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Full text of "The imperial gazetteer of India"

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c^TAT E Q U i E T EM 

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UNIVERS ITYOFMAS 



THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA. 



MORRISON AND GIBB, EDINBURGH, 
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 



W. W. HUNTER, C.S.I., CLE, LL.D., 

DIKECTOK-GKNEKAL OF STATISTICS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. 



VOLUME IV. 



COCHIN TO GANGURlA. 



UNITED STATES A!R FORCE 

CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH CENTER 

GEOPHYSICS 

RESEARCH UBRARY 



SECOND EDniON. 



TRUBNER & CO., LONDON, 1885. 






V 



4 



KKIV. OF KAS3ACKI?-. ETTS 
AT BOSTON - LiBrjLRy 






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IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 



OF 



INDIA. 



VOLUME IV. 

Cochin. — Native State in subsidiary alliance with the British 
Government, and politically connected with the Presidency of Madras 
— called after the town of the same name, formerly its capital, but 
since its capture from the Dutch in 1795, ^ British possession, and 
included within the limits of the District of Malabar. That District 
bounds the State of Cochin on the west, north, and north-east ; a small 
portion at the south-west is washed by the Arabian Sea ; and the State 
of Travancore forms the southern boundary. It lies between 9° 48' 
and 10" 50' N. lat, and between 76° 5' and 76° 58' e. long. ; and con- 
tains 7 Sub-divisions — namely, Cochin, Cannanore, Mugundapuram, 
Trichiir, Tallapalli, Chittur, and Kranganur. Total area, 1361 square 
miles. Population (1881) 600,278, namely, 301,815 males and 298,463 
females. 

Physical Aspects. — The most striking physical feature of the country 
is the series of shallow lakes or backwaters, which receive the drainage 
of the numerous streams descending from the Western Ghd^ts, and 
are consequently liable to great rises as these feeders swell, and to 
equally great reductions in volume as they dry up. One of these 
feeders, the Alwai, has been known to rise nearly 16 feet in twenty- 
four hours; and the backwater into which^it flows sometimes continues 
swollen for months, while in the dry season it shrinks in many places 
to a depth of 2 feet, and even to 6 inches at the northern and 
southern extremities. The Cochin backwaters extend from north 
to south for a distance of about 120 miles in all, passing consider- 
ably beyond the boundary of the State. Their breadth varies from a 
maximum of 10 miles to not more than a few hundred yards; and 
^they are very irregular in form, branching into a great number of 
, intricate and shallow channels, containing several low alluvial islands. 

VOL. IV. A 



2 COCHIN. 

The communication with the sea is at three points — one at the city 
of Cochin, another at Kodungalilr or Kranganiir, and the third at 
Chetuwai or Chatwai. Though the backwaters are in most places 
shallow, navigation is at all times possible from Cochin to Kranganiir, 
and from Cochin to Aleppi or Aulapolai, both for passenger and cargo 
boats. During the rains, all parts are navigable by flat-bottomed boats ; 
but for the conveyance of petty merchandise, canoes drawing little 
water are preferred. All the lands washed by the backwaters, whether 
islands or enclosing banks, are low and swampy, and liable to be flooded 
during the monsoon inundations. They are in general densely covered 
with luxuriant cocoa-nut palms ; and in such places as are embanked, 
great quantities of rice are grown. 

The chief rivers of Cochin are the Ponani, the Tattamangalam, the 
Karuvamir, and the Shalakudi. The Alwai or Periyur also passes 
through a portion of the State, The timber of Cochin is amongst 
the most valuable of its products, the revenue derived from the forests 
in 1881-82 being ^^5812. The principal timber tract is Iruari in the 
north-east, which is covered with dense forests of teak-trees of enormous 
size, but less durable and elastic than timber of the same kind pro- 
duced in Travancore and Malabar. It is consequently more in demand 
for building houses than for ships, for which latter purpose it is also 
rendered less suitable by being cut into short blocks, in order that it 
may be dragged to the torrents which sweep it down to the backwater. 
The violence with which it is carried down the streams often renders 
it unfit for purposes requiring wood of large dimensions. Other 
valuable descriptions of timber are peon or pun^ of which excellent 
masts are made ; and black wood, angel}\ jack, ben-teak, and bastard 
cedar. The only mineral products which contribute to the revenue of 
the State are laterite and granite ; for though both gold and iron were 
at one time worked, these industries have now died out. The flora, 
however, abounds in plants of commercial value. Besides the timber- 
trees already mentioned, the hills afford a great variety of drug, dye 
and gum-yielding shrubs ; cardamoms are produced in many parts, and 
everywhere on the hills the jungle exhibits a splendid luxuriance of 
foliage and flowers. The fauna includes all the larger animals of 
Southern India — elephant, bison, bear, tiger, leopard, sdmbhar^ and 
ibex, with many varieties of deer. The hunting leopard, hyaena, wolf, 
fox, monkey, etc., are also found, and birds are very abundant, as also 
are snakes and other reptiles. 

History. — The State arose out of the dismemberment of the Malayalam 
kingdom in the time of Cheruma Perumal, from whom, by right of 
lineal descent, the present Rajas of Cochin claim to hold their territory. 
Cheruma Perumal governed the whole country of Kerala or Chera, 
including Travancore and Malabar, in the 9th century, first as 



COCHIN. 3 

viceroy and afterwards as an independent ruler. Cochin early 
succumbed to the Portuguese, who in the i6th century built a fort, 
and established commercial and missionary relations with the adjoining 
districts. In 1599, the Archbishop of Goa convened a synod at 
Udiampur, at which the tenets of the Syrian Christians, then a large 
body, were declared heretical. In 1662, the Dutch took the town of 
Cochin from the Portuguese, and under their management it soon 
attained to great prosperity. A century later, the Zamorin of Calicut 
invaded the State, but was expelled by the Raja of Travancore, who 
obtained, as a reward for this service, a portion of Cochin. In 1776, 
Haidar All, the ruler of Mysore, overran the country, compelling it 
to become tributary; and in 1790, his son, Tipii, entered the State, 
and laid it waste as far as Virapalai, when he was recalled to the 
defence of Seringapatam. It remained nominally under the authority 
of Tipii until 1799, when Mysore was conquered by the British. 
Already, in the preceding year, the Raja of Cochin had signed an 
independent treaty with the Company, by which he acknowledged 
himself its tributary, and agreed to a yearly tribute of ;^io,ooo. In 
1809, a conspiracy to assassinate the Resident and to commence 
hostilities against the British necessitated the employment of troops. 
After the pacification of the State, another treaty was concluded, bind- 
ing the Raja to a yearly payment of ;^2 7,000, and admitting the right 
of the Company to control the distribution of its forces in the State, 
and to demand increased payments in proportion to any increase of 
military expenditure on behalf of the Raja, it being provided that in 
no case should his income fall below ;£^35oo, in addition to one-fifth 
of the annual revenue. The Raja engaged to hold no correspondence 
with any foreign State without the knowledge of the British Government, 
to admit no Europeans into his service, nor allow any to remain within 
his territory without the consent of the British authorities, who might 
dismantle or garrison any fortresses in his dominions. On the other 
hand, the British undertook to defend the territories of the Raja 
against all enemies whatsoever. Subsequently, in 181 9, the annual 
payment to the British Government was reduced to ;2{^24jOoo, being 
one-half of the estimated revenue at that time ; and at a still later 
period, the tribute was fixed at ;^2 0,000, at which sum it remains at 
the present day. Since the date of this transfer of power to the 
British, Cochin has no history beyond that of internal reforms. In 
1836, some changes were made in the levy of transit dues ; and in 
1848, the freedom of commercial intercourse between this State 
and the neighbouring Districts was further advanced by the removal 
of frontier customs' restrictions ; thus, among other advantages, 
facilitating the passage of merchandise from Malabar and Coimbatore 
to the port of Cochin. By the inter-portal convention of 1865, the 



4 COCHIN. 

system of inland transit duties was altogether abolished ; the State 
agreeing to equalize the rates of customs' duty at its seaports with 
those obtaining at the ports of British India, and to sell salt within its 
limits at the price ruling in the District of Malabar. In return for 
these concessions, the British Government guaranteed to the State a 
minimum customs' revenue of ;£" 10,000, and a revenue from tobacco 
of ^'1050 per annum. 

Population. — The first Census recorded, that of 1820, returned the 
total population at 223,003; but the method adopted was defective, 
and it was not till 1875 that a satisfactory enumeration was accom- 
plished. The total population then disclosed was 601,114 persons, 
inhabiting 120,220 houses. The returns of the last Census, taken on 
the 17th February 1881, gave the total population at 600,278 persons, 
or a decrease of 836 since 1875 ; number of persons per square mile, 
441. The principal races are Malayalis, Tamulians, Konkanis, and 
Telugus. Divided according to religion, there were 429,324 Hindus, 
33,344 Muhammadans, 136,361 Christians, and 1249 Jews. The 
Christians, of whom 15,422 are Protestants, form about 21 per cent, of 
the population ; most of the remainder belong either to the Romano- 
Syrian Church, established here in 1659, and subject to the Archbishop 
of Malabar, or to the orthodox Roman Catholic Church under the Arch- 
bishop of Goa. The Jacobite and Nestorian Churches, acknowledging 
the Patriarch of Antioch as their head, and established long before 
the period of European settlements, also number many members, a few 
being substantial landowners. The proportion of Christians is 3 per 
cent, higher than in the adjoining State of Travancore, and 197 per cent, 
more than in the Madras Presidency generally. The Christians are 
massed in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast backwaters and lagoons, 
and almost monopolize the boating and fishing industry. Arranged 
according to local precedence, the Hindu castes stand as follows : — 
(1) Brahmans, who form 3*6 per cent, of the population, and are 
generally priests and proprietors of land ; (2) Kshatriyas, also gene- 
rally landowners ; (3) Ambalavasis, temple servitors ; (4) Nairs, 
superior agriculturists and Government servants ; (5) Pillais, sub- 
ordinate Government servants ; (6) Ottars, contractors for labour ; 
(7) Vallamars, fishermen, cloth-weavers, potters, and artisans of all 
kinds ; (8) Ezhuwans, agricultural labourers ; (9) Chermars, agricultural 
serfs; (10) hillmen. Of these, the first four may be described as well- 
to-do, and the two last as wretchedly poor. The chief hill tribe is 
that of the Malayars or Kaders, living on roots, leaves, mice and other 
small animals, without fixed settlements or ostensible occupation, except 
occasional basket-weaving. The Vallamars, who live by fresh-water 
fishing, number 4000, but the sea fisheries are monopolized by the 
Marakan caste, who are more numerous. A considerable trade in 



COCHIN. 5 

cured fish is carried on along the coast, emigrants from Ceylon 
coming over annually to engage in it during the fishing season. Im- 
migration affects the population returns to the extent of about 8000 
annually, the new-comers generally settling in the State. Enumera- 
tions of the population have been made five times during the last 55 
years, and the result up to 1875 ^"'^^ been to show a great and 
continuous, though not always uniform, increase. Up to 1875, the 
increase per annum in Cochin had been i*86 per cent. — a more rapid 
rate than in any of the chief European countries. The Census, 
however, of 1881 showed a decrease of 836 persons. The density of 
the population is 441 persons per square mile — a number exceeded, 
however, in Tanjore. The luxuriant growth of the cocoa palm on 
the sea-shore and backwaters is the chief support of this heavy popu- 
lation. Little labour being entailed by this cultivation, abundant 
opportunity exists for further earnings. Nearly the whole produce of 
the country consists of special articles for export; the collection of 
which at the port of Cochin, by the endless network of canals, affords 
ample employment to boatmen, imported rice being distributed in the 
shape of return cargo. The fact that a sufficient fish diet is available 
at an almost nominal cost has an important bearing upon the material 
condition of the people. 

The most populous towns are— Ernakolam, the capital, with 14,038 
inhabitants in 1875; Cochin, 13,775 i Trichur, 11,109 ; and Tripun- 
THORA, the residence of the Raja, 8493. Seven other towns had over 
5000 inhabitants, and 47 more between 2000 and 4000, making the 
urban population 248,000, or 40 per cent, of the total. Smaller villages 
numbered 595, the average population being about 380. Later statistics 
for town and village population are not available. The tendency to 
gather into towns has become marked in recent years, while the pro- 
portion of tiled houses annually increases. 

A gi-icultu7'e. — Rice forms the staple of cultivation, some 50 varieties 
being locally distinguished ; the best land supports three crops annually. 
Next to rice, cocoa-nut engages the attention of the cultivators. 
Wherever a sufficiently light soil prevails, this tree is grown ; and its 
products — coir, oil, coprah, and the nuts — form the chief exports of 
the State. Other crops are — besides the usual cereals, pulses, and 
vegetables, — cotton, coffee, indigo, betel leaf and areca-nuts, hemp, 
flax, sugar-cane, ginger, and pepper. This list illustrates the very 
diversified and fertile nature of the soil. Irrigation obtains only on a 
small scale, the natural rainfall usually sufficing for the crops. Manure, 
where necessary, consists chiefly of vegetable refuse, leaves, bark, etc., 
and the ashes of burnt wood. Of the total area of the State (871,359 
acres), nearly one-third, or 288,125 acres, is under cultivation, divided 
among 66,250 separate registered proprietors ; the assessment ranging 



6 COCHIN, 

from 6s. an acre downwards. The yield of an acre of superior rice 
land averages in value ;^7, 3s. ; that of inferior land, ;£Af. The 
majority of cultivators do not hold more than 5 acres, from which they 
obtain the equivalent of about i6s. a month. Most of them cultivate 
their own land, and tenants-at-will are rare. Rent was, till the present 
century, paid in kind ; but, after several tentative standards, it has 
now been roughly commuted at about one-fourth of the value of 
the produce. Beyond this, no regular conversion of rents into cash 
has been introduced, nor do any of the revenue regulations of British 
Districts obtain here. The proprietary right in the soil rests either in 
the Government or private persons. In the former case, the tenants 
occupy for the most part on, nominally, simple lease, held direct from 
Government, but about one-fifth of the whole is in reality mortgaged 
to the tenants. Only two kinds of land are fiscally recognised — ' rice 
land ' and ' garden land,' the former being assessed by the area 
under crops, and the latter by the number of trees upon it. Cocoa- 
nut palms, jack fruit-trees, and palmyras pay the highest rates, which 
range from is. lod. per tree down to 2d. Where no trees exist, the 
crop is assessed at about is. 4d. per acre. Various imposts supplement 
the ka?iom or land-tax proper, — the chief being kettit-thengu, levied 
upon every 100 trees, after each has been taxed individually; nekudi, 
a royalty collected by the State on the rents of private lands ; and 
7?iaptira, taken from all holdings above a certain size. Wages have 
doubled in every branch of labour during the last 20 years, and now 
average for a carpenter or bricklayer yd. per diem, for a smith lod., 
and for a day-labourer 5d. Prices of food have increased in even 
greater proportion; rice, which in 1851 was at 3s. per maund (or 
4s. id. per cwt), cost in 187 1, 6s. 6d. (or 8s. lod. per cwt). The 
price of all other grains has risen proportionately. This rise, however, 
does not much affect the poorest class of day-labourers, for they receive 
the bulk of their wages in kind, at the old rates of about 4 lbs. of grain 
per diem for an adult male, 3 lbs. for a woman, and 2 lbs. for a child, 
the rate of commutation being generally fixed at 5d., 3d., and 2d. per 
diem for each. Among the urban population an increasing prosperity 
is marked by the improved class of dwellings erected, and by the more 
general distribution of luxuries. The monthly expenses for a house- 
hold of the average shopkeeper class would be ^^4, those of an average 
peasant ^i, los. 

Cojnmerce and Manufactures. — In spite of its favourable configuration 
for commerce, and its great natural resources. Cochin possesses no 
important trade by sea or land. The total number of vessels which 
called in 1881-82, at the ports of Mallipuram and Narakal, was only 82. 
The port dues amounted to £^\2. Except in the coffee cultivation 
on the Nelliampatti range, European capital has not yet been attracted 



COCHIN. 7 

to the State. In the Cochin and Kanayanur taluks, ornamental work 
in metals, and carving in wood and ivory, are carried to a point of great 
excellence ; and the hardware and arms here manufactured command 
a sale beyond the limits of the State. The timber produced in the 
forests, and the salt manufactured along the coast, are Government 
monopolies, and yield a large revenue. The old tobacco monopoly 
was abolished in 1862. Among local products, the cocoa-nut palm 
supplies in its nut and fibre an article of export ; but the others — 
areca-nut, ginger, oil-seeds, pepper, etc. — are only locally interchanged. 
The Madras Railway approaches the State at Shoranur, where there 
is a station. The principal exports, besides rice and the products 
of the cocoa-nut already mentioned, are pepper, cardamoms, and 
timber. 

Means of ConifHunication. — In consequence of the great extent and 
facility of water carriage, and of the impediments presented by torrents, 
backwaters, and inlets of the sea, the construction of roads has, until 
recently, been little regarded ; but there are now 133 miles of good 
road in the State. The longest and most important line runs nearly 
parallel to the sea-shore, and on an average about a mile from it. This 
forms the principal military and official route between Travancore and 
IMalabar. Its continuity, however, is frequently broken by the water 
channels which cross it. In the less swampy parts about Trichiir, 
there are some excellent portions of road, for making which the pre- 
vailing formation of laterite is well suited. The Cochin Government 
has always readily assumed its share in works common to the State 
and to British territory, such as the protective works at Cruz Milagre 
(where an opening of the breakwater into the sea threatened by 
diminishing the scour over the Cochin bar to impair the value of the 
harbour), and the improvement of the West Coast Canal for a length 
of 30 miles where it forms the boundary of the State. Again, when a 
cart-road was projected to connect Ponani with the southern end of the 
Shoranur bridge, and thus with the railway without the necessity of 
fording the river, the Cochin Government readily undertook the cost of 
the length lying within the State. There is now water communication 
(canals and backwater) for 45 miles between Cochin and Trichiir, and 
smaller canals branch from this line along its length. Throughout this 
water system considerable traffic is carried on for nine months of the 
year, for the remaining three (the hot months) the communication is 
often interrupted. 

Religious and other Institutions. — Public libraries, aided by State 
grants, have been established at Ernakolam and Trichiir ; and the 
numerous missions represented in Cochin support printing-presses, 
private schools, and societies for the advancement of knowledge. The 
Catholic mission has a large number of educational institutions. The 



8 COCHIN. 

Official Gazette of Cochin is the only periodical publication. Chari- 
table endowments, providing for the maintenance of Brahman travellers, 
are attached to all the pagodas ; and the State also grants aid to many 
establishments for the support of the local Brahman population. The 
total expenditure on religious and charitable endowments amounts to 
;2£"i 1,732 per annum. Religious gatherings are held annually at all the 
chief pagodas ; the attendance at the most important — that held at 
Kranganiir, and lasting for ten days — averages 12,000 per diem. At all 
these gatherings a large interchange of local produce is effected. 

Natural Calamities. — The State of Cochin is not subject to famine, 
the ample means of communication which it possesses placing it 
beyond the likelihood of such a visitation. Nor are destructive floods 
or droughts known. A local inundation or deficiency of rainfall may at 
times have caused temporary loss, but there is no case on record of 
an entire harvest having been destroyed. 

