of 
Vimalasah and of Vastupala are built of white marble, and carved 
with all the delicacy and richness of ornament which the resources of 
Indian art at the time of their erection could devise. Inscriptions fix 
the date of the Vimalasah temple at 1031 a.d., and the construction of 
the Vastupala edifice from 1197 to 1247. 

' Were twenty persons,' says Mr. Fergusson, 2 ' asked which of these 
two temples were the most beautiful, a large majority would, I think, 
give their vote in favour of the more modern one, which is rich and 
exuberant in ornament, to an extent not easily conceived by one not 
familiar with the usual forms of Hindu architecture. The difference 
between the two is much the same that exists between the choir of 
Westminster Abbey, and Henry the Seventh's chapel that stands behind 
it. I prefer the former, but I believe that nine-tenths of those that 
go over the building prefer the latter.' 

The temple of Vimalasah is constructed on the usual model of Jain 
temples, which, though of very great variety as to size, are generally 
similar in plan. It consists of a shrine lighted only from the door, con- 
taining a cross-legged seated figure, in brass, of the first Jaina-Adisvara, 
to whom this temple is dedicated. In front of this is a platform, uhich, 
with the shrine, is raised three steps above the surrounding court. The 
platform and greater part of the court are covered by a mandap, or outer 
portico, cruciform in plan, and supported by forty-eight columns. The 
eight central pillars of this porch are so arranged as to form an octagon, 
supporting a dome, which, together with its circular rims and richly- 
carved pendant, forms the most striking and beautiful feature of the 
entire composition. The whole is enclosed in an oblong courtyard 
about 140 feet by 90 feet, surrounded by fifty-five cells, each of which 
contains a cross-legged statue of one or other of the Tirthankars. The 
door-posts and lintels of these cells or subordinate shrines round the 
court, are carved in most elaborate devices, with human figures inter- 
spersed with foliage and architectural ornaments of the most varied 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. xvi. p. 312. 

2 Picturesque Illustrations of Ancient Architecture in Hin iustdn, p. 39. See also 
Mr. Fergusson's admirable account at pp. 234-239 of his new edition of the History 

of Indian and Eastern Architecture (1876). 

io ABU. 

complexity. In front of these cells, and forming porticoes to them, is 
a double colonnade of smaller pillars, their bases standing on a platform 
raised three steps above the court. In a small cell in the south-west 
corner is the image of Ambaji, a dev'i or familiar goddess, always associ- 
ated with Neminath. 1 Vastupala's temple is dedicated to Neminath, 
and as the adjoining cell also contains a colossal black marble image 
of the same Tirthankar, it may possibly be an indication that this shrine 
was likewise at first dedicated to Neminath. On each of the three 
outer faces of the central dome of the mandap, the roof is carried on 
tall pillars to that of the corridors in front of the cells, thus leaving two 
small square courts near the front corners of the enclosure, besides the 
open space round the central shrine, to admit light to the whole area. 
'Externally,' says Mr. Fergusson, 2 * the temple is perfectly plain, and 
there is nothing to indicate the magnificence within except the spire ' — 
or rather pyramidal roof—' of the cell peeping over the plain wall ; 
though even this is the most insignificant part of the erection.' 'And,' 
as he remarks elsewhere, ' the external porch, too, is insignificant, so 
that one is totally unprepared for the splendour of the interior ; but I 
do not know anything in architecture so startling as the effect when the 
door is opened, and the interior bursts on the astonished traveller.' 

1 Facing the entrance is a square building supported by pillars, and 
containing nine statues of elephants, each a single block of white 
marble, about four feet in height. On each of them is (or rather was, 
for the Mogra, or Mughal iconoclast, has been at work here) a male 
figure seated on a rich howdah beside the Mahaut.' They represented 
the Seth, or merchant, Vimalasah, and his family, going in procession 
to the temple. He, however, having been carried off, an equestrian 
statue of him has been placed in the doorway, — ' a most painful speci- 
men of modern art, made of stucco, and painted in a style that a sign- 
painter in England would be ashamed of.' 

In Vastupala's temple a procession similar to this, with an elaborately- 
carved spire resembling the later forms of the Buddhist dahgoba in the 
centre, occupies the place of the cells behind the shrine in that of 
Vimilasah. ' It is separated from the court by a pierced screen of open 
tracery, the only one,' so far as Mr. Fergusson knows, ' of that age, — 
a little rude and heavy, it must be confessed, but still a fine work of its 
kind. Behind it are ten elephants of very exquisite workmanship, 
and with rich trappings sculptured with the most exquisite precision. 
The " Mogra Rajd" has, however, carried off the riders. In this case, 
however, the loss is not so great, as behind each elephant is a niche 
containing statues in alto-relievo of those who were, or were to be, 
mounted on them. There are Vastupala, with his one wife ; Tejahpala, 

1 Tod says this cell is dedicated to Bhawani {Travels, p. ic6). 

2 History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, vol. ii. p. 237. 

ABU. it 

with two ; and their uncle, who seems to have been blessed with three 
— in short, the whole family party. The men are fine-looking fellows, 
all with long, flowing beards ; the ladies are generally sharp-vi- 
sour-looking dames ' (Fergusson's Pictorial Illustrations of Architecture 
in Hindustan, p. 40). 

The Temple of Vastupdla and Tejahpdla stands on the north of Yima- 
lasah's, and is entered from the court between them by a stair near 
the west end of the enclosure. It contains several inscriptions in 
Sanskrit {Asiatic Researches, vol. xvi. pp. 284-330 ; Ind. Antiquary, 
vol. ii. pp. 255 ff.). Over the doors of the cells, or kulikds, which 
surround the central fane, are 46 inscriptions recording their construc- 
tion, and grants for the worship of the different images they enshrine, 
chiefly by Tejahpdla and his kindred, and dated from Samvat 1287 to 
1293 (a.d. 1230 to 1236). The brothers Vastupdla and Tejahpala were 
Porwala banids of Anahilapattan, who served as chief ministers to Vira 
Dhavala, the first of the Waghela" dynasty of Guzerat. 

The mandap, or portico, forms one of the distinguishing characteristics 
of the Jain style of architecture, as well as its most beautiful feature. 
In most existing instances it is surmounted by a dome, resting on 
eight columns out of twelve, which form a square with four columns on 
each side, including the corners. These pillars terminate in the usual 
bracket capital of the East. ' Upon this,' as Mr. Fergusson describes 
it, ' an upper dwarf column or attic, if it may be so called, is placed to 
give them additional height ; and on these upper columns rest the great 
beams or architraves which support the dome. As, however, the long 
bearing is weak, at least in appearance, the weight is relieved by the 
curious angular strut or truss of white marble, which, springing from the 
lower capital, seems to support the middle of the beam.' The arch 
formed by the two struts between each pair of columns is known as a 
tor ana. ' That this last feature is derived from some wooden or carpentry 
original,' continues Mr. Fergusson, 'can, I think, scarcely be doubted.' 
On the octagon, formed by the massive marble architraves across the 
heads of the pillars, rests the dome, also of white marble, finished with 
a delicacy of detail, a richness, and an appropriateness of ornament 
unrivalled by any similar example either in India or Europe. A single 
block over the angles of the octagon suffices to introduce the circle. 
Above the second ornamented course, sixteen brackets are inserted, the 
lower sides of each being wrought into a sitting figure with four or six 
arms. The brackets support statues, male and female ; and the spaces 
between are wrought with elaborate ornamentation. Above their heads 
is a circle of twenty-four pendants, and inside this a sort of scolloped 
pattern, whilst in the centre is a pendant of the most exquisite beauty. 
Of the ornaments, Mr. Fergusson remarks that 'those introduced by the 
Gothic architects in Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminster, or at 


Oxford, are coarse and clumsy in comparison.' (For a further account 
of the Abu temples, with drawings and photographs, see Mr. Fergus- 
son's valuable works, the History of Indian Architecture and Pictorial 
Illustrations of Architecture in Hindustan ; also a paper on Mount 
Abu in the Indian Antiquary, vol. ii. pp. 249 ff., Sept. 1873; and the 
Rdjputdna Gazetteer, vol. iii. pp. 145 to T50.) 

Achala Basanta {Eternal Spring). — Peak of the Assia range, 
Cuttack District, Bengal. Lat. 20 38' n., long. 86° 16' e. At the foot 
of the hill lie the ruins of Majhipur, the residence of the ancient Hindu 
chief of the hills, and his brethren and relatives. Dilapidated remains 
of old gates, stone platforms, and broken walls now alone mark the site. 

Achandaviltan. — Town in Srivilliputtur taluk, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 29' n., long. 77 42' e. ; population (1881), 
2765 ; houses, 544. Situated on the left bank of the Kayakudi river. 

Achanta (Atsanta, Ausanta). — Town in Narsapur taluk, Godavari 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 16 36' n., long. 8i° 50' 30" e. ; 
population (1881) 6568, mainly agricultural; houses, 1248. Formerly 
belonged to the Pithapuram estate. 

Achenkoil (or Kallakadeva). — River in the Travancore State, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 5' to 9 31' 30" n., long. 76 25' 15" to 
77 14' 30" e. It rises at the foot of the Achenkoil Pass, and, after a 
north-westerly course for 70 miles, joins the Pambaiyar. For most of 
the year navigable by small boats to within 30 miles of its source. 
Chief places on the river, Pandalam and Mauvalikarai. 

Achenkoil. — Village, pass, and well-known temple in Chenganur 
taluk, Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 5' 45" n., long. 
77 16' e. The pass, called on the British side Shenkotai, connects Tin- 
nevelli District with Travancore, but, being more difficult for traffic than 
the Ariankavu road, is less used. The shrine is sacred to Shasta, one of 
the manifestations of Siva. It lies in an exceedingly wild part of the hills. 

Achipur (Atcheepore). — Village in the District of the 24 Parganas, 
Bengal. Lat. 22 27' 5" N., long,. 88° 10' 16" e. A telegraph station 
on the Hugh river a few miles below Baj-baj (Budge-Budge), and 17^ 
nautical miles from Fort- William by the navigable channel. Move- 
ments of ships passing Achipur (up or down) are telegraphed to 
Calcutta, and published several times each day in the Telegraph Gazette. 

Achnera. — Town in Agra District, North -Western Provinces. 
Lat. 2 7 12' n. ; long. 77 44' e. The junction station of the Mathura 
(Muttra) branch of the Rajputana State Railway (Agra line), 16 miles 
from Agra city. 

Achra. — Port in the Malwan Sub-division, Ratnagiri District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16 13' 35" n., long. 73 29' 50" e. Average 
annual value of trade for five years ending 18S1-82 — exports, ^2511 ; 
imports, ^2757. 


Adalpur. — Town in Ghotki talick, Rohri Sub-division, Shikarpur 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat 27 56' n., long. 69 21' 15" 1 . 
Founded about 1456 a.d. Population (1881) under 200c. The 
Muhammadans are chiefly Kalwars ; the Hindus belong nearly all to 
the Baniya or trading caste. No manufactures. A vernacular school, 
and police station. 

Adam-jO-Tando (or Tando Adam). — Town in Hala Sub-division, 
Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Founded about 
1800 a.d., by one Adam Khan Man, whence its name. Lat. 25 36' x., 
long. 68° 41' 15" E. Population (1881) 4021 ; the Hindus are 
principally Lohanos and Punjabis ; the Muhammadans chiefly Khas- 
kelis, Surnras, and Memons. Trade in silk, cotton, grain, oil, sugar 
and ghi. Yearly value about ^4000, besides transit trade of ^6500. 
Municipal revenue for 1881-82, ^700, or 3s. 6d. per head. Sub- 
ordinate Judge's Court, police station, vernacular school, dispensary, 
and post-office. 

Adampur. — Large village in Kartarpur tahsil, Jalandhar (Jullundur) 
tahsil, Jalandhar District, Punjab. Lat. 31 26' N., long. 75 45' 15" e. 
Forms, together with the village of Sagran, a third-class municipal union. 
Population in 1881 — Muhammadans, 2324; Hindus, 1235 ; and Sikhs, 
13 : total, 2972, residing in 473 houses. Municipal revenue in 1881-82, 
^128; expenditure, ^112. 

Adam's Bridge. — A ridge of sand and rocks, about 1 7 miles in length, 
stretching n.w. to s.e., from the island of Rameswaram off the Indian 
coast, to the island of Manaar off Ceylon, and so nearly closing the 
northern end of the Gulf of Manaar. Lat. 9 5' to 9 12' 30" x., long. 
79 22' 30" to 8o° e. At high tide, three or four feet of water cover the 
ridge in places. In the Ramayana, Rama is said to have used this 
natural causeway for the passage of his army when invading Lanka 

Adavad.— Town in the Chopda Sub-division of Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency, once the head-quarters of a Sub-division, 12 miles 
east of Chopda. Population (1881) 4455- The site of the old offices 
is now occupied by a school-house. Contains a fine old step well 30 
feet by 12 in a ruined enclosure known as the Ldl Bdgh. To the north 
of the town is a mosque built in 1678 (1089 h.). Three miles to the 
north-west are the celebrated Unabdev hot springs. 

Addanki (Ardinghy). — Town in Ongole taluk, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 48' 42" N., long. 8o° o' 52" e. Popu- 
lation (1881) 6481 ; namely, Hindus, 5968; Muhammadans, 176; and 
Christians, 337. Situated on the Gundlakamma river, and on the 
main road from Nellore to Haidarabad, 26 miles north of Ongole. 
Being the centre of an extensive pulse-growing and cattle-breeding tract, 
it has a large trade in gram. The temple of Singarikonda and the ruined 


fort of Hari Palakudu in the neighbourhood, possess some archaeological 
interest. The deputy iahsilddr holds his court here. Post-office, 
travellers' bungalow. 

Adegaon. — Tract of country or estate in Seoni District, Central 
Provinces, formerly a portion of the Harai chiefship. Lat. 2 2° 37' N., 
long. 79 16' e. The estate consists of 90 villages, and was held 
formerly by a family of Bharti Gosains, descendants of a governor of 
Seoni under the Nagpur Bhonslas. It is now the property of Govern- 
ment, having lapsed to the State in 1874, upon the death of the last 
owner without heirs. The estate mainly consists of hilly jungle, peopled 
by aboriginal Gonds, but with good wheat cultivation in the neighbour- 
hood of the villages. 

Adegaon. — Chief village of Adegaon estate, with a population in 1881 
of 1209 inhabitants. The remains of a fort of some pretensions, built 
by the former owners of the estate, still exist on a hill to the west of, 
and commanding the village. School for boys attended by 7 1 pupils ; 
also girls' school, with 40 pupils. Police outpost station. 

Aden. — Peninsula, isthmus, and fortified town, under the Govern- 
ment of Bombay, on the south coast of Yemen Province, Arabia Felix. 
The British territory was formerly limited to the peninsula of Aden 
proper, and extended to the Khor Maksar creek, two miles north of 
the defensive works across the isthmus. In 1868, the island of Sirah 
(now connected with the mainland by a masonry causeway) and the 
peninsula of Jebel Ihsan, or Little Aden, were acquired by purchase 
from the Sultan of Lahej. In 1882, owing to the increasing population 
of Aden town, a further small tract of territory was acquired by pur- 
chase beyond the Khor Maksar creek, extending to just beyond the 
village of Imad on the north, and to Shaikh Othman on the north-west. 
Lat. 12 45' N. ; long. 45 4 e. The area of Aden peninsula is 21 
square miles, and of Little Aden peninsula, 15 square miles, and of 
the newly acquired tract, 34 square miles: total, 70 square miles; 
population (1SS1), 34,860; or including the garrison and shipping, as 
also the island of Perim, 35,932, of whom nearly 23,000 are males. 
The inhabited peninsula is an irregular oval, 15 miles in circumference, 
with a diameter of 3 to 5 miles, connected with the continent by a 
neck of land 1350 yards broad, but at one place nearly covered at 
high spring tides. The causeway and aqueduct, however, are always 
above, although at certain seasons just above, water. Aden consists of 
a huge crater, walled round by precipices, the highest peak being 1775 
feet above the sea. Rugged spurs, with valleys between, radiate from 
the centre. A great gap in the circumference of the crater has been 
rent on its sea face, opposite the fortified island of Sirah, by some later 
volcanic disturbance. The town and part of the military cantonment 
are within the crater, and consequently are surrounded on all sides by 

ADEX. 1 5 

hills. The Census return shows the area to be n'6 square miles. 
Lavas, brown, grey, and dark green, compact, schistose, and spong 
breccias ; and tufas, form the materials of this volcanic fortress ; with 
occasional crystals of augite, sanidin, small seams of obsidian, chal- 
cedony in the rock cavities, gypsum, and large quantities of pumice 
stone, of which several thousand tons are exported yearly to Bombay. 
The scanty vegetation resembles that of Arabia Petrea, and consists 
only of 94 species ; the more arid forms of the Dipterygium glaucum, 
Caparidiceae, Risida amblyocarpa, Cassia pubescens, Acacia eburnea, 
and Euphorbiacere, predominating. The harbour, Bandar Tawayih, or 
Aden West Bay, more generally known as Aden Back Bay, lies between 
the two peninsulas of Jebel Shum Shum and Jebel Ihsan, and extends 
8 miles from east to west by 4 from north to south, and is divided into 
two bays by a spit of land, running off half a mile to the southward of 
the small island of Aliyah. Depth of water in the western bay from 3 
to 4 fathoms; across the entrance, \\ t0 5 fathoms, with 10 to 12 
fathoms 2 miles outside. Bottom, sand and mud. There are several 
islands in the inner bay ; the principal, Jazirah Sawayih or Slave Island, 
is 300 feet high, and almost joined to the mainland at low water. 
Lightship visible 10 miles. Large vessels lie off Steamer Point. At 
present (1881) the town of Aden consists of 5254 inhabited houses; it 
is nearly 1400 yards broad. 

History. — Aden formed part of Yemen under the ancient Himyarite 
kings. It has been identified with the Eden of Ezekiel xxvii. 23, whose 
merchants traded ' in all sorts, in blue clothes, and broidered work, in 
chests of rich apparel, bound with cords, and made of cedar.' Aden, 
the 'Apa/3ia evSalfxojv of the Periplus, is mentioned as 'ASar*/, one of the 
places where churches were erected by the Christian embassy sent forth 
by the Emperor Constantius, 342 a.d. Its position rendered it an 
e?itrepot of ancient commerce between the provinces of the Roman 
empire and the East. About 525 a.d., Yemen, with Aden, fell to 
the Abyssinians, who, at the request of the Emperor Justin, sent an 
army to revenge the persecution of the Christians by the reigning Him- 
yarite dynasty. In 575 the Abyssinians were ousted by the Persians. 
Anarchy and bloodshed followed. The rising Muhammadan power 
reached Aden ten years after the Hijirah. It became subject successively 
to the Umayyah Caliphs, the Abbassides (749 a.d.), and the Kanlmite 
Caliphs (905), until the period of Yemen independence under its own 
Imams (932 a.d.). Aden continued in the early centuries of Islam to 
be a place of flourishing commerce. It carried on a direct trade with 
India and China on the east, and with Egypt (and so indirectly with 
Europe) on the west. In 1038, Aden was captured by the Chief of Lahej, 
and remained under his successors till 1 137. During the next three 
centuries it was frequently taken and retaken by the conflicting powers 

1 6 ADEN. 

in the south of Arabia. About the year 1500, the Yemen Imam then 
in possession, constructed the aqueduct of 9 miles from Bir Mahait 
into Aden, the ruins of which exist at this day. In 1503, Aden was 
visited by Ludovico de Varthema ; ten years later it was attacked by 
the Portuguese under Albuquerque, who had been charged by King 
Emmanuel to effect its capture. His expedition left India on the 18th 
February 15 13, with 20 ships and 2500 sailors, and reached Aden on 
Easter eve. The assault was delivered on Easter Sunday. An out- 
work with 39 guns fell to the Portuguese j but, after a four days' bloody 
siege, Albuquerque was repulsed with great slaughter, and had to con- 
tent himself with burning the vessels in the harbour and cannonading 
the town. In 15 16, the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt failed in a similar 
attack. Later in that year, the fortress was offered to the Portuguese 
under Lopo Soares d'Albergaria; but the defences having been meanwhile 
repaired by the native governor, it was not delivered up. About 15 17 
Selim 1., Sultan of Turkey, having overthrown the Mameluke power in 
Egypt, resolved to seize Aden as a harbour, whence all the Turkish 
expeditions against the Portuguese in the East, and towards India, might 
emanate. This project was carried out in August 1538 by an expedition 
sent forth by his son, Solyman the Magnificent, under the admiral Rais 
Sulaiman. The Turkish sailors were conveyed on shore, lying on beds 
as if sick ; and the governor was invited on board the Turkish fleet, 
where he was treacherously seized and hanged. The Turks strengthened 
the place by 1 00 pieces of artillery and a garrison of 500 men. For a time 
Aden, with the whole coast of Arabia, remained under the power of 
Solyman the Magnificent. Before 155 1, the townsmen had rebelled 
and handed the place over to the Portuguese, from whom, however, it 
was retaken in that year by Peri Pasha, the Capidan of Egypt, and still 
more strongly fortified. In 1 609, Aden was visited by the East India Com- 
pany's ship Ascension, the captain being well received, and then thrown 
into prison until the governor had got as much as he could out of the 
ship. Next year, Admiral Sir Henry Middleton also visited Aden, and 
one of his ships being left behind, a similar act of treachery was repeated. 
About 1 6 14, Van den Broeck arrived on behalf of the Dutch East India 
Company, was, as usual, well received, but obtained a hint that he had 
better leave, and returned unsuccessful to India. In 16 18, by the desire 
of Sir Thomas Roe, British Ambassador to the Emperor of India, we 
received permission to establish a factory at Mokha. In 1630, the 
Turks were compelled to evacuate Yemen, and Aden passed again to 
the native Imams of that province. In 1708, the French visited the 
port, and in 1735 it was seized by the Abdali Sultan of Lahej. During 
the next seventy years, it formed the subject of constant struggles among 
various Arabian claimants. In 1802, Sir Home Popham concluded a 
treaty of friendship and commerce with the chief; and in 1829 the 



Court of Directors thought of making it a coaling station, hut abandoned 
the idea owing to the difficulty of procuring labour. Aden was attacked 
by the Turkchi Bilmas in 1833, and sacked by the Fadhlis in 1836. 
The Chief soon afterwards committed an outrage on the passengers and 
crew of a British buggalow, wrecked in the neighbourhood; and in January 
1838, Captain Haines, on behalf of the Government of Bombay, 
demanded restitution. It was arranged that the peninsula should be 
ceded for a consideration to the British. But various acts of treachery 
supervened, and it was captured in January 1839 by H.M. steamers 
Volage, 28 guns, and Cruiser, 10 guns, with 300 European and 400 
native troops under Major Baillie — the first accession of territory in the 
reign of Queen Victoria. Captain Haines thus described its condition 
when it passed into British hands : ' The little village (formerly the 
great city) of Aden is now reduced to the most exigent condition of 
poverty and neglect. In the reign of Constantine, this town possessed 
unrivalled celebrity for its impenetrable fortifications, its flourishing 
commerce, and the glorious haven it offered to vessels from all quarters 
of the globe. But how lamentable is the present contrast ! With scarce 
a vestige of its former proud superiority, the traveller values it only for 
its capabilities, and regrets the barbarous cupidity of that government 
under whose injudicious management it has fallen so low ' (MS. Journal, 

PP- 44, 49)- 

Aden under British Rule. — A stipend of 541 German crowns was 
assigned to the Sultan during his good behaviour. But the Abdali 
proved fickle, and in three attacks, the last in 1841, he was repelled 
with heavy loss. In 1844 he implored forgiveness, and his stipend was 
restored. In 1846, a fanatic, named Sayyid Ismail, preached a jihdd 
among the neighbouring tribes, but was routed. Occasional outrages in 
the neighbourhood, such as atrocities on boats' crews and plunderings, 
have from time to time disturbed the peace ; but each has been very 
promptly checked. The adjacent peninsula of, Jebel Ihsan, Little Aden, 
was obtained by purchase in 1868; an advance of the Turkish troops 
on the Lahej territory took place in 1872, but was withdrawn in con- 
sequence of representations made by Her Majesty's Government to the 
Porte. Perim, a volcanic island in the Straits of Babel-Mandeb, \\ 
miles from the Arabian, and 1 1 miles from the African coast, had been 
visited by Albuquerque in 15 13, taken possession of by the East India 
Company in 1799, and finally re-occupied as an outpost of Aden in 
1857. In 1839, the inhabitants numbered 6000, exclusive of the 
military; 15,000 in 1842 ; 17,000 in 1856 ; 19,2891111872; and 34,860 
in 1881. The European residents and Christians now number 2595 ; 
Muhammadans, 27,022 ; other Asiatics, 2184. The Parsis (236), Jains 
(157), and Hindus (2666) have most of the trade in their hands. The 
Somdlis, from the African coast, and the Arabs do the hard labour 

vol. 1. B 


of the port. There are also a few Arab merchants of substance. 
Many of the Somalis and Arabs have no homes, but find their meals at 
the cook-shops, and sleep in the coffee-houses or in the open air. The 
increasing pressure of the civil population upon the military town and 
garrison, led to arrangements being made to acquire a suitable site to 
locate the large number of natives among the classes who lead a hand 
to mouth existence, and by the purchase of the Shaikh Othman tract, 
in February 1882, the difficulty of want of room has been removed. 
The food of the whole population, civil and military, is imported, 
Aden and the adjacent country producing not a blade of grain. Rice 
comes from Calcutta, Bombay, and Malabar; jodr (Sorghum vulgare), 
bdjrd (Panicum miliaceum), and Indian corn (Zea mayz) are carried on 
camels from the interior. Coarse grass and the straw of jodr and bdjrd, 
are brought for the horses and camels from the Lahej and Fadhli 
Districts in the neighbourhood. The people have an untidy and make- 
shift air, which contrasts with the personal cleanliness of an Indian 
population. This arises partly from the scarcity of water, partly from 
the temporary nature of their residence and out-of-door life. They 
earn high wages in the various employments incident to a busy e?itrepot 
and port of transhipment. Domestic servants receive jQi, 10s. to £$ 
per mensem; grooms, £1 ; boatmen, messengers, etc., £1 to £1, 10s. 
These classes also get 3 gallons of water per day, besides their wages. 
Porters and day-labourers earn from 15s. upwards, according to their 
industry. The cost of living is high. 

The Trade of Aden has immensely developed under British rule. 
From 1839 to 1850, customs dues were levied as in India. In 1850, 
the Government of India declared Aden a free port, and thus attracted 
to it much of the valuable trade between Arabia and Africa, formerly 
monopolized by Mokha and Hodaida. Customs duties are levied on 
spirits, wines, etc., salt, and arms. A transhipment fee of ^"io (Rs. 100) 
per chest is levied on all opium, other than of Indian growth, imported 
for transhipment or re-export. The average value of imports and exports 
during the seven years preceding the opening of the port in 1850 was 
.£187,079; during the next seven years it was £602,820, besides 
inland traffic. During the next seven years ending 1864-65, the ex- 
ports and imports averaged £1,131,589; in 1870 they had reached 
;£i, 747,543. For the year 1881-82, the total value of the sea import 
trade was £"2,107,623. The total value of the sea export trade was 
£"1,602,423. The inland trade was also considerable; the total value 
of camel loads that entered Aden with different articles, including fresh 
provisions, water, firewood, and fodder, was £21,285. The total 
estimated value of the land import trade was £189,900, and of the 
land export trade was £85,686. The opening of the Suez Canal has 
more than doubled the trade of Aden, and in 1881-82 it amounted to 

ADEN. 1 9 

^3, 710,1 08, sea and land combined, exclusive of the value of goods 
transhipped. The growing importance of the port may be inferred 
from the steamer traffic, which in five years has risen from 894 to 12 14 
steamers. Of the merchant steamers in 1882, 843 were British, 88 
French, 51 Austrian, 42 Spanish, 35 Italian, and 23 Dutch. During 
the forty-three years of British rule in Aden, therefore, the popu- 
lation has multiplied itself nearly six-fold, and the trade has risen from 
under ^100,000 per annum to nearly 4 millions, or by forty-fold. 
Aden now forms not only the great seat of the Arabian trade with 
Africa, but an entrepot and place of transhipment for an ever increas- 
ing European and Asiatic commerce. Since the opening of the Suez 
Canal, the visits of ships of foreign navies are becoming more frequent 
yearly, 61 having visited the port in 1882, necessitating a vessel of war 
of some size being always stationed at Aden. 

The Administration is conducted by a Political Resident, two As- 
sistant Residents, and a Cantonment Magistrate, who is also, ex 
officio, an Assistant to the Resident. The Resident is also Military 
Commandant, and is usually an officer selected from the Bombay army, 
as are also his Assistants. The police number 141, including two 
European inspectors, the cost being ^3550 in 1881-82, and the pro- 
portion being one policeman to 247 of the population. The cost of the 
water police was ^"464. Daily average number of prisoners (1 881) in 
jail, 69 ; 50 per cent, of the offences being committed by the half-savage 
African Somalis. The number of civil suits disposed of in 1881-82 
was 2047, affecting ^8577 worth of property. Aden is politically 
subject to the Government of Bombay, and for legal purposes is held 
to be a part of India, civil and criminal justice being regulated by a 
special Act of the Indian Legislature. The Port of Aden, in charge of 
a Conservator, is regulated by the Indian Ports Act. Average annual 
number of letters despatched (1881-82), 190,303 (as against an average 
of 98,651 from 1871 to 1876); other articles, 33,848; parcels, 590; 
money orders paid, ^1444- Average annual number received — 
letters, 150,324 (as against an average of 97,506 from 1871 to 1876) ; 
other articles, 72,440; parcels, 919; money orders issued, ^19,281. 
The realizations from sale of stamps, etc., amounted to £zU 2 - The 
actual revenue of Aden in 1881-82 was ^10,760; but, adding remit- 
tances, deposits, and the proceeds of bills, etc., the total amount 
was ^108,160. The chief sources of revenue are excise, stamps, 
and salt. The municipal administration is usually conducted by the 
Second Assistant Resident, and defrayed from a 'Municipal Fund' 
raised by local taxes and rates, amounting in 1881-S2 to ^7426. 
Expenditure in the same year, ^,7283. 'The Good Shepherd Con- 
vent,' under a Mother Superior and Roman Catholic clergyman, gives 
shelter to emancipated slave-girls. The garrison of Aden in 1SS1-S2 

20 ADEN. 

comprised two batteries of artillery, a battalion of the Seaforth High- 
landers, a company of sappers and miners, and a Native regiment, the 

Climate and Water Supply. — The average temperature of Aden is 
S3 F. in the shade, the mean monthly range being from 76 in 
January to 91 in June, with variations up to (and sometimes exceed- 
ing) 102 . The lulls between the monsoons in May and in September 
are specially oppressive. The mortality among the Europeans, although 
greatly increased by sick or dying men from the passengers and crews 
of ships, only amounts to 23 per thousand, and Aden ranks as a rather 
healthy station for troops ; but it is a well-ascertained fact, that long 
residence impairs the faculties and undermines the constitution of 
Europeans, and even natives of India suffer from the effects of too 
prolonged an abode in the settlement. The climate during the north- 
east monsoon, or from October to April, is cool and pleasant, particu- 
larly in November, December, and January. During the remainder of 
the year, hot sandy winds, known as shamdl, or north, indicating the 
direction from which they come, prevail within the crater, but on the 
western or Steamer Point side, the breezes coming directly off the sea 
are fairly cool. During the eleven years preceding 187 1, the mean 
annual rainfall was 2 -45 inches, the largest rainfall in any of those years 
being 8-03 inches. In 1871 only \ of an inch fell, and during the 
four years 1871-74 the average fall was 3 J inches. During the years 
1876-81, the average fall of rain was 2*5 inches. The Aden rainfall may 
be said to vary from \ of an inch to 8J inches, with an irregular average 
of about 3 inches. Since the restoration of the tanks, commenced in 
1856, they have only been filled three times, in May 1866, May 1870, 
and September 1877. The water supply forms, perhaps, the most 
important problem at Aden ; but it has been found that the most 
reliable means of supply is by condensing, and but little is now drawn 
from the wells and aqueducts. It is obtained from four sources — 
wells, aqueducts, tanks or reservoirs, and condensers. The following 
description is abridged from a Report by Captain F. M. Hunter, First 
Assistant Resident, dated 1877 : — 

(1.) Wells. — These may be divided into two classes, within and 
without British limits. 

Water of good quality is found at the head of the valleys within the 
crater, and to the west of the town, where wells are very numerous ; 
they are sunk in the solid rock to the depth of from 120 to 190 feet ; 
in the best the water stands at a depth of 70 feet below sea level. The 
sweetest is the Banian Well, situated near the Khussaf valley ; it yields 
a daily average of 2500 gallons; the temperature of the water is 102 
Fahrenheit, the specific gravity -999, and it contains 1*16 of saline 
matter in 2000 gallons. 

ADEX. 21 

Close to the village of Shaikh Othman, and on the northern side of 
the harbour, there is a piece of neutral ground, nominally British 
property, and called the Hiswah, where the bed of a mountain torrent 
meets the sea. After very heavy rains on the neighbouring hills, the 
flood occasionally empties itself into the harbour by this outlet. From 
wells dug in the watercourse, a limited supply of water may always be 
obtained. It is brought over to the southern side of the bay in boats, 
and it is also conveyed in leather skins on camels round by land across 
the isthmus into the settlement. Water of a fair quality is also obtained 
from wells in the village of Shaikh Othman, and is carried into Aden 
by land on camels. During the hot season, these Hiswah and Shaikh 
Othman wells yield no inconsiderable portion of the quantity of water 
used by the civil population, as may be gathered from the fact that in 
the year 1881-82, 63,080 camel-loads of water, or upwards of 3,154,500 
gallons, passed the barrier gate. 

(2.) Aqueduct. — In the year 1867, the British Government entered 
into a convention with the Sultan of Lahej, by which they obtained 
permission to construct an aqueduct from two of the best wells in the 
village of Shaikh Othman, seven miles distant. The water is received 
inside the fortifications into large reserve tanks, and it is thence distri- 
buted to the troops and establishments, and also to the public in 
limited quantities, at one rupee per 100 gallons. This water is of an 
indifferent quality, and is only fit for the purposes of ablution. The 
Sultan of Lahej has recently sold the territory through which the aque- 
duct passes, and has commuted his share of the profits for a monthly 
payment of Rs. 1200 or ^120. The aqueduct cost ,£29,693 to con- 
struct, and the original intention was to extend the work up to Dardb, 
eight miles farther inland. This latter place is situated on the bank of 
the torrent, the outlet of which, on the northern side of the harbour, 
has been already referred to, and the object was to take advantage of 
the rainfall in the months of May, June, July, August, and September, 
on the hills some twenty miles farther inland, before the thirsty sands 
had time to drink it up. 

(3.) Tanks or Reservoirs (see Playfair's History of Yemen). — The 
expediency of constructing reservoirs in which to store rain-water, was 
recognised in Arabia at a very early date. They are generally found 
in localities devoid of springs, and dependent on the winter rains for a 
supply of water during the summer months. The most remarkable 
instance on record is the great dam at Mareb, assigned to 1700 B.C. (?). 
Travellers who have penetrated into Yemen describe many similar 
works in the mountainous districts, while others exist in the islands of 
Said-ud-din, near Zaila ; in Kotto in the Bay of Amphilla ; and in 
Dhalak Island, near Massowah. 

Those in Aden are about fifty in number, and, if entirely cleared 

22 ADEN. 

out, would have an aggregate capacity of nearly thirty million imperial 

There is no trustworthy record of the construction of these reservoirs, 
but they are supposed to have been commenced at the time of the 
second Persian invasion of Yemen, circ. 600 a.d. They cannot be 
attributed to the Turks. The Venetian officer who described the ex- 
pedition of the Rais Sulaimdn in 1538, when Aden was first conquered 
by the Turkish nation, says : ; They (the inhabitants of Aden) have none 
but rain-water, which is preserved in cisterns and pits 100 fathoms deep.' 
Ibn Batuta also mentions the tanks as the source of the Aden water 
supply in his day (circ. 1330). Mr. Salt, who visited Aden in 1809, 
describes the tanks as they then existed : — ' Amongst the ruins some fine 
remains of ancient splendour are to be met with, but they only serve 
to cast a deeper shade over the devastation of the scene. The most 
remarkable of these reservoirs consists of a line of cisterns situated on 
the north-west side of the town, three of which are fully eighty feet 
wide and proportionately deep, all excavated out of the solid rock, and 
lined with a thick coat of fine stucco, which externally bears a strong 
resemblance to marble. A broad aqueduct may still be traced which 
formerly conducted the water to these cisterns from a deep ravine in 
the mountain above ; higher up is another, still entire, which at the time 
we visited it was partly filled with water.' 

When Captain Haines, then engaged in the survey of the Arabian 
coast, visited Aden in 1835, some of the reservoirs appear to have 
been still in a tolerably perfect state. Besides the tanks built high up 
on the hills, several large ones were traceable round the town. But 
the necessary steps not having been taken to preserve them from 
further destruction, they became filled with debris washed down from 
the hills by the rain. The people of the town carried away the stones 
for building purposes, and, with the exception of a very few which 
could not be easily destroyed or concealed, all trace of them was lost, 
save where a fragment of plaster, appearing above the ground, indicated 
the supposed position of a reservoir, believed to be ruined beyond the 
possibility of repair. 

In 1856, the restoration of these magnificent public works was 
commenced, and thirteen have been completed, capable of holding 
7,718,630 gallons of water. It is almost impossible to give such a 
description of these extraordinary walled excavations as would enable 
one who has not seen to thoroughly understand them. Trees have 
now been planted in their vicinity, and gardens laid out, making 
the only green spot in the Settlement. The Shum-Shum (Sham- 
shdii) hills, which form the wall of the crater, are nearly circular ; on 
the western side the rainfall rushes precipitously to the sea, down a 
number of long narrow valleys unconnected with each other ; on the 

ADEN. o 3 

interior or eastern side, the hills are quite as abrupt, but the descent is 
broken by a large table-land occurring midway between the summit and 
the sea level, which occupies about one-fourth of the entire superficies 
of Aden. The plateau is intersected by numerous ravines, nearly all of 
them converging into one valley, which thus receives a large proportion 
of the drainage of the peninsula. The steepness of the hills, the hard- 
ness of the rocks, and the scantiness of the soil upon them, combine 
to prevent absorption ; and thus, a very moderate fall of rain suffices 
to send down the valley a stupendous torrent of water, which, before 
reaching the sea, not unfrequently attains the proportions of a river. 
To collect and store this water, the reservoirs have been constructed. 
They are fantastic in shape. Some are formed by a dyke built across 
the gorge of a valley ; in others, the soil in front of a re-entering angle 
on the hill has been removed, and a salient angle or curve of masonry 
built in front of it ; while every feature of the adjacent rocks has been 
taken advantage of and connected by small aqueducts, to ensure that 
no water is lost. The overflow' of one tank has been conducted into 
the succeeding one, and thus a complete chain has been formed. In 
1857, when only a very small proportion of the whole had been repaired, 
more water was collected from a single fall of rain on the 23d October 
than the whole of the wells yield during an entire year. It is manifest, 
however, that a large city could never have entirely depended on this 
precarious source of supply ; and the Sovereign of Yemen, Abdul- 
Wahab, towards the close of the 15th century, constructed an aqueduct 
to convey the water of the Bir Mahait (Playfair says 'Bir Hameed") 
into Aden. The ruins of this magnificent public work exist to the 
present day. 

The restoration of the tanks, including repairs, had cost about 
^3 7,000 up to the 31st March 1874. When there is water in the 
tanks, the condenser in the crater, where the larger portion of the 
troops are stationed, is not worked. The water collected, besides being 
issued to the troops, is also sold to the public at one rupee per 100 
gallons. But when the rain fails and the tanks are exhausted, a skin 
containing 5 gallons of brackish water has at times sold for S annas, 
or nearly one shilling. 

(4.) Condensers. — Shortly before the opening of the Suez Canal, 
Government foresaw the necessity of obtaining a plentiful and unfailing 
supply of good water, and in 1867, several condensers, on the most 
approved principle, were ordered from England. A brisk trade in 
distilled water sprang up, and six condensers are now worked, by the 
Government and private companies, capable of yielding 52,000 gallons 
per diem, or a sufficient supply for 10,400 Europeans at 5 gallons per 
head. In 1881-82, condensed water was sold at the following rates, 
excluding carriage : — 


Isthmus, . . . . Rs. 2. o. 4 (say 4s. o|d.) per 100 gallons. 
Steamer Point, . . I. 12. 3 ( ,, 3s. 6id.) ditto. 

Camp, . . . . 1. 11. 6 (,, 3s. 5d.) ditto. 

The cost of working the condensers in 1881-82 was ^6090. 

The Fortifications of Aden are now of a character commensurate 
with the importance of the place. But details regarding them would 
be unsuitable in this work. 

The Arab tribes with whom we have to deal at i\den are the fol- 
lowing, viz. : — 

The Abddli, inhabiting a district lying in a north-north-westerly 
direction from Aden, called Lahej, about 33 miles long and 8 broad. 
Al Hautah, the capital, where the Sultan resides, is situated about 2 1 
miles from the Barrier Gate. The population of this district is about 
15,000. The Abddlis are the most civilized but least warlike of all the 
tribes in south-western Arabia. 

The Fadhli, inhabiting two large districts, with a seaboard of 100 
miles extending eastward from the boundary of the Abddli. Shograh, 
their chief seaport, is situated 60 or 70 miles from Aden. The 
Fadhlis are proud, warlike, and independent. Their number of fighting 
men is about 6700. 

The Akrdbi, inhabiting a district, the coast line of which stretches 
from Bir Ahmad to Ras Amran. This tribe have a high reputation 
for courage. 

There are other tribes, but as they do not reside in the immediate 
vicinity of Aden, it is unnecessary to refer to them. The Arab 
chiefs in the neighbourhood are nearly all stipendiaries of the British 

The language of the Settlement and country is Arabic, but other 
Asiatic tongues, as Urdu, Persian, Guzerathi, Sindhi, etc., as well as 
several European languages, are spoken and understood. 

[An admirable monograph has been written on Aden by Captain F. 
M. Hunter, under the title of the Aden Gazetteer, 232 pages, Triibner 
& Co., London, 1877. The present article has been condensed chiefly 
from Captain Hunter's volume.] 

Adevi Avulapalli. — Mountain, Cuddapah District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 13° 28' 27" n., long. 78 26' 35" e. 

Adina Masjid. — Celebrated ruined mosque in Panduah (Paruah) 
town, Maldah District, Bengal. One of the most remarkable surviving 
specimens of Pathan architecture. — See Panduah. 

Adjai {Ajaya, 'The Invincible'). — A river of Bengal, rises on the 
boundary between the Districts of Hazaribagh, Monghyr, and the Santal 
Parganas, and, after draining the south-western portion of the latter 
District, follows a winding south-easterly course, forming the boundary 
line between Bardwan and Birbhum as far as the village of Bhedia, 


where it assumes a due easterly direction until it joins the Bhigirathi 
just north of Katwa. During the rains, the river is sometimes navi- 
gable by cargo boats as far as the point where it enters Bardwdn 
District from the Santal Parganas ; at other seasons it is fordable 
throughout its course. There is a ferry at Sankhai on the road from 
Bardwdn to Birbhiim. The Bhagirathi and the Adjai frequently over- 
flow their banks, causing considerable damage to the crops on the 
neighbouring lands. To protect the country to some extent from these 
floods, embankments of an aggregate length of 22 miles have been 
raised at three different points on the right bank of the Adjai, and an 
embankment 3 miles long has also been constructed on the left bank. 
Principal tributaries : — In the Santal Parganas are the Darua, the Patro 
and the Jainti ; in Birbhiim, the Hingla nadi ; and in Bardwdn, the 
Turn and Kuniir nadis. The produce of the rich valley of the Adjai 
in Birbhiim District now finds its way to Calcutta and the other 
markets of Bengal via the Bolpur Station of the East India Railway. 
This station has rapidly grown into the most important railway centre 
in Birbhiim. 

Adjunta. — Village and cave temples, Nizam's Dominions. .SkAjANTA. 

Adoni. — Taluk, Bellary District, Madras Presidency. Area, 503,680 
acres (787 square miles), chiefly under 'dry' cultivation; population 
(1881), 122,085, or 155 to the square mile, dwelling in 2 towns, 
and 192 villages, and occupying 23,272 houses, 14 per cent, of the 
whole being Muhammadans. Land revenue demand (1882), ^18,224 ; 
1 civil and 3 criminal courts; strength of police 100 men, distributed 
at 10 stations. The language spoken is a mixture of Teliigu and 
Canarese; Hindustani is used by the Musalmdns. The assessment 
on irrigated land (nunja) varies from 2s. to £i 9 4s. od. per acre, and 
on dry land (punjd) from 3d. to 6s. per acre. An additional rate of 
1 os. per acre is charged on the lands watered by the Tungabhadra 
channel. This channel irrigates an area of 965 acres, assessed at ^937, 
and from which a second crop is always obtained. The only important 
tanks in the taluk are those at Chikka-Tumbalum, and Halhervi, which 
together irrigate 1342 acres, assessed at ^815. Among the non- 
agricultural population, weaving forms the chief occupation, the Adoni 
fabrics being highly thought of throughout the Presidency. There is 
a large export of silk and cotton cloths. The chief towns are Adoni, 
Kosgi, Kavutal, Nagaldinna, and Emmiganiir; six others, Hatchalli, 
Halhervi, Kotakal, Giidikal, Hissarmurvani, and Nandavaram, have 
each over 2000 inhabitants. No other taluk in the District has so 
many large places. The Madras railway passes through the taluk, and 
there is one metalled road, the highway from Bellary to Sikandarabad 

Adoni (Adwdnt). — Town in the Adoni taluk, Bellary District, Madras 

26 ADONI. 

Presidency. Lat 15° 37' 30" n., long. 77 19' 10" e. The second 
largest town in the District, having a population (1881) of 22,441 ; 
namely, Muhammadans, 8235 ; Hindus, chiefly of the Vallalar and 
Kaikalar castes, 14,129; and Christians, 67; houses, 3750. Cloth 
of cotton and silk (the latter made from the Collegal cocoons), and 
carpets constitute its chief manufactures, and occupy more than a third 
of the total adult male population. The municipal revenue amounted 
in 1881-82 to ;£i6o8 ; the incidence of taxation, including tolls, being 
is. 3d. per head. Adoni is distant from Madras 307 miles, and from 
Bellary 66 miles, and has been connected by rail with both towns since 
1 870, in which year a station was opened here. Good roads run to Guti 
(Gooty), Bellary, Kurniil, and Siragupa, while numerous country roads 
converging on Adoni, act as feeders to the railway. Cholera used at 
one time to be frequently epidemic here, but, owing to recent municipal 
reforms in street-widening, cleansing, and sanitation, the health of the 
town has of late improved greatly. The allotment for sanitary purposes 
in 1880-81 was £si°- Death-rate, 21 per 1000, and birth-rate 24*4 
per 1000 of population included within municipal limits. The fort of 
Adoni, now in ruins, stands upon five rocky granite hills to the north- 
west of the town, two of the peaks known as Barakila and Talibiinda, 
rising to a height of 800 feet above the plain. Half way up is a fine 
tank of drinking water. On the summit of the Talibiinda, is a fig- 
tree standing alone, which is visible for 20 or 30 miles from every 
direction, and is an excellent landmark. The tahsilddr of the taluk 
holds his court here, and the town has also a dispensary, telegraph 
and post offices, and a Deputy Collector's court. 

Adoni, as the capital of an important frontier tract in the fertile 
Doab of the Kistna and Tungabhadra, played a conspicuous part in 
the intestine wars of the Deccan. Traditions allege that it was founded 
in 1200 B.C. by Chandra Sen, in the reign of Bhim Singh, ruler of 
Bfdar (Beder). Subsequently it was absorbed by the Vijayanagar 
Rajas ; and when, in 1564, that dynasty fell by the defeat at Talikot, 
Adoni became a stronghold of the Muhammadan kings of the Adil 
Shahi dynasty of Bijapur and Golkonda. They added to its strength 
by building the lower forts and the outer walls. The revenue of the 
District, of which this fortress was the centre, amounted then to ' 675,900 
pagodas] and the military establishment consisted of 4000 horse and 
8c 00 foot. Ferishta refers to it as ' situate on the summit of a high 
hill, and containing many lakes and fountains of sweet water, with 
princely structures.' In 1690 it was taken after a determined resist- 
ance by the generals of Aurangzeb, and included in the Governorship 
of Bijapur. As the central authority of Delhi declined, Bijapur was 
merged in the territories of the Nizam, and the fortress and province 
of Adoni became a family fief of a younger branch of the house. 


Thus, in 1748 it was held by Muzaffar Jang, and on his death (1752) 
it descended, through the influence of M. Bussy, to his son. In 1757, 
it passed to Basdlat Jang, the brother of the Subahddr of the Deccan, 
who, making it his capital, attempted to establish an independent prin- 
cipality. Haidar All twice attacked the fortress without success, and 
though in 1778 he defeated the Marathas under its walls, and in the 
following year laid waste the country round, it did not surrender. In 
1782 Basalat Jang died, and Haidar Ali soon afterwards. In 17S6, 
Tipu, by a siege of a month, took the fort and razed its battlements. 
After the peace, Adoni was restored to the Nizam, and in 1799 was 
ceded to the English. 

Adrampet (Adrampatnam, Adivira Rdmapatnam in Tamil : * The 
city of the great hero Rama'). — Seaport in the Pattukotta taluk, Tan- 
jore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 20' 10" n., long. 79 25' 40" e. 
The population is largely engaged in sea fisheries and salt manufacture. 
The sea trade is chiefly with Ceylon, whither rice is exported in exchange 
for betel and timber. Imports, 1880-81, £$1,2%$ ; exports, ,£44,190. 
Of the inland trade, fish forms an important item, being sent from the 
coast as far as to Trichinopoli. A large (Government) salt manufac- 
ture also exists here, the salt marsh lying between the town and Point 
Calimere, being one of the most extensive in the Presidency, and 
producing salt of superior quality. The average annual revenue from 
this salt marsh amounts to about ,£15,000. The sharp angle of the 
coast immediately above it, protects the port from the north-east 
monsoon, while Ceylon on the south-east, protects it from the violence 
of the gales from that quarter. The Grand Trunk Road, on which it 
is situated, connects it with the principal coast towns, while the District 
road affords communication with the chief places inland. Post-office, 
customs and salt stations. 

Adur or Audur.— Sometimes applied to an estate, but properly the 
name of a family, who are Kavalgars of certain villages in Nellore 
District, Madras Presidency. The Adur chiefs enjoyed, under the 
police system of native rule, the privileges of ' Men Kavalgars,' i.e. 
anciently leaders of professional robber gangs, with rights of black-mail 
over certain clusters of villages. Under the title of ' Men Kavalgars,' 
they were recognized by successive rulers as a police, and were sub- 
sidized to abstain from or prevent depredations. They were subordinate 
to the Poligars, who were held answerable for the ' Men Kavalgars ' 
within their limits. 

Adyal.— Town in Sakoli ta/isil, Bhandara District, Central Pro- 
vinces. Population (1881) 3092; namely, Hindus, 2793; Muhamma- 
dans, 108 ; Jains, 11 ; and aboriginal tribes, 107. 

Aeng. — River and town in British Burma. — See Ax. 

Afghanistan is the name applied, originally in Persian, to the 


mountainous region between North-Western India and Eastern Persia, 
of which the Afghans are the most numerous and the predominant 
inhabitants. This extensive application of the term Afghanistan, is 
scarcely older than the short-lived empire founded by Ahmad Khan in 
the middle of the last century. The Afghans themselves are not in the 
habit of using it. Their territories lie beyond British India, but some 
account of them will be useful to many who have to consult this book. 
It is, however, necessary to explain that no official authority attaches 
to the account contained in this article, the materials for the pre- 
paration of which are obtained from information already available to 
the public. With the kind permission of Colonel Henry Yule, C.B. 
(the author), and of Messrs. A. & C. Black (the publishers), this article 
is partly condensed from that on Afghanistan in the ninth edition of 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, by far the ablest and most systematic 
account of the country yet published. I have also added information 
derived from more recent travellers and surveys. The following notice 
includes the Hazara mountains, but not that part of the Oxus basin 
which is now under Afghan rule, and which will be treated of separately 
as Afghan-Turkistan. 

Afghanistan Proper forms a great quadrilateral tract of country, extend- 
ing from about 6i° to 71 e. long., and from 30° to 35° N. lat. This 
territory corresponds fairly to the aggregate of the ancient provinces of 
Aria (Herat), Drangiana (Seistan), the region of the Paropamisade 
(Kabul), and Arachosia (Kandahar), with Gandaritis (Peshawar and 
Yuzufzai). Though the last territory belongs ethnically to Afghanistan, 
an important part of it now forms the British District of Peshawar, 
whilst the remainder acknowledges no master. 

Boundaries. — The boundaries of Afghanistan can be stated here only 
in rough geographical outline, and from the area thus broadly defined, 
many portions will have to be deducted, being occupied, as they are, 
by independent or semi-independent States and tribes, who owe no 
allegiance to the Amir. Subject to this understanding, the boundaries 
may be thus given : — 

On the north : beginning from the east, the great range of the Hindu 
Kush, a western offshoot of the Himalayas, parting the Oxus basin 
from the Afghan basins of the Kabul river and the Helmand. From 
long. 68° this boundary continues westward, in the prolongation of the 
Hindu Kush, called Koh-i-Baba. This breaks into several almost 
parallel branches, enclosing the valleys of the Han'-rud or river of 
Herat, and the Murgh-ab or river of Merv. The half-independent 
Hazara tribes stretch across these branches and down into the Oxus 
basin, so that it is difficult here to assign a boundary. It is assumed 
to continue along the range called Safed Koh or 'White Mountain,' 
which parts the Herat river valley from the Murgh-ab. 


On the east : the eastern base of the spurs of the Sulaimdn and other 
mountains which limit the plains on the right bank of Indus, and the 
lower valleys opening into them; the said plains (the * DerajdV) and 
lower valleys belonging to British India. North of Peshawar District 
the boundary is, for a space, the Indus; thereafter the limit lies in 
unknown country, between the Afghan and Dard tribes. 

On the south : the eastern part of the boundary, occupied by prac- 
tically independent tribes, Afghan and Baluch, is hard to define, having 
no marked natural landmarks. But from the Shal territory (long. 67 ), 
belonging to the Baluch State of Khelat, westward, the southern limits 
of the Helmand, as far as the lake of Seistan to a peak called KuJi 
Malik-i-Siyah, in lat. 30 and long. 6o° 40', complete the southern 
boundary. Thus, the whole breadth of the Baluch country, the ancient 
Gedrosia, a dry region occupying 5 degrees of latitude, intervenes 
between Afghanistan and the sea. 

The western boundary runs from Kuh Malik-i-Siyah north-eastward 
to a point near Nadali on the Helmand, so as to exclude a part of 
the plain of Seistan on the further bank of the lake, and then bending 
westwards, crosses the lake to near the meridian of 61 \ Thence it 
runs nearly due north, along this meridian to a point on the Hari-riid, 
or river of Herat, about 70 miles from that city, where it encounters 
the spurs of the Safed Koh, which have been given as the northern 

But if the limits of the entire Afghan dominions are taken as they are 
at present supposed to exist, the western boundary will continue north 
along the Hari-riid to Sarrakhs, in lat. 36 30', and the northern boundary 
will run from this point along the borders of the Turkoman desert, so as 
to include Andkhoi, up to Khoja Saleh ferry on the Oxus. The Oxus, to 
its source in the Great Pamir, forms the rest of the northern boundary. 
These enlarged limits would embrace the remainder of the Hazdra 
mountain tracts, and the whole of what is now called Afghan Tiirkistan, 
as well as Badakhshan with its dependencies. Bhagis is included 
within, while Bajour and Swat are excluded from Afghanistan. 

The extreme dimensions of Afghanistan, as at first defined, are 
about 750 miles from east to west, and about 450 miles from north to 
south ; and if we take the external limits of the whole Afghan dominion, 
the extent from north to south will be increased to about 600 miles. 

The whole country, excepting parts of the Kabul valley, and a 
triangle roughly defined by the positions of Kandahar, Herat, and the 
Seistan Lake, and a small part bordering the desert on the north-west, 
has an elevation of more than 4000 feet above the sea, and vast regions 
lie upwards of 7000 feet. 

Natural Divisions.— (1.) The Kabul basin; (2.) the lofty central 
part of the table-land on which stand Ghazni and Kilat-i-Ghilzdi 


(embracing the upper valleys of ancient Arac/iosia) ; (3.) the upper 
Helmand basin; (4.) the lower Helmand basin, embracing Girishk, 
Kandahar, and the Afghan portion of Seistan ; (5.) the basin of the 
Herat river; and (6.) the eastern part of the table-land, drained by 
streams, chiefly occasional torrents, flowing towards the Indus. 

The Kabul basin has as its northern limit the range of the Hindu Kush ; 
a name which properly applies to the lofty snow-clad crest due north of 
Kabul, and perhaps especially to one pass and peak. But it has been 
conveniently extended to the whole line of alpine watershed, stretching 
westward from the southern end of Pamir, and represents the Caucasus 
of Alexander's historians. Its peaks throughout probably rise to the 
region of perpetual snow, and even on most of the passes beds of snow 
occur at all seasons, and on some, glaciers. No precise height has 
been stated for any of its peaks, but the highest probably attain to at 
least from 20,000 to 25,000 feet. The height of the Kushan Pass is 
estimated by Lord at 15,000 feet; all the passes, some 20 in number, 
are near, or over, 12,000 feet. 

Rivers. The Kabul river (the ancient Kophes) is the most important 

river of Afghanistan. It may be considered as fully formed about 
30 miles east of Kabul, by the junction thereabouts of the following 
streams: — (a.) The Kabul stream, rising in the Unai Pass towards the 
Helmand, which, after passing through the city, has been joined by 
the Logar river, flowing north from the skirts of the Ghilzai plateau. 
lb.) A river bringing down from the valleys of Ghorband and Panjshir a 
large part of the drainage of the Hindu Kush, and watering the fruitful 
plain of Daman-i-Koh (the ' Hill-skirt '), intersected by innumerable 
brooks and studded with vineyards, gardens, and fortalices. This river 
was formerly called Baran, a name apparently obsolete, but desirable 
to maintain, (c.) The river of Tagao, coming down from the spurs of 
the Hindu Kush on the Kafir borders. 

About 30 miles farther east, the Alishang enters the Kabul on the 
left bank, from Laghman, above which the Alishang drains western 
Kafiristan. Twenty miles farther, and not much beyond Jalalabad, the 
Kabul receives from the same side a confluent entitled, as regards 
length, to count as the main stream. In some older maps this bears 
the name of Kama, from a place near the confluence, and in more 
recent ones Kunar, from a district on its lower course. Higher up it 
is called the river of Kds/iMr, also the Beildm. It seems to be the 
Choaspes, and perhaps the Malamantus of the ancients. It rises in a 
small lake near the borders of Pamir, and flows in a south-west direc- 
tion through the length of Kashkar or Chitral, a State whose soil lies 
at a height of 6000 to 1 1,000 feet. The whole length of the river to its 
confluence with the Kabul river cannot be less than 300 miles, or con- 
siderably longer than that regarded as the main stream, measured to its 


most remote source. The Landai, an important tributary, joins near 
Peshawar, bringing in the Swat (Soastus), and waters of Bajaur. 

The basin of the Kabul river is divided by the Paghman range, an 
offshoot of the Hindu Kush, from the Helmand. The road to Tiirkistan 
leads up to the head waters of the stream that passes Kabul, crossing 
for a brief space into the Helmand basin by the easy Pass of Unai 
(11,320 feet), and then over the Koh-i-Baba, or western extension of 
the Hindu Kush, by the Hajjikhak Passes (12,190 and 12,900 feet), 
to Bamian. 

The most conspicuous southern limit of the Kabul basin is the Safed 
Koh, Spin-gar of the Afghans ('White Mountain,' not to be confounded 
with the western Safed Koh already named), an alpine chain, reaching 
in its highest summit, Sikarram, to a height of 15,620 feet, and the 
eastern ramifications of which extend to the Indus at and below Attock. 
Among the northern spurs of this range are those formidable passes 
between Kabul and Jalalabad, in which the disasters of 1841-42 cul- 
minated, and the famous Khaibar (Khyber) Passes between Jalalabad 
and Peshawar. This southern watershed formed by the Safed Koh, is 
so much nearer the Kabul river than that on the north, that the 
tributaries from its northern side, though numerous, are individually 
insignificant. The Kabul finally enters the Indus above the gorge at 

The lowest ford on the Kabul river, near Jalalabad, is a bad one, and 
only passable in the dry season. Below the Kiinar confluence, the river 
is deep and copious, crossed by ferries only, except at Naushera (Now- 
shera), below Peshawar, where there is usually a bridge of boats. The 
rapid current is unfavourable to navigation, but from Jalalabad down- 
wards, the river can float boats of 50 tons, and is often descended by 
rafts on inflated skins. 

A marked natural division of the Kabul basin occurs near Gandamak, 
above Jalalabad, where a sudden descent takes effect from a minimum 
elevation of 5000 feet to one of only 2000. The Emperor Babar says 
of this : — ' The moment you descend, you see quite another world. 
The timber is different; its grains are of another sort; its animals are 
of a different species; and the manners and customs of its inhabitants 
are of a different kind.' Burnes, on his first journey, left the wheat 
harvest in progress at Jalalabad, and found the crop at Gandamak, only 
25 miles distant, but 3 inches above ground. Here, in truth, nature 
has planted one of the gates of India. The valleys of the upper basin, 
though still in the height of summer affected by a sun of fierce power, 
recall the climate and products of the finest parts of temperate Europe ; 
the region below is a chain of narrow, low, and hot plains, with climate 
and vegetation of an Indian character. 

The remainder of the country, regarded by the Afghans as included 


in Khorasan, exhibits neither the savage sublimity of the denies of the 
Kabul region, the alpine forests of its higher ranges, nor its occasional 
nests of rich vegetation in the valleys, save in the north-east part 
adjoining Safed Koh, where these characters still adhere, and in some 
exceptional localities, such as the valley of Herat, which is matchless in 
richness of cultivation. The characteristics of this Khorasan country 
are, elevated plateaux of sandy or gravelly surface, broken by ranges of 
rocky hills, and often expanding into wide spaces of arid waste, which 
terminate to the south-west in a regular desert of shifting sand. Even 
in cultivated parts there is a singular absence of trees, and when the 
crops are not visible, the Khorasan landscape has an aspect of great 
desolation and emptiness. Natural wood, however, is found in some 
parts of West Afghanistan, as in the almost tropical delta of the Hel- 
mand, in the Ghor territory, and on the Herat river below Herat. The 
trees appear to be for the most part willows, tamarisks, and the like, 
with little body of foliage. 

Next to the Kabul river in importance, and probably much exceeding 
it in volume, as it certainly does in length, is the Helmand {Etymatider), 
the only considerable river in its latitude from the Tigris to the Indus. 
The Helmand has its highest sources in the Koh-i-Baba and Paghman 
hills, between Kabul and Bamian. Its succeeding course is through 
the least - known tract of Afghanistan, chiefly occupied by Hazaras ; 
indeed, for a length of nearly 300 miles down to Girishk, where the 
Helmand is crossed by the principal route from Herat to Kandahar, 
we know of no published account of the river. The character of the 
Helmand is said to be that of a mountain river, flowing between scarped 
rocks, and obstructed by enormous boulders till within 40 miles of 
Girishk. At that point it enters on a flat country, and, extending over 
a gravelly bed, begins to be used for purposes of irrigation. Forty-five 
miles below Girishk, and just below Kala-i-Bist, the Helmand receives 
its greatest tributary, the Arghand-ab, flowing west of Kandahar from 
the high Ghilzai country. The Helmand here becomes a very con- 
siderable river, said to have a width of 300 or 400 yards, and a depth 
of 9 to 12 feet. But this cannot be the case at all seasons, as fords 
occur at intervals as far down as Pulalik, 100 miles from the mouth. 
The desert draws near the left bank in its lower course, and throughout 
its last 150 miles, the moving sands approach to within i\ miles. 
The vegetation on the banks is here of a luxuriant, tropical character. 
The whole of the lower valley seems to have been once the seat of a 
prosperous population, and there is still a good deal of cultivation 
for 100 miles below Girishk. Even this, however, has much fallen 
off, and lower down still more so, owing to disorders and excessive 

The course of the Helmand is more or less south-west from its 


source, till in Seistan it approaches meridian 62°, when it runs nearly 
north, and so flows on for 70 or So miles, till it falls into the lake of 
Seistan by various mouths. The whole length of the river is about 650 
miles. Ferrier considers that it has water enough for navigation at all 
seasons, from Girishk downwards. At present, boats are rarely seen, 
and those in use are very clumsy ; inflated skin-rafts are employed for 

Next to the Helmand is the Hari-nid, rising at an elevation of 9500 
or 10,000 feet in lat. 34 50', long. 66° 20', at a point where the Koh-i- 
Baba range branches off into the Koh-Siah and Safed-Koh ranges which 
form its north and south watersheds. Receiving the waters of several 
streams, its volume is great at the village of Obeh ; here its waters are 
drawn off by canals for purposes of irrigation. After leaving Herat its 
volume is again increased by other large tributaries ; and as it enters 
Persian territory it divides into two branches, the largest of which 
flows, without being turned to any account, to within a short distance 
of Sarrakhs, where it is lost in the steppes. The rise of this river in the 
spring or season of floods is very considerable ; it is then deep and 
exceedingly difficult to cross. Above Obeh the course is very rapid, 
and there are several cataracts many feet in height. The whole length 
of its course may be put down at 500 miles. Minor streams of 
Afghanistan : The Arghand-ab, Tarnak, Arghestan, Dori, Khash-riid, 
Farrah-nid, Hari-nid, Kiiram, and Giimal. 

Lakes. — As nothing is known of the lake in which the Lora is said to 
end, and the greater part of the lake or swamp of Seistan is excluded 
from Afghanistan, there remains only the Ab-i-estdda, on the Ghilzai 
plateau. This is about 65 miles south of Ghazni, and stands at a height 
of about 7000 feet, in a site of most barren and dreary aspect, with no 
tree or blade of grass, and hardly a habitation in sight. It is about 44 
miles in circuit, and very shallow; not more than 12 feet deep in the 
middle. The chief feeder is the Ghazni river. The Afghans speak of 
a stream draining the lake; but this report seems ill-founded, although 
an outflow occurs at intervals from the south end of the lake (as in 
1878), and the saltness and bitterness of the lake argue against it. 
Fish entering the salt water from the Ghazni river, sicken and die. 

Provinces and Towns. — The chief political divisions of Afghan- 
istan Proper, in recent times, are stated to be, Kabul, Jalalabad, 
Ghazni, Kandahar, and Herat, to which are sometimes added the 
command of the Ghilzais and of the Hazaras. 

After the capitals of these divisions, there are but few other places in 
Afghanistan which can be called towns. The following may be noted 

here : — 

Istdlif is a town in the Koh-i-Daman, 20 miles n.n.w. of Kabul, 
which was stormed and destroyed, 29th September 1S42, by a force 

VOL. I. C 


under General M'Caskill, to punish the townspeople for the massacre 
of the garrison at Charikar, and for harbouring the murderers of Burnes. 
The place is singularly picturesque and beautiful. The rude houses 
rise terrace over terrace on the mountain-side, forming a pyramid, 
crowned by a shrine embosomed in a fine clump of planes. The dell 
below, traversed by a clear, rapid stream, both sides of which are 
clothed with vineyards and orchards, opens out to the great plain of the 
Daman-i-Koh, rich with trees and cultivation, and dotted with turreted 
castles ; beyond these are rocky ridges, and above all the eternal snows 
of the Hindu Kush. Nearly every householder has his garden with a 
tower, to which the families repair in the fruit season, closing their 
houses in the town. The town is estimated, with seven villages 
depending on it, to contain about 18,000 souls. The inhabitants are 
Tajiks, and, contrary to the usual habits of these people, are among the 
most turbulent class in the country. They have the reputation also of 
being the best foot-soldiers in Afghanistan, and are a healthy handsome 
race, fond alike of sport and of war. Coarse cloths, lungis and susi 
are manufactured, and a trade in them is maintained with Tiirkistan. 
There are about 50 families of Sikh shopkeepers. Lat. 34 50' n., 
long. 69 7' e. 

Charikar lies $6 miles north of Kabul, and about 20 miles north of 
Istalif, at the north end of Koh-i-Daman, on the high road to Tiirkistan. 
Lat. 35 3' N. ; long. 69 10' e. It is watered by a canal, which leaves 
the Ghorband river at Kala-i-Shafi. In 1882, it contained about 3000 
houses, and a covered market-place, the traders and shopkeepers being 
mostly Sikhs, of whom there are about 150 families. Iron ore is 
brought here in great quantities from the Ghorband mines, and worked 
up principally for the Kabul market. There are several mud forts within 
the town, the largest being the Kala-i-Kazi. In this neighbourhood was 
the Triodon, or meeting of the three roads from Bactria, spoken of by 
Strabo and Pliny. Charikar is still the seat of the customs levied on the 
trade with Tiirkistan. It is also the residence of the governor of the 
Kohistan or hill country of Kabul, and a place of considerable com- 
merce. During the British occupation, a Political Agent (Major Eldred 
Pottinger, famous in the defence of Herat) was posted here with a 
Giirkha corps under Captain Codrington and Lieutenant Houghton. 
In the revolt of 1841, after severe fighting, they attempted to make 
their way to Kabul, and a great part was cut off. Pottinger, Houghton 
(with the loss of an arm), and only one sepoy then reached the city, 
though many were afterwards saved. 

Kildt-i-Ghilzdi has no town, but is a fortress of some importance 
on the right bank of the Tarnak, on the road between Ghazni and 
Kandahar, 89 miles from the latter, and at a height of 5543 feet The 
repulse of the Afghans in 1842, by a sepoy garrison under Captain 



Craigie, was one of the most brilliant feats of that war. Lat. 32 7' x. ; 
long. 66° 55' e. 

GirisJik is also a fort rather than a town, the latter being insignificant. 
It is important for its position on the high road between Kandahar and 
Herat, commanding the ordinary passage and summer ford of the 
Helmand. It was held by the British from 1839 ^M August 1842 ; and 
for the last nine months of that period amid great difficulties, by a 
native garrison only, under a gallant Indian soldier, Balwant Singh. 
Lat. 31 45' n. ; long. 64 37' e. 

Farrah belongs to the Seistan basin, and stands on the river that 
bears its name, and on one of the main routes from Herat to Kandahar, 
164 miles from the former, 236 miles from the latter. The place is 
enclosed by a huge earthen rampart, crowned with towers, and sur- 
rounded by a wide and deep ditch, which can be flooded, and with a 
covered way. It has the form of a parallelogram, running north and 
south, and only two gates. As a military position, it is of great im- 
portance, but it is excessively unhealthy. Though the place would 
easily contain 4500 houses, there were but 60 habitable when Ferrier 
was there in 1845, nor was there much change for the better when 
Colonel Pelly passed in 1858. Farrah is a place of great antiquity; 
it would seem to be the Phra of Isidore of Charax (1st century), and 
possibly also the Prophthasia, though this is perhaps to be sought in 
the great ruins of Peshawaran, farther south, near Lash. According to 
Ferrier, who alludes to ' ancient chronicles and traditions,' the city on 
the present site within the great rampart, was sacked by the armies of 
Ghinghiz (Chengis Khan), and the survivors transported to another 
position farther north, where there are now many ruins and bricks of 
immense size (a yard square), with cuneiform letters, showing that site to 
be greatly older than the time of Ghinghiz. The population came back 
to the southern position after the destruction of the mediaeval city by 
Shah Abbas, and the town prospered again till its bloody siege by 
Nadir Shah. Since then, under constant attacks, it has declined, and 
in 1837 the remaining population, amounting to 6000, was carried off 
to Kandahar. Such are the vicissitudes of a city on this unhappy 
frontier. Lat. 32 26' N. ; long. 62 8' e. 

Sabzavdr, the name of which is a corruption of old Persian, Tsphizdr, 
' horse-pastures,' forms another important strategic point, 93 miles from 
Herat, and 71 miles north of Farrah, in similar decay to the latter. 
The present fort, which in 1845 contained a small bazar and 100 
houses, must once have been the citadel of a large city, now represented 
by extensive suburbs, partly in ruins. Water is conducted from the 
Hari-nid by numerous canals, which also protect the approaches. 
Lat. 33 17' n. ; long. 62 17' e. 

Zarni is a town in the famous but little explored country of Ghor, to 


the east of Herat, the cradle of a monarchy (the Ghor dynasty) which 
supplanted the Ghaznevides, and ruled over an extensive dominion, 
including all Afghanistan, for several generations. Ruins abound ; 
the town itself is small, and enclosed by a wall in decay. It lies in a 
pleasant valley, through which fine streams wind, said to abound with 
trout. The hills around are covered with trees, luxuriantly festooned 
with vines. The population in 1845 was about 1200, among whom 
Ferrier noticed some Gheber families (remarkable, if correct). The 
bulk of the people are Sun's and Taimunis, both apparently very old 
Persian tribes. The statements in this paragraph rest entirely on 
Ferrier's authority. 

Lash is also a fort rather than a town, and is situated 60 miles south- 
west of Farrah, on the summit of a scarped sugar-loaf eminence, 
immediately under which flows the Farrah-rud. Its position with 
reference to Herat, Persia, and Kandahar is of very great strategical 
importance, and for this reason the chief is always possessed of much 
political influence. There are not more than 70 or 80 houses within 
its e?iceinte, but there are always several thousand tents of nomads 
encamped in its vicinity. Lat. 31° 43' n. ; long. 6i° 35' E. ; height 
1400 feet. 

G/wridn, situated 35 miles due west of Herat, on an extensive and 
well-cultivated level plain, is a town containing some 500 households, 
and a fort, built by the Persians in the war with the Afghans in 1856, 
on the site of the old citadel, whose battlements are in part still standing 
without the ditch. On the advance of Persian arms to Herat in 1837, 
this place was given up by treachery, and in 1844 the citadel was 
demolished by Yar Muhammad, to court the favour of the Persian 
monarch. Lat. 34° 20' N. ; long. 6i° 27' e. 

Natural Productions. — Minerals. — Afghanistan is believed to be rich 
in minerals, but few are wrought. Small quantities of gold are taken 
from the streams in Laghman and the adjoining districts. Famous 
silver mines were formerly wrought near the head of the Panjshir 
valley, in the Hindu Kush. Iron of excellent quality is produced 
in the (independent) territory of Bajaur, north-west of Peshawar, from 
magnetic iron sand, and is exported. Iron is also found or reported to 
exist in the Mahsiid Wazfri country. Kabul is chiefly supplied from 
the Permiili (or Farmuli) District, between the Upper Kuram and 
Gumal, where it is said to be abundant. Iron ore is most plentiful 
near the passes leading to Bamian, and in other parts of the Hindu 
Kush. Copper ore from various parts of Afghanistan has been seen, but 
it is nowhere worked. Lead is found, e.g., in Upper Bangash (Kuram 
District), and in the Shinwari country (among the branches of the Safed 
Koh), and in the Kakar country. There are reported to be rich lead 
mines near Herat scarcely worked. Lead, with antimony, is found 


near the Argband-ab, 32 miles north-west of Kilat-i-Ghilzdi ; in the 
Wardak hills, 24 miles north of Ghazni ; in the Ghorband valley, north 
of Kabul ; and in the Afridi country, near our frontier. Most of the 
lead used, however, comes from the Hazara country, where the ore is 
described as being gathered on the surface. An ancient mine of great 
extent and elaborate character exists at Feringal, in the Ghorband 
valley. Antimony is obtained in considerable quantities at Shah- 
Maksiid, about 30 miles north of Kandahar. Silicate of zinc in 
nodular fragments comes from the Zhob District of the Kakar country. 
It is chiefly used by cutlers for polishing. Sulphur is said to be found 
at Herat, dug from the soil in small fragments, but the chief supply 
comes from the Hazdra country, and from Pirkisri, on the confines of 
Seistan, where there would seem to be a crater or fumarole. Sal- 
ammoniac is brought from the same place. Gypsum is found in 
large quantities in the plain of Kandahar, being dug out in fragile 
coralline masses from near the surface. Coal (perhaps lignite) is said 
to be found in Zurmat (between the Upper Kuram and the Gumal) 
and near Ghazni. Nitre abounds in the soil over all the south-w r est of 
Afghanistan, and often affects the water of the kdrez or subterranean 

Climate. — The climate of a country like Afghanistan is necessarily 
as diversified as its physical configuration, due almost entirely to 
difference of elevation rather than of latitude. Taking elevation then 
as our guide, we find the winter at Ghazni, 7280 feet in elevation, most 
severe, the thermometer sinking to io° and 15 Fahr. below zero. 
Before the 15th December, the passes over the Hindu Kush are closed 
to all but footmen, and the full force of winter sets in about the middle 
of January, the thermometer frequently falling io° and 12 below zero; 
and no change occurs before March. In the Hazarajat also, as well as 
in Kabul, the winter is excessively severe. Rigorous as is the winter 
in the Ghazni district, it diminishes in severity as the country falls, and 
is mildest at Kandahar where snow falls only in severe seasons. In 
Herat the winter is tolerably mild, and at Jalalabdd it is as mild as in 
India. As regards the winter season generally in Afghanistan, it may 
be safely surmised that it is intense above an elevation of 5000 feet ; 
below this elevation it decreases in proportion to the height. The heat 
of summer is almost everywhere great, except in the very elevated 
parts of the Hindu Kush and other lofty mountains. In the Jalalabad 
District the heat during summer is so intense as to produce simooms and 
destroy animal life. Even at Kabul, though at an elevation of 5780 
feet, the thermometer ranges from 90 to 100 in summer. At Kandahar 
and Seistan it is frequently above no° in the shade, and hot winds 
blow, accompanied by frequent dust storms. At Herat the temperature 
at this season is generally moderate, and the climate one of the most 


agreeable in Asia. Ferrier says, that for nine months the sun shines 
with the greatest splendour in Afghanistan, and that the nights are even 
more beautiful than the days. The monsoon which deluges India has 
scarcely any effect in this country farther west than the Sulaiman range, 
the rainfall in winter being slight and in summer of rare occurrence. 
The hot season lasts from June to September ; the autumn, winter, 
and spring months from October to May. In winter, acute pulmonary 
affections prevail, and from September to November fevers and bowel 
complaints are very rife. 

Agriculture. — The great variety of climate and elevation, enriches 
Afghanistan with the products alike of the temperate and the tropical 
zones. In most parts of the country there are two harvests, as in India. 
One of these, called by the Afghans bahdrak, or the spring crop, is sown 
in the end of autumn and reaped in summer. It consists of wheat, 
barley, and a variety of lentils. The other, called pdizah or tirmdi, the 
autumn crop, is sown in the end of spring and reaped in autumn. It 
consists of rice, varieties of millet and sorghum, of maize, Phaseolus 
mungo, tobacco, beet, turnips, etc. The loftier regions have but one 
harvest. Wheat is the staple food over the greater part of the country. 
Rice is largely distributed, but is most abundant in Swat (independent), 
and best in Peshawar (British). It is also the chief crop in Kiiram. In 
the eastern mountainous country, bdjra (ffolcus spicatus) is the principal 
grain. Many English and Indian garden stuffs are cultivated ; turnips 
in some places very largely, as cattle food. Sugar-cane and madder are 
important products, together with a great variety of melons, grapes, and 
apples ; dried fruits, indeed, form a staple export from Afghanistan to 
India. Canal irrigation is employed in the Kabul valley, while in the 
western provinces the karez, a peculiar underground aqueduct, is much 
resorted to. 

Domestic Animals. — The camel of Afghanistan is of a more robust 
and compact breed than the tall beast used in India, and is more care- 
fully tended. The two-humped Bactrian camel is sometimes seen, but 
is not a native. Horses form a staple export to India. The best of 
these, however, are brought from Maimana, and other places on the 
Khorasan and Turkoman frontier. The indigenous horse is the ydfrii, 
a stout, heavy-shouldered animal, of about 14 hands high, used chiefly 
for burden, but also for riding. It gets over incredible distances at an 
ambling shuffle, but is unfit for fast work, and cannot stand excessive 
heat. The breed of horses improved rapidly under the late Amir Dost 
Muhammad, who took much interest in it. As a rule, colts are sold 
and worked too young. The cows of Kandahar and Seistan give very 
large quantities of milk. They seem to be of the humped variety, but 
with the hump evanescent. Dairy produce is important in Afghan 
diet, especially the pressed and dried curd called krut (an article and 


name perhaps introduced by the Mongols). There are two varieties of 
sheep, both having the fat tail. One bears a white fleece, the other a 
russet or black one. Much of the white wool is exported to Persia, 
and now largely to Europe and Bombay. Flocks of sheep are the main 
wealth of the nomad population, and mutton is the chief animal food 
of the people. In autumn large numbers are slaughtered, their car- 
cases cut up, rubbed with salt, and dried in the sun. The same is 
done with beef and camel's flesh. The goats, generally black or parti- 
coloured, seem to be a degenerate variety of the shawl-goat. The 
climate is found to be favourable to dog-breeding. Pointers are reared 
in the Kohistan of Kabul and above Jalalabad— large, heavy, slow- 
hunting, but fine-nosed and staunch, very like the old double-nosed 
Spanish pointer. There are greyhounds also, but inferior in speed to 
second-rate English dogs. The kkandi is another sporting dog, most 
useful, but of complex breed. He is often used for turning up quail 
and partridge to the hawk. 

Industrial Products. — These are not important. Silk is produced 
in Kabul, Jalalabad, Kandahar, and Herat, and chiefly consumed in 
domestic manufactures, though the best qualities are carried to the 
Punjab and Bombay. Excellent carpets— soft, brilliant, and durable in 
colour — were made at Herat, and usually sold in India as Persian. But 
the manufacture received a check, and for a time ceased altogether, in 
1863. The weavers migrated to Birjand, although a well-known pattern 
of Persian carpet is still called the Herati. Excellent felts, and a variety of 
woven goods, are made from the wool of the sheep, goat, and Bactrian 
camel. A manufacture, of which there is now a considerable export to 
the Punjab, for the winter clothing of our irregular troops, besides a 
large domestic use, is that of the postin, or sheepskin pelisse. The 
long wool remains on, and the skin is tanned yellow, with admirable 
softness and suppleness. Pomegranate rind is a chief material in the 
preparation. Rosaries are extensively made at Kandahar from a soft 
crystallized silicate of magnesia (chrysolite). The best are of a semi- 
transparent straw colour, like amber. They are largely exported, 
especially to Mecca. 

Trade. — Practically, there are no navigable rivers in Afghanistan, 
nor any roads for wheeled carriages. Hence goods are carried on 
beasts of burden, chiefly camels, along roads which often lie through 
close and craggy defiles, and narrow stony valleys, among bare moun- 
tains, or over waste plains. Though from time immemorial the larger 
part of the products of India, destined for Western Asia and Europe, has 
been exported by sea, yet at one time valuable caravans of these products, 
with the same destination, used to traverse the rugged Afghan roads. 
The great trade routes are the following :— (1) From Persia by Meshed 
(Mashad) to Herat. (2) From Bokhara, by Maimana to Herat. (3) From 


the same quarter, by Karshi, Balkh, and Khulm, to Kabul. (4) From 
the Punjab, by Peshawar and the Tatara or Abkhana passes to Kabul. 
(5) From the Punjab, by Peshawar and Jamriid, through the Khaibar 
pass to Kabul. (6) From the Punjab, by the Giimal or Ghwalari pass 
to Ghazni. (7) From Sind, by the Bolan pass to Kandahar. There is 
also a route from Eastern Turkistan by Chitral or Jalalabad, or to 
Peshawar by Dfr; but it is doubtful how far there is any traffic at 

Towards Sind the chief exports from or through Afghanistan are wool, 
horses, silk, fruit, madder, and assafoetida. The staple of local produc- 
tion exported from Kandahar is dried fruit. The horse trade in this 
direction is chiefly carried on by the Sayyids of Pishin, Kakars, Bakh- 
tiyaris and Baluchis. The Sayyids also do, or did, dabble largely in 
slave-dealing. The Hazaras furnished the largest part of the victims. 
Burnes' early anticipation of a large traffic in wool from the regions west 
of the Indus, has been amply verified, for the trade has for many years 
been of growing importance; and in 1876-77 the shipment of wool 
from Sind had reached nearly 20,000,000 lbs. The importation to Sind 
is chiefly in the hands of Shikarpur merchants. Indeed, nearly all the 
trade from southern Afghanistan is managed by Hindus. That between 
Meshed (Mashad), Herat, and Kandahar is carried on by Persians, 
who bring down silk, arms, turquoises, horses, carpets, etc., and take 
back wool, skins, and woollen fabrics. The chief imports by Peshawar 
into Afghanistan through India, are, cotton, woollen, and silk goods 
from England ; and coarse country cloths, sugar, tea, indigo, Benares 
brocades, gold thread and lace, scarves, leather groceries, and drugs 
from India. The exports are raw silk and silk fabrics of Bokhara, gold 
and silver wire (Russian), horses, almonds, raisins, and fruits generally, 
furs (including dressed fox-skins and sheep-skins), and bullion. 

The trade with India is thus estimated. I give the latest figures 
which I have been able to obtain (1884) : — 

Exports to India. Im g^ fr ° m Total. 

With Sind (1880-81), . £32,732 £172,182 £204,914 

With Punjab (1880-81), . 324,061 986,006 1,310,067 

£356,793 £1,158,188 £1,514,981 

The Sind figures include part of the trade with Khelat, which cannot 
be separated, but the return omits some passes, and the Bolan exports 
do not include the large item of wool which enters Sind farther south. 

A relic of the old times of Asiatic trade has come down to our day 
in the habits of the Afghan traders, commonly called Povindas, who are 
at once agriculturists, traders, and warriors, and who spend their lives 
in carrying on traffic between India, Khorasin, and Bokhara, with 
strings of camels and ponies, banded in large armed caravans, to pro- 


tect themselves, as far as possible, from the ever-recurring exactions on 
the road. Bullying, fighting, evading, or bribing, they battle their way 
twice a year between Bokhara and the Indus. Their summer pastures 
are in the highlands of Ghazni and Kildt-i-Ghilzai. In the autumn 
they descend the Sulaimdn passes. At the Indus they have to deposit 
all weapons with our officers : for, once within the British frontier, they 
are safe. They leave their families and their camels in the Punjab, and 
take their goods by rail to Calcutta and the Gangetic cities, or by boat 
and steamer to Karachi and Bombay. Even in Assam or in distant 
Rangoon, the Povinda is to be seen, pre-eminent by stature and by 
lofty air, not less than by his rough locks and filthy clothes. In March, 
they rejoin their families, and move up again to the Ghilzai highlands, 
sending on caravans anew to Kabul, Bokhara, Kandahar, and Herat, 
the whole returning in time to accompany the tribe down the passes 
in the autumn. The name Povinda is supposed to be derived from 
the Persian Pdrwinda, a bale of goods, and seems to be indifferently 
applied to the Lohanis (the most important section), Wazirfs, Kakars, 
Ghilzais, or any other tribe, temporarily or permanently forming part 
of this singular ' trades' union.' 

Races of Afghanistan. — These may first be divided into Afghan 
and non-Afghan, of whom the Afghan people are predominant in 
numbers, power, and character. A full and very interesting account of 
them will be found in Dr. Bellew's admirable work. Of the Afghans 
proper there are about a dozen great clans, with numerous sub-divisions. 
Of the great clans the following four are the most important : — 

The Durdnis, originally called Abdalis, a name which has been 
traced to the Ephthalites and Abdela of the Byzantine writers of the 6th 
century. It was changed to Durani from the title of Duri-Duran, 
' Pearl of the Age,' assumed by Ahmad Shah of the Saddozai branch of 
the Popalzais, when he usurped the supreme power at Kandahdr on the 
death of Nadir Shah in 1747, since which time the Duranis have been 
the ruling tribe. Their country may be regarded as comprising the 
whole of the south and south-west of the Afghan plateau, but mainly in 
the tract between Herat and Kandahar. 

The Ghilzais are the strongest of the Afghan clans, and perhaps the 
bravest. They were supreme in Afghanistan in the beginning of the last 
century, and for a time possessed the throne of Ispahan. They occupy 
the high plateau north of Kandahar, and extend, roughly speaking, 
eastward to the Sulaiman mountains, and north to the Kabul river 
(though in places passing these limits), and they extend down the 
Kabul river to Jalalabad. On the British invasion in 1839, the Ghilzais 
showed a rooted hostility to the foreigner, and great fidelity to Dost 
Muhammad, though of a rival clan. It is remarkable that the old Arab 
geographers of the 10th and nth centuries place in the Ghilzai country 


a people called Khilijis, whom they call a tribe of Turks, to which 
belonged a famous family of Delhi kings. The Ghilzais are said to 
look like Turks, whilst the possibility of the identity of the names Khiliji 
and Ghilzai is obvious, and the question touches others regarding the 
origin of the Afghans. 

The Yusufzdis occupy an extensive tract of hills and valleys north of 
Peshawar, including part of the Peshawar plain. Except those within 
the British District of Peshawar, they are independent j they are noted, 
even among Afghans, for their turbulence. 

The Kakars, still retaining in great measure their independence, 
occupy a wide extent of elevated country in the south-east of Afghan- 
istan, among the spurs of the Toba and Sulaiman mountains, bordering 
on the Baluch tribes. But the region is still very imperfectly known. 

The other Afghan clans are the Khugidnis, chiefly in the Jalalabad 
district ; the Mohmandzdis, in the hills north-west of Peshawar, chief 
town Lalpura ; the Khataks, chiefly in the districts of Peshawar and 
Kohat ; the Utmdn Khel, in the hills north of Peshawar ; the Bangash, 
in the Kohat, Kiiram, and Miranzai valleys ; the Afiidis, in the west 
and south of the Peshawar district ; the Orakzdis, in the Tira highlands, 
north and west of Kohat ; and the Shiiiwdris, in the Khaibar hills and 
eastern valleys of the Safed-Koh. 

Of the non-Afghan population associated with the Afghans, the Tajiks 
come first in importance and numbers. They are intermingled with the 
Afghans over the country, though their chief localities are in the west. 
They are regarded as descendants of the original occupants of that part 
of the country, of the old Iranian race ; they call themselves Parsiwan 
and speak a dialect of Persian. They are a fine athletic people, gene- 
rally fair in complexion, and resemble the Afghans in aspect, in dress, 
and much in manners. But they are never nomadic. They are 
chiefly agriculturists, while those in towns follow mechanical trades 
and the like, which the Afghan seldom does. They are generally 
devoid of the turbulence of the Afghans, whom they are content to 
regard as masters and superiors, and lead a frugal, industrious life, 
without aspiring to a share in the government of the country. Many, 
however, become soldiers in the Amir's army, and many enlist in our 
local Punjab regiments. They are zealous Sunnis. The Tajiks of the 
Daman-i-Koh of Kabul are said to be of an exceptionally turbulent 
and vindictive character. 

The Kizilbdshis or ' Red Heads ' may be regarded as modern 
Persians, but more strictly they are Persianized Turks, like the present 
royal race and predominant class in Persia. Their immigration dates 
only from the last century, in the time of Nadir Shah (1737). They 
are chiefly to be found in Kabul as merchants, physicians, scribes, 
petty traders, etc., and are justly looked on as the more educated 


and superior class of the population. They are a fine race, and very 
fair in complexion, and fill important posts in the civil administration 
of the country. Many serve in our Indian regiments of irregular 
cavalry, and bear a character for smartness and intelligence, as well as 
for good riding. They are Shias, and heretics in Afghan eyes. It is 
to the industry of the Parsiwans and Kizilbashis that the country is 
indebted for whatever wealth it possesses, but few of them ever attain 
a position which is not in some degree subservient to the Afghan. 

The Hazdras have their stronghold and proper home in the wild 
mountainous country on the north-west of Afghanistan Proper, includ- 
ing those western extensions of the Hindu Kush, to which modern 
geographers have often applied the ancient name of Paropamis-iis. In 
these, their habitations range generally from a height of 5000 feet to 
10,000 feet above the sea. This portion, known as the Hazarajat, has 
always been almost entirely independent of the ruler of Kabul, and it 
is said no Afghan can pass through it. 

The Hazaras generally have features of a Mongol type, often to a 
degree that might be called exaggerated, and there can be little doubt that 
they are mainly descended from fragments of Mongol tribes, who came 
from the east with the armies of Ghinghiz Khan and his family, though 
other races may be represented among the tribes called Hazaras. The 
Hazaras generally are said by Major Leech to be called Mughal s by 
the Ghilzais ; and one tribe, still bearing the specific name of Mongol, 
and speaking a Mongol dialect, is found near the head waters of the 
Murgh-ab, and also farther south on the skirts of the Ghor mountains. 
But it is remarkable that the Hazaras generally speak a purely Persian 
dialect. The Mongols of the host of Ghinghiz were divided into 
tumdns (ten thousands) and hazdras (thousands), and it is probably 
in this use of the word that the origin of its present application is 
to be sought. The oldest occurrence of this application that M. de 
Khanikoff has met with, is in a rescript of Ghazan Khan of Persia, re- 
garding the security of roads in Khorasan, dated a.h. 694 (a.d. 1294-95). 

Though the Hazaras, in the more accessible of their districts, pay 
tribute to the Afghan chiefs, they never do so unless payment is 
enforced by arms. The country which they occupy is very extensive, 
embracing the upper valleys of the Arghand-ab and the Helmand, both 
sides of the main range of the Hindu Kush, nearly as far east as the 
longitude of the Andar-ab, the hill country of Bamian, and that at the 
head waters of the Balkh river, the Murgh-ab, and the Harf-rud, alto- 
gether an area of something like 30,000 square miles. The Hazaras 
are popularly accused of loose domestic morals, like the ancient Massa- 
getce. They manufacture gunpowder, are excellent shots, and, in spite 
of the nature of their country, are good horsemen, riding at speed 
down very steep declivities. They are said to have a jodcl like the 


Swiss. They are often sold as slaves, and as such are prized. During 
the winter many spread over Afghanistan, and even into the Punjab, in 
search of work. Excepting near Ghaznf, where they hold some lands 
and villages, the position of the Hazaras found in the proper Afghan 
country, is a menial one. They are Shias in religion. The majority 
speak Persian. 

Aimdk is a term for a sept or section of a tribe. It has come to be 
applied, like the Ziazdra, to certain nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes 
west of the Hazaras, of whom we have been speaking, and immediately 
north and east of Herit. These tribes are known as ' the four Aimaks.' 
It is difficult in the present state of information regarding them, some- 
times contradictory, to discern what is the broad distinction between 
the Aimaks and the Hazaras, unless it be that the Aimaks are princi- 
pally of Iranian or quasi-Iranian blood, the Hazaras of Turanian. The 
Aimaks are also Sunnis. Part of them are subject to Persia. 

Hindkis. — This name is sometimes given to people of Hindu descent 
scattered over Afghanistan. They are said to be of the Kshattriya or 
military caste. Occupied in commerce, they are found in most of the large 
villages, and in the towns form an important part of the population, 
doing all the banking business of the country, and holding its chief trade 
in their hands. They pay a high poll-tax, and are denied many privi-. 
leges, but thrive notwithstanding. The Jats of Afghanistan doubtless 
belong to the same vast race as the Jats and Jats, who form so large a 
part of the population of the territories now governed from Lahore 
and Karachi (Kurrachee), and whose origin is so obscure. They are a 
fine, athletic, dark, handsome race, considerable in numbers, but poor, 
and usually gaining a livelihood as farm-servants, barbers, sweepers, 
musicians, etc. 

Baluchis. — Of Iranian stock, are represented in Afghanistan by a 
number of hill tribes in the south-east corner. Some also squat among 
the abandoned tracts on the lower Helmand ; the more important are 
known as Kasrdnis, Hozddrs, Khosdbs, Laghdris, Gurchdnis, Marris, 
and Bugtis ; they are a fierce and savage people, professing Islam, but 
not observing its precepts, and holding the grossest superstitions ; ven- 
detta is their most stringent law ; they are insensible to privation, and 
singularly tolerant of heat ; camel-like in capacity to do without drink ; 
and superior to the Afghans in daring and address. 

There remain a variety of tribes in the hill country north of the Kabul 
river, speaking various languages, seemingly of Prdkritic character, and 
known as Kohistanis, Laghmanis, Saffs, etc. ; apparently converted 
remnants of the aboriginal tribes of the Kabul basin, and more or less 
kindred to the still unconverted tribes of Kafiristan, to the Chitral 
people, and perhaps to the Dard tribes, who lie to the north of the 
Afghan country on the Indus. 


The tract called Kafiristan, due north of the Jalalabad district, and 
extending to the snows of the Hindu Kush, is supposed to be inhabited 
by a fair, interesting, and somewhat mysterious people, who are called 
Siah Posh Kafirs (black-clothed unbelievers), who may be one of the 
earliest offshoots of the Aryan race, or perhaps part of the original 
stock itself, and who are said to have remained for ages in or near their 
original home. Few Europeans have seen any of this curious race, and 
even the Muhammadans bordering on their frontiers are unable to give 
any information respecting them. It is reported that they have some 
distinctly European customs, as sitting on chairs and using tables, and 
are affirmed to build their houses of wood, of several stories in height, 
and that they are much embellished with carving. Major Tanner states 
that the carving of the houses in Aret, the nearest village to Kafiristan 
reached by him in his attempt to explore this country, was most 
remarkable. It is possible that some of the Greco-Bactrians, when 
driven from the cities in the valley of the Kabul river, may have sought 
refuge in this almost inaccessible region, and have been absorbed by 
the old population. Up to the present time they have resisted all the 
attempts of the Afghans to subdue and convert them to Muhammadan- 
ism, though those who live on the borders have had to submit, and are 
called Nimchas. See article Kafiristan. 

An able officer of the staff in India (General Sir Charles Macgregor) 
has lately made a careful attempt to estimate the population of 
Afghanistan, which he sets down at 4,901,000 souls, of whom about 
2§ millions are supposed to be Afghans. This includes the estimated 
population of Afghan Tiirkistan (about 642,000), the people of Chitral, 
the Kafirs, and the independent Yusufzais. 

The pastoral and agricultural stages of human development may 
still be seen side by side in Afghanistan. The nomad tribes roam 
through the wide plains of Khorasan ; the agricultural sections are 
settled in village communities. As a race, the Afghans are very 
handsome and athletic, often with fair complexion, a flowing beard, 
generally black or brown, though sometimes red ; the features highly 
aquiline. The hair is shaved off from the forehead to the top of the 
head, the remainder at the sides being allowed to fall in large curls 
over the shoulders. Their step is full of resolution, their bearing proud, 
and apt to be rough. They are passionately fond of hawking and 
hunting. The women have handsome features of Jewish cast (the last 
trait often true also of the men) ; fair complexions, sometimes rosy, 
though usually a pale sallow ; hair braided and plaited behind in 
two long tresses, terminating in silken tassels. They are rigidly 
secluded, but intrigue is frequent. In some parts of the country the 
engaged lover is admitted to visits of courtship analogous to old Welsh 


The Afghans, inured to bloodshed from childhood, are familiar 
with death, audacious in attack, but easily discouraged by failure ; 
excessively turbulent and unsubmissive to law or discipline ; apparently 
frank and affable in manner, especially when they hope to gain some 
object, but capable of the grossest brutality when that hope ceases. 
They are unscrupulous in perjury, treacherous, vain, and insatiable ; 
passionate in revenge, which they will satisfy in the most cruel manner 
even at the cost of their own lives. Nowhere is crime committed on 
such trifling grounds, or with such general impunity, though when 
it is punished, the punishment is atrocious. ' Nothing,' says Sir 
Herbert Edwardes, ' is finer than their physique, or worse than their 
morale.' Elphinstone has touched his sketch with a more friendly 

Political Institutions. — The men of the section (ka?idi) of a village, 
having come to a decision, send their representative to a council of the 
whole village, and these again to that of the sept {khel), and the 
appointed chiefs of the septs finally assemble as the council (jirgah) of the 
ulu or tribe. These meetings, in all their stages, are apt to be stormy. 
But when once a council has decided, implicit compliance is incumbent 
on the tribe, under heavy penalties, which the maliks, or chiefs of 
tribes, have the power of enforcing. Justice is administered in the 
towns, more or less effectively, according to Muhammadan law, by a 
kdzi and muftis. But the unwritten code by which Afghan communities 
in their typical state are guided, and the maxims of which penetrate the 
whole nation, is the Pukhli'mwdli, or usage of the Pathans, a rude 
system of customary law, founded on principles such as one might 
suppose to have prevailed before the institution of civil government. 
A prominent law in this code is that called Nanawati* or * entering 
in.' By this law, the Pathan is bound to grant any boon claimed by the 
person who passes his threshold and invokes its sanctions, even at the 
sacrifice of his own life and property. So also, the Pathan is bound to 
feed and shelter any traveller claiming hospitality. Retaliation must be 
exacted by the Pathan for every injury or insult, and for the life of a 
kinsman. If immediate opportunity fail, a man will watch his foe for 
years, with the cruel purpose ever uppermost, using every treacherous 
artifice to entrap him. To omit such obligations, above all the vendetta, 
exposes the Pathan to scorn. The injuries of one generation may be 
avenged in the next, or even by remoter posterity. The relatives of a 
murdered man may, however, before the tribunal council, accept 
a blood-price. The crimes punished by the Pathan code, are such as 
murder without cause, refusal to go to battle, contravention of the 
decision of a tribal council, adultery. 

The Afghans are Muhammadans of the Sunni or orthodox body, with 
the exception of a few tribes, perhaps not truly Pathan, who are Shias. 


They arc much under the influence of their muUas, especially for evil, 
and have a stronger feeling against the Shia heretic, than against the 
unbeliever, their aversion to the Persians being aggravated thereby. But 
to those of another faith they are more tolerant than most Muham- 
madans, unless when creed becomes a war-cry. 

Government. — Afghanistan has from time to time been, and is now, 
under one prince, but it is hardly a monarchy as we are wont to under- 
stand the term. It is rather the government of a dictator for life over 
a military aristocracy, and within this, a congeries of small democracies. 
The sarddrs govern in their respective districts, each after his own 
fashion ; jealous, ambitious, turbulent, the sovereign can restrain them 
only by their divisions. There is no unity nor permanence. In war, 
as in peace, chiefs and soldiers are ready to pass from one service to 
another without scruple. The spirit of Afghan character and institu- 
tions was tersely expressed by an old man to Elphinstone, who had 
urged the advantages of quiet and security under a strong king : ' We 
are content with discord, we are content with alarms, we are content 
with blood, but we will never be content with a master.' 

Revenues. — The revenues of Dost Muhammad Khan were estimated 
in 1857 at 4,000,000 rupees, or about ^400,000. This included Afghan 
Tiirkistan, but not Herat, which he did not then hold. The Herat 
revenue was estimated some years before (probably too low) at ^80,000. 
In the latter years of Dost Muhammad (1863), the revenue is stated to 
have amounted to ^710,000, of which the army cost ^430,000. In 
1879 the revenue of Afghanistan, including Afghan Tiirkistan, was 
estimated at ,£733,000. Information on this subject is very imperfect, 
and not always consistent. Yakiib Khan told a British officer (Major 
Biddulph) in 1880 that the whole revenue of Afghanistan, including 
Maimana and Badakhshan, amounts to about ;£i, 500,000, of which a 
large portion is paid in kind. The chief sources of revenue are said 
to be, land, town duties, customs, the produce of the royal demesne, 
fines, forfeiture, mint, etc. There seems to be a tax on the produce of 
the soil, both in kind and in money, and a special tax on garden 
ground. A house tax of about 5 rupees is paid by all who are not 
Pathans. The latter pay a much lighter tax under another name, and 
the Hindus pay the separate poll-tax (jaziya). Taxes are paid on 
horses, etc., kept, and on the sale of animals in the public market. In 
many parts of the country, collections are only made spasmodically by 
military force. The people are let alone for years, till need and oppor- 
tunity arise, when an army is marched in and arrears extorted. Customs 
dues at Kabul and Kandahar, are only 2\ per cent, nominally, but tin's 
is increased a good deal by exactions. There is a considerable tax on 
horses exported for sale, and a toll on beasts of burden exporting mer- 
chandise, from 6 rupees on a loaded camel, to 1 rupee on a donkey. 