Admi?iistration. — The State is divided for administrative purposes 
into 7 taluks or Sub-divisions, each supervised by a tahsilddr, the local 
head of the police, revenue, and magisterial administration, assisted by 
a subordinate native staff. In matters of revenue, the tahsilddrs are 
under the direct control of the Diwdn, or chief magistrate of the State, 
and responsible adviser of the Raja ; while in matters of police or 
criminal justice they are subject to the Diwdn-peshkdr (the chief 
assistant of the Diwdn)^ who is assisted by a Deputy. Civil justice is 
administered locally by five imuisifs, possessing jurisdiction in civil 
suits up to the value of ^50, and by two zild courts. The Court 
of Appeal, the highest tribunal of the State, has unlimited powers, both 
civil and criminal, subject only in sentences of death and imprisonment 
for life to the confirmation of the Raja. The administrative head- 
quarters of Cochin are at Ernakolam; but the Raja resides at Tripuntora, 
5 miles distant. The Penal Code of British India has been partially intro- 
duced into the State, and also a Registration Act modelled upon our 
Actviii. of 1871. The total revenue for 1881-82 amounted to ;£i44,928; 
the total expenditure, to ;£'i33,426. In 1809-10, the revenue was only 
;^58,7i6 ; and the expenditure, ;£^5o,37o. The chief items of income 
(1881-82) were — land revenue, ^63,539; customs, ^^11,619; salt, 
;£i 8,353 ; and excise on spirits and drugs, ^4270 : principal 
items of expenditure — subsidy to British Government, ;£20,ooo ; 
Raja's establishment, ;;^ 1 8,5 16 ; administration (judicial, revenue, and 
police), ;^23,348; religious and charitable endowments, ^11,732; 
public works, ^15,769. The police force numbers 217 men, 
and costs annually ^1470. During 1881-82 they arrested 3391 
persons implicated in 1397 cases, obtaining only 654 convictions, while 
the remainder were either acquitted or discharged. Owing to the 
peculiar system of police administration obtaining in the State, these 



COCHIN. 9 

figures do not convey a correct view of the working of the Department, 
the reorganization of which is under contemplation. There is no village 
watch such as obtains in the neighbouring British Districts. The daily 
number of prisoners in jail during 1881-82 averaged 134 ; the charges 
for the maintenance of the jails were ^381 ; average cost per head, 
;^2, 1 6s. lod. Education costs the State ^2646 annually, the chief 
institution being the High School at Ernakolam, with an average daily 
attendance of 213 pupils. Five Anglo-vernacular, one Hebrew-Sanskrit, 
and seven Malayalam schools receive grants-in-aid from Government, 
as also do numerous primary schools for boys. Female education has 
not as yet engaged State attention. Of the total population of 600,278, 
the Census disclosed 26,621 as being able to read and write ; of these, 
1 133 were women. The postal department, which is modelled on that of 
British India, carried during 1870-71 about 17,300 letters, 950 news- 
papers, and 17 books, exclusive of all covers on public service. There 
are no municipalities. In regard to jurisdiction over European British 
subjects, the Raja, with the approval of the Madras Government, appoints 
two or three gentlemen — being European British subjects and Christians 
— to exercise the same jurisdiction as may be exercised in British territory 
by European British subjects who are magistrates of the first class 
and justices of the peace. From the sentences of these magistrates 
there is an appeal to the European judge of the Raja's chief court, 
who is also a justice of the peace ; and in both original and appeal 
cases, it is open to the British Resident to advise the Cochin Government 
to mitigate or remit the sentence. The gentlemen, selected as above by 
the Raja, have been appointed by the Governor-General in Council to 
be Justices of the Peace, with a view to their remitting serious cases 
either to the Resident, who under the authority of the Government of 
India has the powers ad hoc of a sessions judge, or to the High Court of 
Madras, in accordance with the rules prescribed by sec. 75 of the Code 
of Criminal Procedure. The Rajas of Cochin are Hindus of pure 
Kshatriya caste, and claim to be descended from the last of the 
potentates who held supreme authority over the whole extent of territory 
stretching from Gokuru in North Kanara to Cape Comorin. The 
present Raja, Rama Varma, was born in 1835, and succeeded to the 
throne in 1864. He was created Kniglit Commander of the Star of 
India in 1871, and is entitled to a salute of 17 guns. He holds Sisanad 
authorizing adoption ; the succession devolves on the eldest male 
member of the family, if any, according to the Malabar law. The 
military force consists of 326 men and 2 guns. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate, though very damp, is not parti- 
cularly unhealthy. The average annual rainfall is 107*66 inches, of 
which 82 'lo inches fall during the monsoon, which lasts through the 
months of May, June, July, and August. The mean annual tempera- 



lo COCHIN SUB-DIVISION AND TALUK. 

ture is 797° F., and is very uniform throughout the year, only vary- 
ing from a monthly average of 777° in January to 83*4° in April, 
which is the dry season. Even during the latter, though called dry, 
the air is moist, and frequent showers of rain reduce the temperature, 
so that a continued drought is unknown. Among endemic diseases, 
elephantiasis, leprosy, and skin diseases are specially frequent, and 
malarious fevers prevail all the year round. The elephantiasis is 
attributed to the impure water used along the coast, where it is most 
prevalent. Small-pox was annually epidemic from 1865 to 1868; 
and in 1873, an outbreak of special virulence occurred, 30 per cent, of 
the cases proving fatal. Cholera appeared in 1865, and again in 
1875-1876, causing, however, no great loss of life. Native practice 
is chiefly guided by two Sanskrit works, the Ashtanghirtayom and the 
Chilli a7'jnai^ the mode of treatment being remarkable for the extensive 
use of medicated oils. [For further information regarding Cochin State, 
see pp. 53-56 of the revised edition of the Standing Information 
regarding the Administration of the Madras Preside?icy, by C. D. 
Maclean, Esq., C.S. (Madras, 1879). Also Administration Report of the 
Madras Preside?icy for 1881-82.] 

Cochin. — One of the seven Sub-divisions of the Native State of 
Cochin, Madras Presidency. Chief towns — Cochin (1875) population 
1357755 Trichur (1881, 10,094), Kambalangi (1875, 6369), and Charai 
(1875, 5051); other large villages, with their population in 1881, are 
the following: — Narakal (4254), Pallurthi (3912), Malankuzi 
(3033)5 Edavanakad (3377), Edakuchi (2104), Andikadava (1984), 
Challanam (2532), Ochanthurti (2280), Azhikal (1725), Elangunapoya 
(3076), Nairambolam (3161), and Wadakanpura (2013). The gold and 
silver work and the wood and ivory carving of this Sub-division have 
more than a local reputation. 

Cochin. — Native town in the Cochin Sub-division of the Native 
State of Cochin, Madras Presidency. It consists of 4 conjoined villages, 
containing 2626 houses, with (1875) 13,775 inhabitants; situated in 
lat. 9° 58' 7" N., and long. 76° 17' e., on the Travancore estuary half a 
mile south of the British town of Cochin, in the midst of the populous 
tract lying between the backwater and the sea. It is connected by 
canals with Trichur. Cochin was formerly the capital of the State; 
and near it tradition places the gold reefs said to have been 
once worked, but certainly not auriferous now. The station of 
a (native) sub-judge. The Mattancheri and Jews' quarters of the 
British town of Cochin {vide infra) lie within the limits of the Native 
State. 

Cochin {Kochchi). — Tdluk of Malabar District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 2 square miles or 1280 acres, containing 3436 houses; population 
(1881) 21,360. Surrounded by the Native State of Cochin, but subject 



COCHIN TOWN. II 

to the British District of Malabar. Land revenue (1882-83), £\']^1. 
Chief towns — Cochin {infra), Anjengo, and Tangacheri. 

Cochin (or Kochchi-bajidar, 'small port'). — Town and head-quarters of 
the Cochin taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 58' 7" n., 
long. 76° 17'E. Houses, 2878. Population (i 881) 15,698, namely, 4383 
Hindus, 2942 Muhammadans, 8360 Christians, and 13 'others.' Area 
of the municipality, 597 acres, completely built over; revenue for 
1875-76, ;^i8i2 ; incidence of municipal taxation, about iid. per 
head. Situated on the south bank of the principal navigable entrance 
to the great Travancore estuary, along which the town extends for a 
mile, and then joins Mattancheri and the Jews' settlement. Facing 
Cochin to the north lies the island of Vypin, colonized by Eurasian 
Roman Catholics. The date at which this island was formed by the 
action of the sea and river, a.d. 1341, is sometimes used in deeds as the 
commencement of an era styled Puttuveppii (new deposit). As the head- 
quarters of a subordinate revenue and judicial establishment, Cochm 
contains the usual courts, jail, and public offices ; also a custom house, 
Master Attendant's office, post and telegraph offices, dispensary, 
travellers' bungalow, and numerous schools, supported either by the 
various missions established here or by the municipality. The many 
quaint old Dutch buildings give a picturesque appearance to the town. 
The exports of Cochin in 1880-81 were valued at ^658,878, one- 
seventh dutiable; and the imports at ;£"454,954, of which about 4 per 
cent, paid duty. The port dues collected during the year amounted to 
^2625. 

History. — Cochin was one of the first spots in India visited by Euro- 
peans. Tradition, indeed, asserts that St. Thomas the apostle extended 
his labours to this region in 52 a.d., leaving behind him the colony of 
Christians now called Nassarani Mappilas (Moplas). It is further said 
that, in the first year of the Christian era, the Jews settled on the site of 
their present colony. Afterwards they established their head-quarters 
at Krangamir (Kodungaliir), where they remained until driven away in 
the 1 6th century by the Zamorin's Mappilas. From copper plates still 
extant, it is put beyond doubt that the Jewish and Syrian churches 
were firmly established in Cochin by the 8th century. The modern 
history of the port is full of interest. In 1500, the Portuguese adven- 
turer, Cabral, after having cannonaded Calicut, landed at this place 
and met with a friendly reception from the Raja, who is described as a 
reluctant vassal of the Zamorin. Cabral returned to Portugal with a 
cargo of pepper, and was followed by Inan de Nova Castelho. In 
1502, Vasco da Gama, on his second voyage, came to Cochin and 
estabUshed a factory. In 1503, Albuquerque, the Portuguese admiral, 
arrived just in time to succour the Cochin Raja, who was besieged by 
the Zamorin in the island of Vypin. He built the Cochin fort called 



12 COCHIN TOWN, 

' Mannel Kolati,' the first European fort in India, just five years after 
Da Gama had arrived on the Malabar coast. The fort was enlarged 
in 1525 by Menezes, the second Viceroy. Albuquerque returned to 
Portugal, leaving Cochin guarded by only a few hundred men under 
Duarte Pacheco, when the Zamorin with a large host invaded the 
country by land and sea. Pacheco with his brave band of 400 
men firmly resisted all the attacks of the Zamorin, and at last forced 
him to retreat to Calicut. In 1505, Francisco Almeyda, the first 
Portuguese Viceroy of India, came to Cochin with a large fleet, and was 
in 15 10 succeeded by Albuquerque. On Christmas day 1524, Da Gama 
died here, and was buried, according to Correa, whose narrative is the 
most trustworthy, in the principal chapel of the Franciscan monastery, 
now used as the Protestant church. His body was afterwards (1538) 
removed to Portugal. In 1530, St. Francis Xavier, the apostle of the 
Indies, preached in these parts and made many converts. In 1557, the 
church of Santa Cruz was consecrated as the cathedral of a bishop. In 
i577j the Society of Jesus pubhshed at Cochin the first book printed in 
India. In 1585, Cochin appears to have been visited by the English 
traveller Ralph Fitch, who, with a band of adventurers, came by the 
way of Aleppo, Bagdad, and the Persian Gulf to India. In 16 16, the 
English, under Keeling, engaged to assist the Zamorin in attacking 
Cochin, on the understanding that an English factory was to be 
estabhshed there. These relations were, however, broken oft", and the 
factory was built some years later with the consent of the Portuguese. 
In 1663, the town and fort were captured from the Portuguese by the 
Dutch, and the English retired to Ponani. The Dutch greatly improved 
the place and its trade, building substantial houses after the European 
fashion, and erecting quays, etc. They also converted the cathedral 
into a warehouse, and the other Roman Catholic churches were used 
as Protestant places of worship. In 1778, Adrien Van Moens com- 
pletely altered the fort, providing it with Vi^\N ditches, and building 
seven strong bastions. On the conquest of Holland by the French, 
orders were received from the English Court of Directors in 1795 to 
take possession of all the Dutch colonies. As the Dutch governor 
Vanspall demurred to surrendering Cochin peacefully, it was besieged 
and captured by Major Petrie (20th October 1795). In 1806, the 
English blew up the cathedral, destroying at the same time some of the 
quays, the best houses in the place, and the fort. In 18 14, Cochin was 
formally ceded to the English by treaty. 

The Protestant church (formerly the principal chapel of the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, and probably dedicated to St. Anthony), which 
escaped the general destruction above referred to, is a plain massive 
building, with a nave 142 feet long by 51 broad. Its exact age is 
unknown ; but from inscriptions on the floor, it certainly existed before 



CO COS, THE. 13 

1546, and is therefore the oldest European church in India, except 
perhaps the CaHcut church. It contains some curious old epitaphs. 
One of these tombstones is sometimes pointed out as that of Vasco da 
Gama, because it has the word ' Vasco ' on it, the rest of the name 
being obliterated, but the coat of arms above is certainly not that of 
Da Gama. The fagade of the church was surmounted by an orna- 
mented bronze cross and a weathercock, 6 feet high, which could be 
distinctly perceived some 10 miles off at sea; but in 1865 these were 
pulled down. Nearly all traces of the old fort have now disappeared. 
The building occupied as court-house and taluk ' cutcherry ' was 
formerly the Roman Catholic convent. Among the other principal 
buildings may be mentioned the jail, marine office, travellers' bungalow, 
churches, and schools. The custom-house is situated on the boundary 

limits of British and Native Cochin. The chief native quarters are 

Calvetti Bazar, thickly populated by Mappilas (Moplas), which narrowly 
escaped destruction by fire on New Year's day 1876; and Amaravvadi, 
inhabited by Chetties and goldsmiths. The lighthouse is situated on 
the ruins of the ramparts, and adjoining it are the bungalows of Euro- 
pean residents facing the sea. Of late years, the sea has threatened 
to encroach on the place ; but several stone groins have been thrown 
out at right angles to the river bank, and the foreshore has been 
reclaimed. 

COCOS, The. — Two islands in the Bay of Bengal, situated between 
lat. 14° 4' and 14° 10' n., and in long. 93° 21' e. ; 45 miles north of the 
Great Andaman, and a short distance south of Table Island, on which 
there is a good lighthouse, showing a fixed light visible 22 miles in 
clear weather, and having an elevation of 195 feet above sea-level. 
The larger and more northerly of the two, called the Great Coco, is. a 
low oblong-shaped island, between 6 and 7 miles in length and 2 miles 
broad; area, about 14 square miles. The smaller island, or Little 
Coco, lying about 3 leagues to the south-west of the Great Coco, is 2 J 
miles long and about a mile broad. Both islands are to a great extent 
protected by the Andamans from the heavy south-west swell of the Bay 
of Bengal; but more or less boisterous weather prevails in October 
and May, when the north-west and south-west monsoons set in. 
The Great Coco is surrounded by a strip of white coral beach, on 
which grows an almost continuous fence of cocoa-nut trees. A ship 
may anchor on the east side of the Great Coco in from 14 to 20 
fathoms; also on the west side in the north-east monsoon. Viewed 
from a distance, the island appears to be entirely covered with these 
palms (to which it doubtless owes its name) ; but in reality they form 
only a narrow belt, the interior being covered with forest trees. One 
or two parallel ridges, running north and south through the centre of 
the island, rise to a height not exceeding 50 feet. The island appears 



14 • COIMBATORE. 

(from a careful examination made in 1874) to be destitute of drinking 
water ; although it has been said that a good tank exists somewhere. 
A few wild pigs are found, and there are many birds. The meteoro- 
logical aspects of the islands do not differ from those of the Andamans. 
It is on record that a party of 3 Europeans, i East Indian, and 8 Bur- 
mese tried to effect a settlement on the Great Coco in 1849; but the 
project had to be abandoned, 7 of the party having succumbed to fever 
shortly after they landed. In 1878, the Governor - General invited 
tenders for a fifty years' lease of the Great Coco, which has subse- 
quently been rented to a European gentleman, and placed under the 
jurisdiction of the Chief Commissioner of British Burma. 

Coimbatore {Koyatnbatiir). — District in the Madras Presidency, 
lying between 10° 14' and 12° 19' n, lat, and 76° 35' and 78° 14' e. 
long. Area, 7842 square miles. Population in 1881, 1,657,690. 
Bounded on the north and north-west by the State of Mysore ; on the 
east by Salem and Trichinopoli Districts, the Kaveri (Cauvery) river 
marking the boundary up to the line of railway ; on the west by the 
Nilgiris, Malabar District, and the State of Cochin ; and on the 
south by the District of Madura and the State of Travancore. Coim- 
batore in point of size ranks seventh, and in point of population tenth, 
among the Districts of the Madras Presidency. It is sub-divided 
into 10 taluks, and contains 1447 inhabited villages, including 10 towns. 
The chief town and administrative head-quarters of the District is 
Coimbatore. Land revenue (1881-82), ;^28o,969; total revenue, 

^328,310- 

Physical Aspects. — The northern portion of the District consists of an 

elevated table-land, divided from the Mysore plateau (of which it really 

forms a continuation) by the Biligiri-rangan and other hill ranges. It 

has a northerly slope, and presents throughout an undulating surface, 

with an average elevation of 2500 feet above the rest of the District. 

The Biligiri-rangan Hills form a double range, with ridges 5000 feet in 

height, enclosing a valley 4000 feet above the sea, filled with heavy 

forest and high grass, a favourite resort of wild elephants. Two passes, 

the Hassanur and Burghiir ghats, lead thence into the ' low country.' 

This is a plain, slightly undulating, with an easterly slope from the 

town of Coimbatore (1431 feet above the sea) to Kariir (380 feet). 

All the rivers, therefore, flow eastward to join the Kaveri, except 

in the Pollachi taluk, which is situated on the western slope of the 

watershed. On the western confines of the District lie the Nilgiri 

Hills, the most conspicuous point being Lambton's Peak, a narrow 

rid<^e 5000 feet in height ; while on the southern frontier lie the 

Anamalais. Along the northern boundary flows the Kaveri, the 

chief river of Coimbatore, which receives in this District the waters 

of the Bhavani, Noyii,, and Amravati. Being confined within rocky 



COIMBATORE. 



15 



banks, and having a fall of 1000 feet in 120 miles, the Kaveri is 
very rapid. An area of 3000 square miles is covered with forests, 
which afford a large supply of valuable timber — teak, rosewood, sandal- 
wood, etc. Waste pasture lands constitute a large portion of the 
CoUegal taluk; and hither immense herds of cattle are yearly driven 
from the neighbouring District of Salem to graze. The Lambadis and 
Brinjaras here breed their pack-bullocks. The chief mineral products 
of the District are iron and limestone ; the latter, found everywhere in 
the nodular form of kankar^ exists near the town of Coimbatore in a 
crystalline form, which is quarried for building purposes. In a District 
so abundantly supplied with forest, waste land, and hills, it is natural 
that the fauna should be numerous. Nearly all the larger animals 
of India are found here — elephant, bison, bear, tiger, leopard, ibex, 
antelope, deer of several species, hyaena, boar, wolf, etc. ; as also the 
representative birds of every order. In the rivers, the mdhser fish is 
common, running to a great size. Reptiles abound, and about 100 
deaths from snake-bite are reported annually. The yearly expenditure 
in rewards for the destruction of dangerous animals averages ^200. 

History. — The District of Coimbatore formed part of the kingdom of 
Chera, in the great Dravida division of Southern India. Its ancient 
name appears to have been Konga or Kangiyam, w^hich still survives in 
the town of that name in the Darapuram tdhik. The early kingdom of 
Chera corresponded roughly with the present Districts of Coimbatore 
and 'Salem h€io\N -ghat s^' and had for its capital a city near the site of 
the present Kariir. About the 9th century, the Chera country was 
conquered by the Chola dynasty ; and two centuries later, both together 
were merged, with the Pandya dominions, into one kingdom. The 
eastern portion of Coimbatore passed nominally into the hands of the 
Madura Naiks in the i6th century ; and in the 17th century commenced 
the series of Mysore incursions which terminated in the 1 8th century 
in the incorporation of the District with Mysore. In 1653, the first 
invaders, descending by the Gazalhatti Pass, ravaged the rich plains 
of Satyamangalam, and penetrated across the District into Madura. 
Thence they were driven back by the generals of Tirumala Naik 
through the passes into Mysore. Fourteen years later they returned, 
capturing Erode and Darapuram, and virtually subduing the District. 
During the wars of Haidar All and his son Tipii Sultan, Coimbatore 
divided with the Baramahal and TrichinopoH the distinction of being 
the scene of the hardest fighting. When Haidar rose in the service 
of the Mysore Raja, and exacted concessions of land for himself, 
Coimbatore was the first tract assigned to him. He lost it by the 
temporary reverses of 1760-61, but immediately employed his recovered 
strength to regain possession. In 1768, the British troops occupied 
the District ; but Haidar soon rallied, recaptured it, and carried into 



1 6 COIMBATORE. 

captivity all the weak garrisons that had been left scattered over the 
country. In 1783, when Tipii was besieging Mangalore, a diversion 
was made by a British contingent into Coimbatore ; and Kariir, Arava- 
kurichi, and Darapuram were taken in succession. The fort of Coim- 
batore next fell ; but the treaty of Mangalore, signed immediately after- 
wards, restored the District to Mysore. During the second war with 
Tipii, in 1790, a British force again advanced upon the District; and 
though it was overrun, Tipii, descending in force, soon reoccupied 
all the forts. A severe battle fought near Darapuram left him, though 
not victorious, in virtual possession. In 1791, while Lord Cornwallis 
was invading Mysore, Tipii laid siege to the town of Coimbatore ; 
and though it was gallantly defended for five months (by Lieutenants 
Chalmers and Nash), the garrison were at length obliged to capitulate, 
and were carried prisoners to Seringapatam. The treaty of 1792, signed 
soon afterwards, ceded Coimbatore and the greater portion of the 
District to the English; and in 1799, on the capture of Seringapatam 
and death of Tipii, the whole passed under the direct administration 
of the East India Company. The southern part of the District was 
then added to the Dindigal Collectorate, and the remainder, with part 
of Salem District, erected into a separate charge. A rough survey was 
carried out ; and on the Hues then laid down, the administration of the 
District has ever since peaceably progressed. The Jesuit mission at 
Coimbatore has lately been erected into a separate Vicariate- Apostolic, 
with jurisdiction over the Nilgiris and parts of Malabar and Cochin. 
The London, Leipzig, Lutheran, and Evangelical missions have all 
settlements in the District. 

Population. — The Census of 187 1 disclosed a total population of 
1,763,274 persons, inhabiting 361,109 houses. The latest Census, 
that of 1881, returned a total population of 1,657,690, showing a 
decrease of 105,584, or very nearly 6 per cent, in the decade, 
due to the severe famine of 1876-78. Coimbatore was one of the 
' famine Districts ' of that disastrous time, but the distress was not 
equally intense over the whole District. In the tdhiks of Coimbatore, 
Karur, and PoUachi, the number of the population has even increased. 
The male population of the District in 1881 numbered 806,859, 
and the female 850,831; proportion of males, 48*6 per cent. 
Average density of population, 211 persons per square mile, as com- 
pared with 225 in 187 1 ; number of towns and villages, 1447 ; number of 
occupied houses, 354,920; number of villages per square mile, -18; 
occupied houses per square mile, 45 ; inmates per house, 4*6. As 
regards the religious distinctions of the people, 1,606,343, or 96*9 
per cent., were returned as Hindus; 37,855, or 2 per cent., as 
Muhammadans; 13,326, or 0*69 per cent., as Christians; there 
were also 63 Buddhists, 68 Jains, 4 Parsis, and 31 'others.' Of 



COIMBATORE. 17 

children under ten years of age there were 218,372 males and 
228,438 females. Among the Christians, 87 per cent, of whom 
are Roman Catholics, are included 274 Europeans and 272 Eurasians. 
The Hindu population was distributed as follows : — Brahman s, 
29,792; Kshatriyas, 3039; Chetties (traders), 55,136; Valla- 
lars (agriculturists), 690,402 ; Idaiyars (shepherds), 42,432 ; Kam- 
malars (artisans), 43,458; Kanakkans (writers), 1062; Kaikalars 
(weavers), 81,641; Vanniyans (labourers), 107,480; Kushavans 
(potters), 16,394; Satanis (mixed castes), 66,068; Shembadavans 
(fishermen), 25,004; Shanans (toddy-drawers), 55,517; Ambattans 
(barbers), 20,062; Vannans (washermen), 23,317; Pariahs, 216,270; 
'others,' 129,269. According to occupation, 18,591, or 1-12 per cent, 
of the total population, are professional; 14,408, or 0-87 per cent, 
domestic; 12,943, or 078 per cent., commercial; 629,514, or 37*97 
per cent., agricultural; 251,883, or 15-20 per cent, industrial; and 
730^35 15 or 44'o6 per cent., indefinite and non-productive. 3-12 per 
cent, among the last are returned as ' occupied.' About 59 per cent, 
are returned as w^orkers, on whom the remaining 41 per cent, of the 
population depend. Of males 67-41 per cent., and of females 51 '13 
per cent, are workers. There are educated or under instruction 
89,909 persons, or 83,202 males and 6707 females, the percentage being 
10-31 and 0-79 respectively. The hill and jungle tribes are the Mala- 
sers, Irulers, Paliars, Kaders, and Madavars, found chiefly in the 
Anamalais, who subsist precariously on wild fruits and roots, by the 
chase, or the sale of jungle produce. The Muhammadans were divided, 
according to sect, into 4470 Labhays, 1889 Shaikhs, 2027 Pathans, and 
6602 Sayyids. The Mappilas, Arabs, and Mughals number together onlv 
122, while 14,758 were returned as 'others,' and 7987 as 'not stated.' 
The language of the northern portion of the District is Kanarese, that 
of the remainder Tamil ; but in many villages a corrupt Teluo-u 
prevails, bearing witness to the northern origin of the inhabitants. The 
chief towns are— Coimbatore (population 38,967), Erode (9864), and 
Karur (9205), the three municipalities of the District; Bhavani 

(5930)5 COLLEGAL (8462), DaRAPURAM (73 Io), PoLLACHT (5082), 

Pallapatti (6351), Satyamangalam (3210), and Udamalpet (5061). 
The agriculturists of the Vallalar caste and^ day-labourers are all poor, 
living in mud-walled huts, and subsisting on cholam, ragi, and kambu, 
the staple food-grains of the District Rice is eaten only by the well- 
to-do. The expenses of an ordinary shopkeeper, with a household of 
five persons, have been estimated at about ^3 per month, and of a 
cultivator's family at about one-half that sum. 

Agriailture. — Of the total area of the District, 7842 square miles 
(5,018,880 acres), 3,469,331 acres were returned in 1881-82 as 
assessed to Government revenue. The total area under cultivation 

VOL. IV. R 



1 8 COIMBATORE. 

amounted to 2,100,393 acres, of which 115,072 acres were irrigated. 
The cultivable area not under the plough was 1,100,869 acres; 
pasture and forest lands, 481,265 acres; and uncultivable waste, 
617,363 acres; total uncultivated, 2,099,497 acres. Of the total 
area, 324,511 acres are held in indm, or under a free grant. In 
the course of 1881-82, a regular survey and settlement of great 
part of Coimbatore took place. The staple crops of the Dis- 
trict are — cholam (Sorghum vulgare) and kavibu (Panicum spicatum), 
which occupied 519,775 and 657,555 acres respectively of the 
cultivated area; ragi (Eleusine coracana), 212,265 acres; gram 
(Dohchos biflorus), 63,409 acres; rice, 85,717 acres; and other 
cereals, 35,968 acres. Rice requires heavy irrigation, and its cul- 
tivation is not increasing. Other crops, as ddl (Cajanus indicus), 
ulandu (Phaseolus mungo), peas, lentils, and other pulses occupied 
199,357 acres; orchard and garden produce, as plantains, cocoa- 
nuts, etc., 8184 acres; tobacco, 17,396 acres; coffee, 258 acres; con- 
diments and spices, 16,581 acres; potatoes, 2128 acres; sugar-cane 
and sugar palm, 5777 acres; oil-seeds, 46,090 acres; cotton, 229,631 
acres; and flax, 302 acres. The agricultural stock of the District in 
1881-82 comprised 531,725 horned cattle, 14,583 donkeys, 2363 
ponies, 350 horses, 245,653 goats, 354,154 sheep, 10,908 pigs, 16,866 
carts, and 166,770 ploughs. The prices of produce ruling in the 
District at the end of the year 1881-82, per maundoi2>o lbs., were for 
rice, 5s. ijd. ; for wheat, 6s. 9|d. ; other grains, from 2s. 3d. to 2s. lod. ; 
gram, from 2s. 7jd. to 5s. 5^d. ; chiUies, 7s. ; salt, 6s. 7jd. ; sugar, 
IIS. 5jd. ; gingelly, 7s. 3|d. ; ground nuts, 3s. 2jd. ; tobacco, iis. 9fd. ; 
flax, los. ; cotton, 7s. 7jd. ; sheep, 4s. 6d. each. There are two 
seasons for sowing. May and October, and two harvests, in September 
and February. Rice land pays from 15s. to £^2, 12s. in land revenue 
per acre, and produces a crop ranging in value, according to the quality 
of the soil, from ^2, 8s. to ^5, 6s. Most land also yields a second 
crop, valued at about half the first. The majority of the holdings 
are very small ; and the average of the revenue assessment is about 
1 6s. A holding paying ;^5o a year to Government is considered an 
exceptionally large one, and one paying £^\o a comfortable estate. 
The holder of an estate paying less than £,2 would be considered poor. 
With a single pair of oxen, 5 acres can be cultivated ; the necessary 
implements and oxen would cost about jQ^ ; and if the plot were garden 
land, the cultivator would be about as well off as a retail shopkeeper 
making i6s. a month. Most of the cultivators have occupancy rights ; 
but many villages are held zaminddri, as one estate, the proprietor pay- 
ing a fixed yearly revenue {peshkash) to Government, and recouping 
himself from his tenants. Other villages and plots, again, are held as 
Jdgirs, shrotriem, or indm^ rent free> and on specially advantageous 



COIMBATORE. 19 

terms, in reward for services rendered, or for the support of religious 
and charitable endowments. Under the Mysore rule, the District was 
farmed by a it^^ wealthy individuals, who made themselves responsible 
for the revenue; but in 1800, after the last Mysore war, when 
the Company assumed the administration, the present system of 
direct settlement with the cultivators was introduced. Waste 
lands, overgrown with cactus, the scourge of part of the District, 
are leased rent free, for terms not exceeding ten years, to any 
who will rid them of the pest, and bring them under cultivation. 
The principle of rotation of crops appears to be thoroughly understood, 
and the advantages of manure are appreciated. The ' Imperial ' and 
'Minor' irrigation works of the District comprise 59 channels and 
119 tanks, irrigating an area of 55,276 acres, and yielding a revenue 
of ;:^29,365. Agricultural day-labourers or coolies earn ^\<\. per diem ; 
women, 3d. ; and children, i^d. Blacksmiths, bricklayers, and car- 
penters receive from is. to is. 9d. per diem. Since 1850, the rates of 
wages for skilled labour have risen from 25 to 80 per cent., and prices 
of food have doubled. Rice, which in 1850 was selling at 3s. per 
inaund (80 lbs.), now sells at 5s. 6d.; cholam, formerly is. 4d. ^ex ??iau?id, 
now costs 3s. ; wheat, once 3s. per matind, now sells at 7s. ; salt has 
risen from 4s. 4d. to 6s. 7|d. per mamid, and country liquor from i Jd. 
to 3d. and 8d. per gallon. Accumulations of money from the profits 
of agriculture are to a large extent employed in well-building and the 
improvement of land. The rate of interest varies from 6 to 1 2 per cent, 
per annum, though 24 to 30 per cent, is sometimes charged ; 9 per cent, 
is considered a good return for money invested in land. 

Natural Calamities. — Periods of drought and consequently high 
prices have recurred at regular intervals, in 1837-38, 1847-48, 1857-58, 
1868-69; but in none of these years did the scarcity ever amount 
to famine. In 1876, owing to the failure of crops in Mysore and 
the Ceded Districts, an immense exportation of grain from Coim- 
batore took place ; the result being such a rapid rise in the rates, that 
in two months the price of cholam had doubled, and ragi, selling in 
October at 25 lbs. for is., cost in December three times that amount. 
Actual famine afterwards set in ; and relief works had to be opened, 
which in a month gave employment to 28,000 persons. A steady 
importation of sea-borne grain soon brought prices to their normal 
rates. Against famine Coimbatore has now the best safeguard — a 
railway traversing it, and good roads communicating with the Districts 
adjoining on all sides. 

Commerce and Trade. — Weaving is the chief industry of the District, 
and, though of late years affected by the low price of British textures, 
constitutes a lucrative employment. The general export trade is small, 
consisting chiefly in the exchange of cotton of inferior quality, tobacco. 



20 COIMBATORE. 

and grain, for salt. Palladam is the centre of the cotton trade, the fibre 
being there pressed, and despatched to the railway station of Tirupiir 
for transmission to the ports of Madras and Beypur. Weekly markets 
held at the towns and larger villages — about 250 in all — provide amply 
for local interchange of produce. The total length of railway lines 
running through the District is 147 miles, viz. the Madras Railway, 
south-west line, with a branch to the Nilgiri Hills from Podaniir junction 
station to Mettapolliem, and the South Indian Railway passing through 
Kariir, and joining the Madras line at Erode station. There are also 
1 5 14 miles of made Imperial and Local roads. The principal roads 
are the Madras Trunk Road and those leading to Trichinopoli, Madura, 
and the Burghiir and Hassaniir Passes, aggregating a total length of 
385 miles. Khedas^ or stockades, for the capture of wild elephants have 
been established in the north of the District. In 1873, an Act was 
passed forbidding the destruction of these animals ; and since that year 
several scores of elephants have been captured alive. 

Administ7'ation. — For administrative purposes, the District is divided 
into 10 taluks — Coimbatore, Pollachi, Palladam, Karur, Erode, 
Udamalpet, Darapuram, Satyamangalam, Collegal, and Bhavani 
— each of which is supervised by a native staff, revenue and judicial. The 
Sub-Collector, Head Assistant (Europeans), and Deputy Collector have 
superior jurisdiction ; the first over 4, the second over 3, and the third 
over 2 taluks^ the Collector-Magistrate having himself special charge of 
the head-quarters tdUik. The Nilgiri Hills formed, until 1868, a Sub- 
division of Coimbatore. The total revenue for 1881-82 was ;^328,3io. 
The principal items of income were — land revenue, ^280,969 ; excise, 
^25,973; stamps, ;£"2o,io7; forests, ^4623; and assessed taxes, 
^1258. The judicial machinery of the District consists of 6 civil courts 
and 32 magisterial courts, exclusive of village magistrates-. The police 
force aggregates a strength of 1 2 1 1 of all ranks, being in the proportion 
of I constable to every 6 square miles and to every 1369 of the popula- 
tion, maintained at an annual cost of ^19,563. The District contains 
I central, i District, and 16 subsidiary jails. The central jail accom- 
modates upwards of 1000 prisoners. The daily average number of 
prisoners in it and in the District jail was, in 188 1, 1 185 ; in all the others 
together, 91. The total expenditure on this account for 1881 amounted 
to ^7165, or ^6, i8s. per head, for the prisoners in the central jail ; 
and ;£88i, or ^5, 15s. per head, for those in the District jail. 

Medical Aspects. — Coimbatore is remarkable for the comparatively 
cool winds which blow across it from the west between May and 
October. The monsoon brings its rain to Malabar, and up to the range 
of hills separating that District from Coimbatore; but there it stops, a cold 
damp wind without any rain blowing during the monsoon months over 
the plains of Coimbatore. Thus, after the hot months of March and 



COIMBATORE TALUK AND TO WIST. 21 

April, the temperature suddenly falls, and remains low till October. 
The District is healthy, except at the foot of the hill ranges, where the 
atmosphere at night is so malarious that the cultivators dare not remain 
after dusk. The number of births registered in the District in 1881 
was 35,038, or a ratio of 2ri births per 1000 of population. The 
number of registered deaths for the same year was 20,805, or 12-5 per 
1000, the mean for the previous five years being 15-2. The extension 
of cultivation having greatly curtailed the pasturage, murrain and ' foot- 
and-mouth ' disease have become prevalent among the cattle. The 
latter disease has been communicated to the wild herds of bison, and 
sportsmen find the numbers of these animals rapidly decreasing from 
this cause. [For further information regarding Coimbatore, see the 
Madras Census Report iox 1881, and i\iQ Annual Ad77iinistration Report s 
of the Presidency from 1880 to 1883.] 

Coimbatore.— 7Iz7//^ of Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 804 square miles, of which about 56 per cent, is under cultivation. 
The taluk contains i town and 261 villages, and 51,761 occupied 
houses. Population (1881) 267,804, namely, 131,334 males and 136,470 
females; land revenue demand, ^33,870. There are in the tdluJz 
2 civil and 4 criminal courts; police stations {thdnds), 10; strength of 
police, 349 men. 

Coimbatore {Koyambdtur, formerly Koyampadi and Koibinutur).— 
Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Coimbatore District, 
Madras Presidency. A station of the Madras Railway situated on the 
left bank of the Noyil river, in lat. 10° 59' 41" n., and long. 76° 59' 
46" E. ; 304 miles by rail from Madras, and 50 miles from Utakamand 
(Ootacamund). Houses, 6684, of which 1007 were unoccupied in 1881 ; 
two-thirds of the houses are tiled. Population (1881) 38,967, namely, 
33,997 Hindus, 2763 Muhammadans, 2162 Christians, and 45 'others;' 
municipal revenue in 1881-82, ^2651; incidence of taxation per 
head, about is. 4jd. As the head-quarters of the District administra- 
tion, Coimbatore contains all the chief courts— magisterial, revenue, 
and judicial— the central jail. District police, post and telegraph offices, 
dispensary, and school. The town lies 1437 feet above sea-level; and, 
being built with particularly wide streets, and possessing good natural 
drainage, an abundant water-supply, and a cool temperature, it is better 
suited for the residence of Europeans than most of the towns of the 
Presidency. The Nilgiri branch of the Madras south-western line con- 
nects it with the railway system— the junction station for Coimbatore 
being Podaniir. From its position, commanding the approach to 
Palghat on the west, and to the Gazalhatti Pass on the north, Coim- 
batore was formerly of great strategical importance. Originally 
belonging to the Chera dominions, it fell to the Madura Nayaks, by 
whom it was considered one of their chief strongholds, and afterwards 



22 COLABA—COLGONG. 

to Mysore. During the wars with Haidar AH and Tipii Sultan, it 
changed masters many times. In 1768, the British took it, and again 
lost it; and in 1783, it was again taken and retaken. In 1790, the 
Company's forces a third time occupied it, but Tipii, after a siege of 
five months, compelled the garrison to surrender. In 1792 provision- 
ally, and in 1799 finally, the town was ceded to the British, and from 
that time it ceased to be a military station. Three miles distant, at 
Periir, stands the temple of Mel-Chidambaram (to be distinguished 
from the Kil-Chidambaram of South Arcot), celebrated for its sanctity, 
and further remarkable as one of the three Hindu temples spared from 
destruction by Tipii Sultan. 

Colaba. — District, Bombay Presidency. — See Kolaba. 

Colepett. — Town in Coorg. — See Amatti. 

Coleroon {Kolladam). — The northern mouth of the Kaveri (Cauvery) 
river in the Madras Presidency, which leaves the main channel at the 
upper end of the island of Srirangam, about 10 miles west of Tri- 
chinopoh, in lat. 10° 53' n., and long. 78° 51' e. After a north-easterly 
course of about 94 miles, it falls into the Bay of Bengal at Atchavaram, 
3J miles from Porto Novo, in lat. 11° 26' n., and long. 79° 52' e. For 
the greater part of its length the Coleroon forms the boundary between 
the Districts of Trichinopoli and South Arcot on the left, and Tanjore 
on the right bank. As compared with the Kaveri (Cauvery) proper, 
its course is more direct and its fall more rapid ; and consequently it 
naturally tends to carry off the larger volume of water. To counteract 
this tendency and maintain the proper water-supply of the Tanjore 
delta, 'the great anient or dam was constructed in 1856 across the 
channel of the Coleroon by Sir A. Cotton. A description of this work 
is given in the article on the Kaveri (Cauvery). In the same year a 
second dam, known as the lower anient, was thrown across the 
Coleroon, 70 miles below Srirangam, in order to regulate the irrigation 
of South Arcot. This dam consists of a hollow bar of masonry, 8 feet 
high and as many broad, the interior being filled with sand rammed 
down. The total length is 1901 feet, and in the rear is an apron of 
masonry. The lower anient also feeds the great Viranam tank by the 
Vadavar channel, and by several canals irrigates Tanjore District. In 
South Arcot, the main channels from the Coleroon are the ' Khan 
Sahib,' the ' Iron Company's,' the ' Raja Vaikal,' the Budenkugi, and 
the Karangiili canals. The total outlay on the lower anient and its 
dependent works was about ^£"30,000, and the increase of revenue since 
its construction has averaged over ^10,000 per annum in South Arcot 
alone. The Coleroon is affected by the tide for 5 or 6 miles from its 
mouth. The boat traffic is considerable. 