Military Force. — According to the old system, the Afghan forces 
were entirely composed of the ulus, or tribesmen of the chiefs, who 
were supposed to hold their lands on a condition of service, but who, 
as frequently as not, went over to the enemy in the day of need. As a 
counterpoise, the late Amir Dost Muhammad began to form a regular 
army. In 1858, this force contained 16 infantry regiments of (nomi- 
nally) 800 men, 3 of cavalry of 300 men, and about 80 field-pieces, 
besides a few heavy guns, largely increased of late years. There were 
also Jezailchi (riflemen) irregulars — some in the Amir's pay, others 
levies of the local chiefs ; and a considerable number of irregular cavalry. 
The pay is bad and extremely irregular, and punishments are severe. 

Language and Literature. — Persian is the vernacular of a large 
part of the non- Afghan population, and is familiar to all educated 
Afghans. But the proper language of the Afghans is Pushtu, or Pukhtii, 
classed by the most competent as Aryan or Indo-Persian dialects. The 
oldest work in Pushtu, is a history of the conquest of Swat by Shaikh 
Mali, a chief of the Yusufzais, and leader in the conquest (a.d. 1413-24). 
The literature is rich in poetry; Abdur Rahman (17th century) being 
the best known poet. Pushtu seems to be but little spoken west of the 

History. — The Afghan chroniclers call their people Beni-Lsrdil 
(Arabic for children of Israel), and claim descent from King Saul (whom 
they call by the Muhammadan corruption Td/ut), through a son whom 
they ascribe to him, called Jeremiah, who again had a son called 
Afghana. This story is repeated with great variety of detail in the 
Afghan poems and chronicles. But the oldest of these appears to be 
of the 16th century; nor do we know that any trace of the legend is 
found of a previous date. 

In the time of Darius Hystaspes (b.c. 500), we find Afghanistan 
embraced under various names, in the Achaemenian satrapies. 
Alexander's march led him to Artacoa?ia (Kain), a city of Aria, and 
thence to the country of the Zarangce (Seistan), to that of the Euergetce, 
upon the Etyma?ider (Helmand river), to Arachosia, thence to the 
Indians dwelling among snows in a barren country, probably the high- 
lands between Ghazni and Kabul. Thence he marched to the foot of 
the Caucasus, and spent the winter among the Paropamisadce, found- 
ing a city, Alexandria, supposed to be Hupian, near Charikar. On 
his return from Bactria, he prosecuted his march to India by the north 
side of the Kabul river. The Ariana of Strabo corresponds generally 
with the existing dominions of Kabul, but overpasses their limits on 
the west and south. 

About 310 b.c, Seleukos is said by Strabo to have given to the Indian 
Sandrokottos (Chandragupta), in consequence of a marriage contract, 
some part of the country west of the Indus, occupied by an Indian 


population, and no doubt embracing a part of the Kabul basin. Some 
sixty years later, occurred the establishment of an independent Greek 
kingdom in Bactria, which eventually extended into Afghanistan. The 
Kabul basin formed the starting-point of Gr?eco-Bactrian expeditions 
into India, and is rich in coins of that dynasty. In the 7th century, 
Hwen Thsang, the Chinese pilgrim, 630-45 a.d., found both Tiirki and 
Indian princes reigning in the Kabul valley. The last Hindu prince of 
Kabul succumbed to the Muhammadans in the 10th century. The 
great dynasty of Mahmiid of Ghazni had its seat in Afghanistan, as had 
also the later one of Ghor, both of which conquered India. More or 
less connected with Afghanistan were the so-called Pathan dynasties 
that reigned at Delhi from the 12th to the 16th century. 

The whole of Afghanistan was conquered by Timiir, and Kabul 
remained in the hands of a descendant till 1501 ; soon after which, 
another more illustrious descendant, Sultari Bdbar, captured it, adding 
Kandahar in 1522. For the next two centuries, Kabul was held by 
the Mughal Emperors of Delhi, Herat by Persia, while Kandahar 
repeatedly changed hands between the two. In 1708, Kandahar 
expelled the Persians, and set up a chief of the Ghilzai tribe; in 17 15, 
Herat also became an independent Afghan State. In 1720-22, the 
Ghilzais took Ispahan, and held the throne of Persia for a short space. 
Nadir Shah of Persia reoccupied the Afghan Provinces (1737-38), and 
held them till his assassination in 1747. During the anarchy which 
followed his death, the different provinces of Afghanistan were gradually 
formed into a single empire under Ahmad Shah Durani, and the Persians 
were again expelled. On Ahmad Shah's death in 1773, the Afghan 
sovereignty included the Punjab and Kashmir on the south-east, and 
extended to Turkistan and the Oxus on the north. 

In 1809, in consequence of the intrigues of Napoleon in Persia, the 
Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone had been sent as envoy to Shah Shuja, 
then in power, and had been well received by him at Peslmwar. This 
was the first time the Afghans made any acquaintance with Englishmen. 
Lieutenant Alexander Burnes visited Kabul (then ruled by Amir Dost 
Muhammad Khan, of the Barakzai family) on his way to Bokhara in 
1832. In 1837, the Persian siege of Herat, and the proceedings of 
Russia, created uneasiness, and Burnes was sent by the Governor- 
General as Resident to the Amir's court at Kabul. But the terms 
which the Amir sought, were not conceded by the Government, and 
the rash resolution was taken, of re-establishing Shah Shuja, long a 
refugee in British terrirory. Ran jit Singh, Maharaja of the Punjab, 
bound himself to co-operate, but eventually declined to let our expe- 
dition cross his territories, though a Sikh force, with Sir Claud Wade 
and a small British detachment, advanced through the Khaibar. The 
'Army of the Indus,' amounting to 21,000 men, therefore assembled in 

vol. 1. D 


Upper Sind (March 1S38), and advanced through the Bolan Pass, 
under the command of Sir John Keane. Kohandil Khan of Kandahar 
fled to Persia. That city was occupied in April 1839, and Shah Shuja 
was crowned in his grandfather's mosque. Ghaznf was reached on the 
21st July; a gate of the city was blown open by the engineers (the 
match was fired by Lieut, afterwards Major-General Sir Henry Durand), 
and the place was taken by storm. Dost Muhammad, finding his troops 
deserting, passed the Hindu Kush, and Shah Shuja entered the capital 
(7th August). The war was thought at an end, and Sir John Keane 
(made a peer) returned to India, leaving behind 8000 men, besides 
the Shah's force, with Sir William Macnaghten as Envoy, and Sir 
Alexander Burnes as Resident. 

During the two following years, Shah Shuja and his allies remained in 
possession of Kabul and Kandahar. The British outposts extended to 
Saighan, in the Oxus basin, and to Mulla Khan, on the lower Helmand. 
Dost Muhammad surrendered (Nov. 3, 1840), and was sent to India, 
where he was honourably treated. From the beginning, insurrection 
against the new government had been rife. The political authorities 
were over confident, and neglected warnings. On the 2nd November 
184.T, revolt broke out violently at Kabul, with the massacre of Burnes 
and other officers. The position of the British camp, its communica- 
tions with the citadel, and the location of the stores were the worst 
possible ; and the general (Elphinstone) was shattered in constitution. 
Disaster after disaster occurred, not without misconduct. At a conference 
(23rd December) with the Amir Dost Muhammad's son, Akbar Khan, 
who had taken the lead of the Afghans, Sir William Macnaghten was 
murdered by that chiefs own hand. On the 6th January 1842, after a 
convention to evacuate the country had been signed, the British garrison, 
still numbering 4500 soldiers (of whom 690 were Europeans), with some 
12,000 followers, marched out of the camp. The winter was severe, 
the troops demoralized, the march a mass of confusion and massacre ; 
for there was hardly a pretence of keeping the terms. On the 13th, 
the last survivors mustered at Gandamak only twenty muskets. Of 
those w r ho left Kabul, Dr. Brydon only reached Jalalabad, wounded 
and half dead. Ninety-five prisoners were afterwards recovered. The 
garrison of Ghazni had already been forced to surrender (10th Decem- 
ber). But General Nott held Kandahar with a stern hand, and General 
Sale, who had reached Jalalabad from Kabul at the beginning of the 
outbreak, maintained that important point gallantly. 

To avenge these disasters and recover the prisoners, preparations 
were made in India on a fitting scale ; but it was the 16th April 1S42 
before General Pollock could relieve Jalalabad, after forcing the 
Khaibar Pass. After a long halt there, he advanced (20th August), and 
gaining rapid successes, occupied Kabul (15th September), where Nott, 


after retaking and dismantling Ghazni, joined him two days later. 
The prisoners were recovered from Bamian. The citadel and central 
fdsdr of Kabul were destroyed, and the army finally evacuated 
Afghanistan in December 1842. 

Shah Shuja had been assassinated soon after the departure of the 
ill-fated garrison. Dost Muhammad, released, was able to resume his 
position at Kabul, which he retained till his death in 1863. Akbar 
Khan was made Wazir, but died in 1848. 

The most notable facts in later history must be briefly stated. In 
1S4S, during the second Sikh war, Dost Muhammad, stimulated by 
popular outcry, and by the Sikh offer to restore Peshawar, crossed the 
frontier and took Attock. A cavalry force of Afghans was sent to join 
Sher Singh against the British, and was present at the battle of Gujrat 
(21st Feb. 1849). The Afghans were hotly pursued to the passes. 

In 1850, the Afghans re-conquered Balkh, and in January 1855, 
friendly intercourse, which had been renewed between the Amir and 
the British Government, led to the conclusion of a treaty at Peshawar. 
In November 1855, the Amir made himself master of Kandahar. In 
1856 came the new Persian advance to Herat, ending in its capture, 
and the English expedition to the Persian Gulf. In January 1857, the 
Amir had an interview at Peshawar with Sir John Lawrence, at which 
the former was promised arms and a subsidy for protection against 
Persia. In consequence of this treaty, a British mission under Major 
Lumsden proceeded to Kandahar. The Indian Mutiny followed, and 
the Afghan excitement strongly tried the Amir's fidelity, but he main- 
tained it. Lumsden's party held their ground, and returned in May 

In 1863, Dost Muhammad, after a ten months' siege, captured Herat ; 
but he died there thirteen days later (9th June), and was succeeded by 
his son Sher Ali Khan. The latter passed through many vicissitudes, 
in rivalry with his brothers and nephews, and at one time (1867) his 
fortunes were so low that he held only Balkh and Herat. By the 
autumn of 1868, however, he was again established on the throne of 
Kabul, and his competitors were beaten and dispersed. In April 
1869, Sher Ali Khan was splendidly received at Ambala (Umballa) 
by the Earl of Mayo, who had shortly before succeeded Sir John 
Lawrence as Viceroy. Friendly relations were confirmed, and the Amir 
received the balance of a donation of ^120,000 which had been partly 
paid by Sir John Lawrence. A present of artillery and arms was also 
made to him, followed by occasional aid. 

In the early part of 1873, a correspondence which had gone on 
between the Governments of Russia and England resulted in a declara- 
tion by the former that Afghanistan was beyond the field of Russian 
influence ; while the Oxus, from its source in Lake Sir-i-Kiil to the 


western limit of Balkh, was recognised as the frontier of Afghanistan. The 
principal events between 1873 and l8 7 8 were the Amir's efforts in 1873 
to secure a British guarantee for his sovereignty and family succession ; 
Lord Lytton's endeavours in 1876, to obtain the Amir's consent to the 
establishment of British Agencies in Afghanistan; and the Peshawar 
Conference, with a similar view, in 1877, which was brought to an end 
by the death of the Amir's envoy. 

In July 1878, a Russian mission, under General Stolietoff, was 
received with honour at Kabul; while the Amir Sher Ali shortly 
afterwards refused permission for a British mission, under Sir Neville 
Chamberlain, to cross his frontier. After some remonstrance and 
warning, an ultimatum was despatched, and, no reply being received 
up to the last date allowed, the Amir's attitude was accepted as one of 
hostility to the British Government. On the 21st November, an 
nvasion of Afghanistan was decided upon, and within a few days the 
British forces were in full occupation of the Khaibar Pass and the 
Kuram Valley, after inflicting severe defeats on the Afghan troops. 
The Am. f.ed from Kabul on the 13th December, accompanied by the 
members of trie Russian mission, and, on the 21st February 1879, died, 
a fugitive, at Mazar-i-Shariff, in Afghan Tiirkistan. His second son, 
Yakiib Khan, who had been kept a close prisoner by his father at Kabul, 
but was released before the Amir's flight, was recognised by the people 
as Amir. In May 1879, Yakiib adjusted all differences by voluntarily 
coming into the British camp at Gandamak, and signing the treaty 
which bears the name of that place. Its chief features were the recti- 
fication of the frontier in the sense proposed by the British, the accept- 
ance of a British Resident at Kabul, and the complete subordination 
of the foreign relations of Afghanistan to British influences. Under 
that treaty, Major Sir Louis Cavagnari was appointed to this post, and 
was welcomed to the city with great apparent cordiality by the Amir 
Yakiib Khan. Owing, however, to intrigues, which will probably never 
be unravelled, the fanatical party was allowed to gain head. On 3rd 
September 1879, tne Residency was attacked by a rabble of towns- 
people and troops, and the British Resident and his escort were 
murdered, after a valiant defence. In October 1879, an avenging 
force marched under General (now Sir Frederick) Roberts up the 
Kiiram, and occupied Kabul. The Bala Hissar, including the fort and 
palace, was partially destroyed. The Amir, Yakiib Khan, whose com- 
plicity was suspected, abdicated, and was removed to India ; and the 
guilty city remained under British occupation for a year. A new Amir, 
Abdur Rahman Khan, w r as recognised on the 22nd July 1880; and 
the punitive purposes of the expedition having been accomplished, the 
British troops w r ere withdrawm from Kabul in August 1880. 

Antiquities. — The basin of the Kabul river abounds in remains 


of the period when Buddhism flourished, beginning with the Inscribed 
Rock of Shahbazgarhi, or Kapur-di-giri, in the Peshawar plain, which 
bears one of the replicas of the famous edicts of Asoka (not later 
than B.G 250). In the Koh-i-Ddman, north of Kabul, are the sites 
of several ancient cities, the greatest of which, called Baghrdm, has 
furnished coins in scores of thousands, and has been supposed to re- 
present Alexander's Niccea. Nearer Kabul, and especially on the hills 
some miles south of the city, are numerous topes. In the valley of 
Jalalabad are many remains of the same character. In the neighbour- 
hood of Peshawar are numerous ancient cities and walled villages, in 
many cases presenting ruins of much interest, besides the remains of 
topes, monasteries, cave temples, etc. ; and frequently sculptures have 
been found on those sites, exhibiting evident traces of the influence of 
Greek art. The Mahaban mountain, near the Indus, which has been 
plausibly identified with the Aornos of the Greeks, and the hills more 
immediately compassing the Peshawar valley, abound in the ruins of 
ancient fortresses. At Talash, on the Panjkora river, are ruins of 
massive fortifications; and in Swat, there are said to be remains of 
several ancient cities. 

In the valley of the Tarnak are the ruins of a great city (Ulan 
Robat), supposed to be the ancient Arachosia. Near Girishk, also, on 
the Helmand, are extensive mounds and other traces of buildings ; and 
the remains of several great cities exist in the plain of Seistan, as at 
Pulki, Peshawaran, and Lash, relics of ancient Drangiana, not yet 
sufficiently examined. An ancient stone vessel, preserved at a village 
near Kandahar, is almost certainly the same that was treasured at 
Peshawar in the 5th century as the begging-pot of Sakya-Mum. Of 
the city of Ghazni,"the vast capital of Mahmiid and his race, no sub- 
stantial relics survive, except the tomb of Mahmiid and two remarkable 
brick minarets. To the vast and fruitful harvest of coins which has 
been gathered in Afghanistan and the adjoining regions only a passing 
allusion can here be made. 

Afghan-Tiirkistan is a convenient name applied of late years to 
those provinces in the basin of the Oxus which are subject to the Amir 
of Kabul. Badakhshan and its dependencies, now understood to be 
tributary to the Amir, are sometimes comprised under the name, but 
will not be so included here. The whole of the Afghan dominions 
consist of Afghanistan as above described, Afghdn-Tiirkistan, and 
Badakhshan with its dependencies. This article is abridged from the 
same published source as the preceding one. 

The territories here included are, beginning from the east, the 
khdndts or principalities of Kundiiz, Khulm or Tashkurghan, Balkh 
with Akcha ; and the western khdndts of Sir-i-piil, Shibarkhan, Andkhoi, 
and Maimana, sometimes classed together as the Char ITi/drat, or 


' Four Domains ; ' and besides these, such part of the Hazara tribes as 
lie north of the Hindu Kush and its prolongation, defined in the article 
Afghanistan. The tract thus described includes the southern half of 
the Oxus basin, from the frontier of Badakhshan on the east, to the 
upper Murgh-ab river on the west. The Oxus itself forms the northern 
boundary, from the confluence of the Kokcha, or river of Badakhshan, 
in 69 V e. long., to Khoja Saleh ferry, in 65 ° 30' e. long, nearly. Here 
the boundary quits the river and skirts the Turkoman desert to the 
point where the Murgh-ab issues upon it in about lat. 36°4o'n. Along 
the whole southern boundary there is a tract of lofty mountain country. 
Thus, in the east, south of Kundiiz, we have the Hindu Kush rising 
far into the region of perpetual snow, with passes ranging from 12,000 
to 13,000 feet and upwards. South of Khulm and Balkh is the pro- 
longation of the Hindu Kush, called Koh-i-Baba, in which the elevation 
of the cols or passes seems to be nearly as high, though the general 
height of the crest is lower. The mountains then fork in three branches 
westward,— viz. Koh-i-Sidh, ' The Black Mountain,' to the south of the 
Hari-rud or Herat river ; Koh-i-Safed, ' The White Mountain,' between 
the headwaters of the Hari-rud and the Murgh-ab ; and a third ridge 
north of the latter river, called the Tirband-i-Tiirkistan Mountains. The 
second branch (Safed-Koh) has been assumed in the article Afghanistan 
as the boundary of that region. Almost nothing is known of these 
mountains, except from the journey of Ferrier, who crossed all three 
watersheds in four days of July 1845. He describes the middle range as 
very lofty, with a good deal of snow on the pass ; the southern range as 
not so high, the northern one as not nearly so high. The chief rivers, 
excluding the Oxus, are, beginning from the east : (1) the Aksarai, with 
its tributary the river of Kundiiz ; (2) the river of Khulm ; (3) the Delias 
or Balkh river ; (4) the rivers watering the Char Wilayat, viz. the Sir-i- 
piil-ab and the Sangalak, which lose themselves in the desert below 
Andkhoi ; (5) the Murgh-ab, which, after flowing north-westward in the 
Paropamisus, turns northwards, reaching Merv, where formerly it formed 
a fertile oasis, the nucleus of ancient Margiana. Beyond this, it is lost 
in the desert. 

The province of Balkh deserves special note. Balkh Proper is the 
populous and well-watered territory upon the eighteen canals which 
draw off the waters of the Balkh-ab, and on which there are said to be 
360 villages. No trace has been discovered of the ancient splendours 
of Bactra, nor do the best judges appear to accept Ferrier's belief, that 
he saw cuneiform inscriptions upon bricks dug up there. Remains are 
scattered over some 20 miles of circuit, but they consist mainly of 
mosques and tombs of sun-dried brick, and show nothing even of early 
Muhammadan date. The inner city, surrounded by a ruined wall of 4 
or 5 miles in compass, is now T entirely deserted ; a scanty population 


still occupies a part of the outer city. In 1858, Muhammad Afzal 
Khan, ruling Turkistan on behalf of his father, Dost Muhammad, 
transferred the seat of the Afghan Government, and the bulk of the 
population, to Takhtapul, a position which he fortified, some 8 miles 
east of the old city ; and this remains the capital of the Afghan territories 
on the Oxus. 

The Population of Afghan Turkistan is estimated at 642.000, in- 
cluding 55.000 for Badakhshan, probably too low an estimate for the 
latter. The Tajiks, or people of Iranian blood, are probably the 
representatives of the oldest surviving race of this region. They are 
found in some districts of Balkh and valleys of Kundiiz. Khost, in 
Afghanistan Proper, is also said to be chiefly occupied by them. 
Uzbegs seem to be the most numerous and ruling race ; and there are 
some other Turk tribes not classed as Uzbegs. There seem to be a 
good many families claiming Arab descent ; Afghans, especially about 
Balkh and Khulm ; and in the towns some Hindus and Jews. 

Products and Industry. — Rock salt is worked at Chal, near the 
Badakhshan frontier, as well as beyond that frontier. Pistachio nuts 
are grown largely in the hill country of Kundiiz, together with the 
adjoining districts of Badakhshan, and the whole supply of India, 
Central Asia, and Russia is said to be derived from this region. Fruit 
is abundant and excellent, especially in Khulm and Balkh. Andkhoi, 
before its decay, was famous for the black sheepskins and lambskins 
which we call astrakhan, and also for a breed of camels in great demand. 
Kundiiz produces a breed of horses, highly valued in the Kabul market 
under the name of Kataghdn. Maimana also is famous for horses, 
which are often exported to India, and is a mart for carpets, and 
textures of wool and camel's hair, the work of Turkoman and Jamshidi 
women. Slave-dealing and man-stealing have long been the curse of 
this region, but late changes have tended to restrict them. 

History. — Ancient Balkh, or Pactra, was probably one of the oldest 
capitals in Central Asia. There Persian tradition places the teaching 
of Zoroaster. Bactriana was a province of the Achaemenian empire, 
and probably was occupied in great measure by a race of Iranian blood. 
About B.C. 250, Theodotus, governor of Bactria, under the Seleucidas, 
declared his independence, and commenced the history, so dark to us, 
of the Gr?eco-Bactrian dynasties, whose dominions at one time or 
another — though probably never simultaneously — touched the Jaxartes 
and the Gulf of Kachh (Cutch). Parthian rivalry first, and then a 
series of nomad movements from Inner Asia, overwhelmed the isolated 
dominion of the Greeks (circa B.C. 126). Powers rose on the Oxus, 
known to the Chinese as Yuechi, Kweishwang, Yetha, Tukharas, dimly 
identified in Western Asia and Europe, as Kushans, Haiathala, 
Ephthalitcc or White Huns, and Tochari. Buddhism, with its monas- 


teries, colossi, and gilded pagodas, spread over the valley of the Oxus. 
We do not know what further traces of that time may yet be revealed ; 
but we see some in the gigantic sculptures of Bimian. The old Arab 
historians of the Muhammadan conquest, celebrate a heathen temple 
at Balkh, called by them Naobihdr, which Sir Henry Rawlinson points 
out to have been certainly a Buddhist monastery (Nawa-Vihdra). 
The name Naobihdr still attaches to a village on one of the Balkh 
canals, thus preserving, through so many centuries, the memory of the 
ancient Indian religion. The memoirs of the Chinese pilgrim Hwen 
Thsang, in the first part of the 7th century, give many particulars of 
the prevalence of his religion in the numerous principalities into which 
the empire of the Tukharas had broken up ; and it is remarkable how 
many of these states and their names are identical with those which 
still exist. This is not confined to what were great cities like Balkh 
and Bamiin; it applies to Khulm, Khost, Baghlan, Andarab, and 
many more. 

As Haidthala, or Tokhdristdn, the country long continued to be 
known to Muhammadans ; its political destiny generally followed that 
of Khorasan. It bore the brunt of the fury of Ghinghiz, and the 
region seems never to have effectually recovered from the devastations 
and massacres which he began, and which were repeated in degree by 
succeeding generations. For about a century these Oxus provinces 
were attached to the empire of the Delhi Mughals, and then fell into 
Uzbeg hands. In the last century they formed a part of the dominion 
of Ahmad Shah Duratni (see Afghanistan), and so remained under 
his son Timiir. But during the fratricidal wars of Timur's sons, they 
fell back under the independent rule of various Uzbeg chiefs. Among 
these, the Kataghdns of Kunduz were long predominant ; and their 
chief Murdd Beg (1815 to about 1842) for some time ruled Kiilab 
beyond the Oxus, and all south of it from near Balkh to near 

In 1850 the Afghans recovered Balkh and Khulm ; by 1855 they had 
also gained Akcha and the four western khdndts ; Kunduz in 1859. 
They were proceeding to extend their conquests to Badakhshan, when 
the Amir of that country agreed to pay homage and tribute. 

Antiquities. — The best known, and probably the most remarkable, 
are the famous colossi at Bamian, with the adjoining innumerable caves. 
In the same locality are the ruins of the mediaeval city destroyed by 
Ghinghiz, the great fort called Sayyidabad, and the ruins of Zohak. At 
Haibak are numerous caves like those of Bamian. Balkh seems to have 
little or nothing to show, though excavation would probably be rewarded. 
The little known or unknown valleys of Badakhshan contain remains 
of interest, but our only notices of them are so highly spiced with 
imagination as to be worthless. 


Afzalgarh.— Town in Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North- Western 
Provinces, on the left bank of the Ramganga. Lat. 29 23' 51" n., long. 
78 43' 3" e. Distant from Calcutta 938 miles ; from Nagina, 15 miles. 
Named after a Pathan chief, Nawab Afzal Khan, who founded it during 
the brief domination of that race in Upper India (1 748-1 774). His 
brick fort was dismantled after the Mutiny of 1857, and is now quite 
in ruins. The town has decayed of late, and cultivation is encroaching 
upon its site. It has a small trade in forest timber and bamboos. A 
small colony of weavers manufacture excellent cotton cloths, described 
by Mr. Markham as 'almost equal to English,' some specimens of 
which obtained a prize and silver medal at the Agra Exhibition of 1867. 
Population (1881) 7797, comprising 5459 Muhammadans and 2341 
Hindus. For conservancy and police purposes a small municipal tax 
is levied under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act (xx. of 1856). 
First-class police station ; post-office. 

Agai— Town, Partabgarh District, Oudh ; 27 miles from Partabgarh 
town, and 28 from Rai Bareli. Population (1881) 4006, namely, 3833 
Hindus and 123 Muhammadans. Formerly the border town between 
the idlukds (estates) of Rajapur and Rampur. Government school. 

Agar.— Petty State of the Sankhera Mehvas, in Rewa Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Consists of 28 villages. Area, 17 square miles; 
estimated revenue in 1879, ;£ IOO °- The chief pays a yearly tribute of 
^18 to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Agar.— Town and parga?id of the Gwalior State, under the Western 
Malwa agency of Central India. The town is situated on an open plain, 
1675 feet above the sea, on the bank of a lake 3 miles in circum- 
ference. Distant 41 miles north-east of Ujjain, with which place it is 
connected by a metalled road. Lat. 23 43' 30" n., long. 76 4' 45" e. 
Population (1881) 6193. Fort with stone rampart. Agar is the head- 
quarters of one of Sindhia's revenue districts ; he maintains no troops 
here, but the Central India Horse, consisting of 2 cavalry regiments 
(one of which is stationed at Giina) under the command of English 
officers, has its head-quarters here. A horse and cattle fair is held here 
in the month of April. 

Agarpara.— Town in the District of the 24 Parganas, Bengal, now 
known as the South Barrackpur municipality. Lat. 22 41' n., and 
long. 88° 24' 57" e. Population (1881) 30,317, namely Hindus 21,952, 
Muhammadans 7490, and 'others' 875. Municipal revenue in 1SS1, 
^1282 ; rate of municipal taxation, 1 id. per head. Contains, besides 
other institutions, a female orphanage and school under the Church 
Missionary Society. Ten miles by the Hugh river from Calcutta. 

Agartala (also called Natan Haveli or ' New Town').— Capital of 
Hill Tipperah State, Bengal, and the occasional residence of the Raja ; 
38 miles north of Kumilla (Comillah), with which it is connected by a 


road. Lat. 23 50' 30" x., long. 91 23' 5" e. A mere village, but 
increasing in size and importance. Population in 1881, 2144. Con- 
tains a palace of the Raja, jail, police station, school, and hospital. 

Agartala, Old. — Village in Hill Tipperah State, Bengal, situated 
about 4 miles east of the present capital. Population (1881) 1186. 
Residence of the Rajas until 1844, when the capital was removed to the 
new town. The ruins of the old palace still stand, together with some 
monuments to the Rajas and Ranis. On some of these ruins new 
buildings have been erected, in which the Raja has generally resided 
since 1875. Adjacent to the palace is a small temple much venerated 
by the hillmen, and containing 14 heads of gold, silver, and other 
metals, which represent the tutelary gods of the Tipperahs. Every 
one who passes the temple is expected to bow his head. 

Agashi. — Town and port in the Bassein Sub-division of Thana 
(Tanna) District, Bombay Presidency, 10 miles north of Bassein, and 3 J 
miles west of Virar Station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, with which it is joined by a metalled road. Lat. 19° 27' 45" n., 
long. 72 49' 30" e. ; population (1881) 6823 ; Hindus numbering 5168, 
Christians 1500, and Muhammadans 155. Average annual value of 
trade at the port of Agashi, for five years ending 1879-80 — exports, 
,£31,847 ; imports, ,£8565. Post-office. In the early part of the 16th 
century Agashi was a place of some importance, with a considerable 
timber and shipbuilding trade. It was twice sacked by the Portuguese 
— in 1530, and again in 1531. In 1530, as many as 300 Guzerat 
vessels are said to have been taken; and in 1540, the Portuguese 
captured a ship on the stocks at Agashi, and afterwards made several 
voyages to Europe. Agashi drives a great trade with Bombay in plan- 
tains and betel leaves, its dried plantains being the best in the District. 
There is a Portuguese school here, and a large temple of Bhavani- 
shankar, built in a.d. 169T, which enjoys a yearly grant from Govern- 
ment of £5. The bathing place close to the temple has the reputation 
of effecting the cure of skin diseases. 

Agastya-malai. — Mountain peak, 6200 feet above the sea, in the 
Agiisthisvaram tdluk, Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
8° 5' 30" n., long. 77 33' 50" e. The Tambraparni river has its 
sources on this hill. Formerly an important astronomical station. 
The boundary between Travancore State and Tinnevelli District runs 
over the hill. 

Aghwanpur-Mughalpur. — Town in Moradabad District, Rohil- 
khand, North- Western Provinces. Population in 1881, 5277, namely 
Muhammadans 3003, and Hindus 3274. 

Agoada Headland and Bay. — An inlet, and bold, bluff headland 
on the coast of Goa, Western India, in lat. 15 29' 26 "3" x., long. 
73° 45' 55' 1 " e. The Agoada Head appears nearly flat-topped from 

AGRA. 59 

seaward, and is about 260 feet high at its highest part, with a revolving 
light on its summit, 5 miles distant from Mormagao hill flagstaff. The 
construction of the Goa railway and the prospects of an important 
trade springing up at Mormagao, render it expedient to describe the 
Agoada headland in some detail. I condense the two following para- 
graphs from the Report of the Marine Survey, by Navigating Lieutenant 
Petley, R.N., in 188 1. 

The Agoada headland forms part of the north side of Agoada Bay, 
and is ij miles long east and west, but only half a mile wide at its 
greatest breadth north and south. The north side of the hill is joined 
to the mainland, which is here low and sandy and covered with cocoa- 
nut groves. The beach, which runs from the headland nearly due 
north, is also low and sandy, and has at all times a heavy surf breaking 
on it. The whole of the north side of the hill is fortified, as also a 
portion of the south and west sides. Where no fortifications have been 
built, the sides of the hill are inaccessible. The fortress, which is on 
the south side of the headland, is composed of a citadel on the crest of 
the hill, and a fort with barracks, etc., on the shore at the foot, the 
two being connected by an unfortified wall, with covered ways running 
up the sides of the hill. Within the citadel stands the lighthouse, and 
in the north-east bastion is a pillar marking a great trigonometrical 
station, while in the north-west bastion is a signal station with a flag- 
staff. This part of the fortress is surrounded by a deep moat cut out 
of the laterite rock. The lower fort, now used as a jail, is garrisoned 
by 60 officers and men, who form a guard over the military prisoners 
confined there. The saluting battery is outside the fort, as are also the 
houses of the commandant, customs officers, and pilots for the river. 
Immediately to the eastward of the fort is a small landing jetty where 
good water can be procured at any time of the tide. 

Agoada Bay, on the south side of Agoada head, is about ij miles 
long. At the head of the bay, and two miles east of Agoada lighthouse, 
is the entrance to the Mandovi river, which is narrowed by sandbanks 
on either side to only about one cable. The entrance to this river is 
protected on the north side by the fort of Reis Magos, which is built 
on the south-east extremity of Reis hill, and on the south side by the 
fort of Gaspar-dias, which bears from the former nearly due south, 
distant 8 cables. The shore between Agoada headland and Reis Magos 
fort is fringed with rocks for the greater part of the distance, extending 
farther off shore as the Reis Magos fort is approached, where they are 
dry at low water for a distance of three-quarters of a cable. Reis hill, 9 
cables w.n.w. of Reis fort, is 150 feet high ; its summit is bare, while the 
base and slopes of the hill are covered with cocoa-nut trees and jungle. 
Agra.— Division or Commissionership in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, including the six Districts of Agra, Muttra, Farrukhabais 

6o AGRA. 

Etah, Eta wah, and Mainpuri, all of which see separately. Lat. 
26 21' 30" to 28° i' 30" n., long. 77 19' 15" to 8o° 3' 15" e. The 
Division is bounded on the north by Aligarh District ; on the east by 
the Ganges which separates it from Budaun and Shahjahanpur Districts 
and from Oudh ; on the south by Jalaun and Cawnpur Districts ; and 
on the west by the native States of Bhartpur, Dholpur, and 
Gwalior. Area in 1 881, 10, 151 square miles. The Census of 1881 
disclosed a population of 4,834,064, namely males 2,629,283, and 
females 2,204,781, residing in 8125 villages and inhabiting 681,482 
houses; average density of population, 476*2 per square mile; houses 
per square mile, 67*1 ; persons per occupied house, 7 "2. Classified 
according to religion, the population consisted of — Hindus, 4,377,055 ; 
Muhammadans, 422,460; Jains, 27,423 ; Christians, 6582 ; Sikhs, 534; 
Jew, 1 ; Parsis, 9. 

Agra. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh, lying between lat. 26 44' 30" and 27 24' N., 
and between long. 77 28' and 7 8° 53' 45" e. Area (1881) 1850 
square miles; population (1881) 974,656 souls. Agra is a District of 
the Division of the same name, and is bounded on the north by Muttra 
(Mathura) and Etah, on the east by Mainpuri and Etawah, on the 
south by Dholpur and Gwalior States, and on the west by Bhartpur 
State. The administrative head-quarters are at the city of Agra. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Agra is an artificial administrative 
division, including territory on either bank of the Jumna (Jamuna), which 
runs obliquely through its midst and divides it into two unequal portions. 
The northern and smaller section forms a part of the Dodb, or great 
alluvial plain between the Ganges and the Jumna. Its interior consists 
of the level and unbroken plateau which characterises the whole of 
that monotonous tract. The soil is a rich and productive loam, irrigated 
with water from the Ganges canals, and varied only by narrow ridges 
of sandy hillocks or barren stretches of saline usar plain. But as we 
descend towards the Jumna river, we encounter a broad belt of branch- 
ing ravines, deeply scored by the torrents which carry off the surface 
drainage in the rainy season, and either totally bare of vegetation or 
covered with babul trees and scrub jungle. At the foot of this unculti- 
vated slope lies a narrow strip of khddir or modern alluvial deposit, 
which produces rich crops of wheat and sugar-cane without the neces- 
sity for artificial irrigation. The southern and larger portion of the 
District, lying on the west bank of the Jumna, presents the same general 
characteristics as the Doab region, except that it is even more minutely 
intersected by ramifying ravines. The Utanghan traverses the heart of 
this portion, while its southern boundary is formed by the large and 
turbulent stream of the Chambal, whose volume often surpasses that of 
the Jumna itself. From either river a network of gorges spreads 

AGRA. 6 1 

upwards towards the alluvial plateau above. This plateau maintains the 
general level of the Gangetic plain till it meets, on the south-western 
border of the District, a low range of sandstone hills, the farthest out- 
liers of the great Vindhyan ridge. The narrow strip of land enclosed 
between the three main channels of the Jumna, the Chambal, and the 
Utanghan, consists almost entirely of ravines and the small patches 
of level ground which divide them. The north-western pa?-gands, 
however, present a wider expanse of unbroken ground, through which 
the Agra Canal distributes its fertilizing waters. The city of Agra itself 
is situated on the west bank of the Jumna, about the centre of the 
District. It contains the famous mausoleum of the Taj Mahal, and 
many other works of architectural interest, details of which will be 
found in the account of Agra City. 

History. — The District of Agra has scarcely any history, apart 
from that of the city. The Lodhi kings of Delhi had a residence 
on the east bank of the Jumna, which was occupied by Babar 
after his victory over Ibrahim Khan in 1526. Its foundations are 
still to be seen opposite the modern Agra. Babar fought a great 
and decisive battle with the Rajputs near Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. 
His son Humayun also resided at old Agra, until his expulsion 
in 1540. Akbar lived in the District for the greater part of his 
reign, and founded the present city of Agra on the west bank. The 
town of Fatehpur Sikri also owes its origin to the same Emperor, 
and dates back to the year 1570. A tank of twenty miles in 
circumference, which he constructed in its neighbourhood, can 
now be traced only in the fragmentary ruins of the embankment. 
The mausoleum at Sikandra, five miles from Agra, marks the burial- 
place of the great Mughal organizer. It was built by his son 
Jahangir, and has a fine entrance archway of red sandstone. 
Jahangir, however, deserted Agra towards the close of his reign, and 
spent the greater part of his time in the Punjab and Kabul. Shah 
Jahan removed the seat of the imperial court to Delhi, but continued 
the construction of the Taj and the other architectural monuments to 
which the city owes much of its fame. After the successful rebellion 
of Aurangzeb against his father Shah Jahan, the deposed Emperor 
was assigned a residence at Agra. From the year 1666, the District 
dwindled into the seat of a provincial governor, and was often attacked 
by the Jats. During the long decline of the Mughal power, the annals 
of the District are uneventful; but in 1764 Agra was taken by the 
Jats of Bhartpur under Suraj Mall and Walter Reinhardt, better known 
by his native name of Samru. In 1770 the Marathds overran the 
whole Doab ; but were expelled by the imperial forces under Xajaf 
Khan in 1773. The Jats then recovered Agra for a while, and were 
driven out in turn by Najaf Khan in the succeeding year. After passing 

62 AGRA. 

through the usual convulsions which marked the end of the last century 
in Upper India, the District came into the hands of the British by the 
victories of Lord Lake in 1803. Under our strong and peaceful govern- 
ment, the annals of Agra call for no special notice up to the date of the 
Mutiny. The city was long the seat of government for the North- Western 
Provinces, and remained so until the events of 1857. The outbreak 
of the Mutiny at Agra in May of that year will be related under Agra 
City. As regards the District, the tahsils and thdnds fell into the 
hands of the rebels, after the defection of the Gwalior contingent, on 
the 15th of June. By the 2nd of July the Nimach (Neemuch) and 
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) mutineers had reached Fatehpur Sikri, and 
the whole District became utterly disorganized. On the 29th, however, 
an expedition from Agra recovered that post, and another sally restored 
order in the Ihtimadpur and Firozabad pargands. The Raja of Awah 
maintained tranquillity in the north, while the Raja of Bhadawar 
secured peace on the eastern border. But after the fall of Delhi in 
September, the rebels from that city, joined by the bands from Central 
India, advanced towards Agra on the 6th of October. Four days 
later, Colonel Greathed's column from Delhi entered Agra without the 
knowledge of the mutineers, who incautiously attacked the city, and 
hopelessly shattered themselves against his well-tried force. They were 
put to flight easily and all their guns taken. The rebels still occupied 
Fatehpur Sikri, but a column despatched against that post successfully 
dislodged them. On the 20th of November, the last villages remaining 
in open rebellion were stormed and carried ; and on the 4th of 
February 1858, the last man still under arms was driven out of the 

Population. — The Census of 1853 returned the total inhabitants of 
Agra District at 1,001,961. The population in 1872, according to the 
Census of that year, but allowing for recent transfers, which have 
decreased the area from 1907 to 1849 square miles, was 1,076,005. 
The latest Census in 1881 (area 1849 square miles) returned a total 
population of 974,656, showing a decrease of 101,349, or 9-42 per 
cent, in the nine years. The male population in 1881 numbered 
526,801, and the female, 447,855 ; proportion of males 55-5 per cent. 
Average density of population, 526-8 ; number of towns and villages, 
1201; number of occupied houses, 165,439; number of villages per 
square mile, 0-64; houses per square mile, 89*4; inmates per occupied 
house, 5 "8. As regards the religious distinctions of the people, 
857,957, or 88'o per cent, were returned as Hindus, and 99,809, or 
10-2 per cent., as Musalmans. There were also 11, 476 Jains, 409 
Sikhs, 4997 Christians, and 8 Parsi's. The three higher castes of 
Hindus numbered 123,847 Brahmans, 94,144 Rajputs, and 50,323 
Banias. Among the lower castes, Ahirs amounted to 37,839, Chamars 

AGRA. 63 

to 152,656, Kayasths to 11,093, Jats to 57,461, Kachhi's to 45,640, 
Lohs to 24,007, Koris to 29,719, Kumbhars to 15,448, Mallas to 
2i,orS, and Nais to 19,559. The Musalmans were divided into 
97,818 Sunnis and 1991 Shias. The rural classes live almost entirely 
in mud huts ; but in the south-west of the District, near the quarries, 
stone houses are common, and even the poorer people live in cottages 
of unhewn stone roughly piled together. Dwellings with a large court- 
yard, accommodating many families, and surrounded by a ditch 
enclosing a mud wall, are known as gar/is or forts. They were 
dotted all over the country in Hindu and Muhammadan times. 
The District contained, in 1881, six towns with a population exceeding 
5000 souls — namely, Agra, 141,188; Firozabad, 16,023; Tajganj 
(suburb of Agra City), 12,570; Shahganj (also a suburb of Agra), 
6445 '> Fatehpur Sikri, 6243 ; and Pinahat, 5697. These figures 
show a total urban population of 188,166 souls, as against 769,490 
forming the rural population. Of the total of 1201 villages and towns, 
219 contain less than two hundred inhabitants; 445 from two to five 
hundred; 320 from five hundred to one thousand; 152 from one to 
two thousand; 44 from two to three thousand; 15 from three to five 
thousand ; 3 from five to ten thousand ; 1 from ten to fifteen thousand ; 
1 from fifteen to twenty thousand ; and 1 with upwards of a hundred 
thousand inhabitants. As regards occupation, the Census Report of 
1 88 1 classifies the male population into the following six great divisions : 
— Class 1. Professional class, including the military, Government, and 
other officials, and the learned professions, 13,168 ; (2) domestic class, 
including household servants and lodging-house keepers, 7909 ; (3) 
commercial class, including merchants, traders, and carriers, 15,786; 
(4) agricultural class, including cultivators, gardeners, and sheep and 
cattle tenders, 208,183 ; (5) industrial class, including artisans, 90,191 ; 
(6) indefinite and non-productive class (including 20,986 general 
labourers, 13 persons of rank and property without office or occupation, 
and 170,565 male children), 191,564. 

Agriculture. — In the Doab, the soil is generally rich and fertile, but 
elsewhere its productiveness is much impaired by the prevalence of 
ravines. Their detrimental influence extends far beyond the atea 
actually occupied by their sloping sides; for wherever any declivity 
begins, the surface soil is washed away, leaving scarcely enough mould 
for seed to germinate in ; while nearer to the actual declivity a belt 
of sandy loam occurs, where the produce is always poor and uncertain. 
The khddir or low-lying silt, however, which stretches between the 
ravines and the river-sides, is usually rich and fruitful. The course of 
agriculture does not differ from that which is common throughout the 
whole upper Gangetic plain. The crops are divided into the kharij 
or autumn harvest and the rabi or spring harvest. The kharif crops 

64 AGRA. 

are sown after the first rain in June, and reaped in October or 
November. They consist of bdjra, jodr, moth, and other food-grains ; 
and cotton, which is not ready for picking till November. The rabi 
crops are sown in October or November, and reaped in March and 
April. They consist of wheat, barley, oats, peas and other pulses. 
Manure is used, where it can be obtained, for both harvests; land is 
allowed to lie fallow whenever the cultivator can afford it ; and some- 
times from paucity of labourers. As a rule, the same soil is not planted 
for both spring and autumn harvests in a single year, but occasionally 
a crop of early rice is taken off a plot in August, and some other seed 
sown in its place for the spring reaping. Rotation of crops is practised 
in its simplest form ; autumn staples alternate with spring, wheat and 
barley being substituted for cotton and bdjra, while gram takes the 
place of jodr. Sugar-cane, tobacco, indigo, poppy, and vegetables are 
also grown. The total area under cultivation in 1 880-81 was 731,708 
acres; of which 23,045 acres were irrigated by Government works, 
159,408 acres were irrigated by private individuals, and 549,255 acres 
were unirrigated. The uncultivated area consisted of 191,410 acres of 
grazing and cultivable land, and of 202,485 acres of uncultivable waste. 
Total assessed area, 1,125,603 acres or 1759 square miles. Gross 
amount of Government assessment, ^178,884 ; average per acre of 
cultivation, 4s. iojd., or per acre of cultivated and cultivable land, 
3s. iojd. The total amount of rent, including cesses, paid by the 
cultivators in 1881 was ^319,528, oranaverage of 8s. 2d. per cultivated 
acre. Agriculturists form 56-61 per cent, of the total population, the 
area of cultivable and cultivated land being 174 acre per head of 
the agricultural population. From the statistics of out-turn during 
the last quarter of a century, it appears that the amount of cotton and 
superior cereals has been greatly on the increase; but as additional 
land has been brought under tillage at the same time, there has been 
no corresponding diminution in the growth of cheaper food-grains. 
Most of the cultivators are badly off and in debt. Even the land- 
owners are far from rich, owing to the minute subdivision of property. 
In the greater number of cases the tenants possess rights of occupancy. 
Wages rule generally as follows : Coolies and unskilled labourers, 2^d. 
to 3|d. per diem ; agricultural labourers, 2 Jd. to 3d. per diem ; brick- 
layers and carpenters, 6d. to 2s. per diem. Women are paid about 
one-fifth less than men, while children receive from one-third to one- 
half the wages of adults. The average prices current of food-stuffs 
are about as follow: Wheat, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; 
rice, 7 sers per rupee, or 16s. per cwt. ; jodr, 30 sers per rupee, or 3s. 9d. 
per cwt. ; bdjra, 30 sers per rupee, or 3s. 9d. per cwt. Both wages 
and prices have risen 15 or 20 per cent, in the last thirty-five years. 
Natural Calamities. — The District suffers much in periods of 

AGRA. 65 

drought, as it depends largely on natural rainfall for its water supply. 
Famines from this cause occurred in 1783, in 18 13, in 18 19, and in 
1838. In the last-named year as many as 113,000 paupers were being 
relieved at one time in Agra city alone, while 300,000 starving people 
immigrated into the District in search of work or charity. Prosperity 
returned very slowly, and for many years traces of the famine might be 
observed on every side. In 1860-61 the District was again visited by a 
severe scarcity, though it did not suffer so greatly as the country im- 
mediately to the north. In April 1861, 18,000 persons were employed 
on relief works, and 2000 on irrigation works ; in July, the daily average 
so occupied had risen to 66,000. Wheat rose to 10 sers per rupee or 
tis. 2d. per cwt. in September i860, but fell again to 15 sers, or 7s. 6d., 
by July 1 86 1 ; and the effects of this famine were not so severe or so 
lasting as those of the drought of 1837-38. The last great scarcity was 
that of 1868-69. The failure of rain in the autumn of the former year 
destroyed the kliarif crops, and confined the spring sowings to irrigated 
lands. The rabi was saved by rain in January and February ; but 
distress began to be felt from September 1868. The famine was never 
really dangerous in the District itself, as rain fell in the west; but 
crowds of fugitives trooped in from the Native States of Rajputana, 
brinsinsc want and disease in their train. Work was found for the able- 
bodied on the Agra Canal, while gratuitous support was afforded by 
Government to women and invalids. Distress (which was again severely 
felt in 1877-78) becomes serious in this District when the scarcity of 
the cheap autumn food-stuffs forces labouring people to consume the 
better and more expensive grains of the spring crops. When prices 
rise to a rate of 12 or 13 sers per rupee (8s. 7d. to 9s. 4d. per cwt.), 
they are beyond the purchasing power of the labourer, and famine 
is reached. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The trade of the District centres mainly 
in the city of Agra. There are, however, several indigo factories 
and two cotton screws in the rural parts, besides the usual village 
manufactures of pottery and coarse cloth. Large cattle markets are 
held at Sultanpur, Kandharpur, Jarra, and Shamsabad. The chief 
commercial fair is that of Batesar, on the right bank of the Jumna, 
at which about 150,000 persons attend the Bathing Festival, and 
a great trade is transacted in horses, camels, and cattle. Large 
quantities of stone are quarried in the south-west of the District, and 
exported by the Jumna, after being dressed and carved at Agra. The 
system of communications is excellent. The East Indian main line of 
railway runs through the whole Doab section, with stations at Firozabad, 
Tiindla, and Barhan j and sends out a branch from Tiindla to Agra, 
which crosses the Jumna by a bridge belonging to the Rajputana State 
Railway. The latter line runs from Agra to Bombay, vid Bhartpur, 

VOL. I. E 

66 AGRA. 

Jaipur and Ajmer, and has a length of 20 miles within the District. 
The Sindhia State Railway leaves the Rajputana line at Agra, and, 
after crossing the Utanghan and Chambal, proceeds to Gwalior, via 
Dholpur. Muttra is connected with Agra by a line of railway on the 
narrow gauge leaving the Rajputana railway at Achnera in Agra 
District. By means of this branch, the Hathras and Muttra railway 
is brought into communication with the Rajputana system. The city 
of Agra is thus the railway centre to which the various lines converge, 
as well as the commercial entrepot of the District. Good metalled 
roads connect Agra with Muttra, Aligarh, Cawnpur, Etawah, Gwalior, 
Karauli, Fatehpur Sikri, and Bhartpur. The Agra Canal has one 
navigable channel, and the Jumna still carries a large amount of 
heavy traffic eastward. A daily English newspaper, the Delhi Gazette, 
is published at Agra city. There were also in 1880-81 three vernacular 
papers, the Agra Akhbar, the Haiyat-i-Jawidani 'and the Ndsim-i-Agra, 
besides five vernacular periodicals, and twelve private printing presses. 
Administration— The District staff varies according to administrative 
exigencies, but consists normally of a Collector-Magistrate, one or 
two Joint Magistrates, an Assistant, and two uncovenanted Deputies, 
besides the usual fiscal, medical, and constabulary establishment. 
Agra is the head-quarters of a civil and sessions judge, who has also 
jurisdiction in Muttra. In 1880-81 there were 20 civil and revenue 
judges, and 25 officers with magisterial jurisdiction. The whole 
amount of imperial revenue raised in the District in 1880-81 amounted 
to ,£227,788, being at the rate of 4s. 8d. per head of the population. 
Total cost of officials and police of all kinds, £30,777. In 1880-81 
the regular District police force consisted of 744 officers and men, 
besides 431 employed in towns or municipalities, and a cantonment 
police of 68 men; total strength of police force, 1243. These figures 
give an average of 1 policeman to every 1*52 square mile of area and 
to every 800 persons of the population. There was also a rural police 
consisting of 2160 village and 98 road patrol chaukiddrs. The District 
contains the Central Jail for the Division, the average number of 
prisoners in which, during the year 1880-81, amounted to 2082*41, of 
whom 1937*27 were males and 145*14 females. The average cost per 
head was £3, 3s. 3d. ; average earnings of each hard labour prisoner, 
£4, 12s. od. There is also a District jail, which contained in the 
same year a daily average of 501*03 prisoners, all of whom were males. 
The average cost per prisoner was £3, 4s. 8|d., and the average 
earnings of each prisoner £i 9 10s. Two lock-ups in the civil station 
and cantonments contained in 1880-81 a daily average of 45*50 
prisoners, of whom 2*25 were females. Seven main lines of telegraph 
leave the Agra station — to Aligarh, Bhartpur, Cawnpur, Dholpur, Muttra, 
and the two railways. There are also telegraph offices at all the stations 

AGRA. 67 

on the East Indian and Rajputdna lines. The District contains 17 
imperial and 1 2 local post-offices, with a tendency to increase. Such 
figures, without a date attached to them, should be taken throughout these 
volumes as usually below the present facts. The total number of Govern- 
ment and aided schools in Agra District in 1880-81 was 245, attended 
by 7683 pupils, being at the rate of 1 school to every 7*53 square miles. 
There are, however, a number of private schools, unaided and un- 
inspected ; and the Census Report of 1881 returned 9391 males 
and 976 females as being under instruction, and 31,776 males and 
1248 females as not under instruction, but able to read and write. 
Four institutions for higher education exist at Agra — namely, the 
Government College, St. John's College, St. Peter's College, and 
Victoria College. The Sikandra Orphanage School is an excellent 
institution, which, in addition to affording education, has a well- 
managed industrial department. Those who wish to continue their 
English studies are drafted to St. John's College, and many such 
are now employed as teachers and clerks in different parts of the 
country. Most of the boys, however, take to handicrafts ; and smiths 
and carpenters trained here, find ready employment on the different 
railways. The institution also supplies trained proof readers, com- 
positors, pressmen, bookbinders, tailors, gardeners, and domestic 
servants. In the girls' branch, needlework and useful domestic arts 
are taught. Anglo-vernacular schools are established at Agra and 
Fatehpur Sikri. For fiscal purposes the District is divided into seven 
tahsils and seven pargands. The land revenue in 1880-81 amounted 
to ;£i 78,395. Agra contains three municipalities — namely, Agra, 
Fatehpur Sikri, and Firozabad. In 1881-82 their joint income amounted 
to ,£20,875, an d their united expenditure to ^"20,408. The incidence 
of municipal taxation was at the rate of 2s. 3 Jd. per head of the popula- 
tion within the municipal boundaries. 

Medical Aspects. — Agra District, from its proximity to the sandy 
deserts on the west, is very dry, and suffers from greater extremes of 
temperature than the country farther east. Though cold in winter and 
exceedingly hot in summer, the climate is not considered unhealthy. 
Mean annual temperature is about 75 F. ; lowest monthly average 
about 59 in January, and the highest, 95 in June. The follow- 
ing are the official figures for 1880-81 : Highest maximum, 1167 in 
June; lowest minimum, 39'6° in January; mean maximum, 91*6°; 
mean minimum, 687 ; general mean, 80*2°. Average annual rain- 
fall, 26*46 inches; rainfall in 1880-81, 1572 inches, or 1074 inches 
below the average. There are six charitable dispensaries in the District, 
— four in Agra, and one at Fatehpur Sfkri and at Firozabad. There 
are also a leper asylum and poorhouse at Agra city. [For further 
information regarding Agra District, see the Agra Settlement Report, 

63 AGRA. 

by Mr. H. F. Evans, C.S., printed by the Government of the North- 
western Provinces (1880); and 'Agra District,' in the Gazetteer of the 
North- Western Provinces, by Mr. E. F. Atkinson, C.S., vol. iv. part L, 


Agra— Tahsil of Agra District, North-Western Provinces, lying along 
the river Jumna, and containing the great city from which it derives 
its name. Area, 206 square miles, of which 143 are cultivated. Popu- 
lation (1881) 266,206 ; land revenue, ^22,846 ; total revenue, ^39>°°9 J 
rent paid by cultivators, ^43 J 6 57- The tahsil contains five civil and 
twelve revenue courts, with a regular police force of 533 officers and 
men, distributed at eleven police stations {thdnds) ; number of chau- 
kiddrs or village watchmen, 313. 

Agra. Chief city of Agra District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 

27 10' 6" n., long. 78 5' 4" e. ; population in 1881, including canton- 
ments and the suburbs of Tajganj and Shahganj, 160,203. Agra is 
the second city in size and importance in the North-Western Provinces 
(excluding Lucknow, in Oudh), and is situated on the right bank of the 
river Jumna, about 300 miles above its confluence with the Ganges. 
Distance by rail from Calcutta, 841 miles; from Allahabad, 277 miles ; 
and from Delhi, 139 miles. 

Site and Area. — The city of Agra occupies a bend of the Jumna, 
where the stream turns sharply to the east. The fort is perched 
in the angle thus formed, on the edge of the bank. In the rainy 
season, one side of it overhangs the swollen river. The old walls 
enclosed an area of about n square miles, half of which is now 
inhabited, while the remainder consists of ruins, ravines", and bare 
patches of open ground. The cantonments lie to the south of the 
fort, and between them on the river bank a little eastward rises the 
famous mausoleum of the Taj Mahal. North-west of the fort stretch 
the buildings connected with the civil station : while between the station 
and the Jumna lies the native city, better built than any other town in 
the North-Western Provinces, and containing a much larger propor- 
tion of stone houses. The site is generally level, but a few ravines 
intersect the European quarter and the native city, while the space 
between the Taj and the fort is a mass of tangled gorges, running south- 
ward in the direction of the cantonments. Agra is a well-built and 
handsome town, and its numerous architectural works, as well as the 
prominent part which it bore in Mughal history, give it a lasting interest 
to the tourist and the student. 

History. — Before the time of Akbar, Agra had been a residence of 
the Lodhi kings, whose city, however, lay on the left or eastern bank 
of the Jumna. Traces of its foundations may still be noticed opposite 
the modern town. Bahar occupied its old palace after his victory 
over Ibrahim Khan in 1526; and when, a year later, he defeated 

AGRA. 69 

the Rajput forces near Fatehpur Sikri and securely established the 
Mughal supremacy, he took up his permanent residence at this place. 
Here he died in 1530; but his remains were removed to Kdbul, so 
that no mausoleum preserves his memory amongst the tombs of the 
dynasty whose fortunes he founded for a second time. His son 
Humayun was for a time driven out of the Ganges valley by Sher 
Shah, the rebel Afghan Governor of Bengal, and after his re-estab- 
lishment on the throne he fixed his court at Delhi. Humayun was 
succeeded by his son Akbar, the great organizer of the imperial system. 
Akbar removed the seat of government to the present Agra, which he 
founded on the right bank of the river, and built the fort in 1566. 
Four years later, he laid the foundations of Fatehpur Sikri, and contem- 
plated making that town the capital of his empire, but was dissuaded, 
apparently, by the superior advantages of Agra, situated as it was on 
the great waterway of the Jumna. From 1570 to 1600, Akbar was 
occupied with his conquests to the south and east; but in 1601 he 
rested from his wars, and returned to Agra, where he died four years 
later. During his reign, the palaces in the fort were commenced, and 
the gates of Chittor were set up at Agra. The Emperor Jahangir 
succeeded his father, whose mausoleum he built at Sikandra. He 
also erected the tomb of his father-in-law, Itmad-ud-daula, on the left 
bank of the river, as well as the portion of the palace in the fort known 
as the Jahangir Mahal. In 1618, he left Agra and never returned. 
Shah Jahan was proclaimed Emperor at Agra in 1628, and resided here 
from 1632 to 1637. It is to his reign that most of the great architec- 
tural works in the fort must be referred, though doubtless many of them 
had been commenced at an earlier date. The Motf Masjid, or Pearl 
Mosque, the Jama Masjid, or Great Mosque, and the Khas Mahal, 
were all completed under this magnificent Emperor. The Taj Mahal, 
generally allowed to be the most exquisite piece of Muhammadan 
architecture in the world, commemorates his wife, Mumtaz-i-Mahal. 
In 1658 Shah Jahan's fourth son, Aurangzeb, rebelled and deposed 
him ; but the ex-emperor was permitted to live in imperial state, 
but in confinement, at Agra for seven years longer. After his death, 
Agra sank for a while to the position of a provincial city, as Aur- 
angzeb removed the seat of government permanently to Delhi. It 
had often to resist the attacks of the turbulent Jats during the 
decline of the Mughals; and in 1764 it was actually taken by the 
Bhartpur forces under Siiraj Mall and the Swiss renegade Walter 
Reinhardt, better known by his native name of Samru. In 1770, 
the Marathas ousted the Jats, and were themselves driven out by 
the imperial troops under Najaf Khan four years later. Najaf Khan 
then resided in the city for many years with great state as imperial 
minister. After his death in 1779, Muhammad Beg was governor 

70 AGRA. 

of Agra; and in 17S4 he was besieged by the forces of the Emperor 
Shah Alam and Madhuji Sindhia, the Maratha prince. Sindhia took 
Agra, and held it till 1787, when he was in turn attacked by the impe- 
rial troops under Jhulam Kadir and Ismail Beg. The partisan General 
de Boigne raised the siege by defeating them near Fatehpur Sikri in June 
1788. Thenceforward the Marathas held the fort till it was taken by 
Lord Lake in October 1803. From this time it remained a British 
frontier fortress; and in 1835 tne seat °f government for the North- 
Western Provinces was removed here from Allahabad. The English 
rule continued undisturbed until the Mutiny of 1857. News of the out- 
break at Meerut reached Agra on the nth of May, and the fidelity of 
the native soldiers at once became suspected. On the 30th of May 
two companies of Native Infantry, belonging to the 44th and 67th Regi- 
ments, who had been despatched to Muttra to escort the treasure into 
Agra, proved mutinous, and marched off to Delhi. Next morning 
their comrades were ordered to pile arms, and sullenly obeyed. Most 
of them then quietly retired to their own homes. The Mutiny at 
Gwalior took place on the 15th of June, and it became apparent imme- 
diately that the Gwalior contingent at Agra would follow the example of 
their countrymen. On the 3rd of July the Government found it necessary 
to retire into the fort. Two days later the Nimach (Neemuch) and 
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) rebels advanced towards Agra, and were met 
by the small British force at Sucheta. Our men were compelled to retire 
after a brisk engagement; and the mob of Agra, seeing the English 
troops unsuccessful, rose at once, plundered the city, and murdered 
every Christian, European or native, upon whom they could lay their 
hands. The blaze of the bungalows was seen by our retreating troops 
even before they reached the shelter of the fort. The mutineers, 
however, moved on to Delhi without entering the town ; and on the 
8th, partial order was restored in Agra. During the months of June, 
July, and August, the officials remained shut up in the fort, though 
occasional raids were made against the rebels in different directions. 
The Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces (John Col- 
vin), the seat of whose government lay at Agra, was one of the 
officers thus shut up. He died during those months of trouble, 
and his tomb now forms a graceful specimen of Christian sculpture 
within the fort of the Mughals. After the fall of Delhi in September, 
the fugitives from that city, together with the rebels from Central 
India, advanced against Agra on October the 6th. Meanwhile, Col. 
Greathed's column from Delhi entered the city without the know- 
ledge of the mutineers, who unsuspectingly attacked his splendid 
force, and were repulsed, after a short contest, which completely 
broke up their array. Agra was immediately relieved from all danger, 
and the work of reconstituting the District went on unmolested. The 

AGRA. 71 

Government continued to occupy the former capital until February 
1858, when it removed to Allahabad, which was considered a superior 
military position. Since that time Agra has become, for administrative 
purposes, merely the head-quarters of a Division and District; but the 
ancient capital still maintains its natural supremacy as the finest city of 
Upper India, while the development of the railway system, of which it 
forms a great centre, is gradually rendering it once more the commercial 
metropolis of the North-West. 

Architectural Works. — Most of the magnificent Mughal buildings, 
which render Agra so interesting in the eye of the traveller, are 
situated within the limits of Akbar's fort. They illustrate and justify 
the criticism, that the Mughals designed like Titans and finished 
like jewellers. Their bare outlines can alone be indicated in this 
article. But a description of rare literary charm and architectural 
value will be found in Mr. Fergusson's History of Indian Architecture 
(ed. 1876). Mr. H. G. Keene's Handbook to Agra will be found 
a useful guide. The fortress is built of sandstone, and its vast red 
walls and flanking defences give it an imposing appearance as viewed 
either from the land or the water. The oldest structures within its 
lines are composed of the same red stone, and date from the reign 
of Akbar. In front of the main entrance there used to be a walled 
square or place d'armes, known as the Tripolia, which has now been 
dismantled, and the ground is occupied by a railway station. Facing 
the gateway, and outside the enclosure of the fort, stands the Jama 
Masjid, or Great Mosque, elevated upon a raised platform, and reached 
by a broad flight of steps. 

The Janui Masjid of Agra. — The main building of the mosque is 
divided into three compartments, each of which opens on the court- 
yard by a fine archway, and is surrounded by a low dome, built of white 
and red stone in oblique courses, and producing a somewhat singular 
though pleasing effect. The work has all the originality and vigour of 
the early Mughal style, mixed with many reminiscences of the Pathan 
school. The inscription over the main archway sets forth that the mosque 
was constructed by the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1644, after five years' 
labour. It was built in the name of his daughter, Jahanara, who after- 
wards devotedly shared her father's captivity when he was deposed by 
Aurangzeb. This is the noble-hearted and pious princess, whose tomb 
lies near the poet Khusrus, outside Delhi. It is a cenotaph of pure 
white marble, with only a little grass, religiously planted and watered 
by successive generations, growing at one end of the slab. The adjacent 
Persian inscription records the last wish of this devoted lady : ' Let no 
rich canopy surmount my grave. This grass is the best covering for 
the tomb of the poor in spirit; the humble and transitory Jahanara, 
the disciple of the holy men of Chist, the daughter of the Emperor 

72 AGRA. 

Shah Jahan.' The splendid Jama Masjid at Agra is the public memorial 
of this princess, whose modest grave lies near Delhi. The dimensions 
of the Agra mosque are 130 feet in length by 100 in breadth. 

The Fort. — From the Jama Masjid we cross the square to the fortress, 
whose walls are 70 feet high, and a mile and a half in circuit ; but as they 
are only faced with stone, and consist within of sand and rubble, they have 
no real strength, and would crumble at once before the fire of modern 
artillery. A drawbridge leads across the deep moat which surrounds 
the crenelated ramparts, and gives access, through a massive gateway 
and up a paved ascent, to the inner portal. The actual entrance is 
flanked by two octagonal towers of red sandstone, inlaid with ornamental 
designs in white marble ; the passage between them being covered by 
two domes, and known as the Delhi gate. Within it, beyond a bare space 
once occupied by a courtyard, lie the palace buildings, the first of which 
is known as the Diwan-i-am, or Hall of Public Audience, formerly used 
as an armoury. It was built by Aurangzeb in 1685, and did duty as an 
imperial hall and court-house for the palace. The roof is supported by 
colonnades, which somewhat impair the effect of the interior. This hall 
opens on a large court or tilt-yard : and while the Emperor with his 
grandees sat in the open hall, the general public occupied three of the 
cloisters. A raised throne accommodated the sovereign, behind which 
a door communicated with the private apartments of the palace. The 
Diwan-i-am has been of recent years vulgarized by hasty decorations : 
its pillars and arches covered with white stucco, feebly picked out with 
gilt lines. The main range of buildings does not belong to Akbar's 
time, but was built by his son and grandson. The centre consists of a 
great court, 500 feet by 370, surrounded by arcades, and approached at 
opposite ends through a succession of corridors opening into one another. 
The Diwan-i-am is on one side, and behind it are two smaller enclosures, 
the one containing the Diwan-i-khas, and the other the harem. Three 
sides were occupied by the residences of the ladies, and the fourth by 
three white pavilions. The Diwan-i-khas, or Hall of Private Audience, 
consists of two corridors, 64 feet long, 34 feet broad, and 22 feet 
high, both built in 1637. It is being repaired in a spirit of fidelity 
to the original, although it is still unfortunately in the hands of the 
workmen, and littered with their materials and tools (1884). The 
Machi Bhawan, or court between these and the Diwan-i-am, was pro- 
bably built by Shah Jahan. On the river side of this court are two 
thrones, one of white marble and the other of black slate. The sub- 
structures of the palace are of red sandstone, but the corridors, rooms, 
and pavilions are of white marble elaborately carved. Next to the 
Diwan-i-khas comes the Shish Mahal, or Palace of Glass, which was an 
oriental bath adorned with thousands of small mirrors. To the south, 
again, lies a large red building called the Jahangfr Mahal, with a fine 

AGRA. 73 

two-storied facade and relieving lines of white marble ; one of the inner 
courts is 70 feet square, and both are of red stone. Between them is 
a handsome entrance on pillars. The Jahringfr Mahal presents some 
admirable examples of Hindu carving, with projecting brackets as 
supports to the broad eaves and to the architraves between the pillars, 
which take the place of arches. This Hindu form is adopted in the 
Jahangir Mahal and in the neighbouring Samam Bhiirj instead of the arch ; 
and the ornamentation of the former is purely Hindu. The exquisite 
Motf-Masjid, or Pearl Mosque, stands to the north of the Diwan-i-am. 
It is raised upon a lofty sandstone platform, and has three domes of 
white marble with gilded spires. The domes crown a corridor open 
towards the court and divided into three aisles by a triple row of 
Saracenic arches. The Pearl Mosque is 142 feet long by 56 feet high, 
and was built by Shah Jahan in 1654. It is much larger than the 
Pearl Mosque at Delhi ; and its pure white marble, sparingly inlaid 
with black lines, has an effect at once noble and refined. Only in the 
praying oblongs on the floor is colour employed — a delicate yellow 
inlaid into the white marble. There is, however, in the Agra Fort a 
second and much smaller Pearl Mosque, which w T as reserved for the 
private devotions of the Emperors. This exquisite miniature house of 
prayer is entirely of the finest and whitest marble, without gilding or 
inlaying of any sort. 

The Taj Mahal with its beautiful domes, ' a dream in marble,' rises 
on the river bank. It is reached from the fort by the Strand Road, 
made in the famine of 1838, and adorned w r ith stone ghats by native 
gentlemen. The Taj was erected as a mausoleum for the remains of 
Arjamand Benu Begam, wife of the Emperor Shah Jahan, and known as 
Mumtaz-i-Mahal, or Exalted of the Palace. She died in 1629, and this 
building was set on foot soon after her death, though not completed 
till 1648. The materials are white marble from Jaipur, and red sand- 
stone from Fatehpur Sfkri. The complexity of its design and the delicate 
intricacy of the workmanship baffle description. The mausoleum stands 
on a raised marble platform, at each of w^hose corners rises a tall and 
slender minaret of graceful proportions and exquisite beauty. Beyond 
the platform stretch the two wings, one of which is itself a mosque 
of great architectural merit. In the centre of the whole design, the 
mausoleum occupies a square of 186 feet, with the angles deeply trun- 
cated, so as to form an unequal octagon. The main feature of this 
central pile is the great dome, which swells upward to nearly two-thirds 
of a sphere, and tapers at its extremity into a pointed spire, crowned 
by a crescent. Beneath it, an enclosure of marble trellis-work surrounds 
the tombs of the princess, and of her husband, the Emperor. Each 
corner of the mausoleum is covered by a similar though much smaller 
dome, erected on a pediment pierced with graceful Saracenic arches. 

74 AGRA. 

Light is admitted into the interior through a double screen of pierced 
marble, which tempers the glare of an Indian sky, while its white- 
ness prevents the mellow effect from degenerating into gloom. The 
internal decorations consist of inlaid work in precious stones, such as 
agate and jasper, with which every spandril or other salient point in 
the architecture is richly fretted. Brown and violet marble is also freely 
employed in wreaths, scrolls, and lintels, to relieve the monotony of the 
white walls. In regard to colour and design, the interior of the Taj 
may rank first in the world for purely decorative workmanship ; while 
the perfect symmetry of its exterior, once seen, can never be forgotten, 
nor the aerial grace of its domes, rising like marble bubbles into the 
clear sky. 

The Taj represents the most highly elaborated stage of ornamenta- 
tion reached by the Indo-Muhammadan builders— the stage at which 
the architect ends and the jeweller begins. In its magnificent gateway, 
the diagonal ornamentation at the corners which satisfied the designers 
of the gateways of the Ihtimad-ud-Daula and Sikandra Mausoleums is 
superseded by fine marble cables, in bold twists, strong and handsome. 
The triangular insertions of white marble and large flowers have in like 
manner given place to fine inlaid work. Firm perpendicular lines in 
black marble, with well-proportioned panels of the same material, are 
effectively used in the interior of the gateway. On its top, the Hindu 
brackets and monolithic architraves of Sikandra are replaced by Moorish 
cusped arches, usually single blocks of red sandstone, in the kiosks and 
pavilions which adorn the roof. From the pillared pavilions a magni- 
ficent view is obtained of the Taj gardens below, with the noble Jumna 
river at their farther end, and the city and fort of Agra in the distance. 

From this beautiful and splendid gateway one passes up a straight 
alley, shaded by evergreen trees, and cooled by a broad shallow piece 
of water running along the middle of the path, to the Taj itself. The 
Taj is entirely of marble and gems. The red sandstone of the other 
Muhammadan buildings has disappeared : or rather the red sandstone, 
where used to form the thickness of the walls, is in the Taj overlaid 
completely with white marble ; and the white marble is itself inlaid 
with precious stones arranged in lovely patterns of flowers. A feeling 
of purity impresses itself on the eye and the mind, from the absence of 
the coarser material which forms so invariable a material in Agra archi- 
tecture. The lower walls and panels are covered with tulips, oleanders, 
and full-blown lilies, in flat carving on the white marble ; and although 
the inlaid work of flowers, done in gems, is very brilliant when looked 
at closely, there is on the whole but little colour, and the all-prevailing 
sentiment is one of whiteness, silence, and calm. The whiteness is 
broken only by the fine colour of the inlaid gems, by lines in black 
marble, and by delicately written inscriptions, also in black, from the 

AGRA. 75 

Kuran. Under the dome of the vast mausoleum, a high and beautiful 
screen of open tracery in white marble rises round the two tombs, or 
rather cenotaphs, of the emperor and his princess ; and in this marvel 
of marble, the carving has advanced from the old geometric patterns to 
a trellis-work of flowers and foliage, handled with great freedom and 
spirit. The two cenotaphs in the centre of the exquisite enclosure have- 
no carving, except the plain Kalamddn, or oblong pen-box, on the 
tomb of the Emperor Shah Jahan. But both the cenotaphs are inlaid 
with flowers made of costly gems, and with the ever graceful oleander 

The Tomb of Ihtimdd-ud-Dauld rises on the left bank of the river. 
Ihtimad-ud-Daula was the 7tazir, or prime minister, of the Emperor 
Jahangir, and his mausoleum forms one of the treasures of Indian 
architecture. The great gateway is constructed of red sandstone, inlaid 
with white marble, and freely employing an ornamentation of diagonal 
lines, which produce a somewhat unrestful Byzantine effect. The 
mausoleum itself in the garden looks from the gateway like a structure 
of marble filagree. It consists of two stones : the lower one of marble, 
inlaid on the outside with coloured stones chiefly in geometrical 
patterns, diagonals, cubes, and stars. The numerous niches in the 
walls are decorated with enamelled paintings of vases and flowers. 
The principal entrance to the mausoleum is a marble arch, groined, 
and very finely carved with flowers in low relief. In the interior, 
painting or enamel is freely used for the roof and the dado of the walls ; 
the latter are about 3J feet high, of fine white marble inlaid with 
coloured stones in geometrical patterns. The upper storey consists of 
pillars of white marble (also inlaid with coloured stones), and of a 
series of perforated marble screens stretching from pillar to pillar. 
The whole forms a lovely example of marble open filagree work. 

Akbar's Tomb lies five miles from Agra, on the Muttra road, at 
Sikandra (q.v.). 

Amongst the modern buildings may be mentioned the Government 
College on the Drummond Road, the Central Prison, and the Judges' 
Courts. The Catholic Mission and Orphanage is also of interest for its 
relative antiquity, having been founded as early as the reign of Akbar, 
through the influence of the Jesuit fathers, when the Portuguese were 
the only Europeans who had much communication with India. In the 
cemetery are many tombs of early date with Armenian inscriptions. 

Population.— -By the Census of 1872, the total population of the city 
and station of Agra was returned at 149,008 souls, of whom 79,344 
were males, and 69,664 females. In 1881, the total population was 
returned at 160,203, including the troops in cantonments, and the 
suburbs of Tajganj and Shahganj. Excluding the suburbs, the popula- 
tion consisted of 141,188 souls, of whom 77,368 were males and 


63,820 females. Hindus, 97,372; Muhammadans, 38,328; Jains, 1009; 
Christians, 4073 ; ' others,' 406. The city itself is remarkable for the 
comfort and solidity of its domestic architecture. The houses of the 
better classes are three or four storeys high ; the upper floors being 
often decorated with carved balconies, and the lower floors are open, 
and surrounded by pillared verandahs. 

Manufactures, Trade, etc. — Agra is a great grain mart, whence traders 
to the south and west draw their supplies ; and it is a centre where the 
sugar or other produce of Rohilkhand and the north converges, before 
being finally dispersed to the places of consumption. It has also a 
large manufacture of shoes, pipe stems, and gold lace. But to Europeans 
the main specialite of Agra is its inlaid mosaic work, like that of the Taj, 
which is still as beautifully and deftly fabricated as in the days of the 
Mughal Emperors. From the minuteness and delicacy of the work, it 
is necessarily very expensive. The chief imports of Agra are sugar, 
tobacco, grain, salt, and cotton, while the exports consist of darris or 
cotton carpets, gold lace, and wrought stone from the quarries of Fateh- 
pur Sikri, and the Bandroli hills. The city has hardly maintained its 
commercial position of late years, as it lies away from the main line of 
the East Indian Railway. It is connected by a branch line from 
Tiindla (distant 13 miles), which crosses the Jumna by a bridge; while 
the Rajputana State Railway from Bhartpur now affords access on the 
west, and the New Sindhia State Railway connects it with Dholpur 
and Gwalior on the south. When these lines are united with the 
Bombay system, their convergence at this point will doubtless render 
Agra once more the commercial metropolis of Northern India. In 
addition to these modern means of communication, the old imperial 
road through Muttra enters the town from the north-west, while the 
Fatehpur Sikri and Bhartpur roads communicate with the western 
country. The Jumna is also used for heavy traffic, though superseded 
by the railways for passengers and light goods. 

Municipality. — Agra has a municipality of 25 members, of whom 8 
are official, and 17 elected by the taxpayers. In 1881-82 its gross 
income amounted to ^19,609, of which sum ;£i 6,085 was raised by 
octroi; w r hile its total expenditure was returned at ,£19,114; incidence 
of taxation, 2s. 5^d. per head of the population (160,203) within 
municipal limits. [For further information regarding Agra City, see 
the authorities which I have quoted at the end of the last article 
(Agra District); also a useful little handbook to Agra, by H. G. 
Keene, C.S., Calcutta, 1878 ; and Fergusson's History of Indian 
Architecture (ed. 1876), a truly admirable work.] 

Agra Canal. — An important irrigation work, available also for naviga- 
tion, in Delhi, Gurgaon, Muttra, and Agra Districts, and Bhartpur 
State. The canal receives its supply from the Jumna river at Okla, 



about 10 miles below Delhi. The weir across the Jumna was the first 
attempted in Upper India, on a river having a bed of the finest sand. 
The weir is about 800 yards long, and rises 7 feet above the summer 
level of the river. From Okla, the canal follows the high land between 
the Khari-nadi and the Jumna. Its course is fairly parallel with the 
Jumna throughout at a distance of from 3 to 12 miles from the river 
bank. The canal finally joins the Utanghan river about 20 miles below 
Agra. Navigable branches connect the canal with Muttra and Agra, the 
latter of which has a lock into the Jumna, so that, as the main line is 
itself navigable, boats can pass by it from Delhi into the Jumna again 
at Agra city. The canal was finally opened in March 1874, and irriga- 
tion commenced from it in the following cold weather. It commands a 
total area of 375,800 acres as follows: — Delhi District, 8600 acres; 
Gurgaon District, 92,300 acres; Muttra District, 114,200 acres; Agra 
District, 113,100 acres ; and Bhartpur State, 47,600 acres. The length 
of the main and branch canals is 140 miles, with 313 miles of distribu- 
taries, making a total of 453 miles. The capital account of the canal 
up to the 31st March 1881, excluding interest, was ^840,312. The 
Agra Canal is now a reproductive public work, and in 1880-81 yielded 
a profit over expenses of ^"27,401, or 3*40 per cent. The area actually 
irrigated in that year was 141,405 acres. 

Agra. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal, about 1 mile n.e. of 
Kapilmuni, containing remains of old buildings, supposed to be the 
residences of early settlers in the Sundarbans. 

Agra Barkhera. — Petty State or guaranteed Thakurate under the 
Bhopal Political Agency (Central India). Lat. 23 57' n., long. 77 32' e. 
The chief of the State holds the rank of Thakur, with a grant of 1 2 
villages from Sindhia, to whom he pays annually ^"588 as istamrdr dues 
or quit-rent. In 1857 the then chief Thakur, Chattar Sal, joined the 
rebels, and his estate was confiscated ; the villages held from Sindhia 
were, however, afterwards restored to the present chief, Thakur Balwant 
Singh, who also receives from Karwai ^30, and from Sindhia ^237, 
yearly. Estimated revenue, £100 ; population (1881) about 4500. 

Agradwip. — Island in the Bhagirathi river, Nadiya District, Ben- 
gal ; scene of one of the principal annual fairs and festivals of the 
District, held in April or May for a week, and attended by about 25,000 
pilgrims. Lat. 25 33' 45" to 23 37' n., long. 88° i7'i5"to8S° 19' 15" e. 

Agrahara Vallalur. — Town in the Coimbatore taluk, Coimbatore 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 58' 30'' n., long. 7; 3' ^" e. 
The population is mainly agricultural. Situated on the Noyil river, 
five miles south-east of Coimbatore, and near the Pathaniir Railway 
junction. The wet lands of the village are of high value. 

Agroha. — Ancient town in Fatehabad taJisil, Hissar District, Punjab. 
Situated 13 miles north-west of Hissar. Original seat of the Aganvala 


Baniyas, and once a place of great importance. Remains of a fort still 
visible about half a mile from the existing village ; ruins and debris half 
buried in the soil on every side, attest its former greatness. It has now 
lost all its former importance, and in 1881 contained a population of 
only 1156 souls. Captured by Shahab-ud-din Ghori in n 94, since 
which time the Agarwala Baniyas have been scattered over the whole 
peninsula. The clan comprises many of the wealthiest men in India. 

Agror or Agrore ( Ughi). — Frontier valley in the Mansahra tahsil of 
Hazara District, Punjab, comprising the upper basin of the river Kunhar. 
It consists of three branches of mountain glens, 10 miles in length and 
6 in breadth. The lower portions form a mass of luxuriant cultivation, 
thickly dotted with villages, hamlets, and groves, and surrounded by 
dark pine-clad heights, whose depressions occasionally disclose the 
snowy peaks of the main range in the distance. These valleys are alike 
in their nature ; they have no strictly level spaces, but consist rather of 
terraced flats which descend from the hills. Water is abundant and 
perennial, so that failure of crops seldom occurs. Lat. 34 29' to 34 35' 
15'' n., long. 7 2 58' to 73 9' 30" e. The population chiefly consists of 
Swatis and Grijars, and was returned at 10,666 in 1881. Muham- 
madanism is the almost universal creed. Sole manufacture, common 
country cloth ; trade purely local, except a small export of grain. The 
valley is under the direct management of the Khan of Agror; but the 
British Government maintains a thdnd or police station under an 
inspector. Disturbances occurred in 1868, which resulted in the 
temporary removal of the Khan under surveillance to Lahore ; but he 
has since been restored to his authority in the valley. Agror is exposed 
to raids from beyond the frontier, and a military force is maintained for 
the preservation of order. Area, 41,285 acres, of which 20,820 are 

Aglimbe. — A pass in the Udipi taluk, South Kanara District, 
Madras Presidency, connecting Mysore with Kanara. Lat. 13 29' to 
1 3 29' 30" n., long. 75 6' 20" to 75 ° 8' e. The trunk road from 
Mangalore to the Nagar division of Mysore meets this pass, and much 
coffee and sandal-wood are conveyed through it to the coast, the pass 
being practicable for wheeled vehicles. The distance from the bottom 
to the top is about 5 miles, and the parallels are so arranged that the 
ascent is nowhere more than 1 in 18 feet. 

AgUStisvaram. — Taluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 97 square miles; population (1881) 78,979. 

Agwanpur-Mughalpur. — Town in Moradabad District, North- 
Western Provinces. Population (i88t) 5277, namely, Hindus, 2274; 
and Muhammadans, 3003 ; area of town site, 90 acres. 

Agwon. — Revenue circle, Rangoon District, British Burma, n.e. of 
mouth of Rangoon river. Sandy, and fringed with belts of jungle and 

A HA MS. 79 

high grass, near the sea ; open plains, slightly undulating towards the 
north, farther inland, with marshes well known for their fisheries. 
The population is chiefly engaged in agriculture, fisheries, and salt- 
making. Agwon has lately been divided into two revenue circles, 
North and South Agwon. 

Ahams. — A tribe of Shan descent inhabiting the Assam valley ; 
and, prior to the invasion of the Burmese at the commencement of the 
present century, the dominant race in that country. The great Shan 
nation originally occupied a tract of country extending from Tipperah 
in the west to Yunan and Siam in the east, known as the kingdom 
of Pong, with its capital at the city now called Mogoung by the 
Burmese on the upper w T aters of the Irrawadi. The date of their first 
arrival in the Brahmaputra valley is variously given by different 
authorities. Colonel Dalton in his Ethnology of Bengal, following 
Robinson's History of Assam, states : ' In the reign of Sukampha, the 
thirteenth sovereign of the Empire of Pong (who succeeded his father 
a.d. 777), his brother Samlonpha, who was the general of his forces, 
having subjugated Cachar, Tipperah, and Manipur, pushed across the 
hills to the valley of the Brahmaputra, and commenced there a series 
of conquests by which the Shans gradually reduced the whole country 
from Sadiya to Kamrup to subjection.' Robinson adds that Samlonpha, 
having effected a foothold in x\ssam, informed his brother of his suc- 
cesses, and announced his intended return. The Pong king, however, 
suspected his designs, and formed a conspiracy for poisoning Sam- 
lonpha, which, coming to the latter's knowledge, led to his remaining 
in Assam. From Samlonpha, the subsequent princes of the Aham 
dynasty are said to be descended. The Assam Census Report gives 
a different version, placing the advent of the Shans nearly five centuries 
later. That Report states the proximate cause of their invasion of 
Assam to have been a dispute as to the accession to the throne of the 
Pong kingdom in 1228 a.d. Chukapha, one of the claimants, being 
set aside, left his native country with a scanty following, and marching 
north-westwards across the Patkoi range, entered Assam. He reached 
it by the valley of the Namrup river, a tributary of the Buri Dining. 
This legend probably records the last of a series of inroads from the 
Shan country. Chukapha, however, was the first ruler to assume the 
name of Aham, ' the peerless,' for himself and his people. He also 
gave the name, now altered to Asam or Assam, to the country. On 
the conversion of the Aham king Chatumla to Hinduism in 1654 a.d., 
a divine origin was discovered for his family by the Brahman priests ; 
and a long list of forty-eight names leads down from Indra, the king 
of the gods, to Chukapha, the first of the real Aham kings. Chatumla 
took the Hindu name of Jagadaya Singh ; and since then, Hindu titles 
and names have been assumed by the Aham princes and their people. 


For a century and a half from 122S, the successors of Chukapha 
appear to have ruled undisturbed over a small territory extending 
along the Dihing river. In 1376, they first came into contact with 
the Chutias, who then occupied the inhabited portions of Lakhim- 
pur and Sibsagar. After a struggle lasting 124 years, the Ahams finally 
overthrew the Chutia monarch in 1500, and made Garhgaon {q.v.) in 
Sibsagar District their capital. From that time the Aham kings ruled 
over the country between Sadiya in Lakhimpur and Kaliabar in the 
north of Nowgong District. The extension of their power westward 
down the valley of the Brahmaputra was very gradual, and by no means 
uniformly successful. In 1563, their newly acquired territory in Sibsagar 
was overrun, and their capital taken, by the Koch king, who, however, 
made no attempt to retain his conquests. In restoring their power, 
the Ahams entered into a struggle with the Cacharis in Nowgong and 
Eastern Darrang, which ended in an alliance between them to defeat 
a threatened Muhammadan invasion in 16 15. The Ahams soon 
afterwards extended their power to Gauhati. Half a century later, a 
second Muhammadan invasion under Mir Jumla, Aurangzeb's general, 
took place. But Mir Jumla, after seizing the Aham capital, and im- 
posing a tribute upon its ruler, was forced to retreat to Goalpara on 
the south bank of the Brahmaputra. The Aham kings now held sway 
over the entire Brahmaputra valley from Sadiya to near Goalpara, and 
from the skirts of the southern hills to the Bhutia frontier on the 
north. Their main strength, however, was on the borders of Sibsagar 
and in Southern Lakhimpur, where the foundation of their power had 
originally been laid. The dynasty attained the height of its power 
under Rudra Singh, who is said to have ascended the throne in 1695. 
In the following century, the Ahams began to decay, alike from 
internal dissensions and from the pressure of outside invaders. An 
insurrection of a religious sect known as Moamariyas compelled the 
removal of the Aham capital from Garhgaon to Rangpur, also in Sib- 
sagar. Continuous internecine dissensions again forced the removal 
of the capital farther to the west, till it was finally fixed at Gauhati 
in Kamriip. The Burmese were called in to the assistance of one of 
the contending factions in 1810. Having once obtained a foothold 
in the country, they established their power over the entire valley, and 
ruled with merciless barbarity until they were expelled by the British 
in 1824-25. 

The Ahams retained the form of Government in Assam peculiar to 
the Shan tribes, and which may be briefly described as an organized 
system of personal service in lieu of taxation. (See article Assam.) 
In all other respects their national customs succumbed to Hinduism, 
and they are now completely Hinduized in religion, although dis- 
tinguishable by their features from other Hindus. The Census Report 


states that a special class of Ahams called Chasdang are found only 
in Sibsagar District. 'The name is a term of office denoting the 
guards or executioners who lived within the precincts of the Court, 
sleeping underneath the platform upon which stood the bamboo palace 
of the king. These people still retain some of their old liberties ; 
they drink strong liquor, eat swine's flesh and fowls, and bury their 
dead. But the national Shan deity, Chang or Song, whom Chutapha 
is said to have stolen and carried away with him from Mogoung, and 
to whose influence the success that attended his emigration is ascribed, 
has long been forgotten by all except a few of the Bailungs or 
astrologers, and the Deodhas or priestly class, who still retain at least 
a tradition of their old faith, and some written records of their own 
language.' The total number of Ahams in Assam in 1881 is returned 
in the Census Report at 179,283, of whom 117,872 were living in 
Sibsagar, and 51,588 in Lakhimpur. [For further particulars regarding 
the Ahams, their system of administration, etc., see post, article Assam ; 
Colonel Dalton's Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, 1872; Robinson's 
Assam ; Report o?i the Tribes of the North- Eastern Frontier of Bengal ; 
the Bengal Census Report of '1872; and the Assam Census Report of 1881.] 

Ahankaripur (Gosainganj).— Town in Faizabad District, Oudh, 22 
miles from Faizabad town. Population (1881) 4280, of whom 2796 
were Hindus and 1455 Muhammadans. Named after its founder, a 
Barwar chief called Ahankari Rai. Considerable export trade in hides 
to Calcutta. Government school. An important railway station on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. A considerable market is springing up 
in the neighbourhood of the station. 

Ahar. — Ancient ruined city in Udaipur Native State, Rajputana, 
lying 3 miles east of Udaipur town. It is said to have been founded by 
Asaditya upon the site of the still more ancient capital, Tamba Nagari, 
where dwelt the Tuar ancestors of Vikramaditya before he obtained 
Awinti or Ujjain ; from Tamba Nagari its name was changed to 
Anandpur, and at length to Ahar, which gave the patronymic of Aharia 
to the Gehlot race. Vestiges of immense mounds still remain to the 
eastward called the Dhulkot (or fort destroyed by the ashes of a volcanic 
eruption), in which sculpture, pottery, and coins are found. Some 
very ancient Jain temples are still to be traced, erected apparently from 
the ruins of shrines still older; and the ground is strewed with the 
wrecks of monuments and old temples whose stones have been used in 
erecting the cenotaphs of the Ranas. 

Ahar. — Ancient town in Bulandshahr District, North - Western 
Provinces; lying on the right bank of the Ganges, 21 miles n.e. of 
Bulandshahr. Population (1881) 2736. Police station, post-office, 
school. Large fair in June, at which crowds assemble to bathe in the 
Ganges. The town abounds in temples, which are, however, of no great 

vol. 1. F 


antiquity nor of any architectural interest. There is a small red sand- 
stone mosque, apparently of the time of Akbar. The town possesses 
no local trade, and it is now in a very decayed condition. A bridge of 
boats crosses the Ganges at this place in the dry months. Large 
tumuli in the neighbourhood testify to its former importance ; probably 
the capital of a Hindu principality before the advent of the Musalmans. 
The Nagar Brahmans of Ahar became Muhammadans under Aurangzeb, 
and retained their proprietary rights till 1857, when they forfeited their 
lands by complicity in the Mutiny. Their property was then conferred 
on Raja Gursahai Mall of Moradabad. 

Ahiri. — Zaminddri, constituting the southern portion of Chanda Dis- 
trict, Central Provinces. Lat. 18 57' 30" to 20 52' 30" n., long. 79 57' 
to 8i° 1' e. ; area, 2672 square miles; villages, 309; occupied houses, 
4702; population (1881) 25,896, namely 13,379 males and 12,517 
females. Hilly on the east and south, and famed for its magnificent 
forests. Much of the teak has been felled, but many thousand fine 
trees still remain. Inhabitants almost entirely Gonds ; languages, 
Gondf and Teliigu. The proprietor is first in rank of the Chanda 
zaminddrs, and is connected with the family of the Gond kings. 

Ahiri. — Forest in the chiefship of the same name, yielding teak of 
great value; two blocks named Bemaram and Mirkallii have been 
reserved by Government and marked out by boundary lines. Lat. 19 
18' 30" to 1 9 27' 45" n., long. 8o° 7' to 8o° 13' 15" e. 

Ahirwas. — A ruined fort in Holkar's dominions, in Central India. 
Lat. 22 31' n., long. 7 6° 31' e. Situated in the pargand of Satwas, 
and distant from Bagli 14 miles. Celebrated as the last refuge of the 
Pindari leader, Chitu, who was eventually killed by a tiger in the 
surrounding jungle. 

Ahiyari.— Village in Darbhangah District, Bengal. Lat. 2 6° 18' n., 
long. 85 50' 45" e. Population (1881) 2162. Scene of religious 
gathering, called Ahalyasthan, attended by 10,000 people ; contains a 
fine temple with images of Rama and Sfta. 

Ahmadabad {A/wiedabad). — A District in the Province of Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Northern Division, Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 
57' 30" and 23° 24' 30" n. latitude, and 71 20' and 72 57' 30" e. 
longitude. Total area, 3821 square miles, with 9 towns and 853 villages. 
Population (1881) 856,324. The chief town and administrative head- 
quarters of the District are at Ahmadabad city. 

Ahmadabad District is bounded on the west and south by the pen- 
insula of Kathiawar, on the north by the northern division of the 
Baroda territory, on the north-east by the Mahi Kantha territory, on 
the east by the State of Balasinor and the British District of Kaira, and 
on the south-east by the State and Gulf of Cambay. The boundary 
line is irregular, and two of the Sub-divisions — Parantij in the north- 


east, and Ghoga (Gogo) in the south— are cut off from the main body 
of the District by the territories of native chiefs. The compactness of 
the District is also broken by several villages belonging to Baroda and 
Kathiawar lying within it, while several of its own are scattered in small 
groups beyond its own borders. 

Physical Aspects. — The general appearance of the District shows that 
at no very remote period it has been covered by the sea. The tract 
between the head of the Gulf of Cambay and the Rann of Kachh 
(Cutch) is still subject to overflow in high tides. In the extreme south, 
and also just beyond the northern boundary, are a few rocky hills. 
But between these points the whole of the District forms a level plain, 
gradually rising towards the north and east, its surface unbroken by any 
inequality greater than a sand-hill. 

The chief feature of the District is the river Sabarmati, which rises in 
the north-east, near the extremity of the Aravalli range, and flows towards 
the south-west, falling finally into the Gulf of Cambay. Its total course 
is about 200 miles, estimated velocity in September 2 to 4 feet, with 
a discharge of from 1500 to 90,000 cubic feet per second, and the 
drainage area about 9500 square miles. The river has several tribu- 
taries both above and below Ahmadabad city, of which some are of 
considerable size. The Sabarmati is not navigable. In all parts of the 
District, except in the west, where the water is so salt as to be unfit 
even for the purposes of cultivation, wells exist in abundance, and in 
most places good water is found at a depth of about 25 feet. The 
District is also well supplied with reservoirs and tanks for storing water, 
not only near towns and villages, but in outlying parts ; these cover an 
area of some 14,000 acres. Though in favourable years a sufficient 
supply of water is thus maintained, after a season of deficient rainfall, 
many of the tanks dry up, causing much hardship and loss of cattle. 
The only large lake in the District is situated in the south of the 
Yiramgam Sub-division, about 37 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. This 
sheet of water, called the Nal, is estimated to cover an area of 49 
square miles. Its water, at all times brackish, grows more saline as 
the dry season advances, till at the close of the hot weather it has 
become nearly salt. The borders of the lake are fringed with reeds 
and other rank vegetation, affording cover to innumerable wild-fowl of 
every description. In the bed of the lake are many small islands, 
much used as grazing grounds for cattle during the hot season. In the 
north of the District, near the town of Parantij, in a hollow called the 
Bokh (lit. a fissure or chasm), are two smaller lakes. Of these, the 
larger covers an area of about 160 acres, with a depth of 30 feet of 
sweet water; and the smaller, with an area of 31 acres, is S feet deep 
in the rains and cold season, but occasionally dries up before the close 
of the hot weather. 


Geologically, Ahmadabad District is an alluvial plain, bounded on 
the south by a range of hills, about 700 feet in height; and in the 
north-east, by sandstone rocks close to the surface. 

With the exception of a quarry in the Viramgam Sub-division, from 
which small slabs of stone are obtained for building purposes, Ahmad- 
abad is without minerals. There are no forests in the District, but the 
common trees of Gujarat (Guzerat) are found near villages and in the 
fields. The domestic animals are cows, buffaloes, oxen, camels, horses, 
asses, sheep, and goats. The breed of cattle is held in esteem. Govern- 
ment stud stallions are stationed in the District, and the efforts to 
improve the local breed, by the introduction of Arab sires, have been 
fairly successful. Tigers are found in the jungles in the north-east. 
The smaller kinds of game are obtained during the cold season in great 
numbers, especially quail, duck, and snipe. Fish abound. 

History. — Although Ahmadabad District contains settlements of very 
high antiquity, its lands are said to have been first brought under tillage 
by the Anhilwara kings (746-1297 a.d.). Notwithstanding their wealth 
and power, large portions remained in the hands of half independent 
Bhil chiefs, who eventually tendered their allegiance to the Emperor 
Akbar (1572). Except Gogo, all of its present lands were included 
in the district sarkdr of Ahmadabad, some outlying portions being 
held in the position of tributary chiefdoms. In the middle of the 
18th century (1753), after the capture of Ahmadabad, the Peshwa and 
the Gaikwar found it convenient to continue this distinction between 
the central and outlying parts. A regular system of management was 
introduced into the central portion, while the outlying chiefs were only 
called on to pay a yearly tribute, and so long as they remained friendly, 
were left undisturbed. Until their transfer to the British, in 1803, the 
position of the border chieftains remained unchanged, except that 
their tribute was gradually raised. The first English acquisition in the 
District was due to the aggression of the Bhaunagar chief, who, intriguing 
to obtain a footing in Dholera, drove the people to seek British pro- 
tection. The Bombay Government was implored for years to take 
possession of Dholera and to protect its inhabitants from their neigh- 
hour's aggressions. In 1802, the offer was accepted, the cession being 
sanctioned by the Gaikwar, then the Peshwa's Deputy. Sir Miguel de 
Souza was sent to examine and report upon this new possession, and 
he was of opinion that the cession would be of little value without the 
addition of other adjoining estates. These were also ceded, and in the 
following year, 1803, Dholka was handed over to the British for the 
support of a subsidiary force. In 181 7, in order to provide for the 
regular payment of additional troops, the Gaikwar granted to the 
English, in perpetual gift, his own as well as the Peshwa's share in the 
city of Ahmadabad, and in other portions of the District. The territory 



acquired in 1S02-3 remained under the Resident at Baroda till 1805, 
when it was included in the charge of the newly appointed Collector of 
Kaira. On the 1st of January 1818, in consequence of fresh cessions 
of territory, Ahmadabad was made a separate District. In 1886-87, 
this District will become open to resettlement, the first settlement 
having taken place in 1856-57. 

Population. — In 1857, the population numbered 650,223, and 829,637 
in 1872. The Census of 1881 returned a total population of 856,324, 
or 224 persons to the square mile. Of these, 729,493, or 85*18 per cent., 
are Hindus; 83,942, or 9*80 per cent., Musalmans ; 652, or 0*08 per 
cent., Parsi's; 1528, or 0*18 percent., Christians; 38,470, or 4-49 per 
cent., Jains; 233 Jews; and 1996 aborigines. Males 439,394, females 
416,930; dwelling in 199,996 houses; number of houses per square 
mile, 87*4; persons per occupied house, 4-28. Proportion of males to 
the total population, 51*31. Among the Hindus the males number 
375> 8 79> the females 353> 6l 4; and Musalman males 42,086, females 

Among the Hindus, the merchant or baniyd class is the most influ- 
ential ; but, contrary to the rule in other parts of Guzerat, the Sarawak 
baniyds, or Jain merchants, are superior to the Meshri baniyds or 
Brahmanical traders, in wealth. The wealthiest members of both 
classes employ their capital locally, supplying the funds by which the 
village usurers and dealers carry on their business. Those who do not 
possess sufficient capital to subsist solely by money-lending, borrow at 
moderate rates of interest from their caste-fellows of greater wealth, 
and deal in cloth, grain, timber, or sugar. The poorest of all keep 
small retail shops, or move from place to place hawking articles required 
by the rural population for their daily consumption. Besides engaging 
in trade, both the Sarawaks and Meshri ba?iiyds are employed as clerks, 
either in Government or private offices. 

Although Ahmadabad is one of the first manufacturing Districts of 
the Bombay Presidency, the large majority of the people support them- 
selves by agriculture. Among the Hindus, the chief cultivating classes 
are the Kunbis, Rajputs, and Kolis. There is also in most parts of 
the District a sprinkling of Musalman cultivators or Boras, as well as 
Musalmans of the common type. The Kunbis, who number 109,690, 
or 12*8 per cent, of the total population, are an important class. Many 
of them are skilled weavers and artisans, and some have risen to high 
positions in Government service, or have acquired wealth in trade ; but 
the majority are engaged in agriculture and form the bulk of the peasant 
proprietors in Guzerat. There is no real difference of caste between 
Kunbis and Pattidars, though Pattidars will not now intermarry with 
ordinary Kunbis. Both classes are excellent cultivators. Immorality is 
uncommon among them, and crime rare. They are also more intelligent 


and better educated than the rest of the agricultural population. The 
Kunbis are divided into three classes — Lewas, Kadavas, and Anjanas. 
Female infanticide, owing to the ruinous expenses attached to marriage, 
having been found prevalent among the Kunbis, the provisions of Act 
viii. of 1870 were applied to the Kadava and Lewa Kunbis. Two of 
the marriage customs of the Kadava Kunbis are deserving of notice : — ■ 
(1) When a suitable match cannot be found, a girl is sometimes for- 
mally married to a bunch of flowers, which is afterwards thrown into a 
well. The girl is then considered a widow, and can now be married by 
the ndtrd (second marriage) form — a cheap process. (2) At other times 
they marry a daughter to a man already married, previously obtaining 
his promise to divorce her as soon as the ceremony is completed. The 
girl is afterwards given in ndtrd to any one who may wish to marry her. 
Next in position to the Kunbis are the Rajputs, who still retain to 
some extent the look and feelings of soldiers. They are divided into 
two classes: — (1) Garasias, or landowners; and (2) Cultivators. The 
former live a life of idleness on the rent of their lands, and are greatly 
given to the use of opium. There is nothing in the dress or habits of a 
cultivating Rajput to distinguish him from a Kunbi, though, as farmers, 
they are far inferior in skill and less industrious. Their women, unlike 
those of the Garasias, are not confined to the house, but help their 
husbands in the labour of the field. The character of the Kolis, as 
agriculturists, varies much in different parts of the District. In the 
more central villages, their fields can hardly be distinguished from those 
cultivated by Kunbis, while towards the frontier they are little superior 
to other aboriginal tribes. Crimes of violence are occasionally com- 
mitted among them ; but, as a class, they have settled down in the 
position of peaceful husbandmen, — a marked contrast to their lawless 
practices fifty years ago. 