Colgong {Kahlgdon). — Town and head-quarters of a police circle 
(thdnd) in Bhagalpur District, Bengal ; situated on the right or south 



COLLEGAL—COLONELGANJ. 23 

bank of the Ganges. Lat. 25° 15' 55" n., long. 87° 16' 51" e. The 
second largest town in the District. Population (1881), Hindus, 4419 ; 
Muhammadans, 1240 ; ' others,' 13 : total 5672, namely, 2707 males and 
2965 females. Municipal committee of 10 members, of whom 9 are 
non-officials. Municipal income (1881-82), ;^3i9 ; expenditure, ^321 ; 
rate of taxation, is. iM. per head of population within municipal limits. 
Colgong has for long been a place of commercial importance, owing 
to its being easily accessible both by railway and river, and is still a 
centre of trade for the country on all sides for about a dozen 
miles round. Since 1875, however, a large number of traders have left 
the town in consequence of the diversion of the main stream of the 
Ganges, which formerly flowed just under the town, but has receded, 
although there is now (1883) a channel close under the town, which is 
open for trafiic in the dry season. The former channel of the river is 
at present occupied by a broad bank of loose sand, across which it is 
very difficult to convey heav^y merchandise. The railway station is on 
the loop line of the East Indian Railway, 245 miles from Calcutta. 
The only fact of historical interest connected with Colgong is that 
Mahmiid Shah, the last independent King of Bengal, died here in 
1539 A.D. After his defeat at Behar, he fled to Gaur; and when that 
place was invested by the Afghan Sher Shah, he took refuge with the 
Emperor Humayun at Chanar. In his absence, Gaur was stormed and 
sacked, and his two sons were slain by the x\fghans. He had advanced 
with the Emperor as far as Colgong, to attack Sher Shah, when the 
tidings of his sons' death was brought to him, which so affected him 
that he died of grief in a few days. 

Collegal {Kdlligdl). — Tdhik in Coimbatore District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Area, 1062 square miles, containing i town and 121 villages. 
Houses, 12,617. Population (1881) 77,522, namely, 37,890 males 
and 39,632 females. Land revenue demand (1882-83), £.'^Z9Z- The 
taluk contains i civil and 2 criminal courts, with 6 police stations 
ithdnds). 

Collegal {Kdlligdl). — Chief town in the taluk of the same name, 
Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 10' n., long. 77° 9' e. 
Population (1881) 8462, namely, 7951 Hindus, 493 Muhammadans, and 
18 Christians ; number of houses, 1347. 

Colonelganj. — Town in Gonda District, Oudh ; 2 miles north of the 
Sarju river, 20 miles from Gonda town, and 10 from Bahramghat. 
Lat. 27° 8' N., and long. 81° 44' e. The original village, named 
Sakrora, was a place of no importance till, in 1780, a force under a 
British officer was sent by the Nawab of Oudh to bring to terms the 
refractory rulers of his trans-Gogra Provinces, and Sakrora became the 
head-quarters of this force for some years. In 1802, a larger force was 
stationed here ; and a bdzdr named Colonelganj, in honour of the com- 



2 4 COL ONEL GANJ— CO MILLAR. 

manding officer, came into existence. On the annexation of Oudh, 
Colonelganj was selected as the miUtary head-quarters for the Com- 
missionership of Gonda and Bahraich. The native troops here, as 
elsewhere, revolted on the outbreak of the Mutiny; and it was with 
difficulty that the English officers escaped to the protection of the loyal 
Raja of Balrampur. On the suppression of the rebellion, Colonelganj 
was abandoned as a military station. Its central position between 
Bahraich, Gonda, and Balrampur, however, marked it out as a natural 
depot for the rice and oil-seeds of the western portions of the trans- 
Gogra tardi, and it soon became the seat of a flourishing export trade, 
which has increased of late years, but which is probably doomed to 
extinction on the completion of the Patna-Bahraich railway. Import 
trade insignificant, consisting of a Httle salt, raw and manufactured 
cotton, and copper vessels. Population (1881), Hindus, 4106, the pre- 
vailing castes being Banias, Pasis, and Ahirs ; Muhammadans, 1789: 
total, 5904, residing in 1243 houses. A few ordinary Hindu temples, 
two mosques, and a sardi, are the principal buildings. Bi-weekly 
market, police station. Government school, dispensary. 

Colonelganj. — River-side mart in Patna District, Bengal, situated 
west of Gulzarbagh, forming one of the large business quarters of 
Patna City, and the centre of a large trade in oil-seeds and food-grains. 

Combaconum {Kumbhakonam). — Taluk or Sub-division in Tan j ore 
District, Madras Presidency. Area, 314 square miles, containing 2 
towns and 505 villages. Houses, 61,667. Population (1881)370,723, 
namely, 179,538 males and 191,185 females. Land revenue (1882-83), 
^79,718. The tdhik is administered by a Head Assistant Collector, 
with tahsilddrs, who preside over 2 civil and 4 criminal courts ; number 
of police stations {thdnds), 12 ; strength of police force, 182 men. 

Combaconum {Kuinbhakonam^ ' The water-jar mouth' — Sanskrit). — 
Town and head-quarters of Combaconum /tz7z^X',Tanjore District, Madras 
Presidency ; situated in the richest tract of the Kaveri (Cauvery) delta, 
in lat. 10° 58' 20" N., and long. 79° 24' 30" e. Population (1881) 50,098, 
namely, 47,908 Hindus, of whom nearly 20 per cent, are Brahmans, 
1228 Muhammadans, 908 Christians, and 54 -others;' number of 
houses, 7243. Formerly the capital of the Chola kingdom, it is one 
of the most ancient and sacred towns in the Presidency, and so cele- 
brated for its learning as to have been called the Oxford of Southern 
India. In addition to a number of Hindu temples, for the most part 
in good repair and well endowed, it contains a Government college, 
courts, etc. Being much frequented by visitors and pilgrims, a brisk 
trade is carried on. Municipal revenue, about J[^a,\oo\ incidence of 
direct taxation, about iid. per head. 

ComercoUy. — Town in Nadiya District, Bengal. — See Kumarkhali. 

Comiilah {Kumilld). — Chief town and administrative head-quarters 



COMORIN— CO NBA VI D. 2 5 

of Tipperah District, Bengal ; situated on the Gumti river, on the main 
road from Dacca to Chittagong, in lat. 23° 27' 55" n., and long. 91° 
13' iS" E. Population (1881), Hindus, 5850; Muhammadans, 7351 ; 
Christians, 121; 'others,' 50: total, 13,372, namely, males 8029, and 
females 5343. Constituted a municipality in 1864, the municipal 
limits covering an area of 2969 acres; income in 1881-82, ^1692 
— expenditure, ^1649; ^^^e of taxation, is. i\di. per head of 
population within municipal limits. During the rains, the water 
in the river often rises several feet above the level of the town, 
which is only saved from periodical inundation by an embankment 
maintained by the Raja of Hill Tipperah ; but as this is narrow 
and Aveak in many parts, the town has sometimes been in great 
danger. The principal roads are metalled within municipal limits, and 
lined on both sides with handsome trees. The largest of the many 
fine tanks in Comillah is the Dharm Sagar, constructed by a Raja 
of Tipperah in the first half of the 15th century, which is a mile 
in circumference. The houses of the European officials, and the 
District school, are built on its banks. An English church was 
consecrated by the Bishop of Calcutta in September 1875. Besides 
the ordinary Government courts and buildings, the houses of 
the European residents, and the post-office, there are very few brick 
houses in the place. The Raja of Tipperah, who owns the land 
on which the town is built, will not allow his tenants to build 
any but mat or mud houses, unless they pay him so large a 7iazar (con- 
cihatory present) as to practically amount to a prohibition. Bridged 
unmetalled roads, passable for carts all the year round, connect 
Comillah with Daiid Kandi, Chittagong, Company-ganj, the Titas river, 
Hajiganj, Laksham Bibi Bazar, and the Ralmai hills. Comilla has 
been fixed upon as the starting-point for the projected railway north- 
wards to Assam and Cachar. 

Comorin {Kumdri ; Kaimia-Kumdi'i). — Headland in the State of 
Travancore, Madras Presidency, the extreme southern point of India. 
Lat. 8° 4' 20" N., long. 77° 35' 35" e. From Cape Comorin the chain 
of the Western Ghats runs northwards. In the Periplus^ reference is 
made to a harbour here ; but this has now disappeared, owing to en- 
croachments of the sea, although a well of. fresh water in a rock a little 
way out to sea seems to support the theory of its former existence. 

Comorin {Kumdri^ 'a virgin'). — Village near the cape of the same 
name. Lat, 8° 4 n., long. 77° 36' e. Houses, 430. Population (1881) 
2247. The bathing festival referred to by the Greek geographers is 
still continued in honour of Durga, the virgin goddess after whom the 
place is named. 

Condavid. — Town in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. — See 

KONDAVIR. 



26 CONJEVARAM TALUK AND TOWN. 

Conjevaram {Kdnchivaram ; Kdnchipiiram ; Klen-chi-pu-lo of Hwen 
Thsang). — Tdlnk of Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. Area, 
447 square miles. Houses, 30,411. Population (1881) 185,649, 
namely, 91,909 males and 93,740 females. In no other taluk in the 
District are the women in excess of the men. Classified according 
to religion, there were in 1881 — 176,506 Hindus; 3814 Muham- 
madans; 5205 Christians, nearly all Roman Catholics; and 124 
' others.' A low-lying tdluk^ with a stony soil, and only wooded by 
scrub-jungle. Watered by the Palar and Cortelliar rivers. Land 
revenue demand, ;£39,2 79. The tdluk, which is subject in civil 
matters to the jurisdiction of the mimsifs court at Trivellore, contains 
3 criminal courts, with 1 1 police stations {tJuhids) ; strength of police 
force, 1 6^ men. f 

Conjevaram {Kdnchivaj^am). — Town and head-quarters of Conje- 
varam tdluk, Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 49' 
45" N., long. 79° 45' E. Houses, 7179. Population (1881) 37,275, 
namely, Hindus, 35,989; Muhammadans, 1172; Christians, 28; and 
'others,' 86. Area of town site, 5858 acres. About 11 per cent, of 
the population are Brahmans, and 17 per cent, weavers of a caste 
peculiar to this portion of the District. Municipal revenue for 
1881-82, ^2412 ; incidence of taxation, about 8d. per head of rateable 
population. Situated on the Trunk road 46 miles south-west of Madras. 
The branch line of the South Indian Railway from Chengalpat to 
Arkonam passes through the eastern extremity of the town. As the 
head-quarters of the tdhik, Conjevaram contains the usual subordinate 
magisterial and revenue courts, jail, dispensary, school, etc. But it is 
chiefly interesting as being a place of special sanctity. Conjevaram is 
one of the seven holy cities of India, and has been called the ' Benares of 
the South.' Hwen Thsang speaks of it as the capital of Dravida. It 
was then a great Buddhist centre ; but about the 8th century began a 
Jain epoch, and traces of this religion still exist in the neighbourhood. 
To this succeeded the period of Hindu predominance, and the Vija- 
yanagar Rajas (who had treated the Jains liberally) endowed the sacred 
places of their own religion with great magnificence. Two of the 
temples, the largest in Southern India, were built by Krishna Raya 
about 1509 ; and for many smaller pagodas, choultries and agrahdrams 
(Brahman resting-houses and alms-houses), the town is indebted to the 
same family. The lofty gopuras (pyramids), the thousand - pillared 
temple, with its splendid porch and fine jewels, attract the chief atten- 
tion of visitors {see Chidambaram). The great annual fair held in 
May is attended, in prosperous years, by as many as 50,000 pilgrims. 
' Kanchipur ' was an important city of the Chola kingdom, and in the 
14th century the capital of Tondamandalam. After the fall of the 
Vijayanagar family in 1644, it was subject to the Muhammadan 



CONTAI- CO ONO OR. 2 7 

kings of Golconda, and at a later date became part of the Arcot 
dominions. In 1751, Clive, returning from Arcot, took the town 
from the French, but had, in the same year, again to contest its 
possession with Raja Sahib. In 1757, the French, beaten off in an 
attack upon the pagoda, set fire to the town. In 1758, the British 
garrison was temporarily withdrawn, on account of the expected advance 
of the French upon Madras, but was soon sent back with reinforcements ; 
and during the siege of the capital, and the subsequent wars of the 
Karnatic, this town played an important part as a depot and canton- 
ment. A few miles distant, at Pullaliir, is the battle-field where General 
Baillie's column was cut to pieces in 1780 by Haidar All, 

Contai {Kd7ithi). — Sub-division of Midnapur District, Bengal, lying 
between 21° 37' 15" and 22° 10' 30" n. lat, and between 87° 27' 15" 
and ZZ° i' 30" e. long. Area, 849 square miles, with 2385 villages or 
towns and 55,418 occupied houses. Population (1881), Hindus, 
457,722; Muhammadans, 24,176; Sikhs, 42; Christians, 20; and 
'others,' ^^d: total, 481,996, namely, males 242,277, and females 
239j7I9 ; average density of population, 568 persons per square mile ; 
average number of houses per square mile, 71 ; persons per village, 202 ; 
persons per house, 87. The Sub-division, which was created ist January 
1852, comprises the 6 police circles {ihdnds) of Contai, Raghunathpur, 
Egra, Khejiri (Kedgeree), Pataspur, and Bhagwanpur. In 1883, it 
contained two revenue and two magisterial courts, with a regular police 
force 158 strong, besides 1352 village w^atchmen. 

Contai {Kdnthi). — Head-quarters of Contai Sub-division, Midnapur 
District, Bengal, and of a police circle {thdnd). The village contains 
the usual sub-divisional buildings, two munsifs courts, and a higher- 
class English school. 

Coompta {Kumpta). — Sub-division and town, Kanara District, 
Bombay Presidency. — See Kumpta. 

Coonoor {Kumlr). — Town and sanitarium in the Nilgiri Hills Dis- 
trict, Aladras Presidency. Situated in lat. 11° 20' n., and long. 76° 50' 
E., 6000 feet above the sea-level, at the south-east corner of the Nilgiri 
plateau, and at the head of the principal pass (the Coonoor Ghat) 
from the plains; distant t^Gt, miles by rail from Madras, and 12 
from Utakamand (Ootacamund). Houses, 1450. Population (1881) 
about 4778, being 3247 Hindus (chiefly Pariahs), and the remainder 
Europeans, with their establishments, a fluctuating number. The 
municipal limits extend over about 7 square miles ; the municipal 
revenue realized in 1881 w^as about ^2000; incidence of taxation, 
about 2s. 7d. per head of population. A carriage road, 21 miles long, 
connects Coonoor with the station of Mettapalliem, the terminus of 
the Nilgiri branch of the Madras (South-Western) Railway ; but a Righi 
railway to Coonoor from the terminal station is about to be constructed. 



28 ' COORG. 

Coonoor contains a sub-magistrate's court, etc., hospital, four places 
of worship (i Roman Catholic, i Church of England, and 2 of other 
denominations), and many schools, a library and shops and hotels for 
the convenience of Europeans. In the neighbourhood are several tea 
and coffee estates. Coonoor is one of the principal sanitaria of the 
Presidency, and second only to Utakamand (Ootacamund) in natural 
advantages. The town is built on the sides of the beautiful basin 
formed by the expansion of the Jackatalla valle}^, at the mouth of a 
great gorge, surrounded by wooded hills. It possesses a cool and 
equable climate, the mean annual temperature in the shade being 
62° F. In the warmer months the thermometer fluctuates between 
55° and 75° ; in the colder months, between 38° and 68°. The 
average annual rainfall is 76 inches, distributed in normal years over 
112 days. The rate of mortality is remarkably low, and no particular 
ailments can be said to be characteristic of the place. The town 
is well kept, but owing to increase of population, etc., the drainage 
is in much need of improvement; it has about 20 miles of ex- 
cellent roads and beautiful pleasure drives, along the sides of wdnch 
grow hedges and roses, while the fuchsia, dahlia, and heliotrope attain 
the proportions of shrubs. Altogether, it forms one of the most lovely 
hill stations in India, and commands magnificent views of mountains, 
precipices, great stretches of hill forests, and the plains spreading out 
in a vast expanse of fertility beneath. The European settlement is on 
the upper plateau ; the native quarter on the lower slopes of the valley. 
Coorg {Kiirg ; Kodagu, lit. 'steep mountains'). — Territory or 
Province in Southern India, under the administration of the Supreme 
Government, through the Mysore Resident, who is also Chief Commis- 
sioner of Coorg; situated between 11° 56' and 12° 50' n. lat., and 
between 75° 25' and 76° 14' e. long. Total area, according to the most 
recent estimate of the Survey Department, 1583 square miles, the greatest 
length from north to south being 60, and from west to east 40 miles. 
Population, according to the Census of 1881, 178,302. The chief town 
and seat of administration is Merkara, in 75° 46' n. lat, and 12° 26' 
E. long. ; population (t88i) 8383, including 2156 returned as being in 
the cantonment. 

Coorg is bounded along its entire western frontier by the mountain 
chain of the Western Ghats, which separates it from the Madras 
Districts of Malabar and South Kanara. This range curves somewhat 
inland, so as to serve also to some extent as the northern and southern 
boundary. On the north, Coorg is partially separated from the forest 
highlands of Mysore by the rivers Kumaradhari and Hemavati. On 
the east it merges in the general table-land of Mysore, the boundary 
for some distance being marked by the river Kaveri (Cauvery). 

History, — Coorg has always been known in history as the home of a 



CO ORG. 29 

brave and independent race of mountaineers, who maintained their 
freedom against the outnumbering forces of Haidar Ah', and only 
yielded to the British power after a sharp struggle, the English Govern- 
ment conceding to them the maintenance of their civil and relifrious 
usages, and respect for their national characteristics. At the present 
day the native tribe of Coorgs, though only numbering some 27,000 
souls, preserve all the marks of a dominant race. They cultivate their 
hereditary lands on a feudal tenure, bear arms at their pleasure, and 
treat with British officials through their head-men on terms of honour- 
able equality. No people in India have given more decisive proofs of 
their loyalty to the British crown. 

Whatever may have been the true character of the earlier history of 
Coorg, the Brahmans, on finding their way into the country, enshrouded 
the current legends and traditions of Coorg in Puranic lore, in the 
Kaveri Furdna, forming an episode of comparatively recent date in 
four chapters of the Skdnda or Kdrtikeya Purdtia^ and glorifying the 
river Kaveri, the sources of which are in Coorg. Local tradition lends 
colouring to the theory that the Coorgs are descended from the 
conquering army of a Kadamba king, who ruled in the north-west of 
Mysore about the 6th century a.d. The earliest trustworthy evidence 
that his house exerted some authority in these parts is manifested by 
certain stone inscriptions found in Southern Coorg, which record grants 
of land by monarchs of the Ganga dynasty dated in the 9th century. 
But it is not probable that the mountain fastnesses of Coorg were ever 
permanently subjugated by the rulers of the lowlands. The Muham- 
madan chronicler Ferishta, writing at the end of the 16th century, 
casually mentions that Coorg was governed by its own princes. 
According to tradition, Coorg was at this period divided into 12 
komhus or districts, each ruled by an independent chieftain, called a 
ndyak. The names of several of the families of these ndyaks are still 
held in veneration by the people ; but the chiefs themselves all finally 
succumbed to the wily encroachments of the Haleri pdlegdrs, who 
founded the line of Coorg Rajas expelled by the British in 1834. 

The origin of this Haleri dynasty is obscure. It is certain that they 
were aliens to the native Coorgs who now reside in Central and South 
Coorg, for they belonged to the Lingayat^ sect of Hindus who are the 
chief inhabitants in the portion of Coorg to the north and east of 
Haleri, and whose influence was great in the neighbouring country of 
Mysore ; whereas the Coorgs retain to the present day their own crude 
forms of demon and ancestor worship. However this may be, they 
exercised for many generations absolute authority over the people ; 
and, despite their bloodthirsty tyranny, they were universally accepted 
as the national leaders. It is commonly supposed that the founder of 
the dynasty was a younger scion of the family who ruled at Ikkeri in 



30 COORG. 

Shimoga District, known as the pdlegdrs of Keladi or Bedniir. He is 
said to have first settled at Haleri, whence he rapidly extended his 
power over the whole of Coorg. The history of the Coorg Rajas is 
officially chronicled in the Rdjendra-7idina^ a work compiled about 
1807 in Kanarese by order of Dodda Vira Rajendra, and translated 
into English by Lieutenant Abercromby in the following year. This 
interesting native document may be accepted as fairly trustworthy. It 
comprises a period of 175 years, from 1633 to 1807. 