Classified according to caste, the chief among the Hindus were 
43,000 Brahmans, 48,658 Rajputs, 15,377 Chamars, 7188 Shimpis 
(tailors), 11,621 barbers, 109,690 Kunbis, 176,268 Kolis, 20,555 
Kumbhars (potters), 11,659 Lohars, 40,626 Mahars, and 10,758 Sutars 
(carpenters). Of the 83,942 Musalmans, 77,326 are Sunnis and 6616 
Shias. Of the 1528 Christians, 559 are Europeans, 53 Eurasians, and 
916 are native converts. 

The language chiefly spoken is Guzerathi, but in the towns Hindustani 
is generally understood. 

There were in 1881, 862 inhabited State and alienated villages, 
giving an average of 0*22 to each square mile, and 993*4 inhabitants 
to each village. The total number of houses in 1881 was 199,996 
occupied and 134,089 unoccupied, or an average of 87-4 to each 
square mile, and about 4 persons per house. 

The chief towns of the District are — (1) Ahmadabad, population, 


city 124,767, cantonment 2854; (2) Dholka, population 17,716; (3) 
Yiramgam, population 18,990; (4) Dholera, population 10,301; (5) 
Dhandhiika, population 10,044; (6) Gogo (Goghd), population 7063; 
(7) Parantij, population 8353; (8) Morasa, population 7031; and (9) 
Sanand, population 6984. 

Manufactures. — Ahmadabad holds an important place as a manu- 
facturing District. Except the preparation ot salt, carried on near the 
Rann, most of its manufactures are, however, centred in the city of 
Ahmadabad. At Kharagora, about 56 miles north-west of Ahmadabad, 
are situated the salt works, from which salt is distributed through 
Guzerat. A railway has been carried into the heart of the works, and 
a large store has been built at Kharagora. Minor depots have been 
constructed at Ahmadabad, Broach, and Surat. Other stations on the 
railway are supplied by a contractor. Salt is sold at all depots and 
railway stations at one uniform price of Rs. 3. 7. (6s. iod.) per 80 lbs. 
The salt is made not from sea water, but from brine, found at a depth 
of from 18 to 30 feet below the surface. This brine is much more 
concentrated than sea water, and contains in proportion about six 
times as much salt. Saltpetre is largely manufactured in the neigh- 
bourhood of the salt-works. The other manufactures are silk, gold and 
silver work, hardware, copper and brassware, pottery, woodwork, cotton 
cloth, shoes, blankets, soap, and paper. In 1881, there were four 
steam cotton mills, working 57,928 spindles and 684 looms. 

In consequence of the importance of its manufactures of silk and 
cotton cloth, the system of caste or trade unions is more fully de- 
veloped in Ahmadabad than in any other part of Guzerat. Each of 
the different castes of traders, manufacturers, and artisans, forms its own 
trade guild. All heads of households belong to the guild. Every 
member has a right to vote, and decisions are passed by a majority 
of votes. In cases where one industry has many distinct branches, 
there are several guilds. Thus among potters, the makers of bricks, 
of tiles, and of earthen jars, are for trade purposes distinct ; and in 
the great weaving trade, those who prepare the different articles of 
silk and cotton form distinct associations. The objects of the trade 
guild are, to regulate competition among the members, and to uphold 
the interest of the body in any dispute arising with other craftsmen. 
For example, in 1872, the cloth dealers agreed among themselves, 
that they would reduce the rates formerly paid by them to the sizers 
or tdgids ; the sizers on their side refused to prepare cloth at the 
reduced rates. The dispute lasted for about six weeks, and during that 
time the sizers remained out of work. The matter in dispute was at 
last settled, and a formal agreement by both parties was drawn up on 
stamped paper. Again, to modify the competition of the members of 
a craft, the guild appoints certain days as trade holidays, when any 


member who works is punished by fine. This arrangement is found 
in almost all guilds. A special case occurred in 1873 among the 
Ahmadabad bricklayers. Men of this class in some cases added 3d. 
to their daily wages by working extra time in the morning. But several 
families were thrown out of employment ; accordingly the guild met, 
and decided that as there was not employment for all, no man 
should be allowed to work extra time. The decisions of the guilds 
are enforced by fines. If the defender refuses to pay, and the members 
of the guild all belong to one caste, the offender is put out of caste. 
If the guild contains men of different castes, the guild uses its 
influence with other guilds, to prevent the recusant member from 
getting work. Besides the amount received from fines, the different 
guilds draw an income by levying fees on any person beginning to 
practise his craft. This custom prevails in the cloth and other 
industries. But no fee is paid by potters, carpenters, and other inferior 
artisans. An exception is also made in the case of a son succeeding 
his father, when nothing has to be paid. In other cases the amount 
varies, in proportion to the importance of the trade, from £$ to £$0. 
The revenue derived from these fees, and from fines, is expended in 
feasts to the members of the guild, and in charity. Charitable institu- 
tions or saddvarat, where beggars are daily fed, are maintained in 
Ahmadabad at the expense of the trade guilds. 

Agriculture. — Exclusive of lands belonging to other territory situated 
within its limits, Ahmadabad District contains a total area of 2,445,440 
acres, of which 607,822 acres are arable assessed Government land, 
and 731,458 acres tdlukddri, or a total of 1,339,280 acres, of which 
1,248,216 acres were returned as cultivated in 1881-82. Of the culti- 
vated area, 9637 acres or o*8 per cent, were garden lands; 1,164,536 
acres or 94-3 per cent, were dry crop lands ; and 60,578 or 5 per cent. 
were rice lands. Of the total area, 248,635 acres or 10*2 1 per cent, have 
been alienated by the State; and 1,400,416 acres or 57J per cent, are 
either tdlukddri, i.e. held by large landowners, or mehivdsi, i.e. held 
by chiefs of the classes who pay a tribute instead of a regular 

The two principal varieties of soil are the black and the white. In 
many parts of the District, both kinds occur within the limits of the 
same village ; but on the whole, the black soil is found chiefly towards 
the west, and the light-coloured soil in the east. With the help of 
water and manure, the light-coloured soil is very fertile ; and though 
during the dry weather, especially where subject to traffic, it wears into 
a loose fine sand, yet after rain has fallen, it again becomes tolerably 
compact and hard. Two other varieties of soil are less generally dis- 
tributed ; an alluvial deposit of the Sabarmati river, the most fertile 
soil in the District, easily irrigated, and holding water at the depth of 


a few feet below the surface ; and in the north-east of the District, a 
red stony soil, like that of Belgaum in the south of the Presidency. 

As compared with the other British Districts of Guzerat, an important 
peculiarity of Ahmadabad is the great extent of land held by the class 
of large landholders called tdlukddrs, who own the lands of 387 
villages, or 46*47 per cent, of the whole number in the District. Their 
possessions comprise the border land between Guzerat Proper and the 
peninsula of Kathiawar. Historically, this tract forms 'the coast, 
where the debris of the old Rajput Principalities of that peninsula was 
worn and beaten by the successive waves of Musalman and Maratha 
invasion.' But these estates are part of Kathiawar rather than of 
Guzerat. Their proprietors are Kathiawar chiefs, and their communi- 
ties have the same character as the smaller States of the western 
peninsula. The tdlukddri villages are held by both Hindus and 
Musalmans. Among the Hindus are the representatives of several 
distinct classes. The Chudasamas are descended from the Hindu 
dynasty of Junagarh in Kathiawar, subverted by the Musalman kings 
of Ahmadabad, at the end of the 15th century; the YVaghelas are 
a remnant of the Solanki race, who fled from Anhilwara when that 
kingdom was destroyed by Ala-iid-dm in 1297 a.d.; the Gohels 
emigrated from Marwar many centuries ago; the Jhalas, akin to the 
Waghelas, were first known as Makwaras; the Thakaras are the off- 
spring of Solanki and Makwana families, who lost position by inter- 
marriage with the Kolis of Mahi Kantha. The Musalman families are 
for the most part relics of the old Muhammadan nobles of Ahmad- 
abad. Besides these, there are a few estates still held by descendants 
of favourites of the Mughal or Maratha rulers; by Molesalams, con- 
verted Rajputs of the Parmar tribe, who came from Sind about 
a.d. 1450; and by Musalman officers from Delhi, in the service of the 
Marathas. All Parmars and Musalmans are called Kasbatis, or men of 
the Kasba or chief town, as opposed to the rural chiefs. There are 
also other Kasbatis, who say that they came from Khorasan to Patan, 
and received a gift of villages from the Waghela kings. 

Landowners of this class are subject to the payment of a fixed quit- 
rent to Government. In other respects they are considered absolute 
proprietors. In the course of time, the estates have become so sub- 
divided, that in most villages there are several shareholders, mutually 
responsible for the payment to Government of the whole quit-rent. 
One of their number is generally appointed manager, and entrusted 
with the duties of collecting their shares from the different members. 
The first settlement of the District took place in 1856-57, and the next 
will take place thirty years after, in 1886-87. Under the shareholders 
are tenants, by whom the work of actual cultivation is carried on, and 
who receive from the landlord a share in the crops, varying from 40 to 


50 per cent. In the year 1862 it was found necessary to adopt special 
measures for the relief of many of the tdlukddrs, who were sunk in 
debt; 469 estates were taken under the management of Government, 
and a survey was undertaken and completed in 1865-66, with the view 
of ascertaining precisely the area and resources of the different villages. 
The claims brought against the landlords were then enquired into, and 
the total amount awarded to the creditors fixed at ^"136,040. Of 
this sum ^128,963, or 9479 per cent, of the whole, had, up to the 
end of 1876, been repaid, and of the .£55,000 advanced by Govern- 
ment, only £"13,647 were outstanding. 

As in other parts of Guzerat, there are in Ahmadabad two sets of 
agricultural operations — one ending in the early or kharif, lasting from 
July to November; and the other in the late or rabi harvest, from 
November to March. The cultivating season is generally considered 
to begin immediately after the first fall of rain in June or July. A 
month or two before this, however, manure is carted to the field, and 
left there exposed to the action of the sun ; and after a fall of rain, the 
manure is spread over the ground and ploughed in. The plough used 
is of the most simple construction, costing from 6s. to 8s. After two 
ploughings, each to the depth of 4 or 5 inches, the ground is considered 
ready for the seed, which is sown by a drill plough. Several English 
ploughs have been distributed in the District, and they are appreciated 
by the cultivators, as the land is found to derive lasting benefit from 
deeper ploughing. The advantages of a free use of manure are admit- 
ted by the husbandmen ; but, at the same time, as a great part of the 
cowdung is burnt as fuel, the ground is but scantily manured. The 
District is not favourable for direct river irrigation, as most of the rivers 
flow in deep, narrow channels with sandy beds. At the same time, 
there are many spots along the course of the Sabarmati, Khari, and 
Bhadhar rivers, where, by means of a frame on the banks, water is 
raised in leather bags. Well water is also used to a considerable 
extent. The irrigation from tanks and reservoirs is almost confined 
to the early part of the cold season, when water is required to bring 
the rice crops to maturity. The Government irrigation works in the 
north-eastern Sub-division of the District, constructed at a cost of 
£"28,000, are designed to irrigate once in three years' rotation 30,000 

The agricultural stock in the possession of the cultivators during 1 88 1-82 
was returned at 64,303 ploughs; 21,247 carts; 151,539 bullocks; 
123,280 buffaloes; 85,926 cows; 7203 horses; and 72,077 sheep and 
goats. Of the total of 1,248,216 acres under actual cultivation in the 
same year, cereals occupied 602,761 acres, or 48*3 per cent.; pulses, 
72,305 acres, or 5*8 per cent; oil-seeds, 23,000 acres, or i*8 per 
cent.; fibres, 162,812 acres, or 13*0 per cent.; tobacco, 1293 acres; 


sugar-cane, 2769 acres; incligo, 200 acres; other dyes, 495 acres; 
and miscellaneous crops, 4166 acres. In addition, 391,245 acres were 
fallow or under grass. 

Natural Calamities. — During the past two centuries and a half, four- 
teen years have been memorable for natural calamities. Of these, three 
were in the 17th, six in the 18th, and seven in the 19th centuries. In 
the 17th century, the year 1629 is said to have been a season of great 
famine; and 1650 and 1686 were years of drought and scarcity. In the 
1 8th century, 17 18 and 1747 w r ere years of scarcity, and 1771 was one 
of pestilence. The years 17 14 and 1739 were marked by disastrous 
floods in the Sabarmati. In 1755, extraordinarily heavy rains did con- 
siderable damage to the city of Ahmadabad. The famine, which reached 
its height in 1790-91, and from having occurred in Samvat 1847, is 
known by the name sattdlo, lasted through several seasons. In the 
19th century, the years 181 2-13 were marked by the ravages of locusts ; 
1819-20 and 1824-25 were years of insufficient rainfall. In 1834, the 
rainfall was again short, and the distress was increased by vast swarms 
of locusts. In 1838, there was a failure of the usual supply of rain. In 
1868, another disastrous flood of the Sabarmati occurred. In September 
1875, tne cu 7 of Ahmadabad and three eastern Sub-divisions were 
visited by extraordinary floods of the Sabarmati river. Two iron bridges 
and a large portion of the town were washed away ; and throughout the 
District roi villages suffered very severely. In years of famine and 
scarcity, immigration from Mahra and other places is said to have 
added to the local distress. 

Roads, Trade, etc. — Before the introduction of railways, the main 
route of the trade of Central India and Malwa passed through Ahmad- 
abad District. The general means of transit included carts drawn by 
two or more pairs of bullocks, camels, and pack bullocks. Thirty 
years ago there were no made roads in the District ; and during heavy 
rain the country became impassable to carts, and traffic was suspended. 
At present the means of communication are three — by road, by rail, 
and by sea. Within the last few years, many good roads have been 
constructed ; and for internal communication, the common Guzerat cart, 
drawn by two, and sometimes four bullocks, is still in use. In 1880-81, 
there were 85 miles of metalled road, and 309 miles of road suitable for 
fair weather traffic only. The Bombay Baroda and Central India 
Railway runs through the District for a distance of 93 miles, the Rajput- 
ana State Railway for a distance of 15! miles, and the Dhola-Wadhwan 
branch of the Bhdunagar-Gondal Railway for a distance of about 20 
miles. The seaports of the District are Dholera and Gogo; towns at 
one time of importance, but whose trade has of late years been falling 
off. The imports comprise sugar, piece goods, timber, metal, grain, 
cocoa-nuts, and molasses; the exports are cotton, seeds, and grain. 


The trade of Ahmadabad is almost entirely carried on by local capital. 
The great distance from Bombay is said to have given a distinctive 
character to its merchants, as compared with those of Southern Guzerat. 
They are more conservative, and less extravagant. Bankers make 
advances to each other on personal security for short periods at from 
2 to 6 per cent, per annum. In all transactions, when an article worth 
more than the amount advanced is given in pledge, the rate of interest 
in the city is reported to be so low as from 3 to 4 per cent, per annum, 
without any reference to the circumstances of the borrower. 

The wages in 1881-82 of skilled labourers, such as masons, carpenters, 
and bricklayers, were is. 3fd. a day; those of able-bodied agricultural 
labourers, 5d. a day ; the hire for carts and camels, 3s. a day. The 
current prices of the chief articles of food during 1881-82 were — for 
wheat, 5s. 3|d. per maimdoi 80 lbs. ; for barley, 2s. iod. ; for rice, from 
8s. 6d. to 1 os. 9d. ; for millet or bajra, 4s. id.; for Indian millet or joar, 
3s. 6d. ; for split peas or da/, 5s. 1 Jd. ; for gram, 3s. iod. ; for flour, 
6s. 8Jd. ; for clarified butter or ghee, ^3, 5s. od. ; and for salt, 5s. 9jd. 

Administration. — For administrative purposes, Ahmadabad is divided 
into seven tdhiks or Sub-divisions, viz. Daskroi, Samand, Viramgam, 
Dholka, Dhandhuka, Parantij-Morasa, and Gogo. Of these, six 
are generally entrusted to covenanted assistants, and one is under the 
Collector's personal control. The supervision of the District treasury is 
in the hands of an uncovenanted assistant, styled a Deputy Collector. 
These officers have, under the supervision of the Collector, the chief 
management of the different administrative bodies, local funds, and 
municipal committees within the limits of their revenue charges. The 
revenue charge of each fiscal Sub-division is placed in the hands of a 
native officer, styled mdmlatddr, who is entrusted with magisterial powers. 
For the settlement of civil disputes, there are seven courts. Thirty-two 
officers, including eight Europeans, share the administration of criminal 
justice. In the year 1881 the total strength of the District or regular 
police force was 1200 officers and men ; the cost of maintenance was 
^21,191. These figures show an average of one man to every three 
square miles as compared with the area, and one man to every 691 
souls as compared with the population. The cost of maintenance is 
equal to ^5, 10s. od. per square mile, or 6d. per head of population. 
In 1881, the Ahmadabad jail contained a daily average of 479 convicted 
prisoners, including 45 females, showing one prisoner to every 1788 of 
the population. The total expenditure was ^2312, i8s.,or^4, 16s. 7d. 
per head. The District contains 19 post-offices and 12 telegraph 

In 1881-82 the whole amount of revenue raised, including imperial, 
municipal, and local funds, was ^358,285, showing an incidence 
of 8s. 4d. per head of population. The land tax alone produced 


^143,974. The District local funds created since 1S63 for works 
of public utility and rural education, realized in 18S0-S1 a total 
revenue of ^11,647, against an expenditure of ^9282. There arc 
seven municipalities in the District ; of these 1 is a city corporation 
and 6 are town corporations, namely : — Ahmadabad city, population, 
124,767; Dholka, 17,716; Viramgam, 18,990; Dhandhiika, 10,044; 
Gogo, 7063; Parantfj, 8353; and Morasa, 7031. The total municipal 
receipts in 1881-82 amounted to ,£32,553, and the total expenditure to 
^48,852. The incidence of municipal taxation, per head of population, 
was 3s. 6d., and of income 2s. 9d. There are eleven dispensaries and 
two hospitals. During 1881-82, 98,647 patients were treated, of whom 
95,418 were out-door, and 3229 in-door patients. There is a lunatic 
asylum at Ahmadabad city, where, in 1881, 141 persons were treated. 
In the same year 25,311 persons were vaccinated. The total number of 
deaths reported in the fourteen years ending 1879 was 261,122, or an 
average yearly mortality of 18,652, or 22*48 per 1000. In 1881 the 
registered deaths were, males, 13,757; females, 12,040: total, 25,777, 
showing a ratio of 30*99 per 1000. 

In the year 1880-81 there were 193 Government schools, or an 
average of about one school for every five villages. Of the whole 
number, 13 were girls' schools. The average daily attendance at these 
schools was 6792 pupils, or 2*55 per cent, of 265,970, the population 
between six and twenty years of age. The receipts for educational 
purposes w r ere ^8980, and the expenditure ^6650. Of the total 
expenditure on education, ^"1419 was defrayed by imperial, and 
^4284 by local and other funds. In 1881-82, the Government 
schools numbered 200. There are 1 1 printing presses in the District, 
publishing 3 newspapers and 6 periodicals. 

Except in the southern tracts lying along the sea-coast, the District, 
especially towards the north and east, is subject to considerable varia- 
tions of temperature. Between the months of November and February, 
periods of severe cold occur, lasting generally from two days to a week. 
During the hot months, from February to June, the heat is severe ; 
and as the rainfall is light, the climate in the rainy season is hot 
and close. October is the most sickly month. The average annual 
rainfall between 1852 and 1861 was 37*35 inches; between 1862 and 
1871, 22*89 inches; and in 1875, 2 TS 1 inches were registered. The 
mean temperature, on an average of the last ten years ending 1880, is 
82*3° F., the maximum within doors being no°, and the minimum 52 . 
[For further information regarding Ahmadabad District, see the Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. iv. 1879: an admirable volume edited by Mr. James 
Campbell, C.S., from information chiefly supplied by Mr. F. S. 
Lely, C.S., and Mr. Beyts, and published by the Bombay Government] 

Ahmadabad (Ahmeddbdd) City. — The chief city in the District 


of the same name, Bombay Presidency, 310 miles north from 
Bombay, and about 50 miles north of the head of the Gulf of Cambay. 
Lat. 23 1' 45" n., long. 72 38' 30" e. Population (1881) 127,621, 
including 2854 in cantonments. 

Ahmadabad ranks first among the cities of Guzerat, and is one of the 
most picturesque and artistic in the whole Bombay Presidency. It 
stands on the raised left bank of the Sabarmati river, about 173 feet 
above mean sea level. The walls of the city stretch east and west for 
rather more than a mile, and enclose an area of about 2 square miles. 
They are from 15 to 20 feet in height, with 14 gates, and at almost 
every 50 yards, a bastion and tower. The bed of the river is from 500 
to 600 yards broad ; but except during occasional freshes, the width 
of the stream is not more than 100 yards. To the north of the 
city, the channel keeps close to the right bank; and then, crossing 
through the broad expanse of loose sand, the stream flows close 
under the walls, immediately above their south-western extremity. The 
city is built on a plain of light alluvial soil or gordt, the surface within 
the circuit of the walls in no place rising more than 30 feet above the 
fair-weather level of the river. From its position, therefore, the city is 
liable to inundation. In 1875, the floods rose above the level of a large 
portion of the town, causing damage to 3887 houses, valued at about 
^5 8, 2 08. Beyond the city walls the country is well wooded, the fields 
fertile and enclosed by hedges. The surface of the ground is broken 
at intervals by the remains of the old Hindu suburbs, the ruins of 
mosques, and Musalman tombs. The walls of the city were first traced 
by Ahmad Shah (141 3-1443), the second of the dynasty of the Musal- 
man kings of Guzerat, on the site of the more ancient city of Ashawal. 
In a.d. i486, they were put into thorough repair by the greatest of his 
successors, Mahmiid Shah Begara; and at a cost of ^25,000 were, in 
the year 1832, again restored under the British Government. In 1573, 
Ahmadabad was, with the rest of Guzerat, subjugated by Akbar. 

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Ahmadabad was one of 
the most splendid cities of Western India. There were, according 
to Ferishta, 360 different wards, each surrounded by a wall. The decay 
of the Mughal Empire, and the rise of the Maratha power, led to 
disastrous changes. Early in the 18th century, the authority of the 
Court of Delhi in Guzerat had become merely nominal ; and various 
leaders, Musalman and Maratha, contended for the possession of Ahmad- 
abad. In the year 1738, the city fell into the hands of two of these 
.combatants, Damaji Gaikwar and Momin Khan, who, though of 
different creeds, had united their armies for the promotion of their 
personal interests, and now exercised an equal share of authority, and 
divided the revenues between them. The Maratha chief, Damaji 
Gaikwar, having subsequently been imprisoned by the Peshwa, the 


agent of his Mughal partner took advantage of his absence, to usurp 
the whole power of the city, but permitted Damaji's collector to realize 
his master's pecuniary claims. Damaji, on obtaining his liberty, united 
his forces with those of Raghunath Rao, who was engaged in an expe- 
dition for establishing the Peshwa's claims in Guzerat. In the troubles 
that followed, combined Maratha armies gained possession of Ahmad- 
abad in 1753. The city was subsequently recaptured by Momin Khan 
in 1755-56, and finally acquired by the Marathas in 1757. In 1780, it 
was stormed and captured by a British force under General Goddard. 
The British, however, did not then retain it. The place was restored 
to the Marathas, with whom it remained till 181 8, when, on the 
overthrow of the Peshwa's power, it reverted to the British Govern- 

In the days of its prosperity, the city is said to have contained a 
population of about 900,000 souls ; and so great was its wealth, that 
some of the traders and merchants were believed to have fortunes of 
not less than one million sterling. During the disorders of the latter 
part of the 18th century, Ahmadabad suffered severely, and in 18 18, 
when it came under British rule, was greatly depopulated and a 
melancholy wreck. In 1851, it contained a population of 97,048, in 
1872 of 116,873, an d in 1881 of 124,767 souls in the city, and 2854 in 
the cantonments. The Hindus, numbering 86,544, or 67-81 per cent, 
of the entire population, form the wealthiest and most influential class. 
The Sarawaks or Jains come next in the order of importance, being 
the wealthy traders, merchants, and money-lenders of the town. The 
Kunbi caste supplies a large proportion of the weavers and other 
artisans. Though the majority of Musalmans, who number 27,124, or 
21*25 P er cent - of tne entire population, seek employment as weavers, 
labourers, and peons, there are a few wealthy families who trade in 
silk and piece goods. 

Ahmadabad is the head-quarters of the Guzerat Jain or Sarawak 
sect, who have upwards of 120 temples here. Though in and around 
the city there is no place deemed holy enough to draw worshippers from 
any great distance, no less than twenty-four fairs are held, and every 
third year the Hindu ceremony of walking round the city barefooted is 

The peculiarity of the houses of Ahmadabad is, that they are generally 
built in blocks or pol, varying in size from small courts of from five to 
ten houses, to large quarters of the city containing as many as 10,000 
inhabitants. The larger blocks are generally crossed by one main street 
with a gate at each end, and are subdivided into smaller courts and 
blocks, each with its separate gate branching off from either side of the 
chief thoroughfare. 

Ahmadabad was formerly celebrated for its commerce and manufac- 


tures in cloth of gold and silver, fine silk and cotton fabrics, articles of 
gold, silver, steel, enamel, mother-of-pearl, lacquered ware, and fine 
woodwork. The prosperity of Ahmadabad, says a native proverb, 
hangs on three threads— silk, gold, and cotton ; and though its manu- 
factures are now on a smaller scale than formerly, these industries still 
support a large section of the population. All the processes connected 
with the manufacture of silk and brocaded goods are carried on in the 
city. The raw silk comes through Bombay from China, Bengal, Bussorah, 
and Bokhara, the yearly supply of about 200,000 lbs. of silk being 
valued at ,£150,000. Bokhara silk has but recently been introduced 
in small quantities. It arrives ready made for weaving, and is used 
only for the woof. Of both the white and yellow varieties of China 
silk, the consumption is large. Bussorah silk arrives in a raw state. 
The best is valued at 36s. to 38s. a pound. The Bengal silk holds 
almost the same position in the market as silk imported from Bussorah. 
Ahmadabad silk goods find a market in Bombay, Kathiawar, Rajputana, 
Central India, Nagpur, and the Nizam's Dominions. 

The manufacture of gold and silver thread, which is worked into the 
richer varieties of silk cloth and brocade, supports a considerable 
number of people. Tin and electro-plating is also carried on to some 
extent. Many families are also engaged as hand-loom weavers, working 
up cotton cloth. In addition, four steam factories, established within 
the last twenty years, give employment to about 2000 hands in spinning 
and weaving. Black-wood carving is another important industry, and 
the finest specimens of this class of work may here be seen. 

The common pottery of Ahmadabad is greatly superior to most of 
the earthenware manufactures of Western India. The clay is collected 
under the walls of the town, and is fashioned into domestic utensils, 
tiles, bricks, and toys. To give the clay a bright colour, the potters use 
red ochre, or ramchi, white earth, or k/idri, and mica or abrak, either 
singly or mixed together. No glaze is employed, but the surface of the 
vessels is polished by the friction either of a piece of bamboo or of a 
string of agate pebbles. A few of the potters are Musalmans, but the 
majority are Hindus. A considerable manufacture of shoes and leather 
work generally gives employment to a large number of the people. 

Ahmadabad has long been famous for its manufacture of paper, which 
is exported to various parts of the Bombay Presidency, including the 
Native States of Guzerat, Kathiawar, and Cutch. A small quantity finds 
its way into the territories subject to Sindhia and Holkar. In con- 
sequence of foreign competition, the manufacture has of late years 
declined. At present, its use is confined to the Native States, and the 
native mercantile classes, whose system of book-keeping and mode of 
binding require tough and close-grained paper. For the same reason, 
though stamped paper is now imported from England, the vernacular 


registers in Government offices are still kept on Ahmadahad paper, 
Six kinds are manufactured, chiefly from jute rags, in sheets 17 J to 29 \ 
inches long, and in breadth from 16 inches to 27 J inches. The price 
of a sheet varies, according to size and quality, from Id. to 2^d. Raw 
jute or other fibre is seldom worked up, the material commonly used 
being old gunny bags and other kinds of jute sackcloth, mixed with 
pieces of damaged European paper. The craft, like many other 
industries in Ahmaddbad, is a guild monopoly. The workers are all 
Muhammadans, and the trade is regulated by an association called the 
paper guild, kdgdini jamdt. 

There are within municipal limits about 27 J miles of road fit for the 
passage of wheeled vehicles. The principal streets run across the town 
from north to south. The Oliphant road, 40 feet broad, with side foot- 
paths, runs from west to east. It does not pass through the thickly 
peopled parts of the city, but rows of houses are gradually rising on 
either side of it. The streets are kept well watered, and are lighted at 
night by kerosene oil lamps. There are in all 64 Hindu caste lodges, 
and 14 markets. Besides the chief market places near the centre of 
the city, grain markets are held in open spaces. There are two libraries 
in the city, the principal one being located in the Hemabhai Institute, 
the upstairs hall of which is used for public lectures and meetings. 

The military cantonment is situated to the north of the city, at a 
distance of 3J miles. The road leading to the cantonment, lined with 
avenues of fine trees, forms a favourite resort of the inhabitants, both 
in the morning and evening. The camp is the head-quarters station 
of the Northern Division of the Bombay Army, commanded by a 

The total yearly income of the city municipality amounted in 1881-82 
to ^28,449, and the expenditure to ^"44,498 ; incidence of municipal 
taxation, 4s. 7d. per head. There are, besides the usual public offices, 
two churches, an arsenal, a hospital, a lunatic asylum, an asylum for 
lepers, two dispensaries, and 18 Government and missionary schools, of 
which 4 are girls' schools; in addition, about 100 private schools are 
taught by Brahmans. A home for animals, called the Panjrdpol^ is 
another interesting institution of the city. 

The well-water is brackish and unfit for drinking. The richer 
classes use for drinking purposes rain-water stored in cisterns in their 
own houses ; the lower orders obtain their supplies either direct from 
the river, or from the water pumped into the city at the expense of the 

The Architecture of Ahmaddbad illustrates in a very interesting and 
characteristic manner, the result of the contact of Saracenic with Hindu 
forms. The vigorous aggressiveness of Islam, here found itself con- 
fronted by strongly vital Jain types, and submitted to a compromise 
vol. 1. g 


in which the latter predominate. Even the mosques are Hindu or 
Jain in their details, with a Saracenic arch thrown in occasionally, not 
from any constructive want, but as a symbol of Islam. The exquisite 
open tracery of some of the windows and screens, form memorials — 
which no one who has seen them can forget — of the wonderful plasticity 
of stone in Indian hands. ' The Muhammadans,' says Mr. James 
Fergusson, ' had here forced themselves upon the most civilised and the 
most essentially building race at that time in India ; and the Chalukyas 
conquered their conquerors, and forced them to adopt forms and orna- 
ments which were superior to any the invaders knew or could have 
introduced. The result is a style which combines all the elegance and 
finish of Jain or Chalukyan art, with a certain largeness of conception, 
which the Hindu never quite attained, but which is characteristic of the 
people, who at this time were subjecting all India to their sway.' The 
exigencies of space preclude any attempt at detailed description. 

The following list of the remains of most interest in the city and 
its neighbourhood, has been supplied by the Archaeological Surveyor: — 

I. Mosques — (i) Ahmad Shah ; (2) Haibat Khan ; (3) Sayyid Alam ; 
(4) Malik Alam; (5) Rani Isni (not Sipri) ; (6) Sidi Sayyid; (7) 
Kutab Shah; (8) Sayyid Usmani ; (9) Mia Khan Chishti; (10) Sidi 
Basfr; (n) Muhafiz Khan; (12) Achat Bfbi; (13) Dastur Khan; (14) 
Muhammad Ghaus, and the Queen's and Jama Mosque. 

II. Tombs — (1) Ahmad Shah 1. ; (2) Ahmad Shah's Queen; (3) 
Dariya Khan; (4) Asam Khan; (5) Mir Abu; and (6) Shah Wazir- 

III. Miscellaneous — Ancient well of Mata-Bhawani at Asarwa ; the 
Tin Darwdzd, or Triple Gateway ; the Kankaria Tank, about a mile to 
the south-east of the city ; Dada Harir's Well ; the Shahi Bagh ; Azim 
Khan's Palace, now used as the jail ; Tombs of the Dutch, and the 
temples of Swami Narayan and Santidas. 

IV. Mausoleums in the neighbourhood — (1) Sirkej (Sharkej), about 
5 miles from Ahmadabad ; (2) Batwa, about 6 miles from Ahmadabad ; 
and (3) Shah Alam's buildings, situated half way between Ahmedabad 
and Batwa. [For details see Architecture of Ahmadabad, by Messrs. 
Hope and Fergusson. London: John Murray. 1866. Also the 
section on Ahmadabad city in the Bombay Gazetteer, vol. iv. 1879, 
which I have referred to at the end of the last article, a.v.] 

Ahmadgarh. — Village in Bulandshahr District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces ; distant 28 miles south-east from Bulandshahr, and 6 miles north 
from Pahasu. Post-office and school. Weekly market. North of the 
village is a small lake, on the borders of which are ruins of fine build- 
ings founded by Ani Rai, the Badgiijar Raja of Amipshahr, and named 
after his title of Ahmad Khani. 

Ahmadnagar (Ahmednagar). — A District in the Deccan, or Central 


Division, Bombay Presidency, lying between iS' 20' o" and 20 o' o" x. 
lat., and 73 42' 40" and 75 45' 50" e. long. Area, 6666 square miles. 
Population (1881) 751,228 souls. 

To the north-west and north lies Nasik District ; on the north-east 
the line of the Godavari river separates Ahmadnagar from the Domi- 
nions of the Nizam. On the extreme east, from the point where the 
boundary leaves the Godavari to the extreme northern point of the 
Sholapur District, it touches the Nizam's Dominions, a part of the 
frontier being marked by the river Sfna. On the south-east and south- 
west lie the districts of Sholapur and Poona, the limit towards Sholapur 
being marked by no natural boundary. But to the south-west, the line 
of the Bhima, and its tributary the Kera, separates Ahmadnagar from 
Poona ; and farther north the District stretches westwards, till its lands 
and those of Thana (Tanna) District meet on the slopes of the Sahyadri 
hills. Except in the east, where the Dominions of the Nizam run in- 
wards to within ten miles of the city of Ahmadnagar, the District is 
compact and unbroken by the territories of Native States, or outlying 
portions of other British Districts. 

Physical Aspects. — The principal geographical feature of the District 
is the chain of the Sahyadri hills, which extend along a considerable 
portion of the western boundary, throwing out many spurs and ridges 
towards the east. Three of these spurs continue to run eastwards 
into the heart of the District, the valleys between them forming the 
beds of the Prawara and Miila rivers. From the right bank of the 
Miila, the land stretches in hills and elevated plateaux to the Ghor river, 
the southern boundary of the District. Except near the centre of the 
eastern boundary, where the hills rise to a considerable height, the 
surface of the District eastwards, beyond the neighbourhood of the 
Sahyadri hills, becomes gradually less broken. The highest peaks in 
the District are in the north-west ; the hill of Kalsubai, believed to attain 
a height of more than 5000 feet above the level of the sea ; and the 
Maratha forts of Kila Patta and Harischandragarh. Farther south, about 
18 miles west of the city of Ahmadnagar, the hill of Parner rises about 
500 feet above the surrounding table-land, and 3240 feet above sea 

The chief river of the District is the Godavari, which for about 40 
miles forms the boundary on the north and north-east. Farther south, the 
streams of the Prawara and Miila, flowing eastwards from the Sahyadri 
hills along two parallel valleys, unite, and after a joint course of about 1 2 
miles fall into the Godavari in the extreme north-east of the District. 
About 25 miles below the junction of the Prawara, the Godavari 
receives on its right bank the river Ghor, which rises in the high 
land in the east, and has a northerly course of about 35 miles. The 
southern parts of the District are drained by two main rivers, the Sina 


and the Kera, both tributaries of the Bhima. Of these, the Sina, rising 
in the high lands to the right of the Miila, flows in a straight course 
towards the south-east. The river Kera, rising in the Sahyadri range and 
flowing to the south-east, separates the Districts of Ahmadnagar and 
Poona. The Bhima itself, with a winding course of about 35 miles, 
forms the southern limit of the District. Besides the main rivers, there 
are several tributary streams and watercourses, many of which in ordi- 
nary seasons continue to flow throughout the year. Except in some of 
the villages situated in the high lands, where water is scarce, the District 
is fairly supplied with streams and wells. 

There are no minerals or quarries deserving notice. Though 
there are no large forests, a considerable area of hill land, covered 
with small trees, has been set apart to form State reserves. Of domestic 
animals, the bullocks, varying in value from £2 to £6, are small 
and weak, two pairs of them being required to draw a plough. The 
horses, especially those bred near the river Bhima, though small, 
are strong, and formerly mounted the famous Maratha cavalry. Pains 
are taken by Government to improve the local breed, nine stallions 
being stationed in the District for this purpose. There is also a breed 
of ponies, strong and enduring, and well suited to the wants of the 
people. In the forests and mountains there are tigers, bears, panthers, 
and bison, and in the plain country wolves abound. The rivers 
contain considerable quantities of fish, for the most part of an inferior 

History. — A summary of the chief events in the history of the 
District, w T hich from 1508 to 1636 formed one of the Musalman 
kingdoms of the Deccan, will be found in the article on the City of 
Ahmadnagar. On the fall of the Peshwd's power in 181 7, the country 
was formed into a British District. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 returned a total population of 
773,938 persons, or 116*43 t0 tne square mile. The next regular 
general Census, of 1881, showed a total population of 751,228 in an 
area of 6666 square miles, the average density being 112-69 persons 
per square mile ; the males numbered 381,602 ; the females 369,626, 
and the percentage of males was 5079. Of the total population in 
1881, 684,184, or 91*07 per cent., were Hindus; 39,592, or 5*27 per 
cent, Musalmans; 179 Parsis; 15,497, or 2*06 per cent, Jains ; 4821, or 
0*64 per cent, Christians ; 65 Jews; 8 Sikhs ; and 6876, or 0*91 per cent, 
aboriginals. Classified according to castes, the Brahmans numbered 
32,581 ; Rajputs, 2794 ; Lingayat, 3229 ; Kunbi, 304,818 ; Koli, 26,753 ; 
Mali, 32,639; Banjari, 30,072; Shimpi, 3451; Dhobi, 4041; Nhavi, 
7928; Koshti, 7933; Kumbhar, 6068; Lohar, 3802; Sonar, 8139; 
Sutar, 7858; Teli, 7206; Chamir, 13,523; Dhangar, 39,527; Mang, 
19,165; Mahar, 62,091; and 'other' Hindus (low castes), 59,881. 


The bulk of the population belongs to the Maratha race, who are 
generally cultivators and artificers, and, as a rule, darker in complexion 
than the Brahmans. Besides the low or depressed castes, — Mahar, 
Mang, Dhangar, Chamar, and Ramosi, — there are many wandering 
tribes, of which the chief are called Wadari, Kaikadi, and Kolati. Of 
hill tribes, beside Bhils, the Thakurs, Waralis, and Kathodis may be 
mentioned ; they form a distinct race, generally met with in the wilder 
tracts of the western District. The members of these tribes are still 
fond of an unsettled life, and have to be carefully watched to prevent 
their resuming their predatory habits. With the exception of a few 
Boras who engage in trade and are well-to-do, the Musalmans are in 
poor circumstances, being for the most part sunk in debt. Since the 
District has come under British management, there has been a large 
immigration of Marwaris. These men come by the route of Indore and 
Khandesh, and are almost entirely engaged in money-lending, and 
trading in cloth and grain. 

Of the Musalmans, 39,545 are Sunnis, and 47 Shias. The Parsis are 
all Shahanshahi, and the Jews are all Beni-Israel. Of the Christian 
population, the greater number have been converted from the Mahdr 
and Mang low-castes since 1831, by missionaries belonging to an 
American Society. Maratha is the general language of the country, 
though some of the hill tribes in the west speak a dialect of their own. 

There were, in 1881, 1334 inhabited State and alienated villages, 
including 7 towns, giving an average of one village to five square miles, 
and 563 "13 inhabitants to each village. The villages are, as a rule, 
surrounded by high mud walls ; but of late years these fortifications 
have been allowed to fall into disrepair. The total number of occupied 
houses in 1881 was 105,386, and of unoccupied, 29,408, or an average 
of 2o - 2o to each square mile ; number of persons per occupied house, 
7 'i2. The cost of building a large stone house of the better class is 
reported to vary from ^400 to ^800. The houses contain, for the 
most part, very scanty furniture. Even the dwelling of a well-to-do 
trader has but little except a small stock of brass vessels, some beds of 
the cheapest description, and a few razdis or cotton-stuffed quilts. 
Unlike the artisans of Guzerat, the mechanics of Ahmadnagar do not 
associate together in trade guilds. 

The chief towns of the District are — (1) Ahmadnagar city, with a 
population of 32,903 souls in city and 4589 in cantonments; (2) San- 
gamner, population 8796 ; (3) Pathardi, population 6734 ; (4) Kharda, 
population 5562; (5) Shrigonda, population 5278; (6) Bhingar, 
population 5106 ; and (7) Sonai, population 5483. 

The staff of village servants includes, as a rule, the head man (pate!) ; 
the accountant (kulkarni) ; the family priest (Jos/ii or bhdt) ; the potter 
(kumbhdr) ; the barber (n/idvi) ; the carpenter {sutdr) ; the blacksmith 


(lohdr) ; the shoemaker {chamdr) ; the tailor (shimpi) ; the washerman 
(par it) ; the sweeper (bha?igi)\ the watchman (rakhwdlddr) ; the Musal- 
man priest (mulld) j the temple keeper {guru). Villagers join together 
to build temples or dig wells. The rich give a contribution in money, 
while the poor supply their labour. Depressed castes, such as Mahars, 
Mangs, Chamars, and Dhangars, are not allowed to draw water from 
the village tank. In most villages, the head man still possesses much 
influence. He is on all occasions put forward as the official represen- 
tative of his village. He is also the social head, and on the occasion 
of a wedding in his family, or of the birth of a son, gives a dinner to the 
whole community. The village council (panchdyat) decides questions 
of caste and sometimes of money disputes. The Muhammadan priest or 
mulld, besides attending the mosque, kills the sheep and goats offered 
by the Hindus as sacrifices to their gods. So thoroughly has this 
strange custom been incorporated with the village community, that 
Marathas generally decline to eat the flesh of a sheep or goat unless its 
throat has been cut by a mulld or other competent Musalman. 

Agriculture. — Exclusive of lands belonging to other territory situated 
within its limits, Ahmadnagar District contains a total area of 4,266,240 
acres, of which 2,519,379 acres are arable assessed land, and the re- 
mainder uncultivable waste. Of the arable assessed land, 2,278,125 
acres were in 1881-82 under cultivation. The soil varies much in 
different parts of the District. Towards the north and east, it is as a 
rule a rich black loam ; while in the hilly parts towards the west, it is 
frequently light and sandy. By reason of this variation in soil, it is 
said that a cultivator with ten acres of land in the north of the District 
is better off than one with a holding twice as large in the south. 
Though a single pair of bullocks cannot till enough land to support a 
family, many cultivators have only one pair, and manage to get their 
fields ploughed by borrowing and lending bullocks among each other. 
Garden lands are manured; but, as a rule, for ordinary dry crops 
nothing is done to enrich the soil. Cultivators are employed in 
ploughing in March, April, and May ; in sowing the early kharif crops 
in July ; and in harvesting the early crops from November to February. 
There are no tanks for irrigation, but there is a good deal of irrigation 
from wells, especially in the northern parts. The District, though 
possessing in many parts a fertile soil and a fair supply of water, not 
unfrequently suffers from drought. To meet this evil, three large 
irrigation works have been constructed by the Government. These 
works together can supply 41,510 acres, but in 1876 water was used 
for less than 500 acres. The ordinary Bombay land revenue system 
prevails throughout the District. Lands are held under the survey 
tenure, bearing rents fixed as far as possible according to the intrinsic 
value of the soil, and liable to revision at the expiry of a lease generally 


of thirty years' duration. The first settlement took place in 1843-44, 
and re-settlement operations are now in progress ; they were com- 
menced in 1876-77, the total cost up to 1881-82 being ,£33,824. 
In 1881-82 the gross land revenue receipts were ^3 1,661 ; after the 
re-settlement, the receipts in that year amounted to ,£43,140 ; the total 
increase of land revenue resulting from there-settlement being ,£35,232 
since 1876-77. 

The stock in the possession of the cultivators of State villages during 
the year 1881-82 was returned at 59,332 ploughs; 22,294 carts; 
246,228 bullocks; 42,231 buffaloes; 163,540 cows; 17,451 horses; 
417,197 sheep and goats ; and 8066 asses. The staple crops are wheat 
(Triticum vulgare) and gram (Cicer arietinum), in the vicinity of the 
rivers Godavari and Bhfma ; Indian millet or jodr (Sorghum vulgare) 
throughout the rest of the District, except in the inferior soils near the 
hills, where the chief crop is millet or bdjra (Holcus spicatus). These 
grains are grown both on dry and irrigated lands. Among other 
products, sugar-cane, pan (Piper betel), and vegetables of many kinds 
are raised in irrigated land. In some of the superior soils near the 
Godavari, hemp (Crotalaria juncea) is sown. In the north-east, cotton 
(Gossypium herbaceum) and inferior rice (Oryza sativa) are cultivated 
to a small extent. Of the area under cultivation in 1881-82, inclusive 
of the acreage twice cropped (11,485), grain crops occupied 1,662,250 
acres, or 72-96 per cent. ; pulses, 162,165 acres, or 7*12 per cent. ; oil 
seeds, 88,226, or 3*87 per cent. ; cotton and other fibres, 38,682 acres, 
or 1-69 per cent.; tobacco, 6428 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 
11,937 acres, or 0-52 per cent. 

Ahmadnagar District is not subject to blights or floods. Occasion- 
ally wheat is affected by a disease called tdmbird. Under this disease, 
as the name implies, the grain turns a copper colour and withers away. 
Though the country is liable to drought, scarcity, deserving the name 
of a famine, has seldom occurred since the District came into the hands 
of the British. In 1791, 1792, and 1794, there was much misery 
owing to the increase in the price of grain, occasioned by the disturbed 
state of the country. A few years later (1803-04) the depredations of 
the Pindaris, who accompanied the army of Holkar, caused much 
suffering, and so severe was the distress that children are said to have 
been sold for food. The price of wheat rose to 4s. a pound. The last 
severe famine occurred in 1877. The prevailing prices of produce in 
the District in 1881-82 were, for wheat, 5s. id. per maund of 82 lbs. 
for rice, best, 8s. 10-Jd. ; common, 7s. 3|d. ; bdjri, 2s. lojd. \ jodri, 
2s. 3d. ; gram, 3s. 3d. ; split peas (ddt), 4s. 3Jd. ; salt, 6s. 9d. ; and 
flour (wheat), 5s. iojd. 

Trade, etc. — In former days a considerable trade between Upper 
India and the seaboard passed through this District. The carriers 


were a class of Banjaris called Lumans, owners of herds of bullocks. 
-But since the opening of the two lines of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, the course of traffic has changed. Trade is carried on almost 
entirely by means of permanent markets. From all parts of the 
District, millet and gram are exported to Poona and Bombay. The 
imports consist chiefly of English piece-goods, tin sheets, metals, 
groceries, salt, and silk. The chief manufacturing industries are the 
weaving of saris or women's robes and inferior turbans, and the manu- 
facture of copper and brass pots. Weaving is said to have been 
introduced into the District soon after the founding of the city of 
Ahmadnagar (a.d. 1494) by a member of the Bhangria family, a man 
of considerable means, and a weaver by caste. Of late years the 
industry has risen in importance. This change seems due to the fall 
in the price of yarn, now spun by steam-power at Bombay. The 
number of hand-looms in Ahmadnagar city alone has increased from 
213 in 1820 to 2000 in 1882. The yarn consumed in these looms is 
said to come chiefly from Bombay, either imported from Europe or 
spun in the Bombay steam factories. Ahmadnagar saris have a high 
reputation ; and dealers flock from neighbouring Districts and from the 
Nizam's Dominions to purchase them. Many of the weavers are 
entirely in the hands of money-lenders, who advance the raw material 
and take possession of the article when made up. The workmen are 
generally paid at the rate of from 2 s. to 4s. for a piece of cloth from 
14 to 16 cubits long, and from 2 to 2^ cubits wide. A piece of cloth 
of this size would take a man and his wife from 2 to 4 days to weave. 
An ordinary worker will earn at his loom about 10s. a month. The 
weavers, as a class, are said to be addicted to the use of intoxicat- 
ing liquors. In 1820 this craft was almost entirely confined to 
members of the weaver caste, Sali or Kosti. But many classes, such as 
Brahmans, Kunbis, Kongadis, and Malis, now engage in the work. 
Among former industries that have died out, are the manufactures of 
paper and carpets. The place of the country paper has been supplied 
by cheaper articles brought from China and Europe, and Ahmadnagar 
carpets have ceased to be in demand. 

Except three or four mercantile houses in the city of Ahmadnagar, 
there are no large banking establishments in the District. The busi- 
ness of money-lending is chiefly in the hands of Marwari Baniyas, most 
of them Jains by religion, who are said to have followed the camps of 
the Mughal armies at the end of the 15th century. They did not, 
however, commence to settle in the District in large numbers until 
the accession of the English in the first quarter of the present century. 
Since then they have almost supplanted the indigenous money-lenders, 
the Deccani Brahmans. A Baniya from Marwar, anxious to start as a 
money-lender, generally brings what capital he may have in bills of 


exchange, or in gold and silver ornaments. On arrival be finds many 
of his caste fellows and acquaintances ready to give him a helping hand. 
For a month or two he may travel about, making inquiries and learning 
the course of local trade. He then decides on some village where he 
thinks he can see his way to a good business. He rents a small house 
and opens a shop, offering for sale either piece-goods, grain, or groceries. 
He is never overreached in a bargain, never sells save at a profit, and 
is most frugal in his personal expenditure. He very soon commences 
to lend small sums on the security of household articles or personal 
ornaments. As his connection gradually enlarges, he advances money 
on crops and land. His stock of grain increases from year to year. 
Some of it he sends away to Poona or Bombay, storing the rest under- 
ground against a failure of crops or a rise of prices. When he has 
been eight or ten years in the Deccan, he returns to Marwar to bring 
some of his family to his new home. As years go on, his profit in- 
creases, and he grows wealthy. He builds himself a large house, 
marries his children into the families of other Marwari settlers, and 
probably never again leaves the Deccan. 

The rate of interest charged for an advance of grain is from one-fourth 
to one-half the value of the grain advanced. The same rates are 
charged whether the grain is advanced for seed or for the support of the 
borrower and his family. Among the cultivating classes, few are free 
from debt, and many of the poorer peasants are said to be in hope- 
lessly involved circumstances. The depressed condition of the cul- 
tivators of this District was brought to the notice of Government between 
1848 and 1858. In the following years, the high prices of agricultural 
produce which accompanied the American war helped to free them 
from their difficulties ; but the recent fall in prices, combined with the 
increased pressure of creditors for payment, was accompanied by much 
general discontent in the District, and by several serious offences 
against the persons and property of money-lenders. 

The depressed condition of the peasantry in this part of India has since 
formed a subject of inquiry by a special Commission appointed by the 
Government of India. As a rule, they are sober, indulging in the use 
neither of liquor nor of opium. An agricultural labourer is usually paid 
at the rate of about £2 a year and his food. Wages for day-labourers 
employed in harvesting are, as a rule, 5 sheaves per 100 of the number 
cut and uprooted and tied by the individual, whether man or woman. 
For work on the threshing-floor, one pound of grain, or about i|d., or 
1 airna per 100 sheaves, trodden out or winnowed is allowed. For other 
work, the wages are — for a woman, from 2^d. to 3d.; children, iid., 
paid in cash, weekly or monthly. Masons and carpenters earn from is. 
to is. 3d. a day; domestic servants in native houses, 6s. a month, 
besides food. 


The Dhond and Manmad State Railway, connecting the south-eastern 
and north-eastern branches of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, at 
the stations named, runs for a distance of 122 J miles (very nearly its 
entire length, 145 miles) through this District, via the town of Ahmad- 
nagar ; and the District is besides well supplied with roads. Of a total 
length of 370 miles of road within its limits, 31 miles are bridged and 
metalled, 274 are spread with gravel or sand, and 31 made fit for traffic 
during the monsoon, while 65 miles are unmetalled. All the main lines 
of communication have been constructed by the State, and are kept in 
repair at a yearly charge of not less than ^5400. The metal used is 
basaltic trap, of which there is a plentiful supply in almost every part of 
the District. 

Administrator^ etc. — For administrative purposes, the Ahmadnagar 
District is divided into eleven taluks or Sub-divisions, viz. Ahmadnagar, 
Parner, Sangamner, Kopargaon, Shrigonda, Akola, Jamkhed, 
Kaljat, New asa, Sheogaon, Rahuri. The administration in revenue 
matters is ordinarily entrusted to a Collector and 3 assistants, of whom 
2 are covenanted civil servants. For the settlement of civil disputes 
there are 9 courts, besides the District Court. Thirty officers conduct 
the administration of criminal justice, of whom 5 are Europeans. 

In the year 1881-82, the total strength of the District or regular 
police force, was 626. The total cost of maintaining the force was 
^£12,085, 14s., of which ^254 was raised from local sources. These 
figures show one man to every 10-65 square miles as compared with 
the area, and one man to every 1200 souls as compared with the popu- 
lation. The cost of maintenance is equal to £i t 16s. 3d. per square 
mile, or 3|d. per head of the population. In 1881 the Ahmadnagar 
jail contained a daily average of 204 convicted prisoners, including 21 
females, showing one prisoner to every 3794 of the population; the 
total cost was ^13 16, 4s. od., or £6, 6s. od. per head. 

The District contains 54 post-offices and a Government telegraph 
office. There is a military cantonment with a population of 4589 

The District local funds, created since 1863 for works of public 
utility and rural education, in 1881-82 yielded a revenue of ,£13,388, 
against an expenditure of ^13,729. There are 4 municipalities in the 
District, namely: Ahmadnagar town, population 32,905; Sangamner, 
8796; Bhingar, 5106; and Puntamba, 4094. In 1881-82 the total 
municipal receipts amounted to ^6628, and the total expenditure to 
^5555- The incidence of taxation varied from 2jd. to 3s. 4jd. per 
head. Land revenue in 1881-82, ^121,985 ; gross revenue, £176,612, 
including ;£i 2,923 on account of excise (spirits and drugs). 

Besides the civil hospital in Ahmadnagar city, there are three dis- 
pensaries — at Sangamner, Nivasa, and Sheogaon. In 1881-82 a total 


of 30,063 patients were treated, of whom 405 were in-door patients. 
The number of vaccinations was 22,144 in 1881-82. The people are 
said to consent willingly to the operation. 

The number of deaths reported in the year ending 1881-82 was 
21,270, showing an average mortality for the year of 28*31 per thousand 
of the population. During the same year the number of births is 
returned at 24,313, or 12,554 males and 11,759 females, being an 
average birth-rate of 31 per thousand of the population. 

In the year 1881-82 there were 257 Government schools, including 
19 girls' schools, or an average of 1 school for every 5 villages, or to 
31 square miles, with an attendance of 13,675 pupils. In Ahmadnagar 
there are 2 libraries and 3 newspapers. 

Climate. — The rainy season generally begins in the early part of June, 
and ends in November. The average annual rainfall during the ten years 
ending with 1881 was returned at 26*03 inches; in 1875 the total 
registered was 20*59 inches. The principal diseases are fever and small- 
pox. Guinea-worm and ophthalmia are also very common complaints. 

[For further information concerning Ahmadnagar District, see Selec- 
tions from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. cxxiii., New 
Series, containing papers relating to the revision of assessment in six 
tdlukas of the Ahmadnagar Collectorate, printed 1871. Also the 
forthcoming volume on Ahmadnagar District in the Bombay Gazetteer, 
and the Report of the Deccan Riots Commission.] 

Ahmadnagar. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay 
Presidency. Area 619 square miles. Contains 2 towns and 107 
villages. Population (1881) 108,950 souls, of whom 55,333 are males 
and 53,617 females ; Hindus are returned at 94,728, Muhammadans at 
9416, and others at 4806. 

Ahmadnagar (Ahmednagar) City. — Chief town of the District of 
the same name, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19 5' n., long. 74 55' E. ; 
area, 3 square miles; population in 1881, 37,492 souls, including 4589 
inhabiting the cantonments. The Hindus number 29,239; Muham- 
madans, 5934; Jains, 915; Christians, 1128; Parsis, 176; 'others,' 
100. Ahmadnagar is the third among the cities of the Deccan and 
the seventeenth in the Bombay Presidency. It is situated on the 
plain of the river Sina, about 12 miles from its source, and on its 
left bank. The city has a commonplace appearance, most of the 
houses being of the ordinary Deccan type, built of mud-coloured sun- 
burnt bricks, with flat roofs. It is surrounded by an earthen wall 
about 12 feet in height, with decayed bastions and gates. This wall 
is said to have been built about the year a.d. 1562 by King Husain 
Nizam Shall. The adjacent country is closed in on two sides by 
hills. Ahmadnagar was founded in a.d. 1494 by Ahmad Nizam Shah, 
originally an officer of the Bahmani State, who, on the breaking 


up of that Government, assumed the title and authority of an in- 
dependent ruler, and fixed his capital at this place, named after its 
founder. It was built on the site of a more ancient town called Bingar. 
Ahmad Nizam Shah was succeeded in 1598 by his son Burhan Nizam 
Shah. In his reign the State attained high prosperity, until his defeat 
by Ibrahim Add Shah, king of Bijapur, in a.d. 1546. Burhan Nizam 
Shah died in a.d. 1553, and was succeeded by his son Husain Nizam 
Shah. This prince also suffered a very severe defeat from the King 
of Bijapur, in a.d. 1562, losing several hundred elephants and 660 
pieces of cannon ; amongst them the great gun now at Bijapur, 
considered to be one of the largest pieces of brass ordnance in the 
world. Husain Shah of Ahmadnagar was subsequently confederated 
with the Kings of Bijapur, Golkonda, and Bidar, against Raja Ram 
of Vijayanagar, whom in a.d. 1564 they defeated, made prisoner, and 
put to death at Talikot, in the present British District of Belgaum. 
Husain Nizam Shah, nicknamed Divana, or the insane, from the 
extravagance of his conduct, was in a.d. 1588 cruelly murdered by 
his son Miran Husain Nizam Shah, who, having reigned ten months, 
was deposed and put to death. Miran was succeeded by his nephew 
Ismail Nizam Shah, who, after a reign of two years, was deposed by 
his own father, who succeeded by the title of Burhan Nizam Shah 11., 
and died in a.d. 1594. His son and successor, Ibrahim Nizam 
Shah, after a reign of four months, was killed in battle against the 
King of Bijapur. Ahmad, a reputed relative, was raised to the throne ; 
but, as it was soon afterwards ascertained that he was not a lineal 
descendant, he was expelled the city ; and Bahadur Shah, the infant son 
of Ibrahim Nizam Shah, was placed on the throne under the influence 
of his great-aunt, Chand Bibi (widow of Ali Adil Shah, king of 
Bijapur, and sister of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar), a 
woman of heroic spirit, who, when the city was besieged by Murad, 
the son of Akbar, defended in person the breach which had been 
made in the rampart, and compelled the assailants to raise the siege. 
These events took place in 1595. In 1599, Prince Danyal Mirza, son 
of Akbar, at the head of a Mughal army, captured the city of Ahmad- 
nagar. Nominal kings, however, continued to exercise a feeble sway 
until 1636, when Shah Jahan finally overthrew the monarchy. In 1759, 
the city was betrayed to the Peshwa by the commandant holding it for 
the Government of Delhi. In 1797 it was ceded by the Peshwa to the 
Maratha chief Daulat Rao Sindhia. In 1803, it was invested by a 
British force under General Wellesley, and surrendered after a resist- 
ance of two days. It was, however, shortly after given up to the 
Peshwa; but the fort was again occupied by the British in 181 7, by 
virtue of the treaty of Poona. On the fall of the Peshwa, Ahmadnagar 
became the head-quarters of the Collectorate of the same name. 


The population of the city was 17,000 in 1817, and 26,012 in 1S50. 
By 188 1, the total population of the city had risen to 32,903, and that 
of the cantonment 104589; total, 37,492, namely, males 19,220, and 
females 18,272. The Hindus numbered 29,239; Muhammadans, 
5934; Jains, 915; Christians, 11 28; Parsi's, 176; 'others,' 100. Some 
of the Brahmans are tradespeople; most, however, are employed 
in work requiring education and intellect. The bulk of the popula- 
tion consists of Siidras, engaged in various occupations. The Musal- 
mans are, as a rule, uneducated and indolent. They are employed in 
weaving, cleaning cotton, and in domestic service in the houses of 
well-to-do Hindus. The Marwarfs are the most prosperous class. The 
chief manufacturing industries of the city are the weaving of saris, and 
the manufacture of copper and brass pots. Ahmadnagar is celebrated 
for the strength and durability of its carpets. Of the articles manu- 
factured in the city, estimated in 1875-76 at about ^1 1 1,657, cotton 
and silk cloths contributed ,£55,687, and copper and brass pots 
£43,920. One street is devoted to the houses and shops of grain 
dealers. The shops of the cloth-sellers form another street. The trade 
of cloth-selling is chiefly in the hands of Marwaris, who combine it with 

Half a mile to the east of the city stands the fort, built of stone, 
circular in shape, about i^- mile in circumference, and surrounded by 
a wide and deep moat. This building, which stands on the site of a 
former fortress of earth, said to have been raised in E488, was erected 
in its present form by Husain Nizam Shah, grandson of Malik Ahmad, 
in the year a.d. 1559. In the year 1803 the fort was surrendered to 
the British army after a severe bombardment of two days. The breach 
then made in the fort is still visible. The city has numerous specimens 
of Muhammadan architecture, several of the mosques being now con- 
verted into Government offices or used as dwelling-houses by European 
residents. The Collector's office is held in a mosque built in the 16th 
century. The Judge's Court was originally the palace of a Musalmdn 
noble, built about the year 1600; the buildings at present used as a 
jail and a civil hospital were formerly mosques. Six miles east of the 
city, on a hill between 700 and 800 feet above the level of the fort 
and city, stands a large unfinished tomb, now fitted up as a sanitarium 
for British troops. Close to the city is a marble tablet, let into the 
wall, which contains the names of the English officers and men who 
fell in storming it. Ahmadnagar contains an American church, a Parsi 
agidri (fire temple), and two or three Hindu temples, a High School, 
with a branch and seven vernacular schools. The municipality was 
established on the 1st March 1855, and has an income (1SS1-S2) of 
£5610. Since the establishment of the municipality, the roads have 
been widened and drained, and several new streets opened out. The 


city is now well supplied with water by various aqueducts from sources 
ranging from two to six miles from the city. The wells inside the city 
are brackish. [For further information, see the authorities mentioned 
at end of last article, Ahmaunagar District. Also the Bombay 
Census Report of 1881, and the Bombay Administration Reports for 
1880-81 and 1881-82.] 

Ahmadnagar. — Village in Kheri District, Oudh. Area, 1350 J acres ; 
population (1SS1) 1509, comprising 1353 Hindus and 156 Muham- 
madans. Land revenue, ^111. River Sarayan takes its rise in the 
village. Good water supply. Ruins of a mud fort. 

Ahmadpur. — Town in Shorkot tahsiL Jhang District, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 2338; namely, Hindus, 1433; Sikhs, 89; Muham- 
madans, 876; number of houses, 432. 

Ahmadpur. — Trading village in Birbhum (Beerbhoom) District, 
Bengal, and station on the loop-line of the East Indian Railway, in 
miles from Calcutta. Since the opening of the railway, Ahmadpur has 
become an entrepot for rice, although not on so large a scale as the 
next station Bolpur, 12 miles nearer to Calcutta. 

Ahmadpur. — Town in Ahmadpur ta/isit, Bahawalpur State, Punjab. 
Lat. 29 8' 30" N., long. 71 18' e. Population (1881) — Muhamma- 
dans, 6257 ; Hindus, 3569; Sikhs, 19 ; others, 4: total, 9853, residing 
in 2134 houses. Chief trade in arms, cotton, and silk. The town is 
meanly built, but has a handsome mosque with four lofty minarets. 

Ahmadpur. — Town in Sadikabad ta/isit, Bahawalpur State, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 4235; namely, Hindus, 2500; and Muhammadans, 
1705 ; number of houses, 401. 

Ahmagird. — Town in Burhanpur tahsil, Nimar District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2223; namely, Hindus, 2084; Kabir- 
panthis, 5 ; and Muhammadans, 134. 

Ahmedabad. — District and town, Bombay Presidency. — See Ahmad* 

Ahmednagar. — District and town, Bombay Presidency. — See Ah- 

Ahobalam. — Village and shrine in Karnul (Kurnool) District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 9' 3" n., long. 78 46' 59" e.; population 
(1881) 108 ; houses, 41. Three pagodas, of great local sanctity, stand 
on a hill near the village, — one at the foot, one half way up, one at the 
top. The first is the most interesting, as it contains beautiful relievos of 
scenes from the Ramayana on its walls, and on two great stone porches 
(mantapams) which stand in front of it, supported by pillars 8 feet in 
circumference, hewn out of the rock. 

Ahpyouk. — Revenue circle, Henzada District, British Burma ; 
situated in a great rice-producing country, along the bank of the river 
Irrawaddy, and containing many lakes and fisheries, the chief being 


Gnyee-re-gyee, 3 miles long, \ mile broad, and 15 to 20 feet deep 
during dry season ; and Biendaw, 2^ miles long, and 10 feet deep. 

Ahraura. — Town in Mi'rzapur District, North-Western Provinces. 
Lat 25 1' 15" n., long. S3 4 20" e. ; population (1881) 11,332, 
comprising 9780 Hindus, 1274 Muhammadans, and 278 ' others ;' area, 
123 acres : 12 miles south-east of Chunar, 18 miles south of Benares. 
Trade in grain, oilseeds, stick-lack, and jungle produce. Manufacture 
of sugar, glass bangles and lacquered toys, and to a small extent of silk 
made from imported cocoons. Railway station on East Indian Railway 
at Ahraura road, 10 miles north of the town. 

Ahtaran. — River in Amherst District, British Burma. — See Attarax. 

Aiavej. — Petty State of Und Sarviya in Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Consists of 2 villages with 2 independent tribute - payers. 
Revenue in 1875, £S 2 °- P avs tribute of .£28 to the Gaekwar of 
Baroda, and 16s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. Lat. of Aiavej town, 
21 24' n., long. 71 47' E. 

Aidaha (Id/ia). — Village in Partabgarh (Pratapgarh) District, Oudh ; 
situated 10 miles north of the Ganges on the road from Behar to 
Partabgarh, 5 miles from the former and 26 from the latter town. 
Population (1881) 2512, namely 2414 Hindus and 98 Muhammadans. 

Aigur. — Old capital of the Province of Balam, now in Hassan Dis- 
trict, Mysore State, situated on river of same name. Lat. 12 48' n., 
long. 75 o' 53" e. An early scene of coffee cultivation. 

Aihar. — Town in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh, 12 miles 
from Dalmau town. Population (1881) 2653, the greater part of whom 
are Brahmans. It contains a temple dedicated to Baleswar Mahadeo. 
The village is locally called Nuniagaon, it being considered unlucky to 
pronounce the true name of the place. 

Aikota. — Town in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. — See 

Aing-gyi. — Large village in Henzada District, British Burma, north 
of Lake Dura, on the margin of a great rice-producing area. Inhabit- 
ants entirely agricultural. Population (1881) 1399; houses, 272. 

Ainur Marigiidi. — State forest in Mysore District, Mysore State. 
Area, 30 square miles. 

Aili. — Teak forest in Mandla District, Central Provinces, under 
the Forest Department. Lat. 22 38' to 22 40' n., long. So° 43' 45" to 
8o° 46' 45" e. ; area, 3 square miles. Conveniently situated at the 
junction of the Burhner and Halon rivers. 

Aiyar. — River in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12 7' 
to 12 39' 45" n., long. 77 49' o" to 77 49' 15" e. 

Ajabpur. — Native State within the Political Agency of Mahikantha, in 
Guzerat, Bombay Presidency. Population (1SS1) 446. Pays a tribute 
°f £% J 2S. to Baroda. 


Ajaigarh. — Native State and fort in Bundelkhand, under the Central 
India Agency ; lying between 24 45' 30" and 24 58' n. lat., and 
between 8o° 4' 45" and 8o° 22' e. long.; bounded on the north by the 
Charkhari State and Banda District ; on the south and east by Panna 
State ; and on the west by Chhatarpur State ; distant from Kalinjar 
16 miles, from Banda 47 miles, and from Allahabad 130 miles. 
Estimated area, 802 square miles; villages, 321; occupied houses, 
14,076; population (1881) 81,454, namely, males 42,409, and females 
39,045 ; average density of population, 101*5 per square mile. Hindus 
numbered 78,427; Muhammadans, 2768; Jains, 214; 'others,' 45. 
The principality consists of the famous hill-fortress of Ajaigarh, with 
the surrounding territory, besides an outlying tract between Jaso and 
Panna. The Rdja lives at Naushahr, a neat, regularly built town at 
the northern base of the hill on which is perched the ancient fort. 
The mean elevation of the plateau on the summit of the hill is 1340 
feet above sea level, and 860 feet above that of the surrounding country. 
The fort itself stands 1744 feet above sea level. The eminence is com- 
posed of granite, overlaid by a bed of sandstone, and presenting all 
round a perpendicular face of rock some 50 feet in height. North-east 
of the main hill, and separated from it by a deep ravine, rises the 
opposite height of Bihonta. The fort stands on the southern crag, and 
is enclosed by a rampart running round the bold face of the rock. It 
is composed in part of exquisitely-carved shafts, pedestals, and cornices, 
the relics of ancient Jain temples. Over the whole surface of the 
plateau lies scattered a profusion of ruins, statues, and stone fragments. 
In their perfect state the temples must have been of great magnificence. 
At present they are tenanted only by large monkeys, and by serpents of 
great size, which glide and harbour among the fragments strewing the 
ground. The fort belongs to the same period as the other famous 
Bundela stronghold of Kalinjar, about the 9th century a.d. Ajaigarh 
formed a portion of the territories ruled over by the famous Bundela 
chieftain Chhatar Sal. On the partition of Bundelkhand after Chhatar 
SaTs death, about 1734, the country around Ajaigarh was included in 
the share allotted to his son Jagat Rai; but in 1800 it was captured by 
the Marathas after a six weeks' siege. On the cession of portions of 
Bunkelkhand to the British in 1803, a British force was sent to take 
possession of Ajaigarh ; but the governor of the fort, in consideration 
of a bribe, handed it over to one Lakshman Dawa, a famous marauding 
chieftain. With a view to the pacification of the country, Lakshman 
Dawa was confirmed by the British in the possession of the State ; but 
in 1809, owing to his persistent turbulence, it was necessary to send a 
force against him, which captured the fort after a severe engagement. 
Lakshman Dawa then withdrew, and the British granted the principality 
to Bakht Singh, the former Bundela ruler. His representative still holds 

A J ANT A. i, 3 

the position of chief, with the title of Sawai Maharaja, and pays a 
tribute of £701. The total revenue from all sources amounts to 
about ^22,500. The State suffered severely from famine during the 
great scarcity in Upper India in 1868-69. The chief maintains a 
military force of 150 cavalry, 100 infantry, 16 guns and 50 artillerymen. 
He receives a salute of n guns. 

Ajanta (Adjuntd)ox Indhyadri, also known as Sdtmdla and Chdndor. 
— Hill ranges at the south-west extremity of Berar, running into the 
Nizam's Dominions, and skirting the Bombay District of Khandesh. 
They support the northern side of the great table-land of the Deccan, 
and form the watershed of the feeders of the Godavari and Tapti rivers. 
With their spurs and continuation, known as the Satmala range, they 
cover the whole of the Basim and Wiin Districts, and the southern half 
of Buldana District, in Berar, rising into peaks of over 2000 feet in 
height. They consist, excepting in their alluvial river valleys, almost 
entirely of trap ; well-wooded, picturesque, and abounding in game, they 
form the retreats of the aboriginal tribes. (See Bhils.) One of their 
passes in the Nizam's Dominions contains the famous rock temples of 
Ajanta described in the following article. 

Ajanta (Adjunta). — A village and ravine celebrated for its cave 
temples, situated at the head of one of the passes or ghats that lead 
down from the Ajanta or Indhyadri Hills on their south-west face, and 
near to the Berar and Khandesh frontiers, but within the Nizam's 
Dominions. Lat. 20 32' 30" n., long. 75 48' e.; 220 miles north-east 
of Bombay, 55 miles north-north-east of Aurangabad, in the Nizam's 
Dominions, and 24 miles north of the field of Assaye. Four miles 
north-north-west of the town are the caves to which it gives name. 
The caves have been identified as those mentioned by Hwen Thsang, 
on the eastern frontier of the kingdom of Pulakesi. The best route for 
visiting these striking memorials of Buddhism, is by the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, from Bombay to Pachora Station (231 miles), and 
thence by bullock cart to Fardapur, where there is a travellers' rest- 
house. A bridle path leads from Fardapur to the ravine of Lenapur 
(3^ miles), in which the caves lie; and it is by this route, not from the 
village of Ajanta above the pass, that they are best visited. The defile 
is wooded, lonely, and rugged, the caves being excavated out of a wall 
of almost perpendicular rock, about 250 feet high, sweeping round in a 
hollow semicircle, with the Waghara stream below, and a wooded rocky 
promontory jutting out from its opposite bank. The caves extend 
about a third of a mile from east to west, in the concave scarp com- 
posed of amygdaloid trap, at an elevation of 35 to no feet above the 
bed of the torrent. The ravine, a little higher up, ends abruptly in a 
waterfall of seven leaps (sat kund), from 70 to over 100 feet in height 
From the difficulty of access to them, the Ajanta caves were but little 

vol. 1. h 

ii4 AJANTA. 

visited until within the last forty years ; in 1843 Mr. Fergusson's paper 
on the rock-cut temples of India created a general interest in these 
remarkable works of art. 

Twenty-four monasteries (vihdras) and five temples {chatty as) have 
been hewn out of the solid rock, many of them supported by lofty 
pillars, richly ornamented with sculpture, and covered with highly- 
finished paintings. Mr. Fergusson's admirable woodcuts and descrip- 
tions (History of Indian Architecture, pp. 122-159, ed. 1876) have 
brought these beautiful excavations within reach of the English public. 
The & following brief description has been condensed chiefly from 
materials furnished by Mr. Burgess, Archaeological Surveyor to the 
Government of Bombay. The five chatty as, or cave temples for public 
worship, are usually about twice as long as they are wide, the largest 
being 94* feet by 41J. The back or inner end of the chaitya is almost 
always circular ; the roofs are lofty and vaulted, some ribbed with wood, 
others with stone cut in imitation of wooden ribs. A colonnade cut 
out of the solid rock runs round each, dividing the nave from the aisles. 
The columns in the most ancient caves are plain octagonal shafts 
without bases or capitals ; in the more modern ones they have both 
bases and capitals, with richly ornamented shafts. Within the circular 
end of the cave stands the daghoba (relic-holder), a solid mass of rock, 
either plain or richly sculptured, consisting of a cylindrical case sup- 
porting a cupola {garbha), which in turn is surmounted by a square 
capital or tee (toran). The twenty-four vihdras, or Buddhist monas- 
teries, containing cells, are usually square in form, supported by rows 
of pillars, either running round them and separating the great central 
hall from the aisles, or disposed in four equidistant lines. In the larger 
caves, a verandah cut out of the rock, and with cells at either end, 
shades the entrance ; the great hall occupies the middle space ; with 
a small chamber behind, and a shrine containing a figure of Buddha 
enthroned. The walls on all the three sides are excavated into cells, 
the dwelling-places (grihas) of the Buddhist monks. The simplest 
form of the vihdra or monastery, is a verandah hewn out of the face of 
the precipice, with cells opening from the back into the rock. Very 
few of the caves seem to have been completely finished ; but nearly all 
of them appear to have been painted on the walls, ceilings, and pillars, 
inside and out. Even the sculptures have all been richly coloured. 
Twenty-five inscriptions— seventeen painted ones in the interior, eight 
rock inscriptions engraved outside— commemorate the names of pious 
founders in the Sanskrit and Magadhi tongues. 

One monastery has its whole facade richly carved, but as a rule, such 
ornamentation is confined in the monasteries {vihdras) to the doorways 
and windows. More lavish decoration was bestowed upon the temples 
{chaityas) ;— the most ancient of them have their facades sculptured, 

A J ANT A. Ir5 

while in the more modern ones, the walls, columns, entablatures, and 
daghoba are covered with carving. The sculpture shows little know- 
ledge of art, and consists chiefly of Buddhas, or Buddhist teachers, in 
every variety of posture, instructing their disciples. 

'The paintings,' writes the Archaeological Surveyor, 'have much 
higher pretensions, and have even been considered superior to the 
style of Europe, in the age when they were probably executed. The 
human figure is represented in every possible variety of position, 
displaying some slight knowledge of anatomy; and attempts at fore- 
shortening have been made with surprising success. The hands are 
generally well and gracefully drawn, and rude efforts at perspective are 
to be met with. Besides paintings of Buddha and his disciples and 
devotees, there are representations of streets, processions, battles, in- 
teriors of houses with the inmates pursuing their daily occupations, 
domestic scenes of love and marriage and death, groups of women 
performing religious austerities ; there are hunts ; men on horseback 
spearing the wild buffalo; animals, from the huge elephant to the 
diminutive quail ; exhibitions of Cobra di capello, ships, fish, etc. The 

small number of domestic utensils depicted is somewhat remarkable, 

the common earthen waterpot and lota, a drinking-cup, and one or two 
other dishes, a tray, an elegantly-shaped sort of jug having an oval 
body and long thin neck with lip and handle, together with a stone 
and roller for grinding condiments, being all that are observable. The 
same lack of weapons of war, either offensive or defensive, is also to be 
noticed. Swords, straight and crooked, long and short, spears of 
various kinds, clubs, bows and arrows, a weapon resembling a bayonet 
reversed, a missile like a quoit with cross-bars in the centre, and shields 
of different forms, exhaust the list. There is also a thing which bears 
a strong resemblance to a Greek helmet, and three horses are to be 
seen yoked abreast, but whether they were originally attached to a war 
chariot cannot now be determined. The paintings have been in the 
most brilliant colours— the light and shade are very good ; they must 
have been executed upon a thick layer of stucco. In many places, the 
colour has penetrated to a considerable depth.' Of the date of these 
paintings it is difficult to form a very definite estimate, nor are they all 
of the same age. The scenes represented are generally from the 
legendary history of Buddha and the Jatakas, the visit of Asita to the 
infant Buddha, the temptation of Buddha by Mara and his forces, 
Buddhist miracles, the Jataka of King Sfbi, legends of the Nagas[ 
hunting scenes, battle-pieces, the carrying off of the relics of Ceylon, 

The cave temples and monasteries of Ajanta furnish a continuous 
narrative of Buddhist art during 800 years, from shortly after the reign 
of Asoka, to shortly before the expulsion of the faith from India. The 


oldest of them are assigned to about 200 b.c. ; the most modern cannot 
be placed before the year 600 a.d. For many centuries they enable us 
to study the progress of Buddhist art, and of Buddhistic conceptions, 
uninfluenced by Hinduisms. The chief interest of the latest chaitya, 
about 600 a.d., is to show how nearly Buddhism had approximated to 
Brahmanism, before the convulsions amid which it disappeared. The 
liberality of the Indian Government had enabled Major Gill to take 
up his residence in Ajanta, and to prepare a magnificent series of 
facsimiles from the frescoes. These unfortunately perished in the fire 
at the Crystal Palace in i860, but reductions of two of the more 
important of them, and of eight detached fragments, exist in Mr. 
Spier's Life in Ancient India, and renewed efforts are being made by 
Government, to render the matchless art-series of Ajanta available to 
the western world. [For further information, see the reports of Mr. 
Burgess the archaeological surveyor, and of Mr. Griffiths, Indian Anti- 
quary, vol. ii. p. 150, and vol. iii. p. 25 ; History of Indian Architec- 
ture, Fergusson, ed. 1876; Bauddha Rock Temples of Ajanta, Burgess, 
1879; an d Cave Temples of Western India, Burgess, 1881.] 

Ajantir. — Town in Cassergode taluk, South Kanara District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat 12 20' n., long. 75 7' 15" e. ; population (188 1) 
6309; houses, 1280. Situated on the coast road about halfway 
between Mangalore and Cannanore. 

Ajgain. — Town in Undo District, Oudh, 10 miles from Unao town, 
and a station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 24 miles from 
Lucknow. Population (1881) 2348, namely 2243 Hindus and 105 
Muhammadans. Formerly called Bhanpara, after its founder Bhan 
Singh ; but its name was altered to the present one, as being more 
auspicious (literally the town of Aja, one of the names of Brahma). 
Village school, post-office, police station, and engineers' road bungalow. 
The town is rising in importance on account of its position midway 
between Lucknow and Cawnpur. 

Ajgaoil. — Town in Unao District, Oudh, on the banks of the Sai 
river. Population (1881) 2369, namely 2274 Hindus and 95 Muham- 
madans. Belongs to a Rajput family of the Jan war tribe, who are said 
to have founded it about 250 years ago. Noted for its excellent 
tobacco cultivation. 

Ajimpur. — Town in Tarikere taluk, Kadiir District, Mysore State. 
Situated on the Tarikere-Hosdurga road, 12 miles east of the kasba 
or head-quarters station of the taluk. Number of houses 431. Popu- 
lation (1876) 2249. [The Mysore Census for 1881 does not particu- 
larize towns of under 5000 inhabitants.] Contains a fort, built by 
Azim Khan, an officer of the Sira Government in the middle of the 
1 8th century, after whom the town has been named. Weekly market, 
held on Tuesdays. 


Ajmere-Merwara.-An isolated British Province under a Commis 
sioner in Rajputana, lying between 25 30' and 26 45 ' n lat and 
between 73 53' and 75 22' e. long., with an area of 271 1 square miles 
— Ajmere 2070; Merwara 641,— and a population in 1881 of 460 722 
souls. The Province comprises the two tracts known as Ajmere 'and 
Merwara (the latter of which see separately), and is entirely surrounded 
by Native States. It is bounded on the north by Kishangarh and Jodhpur 
(Marwar) ; on the west by Jodhpur (Marwar) ; on the south by Udaipur 
(Meywar) ; and on the east by Kishangarh and Jaipur (Jeypore). The 
two tracts originally formed distinct Districts, but they were united 
under one officer in 1842; they have again been divided, and now 
form distinct Districts of the Division of Ajmere-Merwara, under the 
charge of a Commissioner of Ajmere-Merwara, who has his head- 
quarters at the town of Ajmere. The whole forms also a Chief Com- 
missionership ; the Agent of the Governor-General for Rajputana, with 
his head-quarters at Abu, being ex officio Chief Commissioner of Ajmere- 
Merwara. Of the total area of 27 11 square miles for the united tracts, 
Md/sd, rent-free, and jdgir villages occupy 798 square miles in Ajmere; 
towns, 40 square miles ; istimrdri estates in Ajmere, 1272 square miles • 
Meywar-Merwara, 266 square miles; and Marwar-Merwara, 72 square 
miles. The number of villages on the Government rent-roll are 698,— 
Ajmere 368, Merwara 330. The land revenue in 1880-81 amounted to 
,£33>°5°, namely, Ajmere .£24,093, Merwara ^8957. Gross revenue 
for the united tracts, ,£95,843. 

Physical Aspects.— The District of Ajmere-Merwara occupies the 
crest of the great Rajputana watershed ; the rain which falls upon the 
summit finding its way either by the Chambal into the Bay of Bengal, 
or by the Liini into the Gulf of Cutch. The plateau on whose centre 
stands the town of Ajmere may be considered as the highest point in 
the plains of Hindustan ; and from the circle of hills which hem it in, 
the surrounding country slopes away on every side— towards river 
valleys on the east, south, and west, and towards the desert region on 
the north. The Aravalli range, which divides the plains of Marwar from 
the high table-land of Meywar, forms the distinguishing feature of the 
District. Rising first from the alluvial basin of the Jumna into the ridge 
at Delhi, this broken chain runs south-westward across the Rajputana 
States, and crops out to a considerable height near the town of Ajmere, 
where it assumes the form of several parallel hill ranges. The greatest 
elevation, on which is perched the fort of Taragarh, rises immediately 
over the city to a height of 2855 feet above sea level, and between 
1300 and 1400 feet above the valley at its base. The Nag-pahar or 
Serpent hill, 3 miles west of Ajmere, attains a scarcely inferior elevation. 
About 10 miles from the city, the hills subside for a short distance ; 
but in the neighbourhood of Beawar, the head-quarters of Merwara, they 


reappear once more as a compact double ridge, enclosing the valley 
pargand from which that station derives its name. The two ranges 
approach each other at Jowaja, 14 miles south of Beawar, and finally 
meet at Kiikra, in the north of the Todgarh tahsil. From this village 
there is a succession of hills and valleys, to the farthest extremities of 
the District. On the Marwar side, the Aravalli chain gradually becomes 
bolder and more precipitous, till it finally merges into the Vindhyan 
system near the isolated height of Abu. The portion of the District 
east of the range, is an open country, with a slope to the east, and 
broken only by gentle undulations. West of the Nag-pahar, on the other 
hand, the plains become an unbroken sea of barren sand. The average 
level of the valleys is about 1800 feet. Owing to its elevated position 
at the centre of the watershed, Ajmere-Merwara possesses no rivers of 
any importance. The Banas, its principal stream, rises in the Aravalli 
hills, 40 miles n.w. of Udaipur (Oodeypore), and enters the District at 
the extreme s.e. corner, near the cantonment of Deoli. During the 
rains it becomes unfordable, and, as no ferries exist, travellers from 
Deoli can only cross into the District by means of extemporized rafts. 
Four other insignificant rivulets — the Khari Nadi, the Dai Nadi, the 
Sagarmati, and the Saraswati — swell into violent torrents after heavy 
rains. But the great tank embankments form the most interesting 
feature in the hydrography of the District. They are constructed by 
damming up the gorges of hill streamlets ; and several of them, as for 
instance the Bisalya tank, the Anasagar, and the Ramsar in Ajmere ; 
the Dilwara, Kalinjar, Jowaja, and Balad in Merwara, date back to 
periods long anterior to the British occupation. As many as 435 of 
these valuable works now irrigate and fertilize the District, due in most 
part to the untiring energy and benevolent exertions of Colonel Dixon, 
who administered various portions of this tract from 1836 to 1857. 
The tanks become dry by the month of March, and their moist beds 
are then cultivated for the spring crops. Four small natural reservoirs, 
scarcely deserving the name of lakes, are also found in the depressions 
of the sand-hills, the most important of which is the sacred lake of 
Pushkar. The Aravalli range abounds in mineral wealth, but no 
mining operations are at present carried on. The Taragarh hill is rich 
in lead, copper, and iron, and mines have been worked. The lead 
mines of this hill were farmed by the Marathas for ^500 yearly. On 
the British acquisition of the country, Mr. Wilder, the first Superin- 
tendent of Ajmere. took the mines under direct management, and they 
produced annually from 400 to 500 tons of lead. The Ajmere military 
magazine was the chief customer, and on its ceasing to take the metal 
in 1846, the mines were closed. The lead is universally allowed to be 
purer and of a better quality than European pig-lead, and it was chiefly 
owing to the want of fuel, and of proper means of transport, that this 


industry has become extinct ; now that the Rajputana State Railway is 
completed, there are hopes of its revival. The general character of the 
District is of plutonic hypogene formation, and no organic remains have 
yet been discovered. The hills are schistose for the most part, and a 
very hard dark grey granite appears to underlie the schistose strata 
throughout. The cultivated soil is a mixture of one-third stiff yellow 
loam and two-thirds sand, consisting of disintegrated mica schist and 
felspar. Pure silicious sand is rare. Except in the beds of the tanks, 
no alluvial soil is found in the District, and there is much carbonate of 
lime in tracts where the Euphorbias are most common. 

Good building materials abound throughout the District, and stone 
is largely used for purposes for which wood is employed elsewhere in 
India. The best stone quarries are at Srfnagar and at Sillora, not far 
from Ajmere. There are quarries also at Atitmand and at Kheta Khera, 
in the vicinity of Bed war, and at Deogarh 10 miles s.e. from Todgarh. 
The District was entirely denuded of trees long before the British 
period, but great pains have lately been taken for re-afToresting the arid 
hill-sides. There is not much cover for large game in the District, but 
leopards are found in the western hills from the Nag-pahar down to 
Dawer ; tigers, hyaenas, and wolves are rare. Wild pigs are preserved 
by most of the Thakurs who have large estates, as pig-shooting is a 
favourite amusement of Rajputs. A few antelope and ravine deer are 
also to be seen. Of small game the bustard and florikin are ocasionally 
met with, and geese, duck, and snipe are found in the cold weather. 

History. — Tradition refers the foundation of the fort and city of 
Ajmere to Raja Aja, a Chauhan Rajput, about the year 145 a.d. Aja 
at first attempted to build his stronghold on the Nag-pahar, where the 
proposed site is pointed out to the present day ; but as his evil genius 
destroyed each night the walls erected during the day-time, the Raja 
transferred his fortress to the neighbourhing hill of Taragarh. Here he 
constructed a fort which he called Garh Bitli, and in the valley below, 
known as Indrakot, he founded a city which he called after his own 
name, Ajmere. Finally, toward the close of his life, he retired as a 
hermit to a mountain gorge, 10 miles from his newly-built capital, where 
the temple of Ajapal still commemorates his death-place. Authentic 
history begins, at Ajmere, with the advent of the Muhammadan con- 
querors. In a.d. 685, Dola Rai, Chauhan ruler of Ajmere, joined the 
Hindu alliance in resisting the first isolated efforts of Musalman 
aggression under Muhammad Kasim, the Arab conqueror of Sind, 
but was defeated and slain by the invaders. His successor, Manik 
Rai, founded Sambhar, from which the Chauhan princes thenceforth 
derived their title. We hear no more of the little Rajput State till the 
year 1024, when Sultan Mahmud took the route via Ajmere, in his famous 
expedition against the temple of Somnath. On his way he sacked 


Ajmere, and destroyed the gods and temples ; but the fort of Taragarh 
gave shelter to the towns-people, and Mahmrid, who had no leisure 
for sieges, proceeded on his desolating course to Guzerat. On his 
way back he had intended marching by the Ajmere route, but his 
guides misled him into the desert. The Ajmere Rajputs hung upon 
his army, inflicting severe losses, while thousands of the Muhammadans 
died of thirst. The guides confessed they had revenged Somnath, 
and were put to death. Visaladeva, or Bisaldeo, who shortly after- 
wards ruled at Ajmere, made himself famous by the construction of 
an important tank, the Bisalsagar. He also conquered Delhi from 
the wild Tuars, and subdued the hill tribes of Merwara, whom he 
enslaved as drawers of water in the streets of Ajmere. Ana, grandson 
of Bisaldeo, constructed the embankment which forms the Ana Sagar 
lake, on which Shah Jahan long afterwards erected a noble range of 
marble pavilions. Someswar, the third in descent from Ana, married 
the daughter of Anang Pal Tuar, king of Delhi ; and from this marriage 
sprang Prithwi Raja, the last of the Chauhan dynasty, who was adopted 
by Anang Pal, and thus became ruler of Delhi and Ajmere. This 
marks the culminating-point in the independent history of the District. 
Ajmere had ranked with Delhi, Kanauj, and Ujjain, as one of the 
Rajput breakwaters against Muhammadan invasion. The united king- 
dom of Delhi and Ajmere was now submerged beneath the advancing 
tide, and the downfall of the inner Rajput States, Kanauj and Ujjain, 
followed. In 1193 a.d., Prithwi Raja, the king of Delhi and Ajmere, 
was defeated and put to death in cold blood by Shahab-ud-din Ghori, 
and the Muhammadan power was thenceforth established over Upper 
India. Shortly afterwards, the Musalman leader took Ajmere, 
massacred such of the inhabitants as opposed him, and reserved the 
rest for slavery. He then granted the country to a relative of Prithwi 
Raja, under a heavy tribute. In the following year, Shahab-ud-din 
overthrew the Rahtor kingdom of Kanauj, after which event the Rahtor 
clan emigrated to Marwar. The Hindu Raja of Ajmere did not long 
remain faithful to his Muhammadan suzerain. He plotted with the Rahtors 
and Mers to throw off his dependence on Kutab-ud-din, the founder of 
the Slave dynasty at Delhi ; but Kutab-ud-din marched unexpectedly 
against him in the hot season, and the Ajmere Raja shut himself up in 
his fortress, and in despair threw himself and his wives on the funeral 
pile. The Musalman leader then attacked the Mers and Rajputs, and 
after some reverses, in the course of which he found himself in turn 
besieged in Ajmere, succeeded in annexing the Aravalli country to his 
own dominions. Sayyid Husain received charge of the Taragarh fort ; 
but after the death of Kutab-ud-din in 12 10, the Rahtors and Chauhans 
joined in a night attack on Taragarh, and massacred the garrison to a 
man. The shrine of Sayyid Husain still forms the most conspicuous 


object at Taragarh; his tomb, with those of his comrades and his cele- 
brated charger, standing within an enclosure which bears the name of 
Gunj Shahidan, or Treasury of Martyrs. More than three centuries 
later, the greatest of the Mughal sovereigns, Akbar, vowed that if a 
son were born to him, he would walk on foot to this shrine. His eldest 
son, Salfm, was born 1570, and the Emperor walked in procession to 
Ajmere, and offered thanks at the Martyrs' tomb. Shams-ud-di'n 
Altamsh, the successor of Kutab-ud-din, restored the authority of the 
Delhi princes, which was not again disturbed until the invasion of 
Timur. After the sack of Delhi by the Mughals, and the extinction of 
the house of Tughlak, Rana Kumbho of Mewar took advantage of the 
prevailing anarchy to seize Ajmere ; but the adventurous Hindu was 
soon after assassinated, and the city fell into the hands of the Muham- 
madan kings of Malwa in 1469. The Malwa princes retained their 
hold upon the tract until 1531, when their kingdom was merged in 
that of Guzerat. Thereupon, Maldeo Rahtor, prince of Marwar, took 
possession of Ajmere. He strengthened the fortress of Taragarh, and 
built in part a lift to raise water from a spring at its foot ; but the work, 
which still stands, as solid as at its first construction, was never com- 
pleted. For twenty-four years the Rahtors held the District, after 
which period it passed under the rising power of Akbar in 1556. The 
great Mughal administrator included the territory in a subahat, which 
took its name from the town of Ajmere, and comprised the whole of 
Rajputana. It formed an integral portion of the Mughal empire for 
194 years, from the reign of Akbar himself to that of Muhammad Shah. 
The District was an appanage of the royal residence at Ajmere, where 
the family of Babar had a country-seat, to maintain their authority 
among the warlike Rajput chieftains of the surrounding tracts. Akbar 
built himself a fortified palace just outside the city. Jahangir and Shah 
Jahan often honoured it with their presence ; and Sir Thomas Roe, 
the ambassador of James 1., presented his credentials to the former 
Emperor at the Ajmere court, on the 23rd December 16 15. Our 
envoy also visited a ' house of pleasure of the king's,' behind the Tara- 
garh hill, 'a place of much melancholy delight and security.' Ajmere 
formed the capital of the Mughal empire during several years of 
Jahangir's reign. Thomas Coryat, the pedestrian traveller of the 17th 
century, or 'world's foot post,' as he called himself, walked from 
Jerusalem to Ajmere, and spent only ^2, 10s. od. on the road. He 
dated his book at Ajmere : — 'Thomas Coryat, traveller for the English 
Wits, greeting. From the court of the Great Mogul at Asmere ' 
(London, 16 16). A vivid account of the court at Ajmere, of the city, 
and of its neighbourhood, is preserved in Sir Thomas Roe's Journal, 
161 5, 1616. It was at Ajmere, too, in 1659, that Aurangzeb defeated 
the forces of his unfortunate brother Dara, whose flight and privations 


are graphically narrated by the traveller Bernier, an eye-witness of his 
miserable retreat. After the fall of the Sayyids in 1720, during the 
first stages of decline in the Mughal empire, Ajit Singh, of Marwar, 
seized on Ajmere, and murdered the imperial governor. Muhammad 
Shah recovered the post for a while, but ten years later he yielded it 
once more to Abhay Singh, who succeeded his father as ruler of Marwar. 
Ram Singh, son of Abhay Singh, during the course of a territorial quarrel 
with his uncle, called in the treacherous aid of the Marathas, under 
Jai Apa Sindhia. After a series of intrigues and counter-plots, whose 
details defy simplification, Jai Apa was murdered, and an arrangement 
was effected in 1756, by which Bijai Singh, a cousin and rival of Ram 
Singh, surrendered the suzerainty of Ajmere to the Marathas, being 
himself confirmed in his possession as a vassal on payment of a triennial 
tribute. For the next thirty-one years, the Marathas held the District ; 
but in 1787, when Madhuji Sindhia invaded Jaipur (Jeypore), the 
Rahtors rose in defence of their brethren, recaptured Ajmere, and 
annulled their tributary engagement. Three years later, the Marathas, 
led by De Boigne, defeated the Rahtors at Patan, and once more 
occupied Ajmere, which they did not again lose till its cession to the 
British. After the Pindari war, Daulat Rao Sindhia made over the 
District of Ajmere to our Government, by treaty dated June 25, 1818. 
From that epoch, the history of Ajmere becomes merely administrative 
and social. In 1820, the tract known as Merwara was conquered 
and annexed ; but its annals will be found under a separate heading. 
The long incumbency of Colonel Dixon, who took a deep interest in 
the welfare of the District and its people, was productive of much 
good to Ajmere. Tanks and other public works were vigorously 
pushed forward, while the fiscal arrangements were adjusted in such a 
manner as to encourage agriculture and develop commerce. So 
successful were these measures in winning the confidence of the people, 
that the Mutiny of 1857 left this outlying region almost unaffected. 
On the 28th of May, two regiments of Bengal infantry, and a battery 
of Bengal artillery, revolted at the military station of Nasirabad 
(Nusseerabad) ; but the European residents were protected by a 
regiment of Bombay infantry, while a detachment of the Merwara 
battalion adequately guarded the Ajmere treasury and magazine. 
Civil government received no interruption; the mutinous regiments 
marched direct to Delhi, and the agricultural classes held entirely 
aloof from the revolt. The great famine of 1868-69 i s tne onlv event 
which has since troubled the quiet annals of Ajmere-Merwara. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 returned the total population of 
Ajmere-Merwara at 316,590 souls, or 316,032 exclusive of Europeans, 
inhabiting an area of 271 1 square miles, and distributed among 91,199 
houses. The Census of 1881, the fourth of a series commencing in 


1865, returned a total population of 460,722 souls for the District, 
including Europeans and railway passengers ; these figures show an 
increase of 144,132 over those of 1872; the totals for each tract, 
separately, being 359,288 for Ajmere and 101,434 for Merwara. These 
figures yield the following averages for the u?iited District ; for Merwara 
alone, see Merwara: Persons per square mile, 170. Classified 
according to sex, there were — males, 248,854; females, 211,878; pro- 
portion of males in total population, 54 per cent. Classified according 
to age, there were — adults: males, 166,136; females, 140,922: total, 
307,058, or 67 per cent, of the whole population — children : boys, 
82,708; girls, 70,956: total, 153,664, or ^ per cent, of the whole 
population. The total number of houses has been returned at 86,353, 
of which 64,118 are given as occupied, and 22,235 as unoccupied, or 
31 houses per square mile, and for the occupied houses 7 persons per 
house. In unoccupied houses are included shops, temples, mosques, 
etc. As regards the religious distinctions of the people, Ajmere- 
Merwara is still an essentially Hindu District, in spite of its long sub- 
jection to the Muhammadan power and the continued presence 
of the Mughal court. As many as 400,519 persons, or 87 per 
cent, of the population, profess some sort of Hinduism ; while 
on ty 57>8o9, or 13 per cent., belong to the faith of Islam. 
Amongst the Hindus, 24,308 are Buddhists or Jains; 182 are 
Sikhs, and 376,029 are Hindus proper. The District also contains 
94 Jews; 75 Parsis ; 1230 Europeans and Americans; 196 Eurasians 
and 799 native Christians. The agricultural population amounted to 
132,702 persons. As regards the distinctions of caste or tribe, the 
Brahmans numbered 22,388, of whom only 1869 live in Merwara, includ- 
ing 1082 living in Beawar town; these have no dealings with the other 
Brahmans, who consider them an inferior class. The Rajputs are re- 
turned at 14,965 souls ; they hold no land as cultivators, though they have 
large possessions under the peculiar forms of tenure known as tdlukddri 
and bhum, some account of which will be found in a later section. They 
are still warlike and indolent, much addicted to the use of opium, and 
proud of their distinguished descent from the warriors who carried the 
Aryan standards from their mountain home to the Eastern Sea. Every 
man among them carries arms, and none will touch a plough except 
under the extreme pressure of necessity. Amongst the various clans or 
sub-divisions of Rajputs, the Rahtors greatly preponderate in numbers, 
wealth, and power, forming the social aristocracy of Ajmere, and possess- 
ing feudal rights over a large portion of the soil. The Kachwahas come 
next in point of numbers. The Chauhans, once the dominant Rajput 
clan, now number only 1145. The mercantile tribes, of whom the 
principal are the Mahesris Agarwalas, Oswals and Saraogi's, number 
39,641. Of these the Oswals are the most notorious for good business 


habits, general intelligence, and good humour ; their females are gene- 
rally taught to read and write Hindi, and many are singularly clever in 
keeping accounts. The Jats and Giijars comprise the original cultiva- 
tors of the soil, returned at 32,690 and 31,788 souls respectively. In 
Ajmere, as elsewhere, the Jats possess a fine physique and excellent 
agricultural qualities. They have monopolized the best villages, and 
display great energy in digging wells and improving their land. The 
Giijars, on the other hand, keep up their usual character as lazy culti- 
vators, with a greater aptitude for grazing than for tillage. The minor 
castes are very numerous, about one-third of the total population, but 
present no special interesting features. The population is generally 
industrious, but in a state of indebtedness, the result of extravagance in 
marriages, funeral feasts, and periodical famines. Though ordinarily 
classed as Hindus, the aboriginal tribes found in Merwara, known as Mers 
(Mhairs), are little fettered by the observances of caste, which have never 
been rigidly introduced among their wild gorges and jungle-clad hill- 
sides. There is a class of Brahmans in Merwara who receive gifts and 
offerings from the hill-tribes, and who freely partake of meat and spirits ; 
they have forsaken their religion, and bear no relation to the other 
Brahmans. The present tendency of the Merats seems to take the 
direction of an approach towards Islam. For long the Merats and 
Mers formed a difficult problem to the English Government. Previous 
to our accession, they had been accustomed to live, almost destitute of 
clothing, by the produce of their herds, by the chase, and by plunder. 
But soon after the cession to us of Ajmere in 181 8, the Mer country 
also came under British influence, and the predatory instincts of the 
people have at the same time been controlled and utilized by forming 
them into a Merwara battalion. As the peaceful results of British rule 
developed, and the old feuds between the Mers and their Rajput neigh- 
bours died out, the Mer battalion was transformed into a police force. 
The men strongly objected to this change, and pleaded a long period 
of loyal usefulness to the State. They have accordingly been again 
erected into a military battalion, and brought upon the roll of the 
British army. The Division contains in all 735 villages and 4 towns 
with a population exceeding 5000 souls, — namely, Ajmere (48,735), 
Bed war or Nayanagar (15,829), Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) (21,320), 
and Kekri (6119). Other important towns are Pisangan (4922), 
Bhinae (4251), Masuda (3849), Pohkar (3392), Sawar (3943), Deoli 
(3559)- Ajmere is the head-quarters of the united Division, and Beawar 
of the Merwara tract ; Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) forms the principal 
cantonment ; Kekri has a declining trade, now transferred to Ajmere. 
The Districts include no other town of more than local importance, 
with the exception of Pushkar, a famous place of Hindu pilgrimage. 
Marwari and Hindustani are the prevailing languages. 


Agriculture.— -In Ajmere-Merward, as in the other parts of Rajputana 
cultivation is carried on with great difficulty, owing to the insufficient 
and precarious nature of the water supply. Artificial irrigation is thus 
rendered imperatively necessary, while famines and scarcity recur with 
almost regular severity. The area under cultivation in the united tracts 
in 1 880-8 1, was 993 square miles— Ajmere 896, Merwara" 97— of 
which 51,949 acres were irrigated, and 119,467 unirrigated. 'The 
cultivable waste was 139,898 acres, uncultivable 481,099. The assessed 
rate per acre of cultivated land varied from 5s. 6fd. to 2s. 9 d. ; and of 
waste, from 3 s. 7 Jd to is. 4 ^d. The chief crops are maize,' barley, 
jo&r, and bdjra. Cotton pulses, oil-seeds, wheat, and gram rank next 
in extent, while sugar-cane is only grown in the Pushkar valley, where 
it can be raised without irrigation. Poppy for opium covers a small 
area in Beawar and Todgarh, principally for exportation. The area 
occupied by each of the above is as follows : wheat, 8683 acres ; other 
food grains, 148,350 ■ pulses, 32,825 ; drugs and spices, 1333 \ oil'-seeds, 
9188; cotton, 11,694; sugar-cane, 406 ; miscellaneous, 2414. Water- 
nuts are not grown. Fish are caught in some of the lakes, but the 
people don't eat fish, and it is only in the Anasagar at Ajmere, and the 
sacred lake of Pushkar, that fish permanently exist, while religious pre- 
judice prevents their being killed in the latter lake. Manure is largely 
used in Merwara, but less frequently in Ajmere Proper. Merwanllias 
also 40 per cent, of its cultivated area under irrigation, while in Ajmere 
the proportion so treated is only 25 per cent. The condition of the 
people is still far from satisfactory. They depend for their lives in times 
of scarcity upon the money-lending classes, who derive their capital 
ultimately from the Seths of Ajmere. The mortgagees of land draw more 
than the landlord's share from the produce of the soil, as interest upon 
advances. The dangerous facility of borrowing, produced by the influx 
of capital into the District since the introduction of British rule has 
plunged all classes into debt. In the case of the larger proprietors 
Government has given some relief, by liquidating the principal and 
collecting a moderate interest from the indebted Thakurs; but with 
the peasantry, weighed down under the accumulation of hereditary 
indebtedness, such a system of relief would be practically impossible 
\\ages and prices have increased considerably of late years. In 1850 
coolies received 2 |d. per diem; in 1881, they obtained 6d. ; in 1850 
the wages for skilled labour were 6d. per diem ; in 1SS1, they had risen 
to is. The period of daily labour has also decreased meanwhile from 
10 to 8 hours. The domestic animals of the District are small and 
weak. The agricultural stock in 1880-81 comprised 145,131 cows and 
bullocks; 1 1 24 horses; 967 ponies; 5096 donkeys; 195,257 sheep 
and goats; 301 camels : 3553 carts and 21,508 ploughs. The following 
were the prices current of food grains in 1873 : Best rice, 4 sers per rupee; 


or 28s. per cwt ; common rice, 8 sers per rupee, or 14s. per cwt. ; 
barley, 20 sers per rupee, or 5s. 70!. per cwt. j wheat, 15 sers per rupee, 
or 7s. 6d. per cwt. In 1881, the average prices ruling in sers of 2 lbs. in 
the District were for best rice, 7 J sers per rupee (2s.) ; wheat, 17 sers ; 
alia, \$\ sers ; barley, 28 sers ; gram, 24 sers; Indian corn, 29 sers ; jodr, 
23 sers ; bdjra, 19 sers ; urd, 14 sers ; cotton, 2 J sers ; sugar, 2 J sers ; 
ghi, if sers; firewood, 3 J sers ; tobacco, i\ sers ; salt, n \ sers. 

Zand Tenures. — The soil of Ajmere- Merwara is held on tenures 
analogous to those which prevail in the adjacent Native States. The 
territory throughout Rajputana maybe broadly divided into two classes, 
— khdlsd, or Crown domain ; and zaminddri, or land originally held 
in barony by feudal chiefs, under obligation of military service, but now 
owned on a tenure known as isllmrdri. Khdlsd land, however, might be 
alienated by the Crown as endowment for a religious institution, or in 
jdgir as a reward of service to an individual and his heirs. Throughout 
all Rajputana, the State in its khdlsd territory retains the actual pro- 
prietary rights, standing in the same relation to the cultivators as the 
feudal chiefs stand to the tenants on their estates. In jdgir lands, these 
rights are transferred to the jdgirddr. But immemorial custom in the 
khdlsd of Ajmere, allowed a cultivator who effects permanent improve- 
ments, such as sinking wells or constructing embankments, thereby to 
acquire certain privileges in the soil so improved. Such a cultivator 
was protected from ejectment by prescriptive law, so long as he paid the 
customary share of the produce. He might sell, mortgage, or give away 
the well or embankment, together with the hereditary privileges it 
entailed, which thus practically amounted to proprietary rights. 
Unirrigated land being of little value in Ajmere, the State gradually 
became restricted in its proprietorship to the waste or grazing lands ; 
and since 1850 it has abandoned its claim to the ownership, and 
transformed the khdlsd villages into bhdydchdra communities, owning 
the surrounding soil in common. This change, however, is little 
understood by the people, who still regard the British Government in 
the light of a landlord. The zaminddri estates are usually held on the 
tenure known as Islimrdri, originally a feudal holding, under obligation 
of military service. The Marathas, however, who would obviously have 
found it impolitic to encourage the warlike tendencies of their Rajput 
vassals, commuted for a fixed tribute the duty of furnishing a contingent 
to aid the suzerain power. The chieftains accordingly acquired the 
habit of regarding themselves as holders at a fixed and permanent quit- 
rent ; and although, during the earlier portion of our rule, extra cesses 
were levied from time to time, in 1841 the British Government remitted 
all such collections for the future, and granted sanads to the various 
istimrdrddrs, declaring their existing assessments to be fixed in 
perpetuity, without liability to re-settlement. A relief, however, is 


levied on successions, its amount being separately stipulated in each 
sanad. Another mode of tenure, known as bhiim, and confined to 
Rajputs, consists essentially in the possession of a hereditary inalienable 
title to the soil, free of revenue to the State. In return, the bhumids 
bind themselves to perform certain police duties, such as guarding 
against dacoity or theft ; and also to indemnify losses due to crimes 
which they ought to have prevented. This rude device for the 
protection of property, handed down from an earlier and a weaker 
Government, is already becoming obsolete ; and the bhumids have been 
permitted in certain cases to commute their responsibility, though still 
remaining liable to be called out as an armed militia, for the suppression 
of riots or rebellion. In Merwara, where no settled government 
existed before the British occupation, and where the people found 
plunder more congenial than agriculture, no revenue was ordinarily 
paid, and accordingly no tenures sprang up. At its first land Settlement, 
therefore, the British Government acted as landlord, gave leases, built 
tanks, and collected one-third of the produce as revenue. At the 
Settlement of 185 1, however, all cultivators were recorded as proprie- 
tors. Speaking generally, throughout Merwara a non-proprietary 
cultivating class can hardly be found, except on the estates of the 
feudal chieftains. No rent law exists ; rentals are collected exclusively 
in kind ; suits for arrears rarely occur, and suits for enhancement 
are unknown. Custom regulates the rates ; and, as cultivators are still 
deficient in number, a competition for labour exists between the 
landlords rather than for land among the labourers. 

Natural Calamities. — A j mere- Merwara, like the neighbouring por- 
tions of Rajputana, lies peculiarly exposed to the disasters of drought 
and famine. In ordinary years of scarcity, the people in the afflicted 
tracts emigrate to more favoured regions, returning home in time for 
the sowings of the succeeding year. But when both the south-western 
and north-eastern monsoons fail, Rajputana is exposed, in local phrase- 
ology, to the miseries of a ' treble famine,' due to the lack of grain, grass, 
and water. Serious scarcity occurred in Ajmere-Merwara in 1819, in 
1824, in 1833, and in 1848. The dearth of 1861, which produced such 
disastrous results in the North-Westem Provinces, affected only the 
eastern border of Rajputana ; while Marwar, A j mere, and the whole tract 
dependent on the south-western monsoon, secured an abundant harvest. 
But in 1868-69, a treble famine of the most disastrous sort, desolated 
the whole of Rajputana. In Ajmere, the harvests for the four preceding 
years had been insufficient, and the District accordingly entered on the 
famine with its stock of grain exhausted. On every side, the surrounding 
Native States themselves suffered severely; and Ajmere stood isolated 
from other British Districts, in the midst of an extensive famine tract. 
Transport was almost impracticable, as the failure of grass rendered tie 


pack-cattle unable to work. Owing to the scarcity of fodder, cows were 
offered for sale at 2S. a head in August 1868. At the same time, 
wheat sold for 10 sers per rupee, or ris. 2d. per cwt.; and barley, jodr, 
and grass at T2 sers per rupee, or 9s. 4d. per cwt. Relief works were 
set on foot ; emigration went on uninterruptedly ; while, on the other 
hand, crowds of starving poor poured into the District from Marwar, 
accompanied by their herds, which consumed the little grass still re- 
maining. Early in 1869, although poor-houses were established, the 
people were reduced to support themselves upon the bark of trees and 
roots. The kharif harvest of 1869 proved a partial failure, and the dis- 
tress became terrible. Food could not be procured at any price. Before 
the close of the famine, it was calculated that 105,000 persons, or 25 
per cent, had perished, besides 33 percent, of the cattle. Government 
had expended altogether ^152,007, of which sum ^23,000 were 
gratuitously distributed. The famine left the District thoroughly im- 
poverished, and deeply indebted, nor can its prosperity be expected to 
revive before the lapse of many years. It is hoped, however, that the 
opening of the Rajputana State Railway, which has relieved Ajmere- 
Merwara from its previous isolation, will prevent the recurrence of so 
severe a visitation, by affording a means of access to the rich grain 
stores of the Doab. A tendency to the equalisation of prices has 
already disclosed itself. 

Forests. — Forest conservancy, so long neglected in this District, is 
now making steady progress. The total area of reserved forests in 
1880-81, was returned at 77,875 acres, or 121*6 square miles. There 
were also 35 acres appropriated for nurseries and plantation operations. 
The following is the list of tracts reserved : in Ajmere, Madar Hill, 
2812 acres; Nag-pahar, 2660 acres; Ta>agarh valleys, 1016 acres; 
Srinagar and Bir, 3575 acres; Rajaosi, 1260 acres; and Danta, 1244 
acres. In Merwara : Chang, 2341 acres; Hattun and Sheopura, 1920 
acres; Biliawas and Taragarh, 3172 acres; Todgarh and Barakhan, 
40,048 acres; Dilwara and Chang Birs, 235 acres; Borwar and Kotra, 
3923 acres; Auspahar, 1466 acres; and Dewair, 12,203 acres. The 
total expenditure on plantations down to 1880-81 was .£3463. For 
the year the expenditure was ^1242, and the income ^112. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The city of Ajmere was in ancient times an 
entrepot for the trade between Bombay and Upper India, and a factory 
was early established by the East India Company at this important 
centre. The District forms the natural mart for the interchange of 
Rajputana produce with European goods or Upper Indian and Bombay 
wares. The trade of Ajmere city was for some years on the decline, 
but the railway has largely revived its importance, while Beawar (or 
Nayanagar) and Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) have lately made rapid 
progress. The chief imports consist of sugar and European cloth ; the 


principal exports comprise cotton, for which Beawar forms the great 
local mart, grain and poppy seeds, which are despatched to Pali in 
Marwar. The District has no manufactures except a few salt-pans. 
Till quite lately, the transit trade was entirely carried on by camels and 
bullocks, but these have now been largely superseded by the railway. 
Communications have rapidly improved of late years. The famine of 
1869 gave a great stimulus to the construction of metalled roads, of 
which the District now possesses several, the principal among them 
connecting Ajmere city with Agra, Nimach (Neemuch) and Mhau 
(Mhow), and Nasinibad (Nusseerabad) with Deoli. Merwdra* had 
hardly any roads before the famine, but a good track now runs to 
Todgarh, and two others lead over the passes into Masiida and Meywar. 
The length of metalled roads is 226 miles, unmetalled 365 miles. The 
Rajputana State Railway connects the town of Ajmere with Agra, 
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), and Ahmadabad, in Bombay ; while the 
Rajputana-Malwa line connects Ajmere and Nasfrdbad (Nusseerabad) 
with the Khandwa station of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 
The local traffic over these lines far exceeds any expectations that 
had been formed, and the effect in cheapening many commodities at 
Ajmere has been considerable. Ajmere is now connected with three 
great main lines : with the East India Railway at Agra ; the Bombay 
Baroda Railway at Ahmadabad; and the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway at Khandwa\ 

Administration. — Ajmere-Merwara forms a Division under a Com- 
missioner, whose head-quarters are at Ajmere city. The Commissioner 
has the powers of a Civil and Sessions Judge, and has direct manage- 
ment of the Police, Registration, Jail, and Education affairs. The 
Ajmere District is administered by an Assistant Commissioner, who 
has his head-quarters also at Ajmere; and Merwara is administered by 
an Assistant-Commissioner, whose head-quarters are at Beawar, 33 miles 
distant from Ajmere. The united Division forms also a Chief Commis- 
sionership under the Foreign Department; the Governor-General's Agent 
for Rajputana being ex officio Chief Commissioner of Ajmere-Merwdra, 
having the powers of a chief revenue authority and of the highest 
court of appeal in civil and criminal cases. The Chief Commissioner 
is assisted in the administration of the Division by 43 officers invested 
with various magisterial powers. The total revenue, imperial, local, 
and municipal, raised in the Division during the year 1S80-81 
amounted to ^121,062, and the total expenditure to ^70,398. The 
imperial receipts were returned at ^94,602, of which ,£38,235 were 
due to the land tax. The other principal items of receipt were stamps, 
excise, and fees in law courts. The total strength of the police force 
during the same year was 582 men of all grades, being in the pro- 
portion of one policeman to every 4^65 square miles, and every 792 of 

vol. 1. 1 


the population. The cost of maintenance amounted to ^£9044, or 
£$, 6s. 9a 1 . per square mile, and 6Jd. per head of the population. 
The whole number of crimes reported to have been committed in the 
united Division, during the same year, was 2184, being at the rate of 
one crime to every 1*24 square mile of area, and every 211 of the 
population. The Division contains but one place of confinement for 
criminals, which is also the central jail for the whole of Rajputana, 
receiving prisoners from all the Political and Criminal Courts through- 
out the Province. During the year 1880, it contained 1109 convicts, 
of whom 1035 were males and 74 females. The daily average number 
of inmates was 463. The average annual cost per head amounted to 
^£■3, 18s. 3d., and the average earnings of each prisoner to ^3, 7s. 6|d. 
The receipts by sale of jail manufactures in 1880 amounted to ^1005, 
the expenditure for materials amounted to ^628, showing a net amount 
to credit of ^"377. The total expenditure on the prison for the year 
amounted to ^2272. Education still remains in a backward state, 
when compared with other portions of Northern India. In 1880-81 
the Division possessed a total number of 139 schools, with a joint roll 
of 5417 pupils. The United Presbyterian Mission has 6 stations in 
Ajmere, and maintains 60 schools, with a total of 1 989 pupils. The 
Ajmere College, opened in 185 1, was affiliated to the Calcutta Uni- 
versity ten years later, and contained 211 students in 1881. The 
Mayo College, set on foot by the late Earl of Mayo, on the occasion of 
his visit to Rajputana in 1870, is supported partly by the interest on a 
sum of nearly 7 lakhs of rupees (^70,000), contributed by the native 
chiefs, and partly by an annual allowance from Government. It is 
intended as a purely aristocratic College for the whole of Rajputana, 
where the sons of Rajput noblemen may be brought into direct con- 
tact with European ideas, under healthy influences of physical and 
moral training. The College has been carried on since 1875, an d 
its first Principal was Major St. John of the Royal Engineers. The 
council or governing body of the College consists of all the principal 
chiefs of Rajputana, and the Political Agents accredited to their States, 
with the Viceroy as President, and the Agent to the Governor-General 
in Rajputana as Vice-President. The Division contains three munici- 
palities, Ajmere, Beawar, and Kekri. In 1880-81 their joint revenue 
amounted to ^11,230, the greater part of which was derived from an 
octroi duty. The incidence of municipal taxation was at the rate of 
2s. 6Jd. per head of their united population. 

Medical Aspects. — Ajmere-Merwara lies on the watershed of the 
continent, and on the border of the arid zone of Rajputana, outside 
the full influence of the two monsoons, from whose spent and wasted 
force it derives a partial and precarious rainfall, varying much in 
quantity from year to year. The average annual amount for the 


nineteen years ending 1881, was 22-56 inches at Ajmere, and (for 26 
years to 1881) 20*64 inches at Beawar. The maximum at the two 
stations during this period was 43-40 inches in 1862, and the minimum 
was 5-50 in 1868, the year of the great famine. The rainfall in 1881 
was returned at 21*21 inches for Ajmere, and 20-60 for Beawar. The 
climate is healthy j with cold, bracing weather in December, January, 
and February, when hoar-frost not infrequently covers the ground in the 
early morning. The mean monthly temperature in the shade showed 
90-5° F. in May, 87-1° in July, and 73-0° in December 1875. The 
maximum reading was 112 in May, and the minimum 62-0° in Decem- 
ber. The District suffers from no special endemic disease, except fever 
in Ajmere city; but epidemics of cholera frequently occur, while 
dysentery, skin diseases, and pleurisy cause many deaths. Ophthalmia 
is common, and guinea-worm sometimes attacks hundreds of people in 
a single year. The annual death-rate per 1000 of the total population 
was returned in 1880-81 at 34-4. The District contained seven chari- 
table dispensaries in 1875, whic h afforded relief to 24,575 persons, of 
whom 454 were in-door patients. The lunatic asylum had 19 inmates 
during the same year, 1 1 of whom were discharged as cured.— [For 
further information, see Rdjputdna Gazetteer, 1879; Gazetteer of Ajmere- 
Merwdrd, by Mr. J. D. Latouche, C.S., 1875; Provincial Administra- 
tion Reports, 1880-81 and 1881-82; Census Report, 1881 ; Depart- 
mental Reports, 1880-81 and 1881-82.] 

Ajmere. — City and administrative head-quarters of Ajmere-Mer- 
wara Division, Rajputana. Lat. 26 27' 10" n., long. 74 43' 58" e. 
Population in 1881, 48,735- namely, males, 27,347, and females, 
21,388. Hindus numbered 26,685; Muhammadans, 18,702; Jains, 
2575; Christians, 720; Parsis, 22; Jews, 21 ; and Sikhs, 10. Distant 
from Bombay 677 miles north; from Agra, 228 miles west. Occupies 
the lower slope of the Taragarh hill, crowned by the lofty fortress 
of Tapagarh ; on the north side lies the Ana Sagar lake. A stone 
wall, with five gateways, surrounds the city, which has well-built, open 
streets, containing many fine houses. Founded, according to tradi- 
tion, by the eponymous Raja Aja, in the year 145 a.d. Underwent 
many dynastic changes during the Middle Ages. A full account of 
its history will be found under Ajmere-Merwara. Akbar built a 
fortified palace just outside the walls, where Jahangir and Shah Jahan 
often resided. Sir Thomas Roe, the ambassador of James 1. of England, 
visited the city in December 161 5, and presented his credentials to 
Jahangir. His journals present a vivid picture of Court life at Ajmere 
in 16 1 5 and 16 16. In 1791, the fort underwent a siege by the 
Marathas under De Boigne, who captured the city on the 22nd August. 
The original town, known as Indrakot, stood in the valley through 
which the road leads to Taragarh ; here a number of Musalman families 

1 32 AJMERE. 

still reside. Among the objects of interest in or near the city, the most 
noticeable is the Dargah, an object of veneration alike to Muhammadans 
and Hindus. It marks the burial-place of the saint, Khwaja Muezzin-ud- 
din-Chishti, more briefly known as Khwaja Sahib, who came to Ajmere 
in the year 1235, shortly before the invasion of Shahab-ud-din. He 
succeeded in converting many of the inhabitants, and worked several 
miracles, whose memory is handed down in numerous legends. His 
eldest lineal descendant still ranks as spiritual head of the shrine. The 
Dargah lies on the southern side of the city, and comprises, amongst 
other buildings, a partially ruined mosque, erected by Akbar j another 
mosque of white marble, the gift of Shah Jatdn, still in perfect repair ; 
and the tomb of the Khwaja himself, a square-domed edifice with two 
entrances, one of which is spanned by a silver arch. A festival called 
Urs Mela, of six days' duration, is held annually at the Dargah. One 
peculiar custom of this festival may be mentioned. There are two 
large cauldrons inside the Dargah enclosure, one twice the size of the 
other; these are known as the great and little deg. Pilgrims to the 
shrine propose to offer a deg feast. The smallest sum with which 
to buy the rice, butter, sugar, almonds, raisins, and spices to fill the 
large deg'is ;£ioo; the donor, besides the actual cost of its contents, 
has to pay about ^20 more as presents to the officials of the shrine, 
and as offerings at the tomb. The materials for the small deg cost 
exactly half the sum required for the large one. After this gigantic 
rice pudding has been cooked, it is scrambled for, boiling hot. Eight 
earthen pots of the mixture are first set apart for the foreign pilgrims, 
and it is the hereditary privilege of the people of Indrakot, and of the 
menials of the Dargah, to empty the cauldron of the remainder of its 
contents. All the men who take part in this hereditary privilege are 
swaddled up to the eyes in cloths, to avoid the effect of the scalding 
fluid. When the cauldron is nearly empty, all the Indrakotis tumble 
in together and scrape it clean. There is no doubt that this custom is 
very ancient, though no account of its origin can be given. It is 
generally counted among the miracles of the saint, that no lives have 
ever been lost on these occasions, though burns are frequent. The 
cooked rice is bought by all classes, and most castes will eat it. The 
number of pilgrims at this festival is estimated at 20,000. The Arhai- 
din-ka-jhonpra {shed of two a?id a half days), a mosque situated on the 
lower slope of the Taragarh hill, originally formed a Jain temple, but 
was converted into a place of Muhammadan worship (a.d. 1236) by 
Altamsh or Kutab-ud-din, in two and a half days, according to tradition. 
It ranks as the finest specimen of early Muhammadan architecture now 
extant ; but its gorgeous prodigality of ornament, and delicately-finished 
detail, are referred by General Cunningham to the earlier Hindu 
workmen, whose handicraft has been incorporated in the Musalman 


building. Government has lately undertaken to repair this magnificent 
relic, which had long exhibited signs of decay and insecurity. The 
Daulat Bagh, or Garden of Splendour, built in the 16th century over 
the And Sagar lake by Jahangir, now serves as the abode of the Chief 
Commissioner. Elegant marble pavilions, commanding a full view of 
the town, stand on the very edge of the lake, in which, as in a crystal 
mirror, the surrounding hills are reflected. The garden itself is of great 
extent, and full of venerable trees. Akbar's massive, square, fortified 
palace, on the north side of the city, served for some years as an 
arsenal for the British military authorities, but now does duty as a 
tahsili and treasury. Ajmere derives its water-supply from the Ana 
Sagar tank, by two masonry channels passing underground, with 
openings at intervals. One channel passes through the city, the other 
just outside it ; the latter fills a handsome reservoir called the Madar 
Kund. Two natural springs, known as the Jhdlra and the Diggi, are 
also largely resorted to for water. There are very few good wells about 
the town, and there are none within the walls. The transport trade of 
Rajputana centres in the city, and has largely increased since the 
opening of the Rajputana State Railway. Several important firms of 
Seths have their head offices in Ajmere, with branches throughout 
Rajputana and other parts of India. They act chiefly as bankers and 
money-lenders, transacting a large business with the Native States. 
The city contains two institutions for higher education, the Ajmere and 
the Mayo Colleges, details of which are given under the heading of 
Ajmere-Merw'ara District. It also includes a jail, dispensary, post- 
office, and telegraph station. The head-quarters of the Merwara Battalion 
were transferred to Ajmere in 1871. Municipal income in 1880-81, 
^"6576, or 2s. id. per head of population within municipal limits. 
There is one printing-press in the city, from which the Rajputana Official 
Gazette issues in English, Hindi, and Urdu. [For further information, 
see authorities cited at end of the last article, Ajmere-Merwara.] 

Ajmirgarh. — Hill in Bilaspur District, Central Provinces, 3500 feet 
high, a little north of Amarkantak hill. Summit difficult of access; at 
one time fortified. 

Ajnala. — Tahsil of Amritsar District, Punjab; lying between 31 
37' and 32 3' 15" n. lat, and between 74 32' 30" and 75 1' e. long. 
Area, 428 square miles. Population (1881) 201,172 souls. The tahsil 
occupies the north-west corner of the District, and is bounded on the 
west by the river Ravi. 

Ajnala. — Village in Amritsar District, Punjab, and head-quarters of 
Ajnala tahsil Situated on the road from Amritsar to Sialkot, 16 
miles north-west of the former town. Population (1881) 1936. Old 
bridge, built under the Sikh rule, spans the Sakki stream. Founded, 
according to tradition, by one Baga, a Najar Jat, and hence called 


Najrala, of which the modern name is a corruption. Tahsili, police 
station, sardi, distillery, dispensary, post-office, Anglo - vernacular 
school, Munsif's Court. The revenue of Ajnala tahsil is ^"20,600. 
The local administrative staff consists of one tahsildar and one munsif. 
These officers preside over two civil courts and one revenue court ; 
with two police stations, 30 regular police, and 366 village watchmen. 

Ajodhya. — Ancient town in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh, 
adjacent to Faizabad, on the right or south bank of the Gogra (Ghagra) 
river. Lat. 2 6° 48' 20" n., long. 82 ° 14' 40" e. The interest of 
Ajodhya centres in its ancient history. In the present day, the old 
city has almost entirely disappeared, and its site is only known by 
heaps of ruins. But in remote antiquity, Ajodhya was one of the 
largest and most magnificent of Indian cities. It is said to have 
covered an area of 1 2 yojan, equal to 96 miles, and was the capital of 
the kingdom of Kosala (corresponding to the modern Oudh), and the 
court of the great King Dasaratha, the fifty-sixth monarch of the Solar 
line in descent from Raja Manu. The opening chapters of the Rdmd- 
yana recount the magnificence of the city, the glories of the monarch, 
and the virtues, wealth, and loyalty of his people. Dasaratha was the 
father of Rama Chandra, the hero of the epic. With the fall of the 
last of the Solar line, Raja Sumintra, the one hundred and thirteenth 
monarch, Ajodhya became a wilderness, and the royal families dispersed. 
From different members of this scattered people, the Rajas of Jaipur, 
Udaipur, Jamber, etc., claim descent. A period of Buddhist supremacy 
followed the death of the last king of the Solar dynasty. On the 
revival of Brahmanism Ajodhya was restored by King Vikramaditya 
(arc. 57 a.d.). He is said to have traced out the ancient city, and 
identified the different shrines and spots rendered sacred by associa- 
tion with events in the life of Rama, the deified son of Dasaratha. 
The most important of these are the Ramkot, or fort and palace of the 
king, the Nageswar Nath shrine, sacred to Mahadeo, the Maniparbat 
or sacred mound, and a few temples still visited by thousands of 
pilgrims. After Vikramaditya, the kingdom of Kosala, with Ajodhya 
as its capital, was ruled successively by the Samiidra Pal, Sribastam, 
and Kanauj dynasties, until the period of the Muhammadan conquest. 
Kosala is also famous as the early home of Buddhism and of its modern 
representative, Jainism, and claims to be the birthplace of the founder 
of both these faiths. The Chinese traveller, Hwen Thsang, in the 7th 
century, found twenty Buddhist temples, with 3000 monks, at Ajodhya, 
among a large Brahmanical population. Many Jain temples exist, but 
are of modern restoration. Other more recent temples (dating from 
about 150 years back) mark the supposed birthplaces of five of the 
principal hierarchs of the faith. The Muhammadan conquest has left 
behind it the ruins of three mosques, erected by the Emperors Babar 


and Aurangzeb, on or near the site, and out of the materials, of three 
celebrated Hindu shrines known as (1) the Janmasthdn, marking 
the place where Rdma was born ; (2) the Swarga-dwara mcuidir, on 
the spot where his body is said to have been burned ; and (3) the 
Tareta-ka-Thakur, famous as the scene of one of his great sacrifices. 
The modern town of Ajodhya (1881) contains 2545 houses, 864 being 
of masonry. Population 11,643, of whom 9499 are Hindus, 2 141 
Muhammadans, and 3 ' others.' There are 96 Hindu temples, of which 
63 are Vishnuvite and 33 Sivaite ; 36 Musalman mosques. Principal 
buildings — Darshan Singh's or Man Singh's temple, erected about 30 
years ago, and the Hanuman Garhi. Little local trade is carried on ; 
but the great fair of Ramnami held here every year is attended by 
about 500,000 people. [For further information, see The Oudh Gazetteer 
(1877). The article Ajodhya was contributed by Mr. P. Carnegy, 
Commissioner of Faizabad.] 

Ajodhya. — A considerable trading village in Bard wan District, 
Bengal. Lat. 23 35' 10" n., long. 87 32' 20" e. Chief imports, 
mustard, iron, ghi, silk, sealing wax, and mustard oil ; exports, husked 

Ajra. — Town in Kolhapur State, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16 8' n., 
long. 74 17' e. The chief is a feudatory of Kolhapur. 

Aka Hills. — Tract of country on the north-east frontier of India, 
occupied by an independent tribe called Aka. It lies north of Darrang 
District, Assam, bounded east by the Daphla Hills, and west by indepen- 
dent Bhutia tribes. The following brief account of this tribe is mainly 
condensed from Colonel E. T. Dalton's Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal 
(Calcutta, 1872). The Akas call themselves Hrusso, and are divided into 
two clans — the Hazari-khoas, or ' eaters of a thousand hearths ;' and the 
Kapas-chors, or ' thieves that lurk in the cotton fields.' These are both 
Assamese nicknames, indicating the terror inspired in former days by 
their raids into the Brahmaputra valley. The Aka country is very 
difficult of access, the direct road from the plains leading along the pre- 
cipitous channel of the Bhoroli river, which divides the Aka from the 
Daphla country. Farther north lies the country of the Migis, a kindred 
clan, with whom the Akas intermarry, but who rarely visit the plains 
except to support the Akas in mischief. Under the native Government 
of Assam, the Hazari-khoas had acquired a right to levy black mail on 
the people of the plains, which they regularly enforced ; and hence pro- 
bably their name. The Kapas-chors exercised the right without having 
obtained a licence ; and one of their chiefs, the Tagi Rdja, mercilessly 
plundered the people till he was captured in 1829, and confined a 
close prisoner in the Gauhati jail. After an imprisonment of four years 
he was released, but his first action on reaching his native hills after 
obtaining his freedom was to put to death all who had been concerned 


in his capture. He afterwards attacked and cut up a British outpost 
stationed at the head of the pass leading into his country. During the 
next seven years, although vigorously pursued, he not only evaded 
capture, but made fresh raids on the plains. At length he and his 
subordinate chiefs surrendered ; and upon their taking a solemn oath 
to respect the peace of the frontier, they were amnestied, and small 
pensions were allotted to them. In 1873, a small piece of land 
in the plains, 49 acres in extent, was granted to the Hazari-khoa 
clan. The Kapds-chor Akas subsequently received a similar grant of 
land of the same extent as the Hazari-khoas, under the orders of 
the Chief Commissioner. In 1875-76, the boundary between the 
Kapas-chors and Darrang District was demarcated by the Deputy- 
Commissioner. This clan, a few years ago, adopted a degraded form 
of Hinduism, together with the worship of the god Hari. But the tribal 
gods are Fiixo, the god of the mountains and streams ; Firan and Siman, 
the gods of war ; and Satu, the god of house and field ; to all of whom 
propitiatory offerings are made at stated seasons, with thanksgiving 
sacrifices on the birth of children. The Aka houses are similar to 
those of the Mirfs, but are more carefully and substantially built, with 
a well smoothed and closely fitting plank floor, raised on piles. All the 
household utensils are of metal. Large copper vases for water are 
obtained from Tibet and Bhutan, and cooking pots and plates of brass 
from Assam, whence they also purchase iron and steel for making arms. 
A few possess muskets, but their chief weapons are the crossbow and 
poisoned arrows, a light spear, and a sword about four feet long. They 
are a brave people, and the men strong and well made. They are dis- 
liked and feared by their eastern neighbours, the Daphlas, with whom 
they have very little communication. Since the foregoing article was 
written, the Akas have again given trouble. Towards the end of 1883 
they showed their old turbulent spirit. The reservation of a tract of 
country in the north of Darrang District as Government forest was 
resented by the tribe, who claimed it as their own land. They made a 
sudden descent upon the plains at Balipara in Darrang, within a few 
miles of Tezpur, the head-quarters of the District, and left behind them 
some imperious demands upon the Deputy Commissioner. They then 
carried off several native forest officers as hostages. Their refusal to 
return their captives led to an expedition being sent against them. 
The expeditionary force, under the command of General Sale Hill, C.B., 
started in December 1883, and returned to Tezpur on the 1st February 
1884. All its objects were satisfactorily accomplished, namely, the 
recovery of the captives, the surrender of all fire-arms, the payment of 
the fine inflicted by the British Government, the complete submission 
of the tribe, and the survey of the country. 

Akalgarh (or Aligarh, as called by Muhammadans). — Town in 


Wazirabad /a/isi/, of Gujranwala District, Punjab. Lat. 32 16' n., 
long. 73 S 2 ' °" E - ^°P- ( l8Sl ) 43 I2 > comprising 2329 Muhamma- 
dans, 1846 Hindus, 136 Sikhs, and 1 'other.' Third-class munici- 
pality; income in 1880-81,^160, derived from octroi; expenditure, 
^148; incidence of municipal taxation, 8^d. per head. First-class 
police station and post-office. The town is of no commercial import- 
ance, and its best claim to note lies in its being the residence of a 
family of Kshattriyas of the Chopra caste, to which belonged the 
celebrated Diwan Sawan Mall and his son Mulraj, Governors of 
Miilfan in the latter days of Sikh rule. 

Akalgarh. — Town in Karmgarh fa/isi/, Patiala State, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 2907; namely, Hindus, 1465; Sikhs, 265; Jains, 
33 ; and Muhammadans, 1144; number of houses, 485. 

Akalkot. — Feudatory State, one of the old Satira Jagirs, or of the 
Deccan Jagirs, according to modern nomenclature, Bombay Presi- 
dency ; lying between lat. 17 17' 45" and 17 44' n., and long. 75 56' 
and 76 28' 30" e. Bounded on the north, east, and south, by the 
Nizam's Dominions, and on the west by the British District of Sholapur. 
Area, 498 square miles; 104 villages. Population in 1881, 58,040, or 
116 persons to the square mile. Gross revenue in 1880-8 r, .£34,343- 
Expenditure, ^34,577. Akalkot forms part of the table-land of the 
Deccan. The country is open, undulating, and remarkably free from 
tracts of waste or forest land, and is intersected by the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway. A few streams cross the State, but they are all 
small; the Bori, the largest, being nearly dry during the greater part of 
the year. The climate is comparatively cool and agreeable, with an 
average rainfall of 30 inches during the six years ending with 1872. 
The registered rainfall in 1881 was 30*41 inches. Fever, rheumatism, 
diarrhoea, and dysentery, are the most prevalent complaints. Within 
the limits of the State there are neither mines nor forests. The chief 
agricultural products are Indian millet (Holcus sorghum), rice, sugar- 
cane, gram, wheat, and linseed. Of the total population, 49,971 are 
Hindus, 7590 Muhammadans, and 479 belong to other religions. A 
survey of this State, completed in 187 1, shows that (exclusive of 
alienated villages) 271,259 acres are cultivable, and 24,313 uncultivable. 
The cultivable State lands have been assessed at an average rate 
of is. 8d. per acre, yielding a total yearly income of .£23,760. The 
chief occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture, supporting 35*14 P er 
cent, of the population. The only other industry of any importance is 
the weaving of cotton cloth, turbans, and women's robes, a calling that 
gives employment to about six hundred families. 

In the beginning of the 18th century, the Akalkot territory, which 
had formerly been part of the Musalman kingdom of Ahmadnagar, was 
subject to the supply of a contingent of horse granted by Sahu, the 


ruler of Satara, to a Maratha officer, the ancestor of the present chief. 
On the British annexation of SataVa in 1849, the Akalkot chief became 
a feudatory of the British Government. In 1868, the contingent of 
horse was disbanded, and a yearly money payment of ^1459 was 
substituted. The family follows the rule of primogeniture, and holds a 
charter (sanad) authorizing adoption.' The State does not maintain 
any military force ; the regular police number 59. In 1866, on account 
of his misrule, the Chief was deposed, and the State placed under 
the management of the British Government until his death in 1870. 
During the minority of the heir, a Maratha by caste (who, at the time 
of his accession, was a child of two years of age), the territory is 
managed by the Collector of Sholapur, who is also styled 'Political 
Superintendent, Akalkot,' and whose office is known as the Sholapur 
Agency. The Chief is a first-class Sardar of the Deccan ; he was 
educated at the Rajaram College at Kolhapur. A portion of the funds 
of the State are yearly set apart for the construction of public works ; 
a dispensary has been established at the town of Akalkot. There are 
19 schools in the State, attended by 619 pupils. 

Akalkot. — Chief town of the State of Akalkot, in political con- 
nection with the Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17 31' 30" n., long. 76 
15' e. ; 250 miles south-east of Bombay. Population (1881) 5836, 
comprising 4096 Hindus, 1668 Muhammadans, and 72 Jains. 

Akar-ali. — Old raised road or dli in Sibsagar District, Assam, 
running from Golaghat to Nigiriting; length, 20 miles ; annual cost of 
maintenance, ^235. 

Akbarbandar. — Trading village and produce depot in Rangpur 
District, Bengal. Chief trade, jute and tobacco. 

Akbarnagar. — Old name of Rajmahal, Bengal. 

Akbarpur. — Tahsil of Cawnpur District, North-Western Provinces. 
Area, 247 square miles, of which 137 are cultivated. Number of 
estates, 290; land revenue, ,£22,750; total revenue, ^24,742; rental 
paid by cultivators, ^38,274; incidence of Government revenue on 
cultivated area, 5s. i-Jd. ; on total area, 2s. iod. per acre. In 1883, 
the tahsil contained 1 civil and 1 criminal court, with 2 thdnds or 
police stations; strength of regular police 32, with 293 chaukiddrs or 
village watchmen. Cost of tahsili administration, ^2345. The tahsil 
is fertile and well cultivated, being watered by the rivers Rind and 
Sengar, and by the Etawah branch of the Ganges Canal, which runs 
throughout the tahsil from north-west to south-east, giving out distribu- 
taries on either side. The principal lines of communication are the East 
Indian Railway, with a station at Riira, and the metalled road to Kalpi. 

Akbarpur. — Head-quarters town of Akbarpur tahsil in Cawnpur 
District, North-Western Provinces, situated on the road to Kalpi, 26 
miles from Cawnpur, and 8 miles from the Riira Station of the East 


Indian Railway. The town was originally known as Guraikhera, but 
its name was altered to its present form in honour of the Emperor 
Akbar. Population (1881) 5131, namely Hindus, 3673 ; and 
Muhammadans, 1458; area of town site, 340 acres. Good bi-weekly 
market, and small annual fair. Tahsili, munsiji, police station, post- 
office, and school. For conservancy and police purposes, a house-tax 
is assessed under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act (xx. of 1856), 
which in 1876-77 yielded ,£iii. 

Akbarpur. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Faizdbad District, Oudh. 
Bounded on the north by Faizabad and Tanda tahsils ; on the east by 
Tanda ; on the south by Sultanpur District ; and on the west by 
Bi'kapur tahsil ; lying between 26 14' 45" and 26 35' N. lat, and 
between 82 15' 45" and 82 46' 15" e. long. Area, 392 square miles, 
of which 205 are cultivated. Population according to the Census 
of 1881, Hindus, 187,701; Muhammadans, 21,993: total, 209,694, 
of whom 107,065 are males, and 102,629 females. Average density 
of population, 535 per square mile. 

Akbarpur (with Shahzadpur). — Chief town in Akbarpur tahsil, 
Faizabad District, Oudh, situated on the Tons river, in lat. 2 6° 25' 
35" n., and long. 82 34' 25" e. Population (1 881) 6610. A Muham- 
madan town, formerly of considerable importance, with old fort, and 
mosque; a fine masonry bridge spanning the Tons, erected by the 
Emperor Akbar, is still in a state of preservation. Railway station, 
tahsil, police station, school, dispensary, rest house. A small muni- 
cipal income for police and conservancy purposes is raised under the 
provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Akbarpur (or Katrd). — Village and thdnd in MuzafTarpur District, 
Bengal. Lat. 26° 12' 45" n., long. 85 41' 6" e. Population (1881) 
2417, namely, 2036 Hindus, and 381 Muhammadans. Contains a 
small bazar and remains of an interesting old fort, said to have been 
built by Raja" Chand. 

Akbarpur-Sinjhauli. — Pargand in Akbarpur tahsil, Faizabad 
District, Oudh. Bounded on the north by Tanda; on the east by 
Birhar; on the south by Surharpur ; and on the west by Majhaura 
pargands. Originally in the hands of the Bhars, by whom it was called 
Sojhawal after a Rawat chief of the same name ; subsequently corrupted 
into Sinjhauli. The fort and town of Akbarpur, built by an officer of 
the Delhi Emperor of that name, afterwards gave its name to the 
pargand, which has been thenceforward entered in the official records 
as Akbarpur-Sinjhauli. The river Tons intersects the pargand, and, 
as mentioned above, is spanned by Akbar's old bridge at Akbarpur. 
Area, 263 square miles, of which 130 are cultivated. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 119,619; Musalmans, 17,539; and 'others,' n : total, 137,169. 
Average density of population, 521 per square mile. 


Akdia. — Petty State in Northern Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. 
Consists of one village, with four independent tribute-payers. Lat. 
2i° 42' n., long. 71 8' e. Estimated revenue, £100. British tribute, 
£13; Junagarh tribute, £2, 10s. 

Akheri. — Ancient town in Mysore. — See Ikkeri. 

Akhnur. — Town and fort in Kashmir State, Punjab. — See Aknur. 

Akkayavalasa. — Estate in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 1 square mile. 

Aklaj. — Town in the Malsiras Sub-division of Sholapur District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17 53' 30" n., long. 75 4' e. Population 
(1881) 1838. 

Akniir. — Town and fort just within Kashmir State, Punjab, situated 
at the foot of the southern Himalayan range, 114 feet above sea level, 
and on the banks of the Chenab, which here becomes navigable. Lat. 
3 2 5' n., long. 74 47' e. The town, which is a great timber mart, 
chiefly consists of ruins, but presents a picturesque appearance from 
without. It has a fine old palace and modern fort, built by Mian Tej 
Singh in the great famine of 1839-40. 

Akohri. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; 1 1 miles south-east from 
Purwa, and 31 from Unao. An ancient town, containing a large 
Kshattriya population. Population (1881) 3718, namely Hindus 
3656, and Musalmans 62. 

Akola. — District of Berar, Haidarabad Assigned Districts, under the 
Resident of Haidarabad, extending from lat. 20 17' to 21 15' n., and 
from long. 76 23' to 77 25' e. Bounded on the north by the Satpura 
Hills ; on the south by the Satmala, or Ajanta range, which separates 
it from Basim and Buldana Districts ; on the east by Ellichpur and 
Amraoti Districts, and on the west by Buldana and Khandesh Districts. 
Area, 2660 square miles. Greatest length north and south, 72 miles; 
greatest breadth east and west, 63 miles. Number of villages on the 
Government rent-roll, n 94; and of revenue sub-divisions 5. Land 
revenue, ,£178,810; total revenue (gross), ,£238,785 (1881). Popula- 
tion, according to the census of 1881, 592,792, or 223 per square 
mile of area. The town of Akola, on the river Morna, is the admini- 
strative head-quarters of the District, and of the Judicial Commis- 
sionership of Berar. The District is sub-divided for fiscal purposes 
into 5 taluks, viz. Akola, Akot, Balapur, Jalgaon, and Khamgaon. 

Physical Aspects. — The District is almost a dead level. The Purna, 
a non-navigable river, forms the main line of drainage, and receives 
seven tributaries in its westward course through the District, which it 
divides into two almost equal parts. Two conical-shaped hills, one in 
the south of the Balapur taluk, the other in the Akola taluk, rise 
abruptly from the plain. The soil is for the most part a rich black 
alluvial mould. Forest reserves, 88 square miles, chiefly plantations of 

A KOLA. 141 

Babul (Mimosa arabica) for supply of fuel and small timber. In the 
coverts bordering the hills, panthers, hyaenas, wolves, black bears, 
and wild hog are found. The increase of cultivation under British 
administration has driven away the tiger, which is now rarely seen. 
Antelope, sdmbhar, bustard, florican, pea-fowl, duck, teal, partridge, 
and quail are met with in plenty, while the rivers abound in fish. 

The District antiquities are few. At Patiir there is a temple cut out 
of the solid rock. Several temples built of dressed stone without 
cement are also found ; the finest of these are at Pinjar and Barsi 
Takli. The Chhatri or pavilion of black stone, supposed to have been 
built by Raja Jai Singh, the Rajput prince, who was one of Aurangzeb's 
best generals, may still be seen at Balapur. There are 19 Dargahs 
(saints' tombs) ; of these the most noteworthy is that of Pir Namad 
Aulia Ambia at Dhariir, who is said to have led the forlorn hope at 
the storming of Narnala, when besieged by the Delhi Emperor. At 
Shahpur, near Balapur, are ruins of the palace built by Prince Murad 
Shah, son of Akbar, who commanded in this Province, and died here 
in 1599 a.d. Of modern Hindu temples there are 169 in all, and 
56 masjids or mosques of varying antiquity. The salt wells are the 
most curious mineral speciality of this District. They are sunk into 
what is supposed to be 'a kind of subterranean lake or reservoir 
of water,' extending more than fifty miles in length, and about ten 
in breadth, on both sides of the Purna river, from the village of 
Paturda on the west, into Amraoti District on the east, the principal 
wells being close to Dahihanda ; the water in this underground lake is 
supposed to be very deep, but it has never been properly fathomed. 
The diameter of the shafts is 3 or 4 feet, and their inner surface is 
lined with basket-work; at 90 to 120 feet, a thick and strong band of 
gritstone is met with, through which, when pierced, water rushes vio- 
lently up 15 or 20 feet. The salt is produced by natural evaporation 
of the water, which is drawn up and exposed in salt-pans ; it contains 
deliquescent salts, which give it a bitter taste, and spoil it for exporta- 
tion. The supply of salt from these wells is inexhaustible, but the 
wells are no longer allowed to be worked. 

History. — Local tradition preserves the memory of independent 
Rajas who governed from Ellichpur, and asserts that the princes pre- 
ceding the Muhammadans were Jains. The tract now forming Akola 
District, was presumably included in the territory acquired by Ala-ud- 
din in 1294, in his first expedition to the Deccan. At his death, the 
Hindus reasserted their independence, but were crushed, and their last 
Raja of Deogarh was flayed alive in 131 9, from which date Berar 
became permanently subject to Muhammadan rule. The Bahmani 
dynasty, with the Imad Shahi rulers, and the Ahmadnagar princes, 
held sway in succession until 1594-96, when the Emperor Akbar 

142 AKOLA. 

annexed Berar, and formed it into an imperial Province. His son, 
Prince Murad Mirza, built a palace for himself in Akola District in 
1596 ; and the District was included in Sarkar Narnala. On the death 
of Akbar, Malik Ambar, an Abyssinian, recovered part of Berar, and in 
1612 fixed a standard rent-roll, the memory of which still survives. 
But his influence was short-lived; and from 1596, Akola practically 
remained a province of the Mughal empire. Its revenue system, as 
organized by Todar Mall, was introduced about 1637-38, from which 
year the Fasli era runs in this District. In 167 1, the Maratha, Pratap 
Rao, Sivaji's general, plundered as far east as Karanja (in Amraoti 
District), and exacted a pledge from the village officers to pay chauth. 
In 1717, the Marathas obtained formal grants from the Ministers of 
the Emperor Farrukhsiyyar. But in 1724, Chinkhilich Khan, Viceroy 
of the Deccan, under the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, obtained a decisive 
victory over Farrukhsiyyar's party. Since this date, Berar has been 
reckoned a dependency of the Nizamat at Haidarabad (Hyderabad). 
But throughout the 18th century, a long struggle went on between the 
Nizam and the Marathas, for the revenues of the Province. By the 
battle of Argaum, a village 36 miles north of Akola, General Wellesley 
broke the Maratha power under Raghuji Bhonsla; and the District, as a 
section of Berar, was in part formally made over to the Nizam in 1804, 
the remainder being transferred at the conclusion of the Pindari war. 
The exactions of the Nizam's revenue officers led to frequent out- 
breaks. In 1 84 1, Mogat Rao planted the flag of the Maratha Bhonslas 
on the walls of Jamod, in the north of Akola District. More^serious 
disturbances took place in 1849 under Apa Sahib, and were only put 
down by British troops. Akola was one of the Districts assigned by 
the Nizam to the British, for the maintenance of the Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) contingent, under the treaties of 1853 and 1861. 

Population. — The District population, as ascertained by the Census 
of 1867, was 460,615. A later return (1876-77), based, however, only 
on estimates, shows a population of 523,913 on an area of 2660 square 
miles, being 196 per square mile. No Census of the District was taken 
in 1872. The Census of 1881 gave the total population at 592,792, 
or 222*8 persons per square mile. Adult males numbered 204,524; 
adult females, 183,392 ; male children under twelve, 103,522 ; female 
children under twelve, 101,354. Total males, 308,046; total females, 
284,746; grand total, 592,792. Classified according to religion, the 
Hindus numbered 539,068; Muhammadans, 49,337; aborigines, 59; 
Jains, 3736; Sikhs, 93; Europeans, 74; Eurasians, 165; native Chris- 
tians, 149; Parsis, 108; and Jews, 3. The Census Report returned 
the aboriginal tribes at only 59, according to religious classification ; 
according to race, they number 7160. The great majority have now 
abandoned their primitive faiths and adopted some form of Hinduism, 

A KOLA. I43 

while some have been converted to Christianity. The distribution 
of the Hindus by caste showed 18,632 Brahmans ; 10,922 Rajputs; 
207,253 Kunbis; 53,421 Malis ; 66,781 Mahars; and 178,694 other 
Hindu castes. Most of the Hindus are of low class, and some, as 
the Pasis, lead a wandering life. The Kunbis (Hindu cultivators) 
worship and pay vows at Muhammadan shrines, whose custodians 
(Mujdwari) officiate at ceremonies forbidden by the Koran. Among 
the Muhammadans there were 141 1 Sayads ; 560 Mughals; 9749 
Pathans; 32,413 Sheikhs; and 5204 others. The Musalmans con- 
sult the Hindu Joshi, a priest astrologer, for auspicious days. The 
Manbhavs, a Hindu sect bound to, but not rigidly observing celibacy, 
number 812 in Akola District. A new sect, acknowledging no tie but 
that of absolute dependence on and service to the sacred tulsi plant 
(Ocymum sanctum), sprang up in 1860-70. No castes are excluded, 
and a Brahman belonging to it must offer obeisance to the Mdl or 
necklace of Tiilsi root beads, worn by an outcast Dher. The paiwdri- 
sliip of Mauza Agar, in the Akola taluk, is held by a Muhammadan 
convert family, a most exceptional case in Berar. The distribution 
of the population of the District by occupation showed that there 
were 9448 males, and 368 females, total 9816, belonging to the 
'professional class'; 3454 males, and 240 females, total 3694, to the 
'domestic'; 7687 males, and 77 females, total 7764, to the 'com- 
mercial'; 153,799 males, and 88,882 females, total 242,681, to the 
'agricultural'; 31,811 males, and 25,211 females, total 57,022, to the 
'industrial'; and 101,847 males, and 169,968 females, total 271,815, 
to the 'indefinite and non-productive' classes. The principal towns 
are Akola, population 16,614; Akot, 16,137; Khamgaon, 12,390; 
Balapur, 11,244; Jalgaon, 10,392; Shegaon, 11,079; Patur, 7219; 
Hiwarkhed, 7300; Wadegaon, 6096 ; Barsi Takli, 5377; Jamod, 
5258; Sonala, 5130; Argaum (Argaon), 4625; and Pinjar, 331 i. 
The Holi, Dasahara, and Pola are the principal festivals, the latter in 
honour of the plough cattle of the village. The languages generally 
spoken by the people of the District are Marathi and Urdu. 

Agriculture. — The principal kharif or autumn crops of the District 
are cotton, great millet {jodr), bdjra, pulses, and til ; and the most 
valuable rabi or spring crops are wheat, gram, linseed, peas, mustard, and 
tobacco. Market garden crops, generally irrigated, include sugar-cane, 
onions, pan, sweet potatoes, plantains, grapes (at Jumbod only), etc. 
The principal natural products are dyes and gums. Some jute is grown 
near Balapur. Such rotation of crops as experience has shown to be 
necessary is practised. The average produce of land per acre is for 
cotton, 58 lbs.; wheat, 282 lbs.; oilseeds, 196 lbs. ; jodr, 186 lbs.; 
tobacco, 304 lbs. ; rice, 64 lbs. ; and gram, 260 lbs. Grass is cut and 
stacked at the end of the rains. The strong-rooted grass called kuini, 

144 AKOLA. 

offers, in deep soils especially, great obstruction to ploughing ; but the 
best black soil, if it has been properly cleared of this grass, does not 
require ploughing more than once in fifteen or twenty years, and is 
merely scarified with a steel-edged implement called wakhar. The 
farmers consider frequent ploughing exhausting. Banni cotton (the 
best and earliest variety) is gathered in November, and jari in 
December ; if well cared for, each kind should yield three pickings. 
The current prices in sers of 2 lbs. ruling in the District in 1880-81, 
per rupee (2s.), were for clean cotton, 2 J sers ; wheat, 22 sers ; gram, 
32 sers ; rice, 10J sers ; jodr, 36 J sers ; oil-seed, 12J sers ; and tobacco, 
3 \ sers. Horses, inferior, and few in number ; ponies, more numerous, 
and better of their kind. Oxen, which are ridden as well as driven, 
are noted for their beauty, strength, activity, and endurance. The 
agricultural stock of the District in 1880-81 was, 245,376 cows and 
bullocks, 62,328 buffaloes, 5725 horses and ponies, 5258 donkeys, 
72,946 sheep and goats, 150 camels, 22,674 carts, and 15,577 ploughs. 
The total area professionally surveyed (1881) showed 1,464,960 
acres under cultivation, 30,720 acress cultivable, and 206,720 acres 
uncultivable waste, including 52,029 acres of grazing land. The most 
important crops in 1880-81 were — cotton (two kinds), 342,498 acres; 
jodr (the staple food of the people), 535,453; linseed, 83,596; wheat, 
134,415; b&jra, 51,689; gram, 79,690; ^,5864; lac, 53,864 ; tobacco, 
1814; urd, 1756; hemp or flax, 917; rice, 758; tur, 16,775; kurdi, 
1729; sugar-cane, 538; other products, 22,717 acres. The average 
rate per acre, in 1880-81 of land suited for cotton was 2s. 8d. ; wheat, 
3s. 1 Jd. ; oil-seed, 3s. ; jodr, 2s. 8d. ; tobacco, 5s. ijd. ; rice, 3s. 7|d. ; 
gram, 3s. 4^d. 

Land Tenures. — When Akola was assigned to the British, the only 
recognised title to land was actual possession by the cultivator, with 
payment of revenue. Certain rights and prescriptive privileges were 
allowed to long-settled occupants ; but, as a rule, all ancient proprietary 
rights had been extinguished by the tdlukddrs and revenue farmers. 
The British Government has now given stability to the tenure of land 
by instituting leases for thirty years, under which the occupant is, 
subject to specified restriction, acknowledged as a heritable proprietor. 
The wage of a harvest labourer, when he is not paid in kind, is 4J& to 
6d. a day. 

Natural Calamities. — Owing to the scarcity of water, the District 
suffers greatly in years of extreme drought. In 1862, a year of famine, 
the loss of cattle was very great. Severe visitations of cholera are 

Manufactures and Trade. — Coarse cotton cloth is woven in nearly 
every village; and at Akot and Balapur, good cotton carpets and 
turbans are manufactured. Weekly markets are held in every con- 

A KOLA. I45 

siderable village and town, and petty traders visit the most frequented 
of these with foreign groceries and cheap manufactures. Three 
principal fairs — at Patur Shaikh Babu, in February, lasting twenty 
days ; at Sondla, in November, five days ; and at Akot, in November, 
twelve days — attract large numbers of traders from long distances. 

Chief imports, sugar, salt, hardware, piece goods, wheat, oil, opium, 
cocoa-nuts, and rice j principal exports, cotton, wheat, linseed, gM t 
indigo (a little), saffron, and cattle. The trade products of the District, 
before the construction of the railway, were conveyed by a class of 
carriers, called aanjdras, or owners of pack-bullocks ; but the railway 
and new roads have impoverished these people to such an extent that 
they are now labourers, not carriers as of old. Khamgaon, now the 
largest cotton mart in Berar, is connected with the Great Indian 
Peninsula main line of railway, by a branch nearly 8 miles long ; 
its trade is over ^4,000,000 sterling a year. Other cotton marts have 
risen in importance, specially Shegaon, distant 1 1 miles east, on the 
main line, which is more conveniently situated for cotton from the 
north of the District, and is a formidable rival to Khamgaon, having a 
trade of about ^2,543,000; Akot, of about ^377,000; and Akola, 
of about £i t 000,000. 

Roads and Railways. — There are 261 miles of made road in the Dis- 
trict, and 65 miles of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, having seven 
stations, pass through it. One of the stations, Jalum, forms the junction 
for Khamgaon, to which place there is a State line, 7J miles in length. 

Admi?iistration. — The District is administered by a Deputy-Com- 
missioner, with whom are associated 5 Assistant or extra-Assistant- 
Commissioners, 5 Tahsildars, and 4 Honorary Magistrates ; a Civil Sur- 
geon, a Superintendent of Police, and an Executive District Engineer. 
In 1880-81 the total revenue of the District was ^238,785, of which 
,£178,810 was derived from land. The total cost of officials and 
police of all kinds for the same year was put down at ^9483. Sanc- 
tioned strength of police, 92 officers and 470 men. One central jail at 
Akola; daily average of prisoners in 1880, 595; cost per head, £6, 6s.; 
death-rate, 3*96 per cent. Crimes attended with violence have much 
decreased under British rule. Muhammadan convicts form more than 
one-fifth of the jail population, while their proportion to the Hindu 
District population is about one to eleven. Number of Government 
and aided schools, in 1881, was 254, with 9629 scholars. At Akola 
there is a college for training teachers. Branches of the Berar Govern- 
ment Central Book Depot supply the District with English, Manithi, 
Sanskrit, Persian, and Urdu works ; two newspapers, the Berar Samd- 
chdr and the Urdu Akhbdr, are also published. Akola (population 
16,608), Khamgaon (population 12,390), and Shegaon (population 
11,079), ar e municipalities. 

vol. 1. K 

146 A KOLA. 

Meteorological Aspects, etc. — The hot season begins in March, and lasts 
for about three and a half months, during which sunstrokes followed by- 
cholera often occur. The rains commence about the middle of June, 
and last until the end of August. September and October are usually 
hot and moist. The coldest season is from November to February; 
frost is very rare. It is said that the great extension of cultivation 
since British rule, has decreased the water in the wells. Average 
temperature at Akola town in the shade in May, 114 F. ; in December, 
45 . Average annual rainfall at Akola, about twenty-four inches. 
Principal diseases: Cholera, which is endemic; fevers; and bowel com- 
plaints. In 1880, seven Government dispensaries afforded relief to 
46,515 patients, of whom 548 were in-door. The number of births 
registered in 1880 was 23,792; deaths, 12,567. Death-rate, 26*2 per 
1000. Average death-rate 48*2, and births 49*5 per 1000 of the popu- 
lation ; deaths by snakes or wild beasts in 1880-81, 34. Number of 
vaccine operations in the same year, 17,541; the Muhammadans are 
less ready than Hindus to have their children vaccinated. [For further 
information, see The Berdr Gazetteer, by Sir Alfred C. Lyall, 1870; 
Provincial Administration Reports, 1880-81 and 1881-82; Census 
Report, 1 881; Departmental Reports, 1880-81 and 1881-82. The 
article on Akola District in the Berdr Gazetteer was written by 
Mr. J. H. Burns.] 

Akola. — Taluk of Akola District, Berar. Area 739 square miles ; 
285 towns and villages; number of occupied houses, 23,632. Popu- 
lation (1881) 139,421, comprising 72,560 males and 66,861 females, or 
1 88 '66 persons per square mile. Area occupied by cultivators, 398,135 
acres. Total agricultural population, 88,394. The total revenue of 
Akola Taluk is ,£55,095 ; land revenue, £44,829. The number of 
civil courts, 5 ; of criminal courts, 7 ; of police stations, 6 ; of regular 
policemen, 215 ; and of village watchmen, 2 to. 

Akola. — Town and head-quarters of the District of the same name, 
in the West Berar Division. Lat. 20 42' 15" n., long. 77 2 e. On 
the Nagpur extension of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway; 383 
miles from Bombay, and 157 from Nagpur. Height above sea level, 
930 feet. Population (1881), males, 8828; females, 7780 ; total, 16,608, 
namely, 11,219 Hindus, 5028 Muhammadans, 199 Christians, 104 
Jains, 43 Parsis, and 15 Sikhs. Akola was long the head-quarters of a 
sub-district under the Nizam's Government, its old brick fort and stone- 
faced walls with bastions still testifying to its importance. It formed 
the scene of a battle (date uncertain) between the Nizam's troops and 
the Marathas. Pindari Ghazi Khan was defeated in 1790 below its 
walls, by the Bhonsla general ; and General Wellesley encamped in^ it 
for a day in 1803. During the later years of the Nizam's rule, it declined, 
owing to the malpractices of the native officer in charge, who robbed 


and did not keep off other robbers ; and many of the inhabitants 
emigrated to Amraoti. Under the British Government, it has increased 
in trade and population, and is now the head-quarters of the Judicial 
Commissioner of Berar. The town is bisected by the Morna" river, 
Akola Proper being on the west bank, and Tajnapet, with the European 
houses and Government buildings, on the east. There are two market 
days, the principal one being held at Tajndpet on Sundays, and the 
other at Akola on Wednesdays. A cotton market was established 
about 1868 in Tajnapet, with presses, and the trade developed rapidly. 
Public buildings : Commissioner's and Deputy-Commissioner's offices ; 
courts ; jail ; barracks ; a town hall ; a church ; post-office ; hospital ; 
charitable dispensary ; rest - houses for both European and native 
travellers ; schools. Population within municipal limits (1881), 16,614 ; 
municipal income, ^979, or is. 2d. per head. Akola is the seat of a 
Christian mission. 

Akola. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area 588 square miles, containing 156 villages. Population (1881) 
60,800, of whom 30,933 were returned as males, and 29,867 as females. 
Hindus numbered 58,892, Muhammadans 1221, others 687. 

Akona. — Village in Bahraich District, Oudh. See Ikauna. 

Akora. — Small town in Peshawar District, Punjab, situated half a 
mile from the right bank of the Kabul river, 1 1 miles from Attock and 
34 miles from Peshawar. It is built of white stone, with mud cement, 
and contains a stone square or stockade, the walls of which are closely 
pierced with loopholes. Good bazar and camping-ground, with abund- 
ance of grass and forage for cattle. The chief village of the northern 
Khattak tribe. 

Akot. — Taluk of Akola District, Berar. Area 518 square miles. 
221 towns and villages; number of occupied houses, 23,432. Popula- 
tion (1881) 144,253, comprising 74,755 males and 69,498 females, or 
278-5 persons per square mile. Area occupied by cultivators, 312,119 
acres. The following are the principal towns of the taluk, which do a 
large trade in cotton and grain : Argaon (population 4625), Tilwah 
(population 3826), and Hiwarkhed (population 7300). The total 
revenue of Akot taluk is ,£59,399 ; land revenue, £50,646. The 
number of civil courts is 1 ; of criminal courts, 4 ; of police stations, 5 ; 
of regular policemen, 68; and of village watchmen, 281. 

Akot. — Town and head-quarters of taluk of same name, Akola 
District, Berar ; about 30 miles north of Akola town. Lat. 21 5' 45" N., 
long. 77 6' e. Population (1881) 16,137, comprising 8278 males 
and 7859 females. Of the total population Hindus numbered 12,404 ; 
Muhammadans, 3602; Jains, 105; Christians, 17; Parsis, 7; and 
Sikhs, 2. Interspersed with garden land and mango groves, every 
house having its own well. Several good examples of building in 


carved stone. Akot is one of the chief cotton marts of Berar, attended 
by both European and native merchants, and has a trade of about 
,£377,000. The cotton is despatched to Shegaon, on the Great 
Indian Peninsula (Nagpur Extension) Railway. Good carpet manu- 
factures, the best sorts, however, being only made to order. Two 
weekly bazars are held here, one on Wednesday and the other on 
Saturday. Public buildings — Tahsil and civil court offices; schools; 
travellers' bungalow ; and charitable dispensary. 

Akouk-taung. — Hill forming the eastern extremity of a spur of 
the Arakan Yoma Mountains, Henzada District, British Burma. Lat. 
1 8° 29' 45" n., long. 95 io' 45" e. Overhangs the river Irawadi, 
which a little lower enters the delta, and spreads out into creeks and 
bifurcations. The scarped cliff (300 feet high) is honeycombed with 
excavated caves, containing images of Buddha. The scene of two or 
three minor engagements during the second Burmese war. 

Akrani. — Pargand in Taloda Sub -division, Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency. An irregular table-land on the Satpuras, about 
60 miles long and from 15 to 30 broad. Bounded on the north by 
the Narbada river, on the east by the Barwani State and Turan Mall 
hill, on the south by the old petty division of Sultanpur and the 
Mehvas States of Bhudaval and Nal, and on the west by the Mehvas 
State of Kathi. Land revenue £6 10. Of its 172 villages, 155 are 
inhabited, and 17 are deserted. The whole surface is mountainous, 
the height varying from 1600 to 2500 feet above the plain, and covered 
with thick brushwood, furnishing many valuable drugs and dyes. 
Between the hills are rich valleys watered by unfailing streams. Turan 
Mall hill overlooks the pargand from the east. The hills are believed 
to contain veins of silver, copper, and iron. The heat of the plateau 
is at all times moderate ; during the winter months the cold is severe, 
ice forming in wells and streams. During the monsoon the fall of rain 
is excessive. The inhabitants are Bhils, belonging to the two tribes 
of Verb's and Pavras. Five passes lead from Khandesh into Akrani ; 
the one most used is the Nanagaon Pass ; the others, the Dodhdbuva, 
the Chandseli, the Surpan, and the Kuraipani, are much more 
difficult. The export of grain from Akrani is considerable, the exports 
being estimated at about ^1400. The chief owns two villages, and 
draws a yearly pension of ^286, 16s., and has the title of Rand. 
The family ranks high, and has intermarried with the Gaikwars of 
Baroda and the Rana of Chhota Udaipur. The total revenue in good 
seasons is about ^1500. 

Akyab. — District in Arakan Division, British Burma, lying between 
20 and 21 24' n. lat., and between 92 14' and 94 e. long.; area 
5535 square miles; population (1881) 359,706 souls. Of the total 
area 662 square miles are returned (1 881) as cultivated, 968 as culti- 

AKYAB. 149 

vable waste, and 3905 as uncultivable. Bounded on the north by 
the Chittagong Hill Tracts ; on the south by numerous straits and inlets 
of the sea ; on the east by the Arakan Yoma mountains, separating it 
from Independent Burma; and on the west by the Bay of Bengal. The 
administrative head-quarters are at Akyab town, on the Kuladan river. 
Physical Aspects. — Akyab consists of the level tract lying between 
the sea and the Arakan Yoma mountains, and of the broken country 
formed by a portion of their western spurs and valleys. Through these 
hills flow the three principal rivers of the District, — viz. the Mayu, 
Kuladan (Koladyne), and Lemru, — at first mountain torrents, but 
spreading out on the plains into a network of channels, and forming a 
delta as they merge into the sea by interlacing tidal creeks. The Mayu 
rises in the mountains forming the north-western boundary of the 
District, and, after following a south-south-east course, reaches the sea a 
few miles north-west of Akyab. The Kuladan, the most important 
river of Akyab, enters the District at the village from which it takes its 
name, and marks the boundary for a distance of about 16 miles; it 
rises in the main range in the neighbourhood of the Blue Mountain 
(5676 feet), and falls into the sea at Akyab town. Its mouth forms a 
spacious harbour, but the entrance is rendered difficult by a bar. In 
the rainy reason, it is navigable by vessels of 400 tons burden for 70 
miles above Akyab, and by boats of 40 tons for 50 miles higher. The 
Lemru enters the District in its eastern portion, about 1 2 miles east of 
the village of Mahamuni, and also rises in the main range far in the 
north, and falls into the sea in Hunter's Bay. The Arakan Yoma 
range, in long. 94 , forms the eastern boundary of Akyab, and its spurs 
cover the whole portion of the District east of the Lemru. A pass 
leading across this range, connects the District with Upper Burma. In 
the west, between the Naaf and the Mayu rivers, and terminating near 
the mouth of the latter, is the steep Mayu range, the southern part of 
which runs parallel with, and not far from, the coast. This range is 
traversed by several passes, which are only practicable for foot passengers. 
Through one of these, the Aleh-khaung, the Burmese force retreated 
before General Morrison, during the first Burmese war (1824-25). 
Between the Mayu and Kuladan rivers, in the north-western portion of 
the District, the country is hilly, and broken by numerous intervening 
spurs and valleys, running parallel to the Mayu range. The forests 
form a most important feature of Akyab District, and contain a 
valuable supply of timber of many kinds. The low ground near the 
sea is covered with forests of mangrove ; farther inland the principal 
trees are the sit (Albizzia procera), the pyin-ma (Lagerstrremia reginse), 
the kabaung (Strychnos nux vomica), the ka-nyin (Dipterocarpus alata) 
and the lekpan (Bombax malabaricum). But the most valuable timber 
is found on the lower ranges. On these, the tree most frequently met 

150 AKYAB, 

with is the pyin-kado (Xylia dolabriformis), of which some has, at 
various times, been exported for railway sleepers. The wood is used 
for bridges, boats, house-posts, etc, and is much esteemed. Teak 
plantations have of late years been made in the upper parts of the tract 
drained by the Kuladan and Lemru rivers. Numerous other valuable 
timber trees are found, among which may be mentioned the thit-pauk 
(Dalbergia sp.) and thtngan (Hopea odorata), used for boat-building. 
Bamboo abounds everywhere. 

History. — Akyab was the metropolitan Province of the native 
kingdom of Arakan, and the history of that country centres in it. The 
following sketch will therefore recapitulate the leading facts, which 
have been collected from the Burmese annals, for the whole of Arakan. 
The earliest traditions, obscure and for the most part incredible, 
endeavour to magnify the connection between Arakan and India, the 
cradle of the Buddhist faith. Long before the birth of Gautama 
Buddha, the Burmese chroniclers state that an Arakanese kingdom, 
with its capital at Ramawadi, near the modern Sandoway, paid tribute 
to the king of Baranasi (Benares). Ages later, Sekkyawadi, who was 
in a future life to be born as Gautama Buddha, reigned in Benares, and 
allotted to his fourth son, Kanmyin, ' all the countries inhabited by the 
Burman, Shan, and Malay races, from Manipur to the borders of China.' 
Kanmyin peopled his dominions with a multitude of non-Aryan tribes 
from the north-east, and settled the progenitors of the present Arakanese 
upon a strip of land between the Yoma Mountains and the sea, which 
they still inhabit. The only value of these traditions is, that they point 
to a connection with India, and to Aryan influences, prior to the intro- 
duction of Buddhism. But it should be remembered that they were 
compiled in a Buddhistic age ; and their historical accuracy may be 
judged of from the circumstance, that the number of years during 
which Kanmyin's dynasty reigned, is represented in the Palm-Leaf 
Records by a unit followed by 140 cyphers. 

The Muhammadans make their appearance in Arakan about 800 
a.d. ; several of their ships having been wrecked on Ramri island, not 
far south of Akyab ; and their crews settled in the adjoining villages. 
The Arakanese capital still continued at Ramawadi, near the modern 
Sandoway. In the 9th century, the King of Arakan made an expedition 
into Bengal, and set up a pillar at Chittagong, which, according to the 
Burmese tradition, takes its name (Sit-ta-gaung) from a remark of the 
conqueror, that 'to make war was improper.' Towards the end of the 
10th century, the King of Prome, in the Irawadi valley, pressed hard 
upon southern Arakan ; and the capital was removed northwards to 
Mrohaung (' Old Arakan '), in Akyab District, where it continued 
(with intervals), until the head-quarters of the Province were finally 
changed to Akyab town, by the British, in 1826. The next five 

AKYAB. I5 , 

centuries are filled with annals of invasions from the south and east, by 
the Burmese, Shans, Takings, Pyiis, and other tribes from beyond the 
Yoma ranges, which separate Arakan from the Irawadi valley, and 
with internal revolutions or dynastic struggles among the Arakanese 
themselves. A Burmese inscription at Buddh-Gayd, in BehaV, describes 
a king of Arakan in the 12th century, as 'Lord of a hundred thousand 
Pyus,' or inhabitants of the Pagan kingdom in the Irawadi valley, to 
which kingdom Arakan seems then to have been subject. Between 
1 133 and 1 153 a.d., reigned Gaw-laya, 'to whom the kings of Bengal, 
Pegu, Pagan, and Siam did homage,' and who built the temple of 
Mahati, in Akyab District, a few miles south of the capital, 'Old 
Arakan.' This temple, second only to that of Mahdmuni, was occupied 
as a fort by the Burmese troops in 1825, and unfortunately destroyed 
by our troops in driving them out. The oldest Arakanese coins, bear- 
ing the emblems of royalty, belong to the 12th century. In the 13th 
century the Arakanese began to push northwards into south-eastern 
Bengal, and twice received tribute or presents (arc. 1237 and 1294 
a.d.) from the Bengali kings at Sonargaon, in Dacca District. A 
dynastic struggle in Arakan led to the King of Ava being called in as 
an ally in 1404, and the kingdom remained subject to him till 1430, 
when its independence was established, and Mrohaung ('Old Arakan') 
was again fixed on as the capital. During the remainder of the 15th 
century, Arakan enjoyed comparative rest; but the 16th century brought 
fresh attacks by the Burmese from the interior, and by the Portuguese 
from the seaboard. In 1531, the capital, 'Old Arakan,' was fortified 
against the latter adventurers, by a stone wall 18 feet high; and in 
157 1, it was further strengthened by lakes excavated around it, traversed 
only by narrow causeways. Between 1560 and 1570, the Arakanese 
conquered Chittagong, and the King's son was appointed governor. 
This connection with the northward, led the Arakanese King to realize 
the power of the encroaching Mughal Empire. He accordingly 
encouraged the Portuguese corsairs and outlaws from Goa to make 
shore settlements on the coast of Arakan, provided them with wives 
and lands, and gave over Chittagong to them as a pirate harbour. 
These river bandits formed a good defence against the Mughal galleys ; 
but they also proved troublesome to their Arakanese patrons. About 
1605, the nest of sea-robbers at Chittagong threw off their nominal 
allegiance to the Arakan King; and in 1609, the latter resumed their 
grants of land, and drove them out of that harbour. They took refuge 
in the island of Sandwip, at the mouth of the Ganges, where they first 
put every Muhammadan to death, and whence they next despatched 
an unsuccessful expedition against Arakan. Their leader, Sebastian 
Gonzales, a low Portuguese, had been successively a common soldier, 
a dealer in salt, and a pirate. One of the rival kings of Arakan, being 

152 AKYAB. 

driven by a dynastic revolution to seek refuge at Sandwip, was first 
received with ostentatious hospitality, then forced to give his sister in 
marriage to the Portuguese ruffian, and died suddenly, not without 
suspicion of poison. Gonzales joined with the new Arakan King 
against the Mughals, then destroyed the Arakan fleet, and entered 
into treaty, as an independent prince, with the Portuguese Viceroy at 
Goa, to invade Arakan. The admiral and the pirate chief were sepa- 
rately defeated ; the former fell in action, the latter was deserted by 
his followers, and perished miserably. The King of Arakan took 
possession of Sandwip, whence he annually plundered the Bengal 
Delta, carrying off the people as slaves to Arakan. In 1661, Shah 
Shujd, the Mughal Viceroy of Bengal, and son of the Emperor Shah 
Jahan, being defeated by his brother, Aurangzeb, sought refuge in 
Arakan, and was received with great pomp. But the Arakan King 
soon afterwards demanded his guest's daughter in marriage ; and, on 
being haughtily refused, he seized and drowned the Muhammadan 
prince, and killed all his sons. The princess whom he had sought in 
marriage, stabbed herself rather than submit to the embraces of an 
infidel barbarian ; two of her sisters took poison, and the third, forced 
to wed the Arakan King, either died of grief, or was brutally murdered 
when about to become a mother. Not one of Shah Shuja's family 
survived ; and his father, the aged Emperor Shah Jahan, bitterly 
exclaimed, ' Could not the cursed infidel have left one son alive to 
avenge the wrongs of his grandfather ! ' 

This marks the climax of Arakanese power and insolence. Aurangzeb, 
although glad to be rid of a rival brother, determined to show that 
no member of the imperial family might be thus treated with im- 
punity. Shaista Khan, his Viceroy in Bengal (1 664-1 675), first joined 
with the Portuguese to inflict a crushing punishment on the Arakan 
King ; then seized Chittagong, and treated his Portuguese allies as pirates 
and traitors. During the next century dynastic struggles wasted Arakan, 
and exposed it to every sort of foreign and domestic calamity. In 1784, 
the Burmese gave the final blow to the ancient kingdom of Arakan. 
The Burmese armies broke into the country in three separate bodies, 
each under command of a royal prince, and annexed the whole Pro- 
vince. The Arakanese fled in great numbers, from the barbarities of 
the conquerors, into British territory, and settled in Chittagong, and 
on the estuary and islands of the Ganges. Others revolted, but their 
risings were cruelly suppressed ; and the survivors again found shelter 
within the British frontier. The Burmese monarch, having in vain 
demanded the surrender of the refugees, attacked the East India 
Company's elephant -hunters, sent retaliatory expeditions into our 
Districts, insolently seized the British island of Shahpuri, between 
Akyab and Bengal, and drove out our detachment in charge of it. 

AKYAB. 153 

After much forbearance and remonstrance, Lord Amherst declared 
war against the Burmese on the 24th Feb. 1824. The following 
account of our operations in Akyab District is condensed from Cap- 
tain Spearman's narrative in the British Burma Gazetteer: — 'A force 
under General Morrison moved on Arakan, and another, under Sir 
Archibald Campbell, operated by way of the valley of the Irawadi. 
On the 2nd February 1825, the first detachment of British troops 
crossed the Naaf from Chittagong ; and, after a tedious but un- 
opposed march, arrived in front of Arakan town on the 28th of 
the same month, supported by a flotilla under Commodore Hayes, 
which, not without resistance on the part of the Burmese, had pro- 
ceeded up the Kuladan and through the creeks. " Old Arakan " 
was found to be strongly fortified, the Burmese commander having 
added to the ancient entrenchments, and erected a line of stockades 
along the hills. The single pass through the hills to the town, was at 
the northern extremity of the line of defence, and this was protected 
by several guns and four thousand muskets; the total garrison was 9000 
men. The ground in front was clear and open, and the only cover was 
a belt of jungle which ran along the base of the hills, while beyond this 
again the ground was fully exposed to the enemy's fire. On the morning 
of the 29th March, the storming party, under Brigadier-General M'Bean, 
advanced to attack the pass. It consisted of the light company of the 
54th Regiment, four companies of the 2nd Regiment L.I., the light 
companies of the 10th and 16th M.N. I., and the rifle company of the 
Magh Levy, and was supported by six companies of the 16th Regiment 
M.N.I. Under the well-directed and steady fire of the Burmese, and 
the avalanche of stones which they poured down upon the heads of the 
troops, the British were repulsed ; and at last, when Captain French, 
of the 1 6th Regiment M.N. I., had been killed, and all the remaining 
officers wounded, the storming party retreated. The plan of attack was 
then changed, and it was determined to attempt to turn the right flank 
of the Burmese, whilst their attention was occupied by an attack on their 
front. On the 30th March, a battery was erected to play upon the 
works commanding the pass, and on the 31st it opened fire. At about 
eight in the evening, a force under Brigadier Richards left the camp ; 
it consisted of six companies of the 44th Regiment, three of the 26th, 
and three of the 49th Native Infantry, thirty seamen under Lieutenant 
Armstrong of the Research, and thirty dismounted troopers of Gardener's 
Horse. The hill was nearly five hundred feet high, and the ascent 
steep and winding. All remained quiet till shortly after eleven, when 
a shot from the hill showed that the enemy had discovered the approach 
of Brigadier Richards' party. This single shot was followed by a short 
but sharp fire, when the Burmese turned, and the hill was in the posses- 
sion of the British. The next day a six-pounder was dragged up the 

154 AKYAB. 

hill, and fire was opened on the heights commanding the pass ; while 
at the same time, Brigadier Richards moved against it from the position 
which he had taken the night before, and Brigadier M'Bean along his 
original line of advance. The Burmese, after a feeble defence, abandoned 
the works and the town. The capture of Arakan town ended the war 
as far as the Arakan Province was concerned. The Burmese troops at 
once abandoned Ramri and Sandoway, and retreated across the moun- 
tains into Pegu; and the steady advance of Sir Archibald Campbell 
up the valley of the Irawadi, driving the Burmese forces before 
him, prevented any attempt on their part to disturb our possession. 
This advance ended at Yandabii, where a treaty was signed on the 
24th February 1826, by which Arakan and Tenasserim became British 

On the withdrawal of the main body of the British army from 
Burma, one regiment was left in Akyab, and a local Arakan battalion 
was raised. Next year (1827), and again in 1836, unsuccessful efforts 
were made to tamper with the local irregulars, or to stir up the people. 
With these momentary exceptions, the peace of the Province has 
remained absolutely undisturbed since its annexation in 1826, and all 
classes have heartily accepted the rest and security guaranteed by 
British rule. 

Population. — On its annexation in 1826, Arakan was found to be 
almost depopulated. In the first years of British rule, the descendants 
of those who had escaped to Chittagong on the Burmese conquest 
returned in large numbers, and inhabitants flocked in from the adjoin- 
ing territories of the King of Burma. In 1831, the population of Akyab 
District, then inclusive of the adjoining Hill Tracts on the north (now 
forming a separate District), had risen to 95,098; in 1852, to 201,677. 
Since 1862, when the Provinces of Arakan, Pegu, and Tenasserim were 
erected into a separate administration, as British Burma, large accessions 
of inhabitants have taken place, both from native territory and our own 
Bengal seaboard. In 1872, the population of Akyab District, inclusive 
of the Hill Tracts, was close on 300,000. Exclusive of the Hill Tracts, 
Akyab District had a population of 276,671. In 188 1, the total popula- 
tion of the District, as at present existing, was returned at 359,706, the 
following being the classes represented and their numbers : — Hindus, 
8812; Muhammadans, 99,548; Christians, 1114; Buddhists and Jains, 
230,046; Nat worshippers and others, 20,186; the adult males numbered 
148,028; females, 105,152; total, 253,180. Children under twelve 
years, males, 55,096; females, 51,430; total, 106,526. Number of 
occupied houses, 68,057; number of persons per square mile, 65; 
per house, 5*28. The agricultural population numbered 263,104, or 
73*15 percent, of the total population. There is a small community 
of Chinese included among the Buddhists. Nat worshipper is a term 


used in British Burma to denote the non-Buddhist indigenous races, 
whose sole religion consists in a kind of worship of spirits or demons, 
supposed to reside in the hills, forests and streams, and to preside over 
the destinies of mankind. The Arakanese are of Burmese origin, but 
separated from the parent stock by the Arakan Yoma mountains, and 
they have a dialect and customs of their own. Their kingdom was 
conquered by the Burmese during the last century, but they have 
remained distinct from their conquerors. Their type of face is as 
much Aryan as Mongolian, and in character and habits they partially 
resemble the Indian races. Females are secluded, and early marriages 
of girls are now frequent. Many of the Muhammadans included in the 
Census, are men who had come from Chittagong to the District for 
the working season. The resident Muhammadans are, chiefly, the 
descendants of slaves of the Burmese and Arakanese monarchs. They 
differ from the Arakanese only in their religious observances ; they use 
the Burmese alphabet and speech, but among themselves preserve, col- 
loquially, the language of their ancestors in Bengal. The Hindus have 
been in the country for many generations. Among them, the Manipuri 
Brahmans were invited by the Burmese as astrologers ; a few Doms, 
a very low and despised caste, were brought from Bengal to serve as 
pagoda slaves. In Burma, the strange custom prevails of employing 
outcastes as sweepers of the pagodas. The Doms, now released from 
their hereditary slavery, have become cultivators, but have risen no 
higher in social rank. The Muhammadan immigrants intermarry freely 
with the women of the country ; while the Hindus, from caste prejudices, 
rarely do so. The Hill Tribes (14,499) ar e fully described in the articles 
on the Arakan and Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Chaungtha are 
of the same race as the lowland Arakanese, but inhabit the banks of 
mountain streams. The number of persons employed in agriculture 
was (1881) 116,060; and in mechanical arts, manufactures, etc., 22,055. 
The agriculturists numbered 263,104, or 73*15 percent, of the whole 
population. The only towns are Akyab on the Kuladan (Koladyne) 
river, population 33,989; and 'Old Arakan' or Mrohaung ('old 
town '), the ancient fortress and capital of the kingdom of Arakan, 
population 3000. Besides these two towns, the District contains only 
1 village with 1000 to 2000 inhabitants; 44 villages with 500 to 1000; 
542 with 200 to 500; and 1340 with fewer than 200 — making in all 
1929 towns and villages. 

Agriculture. — Rice forms the staple crop, and is grown in the exten- 
sive fertile plains, stretching from the foot of the northern hills to the 
sea-coast. It is exported from the port of Akyab, which is very easy of 
access by the numerous creeks around it, and has a spacious harbour. 
Acreage under cultivation (1881) — rice, 341,523 acres; oil-seeds, 219 
acres; sugar, 88 acres; tea, 170 acres; cocoa-nuts, 433 acres; betel- 

156 AKYAB. 

nuts, 795 acres; dhani, 8208 acres; plantains, 1844 acres; pan 
(betel-leaf), 714 acres; vegetables, 1874 acres; hemp, 90 acres; 
mixed fruit trees, 9101 acres; chillies, 3000 acres; indigo, 2 acres; 
and tobacco, 8 acres. Cattle disease and the cyclone of 1867 threw 
30,000 acres out of cultivation in 1868. The high prices during the 
Bengal scarcity of 1874, gave a new impetus to rice cultivation. The 
holding of each cultivator averages 8 \ acres. The current prices of 
the chief articles of food during 1880-81 per maund of 80 lbs. were — 
for rice, 4s. to 5s. ; sugar, jQi to jQi, 10s. ; salt, 3s. : and the average 
produce of land per acre in lbs., for indigo, was 200; for oil-seeds, 
910; for sugar-cane, 672; for tobacco, 370; for vegetables, 1000; 
and for tea, 106. The taungya, or nomadic system of husbandry, still 
lingers in Akyab District. It resembles the jutn tillage of the Hill 
Tribes in Chittagong. The taungya cultivator burns down the jungle, 
raises a rapid series of exhausting crops from the open spot, and then 
deserts it for a fresh clearing. Some tribes cultivate the same patch 
for two or three years, after which the hamlet migrates en masse. 
Another process is thus described by the Chief Commissioner of British 
Burma: — ' A hill-slope is selected in the cold weather; its jungle cut down 
in April, and burnt in May, the ashes being spread over the ground ; and 
several crops are sown together at the beginning of the rains (June).' 
The harvest continues from August to October. The Indian corn ripens 
at the end of July ; a crop of melons and vegetables follows in August ; 
the rice harvest is reaped in September ; and a cotton crop concludes 
the exhausting series in October. 'The same spot,' adds the Chief 
Commissioner, ' can only be cultivated on this system once in ten years.' 
It is profitable as long as a superabundance of fresh land is available, 
and is now being abandoned as wasteful, before the increasing pressure 
of the population. The taungya cultivator pays no rent, but a poll-tax 
of two shillings a year per family in Arakan ; and per male in Ten- 
naserim and other parts of British Burma. The more economical 
tillage by the plough, is gradually extirpating this primitive form of 
husbandry in Akyab District. In 1855 there were 5355 taungya culti- 
vators or ' cutters ;' in 1879 tne number had fallen to 4895 ; in 1881, 
to 4310. In 1882 the number was much greater, but I have been 
unable to ascertain whether the increase was nominal or real, up to 
the time when this sheet had to be printed off. Agricultural stock has 
increased rapidly, notwithstanding the plague of 1867. In 1881, the 
agricultural stock of the District comprised 109,969 buffaloes; 160,996 
cows and bullocks; 373 horses and ponies; 6802 sheep and goats; 
7512 pigs; 4544 carts; 56,030 ploughs ; and 14,434 boats. The chief 
means of communication in the country are the tidal creeks, which 
account for the large number of boats returned. The Chittagong men 
are the chief carriers of grain, from the interior of the District to the 


town of Akyab. Wages are high; unskilled labourers are reported 
(1881) to earn from Rs. 15 to Rs. 30 (30s. to 60s.) a month in the 
shipping season, and skilled labourers Rs. 60 (£6). 

Manufactures^ etc. — A little salt is manufactured near the Naaf river 
by a mixed process of solar evaporation and boiling j but the quantity 
diminishes each year, owing to the cheapness of imported salt. There 
are no mines and quarries in the District. About 700 persons are 
employed in making earthen pots, in Akyab, Minbra, and Rathaidaun^. 
Before its conquest by the British, large boats from Mrohaung (' Old 
Arakan '), up the river, visited the ports of Bengal for British manu- 
factures of muslins, woollens, cutlery, piece-goods, glass, and crockery. 
A small trade was also carried on with the other Burmese ports on the 
east. When the British Government removed the restrictions on trade 
imposed by the Burmese, Akyab quickly rose into an important seat of 
maritime commerce. 

Communications, Trade. — The trade of the District centres in the 
town of Akyab {q.v.). There are no railways in Akyab ; communication 
is carried on chiefly by water. Total length of roads within the 
District, 83 miles ; of water communication, 2460 miles. 

Revenue, etc. — The revenue has more than kept pace with the 
increase of population. In 1828, the whole revenue of the three 
Districts, that were then included in the Province of Arakan, was 
estimated at £"22,000 per annum. In 183 1, Akyab District alone 
yielded £"24,019; in 1840, ,£37.97°- In 1837, the old native taxes 
on forest produce, huts, boats, houses, sugar-presses, handicraftsmen, 
etc., had been abolished, making a remission of £9735. By 1875, 
the gross revenue of the District from land, capitation tax, excise, etc., 
but exclusive of municipal and local funds, had risen to £"208,369. 
In 1875, tne land-tax amounted to £"59,465. The taungyas, or nomadic 
cultivators, paid £"331. The capitation tax, paid by all males between 
18 and 60 years of age, was, in 1875, assessed on 70,040 persons; and 
yielded £"28,359, at tne rat e of about Rs. 4 (8s.) per head of the 
assessed population. The excise revenue amounted to £"15,773. 
Customs have increased from £"18,159 m 1855—56 to £"37,785 in 
1865-66, and £"70,062 in 1875-76. In 1881, the land revenue alone 
amounted to £"70,171, and the gross or total revenue to £"231,727, 
including £"127,315 for customs dues, excise, timber, etc.; £"31,423, 
capitation tax on 77,489 persons; £"948 for fisheries; and £"1827, 
house-tax on 8749 houses. The local taxes not included in the 
Imperial revenue amounted to £"8643. 

Ad?ninistraiion. — The District is administered by a Deputy Commis- 
sioner, an Assistant Commissioner, a Magistrate for the island and town of 
Akyab, eight extra-Assistant Commissioners, an Akhun-wun, or a revenue 
officer, a Superintendent of Police, a Civil Surgeon, an Executive 


Engineer, a Collector of Customs, a Master Attendant, a Deputy- 
Inspector of Schools, a Telegraph Superintendent, and a Postmaster. 
Akyab has 9 judicial and revenue sub-divisions, and is divided into 
126 circles, of which 114 are denominated kywon, or islands, being 
situated in the lowlands, and 12 are called khyaung, or streams, being 
in the hill districts; these circles contain altogether 1928 villages. 
Each circle is placed under an indigenous officer, thugyi, whose duties 
are to collect the revenue, to preserve order, and to assist the police^in 
the apprehension of criminals, to compile statistics, and to settle dis- 
putes concerning land. Each circle comprises from 3 or 4 to 15 or 20 
villages. The thugyi is assisted by the gating, or village head. The 
police force of the District consisted, in 1880, of 457 men, and 5 
officers, costing ^9490. Number of prisoners in Akyab Jail, 745 in 
1 88 1 — employed in stone-breaking, coir-pounding, jute-spinning, road- 
making, carpentry, smiths' work, and timber-sawing. The total 
expenditure on jails in 1881 was ^2205, of which a little more than 
one-third was defrayed by the profits arising from convict-labour. In 
1880, the total number of patients treated in the Hospital and Dis- 
pensary was 4157. There are (1881) 3 Government and 114 private 
inspected schools in the District, attended by 2465 pupils. The total 
expenditure on these schools in 1881 amounted to ^1632. There 
are also a number of private uninspected schools; and the Census 
Report of 1 88 1 returns 13,031 boys and 2498 girls as under instruction, 
and those who are able to read and write as 56,333, including 1797 
females. The Government School, established in 1846, was made a 
High School in 1875. One newspaper is published in the District, the 
Arakan News, at Akyab. 

Climate, etc. — The climate of Arakan is malarious. Average rainfall 
for the five years ending 1882, 1827 inches. [For further information, 
see The Gazetteer of British Burma, vol. i. (1879-80); Provincial 
Administration Reports, 1880-81 and 1881-82; Ce?isus Report, 1881 ; 
and Departme?ital Reports to 1881-82.] 

Akyab. — Town, seaport, and head-quarters of Arakan Division and 
of Akyab District, British Burma ; at the mouth of the Kuladan river. 
Lat. 20 6' 45" n., long. 92 56' 30" e. Formed into a municipality in 
1874. Originally a Magh fishing village, Akyab dates its prosperity 
from the time when it was chosen as the chief station of the Arakan 
Province, at the close of the first Burmese war (1826). The troops 
and civil establishments were removed here from Mrohaung, or 
Myohoung (' Old Arakan '), the last capital of the Arakanese kingdom, 
owing to the unhealthiness of that town ; but the military were after- 
wards withdrawn, and the cantonment abandoned, except by the 
European civil officers. Under British rule Akyab rapidly grew into 
the seat of an extensive rice trade, being accessible by boats from the 


fertile plains in the interior, and possessing a good harbour, protected 
from the south-western monsoon by Savage Island, on which the 
lighthouse is situated. The town is 15 feet above the level of the sea at 
half-tide, with places below the sea level at high water, but it has been 
laid out with broad raised roads, forming causeways, with deep ditches 
on either side. The chief obstacle to the advancement of the city is 
the want of labour ; the roads, ditches, tanks, etc., are almost entirely 
the work of convicts. An influx of inhabitants from the Chittagong 
coast and Mrohaung had, before 1836, developed the Magh fishing 
village into a thriving seaport, and the town now possesses numerous 
public buildings and substantial houses. In 1868 the inhabitants 
numbered 15,536; in 1872, 19,230; in 1881, 33,998, classified 
thus : — 

Males. Females. 

Hindus, 6,243 !2i 

Muhammadans, n,73o 1,834 

Buddhists, ........ 6,932 6,004 

Christians, ........ 943 173 

Others, 15 3 

Total, 25,863 8,135 

These figures include the floating population. The disproportion in 
the sexes amongst the Muhammadans and Hindus is owing to the 
number of men who come to the town for the rice season, to work 
either in conveying the unhusked rice from the interior, or as coolies 
in the rice mills. 

The chief public buildings are the court-house, jail, custom-house, 
hospital, markets, two churches, travellers' bungalow, circuit-house, 
and Government schools. Akyab has five steam rice-husking mills, 
and several merchants' offices. The gross municipal revenue (from 
port dues, market rents, sale of town lands, etc) in 1880-81 was 
^■9143; expenditure, ,£8275. The following figures give an idea of 
the rapid growth of trade at Akyab : In 1826, when we obtained the 
Arakan Province, Akyab was a fishing village. After the cession of 
Arakan by the treaty of Yandabii, the old capital of Mrohaung was 
abandoned as the seat of government, and Akyab on the sea-coast 
selected instead. It had an excellent harbour, and the numerous 
creeks which intersect the country in its neighbourhood afforded easy 
means of communication with the interior. All restrictions on trade 
were removed, and as rice was in great demand and could be largely 
supplied by the District, the harbour came to be visited by ships and 
steamers in yearly increasing numbers. In 1830-31, during the 
shipping season between October and April, 140 square-rigged vessels 
cleared out, carrying cargoes valued at ^7378. In 1833 the number 
had increased to 178, and the value of the cargoes to .£9381. In 
1840-41 the exports of rice, husked (15,970 tons) and unhusked 

160 AKYAIV. 

(75,255 tons), amounted to the total value of £114,220, and the 
number of vessels cleared out in that year was 709. Ten years later, 
in 1851-52, though the number of ships cleared out had fallen to 
394, the total value of the exports amounted to £168,382. The 
principal export trade was then with Madras, whence the grain was 
re-shipped as Madras rice. The annexation of Pegu at the conclusion 
of the second Burmese war, 1852-53, made but little difference in the 
trade of Akyab. The export of rice, husked and unhusked, continued 
to increase as did the trade generally. In 1861-62, the value of imports 
was .£562,749, and of exports £460,153 ; ten years later, in 1871-72, 
the value of the imports was £763,764, and of the exports £"546,016; 
aggregating £"1,309,780. In 1881-82, the values were — imports, 
£lZS>W> exports, £^920,057; total, ,£1, 655,189. Rice and petroleum 
are the two principal exports from Akyab, valuable sources of supply of 
the latter having been lately discovered on the Borongo Islands and in 
Ramri. There is but little import trade from Europe direct, almost 
all requirements being brought from India and from Rangoon. The 
imports from the United Kingdom consist of coal and machinery ; of 
Indian produce from Indian ports, apparel, rope, cocoa-nuts, gunny 
bags, metals, mineral and vegetable oils, ghi, salted fish, silk piece 
goods, spices, sugar, and raw tobacco ; and of foreign merchandise 
from the same ports, cotton twist, yarn and piece goods, hardware and 
cutlery, liquors, machinery, metals, and silk and woollen piece goods. 
The exports consist almost entirely of rice, husked and unhusked, 
hides and horns, cutch, mineral oil, salted fish, and betel-nuts. The 
course of trade, and the large revenues raised in Akyab District, 
render the import and export of treasure large. The average annual 
import of treasure during the five years ending 1881-82 was £"422,841 ; 
the exports amounting to £"99,962. 'Akyab' is supposed to be a 
corruption of 'Akyat-daw,' the name of a pagoda in the neigh- 
bourhood, probably once a landmark for ships. In the Burmese 
language the place is called Tsit-twe, because the British Army 
encamped here in 1825. 

From the statistics given in the foregoing article, it will be seen that 
Akyab had grown from a fishing village to a town of 15,536 inhabitants 
during the first forty years of British rule, and that during the past 
thirteen years it has more than doubled its population — from 15,536 to 
34,000. In the fifty years from 1831 to 1881, its trade has multiplied 
more than 220 times, or from £7378 to over 1^ millions sterling. As 
communications are developed with Bengal, it is hoped that the labour 
difficulty will be still further diminished — the difficulty which stands in 
the way of an immense expansion of the trade of Akyab town. 

Akyaw. — Revenue circle of Thoon-khwa District, British Burma. 
Northern portion more cultivated than the south, which is a forest. 


Inhabitants principally traders, fishermen, and rice cultivators. Land 
revenue (1874-75) ^2og. Capitation tax (1875-76) ,£180. 

Al&bakhshpur. — One of the business quarters of Patna City, 
Bengal, with large trade in oil-seeds. Lat. 25 36' n., long. 85 15' e. 

Alagar. — Range of low hills, Madura District, Madras Presidency ; 
about 12 miles in length, average height 1000 feet above the sea. 
Sandstone predominates in their composition, but a great variety of 
geological formations are found at their base. On the south-east face, 
at the foot of the hill, stands the Kallar-Alagar Kovil, the ancient 
temple of the Kalians or Kallars, situated 12 miles north-east of 
Madura. Lat. of Alagar Hill, io° 6' n., long. 78 17' 15" e. 

Alahyar-jO-Tando (Tando AIdhydr).—Tdluk in the Hala Sub- 
division, Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency, lying between 
25 8' and 25 50' n. lat., and between 68° 37' and 69 2' e. long. Popula- 
tion (1881) 66,126; namely, Muhammadans, 49,319; Hindus, 10,467; 
Sikhs, 2242; aboriginal tribes, 4091; others, 5. Area, 696 square 
miles, with 61 towns and villages; number of occupied houses, 12,941. 
Revenue (1880-81), ^"10,058 ; being ^9536 imperial, and ^522 local. 

Alahyar-jO-Tando {Tando Aldhydr). — Chief town of taluk of same 
name in Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat 25 27' n., long. 68° 45' e. 
Founded about 1790 by a son of the first sovereign of the Talpur 
dynasty. Population (1881) 3898. Trade in sugar, ivory, silk, cloth, 
cotton, oil, and grains; yearly amount about ^11,600 ; besides transit 
trade of ^16, too. Municipal revenue in 1880-81, ^694; disburse- 
ments, ^"514; taxation per head, 3s. 2^d. Under the Talpur dynasty, 
the town attained considerable commercial importance, but has 
declined in modern times, especially since the opening of the railway 
line in 1861, between Kotri and Karachi which diverted the trade 
of northern Sind. Extensive cultivation of cotton ; raw silk, metal 
pots, and ivory, are largely imported ; silk weaving and ivory work 
form the chief local industries. The chief buildings are the fort, 
subordinate judge's court, post-office, dispensary, school, and market. 

Alaipur. — Trading village in Khulna District, Bengal, at the junction 
of the Bhairab and Atharabanka rivers. Lat. 22 49' n., long. 89°4i' e. 
Noted for the manufacture, on a large scale, of excellent pottery. 

Alaknanda. — River in Garhwal District, North-Western Provinces ; 
one of the main upper waters of the Ganges. It rises in the snowy 
ranges of the Himalayas, and runs through the central valley which 
forms the upper part of the Garhwal District. The river is numbered 
among the sacred streams of India ; and each of the points where it 
meets a considerable confluent is regarded as holy, and forms a station 
in the pilgrimage which devout Hindus make to Himachal. The 
Alaknanda is itself formed by the junction of the Dhauli and Saraswati 
(Sarsuti) and receives in its course the Nandakini, the Pindar, and the 

VOL. I. L 


Mandakini. At Deoprayag it is joined by the Bhagirathi, and the 
united streams are henceforward known as the Ganges. Though 
the Alaknanda is the more important in volume and position, the 
Bhagirathi is popularly considered the chief source of the holy river. 
The character of the Alaknanda is that of a mountain stream, and the 
only town upon its banks is Srinagar in Garhwal. Floods not unfre- 
quently occur, one of which, before the British occupation, swept away 
the greater part of the town. Gold was formerly found in the sands 
of this river, but the search is so little remunerative that it has been 

Alambadai. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 12° 9' n., long. 77 49' e. On right bank of the Kaveri (Cauvery), 
65 miles east of Seringapatam. An important place in the 17th century. 
Garrisoned for a short time in 1768 by British troops, but relinquished 
on the advance of Haidar All's army. 