The most brilliant chapter in the history of Coorg is the resistance 
offered to Haidar Ali and his son Tipii Sultan. When all the rest of 
Southern India fell almost without a blow before the Muhammadan 
conqueror, this warlike people never surrendered their independence.; 
but, despite terrible disasters, finally allied themselves on honourable 
terms with the British to overthrow the common enemy. At one time 
all seemed lost. Haidar Ali had invaded the country, and carried away 
the Raja and all the royal family prisoners into Mysore. Tipii followed 
in his father's path with more than his father's ferocity. He resolved to 
remove the entire race of Coorgs, and actually deported many thousand 
persons to Seringapatam, and enforced on the males the rite of Islam. 
The land he granted out to Musalman landlords, on whom it was 
enjoined as an imperative duty to search for and slay the surviving 
inhabitants. It was reserved for a prince of the blood-royal to rescue 
the Coorgs from this sentence of extermination. Vira Rajendra, the 
hero of Coorg history, and the Coorg model of a warrior king, escaped 
from his prison in Mysore, and raised the standard of independence on 
his native hills. The Muhammadan garrison was forthwith expelled, 
and a successful guerilla warfare kept up until the intervention of Lord 
Cornwallis finally guaranteed Coorg from danger. On the restoration 
of peace in 1799 by the death of Tipii Sultan, the remaining exiled 
Coorgs returned to their country. But new troubles began. Vira 
Rajendra himself, and also his successor on the throne, appear to have 
been cursed with the senseless ferocity which so often accompanies 
irresponsible power. By their subjects they were reverenced almost as 
gods, and in their countless acts of cruelty they rivalled the most 
sanguinary deities of the Hindu Pantheon. Repeated remonstrances 
from the British Resident at Mysore proved ineffectual ; and at last, in 
1834, Vira Rajendra having taken umbrage at the shelter given at 
Mysore to his brother-in-law Chenna Basapa, Lord William Bentinck, 
then Governor-General of India, resolved on armed intervention. A 
British force of 6000 men entered Coorg in four divisions. Though 
two of the invading columns were bravely repulsed by the Coorg 
militia, the rest penetrated to Merkara, and achieved the entire subju- 
o-ation of the country. The Raja surrendered himself to the Political 
Agent, Colonel Fraser, Vv'ho issued a proclamation dated May 7, 1834, 



CO ORG. 31 

announcing that, in accordance with the general wish of the inhabitants, 
Coorg was transferred to the government of the Company. The people 
were assured that their civil and religious usages would be respected, 
and that the greatest desire would invariably be shown to augment 
their security, comfort, and happiness. 

The pledges given on this occasion (1834) have been faithfully 
carried out on both sides. In 1837, however, a disaffection originating 
with the Gaudas of the Talu country, in South Kanara, spread also into 
Coorg ; and a rising against the British Government was planned by the 
intrigues of the Brahman Devvan Lakshminarayana, and the impostor 
Abhrambara, which was promptly put down by the authorities, aided 
by a band of faithful Coorgs, who were rewarded with Jdgirs, pensions, 
and gold and silver medals. Coorg has ever since shown a con- 
spicuous "example of a brave and intelligent race, ruled by the British 
with the minimum of change and interference, and steadily advancing 
in material prosperity consequent on settled rule, and the introduction 
of coffee cultivation. The Raja retired to Benares, with a pension of 
Rs. 6000 (^600) a month. In 1852 he was allowed to visit England, 
where he died in 1862. His daughter, the Princess Victoria Gauramma, 
was baptized into the Christian faith, with the Queen for her sponsor. 
She married an English officer, and died in 1864. At the present day, 
a iQ\N descendants of the family reside at Benares, in receipt of small 
pensions from Government. 

Physical Aspects. — The whole area of Coorg is mountainous, clothed 
with primeval forest or grassy glades, and broken by but few cultivated 
valleys. The lofty barrier range of the Western Ghats forms the 
continuous western frontier for a distance of more than 60 miles. 
The highest peaks are Tadiandamol, 5729 feet, and Pushpagiri, 5548 
feet above the sea. The western slope of this range drops in a 
succession of precipitous terraces towards the sea ; but on the east a 
confused network of spurs and minor ridges runs out into Coorg, some 
of which attain considerable elevations. The town of Merkara is 
situated on a table-land, about 3500 feet above sea-level. But even 
this plateau is broken by hills and steep valleys, leaving but little space 
for cultivation. The chief rivers of Coorg are the upper waters of the 
Kaveri (Cauvery) and its tributaries, the Eakshmantirtha, the Hemavati, 
and the Suvarnavati, with its tributaries the Hattihole and Madapur, 
which flow eastward into Mysore. On the west, the Barapole and the 
Kallahole, uniting their waters on the Coorg frontier, and a (qv/ minor 
streams, break their way through the Ghats, and precipitate themselves 
on the lowlands of Malabar. None of the rivers are navigable. They 
flow in narrow valleys, usually through dense jungle ; and they are little 
used for artificial irrigation. The geological formation of the mountains 
belongs to the metamorphic class of rocks, chiefly granite, syenite, and 



32 COORG. 

mica schist. The weathering of these rocks, under the influence of 
rain, wind, and sun, has produced a deep surface soil of great fertihty, 
which is annually renewed by the decomposition of the virgin forest ; 
but after the denudation of so many hill slopes for coffee cultivation, 
the deterioration of steep land by the wash of the monsoon rains has 
been rapid and ruinous to once flourishing estates. Stone and laterite 
are quarried for building purposes, and gold has been found on the 
Athol estate on the Perambadi ghat with graphite, and may probably 
be found sparsely distributed in the Brahmagiri hills, and in the quartz 
reefs in the valley of the Kaveri below Fraser-pet Iron-ore also exists, 
but owing to the difficulty of procuring skilled labour, is not worked. 
The natural wealth of Coorg is represented by the boundless forests, 
which vary in character in different parts of the territory. The mountain 
forests, known as 7ndle-kddii^ which clothe the Western Ghats are chiefly 
marked by evergreen trees. Conspicuous among these is the pun 
(Calophyllum angustifolium), which often rises to the height of loo feet, 
and supplies excellent spars for ships. The other timber-trees in this 
tract include ebony (Diospyros ebenaster), jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), 
iron-wood (Mesua ferrea), and white cedar or tun (Cedrela toona) ; and 
the whole scene is diversified by clusters of brilliant flowers and fruits, 
gigantic creepers, and numerous varieties of fern. The forests in the 
lower hill ranges and passes in the eastern portion of Coorg are known 
as kanive-kddu. This is pre-eminently the region of bamboo, teak, and 
sandal-wood. The bamboos in the south of Coorg are specially 
famous. They form forests of their own, rising in clusters to the 
height of 60, and sometimes even 100 feet. The teak (Tectona 
grandis) and the sandal-wood (Santalum album) are very local in their 
range, the best teak trees being found in the Government reserved 
forest of Nalkeri, in the taluk of Kiggatnad. The timber of both is a 
valuable monopoly of Government. Other timber-trees are the black- 
wood (Dalbergia latifolia), ntaddi (Terminalia coriacea), hone or kino 
(Pterocarpus marsupium), dinduga (Conocarpus latifolius), and hedde- 
mara (Nauclea cordifolia). Many products of commercial value, such 
as wood, oil, fibre, honey, and resin, are collected in the jungle, which 
also abounds in wild animals ; and every native Coorg is an enthusiastic 
sportsman. Among large game may be enumerated tigers, leopards, 
bears, elephants, bison, sdmbhar deer, jungle sheep, and wild hog. A 
reward of ;£"5 is now given by Government for the destruction of 
every tiger, and ;^3, los. for every leopard. In the days of the 
Coorg Rajas, elephant and tiger hunting were regal sports, and several 
tiger-cubs were generally kept about the palace. The number both 
of tio-ers and leopards is still considerable, but wild elephants have 
now become comparatively scarce, and their indiscriminate slaughter 
has been prohibited. 



COORG. 



33 



Population. — \n 1836, shortly after the British occupation, the 
population of Coorg was returned at only 65,437 souls. The first 
regular Census, conducted by actual counting, was effected on the 
night of 14th November 187 1, and gave a total of 168,312. The 
second regular Census was taken on the 17th February 1881, when the 
population numbered 178,302 persons, showing an increase of 6 per 
cent, during the past decade. The following table exhibits the area, 
population, and density in each taluk of the Province as returned by 
the Census of 1881 : — 



Tallks. 


Area in Population in 
Square Miles. 1881. 


Density per 
Square Mile. 


Kiggatnad , . 

Padinalknad, .... 
Nanjarajpatna, .... 
Merkara, ..... 
Yedenalknad, .... 
Yelsavirshime, .... 

Total, 


410-45 
399-90 
263-89 
216-30 
201 -45 
90-82 


31,230 

28,219 
26,984 
34,088 

41,370 
16,411 


76-08 

70-56 

102-25 

157-59 
205-36 
180-70 


1,582-81 178,302 


112-64 



The Province contains 502 villages, and but one town of over 5000 
inhabitants; 22,357 inhabited and 3233 uninhabited houses; which 
gives the following averages : — Villages per square mile, -31 ; houses per 
square mile, i6-i6; number of persons per occupied house, 7-97. 
Classified according to sex, there are 100,439 males and 77,863 
females; proportion of males, 77-5 per cent. This undue preponder- 
ance of males is explained by the fact that more men are employed as 
labourers on the coffee estates than women. The disproportion would 
have been greater had the date of the Census been a month or two 
earlier, for at the time it was taken the picking season was over, and many 
of the labourers had returned to their homes in Mysore. Classified 
according to age, there were, under 15 years of age, 30,986 boys and 
28,911 girls; total, 59,897, or -^y^ per cent, of the total population. 
The division of the people according to birthplace shows — 154 Euro- 
peans, 2 Americans, i Australian, and 129 Eurasians; 103,437 natives 
of Coorg, 24,895 of Madras, and 48,688 of Mysore; 318 imrnigrants 
from Haidarabad, 593 from Bombay, 68 from Bengal, and 17 from 
Kandahar. The occupation tables are scarcely trustworthy ; but it 
may be mentioned, as indicating the importance of the coffee industry, 
that 64,087 persons, or 35-95 per cent., are returned as labourers, as 
compared with only 33,957 agriculturists, or 19-0 per cent. Classified 
according to religion, the population is composed of — Hindus (as 
loosely grouped together fo-r religious purposes, 

VOL. IV. c 



and including 



34 COORG. 

Coorgs), 162,489, or qi'i per cent.; Muhammadans, 12,541, or 
7"o per cent; Christians, 3152, or 17 per cent; and 120 'others,' 
including 21 Parsis and 99 Jains. The Brahmans number 2445, 
chiefly belonging to the Smartta or Sivaite sect Of those claiming 
to be Kshatriyas, the Rajputs number 351, and the Rajpinde, or 
connections of the late ruling family, 129. The Vaisyas, or trading 
caste, are 225 in number, almost exclusively Komatis. Other castes of 
good social standing number 83,834, among whom the most numerous 
caste is the cultivating Wokaliga (16,808), including many coolie 
immigrants from Mysore; the Lingayat (10,443) and Jain (99) 
castes, being engaged in trade, and many of the former in agriculture. 
Low castes number 21,100, and the wild tribes are returned at 
54,630, but many belonging to the lower castes have been erroneously 
classified as such. 

The native tribes of Coorgs or Kodagus, who were once the 
dominant race in the country, are only 27,033 in number, or 15 "6 per 
cent of the total population. They and the members of other castes 
known as the Gavada, Mopla, Heggade, Aimbokal, Bautar, and Ayeri, 
wear a national dress, bear arms at their pleasure, and cultivate their 
hereditary lands on a feudal tenure known d.'s.jama. They pride them- 
selves on their loyalty to the British Crown. Their origin is unknown ; 
but for the last two centuries they can be recognised as a compact 
body of mountaineers, resembling a Highland clan rather than a Hindu 
caste. Within the last decade they have increased by 6 per cent A 
sub-division of them, called Amma Coorgs, who number 475, are 
more strict in their mode of life, and are perhaps the descendants of an 
indigenous priesthood. They abstain from spirituous liquors, and are 
vegetarians, holding much the same place among the Coorgs as 
Brahmans do among the Hindus. While this class has increased during 
the last decade, the Brahman element has decreased, due no doubt to 
the well-known aversion of the Coorgs to Brahmanical influence. 
In physique, the Coorgs are not inferior to any natives of India. The 
men are muscular, broad-chested, strong-limbed, and tall. Their mode 
of life and pride of race impart to their whole bearing an air of manly 
independence and dignified self-assertion, well sustained by their 
picturesque costume. This consists of a long coat (ktipasa), of white or 
blue cotton, or dark cloth, open in front and reaching below the knee. 
Round the waist is wound a red or blue sash of cotton or silk, 
which holds the never-absent Coorg knife with ivory handle and 
chains of silver. The head-dress is a red kerchief, or a peculiarly- 
fashioned turban, large and fiat at the top, and covering a portion of 
the back of the neck. For ornaments they wear a necklace of berries, 
and ear-rings and bracelets of silver or gold. Some of the women are 
strikingly handsome and well-shaped. Their holiday costume is a 



COORG. 3^ 

tight-fitting jacket, of white or blue cotton, with long sleeves. The 
skirt, gathered behind, is formed of a long piece of white muslin or blue 
cotton-stuff, tied round the waist and falling in graceful folds to the 
feet. Contrary to the custom of other Hindu women, they tie a long 
handkerchief over their hair as a cap, an end falling gracefully behind! 
The women do all the domestic work, and also bear a large share of 
the labours of the farm. When not engaged in labour, the men enjoy 
a dignified leisure, or range through the forest, gun in hand, in search 
of game. The height of their ambition is to be entrusted with some 
Government post. They rarely marry until they have attained the age 
of sixteen years. The old custom of polyandry is no longer practised 
as a national rite, but may occur in isolated cases. Divorce and 
widow-marriage, especially by brothers-in-law, are recognised institu- 
tions, sanctioned by the council of village elders, or takkds. Polygamy 
is permitted by custom, in case of sterility of the first wife or want of 
male issue, but such cases are of rare occurrence. 

The Coorgs have a language of their own, believed to be a dialect of 
Kanarese, which is intelligible only to themselves and to their former 
slaves, the Holeyas and Yeranas. It is derived from the Dravidian 
languages, chiefly Malayalam, Tiilu, Kanarese, and Tamil, and has been 
reduced to writing in Kanarese letters. It is rich in forms, and admir- 
ably suited for colloquial converse, and for expressing easy-flowing poetry 
of a humorous or solemn strain, as their old chants or Palam.es attest. 

The Muhammadans in Coorg are divided between Labbays and 
Mappilas (Moplas) from the Malabar coast, and immigrants from the 
Deccan. Out of the total of 3152 Christians, Europeans number 228 
and Eurasians 287, leaving 2637 for the native converts, who are 
mostly Roman Catholic immigrants from Kanara, oftheKonkani caste. 
According to another principle of division, there are 644 Protestants 
and 2508 Roman Catholics. 

There are only 2 towns in Coorg with a population of more than 
3000 persons each. Merkara, or Mahadevapet, the civil head- 
quarters of the Province, has Z^^Zz inhabitants; Vira-rajendra-pet, 
4576. Fraser-pet, on the eastern frontier, 1000 feet below Merkara, is 
a pleasant retreat during the rainy season ; formerly it used to be the 
residence of the British Superintendent. Merkira and Vira-rajendra-pet 
have been constituted municipalities, with an aggregate income in 
1881-82 of ^1592, giving an average municipal taxation of 2s. 5d. 
per head. Municipal committees have also been formed in the 
small towns of Fraser-pet, Somwar-pet, and Kodli-pet. Amatti and 
Gonikopal are rising townships in the new coflee district in South 
Coorg, known familiarly as the ' Bamboo.' 

Coorg possesses some remains of archaeological interest. Cairns or 
dolmens have been found in considerable numbers, especially near 



36 COORG. 

Vira-rajendra-pet; and since attention was first attracted to them in 1868, 
several of them have been opened. They conceal kistvaens, very 
similar to those of Europe, composed of four upright granite slabs 
about 4 feet high, roofed with a larger slab. Some of these kistvaens 
are arranged in regular groups, others are surrounded by a circle 
of smaller stones. Inside is found pottery, containing bones, ashes, 
iron spear-heads, and beads. No trace is now preserved of the race 
that erected these memorials. Of a more recent date are the kolle 
kallu, or sculptured tombstones in honour of warriors slain in battle. 
The figures show that these were erected by Hindus of the Lingayat 
sect. The Coorg race has left its warlike memorials in the kadangas 
or earthworks, which stretch over hill and dal through the length and 
breadth of the land. Some of these kadangas are 40 feet from summit 
to bottom of ditch, and they are often taken along hill-sides having an 
angle of 80° F. They were evidently constructed as fortifications, but 
they may also have served to mark the boundaries of the 7idds, or 
local divisions, into which the country was divided. Of the palaces 
once occupied by the Coorg Rajas, the one in the Merkara fort alone 
remains in good order. It is used for the public offices, and as the 
residence of the Commissioner. The Rajas' tombs at the head of 
Madepet are conspicuous and in good preservation. There is also a 
Hindu temple of some pretensions in the valley below the fort ; and 
like the tombs, it is in the Muhammadan style of architecture. 

Agriculture. — Cultivation is confined in Coorg proper, above the 
barriers, to the numerous valleys between the eastern spurs of the Ghats 
and along the banks of the river Kaveri and its affluents. Even in the 
narrowest valley, wherever the plough is possible, the soil is indus- 
triously laid out in terraces for rice cultivation. Excluding the forest 
tracts planted with coffee and cardamoms, the total cultivated area of 
Coorg in 1881-82 was 74,357 acres, of which 72,940 acres were under 
rice, and 141 7 acres under other food-grains. Several varieties of rice are 
grown, the most common being the large-grained dodda-batta. A large 
amount of labour is expended on the cultivation. The seed is sown 
about the beginning of June in nurseries, which have previously been 
ploughed several times, and are always so situated as to command a 
perennial supply of water, except in the Kiggatnad taluk, where the 
rainfall not infrequently proves insufficient. The seedlings are planted 
out in July and August, and the harvest is gathered in December and 
January. Such is the richness of the soil and the abundance of the 
natural water-supply, that the rice crop usually yields a return of forty- 
fold ; the straw is in great demand for thatching purposes, and when 
sold to the planters, realizes enough to pay the Government dues on 
the land. Other crops grown only in parts of the Nanjarajpatna and 
Yelsavirshime taluks to the east and north-east of the Province, are ragi. 



COORG. 



37 



gram, coriander, oil-seed, hemp, a little tobacco, sugar-cane, and cotton. 
No wheat is grown. Plantains, oranges, and the toddy-yielding wild sago- 
palm, are to be seen round the homestead of every Coorg peasant. 
But the two most valuable products of Coorg are coffee and cardamoms. 
Coffee is said to have been introduced from Mysore in the days of the 
native Rajas. The first European plantation was opened in 1854. By 
1881, the total number of coffee estates was 4806 (212 only being 
owned by Europeans), covering an area of 77,474 acres, or a little more 
than xV^^ ^^ ^^^ whole Province. The area of land held by the 
European planters, in 1881, was 41,507 acres, and by natives, 
35,967 acres. The average size of each estate held by the Europeans 
is 196 acres, and by the natives, 8 acres. The assessment paid by the 
former was ^7613, and by the latter ^6640. Of the whole area, 
40,350 acres were in bearing, producing on an average 3 cwt. per acre, 
though the average yield on most European estates, which are much 
better cultivated than native, is as much as 7 cwts. per acre. The 
coffee produced is over 6000 tons. Taking the average cost of cultiva- 
tion at ^12 per acre on European estates, and ^4 on native, each 
cwt. of coffee costs ^2, 13s. 4d. The number of persons present on 
the estates is generally about 27,000, to which 10,000 more may be 
added during the picking season. The yearly sum spent on coffee 
cultivation is about ^320,000, of which about 60 per cent, is paid as 
wages for labour. The value of the coffee produced, calculated at the 
average selling price of ^3 per cwt. on the spot, is about ;^36o,ooo. 
The industry has passed through many vicissitudes. Rash speculation 
in the early years caused unsuitable land to be taken up, and the 
forest was recklessly cleared of trees that would have furnished 
valuable shade. The cultivation of Liberian coffee after a fair trial has 
proved a failure. In recent times, the ' bug ' and '• white borer,' and 
leaf disease, especially on the Ghats estates, have destroyed the hopes 
of the planter, when at last they seemed on the point of realization; but 
in the ' Bamboo ' district in South Coorg, prospects are brighter and 
results more satisfactory. Considerable attention has been paid to 
the cultivation of cinchona, especially on those estates in which 
coffee has not succeeded. From returns which have been obtained 
from planters, the extent of land under cinchona may be given at 771 
acres, and the number of plants put down, at 617,156. The cardamom 
plant (Elettaria cardamomum) grows wild in the evergreen jungles of 
the Western Ghats, at an elevation of from 2000 to 5000 feet. These 
jungles are leased out by the Government for a term of ten years at a 
lump sum of ^30,000. The cardamom-yielding tracts demand a good 
deal of attention, and the gathering of the crop in October involves 
much hardship, as the jungles at that season are infested with innumer- 
able leeches and poisonous snakes. It is estimated that a ' cardamom 



38 COORG. 

garden' \ acre in extent will yield 12 J lbs. of dry cardamoms ; the con- 
tingent expenditure is quite insignificant. Among plants introduced by 
European enterprise, may be mentioned Cinchona succirubra, the Aus- 
tralian gum tree (Eucalyptus globulus), rhea nettle (Boehmeria nivea), 
Manilla hemp (Musa textiHs), the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao), and 
many English fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The cultivation of the tea- 
plant has as yet attracted little attention. The cultivation of cocoa, oil- 
seeds, and the Eucalyptus tree was only introduced a few years ago, and is 
purely in an experimental stage. The agricultural statistics for 1881-82 ( 
show a total stock of 109,762 horned cattle, 5729 sheep and goats, 12,242 
pigs, 177 horses, 378 ponies, 350 donkeys, 37,523 ploughs, 27 boats, 
and 48 1 carts. The average rent per acre for land suited for rice in 
1881-82 was from 3s. 3jd. to 6s. 8Jd., the average produce per acre 
being 820 lbs. The prices per maund of 80 lbs. were, for rice, 
6s. ii:|d. ; for wheat, 9s. lod. ; for cotton, 56s. ; for sugar, 34s.; for 
salt, 8s. 8Jd. ; and for ragi^ 4s. The wages for skilled labour were 2s. 
per day ; for unskilled, 6d. per day. 