Alamdanga. — Trading village on the Pangasi river, Nadiya Dis- 
trict, Bengal, and a station on the Eastern Bengal Railway ; 93 miles 
from Calcutta. Since the opening of the railway, the rice trade has 
largely increased. Lat. 23 45' 30" n., long. 88° 59' 30" e. 

Alamgir Hill. — One of the peaks of the Assia range, in Orissa. 
Lat. 20 37' n., long. 86° 16' e. On the summit of a precipice of this 
hill, 2500 feet above the neighbouring country, stands a mosque, built 
(1719 a.d.) by Shuja-ud-din, the Orissa Deputy of the Nawab Murshid 
Kuli Khan, and endowed by him with a grant of 60 acres of land. 
Every morning and evening, the people of the neighbourhood, Hindus 
as well as Muhammadans, offer homage at the shrine. 

Alamgirnagar. — An ancient fort, which once commanded the mouth 
of the Meghna river ; it long formed a pirate stronghold, but was stormed 
and taken from the Arakanese by the Mughals under Husain Beg, the 
general of Nawab Shaista Khan, in 1664-65 a.d. 

Alamnagar. — Village in Bhagalpur District, Bengal, situated in 
lat 25 33' 45" n., long. 86° 56' 21" e., about 7 miles south-west of 
Kishenganj. This was once the principal village of a powerful Chandel 
family, which at one time possessed fifty two adjacent townships, and 
enjoyed a considerable revenue. The estate, however, was squandered 
away, and at present only two villages remain to the family. Ruins of 
fine tanks, earthenware ramparts of forts, and of a large family resi- 
dence, alone remain to show the former wealth of the owners. The 
prevailing castes are Rajputs and Brahmans. 

Alamnagar. — Pargand in tahsil Shahabad, Hardoi District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Kheri District, on the east by Pihani, on 
the south by North Sara, and on the west by Shahabad pargand. 
This part of the country appears to have been held originally by the 
Thatheras, until, at some uncertain period in the later days of Hindu 


dominion, a band of Gaur Kshattriyas crossed rt» r 
Kanauj and drove them out. Shortl/^foT^ fflj of^ 8 • *T 
Nikumbhs obtained a footing in tL !. Kanauj, tI,e 

country side by sMe ^T^t^ttt^ T^ *" 
Akbar, grew rebellious, and were expend by Li abS.'d V^ ^ 
illustrious founder of the line of Pihin SayTidT Th^f I J "^ ^ 
Nikumbhs fell before the rising power SS^S X a^r 

domain of the Pihani and Muhamdi S«S and besUve/r f 
depressed Nikumbhs and Gaurs who had thUnn „ t ° Wed . lt u P° n the 
engaging for a portion of their otpoesi ons A PPO f T ° f ^ 
59 square miles, of which only ninefeent the m iddle S^Z"* 

ucmana, ^2451, at the rate of is. ?#d Der arr^ nf n™ -d i • 
/ T oo T \ T 5oQ, a , ^ 8 ^ cre ot area - Population 

The mat o7 Alar 8 " ^ ° f P^ "' ^ P<* W mi e 
£^ rfS 4?TX C ° nSIStS ° f a dUStCT ° f ? 6 h °- with a 

acres> ' 7I > others > 73- Area of town site, 3S 

vSS^Tt^^ * Ch «**»? ( Chi ^0 District, Madras 

Muzaffar Jang, the ffiKrTtt. wTS* ^ ^ 

^sh" ^rr dUrm§th ! --^'tweenTe' Kr^hVnd 

of £e nations 5 ™, TT "^ en S a S ement between the squadrons 

n ( eSe ; a f " 0ns , was fou g ht opposite the village. It was a French 

E Colt t I d r ng p he "re 05 MadraS > a " d ™ oaptur^d b "si 
t) re Coote m 1 760. Formerly famous for its oyster-beds 

Jiaroda , and ^16, 4 s. to the Nawab of Junagarh 

Ag7ncTT™^ W ° f I n d ° re Stat6 ' '" Bund elkhand, Central India 
r"' ES 2? V1 " ages> with a reven ^ (1878) of r-,, 7 

Esnmated population (1878) r 7 ,ooo j chief town, Alampur. * '°" 7 ' 
AlandL-lown, and a place of Hindu pilgrimage, in Puna (Poona) 


District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 18 27' n., long. 74 6' 30" e. ; 
population (188 1 ) 1754; municipal revenue (1881-82), ^459 ; expen- 
diture, ,£282 ; rate of taxation, 4s. 9 Jd. per head. 

Alapur. — Town in Budaun District, North-Western Provinces, 
situated in lat. 27 54' 45" N., long. 79 17' e. ; 11 miles south-east of 
Budaun town. Population (1881) 5630, comprising 3878 Hindus and 
1752 Muhammadans. A small house tax is levied under the provisions 
of Act xx. of 1856 for police and conservancy purposes. Police outpost 
station ; village school ; market twice a week. The town is named 
after Ala-ud-din, the last Emperor of the Sayyid dynasty, who is said 
to have founded it after his abdication of the throne of Delhi and 
retirement to Budaun, 1450 a.d. The estate within which the town 
lies has been held for ages by Saraswati Brahmans, who claim to have 
obtained it from Ala-ud-din. 

Alattlir (Elattur). — Town in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. ii° 52' n., long. 76 6' 30" e. Population (1881)3328; houses, 
507. Sub-magistrate's and subordinate civil courts; post-office; 
travellers' bungalow ; weekly market. 

Alaut. — Pargana of the Dewas State, under the Western Mahva 
Agency, Central India. 

Alawakhawa {Alawa — dried rice distinguished from rice prepared 
by boiling, and khdwd — to eat). — A celebrated fair held in Balia village, 
Dinajpur District, Bengal. It is held in honour of Krishna every 
year on the occasion of a Hindu religious festival (Raspurnima), 
celebrated in October or November. The god is worshipped by the 
devotees with offerings of dried rice, and hence the name. The fair 
lasts from eight to fifteen days, and is attended by about 75,000 or 
80,000 persons. A considerable trade is carried on here at this time. 

Alawalpur. — Town in Kartarpur iahsil, Jalandhar (Jullundur) 
District, Punjab. Lat. 31° 26' n., long. 75 42' e. Population (1881) 
3802, comprising 2206 Muhammadans, 578 Hindus, and 18 Sikhs. 
Third-class municipality. Revenue, chiefly from octroi dues, in 1880-81, 
^137 .; expenditure, ^131. 

Alay Khyoung. — Revenue circle, Kyouk-hypu District, British 
Burma. Area, 25 square miles. Salt manufacture. 

Alay-Kywon. — Revenue circle, Bassein District, British Burma. 
Area, 65 square miles. The centre of the mass of islands lying in 
the river Bassein, between the Bassein and Thek-kay-thoung mouths. 
Flat and jungly, with low sand-hillocks, and covered with a network of 
streams, its chief means of inter-communication. Revenue (1876), 
^"815. Inhabitants chiefly engaged in salt-making and fishing. 

Alay-Kywon. — Revenue circle, Kyouk-hypu District, British Burma; 
on north coast of Hunter's Bay. Area, 27 square miles. Land revenue 
(1875), ^466 ; capitation tax, ^138. 


Aldem&TL—Pargattd in Sultanpur District, Oudh. This par-ami 
appears to have been originally in the hands of the Bhars ; and local 
tradition asserts that a prominent Bhar chieftain, named Aide, built a 
fort and city on the high left bank of the Gumti, the ruins of which 
still exist, and which gave its name to the pargand. The only traces of 
Bhar occupation now visible consist of numerous old forts and ruined 
towns. Several settlements of Hindus were made during the Bhar 
period. As the Muhammadan power in Oudh became gradually con- 
solidated, the Bhar supremacy languished, and ultimately the aboriginal 
race entirely lost their footing. The principal Hindu tribes who have 
settled here are the Sakarwdrs, Raghubansfs, Ujainias, Bais, Pandes, 
Kiirmis, and Rajkumars. The Rajkumars are the latest arrivals, but 
they soon became the most powerful, and the rights of other clans 
rapidly declined until this pargand (among others) may now be con- 
sidered as the Rajkumdrs' zaminddri. The great Rajkumdr estates in 
Aldemau are Dera, Meopur, Nanamau, and Paras-patti. Their chiefs 
were at deadly feud with each other down to the time of the annexation 
of Oudh, and much blood has been shed from their jealousies. The 
pargand contains an area of 349 square miles, or 223,373 acres, of 
which 112,480 are cultivated. Government land revenue, ^20,218, 
being at the rate of 3s. per acre of arable land. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 158,446 ; Muhammadans, 10,046 : total, 168,492. Average 
density of the population, 485 per square mile. Several classes of 
professional thieves have their home in this pargand. 

Alengad. — Taluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Area, 
208 square miles. Population (1881) 66,753. 

Alguada. — Dangerous reef in the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of 
Pegu, British Burma. Bearing from Diamond Island, 3 J leagues south- 
south-west. Lat. 1 5 40' 15" n., long. 94 16' 45" e. The rocks 
extend \\ mile north and south, level with the surface of the sea, and 
have outlying reefs at some distance. This dangerous spot is known to 
the Burmese as Nagarit Kyauk, but to the rest of the world by the 
name given to it by the Portuguese mariners, Alguada. The main 
reef has a granite lighthouse 144 feet high, with first-class catadioptric 
light, revolving once in a minute, visible twenty miles. A work of 
great labour, commenced in 186 r, and completed in 1865 under the 
superintendence of Captain (now Major-General) A. Fraser, C.B. The 
Alguada reef lies on the submarine volcanic band which stretches from 
Sumatra to the delta of Bengal. 

Aliabad. — Village in Bara Banki District, Oudh; about 30 miles east of 
Bara Banki town, on the road from Daryabad to Rudauli. Lat. 2 6° 5 1' n., 
long. 8i° 41' e. ; population (1881) 1883. Formerly celebrated for its 
looms, and a considerable seat of the cloth trade ; now declined owing 
to competition of English goods. Inhabitants principally weavers. 


Alibagh.— Sub-division of Kolaba (Colaba) District, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 194 square miles ; contains 3 towns and 169 villages. 
Population (1881) 76,138, of whom 38,355 were returned as males, and 
37,783 as females. Hindus numbered 72,476; Muhammadans, 2119; 
and 'others,' 1543. 

Alibagh. — Chief town of Kolaba District, and head-quarters of the 
Sub-division of Alibagh, Bombay Presidency; 19 miles south of 
Bombay. Lat. 18 ^' 55' N -> l° n g- 7 2 ° 54 5°" E - Alibagh was 
named after a rich Muhammadan, who lived about two centuries ago, 
and who constructed several wells and gardens in and near the town, 
many of which still exist. On entering the harbour, the buildings of the 
town are hid from view by a belt of cocoa-nut trees. The only object 
of mark is the Kolaba fort, — on a small rocky island, about one-eighth 
of a mile from the shore, — once a stronghold of the Maratha pirate- 
captain Angria. (See Kolaba District.) About 2 miles out at sea, to 
the south-west of the Kolaba Fort, a round tower, about 60 feet high, 
marks a dangerous reef, covered at high water, on which several vessels 
have been wrecked. Population (1881) 6376; namely, Hindus, 5674; 
Muhammadans, 407 ; Jains, 66 ; Christians, 55 ; Pdrsis, 2 ; 'others,' 172. 
Municipal revenue (1881), ^1076; rate of taxation, 2s. 6d. per head; 
municipal expenditure, £652. The town is supplied with drinking 
water from a lake, recently made, distant about a mile and a half to 
the north-east, on the road to Dharamtar, and contains a sub-judge's 
court, a customs house, hospital, jail, schools, and a post-office. The 
gardens of Alibagh, which yield cocoa-nuts and some fine varieties of 
graft mangoes, are among the best in the District. Average annual value 
of trade at the port of Alibagh, for five years ending 1881-82 : — 
Exports, £"14,224 ; imports, £"20,263. 

All Bandar. — Small town on the Gonni river, in Tando Muhammad 
Khan Sub-division, Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 24 22' n., long. 69 11' e. Remarkable as the site of a dam, 
' the only work of public utility ever made by the Talpur dynasty,' 
which, however, by causing the deposit of silt above the town, cut off 
its water communication with Haidarabad. The channel below the 
town, once a main estuary of the Indus, dried up from the same 
reason, and the District of Saira (formerly remarkable for fertility) 
became a part of the Rann, or Great Salt Waste of Cutch (Kachchh). 

Aliganj. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Etah District, North-Western 
Provinces. Lies between the Ganges and the Kali Nadi, intersected 
by the Burh Ganga and Fatehgarh branch of the Lower Ganges Canal. 
It comprises the four minor fiscal divisions (pargands) of Azamnagar, 
Barna, Patiali, and Nidhpur. Area, 525 square miles, of which 352 
are cultivated. Population (1881) 186,364; land revenue, £"24,279 ; 
total revenue, ,£27,421 ; rental paid by cultivators, £"59,380. In 


1SS3, the talisil contained one magisterial court, with four thdnds or 
police circles. The regular police force numbered 65 men; town 
police, 58; and village watch or rural police, 411 men. 

Aliganj. — Town in Etah District, North-Western Provinces; 32 
miles north-west of Fatehgarh. Lat. 27 29' 20" n., long. 79 12' 40" e. 
Population (1881) 7436, comprising 4787 Hindus, 241 1 Muham- 
madans, 237 Jains, and 1 Christian; area, 96 acres. Rather a large 
agricultural village than a town. A wide metalled road, containing the 
principal bazar, runs through the town from north to south, crossed by 
another metalled road at right angles. The shops are, for the most 
part, built of mud, but there are a few large brick-built houses, the 
residences of the wealthier traders. Police station, post-office, large 
clean sarai or native inn. Chief trade — grain, indigo-seed, and cotton. 
Tri-weekly market. The town contains two unpretending mosques and 
a large mud fort, constructed in 1747 by Yakut Khan, a Muhammadan 
convert, whose family are still the principal landowners. Municipal 
income in 1880-81, ^"340, chiefly from octroi dues; expenditure, 
^283; incidence of municipal taxation, nd. per head of population 
within municipal limits. 

Aliganj.— Village in Kheri District, Oudh. Lat. 2 8° 9' n., long. 8o° 
40' e. Population (1881) 117c; namely, Hindus 932, and Muham- 
madans 238. Bi-weekly market. Ruins of old mud fort. 

Aliganj Sewan. — Town in Saran District, Bengal, and head- 
quarters of the Sewan Subdivision. Lat. 26 13' 23 n., long. 84 23' 
43" e. Population (1881) 13,307; namely, Hindus, 8115; Muham- 
madans, 5184 ; Christians, 8. The place is noted for the manufacture 
of superior pottery (red and black glazed, as well as unglazed and 
porous), brass vessels, and chintzes. Boats can come up the river Daha, 
on which the town is situated, at all seasons. Distance from Chhapra, 
40 miles; from Dinapur, 54. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^523. 

Aligarh. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, lying between 27 28' 30" and 28 10' n. lat., 
and between 77 31' 15" and 78°4i' 15" e. long. Area, 1955 square miles. 
Population (1881) 1,021,187. Aligarh is the southernmost District of 
the Meerut (Mirath) Division, and is bounded on the north by 
Bulandshahr District ; on the east by Etah ; on the south by Muttra 
District ; and on the west by Muttra District and by the river Jumna 
(Jamuna). The administrative head-quarters are at the civil station of 
Aligarh, adjoining the town of Koil (Koel). 

Physical Aspects. — Aligarh forms a portion of the great alluvial plain 
lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, and known accordingly as 
the Doab. Its surface is one broad unbroken level, having a general 
elevation of about 600 feet above the sea, with a slight slope toward 
the south-east. On either side, it dips down abruptly into the hollow 

1 68 ALIGARH. 

valleys of the two great rivers, which flow at a depth of about 60 feet 
below the central plateau. The watershed between them is composed 
of a low sandy ridge, along whose summit the course of the Ganges 
Canal has been carried. That magnificent work passes almost through 
the centre of the District from north to south, and distributes its waters 
by minor channels to the thirsty plain on either hand. Near the town 
of Akrabad it divides into two terminal branches, which severally run 
to Cawnpur and to Etawah. Under the influence of this great fertilizing 
agent, the plain of Aligarh presents, in the cool season, an almost 
uninterrupted sea of green and smiling cultivation, interspersed with 
numerous flourishing villages. The jungle, which covered a large 
portion of the District at the commencement of the British occupation, 
is rapidly disappearing ; and, with the spread of tillage, the country is 
now being denuded of trees. The total area under groves, such as 
mango and other fruit trees, etc., is only 5676 acres. There are few 
Districts which present such a bare appearance, and none where more 
efforts should be made to induce the people to plant trees. This has 
been partially attained by the Government allowing a remission of 
revenue for land under groves, and a considerable extension of tree 
plantations is anticipated. The principal plantation trees are mm t 
mango, jdmzm, pipal, babul, mahud, fards, and ber. Sal, and the better 
sorts of timber for building purposes, are imported. The soil through- 
out the District may be said to consist of a rich fertile loam, which 
becomes much indurated wherever it comes into constant contact with 
water ; whilst here and there are large tracts of sandy soil. To the 
north-east, the land bordering the Ganges possesses a more or less 
sandy soil. To the west, along the high bank of the Jumna, the soil is 
sandy for a few miles, but then comes pure loam, with occasional 
hillocks or high ridges of sand. In the north of the District, the 
eastern tracts are inferior to the western, and neither are so fertile as 
the tracts to the south. The substratum is entirely kankar, or nodular 
limestone, which is found everywhere a few feet below the surface, and 
in several places crops out. It is used for building purposes, and in 
the form of coarse gravel for metalling roads. On the higher grounds, 
which sever the small streams from one another, extensive patches of 
barren land occur, known by the name of usar. They are caused by 
the efflorescence of a noxious salt, called by the natives reh, and no 
plant or weed will grow upon the soil which it covers. It forms a white 
crust on the ground, and the spots on which it has gathered stand out 
upon the landscape glistening white in the sun, like snow on a bright 
winter's day in more northern climates. Unfortunately the spread of 
irrigation seems to have contributed to its increase, as the water, which 
percolates the earth, brings this deleterious saline substance to the 
surface. The Ganges marks the boundary line in the north-east 


corner of the District, and the Jumna runs along the western frontier 
for about 16 miles. The two main rivers are bordered by strips of low- 
land, largely used for grazing; and the Ganges shifts its channel from 
time to time, thereby exposing fresh alluvial tracts, whose deep deposits 
of decaying vegetable matter render them singularly fertile. The minor 
rivers and streams are the following: — The Kali Nadi, which flows 
through the District from north-west to south-east, into Etah District. 
Largely used for irrigation, and also affords an escape for the excess 
water of the canals. The river is bridged at the eleventh mile on the 
road from Aligarh to Moraddbad, where in high flood the river has a 
breadth of 187 feet, and a depth of 14 feet ; and in the hot season a 
breadth of 30 feet, and a depth of 8 feet. It is also bridged at the 
twenty-second mile on the Aligarh and Kdsganj road, where the stream 
has a width of 250 feet and a depth of 14^ feet in seasons of flood, and 
a width of 60 feet and a depth of 5 \ feet in the hot season. The Nim 
Nadi also flows through the north-east of the District, and eventually falls 
into the Kali Nadi. It is bridged at Malsai and Bhikampur, and its 
waters are largely used for irrigation. The river has a breadth of 200 feet, 
and a depth of 8 feet in the rains. The Karon Nadi, Isan, Sengar, 
and Rind are minor streams, which, though of considerable breadth and 
depth, are, as a rule, dry in the hot and cold weather. The Ganges 
Canal enters Aligarh from Bulandshahr District on the north, and 
flows in a generally straight south-easterly direction into Etah District, 
and ultimately joins the Ganges at Cawnpur. From Akrabad, a branch 
canal is thrown off to the south, but afterwards turns eastwards, and 
runs parallel to the main canal at a distance of about 5 miles, also into 
Etah District, after which it again turns southward and joins the Jumna 
in Etawah District. To a general view, the plain of Aligarh displays 
one of the most fruitful and prosperous tracts of the Upper Doab. 

History. — The few facts in the early annals of the District which 
can now be recovered centre around the ancient city of Koil, of which 
the fort and station of Aligarh form a suburb. A popular legend 
informs us that Koil owes its origin to one Kosharab, a Kshattriya of 
the Lunar race, who called the city after his own name ; and that its 
present designation was conferred upon it by Balaram, who slew here 
the great demon Kol, and subdued the neighbouring regions of the 
Dodb. Another tradition assigns a totally different origin to the name. 
The District was held by the Dor Rajputs before the first Muham- 
madan invasion, and continued in the hands of the Raja of Baran 
until the close of the 12th century. In n 94 a.d. Kutab-ud-din 
marched from Delhi to Koil, on which occasion, as the Muham- 
madan historian informs us, 'those who were wise and acute were 
converted to Islam, but those who stood by their ancient faith were 
slain with the sword.' The city was thenceforward administered 


by Musalman governors, but the native Rdjas retained much of 
their original power. The District suffered during the invasion of 
Timur in the 14th century, and participated in the general misfor- 
tunes which marked the transitional period of the 15 th. After 
the capture of Delhi by the Mughals, Babar appointed his follower, 
Kachak Ali, governor of Koil (1526); and in the reign of Akbar, 
the town and District were organized on the general scheme by 
which that great Emperor endeavoured to consolidate and unify his 
wide dominions. Many mosques and other monuments still remain, 
attesting the power and piety of Musalman rulers during the palmy 
days of the Mughal dynasty. The period was marked, here as else- 
where, by strenuous and successful proselytizing efforts on the part of 
the dominant religion. But after the death of Aurangzeb, the District 
fell a prey to the contending hordes who ravaged the fertile stretches 
of the Doab. The Marathas were the first in the field, and they were 
closely followed by the Jats. About the year 1757, Suraj Mall, a Jat 
leader, took possession of Koil, the central position of which, on the 
roads from Muttra and Agra to Delhi and Rohilkhand, made it a post 
of great military importance. The Jats in turn were shortly afterwards 
ousted by the Afghans (1759), and for the next twenty years the Dis- 
trict became a battle-field for the two contending races. The various 
conquests and reconquests which it underwent had no permanent effects, 
until the occupation by Sindhia took place in 1784. The District 
remained in the hands of the Marathas until 1803, with the exception 
of a few months, during which a Rohilla garrison was placed in the 
fort of Aligarh by Ghulam Kadir Khan. Aligarh became a fortress of 
great importance under its Maratha master ; and was the depot where 
Sindhia drilled and organized his battalions in the European fashion, 
with the aid of De Boigne. When, in 1802, the triple alliance between 
Holkar, Sindhia, and the Raja of Nagpur was directed against the 
British, the Nizam, and the Peshwa, Aligarh was under the command of 
Sindhia's famous partisan leader, Perron, while the British frontier had 
already advanced to within 15 miles of Koil. Perron undertook the 
management of the campaign ; but he was feebly seconded by the 
Maratha chieftains, who waited, in the ordinary Indian fashion, until 
circumstances should decide which of the two parties it would prove 
most to their interest to espouse. In August 1803, a British force 
under Lord Lake advanced upon Aligarh, and was met by Perron at 
the frontier. The enemy did not wait after the first round of grape 
from the British artillery, and Perron fled precipitately from the field. 
Shortly after, he surrendered himself to Lord Lake, leaving the fort of 
Aligarh still in the possession of the Maratha troops, under the com- 
mand of another European leader. On the 4th September, the British 
moved forward to the assault ; but they found the fortifications 


planned with the experience and skill of French engineers, and 
desperately defended with true Maratha obstinacy. It was only after 
a most intrepid attack, and an equally vigorous resistance, that the 
fortress, considered impregnable by the natives, was carried by the 
British assault ; and with it fell the whole of the Upper Dodb to the 
very foot of the Siwaliks. The organization of the conquered territory 
into British Districts was undertaken at once. After a short period, 
during which the fargands now composing the District of Aligarh were 
distributed between Fatehgarh and Etawah, the nucleus of the present 
District was separated, in 1804. Scarcely had it been formed when 
the war with Holkar broke out ; and his emissaries stirred up the 
discontented revenue-farmers, who had made fortunes by unscrupulous 
oppression under the late Maratha rule, to rise in rebellion against the 
new Government. This insurrection was promptly suppressed (1805). 
A second revolt, however, occurred in the succeeding year; and 
its ringleaders were only driven out after a severe assault upon their 
fortress of Kamona. Other disturbances with the revenue-farmers 
arose in 181 6, and it became necessary to dismantle their forts. The 
peace of the District was not again interrupted until the outbreak of the 
Mutiny. News of the Meerut revolt reached Koil on the 12th May 
1857, and was here followed by the mutiny of the native troops quartered 
at Aligarh, and the rising of the rabble. The Europeans escaped with 
their lives, but the usual plunderings and burnings took place. Until 
the 2nd July, the factory of Mandrak was gallantly held by a small 
body of volunteers in the face of an overwhelming rabble, but it was 
then abandoned, and the District fell into the hands of the rebels. A 
native committee of safety was formed to preserve the city of Koil from 
plunder, but the Musalman mob ousted them, and one Nasim-ulla 
took upon himself the task of government. His excesses alienated 
the Hindu population, and made them more ready to side with the 
British on their return. The old Jat and Rajput feuds broke out 
meanwhile with their accustomed fury ; and, indeed, the people indulged 
in far worse excesses towards one another than towards the Europeans. 
On the 24th August a small British force moved upon Koil, when the 
rebels were easily defeated, and abandoned the town. Various other 
bodies of insurgents afterwards passed through on several occasions, but 
the District remained substantially in our possession ; and by the end of 
1857, the rebels had been completely expelled from the Doab. With 
that episode the history of Aligarh fortunately closes. 

Population. — An enumeration in 1853 returned the total inhabitants 
at i > i 34jS65. The population in 1872, according to the Census of that 
year, but allowing for some trifling changes of area, amounted to 
I »°73 ) 2 5 6 - The latest Census in 1881 returned a total population of 
1,021,157 (on an area of 1955 square miles), showing a decrease of 


52,069 or 4'8 per cent, in the nine years. The male population in 
1881 numbered 551,279, and the female 469,908; proportion of males 
in total population, 54 per cent. Average density of population, 
522 per square mile j number of towns and villages, 1743 ; number of 
occupied houses, 124,573; number of villages per square mile, '89; 
houses per square mile, 637 ; inmates per house, 8*i. As regards the 
religious distinctions of the people, 901,144, or 88*2 per cent., were 
returned as Hindus, and 117,339, or 11-5 per cent., as Muhammadans. 
There were also 2377 Jains, 26 Sikhs, 289 Christians, and 10 Parsis. 
Of the four great classes into which the Hindus are divided, the 
Brahmans numbered as many as 136,664 souls. They are chiefly 
landowners. The Rajputs amounted to 75,841, amongst whom the 
Jaduns and Chauhans are the most numerous. They are also land- 
holders. The Baniyas, or trading classes, are returned as 50,817 
souls. They are a wealthy body, chiefly absentees, who follow their 
trades as money-lenders and brokers in the larger towns. The 
Chamars are the most numerous amongst the low castes, amounting to 
172,451 persons, or 16*9 percent, of the whole population; but they 
are generally poor, almost serfs of the proprietor, and tied by debt to 
the soil, with which they were transferred by custom. The Jats come 
next in number, with 83,605 souls, and rank far the first in social and 
political importance, from the industry with which they cultivate their 
villages. They have a hereditary feud with the Rajputs, and the two 
tribes will not inhabit the same villages. Gadarias, or shepherds, 
number 31,906; Lodhis, 37,331; Kolfs, 29,521; Kachhis, 23,618; 
Kahars, 26,445; an< ^ Ahirs, 12,099. There were 42 native Christians 
in the District in 188 1. Seven towns had populations exceeding 4000 
souls — namely, Tappal, 4712; Jalali, 4939; Harduaganj, 4520; 
Sikandra Rao, 10,193: Atrauli, 14,374; Hathras, 25,656; and 
Koil (with Alfgarh), 61,730. These figures show an urban population 
amounting to 126,124 souls, leaving a rural body of 895,033. Of the 
total of 1743 towns and villages, 456 contained less than two hundred 
inhabitants in 1881 ; 708 from two to five hundred; 379 from five 
hundred to a thousand; 153 from one to two thousand; 22 from two 
to three thousand; 21 from three to five thousand; 2 from ten to 
fifteen thousand; 1 from twenty to fifty thousand; and r with over fifty 
thousand inhabitants. The northern half of the District abounds with 
the ruins of old forts. The language of the peasantry is Hindi, 
tinged in the south with the Braj dialect, but the better classes speak 
the Urdu of Delhi. As regards occupation, the Census Report returns 
the male population under six main heads, as follows : — Class (1) Pro- 
fessional, including civil and military and the learned professions, 
11,131; (2) domestic servants, lodging-house keepers, etc., 2183; (3) 
commercial class, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 13,497 ; 


1 /3 

(4) agricultural class, including cultivators, gardeners, tenders of sheen 
and cattle, etc., 198,620; (5) industrial, including manufacturers artisans 
etc., 91,642; (6) indefinite and non-productive (being 52,29! general 
labourers and 182,115 male children or persons of unspecified occum 
tion), 234,406. ■ a 

Agriculture.— Almost all the cultivable land in Alfgarh is under 
tillage, only 12 per cent of the available area, or 121,168 acres beina 
returned as cultivable waste, while 88 per cent, or 897 172 acres is 
reported as being under cultivation. The area of uncultivable waste is 
returned at about 208,000 acres. The greater portion of the cultivable 
land still available consists of wide tracts of poor sand and alluvial 
khadir near the banks of the great rivers in the northern divisions 
of Atrauh and Khair. The area under grass for pasturage is very 
restricted. The few wide uncultivated pasture lands in Atrauli and 
Khair must sooner or later come under the plough, and in a short time 
cultivation will have reached its limit in this District, where even now 
the pressure of the population on the soil is severely felt Aligarh 
has in many places two, and in some three, harvests a year The 
principal products are wheat (182,045 acres), barley (93,463 acres) 
joar (159,106 acres), and bdjra (70,405 acres). The cultivation of 
cotton has largely increased of late years, and the returns show 11071c 
acres employed for that purpose, while indigo, another rising staple is 
grown on 29,013 acres. Of the total cultivated area, 433,516 acres 'or 
48*3 per cent., are under kharif, or rain crops, of an estimated total 
value of ^826,564, and 450,946 acres, or 50-3 per cent, are under 
rain, or cold-weather crops of a total estimated value of £1 241; en 
Estimated grand total value of both kharif and rabi crops ^ 2 'o 7 2 07:' 
The average out-turn of cotton is 2 maunds, or 1 cwt 1 qr 24 lbs 
per acre ; value on the field, £2, 4 s. : while wheat produces about 17 
mounds 20 sers, or 12 cwts. 3 qrs. 6 lbs, per acre; value on the field 
£2, 1 6s. Irrigation is widely practised, as many as 648,017 acres' 
or 72-3 per cent, of the cultivated area, being artificially supplied with 
water in 1875, while only 248,357 acres, or 277 per cent, were de- 
pendent upon the precarious rainfall. Canals afforded water to 1 14 406 
acres, and 524,406 acres were irrigated from wells, the residue of 
10,005 acres being supplied from tanks. The main line of the Ganges 
Canal has a length of 48-62 miles within the District; and from it 2*60 
mi es of greater distributaries, 49 miles of lesser distributaries, and 4S7 
mi es of small channels draw their supplies. The people are fairly 
well off. Besides the ordinary tenures by zaminddri, pattiddri and 
bhayachdra, there is another known as tdlukddri, by which the minor 
proprietors are responsible for their share of the revenue to a superior 
holder, called a tdlukddr, the latter being in his turn responsible to 
Government for the whole revenue of his subordinates, on which he 

i 7 4 ALIGARH. 

receives a fixed percentage. This tenure has grown up through some 
confusion at the early settlements between the actual possession of 
land and the responsibility of the Maratha revenue-farmers for the 
taxes of the country farmed by them. Most of the District is cultivated 
by tenants-at-will j only 29 per cent, of the area is held by tenants with 
rights of occupancy. Rents are chiefly paid in cash, and vary much 
with the means of communication and irrigation. Good irrigated lands 
in the best situations let at jQi, 2s. 7d. an acre, but the same class of 
soil without artificial water-supply, rents at only 10s. 6d. an acre. 
Outlying dry lands are rated at from 3s. 3d. to 6s. an acre. Wages 
ruled as follows in 1875 : — Blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, 7jd. per 
diem; labourers, 3|d. to 4jd. ; coolies, 3d. ; women, 2 \&. ; boys, ifd. 
Agricultural labourers obtained 3d. a day and 1 lb. of bread. Food- 
stuffs have risen steadily in price of late years. In 1870, wheat was 
18J sers the rupee, or 6s. ofd. per cwt. ; barley, 2 8Jd. sers the rupee, 
or 3s. njd. per cwt. ; and jodr, 26f sers the rupee, or 4s. 2^d. per 
cwt. Prices in Aligarh District for 1882 are returned as follow : wheat, 
20 J sers or 41 lbs. the rupee ; barley, 27 sers or 54 lbs. the rupee ; jodr 
(large millet), 24 sers or 48 lbs. the rupee; rice, 14 sers or 28 lbs. the 
rupee; bdjra (common millet), 22J sers or 45 lbs. the rupee; gram 
(pease), 21 \ sers or 43 lbs. the rupee. 

Natural Calamities. — The District of Alfgarh is comparatively free 
from the danger of famine, owing to the prevalence of irrigation, 
more especially through the instrumentality of the great Ganges 
Canal. Famines often occurred before the opening of that impor- 
tant work ; the most severe one in the present century was due 
to the drought of 1837. The District shared the unfortunate season 
of 1868-69 w i tn neighbouring tracts, and the result was dearth and 
scarcity ; but actual famine was averted by the influence of the Ganges 
Canal, and large quantities of grain were exported to less favoured 
regions. The inestimable value of the canal was thoroughly tested on 
that occasion, as Aligarh, which formerly used itself to suffer from 
want of food, was enabled not only to supply its own needs, but also 
to relieve the pressing necessities of the Punjab and the Native States 
to the south. Prices rose very high during the scarcity, but the 
market was ruled by the demand for increased exports rather than 
by any danger of local distress. Prices were at their highest in 
December 1868, when wheat was selling at 8 \ sers per rupee, or 
13s. 6d. per cwt, and jodr, the ordinary food of the poorer classes, at 
n sers per rupee, or 10s. 2d. per cwt. 

Commerce and trade, etc. — The principal articles of export from 
Aligarh are grain, cotton, and indigo. The principal grain marts are 
Hathras, Koil, Atrauli, Sikandra Rao, and Harduaganj. Allowing 
for food and seed requirements, it is estimated that an average of 


, 5 

^354,45 x maundsox 991,651 cwts. is available as fcod for cattle, for 
reserve store, and for exportation. Nearly all the kharlf grain crops, 
except pulses, are consumed locally, and the exports are confined to 
wheat, barley, bdjra, and gram, which are cold weather (rabi) crops, 
and to pulses. Cotton cultivation has increased to such an extent 
of late years, as to make it one of the characteristic products of the 
District. About 212,603 maunds, or 156,198 cwts., of cotton are 
estimated as the average annual amount which is left for exportation, 
after all the needs of home consumption have been supplied. The 
indigo trade is also flourishing and important, the District being 
studded with factories, which numbered 171 in 1873, and produced 
362s maunds, or 2663 cwts., of the marketable dye. There has been 
an extraordinary increase in the cultivation of indigo by natives during 
the past fifteen years. Oil-seeds and saltpetre form other important 
items in the export trade. The imports consist of sugar, rice, Man- 
chester goods, spices, metals, tobacco, timber, and manufactured articles 
generally. Hathras is the chief centre of trade, but Koil has also 
an extensive commerce. Excluding the five municipal towns of 
Koil, Hathras, Atrauli, Sikandra Rao, and Harduaganj, there are 180 
markets in the District, or one to about every 10 villages. Cattle 
grain, country cloth, vegetables, sweetmeats, toys, brass utensils, and 
petty articles of domestic consumption are the chief commodities. 
Religious-trading fairs are held on the occasions of Hindu festivals, and 
by Muhammadans during the period of the Muharram. The means 
of communication in Aligarh District are excellent, and new routes are 
in progress or under consideration. The East Indian Railway crosses 
the District from north to south, with stations at Somna, Aligarh 
(Koil), Pali, and Hathras road. The Oudh and Rohilkhand line 
diverges from the East Indian at Aligarh, and runs north-east, with 
stations at Rampur (for Harduaganj) and Raipur (for Atrauli). A 
new State line of railway on the narrow gauge was opened in 18S0, 
starting from the Hathras road station of the East Indian Railway to 
Muttra, a distance of 29 miles, of which 15 lie within Aligarh District, with 
stations at Hathras city and Mursan. The Ganges Canal is also 
largely employed for through traffic. The Grand Trunk Road enters 
the District at its south-east corner, and proceeds by Sikandra Rao, 
Koil, and Somna, into Bulandshahr District, where one branch leads 
to Delhi, and another to Meerut. Its total length in Aligarh District 
is 49 \ miles. There are 229 miles of first-class roads in the 
District, most of which are metalled and bridged ; and in addition 
to these, the chief villages, marts, and police stations are connected 
by a network of cross-country roads, 90 miles being second class, 
and 182 third. The District contains a remarkable native association, 
the Aligarh Institute and Scientific Society, founded in 1S64 by Nawab 


Sayyid Ahmad Khan, C.S.I. Its main object is the translation into 
the vernacular language of modern scientific and historical works. It 
possesses a library of 2000 volumes, and a reading-room for English 
and native papers. A journal is published twice a week in connection 
with the society, known as the Aligarh Institute Gazette ; printed in 
English and Urdu. Two other newspapers were printed at Aligarh 
in 1 88 1, the B karat Bandu, a weekly; and the Dharma Samdj Patr, 
a monthly journal. A periodical called the Tasdnil-i-Ahmadi, is also 
published in connection with the Aligarh Institute, and there are two 
private presses. 

Administration. — In i860, the revenue from all sources amounted to 
£197,837, of which £178,299, or 90-12 per cent, of the total, was 
contributed by the land tax. At the same date, the expenditure 
amounted to £52,146, or little more than one-fourth of the revenue. 
In 1870, the total receipts had risen to .£223,709, of which £196,655, 
or 87*90 per cent, of the whole sum, was contributed by the land tax. 
At the same time the expenditure had decreased to £43,472, or less 
than one-fifth of the revenue. In 1880-81, the gross revenue of the 
District had risen to £250,606, of which £213,403, or 85*14 per cent., 
were derived from the land. The total cost of officials and police of 
all kinds in the same year, was £37,781. The principal items of 
receipt, exclusive of land tax, are judicial charges, and stamps. The 
last land settlement was made in 1871-73, and will remain in force 
until 1 90 1. The District is administered by a Magistrate-Collector 
and his Assistant, with about five or six Deputy Collectors, about 
as many ta/isi/ddrs, and six Honorary Magistrates. There were four 
munsifs, besides the Judge of Aligarh. Twenty magisterial and 22 
civil and revenue courts were held in the District in 1880-81. The 
regular District police numbered 489 men in 1881, besides 532 em- 
ployed in towns and municipalities; total, 102 1 officers and men, 
maintained at a total cost of £10,035, of which £6814 was paid from 
provincial, and £3221 from local sources. There was also a rural or 
village police numbering 1999. The total machinery for the protection 
of persons and property consisted, therefore, of 3020 men of all ranks, 
giving an average of one man to every o*6i square mile and to every 
3274 inhabitants. Aligarh is infested by a clan of gipsy-like vagrants, 
known as Haburas, whose sole profession is thieving, and who give 
much trouble to the police authorities. A single jail suffices for the 
criminal population of the District ; the average number of prisoners 
was 562 in 1850, 481 in i860, 470 in 1870, and 496 in 1881. In 
i860, the number of convicts admitted was 1660; in 1870, 1260; 
and in 1881, 1482. Education is rapidly spreading, both in the higher 
and lower departments. The number of schools, aided and unaided, 
in i860 was 427, and the children under instruction were returned as 

AL1GARH. 177 

4964; while the cost of maintenance amounted to ^2314. In 1871 
the number of aided schools had decreased to 370, but their pupils 
had risen to 7941 ; while the expenditure on education had increased 
to ^5426. The total number of Government-inspected schools in 
1880 was 221, attended by 6722 pupils. This is exclusive of unaided 
and uninspected private schools, for which I have been unable to obtain 
any returns for 1880, but which probably make up the total of schools 
and pupils to double the figures given above. The Census Report 
of 1 88 1, however, returned 8834 boys and 144 girls under instruction 
in that year; besides 25,706 males and 388 females able to read and 
write but not under instruction. The District is subdivided into six 
tahs'ds and fourteen pargands, with an aggregate in 1874 of 2045 estates, 
owned by 27,175 registered proprietors or coparceners; the average 
land revenue from each estate amounted to ^100, 2s. 2|d., and from 
each proprietor, to £7, 10s. 9d. There are five municipal towns, 
Koil (including Aligarh), Harduaganj, Sikandra Rao, Atrauli, and 
Hathras {qq.v.). In 1880-81, their united revenue amounted to 
,£9803, of which ^8064 was derived from octroi dues ; their joint 
expenditure was ^8579. The incidence of municipal taxation was 
at the rate of is. 8|d. per head of their population. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Aligarh is that of the Doab plain 
generally. The year is divided into — the rainy season, from June till 
October ; the cool season, from October till April ; and the hot season, 
from April till June. The mean temperature of three daily ob- 
servations in 1880 was as follows : — January 53*5° F., February 65 '2°, 
March 76-6°, April 80-3°, May 90*3°, June 93*3°, July 82 , August 87 , 
September 87-5°, October 76 , November 66*5°, December 58-8°. The 
average rainfall for the thirty-five years ending 1881 was 26*24 inches ; 
the maximum being 31 inches in 1863-64; and the minimum, 14-3 
inches in 1866-67. The rainfall in 1881 was 2770 inches, or 1*46 
above the average. The only endemic disease prevailing in the District 
is a malarious fever ; but cholera and typhoid fever occur in an 
epidemic form, especially during years of scarcity. In 1880, the 
number of deaths reported was 27,706, or 27*1 per thousand inhabitants ; 
and of these 22,514 were assigned to fever. There are dispensaries at 
Koil, Hathras, Sikandra Rao, and Khair. Cattle-disease is common, 
and assumes a virulent form when the rains first set in ; the animals 
gorge themselves with rank grass after the long scarcity of the dry 
months. Foot-and-mouth disease is also prevalent. [For further 
information, see The Gazetteer of the North- Western Provinces, vol. ii., 
by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, C.S. (Allahabad, 1875); Administration 
Reports of the Government of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, 
particularly that for 1880-81 ; and the admirable Settlement Report of 
Aligarh District, by Mr. W. H. Smith, CS., 1874.] 

VOL. I. M 


Aligarh. — Town and administrative head-quarters of Aligarh 
District, North- Western Provinces, situated in lat. 27 55' 41" n., 
long. 7 8° 6' 45" e. ; distant 803 miles north-west from Calcutta, and 
84 miles south-east from Delhi ; area, 452 acres. Population in 1881 
(with the town of Koil), 61,730, comprising 38,253 Hindus, 22,504 
Muhammadans, 676 Jains, 264 Christians, and 33 'others.' The fort 
and civil station of Aligarh adjoin the large native city of Koil, which 
may be conveniently treated under the same heading. Koil is a 
handsome and well-situated town, the centre of which is occupied by 
the high site of an old Dor fortress, now crowned by Sabit Khan's 
mosque, a conspicuous object from the surrounding plain. The 
history of this place has been given under Aligarh District. The 
fort, 740 feet above the sea level, founded at a much later date than 
the city, was captured by Lord Lake in 1803. It was held by Perron, 
the partisan general of Sindhia, but on the first approach of Lord 
Lake's forces he fled to Hathras and thence to Muttra. The fort 
was stormed by the British on the 4th September, and carried after a 
desperate resistance ; with its fall, the whole Upper Doab passed into 
our hands. The place was naturally strong, owing to its position in 
the midst of large swamps and deep morasses, and it had been fortified 
with the greatest skill by its French engineers. The native troops at 
Aligarh joined the Mutiny of 1857, and the town was successively 
plundered by the Mewatis of the neighbouring villages, by the passing 
rebel soldiery, by Nasim-ulla during his eleven days' rule, and by the 
British troops. The East Indian Railway has a station here, which 
is also the junction station with the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. 
The post-office workshops for the manufacture of carts, bags, and 
other postal apparatus, give employment to over 700 workmen. The 
Aligarh Institute has a library of 2000 volumes and a public reading- 
room, furnished with the leading English and vernacular journals. 
Details regarding this institution, and respecting the Aligarh press, 
have been given under Aligarh District. Public buildings — the 
courts, Anglo-Oriental college, the Anglo-vernacular schools, jail, and 
church, also a dispensary and a railway telegraph office. The principal 
trade is in cotton, for pressing which there are screws, under both 
European and native management, near the railway station. Manufac- 
tures unimportant, except a little pottery. Total municipal revenue 
in 1880-81, ^5278, of which ^4452 was derived from octroi dues; 
expenditure, ^4704. 

Aligarh. — Tahsil or sub-division of Farukhabad District, North- 
western Provinces, comprising the parganas of iVmritpur, Paramnagar, 
and Khakhat-mau; area, 187 square miles, of which 59,611 acres or 
93 3 square miles are cultivated. Population (1881) 76,085; land 
revenue, ,£12,187; total revenue, ,£13,649 ; rental paid by cultivators, 


,£23,556. The taJisil contains one criminal court, and comprises the 
two police circles {thdnds) of Aligarh and Allahganj. Strength of the 
regular police, 29 men, besides 178 chaukiddrs or village police. 

Aligarh. — Village in Farukhabad District, and head-quarters of 
Aligarh tahsil^ situated about a mile west of the Rohilkhand trunk 
road, 8 miles north-north-east of Fatehgarh town. A small and 
insignificant village, only noticeable as the site of the tahsili, and con- 
taining a first-class police station and an imperial post-office. Market 
twice a week. The village is stated to be exceptionally unhealthy, 
owing to the unwholesomeness of its drinking water. 

Aligarh. — The site of a small fort on the west bank of the Hiigli 
river, near Garden Reach, 5 miles below Calcutta, which was taken by 
Lord Clive at the re-capture of Calcutta, on the 30th December 1756. 
Only the site now remains. 

Aligaum. — Town in Poona District, Bombay Presidency, on the 
river Bhima. Lat. 18 35' n., long. 74 23' e. ; 32 miles east from 
Puna (Poona). A Government stud was established here in 1827, but 
not proving successful, it was abolished in 1842. 

Alipur. — The principal Sub-division of the District of the Twenty- 
four Parganas, Bengal; area, 420 square miles. Population (1881) 
384,972, including 259,018 Hindus, 121,458 Muhammadans, 168 
Buddhists, 4193 Christians, and 135 'others.' Number of villages, 
1017; of houses, 78,106, of which 76,098 are occupied; average 
number of persons per square mile, 916*60; of villages per square 
mile, 2*56; and of houses per square mile, 185*97 ; average number 
of persons per village, 378; and per house, 5*0. Alipur has been the 
head-quarters Sub-division of the District since 1759; it includes 
the Suburbs of Calcutta, and is divided into the six thdnds, or police 
circles, of Tollyganj, Bhangor, Sonirpur, Bishnupur, Atchipur, and 
Baranagar. In 1882-83, it contained 12 Magisterial Courts, and a 
total police force of 1231 men. Since March 1883, the Sub-division 
has been increased by the addition of the thdnds of Baruipur, Matla, 
and Jainagar, comprising the former Sub-division of Baruipur, which 
was abolished on that date on account of the opening of the Diamond 
Harbour railway having rendered the Courts at Alipur more accessible 
than those at Baruipur. Including these additions, the Sub-division 
now (1883) contains a total area of 862 square miles, with 1825 towns 
and villages, and 103,600 occupied houses. Total population, 584,460 ; 
namely, Hindus, 395,118; Muhammadans, 183,768; Buddhists, 183; 
Christians, 5135; and 'others,' 259. Average density of population, 
678 per square mile ; persons per village, 320. 

Alipur.— The civil head-quarters of the District of the Twenty-four 
Parganas, Bengal. Lat. 22 31' 50" n., long. 88° 24' e. It forms a 
southern suburb of Calcutta, and contains Belvedere House, the 

i So A LI PUR. 

residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, and a number of 
handsome mansions. It lies within the limits of the South Suburban 
Municipality, and is a cantonment of native troops. The strength of 
the military force ordinarily stationed at Alfpur is as follows : — Small 
detachment of Bengal Cavalry, one Native Infantry Regiment and wing 
of another. There is a well-supplied market at Kidderpur, less than 
a mile off. A handsome and well-stocked Zoological Garden has 
been opened in this suburb. There is a large Central and District 
jail at Alipur, mainly filled with long-term male convicts from various 
Districts of Bengal; the total number of prisoners on the 31st 
December 1881 was 2015 ; the daily average number of prisoners 
during that year was 1974. There is also a Central and District jail 
for females at Russa in the neighbourhood, which, at the end of 1881, 
contained 181 prisoners. On the Calcutta maiddn opposite Alipur 
Bridge, stood two trees under which duels were fought. It was here 
that the famous meeting, in 1780, between Hastings and Francis took 

Alipur. — Civil station and head-quarters of the Baxa Sub-division 
of Jalpaigun District, Bengal. It is situated on the road from 
Kuch Behar to Baxa, on the north bank of the Kaljani river, which 
separates Jalpaiguri District from Kuch Behar State ; distance from 
Kuch Behar town, 10 miles, and from Baxa, 22 miles. The nearest 
railway station at the present time (1883) is Mughal-hat, on a 
branch of the Northern Bengal State railway, 30 miles distant, but an 
extension is now in course of construction to Kuch Behar town, only 
1 2 miles distant. There are also good roads to Kuch Behar and Jal- 
paiguri town. Alipur is also the head-quarters of the officer in charge 
of the Baxa forests, and contains a large and well-stocked timber depot. 

Alipur. — The southernmost tahsil of Muzaffargarh District, Punjab. 
Lat. (centre) 29 16' n., long. 70 55' e. Forms the end of the wedge 
of the Sind-Saugor (Sagar) Doab, between the Chenab and the Indus. 
Area, 887 square miles; population in 1881, 110,869. 

Alipur. — Village in Muzaffargarh District, Punjab, and head-quarters 
of the tahsil ; situated 50 miles south of Muzaffargarh town. Lat. 29 
23' N., long. 70 57' e. Population (1881) 2555, consisting of 1503 
Hindus, 1048 Muhammadans, and 4 Sikhs. Police office, dispensary, 
and sardi. Small export trade in molasses and indigo to Sind and 
Khorasan. Snuff is also manufactured largely for exportation. Muni- 
cipal revenue, chiefly from octroi, in 1880-81, ^398; expenditure, 
^420 ; incidence of municipal taxation, 3s. 1 Jd. per head of popula- 
tion. The town is stated to be the healthiest in the southern part of 
the District ; but fever is prevalent during the rainy season. 

Alipur. — Prosperous agricultural village in Wardha District, Central 
Provinces. Lat. 20 32' 45" n., long. 78 44 e. Population (1881) 


3938; namely, Hindus, 3579; Muhammadans, 274; Jains, 7; abori- 
ginal tribes, 78. Founded by Nawab Salabat Khan of Ellichpur ; but 
passed to the family of the Secretary to the late Mardthd Government. 
Famous for its well-irrigation, gardens, mango groves, and brisk weekly 
fair. Has also a colony of weavers and a well-attended village school. 

Alipur. — Town in Gujranwala District, Punjab. — See Akalgarh. 

Alipura. — Native State in Bundelkhand, North-Western Provinces, 
lying between 25 7' 15" and 25 17' 30" n. lat, and between 79 21' 
and 79° 30' 15" e. long. Bounded north and east by Hamirpur 
District, south by Garauli, and west by Jhansi. Area, 69*44 square 
miles; 26 villages; 2312 occupied houses; population in 1881, 14,891, 
namely, Hindus, 13,950; Muhammadans, 855; and Jains. 86. The 
annual revenue of the chief is returned at about ^"3000. The lands 
comprising this State were granted by Hindupat, Raja of Panna, to 
Achal Singh, and the grant was confirmed to his son, Partab Singh, by 
Ali Bahadur. On the British occupation, Partab Singh obtained a 
sanad confirming him in his possession, and granting him the right of 
adoption; and his great-grandson, Hindupat, succeeded in 1840. On 
the death of Hindupat in 187 1, he was succeeded by his son Chhartar- 
patti, on whom the title of Rai Bahadur was conferred at the Delhi 
Darbar in 1877. The chief belongs to the Purihar caste of Rajputs; 
he maintains a force of 180 infantry with 2 guns. 

Alipura.— Chief town of Alipura State, Bundelkhand, North-Western 
Provinces. Situated in lat. 25 ° 10' 30" n., long. 79 24' e., on the 
main road between Gwalior and the Satna Station on the Jabalpur 
section of the East Indian Railway, 100 miles south-east of Gwalior, 
and 24 miles north-west of Chhatarpur. Population (1881) 3232. 
The town is picturesquely situated on rising ground, and contains a 
small fort which forms the residence of the ruler of the State. 

Ali-Raj pur.— Native State under the Bhil or Bhopawar Agency, 
in the south-west corner of Central India, bordering upon the 
Rewa Kantha States of Guzerat, Bombay Presidency. Area, 836 
square miles; population (1881) 56,827, dwelling in 312 villages, and 
occupying 10,136 houses. Hindus numbered 35,834; Muhammadans, 
1871; Jains, 167; aboriginal Bhils, 18,955. Males, 29,227; females, 
27,600. The country is mountainous, and covered with jungle. The 
chief products are bdjra (Holcus spicatus) and makka or Indian corn. 
There is no record of the date when this State was established, or of its 
first rulers. It appears, however, owing to its wild and hilly position, 
to have been little disturbed during the turmoils caused by the Maratha 
invasion of Malwa. Immediately before the establishment of British 
supremacy in Malwa, Rand Pratab Singh was chief of Ali Rajpur. He 
had in his service a Mekrani adventurer, named Musafir, who put 
down pretenders to the succession and managed the State after the 


Rana's death, in trust for his posthumous son Jaswant Singh, who died 
in 1862, leaving a will by which he divided the State between his two 
sons. The British Government, in consultation with the neighbouring 
chiefs, set this will aside, and allowed the elder son, Gangdeo, to succeed 
to the whole State ; but during the later years of Gangdeo's life, his 
incapacity for rule, and the consequent anarchy, compelled the British 
authorities to take the territory temporarily under management. 
Gangdeo died in 187 1, and was succeeded by his brother, Rana Rup 
Deoji, who died on the 29th October 188 1. He was succeeded by a 
cousin named Waje Singh, who is now (1883) a minor. During his 
minority, the State is managed by a minister appointed by the British 
Government. The chief, who is a Rahtor Rajput, bears the title of 
Maharana, and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. Revenue in 1881-82, 
^■9500. Ali Raj pur was formerly tributary to Dhar, but the latter State 
ceded its rights to the English in 182 1 ; and the Chief now pays a tribute 
of jQi 100 direct to the English Government, of which ^"iooo is paid 
to Dhar, as former feudal lord, and the remainder received as a con- 
tribution to a police fund. The sum of .£150 per annum is also 
contributed for the Malwa Bhil Corps. There are 5 schools and 1 
dispensary in the State. The military force of the Chief consists of 2 
field guns, 9 horse, and 150 policemen. 

Ali-Rajpur.— Chief town of the Ali-Rajpur State, under the Bhil 
Agency of Central India. Lat. 22 n' n., long. 74 24' e. Contains 
about 1000 houses, and a population (1881) of 4100. The streets are 
broad, straight, and airy, and lined with shops. The old palace is a 
handsome building, and is used as a residence by the State officials, 
and contains the treasury ; near it are the school, dispensary, and jail. 
Opening on to the bazar is the ' Bara,' containing the Chiefs residence. 
Two creeks and about a dozen wells — 3 of them being good — form the 
water supply. Post-office. 

Aliwal. — Village in Ludhiana District, Punjab. Situated on the 
left bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), 9 miles west of Ludhiana town, in lat. 
3°° 57' N -> l° n g- 75° 37' e. Famous as the scene of the great battle of 
the first Sikh war. At the end of June 1846 it was held by Ranjiir 
Singh, who had crossed the river in force and threatened Ludhiana. 
On the 28th, Sir Harry Smith, with a view to clearing the left or 
British bank, attacked him, and after a desperate struggle thrice pierced 
the Sikh troops with his cavalry, and pushed them into the river, where 
large numbers perished, leaving 67 guns to the victors. The immediate 
consequence of the victory of Aliwal was the evacuation of the Sikh 
forts on the British side of the Sutlej, and the submission of the whole 
territory east of that river to the British Government. 

Aliyar. — River in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. 

Allahabad. — Division, under a Commissioner, in the North-Western 


Provinces, lying between 24 47' and 26 57' 45" n. lat, and between 
79 19' 30" and 83 7' 45" e. long., and including the six Districts of 
Cawnpur, Fatehpur, Banda, Allahabad, Hamirpur, and Jaunpur, 
all of which see separately. Area of Allahabad Division, 13,745 square 
miles; population (1881) 5,754,855, including 5,194,243 Hindus, 
549,900 Muhammadans, 99 Sikhs, 778 Jains, 23 Jews, 30 Pdrsfs, and 
9782 Christians or 'others.' Number of towns and villages, 11,934; 
number of occupied houses, 1,032,732 ; average density of population, 
418*6 per square mile; towns and villages per square mile, o*86 ; 
inmates per occupied house, 6*5. The total adult male agricultural 
population of the Division is returned at 1,350,820, cultivating 5,004,928 
acres, or an average of 371 acres each. The total population of the 
Division, however, including women and children, dependent on the 
soil, numbers 3,916,758, or 68*o6 per cent, of the total population. Of 
the total area of 13,745 square miles, 13,430 are assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue, of which 7702 are returned as under cultivation, 3004 as 
cultivable, and the remainder as uncultivable. Total Government 
assessment of Allahabad Division, including cesses on the land, 
^82 1,958, or an average of 4s. 5d. per cultivated acre. Rental paid 
by cultivators, including cesses, ;£i, 592,836, or an average of 6s. 4^d. 
per cultivated acre. 

Allahabad. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
Western Provinces, lying between 24 47' and 25 47' 15" n. lat., and 
between 8i° 11' 30" and 82 21' e. long. Area, 2833*1 square miles ; 
population (1881) 1,474,106. Allahabad is a District in the Division 
of the same name, and is bounded on the north by Partabgarh District 
in Oudh ; on the east by Jaunpur and Mirzapur ; on the south by the 
Native State of Rewa ; and on the south-west and west by Banda and 
Fatehpur. Greatest length of the District from east to west, 74 miles ; 
maximum breadth from north to south, 64 miles. The administrative 
head-quarters are at Allahabad, the capital of the North-Westem 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Allahabad is situated at the con- 
fluence of the Jumna (Jamuna) and Ganges, and its limits embrace 
the territory lying between the two great streams, together with 
portions beyond their outer banks. These rivers apportion the District 
into three well-marked Sub-divisions :— (1) The Doab, or triangular 
wedge of land enclosed by the converging channels of the Ganges 
and Jumna. The northern side of this alluvial region shares the 
general characteristics of the Gangetic Doab, of which it forms the 
easternmost extremity. It stretches along the south bank of the Ganges 
in a level and highly cultivated plain, the monotony of which is only 
broken by patches of usar, whitened with the saline efflorescence known 
as reh. But the southward slope, through which the surface drainage 


flows into the Jumna, is furrowed by ravines. The Sasiir Khaderi, 
Kinhai, and other small streams which take their rise in the watershed 
between the main rivers, and drain into the Jumna, have scooped 
out for themselves in the light and sandy soil a series of mimic 
gorges, closely simulating the beds of mountain torrents. (2) The 
trans-Ganges tract, stretching from the north of that river, to the 
borders of Oudh, Jaunpur, and Mirzapur ; and (3) the trans-Jumna 
tract, extending from the south bank of the Jumna down to the frontiers 
of Banda, Rewa, and Mirzapur. At the apex of the Doab tract, close 
to the confluence of the two great rivers, is the city of Allahabad. The 
natural sub-divisions of this Doab tract, with an area of 821 square 
miles, are — (a) The level tract in the centre, consisting at the edges, of 
light, high-lying loam, sinking gradually westward, and stiffening into 
clay soil. In the higher lying lands, the crops are mainly jodr, bdjra, 
cotton, gram, masuri, etc. Proceeding westward, jodr and bdjra are 
replaced by rice j and gram, etc., by wheat, barley, and flax. It is only 
in the western portion of this centre tract that irrigation is practicable 
to any appreciable extent, (b) The ravine lands along the banks of the 
Ganges, Jumna, and Sasiir Khaderi, consisting of a very light sandy 
soil, with a substratum of kankar. The crops here consist mainly of 
the poorer staples, and irrigation is impracticable, owing to the preva- 
lence of kankar, and the great depth before water is reached, (c) A 
magnificent strip of alluvial land (kachhar or char) under the banks of 
the Ganges, flooded in the rains, and subject to changes from fluvial 
action, but growing splendid spring crops without need of irrigation. 
(d) The Jumna tari, a fine moist soil, flooded in the rains, but growing 
good wheat and other spring crops without irrigation. It resembles 
the Ganges kachhar, but is below that tract in general fertility. The 
trans-Ganges, or north-eastern sub-division, has three descriptions of soil 
answering to those of the Doab tract — (a) the Ganges kachhar, (b) the 
raviny bank, (c) the level upland. But this part of the District has a 
much more extensive water-supply, and far surpasses the Doab in 
general fertility. It contains a denser population, with a better class 
of tenantry. Thriving villages lie close together all over its surface, 
and scarcely any patches of waste land can be found. Facilities for 
irrigation abound, and the finer qualities of grain and pulses are very 
extensively cultivated, together with sugar, which forms one of the 
most valuable crops of the District. The trans-Jumna tract to the 
south-east is the largest of the three sub- divisions, and the most varied 
in physical features. The drainage is entirely into the Ganges and 
Jumna, the main feeder being the river Tons. Latitudinally, the tract 
is divided into two parts by a range of low stone hills, which enter the 
District about 4 miles south of the Ganges. North of these hills, in 
the Ganges valley there are the usual alluvial lands, though not so 


extensive as on the opposite bank of the river. Along the Jumna 
and Tons run strips of sloping tari. Above these, on all three rivers, 
occur raviny ridges; while farther inland are level tracts sinking 
gradually into a trough at the foot of the hilly country. South of the 
stone range, the aspect of the country changes entirely. The land rises 
by a series of sandstone terraces toward the Kaimur range (an outlier 
of the great Vindhyan plateau), whose summits slope up beyond the 
British frontier, in the neighbouring State of Rewa. Each long roll of 
the terrace declivity is topped by a cultivated table-land ; but the inter- 
mediate ridges are stony and untilled, covered with scrubby jungle — 
the haunt of leopards, wolves, antelopes, and wild boars. These barren 
spurs have a sparse and scattered population, whose villages often he 
at great distances from one another. 

The main rivers of the District are the Ganges, Jumna, Tons, and 
Belan. The Ganges,^ after entering Allahabad at its north-western 
corner, flows a south-easterly course for 78 miles. The breadth between 
the high banks of the river, corresponding with the breadth of the 
stream at high flood, varies from one to six miles, and averages about 
two and a half or three miles. The average breadth of the stream 
when at its lowest in May and June is about three-quarters of a mile. 
During the rainy season, the river is navigable for any kind of craft, the 
average depth being 60 or 70 feet. In the dry season the depth goes 
down to 15 or 20 feet, but navigation is difficult for large boats at this 
time, on account of the number of shifting sand-banks. The river has 
no permanent bridges, but bridges of boats are maintained from 
October to June at Rajghat, where the Grand Trunk Road crosses the 
river towards Delhi; and also at Phaphamau, the starting- place of the 
main road to south-eastern Oudh. In the rains, these bridges are replaced 
by ferries. Boat ferries also ply between the principal villages. 
Frequent changes take place in the course of the stream, and alluvion 
and diluvion take place yearly on a large scale, and become a fruitful 
source of affrays and litigation in the land courts. The Jumna enters 
the District at its south-west corner, holding a course of 63 miles east 
by north-east, till it effects a junction with the Ganges opposite Allah- 
abad city. The Jumna differs from the Ganges in its narrower valley, 
its more constant bed, the greater clearness of its waters, and the greater 
number and depth of the ravines on its banks. The breadth of the 
stream in time of flood averages a mile and a half, and in the dry season 
half a mile. It is navigable at all seasons of the year, but in the 
hot months navigation by large cargo boats is impeded by numerous 
shallows. Average depth in the rains, 80 feet; and in the hot season, 
16 feet. A permanent railway bridge spans the river about a mile 
above its junction with the Ganges, and ferries are maintained at the 
more important crossings. The Tons river rises in the Kaimur Hills 


south of the District, and flows a north-easterly course till it falls into 
the Ganges some 19 miles below the confluence of that stream with 
the Jumna. The river has a rocky bed, and stony rapids are met with 
every few miles up to within a short distance of the Ganges. Navigable 
by small boats, but at certain places only. Crossed by the East 
Indian Railway bridge two or three miles above its mouth, and by 
several boat ferries. The Belan, also rising in the Kaimiir Hills, enters 
the District from the south-east, and flowing a westerly course, falls into 
the Tons on the Rewa border. The bed of the river is stony, and 
numerous rapids render navigation impossible. Ferries are maintained 
at road crossings during the rains ; at other seasons the river is almost 
everywhere fordable. The other streams and watercourses of the 
District are quite unimportant, and only contain water in the rainy 
season. The only lake of any importance is the Alwara jhil, in the 
extreme west of the District, a shallow but permanent sheet of water, 
2 J miles long by 2 miles broad, whose marshy flats are covered with 
wild-duck, teal, coot, and other waterfowl. Excellent sport may also 
be obtained among the hills of the trans-Jumna region. Minerals are 
few, but good building stone is found at Partabpur, Deoria, and Raja- 
pur. The stone used for building Akbar's fort came from the Deoria 
and Partabpur quarries, which are conveniently situated for water 
carriage on the south bank of the Jumna. 

History. — In the Mahabharata, the country round Allahabad bears 
the name of Varanavata, and was the scene of the exile undergone by 
the famous Pandava brethren. At the period of the Ramayana, the 
trans-Ganges region was ruled by the Raja of Kosala ; and we learn 
that Rama was welcomed, on his banishment, at Singror in this District, 
by Guha, King of the Bhils. The mythical hero of the Solar race 
crossed the Ganges in a boat, entered Allahabad, and proceeded over 
the Jumna into Bundelkhand. But the earliest authentic information 
which we possess with reference to the District is obtained from a 
sculptured monument in the fort at Allahabad, erected by the Buddhist 
King Asoka about the year B.C. 240. This pillar, a tall and slender 
monolith with a tapering shaft, bears in addition to the edict of its 
original founder, Asoka, a later inscription detailing the conquests of 
Samudra Gupta, about the second century after Christ; and it was 
re-erected in 1605 by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, who has com- 
memorated thereon his accession in a Persian legend. Fa Hian, the 
Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, found the District still a part of the Kosala 
kingdom about a.d. 414; and two centuries later, his countryman, 
Hwen Thsang, visited Prayag (the Hindu name of Allahabad), where he 
records the existence of two Buddhist monasteries and many Hindu 
temples. From this time, we know nothing of the history of Allahabad 
until the invasion of Shahab-ud-din Ghori in 1194. The District was 


then conquered by the Musalmans, in whose hands it remained until 
the introduction of British rule. During the 13th and 14th centuries 
the country round Allahabad was included in the fief of Karra, at which 
town the Governor had his head-quarters. Karra was the scene of the 
famous meeting between Muiz-ud-din and his father in 1286. The son 
had just succeeded Balban on the throne of Delhi, and the father was 
making his way up from Bengal to oppose him. They met at Karra, 
and, inspired with an aversion to bloodshed, conferred with each other 
from boats in the middle of the Ganges, and resolved to march together 
to the capital. Allahabad was in the possession of Ala-ud-din at the 
end of the 13th century, and it was in the town of Karra that he basely 
murdered his uncle, the aged Sultan Firoz Shah. Under succeeding 
princes, the history of the District is a tedious narrative of ambitious 
revolts and their barbarous suppression. About 1529, Allahabad was 
wrested from the Pathans by Babar, and its modern name was bestowed 
upon it by the Emperor Akbar. Prince Salim had his residence here 
as Governor during the lifetime of his father ; and the mausoleum in the 
Khushru-bagh commemorates Salim's rebellious son. Early in the 1 8th 
century, when the Bundelas under Chhatar Sal (see Banda) were begin- 
ning their successful national movement against the Mughal power, 
Allahabad was overrun by the Bundela and Maratha chieftains. 
During the subsequent anarchy, the Oudh Government at one time 
held the supremacy; at another, the ubiquitous Marathas were in 
possession; and still later, in 1765, the English restored the town to 
Shah Alam, the phantom Emperor of Delhi. For some years, Allahabad 
was the seat of the imperial court; but in 1771 Shah Alam removed to 
Delhi, and threw himself into the arms of the Marathas. The British 
held that his eastern dominions were vacated, and sold the abandoned 
Provinces to the Nawab of Oudh for 50 lakhs of rupees. Shah Alam 
remained a State prisoner in the hands of the Mardthas until 1803, 
when the victories of Lord Lake set him free. Meanwhile difficulties 
arose from time to time with regard to the payment of the Oudh 
tribute, which was permanently in arrears; and in 1801 the Nawab 
agreed to a compromise, by which he made over his territory between 
the Ganges and the Jumna to the British Government in lieu of 
tribute. The District of Allahabad formed part of the tract thus ceded. 
During the Mutiny of 1857, the Sepoys at Allahabad revolted (June 
6th), and massacred most of their officers. At the same time the 
populace rose throughout the city, set free the prisoners in jail, and 
murdered every European and Eurasian upon whom they could lay 
hands. Happily, however, the British forces held the fort with the aid 
of a Sikh detachment; and on the nth of June, Colonel Neill arrived 
to take the command. The insurgents were promptly attacked and 
repulsed ; and only a fortnight after the outbreak, the city and station 


were once more in the hands of the authorities. Soon afterwards, 
Havelock arrived at Allahabad; and, the position having been secured, 
the main army passed on for CaWi\pur. No further disturbance 
arose, and the peaceful course of administration in the District has 
never since been interrupted. 

Population. — An enumeration in 1853 returned the total number of 
inhabitants at 1,379,788. The population in 1872, according to the 
Census of that year, but allowing for subsequent changes of area, 
amounted to 1,396,241. The latest Census, in 1881, returned a total 
population of 1,474,106, showing an increase of 77,865, or 57 per 
cent, in the nine years. The male population in 1881 numbered 
741,730, and the female 732,376; proportion of males in total 
population, 50*3 per cent. Average density of population, 520*3 per 
square mile ; number of towns and villages, 3509 ; number of occupied 
houses, 288,647; number of villages per square mile, 1*23; houses 
per square mile, ioi*8; inmates per house, 5*1. As regards the 
religious distinctions of the people, 1,272,408, or 86-3 per cent., were 
returned as Hindus, and 195,201, or 13*2 per cent, as Muhammadans. 
There were also 6079 Christians, 337 Jains, 68 Sikhs, and 13 Parsis. 
Amongst the Hindus, the Brahmans formed the largest body, amounting 
in all to 182,294 persons. The other chief tribes were the Rajputs 
(5°-7°3)> Baniyas (41,300), Ahirs (144,619), Chamars (149,449), 
Gadarias (40,819), Kachhis (59,723), Kayasths (19,336), Kiirmis 
(134,550), Mallahs (38,492), Pasis (98,119), and Telis (26,641). The 
Musalmans are divided by religion into 185,402 Sunnis and 9799 
Shias. The District contains only one town with a population 
exceeding 5000 — namely, Allahabad, including the civil station and 
cantonments, and the suburbs of Katra and Daraganj, with a total 
population of 148,547. See Allahabad City. Of the total of 
3509 towns and villages, 1427 contained less than two hundred 
inhabitants in 1881 ; 1282 from two to five hundred; 580 from five 
hundred to a thousand; 177 from one to two thousand; 28 from two to 
three thousand ; 10 from three to five thousand ; and 1, Allahabad city 
and suburbs, with upwards of a hundred thousand inhabitants. The Dis- 
trict contains no walled or fortified places ; but the fort of Allahabad, 
commanding the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna, is strongly 
guarded, and garrisoned by a European force. The ruins of a few small 
fortresses also line the bank of the Jumna. Most of the houses are mud- 
roofed, but the better sort are tiled. In the towns there are two-storied 
buildings, and in Allahabad itself the wealthy bankers have erected 
several showy mansions at Kydganj. The various trades possess their 
panchdyatS) or caste guilds, which practically operate like European 
trades-unions. Under their influence a Baniya would not be allowed to 
undersell his fellow-tradesmen, nor a labourer to work for less than the 


current rate of wages. But the panchdyats also take note of religious 
questions, and punish social or moral delinquencies by expulsion from 
caste. The village community generally embraces a governing body 
of Thdkurs, Ahfrs, or Brahmans, who own the land, and let out the 
greater portion to inferior cultivators j a well-to-do peasantry of Kdchhis, 
Kiirmis, and Lodhis (some of them also landholders), tilling the soil 
under the Thakur landlords, whom they regard as a superior race ; a 
small number of Baniyds, who act as bankers or shopkeepers; and 
finally, a labouring class, consisting of Chamars, Pasis, and other 
dark-skinned races, of slighter build and inferior physique to the 
higher castes. Each community also includes the usual village officers 
— the headman, the patiudri or accountant, the family priest, the barber, 
and all the minor functionaries of the native system. As regards occu- 
pation, the Census Report of 1881 returned the male population under 
the following six classes : — (1) Professional, including civil and military, 
and the learned professions, 17,405; (2) domestic servants, inn and 
lodging-house keepers, 6920 ; (3) commercial, including merchants, 
traders, carriers, etc., 13,868; (4) agricultural, including cultivators, 
gardeners, tenders of animals, etc., 337,267 ; (5) industrial, including 
manufacturers, artisans, etc., 81,900; (6) indefinite and non-productive 
(being 24,690 general labourers, and 259,680 male children or persons 
of unspecified occupation), 284,370. 

Agriculture. — Allahabad is one of the Districts where cultivation has 
nearly reached its utmost limit, very little waste land fit for tillage being 
now left uncultivated. The kharif or autumn crops, are sown in June, 
on the first appearance of the rains, and reaped in October and Novem- 
ber. Food-stuffs are the staples of this harvest, the principal crops being 
rice, pulses, jodr and bdjra (millets). Cotton is sown at the same time, 
the coarser varieties being picked in November or December, and the 
finer in April or May. The rabi, or spring crops, are sown in October 
and reaped in March or April. They consist of wheat, barley, and 
other grains. Manure is used for both harvests, wherever it can be 
obtained. The acreage under the different crops was ascertained at 
the time of the last land settlement (1876-77) to be as follows : — Kharif 
crops— jodr, 49>546; bdjra, 75,982; cotton, 41,153; indigo, 8942; 
pulses, 110,399; Indian corn, 89; millets, 25,164; rice, 155,003; 
hemp, 960; oil-seeds, 1895: total kharif 469,133 acres. Rabi crops — 
wheat, 79,921 acres; barley, 182,536; birra, 94,001; gram, 109,703; 
peas, 40,001 ; masuri, 91 18 ; oil-seeds, 18,626: total rabi, 533,906. 
Miscellaneous crops — sugar-cane, 18,853; poppy, 3573; tobacco, 
1229 \ gourds, 2073 ) garden crops, 2787 ; pan, 106 ; grass for grazing, 
1 69 1 : total miscellaneous crops, 30,312 acres. Grand total of area under 
cultivation, 1,033,351 acres. As a rule, the same land is not allowed 
to bear two crops a year, but sometimes advantage is taken of a simple 


system of rotation to secure a second harvest after rice has been grown 
for the kharif. The area of land growing two crops at the time of the 
settlement was returned at 58,720 acres. Irrigation is carried on by 
means of wells, tanks, and jhils, there being no canals in the District. 
The area under irrigation at the time of the settlement was 376,330 
acres, or 36*4 per cent, of the total cultivation, of which 207,416 acres 
were in the rich trans-Ganges tract, or 66*2 per cent, of the cultivated 
area. In the sterile southern or trans-Jumna tract, irrigation was only 
carried out in 63,564 acres, or i6'i per cent of the cultivated area. 
The area under trees according to the settlement measurements is 
72,304 acres, the trans-Ganges pargands in the north-west being the 
best wooded, and the trans-Jumna in the south-east, the worst. Near 
Allahabad city, groves of guavas, oranges, custard apples, pomegranates, 
lemons, plantains, karonda, Jdmun, etc., cover a considerable area, and 
yield large profits. In the villages, the mango predominates; and 
ma/iud, tamarind, and aonla trees are grown to some extent. The 
indigenous or jungle trees are the pipal, nim, gi'dar, shisham, babiil, ber, 
dhdk, etc. Where there are many small proprietors, the owner often 
cultivates the whole of his little estate in person. More frequently, 
however, the greater part of an estate is leased to cultivating tenants, 
and only about 1 5 per cent, of the area is held by the proprietor as sir, 
or homestead. The total adult male agricultural population of the 
District was returned in 1881 at 332,116, cultivating 1,080,448 acres, or 
an average of 3*25 acres each. The total agricultural population, how- 
ever, including women and children, numbered 986,947, or 66*95 P er 
cent, of the District population. Of the total area of 2833 square 
miles, 2783 are assessed for Government revenue, and of these 1662 
are returned as cultivated, 45 1 as cultivable, and the remainder as un- 
cultivable. Total Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses on land, ^278,211, or an average of 5s. 2-Jd. per cultivated acre. 
Total rental paid by cultivators, ^397,438, or an average of 7s. 4^d. 
per cultivated acre. The tenures of land belong to the three standard 
classes of the North-Western Provinces — zaminddri, where the land is 
owned in common and the profits divided by the shareholders, none of 
whom possesses a separate plot ; pattiddri, where each shareholder owns 
a plot on his own account, while the whole estate remains answerable to 
Government for the revenue in common ; and bhdydchdra, where the 
rights and interests of each shareholder are regulated, not by ancestral 
custom, but by actual possession. Wages ruled as follows in 1877 : — 
Coolies and unskilled hands, 2 Jd. to 3! d. per diem ; agricultural 
labourers, 25-d. to 3d. per diem ; bricklayers and carpenters, 6d. to 2s. 
per diem. Women get about one-fifth less than men, while children 
under 1 2 are paid at from one-half to one-third. Prices of food grains 
have risen greatly of late years. Dividing the years of the present 


century into three periods, viz. (i) from the earliest period of British rule 
up to first settlement in 1833, (2) from 1833 to the Mutiny, and (3) 
from the Mutiny down to 1876, the average prices of the staple food 
grains were as follow :— Wheat, 1st period, 2 6£ sers per rupee, or 4 s. 3d. 
a cwt. ; 2nd period, 2of sers per rupee, or 5s. iod. a cwt ; 3rd period, 
iS sers per rupee, or 6s. 3d. a cwt. Barley, 1st period, 35! sers per rupee! 
or 3 s. id. a cwt. ; 2nd period, 32J sers per rupee, or 3 s. 5 id. a cwt. ; 
3rd period, 24 sers per rupee, or 4 s. 8d. a cwt. Gram, 1st period, 32$ 
sers per rupee, or 3s. 5 Jd. a cwt. ; 2nd period, 38 sers per rupee, or 3 s. 
a cwt.; 3rd period, 22 sers per rupee, or 5s. id. per cwt. Rice, 1st 
period, 2 if sers per rupee, or 5s. 2d. a cwt. ; 2nd period, 16^ sers per 
rupee, or 6s. iojd. a cwt; 3rd period, 15 sers per rupee, or 7s. 6d. 
a cwt. Jodr, 1st period, 44 sers per rupee, or 2s. S^d. a cwt. ; 
2nd period, 33 f sers per rupee, or 3 s. 4^d. a cwt. ; 3rd period, 24 sers 
per rupee, or 4 s. 8d. a cwt. Bdjra, 1st period, 39 sers per rupee, or 
2s. 1 id. a cwt. : 2nd period, ^3 sers per rupee, or 3s. 5d. a cwt. ; 3rd 
period, 27,h sers per rupee, or 4 s. c^d. a cwt. Prices in Allahabad 
District were returned for 1882 as follow :— Wheat, i8£ sers, or 37 lbs. 
per rupee; barley, 28 sers, or 56 lbs. per rupee ; gram (pease), 26 J sers, 
or 53 lbs. per rupee ; rice, 20 sers, or 40 lbs. per rupee ; jo&r (great 
millet), n sers, or 66 lbs. per rupee ; bdjra (common millet), 30 sers, 
or 60 lbs. per rupee. 

Natural Calamities.— Y amines from drought occurred in Allahabad 
in 1770, 1783, 1803, 1819, and 1837, and severe scarcities in 1813, 
1860-61, 1868-69, a nd in 1873-74. In the two famines antecedent to 
British rule, beyond a little gratuitous relief at the capital, no measures 
appear to have been taken for the relief of the starving multitudes. In 
1803, considerable remissions of revenue were made, and large advances 
for the purchase of seed and plough cattle were granted, but there was no 
regular famine organization. The exportation of grain was prohibited in 
18 13. Public relief works in times of famine were first started in 1837, 
and besides remissions and advances by Government, a great deal was 
done by private subscriptions. The distress in Allahabad in this year was 
very great, though not quite so disastrous as in the country to the west of 
Cawnpur. The scheme of relief then sketched out was fully developed 
in subsequent scarcities, and improvements in the means of communica- 
tion have also done much to diminish the intensity of such calamities. 
But for these, there is no doubt these later scarcities would have been 
as disastrous as their predecessors. In 1873-74, severe scarcity existed 
in the wild and barren hill-country and the trans-Jumna pargands. Extra 
poor-houses were temporarily established, and, by the prompt and 
vigorous action of Government, the people were enabled to tide over 
the season. The rains of 1874 put an end to the danger, and no 
further assistance was needed. 


Commerce and Trade, etc. — The bankers and large traders of Allahabad 
are chiefly Kshattriyas and Baniyas, though a few Brahmans and Bengalis 
conduct large businesses. The leading houses have agencies at Cal- 
cutta, Benares, Mirzapur, Cawnpur, Agra, and Hathras. Large quanti- 
ties of cotton, grain, and miscellaneous agricultural produce used to be 
sent down the two great rivers in native sailing craft; but the main 
channel of transport is now the East Indian Railway. Besides the prin- 
cipal towns, there are nineteen considerable markets which carry on an 
outside as well as a local trade, to an estimated value of about ^50,000 
annually. The principal local bazars or petty markets are returned as 
numbering 45. No minerals are found in the District, except nodular 
limestone or kankar and the saline earth of the iisar plains, which is 
utilized for the manufacture of salt and saltpetre. The principal fair is 
that known as the Magh Mela, held on the plain near the fort of 
Allahabad in December and January. It lasts for a whole month, and 
is attended by as many as 250,000 persons in ordinary years, either for 
religious or commercial purposes. Every twelfth year is a special 
occasion, and the last kumbh meld in 1882 is estimated to have been 
attended by at least a million of devotees at one time. The great 
bathing-day is at the time of the new moon. The means of communi- 
cation are excellent and varied. The East Indian Railway main line 
runs through the whole length of the District from south-east to north- 
west. It enters from the side of Mirzapur, and runs for 36 miles south 
of the Ganges ; at Naini it crosses the Jumna by a magnificent iron 
girder bridge (11 10 yards long and 106 feet above the river), and passes 
close to the city of Allahabad ; thence it runs north-westerly through 
the Doab pargands, and emerges from the District 43 miles from 
x\llahabad. The stations on this line within the District boundaries 
are Nahwai, Sirsa road, Karchhana, Naini, Allahabad, Manauri, 
Bharwari, and Sirathu. The Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) branch of the East 
Indian Railway, the through route to Bombay in connection with the 
Great Indian Peninsula line, runs through the trans-Jumna pargands, 
with stations at Jasra and Siurajpur. It diverges from the main line 
at Naini Junction, and passes into Rewa 23 miles south-west of 
Allahabad. Passenger steamers formerly plied between Calcutta and 
Allahabad until superseded by the railway. The Grand Trunk Road, 
running nearly parallel with the East Indian Railway, passes through 
the District for 76 miles and conveys the main local traffic. Other 
good roads connect Allahabad with all the surrounding centres of popu- 
lation. Total length of communications — railways, 102 miles ; metalled 
roads, 207 miles; unmetalled roads, 626 miles; navigable rivers, 141 
miles. There is a free public library, which contained about 8700 
volumes in 1877; besides an Allahabad Institute, for the social, moral, 
and intellectual improvement of the people. The District possesses 


five English newspapers— the Pioneer, a daily paper, with its weekly 
issue the Pio?ieer Mail, the Commercial Gazette, Allahabad Advertiser, 
Railway Service Gazette, and Exchange Gazette, besides a weekly 
vernacular newspaper, the Dabir-i-Hind, and the Presbyterian Mission 
press. There are also several private printing presses, both English 
and vernacular. 

Administration. — The District staff generally consists of a Collector- 
Magistrate, two joint-Magistrates, and one assistant-Magistrate, and two 
deputies, besides the usual civil, fiscal, and constabulary officers. The 
total revenue of Allahabad District in 1 880-81 was ,£289,839, of which 
^237,224, or 81-84 per cent., was derived from the land tax. The total 
cost of officials and police of all kinds in the same year, was ,£42,858. 
Twenty-one civil and revenue, and the same number of magisterial 
courts were open. The regular District police force numbered 884 
officers and men, besides 386 employed in towns. Total, 1270 officers 
and men, maintained at a cost of ,£14,852, of which ,£12,003 was 
contributed from provincial, and ^2848 from local sources. In 
addition, there is also a rural police or village watch numbering in 
1S80-81, 3425. The total machinery for the protection of person and 
property, consisted, therefore, of 4695 men of all ranks, giving an 
average of one man to every 0*51 square mile, or one to every 314 in- 
habitants. The total number of Government inspected schools in 1880 
was 170, attended by 5593 pupils. This is exclusive of uninspected and 
unaided schools, which are numerous, but regarding which returns are 
not obtainable. The Census Report of 1881 returned 12,747 boys 
and 851 girls as under instruction; besides 40,013 males and 1908 
females as able to read and write, but not under instruction. The 
principal educational institution is the Muir College at Allahabad, with 
Principal and Professors. In 1880 it contained 79 students, not 
including the Law Class. The College, which is affiliated to the Calcutta 
University, has a special Law Class attached to it, attended in 1880 
by 21 students. There are three places of confinement for prisoners 
in Allahabad. The Central Jail, at Naini, contains all the prisoners 
from the whole Division who are sentenced for a term of years. It 
had a daily average number of 2 119 in 1880, of whom 126 were 
females. The District Jail, in the Allahabad Station, takes the short- 
term prisoners only; daily average in 1880, 720*94, including 50 females. 
In the Magistrate's lock-up, prisoners under trial are confined during 
inquiry; daily average in 1880, 4175, of whom 2-25 were females. 
The worst criminals are sent to the Andamans. The Postmaster- 
General for the North-Westem Provinces has his office in Allahabad, 
and there are n post-offices in the District. The telegraph runs side 
by side with the railway, and has offices at all the railway stations. 
The Government has a head telegraph office at the Allahabad station, 

vol. 1. N 


with branches at Katra, and in Allahabad city. The District is sub- 
divided into 9 tahsils and 14 pargands, as follows :— (1) Allahabad 
tahsil, comprising the pargand of Chail ; (2) Sirathu, comprising the 
pargand of Karra ; (3) Manjhanpur, comprising the parganas ^ of 
Karari and Atharban ; (4) Soraon, comprising the pargands of Soraon 
Nawab-ganj, and Mirzapur ; (5) Phiilpur, including the parganas of 
Sikandraand Jhiise ; (6) Handia, including the pargands of Mah and 
Kiwai; (7) Karchhana, comprising the pargand of Aran 1 ; (8) Bara, 
corresponding to the pargand of Bara; and (9) Meja, comprising the 
pargand of Khairagarh. Allahabad is the only municipality in the 
District. In 1880-81 its total receipts were returned at ,£22,248, of 
which ,£15,104 was derived from octroi; expenditure, ^21,330. 

Sanitary Aspects.— Amongst the bare sandstone hills of the trans- 
Jumna pargands, the seasons are marked by the excessive heat and 
dryness which characterise the adjoining principality of Rewa. Else- 
where, however, the District has the same climate as the remainder of 
the Gangetic Doab. Though the hot weather lasts from April to 
November, yet the dry west winds are not so trying here as in the upper 
country; and during the rains a cool breeze generally blows from the 
Ganges or the Jumna. The average rainfall of the ten years from 1872 
to 1881 was 31-18 inches; the greatest fall was 4 2'4 inches in 1872, 
and the least was 1 7 inches in 1880. The general health of the District 
is good. Number of deaths registered in 1881, 4i,9 I 7, ™ 28 '43 per 
1000 of the population. There are nine charitable dispensaries and one 
hospital in the District, at which 62,892 patients received medical relief 
in 1 88 1. Besides these Government institutions, Allahabad contains 
a large hospital under private management, and an Eye hospital, neither 
of which receives any Government grant. The number of hakims, baids, 
and English educated Bengali medical practitioners is remarkably large, 
owing to the large number of sick who flock to the city. There is also 
a municipal hospital for contagious diseases. [For further details, see 
the Settlement Report of Allahabad District, by F. W. Porter, Esq., C.S. 
(1878); the Provincial Administration Reports for 1880-81-82;^ and 
Census' Report of 1881 ; more general information will be found in Kaye's 
History of the Sepoy War, Elphinstone's History of Lndia, and Sir Henry 
Elliot's Persian Historians, especially the index in the eighth volume.] 

Allahabad. — Head-quarters tahsil or sub-division of Allahabad 
District, North-Western Provinces, forming the extreme end of the 
wedge enclosed between the Ganges and the Jumna. Area, 312 square 
miles, of which 2037 are cultivated. Population (1881) 3i 8 >°59- 
Land revenue (excluding cesses), ^3i,795; total revenue, .£36,728. 
In 1883, the tahsil contained 5 civil and 14 criminal courts, with 9 
thdnds or police circles; strength of regular police, 146, and of rural 
police {chaukiddrs), 495. 


Allahabad— City in the AllahdMd District, and the seat of Govern- 
ment for the North-Western Provinces. Lat. 25 26' n., long. 8i° 55' 
15" e. Allahabad is the third city of the North-Western Provinces 
(excluding Oudh) in size, and the first in administrative importance. It 
lies on the left bank of the Jumna, on the wedge of land formed by its 
confluence with the Ganges, and is distant 564 miles from Calcutta by 
road, and 89 from Benares. The population in 1872, including canton- 
ments and suburbs, amounted to 143,693- In 1881, the total population 
(inclusive of cantonments) was returned at 148,547, made up as follows : 
Allahabad City, with Kydganj, 87,644; Katra-Colonelganj, 12,254; Civil 
Station, 25,710; Cantonments, 9780; and Daraganj, 13,159. The total 
population was divided into 99,518 Hindus, 43,558 Muhammadans, 
140 Jains, 5257 Christians, and 74 'others.' The military force 
stationed at Allahabad on the 1st January 1882, consisted of two 
batteries of artillery, one regiment of European and one of Native 
Infantry, and a regiment of Native Cavalry. The cantonment population 
in 1881 numbered 9780. Total area of town and cantonments, 22,202 
acres. On the angle formed by the junction of the Ganges and the 
Jumna stands the fort, its walls and glacis towering above the river 
banks. The civil station, cantonments, and city occupy the plain 
between the rivers ; stretching back for a distance of over 6 miles from 
their point of junction. The town somewhat recedes from the Ganges, 
but reaches down to the Jumna bank, from which a few ravines run 
upwards into the level expanse. A large tract of low-lying land stretches 
along the Ganges bank, with the thriving suburb of Daraganj inland 
on the higher ground towards the fort. The English quarter is hand- 
somely laid out with broad, well-watered roads, planted on both sides 
with trees. Many of the European residences stand in large com- 
pounds, or parks, and the Station is adorned with public buildings and 
gardens. The native town consists of a network of narrow streets, 
intersected by a few main roads. The houses are of every description, 
from the mud hovel of the suburbs to the garden palace of the Alopi 
Bagh, and the modern mansions of the wealthy native merchants in 
Daraganj and Kydganj. The East Indian Railway enters the city from 
the east by a magnificent bridge across the Jumna. Two bridges of boats 
lead over the Ganges ; while the great rivers afford a water-way to all 
the principal cities of Bengal and the North- West. The Grand Trunk 
Road also passes through Allahabad. 

The fort and city as they now stand were founded by Akbar in 1575 ; 
but a stronghold has existed at the junction of the two rivers since the 
earliest times {ante, p. 186). It was from this post, probably, that the 
Aryan Kshattriyas secured their conquests on the upper valleys of the 
Ganges and the Jumna, or overawed the yet unsubdued aborigines of 
Lower Bengal. The town was visited by Megasthenes, the ambassador 


of Seleukos, in the 3rd century b.c. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, 
Hwen Thsang, in the 7th century a.d., gives a circumstantial account 
of the city, under the name of Prayag, which it still bears amongst the 
Hindu population. He describes it as ' situated at the confluence of 
the two rivers, to the west of a large sandy plain. In the midst of the 
city stood a Brahmanical temple, to which the presentation of a single 
piece of money procured as much merit as that of one thousand pieces 
elsewhere. Before the principal room of the temple there was a large 
tree with wide-spreading branches, which was said to be the abode of a 
man-eating demon. The tree was surrounded with human bones, the 
remains of pilgrims who had sacrificed their lives before the temple, a 
practice which had been observed from time immemorial.' General 
Cunningham, from whom this passage is extracted, adds (1871) :— ' I 
think there can be little doubt that the famous tree here described by the 
pilgrim is the well-known "undecaying Banian tree," which is still an 
object of worship at Allahabad. This tree is now situated underground, 
at one side of a pillared court, which would appear to have been open 
formerly, and which is, I believe, the remains of the temple described 
by Hwen Thsang.' The sacred Banian is next mentioned in the pages 
of Rashid-ud-dm, who states that ' the tree of Prag ' is situated at the 
confluence of the Jumna and Ganges ; and this notice may be referred 
to the date of Mahmiid of Ghazni. The sacred relic still exists, and 
represents to the devout mind a large trunk with spreading branches. 
So far as one can be certain without digging it up, it seems to be merely 
a forked post or log, stuck into the ground with its bark on, and renewed 
secretly by the attendant priests when it threatens to decay. 

During the early middle ages, Allahdbad was probably in the hands 
of the Bhils. The Musalmans first conquered it in n 94, under the 
guidance of Shahab-ud-din Ghori ; and for two centuries the surround- 
ing country formed part of the Karra Province, until that Division was 
merged in the eastern principality of Jaunpur. Babar wrested the 
District from the Pathans in 1529, and in 1575 Akbar re-named the 
city as Allahabad and erected the fort. Towards the end of Akbar's 
reign, Prince Salim, afterwards the Emperor Jahangir, held the gover- 
norship of Allahabad, and lived in the fort. On Salim's accession, his 
son Khusru rebelled against him, but was defeated and made over to 
the custody of his brother Khurram, the future Emperor Shah Jahan. 
Khusru died in 16 15, and the mausoleum in the Khusru Bagh at 
Allahabad was erected in his honour. Throughout the 18th century, 
Allahabad experienced the usual reverses of Upper India during the 
disastrous period of Mughal decline. In 1736 it fell into the hands 
of the Marathas, who held it till 1750, when the city was sacked by 
the Pathans of Farukhabad. In 1 753, Safdar Jang, the Nawab of Oudh, 
seized upon the city, and retained possession till 1765. The English, 


after their victory at Buxar (October 1764), restored it to the Emperor 
Shah Alam (1765). But in 1771, when he threw himself into the 
hands of the Marathas, they held that it had escheated, and sold it to 
the Nawab of Oudh for 50 lakhs of rupees. As the Nawab's tribute- 
was in a state of perpetual and progressive arrears, an arrangement was 
effected in November 1801, by which the city and District, together 
with the Doab generally, were ceded to the British. Allahabad was 
the seat of the Provincial Government from 1833, when the North- 
western Provinces were constituted a separate administration, till 1835, 
when the capital was removed to Agra. Agra remained the seat of 
the Government of the North-Western Provinces until 1858. After 
the suppression of the Mutiny in that year, Allahabad again became 
the provincial capital, and has continued to be so up to the present 

During the Mutiny of 1857, Allahabad became the scene of one of 
the most serious outbreaks and massacres which occurred in the North- 
Western Provinces. The news of the outbreak at Meerut reached 
Allahabad on the 12th May. The native troops in the cantonment 
consisted of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry, a wing of a Sikh regiment, 
and two troops of Oudh Irregular Horse. A small body of European 
artillerymen were brought in from Chanar fort as news of the spread 
of the rebellion arrived. Disquieting rumours soon prevailed in 
Allahabad, but precautionary measures were taken in the fort and 
approaches to the city, and affairs remained quiet for some time. 
The Sepoys of the 6th volunteered to march against the rebels at Delhi, 
and at the sunset parade on the 6th June the thanks of the Governor- 
General were read to the regiment for their devoted loyalty. At nine 
o'clock that very evening the Sepoys rose in open rebellion, fired upon 
and murdered most of their officers, and plundered the treasury. Many 
military and civil officers were in the fort at the time of the rising. The 
city rabble joined in the plunder and bloodshed ; the jail was broken 
open, the dwellings of the Christian residents sacked and burnt, and 
every European or Eurasian captured, was murdered in cold blood. 
The work of destruction only ceased from want of anything further to 
destroy, and a sort of provisional insurgent government was established 
in the city, under a man called ' The Maulvi,' who proclaimed the 
restored rule of the Delhi Emperor. The little garrison of Europeans 
and loyal Sikhs held together in the fort until the arrival of General 
Neill with a party of the Madras Fusiliers on the nth June. On the 
morning after his arrival, General Neill assumed the offensive against 
an insurgent rabble in the suburb of Daraganj, which was carried and 
destroyed. On the 15th June, after having despatched the women and 
children to Calcutta by steamer, Neill opened the guns of the fort upon 
the suburbs of Kydganj and Miilganj, which were occupied after some 


opposition. On the 17 th June the Magistrate proceeded to the city 
Kotwdli and re-established his authority, without opposition. The rebel 
leader 'the Maulvi ' escaped; and on the morning of the 18th, Neill 
with his whole force marched into the city, which he found deserted. 

Havelock arrived at Allahabad shortly after, and the united force 
moved on to Cawnpur. Although the surrounding country remained 
for a time in rebellion, there was no further disturbance in Allahabad 
itself. In 1858, after the suppression of the Mutiny, Allahabad was 
definitively selected as the seat of Government for the North- Western 

The fort still forms a striking object from the river. It crowns the 
point where the Ganges and the Jumna unite. But the ancient castle 
of the Musalman governors no longer remains ; the high towers having 
been cut down, and the stone ramparts topped with turfed parapets and 
fronted with a sloping glacis. The changes, rendered necessary by 
modern military exigencies, have greatly detracted from the picturesque- 
ness of the fort as a relic of antiquity. Within the enclosure lie the 
officers' quarters, powder magazine, and barracks, while the old palace 
is now utilized as an arsenal. An enclosure and garden just inside the 
gateway contains the celebrated pillar of Asoka, which bears an edict 
of this great Buddhist Emperor, circ. 240 B.C. The pillar was further 
inscribed in the 2nd century a.d. with a record of Samudra Gupta's 
victories and sovereignty over the various nations of India. It was re- 
erected by the Mughal Emperor Jahangfr, who added a Persian legend, 
to commemorate his accession in 1605 a.d. Finally, it was set up in 
its present position by a British officer in 1838. Near the pillar stands 
the subterranean temple which covers the undying Banian tree. This 
building, dedicated to Siva, passes as the traditional place where the 
Saraswati, or Sarsuti, unites with the Ganges and the Jumna. The 
moisture on the walls of the underground chamber affords sufficient 
proof of its existence for the satisfaction of devotees. The Khusru 
Bagh, or garden and mausoleum of Prince Khusru, stands close to the 
railway station. The tomb consists of a handsome domed building, in 
the style of the Taj, the interior being painted with birds and flowers. 
Two minor mausoleums occupy sites in its neighbourhood. Among 
noteworthy modern buildings are the Government offices and courts, 
the European Barracks, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, Trinity Church, 
and the Thornhill and Mayne Memorial, containing the library and 
museum. The Muir Central College at Allahabad is the chief 
educational establishment of the North-Western Provinces. Sir W. 
Muir instituted the scheme, and Lord Northbrook laid the foundation- 
stone in 1874. The Mayo Memorial and Town Hall completes the 
list of handsome public buildings. Government House stands in a 
park-like enclosure on slightly rising ground, and has a central suite of 


public rooms, with a long curved wing on either side containing the 
private apartments. The Allahabad Central Jail at Naini is one of the 
largest prisons in India, and admirably managed. 

Allahabad is not famous for any particular trade or manufacture, but 
it has long been a mart of considerable general importance ; and since 
the formation of the railway system of Upper India enormous quantities 
of goods pass through the town. There is a local trade in gold and 
silver ornaments j but Allahabad is rather an exchange mart for the 
purchase and sale of goods produced at other places, than a depot 
for articles manufactured within the city itself. A great religious 
fair, known as the Magh Mela, is held in December and January on 
the plain near the fort, just above the junction of the Ganges and the 
Jumna. It is one of the largest in the Province, being ordinarily 
visited by about 250,000 persons; but at the great fair held every 
twelfth year, the Kumbh Mela, as many as a million pilgrims are 
present at one time. The great bathing-day is at the new moon, but 
pilgrims and traders attend the sacred spot throughout the whole 
month. The religious ablutions are presided over by a peculiar 
class of Brahmans, who bear a bad character for turbulence and 

The local administration of Allahabad is conducted by a municipal 
board, under the Municipal Act of 1883 for the North- Western Pro- 
vinces. In 1880-81 the total municipal revenue amounted to ,£22,248 
(of which ^"15,104 was derived from octroi), while the gross expendi- 
ture was .£21,330. [For further information, see authorities quoted at 
the end of last article, Allahabad District.] 

Allah Band. — On the southern frontier of Sind, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Lat. 24 21' n., long. 69 n' e. A long bank of earth, partly 
saline, mixed with sand and shells ; about 50 miles in length, and in 
places 16 miles broad. It was upheaved by the earthquake of 181 9, 
across the Purana branch of the Indus. In 1826, an overflow of the 
Indus breached the Band, the waters expanding, just below the cutting, 
into a vast lake (called by Burnes the ' Lake of Sidree'), now merged in 
the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh). 

Allahganj. — Town in Aligarh tahsil, Farukhabad District, North- 
western Provinces, situated on the Rohilkhand Trunk road, 13 miles 
north-north-east of Fatehgarh town. The town, or rather village, con- 
tains a police station, post-office, village school, and a sardi or inn for 
native travellers. A market is held twice a week, but the sales are 
confined to the ordinary trade in grain and cloth. An encamping 
ground outside the village marks the first stage for troops marching to 
Shahjahanpur or Bareli. 

Allan-myo. — Frontier town, Thayet District, British Burma. On 
left bank of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy) and close to the old Burmese town 


of Myedeh. Lat. 19 21' 25" n., long. 95" 17' 30" e. Built during the 
Burmese War, it has rapidly risen in importance, and is now a 
flourishing seat of export trade for a large tract on the east of the 
Irawadi. Called after Major Allan, of the Madras Army, who 
demarcated the adjoining boundary line between British and Inde- 
pendent Burma. The residence of an Assistant Commissioner. 
Population (1881) 5825; namely, Buddhists, 5403; Muhammadans, 
144 ; Hindus, 89 ; and Christians, [89. 

Alleppi {Aulapolay, Allapalli). — Chief port and second largest town 
in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 29' 45" n., long. 
76 22' 31" e. ; population about 30,000. Situated on the coast 33 
miles south of Cochin, and 464 from Madras ; it lies between the 
sea and an extensive tract of paddy-fields bordering the backwater, 
which here forms an extensive lake. Safe roadstead all the year 
round. The export trade has an average annual value of ^2 20,446, and 
consists chiefly of vegetable produce, coffee, cardamoms, ginger, pepper, 
cocoa-nuts, coir, and fish. Alleppi is a depot for the products of the 
Travancore forests, and is the seat of two coir matting manufactories. 
The average annual import trade amounts in value to ^157,476. 
The harbour returns for 1880-81 show a total of 323 ships of all kinds 
as having called, aggregating a tonnage of 172,709. Excellent 
anchorage always available ; for although there is no protecting head- 
land, a very remarkable mud bank, or floating mud island, of about 1 \ 
mile in length, breaks the force of the roughest seas, and ensures 
shelter to vessels in the roadstead. The lighthouse, 85 feet high, bears 
a revolving white light, visible 18 miles out at sea. 

The canal connecting the port with the great backwater to the 
north-east, passes through the centre of the town, at right angles to 
all the main streets, which cross it by seven bridges. A tramway, 
worked by coolies, conveys heavy goods from the end of the iron 
pier, newly constructed, to the warehouses. The soil on which the 
town is built is sandy ; the general health is good ; average mean 
temperature, 82 . Among the public buildings are the Maharaja's 
palace, the zild and munsif's courts, hospital, school, travellers' bungalow, 
postal, telegraph, and customs offices ; also a school and a church, 
built by Protestant missionaries. To the last is attached a small 
Christian community. 

Bartolomeo records that Alleppi was opened to foreign trade in 1762, 
and mentions the canal, from the port to the backwater, as being then 
in existence. In 1809 a detachment of European soldiers and 
Company's Sepoys, who had halted here on their way up the coast, 
were treacherously massacred by the Nairs. 

Alllir (or Pantalalluni). — Town in Nellore District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 14 41' 30" n., long. 8o° 5' 21" e. ; houses, 1061 ; 


population (1SS1) 5190, — mainly rice cultivators; three fine tanks 
provide ample irrigation. Sub-magistrate's court, post-office. 

Allur cum Kottapatnam (Akula Allur). — Village and port on the 
sea-coast, in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 27' (Allur) 
and 15 26' 40" (Kottapatnam) n., long. 8o° 9' 45" (Allur) and 8o° 
12' 15" (Kottapatnam) e. Population (1881) 6267, nearly 30 per cent, 
being of the trading caste of Kamattis ; houses, 1378. The export 
trade consists chiefly in the dry grains and oil-seeds of Cumbum 
(Kambam), Dupad, and the Addanki country. The coast canal from 
Madras passes through the town. It is the station of a superintendent 
of sea customs and of a sub-magistrate. 

Almodh. — Chiefship in Chhindwara District, Central Provinces, 
consisting of 52 villages, situated among the Mahddeo Hills, between 
22 17' and 22 25' n. lat. and between 78 18' and 78 30' e. 
long. Area, 52 square miles; occupied houses, 565; total population 
(1881) 3133, namely 1647 males and i486 females. The jdgirddr is 
one of the Bhopas or hereditary guardians of the Mahadeo temples. He 
receives from the Government an annual allowance of ^17 in lieu of 
pilgrim tax, and pays an annual tribute of £3, 10s. od. Almodh village 
is a mere hamlet of 59 houses, picturesquely situated at a high elevation. 
It is, however, very inaccessible from all sides, and the jdgirddr has re- 
moved his residence to a more populous village at the foot of the hills. 

Almora. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Kumaun 
District, North-Western Provinces ; 5494 feet above sea level. Lat. 
2 9° 35' 1 6" N -> long, 79° 41' 16" e. ; population (1881) 7390 (including 
the cantonments), comprising 6323 Hindus, 866 Muhammadans, and 
201 Christians. The population within municipal limits in 1881 was 
only 4813. It stands on the crest of a ridge, and for centuries formed 
one of the strongholds of its native rulers, in whose history it played 
an important part. In 1 744, the aggressions of the Rohillas sent a 
Muhammadan force for the first time into Kumaun. They captured 
and plundered Almora, but after a few months retired, disgusted with 
the poverty of the country and the rigours of the climate. The country 
round Almora again formed an important strategical centre in the 
Gurkha War of 181 5, which was concluded by the evacuation of the 
post on the 26th of April, after a heavy cannonade by Colonel Nicholls, 
and the surrender of the town and Kumaun to the British power. 
Almora is a substantially-built and prosperous little town, and the 
local demand for labour is so great that a hillman can pay his whole 
land tax for a year by a week's work at the station. Municipal 
revenue, chiefly from house tax, in 188 r, £517; expenditure, ^443- 

Alur— Village in Hassan District, Mysore State, 7 miles west 
of Hassan. Lat. 12 59' n., long. 76 3' e. ; population (1SS1) 853. 
Chief rice mart of Hassan District. 


Aliir. — Tdluk of Bellary District, Madras Presidency. Area, 646 
square miles, containing 107 villages, and 12,039 occupied houses; 
population (1881) 65,586 (namely, 33,212 males and 32,374 females), 
of whom 8 per cent, were Muhammadans. Land revenue (1882-83), 
^22,201 ; cost of administration, ^745 ; number of criminal courts, 2 ; 
police stations, 6 ; police strength, 49 men. The tdluk is within the civil 
jurisdiction of the Adoni mu?isif. Of the total acreage (405,530) about 90 
per cent, is under cultivation, 341,396 acres being 'dry,' and only 652 
1 wet.' The large proportion under crops is due to the fact of the soil 
being of the best black cotton description, rendering this small tdluk 
one of the richest in the District ; while the remarkably small area of 
4 wet' cultivation is due to the absence of irrigation channels and 
tanks, the only river, the Hagri, being almost useless for agricultural 
purposes, from its wide sandy margins and shifting bed. The dead 
level of the country, too, makes artificial storage extremely difficult; 
hence there is not a single tank of any size. The principal crops are 
cotton and cholum, the centre of the trade for the former being at 
Molagavelli. About 60 miles of road intersect the tdluk and connect 
the chief towns, Aliir, Harivanam, Molagavelli, Chikka Hottiir, 
Hollalgiindi, and Chippagiri. 

Aliir. — Town on the Trunk Road in the Aliir tdluk, Bellary District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 2021. Except as the head- 
quarters of the tdluk, of no importance. Travellers' bungalow, several 
minor official establishments, police station, grant-in-aid school. 

Alvarkurichchi {Alw&rUr&nagdn), — Town in Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 47' 45" n., long 77 25' 45" e. ; population 
(1881) 5956 ; namely, 5799 Hindus, 16 Muhammadans, and 141 
Christians. Situated on the right bank of the Tambraparni river, 19 
miles south-east of Tinnevelli. 

Aiwa (Alava). — Petty State of the Sankhera-Mewas, in Rewa 
Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area, 6 square miles ; estimated 
revenue, ^600. The Chief is a Chauhan Rajput, with the title 
of Thakur, and pays tribute of £6, 14s. to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Alwar. — State in Rijputana, under the political superintendence of 
the Rajputana Agency and the Government of India. It was, in the 
early days of the East India Company, known as Machery (Machari), 
from a town of that name formerly the residence of the Rao Rajas. 
Bounded on the north by the British District of Gurgaon, the Bawal 
pargand of Nabha State, and the Kot Kasim pargand of Jaipur (Jey- 
pore) ; on the east by the State of Bhartpur, and Gurgaon District ; 
on the south and west by the State of Jaipur ; situated between lat. 
27 5' and 28 15' n., long. 76 10' and 77 15' e. Number of villages, 
1806. Area, 3024 square miles. Population (1881) 682,926, of whom 
526,115 were Hindus, 151,727 Musalmans, 90 Christians, and 4994 

ALWAR. 203 

Jains, giving an average of 2258 souls to the square mile; the Dumber 

of inhabited houses returned at the same time was 101,348. The 
Meos are the most important race in the State, and the agricultural 
portion of them is considerably more than double any other class of 
cultivators, except Chamars. They occupy about half the territory, 
mainly in the north and east, and own some 448 villages. They are 
divided into 52 clans, of which the 12 largest are called Pdls, and the 
smaller Gots. Claiming to be of Rajput origin, the Meos are now all 
Musalmans in name; but their village deities are the same as those of 
Hindus, and they observe several Hindu festivals, in addition to 
Muhammadan. As agriculturists they are inferior to their Hindu 
neighbours. The Rajputs (26,889), though the ruling class, do not 
form a twentieth of the population of the State. The Brahmans were 
returned at 75,965, of whom about half were agriculturists. The other 
classes of Hindus returned were — Jats, 29,725 ; Ahirs, 50,942 ; Gujars, 
39,826; Baniyas, or trading castes, 42,212; Chamars, 69,201 : Balais, 
6616; others, 149,579; and Minas, 38,164. There are no very 
wealthy people in the State, and only a few rich ; these last are found 
not in the city of Alwar, but in the villages of Rajgarh and Bas of the 
Kishangarh pargand. 

Ridges of rocky and precipitous hills, generally parallel and lying 
north and south, are a feature observable throughout the whole State, 
which, however, to the north and east is generally open. The hills 
attain a height of nearly 2400 feet above the level of the sea, and about 
1600 feet above the level of the surrounding country. The Sabi is the 
chief stream in the State, and forms for 16 miles the western boundary. 
Owing to its high banks it is useless for irrigation ; it dries up after the 
rains. A fine railway iron bridge, resting on masonry piers, crosses it 
just beyond the Alwar border. The other streams are the Riiparel, 
Chuhar Sidh, and Lindwa ; the two former are valuable irrigation 
channels. Slate, marble (black, white, and pink), slate-coloured 
sandstone, talc, red ochre, iron, copper, lead, and potash, are produced 
in abundance in the hills, and in the vicinity of the capital. Large 
and small game of every kind abound in the State. 

Originally, Alwar State consisted of petty chiefships, which till the 
middle of the last century owed allegiance to Jaipur and Bhartpur. 
The founder of the present family was Pratap Singh, a Nariika Rajput, 
who at first possessed but two villages and a half, Machari being one 
of them. During the minority of the Maharaja of Jaipur, and while 
Jats, Mughals, and Marathas were contending with each other, he 
succeeded, between 1771 and 1776, in establishing independent power 
in the greater part of the territory which now forms the southern half 
of the State. In the war carried on by Mfrza Najif Khdn against the 
Jats, he united his forces at an opportune moment with those of the 

2o 4 ALWAR. 

former, and aided him in defeating the enemy at Barsana and at Dig 
(Deeg). As a reward for his services, he obtained the title of Rao Raja, 
and a sanad authorizing him to hold Machari direct. In 1776 he took 
advantage of the weakness of Bhartpur, to wrest from the Jats the town 
and fort of Alwar. His brethren of the Nariika clan of Rajputs then 
acknowledged him as their chief. He was succeeded by his adopted 
son Bakhtawar Singh, during whose time the country was overrun by 
the Marathas. At the commencement of the Maratha war of 1803-6, 
Bakhtawar Singh allied himself with the British Government ; and the 
famous battle of Laswari, in which Sindhia's forces were completely de- 
feated by Lord Lake, was fought about 1 7 miles east of the town of Alwar. 
After this campaign, the British Government conferred on Bakhtawar 
Singh the northern Districts of the present State, and thereby raised 
his revenue from 7 to 10 lakhs. The new Districts lay in the tract well 
known in Mughal history as Mewat, or the country of the Meos. 

In 1803, the Chief of Alwar accepted the protection of the British 
Government ; and a treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, was 
concluded, on the basis that Alwar should pay no tribute, but that its 
troops should co-operate with the British Government when required. 
In 181 1, it was found that intrigues, threatening the independence of 
Jaipur, were being carried on in Alwar, with the connivance of the 
Chief; and that the existing treaty approached too nearly to an equal 
alliance to allow of Government interference. A fresh engagement 
was therefore made, by which the Rao Raja was expressly prohibited 
from political intercourse with other States. In 181 2, Bakhtawar Singh 
took possession of the forts of Dhobi and Sikrawa, with adjoining 
territory belonging to Jaipur, and refused to restore them on the 
remonstrance of the Resident at Delhi. A British force was moved 
against him ■ but on its arrival within one march of his capital, Bakhta- 
war Singh yielded, and restored the usurped territory. Bakhtawar Singh 
was succeeded by his nephew and adopted son, Bani Singh ; but as he 
had also left an illegitimate son, Balwant Singh, a dispute arose about 
the succession, and the British Government advised a suitable provision 
being made for Balwant Singh. The advice was disregarded, and an 
attempt was made to murder Balwant Singh's chief supporter, when 
staying with the British Resident. Accordingly, after the capture of 
Bhartpur in January 1827, a force advanced towards Alwar, and Bani 
Singh was compelled to make over to Balwant Singh the northern tracts, 
which in Lord Lake's time had been conferred upon his father. 
Balwant Singh died childless in 1845, an d his possessions then reverted 
to Alwar. Bani Singh died in 1857, after the outbreak of the Mutiny. 
An Alwar contingent was sent towards Agra to co-operate with the 
British forces, but it was headed by a traitor, who betrayed it to the 
rebels, and it was dispersed. 

AL WAR. 205 

Bani Singh was succeeded by his son Sheodan Singh, at that time 
thirteen years of age. The Muhammadan ministers obtained an 
ascendency over the young chief, which caused a rising of the Rajput 
nobles to expel them. On this, it was considered advisable to appoint 
a Political Agent at Alwar, to advise and assist the council of regency 
during the young chiefs minority. Soon after Sheodan Singh's accession 
to power, the affairs of the State fell into confusion, and discontent was 
shown by insurrection. In 1870, a council of management, presided 
over by a British officer, was appointed, by whom the State was 
governed. Sheodan Singh died in 1874, without any legitimate 
descendant, either lineal or adopted, and it was considered advisable 
that a ruler should be selected from the collateral branches of the 
ruling family. The choice between those having the strongest claims 
was left to the twelve Kotris, as the Naruka families are called, and the 
selection fell upon Thakur Mangal Singh of the Thanna family. The 
Chief of Alwar, who has the title of Mahdrao Raja, enjoys the right of 
adoption, and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. In 1866, an extradi- 
tion treaty was concluded with Alwar. British coin has been introduced 
into the State. In 1865, the Raja agreed to give the land required for 
railway purposes free of cost, and to compensate the owners. He also 
consented to cede full jurisdiction in such land, short of sovereign 
rights, to the British Government, and to surrender all transit and 
other duties on goods passing through. The Delhi branch of the 
Rajputana State Railway now runs through the State, nearly bisecting 
it from north to south, and joins the line from Agra to Jaipur at 
Bandikui Junction, which is just beyond the southern boundary of the 
State. Several roads are in course of construction as feeders to the 
railway. Of the fairs held in the State the most important are those at 
Bilali, at Chuhar Sidh, and at the capital. 

For fiscal purposes Alwar State is divided into 14 ta/isils, viz. 
Tijara, Kishangarh, Mandawar, Bahror, Govindgarh, Ramgarh, Alwar, 
Bansur, Katumbar, Lachhmangarh, Rajgarh, Thana Ghazi, Baldeogarh, 
and Tartabgarh. Fifty-five per cent, of the whole area of the State is 
under cultivation, half being irrigated ; the crops produced are the 
millets bdjra and jodr, barley, gram, cotton, Indian corn, wheat, 
pulses, oil-seeds, tobacco, sugar-cane, and opium. During the last 
century and a quarter no less than ten famines have occurred in Alwar, 
of which five were specially severe. The State also suffers occasionally 
from floods and locusts. The manufacture of iron was in former times 
a great industry in the State, but it has fallen off of late years, 
the out-turn at the present time being about 660 to 700 tons a year; 
and since the introduction of British coin for the cumbrous takka, 
the production of copper has also declined. The manufactures are not 
of much account ; a good deal of paper is made at Tijara, and inferior 



glass from a peculiar earth, a few miles east of the capital. The 
imports are sugar, rice, salt, and piece goods. 

The revenue of the State in 1875 was .£232,431 5 expenditure, 
^201 129- the government was carried on by a council of admini- 
stration under the Presidency of the Chief, with three Courts, 
appellate, revenue, and criminal. There are several schools in the 
State and three dispensaries at Alwar city, Tijara, and Rajgarh, for 
each of which a cess of one per cent, is levied. Alwar pays no tribute 
or contribution to local contingents. The Chief maintains an army of 
1800 cavalry, 475° Gantry, 10 field and 290 other guns, and 369 
artillerymen. [For further information, see Major Powlett's Gazetteer of 
Alwar (edition 1878), and the Rdjputdna Gazetteer, vol. in., Alwar 
Section, by Major Powlett (1880).] 

Alwar— Capital of the Native State of the same name, Rajputana ; 
situated nearly in the centre of the State. Two modes of deriving its 
name are current: one, that it was anciently called Alpur, or 'strong 
city;' the other, that by an interchange of letters, it is a form of the 
word Arbal, the name of the main chain with which the hills near 
the city are connected. The first historical mention of the town 
is in Ferishta, who speaks of a Rajput of Alwar contending with 
the Ajmere Rajputs a.d. 1195. The city is protected by a ram- 
part and a moat on all sides, except where the rocky hill range, 
crowned by the fort, secures it from attack. There are five gates, and 
the streets are well paved. The chief buildings within the city are— 
(1) the Raja's palace; (2) the cenotaph of Maharaja Bakhtawar Singh; 
(3) the temple of Jagannath ; (4) the court-house and revenue office ; 
(5) an ancient tomb, said to be that of one Tarang Sultan, brother of 
the Emperor Firoz Shah, called the Tripolia. The Muhammadan 
shrine of most account in the city is that of one Bhikan, after whom a 
street has been named. Just 1000 feet above the Tripolia is the fort 
(lat. 27 34' 4" N., long. 76 38' 28" e.), containing a palace and other 
buildings, erected chiefly by the first two Naruka rulers of Alwar. Its 
rampart's extend along the hill-top and across the valley for about 2 miles. 
It is said to have been built by Nikumbh or Nikumpa Rajputs, and has 
undoubtedly been in the hands successively of Khanzadas, Mughals, 
Pathans, Jats, and Narukas. Below the fort are two important 
outworks, called respectively the Chitanki and the Kabul Khurd. 
There are also five considerable temples belonging to the Jain and 
Saraogi sects, of whom there are about 400 families. The Lake of 
Siliserh, more than a mile in length, and about 400 yards in average 
width, is 9 miles south-west of the city ; and to an aqueduct which 
brings its waters to Alwar is due the beauty of the environs. The lake 
abounds with fish, and much game is to be found in the neighbourhood ; 
it is a favourite resort of pleasure parties. The Banni Bilas palace and 


garden, situated about a mile from the town, are famous for their 
picturesque situation. The Residency,— about a mile and a half from 
the city,-a fine tank for the use of the town, and an excellent jail on 
the Tijara road, are the principal works in the suburbs, and good metal 
roads, in and around the town, keep up communications in every 
direction. Major Powlett (Gazetteer of Ahuar, London, 1S78) mentions 
many other interesting places of public resort in the neighbourhood of 
the city. The same authority states that in 1872 the population of 
the city and suburbs was 52,357, and that the most numerous classes 
are Brahmans, Baniyds, and Chamars. In 1S81 the Census returned 
a total population of 49,867 ; namely, 37,100 Hindus, 12,680 Muham- 
madans, and 87 others. 

Alwaye.— Town in Kannutanad District, Travancore State Madras 
Presidency Lat. io° 6' 50" n., long. 7 6° 23' 31" E . ; population 
(1881) under 3000. The Portuguese and Dutch selected it as the 
sanitarium of Cochin, and such it is still considered. Situated on the 
river Alwaye (Peryar), 20 miles from Cochin. 

Alwaye.— River in Cochin State, Madras Presidency; named by 
the early Portuguese the « Fiera d'Alva.' It forms a branch of the 
Peryar, which it joins at Alwaye town, and enters the Cochin estuary 
a few miles from that city. Cochin derives its drinking water from the 
Alwaye river. 

Amala. — Dd?ig State, Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area 200 square miles; population about 4700. Estimated gross 
revenue, ^300. The Chief, a Bhfl, lives at Modal, and has no patent 
allowing adoption, the family following the rule of primogeniture. Owin- 
to the wild and unhealthy nature of the country, the internal resources 
of the State are practically unknown. The inhabitants are ignorant 
and superstitious, and make little or no progress. 

Amalapuram. — Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency 
Population (1881) 3165. 

Amalapuram.— Taluk of Godavari District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 506 square miles; contains 170 villages; population (1SS1) 
227 157, chiefly Hindus. Land revenue (1882-83) ,£57,270; cost 
of administration, ^949 ; number of civil and criminal courts, 3. This 
taluk is the stronghold of Brahmanism in the District. It is irrigated 
by three navigable main canals from the anicut, namely the Lolla, the 
Gaunawaram, and the Amalapuram, which supply water to all the 
various branch channels. The country is flat, very rich and pro- 
ductive, and the central part is noted for its cocoa-nut, areca-nut, 
and plantain plantations. Several branches of the Godavari flow 
through it or along its border, in their course to the sea. In the bed 
of one, the Vasishta Godavari, there are valuable islands formed by 
accumulated deposits of silt. No special industry; the principal trade 


is in cocoa-nuts and oil, areca-nuts, paddy, grain, oil-seeds cloth, and 
cotton twist, exported by the canals to Cocanada , ^-ahendn 
(Rajahmundry), and Ellore. No imports except salt. The chief 
towns are Amalapuram, Palivela, Rdli, and Ambdjipetta 

Amalaptom (' The Sinless OY,').-Town in the tdlukoi the same 
name in Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Lat 16 34 20 N, 
IcT S 2 ° 2' 40" e.; houses, .363 5 P°P^°" (188.) 86a 3 , namely 
8i 7 °6 Hindus, 440 Muhammadans, and 7 Christians. Sub-magistrates 
court and headquarters of tdluk. Situated in the delta of the Godavar. 
river on a canal 38 miles south-east from Rdjmahendn (Rajahmundry). 

Amalner.-Sub-division of Khdndesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
ArtaS square miles, with 2 towns and 223 villages. PopulaUon 
(188 ) 88,986, or 169 to the square mile, mainly agriculturists. Hindus 
numbered 75,°44; Muhammadans, 68 I2 ; 'others,' 713°; °cc«prcd 
houses 14 196. Of the total area, 82 per cent, is arable land 13 per 
cent is waste, and the remainder is taken up by village sites, roads, and 
rivers Flat for the most part, and widely tilled in the north ; the 
southern portion, broken by a low chain of hills, being less cultivated 
The Tdpti forms the northern boundary for about 20 miles, and with 
its tributaries, the Bori and Pdnjhrd, affords an unfailing supply of water 
for irrigation. Contains 223 villages with 3*37 working wells, and, 
in addition to the chief town, the following market towns where 
weekly marts are held: Betawad, Bahddurpur, Varsi, and Shirsala. 
Imports, salt, dates, sugar, betel-nuts, cocoa-nuts, spices, foreign cloths 
and yarn. Exports, cotton, linseed, M, a little indigo, and coriander 
seed Of the total population, 93 per cent, are Hindus, chiefly of the 
Kdnbi caste. There are three important lines of road passing through 
the sub-division connecting the chief town with Dhulia, Betawad 
Erandol, and Dharangaon, two of these roads being continuations of 

the Berdr highway. 

Amalner— Chief town of the Sub-division of the same name in 
Khdndesh District, Bombay Presidency. On the left bank of the river 
Bori 21 miles north-east of Dhdlia. Lat. 21° 1' 45" N-, long. 75 7 ^5 E -> 
population (1881) 7627 ; namely, Hindus, 6089 ; Muhammadans, 1 201 ; 
Tains 101 ; and 'others,' 236; municipal revenue (1881-S2), ^254, 
rate of taxation, 4 d. per head. The town has a sub-judge's court, and a 
post-office. A large fair is held annually in the month of May. 

Amalyara —Tributary State of the Political Agency of Mahi-kantna, 
in Guzerat, Bombay Presidency; lying between 22' 59' and 23 2. N 
lat., and between 72° 44 and 73° u! F- l° n & ' PoP^t.on (1S81 
124-7- estimated area under cultivation, 35,916 btghas. Principal 
crops, cereals, especially millets. No mines and no manufactures. _ For 
administrative purposes the State is included in the Watrak Sub-d.v.sion 
of Mdhi Kdntha territory. Estimated gross yearly revenue, £2380. 


Two schools, with 64 pupils. The family of the Chief arc Hindus 
Khant Kolis by caste. In matters of succession they follow the rule of 
primogeniture, but do not hold a gonad authorizing adoption. The 
Chief has the title of Thakur, and pays to the Gaekwar of Baroda an 
annual tribute of ^31, 13s. 4 d. Transit dues are levied in this State. 
Prevailing diseases, fever and dysentery. 

Amalyara.— Chief town of the State of Amalyara, in Mahi Kanthn, 
Bombay Presidency; 34 miles north-east of Ahmadabad. Lat 2wV\' 

1 o / ti ' O O f 

long- 73 5 20' e. 

Amanat.— The chief feeder of the North Koel river, Bengal ; rises 
in the hilly pargand of Kunda in Hazaribagh District, and, flowing west, 
joins the North Koel a little north of Daltonganj in Lohdrdaga. Its 
bed is sandy throughout. 

Amaniganj.— Market village in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh. 
Annual bazar sales about ^2770, chiefly agricultural produce and 
cotton cloth. Population (1881) 2809, namely, Hindus 2359, and 
Muhammadans 450. Government school. 

^ Amaniganj-hat.— The chief silk mart in Maldah District, Bengal. 
Traders come to this village from the neighbouring Districts^ of 
Murshidabad and Rajshahf to buy mulberry silk cocoons, and also 
native-wound and raw silk, called khajiyrii. On the weekly market-day, 
cocoons and raw silk to the value of ^2000 to ^5000 are often sold.' 
The rates for cocoons at each bandh or breeding season are fixed here 
for the whole District. 

Amapur (Amdnpur).— Small trading town in Kasganj ta/isil, Etah 
District, North - Western Provinces, situated on the Delhi and 
Farukhabad road, 13 h miles from Etah town. The town is the seat of 
a considerable trade in cotton, grain, and indigo seed, and contains 
several wealthy bankers and merchants; although it has declined in 
importance since the opening of the Grand Trunk road. A small 
municipal income, in the shape of a house-tax, is levied for police and 
conservancy purposes, under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Amarapura ('The City of the Gods').— A town of Independent 
Burma, situated on the right bank of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy) river. 
Lat. 21 57' N ., long. 73 4' e. It was founded in 1783, as a new 
capital for the Burmese kingdom. It increased rapidly in size, and in 
1 8 10 its population was estimated at 170,000 ; but in that year the town 
was destroyed by fire, and this disaster, together with the removal of 
the Native Court in 1819, caused a decline in the prosperity of the 
place. It remained the capital till 1822. In 1827 its population was 
calculated at only 30,000. An estimate made by Major Grant Allan 
from an enumeration of the houses (in 1835) g ave the population within 
the walls at 26,670, or, including the immediate suburbs, 90,000. Since 
then it has suffered another severe calamity from an earthquake, which 

vol. 1. 


in 1839 destroyed the greater part of the city. It again became the 
capital about 1838, soon after the accession of Tharawaddi in 1837 ; 
and it had been re-occupied before the earthquake of 1839. The 
late king (who recently died in 1878) removed the seat of his govern- 
ment to Mandalay, about i860. Amarapura is regularly laid out; but, 
with the exception of a few temples, the town is built only of bamboos, 
although several of the buildings, being richly gilt, have a showy 
appearance. The most remarkable edifice is a celebrated temple, 
adorned with 250 lofty pillars of gilt wood, and containing a colossal 
bronze statue of Buddha. The remains of the palace of the Burmese 
monarchs still exist in the centre of the town. During the time of its 
prosperity, Amarapura was defended by a rampart and a large square 
citadel, with a broad moat, the walls being 7000 feet long and 20 feet 
high, with a bastion at each corner. Whilst it was the capital, a very 
few of the principal houses were built of timber, the others being of 
bamboo. The Chinese quarter was of brick. 

Amarapiiram. — Town in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency. 
— See Amrapur. 

Amarkantak. — Hill in Rewa State, Baghelkhand ; 3493 feet 
above sea level. Lat. 22 40' 15" n., long. 8i° 48' 15" e. The hill 
forms a portion of the Satpura range, and its summit consists of an 
extensive plateau. Interesting for its temples around the sources of 
the sacred river Narbada (Nerbudda), and for its waterfalls. 

Amarnath (or Ambarndth, literally ' Immortal Lord,' a name of 
Siva). — Small village of about 300 inhabitants, in Thana District, 
Bombay Presidency. The old Hindu temple, situated in a pretty valley 
less than a mile east of the village, is interesting as a specimen of 
genuine Hindu architecture, possibly dating as far back as the nth 
century a.d. An inscription found on it is dated Sak 982 (a.d. 1060). 
It was probably erected by Mamvaniraja, the son of Chittarajadeva, a 
Mahamandaleswara, or feudatory king of the Konkan, under the 
Chalukya of Kalyan, in the Deccan. The temple itself faces the west, 
but the mandap or antard/a, the entrance hall, has also doors to the 
north and south. Each of the three doors has a porch, approached by 
four or five steps, and supported by four nearly square pillars — two of 
them attached to the wall. The mandap is 22 feet 9 inches square. 
The roof of the hall is supported by four very elaborately carved 
columns. In their details no two of them are exactly alike ; but, like 
the pillars in the cave temples of Ajanta, they have been wrought in 
pairs, the pair next the shrine being if possible the richer. The gabhdrd 
or shrine, which is also square, measures 13 feet 8 inches each way. It 
appears to have been stripped of its ornamentation, and now only con- 
tains the remains of a small linga, sunk in the floor. The outside of 
the building is beautifully carved. The principal sculptures are, a 


three-headed figure with a female on his knee, probably intended to 
represent Mahddeva and Parvati ; and on the south-east side of the 
Vimana, Kali. The sculpture, both on the pillars of the hall and 
round the outside, shows a skill not surpassed by any temple in the 
Presidency. [For a more detailed account, illustrated with fifteen plates, 
see Indian Antiquary, vol. iii. pp. 316 ff. (Nov. 1874), and vol. xiv. of 
the Bombay Gazetteer, pp. 2 to 8.] 

Amamath. — Cave in Kashmir State, Punjab ; situated among the 
mountains which bound that territory on the north-east. Lat. 34 15' n., 
long. 75 49' e. It consists of a natural opening in a gypsum rock, 
about 30 yards in height and 20 in depth, and is held to be the 
dwelling-place of the god Siva. Dr. Vigne in his Travels in Kashmir 
(1842) mentions this as a resort of pilgrims, whose prayers are 
supposed to be favourably answered if the pigeons which inhabit its 
recesses fly out at the sound of their tumultuous supplications. A 
great fair is annually held here at the Saluna festival. The water 
falling from the roof forms a stalagmitic column, said to form the 
image of the god, and believed by the worshippers to wax and wane 
along with the moon. 

Amarwara. — Village in Chhindwara District, Central Provinces, 
situated on the road to Narsinghpur. Government school, police 

Amatti (or Colepett). — Town in Coorg, situated in the Coffee 
District, and known as the c Bamboo,' 6 miles from Virajendrapett, on 
the high road to Mysore. Large weekly market on Sundays, frequented 
by the coolies from the adjoining estates. Head-quarters of the 
Pdrpattigar of the Nad. Post-office and school with 31 pupils. 
Population (1881) 667. Distant from Merkara 20 miles. 

Amb. — Estate {jdgir) in the extreme north-western corner of 
Hazara District, Punjab, and separated from independent Pathan 
country by the Indus. It consists of 204 square miles of mountain 
country, which was granted in perpetuity to the family of the 
Nawab, at the time of the annexation of the Punjab. The present 
Nawab is described as one of the most trustworthy of the border 
chieftains. He rendered good service to the British during the 
operations in the Agror valley in 1868, in reward for which he was 
created a C.S.I. Besides the jdgir w r ithin Hazara District, which 
is under ordinary British administration, the Nawab holds as feudal 
territory the cis-Indus tract of Tanawal in the north-west corner of 
the District, and also the entirely independent State of Amb beyond 
the Indus. The village of Amb, on the right bank of the river, 
contains about 300 houses, built of stone and sand. It is situated 
on the south of a ravine, at the north of which is a small fort containing 
the Nawab's residence. 


Ambad.— Taluk in Haidarabad territory, Nizam's Dominions. Situ- 
ated in the north-west. Area, 860 square miles. Population (1881) 
116,168, of whom 58,768 are males and 57,400 females; 56 per cent, 
of the total population are agriculturists. Of the area, 685 square miles 
are cultivated, 138 cultivable, and 37 uncultivable waste. Land 
revenue, ,£32,723. This amount is subject to revision, as a new settle- 
ment is being introduced (1883). Chief towns of the taluk are, Ambad 
(4000), Jamkhei (34 iS), Rohilgarh (946), Vihamandav (2234), Gun- 
saungi (1318), Ektuni (1030). The taluk contains 241 villages, 22 of 
which are alienated. After the final subjugation of the Marathas by the 
British, the District of Ambad, with others, passed under British rule 
for a short period, until its cession to the Nizam, under whom it was 
made a circdr and included the following Districts : Verul, Fulamberi, 
Harsiil, Waliij, Chikhli, Jalna, Rakshasbhawan, and Badnapur. In 
1862 Ambad was formed into a zild having under its jurisdiction six 
taluks, viz. Pathri, Purbhani, Jalnapur, Narsi, Paitan, and Ambad. 
Four years later this new arrangement was abandoned, the head-quarters 
of the District being removed to Aurangabad, of which District Ambad 
became a taluk. 

Ambad. — Chief town and head-quarters of Ambad taluk, Aurang- 
abad District, Haidarabad territory, Nizam's Dominions. Situated near 
the centre of the taluk, in an undulating plain, and surrounded on 
three sides by low hills. Tradition ascribes its foundation to a Hindu 
prince, named Amba, who, wearied of the cares of Government in his 
own State in Northern India, is said to have taken up his abode in a 
small cave to the east of the town, which he founded and named after 
himself. The site of the cave is now occupied by a handsome temple. 
The town once enjoyed great prosperity, of which it retains but a 
remnant now. Principal trade, cotton and grain. Population about 
4000. Contains no buildings of any interest. There is a small fort in 
the eastern quarter, in which the tahsilddr resides and holds his court. 
Weekly market, held on Thursdays. An annual fair, lasting ten days, 
is held in connection with the temple at the cave, which is visited by 
several thousand people. 

Ambagarh Chauki. — Chiefship or zaminddri in Chanda District, 
Central Provinces, lying between 20 35' and 20 51' 20" N. lat., and 
between 8o° 31' 15" and 8o° 52' e. long. Area, 208 square miles; 179 
villages; 6462 occupied houses; population (1881) 29,854, namely 
15,032 males and 14,822 females. Hilly, with large tracts of jungle : 
but towards the Raipur side fairly cultivated. Excellent iron ore is 
found. Inhabitants, Gonds and a few Gaulis. The estate has largely 
increased in population of late years. The town of Ambagarh Chauki 
contained 1419 inhabitants in 1881. The zaminddr ranks third of 
the Chanda chiefs. 


Ambahta.— Town in Saharanpur District, North-Western Provinces, 

16 miles south-west of Saharanpur. Lat. 29 51' 15" N ., long. 77 22' 

35" E- Population in 1881, 6392, comprising 3553 Muhammadans, 

2326 Hindus, and 513 Jains; area, 55 acres. Residence of the 

Pirzadah family of Sayyids, one of whose ancestors, Shah Abul Masli, 

a celebrated personage in the 17th century, has a handsome tomb! 

with dome and minarets, in the middle of the town. The family 

still hold several revenue-free grants, and one representative lives in 

the fort. The town contains a good many brick-built houses, and the 

bdzdr consists of a double roadway, with a centre line of poor-looking 

shops. The roads are well made and drained, and in places paved with 

brick. Ambahta was originally a cantonment for Mughal troops. It 

is a comparatively modern town, and contains two mosques dating from 

Humayun's reign. Police outpost, branch post-office, well-kept school. 

Village police of 13 men; income under Act xx. of 1856, ^189 in 

18S2 ; incidence of local taxation, 7^d. per head. 

Ambaji-durga— Hill in Kolar District, Mysore State; 4399 feet 

above sea level ; formerly fortified by Tipu Sultan. Lat. n° 2 1! 40" n 
i 00/// ** «-» • * ' 

long. 78 3' 25" e. 

Ambajipetta— Hamlet attached to Machavaram town, Godavari 
District, Madras Presidency.— See Machavaram. 

Ambala (Umballa). — Division or Commissionership in the Punjab, 
comprising the Districts of Ambala and Ludhiana, with the outlying 
little District of Simla (each of which see separately). Area in 1880, 
3963 square miles. Population in 1881, 1,729,043, namely, males 
955.463, and females 773>5 8o i average density of population, 436 
per square mile. Classified according to religion, the population 
consisted of— Hindus, 997,280; Muhammadans, 525,012; Sikhs, 
!95>787; Jains, 3495; Christians, 7448; Buddhists, 4; Parsis, 6: 
and 'others,' 11. Of the total area of 3963 square miles, 2763 are 
assessed for Government revenue, of which 1775 are returned as culti- 
vated, 405 cultivable, and the remainder uncultivable. Total Govern- 
ment assessment, including rates and cesses on the land, ^181,235; 
rental (estimated) paid by the cultivators, including cesses, ^478,026. 

Ambala ( c7>///W/tf).— District in the Lieut-Governorship of the 
Punjab^ lying between 29 49' and 31 12' n. lat., and between 76 22' 
and 77 39' E . long. Area, 2570 square miles; population in 1SS1, 
1,067,263 souls. Ambala is the central District in the Division of the 
same name. It is bounded on the north-east by the Himalayas ; on the 
north by the Sutlej ; on the west by the Native State of Patiala and the 
District of Ludhiana ; and on the south by the District of Karnal and 
the river Jumna. The administrative head-quarters are at Ambala 

Physical Aspects.— The District of Ambala forms a portion of the 

2i4 A MB ALA. 

level plain intermediate between the Sutlej and the Indus, stretching 
along the foot of the Lower Himalayas. A strip of Patiala territory, 
jutting into the District from the south-west, separates it into two un- 
equal portions, connected only by a narrow isthmus immediately below 
the hills. Towards the Himalayas, the frontier is comparatively simple, 
as the first upward undulation of the great range generally marks the 
limits of the British domain, beyond which lies the Native State of 
Nahan or Sirmur (Sarmor). But at two points in its course our boundary 
projects into the hill country; once at its eastern extremity, on the bank 
of the Jumna, where a valuable upland timber forest lies within the 
British line; and again midway between the two rivers, nearly opposite 
the narrowest point, where our territory expands so as to include a large 
hill tract, known as the Kotaha. flargand, and composed of two parallel 
ranges, the sources of the river Ghaggar. This mountainous region 
differs widely in its physical features and in the character of its inhabit- 
ants, from the level plain at its foot. It is covered by the forest of 
Morni, in whose midst, enclosed by projecting spurs, lie two remarkable 
lakes. A hill divides them from one another, but some hidden com- 
munication evidently exists between their basins, as the level of either 
is immediately affected by any withdrawal of water from its neighbour. 
The people regard them as sacred ; and a ruined temple in honour of 
Krishna, which stands upon the bank of the larger lake, is the scene 
of a great annual festival. The village and fort of Morni lie consider- 
ably higher up the mountain-side. Below the hills, the face of the 
country assumes at once the appearance of a level plain. It has, 
however, a uniform slope towards the south-west ; and near the hills its 
surface is broken at intervals by the beds of mountain torrents, which 
form the characteristic feature in the plysical aspect of the District. 

Besides the great boundary streams of the Sutlej and the Jumna, each 
of whose beds passes through the various stages of boulders, shingle, 
and sand, the District is traversed in every part by innumerable minor 
channels. The Ghaggar rises in Nahan State, passes through the 
Kotaha pargand, crosses the District at its narrowest point, and enters 
Patiala almost immediately; but near the town of Ambala it again 
touches on British territory, and skirts the border for a short distance. 
It is largely used for irrigation, the water being drawn off by means of 
artificial cuts. When in flood, the current is too dangerous for boats, 
and on all other occasions the stream is fordable. The Ambala and 
Simla road crosses the river by a ford about half-way between Ambala 
and Kalka. During the rains the mails are carried over on elephants. 
A tributary of the Ghaggar, the Saraswati or Sarsuti, once 
according to tradition an important river, but now largely de- 
siccated by irrigation channels and the silting up of dams, runs 
through the heart of the southern tract. It rises in the low hills 

AMBALA. 215 

just beyond the border of the District in Nahan State, and emerges 
into the plains at Zadh Budri, a place esteemed sacred by all Hindus. 
A few miles after entering the plains, the river disappears for a time 
in the sand, but percolating underground, re-emerges about three 
miles farther south, at the village of Bhawantpur. At Balchhapar 
it again sinks below the surface, but afterwards re-appears, and 
flows onward in a south-westerly direction, and after crossing Karnal 
ultimately joins the Ghaggar in Patiala territory. Amongst other 
streams may be mentioned the Chutang, Tangri, Baliali, Markanda, 
Begana, Kushala, Sukhia, and Sombh. The Western Jumna Canal 
takes its rise at Hathi Kiind in this District (where the Jumna finally 
debouches from the hills on its western bank), and runs parallel with 
the lessened stream till it reaches the Karnal boundary. A section of 
the Sirhind Canal also passes through a portion of Ambala District. 
The aspect of the country is generally pleasing ; the submontane tract 
being diversified by undulating slopes, while the plains are well 
wooded and abundantly interspersed with green mango groves. The 
neighbourhood of the hills, and the moisture imparted by the numerous 
torrents, give an air of freshness and beauty to the otherwise monoto- 
nous scenery. In clear weather, the Himalayas may be seen from any 
part of the District. The mango is common in the southern part of 
the District, where fine groves of these trees prove a source of consider- 
able income to the landholders. The commonest timber tree is the 
kikar (Acacia arabica), which grows almost everywhere. The other 
indigenous trees are the pipal (Ficus religiosa), sin's (Acacia sirissa), tut 
(mulberry), sal (Shorea robusta), bargat or banyan tree (Ficus indica), 
semhal (Bombax heptaphyllum), farus (Tamarix orientalis), and dhdk 
(Butea frondosa). There are several extensive forest areas. The most 
important, though not the largest, is the Kalesar forest, covering 
13,917 acres, and composed of valuable sal trees. Gold is said to be 
found in minute quantities among the sand washed down by some of 
the minor hill streams. The only mineral product, however, of any 
importance is limestone ; large quantities of which are brought down 
by the streams from the hill, and form deposits, which are collected 
and burned. Game abounds in all the wilder tracts, and beasts of 
prey are also common. The reward for killing a tiger or leopard is 
30s. ; for cubs, 6s. ; and for a wolf, 10s. 

History. — Ambala and its neighbourhood are intimately associated 
with the earliest dawn of Indian history. The strip of country included 
between the Saraswati (Sarsuti) and the Ghaggar is the Holy Land of the 
Hindu faith, the first permanent home of the Aryans in India, and 
the spot where their religion took shape. Hence the sanctity of the 
Saraswati even in modern times attracts the faithful, not only frcm 
neighbouring Districts, but even from Orissa and the remotest corners of 

216 AMBALA. 

Bengal. Its banks are everywhere lined with shrines, but the towns of 
Thanesar and Pihewa form the chief centres of attraction ; and a tank 
filled by the Saraswati at the former place is annually bathed in by some 
300,000 persons. The country teems with traditions of the great 
conflict between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, whose exploits are 
detailed in the Mahdbhdrata. The earliest authentic information 
which we possess with reference to this District is, however, derived 
from the Itinerary of Hwen Thsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim of 
the 7th century. He found it the seat of a flourishing and civilised 
kingdom, having its capital at Srugna, a town identified by General 
Cunningham with the modern village of Sugh, near Jagadhri. The 
evidence of coins found on the spot in great abundance shows that 
Srugna continued to be occupied down to the time of the Muhamnia- 
dan conquest. 

The country around Ambala, like the rest of Upper India, fell to 
the successive Muhammadan dynasties of Ghazni and Ghor, but has no 
special mention in the records of their conquests. About the middle 
of the 14th century, the Emperor Firoz Shah constructed a canal to 
supply the town of Hissar, which probably coincided in the main 
with the present Western Jumna Canal. Under Akbar, Ambala District 
formed part of the Sttbahat or Governorship of Sirhind. But the 
practical interest of the local annals begins with the rise of the Sikh 
principalities south of the Sutlej during the latter half of the iSth 
century. As the central power of the Empire relaxed under the blows 
of the Marathas on the one side, and the Afghans on the other, 
numerous Sikh marauders from the Punjab proper began to extend 
their encroachments beyond the Sutlej, and ere long acquired for them- 
selves the heart of the country between that river and the Jumna. 
When the Maratha supremacy fell before the British in 1803, the 
whole tract was parcelled out among chiefs of various grades, from the 
powerful Rajas of Patiala, Jhmd, and Nabha down to the petty sarddr 
who had succeeded in securing by violence or fraud the possession of 
a few villages. But after Ranjit Singh began to consolidate the Sikh 
territories within the Punjab, he crossed the Sutlej in 1808, and 
demanded tribute from the cis-Sutlej chieftains. 

Thus pressed, and fearing for themselves the fate which had overtaken 
their brethren, the Sikh princes combined to apply for aid to the 
British Government. The responsibility of protecting the minor States 
from their powerful neighbour was accepted by the British, and the 
treaty of 1809, between our Government and Ranjit Singh, secured them 
in future from encroachment on the north. Internal wars were strictly 
prohibited by a proclamation issued in 181 1; but with this exception 
the powers and privileges of the chiefs remained untouched. Each 
native ruler, great or small, had civil, criminal, and fiscal jurisdiction 

A MB A LA. 217 

within his own territory, subject only to the controlling authority of the 
Governor-General's Agent at Ambala. No tribute was taken, nor 
was any special contingent demanded, although the Rdjas were bound 
in case of war to give active aid to the Government. The right to 
escheats was the sole return which we asked for our protection. The 
first Sikh war and the Sutlej campaign of 1845 gave Government an 
opportunity of testing the gratitude of the chieftains. Few of them, 
however, displayed their loyalty more conspicuously than by abstaining 
from open rebellion. Their previous conduct had not been such as to 
encourage Government in its policy towards them, while their mis- 
management was amply testified by the universal satisfaction with 
which the peasantry of lapsed principalities accepted the British rule. 

A sweeping measure of reform was accordingly introduced, for 
the reduction of the privileges enjoyed by the Sikh chieftains. 
The Political Agency of Ambala was transformed into a Commis- 
sionership, and the police jurisdiction was handed over to European 
officers. In June 1849, after the second Sikh war had brought the 
Punjab under our rule, the chiefs were finally deprived of all sovereign 
power. The revenues were still to be theirs, but the assessments were 
to be made by British officials and under British regulations. Even 
previous to this arrangement, portions of the modern District had 
lapsed to Government by death or forfeiture ; and the reforms of 
1849 brought Ambala nearly to its present proportions. During the 
Mutiny of 1857, although incendiary fires and other disturbances gave 
much ground for alarm, especially at the first beginning of disaffection, 
no actual outbreak occurred, and the District was held throughout with 
little difficulty. In 1862, the dismemberment of Thanesar District 
brought three new pargands to Ambala; and four years later, another 
exchange of territory finally gave it the existing area and boundaries. 

Population. — In 1854, the population of Ambala, including those 
portions of Thanesar which have since been incorporated with this 
District, amounted to 957,078 souls. In 1868, after the addition of 
Thanesar, it had risen to 1,028,418, on an area corresponding to the 
present District (2570 square miles). In 1881, the Census disclosed 
a total of 1,067,263, or an increase of 38,845 or 3*6 per cent, during 
the thirteen years. The population in 1881 was distributed over 2570 
square miles, with 2226 villages and towns, and 146,517 occupied and 
54,873 unoccupied houses. Number of resident families, 251,649. 
From the above figures, the following averages may be deduced : — 
Persons per square mile, 361; villages per square mile, 0*87; houses 
per square mile, 78; persons per village, 479; persons per occupied 
house, 7-28. Classified according to sex, there were — males, 588,272; 
females, 478,991; proportion of males, 55'n per cent. The pre- 
ponderance of the male sex was at one time greater, amounting in 

2t8 A MB ALA. 

J ^54 to 56-32 per cent. ; there has therefore been an increase of over 
1 per cent, in the number of females as compared with males, which 
affords just ground for the belief that infanticide, if not actually sup- 
pressed, has decreased. A further cause for the disparity of the sexes 
is the large military population. Classified according to age, there 
were, under 15 years— boys, 212,478; girls, 174,151: total children, 
386,629, or 36*21 per cent, of the population. As regards religious 
distinctions, Hindus numbered 689,612; Muhammadans, 304,123; 
Sikhs, 68,442; Jains, 1307; Christians, 3773; and Parsis, 6. The 
percentages of each religion in the total population were as follows : — 
Hindus, 64-61; Muhammadans, 28*49; Sikhs, 6*42; Christians and 
'others/ 0-47. The Muhammadans are sub-divided according to 
religion, into 299,056 Sunnis, 4664 Shias, and 9 Wahabis. Among 
the various races of the District, the Jats rank first in number, with 
a total of 171,257, of whom 111,257 were Hindus, 47,279 Sikhs, and 
12,429 Musalmans. In the northern pargands they form the chief 
proprietary body, and keep up their usual reputation for industry and 
frugality. The Chamars come next, with 140,751; namely, Hindus, 
130,349; Sikhs, 10,398; and Muhammadans, 4. Pottery is the here- 
ditary handicraft of this caste, but its members may be found in all 
menial positions, as the lowest social grade of the District. In Bengal 
and other parts of India, they are skinners and leather-workers. The 
Rajputs, once the leading landowning tribe, still possess many small 
estates, but are careless and unsystematic cultivators, generally poor 
and involved in debt. Out of a total of 92,833 members of this caste, 
22,608 are returned as Hindus, 203 as Sikhs, and 69,222 as Muham- 
madans. The Brahmans number 65,035, and follow their customary 
avocations as priests, agriculturists, shopkeepers, and domestic servants. 
By religion, 64,396 are returned as Hindus, 323 as Sikhs, and 316 
as Muhammadans. The Gujars (51,077) are almost equally divided 
between Hinduism and Islam, 25,408 being returned as Hindus, 25,614 
as Muhammadans, and 55 as Sikhs. As elsewhere, they are fonder of 
cattle-breeding than of agriculture, and show the ancestral tendency 
towards a wild, lawless life. The other leading tribes and castes are 
the following: — Saini, 63,054, namely, Hindus 61,346, Sikhs 988, 
and Muhammadans 720 ; Jhinwar, 47,104, namely, Hindus 44,030, 
Sikhs 1092, and Muhammadans 1982 ; Chiihra, 41,756, namely, 
Hindus 40,871, Sikhs 853, and Muhammadans 31; Baniya, 40,069, 
namely, Hindus 39,034, Sikhs 8^, Jains 952, but not a single 
Muhammadan; Arain, 30,881, namely, Hindus 336, and Muhamma- 
dans 30,545 ; Tarkhan, 25,265, namely, Hindus 19,094, Sikhs 1561, 
and Muhammadans 4610; Julaha, 24,931, namely, Hindus 3300, 
Sikhs 117, and Muhammadans 21,514; Teli, 17,577, namely, Hindus 
117, and Muhammadans 17,400; Lohar, 16,550, namely, Hindus 

AMBALA. 219 

9066, Sikhs 341, and Muhammadans 7143; Kumbhar, 15,598, namely, 
Hindus 12, 80S, Sikhs 161, and Muhammadans 2629; Nai, 14,932, 
namely, Hindus 10,609, Sikhs 352, and Muhammadans 3971 ; Kam- 
boh, 12,988, namely, Hindus 10,106, Sikhs 1717, and Muhammadans 
1165; Khattri, 8154, namely, Hindus 7668, Sikhs 481, and Muham- 
madans 5 ; Sonar, 7332, namely, Hindus 6648, Sikhs 102, and 
Muhammadans 573; Gadaria, 6671, all Hindus. The exclusively 
Muhammadan tribes consist of — Sheikhs, 28,920; Pathans, 9845; 
Sayyids, 8543; Penja, 6684; and Biluchis, 1070. The religious 
mendicant class is largely represented in Ambala. Of 10,434 Fakirs, 
9939 are returned as Muhammadans, 473 as Hindus, and 22 as Sikhs; 
while of 11,897 Jugis, 7758 are returned as Hindus, 4091 as Muham- 
madans, and 48 as Sikhs. Of the 3773 Christians, 3473 were Euro- 
peans or Americans, 74 Eurasians, and 224 natives. The Church of 
England numbered 2253 adherents, the Roman Catholics 896, Presby- 
terians 177, Wesleyans 5. The inhabitants of the Kotaha pargand, 
in the hill country, are a simple quiet race, clinging almost without 
exception to the Hindu faith of their forefathers, deeply devoted to 
their homes, and seldom visiting the plains. Proprietary right is kept 
up amongst them with more than Indian tenacity ; a family may be 
absent for a hundred years, yet their names will be held in remem- 
brance, and their descendants may return at any time to reclaim their 
possessions without a remonstrance. The places of pilgrimage in the 
District are very numerous. Along the sacred Saraswati (Sarsuti), the 
whole year round, there is a constant succession of festivals at one 
shrine or another; and religious fairs are held at many other towns 
scattered about the country. The attendance at these fairs has fallen 
off of late years, owing to the dislike of the people to the sanitary 
regulations rendered necessary by outbreaks of cholera. The total 
agricultural population amounted in 1881 to 530,266 persons. The 
Census of 1881 returned the n largest towns with their population as 
follows:— Umballa City and Cantonment, 67,463; Jagadhri, 12,300; 
Sadhawra, 10,794; Rupar, 10,326; Shahabad, 10,218; Buriya, 
741 1 ; Thanesar, 6005; Kharar, 4265; Radaur, 4081; Ladwa, 
4061; Pihewa, 3408. These figures show an urban population of 
140,332 persons, or 13*2 per cent, of the total population. Of the 
2226 villages and towns in the District, 794 contain less than 200 
inhabitants, 874 from 200 to 500, 379 from 500 to 1000, 130 from 
1000 to 2000, 28 from 2000 to 3000, 14 from 3000 to 5000, 2 from 
5000 to 10,000, 4 from 10,000 to 15,000, and 1 upwards of 50,000. 
As regards occupation, the Census classifies the adult male population 
over fifteen years of age into seven main groups as under : (1) Profes- 
sional, including civil and military, and the learjned professions, 30,502; 
(2) domestic and menial servants, 34,426 ; (3) commercial, including 

220 AM BALA. 

merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 10,642 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 
295,302; (5) industrial, including manufacturers, artisans, etc., 125,950; 
(6) indefinite and non-productive, including labourers, 23,291; (7) 
unspecified, 47,411. 

Agriculture. — The cultivated area of Ambala District in 1881 
amounted to 951,890 acres, leaving 692,959 acres uncultivated, of 
which 187,539 are returned as cultivable, 127,151 as grazing land, 
and 378,269 as uncultivable waste. The staple crops are wheat, 
barley, and gram for the spring harvest ; with rice, jodr, bdjra, Indian 
corn, moth, cotton, and sugar-cane for the autumn harvest. Poppy, 
tobacco, and hemp are also grown, but only for home consumption. 
The area under each crop in 1881 was returned as follows : — Wheat, 
354,045 acres ; rice, 88,598 ; jodr (great millet, Sorghum vulgare), 
98,443; bdjra (spiked millet, Pencillaria spicata), 7341: kangni (Italian 
millet, Panicum italicum), 10 13 ; makdi (Indian corn, Zea mayz), 
131,005; jau (barley), 59,793; china (Panicum miliaceum), 12,440; 
gram (Cicer arietinum), 107,723; moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius), 
18,423; matar (peas, Pisum sativum), 1456; mash (Phaseolus radi- 
atus), 16,859; mung (Phaseolus mungo), 1528; masuri (Ervum lens), 
23,110; poppy, 3680; tobacco, 6750; coriander seed, 162; chillies, 
584 ; linseed, 3509 ; sarson (mustard, Sinapis dichotoma), 14,564 ; 
til (Sesamum orientale), 1001 ; tdrdmira (Sinapis eruca), 3422; cotton, 
65,650; hemp, 1830; safflower, 12,012; indigo, 944; vegetables, 5543; 
sugar-cane, 37,097 ; other crops, 390 acres. Total, including twice- 
cropped land, 1,078,916. The quality of the crops is steadily improving, 
the higher cereals, tobacco, cotton, and sugar-cane being largely substi- 
tuted for inferior food-grains, such as millets and pulses. This im- 
provement is the result of an increase in material prosperity, enabling 
the peasantry to incur a larger outlay upon their farms. Manure is 
used to a slight extent in the neighbourhood of villages, and rotation 
of crops is so far understood that the same staple is seldom sown on 
a single plot for two years in succession; but the land is incessantly 
cultivated year after year, never lying fallow for more than six months 
at a time. The average out-turn of produce per acre is returned as 
follows: — Rice, 400 lbs.; indigo (manufactured), 16 lbs.; cotton 
(raw), 218 lbs.; sugar (refined), 184 lbs.; opium, 16 lbs.; tobacco, 
610 lbs. ; wheat, 706 lbs. ; inferior grains, 424 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 265 lbs. ; 
fibres, 117 lbs. Irrigation is practised on 173,499 acres, 22,463 acres 
being watered by Government works, and 151,036 acres by private 
individuals. The Western Jumna Canal supplies part of the District 
with water, while the remainder is irrigated from wells worked with a 
Persian wheel or a hand-lever. Near the hills water lies so close 
to the surface that it may be obtained in the river beds by scratching 
away a little of the earth ; in the upland plain, however, at a distance 

A MB A LA. 221 

from the mountains, many villages do not possess a well, even for 
drinking purposes, but depend entirely for water supply on the surface- 
drainage collected in tanks. Where irrigation is not available, no 
spring crop can be grown. 

The condition of the people is generally comfortable, and they 
are seldom in debt to any great extent; but near the larger towns 
the peasantry have become ambitious of a better style of living, 
which often induces them to exceed their means, especially in 
the matter of dress and personal ornament. The total capital 
necessary for a small holding of, say 10 acres of land, is about ^n, 
namely ^10 for the price of a pair of average plough bullocks, and jQi 
for the necessary implements. For a similar-sized holding of irrigated 
land, about double the above capital is necessary for two pairs of 
bullocks and the well-fittings. The latter, in this part of the country, 
are extremely inexpensive, consisting merely of a rope running over 
a wheel, and an earthenware or leather bucket. The agricultural stock 
of the District in 1878-79 was returned as follows : — Cows and bullocks, 
340,270; horses, 8600; ponies, 3035; donkeys, 11,767; sheep and 
goats, 131,492; pigs, 8896; camels, 112; carts, 10,205; ploughs, 
90,816 ; boats, 62. Of the total area of 2570 square miles, 1068 square 
miles are assessed for Government revenue. Of these, 624 square miles 
are returned as cultivated, and 202 as cultivable. Total Government 
assessment, including rates and cesses on land, ,£90,85 7. Estimated 
actual rent paid by cultivators, £274,892. All the villages, except 
quite an insignificant number, are in the hands of cultivating com- 
munities. The jdgirddrs, or persons holding assignments of revenue 
for particular estates, are naturally very numerous, owing to the his- 
torical origin of their tenure. They include the families of all the chiefs 
whose powers were reduced in 1849, and in most cases they are Sikhs 
by religion. Another peculiar tenure of the District is that known as 
chahdram, which took its rise from a common custom of the cis-Sutlej 
Sikhs, when struggling with the native proprietors for the possession of 
a particular village, to compromise the matter by assigning half the 
revenue to each of the contending parties. Most of the tenants have 
rights of occupancy. Rents ruled as follows in 1880-81, according to 
the quality of the soil, its irrigable capabilities, and the nature of the 
crop grown : — Rice, from 6s. ijd to ns. iojd. per acre; wheat, from 
5s. ijd. to 19s. 7jd. per acre; inferior food-grains, from 4s. to 12s. per 
acre; oil-seeds, from 4s. 4^d. to 10s. iojd. per acre; cotton, from 9s. 
to 15s. 3d. per acre; other fibres, from 3s. 4jd. to 12s. per acre; 
indigo, from 4s. ijd. to 8s. 6d. per acre; sugar, from 14s. 7J& to 
£1, 9s. od. per acre; opium, from 15s. 7^d. to £1, 7s. per acre; 
tobacco, from 12s. to £1, 2s. 6d. an acre. Wages in kind remain 
stationary, but money wages and prices have doubled within the last 

222 AM BALA. 

few years. In iS8i, agricultural and unskilled labourers received from 
3d. to 4-Jd. per diem; while artisans obtained from 7 Jd. to io^d. per 
diem. Bullock carts hire at the rate of is. 9d., and camels at is. 3d. 
per day. The following were the prices of food-grains and the prin- 
cipal crops in January 1881, per cwt : — Wheat (best), 6s. 7d. ; flour 
(best), 7s. 6d. ; barley, 4s. 4d. : gram, 5s. 3d.; Indian corn, 4s. iod. ; 
jodr, 4s. 6d. ; ddj'ra, 5s. 4d. ; rice (best), 16s. ; ddl y 5s. nd. ; potatoes, 
7s. ; cotton (cleaned), £2 \ sugar (best), £2, 9s. iod. ; tobacco, 14s. ; 
and salt, 10s. 2d. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Ambala suffers, like the neighbouring Districts, 
from the effects of drought. In 1860-61 it shared the famine which 
desolated the surrounding country. The autumn rains of i860 failed 
utterly, and the rain crop withered in the ground. So great was the 
heat that even the jungle tracts produced no grass, and the cattle died 
off by thousands. A sprinkling of rain fell in December, but did not 
prove sufficient for the spring sowings ; and the rabi crops also failed 
completely, except where means existed for artificial irrigation. Wheat 
rose to 8 sers per rupee (14s. per cwt.), and the mortality from disease 
and hunger began to be serious. Refugees from Bikaner and Hariana 
flocked into the District, as usual on such occasions, and augmented 
the local distress. The dearth continued to be felt throughout the 
summer, until the ripening of the autumn harvest, which fortunately 
turned out to be exceptionally good. The year 1869-70 was elsewhere 
one of famine, but the distress did not reach Ambala, where a moderate 
harvest was gathered in. Relief was necessarily provided for the 
starving poor from Bikaner, Hissar, and Sirsa, but charity was not 
required by the inhabitants of the District themselves. Local subscrip- 
tions sufficed for all demands. 

Comtnerce and Trade, etc. — Ambala being mainly an agricultural 
District, has little trade or manufactures deserving special notice. Small 
articles of iron-work are made at Riipar, carpets at Ambala, and coarse 
country cloth in every village. The principal centres of trade are 
Ambala, Riipar, Jagadhri, Khizrabad, Biiria, and Kharar. The Sind, 
Punjab, and Delhi Railway traverses the District for a length of 42 
miles, entering it by a bridge across the Jumna, a few miles south of 
Jagadhri, and leaving it by another across the Ghaggar, 6 miles west 
of Ambala city. There are stations at the city and cantonments, at 
Barara, and at Jagadhri. The Grand Trunk Road enters Ambala 
District from Karnal, a few miles east of Thanesar, whence it runs 
nearly north as far as Ambala, where it turns north-west, and passes 
into Patiala territory, after a course of 38 miles in the District. The 
Ambala and Kalka road (for Simla) leaves the Grand Trunk Road a few 
miles above the Ambala cantonment, and runs nearly north for t>^ 
miles to Kalka, at the foot of the hills. This road is metalled through- 


out, and crosses the by a ford about midway. A detention of a 
few hours sometimes occurs at the crossing after heavy rain m the hills 
The Saharanpur road runs from Ambala south-east via Mulana and 
Jagadhn for 39 m,les. There are also several minor lines of unmetaUed 

ziz n ZT s * e to : vns and pri " c ? ai «"*» ^ i ength of 

metalled roads, i 9 i miles; unmetalled roads, 468 miles. Lines < 
telegraph run by the side of the Grand Trunk Road and the railway 
A project for a railway line from Ambala to Kalka at the foot of the 

1 ■« . . * ^ ^^"-iiva at Lue ioot or the 

hdls in order to further facilitate communication with Simla has been 
for some time under consideration. The line has been surveyed 
estimates have been drawn up, and the undertaking only awaits 
official sanction to be carried out. 

Administration—The administrative staffordinarily includes a Deputv 
Commissioner 3 Assistant and 2 Extra-Assistant Commissioners, be^des 
the usual medical, fiscal, and constabulary officials. In 1872-7, the 
revenue of the District from all sources amounted to ^rojal of 
which sum ,£74,827, or nearly three-fourths, was derived f om the 
land-tax. In ,33o-8r the revenue amounted to ^1,070, of which 
^78,262 was derived from the land. The other principal items are 
stamps and local rates. The imperial police in 1880 numbered 9,! 
officers and men, who were supplemented by the following special 
bodies ^Municipal police, 102 ; cantonment police, 123; and ferry 
police, r r. The total machinery, therefore, for the protection of person 
and property amounted to 1149 officers and men, being at the rate of 

tl XT"!? eV6ry " 23 SqUare mi ' eS and t0 ever y ^9 of the popula- 
tion. The District contains 2 prisons, one at Ambala, the other at 

nfT'n T " the l0Cal jai1 ' and itS inmates ™ '»e criminals 

vete oft* " l 8S ° k h3d % t0tal ° f * 3 « ™-' "* * dailv 
average of 615, of whom 13 were females. The Rupar jail is a depot 

or central prison, .0 which convicts are brought from other Districts To 
be employed upon the canal works. It contained in 1880 a total of 
3552 prisoners, and a daily average of 2066, all males. The number 
ot schools maintained or assisted by the State numbered 98 in 1880 
and were attended by 5262 pupils. The number of private and unaided 
schools is large; there are at least 293 indigenous schools attended by 
340. pupils. The Census of ,88. returned a total of 6 2 or boys 
under instruction; 26,790 males as able to read and write, but not 
under instruction, and 555,281 as unable to read and write. Of 
he female population, only i6 4 girls are returned as under instruc- 
tion and 604 others as able to read and write. Ambala also contains 
an Institution for Government Wards, who in this District are neces- 
sarily numerous, owing to the large number oijdgirJdr families. It is 
hoped that great good has already been effected by thus bringing the 
sons of influential Sikh gentlemen into constant contact with European 


opinion. For fiscal and administrative purposes, Ambala is divided 
into 6 tahsils and 15 parganas, with a total of 2226 villages, owned by 
100,809 proprietors or coparceners; average land revenue, including 
local rates and cesses, from each proprietor, a little less than £l. 
The District includes one second-class municipality, Ambala, besides 
10 of the third-class, namely, Jagadhri, Sadhaura, Rupar, Buriya, 
Thanesar, Shahabad, Kharar, Pihewa, Radaur, and Ladwa. In 
18S0-81 their aggregate municipal revenue amounted to /"7537> and 
their expenditure to ^6464 ; population within municipal limits, 99,646. 
Sanitary Aspects. -The average yearly rainfall is about 36 inches. 
In 1880 the rainfall amounted to 40-3 inches, of which 5-3 inches fell 
from January to May; 34*4 inches from June to September; and o"6 
inch from October to December. Fever is the most prevalent disease 
of the District; but bowel complaints carry off a large number of 
persons annually, and small-pox occasionally appears in a violent epi- 
demic form. Goitre and cretinism are extremely common on the banks 
of the Ghaggar, where diseases of the spleen also affect a very great 
proportion of the inhabitants. The villages along its course are ex- 
ceedingly unhealthy and much under-populated. Blindness prevails 
in Ambala to a greater extent than in any other part of the Punjab. 
The average of blind persons in the District is 1 in every 126 in- 
habitants, as compared with 1 in 1037 in England. The total number 
of registered deaths from all causes in 1880 was 30,423, or an average 
of 30 per thousand of the population. No less than 22,069 deaths, or 
21-87 per thousand of the population, were due to fevers. The District 
contains a civil hospital at Ambala city, and second-class dispensaries 
at Riipar, Jagadhri, Thanesar, and Sadhaura, which afforded relief in 
1880 to 79,948 patients. There is also a leper asylum at Ambala town. 
In addition to the medical aid afforded by the established dispensaries, 
3 hakims or itinerant native doctors are maintained by Government, 
and travel over the District. [For further information, see the Punjab 
Gazetteer, by Mr. Ibbetson, C.S. ; the Punjab Census Report for 1881 ; 
the Punjab Administration Reports for 1880 to 1883; the Report on 
the Revised Settlement of the Northern Parganas of Ambala, by P. S. 
Melvill, Esq., C.S., 1855 ; and the Report on the Revised Settlement 
of the Southern Parganas of Ambala District, by W. Wynyard, Esq., 
C.S., 1853. The District is at present passing through a revision of 
the Settlement, 1883.] 

Ambala.— Tahsil or Sub-division of Ambala District, Punjab. Area, 
366 square miles; population in 1881, 220,477; namely, 132,124 
Hindus, 12,167 Jains, 72,007 Muhammadans, and 4194 Christians and 
1 others ' ; average density of population, 602 per square mile. 

Ambala.— City and cantonment of Ambala District, Punjab, and civil 
head-quarters of the District, situated on an open plain 1040 feet above 


sea level, and 3 miles east of the river Ghaggar. Lat. 30' 21' 25" n. • 
long. 76 52' 14" e. The town was founded probably in the 14th 
century by an Amba Rajput, from whom it derives its name, but was a 
place of little importance prior to the British occupation of the Province. 
In 1809, when the cis-Sutlej States came under British protection, the 
estate of Ambala was held by Daya Kaur, widow of Sardar Giirbaksh 
Singh, its Sikh possessor. Daya Kaur was temporarily ejected by Ranjit 
Singh, but was restored by General Ochterlony. On Daya Kaur's death, 
which occurred in 1823, the little principality lapsed to the British 
Government, and Ambala town was fixed on as the residence of the 
Political Agent for the cis-Sutlej States. In 1843, a cantonment was 
established a few miles south of the town. In 1849, the Punjab came 
under British rule, and Ambala was made the head-quarters of a 
District. The town is unwalled, and consists of two portions, a new 
and an old quarter. In the old part of the town the thoroughfares are 
narrow, dark, and tortuous, so as to scarcely permit of the passage of 
a single elephant; but the newer portion, which has sprung up in the 
direction of the cantonment, consists of fine open roads, well laid out. 
Indeed, the long straight military roads of the cantonment give a 
certain monotony to the European quarter which strikes a stranger 
as wearisome and unpleasant. In March 1869, a grand Darbar was 
held at Ambala, on the occasion of the visit of the late Amir of Afghan- 
istan, Sher Ali. 

The water supply of the town was up till lately very insufficient ; 
but recent public works and municipal improvements have to a great 
extent remedied this evil. The cantonment lies four miles south- 
east of the city, and covers an area of 7220 acres. The ordinary 
garrison comprises 3 batteries of artillery, 1 regiment of European 
and 1 of native cavalry, besides 1 regiment each of European and 
native infantry. The central portion of the cantonment is laid out with 
good broad metalled roads, shaded in many instances by lines of fine 
o\&pipal trees. The church is considered the handsomest in the Punjab. 
There are also a club-house, several hotels, and a staging bungalow. 
The Civil Station lies between the city and cantonment, and contains 
the usual District offices— a court-house and treasury, jail, hospital, 
American mission school, and Government Wards Institution. Ambala 
is well situated for commercial purposes, midway between the Jumna 
and the Sutlej rivers, at the point where the Punjab and Delhi Railway 
intersects the Grand Trunk Road. Its importance is enhanced by 
the fact that it is at present the nearest station on the railway to the 
summer seat of the Government of India at Simla; and a branch line 
to Kalka at the foot of the hills, 39 miles in length, is about to be 
undertaken. Owing to this circumstance, Ambala contains a large 
number of English shops ; and a brisk trade in European commodities 


is carried on. The city is a great grain mart for the produce of the 
District and of the Independent States to the West It also carries on a 
considerable trade in hill products, ginger, and turmeric. Chief exports 
—cotton goods, grain, and carpets ; imports— English cloth and iron, 
salt, wool, and silk. 

The population of the town and cantonment, which in 1868 num- 
bered 50,696, had increased in February 1881 to 67,463, made up as 
follows: — Hindus, 34,5 22 > Muhammadans, 27,115; Sikhs, 1867; 
Jains, 410; Christians and 'others,' 3549- Ambala city and civil 
station with a separate population of 26,777, has been constituted a 
second-class municipality; revenue in 1880-81, ^2253; expenditure, 


AmMWLpulai— Tdluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. 
Area 121 square miles; population (1881) 93j io 4- 

Ambapeta. — Estate in Goddvari District, Madras Presidency. 
Quit-rent or peshkash, ;£ 1 6 1 4. 

Ambarnath. — Village and temple in Thana District, Bombay 
Presidency. — See Amarnath. 

Ambasamudram.— Tdluk in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency; 
contains 92 towns and villages. Area, 569 square miles, or 364,160 acres, 
of which 9026 acres are zaminddri, 7943 «"&*> and the rest Government 
land. Of the area of Government land, 63,685 acres are under culti- 
vation, and 62,912 fallow. Land revenue, £z^41- The Tambraparni 
river flows through the tdluk, joined, about four or five miles before its 
debouchure from the mountain range, by the Serviar in five falls, at a 
famous spot, known as Papanassam, where many thousand pilgrims 
annually congregate. The tdluk contains 50 Siva temples, whose 
annual income in cash amounts to ^1647, and endowments in land 
and jewels to ^5744- There are two zaminddris, Singampatti and 
Urkad,in the tdluk. Population (1881) 165,152, namely 78,882 males 
and 86,270 females; density, 290 persons per square mile; number 
of occupied houses, 36,881. (See Tinnevelli.) 

Ambasamudram.— Town and head-quarters of the Ambasamudram 
tdluk, Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 42' 45" N., long. 
77 29' 15" e. Population (1881) 8770, namely 8383 Hindus, 313 
Muhammadans, and 54 Christians. Head-quarters of Sub-divisional 

officer. r 

Ambatmuri.— Pass in the Uppinangadi tdluk, South Kanara Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency; between 13° o' 45" and I 3° 4 N. lat., and 
between 75 29' 15" and 75° 33' 45" * long. It leads into Mysore, 
but is little used. 

Ambela ( Umbeyla).— Mountain pass situated just beyond British 
territory, north-east of Peshawar District, Punjab. The pass has ac- 
quired importance, asbeing the route selected on various occasions when 

AMBELA. ?2y 

punitive military expeditions have been rendered necessary against the 
predatory mountain clans along the border. The last and most 
important of these was in 1863. A colony of Wahabi Muham- 
madans, established at Sitana in the Swat country, and made up of 
religious fanatics, escaped criminals, mutinous soldiers, and political 
refugees from British India, had been a source of trouble and anxiety to 
the Punjab Government since the annexation of the Province. This 
fanatical colony, throughout the whole period between 1850 and 1863, 
had kept the border tribes in a state of chronic hostility to British 
rule. They themselves, however, wisely avoided direct collision 
with the British authorities, till in 1857 they boldly made a plundering 
inroad into our territory, and attacked the camp of a British officer. 
Accordingly, in 1858, a force 5000 strong was marched into the hill 
country through the Ambela Pass. After some difficulties, the column 
destroyed the villages of the tribes who had rendered assistance to the 
Wahabi fanatics, razed or blew up two forts, and destroyed the traitor 
settlement at Sitana. Engagements were entered into with the border 
tribes that they would prevent the fanatics from re-entering their 
territory, and the Sitana lands were made over to one of these tribes. 
Scarcely two years elapsed, however, before the rebel colony had 
regained their influence over the wild highland clans, and recommenced 
their inroads on to British territory, the tribes either rendering them 
active assistance, or allowing them free passage through their territory. 
These frontier inroads culminated in an attack in September 1863 
upon the camp of our Guide Corps, and in a declaration of a Holy War 
{jihad) by the fanatics against the English infidels. A strong military 
force was organised in the Punjab, to put a stop once and for all to 
these maraudings; and on the 18th October 1863 a British army of 
7000 men under General Sir Neville Chamberlain marched out of 
cantonments, and the following evening entered the Ambela defile. The 
hill tribes all threw in their fortunes with the rebel fanatics, and on the 
20th the British force was brought to a halt before it cleared the pass, 
and reinforcements were summoned. The coalition of tribes, at one 
time numbering 60,000 men, kept up a constant series of harassing 
attacks on the British position, capturing some pickets and inflicting 
heavy loss. The force was kept acting entirely on the defensive till 
December, when the further reinforcements raised the strength of the 
column to 9000 regular troops. Meanwhile diplomatic efforts were 
being made to break up the coalition, and some of the chiefs withdrew, 
while others were wavering. On the night of the 15th December, a 
successful night attack was made on the enemy's position, and on the 
1 6th the village of Ambela was captured and burned. The coalition 
thereupon dissolved, and the Bunair tribes, on whom the rebel 
settlement mainly depended, entered into an engagement with us to 

228 AMBER. 

burn the fanatics in their stronghold. In less than a week, a strong 
British brigade, reinforced by the Bunairs, advanced through the 
mountains to the fanatical settlement, and reduced it to ashes. The 
force returned to the Ambela Pass on the 23rd December, and on the 
25th re-entered British territory, not a shot being fired on its home- 
ward march. The British loss during the campaign amounted to no 
less than 227 killed (British and native) and 620 wounded. The 
total loss of the enemy was reported at 3000 killed and wounded. 

Amber (Amer). — The ancient but now decayed capital of Jaipur 
(Jeypore) State, Rajputana, about 5 miles north-east of the present 
capital, Jaipur Town. Lat. 26 58' 45" n., long. 75 52' 50" e. ; 
population (1881) 5036, namely 4346 Hindus, 665 Muhammadans, and 
25 'others.' Its picturesque situation, almost entirely surrounded by 
hills, and at the mouth of a rocky mountain gorge, in which nestles a 
little lake, has attracted the admiration of travellers. The margin of 
the lake is dotted over with beautiful buildings, and the hill slopes 
which surround it are clothed in the rains with green foliage. Jacque- 
mont and Heber have both recorded the deep impression made by 
the beauty of the scene. Amber is reached from Jaipur by a good 
road, suitable for horse-carriages ; but the ascent to the palace, and 
the exploration of the site of the ancient city, must still be done on 
elephant or pony-back (1883). A day thus spent at Amber is usually 
one of the most enjoyable which falls to the lot of the traveller in 
India. The name of Amber occurs in Ptolemy, but nothing is know r n 
in regard to its early history. In a.d. 1037, the Kachhwaha Rajputs, 
shortly after obtaining a footing in this part of the country, conquered 
Amber from the King of the SusaVat Minds after a protracted struggle. 
The seat of Rajput power was thereupon transferred to Amber, 
which became the capital of the country, and gave the name to the 
state. There are many objects of interest at Amber. The old palace 
ranks second only to Gwalior as a specimen of Rajput architecture. 
Commenced about 1600 a.d., a century later than the Gwalior palace, 
by Raja Man Singh, who erected the Observatory at Benares, it 
was completed early in the 18th century by Siwai Jai Singh, who 
added the beautiful gateway which bears his name, before transferring 
his capital to Jaipur city in 1728. It lacks the fresh and vigorous 
stamp of Hindu originality, which characterises the earlier buildings 
at Gwalior, and instead of standing on a lofty pedestal of rock, it lies 
low. But nothing could be more picturesque than the way in which 
it grows, as it were, out of its rocky base, and reflects its architectural 
beauties on the water. The interior arrangements are excellent, and 
the suites of rooms form vistas opening upon striking views of the lake. 
The ornamentation and technical details are free from the feebleness 
which had already begun to paralyze Hindu architecture ; and they 


bear the impress of the influence which Akbar managed to stamp on 
everything done during his reign. Amber contains many large and 
handsome temples, and was at one time much frequented by ascetics 
and religious devotees from all parts of India. A small temple, where 
a goat is every morning offered up to Kali, preserves the tradition of 
a daily human sacrifice on the same spot, in the pre-historic times 
anterior to Rajput ascendency. Few of the temples, however, are now 
maintained, and the glory of Amber has departed. The palace, 
although still kept in good order, and occasionally visited by the Chief, 
is generally silent and deserted. The fort which crowns the summit of 
a hill, 400 or 500 feet above, is connected with and defended the 
palace. It has been from time immemorial the State treasury and 
prison, and remains so to the present day ; the Kachhwaha Rajputs having 
engaged, on wresting the fort from the Minds, to maintain the treasury 
here for ever. Mr. Fergusson, from whose work some of the foregoing 
sentences have been condensed, has given an excellent description of 
Amber in his History of Eastern Architecture, p. 480, ed. 1867. 

Ambgaoil. — Pargand in Chanda District, Central Provinces. Lat. 
20 38' 30" n., long. 79 59' 45" e. ; area, with its dependent zamindaris 
(excluding Ahiri), 12 12 square miles. It contains 67 villages and 4 
zamindaris. Hilly, and, except near the Wainganga river, covered 
with jungle ; much intersected by tributaries of the Wainganga. Chief 
productions, rice, tasar silk, and jungle products, with large import 
trade in salt from the east coast. Telugu is spoken in the south, 
Marathi in the north. The local traders of the pargand are Telingas. 
Principal place of interest, Markandi ; largest villages, Garhchiroli 
and Chamursf. The village of Ambgaon contains a population of only 
483 souls. 

Ambika.— River in Surat District, Bombay Presidency. Rises in 
the Bansda hills, and after flowing through Baroda territory, westward, 
in two separate channels, enters Surat District, through which it flows 
in a winding course over a deep bed of sand between the Chikhli 
and Jalalpur Sub-divisions, falling into the sea 15 miles south of the 
Puma. The town of Gandevi, about 12 miles from the mouth, is the 
limit of the rise of the tide. At a point about 6 miles from the sea, 
the railway crosses the Ambika by a bridge 875 feet long and raised 
2S feet above the level of the river. The Ambika is joined by two con- 
siderable streams, the Kaveri and Kharera, and, below the junction, 
widens out into a broad estuary. About a mile and a half from the 
entrance is a bar, covered at low water to a depth of three or four feet, 
with a tidal rise of 22 feet. Vessels of considerable size can pass up 
for about 6 miles as far as to Bilimora ; beyond this, for five miles, only 
boats of 50 tons and under can proceed. The Kaveri and Kharera are 
both crossed by railway bridges, 688 feet and 625 feet in length. 


Ambulupali. — Town in the Ambulupali taluk of Travancore 
State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 23' n., long. 76° 24' 30" e. j 
population about 3000. A canal connects it with Alleppi, and a great 
annual festival, held here in April, attracts some local trade. Head- 
quarters of the taluk; magistrate's and munsifs courts. Famous in 
history as the scene of Fra Paolo Bartolomeo's protest against the 
compulsory attendance of Christians at Hindu festivals. Until 1754 
it was the capital of the Chembagachari Rajas. 

Amblir (Amourdrug, Petambur). — Town in the Vellore taluk, North 
Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12 50' 25" n., long. 78 44' 
30" e. ; population (1881) 10,390, namely, 5991 Hindus, 4388 Muham- 
madans, and 1 1 Christians. A well-built and compact town, about 30 
miles from Vellore, 79 miles from Bangalore, and 112 miles (by rail) 
from Madras, situated at the foot of the Kadapanatham Pass, which 
leads from the Eastern Hills of the Baramahal ; it lies on the south bank 
of the Palar river. The railway station is within half a mile of the town, 
and an excellent road connects it with Vellore and Salem. The Ambiir 
Drug peak towers above the town. It possesses a considerable trade 
in oils, ghi, and indigo, which the Labbay merchants (Nagar Muham- 
madans) collect here for export to Madras both above and below the 
ghat, but since the opening of the railway in i860 Ambiir has lost its 
monopoly of the ghat carrying trade. The fort, situated on the almost 
inaccessible Ambiir Driig, and commanding an important pass into 
the Carnatic, was in past times keenly contested. In 1750, the first 
pitched battle in the great wars of the Carnatic was fought under its 
walls, in which Anwar-ud-din, the Nawab of Arcot, was defeated by 
Muzaffar Jang. This battle is remarkable as being the first occasion in 
which European troops played a conspicuous part in Indian warfare. 
In 1768, the fort was gallantly defended by the 10th regiment of 
Madras Infantry. Twenty years later it was besieged by Haidar Ah', 
and taken ; only, however, to be restored by the Treaty of Mangalore. 
In the expeditions against Mysore, in 1792 and 1799, tn i s fortress was 
occupied as a point of great importance on the line of communications. 

Amburpet. — Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
I2 ° 47' I 5" N -> lon g- 7 8 ° 45' 15" e. ; houses, 1411; population (1881) 
6700. A suburb of Vaniyambadi. 

Amer. — Town in Jaipur State. — See Amber. 

Amet. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore), Rajput- 
ana. Situated in a fine valley, nearly surrounded by hills, on the 
banks of the Chandrabhaga, a tributary of the Bands. One of the first- 
class nobles of the State, owning 51 villages, resides here. The town 
is walled. 

Amethi. — Village in Farukhabad District, North- Western Provinces, 
situated on the right bank of the Ganges, about a mile east of Farukh- 


abad town, of which it forms a suburb. A small income is derived from 
a house tax under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856, for police and 
conservancy purposes. Beneath the village, the Ghatiaghat boat-bridge 
conveys the Rohilkhand Trunk Road across the Ganges. 

Amethi. — Pargand of Sultanpur District, Oudh. Bounded on the 
north by Isauli and Sultanpur pargaiids, on the east by Tappa Asl, 
on the south by Partabgarh District, and on the west by Rokha Jais 
pargand. Amethi is an important pargand, occupied by a clan of 
Kshattriyas, known as the Bandhalgotis. Of the 365 villages compris- 
ing the pargand, all but one are owned by this clan. Raja Madhu 
Singh's estate consists of 318 villages, covering an area of 265 square 
miles, and paying a Government land revenue of ^20,103. The 
Bandhalgoti clan is confined to Amethi, and does not possess a single 
village outside the pargand. The members are alleged to be descended 
from a female bamboo-splitter who married a servant of the Raja of 
Hasanpur. It is alleged that they still, on certain ceremonial occasions, 
make religious offerings to a specimen of the ancestral implement — the 
bdnka or knife used in splitting the bamboo. The Bandhalgotis them- 
selves, however, repudiate this humble origin. According to their own 
account they are Surjabansi Kshattriyas, belonging to the branch of 
the clan now represented by the Raja of Jaipur, and descended from a 
scion of that house, who 900 years ago, when on a pilgrimage to 
Ajodhya, was led to settle here through a vision, by which it was dis- 
closed to him that he and his successors were to become the hereditary 
lords of this part of the country. Area of the pargand, 299 square 
miles, of which 131 are cultivated ; population (1881), Hindus, 151,104; 
Muhammadans, 8514: total, 159,618. Average density of population, 
523 per square mile. 

Amethi Dungar. — Town in Lucknow District, Oudh ; 1 7 miles from 
Lucknow, on the road to Sultanpur. Lat. 2 6° 45' 20" N.j long. 8i° 12' e. 
An ancient town, supposed to be of Bhar origin. It has repeatedly 
changed hands between the Hindus and Musalmans, and the in- 
habitants belong to these religions in about equal proportions. 
Population (1881) 5654, namely, Hindus 2739, an d Muhammadans 
2922 ; number of houses, 1151 ; area of town site, no acres. Seat cf 
flourishing weaving trade ; thriving export trade in hides and horns ; 
Government school. A small revenue for police and conservancy 
purposes is raised under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Amgaon. — Estate or zaminddri in the eastern portion of Bhandara 
District, Central Provinces; area, 144 square miles, of which 47 are 
returned as under cultivation; villages, 61; occupied houses, 5577; 
population (1881) 27,524; namely, 13,625 males and 13,899 females. 
Amgaon village has a large weekly market. Near it extends some 
miles of low rocky jungle, infested with leopards, and the estate 


generally is noted for the number of man-eating tigers which have been 
killed from time to time. 

Amg&on. — Village in Narsinghpur tahsil, Narsinghpur District, 
Central Provinces. Population (i 88 1) 2492 — namely, Hindus, 2108; 
Kabirpanthis, 18 ; Muhammadans, 177 j Jains, 6; aboriginal tribes, 183. 
Amherst. — District in Tenasserim Division, British Burma, lying 
between 14 59' and 17 71' n. lat., and between 97 30' and 98 53' e. 
long.; area, 15,189 square miles; population in 1881, 301,086. Bounded 
on the north by the Salwin (Salween) and Kyun-eik rivers ; on the east 
by the Thaung-yin river, and by the mountains which form the boundary 
between British and Burmese territories ; on the south by the Malwe, 
a spur of the same range ; and on the west by the Bilin (Bhileng) river 
and the Gulf of Martaban. The administrative head-quarters of the 
District and Division are at Maulmain. 

Physical Aspects. — Amherst District occupies the Thatiin plain, lying 
between the Bilin (Bhileng) and the Salwin (Salween) rivers, and the 
country lying north, south, and east of the mouths of the Salwin, Gyaing, 
and Attaran. Round Maulmain are alluvial plains watered by these 
rivers ; shut in by the Dawna Hills, and south of Maulmain by the Taung- 
nyo chain, running parallel to the coast. In the extreme east is a narrow 
and densely-wooded region, broken by the Dawna range and its spurs ; 
to the south is the valley of the Ye, situated between the Taung-nyo 
Hills and the sea, drained by numerous streams, with a general direc- 
tion to the west. Tha-tiin, or the country between the rivers Salwin 
(Salween) and Bilin (Bhileng), has one main chain running northwards; 
Bilugyun, an island one mile west of Maulmain, and a township of 
Amherst District, is also traversed by a ridge of hills from north to 
south. The chief mountains in the District are the Dawna, starting 
from the Mulai-yit Hill, an immense mass of rock, 5500 feet high, in 
1 6° 5' 45" n. lat, and 98 42' 3" e. long. They throw out numerous 
spurs, and run north-west for 200 miles, dividing the waters of the 
Haung-tharaw and Hlaing-bhwai from those of the Thaung-yin. 
This range presents in most parts the appearance of a wooded plateau 
of laterite cut up by drainage into hills. At places, the underlying 
rocks project into the bed of the Thaung-yin, and indicate volcanic 
agency. The main range and its offshoots form the watershed between 
the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Siam. The hills to the west of the 
main range undulate for some distance gently to the southward, but 
end in barren limestone ridges. From the Tsadaik Hill, in 15 1 7' 25" n. 
lat., and 95 15' e. long., the Taung-nyo chain extends north-west to 
Maulmain, forming the Attaran watershed, and finally disappears in a 
small island at the mouth of the Gyaing. North of Maulmain and east 
of this river is a short range of limestone rocks (16 miles long), called 
Zwet-ka-beng. The main chain terminates at Kama-thaing, a little to 


the south of Kyiin-eik, the northern boundary of the District. There 
are two passes across these hills ; the northern one a cart track from 
Kyauk-sari j the southern one a metalled road from Zemath-weh to 
Tha-tiin. Large quantities of paddy are annually brought by the latter 
route to Maulmain by the rivers Binlaing (Benglaing) and Salwi'n. 
Several passes over the Dawna range connect the District with Siamese 
territory. The most important leads from Myawadi, an old and 
once fortified town on the Thaung-yin, to Rahaing, 45 miles east; 
and in the south-west monsoon, boats go down the Meinam from 
this town to Bangkok in eight days. The journey from Maulmain to 
Bangkok, by the famous pass of the Three Pagodas, occupies on an 
average 25 days. The route is by boat up the Attaran as far as Kanni 
(Kannee), and thence by elephants across the watershed. 

The Salwin, Gyaing, Attaran, Thaung-yin, Bilin (Bhileng), are the 
chief rivers of the District. (1) The Salwin rises in Chinese territory, 
and after a tortuous course falls into the sea at Maulmain, where it is 
joined by the rivers Gyaing and Attaran. Its channel is broad, shallow, 
and obstructed by shoals, rendering it unnavigable by sea-going vessels, 
except at its southern mouth. Just below Martaban, the Salwin is 
divided into two branches, by Bilii (Bheeloo) island. The southern, 
the entrance for ships, is seven miles wide at its mouth ; the northern 
branch is still broader, but is dangerous and altogether impracticable 
for shipping. Its chief tributaries are the Yonzalin, a river of the 
Salwin Hill Tracts ; and the Binlaing. (2) The Gyaing, formed by the 
junction of the Hlaing-bhwai and the Haung-tharaw, flows almost due 
west till it falls into the Salwin at Maulmain town. It is choked by 
islands and sandbanks, but is navigated by native boats all the year 
round. The Haung-tharaw valley consists of several plateaux, separated 
by abrupt descents. (3) The Attaran river is formed by the junction 
of the Zami (Zamee) and Winraw, two small streams which unite a few 
miles above the site of old Attaran. The river then takes the name of 
the Attaran, and flows north-westward, draining the country between 
the Taung-nyo chain and the low undulating hills west of the Dawna 
range, till it joins the Salwin on its south bank at Maulmain. It is a 
narrow, deep, and sluggish stream flowing for part of its course between 
high banks, shut in by dense overhanging foliage. (4) The Thaung-yin 
rises in the Dawna Hills, and forms the north-eastern boundary of the 
District ; after a north-west course of 197 miles, it joins the Salwin. Its 
breadth varies from 100 to 1000 feet, but numerous rapids render it 
unnavigable. The remaining streams are of little importance. Off 
the coast, a little south of 16 n. lat., is Double Island, with a light 
house showing a first-order dioptric fixed light, with a catadioptric 
mirror, visible 19 miles. 

The teak forests of Amherst District are extensive. Those on the 


Dawna Hills rank among the most important in British Burma. For 
conservancy purposes they are divided into five tracts — viz., the 
Diinthami (Doonthamee), Hlaing-bhwai, Thaung-yin, Haung-tharavv, 
and Attaran. (i) The Diinthami forests, between the rivers Diinthami 
and Sahvin, cover 60 square miles, and in 1859 contained i4>34° first- 
class trees growing on dry ground. Excellent ' crooks ' for ship-building 
are obtained, and the rivers afford the means of transit. (2) The Hlaing- 
bhwai and lower Sal win forests lie east of the Salwin, and on the 
Hlaing-bhwai and its feeders ; they are chiefly valuable for their supply 
of crooked timber. Teak is found here only on level ground ; but its 
growth is irregular, owing principally to the remains of old taungya 
cultivation. The teak forests are open and much exposed to jungle 
fires. (3) The Thaung-yin forests, on the hills forming the west 
watershed of the Thaung-yin river, contain regularly-grown trees of 
gigantic size. Bamboo and pyi?igado also abound in this tract. The 
teak localities in parts are hedged in by dense evergreen forest, stretch- 
ing down to the banks of the Thaung-yin and its tributaries. Some of 
the most valuable teak in British Burma is found on the sandstone of 
the hills between the Thaung-yin and its tributary the Meh-pa-leh. In 
one locality, 550 first-class trees occupied an area of \ of a square mile. 
These are tall and regular. Of five trees taken at random from among 
the larger ones of the Meh-pa-leh forest, the average girth was 1 1 feet, 
and the length of stem to first branch 74 feet. Higher up the hills, 
teak localities give place to impenetrable forests, where the height of 
the trees nearly equals that of the Wellingtonia of California. A 
specimen of dipterocarpus had a girth of 20 feet, and a height to the 
first branch of 160 feet. (4) The Haung-tharaw forests have been 
stripped of their best trees ; teak is now found only in isolated patches. 
At one locality above the fall of the ■ 99 islands,' the trees were magni- 
ficent ; but the teak had been converted into short logs and afterwards 
abandoned, owing to the impossibility of conveyance down the channel 
between the islands. These logs, after ten years' exposure, were still 
sound. During the last few years, attempts have been made to clear 
the channel of the Haung-tharaw by blasting. In 1873-74, 545 tons 
of stone were thus removed near the '99 islands.' (5) The Attaran 
forests are situated on both banks of the Zami (Zamee) and Winraw, 
and cover an area of 100 square miles. For some years after the 
cession of Martaban and Tenasserim, the timber was so recklessly 
felled — the grantees working for speedy returns — that in 1850 only 
two small teak forests had been left. In i860 the greater number of 
trees were found to be hollow or attacked with epiphytic ficus. At 
this time it was proposed that these tracts should continue in the 
hands of private parties ; subsequently, however, they were declared 
'reserved Government forests.' Such tracts were worked under one- 


year permits for the removal of seasoned timber only. Where the 
private tenure was recognised, thirty-year permits were given, and the 
removal of timber under 7 feet 6 inches in girth was strictly prohibited. 
Padauk, furnishing a hard, heavy wood ; anan (Fagrcea fragrans), a 
timber hardening under water; pyi?una, thingan (Hopea odorata), and 
numerous other valuable timbers abound. 

The Geological Formation of Amherst District has never been com- 
pletely examined by a professional survey. A conspicuous and 
picturesque feature in the country round Maulmain and in the 
Salwin valley, is the massive limestone occurring in steeply-scarped 
hills with overhanging cliffs, which exhibit the appearance of what 
they undoubtedly were at no remote period in geologic time, i.e. sea- 
girt rocks. These, even now, during the rains can only be approached 
by boats. In the hills there are 23 groups of caves, of which those 
above the sea level promise a rich harvest to future explorers. Lead 
ore occurs in the Taung-nyo Hills, and near Martaban, schorl rock 
and crystals, schist, and hornblendic rock are found. Hot springs 
exist in eleven places in Amherst District, and are always found near 
the limestone outcrops. The largest and most important are at Attaran 
Yebii (Yeboo), on the Attaran, about two miles inland from the old 
town of Attaran. Here there are ten hot-water ponds, in some of 
which the temperature is 130 F.; carbonic acid is evolved in large 
quantities, and the ground around the springs is highly impregnated 
with iron. The Attaran springs are said to approach in their composi- 
tion nearest to the celebrated spring of Toplitz, and their medical 
properties render them excellent remedies in a number of diseases, 
especially liver complaints. The Burmese use the waters in cases of 
fever and skin-disease. Dr. Morton found on analysis that the springs 
contain much calcareous matter ; they deposit carbonate of lime. 

History. — The history of Amherst District is for many centuries a 
monotonous chronicle of wars and incursions. Claimed by the Siamese 
on the east, and by the Peguans on the west, the country had no rest 
until the former were expelled and the latter conquered by the Burmese. 
The ancient capital, Martaban, was founded in 1269 a.d. by Narapadi- 
sithu, a Burmese King of Pagan, who erected a Buddhist Pagoda there, 
and planted a colony of thirty families to take charge of it. Aleinma 
was appointed governor. At this time the country east of the Salwin 
belonged to Siam. On Aleinma's refusal to appear at the Court of 
Narapadisithu's son and successor, Talapya was appointed in his place. 
But, aided by the Shans, the ex-governor soon returned, drove out and 
killed Talapya, and resumed office, probably as tributary to Siam. For 
many years the Burmese kingdom was harassed by the Chinese from 
the north, and its sovereigns were unable to exert any authority in the 
south. Magadu, a native trader of Martaban, who had risen in favour 


at the Siamese Court, was appointed governor of the capital during one 
of the king's absences. He eloped with the king's daughter, and, 
returning to Martaban, treacherously murdered Aleinma. In 1281 he 
was recognised by the King of Siam, and from this time is known in 
history as King Wariyii. Wariyu's ambition was not yet satisfied. 
North of Martaban lay a country called Kanpalani (Kanpalanee), 
which he eventually conquered. Whilst the King of Kanpalani was 
away on a hunting excursion, his capital was pillaged, and his daughter 
made captive. About this time the King of Martaban aided the 
King of Pegu, who had also effected his independence, in expelling 
the Chinese, who had defeated the King of Pagan and were attacking 
Pegu. Quarrels soon arose between the two monarchs, which ended 
in Wariyu's annexing Pegu. This king was succeeded by his brother, 
who perished in a rebellion. In the reign of the next sovereign, Zaw- 
aw-bin-maing, Labon, Tavoy, and Tenasserim were added to the 
kingdom, which already extended nearly to Prome on the north and 
to Bassein on the west. From this time the history of Martaban 
merges in that of Pegu. Between 1563 and 1581 Caesar Frederic, 
the Venetian, visited Martaban; he found there 'ninety Portugal 
merchants and other base men which had fallen at difference with 
the governor of the city.' The King of Pegu 'had gone with a 
million and four hundred thousand men to conquer the kingdom of 
Siam,' and in his absence the Portuguese caused a disturbance in the 
capital. From this time the country was the theatre of continual wars 
and rebellions. The kings of Siam succeeded in re-annexing the site 
of the modern Maulmain and the territory to the south, and in con- 
quering the portion of the Province lying east of the Salwin. In the 
latter half of the 18th century, Alaungpaya and his successors obtained 
possession of the country, and retained it till after the first Anglo- 
Burmese war, when the Burmese were forced to cede to the British the 
tract east of the Salwin (1826); the remaining portion was annexed 
after the second Burmese war by Lord Dalhousie, in 1853. 

Antiquities. — Bhilii (Bheeloo) island, in the estuary of the Salwin, 
alone contains 60 pagodas. Tradition fondly alleges that the Kalaw 
pagoda was erected in order to receive a relic of Gautama during the 
reign of the Indian Buddhist King Asoka. The most famous pagodas 
at Martaban are the Myathiendhan (1282 a.d.), attributed to King 
Wariyii; the Shwe Dagon, ascribed to 1288 a.d.; the Kyaik-kha-pan 
pagoda, built in 1199 a.d. by Aleinma. The Tha-tun (Tha-htoon) 
pagoda is the oldest and most celebrated of all. The Burmese 
chroniclers absurdly assign it to the year 594 B.C. It is said to have been 
built in honour of a visit of Gautama Buddha, and as a receptacle for 
a hair of the holy man. The chief pagoda at Maulmain is the Kyaik- 
than-lan, built on the northern spur of the hill near Martaban. There 


are several small but ancient pagodas near Maulmain containing relics 
of Buddha. Tha-tiin (Tha-htoon) and Martaban, once the capitals of 
independent kingdoms, are now in ruins, but still exhibit traces of their 
former importance. 