Maniifactu7'es a?id Coi?i?nerce. — Almost every article used in the 
country requires to be imported. Manufactures do not flourish to any 
extent in Coorg, consequent on the great demand for labour for 
agricultural purposes, and the higher rates of wages prevailing. The 
manufacture of the ordinary coarse cloth worn by the lower classes of 
the people is carried on at the villages of Sirangala, Somwar-pet, 
Sanivarsante, and Kodli-pet in North Coorg ; at the first-named place 
the red and dark-blue sashes worn by the poorer classes of Coorgs are 
also produced. About a dozen artisans add to their means by 
making the knives which are worn by the people as part of their 
ordinary dress. The sheaths are usually mounted in silver, and some 
of them are of considerable value. The number of knives turned out 
yearly does not exceed 200, and their value is estimated at jQdoo, 
The steel used is of local manufacture, and of inferior quality. Large 
tiles, known as ' Mangalore ' tiles, for which there is a considerable 
local demand, are manufactured at a tilery at Merkara. The clay 
obtained is of excellent quality, and some of the tiles manufactured 
have been found to stand a greater strain than those turned out at 
Mangalore itself. A few pot-makers and braziers may be found. Local 
traffic passes along many paths and cross country roads. Two 
military trunk roads run across the country from Mysore to the 
western coast. According to the statistics of traffic at the toll-bars, 
34,399 laden carts and 31,144 laden pack-bullocks passed along these 
ghat roads in 1881-82. The following estimates are given of the total 
trade of Coorg in 1881-82 : — Exports, ^£442, 693, chiefly consisting of 
coffee (122,5 10 cwts., valued at ^367,530), grain and pulse (38,687 cwts., 
valued at ;!^9237), cardamoms (600 cwts., valued at ;2{^i4,4oo), and 



CO ORG. 



39 



timber (^3180) ; imports, ^194,230, including piece-goods (^30,000), 
wines and spirits (^10,000), food-grains (^22,196), and salt (^16,625). 
The principal external markets are the ports of Mangalore, Cannanore, 
and Tellicherri on the Malabar coast, and Bangalore in Mysore. Local 
transactions are conducted at weekly fairs, the largest of which are held 
on Wednesdays at Vira-rajendra-pet, on Fridays at Merkara, on Satur- 
days at Sanivarsante, on Sundays at Suntikoppa, Amatti, and Gonikopal, 
and on Mondays at Somwar-pet, all of which are largely attended. 

Administration. — Since the assumption of the Government by the 
British, the indigenous system of administration has been interfered with 
as little as possible. The chief resident British officer is styled 
Commissioner and District Judge, who discharges, in addition to his 
proper duties, the combined functions of Inspector-General of Prisons 
and Police, Director of Public Instruction, and Conservator of Forests 
in Coorg, and who is subordinate to the Chief Commissioner or Resi- 
dent of Mysore. Under him are two Assistant Commissioners — one a 
European, who is also a District Magistrate, and the other a Coorg. 
For administrative purposes, the territory is divided into 6 taluks^ viz. 
Kiggatnad, Padinalknad, Nanjarajpatna, Merkara, Yedenalknad, Yel- 
savirshime, each under the charge of a native official styled a snhahddr. 
The taluks are again sub-divided into 24 ndds or hoblis. Each ndd 
contains an average of about dZ square miles, and forms the separate 
charge of a subordinate official called a parpattegar. The following 
table shows the revenue and expenditure of Coorg in 1881-82 : — 

Balance-Sheet of Coorg for 1881-82. 



Revenue. 


I 


Expenditure. 


£ 


Land Revenue, . 


30,724 


Civil and Political, 


4,383 


Forests, 


9,959 


Judicial, .... 


3,510 


Excise on Spirits and 




Police, .... 


1,445 


Drugs, . 


11,961 


Military, .... 


11,724 


Stamps, 


7,691 


Telegraph and Post-Office, . 


2,285 


Law and Justice, 


464 


Ecclesiastical, 


697 


Interest, 


224 


Public Works, . 


13,602 


Miscellaneous, . 


64 


Education, .... 


2,249 


Jails, .... 


881 


Miscellaneous, 


445 


Registration, 


421 


Local Funds, 


4,342 


Education, 


218 


District and Village Officers, 


14,306 


Post-Office, 


1,598 


Allowances and Assign- 




Public Works, . 


529 


ments, .... 


2,279 


Military Refund, 


168 


Refunds, .... 


927 


Telegraph, 


546 






Excluded Local Funds, 


2,402 






Incorporated Local 








Funds, . 

Total, 


2,846 
70,696 


Surplus, . 

Total, 


8,502 


70,696 



40 COORG, 

The preceding table shows a surplus revenue of ^8502, even includ- 
ing the heavy charges for the army and public works. The removal 
of the Coorg garrison to Vellore in Madras, which has recently 
been carried out, consequent on late reductions in the Madras army, 
increased the surplus in the balance-sheet for 1882-83 to ^21,145. 
The land revenue is chiefly derived from three sources — (i) ja?nd 
lands, held in inalienable tenure by the once dominant race of 
Coorgs, at the rate of los. per acre (100 bhattis) of wet land upon 
the condition of military and police service ; (2) sdgu, the ordi- 
nary cultivating tenure, at a fixed rate of about 20s. per acre ; (3) 
coffee lands, which are now assessed at a rate of 4s. per acre. Banes 
(uplands) are attached to the rice-fields for wood and pasturage \ many 
of them are cultivated with coffee under shade. Such plantations are 
free from assessment when they do not exceed to acres. Nearly all the 
forest land suited for coffee cultivation has been taken up. On land 
which is available being applied for, it is sold by auction according to 
the Waste Land Rules, after being surveyed and the timber valued. It 
is held rent free for the first four years, and at the rate of 2s. an acre 
during the next eight years, after which the full assessment is charged. 
The forest revenue is chiefly derived from the sale of timber and 
cardamom leases. In 1881-82, the sales of timber, including sandal- 
wood, realized jQi'^2']. 

The regular police force consists of about 2 offtcers and 188 
men, maintained in towns only at a total cost of about ^1874 a year, 
inclusive of the Coorg guard, employed to protect the treasury and jail. 
The rural or village police is composed of about 3979 janid rdyats, or 
native Coorgs, holding their lands on a feudal tenure, from whom duty 
for half a month in each year is expected. These figures show 113 
policemen to every square mile of the area, or i policeman to every 43 
persons of the population. During the year 1881, 1363 criminal cases 
of all kinds were instituted ; 2000 persons were put on their trial, of 
whom 821, or 41 per cent., were convicted, being i person convicted of 
an offence in every 217 of the population. By far the greater number 
of convictions were for assault, criminal force, and offences against 
local laws. In the same year, the average daily number of prisoners in 
jail was 90*6, including 4*67 females, or i prisoner to every 1981 of 
the population. The total cost of the jail was ;£'io3i, or ;£^ii, iis. 9d. 
per prisoner. Jail manufactures yielded a net profit of £z^o. 

Education has always been an object of solicitude to the Government 
since the British assumed the administration of the country. The 
Coorgs themselves are an intelligent race, and they have repeatedly 
displayed a strong desire to obtain the benefits of an English education 
for their children. In 1862, the Coorg head-men presented a remark- 
able petition to Government, desiring the establishment of a boarding- 



COORG. 41 

school at Merkara, towards the expense of which they contributed 
hberally by opening out a coffee estate, which is leased for a term of 
16 years at £,2i^o per annum. In this manner the school has been 
made self-supporting, and provides accommodation for 60 boys. In the 
year 1881, there were altogether dT, schools in the territory under 
Government inspection, attended by 3233 pupils. There were also 41 
indigenous schools, attended by 470 pupils. These figures combined give 
I school to every 15 square miles of area, and 20 pupils to every thousand 
of the population. The total cost of education was ;^2029, or an 
average of 12s. 6jd. per pupil; the amount of fees paid was ;£^22o, 
exclusive of p/^89 for school-books. Of the total number of pupils, 331 
are girls, and as many as 2100 belonged to the Coorg race, showing 
that 81 out of every 1000 of the Coorg population are at school. The 
high school at Merkara, under a principal and 1 1 masters, was attended 
by 313 boys in i88t. Including Government and indigenous teaching, 
the Census Report in 1881 returned 4268 boys and 431 girls as under 
instruction; besides 8839 adult males and 356 adult females able to 
read and write, but not under instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Coorg is temperate and humid. 
The mountains of the Western Ghats collect the moisture that rolls 
up in clouds from the sea. The wooded valleys are not free from fogs 
in the morning and evening. The rainy season proper, which is the 
result of the south-west monsoon, lasts from June to September. The 
downpour of rain is very heavy on the Merkara plateau and on the 
Western Ghats, and blasts of wind blow at the same time with great 
vehemence. The sun is often not seen for weeks ; and as much as 90 
inches of rain have been registered at Merkara in the single month of 
July, including 10 inches within twenty-four hours. The average annual 
rainfall for the 20 years ending 1882 amounts to i22'86 inches. By 
observations extending over the same period, the maximum of rainfall 
during the two heaviest monsoon months, June and July, occurred in 
the years 1864, 1865, 1869, 1872, 1874, 1880, and 1882. The 
total rainfall for the last-named year was 203 "5 5 inches. The rainfall 
in the coffee district of South Coorg, known as the ' Bamboo,' is not 
nearly so great. The maxmium rainfall at Amatti is 72*35, and the 
average is 65 "64 inches. The mean annual temperature for the whole 
of Coorg during the last 20 years was 66 '60° F. The hottest month is 
May, when the thermometer sometimes rises to 82° ; but on the whole, 
the variations of heat and cold are very moderate. 

The Coorg climate is considered salubrious by the natives, and also 
by European residents, but its cold and damp exercise injurious effects 
on natives who have arrived from the plains of India. The nights are 
cool throughout the year, and Europeans are able to take exercise in 
the open air at all hours of the day. European children especially 



42 COORLA—CORINGA. 

show by their rosy cheeks that they enjoy excellent health. The most 
prevalent disease is malarious fever, which renders the mountain valleys 
unhealthy during the hot months. Cholera is almost unknown, but 
small-pox has made terrible ravages among the natives, despite the 
introduction of vaccination. In 1881-82, a total of 3006 deaths were 
reported, of which 2358 were ascribed to fevers, 1 1 7 to bowel complaints, 
215 to small-pox, 12 to suicide, 4 to snake-bite, 12 to cholera, and 193 
to all other causes. The death-rate was 16 '3 per thousand. There are 
2 charitable dispensaries — at Merkara and Vira-rajendra-pet — at which, 
in 1881, a total of 429 in-door and 8665 out-door patients were treated. 
The total expenditure was ;!^744, towards which Government contributed 
;^32i. In the same year, 4887 vaccinations were performed. [For 
further information regarding Coorg, see the Gazetteer of Mysore and 
Coorg, by Lewis Rice, Esq. (Bangalore, 1878), vol. iii. Also the 
Census Repoi't for 1881 ; and the Administratio?i Reports from 1881 to 
1883.] 

Coorla. — Town, Thana District, Bombay Presidency, — See Kurla. 

Cooum {Ktivani). — River in Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency, 
rises in the Conjevaram taluk, and flows due east, entering the sea in 
lat. 13° 4' N., long. 80° 20' E. The city of Madras stands at the mouth 
of this river, which receives the drainage of a portion of the town. The 
volume of water being too small to carry off all the impurities with 
which it is thus charged, the Cooum here degenerates into little better 
than an open sewer. 

Corembu Gaonden. — Range of hills in the District of South Arcot, 
Madras Presidency, lying between 11° 51' and 12° i' n. lat, and 
between 78° 42' and 78° 55' e. long. — See Kalrayanmalai. 

Coringa {Koringa ; from Kurangani, ' a stag,' after the golden stag 
in the Ramayana ; the Kalingou of Pliny). — Town and seaport in 
Goddvari District, Madras Presidency ; situated at the northern or 
principal mouth of the Godavari river, 8 miles south of Cocanada, in 
lat. 16° 48' 25" N., and long. 82° 16' 20" e. Population (1881) 4397, 
namely, 4255 Hindus, 141 Muhammadans, and i Christian ; number of 
houses, 1084. An early Dutch settlement, and once the greatest seaport 
and shipbuilding centre on the coast ; but now, owing to the extension 
of the delta seaward, a place of little commercial importance. The silt 
carried down by the Godavari has formed a bar outside the entrance. 
In 1802, there was a dock here in which ships of the Royal Navy were 
repaired; and vessels drawing 12 and 13 feet could enter. The port is 
still frequented by native craft, and shipbuilding yards are at work in 
the hamlet of Tallarevu hard by. In 1880-81, the imports were 
valued at £^\o(i\, chiefly from Burma. The exports in the same year 
were valued at ;£^3o,9i3. The trade has been steadily declining for 
some years, but a considerable business with Rangoon and Maulmain 



COROMANDEL — COSSIPUR. 43 

is still carried on by small vessels. In 1881-82, shipping of 6717 
tons burthen entered the port; value of imports, ^459; of exports, 
^£"20,2 1 9. The new lighthouse on the mainland, 4I miles from 
Cocanada, warns vessels off the Godavari shoals, and serves as a 
guide to ships making for Coringa or Cocanada. Koringi is the name 
by which all Telugus are known in Burma and the Straits, and the 
name of the town itself is a relic of the ancient Kalinga. The town 
has twice (in 1787 and 1832) been overwhelmed by a tidal wave. It 
also suffered very severely in the hurricane of 1839. 

Coromandel. — The popular name applied more or less indefinitely 
to portions of the eastern coast of the present Madras Presidency. 
By some writers, the name is derived from the same source as that of 
the village of Coromandel, but the weight of authority is with those 
who suppose it to be a corruption of Cholamandalam, ' the country 
of the Cholas.' By this name it is repeatedly referred to in ancient 
native writings; and as recently as 1799, the seaboard of Coro- 
mandel was spoken of as Cholamandalam and Choramandalam. San 
Bartolomeo, relating in 1796 his experiences during his residence in 
this district, speaks of ' the coast of Ciolamandala, which Europeans 
very improperly call Coromandel,' but derives the name from cJiolam 
(Holcus sorghum), the millet which forms a staple food of the people. 
The true spelling of cholani in the vernacular, however, scarcely supports 
this theory. — See Chola. 

Coromandel (Karimanal, 'black sand'). — Town in Ponneri taluk, 
Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 13° 26' 10" n., long. 
80° 20' 36" E. Houses, 815. Population (1881) 3807, chiefly fishermen. 
Mentioned as a native town as early as 1499 by Italian travellers. 
The kariminal, or sand used by the people instead of blotting-paper, is 
found here. 

Cortelliar [Kortalaiydni). — River of Madras Presidency ; rises in 
the Kaveripak tank in North Arcot District, and, after passing through 
the Trivellur and Ponneri tdhiks, flows into the Enniir backwater about 
1 2 miles north of Madras. This river is the chief source of the Madras 
water-supply, being connected by means of an anient with the 
Chodavaram and Red Hill tanks. An account of the waterworks will 
be found in the article on Madras City. ^ It is said that at one time 
the bed of the present Cortelliar was occupied by the Palar. Tribu- 
taries — the Mahendranadi, Sappiir, Tritani, and Nagari. It was the 
delay caused by a sudden fresh in the Cortelliar river that led to the 
destruction of General Baillie's column by Haidar Ali in 1780. 

Cossimbazar. — Decayed town in Murshidabad District, Bengal. — 
See Kasimbazar. 

Cossipur {Kdsipcr). — Ancient village on the Hiigli, in the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ; now a northern suburb of 



44 COSSYE— COX'S BAZAR. 

Calcutta, on the river bank a few miles above the custom-house. Lat. 
22° 37' 30" N., long. 88° 24' 30" E. The site of an important Govern- 
ment gun foundry. 

Cossye. — River of Bengal. — See Kasai. 

Courtallum {Kuttdlam). — Village in Tenkasi tdhik, Tinnevelli 
District, Madras Presidency, and the sanitarium of the District from 
June to October. Lat. 8° 56' 20" n., long. 77° 20' e. Population 
(1881) 12 16. Number of houses, 369. Although only 450 feet above 
sea-level, Courtallum receives the south-west monsoon through an 
opening in the Ghats, and possesses the climate and flora of a much 
higher elevation. The scenery is greatly admired, and the waterfalls 
are considered sacred by the natives. The smallest cascade is 100 
feet high, and below it is a beautiful bathing-pool and a pagoda. 
There are several bungalows occupied for a few months every year by 
European officials and their families from Palamkotta and Trevandrum. 
Distance from Palamkotta, 35 miles. 

Covelong" (A'^?'//^;;/).— Village in Chengalpat District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; 20 miles south of Madras. Lat. 12° 46' n., long. 80° 17' 40" e. 
Population (1881) 1692, chiefly fishermen, occupying 393 houses. One 
of the earliest European settlements, and formerly a place of some 
strategical importance. The fort, built by the first Nawab of Arcot in 
1745, was by a stratagem occupied in 1750 by the French. A party 
of soldiers, with arms concealed under their clothes, and simulating 
extretae sickness, were admitted into the fort by the kindly natives, 
who believed their tale, that they were the scurvy-smitten crew of 
the ship which had just anchored off the coast, unable to proceed. 
During the night, they rose and overpowered the garrison. In 1752, 
Clive invested the place, and the French surrendered without firing a 
shot. The fortifications were then blown up. Covelong possesses a 
Roman Catholic church, almshouse, and orphanage. The salt-pans to 
the west of the village are large, and there is some export trade in salt. 
Excellent oysters are found here. 

Cowcally.— Lighthouse in Midnapur District, Bengal. — See Geon- 

KHALI. 

Cox's Bazar. — Sub-division of Chittagong District, Bengal, lying 
between lat. 20° 43' and 21° 54' n., and between long. 91° 52' and 92° 
22' E. Area, 937 square miles, with 275 villages and 29,972 occupied 
houses. Population (188 1), Muhammadans, 128,037 ; Hindus, 13,667 ; 
Buddhists, 19,630; Christians, 14: total, 161,348, namely, males 77,248, 
and females 84,100. Average density of population, 172 persons per 
square mile ; number of houses per square mile, -^^^^ ') persons per 
village, 594; persons per house, 5*4. The Sub-division, which was 
constituted on the 15th May 1854, comprises the police circles {thdnds) 
of Maheshkhal, Chakiria, Cox's Bazar, and Teknaf. It contained in 



COX'S BAZAR— CUDDALORE. 45 

1S83, I civil and 3 criminal courts; strength of regular police, 102 
men ; village watchmen {c/iatikiddrs), 236. 

Cox's Bazar. — Head-quarters of Cox's Bazar Sub-division and 
police circle, Chittagong District, Bengal ; situated on the banks of the 
Baghkhali khdl, Lat. 21° 26' 31" n., and long. 92° i' 2" e. Named 
after Captain Cox, who in 1799 was appointed to look after the many 
thousand Magh fugitives who sought shelter in British territory after 
the conquest of Arakan by the Burmese. The Maghs still form three- 
fourths of the inhabitants of the town, although they only number 12 
per cent, of the population of the Sub-division. The Census of 1881 
returned the population of Cox's Bazar at 4363, namely, males 1887, 
and females 2476. The little town is now a thriving and important 
place, differing altogether in appearance from a Bengal village. The 
places of worship and the rest-houses of the Maghs are well and solidly 
built; and some of the houses of the well-to-do residents are not 
only substantial, but picturesque and neatly ornamented. The houses 
are built entirely of timber raised on piles, after the Burmese fashion. 
Municipal income in 1881-82, ;^242. 