Population. — Before 1826, Amherst was the scene of perpetual warfare 
between the kings of Siam and Pegu, and was ravaged in turn by their 
troops, and by the Burmese armies of Alaungpaya and his successors. 
When the country east of the Salwin was annexed in 1826, it was 
found to be almost uninhabited. In February 1827, Maung Sat, a 
rebel Taking chief, known to the English of that day as the Syrian) 
Raja, settled, with 10,000 followers, in Maulmain and its neighbour- 
hood. After a few years, a further influx of 20,000 immigrants from 
Burmese territory took place. In 1829, the population of the country 
stretching from the Thaung-yin to the Pakchan (which includes the 
present Districts of Tavoy and Mergui) was about 70,000 souls. In 
1835 ^ na ^ risen to 85,000, and in 1845 to 127,455. This rapid 
increase was due to immigration from Pegu native territory, and on a 
small scale from India to Maulmain, which rose from a fishing village 
into a flourishing town. In 1855, Amherst District comprised only the 
country east of the Salwin (Salween) between the Thaung-yin river and 
Tavoy District, and had a population of 83,146. In i860 this number 
had increased to 130,953, and in 1870 to 235,747. During this 
decade Tha-tiin sub-division was transferred from Shwe-gyin District. 
In 1872, at the first regular Census, the District population was, exclu- 
sive of Maulmain town, which is now constituted a separate District, 
193,468. By February 1881 the inhabitants had increased to 301,086, 
or by 64 per cent, in nine years. The Census was taken over an area 
of 15,189 square miles, and in 1021 villages; number of houses, 
53,906, of which 50,483 were occupied, and 3423 unoccupied; average 
persons per square mile, 19*82; towns or villages per square mile, 
0-07; number of houses per square mile, 3*54; persons per occupied 
house, 5*96. Classified according to sex, there were 160,221 males 
and 140,865 females. Divided according to religion, there were 
Buddhists, 283,072; Muhammadans, 7599; Hindus, 6690; Christians, 
3040; ndt or demon-worshippers, 685. The disproportion between 
the sexes (males, 53*22 per cent.; females, 4678) is chiefly owing 
to the large immigration of male labourers. During the Burmese 
occupation of the country, the coast tracts of Tenasserim were peopled 
chiefly by Talaings, called by themselves ' Mun ; ' and they now form 
over n per cent, of the population. It is not known whether this tribe 
came directly down the Irawadi (Irrawaddy) from Pegu, or whether 
they migrated via the Brahmaputra, and so through Arakan to their 
present settlements. At a later date, Dravidians from Telingana 
established trading colonies in ■ Ramdyana ' — i.e., the country between 

23 3 AMHERST. 

the mouths of the Salwin and Bassein rivers. These colonists soon 
merged in the wild race of the Mdn, and their name, ' Talaing,' by 
which this mixed people is known to all but themselves, alone shows 
their connection with 'Telingana.' Their language is harsh and 
guttural, and essentially different from Burmese; and after the first 
Anglo-Burmese war, it was cruelly proscribed by the Burmese sovereign. 
In Pegu it has almost died out, but still prevails in Amherst District. 
The Karens generally occupy the hilly country in the District, and 
both Sgaw and Pwo or Pgho are fully represented. The pure Burmese 
are few in number. The Taungthus are an isolated race; they are 
swarthy and sturdily built, and have a language, dress, and customs 
of their own. They have no written character, but their traditions 
are preserved to them by professional story-tellers. The Arakanese 
and the Shans may be considered as permanent settlers, as are also 
some of the Hindus and Muhammadans, amongst whom are included 
Burmese women converted before marriage with Musalmans. Such 
marriages are frequent. Many Hindus and Muhammadans, however, 
only come to the District to make a little money, and look forward to 
returning to India. On the banks of the Attaran there is a Muhammadan 
colony. The Hindus are clustered in the towns and villages near 
Maulmain. The number of towns and villages in Amherst in 1881 was 
102 1— of which 495 contained less than 200 inhabitants, 400 from 200 to 
500,95 from 500 to 1000, 25 between 1000 and 2000, 4 from 2000 to 3000, 
and 2 from 3000 to 5000. The chief towns are Maulmain, Amherst, 
and Martaban, although the former is now separately administered. 
Maulmain is situated at the points of junction of the Salwin, Gyaing, 
and Attaran rivers, in lat. 16 38' N. and in long. 97° 38' E. Although 
now created an independent District, it is within the limits of Amherst, 
and is the head-quarters of the District. It was made a cantonment 
in 1826 for the main body of the troops in Tenasserim by General 
Sir Archibald Campbell. He selected it as the best position to overawe 
the Burmese, who still retained Pegu, and had a force at Martaban on 
the opposite bank of the Salwin. Its natural fertility and the discovery 
of the valuable teak forests, together with the cruelties of the Burmese 
in Pegu, induced immigration, and Maulmain sprang into importance. 
In 1 88 1 the population amounted to 53,107. Amherst (Kyaik Khami) 
is a small station on the sea-coast, in lat. 16 15' n. and in long. 97° 
34' E. On the cession of Tenasserim it was chosen to be the seat of 
the local Government, and called after Lord Amherst, the Governor- 
General; but in 1827 Maulmain became the head-quarters station. 
Martaban came under British rule in 1854, and was transferred from 
Shwe-gyin District to Amherst in 1864-65. It once formed the capital 
of an independent State, but afterwards belonged at different periods to 
Burma, Pegu, and Siam, until its capture by the English. 


2 39 

Agriculture, etc.— The cultivated portions of the District are Tha-tun 
sub-division (forming about five-sixteenths of the whole cultivated area), 
Bilu (Bheeloo) island, the plains east of Maulmain, the tract between 
the Taung-nyo Hills and the sea stretching from Maulmain to Amherst 
town, and the country around Ye in the south. The plains between 
the Salwi'n and Hlaing-bhwai, and the Haung-tharaw and Attaran are 
almost entirely inundated during the rains, and sometimes are several 
feet under water. Rice is the chief produce j it is extensively grown 
along the banks of the Gyaing. In 1869-70, the total area under tillage 
was 318 square miles; in 1873-74, 401; in 1875-76, 461; and in 
1SS1-82, 587 square miles. In the last-mentioned year, 513 square 
miles were under rice, and the gross yield of unhusked rice was 
about 246,259 tons. Dhani and betel palms are largely cultivated- 
tobacco and sesamum are also grown ; cotton in small quantities only,' 
and chiefly by the Karens on the hill-sides, as other crops at present 
are more profitable. In 1875-76, there were 1189 sugar-cane planta- 
tions. Some of the cane is exported to Rangoon. The number of 
taungyas, or jungle clearings, is small, the hillmen being few. The 
land is almost entirely in the hands of small proprietors holding it 
direct from the State, and cultivating it themselves, aided by "the 
members of their families. Occasionally labourers are hired, who are 
paid in kind to the value of from 6 to 8 rupees (12s. to 16s.) a month, 
according as they live and board with their employers or not. There 
are no large landed proprietors in the District. The average size of a 
holding is from 10 to 15 acres, and the average rent from 2 to 3 rupees 
(4s. to 6s.) per acre. 






















8 S4 










1 8 74- 75 


1 107 















o £ 

2 E 












Fruits. other 






1 3,3 2 9 







In 1881-82, 4733 square miles of cultivable land were still waiting 
for cultivators; while 9929 square miles were returned as uncultivable. 
The agricultural stock has rapidly increased. Between 1855-56 and 
1881 the number of buffaloes rose from 36,501 to 90,645 ; cows, bulls, 


and bullocks, from 5297 to 79,247 ; carts, from 2356 to 9068; ploughs, 
from 1029 to 32,448; and boats, from 4320 to 6094. The most 
important natural product is teak, which, since the country came into 
our possession, has formed the staple article of local commerce. 
Indeed, the District owes its early prosperity to the timber trade, and 
the impetus which it gave to immigration. Most of the timber is of 
foreign growth, and is brought down the rivers from Siam and Cheng- 
mai for shipment at Maulmain. The mode of bringing it to market is 
as follows : — The selected trees are first girdled ; three years later they 
are felled, marked, and dragged by elephants to the bed of the stream 
which taps the forests, and left there until the rains, when the waters 
rise. They then float down — in some cases untouched and unseen, 
and in others, as in the Thaung-yin, followed and guided by men and 
elephants — till they reach the kyodan, or rope station, where their further 
progress is arrested. Here parties of foresters are stationed, who 
recognise their own timber, draw the logs to the bank, and form them 
into rafts. These are taken by raftsmen to the Government timber- 
station, where they must be entered in the forest revenue books, and 
the duty, if any, paid before they can be taken farther down the river 
to the ships awaiting them, or to the saw-pits at Maulmain. At the 
kyodan on the Salwin, where the river, narrowed to a third of its 
ordinary breadth, runs between two perpendicular cliffs, an immense 
cable, stretched across, intercepts the floating logs as they collect 
during the night. At dawn, numbers of foresters are seen, each trying 
to get his own logs ashore and clear of the rest. Sometimes the weight 
of the timber snaps the cable, and the whole mass is carried swiftly 
down the river, either to be stranded by the current or lost by being 
drifted out to sea, or to be landed by practised men, who make this 
their profession and receive salvage at a fixed scale. The other natural 
products are gamboge and stick-lac ; the ka-nyin, yielding a varnishing 
oil; and a drug having all the properties of camphor, extracted by 
distillation from a plant belonging to the sub-division of Verbenacece 
eupatorice. Communication is carried on chiefly by boat. Total 
length of water communication within the District, 500 miles. A 
metalled road runs southwards as far as Kwan-hla, a distance of 38 
miles. It will eventually be prolonged to Tavoy and Mergui. At 
Kwan-hla, a branch road leads westward to Amherst, 16 miles distant; 
a road leads from Maulmain to the Gyaing ; and a short metalled way, 
4J miles, connects Zemathway with Tha-tun (Tha-htoon). Another 
road has been made from Martaban northwards to Tha-tun, and thence 
to Shwe-gyin. Total length of roads in the District, 62 miles. A 
telegraph line extends from Maulmain past Tha-tun to Shwe-gyin (with 
a branch thence to Rangoon) and on to Taung-ngii (Toung-gnoo), and 
another line runs from Maulmain to Amherst. 


Manufactures, etc. — Sugar is manufactured for home consumption 
and for export, chiefly in Tha-tiin. The demand for rice and teak in 
the English and Indian markets, the discovery of valuable forests, the 
rapid increase of population, and the convenient position of Maulmain, 
gave a great stimulus to trade. The principal exports are timber and 
rice. The first shipment of teak to England was in 1839. It is now 
sent in large quantities to the United Kingdom and to India, to con- 
tinental Europe, and in small quantities to the Straits. In 1873-74, the 
value of timber exported was £582,483, and in 1881-82, £823,009. 
Rice was formerly sent chiefly to the Straits, but now large shipments 
are made to Europe and India. In 1876-77, its total export was 
56,383 tons, and in 1881-82, 56,726 tons. In 1881-82, 7 steam 
rice cleaning mills were at work in the District, besides several steam 
saw-mills. There is a small trade in hides and cotton. The principal 
imports are cotton and woollen piece-goods, twist, tea, sugar and sugar- 
candy, spirits, vegetable oils, silk goods, and tobacco. In 1855-56, 
the value of imports was £358,302, of exports £439,092 — total, 
£797>394; in 1864-65, the value of imports was £693,021, of exports 
£874,834— total, ,£1,567,855 ; in 1875-76, the imports were 
£59 8 >73 8 > exports £1,184,436 — total, £1,783,174; in 1880-81, 
the imports (including treasure) were £979,011, and the exports 
£1,482,580 — total, £2,461,591. In 1881-82, the imports amounted 
to £1,004,066, and the exports to £1,400,837 — total, £2,404,903. 
This represents the foreign and coasting trade ; but there is also a 
considerable inland trade between Amherst and Siam, the imports 
mainly comprising cattle and sheep, and the exports of English piece- 
goods. In 1880-81, the value of this trade was — imports £14,554, 
exports £5137 ; but this is greatly below the average, owing to the 
fact that the passes were for a time in the hands of a gang of Siamese 

Administration. — On the cession of the Tenasserim Provinces, they 
were considered so unproductive that at one time their surrender was 
seriously contemplated. The discovery of the teak forests, however, 
soon proved a source of wealth and prosperity. In 1855-56, the total 
revenue of Amherst District, exclusive of Tha-tiin (Tha-htoon), derived 
from land, capitation, fisheries, customs, excise, etc, amounted to 
£44,936; in 1862-63, to £93,486; in 1872-73, to £i37,737 ; 
in 1875, t0 £ l68 >74 1 ') an d in 1881-82, to £121,400, or including 
Maulmain town, to £181,964. The land revenue alone rose from 
£40,319 in 1872 to £45,3 I 3 in 1873, an d to £63,221 in 1881-82. 
This increase was owing to the enlarged area of taxable land, caused 
partly by the improvement in the rice trade, and partly by cultivable 
land having been reclaimed in the Tha-tiin and Zaya townships. For 
some years after the cession of Tenasserim, the land revenue was 

vol. 1. Q 


represented by a levy of 25 per cent, upon the crop, calculated at an 
average ad valorem rate dependent on the market price of grain. In 
1834 this system was abolished, and payment by acreage substituted. 
Two rupees 8 annas (5s.) per acre were fixed as the maximum rent of 
the best lands. In addition to the imperial revenue, a local revenue 
is raised from town and District funds, and the cess levied on the land 
revenue and fisheries. In 1872, the local rates amounted to ^2837 ; 
in 1875-76, to ^5445- For administrative purposes the District is 
divided into 1 1 townships— viz., Tha-tun (Tha-htoon), Hpagat, Martaban, 
Biliigyun (Bheeloogywon), Than-lwin-Hlaing-bhwai, Gyaing-Than-lwin, 
Gyaing-Attaran, Zaya, Wakarii (Wakharoo), Ye-Lamaing, Haung-tharaw. 
These are subdivided into revenue circles. Judicial staff— a Judge 
at Maulmain, with civil and criminal jurisdiction; and 18 presiding 
officers in the District, of whom 14 have civil, criminal, and revenue 
powers. In 1882 the regular police force, excluding Maulmain town, 
was 719 men, maintained at a cost of ^16,948. Crimes of violence 
are chiefly committed by the Karens, Taung-thiis, and Shans ; and in 
1880-81, an organized robber gang held undisturbed sway over the 
passes near the Siamese border, and completely closed the roads, and 
put a stop to trade for several months. The jail at Maulmain is one 
of the central prisons of British Burma. In 1880, the total number of 
prisoners was 2292, the daily average prison population being 333. 
They are employed in gardening, wicker and coir work, tailoring, 
cotton-spinning, stone-breaking, etc. Including Maulmain town, the 
District contained 361 schools in 1880-81, with 8295 pupils, of 
which 129 received some form of aid from Government, and 232 were un- 
aided indigenous monastic schools. These last have been lately brought 
under Government supervision, as a means of spreading sound primary 
instruction among the people. In 1873, 89 of these schools were 
visited with the consent of the Buddhist Pungyis, or teachers, and the 
pupils examined. In 1880-81, 350 such schools were inspected by the 
Government examiners, and 118 of them received grants-in-aid. The 
Census Report of 1S81 returned 8438 boys and 1092 girls as under 
instruction; and 34,738 males and 967 females as able to read and 
write, but not under instruction. Two newspapers are published in the 
District. The Government High School, established in Maulmain in 
1835, had no pupils on its roll in 1880-81. St. Patrick's School was 
started in 1842 by the Roman Catholic Mission; the Maung-gan 
Anglo-Vernacular School is now incorporated with it. In Maulmain, 
the Morton Lane and St. Joseph's Schools, and the Church of 
England Orphanage, are for girls only. In 1843 the American 
Baptist Mission set up a Normal school in Maulmain for Karens, 
in which Burmese is taught Speaking generally, the education of 
Burmese women has hitherto been neglected, but they are inde- 


pendent, active, and shrewd. The petty trade is almost exclusively in 
their hands. 

Climate, *&— Fevers and rheumatism are the most prevalent diseases. 
The average annual rainfall at Maulmain for the 32 years ending in 
1SS1, was 189-67 inches. In 1881, 205-88 inches of rain fell in 
Maulmain town. The temperature in the same year was thus returned 
—May, max. 99-9° R, min. 73-5° • July, max. 85-8°, min. 71-5°; 
December, max. 91 - 4 °, min. 6r 7 °. Amherst District has suffered 
terribly from cattle-disease, which is imported almost annually from 
the Shan States. In 1876, between January 1st and August 30th, 
12,562 cattle died. [A considerable literature has of late years sprung 
up with regard to British Burma, and several excellent works are now 
available to the public. It would be invidious for me to make 
selections among these books for special mention. But for additional 
official information the following authoritative works may be consulted : 
— The British Burma Gazetteer, 2 vols., 1879 and 1880; the Burma 
Census Report of 1881 ; the Provincial Administration Reports for 
1880-81 to 1882-83; and the Meteorological Report for 1881.] 

Amherst.— Town in Amherst District, British Burma, on the 
Wakarii (Wakharoo) river ; lat. 16 4' 40" n., long. 97 35' 30" e. It is 
situated on the sea-coast about 30 miles south of Maulmain by river 
and 54 by road, on an elevation, airy and open to the sea-breeze. On 
account of its accessible position, on a river which is navigable for some 
distance and possessing a good harbour at its mouth, Amherst was, in 
1826, made the capital of the Province. It was called after Lord 
Amherst, the Governor-General ; its native name is Kyaik Khami. In 
1827 the head-quarters were transferred to Maulmain. As a sani- 
tarium, Amherst is strongly recommended; on the inland side, the 
town is sheltered by a bold range of wooded hills, and it is a favourite 
summer retreat of the people of Maulmain. For some years it was 
garrisoned by a small detachment, afterwards replaced by a police 
guard. Amherst is now important only as a pilot station with a 
telegraph office. Population in 1881, 2953. 

Ami.— River of the North-Western Provinces ; rising from a small 
lake in Basti District, and flowing in an easterly and south-easterly 
direction, it falls into the Rapti on its left bank. Except during the 
rains, the river, though deep in some places, is a narrow sluggish 
stream. Its waters are extensively used for irrigation, and the 
fisheries are valuable. The river is bridged at three places. During 
the rains it is navigable by boats of about four tons burthen ; but 
the course of the stream being difficult to follow owing to floods, and 
to sunken trees, navigation is attended with some risk. Very little 
deposit is left behind by the subsiding of the floods, but what there is, 
is a fertilizing loam, and the crops grown thereon are exceptionally good. 


Amindivi Islands.— See Laccadives. 

Amingadh. — Town in Kaladgi District, Bombay Presidency; 9 
miles west of Hungund, and 34 miles south-east of Kaladgi. Lat. 16 
3' 30" n., long. 76 e. ; population, 7314 in 1872; not returned sepa- 
rately in 1 88 1. The town has a post-office and a large cattle market 
— the sale of cattle is said to reach the yearly value of ^2 500. It 
is also a great mart for cocoa-nuts and rice, which reach Amingadh 
westwards from the sea-coast. 

Amjhera. — Revenue division of Gwalior State, in Malwa, Central 
India, comprising 250 villages, and lying between lat. 22 16' and 22 
47' n., and between long. 74 40' and 75° 15' E. It was formerly a 
petty State. In the Mutiny of 1857, the chief was tried and hanged for 
rebellion ; and eventually the State lapsed to Sindhia, with the outlying 
pargands of Bagh, Bankaner, Manawar, Dikthan, and Sagor. Area, 584 
square miles ; extent from north-east to south-west, 42 miles, and from 
south-east to north-west, 33 miles. — Revenue, ^27,366. Opium is 
cultivated to a considerable extent; other special crops are cotton, 
maize, sugar-cane, etc. Chief town, Amjhera, 12J miles west from 
Dhar. The town was once populous, but is now in ruins ; it has a 
fine tank, with a good camping ground to the eastward. 

Amliyara. — See Amalyara. 

Ammapet. — Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12 
9' 15" n., long. 78 41' e. ; population (1881) 7003; namely, 6704 
Hindus, 278 Muhammadans, and 21 Christians; houses, 1181. A 
suburb of Salem town. 

Ammayanayakannr. — Large estate in Dindigal taluk, Madura 
District, Madras Presidency. The battle fought here in 1741 decided 
the fate of Dindigal, which thus fell into the hands of Chanda Sahib ; 
and the estate also figured somewhat conspicuously in the incursion of 
Haidar Ali (1757). It was one of the five palaiyams which the invader 
failed to resume, but it was afterwards sequestrated by Tipu Sahib. 
On the British occupation, it was restored to its original status as a 
tributary palaiyam, and assessed at .£1397 per annum. In 1862 an 
increase to ^1508 was recommended. Government, however, decided 
that the original assessment, reduced by ^3, should be considered 
permanent The South Indian Railway passes through this estate, 
with a station at the head-quarters town of Ammayanayakaniir. 

Ammayanayakanur. — Village in Dindigal idluk, Madura District, 
Madras Presidency. The station for the Palni Hills, on the line of 
railway from Negapatam to Tuticorin. Distant 40 miles from 

Amner. — Town in Morsi taluk, Amraoti District, BeraV, at the junc- 
tion of the Jam and Wardha rivers; population (1881) 1416, chiefly 
Muhammadan. Celebrated as the site of a battle between the Jagirdar 


and the Nizam, 7000 Muhammadan tombs being still pointed out; also 
for an old temple to Mahadeo on the river bank, with miracle-pool 
below. Government school. 

Amner (or Jilpi-Amner).— Small fort in the Melghat, in the north of 
Ellichpur District, Berir. Lat 21 31' 45" n., long. 7 6° 49' 30" e. 
Stands in a commanding position at the apex of the triangle formed by 
the junction of the Garga and Tdpti rivers, the only approach being 
from the north-west, on a level with the left bank of the Tapti, which, 
though here entirely of earth, is very steep and lofty. The fort covers 
about an acre, is quadrangular in shape, built of brick, and has four 
flanking bastions. A mosque with minarets in its west angle is a 
conspicuous and picturesque object. Dismantled, and its guns removed 
in 1858. 

Amod. — Sub-division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 176 square miles, containing 1 town and 47 villages; occupied 
houses, 8483; population (1881) 39,641, or 225 to the square mile. 
Hindus numbered 27,653 ; Muhammadans, 7837 ; ' others,' 4151. Of 
the total area, 81 per cent, is cultivated, 3 J per cent, cultivable waste, 
8 per cent, uncultivable waste, and 7J per cent, occupied by village 
sites, roads, tanks, and rivers. In the neighbourhood of the Dhadhar 
river, which forms its north boundary, the country is wooded. Chiefly 
black cotton soil ; water supply deficient. Of the cultivated area, grain 
crops occupy a third, and cotton a half. 

Amod. — Chief town of the Sub-division of the same name in Broach 
District, Bombay Presidency ; about a mile south of the Dhadhar 
river, 21 miles north of Broach, and 30 miles south-west of Baroda. 
Lat. 21 59' 30" n., long. 72 56' 15" e. ; population (1881) 5822; 
namely, 4189 Hindus, 771 Muhammadans, 559 Jains, 10 Parsis, and 
293 ' others.' The residence of a thakur, or large landholder, who 
owns about 21,214 acres of land, with a yearly income of ^"8000. 
Workers in iron make good edged tools, such as knives and razors. 
Small trade, chiefly in cotton. Post-office. 

Amosi. — Town in Lucknow District, Oudh ; about 8 miles from Luck- 
now city, and 4 from Bijnaur. The head-quarters of a clan of Chauhan 
Rajputs, who captured it and a surrounding tract of country from the 
Bhars about the middle of the 15th century. Population (1881) 
1937, nearly all of whom are Hindus, many of them proprietary 
cultivators of the soil. Surrounded on all sides by wide usar (barren) 
plains. Government school. 

Ampta. — Village and police station on the Damodar river, in 
Howrah District, Bengal, 22 miles west of Calcutta. Lat. 22 34' 30" n., 
long. 88° 3' 12" e. The population is composed chiefly of boatmen. 
Good mats are made. 

Amraoti ( Umrdwati). — District of Berar, in the East Berar 

246 AMR A OTI. 

Division, under the Resident at Haidarabad, who is also Chief Com- 
missioner of Berar; lying between lat. 20 25' and 21 36' 45" N., and 
between long. 77 15' 30" and 78 29' 30" e. Bounded on the north 
by Betiil District, on the east by the river Wardha, which marks the 
whole boundary in this direction, on the south by Basim and Wun 
Districts, and on the west by Akola and Ellichpur Districts. Area, 2759 
square miles, of which 2327 square miles were returned in 1880-81 
as cultivated, 108 square miles as cultivable, and 324 as uncultivable 
waste; population according to the Census of 1881, 575,328, or 208^ 
per square mile. Number of towns and villages, 1015 ; and of 
revenue sub-divisions, 4. Land revenue (1881), ^"157, 598 ; total revenue 
(gross), ^£202,099. The District is sub-divided for fiscal purposes into 
the following taluks, viz : — Amraoti, Chandur, Morsi, and Murtaza- 
pur. The town of Amraoti is the administrative head-quarters of the 
District, and of the Commissionership of East Berar. 

Physical Aspects. — Amrioti District is a plain about 800 feet above 
sea level, with a gentle slope from north to south ; parts of it are con- 
siderably higher, and the general flatness is broken by a chain of barren 
rocky hills between Amraoti and Chandur. Soil extremely fertile, 
principally a black loam, except in the higher parts of the District, 
where it is shallow and poor. The river Piirna flows westward through 
a part of the District, and for about 16 miles marks the boundary 
betweeen it and Ellichpur; the remaining streams, forming deep 
channels in the rainy season, run eastward, and drain into the Wardha, 
which is not navigable in Amraoti District. Game of the larger sorts 
still abounds in the wooded parts of the District, in which the area of 
reserved forests is 26,268 acres, and of unreserved 62,672 acres. 
Forest area of Amraoti Hills, 78 square miles. The District forests 
yielded in 1880-81 a total revenue to Government of ^5891 ; expen- 
diture, ^905. 

History. — Tradition relates that a great Company of Warhans, who 
had come to Amraoti to witness the votive ceremonies of Rukmini 
before her marriage, settled there, and gave their name to the country 
now called Berar, which was held by Rajput princes for some centuries. 
Amraoti, with the rest of Berar, fell to Ala-ud-din, nephew and son-in- 
law to the Delhi Emperor Feroz Ghilzai, in 1294. The rise and fall of 
the Bahmani dynasty (1347-1525), the ninety years of Berar indepen- 
dence under the Imad Shahi princes, its eventual cession to Akbar 
(1596), belong to the history of the Province rather than to the account 
of Amraoti District. After the death of Aurangzeb, Chin Khilich 
Khan, viceroy of the Deccan, under the title of Nizam ul Mulk, 
obtained in 1724, as the fruit of three victories, a divided dominion 
with the Marathas. From this date, Berar has been always nominally 
subject to the Haidarabad dynasty. By the partition treaty of 1804, 


the whole of Berar was made over to the Nizam ; and Amraoti, as a part 
of it, is included in the Districts assigned to the British Government by 
the Nizam, under the treaties of 1853 and 186 1. 

Population. — The Census of 1867 showed a population of 407,276, 
on an area of 2566 square miles. The returns of 1877 showed a popula- 
tion of 546,44s, on an area of 2767 square miles. The Census of 188 1 
returned the population at 575,328 souls, on an area of 2759 square miles, 
as follows: Adult males, 201,792; adult females, 182,485; children below 
12— males 96,259, females 94,79 2 • total males, 298,051 ; total females, 
277,277. The excess of births over deaths is stated to be 16 per cent. 
Classified according to religion, there were— Christians, 366; Sikhs, 119; 
Parsi's, 103; Hindus, 527,467; Muhammadans, 41,118; Jains, 6127; 
1 Buddhist, and 27 professing aboriginal religions. According to castes, 
Brahmans in 1881 numbered 15,936; Rajputs, 11,706; Kiinbis, 
159,768; Mali's, 57,127; Mahars, 79,492 ; other Hindu castes, 192,108 ; 
non-Hindus or aborigines, 17,484. The aborigines that have been 
returned are stamped by their physical appearance and customs as 
belonging to an earlier type than the general population. The agri- 
cultural population numbered 312,417; the non-agricultural, 262,911 ; 
occupying 102,190 houses, or an average of 5-6 souls to each house. 
Each Maratha village, according to custom, has a patel and a patwdri 
at its head ; the patels are usually Kiinbis, but a few are Brahmans. 
The pola, a great festival, is annually celebrated in the villages in 
honour of the plough cattle. There are seven principal fairs, at which 
many curious local customs are observed. The principal towns are — 
Amraoti, pop. 23,550; Karanja, 10,923; Badnera, 6460; Khola- 
pur, 6452; Talegaon, 5506; Mangrul, 6122; Morsi, 5592; Ner 


4837 ; Anjangaon-Bari, 2888. Of the 10 15 villages comprising the 
District in 1881, 375 contained less than two hundred inhabitants, 330 
had from two to five hundred, 188 from five hundred to a thousand, 77 
from one to two thousand, 21 from two to three thousand, 14 from 
three to five thousand, 8 from five to ten thousand, and 2 upwards of 
ten thousand. As regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the 
male population into the following six divisions— (1) professional, 8343 ; 
(2) domestic, 2452 ; (3) commercial, 6431 ; (4) agricultural, 150,941 ; 
(5) industrial, 30,937 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive, including 
male children, 98,947. The vernacular language of the people is 
Marathi and Urdu. 

Agriculture. — The staple crop is cotton, of which two varieties are 
said to be indigenous to Berar — (1) Banni, sown towards the end of 
June, and ripens in November ; (2) /art, sown in the deep black soil 
of the Piirna valley, a fortnight later than banni, and seldom ready 
before the 15th December. Several varieties of pulse are grown. 


Among vegetables, the potato is indifferent, but the yam is excellent ; 
many cucurbitaceous and wild plants are raised or gathered. Irrigation 
is little resorted to, although storage tanks would be of great service in 
the hot season. The average rate per acre of land, in 1880-81, suited 
for cotton was is. iojd. ; wheat, 2s. iod. ; oil-seed, 2s. i^d. ; jodr, 2s. ; 
tobacco, 3s. 1 id.; rice, 2s. 4|d. ; gram, 2s. 2J& The cultivated area 
in 1880-81 was 1,489,117 acres, of which 7608 acres only were 
irrigated. Grazing land, 85,948 acres. The most important crops were 
—jodr (great millet), 575,390 acres ; cotton, 434,903 ; wheat, 129,388 ; 
linseed, 80,067; tobacco, 7308; bdjra, 2179; rice, 1045; gram, 
27,225; tur, 78,391; til, 20,517; pulses, 700; hemp, 2717; kurdi, 
mi ; lac, 17,397 ; sugar-cane, 881 ; other products, 20,737. Jodr is 
the staple food of the people, and its stalk {karbi) is the staple fodder 
for cattle. The agricultural stock of the District comprised in 1880-81, 
294,555 cows and bullocks; 61,608 buffaloes; 2191 horses; 4908 
ponies; 3477 donkeys; 96,657 sheep and goats; 694 pigs; 100 
camels; 29,143 carts; 21,384 ploughs. The average produce of 
land per acre is — cotton, 87 lbs. ; wheat, 474 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 274 lbs. ; 
jodr, 400 lbs.; tobacco, 312 lbs.; rice, 406 lbs.; and gram, 204 lbs. 
The current prices ruling in the District in 1880-81, per rupee (2s.), 
were, for clean cotton, 2^ sers or 5 lbs.; wheat, 23 sers ; gram, 28 sers ; 
rice, 10J sers ; jodr, 31 sers; oil-seed, 15 sers; tobacco, 2 h sers. The 
rate of wages for skilled labour is is. 9d. ; for unskilled, 4^d. per day. 

Zand Tenures. — The native collectors and revenue-farmers admitted 
no rights, except the prescriptive claims of resident cultivators, to hold 
at such rates as might be fixed, together with a few quasi-proprietary 
privileges in wells and orchard lands. Under British rule, the Bombay 
system of survey and settlement has been adopted, by which, subject to 
certain restrictions, the occupant is absolute proprietor of his holdings. 
The assessment is fixed for 30 years, and can then be enhanced only on 
good reason being shown. Under this system the proprietors often 
work co-operatively. The few large landowners cultivate most of their 
lands by hired labour, themselves supplying seed and plough cattle. 
Revenue free tenures are granted for village offices, personal services, 
religious and charitable endowments. 

Natural Calamities. — In the great famine of 1839, many villages 
moved en masse towards Agra, streaming through Sagar cantonments 
like files of ants, scrambling for every scrap of food and leaving a long 
line of corpses behind them. Hailstorms often cause great destruction 
to the crops. 

Manufactures. — None, except coarse cotton cloth, and a few wooden 
articles for domestic use. Kholapur is the seat of an ancient silk 

Trade. — Cotton, for which Amraoti has long been famous, was 

A MR A OTI. 249 

anciently carried on pack-bullocks to Mirzapur on the Ganges, 500 miles 
distant. The Parsi merchants claim to have been the first to send the 
Amraoti fibre to Bombay in 1825-26. The Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway has immensely developed the trade, and there are now several 
cotton presses at Amraoti town. This city also carries on a large import 
trade in spices, salt, English piece-goods, and fine cotton stuffs from 
Nagpur; sugar, molasses, and turbans from Delhi, and gold embroidery 
from Benares. The internal traffic of the District is chiefly conducted 
by weekly markets, and at seven principal marts, — viz. Kondanpur (a 
fair), Bhiltek, Amraoti town, Morsi, Chandur, Murtazapur, Badnera. 

Roads and Railways. — There were in 1880-81 — made roads, 522 
miles ; railways, 69 miles Great India Peninsula, with stations at short 
intervals, and 5J miles of State Railway from Badnera Junction (Great 
India Peninsula) to Amraoti. The receipts for the latter line amounted 
in 1880-81 to ^3942. 

Administration. — The District is administered by a Deputy Com- 
missioner, with whom are associated 20 assistants, and tahsilddrs or 
sub-divisional collectors. In 1877, the total revenue of the District 
amounted to ^198,195, of which ,£153,978 was contributed by the 
land revenue. In 1880-81, the total revenue was returned at 
,£202,099, °f which ^157,597 was derived from the land. The total 
ccst of officials and police in 1881 was ^10,435. Justice is adminis- 
tered by 17 magistrates and 8 civil judges. Heinous crimes have 
greatly decreased under British rule, but convictions for petty offences 
have increased. There is one central jail at Amraoti ; daily average 
number of prisoners (1880), 546; yearly cost per head, £6; death- 
rate, 3 -95 per cent. The Muhammadans, less than one-twelfth of 
the District population, supply more than a fifth of the prisoners, the 
remainder being chiefly low-caste Hindus or aborigines. Sanctioned 
strength of police, 96 officers and 487 men, being 1 to every 987 of the 
population. The proportion to area is 1 policeman to 5 square miles. 
Schools, aided and inspected by Government, numbered 99 in 1881, 
with 6003 scholars, and 70 indigenous schools with 1199 pupils. The 
Census Report of 188 1 returned 6137 boys and 75 girls as under instruc- 
tion ; besides 14,691 males and 187 females as able to read and write, but 
not under instruction. The only municipality is Amraoti town, con- 
stituted under Act iv. of 1873, but local committees for administration 
of town funds have recently been started in 41 villages in this District. 

Meteorological Aspects, etc. — Hot weather begins in March, but 
without the scorching westerly winds of Upper India ; and lasts till the 
rains set in about the middle of June. These continue for about three 
months, and the air is moist and cool. September and October are 
hot and steamy, and the most unhealthy months. The cold season 
lasts from November to end of February, but the sun is even then 


powerful in the middle of the day. Frost very rarely occurs. The 
temperature in May registers in the shade 114 Fahr. ; in December 
the minimum reading is about 5 1° Fahr. The rainfall in 1880-81 at 
Amraoti town was 16-40 inches, of which 13*30 fell between June 
and September. This, however, is much below the average, which 
is returned for the previous 22 years at 30-89 inches. The principal 
diseases are cholera, malarious fevers, bowel complaints, and skin 
affections. The number of deaths registered in 1880, from all causes, 
was 10,193 ) ratio of deaths per thousand, 20-9. Snake-bites and 
wild beasts killed 71 persons. The number of births registered in 
1880 was 18,238, or 36*4 per 1000 of population. Seven charitable 
dispensaries afforded medical relief to 36,980 patients, at an expendi- 
ture of ^"1443, contributed by Government, local funds, and sub- 
scriptions. In 1 88 1, 20,061 persons were vaccinated by the staff of 
the Vaccination Department. [For further details, see the Berd?' 
Gazetteer, by A. C. Lyall, Esq., C.S., 1870 ; Provincial Administration 
Report, 1880-81; Census Report, 1881; Departmental Reports, 1880-81. 

Amraoti. — Head-quarters taluk of Amraoti District, Berar. Aren, 
672 square miles, containing 3 towns and 245 villages. Population 
(1881) 163,456, comprising 85,333 males and 78,123 females, or 
243-23 persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 144,454; Sikhs, 
41; Muhammadans, 16,824; Christians, 356; Jains, 1677; Parsis, 
77; 'others,' 27. Area occupied by cultivators, 369,077 acres. The 
total revenue of Amraoti taluk in 1883 was ^59,12 1 ; the land revenue 
amounted to ^46,497. The number of civil courts was 3 ; of criminal 
courts, 4 ; of police stations, 5 ; of regular policemen, 302 ; of village 
watchmen (chaukiddrs), 364. 

Amraoti. — Municipal town and head-quarters of the District of same 
name, Berar. Lat. 20 55' 45" n., long. 77 47' 30" e. ; population, 
according to Census of 1881, 23,550, comprising 12,859 males an d 
10,691 females. Of the total population, 17,675 were Hindus, 
4725 Muhammadans, 851 Jains, 266 Christians, 20 Sikhs, and 13 
Parsis. A branch (State) railway of 6 miles joins the town with 
the Great Indian Peninsula line at Badnera, which is 411 miles 
from Bombay, 140 miles from Nagpur, and 1332 miles from Calcutta, 
by rail. Height above sea level, 1222 feet. A strong stone wall 
of from 20 to 26 feet high, circuit 2 J miles, surrounds the town, 
having five gates and four wickets (khirki). The wall was begun in 
1807 by the Nizam's Government, to protect the wealthy traders from 
the Pindaris. The Khundri (bloody) wicket is said to be so called 
from 700 persons having fallen in a fight close to it in 18 18. The 
town is divided into two parts — the Kasba and the Pet. In the middle 
of the last century a large number of people, who had been driven 
from Akola by the tyranny of the talukddrs, emigrated to Amraoti; 


and a new accession was derived from the same cause forty years ago. The 
water supply of the town is bad, most of the wells being brackish. The 
most remarkable native buildings are the Temple of Bhawani, also called 
the Amba Temple, said to have been built a thousand years ago (and which 
has supplied a doubtful derivation for the name of Amraoti) ; together 
with seven other temples, built about a hundred years ago. Amraoti is 
celebrated for its cotton trade, and gives its name to the class of fibre 
of which it is the entrepot. Until the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
diverted the business to Bombay, the Amraoti cotton was chiefly sent to 
Mirzapur, on the Ganges, upon pack-bullocks. In 1842, a single merchant 
is said to have despatched 100,000 bullock-loads by this route to Calcutta. 
Amraoti now ranks next to Khamgaon as a cotton mart, and is the richest 
town in Berar, with the most numerous and substantial commercial popula- 
tion. In 18S0-81 the trade by rail of this town was — imports, £538,247 ; 
exports, ,£727,951. In 1804, General Wellesley encamped here after 
the capture of Gawilgarh. It had then no commercial importance. 
In 1848, during the Nizam's rule, the price of jodr (great millet), the 
staple food of the people, rose 400 per cent., — from 10s. to £2 per 
candy, — owing to the want of rain ; and the populace murdered 
Dhanraj Sahii, a wealthy trader, who had bought up large quantities 
of rice. Principal public buildings — Court-houses, Commissioner's and 
Deputy Commissioner's offices, jail, lines for police and one company 
of native infantry, hospital, dispensaries, library and reading-room, 
church with cemetery, post and telegraph offices, rest-houses for Native 
and European travellers. Population within municipal limits in 1881, 
22,945 ; municipal taxation, £2988, or 2s. 7^d. per head; expenditure, 
£3819. Amraoti has one newspaper, the Pramod Sindhu, and a High 
School, attended by 99 scholars. In 1877 there were 13 cotton 'mills 
or large manufactories' in Amraoti and the neighbourhood; 1640 
1 private looms or small works,' employing in all 5788 cotton- workers, 
of whom n were European superintendents; also, 700 wool looms, 36 
silk, and 798 looms for 'other fibres,' employing 12,000 workmen. 

Amrapur. — Native State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. — See 

Amrapur. — Town in Madaksira taluk, Anantapur District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 14 8' n. ; long. 77 1' 15" e. ; houses, 936; popula- 
tion (1881) 3165. Formerly called Nadimepalli, the old site being 
about half a mile to the west. In the neighbourhood are some fine 
druapair (cocoa-nut) gardens. Situated on the road from Chitaldriig 
to Chittiir. Large weekly market. 

Amrapur. — Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas, in Rewa Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, if square miles; estimated revenue 
(1882), £50. Pays a tribute oi £20 to the Gaekwar of Baroda, The 
chief village lies in lat. 21 36' x., long. 71 6' e. 


Amravati. — River in Coimbatore and Trichinopoli Districts, Madras 
Presidency. It has its source in the confluence of several streams 
that run from the north - eastern spurs of the Anamalai range into 
the Anjenad valley, whence it debouches into Coimbatore District, 
at the village of Kallapuram, and, after flowing through the taluks 
of Udumalpetai, Dharapuram and Kariir, falls into the Kaveri 
(Cauvery) river at the village of Tirumakudal, on the Trichinopoli 
boundary. In its course of 122 miles, the Amravati is crossed by 16 
a?iicuts and 6 temporary dams, which drain off for the fields so much 
water, that in ordinary seasons the river is nearly exhausted before it 
joins the Kaveri (Cauvery). Lat. io° 58' n., and long. 7 8° 13' 45" e. 
The Government revenue in 1881, from the 21,620 acres of wet or rice 
lands irrigated by this river, amounted to ,£13,052, or an average rate 
of about 12s. per acre. Kariir and Dharapuram are the most impor- 
tant towns on its banks. Navigation is possible only for the smallest 
class of boats. 

Amravati (Amara Ishwara, JDharamikotta, sometimes called Dipal 
Dinna). — Town in the Satnapalli taluk, Kistna District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 16 34' 45" n., long. 8o° 24' 21" e. ; population 
(1881) 2155. Situated on the south bank of the Kistna river, 62 
miles from its mouth, 20 miles north-west of Gantur (Guntoor), and 
close to the site of the ancient Dharamkotta. Of great interest for the 
antiquary, as one of the chief centres of the Buddhist kingdom of 
Vengi, and for its tope. The tope was first examined in 1797, when 
drawings were made ; and subsequently portions of the sculptures from 
the processional circle and daghoba were sent by Sir Walter Elliott to 
England. Amravati has been identified with Hwen Thsang's To-na- 
kie-tse-kia, and with the Rahmi of Arab geographers. Subsequent to 
the disappearance of Buddhism from this region, the town became a 
centre of the Sivaite faith. When Hwen Thsang visited Amravati in 
639 a.d., it had already been deserted for a century, but he speaks in 
glowing terms of its magnificence and beauty. No vestige of the central 
daghoba now remains in situ, but Mr. Fergusson has ascertained its 
dimensions and general appearance by piecing together the fragments 
in the India Museum, London. Very careful and artistic representa- 
tions of the tope, with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars, and 
sculptures, will be found in Mr. Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, 
and in his History of India Architecture (ed. 1876). Its elaborate 
carvings illustrate the life of Buddha, and supply valuable materials for 
the study of tree and serpent worship in India. See also ' Report on 
the Amravati Tope, and Excavations on its Site in 1877,' by Mr. Robert 

Amravati, or Chatia, Hill. — Close to the village of Chatia, in 
Cuttack District, Bengal. Lat. 26 37' n., long. 86° 5' e. At the 


eastern base of the hill are the remains of an old fort, with an extensive 
rampart made of laterite, 4 feet deep, and said to have been 2 miles 
square. On a platform within the ramparts are the remains of the fort ; 
and another platform contains two images of the goddess Indrani, cut 
out of slate-stone, and remarkable for their elegance and beauty. A 
spacious tank, called the nil-pukur, covering about 20 acres, is situated 
within half a mile of the hill, in the centre of which are the ruins of 
an old building of considerable dimensions. 

Amreli. — Division of Baroda State, Guzerat, Bombay Presidency, 
comprising the Districts of Amreli and Okhamandal in the peninsula of 
Kathiawar. Area, 1560 square miles. Population (1881) 147,468, 
namely, 77,048 males and 70,420 females. Hindus numbered 127,127 \ 
Muhammadans, 17,817; Christians, 24; others, 2500. Average 
density of population, 94*3 per square mile. The Division contains 
3 schools. 

Amreli. — Chief town in the Amreli Division of Baroda State, 
Guzerat, Bombay Presidency, situated 139 miles south-west of Baroda, 
and 132 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. Lat. 21 36' n., long. 71 
15' 15" e. ; population (1881) 13,642, namely, 6996 males and 6646 
females. Post-office. Civil hospital, attended by 6555 patients in 

Amri. — Village in Sehwan taluk, Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency, 23 miles south of Sehwan. Lat. 26 10' 30" n., 
long. 68° 3' 30" e. ; the population, under one thousand, is mainly 
agricultural. Staging bungalow. Head-quarters of a tappaddr. 

Amrita Bazar or Magura. — Village in Jessor District, Bengal, 
founded by a family of landholders in the District, and named after 
their mother Amrita ; lat. 23 9' n., long. 89 6' e. A Bengali weekly 
newspaper, the Amrita Bazar Patrika, was formerly published here, 
but is now printed in Calcutta. A samdj or theistic congregation 
was formed here in 1859, and consisted in 1870 of 15 members, but 
has since ceased to exist, most of the members having joined the 
Vaishnav sect. 

Amritsar. — Division or Commissionership in the Punjab, lying 
between 31 10' and 33 50' 30" n. lat., and between 74 14' 45" and 
75 44' 30" e. long., and including the three Districts of Amritsar. 
Gurdaspur, and Sialkot, each of which see separately. Area of 
Amritsar Division, 5354 square miles; population (1881) 2,729,109, 
comprising 1,474,319 Muhammadans, 921,171 Hindus, 328,927 Sikhs, 
2867 Christians, and 1825 others. Number of resident families, 
6 X 6,453. The Division contains 5623 towns and villages. Number of 
houses, 449,612, of which 346,659 are occupied, and 102,953 un_ 
occupied. Average density of population, 510 per square mile ; towns 
or villages per square mile, 1*05 ; persons per town or village, 487 ; 


houses per square mile, 84 ; persons per occupied house, 7*8. Of the 
total area of 5354 square miles, 4562 are assessed for Government 
revenue; and of these, 3295 are returned as under cultivation, 507 as 
cultivable, and the remainder as uncultivable waste. Estimated total 
agricultural population, 1,257,652, of whom 392,651 are males above 15 
years of age. Average area of cultivated and cultivable land, 2-2 acres 
per head of agricultural population. Total amount of Government 
land revenue, including local rates and cesses upon the land, ;£ 348,793- 
Estimated rental actually paid by cultivators, including cesses, ^769,5 6 7 • 

Amritsar.— District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab, 
lying between 31° 10' and 32 13' N. lat, and between 74° 24' and 
75 27' e. long. ; area, 1574 square miles ; population in 1881, 893,266. 
Amritsar is bounded on the north-west by the river Ravi, which separates 
it from Siaikot District ; on the north-east by the District of Gurdaspur ; 
on the south-east by the river Beas (Bids), which divides it from 
Kapurthala State ; and on the south-west by the District of Lahore. 
The administrative head-quarters are at the town of Amritsar. 

Physical Aspects.— -The District of Amritsar is an oblong strip of 
country extending from side to side of the Bari Doab, or alluvial tract 
between the Beas and the Ravi. Though apparently a level plain, it 
has in reality a gentle slope from east to west, as indicated by the 
course of its boundary rivers, and by the variations in the water 
levels. The right bank of the Beas is high and abrupt, crowned 
with a series of bluffs and sand-hills, which occasionally attain an 
elevation of 60 feet above the stream at their base. From this 
point the level gradually falls away towards the channel of the Ravi, 
whose eastern bank does not exceed a few feet in height. In the 
neighbourhood of the Ravi, water may be found at less than 20 feet 
below the surface, whereas in the higher ground to the eastward it 
can rarely be reached at a depth of 50 feet. On either river, a belt of 
khddar, or low-lying silt, fringes the margin of the modern bed, 
changing year by year, according to the action of the floods. A 
hundred years ago, the Beas is said to have run seven miles from its 
present course, and traces of its ancient bed are still discernible. At 
Wazir Bhola, where the river is crossed by the Punjab and Delhi 
Railway, and by the Grand Trunk Road, the low water or winter channel 
varies from 300 to 400 feet in width, but swells in flood time to three- 
quarters of a mile. The stream, a seething torrent during the rains, 
and 35 feet deep, dwindles in the winter to a mean depth of perhaps 6 
feet, and is even fordable in places. A fine railway bridge spans the 
river at Wazir Bhola, and ferries are maintained at 1 1 other places. The 
Ravi is fordable everywhere during the winter and spring months, but 
in the rainy seasons the depth is from 18 to 20 feet, and ferries are kept 
up at the principal crossing places. At Kakkar, on the Amritsar and 


Gujrdnwdla road, a bridge of boats is maintained across the river, 
except during the four months of flood. Between the great boundary 
streams, several lines of drainage enter Amritsar from Gurdaspur, and 
after heavy rains bring down a considerable volume of water, collected 
from the high grounds of that District. Of these, the most important is 
the Kirran or Sakki. The soil of Amritsar consists mainly of alluvial 
clay and loam, usually good and cultivable, though interspersed with 
patches of barren sand, or tracts of the deleterious saline efflorescence 
known as kalar. The District includes several strips of waste land, 
known as rak/is, more or less covered with inferior timber-trees and 
coarse grass, some of which are under the charge of the Forest Depart- 
ment, while others are preserved for the sake of fodder alone. These 
rakhs were more numerous, and of far greater extent, twenty years 
ago than at present. Cultivation has rapidly increased, and large 
grants of waste land have been made to native officers of the army, 
the country around Amritsar and Lahore, known as the mdnj/ia, 
having ever been the great recruiting ground, where retired soldiers 
endeavour, if possible, to obtain a grant of land in the neigh- 
bourhood of their homes. Apart from the rak/is, the scarcity of 
trees, particularly in the south, is a marked feature of the District. 
What trees there are, have been planted in the neighbourhood of 
villages or on the borders of fields. The only characteristic trees 
indigenous to Amritsar are the phuldhi (Acacia modesta), fardsh 
(Tamarix orien talis), dhdk (Butea frondosa), and jhdnd (Prosopis 
spicigera). The last-named species is a gnarled and knotted bush, 
highly valued for fuel. Many other fruit-bearing or forest trees have 
been successfully introduced of late years. The District has no mineral 
produce except kankar, or nodulated limestone, deposited in layers a 
few feet below the surface, and largely used for road-metalling and the 
manufacture of lime. Salt was formerly obtained from the saline earth 
of the kalar plains by evaporation, but this industry is now practically 
extinct, owing to the superior supply obtained from the mines of 
Jhelum District. Amritsar is not, on the whole, a good District for 
sport, although the southern half is well stocked with the common 
antelope and chikdra (ravine deer); and black-buck stalking is obtain- 
able. Wild pigs are found occasionally in the rakhs or fuel plantations. 
Wolves are the only beasts of prey. The feathered game comprise 
the black and grey partridge, sand-grouse, pea-fowl, quail, ortolan, wild 
duck and geese, snipe, crane, ibis, and curlew. In the Beas river the 
mahsir affords excellent fishing; but in the Rdvi this fish, although 
numerous, is said to refuse the bait. Such statements must, however, 
be received with hesitation ; as in similar cases which have been in- 
vestigated by experts, the fish are always found to be ready to take 
some particular form of bait, if sufficiently fine tackle be employed. In 

256 A MR I TSAR. 

both rivers, the large rahu (the ruki of Bengal) is caught for sale by 
native fishermen. 

History. — Amritsar contains no noteworthy relics of an early date, 
and the interest of its local annals begins with the rise of the Sikh 
power. The guru or high priest, Angad, successor to Nanak, founder 
of their sect, inhabited the village of Khadur, near the Beas, in the 
south of this District, where he died in 1552. Amar Das, third guru, 
lived at Govindwal in the same neighbourhood, and was succeeded on 
his death in 1574 by his son-in-law Ram Das, who became the fourth 
spiritual leader of the rising sect, and died in 1581. Ram Das laid 
the foundations of the future city of Amritsar upon a site granted 
by the Emperor Akbar. He also excavated the holy tank from which 
the town derives its name of Amrita Saras, or Pool of Immortality; 
and in its midst, on a small island, he began to erect a temple, 
the future centre of Sikh devotion. Arjan, the fifth guru, son and 
successor of Ram Das, completed the sacred building, and lived to 
see the growth of a flourishing town around the holy site. In spite 
of persecution, the sect rapidly increased in numbers and import- 
ance; but Arjan, having become involved in a quarrel with the 
imperial governor of Lahore, died a prisoner at that city in 1606. 
Under his son, Har Govind, the Sikhs first offered resistance to the 
imperial power. The guru defeated a force sent against him ; but 
was ultimately obliged to leave the Punjab, and died an exile in 1644-45. 
Guru Govind, the tenth spiritual chief in succession to Nanak, organized 
the Sikhs into a religious-military commonwealth ; in which all men 
were equal, and all were soldiers. In 1 708, Banda, the chosen friend 
and disciple of Govind, the last of the gurus, returned to Amritsar, and 
preached a religious war against the Muhammadans. Henceforth the 
character of the Sikh resistance entirely changed. Amritsar was the 
centre of a constant struggle, waged with varying fortune by the Sikhs, 
at first against the imperial governors of Lahore, and afterwards against 
Ahmad Shah Durani. Time after time, the Musalmans succeeded in 
capturing their capital ; but after each defeat the enthusiasm of the 
young faith rose again with unabated vigour. The last great disaster 
of the Sikhs was in 1761, when Ahmad Shah routed their forces com- 
pletely at the second great historical battle of Panipat, near Delhi, 
and pursued them across the Sutlej (Satlej). On his homeward 
march he destroyed the town of Amritsar, blew up the temple with 
gunpowder, filled in the sacred tank with mud, and defiled the holy 
place by the slaughter of cows. But, true to their faith, the Sikhs rose 
once more as their conqueror withdrew, and this time initiated a final 
struggle, which resulted in the secure establishment of their indepen- 
dence. The desecrated shrine was restored, and Amritsar became for 
a while the capital of the Province. Each of the Sikh Confederacies 

AM RI TSAR. 257 

had its own quarters in the city. In the division of their territory, the 
greater part of Amritsar District fell to the chiefs of the Bhang{ Con- 
federacy. Gradually, however, Ranjit Singh, who obtained possession 
of Lahore in 1799, brought the whole surrounding country under his 
own sway. The Bhangi chieftains succumbed in 1802, and before long 
the whole District was included in the dominions of the Lahore prince. 
With the remainder of the Punjab, it came under British rule after the 
second Sikh war, in 1849. As originally formed, the Amritsar District 
included the Sub-division of Narowdl, transferred to Sialkot in 1867 ; 
and other redistributions of territory have also taken place from time to 
time. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in May 1857, great anxiety was 
felt for the safety of the Govindgarh fortress, just outside the walls of 
Amritsar. It was garrisoned mainly by native troops of suspected 
regiments, and a few artillerymen were the only Europeans on the spot. 
The city, on the other hand, remained quiet, and the peasantry 
evinced a loyal readiness to aid the local authorities in case of need. 
The danger was at length averted by the timely despatch in carriages of 
a company of British infantry from Meean Meer (Mian Mir). 

Population.— An enumeration of the population in 1855 returned the 
total number of the inhabitants in the tract now composing Amritsar 
District at 720,374. The Census of 1868 returned the number at 
832,838, and that of 1881 at 893,266 persons. The latter enumeration 
was effected over an area of 1574 square miles, and gave the following 
results :— Total population, 893,266; number of villages and towns, 
1039; number of houses, 156,492, of which 121,155 we re occupied, 
and 35>337 unoccupied. From these data the following averages may 
be deduced :— Persons per square mile, 567 ; villages per square mile, 
•66 j persons per town or village, 860 ; houses per square mile, 99 ; 
persons per occupied house, 7-37. Classified according to sex, there were 
—males, 490,694; females, 402,572; proportion of males, 54-9 per 
cent. Classified according to age, there were— under 15 years, males, 
181,119; females, 144,521 = total, 325,640, or 36-45 per cent. ;— above 
15 years, males, 3°9>575; females, 258,051 : total, 567,626, or 63-55 
per cent. As regards the religious distinctions of the people, Mu- 
hammadans numbered 413.207; Hindus, 262,531; Sikhs, 216,337; 
Christians, 869; Jains, 312; and others, 10. The principal tribes of 
the District include 205,434 Jats (of whom 16,843 are returned as 
Hindus, 151,107 as Sikhs, and 37,483 as Muhammadans) ; 32,495 
Kashmiris, exclusively Muhammadans; 34,753 Brahmans, namely, 
Hindus 34,120, and Sikhs 6 3 3 \ Rajputs, 27,665, namely, Hindus 1S18, 
Sikhs 450, and Muhammadans 25,391; Khattris, 31,411, namely, 
Hindus 29,036, and Sikhs 2375 ; and Aroras, 20,613, namely, Hindus 
M,77i, and Sikhs 5842. The Jdts constitute 55-7 per cent, of the 
agricultural population. The Sikh Jats in this and the neighbouring 



Districts formed the flower of the armies which contested the fields of 
Moodkee (Mudki), Ferozshah, and Sobraonwith the British troops, and 
ventured again to face them in a second campaign. They are a peasantry 
of which any country in the world might be proud, admirable as 
soldiers in time of war, and equally admirable in peace for their skill 
and perseverance as agriculturists. The Kashmiris are exclusively 
Muhammadans, and reside in the city of Amritsar, where they carry on 
their manufacture of the famous Amritsar shawls. Slight in person 
and uncleanly in their habits, they bear a bad reputation for trickery 
and litigiousness. Large numbers of the Brahmans are engaged in 
agriculture, while others find employment as domestic servants. The 
Khattris and Aroras form the trading classes of the towns and villages. 
Rajputs are found as agriculturists only in the low-lying lands bordering 
upon the Ravi and the Beas ; most of them follow miscellaneous occu- 
pations in the city of Amritsar. The other classes of the District are 
made up as follow: — Chiihra, 107,011 (Hindus 102,242, Sikhs 2351, 
and Muhammadans 2415); Jhinwar, 45,360 (Hindus 16,236, Sikhs 
5554, Muhammadans 23,570); Tarkhan, 34,984 (Hindus 4101, Sikhs 
21,095, Muhammadans 9788); Kumbhar, 29,175 (Hindus 6156, Sikhs 
2429, Muhammadans 20,590); Lohar, 18,778 (Hindus 1039, Sikhs 
4769, Muhammadans 12,970); Nai, 14,694 (Hindus 4834, Sikhs 3447, 
Musalmans 6404); Kamboh, 13,654 (Hindus 2844, Sikhs 6814, Muham- 
madans 3996) ; Chhimba, 13,379 (Hindus 3273, Sikhs 3956, Muham- 
madans 6150); Mirasis, 11,046 (all but 90 being Muhammadans); 
Sonar, 8605 (Hindus 5085, Sikhs 2860, Muhammadans 660). The 
exclusively Muhammadan tribes are — Shaikh 8280, Sayyid 5003, 
Pathan 4349, Arain 44.708, Julaha 41,593, Barwala 13,180, Bharai 
6157, Changar 4712, and Gujar 4168. Classified according to sect, 
the Muhammadans were returned as follows : — Sunnfs, 409,092 ; Shias, 
1543 ; Wahabis, 541 ; Faraizi's, 28 ; and unspecified, 2003. Of the 
total Christian population, 562 were returned as Europeans, 66 as 
Eurasians, and 241 as natives. By sect, the Christian population con- 
sisted of— Church of England, 533 ; Roman Catholics, 175; Presby- 
terians, 46 ; Baptists, 39 ; others and unspecified, 76. 

The eight most important towns are — Amritsar (151,896), 
Jandiala (6535), Majitha (6053), Ramdas (4498), Tarn Taran 
(3210), Vairowal (5409), Sarhali Kalan (5197), and Bundala 
(5 1 01), of which the first-named six are municipalities. Amritsar, the 
administrative head-quarters of the District, is second in size to Delhi 
alone amongst the cities of the Province, and inferior to none in 
political importance. It is the sacred city of the Sikhs, and the centre 
of their religious aspirations. No other town in the District can lay 
claim to more than local importance. Of the 1039 villages and towns, 
172 are returned as containing in 1881 less than 200 inhabitants; 337 


from 200 to 500; 304 from 500 to 1000; 175 from 1000 to 2000; 27 
from 2000 to 3000; 18 from 3000 to 5000; 5 from 5000 to 10,000; 
and 1 of over 50,000. The principal fairs are the Diwali held at 
Amritsar in November, and the Baisakhi in April. They are primarily 
of a religious character ; but of late years horse and cattle fairs have 
been held at the same time, at which large transactions take place, 
and prizes are given by Government. The chief other religious gather- 
ings are two large fairs held at Tarn Taran in March and August ; one 
in November at Rdmtirth, a place of Hindu pilgrimage 8 miles north- 
west of Amritsar city; at Govindwal, Dera Nanak, Khadiir, and other 
Sikh shrines. As regards occupation, the Census Report of 188 1 divides 
the adult male population into the following seven classes: — (1) Pro- 
fessional, including civil, military, and the learned professions, 16,568 ; 
(2) domestic service, 29,069; (3) commercial, including merchants, 
traders, and carriers, 5807; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 114,728; (5) 
industrial, including manufacturers, artisans, etc., 93,008 ; (6) indefinite 
and non-productive, 22,476; (7) occupations not specified, 27,919. 

Agriculture. — Only a small proportion of the soil is unfit for 
tillage, and a considerable area receives irrigation from the Bari Doab 
Canal, which draws its supplies from the Ravi in Gurdaspur District. 
Amritsar is traversed both by the main canal and by a branch which 
passes westwards towards Lahore. In a great part of the District, wells 
are also in use for irrigation, either independently or as supplementary 
to the canals. Cultivation has been largely extended of late years 
under the security of British rule. In 1851 there were 149,483 acres 
of irrigated land, and a total of 596,748 acres under cultivation; in 
1864 the irrigated area had risen to 179,914 acres, and the total extent 
of cultivation to 633,080 acres; in 1880-81 the irrigated area had further 
increased to 242,903 acres, and the total extent of cultivation to 766,773 
acres. Area irrigated from Government canals, 97,256 acres ; by 
private irrigation, 145,647 acres. A large proportion of the tillage 
is thus protected against drought by artificial means. The staple 
products of the rabi, or spring harvest, are wheat, barley, and gram. 
Mustard, flax, lentils, safflower, and lucerne grass for fodder are also 
cultivated, together with small quantities of poppy and tobacco. For 
the kharif, or autumn harvest, rice, Indian corn, joar, pulses, cotton, 
and sugar-cane are the all-important crops. The grain is principally 
grown for home consumption, while sugar and cotton form the staples 
of the export trade. In 1880-S1 the acreage of the principal crops 
was returned as follows: — Wheat, 297,032 acres; rice, 24,747; makai 
or Indian corn, 51,499; joar or great millet, 52,501 ; barley, 41,578 ; 
other cereals, 13,045; gram, 100,061; other pulses, such as moth, 
matar, mash, mung, masur, 30,390; poppy, 560; tobacco, 1966; 
chillies, 891 ; coriander seed, 37; oil-seeds, 9595; cotton, 16,347; 


hemp, 1407 ; vegetables, 14,369 ; sugar-cane, 33,085 acres. Wheat 
and barley for the spring harvest are ordinarily sown in September or 
October, and reaped in March or April. For gram, the seasons both 
of sowing and reaping are a little earlier. The preparation for the 
autumn harvest is begun with the commencement of the rainy season, 
and sowing ought to be completed before the middle of August. The 
average out-turn of the principal crops per acre was returned as follows 
in 1880-81 : — Wheat, 738 lbs. ; rice, 960 lbs. ; inferior grains, 480 lbs. ; 
gram, 530 lbs.; oil-seeds, 320 lbs. ; fibres, 380 lbs. The estimated available 
agricultural stock in the District is shown as under : — Cows and bullocks, 
174,056; horses, 1443; ponies, 1475 ; donkeys, 6098 ; sheep and goats, 
47,214; pigs, 50; camels, 311 ; carts, 1875; ploughs, 56,129. The soil is 
the property of village communities, held subject to the payment of a 
land tax to the State. Out of 1077 villages, in 1873-74, only 59 retained 
the whole of their land in common ; amongst the remainder, the division 
of land in accordance with the shares of the co-parceners has been 
carried out with greater or less completeness. Villages in which no 
undivided common land remains are exceptional. The whole village 
is in any case responsible to the Government for the land tax assessed 
upon it. The number of sharers in 1873-74 was returned at 87,804, 
and the gross area at 1,214,716 acres; allowing for each proprietor, 
including land let to tenants, an average holding of 13*8 acres. The 
tenants of the District in the same year were thus classified : Occupancy 
tenants, 15,411 ; average holding, 5 acres : tenants holding condition- 
ally, 1 186; average holding, 3 acres: tenants-at-will, 32,447; average 
holding, 4 acres. Most of the occupancy tenants pay rent in the form 
of a percentage upon the land tax falling to their holdings. With this 
exception, rent is taken almost universally in kind. The estimated 
agricultural population is returned at 368,502, or 41 '3 per cent, of the 
District population, of whom 114,728 are males above 15 years of age. 
Average area of cultivated and cultivable land, 2*4 acres per head of the 
agricultural population. These figures, however, include only agricul- 
turists pure and simple, and are exclusive of the considerable number 
who combine agriculture with other occupations, and also of those who 
depend indirectly in great measure for their livelihood on agriculture. 
Of the total area of 1574 square miles, 1225 are assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue, of which 983 square miles are cultivated, 128 cultivable, 
the remainder being uncultivable waste. Amount of Government 
land revenue, including local rates and cesses on the land, ,£100,034, 
or 3s. per acre of cultivated land ; estimated amount of rent actually paid 
by the cultivators, ,£236,830, or an average of 6s. 6d. per cultivated acre. 
Cash wages in 1880 ruled as follows : — Unskilled labourers, from 3! d. to 
4^d. per diem ; skilled labourers, from 9d. to is. per diem. Agricultural 
labourers are paid in kind at the rate of 2 J lbs. of grain per diem ; but 

AMRITSAR. 2 6 1 

when reaping they receive a measure (bluiri) containing 32 lbs. of 
grain ; and when husking, 5 per cent, of the produce. These landless 
day-labourers form about five per cent, of the District population, and 
when not engaged in field labour, earn their livelihood by handicrafts, 
chiefly basket-making. The following were the prices current per 
cwt. of food-grains and principal products in 1880-81 :— Wheat (best), 
6s. pjd. per cwt. ; flour (best), 7s. 4 d. ; barley, 4s. 8d. ; best gram^ 
5s. 8d. ; Indian corn, 5s. id; jo&r, 5s. id. ; bajra, 6s. 3d. ; best rice, 
8s. 1 id.; cotton, £2, 4s. od. ; sugar (refined), £2, 4s. od. ; tobacco, 
12s. 9d. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — The north and west of the District are com- 
paratively secure from drought, through the abundant facilities for 
irrigation which exist in that tract ; but in the south-eastern parg a ?ids, 
which are higher and more sandy, there must always be risk from the 
abnormally dry seasons. In 1861, and again in 1869, the failure of the 
rains rendered necessary the opening of relief works. On both occa- 
sions the high price of food caused great distress in the city of Armitsar, 
to which the indigent peasantry from the neighbouring Districts were 
attracted in thousands by its reputed wealth. The District as a whole 
did not suffer materially from the scarcity, and the peasants of the 
irrigated portions secured large profits from their crops. On January 
the 1st, 1870, wheat was sold at gh sers per rupee, or us. ghd. per 
cwt. ; gram, at 13 J sers per rupee, or 8s. 2d. per cwt. j and Indian corn, 
at 17 J sers per rupee, or 6s. 4d. per cwt. 

Conmierce and Trade, etc. — As a commercial centre, Amritsar takes 
precedence of every town in the Punjab, with the exception of Delhi. 
Its imports are estimated at an average value of ^2,500,000, and its 
exports at ,£1,500,000. Bokhara, Kabul, and Kashmir to the west and 
north, and Rajputana on the south, supply its markets with their produce, 
and largely depend upon it for the purchase of their Indian and 
European wares. It is also the great emporium for the home traffic of 
the Punjab proper, gathering local products of every kind for exportation, 
and supplying half the merchants of the Province with English piece- 
goods or other imports from Calcutta and Bombay. The principal 
items of the Indian trade are grain, sugar, oil-seeds, salt, tobacco, tea, 
cotton, silk, wool, metals, and leather. The specialite of the city is the 
manufacture of shawls from the fine woollen undergrowth of the goats 
found on the high plateau of Tibet. (See Amritsar City.) Important 
horse and cattle fairs are held on the chief festivals. The local trade 
centres so entirely within the city, that the smaller towns are thrown 
completely into the shade. Jandiala, Ramdas, Majftha, Tarn Taran, 
and Vairowal are, however, local marts of some importance. The Sind, 
Punjab, and Delhi Railway traverses the heart of the District, with 
stations at Wazir Bhola, Jandiala, Amritsar, Khasa, and Atari. There 


are two good metalled roads ; the Grand Trunk line, which enters the 
District from Jullundur by a ferry across the Sutlej (Satlej), and passes 
on to Lahore, through Amritsar; and the road from Amritsar to 
Pathankot, in Gurdaspur, at the foot of the Himalayas. The total 
mileage of communications in 1881 was thus returned: Railways, 61 
miles; metalled roads, 76 miles; unmetalled roads, 288 miles; navi- 
gable rivers, 41 miles. There is a Government line of telegraph by the 
side of the Grand Trunk road, with a station at Amritsar. The railway 
line of telegraph is also open to the public. There are five vernacular 
printing-presses in Amritsar, and one missionary newspaper. 

Administration. — The revenue derived from the District in 1875-76 
was £107,196, of which the land tax contributed £83,921, or 
nearly four-fifths. The land tax was summarily assessed in 1849-50 at 
£86,197, but reductions were afterwards found necessary, and granted 
accordingly. In 1880-81, while the total revenue derived from the District 
had increased to £127,862, the amount contributed by the land tax 
had fallen to ,£79,359. The administration is carried on by 13 civil 
and revenue officers, who exercise both judicial and magisterial powers. 
The staff usually includes 3 covenanted civilians. In 1880-81, there 
were 15 civil and revenue judges, and 14 magisterial officers at work in 
the District. In the same year, the regular District police numbered 
412 men, besides a municipal police of 496, and 5 cantonment police. 
There is also a body of village watchmen {chankiddrs), whose number, 
however, is not on record. The District jail at Amritsar contained in 
1880 a total number of 2950 prisoners of all classes ; daily average 
prison population, 431, of whom 19 were females. Education has made 
great progress in this District. In 1880-81 the returns show 134 
schools supported or aided by the State, having a total roll of 7147 
pupils. A normal school for teachers was established here in 1865 
by the Christian Vernacular Education Society, and nearly 300 men 
have been trained in the institution. There is also a model school 
capable of receiving 100 boys. There is no complete official record 
of the number of private and unaided schools ; but the indigenous 
schools (unaided) number at least 256 with 3719 pupils. The Census 
report of 1881 returned a total of 8656 boys as under instruction, 
and 24,869 other males as able to read and write. The principal 
educational establishments are a female normal school, the higher 
and middle departments of the District school, and the various 
mission schools in receipt of grants-in-aid. Female instruction has 
received considerable attention in Amritsar, 1320 of the scholars in 
1880 being girls. The Census, however, only returned 450 girls as 
under instruction. For administrative purposes the District is divided 
into 3 tahsils, namely, Amritsar, Ajnala, and Tarn Taran, and 23 
pargands. The aggregate revenue of the six municipal towns amounted, 


in 1880-81. to ,£32,607; while their united expenditure reached a 
total of £"32,020. 

Sanitary Aspects. — The climate of Amritsar is considered more tem- 
perate in the summer months than that of many other places in the 
Punjab ; and this fact is doubtless due to the comparative proximity 
of the hills, joined with the general extension of tillage and irrigation. 
During the winter months the atmosphere is pleasant and healthy, 
and frosts are frequent. The annual average rainfall for the 2 1 years 
ending 1880 amounted to 26-31 inches. In 1880, the rainfall was 
considerably below the average, and only 191 inches fell, distributed 
as follows :— January to May, 1-9 inch; June to September, 16*4 inches; 
October to December, o-8 inch. The mean temperature in the shade 
in May 1880 was 91-1° Fahr. ; in July, 85-2°; in December, 55-6°. 
The highest reading in 1881 was 113 in May; and the minimum 
36-5° in December. The total number of deaths officially recorded 
in the District during 1880 was 23,914, being at the rate of 2678 per 
thousand of the population. No less than 14,621, or more than one- 
half of the registered deaths, are due to fevers. Amritsar District 
contains a civil hospital, with two branch dispensaries, and a midwifery 
school in Amritsar city; and dispensaries at Tarn Taran, Ajnala, 
Majitha, and Atari, which afforded medical assistance in 1880 to 71,147 
patients. At Tarn Taran there is a leper asylum, the largest in the 
Punjab, with a total of 352 inmates in 1880. [For further details, see 
the Amritsar District Gazetteer, by D. J. H. Ibbetson, Esq., C.S. ; the 
Punjab Census Report for 1881 ; the Punjab Provincial Administration 
Reports, 1881 to 1883; the Report on the Revised Settlement of 
Sialkot District in the Amritsar Division, by E. A. Prinsep, Esq., C.S., 
1863.] i 

Amritsar. — Tahsil of Amritsar District, Punjab ; situated in the 
middle of the Bari Doab plain, between 31 28' 15" and 31 51' N. lat., 
and between 74 44' 30" and 75 26' 15" e. long., and deriving its 
name from the city of Amritsar, which lies within its boundaries. Area, 
550 square miles ; population (1881) 430,418 ; namely, Muhammadans, 
191,830; Hindus, 149,279 ; Sikhs, 88,125 ; and Christians and others, 
1 184. Amritsar tahsil comprises the following nine fiscal divisions 
(tdlukas or pargands) — Jandiala, Sathiala, Bundala, Mahtabkot, Mattiwal, 
Chawinda, Majitha, Amritsar, and Gilwali. The administrative staff 
consists of the Commissioner of the Division, the Deputy-Commissioner 
of the District, Judicial Assistant, four Assistant Commissioners, one 
tahsilddr, three munsifs, and one honorary Magistrate. These officers 
preside over twelve civil and nine criminal courts, with five police 
stations, 572 regular police, and 414 village watchmen. The land 
revenue of the tahsil is £39,377. 

Amritsar. — City in Amritsar District, Punjab, and the head-quarters 


of the Division ; situated 32 miles east of Lahore city, in a depression 
of the Bari Doab, midway between the Beds and Ravi rivers. Lat. 
31° 37' 15" n., long. 74°55'e. Population (188 1) 151,896. Next to Delhi, 
Amritsar is the wealthiest and most populous city of the Punjab, and the 
religious capital of the Sikhs. The city was founded in 1574 by Guru 
Ram Dds, the apostle of the Sikhs, upon a site granted by the Emperor 
Akbar, around a sacred tank, from which the city takes its name. A 
temple was erected in the centre of the taluk, and Amritsar (literally 
' The Pool of Immortality ') became the capital of the rising sect. 
Another account mentions that an ancient city, Chak, formed the 
nucleus of the Sikh saints' capital. Ahmad Shah destroyed the town 
in 1 761, blew up the temple, and denied the shrines with bullocks' 
blood. After his retirement in the succeeding year, the Sikh com- 
munity assumed political independence, and Amritsar was divided 
between the various chiefs, each of whom possessed a separate ward as 
his private estate. The city gradually passed, however, into the power 
of the Bhangi Confederacy, who retained the supremacy until 1802. 
In that year Ranjit Singh seized Amritsar, and incorporated it with his 
dominions. The Maharaja spent large sums of money upon the great 
shrine, and roofed it with sheets of copper gilt, whence the building 
derives its popular name of the Golden Temple. He also erected the 
fortress of Govindgarh, to the north-west of the city, nominally for the 
protection of the pilgrims, but in reality to overawe their tumultuous 
assemblages. Part of the massive wall with which he surrounded 
Amritsar still remains, but the greater portion has been demolished 
since the British occupation. The present city is handsome and well- 
built, its oldest portions dating back only to the year 1762, while the 
greater part is of very recent erection. Near the centre lies the sacred 
tank, from whose midst rises the Darbar Sahib, or great temple of the 
Sikh faith, the focus of the believer's aspirations. It stands upon a 
rectangular platform, connected with the land by a marble causeway, 
and consists of a square block surmounted by a gilded dome. Many 
of the inlaid decorations had been carried off by the Sikh marauders 
from the tomb of Jahangir and other Muhammadan monuments. The 
service at the Golden Temple consists of the reading of the Granth, or 
sacred book of the Sikhs, with hymns and a musical accompaniment. 
It is of an impressive character, and daily attracts throngs of the faithful. 
The city contains several minor tanks and temples, besides a lofty column, 
known as the Baba Atal, built over the tomb of a son of Guru Har 
Govind. A short distance north-west of the modern wall stands the 
fort of Govindgarh, built by Ranjit Singh in 1809, and now garrisoned 
by a company of British infantry with a battery of artillery. North of 
the city are the civil lines, and beyond them the military cantonment, 
occupied by two companies of native infantry. The Sind, Punjab, and 


Delhi Railway has a handsome station half a mile north of the city. 
The chief public buildings are the court-houses and treasury, the 
Protestant and Roman Catholic churches, post-office, telegraph office, 
police station, jail, hospital, and Government school-house, and the 
Municipal Town Hall. Two great religious fairs are held in Amritsar 
during the months of November and April. Besides its political 
importance as the sacred city of the Sikh faith, Amritsar forms the 
head-quarters of several heterodox or fanatical sects. 

Amritsar is the most flourishing commercial city of the Punjab, and 
it has become the great entrepot and starting-place for the trans-Hima- 
layan traffic. The value of the imports into Amritsar in 1879-80 
amounted to ^2,422, 337, and in 1880-81 to ,£3,153,428; exports in 
1879-80, ^933,765, and in 1880-81, ^1,303,098. Total trade in 
1S79-80, ,£3,356,102 ; in 1880-81, ,£4,456,526. The great increase of 
imports was in wheat, gram, rice, salt, and refined sugar; and of exports, 
in wheat, hides, and skins. Trade is carried on with Bokhara, 
Kabul, and Kashmir on the north, and with Calcutta, Bombay, and 
the other Indian seats of commerce southward. There is, however, 
some probability that, since the opening of the railway to Peshawar 
in 1883, the Central Asian traders may begin to deal directly with 
Bombay and Calcutta. The principal imports are grain, pulses, sugar, 
oil, salt, tobacco, cotton, English piece-goods, Kashmir shawls, silk, 
glass, earthenware, hardware, tea, and dye-stuffs. The exports are 
chiefly the same articles, passed through in transit ; together with the 
manufactures of the town, which consist mainly of woollen fabrics and 
silks. The specialite of the city is the manufacture of shawls from the fine 
undergrowth of the goats (pashm) on the plateau of Tibet. The pattern 
of the best shawls is produced on the loom ; the common kinds are 
woven of a single ground shade, and afterwards embroidered in colours. 
The looms employed number about 4000. The workers are Kashmiri's, 
whose first settlement took place about the year 1803. Besides the 
shawls of home manufacture, Amritsar forms the chief mart for the 
genuine fabrics of Kashmir. Several European firms have agents in 
the city to make their purchases ; and the total annual value of shawls 
exported to Europe is stated at ^"200,000, of which the local manufac- 
ture contributes ,£80,000. I take these statements from official sources, 
but I have been informed that, owing to the decreased demand in 
Europe for Kashmir shawls, this branch of trade in Amritsar is 
declining. A full-sized shawl of the best quality will fetch from ,£4° 
to ,£50 on the spot; smaller sizes range in price from ,£12 to ,£30. 
The manufacture, which requires the utmost skill in manipulation, is 
learned by the workmen from their earliest childhood. The Amritsar 
fabric, however, is inferior to that of Kashmir, owing among other 
causes to the adulteration of the wool, which practice is never allowed 


in Kashmir. The other principal items of manufacture are woollen 
cloth, silk goods, and gold thread embroidery. Important horse and 
cattle fairs are held on the two great religious festivals. 

The city is steadily increasing in population. In 1868 the inhabit- 
ants were returned at 135,813 ; while at the time of the Census of 
1881 they had risen to 151,896, made up of 75,891 Muhammadans, 
61,274 Hindus, 13,876 Sikhs, 9 Jains, and 846 'others,' mainly 
Christians. Males, 86,714 ; females, 65,182. The city contains 26,346 
occupied houses; average persons per inhabited house, 577. 

The site of Amritsar is very flat, and its drainage difficult to effect. 
The water supply is obtained from wells, in which impurities commonly 
occur. Hence Amritsar suffers much from any epidemic which visits 
the Punjab ; and cholera, fever, diarrhoea, and dysentery are very preva- 
lent. An extensive scheme of drainage is now (1883), however, in course 
of construction, and other sanitary and conservancy measures are being 
carried out with a view to raising the standard of health of the city. 
The civic administration of Amritsar is conducted by a municipality of 
the first class. Municipal income in 1880-81, £30,544; expenditure, 

Amroha. — Tahsil of Moradabad District, North-Western Provinces ; 
consisting of a level plain traversed by the Ban, Kurala, and Ganguru 
streams, and bounded on the east by the Ramganga river. The Sot (or 
Yar-i-Wafadar) flows southward for a few miles from its source in a 
swamp near Amroha town. Area, 383 square miles, of which 264 are 
under cultivation; number of villages, 498; land revenue, ,£13,300; 
total revenue, £14,202 ; rental paid by cultivators, £58,228. The 
tahsil contains one civil and one criminal court, with two police 
stations (thdnds). The regular and municipal police number 64 ; and 
the village police (chaukiddrs), 472 men. 

Amroha. — Ancient town and municipality in Moradabad District, 
North-Western Provinces ; 23 miles north-west of Moradabad, by road ; 
frequently mentioned by the Musalman historians. Lat. 2 8° 54' 40" n., 
long. 78 31' 5" e. ; population (1881) 36,145, comprising 10,644 
Hindus, 25,377 Muhammadans, 97 Jains, 20 Christians, and 7 'others.' 
Area of town site, 397 acres. Contains a tank, and tomb of Shaikh 
Saddu. The affairs of the town are managed by a committee of 9 
members, 3 of whom are officials, and 6 elected ; municipal income in 
1880-81, £1462, of which £1416 was derived from octroi; expendi- 
ture, £1460 ; average incidence of taxation, 9^d. per head of popu- 

Amsill. — Pargana in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; bounded 
on the north by the river Sarju or Gogra, on the east by Tanda pa rgatia, 
on the south by the Madha river, and on the west by Haweli Oudh, 
and Pachhimrath pargands. The aboriginal Bhars have left many ruins 


in this pargana ; they themselves have disappeared. The ancient 
Hindu clans still represented in the pargana are the Barwar and 
Raikwar Kshattriyas, who came to the country about 300 years ago. 
The former were at one time powerful, but their villages have within 
the last thirty years passed into the hands of others. Of the 180 
villages comprising the pargana, 79 are included in the estate held by 
the late Maharaja Man Singh, a Brahman ; the Gargbansis hold 44 ; 
Musalmans, 21, etc. These estates were all formed in the present 
century. To the old landed families of Barwars and Raikwars only 
6 villages remain of their ancient estates. The tillage is very good. 
Irrigation is largely resorted to. Area, 99 square miles, of which 63 
square miles are cultivated and 14 square miles cultivable but not 
under tillage. Population in 1881 : Hindus, 53,878; Muhammadans, 
5471 ; others, 29 : total, 59,378. The Brahmans are the most numerous 
section of the population; and, next to them, the Kshattriyas or 
Rajputs. Markets are held in 10 villages. The Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Railway runs through the pargana. 

Amsill. — Town in Faizabad District, Oudh, and head-quarters of 
Amsin pargana. Population (1881) 1308, consisting of 901 Hindus 
and 407 Muhammadans ; houses, 496. 

Amura Bhauriari (Amwa Byrria). — A village in Champaran 
District, Bengal. Lat. 26 47' x., long. 84 19' e. 

Amurnath. — Cave in Kashmir State, Punjab. — See Amarxath. 

Amwa. — Collection of villages in Gorakhpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, 6S miles from Gorakhpur town. Lat. 26 51' x., long. 
84° 16' 15" e. The population consists chiefly of agriculturists be- 
longing to low Hindu castes. The Bun Gandak, on whose bank Amwa 
formerly stood, has now changed its course and flows some miles to the 
east; but the alluvial tract between the village and the river is still 
subject to occasional fertilising floods. 

An, or Aeng. — River in Kyauk-pyii (Kyouk-hpyoo) District, 
Arakan Division, British Burma; rises in the Arakan Yoma Mountains, 
and flows by a south-westerly course into Combermere Bay. Navigable 
by large boats 45 miles from its mouth during spring tides. 

An, or Aeng. — Township in Kyauk-pyii (Kyouk-hpyoo) District, 
British Burma. Area, 2883 square miles; population (1881)20,658. 
It consists of a hilly and densely-wooded country, entirely occupying 
the eastern portion of Kyauk-pyii north of the Mai (Maee) river, and 
bounded by the Arakan Yoma mountains. The chief rivers are the 
An and the Mai (Maee). Large quantities of rice, tobacco, and 
sesamum are raised for exportation in the river valleys near the sea- 
coast. From Upper Burma, via the An Pass, are imported ponies, tea, 
coarse sugar, lacquered ware, and other articles. Gross revenue (18S1) 
^2950. Area under cultivation (1881-82), rice, 10,627 acres; and 


miscellaneous, 296 acres; — agricultural stock: horned cattle, 4369; pigs, 
2630; ploughs, 1094; and boats, 781. Before 1826, An formed a 
Burmese Governorship ; after our conquest it was united with Sando- 
way, and in 1833 was erected into a separate District, with portions of 
the present Kyauk-pyii and Akyab Districts joined to it. In 1838, the 
head-quarters were removed from An to Kyauk-pyii, and 11 circles 
were added to it from Ramri (Ramree) District. In 1852, Ramri and 
An were united into Kyauk-pyii District. 

An, or Aeng". — Town and head-quarters of An township, Kyauk-pyu 
(Kyouk-hpyoo) District, British Burma; situated in lat. 19 49' 30" n., 
and long. 94 4' 45" e., on the river An, 45 miles from its mouth. An 
important seat of transit trade between the Arakan coast and Indepen- 
dent Burma ; it forms, indeed, the starting-place for the great trade 
route over the Yoma mountains to Ava. The pass rises from 147 feet 
to 4517 feet above the sea level. The descent is steepest on its eastern 
side, the gradients averaging 472 feet per mile. The stockade at the 
summit of the pass was captured from the Burmese by a British 
detachment in 1853. Population of An town (1881) 1492, chiefly 
engaged in commerce; houses, 401. 

Anagundi. — The capital of the Narapathi dynasty of Southern India 
in the 14th century. — See Vijayanagar. 

Anahadgarh. — Town in Anahadgarh ta/isil, Patiala State, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 5449, namely, Hindus, 2136; Sikhs, 1949; Jains, 
27; Muhammadans, 1337. Number of houses, 1060 ; average inmates 
per house, 5*14. 

Anaimiidi (Anamiidi). — A plateau in the upper ranges of the 
Anamalai Hills, in Travancore State and Coimbatore District, Madras 
Presidency, averaging 7000 feet above the level of the sea, and 
enjoying a climate similar to that of Utakamand (Ootacamund). The 
plateau is uninhabited, except for occasional visits from ibex-hunters or 
the wild hill tribe of Puliyars. This jungle tribe sell to the people of 
the plains great quantities of honey, which they obtain at a fearful 
risk, by swinging themselves at night (when alone can the formidable 
rock bees be approached) by long chains of rattan rings over the 
precipices, to the face of which the honeycombs are attached. Between 
Anaimiidi and the next plateau lies an extensive grassy plain watered 
by several streams. 

Anakapalle (Anakapilli). — Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras 
Presidency. Originally only tributary to the Vizianagram Rajas, it 
passed entirely into the hands of the family by purchase at auction in 
1802, subject to a tribute (peshkash) to Government of ^2997 per 
annum, and was resold by the Raja to Gode Jaggappa. It consists of 
16 villages and 17 hamlets, and comprises some of the richest land in the 
District. Annual rent value, with five other attached estates, ,£17,609. 


Anakapalle. — Tdiuk in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 313 square miles. Contains 145 towns and villages, and 154 
hamlets, all zaminddri (belonging to private estate-holders), with 27,929 
occupied houses and 131,637 inhabitants. Classified according to 
religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 130,267; Muhammadans, 1367 ; 
and Christians, 3. Government land revenue, as apart from zam'mdari, 
^127. One criminal court. In civil matters, it is within the juris- 
diction of the munsifs court at Rayavaram. Chief town, Anakapalle. 

Anakapalle (Anakapilli).- — Town in Anakapalle taluk in Vizaga- 
patam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 17 41' 20" n., long. 83 3' e. 
Situated on the Saradanadi river and the great trunk road, 20 
miles south-west of Vizagapatam ; also connected by road with Pudi- 
madaka, which serves as its port. A rising town of recent growth, and 
an agricultural centre, with an export trade in molasses and a little 
cotton. Population (1881) 13,341; namely, 13,197 Hindus and 144 
Muhammadans; number of houses, 3810. The municipal revenue in 
1880-81 amounted to ^9 15. Birth-rate 29*6 per 1000, and death-rate 
1 8 -9 per 1000 of population included within municipal limits. Most 
of the surrounding country belongs to the Raja of Vizianagram. There 
was a political disturbance here, speedily quelled, in 1832. Being the 
head-quarters {kasbd) of the taluk, it possesses the usual subordinate 
courts, jail, dispensary, and school. In population, Anakapalle ranks 
fourth among the towns of the District. 

Anamalai {Annamally, literally 'Elephant Mountains'). — A range 
of hills and table-lands in Coimbatore District and Travancore State, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 13' 45" to io° 31' 30" n. ; long. 76 
52' 30" to 77 23' e. They form a portion of the great Western Ghats, 
and eventually merge into the Travancore Hills. A sub-montane strip 
(tardi), overgrown (except on the side of Coimbatore District) with 
dense jungle, and dangerous from its malarious exhalations, belts their 
base ; but the higher lands have been described in terms of admiration 
for their perennial streams, splendid timber, and excellent building 
stone. The soil supports a flora of extraordinary variety and beauty ; 
while the climate equals in salubrity that of any sanitarium, and in 
suitability for coffee cultivation, etc., any plantation of Southern India. 
The scenery is said to be at once grand and lovely. These plateaux 
therefore seem, if their natural advantages have not been exaggerated, 
to fulfil in a singular degree all the requirements of a site for European 
colonization. Difficulty of access, want of labour, the fever-tract that 
encircles them, and the unhealthiness of the lower range, have, 
however, to be contended with. The hills are divided into two ranges 
— the higher and the lower. The higher varies in height from 6000 to 
8000 feet, and consists for the most part of open grassy hills and 
valleys, filled with a forest growth similar to that of the Nilgiris. It 



contains Michael's valley, named after Captain Michael, who may be 
said to have discovered the range in 1851 j and the Tanakka table-land. 
The lower range averages a height of 2000 feet, and is densely wooded 
with valuable timber. The Government forest, which for many years 
supplied the Bombay dockyards with teak, lies at the extreme west of this 
range. It includes not only the reserved forest within the Coimbatore 
limits, which is the sole property of Government, but also an extent 
of forest within Malabar District, leased for 99 years from the 
proprietor, the Nambiiri of Kolingad, on a stump fee for all timber 
felled. The estimated extent of this forest is 80 square miles. The 
teak trees are felled on the plateau about 3000 feet above sea level, and 
the logs are dragged by trained elephants to timber slides, by which 
they are slipped down to the plain. Some logs are floated by river to 
Ponani, others are carted to Potanur junction or Coimbatore, on the 
Madras Railway, and others are brought and sold at the depot in 
Anamalai town. The saw is very little used in this forest ; the work is 
done by skilled Malayalam axe men from Palghat. Since the 
abolition of the Bombay dockyard, the receipts from this forest have 
seriously fallen off, and the Burma teak competes with the Anamalai 
timber in the market. The teak in the forest had been overworked, 
and some years must elapse before it can recover. The chief streams 
of these hills are the Khiindali, Torakadavu, and Konalar. The two 
latter meet at the foot of Pal Malai, where the joint stream pours over 
a precipice 300 feet high, and (under the name of the Torakadavu) 
rushes down densely-wooded gorges to the lowlands, where it joins 
the Ponai. The chief peaks are Anamiidi, 8850 feet, the highest 
in Southern India; Tangachi, 8147 ; Kathu Malai, 8400; Kumarikal, 
8200; and Karrinkola, 8480. Five others average a height of 7200 
feet. The range of the thermometer throughout the year is not known ; 
but in December it has been as low as 30 R, and from February to 
May 1874 the minimum recorded was 45 , the maximum 86°. Geo- 
logically, the Anamalai range resembles the Nilgiris, being gneiss of the 
metamorphic formation, freely veined with felspar and quartz, and 
interspersed with reddish porphyrite. The abundance of teak, vengi 
(Pterocarpus marsupium), biackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), and bamboos, 
make the flora of great commercial value. Several new species of 
plants have been found. Elephants, bison, sdmb/iar, and ibex are still 

The hills are virtually uninhabited. On the northern and western 
sides are found small scattered colonies of Kaders (' lords of the hills ') 
and Malassers. Over a wider range, members of the Puliyar and 
Maravar tribes are met with. The Kaders will perform no menial 
labour, but make excellent guides and assistants to sportsmen. They 
are described as a truthful and obliging people, exercising some 


influence over the other forest folk. They are of small stature, and in 
feature slightly resemble the African ; but their type is that of other 
aboriginal hill tribes, and is more nearly allied to the Australian than to 
that of the negro. They file the front teeth of the upper jaw as a 
marriage ceremony. The Malassers are more amenable to civilisation, 
and occasionally take to cultivation and adopt settled habits. The 
Puliyars are a wild-looking race, who number in all about 200, living in 
five villages among the lower plateaux. Their religion is a demon- 
worship, their marriage system monogamous, and their food anything. 
They are the only natives available for carrying loads. The Maravars 
form a very small clan, distinguished for their timidity and nomadic 
habits. They have no fixed habitations, but wander over the mountains 
with their cattle, erecting temporary huts, and seldom remaining more 
than a year at one place. They worship the idols of the Puliyars. All 
these hill tribes are keen hunters, and eke out a subsistence by gathering 
wild forest produce, gums, stick-lac, turmeric, cardamoms, honey, and 
wax, which they sell or barter to the lowlanders, to whom they are 
generally in debt. Coffee-planting has already been commenced, and 
on the western side of the Torakadavu valley, three estates have been 
opened out. They have as yet been free from both leaf disease and the 
1 borer.' Land on the Anamalais is sold under the ordinary waste-land 
rules, at an upset price of 10s. per acre, plus the cost of demarcation, 
the purchaser guaranteeing to bring the lands under cultivation within 
a certain period. Although at present uninhabited, the upper plateaux 
disclose traces of a population in pre-historic times, in numerous dolmens, 
or Cyclopean monuments, similar to those found on the Nilgiris and 
Shevaroys, and in the plains of Coimbatore, Salem, and Malabar. 

Anamalai. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
io° 35' n., long. 76 59' 30" e. Situated on the Aliyar river, 23 miles 
south-east of Palghat, and 10 miles from the lower spurs of the Anamalai 
range. Population (1881) 5578; namely, Hindus, 4853; Muham- 
madans, 723; Christians, 2; number of occupied houses, 1239. Rice 
is largely cultivated, but the principal crop is a dry one — cholum 
(Sorghum). A large tract of forest land has been gradually cleared away 
towards the south, to make room for the augmented cultivation required. 
An important Government depot for the timber felled in the neigh- 
bouring plateau has long been established here, a good cart-road 
connecting it with Pollachi. A market, chiefly for forest produce, is 
held weekly. Anamalai is described by Ward and Connor as having 
been an important town about the middle of the 18th century; almost 
all the temples in the place were destroyed by Tipu Sultan. 

Anamasamudrampet. — Village in Nellore District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 1 4 41' 40" n., long. 79 43' e. Contains a fine mosque, 
one of the most ancient in this part of the country, and the scene of a 


great annual gathering in July of nine days, to celebrate the Urusu, a 
festival held in honour of the founder, Khwaja Rahmat-ulla. The 
mosque has an endowment of eight villages, its trustee holding the title 
of Plrzdda. 

Anand. — Sub-division of Kaira District, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
243 square miles, with 2 towns and 72 villages, and 35,901 occupied 
houses. Population (1S81) 154,118 ; namely, Hindus, 140,506 ; Muham- 
madans, 12,118; 'others,' 1494. Males, 83,229, and females, 70,889. 
Average density of population, 634 per square mile. Formed in 1867 
from the Nadiad, Mahudha, Thasra, and Borsad sub-divisions. Of the 
total area, 17 square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated 
mehwdsi villages; 86-63 P er cent - are cultivated, and 2 per cent, are 
cultivable waste, the remainder being taken up by roads, rivers, ponds, 
and village sites. Except towards the east, where the land is bare of 
trees, uneven and seamed with deep ravines, the whole is a flat, rich 
plain of light soil, well tilled and richly wooded. The water supply is 
scanty. The average rate per acre of assessed arable land is 4s. The 
rates of assessment, introduced between 1863 and 1867, remain in 
force till 1891-92. Of the total population, 91 percent, are Hindus, 
chiefly of the Koli and Kiinbi castes. 

Anand. — Chief town of the Anand Sub-division, Kaira District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22 32' 30" n., long. 73 o' 45" E. ; popula- 
tion (1881) 9271; Hindus 8120, Muhammadans 534, Jains 530, 
Christians 75, Parsis 8, ' others ' 4. A station on the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway, 40 miles south of Ahmadabad. The town 
contains the ordinary sub-divisional courts and buildings, and a post-office. 

Anandapur. — Christian village in Coorg. Population (1881) 150. 
Church and school. A Christian settlement was established here in 
1857 by the Basel Mission, composed chiefly of liberated Holeyas, 
who were formerly the slaves of the Coorgs. 

Anandpur. — Petty State in North Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. 
Consists of 33 villages, having 7 independent tribute-payers. Estimated 
revenue in 1876, ^£2911 ; tribute paid to the British Government, 
^71, 10s. ; to the Nawab of Junagarh, ,£20, 10s. 

Anandpur. — Town in Una tahsil, Hoshiarpur District, Punjab ; 
situated at the base of Naina Devi peak, on the left bank of the river 
Sutlej (Satlaj). Lat. 31 15' n., long. 76 34' e. Founded in 1678 by 
Guru Govind, the tenth and last spiritual successor of Nanak, the 
founder of the Sikh faith. Residence of the principal branch of the 
sacred family of Sodhis, or descendants of Guru Ram Das (see Amritsar 
District), and head-quarters of the Nihang sect of Sikhs. The town is 
known as Anandpur Makhowal, to distinguish it from other towns of the 
name of Anandpur. The name means ' city of rest ' or { enjoyment,' and 
seems to have been conferred by, or in the time of, the Sikh Guru Govind. 


Great annual religious fair, attended by an enormous concourse of 
Sikhs. Centre of trade for Jandbari or trans-Sutlej tract. Head-quarters 
of police sub-division, post-office, dispensary. Population (1881) 5878, 
comprising 3589 Hindus, 1361 Sikhs, and 928 Muhammadans ; number 
of inhabited houses, 1378. The town has been constituted a muni- 
cipality of the third class. Municipal income in 1880-81, ^"236 ; 
expenditure, ^193. 

Anandpur. — Village in Midnapur District, Bengal, with consider- 
able silk manufacture. Lat. 21 41' 50" n., long. 87 35' 30" e. 
Population (1881) 3351. 

Anantagiri.— Village in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. 
Situated 31 n feet above the sea, on the crest of the Galikonda Hills, 
which here form the boundary between the Vizianagram and Panchi- 
penta domains. Population about 250. Coffee estate. 

Anantapur. — Ancient town in the Sagar taluk, Shimoga District, 
Mysore State. Lat. 14 4 50" n., long. 75 15' 10" e. ; population 
(1881)503. This town was several times the point of attack during 
the wars of Haidar and Tipu, and in the insurrection of 1830. 

Anantapur (Anantapuram). — District in the Madras Presidency, 
created on the 5th January 1882, comprising the seven taluks of Gutti 
(Gooty), Tadpatri, Anantapur, Dharmavaram, Penukonda, Madaksira, 
and Hindupur, which previously formed part of Bellary District. The 
separation of these seven taluks from the large and unwieldy District 
of Bellary is one of several administrative improvements in the Madras 
Presidency since the famine of 1877. Anantapur District lies between 
13 41' and 15 13' n. lat, and 76 50' and 78 12' e. long. ; area, 5103 
square miles; population (1881) 599,889. In point of size Anantapur 
ranks fifteenth, and in population twentieth, among the Districts of the 
Madras Presidency. It contains 900 inhabited villages, including 10 
towns. Bounded on the north by Karnul (Kurnool) District, on the 
south and west by Mysore territory and Bellary District, and on the 
east by Cuddapah District. 

Physical Aspects. — The District in its northern and central portions is 
a high plateau, generally undulating, with large granite rocks or low 
hill ranges rising here and there above its surface. Trees are scarce 
except in the immediate neighbourhood of villages. In the north, 
regada or black cotton soil prevails, but farther south this gives place 
to red soil. In the southern taluks the surface is more hilly. The 
plateau there rises to 2600 feet above the sea level. In the northern 
taluks water is scarce, but in the southern, which are the garden of the 
District, it is abundant. The sacred Pennar, which flows through five of 
the seven taluks, is dry for the greater part of the year. On its banks 
stand Hindupur, the chief town of the taluk of that name, Penna-hoblem 
(which possesses a very sacred Hindu temple frequently visited by 

vol. 1. s 


pilgrims), Pamidi (famous for its dyed cloths), and Tadpatri, the 
temples in which attract about 20,000 votaries annually. The 
river Chitravati rises in the south of the District, and fills the large 
tanks at Bukkapatnam and Dharmavaram. The low Muchukota hill 
ranges, and those farther south near Pamadurti, are worth mention 
simply as producers of the HarKnckiabinata, a valuable timber. There 
is a remarkable fortress rock at Gutti (Gooty) 2 171 feet above sea level, 
and a similar but larger rock at Penukonda, with an elevation equal to 
that of Bangalore, i.e. about 3100 feet. Masses of granitic rock are 
numerous. Good iron is to be had in abundance. Copper, lead, anti- 
mony, and alum are all found. Salt and saltpetre are extracted from 
the soil. The diamond mines in the Tadpatri and Gooty taluks have 
not yielded any revenue since 1813, but are now again attracting 
attention. The fauna of the District includes among mammals the 
tiger (very rare), leopard, cheeta or hunting leopard, wolf, black bear, 
hyaena, wild boar, antelope, and deer. Birds of prey of many sorts are 
common. There are also the bustard, florican, peafowl, partridge, 
snipe, goose, various kinds of waterfowl, parrots, and numerous small 
birds. Venomous snakes are occasionally seen. The flora is scanty. 
The babul (acacia-arabica), the ber, and the wild date are the chief 
indigenous trees. The mango, the cocoa-nut, the palm, the tamarind, 
the banian, and many other trees have been introduced. 

History. — This District formed part of the kingdom of Vijayanagar. 
In 1564, at the battle of Talikot, the Vijayanagar sovereign Rama 
Raja was overthrown by the allied armies of the Sultans of Bijapur, 
Golkonda, Daulatabad, and Berar, and his capital was then plundered 
and destroyed. Rama Raja's brother, Tirumala Raja, retired to Penu- 
konda, which place bears signs of having formerly been a populous and 
extensive town. Anantapur, the present head-quarters, was founded in 
1364 by Chikkappa Udayar, Dewan to the Raja of Vijayanagar. It was 
for some time the stronghold of a race of Naidiis. Gooty fortress stands 
as a monument of Maratha power and heroism. The District around 
Gooty remained subject to Golkonda, and had in its own turn the 
pdlegdrs of Raidnig, Anantapur, and Harpanhalli under subjection. 
After the death of Sivaji, the great Maratha chief, in 1680, the whole 
District, which had made him a show of allegiance, was overrun by 
Aurangzeb, whose power was not, however, formally established, and the 
revenues of the District were never regularly remitted to the Imperial 
treasury. After Aurangzeb died, and the Nizam rose into power, all the 
palegars, and notably of Gooty, asserted their independence. Mean- 
while Haidar Ali, the usurper of the Mysore throne, was bent upon 
extending his supremacy over the neighbouring country. While 
Kodikonda, Madaksfra, Hindupur, and others yielded, Gooty held 
its own, and successfully resisted his attacks and demands for a 


time. Gooty, however, eventually succumbed to his power, and 
Haidar Ali made it his head-quarters for two years, and held his pos- 
sessions against both the Marathas and the Nizam. The surrounding 
palay&ms became the acknowledged tributaries of Mysore. On Haidar's 
death, all of these threw off their allegiance to Mysore. Tipu, the son 
of Haidar, succeeding to the throne, brought back the rebellious chiefs 
to his authority. Tipu, however, was soon involved in war with the 
British. On the conclusion of the campaign in 1789, he had to part 
with his last conquests in favour of the Nizam. In 1800 the Nizam 
ceded certain tracts of land, the present District of Anantapur included, 
to the East India Company in lieu of a Subsidiary British force. 
When the Company attempted to collect the revenue, a rebellion of the 
palegdrs broke out, which was, however, effectually quelled by General 
Campbell. The more turbulent were expelled from their estates, and 
the rest were terrified into submission. The revenue administration 
was entirely taken out of their hands, and the maintenance of armed 
forces prohibited. In 1800, Colonel Munro was appointed Principal 
Collector of the ceded Districts, which have ever since been under 
British rule. The taluks which now form Anantapur District were, 
as already stated, comprised within Bellary District of these ceded 
territories until 1882; and they have no separate administrative history 
from the rest of Bellary (q.v.). 

Population. — The Census of 1881 gave a total population for 
Anantapur District of 599,889 persons, as compared with 741,255 in 
187 1, showing a decrease of 141,366, or 19*07 per cent., due to the 
Famine of 1876-78; the taluks of Gooty and Madaksira were the 
tracts worst affected. The population in 1881 was returned as inhabit- 
ing 10 towns and 890 villages, in an area of 5103 square miles, and as 
occupying 119,128 houses. Number of persons per square mile, 117, 
varying from 172 in the taluk of Hindupur to 81 in Dharmavaram ; 
number of persons per occupied house, 5*0. In point of density, 
Anantapur stands nineteeth among the Districts of the Presidency. 
The males numbered 305,452, the females 294,437, the proportion 
being 509 males to 491 females in every 1000 of the total population. 
Of children under ten years, there were 61,697 boys and 64,241 girls, 
total 125,938 ; between the ages of 10 and 20, there were 72,748 males 
and 64,130 females, total 136,878. Classified by religion, 558,585, or 
9312 per cent, of the total population, are Hindus; 40,239, or 671 per 
cent., are Muhammadans; the remainder being 857 Christians, I2g 
Jains, and 'others' 79. Among the Christians, the number of 
Europeans, Eurasians, and natives is included in the figures given for 
Bellary District. Classified according to. worship, the Hindus are 
nearly equally divided between Sivaites and Vishnuvites, the small 
remainder being returned as Lingayats and 'others.' According to 


caste the Hindus were distributed as follows :— Brahmans (priests), 
' or 2 . ?I per cent; Kshattriyas (warriors), 1153, or 0-21 per 
cent; Shettfe (traders), 15,232, or 272 per cent; Vallalars (agri- 
culturists), 175,723, or 31H6 per cent ; Idaiyars (shepherds), 78,037, 
or 13-98 per cent; Kammalars (artisans), 7403, or 1-33 per cent; 
Kanakkan (writers), 268 ; Kaikalar (weavers), 24,682, or 4-42 per cent ; 
Vanniyan (labourers), 297 ; Kushavan (potters), 4972, or 0-89 per 
cent.; Satani (mixed castes), 6523, or ri 7 per cent ; Shembadavan 
(fishermen), 82,257, or 1472 per cent; Shanan (toddy-drawers), 5 944, 
or 1-07 per cent; Ambattan (barbers), 9286, or r6 7 per cent; 
Vannan (washermen), 12.387, or 2-21 per cent; Pariahs, 78,240, or 
14-01 per cent; and 'others,' 41,028, or 7 "33 per cent In this 
District, the proportion of agriculturists, shepherds, and fishermen is 
higher than the general average. Classified according to occupations, 
7 ,°oo were returned as belonging to the professional class : of these, 463 
were females ; 1498 to the domestic class, of whom half were females ; 
7692 to the commercial class, of whom 1518 were females; 264,884 
to the agricultural class, 106,951 being females; 7 °,435 t0 the lndus " 
trial class, of whom 28,764 were females; the remainder, 247,990, to 
the indefinite and non-productive class, 155,986 being females. About 
59-63 per cent, are returned as workers, on whom the remaining 40*37 
per cent, of the population depend ; 70-85 per cent, of males, and 47*98 
per cent of females were workers. The percentage of educated to the 
total population of each religion was, Hindus, males 8-95, females 
0-28; Muhammadans, males 10-03, females o'66 ; Christians, males 
43-52 females 16-17. The Koravars deserve special notice as a class 
of habitual criminals. They speak a dialect of their own. Their dwell- 
ings are constructed of water-grass matting, and are carried from place 
to place, as the habits of the tribe are nomadic. They feed upon mice, 
rats etc They revere neither Brahmans nor temples. A Koravar can 
marry only one lawful wife. Early marriages are not known among 
them About 10 towns have a population of over 5000, and 20 others 
over 2000 inhabitants each. Of the town population, 19 '68 per cent 
are Muhammadans ; 80 per cent, of the total population may be con- 
sidered as rural. Canarese, Telugu, and Hindustani are the languages 
spoken. Telugu is most commonly in use. 

A-riculturc— Of the total area (3,288,308 acres), 576,864 acres 
consist of barren ground, including sites occupied for non-agricultural 
purposes Of the remainder, about one-third is under cultivation 
and assessed, and 613,504 acres are held as indm or revenue-free. 
The area actually under tillage (1,067,749 acres) may therefore be 
taken at about one-third of the total area, and at 65-0 per cent of 
the cultivable area. Of the cultivated area, 84,360 acres for the first 
crop and 13,498 for the second, total 97,858 acres, were cultivated 


under irrigation. Of the cultivable area (1,641,219 acres) not under 
field cultivation, 20,620 acres are pasture and forest lands. The cul- 
tivated area is divided officially, as in other Madras Districts, into ■ wet, 1 
' dry,' and ' garden ' lands. Dry land is that on which crops are raised 
without the help of artificial irrigation. The chief crops are kambu, 
cholam, ragi, and korra, and these form the staple food of the masses.' 
Wet lands are artificially irrigated, and are exclusively devoted to rice 
and sugar-cane. 'Garden' lands produce cocoa-nut, betel-leaf, plan- 
tains, wheat, tobacco, chillies, turmeric, vegetables and fruits. Manure 
in some form or other is always applied. Crops are not cultivated in 
any recognised order. The statistics of 1 88 1-82 show that there were 
in that year in the District 26,847 buffaloes, 89,013 bullocks, 66,648 
cows, 10,807 donkeys, no horses, 855 ponies, 241.250 sheep, 98,897 
goats, 12,752 pigs, 6953 carts, and 51,433 ploughs. The prices of 
produce at the end of the same year, per mound of 80 lbs., were for 
rice, 5s. 3d. : for wheat, 5s. ijd. J for other grains, from 2s. to 2s. 8jd. : 
for salt, 7 s. ijd. ; for sugar, 32s.; for cotton, 8s.; and for hemp,' 
8s. 4 d. The price of field bullocks ranges from £ 5 to ^20 a pair. 
Buffaloes, though much cheaper, are seldom used for ploughing. The 
agricultural implements in use are all of the most primitive kind. 
There has been, however, a marked improvement of late in many 
points. The old cart, with solid wheels of stone or wood, the axle 
revolving with the wheel, has given place to open wheels, with tire, 
spokes, and axle. There appears to be a desire in the people to 
sink artesian wells and adopt English ploughs. People have begun to 
recognise and appreciate the principle of segregation during outbreaks 
of cattle distemper. Prices have been steadily rising. Where money 
payments obtain, agricultural labourers and ordinary artisans now 
receive double, and even treble, the wages given prior to 1850. The 
field labourers, however, are, as a rule, paid in kind, and the rise of 
prices of grain, therefore, has not affected them. In other cases, the 
cultivator has been benefited. Rice during 1840-50 averaged 24 lbs. 
for the shilling, between 1S50-60 the price rose to 20 lbs., and since 
i860 has averaged 10 lbs. for the shilling. Cholam, during the same 
period, rose in price from 58 to 38 and 23 lbs. for the shilling. 

Natural Calamities. — The earliest famine on record is that of 
1792-93. In that year, rice, which is largely produced in Anantapur 
and other taluks in the District, sold at 4 lbs. for the shilling, and 
cholam, the staple food of the masses, at 12 lbs. for the shilling. 
Prices rose 300 percent, in 1803, and wholesale emigration was the 
result. Cholera treading on the heels of the Gantiir (Guntoor) famine 
m 1833, carried away thousands of persons at Gooty. There was also 
considerable mortality from starvation. In 185 1, a storm swept over the 
District and damaged the tanks and irrigation works, and before the 


completion of the repairs, the ruin of the crops was consummated by 
heavy and unseasonable rainfall (1852). The failure of rain in 1853, 
six inches only having fallen, produced famine. A large portion of the 
cattle in the District succumbed to it, but prompt recourse to relief 
works arrested the spread of mortality among the people. In 1866, 
famine reappeared. Relief works helped to remove the popular distress 
in a great measure. Cholera broke out, and its ravages were so dread- 
ful that people ceased to attend to their dead. Anantapur was one of 
the Districts most severely affected by the great famine of 1876-77. 
A system of organised relief, in the shape of public works, and of 
gratuitous distribution of food, checked its ravages to a considerable 

Commerce and Trade. — Among the agricultural products of the District, 
rice ranks first in the southern, and cotton in the northern parts. The 
former is largely exported to the surrounding British Districts of Cudda- 
pah, Karniil (Kurnool), and Bellary, and also to the adjoining Districts 
of the Mysore State. Cotton goods, cloth, rope, and tape are the 
chief manufactures. Paper is also manufactured in the Dharmavaram 
taluk. Oil-seeds, sugar-cane, hemp, and indigo represent important 
mercantile interests. Jaggery is largely exported to other places. 
Gooty taluk still maintains its important industry of chintz-stamping. 
The manufacture of glass bangles is carried on in many places. Earth 
salt used formerly to be largely manufactured, but since the introduction 
of the Government monopoly this industry is now only clandestinely 
carried on. An Inspector of Salt Revenue with an establishment has 
recently been introduced into the District for the detection and 
prevention of illicit manufacture. The North- Western Line of the 
Madras Railway passes for 57 miles through the extreme north of the 
District, with stations at the towns of Tadpatri, Rayalcheruvu, Gooty, 
and Guntakal. The existing road and railway communication require 
development ; there are only 857 miles of made road (imperial and 
local) in the District. The main road from Bangalore to Secunderabad 
enters the District near Kodikonda, and leaves it near Gooty, after 
passing through Anantapur town. Under the Local Fund Act a district 
road cess is levied at the rate of 6J per cent, on the land assessment, 
to provide for the maintenance of the roads. One-third of this road 
cess, aided by various other receipts, is employed to supply the needs 
of the District in education, vaccination, sanitation, etc. There are 
neither newspapers nor printing-presses at Anantapur. 

Administration. — Until the 5th of January 1882, Anantapur Dis- 
trict formed part of Bellary District, which was included in the tracts 
known as the Ceded Provinces. A full account of the revenue history 
of these provinces generally, will be found under the article on 
Bellary District, to which reference should be made. For admini- 


Strative purposes the District is divided into 7 taluks, namely, Anan- 


and Tadpatri. 

Civil justice is administered by four grades of courts — the village 
munsif's, the District munsifs, subordinate judge's, and the court of 
the Civil Judge. The last is also the Sessions Court for Criminal cases ; 
subordinate to it are the magistrates of all grades. This District has not 
a separate Civil and Sessions Court, being included within the jurisdic- 
tion of the Bellary Judge. There is a sub-jail in each taluk, for the 
confinement of prisoners. The District Jail is in Bellary town. Police 
duties are conducted by a specially employed regular force, which 
numbered in 1881-82, 597 officers and men of all ranks, being in the 
proportion of 1 to every 1005 of the population. Anantapur is the 
only municipal town, with an annual income of .£800 expended on 
local improvements. 

The state of education in this District is backward, but steps are 
being taken to promote it. I have not received separate statistics of 
the schools included in Anantapur District, as distinguished from 
the general education returns for the District of Bellary, within which 
Anantapur was, until 1882, comprised. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate is peculiarly dry. The average annual 
rainfall is only 17 inches. The daily temperature ranges from 67 F. to 
Sf in November and December, and rises sometimes to as high as 
1 oo° in May even at midnight. Since 1820, eighteen years have been 
officially recorded as seasons of epidemic cholera. Fever exists in an 
epidemic form. Small-pox is very common. Cattle diseases have 
several times made havoc, especially between 1840-50, and in 1857 
and 1868. Gratuitous medical advice and attendance is provided 
from local and municipal funds for the poorer classes at the civil dis- 
pensaries at Gooty, Tadpatri, Kaliandriig, Penukonda, and Anantapur. 
The number of such dispensaries is being increased. There is no 
District surgeon. [The foregoing article is based on a special Report ; 
but see also the Manual of Bellary District, by John Kelsall, Esq., 
Madras Civil Service; the Madras Census of 1881 ; and the Admini- 
stration Reports, 1882, 1883.] 

Anant&pur.— Taluk in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 868 square miles, with 123 villages and 16,466 occupied houses. 
Population (1881) 91,816, namely, males 47,546, and females 44.27°; 
total revenue, ^19,486; land revenue (1881-82), ^10,775. Of the 
total acreage, about 70 per cent, is under cultivation, the 'wet' lands 
yielding the larger half of the whole assessment. The general 
appearance of the taluk is a level plain bounded on the north and 
north-east by hills. About 80 miles of made road keep communi- 
cations open between the chief towns, Anantapur, Bukkara-yasamiidraru, 


Tadmari, and Singanamalla. The largest tanks of the taluk are those 
of Anantapur and Singanamalla, each irrigating over 2000 acres. 
Chief town, Anantapur. The highest point in the taluk is Chiyedu 
Drug, 1200 feet above the level of the plain. The taluk is within the 
civil jurisdiction of the munsifzX Gooty j number of criminal courts, 3 j 
police stations, 9; strength of police, 144. 

Anantapur. — Town in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency, 
32 miles south of Gooty (Guti), and 62 miles south-east of Bellary. 
Lat. 14 40' 58" n. long. 77 39' e. ; houses, 1133 ; population (1881) 
49°7> namely, Hindus 3488, Muhammadans 1407, and 12 Chris- 
tians; municipal revenue (1880-81), ^757 ; incidence per head of 
rateable population, 8d. The head-quarters of the District, with chief 
police and magisterial courts, sub-jail, dispensary, school, post-office, 
travellers' bungalow. Anantapur, said to be the western limit of the 
true Karnataka-desa or Canarese country, was founded in the 14th 
century by the Diwan of the Vijayanagar court, to whom the site was 
granted in consideration of military service, and in whose family it 
remained till Haidar Ali absorbed it in 1775. A large tank in the 
vicinity, constructed in 1364 a.d. by damming up the Pandu river, 
irrigates land assessed at ^1200. — See Anantasagaram. 

Anantapur.— Shrine in the Rayachot taluk, Cuddapah District, 
Madras Presidency. The Ganga Jatra festival is held here, and nearly 
all the Siidra community of the surrounding villages assemble on the 
occasion. The importance of this festival has much lessened of late 

Anantasagaram.— The ancient name of Hande Anantapur (' The 
Eternal City of Hande'), a town in Anantapur District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 14 40' n. ; long. 77 40' e. It was built in 1364 
a.d. by the Diwan of the Vijayanagar family, who dammed the Pandu 
river at this place, and built a village on either side of the stream, the 
western one being named Anantasagaram after his wife Ananta. The 
embankment was breached soon afterwards; and, to prevent similar 
disasters in the future, a daughter of the chief of the village was 
sacrificed to the river deity, being built up alive in the repairs of the 

Anantasagaram.— Town in the Atmakiir taluk, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14 34' 30" n., long. 79 26' 30" e.; popu- 
lation (1881) 2548, namely, Hindus 2212, and Muhammadans 336; 
number of occupied houses, 533. Contains a fine mosque, and a 
remarkable tank, 40 feet deep, paved and riveted throughout; 
constructed 1522 a.d. 

Anauk. — Township in Tavoy District, Tenasserim Division, 
British Burma. A narrow strip occupying the western portion of the 
District, and traversed throughout its length by a low range of hills 


(highest point 500 feet), forming the western watershed of the river 
Tavoy. In the north is the large sweet-water lake Hein-seh (15 miles 
long and 6 to 8 miles broad), fed by numerous streams, and emptying 
itself into the sea by a narrow mouth obstructed by a sand-bar. Chief 
products, rice, the nipa palm, and salt. Population (1881) 24,630, 
74 villages, 13 revenue circles. Gross revenue, ^65 12, namely, land 
revenue, ^3813; capitation tax, ^1905 ; tax on nets, ;£i8o; salt tax, 
,£233; local cess, ^381. 

Anchittai-durgam. — Hill fort in Salem District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 12 21/ n., long. 77 45' 45" e. Notable for its gallant 
defence in 1760 by Makdiim Ali, against the superior forces of 
Khanda Rao. The village of Anchittai, in the vicinity, is 8 miles from 
the nearest Mysore boundary. 

Andaman Islands. — Situated on the east side of the Bay of 
Bengal, and forming a continuation of the archipelago which extends 
from Cape Negrais in British Burma, to Achin Head on the north 
coast of Sumatra. They lie at a distance of 590 geographical miles 
from the Hugh mouth of the Ganges, and 160 miles from Cape 
Negrais, stretching from io° 30' to 13 45' n. lat., and from 92 15' to 
t0 93° 1 S E - l° n g- They were surveyed in 1789-90 by Lieutenant 
Archibald Blair, who made a circuit of the entire archipelago, 
and who embodied the result of his researches in general charts, 
plans, and a Report containing much useful information for mariners. 
They consist of the Great and Little Andaman groups, surrounded 
by a number of small islands. The most considerable of these latter 
are Interview Island, immediately west of Stewart's Sound; Outram, 
Henry Lawrence, and Havelock Islands, east of Andaman Strait ; and 
Rutland Island on the south. Between the Andamans and Cape 
Negrais thereare two small groups, Preparis and the Cocos. The Great 
Andaman group, including Rutland Island (which might be looked 
upon as a continuation), is 156 miles in length and 20 miles in 
breadth, and it may therefore be said to have an area of about 1760 
square miles. It comprises three large islands — the Northern, Middle, 
and Southern Andaman, separated from each other by two narrow 
straits, of which one, Andaman Strait, is navigable ; the other, sepa- 
rating Middle and North Islands, is not passable by boat at low water. 
Macpherson's Strait, separating Rutland from South Andaman, is 
navigable. The length of the different islands is as follows : — North 
Andaman, 51 miles; Middle Andaman, 59 miles; South Andaman, 49 
miles. The Little Andaman, which lies about 30 miles south of the 
larger group, is 30 miles long and 1 7 miles broad ; it is separated 
from the main group by a strait called ' Duncan Passage.' Port Blair, 
the principal harbour, is situated on the south-east shore of the 
southern island of the Great Andaman group, in lat. n° 41' 13" n., and 


long. 9 2 42' 44" e. It is one of the most perfect harbours in the 
world, and half the British Navy might ride in it ; while its central 
position in the Bay of Bengal gives it immense advantage as a place 
of rendezvous for a fleet. Stretching across the mouth of the harbour 
is Ross Island, running nearly north and south, with a passage into 
the port on either side. It was declared a port under the Indian Ports 
Act on the 18th April 1877. The other ports are — Port Campbell, on 
the west coast of South Andaman ; and Port Cornwallis, on the east 
coast of North Andaman. 

Physical Aspects. — The most conspicuous geographical feature of the 
islands is a central range of mountains in the Great Andaman group, 
the highest point of which, Saddle Peak, reaches an elevation of about 
2400 feet, with an escarped side towards the east, and a sloping de- 
clivity to the west. There are many other little hills, most of them 
covered with jungle, ' scarcely to be equalled for its density and un- 
healthiness in any part of the Eastern world,' and the islands are 
indented by bays and inlets. On the east coast, as far south as Long 
Island, there is a great deficiency of water. The scenery is beautiful. 
Graceful forest trees shoot up to a height of more than 100 feet, with 
large clumps of bamboos, from 30 to 35 feet high ; palms abound. The 
banian and the almond, the ebony, the sundri and the poplar, the red- 
wood, and the iron-tree which turns the edge of the axe, are all found 
in the Andaman forests, mixed in beautiful confusion with cotton-trees, 
screw pines, and arborescent euphorbias. The mangrove is very 
abundant, inhabiting the low-lying pestilential swamps between the 
hills, and giving shelter to the loveliest orchids. Everywhere a dense 
undergrowth renders the jungle impenetrable by man or beast, and 
innumerable creepers, stretching from tree to tree, prevent the escape 
of malarious exhalations. The general character of the vegetation is 
Burmese, but there are also Malayan types not found on the adjacent 
continent. A remarkable fact in connection with these islands, is that 
cocoanut-trees are rarely seen on them, though they are abundant on 
the Nicobars, the nearest of which is 72 miles to the south, and on 
the Cocos, which are 30 or 40 miles to the north. There is a remark- 
able absence of animal life in the islands. Almost the only mammals 
are hogs (which are used for food), rats, and ichneumons. The iguana 
is found, also scorpions and snakes of various kinds. Birds are rare ; 
amongst those observed are pigeons, paroquets, Indian crows, wood- 
peckers, kingfishers, and a few sea-fowl. Edible birds' nests are found 
in the recesses of the rocks. Fish in great variety is very abundant 
all round the coast ; among other kinds may be mentioned grey mullet, 
rock cod, skate, soles ; prawns, shrimps, cray-fish, oysters, etc. There 
are also large sharks. Turtles are plentiful, and are frequently sent to 
Calcutta. Near Port Blair, in the South Andaman, the principal rocks 


are grey tertiary sandstone J in other parts, serpentine and indurated 
chloritic rock are seen. Traces of coal have been discovered in the 
rock, but no seam. Coral reefs surround the islands on all sides ; on 
the west they are continuous and extensive, and reefs occur 20 or 25 
miles from the shore. 

History,— The islands cannot be identified with certainty in Ptolemy, 
but Colonel H. Yule, from whose admirable account in the Encyclopedia 
Britan?iica much of the information in this article is taken, thinks it 
1 probable that this name itself is traceable in the Alexandrian geo- 
grapher.' The name Andaman first appears distinctly in a remarkable 
collection of Arab notes on India and China (9th century), translated 
by Renandot and again by Reinaud. 'But it seems possible,' says 
Colonel Yule, ' that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never 
perished ; that the 'AyaOov Scu/wos vrjaos was really a misunder- 
standing of some form like Agdaman, while N^o-ot BapcaVo-ai 
survived as Lanka Bdliis, the name applied by the Arabs to the 
Nicobars. The islands are briefly noticed by Marco Polo, who 
probably saw, without visiting them, under the name Angamanain, 
seemingly an Arabic dual, "the two Angamans.'" Our connection 
with the islands began in 1789, when the Bengal Government established 
on them a convict settlement, and a harbour of refuge for ships blown 
out of their course. During seven years the settlers struggled against 
the deadly malaria of the jungles, the arrows of the natives, and the 
failure of supplies from the mainland; till, in 1796, the Indian 
Government found itself compelled to bring away the remnant and to 
abandon the Colony. Throughout the next half-century, the Anda- 
mans appear in the records only as a cluster of cannibal islands, 
peopled with fierce fish-eating tribes, who promptly killed the savant 
we had sent to study their natural history, cut off stragglers from two 
troop-vessels that had gone ashore, and murdered shipwrecked crews. 
These atrocities at length forced on the Indian authorities the re- 
occupation of the islands. A new settlement was projected in 1855, 
and the number of life prisoners left by the Mutiny, led to the 
establishment of the present convict colony in 1858, when the whole 
group was formally annexed, and placed in 1872 under an officer who is 
now styled 'Chief Commissioner and Superintendent, Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands,' in direct correspondence with the Supreme Govern- 
ment. The first officer who was then appointed in charge of the settle- 
ment was Captain H. Mann. The settlement had again a hard struggle 
for life. The Arab geographers describe the Andamanese as ' savages 
who eat men alive ; black, with woolly hair ; in their eyes and counten- 
ances something frightful ; who go naked, and have no boats — if they 
had, they would devour all who pass near.' These stories, and Marco 
Polo's legend of them as dog-faced anthropophagi, gave place to stern 


realities. The convict settlement found itself surrounded by savages 
of a low and ferocious type, who decorated themselves with red earth, 
mourned in a suite of olive-coloured mud, used crying to express the 
emotions of friendship or joy, bore only names of common gender 
which they received before birth, and whose sole approach to the con- 
ception of a God, was that of an evil spirit who spread disease. For 
five years they continued bitter enemies of the colony, ' repulsing all 
approaches with treachery, or by showers of arrows,' murdering every 
one who strayed into the woods, and plotting robberies and arsons of a 
merciless sort. By degrees, however, the British officers persuaded 
them to a better mind, by stern reprisals on the guilty, and by 
building homes near the settlement for the less hostile — sheds where 
they might be protected from the tropical rains, and receive food and 
medicines. Latterly an orphanage has been established for their 
children. The most memorable event in the history of the Andaman 
Islands is the assassination at the foot of Mount Harriet, of the 
lamented Earl of Mayo, Viceroy and Governor-General of India, while 
on a tour of inspection, on the 8th February 1872. In 1876 a regula- 
tion for the government of these islands was passed, and is still in 
force. In 1877 the island of South Andaman was declared a settle- 
ment under its provisions. 

Population. — The population of the Andamans, in addition to the 
convicts and the establishment required for their safe keeping, etc., 
consists of the aborigines, to whom reference has been made in the 
preceding paragraphs. The mutineer element, which was of course 
largely represented in the convict population, on the re-establishment 
of the settlement in 1858, has now nearly died out, and the colony is 
replenished from the jails of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and British 
Burma. In 1867, the population of Ross Island, exclusive of the 
aborigines, was returned as follows : — Prisoners of all classes, 2330 ; 
officials and free residents, 371 ; European troops, in ; sappers, 128 ; 
marines, 20 ; police, 60 — total, 3020. The total convict population of 
the whole settlement on the 1st January 1867 was 6678, of whom 6643 
were Natives, and 35 Europeans and Eurasians. In 1870, the total 
convict population was 7460, and in 187 1, 7603. Since then, only 
life prisoners have been sent to the colony. In 1881, there were at the 
end of the year 11,452 convicts, of whom 8790, or 76J per cent., were 
life, and 2662, or 23J per cent., term convicts. The gross cost per 
convict was ^13, 5s. 7jd. The number of self-supporting convicts 
in the same year were, 1982 men and 651 women. Owing to the 
withdrawal of the greater part of the Native Infantry garrison, the 
police force was raised in 1881 to 736 men of all ranks. The 
aborigines of the Andamans are of a very low type — apparently 
negroid, whose origin is involved in obscurity. Indications are not 


wanting that the race to which they belong was widely diffused, 
tribes of somewhat similar character being found in the moun- 
tains of the Malay Peninsula, in the interior of Great Nicobar, in 
the Philippines, and even in Tasmania (the last now extinct). Their 
origin has been the subject of much discussion, and remains a 
curious and very interesting ethnographical problem. A resume of 
various hypotheses is given in the Calcutta Review for January 1878, 
No. cxxxi. Their skin is very black, and they are of small stature, 
very few of them exceeding 5 feet in height, while many are much 
shorter. They have a robust frame, and their unhealthiness must be 
attributed to the exposed nature of the lives they lead in a very damp 
climate. Few of them pass the age of forty, and the race seems to be 
gradually dying out. A gentleman who visited the islands in 1869, 
only saw one woman who had as many as three children ; and he was 
informed that no other family possessed more than two. From April 
1868 to 1869, 38 deaths were reported, and only 14 births, among the 
aborigines who resided near our settlements. In 1881-82, 27 deaths 
were reported amongst the aborigines residing near Port Blair. Their 
present number is unknown, conjecture varying from 2000 to 10,000; 
those who live in the neighbourhood of our settlements are divided 
into tribes, rarely above 30 strong. They go naked and live in leaf 
dwellings, or rather enclosures, which cannot be called huts ; their food, 
which consists chiefly of turtle, wild roots and fruits, honey, fish, and 
when they can get it, hog, is always cooked. They are good archers, 
making their own bows and arrows, and they shoot and spear fish with 
great dexterity. They are quite at home in the water, being perfect 
divers and swimmers, and they manage their rough but neatly fashioned 
canoes very expertly. They are monogamists, and those under British 
influence seem to be of a kindly disposition among themselves, quite 
fearless, and though irritable, not vindictive. Their language is very 
deficient, they have no numerals, and the inhabitants of Little Andaman 
are said not to understand those of South Andaman. All the islands 
in the group are visited several times during the year, and friendly 
relations have been maintained and extended with the inhabitants of 
all, except those of Little Andaman, who still refuse to accept our 
advances towards them, and evince the utmost hostility on our ap- 
proach. It is hoped that by frequent visits, and by showing our 
friendly intentions towards them, they may come to look upon us as 
friends and not as enemies. Even during the years which have 
elapsed since I commenced this Gazetteer, a considerable improve- 
ment in our relations with the natives has taken place. 

Agriculture is absolutely unknown to the aboriginal population ; and 
with the exception of patches here and there, which have been cleared 
by the convicts, the islands are almost totally uncultivated. A small 


tea garden of about 3 J acres of china and hybrid shrubs, was started a 
few years ago, and the manufacture of tea has at last been commenced, 
the out-turn in 1881 being 142 lbs. ; a sample of this tea was sent to 
Calcutta, and was valued at 2s. 4d. per pound, and very favourably 
reported on ; the whole was taken over by the Commissariat Depart- 
ment at 2s. a pound. Sugar-cane, arrowroot, paddy, Indian corn, 
cocoa-nuts, and garden produce are all cultivated in ample quantities 
for local consumption. The area of land under cultivation and 
pasture in 1882 was nearly 10,000 acres, and the amount of actual 
revenue paid into the treasury, in 1881, was ^7401. Swamp 
reclamations and forest clearings are being carried on with great 
energy ; cocoa-nuts are being largely planted, and it is expected 
that these plantations will in a few years yield a large revenue. Two 
new villages have been founded, one in the northern District, named 
Namuna Ghar, and the other in the southern, named Brookesabad. 
Sheep and cattle breeding is increasing yearly, and it is expected 
that the settlement will become self-supporting in a few years, in the 
matter of slaughter cattle. In 1881-82, there were 4225 horned cattle 
in the settlement. 

Medical Aspects, etc. — The old ill-fame of the Andamans, as regards 
unhealthiness, is disappearing under a more careful medical supervision. 
The islands have been steadily improving in this respect for several 
years past. In 1881-82, out of an average convict population of 1 1,128, 
the average daily sick amounted to 1087 ; the percentage of deaths 
being only 4*56 per cent., as against 2 per cent, in 1869, 3-9 per cent, 
in 1868, and 10*16 per cent, in 1867. The percentage in 187 1 was 
about the same as in 1870. In 1880-81, the daily average sick for the 
year w r as 11*09 per cent, as compared with 10 per cent, in 1879-80. 
The average annual death-rate from all causes for the five years ending 
1880-81, is 5*i per cent. The number of deaths in 1880-81 was 
returned at 522; and the largest number of admissions into hospital 
takes place in May. The climate is very moist; the islands being 
exposed to the full force of the south-west monsoon, only four months 
of fair weather (February to May) can be counted on. The rainy 
season lasts from June to September, and what is called the 'moderate' 
season, from October to January. The average annual rainfall at Port 
Blair for the fourteen years ending 1882 was 118*25 inches, varying 
from 100*09 to 155*7 inches. The annual mean temperature is about 
82 F. The aborigines suffer, as might be expected, from fevers, 
colds, lung complications, bowel complaints, headache, toothache, and 
rheumatism. They have recently begun to appreciate the value of 
quinine. The sea-tract around the Andaman Islands is, according to 
Piddington (Law of Storms), subject to cyclones ' of terrific violence, 
though they seem to be of rare occurrence.' Communication is kept 


up with Calcutta and Rangoon by a monthly mail service under 
contract with the British India Steam Navigation Company. [The 
Andaman Islands have formed the subject of a number of official 
Reports. See Selections from the Records of the Home Department . 
and for recent information, the Administration Report of the Andamans 
and Nicobars for 1882-83.] 

Andar— Ghat in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
13 20' 15" n., long. 75 4' 30" e. Leads into Mysore ; impracticable 
for wheeled vehicles. 

Andaw (' Sacred Double Tooth ').— Pagoda in Sandoway District, 
British Burma, situated on the right bank of the river Sandoway' 
opposite Sandoway town. Lat. 18 27' 15" n., long. 94 28' e. It is 
said to have been built in 761 a.d., as the receptacle for a tooth of 
Gautama Buddha. 

Andhargaon.— Town in Tarora lahsil, Bhandara District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2917: namely, Hindus, 2729; Kabir- 
panthis, 65 ; Muhammadans, 73 j aboriginal tribes, 50. Manufacture 
of cotton fabrics. Government school. 

Andhra.— Ancient name of one of the principal kingdoms in Eastern 
India, and at one time applied to the whole country of Telingana, 
although this extended application ignored or included the coast 
kingdom of Kalinga. The Peutingerian Tables, presumed to be earlier 
than Ptolemy, omit all mention of Kalinga, but speak of Andrae Indi. 
Ptolemy (a.d. 150) mentions Kalinga, but not Andhra. The Puranas 
mention both— as do Pliny and Hwen Thsang (a.d. 630). At the 
latter date, Andhra was recognised as one of the six great Dravidian 
Divisions. An Andhra dynasty, according to Wilson, reigned in 
Magadha about 18 b.c. Sanskrit writers call the Telugu language 
Andhra, and the Dravidian tongue generally Andhra-Dravida-Bhasha. 
The ancient capital is believed to have been Orangal (Warangal), 
afterwards the capital of the Ganapatis. 

Andhra.— Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
18 20' 45" n., long. S 3 ° 15' e. ; population (1881) 7846, inhabiting 
1 791 houses, grouped into 50 villages and 11 hamlets; area, 30S0 
acres. This estate is all that to-day represents the great Dravidian 
Division of Andhra. The ancestor of the present proprietor obtained 
the estate from the Jaipur (Jeypore) chief, and on his descendants ally- 
ing themselves with the Vizianagram family, Andhra passed under the 
patronage of that house. It was assessed at the time of the Permanent 
Settlement at ^138. 

Andipatti.— Range of hills in Madura District, Madras Presidency, 
running from the Travancore chain, and known during the last 15 miles 
of its length (altogether 55 miles) as the Naga Malai. They nowhere 
exceed 3000 feet in height, and being covered with thorny scrub or 


quite bare rocks, are uninhabited. Abounding in game, bison, deer of 
several kinds, pigs, leopards, and, at certain seasons, elephants. Lat. of 
chief peak, 9° 56' n., long. 77 44' 30" e. 

Andipatti. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
io° n., long. 77° 40' e. Situated almost 40 miles north-west of Madura, 
at the north-eastern spur of the Andipatti Hills. Population (1881) 
6041 ; namely, Hindus 5856, Muhammadans 13, and Christians, 172; 
number of houses, 819. The pagoda of Andipatti has received from 
Government, since 1806, an annual grant of ^24, which was formerly 
paid in cash, but is now deducted from the assessments on the village 
lands. The Paliaput of Andipatti comprises 8 villages, paying a 
revenue to the pdlegdr of ^1500, of which about ^600 are paid as 
peshkash and road-cess to Government. The family is an ancient one, 
and is connected with some of the Madura pdlegdrs. 

Andiyur. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
ii° 34' 45" n., long. 77 37' 45" e. Situated on a tributary of the 
Bhawani river, 12 miles from Bhawani, and, by the District road, 30 
miles from the Erode station of the Madras Railway. Population 
(1881) 5671; namely, Hindus 5479, Muhammadans 99, Christians 
93 ; number of houses, 1092. Formerly the chief town (kasbd) of the 
taluk, and still a busy place, with a well-attended weekly market. The 
ruins of a fort stand in the middle of the town. 

Andra. — Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. — See 

Anechaukur. — Toll station in Coorg, Southern India, on the road 
through the Western Ghats, by which a large portion of the produce of 
the Mysore State passes down to the Malabar coast. The traffic returns 
for 1881-82 give a total of 13,553 carts and 14,809 pack-bullocks. 

Anekal. — Taluk in Bangalore District, Mysore State. Lat. (centre) 
12 42' 40" n., long. 77 44' e. Area, 178 square miles; population 
(1881) 44,411. Land revenue, exclusive of water rates (1874-75), 
^5725, or 2S. iod. per cultivated acre. Number of villages, 201. 
Manufactures — iron, cotton, silk, muslin, turbans, and carpets. 

Anekal (' Hailstone '). — Town and head-quarters of Anekal taluk, in 
Bangalore District, Mysore State. Lat. 12 42' 40" n., long. 77 44' E. ; 
population (188 1) 5995, of whom 5425 are Hindus, 486 Muhammadans, 
and 84 Christians. Anciently the fortified capital of a line of pdlegdrs, 
where Haidar Ali found shelter when driven from Seringapatam by an 

Angadipuram (' The Market Town'). — Town in Malabar District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 58' 55" n., long. 76° 16' 51" e. Head- 
quarters of the taluk of Wallavan^d, and an important market town, 
situated 45 miles south-east of Calicut, with which it is connected by a 
good road ; possessing District and subordinate magisterial courts, jail, 


police establishment, post-office, etc. Population (1S81) 7055 ; namely, 
Hindus 3605, Muhammadans 3450; number of houses, 1330. The' 
fort, maintained till 1800, is now a ruin. The town is notable for its 
temple, a building of great sanctity, and as having been the scene of 
one of the most desperate of the Mapilla (Mopla) outrages in 1849. 

Angarbari— A detached peak of the Saranda Hills in Singbmim 
District, Bengal; height, 2137 feet. Lat. 20 30' n., long. S5 37' 30" E. 

Anghad— Petty State of the Dodka-Mehwas in Rewa Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23 55' 40" n., long. 72 13' 30" e. ; area, 
3| square miles; estimated revenue in 1882, ^600. There are six 
chiefs, who pay a tribute of ^"174 to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Angrezabad.— Town and civil station of Maldah District— See 
English Bazar. 

Angul.— Government estate in Orissa, formerly a feudatory chief- 
ship, but now under the direct management of the Bengal Government, 
lying between 20 32' 5" and 21 10' 55" n. lat, and between 84 18' 
10" and Z^ 42' 45" e. long. ; area, 881 square miles ; population (1881) 
101,903. It is bounded on the north by the States of Radhakol 
and Bamra in the Central Provinces; on the east by Talcher, Dhenkanal, 
and Hindol States ; on the south by Narsinghpur and Daspalla States 
and the Mahanadi river ; and on the west by the State of Athmallik. 
With the exception of the southern portion, which is hilly, the country 
is level. The greater part remains buried under primeval jungle, but 
small patches are cultivated with rice, sugar-cane, oil-seeds, cotton, and 
millets. Valuable timber abounds in the forests, and Government 
reserves have recently been formed. Droughts frequently destroy the 
crops ; scarcely any part is in danger of flood. The State was confis- 
cated in 1847, in punishment for the ex-Raja's continued disobedience, 
and his attempts to wage war against the English ; his family receive 
pensions from Government. The estate is managed by a tahsilddr, or 
receiver, on behalf of the Bengal Government, under the jurisdiction of 
the Commissioner of Cuttack. The estate is now in a prosperous con- 
dition, with a steadily increasing population. In 1872, it contained 
78,374 inhabitants, which by February 1881 had increased to 101,903, 
namely, males 51,819, females 50,084. Divided according to religion' 
there are— Hindus, 100,366; Muhammadans, 275; Christians, 6; and 
'others' 1256, consisting of aboriginal tribes, who still retain their 
primitive forms of faith. The number of villages in the estate is 379, 
and of occupied houses, 17,719- Average density of the population, 
115*67 per square mile; villages per square mile, 0-43; persons per 
village, 266; houses per square mile, 20*13; persons per house, 575. 
The chief villages are Angul and Chhindipada. The latter village is 
situated in 21 5 ' n. lat. and S4 55' e. long., and contained in 1862, 

149 houses. Before 1847, no trade was carried on in Angul, but 
vol. 1. £ 


since then fairs attended by traders from Cuttack and the neighbouring 
Districts have been established at several places. The Brahmani river 
flows within a mile of the north-east boundary, and might form a 
valuable trade route for the products of the estate. The high road from 
Cuttack to Sambalpur passes through Angul, supplying a good means 
of communication and transport. Coal and iron are found. (For an 
account of the Talcher coal-field, which includes a considerable portion 
of Angul, see Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xix. pp. 325-328.) 

Angul. — Chief village of estate of the same name, in Orissa, and 
residence of the ex-Raja's family. Lat. 20 47' 50" n., long. 85 1' 26" e. 

Anjangaon. — Village in the Bhusawal Sub -division, Khandesh 
District, Bombay Presidency. Situated about 6 miles east of Edlabad. 
Has a well-preserved brick and mortar temple of Amarsinghbhava, 130 
feet by 13. 

Anjangaon. — Town in Ellichpur District, Berar, on the Shanur 
river; 16 miles west of Ellichpur town. Lat. 21 10' 30" n., long. 77 
20' 30" e. ; population (1881) 9842, namely, 5060 males and 4782 
females. Of the total population, 7714 were returned as Hindus, 
1955 Musalmans, 6 Sikhs, and 167 Jains. A mart for cotton cloth, 
excellent basket-work, and pan grown in the adjacent garden lands. 
Large weekly market. In December 1803, Sir Arthur Wellesley, with 
plenary powers from the Governor-General (Marquess Wellesley), here 
concluded with Wittal Panth, Sindhia's Prime Minister, the Treaty of 
Surji Anjangaon, which crushed the Maratha supremacy in Central 

Anjangaon Bari. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar; 10 miles from 
Amraoti town. Population (1881) 2888. 

Anjanwel. — Seaport in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
T 7° 33' N -» l° n g- 73° J 3 E - The town is situated on the south bank of 
the Anjanwel river in a little bay within the entrance. Inside the bar, 
there is deep water up to 5, 6, and even 9 fathoms. Average annual 
value of trade for five years ending 1880-81 — Exports, ^421,296; 
imports, ^£304,720; total, ^726,016. 

Anjar. — Town in the State of Cutch (Kachchh), in political connection 
with the Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23 5' 45" n., long. 70 9' 45" e. ; 
population (1881) 12,584, namely, 8380 Hindus, 3258 Muham- 
madans, 943 Jains, and 3 'others.' Municipal income (1881), ^263; 
expenditure, .£233. Anjar possesses a dispensary ; patients treated 
in 1880-81, 12,228, of whom 33 were in-door. As a friendly return 
for the assistance rendered to the Chief of Cutch in recovering certain 
possessions, the town and District of Anjar were ceded by him in 18 16 
to the East India Company. In 1822, the arrangement was modified 
by a new treaty, under which the territory ceded was restored, on con- 
dition of an annual money payment of ^8800. The only sum which 

ANJENGO. 29 r 

had hitherto been required from the State of Cutch was a contribution 
of 2 lakhs of rupees (^20,000) towards the expenses of the British 
subsidiary force. This, however, was not paid with regularity, and a 
large debt was allowed to accumulate. In 1832, therefore, a new 
treaty was executed, remitting to Cutch all arrears, and limiting the 
demand to 2 Idkhs, to be reduced in proportion to reductions made in 
the subsidiary force, provided that the sum to be paid should never be 
less than ^8800. [See Aitchison's Treaties and Engagements, 2nd ed.] 
Outside the town is a temple containing the image on horseback of 
Ajepal, brother of the Chauhan Chief of Ajmere, who in the beginning 
of the 9th century was driven out of Ajmere, and established himself 
as an anchorite in the town of Anjar, to which he gave his name. 
Some land has been assigned for the maintenance of this temple, and 
a large number of ascetics have settled there. The spiritual head of 
these ascetics is called a Mr, or saint. 

AnjengO (Attinga, A?iju-tenga ; < Five Cocoa-nut Trees'). — Town 
enclosed within the territory of Travancore State, but under the juris- 
diction of Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 40' n., long. 
76 47' 50" e. ; population (1881) 2534, being 1315 Christians, 1054 
Hindus, and 165 Muhammadans. Situated 72 miles north-west-by- 
west of Cape Comorin, on a strip of sandy soil on the coast of the 
Arabian Sea. An extensive back-water stretches behind the town. 
Station of a sub-magistrate. Formerly an important place, Anjengo 
has now declined to a mere fishing town. Owing to its isolation in 
native territory, its land trade suffers, while from the want of shelter 
for shipping it attracts little sea commerce. A strong surf beats on the 
shore ; and as ships can find no safe anchorage nearer than \\ miles, 
communication with the land is always difficult. The water supply, 
moreover, is scanty and indifferent in quality. In 1684, the East India 
Company obtained permission from the Rani of Attingal to occupy the 
site; and in 1695 a factory, with fortifications, was erected. Though 
the defects of the situation were from the first apparent, it was hoped 
that the facilities afforded for the collection of pepper, coir, and calicoes 
would compensate ; and for a while Anjengo ranked as an important 
port. The ' Factor' was second in Council in Bombay ; and under him 
were placed the ports of Koleche, Eddawa, and Villinjum. During the 
wars of the Karnatic, Anjengo was also found of use as a depot for 
military stores, and as the point from which the first news of outward- 
bound ships reached Madras. These factitious advantages, however, 
did not compensate for natural defects; and in 1792, the town was 
reported to be in hopeless decline. In 1809, during the disturbances 
in Travancore, its roadstead was completely blockaded ; and in the 
following year the post of Commercial Resident was abolished, and the 
station made subordinate to the Political Resident at Trevandrum. The 


old fort, now a ruin, was once of considerable strength. Robert Orme, 
the historian, was born here ; and here, too, lived Eliza Draper, the 
lady of Sterne's affections. 

Allji. — Town in Wardha District, Central Provinces ; situated on the 
left bank of the Dham river, about 9 miles northwest of Wardha town. 
An important town under the Marathas, by whom the present mud 
fort was built. Population (1881) 2530; namely, Hindus, 2199; 
Muhammadans, 281; Jains, 21; persons following aboriginal rites, 
29. With the exception of a few weavers, the inhabitants are all 
cultivators. Weekly market, with considerable trade in woven cloth. 
Vernacular school. 

Anjinad. — A tract now dependent on Travancore State, Madras 
Presidency, comprising a valley and hill range; area, 231 square miles. 
The hills form a part of the Palani (Pulney) mountains, and are divided 
into two ranges, the higher having an average elevation of 7500 feet 
above the sea level. Coffee, tea, and cinchona plantations have recently 
been opened on these hills. 

Ankewallia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ; 
consists of three villages, with two independent tribute-payers. Esti- 
mated revenue (1876), ^1486 ; tribute paid to the British Government, 
^130; to the Nawab of Junagarh, ^22, 12s. 

Ankleswar. — Sub-division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 294 square miles, with 1 town and 99 villages; number of 
occupied houses, 14,272. Population (1881) 65,054; namely, Hindus, 
40,862; Muhammadans, 10,942; 'others,' 13,250; average density, 
221 per square mile. Of the total area, 74-3 per cent, is cultivated, 
4'6 per cent, cultivable, and i6 - 6 per cent, uncultivable waste; while 
4*5 per cent, is occupied by village sites, roads, tanks, and rivers. 
Seven square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated villages. 
Average rainfall, 32 inches. The total assessment on Government and 
alienated lands, at rates assessed in 1871-72 and to remain in force 
until 1 900-1 90 1, amounts to ^60,364. Of the cultivated land 49 
per cent, is occupied by cotton, 47-3 per cent, by grain crops, the 
remainder by pulses, oil-seeds, etc. Water supply good. 

Ankleswar. — Chief town of the Sub-division of Ankleswar in Broach 
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 21 37' 58" n., long. 73 2 50" e. 
It is also a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 
6 miles south of Broach, and 3 miles from the left bank of the Nar- 
bada. Connected by a road with Hansot (in the Ankleswar Sub- 
division), 12 miles to the west, and with another running for 
9 miles eastward towards Nandod, in the State of Rajpipla (Rewa 
Kantha Agency). Population (1881) 9535; namely, Hindus, 5586; 
Muhammadans, 2381; Jains, 234; Parsfs, 294; Christians, 2; 
'others,' 1038. Ankleswar has of late become the chief mart of a 


considerable area of country. Cotton is the staple article of 
commerce, and within the last twenty years the town has been 
supplied with cotton ginning factories. There is also a trade 
in rafters and bamboos, brought from the Rdjpipla forests, and a 
small manufacture of country soap, paper, and stone hand-mills. 
Municipal revenue (1881-82), £1272, of which £"1215 was derived 
from taxation ; incidence of taxation per head of population 
within municipal limits, 2s. 6d. ; municipal expenditure, £1066. 
Subordinate judge's court, revenue and police offices, dispensary and 

Ankola.— Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 367 square miles, containing 8S villages. Population (1881) 
34,189 souls, of whom 17,593 wer e returned as males, and 16,596 as 
females. Of Hindus there were 32,778, of Muhammadans T013, and 
of 'others' 398. Formerly a portion of the Coompta (Kumpta) 
Sub-division, from which it was separated in 1880. 

Ankola.— Seaport and chief town of the Ankola Sub-division of 
North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 14 39' 30" n., and 
long. 74 20' 55" e. Population (1881) 2467. Average annual value 
of trade for five years ending 1880-81— exports, ^17,564; imports, 
,£11,501; total, ^29,065. Post-office and school. Contains an old 
fort in ruins, and numerous temples, of which the one dedicated to 
Bhiimi Devati is the most famous. 

Annamarazpet. — Village in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presi- 
dency; once the residence of a branch of the Vizianagram family. 
Large pagoda. Endowment, £363, derived from land. 

Annigeri. — Town in Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency ; 29 
miles east of Dharwar, on the main road from Dharwar to Bellary, rid 
Gadag. Lat. 15 24' 52" N., and long. 75 28' 31" e. ; population, 
7098 in 1872; no separate return received for 1881. A considerable 
trade in grain and cotton, and a large weekly market. 

Anta Dhlira (Untk Dhurd). — A pass on the Tibetan frontier of 
Kumaun District, North-Western Provinces; situated 156 miles north- 
east of Almora, in lat. 30 35' n., long. 8o° 17' e. It traverses 
a ridge to the north of the main Himalayan range, and forms the 
watershed between the upper feeders of the Gogra from its southern 
slopes and the tributaries of the Sutlej (Satlej) to the north. The 
elevation is estimated at 17,500 feet. Snow lies on the pass for eleven 
months of the year. 

Antivili. — Village in the Bhusawal Sub-division, Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency. Situated about 1 2 miles north of Edlabdd ; has 
a fine well, in good preservation, about 150 years old. 

Antora. — Seaport in Kolaba District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
19 14' n., and long. 73" 18' 30" e. Average annual value of trade for 


five years ending 1SS1-82— exports, ,£64,402; imports, .£35,795; 
total, ,£100,197. Population (1881) 420. 

Antravedi. — Shrine on the coast in Godavari District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; situated near Narsapur, and visited during the five days' festival 
of the Kalydnam by 20,000 pilgrims. Besides being an object of 
direct pilgrimage, Antravedi forms the last of the seven sacred stations 
on the Godavari, at each of which devotees performing the ceremony 
of Saptasaganayatra have to bathe. The Vasishtha branch of the 
river falls into the sea at this place. 

Antri. — A pargand of Indore State, under the Western Malwa 
Agency of Central India. 

Amimakonda. — The ancient capital of the Warangal kingdom, 
established in the Deccan, south of the Godavari river, by the 
Kakatiya or Ganapati dynasty, who claimed to be descendants of 
the old Hasti'napur line. Situated 88 miles e.n.e. of Haidarabad, 
Deccan. At first probably merely a pastoral chieftain, the founder of 
the kingdom gradually acquired influence and estates, and organized a 
sort of government at Amimakonda. The seventh in descent, Kakatiya 
Pralaya (Prola or Prole) seems to have assumed the regal style and 
dignity, and from him the Warangal line received its original name. 
The Ganapati dynasty was overthrown by Muhammadan invaders 
in a.d. 1323, after a rule of about a century and a half. The 
most famous sovereigns were the two Pratapa Rudras, both of whom 
made extensive conquests, and Rudramma the queen, mother of 
Pratapa Rudra II., who ruled for about 40 years, as mentioned by 
Marco Polo. — See Telixgaxa. 

Amipgarh. — Chief town of the district of the same name in Bikaner 
State, Rajputana. Situated on the Sotra river, and contains a strong fort. 

Amipshahr. — TahsU of Bulandshahr District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, lying along the right bank of the Ganges, and comprising the 
pargands of Amipshahr, Ahar, and Dibal. Area, 448 square miles, of 
which 330 are cultivated; population (1881) 213,294; land revenue, 
,£29,352; total revenue, .£33,308; rental paid by cultivators, 
,£82,467. The administrative staff consists of one tahsilddr and four 
honorary magistrates. Five police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular 
police force, 69 men ; with 79 municipal and town police, and 491 village 
watchmen [chaukiddrs). 

Amipshahr. — Town in Bulandshahr District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of Amipshahr tahsil. Lat. 28 21/ x., long. 
7 8° 18' 55" e. Situated on the military route from Aligarh to Budaun, 
75 miles south-east of Delhi on the high western bank of the Ganges, 
which is liable to erosion when the river is in flood. Founded in the 
reign of Jahangir by the Badgujar Raja, Anup Rai, from whom it 
derives its name. In 1757, Ahmad Shah Abdali placed his canton- 


ments here, where two years later he organized his coalition against 
the Jats and Marathas, which led to their overthrow at the battle of 
Panipat in 1761. In 1773, the combined forces of the Oudh Wa/ir 
and the British made Anupshahr their rendezvous, when opposing 
the Maratha invasion of Rohilkhand ; and from that date till 1806, 
Anupshahr was garrisoned with British troops, afterwards removed to 
Meerut. Population (1SS1) S234; namely, Hindus, 6479; Muhamma- 
dans, 1 73 1 ; Jains, 24 ; area of town site, 55 1 acres. Municipal revenue 
in 18S0-S1, £579; expenditure, ^588. With the revenue derived 
from octroi and a house tax, a proper conservancy establishment is 
kept up, and much attention is directed to local improvements. The 
Ganges is here crossed by a bridge of boats in the dry weather, and 
by a ferry in the rainy season. The town is resorted to by Hindu 
pilgrims, who bathe in the Ganges at certain seasons. The largest 
assemblage is on the full moon of Kartik (November-December), 
when about 50,000 persons collect together from all quarters ; but as a 
bathing place, Rajghat, owing to its position on the railway, has become 
more popular. Owing to its central position on a great navigable river, 
Anupshahr has great commercial advantages ; but since the opening of 
the railway station at Rajghat on the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway, 
9 miles to the south-east, much of the traffic of the town has been 
diverted to Dibhai. The population is yearly decreasing, and the trade 
is now confined to timber and bamboos, for which it is still a large 
depot. There is some local manufacture of coarse and fine cloths, 
blankets, boots, bullock carts, soap, shoes, etc. ; but the traffic is mainly 
confined to the neighbouring villages in exchange for grain. Tahsili, 
post-office, dispensary, vernacular school, mosque, and several small 
temples, but none of any interest ; good sardi or inn for native 

Anwa. — Town in Silod taluk, Haidarabad territory, Nizam's 
Dominions; situated on the river Jiia, 5 miles south of Sheoni. 
Population, 2000. Large depot for cotton, which is exported to 
Khamgaon and Jalgam. The chief object of interest is a small temple 
with a stone roof, supported on a number of pillars, covered with small 
sculptured figures, beautifully carved. The annual fair, held in con- 
nection with this temple, is largely attended. AVeekly market on 
Fridays. In the year 1859, the town was sacked by a band of Rohillas 
from Jafarabad. 

Aonla. — Tahsil in Bareilly (Bareli) District, Northwestern Pro- 
vinces, comprising the four pargcunis of Aonla, Balia, Saneha, and 
Sarauli. Lat. 28 16' 25" n., long. 79° 12' 25" e. ; area, 30S square 
miles, of which 225 are cultivated; population (18S1) 197,636. 
Contains large patches of scrub jungle, and is traversed by the Oudh 
and Rohilkhand Railway. Land revenue, ,£24,778. The tahsil 


contains one criminal court and four police stations (thdnds) ; strength 
of regular police, 62 men, with 371 chaukiddrs or village watchmen. 

Aoilla. — Ancient town in Bareilly (Bareli) District, North-Western 
Provinces, and head-quarters of Aonla tahsil. Situated on a branch of 
the river Aril, 16 miles south-west of Bareilly. Lat. 2 8° 16' 25" n., 
long. 79 12' 25" e. Population (1881) 13,018; namely, Muhamma- 
dans, 6613 ; Hindus, 6391 ; Christians, 14. Area, 142 acres. The 
town contains a splendid tomb of the Rohilla leader, Ali Muhammad, 
whose capital it was, and who died here in 1 75 1. For more than 
a quarter of a century (1748-74), Aonla remained the seat of the 
Rohilla court. It was then a place of considerable importance, but 
on the overthrow of the Rohillas it sank into insignificance, and has 
since remained merely the chief of the tahsil. The town stands on a 
well-wooded site, surrounded by orchards. It is divided into four 
distinct quarters or wards, which are in fact separate villages, the 
intervals between them being filled with shady graveyards or decaying 
mosques. Aonla is a city of tombs, the relics of the time when 
it was the capital of Rohilkhand, and the court of a powerful ruler. 
The two principal streets of the town contain some respectable 
buildings ; several new masonry structures show signs of returning 
prosperity. It is a station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 
with a large bazar, the usual sub-divisional buildings and a post-office, 
police station and dispensary. The Chaukidari Act xx. of 1856 is in 
force, and a small revenue from a house tax is raised for police 
and conservancy purposes. 

Appecherla (Appicherla). — Town in Anantapur District, Madras 
Presidency; population (1881) 2287. Large tank. 

Appekondu (Appikojida, Sameswarddu). — Village on the sea-coast 
in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 17 40' n., long. 
83° 25' e. ; population (1881) 570. Remarkable for its sacred shrine 
of Siva as Sameswarddu, where ceremonies for the removal of 
calamitous stellar conjunctions are supposed to have peculiar efficacy. 
Numerous pagodas, which once existed in the neighbourhood, have 
long been buried under sand-drifts. Formerly part of the Chipurapilli 
estate. The village now forms a separate property, held at an annual 
rent to Government of ;£6o. 

Ar. — Ancient city in Udaipur Native State, Rajputana. — See Ahar. 

Arachaltir. — Village in the Erode taluk, Coimbatore District, 
Madras Presidency; houses, 1172; population (1881) 5035; namely, 
Hindus, 4909; Muhammadans, 10; Christians, 116. 

Aragonda. — Village in the Chittiir taluk, North Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency ; 14 miles north-west of Chittiir. Population (1881) 
1736; namely, Hindus 1678, and Muhammadans 58. Moderate trade 
in grain and molasses. The name of the town is derived from the 


appearance of the hill close by it, which looks as if split in half; ara, 
half; and konda, mountain. 

Arail. — Tahsil of Allahabad District, North- Western Provinces 
(sometimes called the Kurchana tahsil, after the head - quarters 
village), lying to the south of the river Jumna (Jamuna). Area, 263 
square miles, of which 170 are cultivated ; population (1881) 53,430; 
land revenue, ^26,528; total revenue (including cesses), ,£30,556 ; 
rental paid by cultivators, ^38,490 ; incidence of land revenue, 
3s. i|d. per acre of total area. Kurchdna, the head-quarters, is a 
mere village with a population in 1881 of 805, but is a station on 
the East Indian Railway. Tahsili, second class police station, school, 
and post-office. The tahsil contains one criminal court, with two police 
stations {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 33 men, with 261 chaukiddrs 
or village watchmen. 

Arail. — Village in Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces, 
situated on the high southern bank of the Jumna, at the point of its 
confluence with the Ganges. Population (1881) 755. The village 
is the site of a very old Hindu city, the date of its foundation being 
lost in antiquity. It was partially rebuilt by Akbar, who called it 
Jalalabad, but this name has now been lost. 

Arakan. — The most northern of the four Divisions or Provinces of 
British Burma, comprising the Districts of Akyab, Arakan Hill Tracts or 
Northern Arakan, Kyauk-pyu, and Sandoway {qq.i\). Area (exclusive 
of Hill Tracts not under immediate British administration), 14,526 
square miles, with 2 towns and 3528 villages; number of houses, 
116,046, of which 111,750 are occupied and 4296 unoccupied. Total 
population (1881) 587,518 ; namely, 317, 773 males and 269,745 females. 
Average density of population, 40-45 per square mile; villages per 
square mile, 0*24; persons per village, 167; houses per square mile, 
7-98; persons per house, 5*26. Classified according to religion, there 
were — Buddhists, 422,396; Muhammadans, 106,308; Hindus, 9393; 
Christians, 12 14; and Nat worshippers, or aboriginal non-Buddhists, 
48,207. The agricultural population is returned at 447,922, or 76*24 
per cent, of the whole. Of the total area of 14,526 square miles, only 
841 square miles have been assessed for Government revenue, and of 
these 823 are returned as under cultivation. Total Government land 
revenue, including rates and cesses on the land, £98,123, or an average 
of 3s. 6 f d. per acre of cultivated land. Arakan is a narrow seaboard 
strip, shut in on the east by the Arakan Yoma mountains, and 
extending from the Naaf estuary in the north to the Khwa river 
in the south. At its annexation in 1826, Rakaing-pyi-gyi, or the 
Arakan kingdom, was formed into a Province under the Bengal 
Government. It then extended as far south as Cape Negrais, and 
was divided into the four Districts of Akyab, An, Ramri (Ramree), 


and Sandoway. When Pegu was annexed, in 1852, the lower 
portion of Arakan between the Kyeintali and Cape Negrais was joined 
to Bassein District. Subsequently, the northern part of this tract, 
between the Kyeintali and the Gwa, was restored to Arakan. Arakan 
is administered by a Commissioner and subordinates, whose head- 
quarters are at Akyab town. Gross revenue (1881-82) ^300, 2 23. 
A full account of the history of Arakan under native rule, and of its 
annexation by the British, will be found under Akyab District, 
which contains the capital of the ancient kingdom and the principal 
town of the modern Province, and which has formed the theatre of 
the most important events in its annals. 

Arakan. — The ancient capital of Arakan. — See Mro-haung. 

Arakan Hill Tracts (or Northern Arakan). — District in the 
Arakan Division, British Burma ; not strictly demarcated, but lying 
between 20 44' and 22 29' n. lat., and between 92 44' and 93 52' 
E. long. It contains an area of from 4000 to 5000 square miles ; but it 
is a wild and backward tract, and regular jurisdiction has only been 
introduced into an area of 10 15 square miles, containing in 1881 a 
population of 14,499 souls. Roughly speaking, the Hill Tracts are 
bounded on the south by Akyab District, and on the west by Chittagong ; 
to the north and east there are no denned boundaries, only unexplored 
jungle stretching away to Manipur and Independent Burma. 

Physical Aspects, etc. — The Arakan Hill Tracts consist of parallel 
ridges of sandstone, covered with dense forest, and drained by 
numerous streams. The general run of these ranges is north and south ; 
and wherever the rivers have been forced into an easterly or westerly 
course, the gaps in the barriers, which formerly dammed up the waters, 
may still be traced. The scenery at places is very wild and beautiful, 
but montonous. The Kiiladan (Koladyne), or Yam-pang, is the chief 
river. Its source is unknown, but its general course (which the wild 
tribes believe to run for some miles underground) is from north to 
south. During the dry weather it is navigable 120 miles above Akyab ; 
the tide is felt as far as Kiindaw (Koondaw), 15 miles higher up. 
Beyond this point the river is a series of rapids and shallows, and its 
bed is rocky. The principal tributaries of the Kiiladan (Koladyne) are 
the Sala (which joins it 25 miles above Dalekme), the Rala, Kola, 
Palak, Kan, and Mi (Mee), with the Thami and Pe or Pi. The 
valleys of the Palak and Kan are fertile and open, but now uninhabited. 
The Mi is a very shallow stream ; the Pi is navigable from its mouth as 
far. as the latitude of the Kiiladan police post, and above that is a 
shallow mountain torrent through the country of the Mros and Khamis. 
The Le-mro rises some distance north of Dalekme, in the Eastern 
Yoma Hills, the watershed between Arakan, Pegu, and Upper Burma. 
After a southerly course of 60 miles it is joined by the Pi from the 


east, and, turning westward, receives the waters of the from the 
north. Its course thence, until it reaches the Bay of Bengal, is very 
tortuous. The Le-mro is unnavigable ; being silted up at its mouth, 
the tide is felt for only a few miles. In the rains, the current is very 
rapid. Its chief tributaries are the Pin or Wakrein, the kii ( Roo), 
Wet, and Sin. The wild animals found in this District include the 
elephant, rhinoceros, bison, deer, goat, tiger, bear, monkey, etc. The 
domestic animals are the gayal, buffalo, ox, goat, pig, and dog. The 
timber-trees are ironwood, teak, kamaimg, thit-ka-do y ye-ma-nay 
(Gmelina), theng-ga-net (Hopea), viee-gyaung-ye (Pentaptera glabra), 
ka-gyneng (Dipterocarpus levis). Bamboos are very plentiful throughout 
the Hill Tracts. 

History. — Arakanese traditions yield little information concerning 
the Hill Tracts. The Burmese believe that the hill tribes are related 
to themselves, and frequent reference is made to immigrations into 
Burma via the Kiiladan (Koladyne) route. It has been inferred that 
in remote ages a great Mongoloid horde passed southward from Tibet, 
and branched out into two streams in or near the Manipur valley. 
The one proceeded down the Chin-din and peopled Upper Burma; 
while the other followed the valley of the Kiiladan, driving before it 
an aboriginal cannibal race, perhaps corresponding to the Sak-ko 
(Rakshasas, or demons) of Ceylon, and to the present Andaman 
Islanders. The more fortunate, or more hardy, of the immigrants 
advanced to the coast, and developed a higher stage of civilisation on 
the fertile maritime plains. The small communities in the hills be- 
came isolated, clung to their old habits of life, and preserved the various 
dialects of the present hill tribes, which disclose an affinity with the 
Burmese language. Their peculiar customs will be treated of in the 
next paragraph. 

Population. — Until 1881 no actual enumeration of the population 
was made in the Arakan Hill Tracts, owing to the fact that the people 
object to stating the number of their children. In 1881, however, an 
enumeration was carried out over an area of 1 01 5 square miles, compris- 
ing 195 villages inhabited by 14,499 persons, namely, 7467 males 
and 7032 females. Hindus numbered 228 ; Buddhists, 2160; Christians, 
15; and Muhammadans, 5. With these exceptions, the population 
consists entirely of wild hill tribes of ' demon ' - worshippers. The 
great tribes inhabiting the hills are — (1) The Rakaing or Chaungtha ; 
(2) the Shandii (almost entirely beyond British territory); (3) the 
Kami or Kwe-myi; (4) Ami or Kaungso ; (5) Chin; (6) Chaw or 
Kuki ; (7) the Mro. The number of these (exclusive of police) make 
up 12,701 in the returns. (1) The Rakaings or Chaung-tha (Sons of 
the River), 670 in number, are of Burmese stock, and speak a dialect 
akin to Arakanese. They are divided into seven clans, all of whom 


live on the Kiiladan, their most northern village being 8 miles above 
Dalekme. Some of these clans are said to be descended from the 
Talaings or Miins of Pegu ; one is still called the Mun clan. In 
manners and customs, the Chaung-tha resemble the Arakanese and 
Burmese, but, unlike the Burmese, they prefer dingy colours in their 
dress. They practise tattooing to a small extent. They profess 
Buddhism, but spirit-worship sways their minds. The books of the 
Chaung-tha are written on palm-leaf-shaped pieces of rough, home- 
made paper ; the character was originally Burmese, but now differs 
considerably from it. (2) The Shandu cannot, strictly speaking, be 
called one of the District tribes, although some of their clans live 
within the limit of the survey map. Very little is known about them. 
Their language is monosyllabic ; they inhabit the tract east and north- 
east of the Blue Mountain, and are always at variance with one 
another. They are polygamous, and bury their dead ; in this latter 
custom they differ from the other tribes. (3) The Kami's number 8143, 
and are the most numerous tribe of the District. Three or four 
generations ago they lived in the mountains to the north-east, but 
having quarrelled with the Shandus, their neighbours, they were driven 
towards the Kiiladan. They are divided into clans, each of which 
keeps apart in villages of its own, under a hereditary taung-ineng, 
or hill chief. The word ' Kami ' means ' man ' ; their Burmese 
name, ' Kwe-myi ' (from kwe, a dog, and myi, tail), was given on account 
of the peculiarity of their dress, which hangs down behind like a tail. 
In features, language, and manners, the Kamis resemble the Burmese ; 
in character they are wary and deceitful, but will always trust those 
of whose fidelity they are once convinced. They, of all the tribes, 
are most open to improvement, and fully understand the benefits of 
peace and trade. (4) The Mros, 1844 in number, live on the Mi and on 
some streams to the south, and are looked upon as an inferior race. 
Formerly they used to construct a nest, as nearly musket-proof as 
they could, in some high tree connected with the ground by a bamboo 
ladder, to which they fled when attacked, cutting down the ladder after 
their refuge was gained. The establishment of British authority freed 
the tribe from danger, and the custom has died out. (5) The Amis 
live in inaccessible villages east of Dalekme, and on the Sala river. 
Little is known of them except that they dress like the Kamis, but 
speak a distinct dialect. (6) The Chins, 980 in number, are the most 
widely spread tribe, and inhabit the Arakan Yoma Hills east of the 
Le-mro river. All acknowledge that they are of the same family, but 
there is a great difference between the dialects of those brought captive 
from the east and of those inhabiting the mountain range. The 
practice of tattooing the women is peculiar to this tribe. Generally 
speaking, the Chins are shy and averse to improvement. Each clan 


inhabits a tract of forest sufficiently large to supply it with cultivation. 
Their language, though not understood by the Mro or Kami tribes, 
possesses many words in use among the two latter races. (7) The 
Chaws (587) inhabit a small village on the Sala river, and are un- 
doubtedly of the Kuki family, although it is not known how they 
separated from the main body. 

The hill races have many religious beliefs, domestic customs, and 
laws in common. Their tribal religion is spirit-worship. Its rites 
chiefly consist of bloody sacrifices to the spirits of the hills and rivers, 
in order to avert evil. There are two great annual ceremonies for the 
propitiation of the Ka-niox spirits, viz. at seed-time and before harvest. 
Another annual feast is held in honour of departed spirits or hpalaw. 
This last custom is followed by the Kami's and Chaung-thas, but not 
by the Mros. The ceremony consists in opening the dead-house and 
placing food and a-mii (liquor made from rice) near the ashes of the 
departed. The prevailing languages are Arakanese and Kami. The 
hill tribes have a very ancient system of law, criminal and civil. Their 
code punishes murder by a fine of two slaves, several spears, swords, and 
gongs, worth altogether about £60 ; all other offences or injuries 
are in like manner punishable by fine only. The one offence not 
expiable by fine is murder upon a raid. Such murderers, when caught 
red-handed, are beheaded, and their heads are stuck up in the village. 
Trial by ordeal is resorted to. The tribes under our authority have, 
of course, been liberated from the worse features of their ancient code. 
The houses of all the tribes are constructed of bamboos, and are 
generally raised 5 or 6 feet from the ground. Villages are built in 
a rough circle, wherever the ground permits, with the slaughter-posts 
and a shed for travellers, also used as a forge, in the centre. The chief 
men have detached buildings for the accommodation of strangers. 
Sexual intercourse is free before matrimony; divorce is easy. Marriage 
is a simple contract ; the bridegroom makes valuable presents to the 
girl's parents as dowry, but receives them back in case of divorce 
arising from the wife's misconduct. The succession to property rests 
exclusively in the males ; a woman cannot inherit, and is not responsible 
for debt. Fines for offences cannot be paid to a woman, but go to her 
nearest male relative. 

Agriculture, etc. — Cultivation is conducted on the simple nomadic 
system known as tanngya in Burma, and///;;/ in Chittagong (see Akyab 
District). The only agricultural implements used are an iron chopper, 
about 12 inches long and 3 inches broad at the end, and a small iron 
axe or ' celt,' both fixed into bamboo handles. Seed is sown broadcast. 
During the rains, rice and sesamum are planted on the same plot of 
ground. Cotton and tobacco are the other staple products. The 
cotton is much sought after by the Arakanese ; it is inferior to Egyptian, 



but yields a larger crop, reported to be better than the ordinary Bengal 
cotton. Tobacco is cultivated by all the villagers on the Kiiladan, and 
the leaf is of remarkably good quality. It is sown broadcast on alluvial 
deposits along the banks after the fall of the river. The regularly 
cultivated area is very small as compared with the population. In 1881 
it was estimated at only 18 square miles for a population of 14,499; 
about 2500 acres of this area were under cotton, and 4000 under 
tobacco. Except in the tanngya plots, there is very little rice cultiva- 
tion — principally on the plain near Myaung-taung, at the foot of the 
hills. In 1880-81, only 18 square miles were returned as cultivated 
by the plough, of which about 10 were under rice. The rate of assess- 
ment per acre is 12 annas (is. 6d.). The nomadic system of tillage by 
jungle-burning still feeds the majority of the people. Rice is grown in 
the j&m or tanngya clearings, but no measurements are made or rate 
fixed per acre, each family being charged 1 rupee (2s.) a year. 
The number of tanngya patches was returned in 1881-82 at 6636, 
but they are gradually decreasing in number, and giving way to plough 
cultivation. The women do most of the taungya cultivation, except 
the work of cutting down the jungle. 

Manufactures, etc. — The only manufactures are the weaving of cotton 
cloth and basketmaking. The blankets woven by the Kami's are 
generally white, and have thick ribs of cotton run in to make them 
warm ; some are like large Turkish towels. The Mros usually weave 
blankets with a black and white pattern, showing only on one side. 
The Chins weave them in broad stripes of bright colours, like those 
worn by the Taung-thiis. Long earthenware pots are made by the 
Chins on the Le-mro river ; they are covered with cane network, and 
have a wide ring for the base. The trade on the Le-mro amounts to 
^1200, and the principal exports are bamboos and sesamum. The 
imports are miscellaneous goods. On the Pi river there is a trade to 
the value of about ;£8co, in tobacco, cotton, sesamum, and miscel- 
laneous goods. In 1868, it was estimated that ^"8000 worth of pro- 
duce annually found its way to Akyab, nearly the whole of it from the 
Kami tribe on the Kiiladan river. In 1875-76, the exports from the 
Kiiladan, exclusive of coin, amounted to ^8707, consisting chiefly of 
tobacco, ^£2846; cotton, ^"332; oil-seeds, ^300 ; bamboos, ^322; 
and plantains, ^"112. The export season for cotton is from December to 
March. This is sold by the basket of 30 local sers, being little more 
than 40 lbs. The usual price is 2 rupees (4s.) a basket, which would 
make the price of a maund of 80 lbs. about 4 rupees (8s.). The whole 
of the salt used in the District is brought from Ramrf (Ramree). The 
price is 1 rupee for from 4 to 5 baskets (12 sers). The Shandus 
obtain their salt by water from the villagers near the frontier, who 
make very large profits from the trade. All the other trans-frontier 


tribes arc dependent on the British Government for their supplies of 

Administration, etc.— A capitation tax was formerly charged on the 
Mros and Chins living near the borders of Akyab District, and on 
the Chaung-thas generally. The rates were 2 rupees (4s.) for married 
men, and 1 rupee (2s.) for widowers ; bachelors were exempted. This 
tax has since been abolished, and tribute has been levied at the rate of 
1 rupee per family. The other sources of revenue are the land, timber 
duty, and fines. A tax of 1 rupee is levied, as in other parts of Arakan, 
on all ironwood trees felled. The revenue derived from this jungle 
tract is merely nominal. In 1869-70, the total revenue was only 
^370; in 1875-76, ^680; and in 1881-82, ^"683, while the mere 
cost of District officials and police in the latter year was ^5272. 
In 1865, in order to bring the mountainous region in the north of 
Arakan under better control, and to civilise the wild inhabitants, 
it was removed from the jurisdiction of Akyab, and erected into a 
separate District, under the name of the Arakan Hill Tracts, now 
called Northern Arakan. In 1S68, a market was established at Myauk- 
taung, with a view of encouraging trade with the hill tribes, and of 
winning them over to more peaceable intercourse with the people of 
the plains. This market, which was far enough in the hills to attract 
the hill people, and not too remote for traders from Akyab, has proved 
a great success. The hill produce is disposed of here instead of being, 
as formerly, exchanged for other goods with itinerant hucksters, who 
could not be prevented from carrying about arms, gunpowder, etc., for 
sale or barter. There are two judicial officers in the District, both 
exercising civil and criminal powers, viz. the Superintendent and the 
Assistant-Superintendent. On the Kiiladan, the limit of the real power 
of control of the Superintendent is 20 miles north of Dalekme ; beyond 
this, there are only one or two villages, and then comes an uninhabited 
country stretching away northwards. On the Mi, his control is only felt 
a mile or two beyond the police post at the junction of the rivers 
Thami and Mi. Until a regular boundary is laid down, the actual 
limits of the District and of the jurisdiction of the Superintendent 
cannot be fixed. This official, as ex officio superintendent of police, 
directs a force of 256 strong, of whom 81 are Gurkhas or Tipperahs, 
50 Kamis, 32 Manipuris, 25 Rajbansis, and the remainder chiefly 
Arakanese and local tribesmen; 100 of them are armed with muzzle- 
loading cavalry carbines, the remainder have the old Brown Bess. 
The police are posted at ten stations, of which eight are stockaded 
with upright posts, 6 feet apart, and a cheveux-de-frise of sharpened 
bamboos. The inspectors of police are Europeans, and 76 of the men 
belong to the Hill Tracts. They constitute a quasi- military force, 
whose duty is to repel raids from outside, and keep order among 


the tribes within our administrative boundary. The whole length of 
the north-east frontier from Dalekme to Prinwa is regularly patrolled 
once a week during the raiding months. It requires strong and hardy 
men to stand the climate and the work incidental to the police of these 
hills, and the annual admissions to hospital average 84 per cent, a year 
of the total strength. In 1875 the stockade at Dalekme was removed 
from the bank of the river to the top of a small neighbouring hill. 
Guard-houses have recently been built at Sami, and on the Kan and 
Pi rivers. 

Climate. — Fevers are very prevalent ; but a late Superintendent writes 
that the deadliness of the climate has been overstated. He attributes 
the hill fever to the severe changes of temperature rather than to 
malaria. The dangerous months are April, May, and June ; April is 
sultry, and May and June are the beginning of the rains. The people 
are as a rule healthy, but subject to skin diseases. What most affects 
Europeans is want of proper food. Beef and mutton cannot be 
procured. The Arakanese lowlanders do not stand the climate well, 
and it is fatal to most Burmese. From December to March the pre- 
vailing wind is north, and during the monsoon south and south-west. 
Annual rainfall, 118 inches. [For further details, see the British Burma 
Gazetteer, 2 vols., 1879 and 1880; the Burma Census Report of 1881 ; 
Administration Reports for 1880 to 1883. The article on the Arakan 
Hill Tracts in the British Burma Gazetteer -is based on a Report by R. F. 
St. John, Esq., 1872; and since then an admirable account has been 
written of them by Major Gynne Hughes, lately Superintendent of the 
District, under the title of The Hill Tracts of Arakan, printed 1881.] 

Arakan Yoma, or Roma. — A range of hills forming the eastern 
boundary of Bengal and of Arakan, stretching from the great mass of 
mountains in the Naga country and Manipur, and thence spreading out 
westward to Tipperah, Chittagong, and Northern Arakan, in a broad 
succession of unexplored and forest-covered spurs. Contracting to a 
more defined and better known chain, this range passes southwards 
under the name of the Arakan Yoma-daung, till, 700 miles from 
its origin in the Naga wilds, it sinks into the sea at Cape Negrais, 
its last bluff crowned by a golden-topped pagoda gleaming far to 

The loftiest points of the range are at its northern extremity, on the 
confines of Manipur; farther south the height diminishes; but where 
it enters Arakan in the extreme north, the elevation again becomes 
considerable, culminating in the Blue Mountain, 7100 feet above sea 
level. There it throws off a mass of spurs and cross-spurs in all direc- 
tions, densely wooded and completely filling the country. The most 
important extends westward to the coast at A-ngu Maw, and forms the 
watershed between the Naaf and the Ma-yii. Though of no great 


elevation for some distance from the coast, the steepness of the slopes 
renders these hills impracticable, except by the regular passes. The 
most northern is the Dalet pass, which, however, is but little used, as 
water is scarce, and the ascents and descents are almost precipitous. 
The next pass going southwards is from the village of An or Aeng, on 
the river of the same name, in Kyouk-hpyii District, leading to Min-bu 
and Sin-byii-gyun, both on the Irawadi river in Upper Burma. The 
distance between An and Min-bd is 100 miles, or 10 marches; and 
between An and Sin-by u-gyun, 125 miles, or 12 marches. For some 
distance the road goes over a level country and crosses the An at four 
fords. Leaving this level ground, the road passes up the sloping face 
of a massive spur which stretches nearly in a westerly direction at right 
angles from the central ridge. The summit of the pass, 4663 feet above 
sea level, is 31 miles from An village, the last 18 miles being a steep 
ascent. The descent on the eastern side to the Kin stream in Inde- 
pendent Burma is much more precipitous. For 20 miles beyond the 
Kin, the road passes over the bed of the Man river, a mountain torrent 
which flows through a defile varying from one to five hundred yards in 
breadth at the place where the road emerges, and forks off to Sin-byu-giin 
and Min-bu, over a level and thinly-wooded country. From Taung-giip, 
in Sandoway, a made road crosses the hills to Padaung in Prome 
District. South of these are other passes, of little or no importance, 
and used only by local traders. They are generally mere footpaths 
along the bed of a torrent, with occasional short cuts across intervening 
spurs, practicable only for a pack animal or a pedestrian. 

In 1868, an endeavour was made to establish a sanatarium in these 
hills at Myaung-gyii, on the road across the Taung-giip pass, 15 miles 
beyond Naung-kyi-dauk, and about 2000 feet above sea level. 
Although the thermometer rarely rose above 83 F. in April, the 
result proved unfavourable. The invalids sent there received little or 
no benefit. Water is scarce within any convenient distance ; and the 
site, besides being below the fever line, proved too damp and chilly for 
comfort in the cold season, and too wet in the rains. For an account 
of the various tribes inhabiting these mountains, see Arakan Hill 

Arakere. — Hobli in Ashtagram taluk, Mysore District, Mysore State. 
Contains twenty primary and twenty-two secondary villages. Chief town, 
Arakere, population 2660. 

Aral River. — One of the channels by which Lake Manchhar (in 
Karachi District) discharges its water into the Indus ; 1 2 miles long, 
and navigable throughout. Lat. 26 22' to 26° 27' n., long. 67 47' to 
67 ° 53' e. With the Nara and Lake Manchhar, the Aral forms a 
continuous waterway, running for above 100 miles nearly parallel to 
the Indus ; and as the current is at all times very moderate, this channel 
vol. 1. u 


used to be more frequented during the flood season than the main 
stream, but in consequence of sluices and bridges on the Nara, the 
passage of large boats is no longer possible. There is a small railway 
station of the Indus valley line called ' Bandar Station,' on the banks 
of the Aral at Sehwan. Goods arrive in large quantities here for export 
to Upper and Lower Sind. 

Arameri. — Village in the Yedenalknad taluk, Coorg. Population 
(1881) 1 1 08. Three miles from Virarajendrapet, on the Merkara 
road. The mission station formed here has been abandoned. 

Aran River. — Rises in the hills north of Basim District, Berar; 
Course about 100 miles. Lat. 19° 54' to 20 12' n., long. 77 13' to 78 
15' e. Drains more than half the west portion of Wiin District ; receives 
the Arna river (64 miles in length) ; and forms the most important 
tributary of the Penganga river, which it joins at Chinta. The Aran 
valley is from 6 to 14 miles wide ; the Arna valley from 8 to 12. 

Arang. — Town in the Raipur ta/isil, Raipur District, Central Pro- 
vinces ; situated on the Mahanadi river. Population (1881) 4608; 
namely, Hindus, 4109; Kabirpanthis, 47; Satnamis, 290; Muham- 
madans, 144; Jains, 5 ; aboriginal religions, 13. Formerly the seat of 
a tahsilddr's court, which was removed to Rdipur town in 1863. It 
still contains a large number of commercial residents, and a consider- 
able trade in metal vessels is carried on. Anciently one of the seats of 
the Haihai Bansi Rajput Dynasty, with ruins of temples and old tanks, 
and extensive remains of ancient brick buildings north of the present town, 
which is surrounded by immense groves of mango trees. Dispensary. 

Araraj. — Village in Champaran District, Bengal. Lat. 26 33' 30" n., 
long. 84 42' 15" e. About a mile south-west is a monolith of 
polished granite, on which are cut, in well-preserved letters, portions of 
Asoka's edicts ; the pillar is 36 \ feet high ; diameter at the base, 42 
inches, at the top 38 inches. 

Arariya. — Sub-division of Purniah District, Bengal, lying between 
2 5° 5 6' 15" and 2 6° 27' n. lat., and between 87 1' 30" and 8 7 44' 45" e. 
long.; area, 1044 square miles; villages, 874; houses, 66,338, of 
which 64,906 are occupied. Population (1881), 401,679; namely — 
males, 201,415, and females, 200,264; average density of population, 
38475 per square mile ; persons per village, 459 ; persons per occupied 
house, 6 "19. Classified according to religion, the population consisted 
of — Hindus, 279,211; Muhammadans, 122,447 ; and Christians, 2I - 
The Sub-division is divided into the three t hands, or police circles, of 
Arariya, Matiari, and Raniganj, with four outpost stations ; strength of 
regular police, 80 men; rural police or chaukiddrs, 1044. One magis- 
terial and one revenue court. 

Arariya. — Small village on the Panar river, in Purniah District, 
Bengal, and head-quarters of Arariya sub-division. Lat. 2 6° 9' 15" N., 


long. 87 32' 56" E. It contains a middle-class vernacular and a 
primary school. Distance from Purniah town, 30 miles north, and 
from Basantpur, 4 miles east. 

Arasalar (Ardsalaidr, ' The Pipal-leaf River '). — An estuary of the 
Kaveri (Cauvery) in Tanjore District, Madras Presidency. It branches, 
in lat. io° 56' n., long. 79 22' E., from the right bank of the main 
stream, and, after flowing nearly due east for 40 miles through a rich 
plain, falls into the sea at Karikal (lat. io° 55' n., long. 79 56' e.). It 
irrigates upwards of 60,000 acres, yielding an annual revenue of 

Araun. — Pargand of Gwalior State, held in jdgir, under the Giina 
(Goona) sub- Agency in Gwalior territory, Central India. 

Arava-Kurichi. — Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. io° 46' 30" n., long. 77 57' e.; houses, 788; population 
(1S81) 3585 — namely, Hindus, 2586; Muhammadans, 900, chiefly of 
the Labhay sect; and Christians, 99. Situated 18 miles south-west of 
Kariir, on the road from that station to Dindigal. Pallapatti, the large 
Labhay village (formerly included with Arava - Kurichi), has recently 
been detached from it, and made a separate village. It is the head- 
quarters of a considerable trade in hides, leather, cloth, etc., carried 
on by the Labhay traders, who are often well-to-do. Population (1881) 
6351 — namely, Hindus, 1643; Muhammadans, 4708. A fort, built 
here by the Mysore Raja, and known to the Muhammadans as Bfja- 
mangal, was on three occasions — 1768, 1783, and 1790 — forcibly occu- 
pied by British troops. On the last occasion the fortifications were 
destroyed, and the site made over to the pdlegdr of Andipatti. Station 
of a deputy ta/isi/ddr, and a sub-registrar. 

Aravalli Hills. — A range of mountains running for 300 miles in a 
north-easterly direction through the Rajputana States and the British 
District of Ajmere-Merwara, situated between lat. 25 and 26 30' n., 
and between long. 73 20' and 75 e. They consist of a series of 
ridges and peaks, with a breadth varying from 6 to 60 miles, and an 
average elevation of 1000 to 3000 feet. Their highest point is Mount 
Abu, 5653 feet, an isolated outlier at the south-western extremity of the 
range. The geology belongs to the primitive formation — granite, 
compact dark-blue slate, gneiss, and syenite. Colonel Tod remarks 
upon the dazzling white effect of the peaks — an effect produced, not by 
snow, as among the Himalaya, but by enormous masses of vitreous 
rose-coloured quartz. On the north, their drainage forms the Liini 
and Sakhi rivers, which fall into the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh). To 
the south, the drainage supplies two distinct river systems, one of which 
debouches in comparatively small streams on the Gulf of Cambay, 
while the other unites to form the Chambal river, a great southern 
tributary of the Jumna (Jamuna), flowing thence by the Ganges into 


the Bay of Bengal on the other side of India. The Aravalli Hills are 
for the most part bare of cultivation, and even of jungle. Many of them 
are mere heaps of sand and stone ; others consist of huge masses of 
quartz piled upon each other. The valleys between the ridges are 
generally sandy deserts, with an occasional oasis of cultivation. At 
long intervals, however, a fertile tract marks some great natural line of 
drainage, and in such a valley, Ajmere City, with its lake, stands 
conspicuous. The hills are inhabited by a very sparse population of 
Mers (Mhairs), an aboriginal race. (See Ajmere-Merwara.) The 
main range sends off rocky ridges in a north-easterly direction, which 
from time to time reappear in the form of isolated hills and broken 
rocky elevations nearly as far as Delhi. [See the Rdjputdna Gazetteer, 
edited by Sir Alfred Lyall] 

Arazi. — Village in the Sehwan taluk, Karachi (Kurrachee) District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 26 28' n., long. 67° 49' e. ; population 
under 2000, mainly agricultural. The Muhammadans are chiefly Say- 
yids and Chandias ; and the Hindus, mainly Brahmans and Lohanos). 
Head-quarters station of a tapddd?'. 

Arcot. — Tdluk in North Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Area 
432 square miles, containing 1 town and 301 villages, of which 7 are 
held as indm, or revenue-free. Length of tdluk east to west, 35 miles; 
breadth, 12 miles. Houses, 19,579; population (1SS1) 147,388, being 
72,607 males and 74,781 females. The soil is poor, and besides lime- 
stone there are no minerals, even building stone being scarce. Fish are 
caught in large quantities in the Mamandiir and Kalavai tanks. Agri- 
culture, weaving, and tanning are the only important industries. Land 
revenue (1882-83), ,£34,496. Number of criminal courts, 2. In civil 
matters, the tdluk is within the jurisdiction of the munsif of Ami. 
Number of police stations, 6 ; strength of regular police, 60 men. 

Arcot (Aru-kadu, 'six forests' — Tamil, Arkat, Arucati — the 
'ApKarov Bao-tAeiov 2^pa of Ptolemy). — Town in North Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 12 55' 23" n., long. 79 24' 14" e. Situated 
65 miles from Madras, and 5 from the Arcot Railway Station of the 
Madras Railway, on the right bank of the Palar. Head-quarters of Arcot 
tdluk, containing sub-magistrate's court, post-office, sub-jail, and Govern- 
ment school. Formerly the capital of the Nawabs of the Karnatic, but 
now of small importance. Beyond some exportation of rice to the west 
coast, there is no trade ; and, the manufacture of bangles excepted, the 
town possesses no special industry. Its trade, however, continued large 
for some years, and much gold lace and chintz were here manufactured 
and sold, until its young rival, Walajapet, only three miles distant, began 
slowly to draw away its commerce. Historically, Arcot is of great 
interest, but few traces of its former power remain. In 1712, in order to 
facilitate operations against Mysore, Saadat-ulla-Khan, commanding 

ARCOT. 3 o 9 

the Delhi forces, transferred his head-quarters to Arcot. For the 
twenty years of his power, and during the reign of his successor J Just 
Ali, it remained the seat of government. But in 1740, the Marathd 
army of Hoji Bhonsla" overran the District ; Dost Ali was killed in 
battle, and Arcot became the centre of the strife. Sabdar Ali, who 
succeeded Dost Ali, was murdered in 1742 ; and his successor, Sayyid 
Muhammad, shared the same fate in 1744. During the next seven 
years Arcot changed hands as many times; and in 1 751, an English 
garrison occupied the fort. The capture and brilliant defence of Arcot 
by Clive are among the most remarkable feats of the British arms in 
India. On the 25th August 1751, Clive with his small force of 200 
Europeans (including 8 officers) and 300 native troops, with 8 field- 
pieces, left Madras, and five days later encamped within 10 miles of 
Arcot, during a severe tempest of lightning, thunder, and rain. Of the 
eight officers with the force, four, including Clive, had recently been 
4 writers ' in the Company's service, and only two out of the eight had 
ever been in action. The undaunted demeanour of this small army 
during the storm gave the enemy's spies such an idea of the valour of the 
British, that they hurried panic-stricken to Arcot, and so demoralised 
its garrison that they abandoned the fort. The next morning Clive 
arrived at the town, and meeting with no opposition took possession of 
the citadel. On the news of the capture of his capital reaching Ch^nda 
Sahib, Nawab of the Karnatic, he detached 4000 of his own troops, with 
150 of the French, under the command of his son Rdja Sahib, to 
recapture the fortress. Rdja Sahib invested the fort on the 23rd Sep- 
tember with 120 Europeans, 2000 regular native troops, 300 cavalry, 
and 5000 irregular foot soldiers. There were but 60 days' provisions in 
the fort, but fortunately plenty of water. Breaches made by day in the 
ruined old battlements (a mile in circumference) were untiringly repaired 
during the night, during a siege of 50 days. Within the fort had been 
found an enormous piece of ordnance, discharging a 72-lb. ball. It 
was said to have been drawn by a thousand yoke of oxen all the way 
from Delhi. Clive succeeded in erecting this monster on the highest 
of the fort towers ; and from this position it was fired once each day at 
the palace of the Nawab, while Raja Sahib and his officers were assembled 
in a council of war. On the fourth day the cannon burst, but fortunately 
without doing any damage, as the precaution had been taken of always 
firing it by means of a train. This accident emboldened the besiegers, 
who raised a mound at a short distance from the walls, commanding 
the whole of the interior of the fort. On this mound they placed a 
small but powerful battery. The work was allowed to proceed to com- 
pletion, when Clive opened fire with such success that within an hour 
the mound was a heap of ruins, and the 50 men who had been on it 
were all either killed or disabled. Attempts meanwhile made from 

310 ARCOT. 

Madras to relieve the garrison proved unsuccessful. Assistance, how- 
ever, appeared from an unexpected quarter. Some Maratha cavalry, 
under a leader named Morari Rao, who had hitherto remained neutral, 
waiting the turn of events, on hearing the news of Clive's gallant defence, 
announced their readiness to come to his aid. Raja Sahib, in view of 
this threatened danger, summoned Clive to surrender, but his message 
met with a contemptuous refusal. An offer of a present of money was 
then made, and indignantly refused. Seeing no prospect of a surrender, 
Raja Sahib resolved to adventure an assault, which took place on 
November the 14th. The result is thus described by Macaulay : — 
'The day was well fitted for a bold military enterprise; it was the great 
Muhammadan festival, the Moharram, which is sacred to the memory 
of Hussain, the son of Ali. Clive had received secret intelligence of 
the design ; had made his plans, and, exhausted by fatigue, had thrown 
himself on his bed. He was awakened by the alarm, and was instantly 
at his post. The enemy advanced, driving before them elephants whose 
foreheads were armed with iron plates. It was expected that the gates 
would yield to the shock of these living battering rams. But the huge 
beasts no sooner felt the English musket balls, than they turned round 
and rushed furiously away, trampling on the multitude which had urged 
them forward. A raft was launched on the water which filled one part 
of the ditch. Clive perceiving that the gunners at that post did not 
understand their business, took the management of a piece of artillery 
himself, and cleared the raft in a few minutes. Where the moat was 
dry the assailants mounted with great boldness, but they were received 
with a fire so heavy and so well directed, that it soon quelled the 
courage even of fanaticism and of intoxication. The rear ranks of the 
English kept the front ranks supplied with a constant succession of 
loaded muskets, and every shot told upon the living mass below. After 
three desperate assaults the besiegers retired behind the ditch. 

1 The struggle lasted about an hour. Four hundred of the assailants 
fell. The garrison lost only 5 or 6 men. The besieged passed an 
anxious night looking for a renewal of the attack. But when day broke 
the enemy were no more to be seen. They had retired, leaving to the 
English several guns and a large quantity of ammunition.' Thus ended 
the famous siege of Arcot. 

In 1758, Arcot was surrendered to the French, under Lally ; and two 
efforts made in the following year to regain possession, failed. In 1760, 
however, Colonel Coote laid siege to the fort, and after a bombardment 
of seven days took it. For the next twenty years it remained in the hands 
of the Nawab Muhammad Ali, the ally of the British; but when in 1780 
the Mysore war extended to the District, Arcot was surrendered to 
Haidar Ali, who held it till 1783. Tipu Sultan succeeded to Haidar's 
conquests, and after destroying the fortifications abandoned the town. In 


the cession of the Karnatic to the English in 1801, Arcot was included ; 
but the descendants of the Nawab (styled the ■ Prince of the Karnatic ') 
Still hold property in the neighbourhood of the town. The palace is now 
a ruin, and of the fort hardly a trace remains. Between the palace and 
the fort stands the tomb of the Nawab Saadat-ulla Khan, for the 
decoration of which and the performance of religious ceremonies a 
monthly allowance is made by Government. Close to the tomb is the 
principal mosque, the Jama Masjid, and within the town are twenty- 
two other places of Muhammadan worship, all largely attended. There 
are also many other notable tombs, — Tipu Auliah's among them, — 
each of which receives an allowance from Government. With the 
exception of two, the temples built by the Chola king in the six forests 
still exist. The European station, Ranipet, is on the left bank of the 
Palar, 3 miles from the railway station. 

Arcot, North. — District in the Madras Presidency, lying between 
12 20' and 13 55' n. lat., and between 78 15' and 8o° 4' e. long. ; 
area, 7256 square miles; population in 1881, 1,817,814. Mysore 
bounds it on the west, and on the other three sides lie British Districts 
— Cuddapah and Nellore on the north, Salem and South Arcot on the 
south, and Chengalpat (Chingleput) on the east. North Arcot, in point 
of size, ranks eleventh, and in population fifth, among the Districts of 
the Madras Presidency. It is sub-divided into nine taluks and five 
large zatninddri divisions, of which one is a jdgir ; and contains 3967 
inhabited villages, including sixteen towns. Land revenue (1881), 
,£281,802; total revenue, ,£337,343. The town of Chittiir is the 
administrative head-quarters of the District. 

Physical Aspects. — The northern and western portions of the District 
are hilly and picturesque ; the southern and eastern, as a rule, flat and 
uninteresting. The range of the Eastern Ghats traverses it from south- 
west to north-east, throwing out spurs on their southern side, and the 
Nagari Hills run across the north-eastern corner. The former range 
separates what used to be called the two Karnatics, viz. the Bald Ghat, 
or elevated Mysore plateau, and the Payan Ghat, or low-lying plain 
country. The general elevation of this part of the range is about 2500 
feet above sea level. In the south-wesuthe Jawadi range impinges on 
the District, its peaks attaining sometimes a height of 3000 feet, covered 
in part with dense and valuable forest. The broad valley of the Yani- 
ambadi, or Palar, separates this range from the Eastern Ghats, narrowing 
in the neighbourhood of Ambiir, where the Jawddi hills and the Ghits 
almost unite. The Eastern Ghats and the Jawadis are of gneissic or 
metamorphic formation, made up to a great extent of bare, rounded rock 
masses, with smooth, loose boulders scattered about. In the north-eastern 
formation, conglomerates, quartzites, and sandstones prevail ; and the 
precipitous cliffs, rising sheer from the plains, present every appearance 

3 i2 A J? COT, NORTH. 

of volcanic upheaval. Iron and copper are found in some abundance, 
and as gold has been obtained in Mysore, within a few miles of the 
District frontier, it is probable that it exists in North Arcot also. Coal 
occurs nowhere, but lime and excellent building stone abound. The 
chief river is the Palar. It enters the District in the south-west, and, 
after a preliminary deflection northwards, on meeting the rise of the 
Jawadi hills, assumes an easterly direction to the sea. It receives on 
its way two important affluents, the Cheyair and the Poiny. Smaller 
affluents of the Pilar are the Ambiir and the Gudiyatam. The 
eastern centre of the District is drained by the Narayanavanam and 
Cortelliar (Kortalaydr). For almost the whole year the river courses 
are dry, the water sinking into the deep sand of their beds. Channels, 
however, are cut into the sand, and the underflow of water thus 
tapped is carried off for irrigation. This supply never fails. Forests 
cover an area of about 1800 square miles, of which nearly one-third 
belong to private owners. Of the remainder, about one-half are ' local 
forests ; ' and the actual imperial revenue from this source is only ^400 
a year. One reason for this comparatively small income is that the 
imperial forests are as yet very carefully conserved, nothing being taken 
from them beyond the absolute requirements of the neighbourhood. 
The most valuable tree found in the forests of the District is the Red 
Sanders, used by the natives for cart frames, door-posts, and other 
purposes, as white ants will not touch it ; it is largely exported in 
billets as ships' dunnage to Europe, where a red dye is extracted from it. 
The fisheries, although fish forms an item in the food supply, are 
financially unimportant. The fauna of the District includes the ele- 
phant, bison, wild buffalo, tiger, leopard, bear, hyaena, several species of 
deer, porcupine, and boar. 

History. — The District of North Arcot forms part of the ancient 
country called Dravida, corresponding in part to the modern Karnatic. 
When and by whom it was originally peopled is unknown, but the 
earliest important settlers appear to have been the Karambas, who are 
said at first to have had no king. Dissensions, however, led them to 
choose a chief named Komandu Karamba Prabhu, the supposed first 
king of the Pallava dynasty. Little is recorded of these Pallava kings. 
Their principal stronghold was at Piiraliir, and Conjeveram became 
their most important town. In the 7th century, the power of the 
Pallava kings seems to have reached its height, but shortly afterwards 
the Konga and Chola kings succeeded in gaining the supremacy. The 
final downfall of the Pallava dynasty, and the partial extermination of 
the Karamba race, was effected by the Cholas about the eight or ninth 
century. Conjeveram now became the capital of the Chola kingdom, 
the limits of which appear at one time to have extended to the Godavari. 
The Chola power, however, in its turn declined after several contests 


for supremacy with the kings of Telingana and Vijayanagar. About 
the middle of the 17th century the last-named dynasty also came to a 
close, its place being taken by the Marathas, who under Sivaji began 
to exercise a powerful influence over the destinies of Southern India. 
Venkaji, a half brother of Sivaji, and the founder of the present family 
of Tanjore, held, as a vassal of the Bijapur State, certain Southern 
jd^'irs in the Karnatic, which had passed into his possession by the 
death of his father Shahji in 1664. In 1676, Sivaji, desirous of wresting 
these from his half brother, set out against him, and entered the 
Karnatic by the Kallur pass in the District of North Arcot. After 
reducing the forts at Vellore, Ami, and other strongholds in this and 
the neighbouring Districts, Sivaji became complete master of all his 
brother's territories. News from the north suddenly recalled Sivaji to 
the aid of his ally the Sultan of Golconda, who had held his Northern 
Provinces for him while he marched into the Karnatic. Sivaji left his 
newly acquired territories under the charge of another half brother, 
Santaji, who, however, was gradually overpowered by Venkaji. In the 
end, Sivaji was compelled to acquiesce in the retention of his conquests 
by Venkaji on a promise of one-half the revenues. Meanwhile the 
Emperor Aurangzeb resolved to put a stop to the anarchy prevailing in 
Southern India. In 1698, his general Zulfakar Khan took Gingi, and 
made Daiid Khan Governor of Arcot, under which district Gingi was 
included. Until 171 2, the Muhammadan governors resided at Gingi, 
and settled the country by Muhammadan fiefholders. Saadat-ulla- 
Khan, who first assumed the title of Nawdb of the Karnatic, made 
Arcot his capital in 1712. For an account of the capture and subse- 
quent defence by Clive of Arcot during the Karnatic war, see article 
on Arcot town. 

In 1792, after the termination of the second Mysore war, the 
portion of the present District lying above the Ghats was ceded to 
the British. It was appended to the Bara-mahal tract, and admini- 
stered conjointly with the western estates of Venkatagiri, Saidapur, 
Kalahasti (Calastri), and Karvaitnagar. In 1801, the Karnatic was 
ceded to the British by the Nawab ; and the portion of this territory 
lying north of the Palar river was, together with the above estates, 
formed into the District then called the Northern Division of Arcot, 
and placed under the Kistnagiri Collector. In 1808, the taluks south 
of the Palar were added to the District, Kistnagiri removed from 
it, and the estates of Venkatagiri and