Cranganore. — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. — See 
Kranganur. 

Cuddalore {KMalur). — Tdluk or Sub-division of South Arcot 
District, Madras Presidency. Area, 459 square miles, of which all 
but 96 are cultivated or cultivable. Houses, 47,298. Population (1881) 
298,523, distributed in 2 towns and 221 villages, and occupying 42,559 
houses. Classified according to religion, there were — 285,130 Plindus • 
8026 Muhammadans (being 6869 Sunnis, 308 Shias, 15 AVahabis 
and 834 unspecified) ; Christians, chiefly Roman Catholics, 5226 ; 
Buddhists, Jains, and 'others,' 141. The land revenue for 18S2-8- 
amounted to ^39,279. Chief places, Cuddalore and Panruti. In 
1882-83, the tdluk contained 3 civil and 4 criminal courts, with 11 
police stations {f hands) ; strength of police force, 165 men. 

Cuddalore {KMalur^ Gudidur, Kudla-ur, ' The town at the 
junction of the rivers '). — Town in Cuddalore tdluk, and adminis- 
trative head-quarters of South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. 
Situated on the backwater formed by the confluent estuaries of 
the Gaddilam and Paravanar; 116 miles by sea and 127 by rail 
south of Madras, and 16 miles south ^ of Pondicherri. Lat. 11° 
42' 45" N., long. 79° 48' 45" E. Number of houses, 8055. Popu- 
lation (1881) 43j5457 namely, 39,997 Hindus, 1983 Muhammadans, 
1510 Christians, and 55 'others.' Of the adult males, 22 per cent, 
are weavers or small traders. The municipal area extends over i" 
square miles, including 18 hamlets which form the suburbs of the 
town; municipal income in 1881-82, ^2816; incidence of taxation, 
about IS. 3d. per head of the rateable population. As regards popula- 



46 CUDDALORE. 

tion, Cuddalore ranks tenth among the towns of the Madras Presidency. 
As the head-quarters of the District administration, it contains all the 
chief pubHc offices, courts, jail, etc., besides a railway station and sea- 
customs and marine establishments. It carries on a large land trade 
with Madras in indigo, oils, and sugar, which are manufactured here ; 
and it exports by sea great quantities of grain. For the year 1881-82, 
the imports, chiefly coal and jaggery, were valued at ;£63,8oo ; and the 
exports, principally rice and refined sugar, at ^55,400. The vessels 
which entered the harbour in the same year aggregated 31,914 tons 
burthen. The river mouths having silted up, only native craft can 
come up to the town, but good anchorage in 6 to 8 fathoms can be 
obtained in the roads i| miles from the shore. The native town, 
Cuddalore proper, lies in a low, damp site about 2 miles south of 
Munjakupam, where the Europeans reside. It is well laid out, 
and the houses are exceptionally substantial. It contains the jail 
(formerly the Company's factory), the barracks, now unoccupied, and 
the marine and mercantile offices. The European quarter, which stands 
on slightly higher ground, contains all the public offices, scattered on a 
large plain, intersected by good roads with avenues of trees. The station 
has a reputation for being healthy. About \\ mile north-east are situ- 
ated the ruins of Fort St. David, on the left bank of the Gaddilam river. 
The history of Cuddalore dates from 1682, when the Company 
opened negotiations with the ' Khan of Gingee ' for permission to settle 
here. The first building was erected in 1683, and in the following 
year a formal lease was obtained for the site of the present port and the 
former fortress. During the next ten years, trade increased so rapidly 
that the Company erected Fort St. David for the protection of the 
place, and rebuilt their warehouses. On the fall of Madras in 1746, 
the British administration withdrew to Cuddalore, v^hich was soon 
afterwards twice unsuccessfully besieged by the French under Dupleix. 
The head-quarters of the Presidency remained here till 1752, when the 
Government returned to Madras. During this interval, the Jesuits 
were expelled from the settlement as spies in the French service. In 
1755, Clive was in command at Cuddalore. In 1758, the French 
occupied the town, and stormed and destroyed the fort; but in 1760, 
after the battle of Wandiwash, the British regained possession. In 
1782, it again fell into the hands of the French and their ally Tipu 
Sultan, by whom the fortifications were sufficiently renewed to enable it 
to withstand in the following year a siege and several assaults. During 
the siege, a drawn battle was fought in the roadstead between the 
French and English fleets. In 1785, Cuddalore was formally restored to 
the British, and in 1801 it was included in the cession of the Karnatic. 
Of the fort, only a few ruins now remain, but it must once have been a 
place of considerable strength. 



CUDDAPAH. 47 

Cuddapah {Kadapd). — A District in the Presidency of Madras, 
lying between 13° 25' and 16° 20' n. lat., and 77° 55' and 79° 40' e. 
long. Area, 8745 square miles. Population (1881) 1,121,038. In 
point of size, this District ranks second, and in population fifteenth 
among the Districts of the Madras Presidency. It contains 1231 
villages and 10 towns. Land revenue (1881), ;£"i6i,743 ; total revenue 
(gross), ^201,321. Bounded on the north by the District of Karniil 
(Kurnool), on the east by the District of Nellore, on the south by North 
Arcot District and Kolar District in the State of Mysore, and on 
the west by the District of Bellary. The administrative head-quarters 
of the District are at Cuddapah town. 

Physical Aspects. — Cuddapah (Kadapa) District lies beneath the 
western slopes of the Eastern Ghats and the opposing face of the 
Mysore plateau, forming an irregular parallelogram, shut in on the east 
and south by high mountain ranges, and on the west and south-west 
stretching away into broad plains. The system of hill chains that 
shapes this country radiates from two centres. That in the south-east 
corner of the District lies near the holy hill of Tripatti (Tirupati), 
a point from which two main ranges strike northwards. The first 
range is that of the Eastern Ghats, which here reach, and in some parts 
exceed, an elevation of 3000 feet, their average height being about 
2000 feet above sea-level. The other is the Palkond"a and Seshachalam 
range, extending as far as the river Pennar (Ponnaiyar), and to within a 
few miles of Cuddapah town. Palkonda is the common name of the 
range, meaning the ' milk hill,' so called on account of its fine pastur- 
age. This Palkonda and Seshachalam range, reaching an average 
elevation of about 1500 feet, bisects the District into two divisions, 
the one of a lowland, the other of a highland character, which differ 
materially in general aspect and character— so much so, that for 
chmate and soil, cultivation and condition, they might be in different 
degrees of latitude. Each division, also, has a separate history of its 
own. The upper division consists in part of a bare expanse of black 
cotton-soil, and elsewhere of thickly-wooded hills, from which impetuous 
torrents descend in the rainy season to the Pennar, the only stream in 
Cuddapah which deserves the name of river. The lower half of the 
District, skirted on the east and north-east^ by the same Seshachalam 
range, slopes up gently from the foot of the hills till it merges in the 
Mysore plateau, undulating so continuously throughout its extent that 
it would be difficult to find in the whole a perfectly level mile of 
ground. Isolated hills and masses of rock stud the country, in some 
instances, as at Gurramkonda, forming objects of peculiar picturesque- 
ness and grandeur. The main watershed of the country runs north- 
west and south-west, discharging its drainage into the central valley of 
the Pennar, the chief tributaries being the Kundair and Sagalair. The 



48 CUDDAPAH. 

other larger streams are the Papaghni, the Cheyair, and the Chitravati. 
This last enters the District in the extreme north-west, and after a course 
of only 8 miles within it, falls into the Pennar. The Cheyair exhibits 
scenery of remarkable grandeur along its course ; and all the rivers 
have hills of alluvial soil, varying in breadth, sloping up from either bank. 
Excepting the Pennar, which flows from west to east through the upper 
half of the District, and north of the line of railway, the streams of 
Cuddapah are small, but they are all of value to the country, as on their 
banks are the busiest centres of population. The forest area is large, 
and the timber — blackwood, yellama, yepf, shafidainon^ etc. — valuable ; 
but only 10,000 acres are at present conserved, and these chiefly for 
railway requirements. The chief mineral products of the District are 
iron-ore, lead, copper, limestone, slate, and sandstone for building 
purposes. Diamonds have been worked for and found on the. right 
bank of the Pennar about 7 or 8 miles north of Cuddapah town, in the 
neighbourhood of Cheniir, Among the wild beasts, leopards, sdmbhar 
deer, bear, wild boar, and porcupine may be considered characteristic 
of the jungle-clad hill tracts, while elsewhere antelope, wolf, hygena, and 
fox are common. 

History. — Passing over the tradition which assigns to Cuddapah a 
conspicuous place in the story of Rama, and that debateable era when 
three Hindu kingdoms are said to have divided Southern India, the 
history of the District begins with the Muhammadan period. The 
Hindu kings of Vijayanagar then exercised feudal authority over this 
tract, which was long saved by its numerous hill forts from falling under 
permanent subjugation at the hands of the Musalmans. But after the 
disaster of Talikot in 1565, Cuddapah became the high road for the 
armies invading the Karnatic, and was distributed piecemeal among 
various Muhammadan chiefs subordinate to the Golconda kingdom. 
One of these, the Gurramkonda Nawab, exercised more than local 
powers ; he enjoyed the privilege of coining money, and, except for the 
feudal obligation of military aid, was subject to none of the usual condi- 
tions of a tributary. But about 1642, the estate fell into the possession 
of the Marathas, and the chief had to fly to the Nizam, by whom he 
was subsequently assigned another jdgir. Meanwhile, Cuddapah was 
given up to plunder by Sivaji, the Maratha, who placed Brahmans in 
charge of each of the conquered strongholds, and, to use a phrase of 
contemporary history, ' scraped the country to the bones.' A gap now 
occurs in local history. But early in the following century, we find Abdul 
Nabi Khan, the Pathan ' Cuddapah Nawab,' acting independently of 
the Nizam, and laying under tribute 'C(\q pdlegdrs of the tract known as 
the Baramahal, notably the Chief of Punganiir, who, besides an annual 
payment of 32,000 pagodas, was required to maintain a force of 2000 
armed men. Three Nawabs of Cuddapah ruled in succession, each 



CUD DAP AH. 

49 

increasing the power bequeathed to him; but the third came into 
colhsion with the rising power of the Marathas about the year 17^2 
and from this event dates the dedine of the house. In 1 750, however' 
the Cuddapah Nawab was still playing an important part in 'the affairs 
of the Karnatic. In the following year he headed the conspiracy in 
I which Muzaffar Jang, the Nizam, lost his life in the Luckereddipalli 
Pass. In 1757, the Marathas gained a decisive victory over the 
Nawab at the town of Cuddapah, but lost all advantage from the 
victory by the advance of the army of the Nizam, with a French con- 
tingent under M. Bussy. Meanwhile, Haidar Ali had risen to supreme 
I power m xMysore. Jealous of the Marath^ successes, he intrigued 
successfully for the surrender of Gurramkonda fort ; and in 1769, hrvin- 
: signed a truce with the British, turned all his attention to Cuddapah'' 
In a secret treaty with the Nizam he stipulated for a joint invasion of 
the Coromandel coast and, in the distribution of conquered lands 
for the possession of Cuddapah by Mysore. A series of invasions 
and counter-invasions followed. In 1782, on the death of Haidar Ali 
a descendant of the last Cuddapah Nawab claimed th«, title, and was 
supported by a small British detachment, which, however, was treacher- 
ously massacred during a parley. For the next few years, Cuddapah 
enjoyed comparative rest; but in 1790, when the Marathas, the Nizam, 
and the British combined to overthrow Tipii Sultan, the Nizam's first 
step was to recover Cuddapah. In 1792, Tipii signed a treaty ceding 
the whole of Cuddapah District, with the fort of Gurramkonda, to 
the Nizam, who granted it mjdgir three years later to M. Raymond, to 
defray the expenses of the contingent under his command. But the 
Madras Government, disquieted by this occupation of so important a 
I frontier post, compelled M. Raymond's withdrawal by threatening to 
attack Cuddapah. For the next few years, a general scramble for the 
forts of the District took place among Wi^ p alegars. In 1799, after the 
jfall of Seringapatam, Cuddapah was transferred by the Nizam to the 
jBntish, in satisfaction of arrears of pay due by him to his British con- 
jtingent. In 1800, this cession was formally ratified, and since that date 
the District has had but little history. Sir Thomas Munro, the first 
Collector of 'the Ceded Districts' (Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Bellary), 
found Cuddapah held by some Zo p die gars or feudal chiefs, all main- 
taining bodies of retainers who subsisted entirely by plundering the 
ppen villages. These feudal chiefs asserted their independence, which 
:hey maintained with less difficulty because of the isolated tracts into 
vhich the hill-bounded river basins split up the country. They were, 
lowever, one after the other, reduced to submission ; and the District 
te surveyed, assessed, and brought into order by the establishment of 
|. police and a settled administration of justice. In 1807, when Sir 
rhomas Munro retired from his post, the Madras Government recorded 

VOL. IV. ^ 



50 CUDDAPAH. 

their appreciation of his services in the following order : — ' From dis- 
united hordes of lawless plunderers and freebooters, the people are now 
as far advanced in civilisation, submission to the laws, and obedience 
to the magistrates as any of the subjects under this Government. The 
revenues are collected with facility ; every one seems satisfied with his 
position, and the regret of the people is universal on the departure of 
the Principal Collector.' In 1832, the Pathans of Cuddapah, affecting 
to see in an act committed by one of their own faith an attempt to 
outrage a place of worship, raised a riot, in which the Sub-Collector 
(Mr. Macdonald) was murdered. In 1846, a descendant of the dis- 
possessed pdlegdr of Nossum, dissatisfied with the pension he received, 
attempted to excite a general rebellion, and collected on the frontiers 
two forces of several thousand men. Each was promptly defeated by 
British detachments, and before the end of the year quiet was com- 
pletely restored. Since that date, no event of historical importance 
has occurred. Of all the turbulent pdlegdrs, not one now remains in 
occupation of his ancestral property, but their descendants receive 
allowances from the Government. Their estates are now held on 
direct tenure by the cultivators, to whom they have been leased in 
small lots. 

Population. — The Census of 187 1 disclosed a total population of 
1,351,194 persons, living in 339,603 houses, on an area of 8367 square 
miles, giving an average of 4 persons per house, and 161 per square 
mile. The Census of 1881 returned the area at 8745 square miles, 
and the total population at 1,121,038, showing a decrease of 230,156 
persons in the decade, or 17*03 per cent., due to the famine of 
1876-78, which was most severe in this District. The male population 
was returned at 569,970; the female at 551,068; proportion of males 
in total population, 50*9 per cent. Number of houses, 247,186. \ 
Number of persons per square mile, 128, varying from 194 in the 
Cuddapah tdluk to 93 in Rayachoti — in point of density the District 
stands lowest but four among the Districts of the Presidency; 
number of persons per house, 4*5. As regards the religious distinctions 
of the people, 1,017,211, or 9074 per cent., were returned as Hindus; 
97,749, or 872 per cent., as Muhammadans ; 6067, or 0*54 per cent., 
as Christians, and 11 'others.' Children under the age of 10 yearsi 
numbered 116,045 males and 119,408 females. Between 10 and 
20 years the males were 129,350, the females 112,187. The Hindui 
population was distributed as follows : — Brdhmans, 24,226; Kshattriyas, 
16,650; Chetties (traders), 34,261; Vallalars (agriculturists), 442,520. 
or 43*5 per cent, of the total population ; Idaiyars (shepherds), 86,093. 
or 8 "4 per cent.; Kammalars (artisans), 13,638; Kaikalar (weavers). 
52,168, or 5 "12 per cent; Vanniyan (labourers), 771; Kushavar 
(potters), 10,139; Satani (mixed castes), 13,517; Shembadavan (fisher 



CVDDAPAIi. 

men), 35,256; Shanan (toddy-drawers), 7435; Ambattan (barbers) 
14,705; Vannan (washermen), 28,047; Pariahs, 147,733, or 14-5 per 
cent. ; and ' others,' 89,854. According to occupation, 15,657, or 1-40 
per cent, of the total population, are ^professional;' 4078 'or o-^6 
per cent, are 'domestic;' 19,410, or 173 per cent., are ' commercial • ' 
478,467, or 42-68 percent, are 'agricultural;' 134,332, or 11-98 per 
cent, are 'industrial;' and 469,094, or 41-85 per cent, belon/to 
the 'indefinite and non-productive' class,-2-39 per cent. amon. the 
last being returned as ' occupied.' About 60-54 per cent are returned 
as workers, on whom the remaining 39-46 per cent of the population 
depend; 71-51 per cent of males, and 49-21 per cent of females, were 
workers. There were 5 1,693 persons who were either educated or under 
instruction, of whom only 1882 were females. The Christians of thi'. 
District are better taught than any other class of natives 

It is noteworthy that, while the Brahmans are by a vast majority 
returned as Siva-worshippers, the Kshattriyas are generally Vaishnavs 
Ihe Muhammadans are arranged as follows :— Shaikhs, 6579 • Sayyids 
998; Pathans, 1228; Mughals, iii; Lubbays, 60 ; and ' others,' 9421' 
excluding 79,352 Muhammadans returned under the heading 'not stated ' 
Of the native Christians, nearly all are Pariahs, and of the Protestant 
faith; of Europeans there were only 42; and of Eurasians, 282. 
Ihe wandering tribes-known to the police as ' the criminal classes'— 
comprise the Yanadis, Yerukalas, Chenchuwars, and Sugalis. The first 
of these, a low-statured race, live among the hills on the frontier of the 
District, descending at times to take employment in the plains In 
their unreclaimed state they are the determined plunderers of the 
shepherds' flocks. In the Forest Department their woodcraft is turned 
to good account. The Yerukalas will seldom settle, preferring to 
wander about, under pretence of collecting jungle produce. A favourite 
lorm of crime with them is to enter an unguarded house at night and 
wrench the jewels from the ears of sleeping women and children. The 
bugahs, who are comparatively harmless, resemble European gipsies 
in their wandering life, picturesque costume, and pilfering tendencies. 
Ihe Chenchuwars, physically a fine race of men, are most incorrigible 
criminals, showing little regard for human life; in habits they are not 
unhke the Yanadis. . 

The chief towns are— Cuddapah, which is the only municipal town 
m the District, with 18,982 inhabitants; Badvel, U^,^ ■ Prodd^tur 
,6510; Jammulamadugu, 4846; Kadiri, 5004; Madanapalli,' 
57CO ; PuLiVENDALA, 1885 ; Rayachoti, 4367 ; Vempalle, 581 1 ; and 
Vayalpad, 3695. ^ > 

Agriculture.—ThQ Cuddapah agriculturists are good farmers, and the 
■alluvial soil of the valleys produces rich crops. They manure very 
highly, using for that purpose animal, vegetable and mineral manures. 



52 CUD DAP AH. 

In the Cuddapah valley especially the soil is very rich, and grain of 
all kinds is grown, as well as cotton and indigo. Tamarind trees are 
largely planted, 800 lbs. weight of the cleaned fruit selling for los. 
The trees, however, only bear every second year. The cultivator 
now holds his lands under the rdyatwdri system of tenure. Formerly 
(in 1808), land was held under a three years' lease, on the 'village rent 
system,' each village being farmed out to a separate and solely re- 
sponsible renter. This did not succeed, and in 181 1 a lease for ten 
years was substituted, which continued up to 182 1. The inhabitants 
of the District still speak of those days as one incessant period of 
extortion from the under-tenants, and of absconding and punishment 
of the renters. The ten years' lease system, proving unsatisfactory, 
was abolished; and the rdyatwdri system was introduced, which 
caused the revenue to fall to about ;£i5o,ooo in the first year of hs 
introduction (1822). From this time, however, it began steadily 
to rise, until in 1830 it reached ^^2 00, 000, at which average it has 
stood since. As regards ordinary ' wet ' crops, such as rice, ragi, etc., 
the out-turn per acre may be valued at about £^ per annum, and the 
net profit to the rdyat at £2. The average size of an ordinary 
cultivator's holding is 6^ acres. Cotton has always been largely culti- 
vated in the northern tdluks, and indigo is grown very generally over 
the District. The cotton soil demands continual care, since, if 
neglected for a short time, it is liable to be overgrown by a weed 
known as ' nut grass,' which spreads very rapidly and can only be 
ploughed up with great labour. Sugar-cane cultivation requires very 
deep ploughing and a constant supply of water. An acre of cane 
ought to produce about 12,000 lbs. of jaggery (crude sugar), worth 
in the market about ;£22. Of the total area of the District, 8745 
square miles (5,596,800 acres), 2,889,007 acres were returned in 
1881-82 as assessed to Government revenue. The area actually 
under cultivation was 1,495,514 acres, of which 178,534 acres were 
irrigated. The cultivable area not under the plough was 1,143,287 
acres; pasture and forest lands, 184,080 acres; uncultivable waste, 
2,776,039 acres; total uncultivated, 4,103,406 acres. Of the total 
area, 775,438 acres are held in indm, or under a free grant. The 
staple cereals of the District are the millets, cJiolain (Sorghum vulgare),., 
ka77ibic (Panicum spicatum), and korra (Panicum italicum), which 
occupied between them 769,243 acres of the cultivated area; 283,282 
acres being taken up by other cereals, as ragi (Eleusine coracana), 
wheat, rice, etc. Of the remaining cultivated area, peas, lentils, 
and other pulses occupied 149^243 acres; orchard and garden 
produce, 25,635 acres; tobacco, 5084 acres; chillies and cummin, 
13,508 acres; sugar-cane, 3034 acres; oil-seeds, 40,210 acres; indigo, 
100,772 acres; saffron, 1449 acres; cotton, 96,743 acres; jute 



CUDDAFAH. 53 

and other fibres, 355 acres. The agricultural stock of the District 
comprised in 1881-82, 212,924 horned cattle, 10,630 donkeys, 
385 horses, 1474 ponies, 220,273 sheep, 235,038 goats, 8462 pigs, 
41,152 carts, and 108,929 ploughs. The prices of produce ruling 
at the end of the same year, per viaund of 80 lbs., were — for rice, 
6s. ; wheat, 6s. ; other grains, 2s. ; sugar, 32s. ; linseed, i6s. ; salt, 8s. ; 
jute, I2S. ; cotton, 32s. ; and sheep, 5s. to 6s. each. The wages for 
skilled labour were from is. to is. 3d. per day, and of unskilled, from 
3d. to 5d. 

Natm-al Calamities. — Between 1800 and 1802 there was considerable 
distress in Cuddapah, and relief w^orks were opened. Again in 1866 
very high prices obtained ; and the great drought of 1876-77 caused 
severe suffering throughout the District. In 1865, part of the Dis- 
trict suffered from a visitation of grasshoppers. From the commence- 
ment of the District history, alternate droughts and floods appear to 
have prevailed. Three years of drought preceded a great bursting of 
the tanks in 1803 ; and in 1818, after a dry year, 180 tanks in one 
taluk alone wxre breached by the sudden and excessive rainfall. In 
1820, a violent storm burst 770 tanks, causing the destruction of a 
few human lives and many cattle. In 185 1, there was a greater 
mortality from the same cause; in one of the villages swept away, 500 
people were drowned. Cuddapah suffered severely in the great Madras 
famine of 1877, for an account of which see the article on Madras 
Presidency. 

Co?7imerce and Trade. — The manufacture of cloth from the cotton 
produced in the District ranks first among the local industries. In 
1804, the number of looms was estimated, under the East India Com- 
pany's system of 'Investments,' at 19,626, turning out annually goods 
to the value of ;^23o,ooo; and in 1875, the out-turn of cotton having 
more than doubled since 1804, the value of the manufactured produce 
was estimated at ^400,000. The manufacture of indigo has of late 
years decreased, the European firms having closed their factories, and 
the business falling entirely into the hands of native producers. The 
sugar made in Cuddapah commands a market throughout Southern 
India, the cane being of superior quality. The ' Imperial ' and ' Minor ' 
irrigation works of the District comprise 434 channels and 995 tanks, 
irrigating an area of 235,612 acres, and yielding a revenue of ;^85,379. 
The roads of the District aggregate a length of 11 23 miles (a great 
portion being over cotton soil, and passable only in dry weather), and 
are spread equally over the District. They branch off from the three 
^ain lines from Madras to Bellary, Karniil (Kurnool), and Kadiri. 
The Kurnool-Cuddapah canal enters the District in the Proddatiir 
taluk. It is taken across the Pennar at Adniamayapalli by means of 
an anicut which holds up the water at the required level, and terminates, 



54 CUDDAPAH. 

after a course of 191 miles, at the Krishnapuram station of the Madras 
Railway, 4 miles from Cuddapah. The total length of canals in the 
District is 75 miles. The Madras Railway (North-West Line) traverses 
the District for 102 miles, with 14 stations. 

The religious institutions of the District are important in the 
aggregate, Government continuing an ancient allowance of ;£"2 7oo, 
and local piety contributing extensive endowments. The Car Festival 
in the Proddatiir and other taluks, the Bathing Festival of Pushpagiri, 
and the Ganga Jafrd Festivals, all attract large assemblages, and 
facilitate the interchange of local products. 

Administration. — For administrative purposes, the District is divided 
into II taluks, namely, Badvel, Cuddapah, Jammulamadugu, 
Kadiri, Madhanapalle, Proddatur, Pullivendala, Pullampet, 
Rayachoti, Sidhout, and Vayalpad. The land revenue amounted 
in 1881 to ;^i6i,743, while excise yielded ;£^2o,37o ; stamps, ;£^i5,354; 
and assessed taxes, ;^3854. Total revenue, ;,^2 01,321. The esti- 
mated money value of the lands alienated in payment of service 
amounts to about ^'jj,ooo. This does not, however, include 
the alienations in personal and religious indms, amounting to an 
additional ^60,000. In fact, such an excessive quantity of indm 
land has been granted in this District, that the cultivating class is to 
a considerable degree independent of Government land. The admini- 
stration of justice is conducted by 7 civil and 5 revenue judges ; the 
number of magistrates of all grades is 30. The police force com- 
prises 1058 officers and men of all ranks, giving a proportion of i to 
every 8 square miles and every 1060 of the inhabitants, and is 
maintained at a cost of ;^ 16,688. The District possesses one jail in 
the town of Cuddapah, with a daily average population of 145, costing 
;£"9, 15s. per prisoner. 

Education is provided by grants from the Local Funds, and by 
Government. In 1881-82 there were 495 schools, including 3 girls' 
schools, distributed over the District, with a total attendance of 8425 
pupils, besides 158 indigenous schools with an average roll of 2814 
pupils. The one municipality is that of Cuddapah, with an income, 
in 1881-82, of ;£^2958, from which are supported an elementary 
school, civil dispensary, vaccinating staff, conservancy establishments, 
and municipal police. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate, though trying, does not appear to be 
unhealthy. In January and February, north-east winds, cool and dry, 
keep the temperature at about 75° F., but in March the heat begins to 
increase, and till the end of June the mean varies from 95° to 100° in 
the shade. From July to September inclusive, cooler breezes, with 
occasional showers, prevail from the south-west ; and from September 
to December, during the north-east monsoon, the temperature averages 



CUDDAPAH. 55 

70°, Cholera occasionally visits the District in an epidemic form, 
but causes no serious mortality. Small-pox shows a lower death-rate 
than in any other District of the Presidency, except Ganjam and South 
Kanara. Fever carries off great numbers annually ; and to this cause 
is probably due the reputation for unhealthiness unfairly bestowed on 
the District. The disease called ' Madura-foot ' is endemic in the black 
cotton-soil taluks. There are three dispensaries in the District — at 
Cuddapah, Proddatiir, and Madanapalli. The number of births 
registered in the District in i88i was 32,867, or a ratio of 29-3 per 
1000 of population. The number of registered deaths in the same 
year was 20,343, or i8"i per 1000, the mean for the previous five 
years being 27-4. Vaccination still meets with opposition, and makes 
but little progress. The annual rainfall for 30 years ending 1881 
averaged 2 7 "26 inches. [For further information regarding Cuddapah, 
see the Maiiual of Cuddapah District, by J. D. B. Gribble, Esq., C.S. 
(Madras, 1875). ^^so the Census Report of Madras {\ZZ\)\ and the 
Annual Administration Reports of the Madras Presidency from 1880 
to 1883.] 

Cuddapah {Kadapd). — Taluk or Sub-division of Cuddapah District, 
Madras Presidency. Area, 760 square miles, containing 31,104 houses, 
grouped into i town and 146 villages; population (188 1) 147,453, namely, 
74,421 males and 73,032 females. The taluk forms a basin completely 
shut in on three sides by the Lankamalai and Seshachalam Hills, and 
watered by the Pennar (Ponnaiyar), which within its limits receives three 
tributary streams, the Kundair, Papaghni, and Bugair. Diamond-yielding 
quartzite is found at the foot of the hills above Chennur and Kanu- 
parti. The farming carried on in this taluk is decidedly superior to 
that of the rest of the District. The use of both irrigation and manure 
is more resorted to than elsewhere, and the rotation of crops is better 
understood. Cuddapah indigo, which differs in being extracted from 
the plants when green, commands a higher price than indigo from 
other parts of the Madras Presidency. Of the total area, only about 
one-third pays land revenue. The chief places are Cuddapah, Kamala- 
puram, Akkayapali, and Komadi. The Madras Railway (North-West 
Line) has 3 stations within the taluk, and good roads run alongside 
the canal which traverses the river valley. Education is very back- 
ward, even the ordinary /^j^^/ schools being remarkably few in number, 
and exclusive. Land revenue demand (1882-83), £26,2)^9- I^ ^^^ 
same year, the /^f////^ contained 2 civil and 5 criminal courts, with 11 
police stations (thdnds), and a police force numbering 255 officers and 
men. Historically, the interest of the taluk centres in its chief town, 
Cuddapah. 

Cuddapah {Kadapd). — Town and administrative head-quarters of 
Cuddapah District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 14° 28' 49" n.. 



56 CUDDAPAH. 

and long. 78° 51' 47" e., in the Pennar (Ponnaiyar) valley, 6 miles south 
of that river and 161 miles by rail from Madras; population (1881) 18,982, 
namely, 11,216 Hindus, 7273 Muhammadans, and 493 Christians, 
occupying 4015 houses. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^,^2958 ; inci- 
dence of taxation, about 3s. id. per head. As the head-quarters of the 
District, Cuddapah contains all the chief offices of local administration, 
the Judge's and Collector's courts, jail, telegraph and post offices. 
The trade consists chiefly in the export of indigo and cotton, and the 
principal industry is the weaving of coarse cloth. The town, being 
enclosed on three sides by bare sandstone hills, is one of the hottest 
in the District, the mean temperature in the shade from March to 
July being 97° F. ; annual rainfall, 27 inches. The native town 
is unhealthily situated and squalidly built, the proportion of substantial 
Duildings being much lower than in many large villages. Cuddapah 
is sometimes said to have been a place of importance under the 
Vijayanagar dynasty. But the existence of a hamlet in the neighbour- 
hood called Old Cuddapah (Pata-Cuddapah), and the total absence of 
ancient Hindu buildings, prove the modern origin of the present town. 
Muhammadan local tradition names Abdul Nabi Mia as the founder ; 
but it seems more probable that one of the Pathan lieutenants of the 
Golcondah army erected the fort about 1570. It is not till the 
beginning of the i8th century, when the so-called Nawab of Kurpa 
(Cuddapah) had absorbed the whole of the tract known as the Balaghat, 
except Giiti (Gooty), and had extended his conquests to the Baramahal, 
that Cuddapah appears as the capital of a separate kingdom {see 
Cuddapah District). In 1 748, the Nawab followed the standard of the 
Nizam Muzaffar Jang to the Southern States, and two years afterwards 
murdered his lord paramount with his own hand. Eight years later, 
retribution overtook him ; his country was invaded by the Marathas, to 
whom he was compelled to cede half his estates, including Gurramkonda 
fort ; and at the same time Haidar All of Mysore wrested the Baramahal 
from him. In 1769, the Nawab of Cuddapah paid tribute to Mysore; 
but having in the following year joined the Nizam, he was attacked by 
Haidar Ali, and, in spite of a gallant defence, his fort was captured. 
■Soon after the Nawab surrendered at Sidhaut. In 1792, Cuddapah 
was restored by treaty to the Nizam, who made it over for a time in 
jdgir to M. Raymond, for the expenses of the French contingent. In 
1800 it was ceded to the East India Company, and in 181 7 constituted 
the head-quarters of the District. Since 1868 it has ceased to be a 
military cantonment. 

. The name has been derived from Kripa, 'mercy' (Sansk.); but 
others connect it with Gadapa, ' a gate ' (Telugu) — i.e., ' the gate to 
Tripan.' During the Muhammadan occupation, the town was called 
Nekuamabad. 



CULNA—CUTCH. 57 

Culna. — Sub-division and town in Bardwan District, Bengal. — See 
Kalna. 

Oumbum {Kambam). — Town in Madura District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; situated in the valley of the same name, in the south-west of 
the District. Lat. 9° 44' 50" n., long. 77° 20' 35" e. ; population 
(1881) 5361, almost all Hindus ; number of houses, 768. The valley 
is a fertile tract sheltered by the Travancore Hills, and watered by 
a feeder of the Vygai (Vaigai). The fort of Cumbum was stormed by 
Vishwanath Nayak in the i6th century. 

Cumbum {Kambam). — ^Town in Karniil (Kurnool) District, Madras 
Presidency, and head- quarters of the taluk of the same name. Lat. 
^5° 34' 15" N., long. 79° 9' \" E. ; population (1881) 7170, namely, 
Hindus, 4691 ; Muhammadans, 2471; and Christians, 8: number of 
houses, 2238. The Local Fund grant (about ;^i5o) is inadequate to 
meet the sanitary wants of the place ; and no town in the Presidency 
has a worse reputation for fever. A tank or lake has been formed here 
by damming the Gundlakamma river by a bandh 57 feet high, thrown 
between two hills. This lake has an area of about 15 square miles, 
and is largely used for irrigation. The only building of interest is a 
dismantled fort. 

Cutch {Kachchh, or the sea-coast land). — Native State in Gujarat 
under the political superintendence of the Government of Bombay ; 
bounded on the north and north-west by the Province of Sind, 
on the east by Native States under the Pdlanpur Agency, on the 
south by the peninsula of Kathiawar and the Gulf of Cutch, and on the 
south-west by the Indian Ocean. Its limits, inclusive of the great salt 
marsh termed the Rann (Runn), extend from lat. 20° 47' to 24° n., 
and from long. 68° 26' to 71° 10' e. The territory comprises a belt of 
land, 160 miles from east to west and about 35 to 70 from north to 
south. The area of the State, exclusive of the Rann, is about 6500 
square miles, containing 8 towns and 889 villages; population in 1881, 
512,084. The capital is Bhuj, where the Chief or Rao resides. 

From its isolated position, the special character of its people, their 
peculiar dialect, and their strong feeling of personal loyalty to their 
ruler, the peninsula of Cutch has more of the elements of a distinct 
nationality than any other of the dependencies of the Bombay 
Presidency. 

Physical Aspects.— The whole territory of Cutch is almost entirely 
cut off from the continent of India — north by the Great Rann, east 
by the Little Rann, south by the Gulf of Cutch, and west by the 
eastern or Kori mouth of the Indus. Though on the whole treeless, 
barren, and rocky, the aspect of the country is varied by ranges of 
hills and isolated peaks, by rugged and deeply-cut river beds, and by 
well-tilled valleys and tracts of rich pasture land. On the south, behind 



58 CUTCH. 

a high bank of sand that lines the sea-coast, lies a low, fertile, and well- 
cultivated plain from 20 to 30 miles broad. Beyond this plain, the 
Dora, a broad belt of hilly ground, stretches east and west from 500 to 
1000 feet above the level of the plain. Behind the Dora range lies a 
rich valley, bounded to the north by the Charwar, a second line of hills 
parallel to the first, but higher, narrower, and, especially along the 
northern side, more precipitous. Again, beyond the Charwar Hills, a 
low-lying belt of rich pasturage, about 7 miles broad, stretches north- 
wards to the Great Rann or salt desert ; and, close to its southern 
shore, four hilly islands (from one of which rises Patcham Pir, the 
highest point in Cutch, 1450 feet above the level of the sea) stand out 
from the bed of the Rann. Each of the two chief ranges that, stretch- 
ing east and west, form as it were a double backbone to the peninsula 
of Cutch, is marked by one peak of special height and of peculiar shape. 
Of these, Nanu, the centre point of the southern hills, is nearly 800, 
and Indria, the most prominent peak of the northern hills, nearly 90c 
feet above the sea-level. Besides these two main ranges, in the south- 
west a broken line of hills, and from the central plains isolated peaks 
rising to a commanding height, give the greater part of the State a 
rugged and rocky appearance. Except some brightly-coloured cliffs 
and boulders, the hills are dusty brown and white, their sides bare 01 
covered with a stunted brushwood. From the sea on the south and 
west, and from the Rann on the north and east, the coast is in some 
places very slightly raised and fringed with mangrove swamps. 

There are no permanent rivers in Cutch, but during the rainy season 
(July to October) many streams of considerable size flow from the 
central ranges of hills northwards to the Rann and southwards to the 
Gulf of Cutch. For the rest^of the year, the courses of these streams 
are marked by a succession of detached pools. Owing to the porous 
nature of the upper soil, storage of water in ponds and reservoirs is 
difficult. But in rocks, at no great depth from the surface, water is 
readily found, and wells yielding excellent supplies are numerous. 

The Rann. — The most striking physical feature of Cutch is the Rann' 
or salt desert, stretching along the north and east of the State, which is ' 
estimated to cover an area of nearly 9000 square miles. It is believed 
to be the bed of an arm of the sea, raised by some natural convulsion 
above its original level, and cut off from the ocean. It almost com-j 
pletely surrounds the State with a belt, varying in width from 25 to 35 
miles on the north to 2 miles on the east. The northern or larger Rann 
— measuring from east to west about 160 miles, and from north to 
south about 80 — has an estimated area of not less than 7000 square 
miles. The eastern or smaller Rann (about 70 miles from east to west) 
covers an area estimated at nearly 2000 square miles. In appearance 
and general character, the greater and lesser Ranns differ but little. 



CUTCH, 



59 



The soil is dark, and is generally caked or blistered by the action of 
the sun on the saline particles with which the surface is impregnated. 
At times, the whole surface, particularly of the eastern part of the Rann, 
is covered with salt. With the exception of some of the smaller islands, 
on which grow a iQ\N stunted bushes and grass, there is no sign of 
vegetable life. The wild ass roams over the Rann, finding subsistence 
on the grasses in the islands and at the borders. During the rains, 
when the whole tract is frequently inundated, a passage across is a work of 
great labour, and often of considerable danger. Some of this inundation 
is salt water, either driven by strong south winds up the Lakhpat river 
from the sea, or brought down by brackish streams ; the rest is fresh, 
the drainage of the local rainfall. In spite of this yearly flooding, the 
bed of the Rann does not, except in a few isolated spots, become soft 
or slimy. The flood-waters, as they dry, leave a hard, flat surface, 
covered with stone, shingle, and salt. As the summer wears on, and 
the heat increases, the ground, baked and blistered by the sun, shines 
over large tracts of salt with dazzling whiteness, the distance dimmed 
and distorted by an increasing mirage. On some raised plots of rocky 
land, water is found, and only near water is there any vegetation. 
Except a stray bird, a herd of wild asses, or an occasional caravan, no 
sign of life breaks the desolate loneliness. The Eastern Rann com- 
mences to fill in March, with the south-west winds ; and during the 
time it contains water, it is affected by the tides, and is consequently 
very difficult to pass, as the water is constantly in motion. It attains 
its usual height before a drop of rain falls, by the influx of water from 
the Gulf of Cutch. Unseasonable rain, or a violent south-west wind at 
any period, renders the greater part of the Rann impassable. It 
generally becomes passable by the end of October ; but even then for 
passage by troops it is recommended that the Rann be crossed by night 
to avoid the glare, and working parties should be detached in advance 
to clear wells. The Rann is considerably higher in the centre than 
along the edges ; while the centre, therefore, is dry, there is frequently 
water and mud at its sides. The little Rann is at present undergoing a 
marked change. Year by year the sea is spreading farther eastward ; 
and, along the coast, places which a few years ago were inaccessible to 
boats are now open to water traflfic. Whether this change is due 
to a general fall in the level of the land, has not been satisfactorily 
ascertained. 

Earthquakes. — The peculiar character of these great salt wastes, and 
the eruptions of basalt and fire-rent cliffs along the base of the hills, 
mark the early force of volcanic action in Cutch. Volcanoes are no 
longer at work ; but frequent shocks of earthquake show that this tract 
is still the centre of strong subterranean energy. On four occasions 
during the present century — viz. 1819, 1844, 1845, ^^^ ^^64 — earth- 



6o CUTCH. 

quake waves have crossed Cutch. The most severe were the shocks of 
1 819, when 7000 houses at Bhiij, including the Rao's palace, were 
destroyed, and 1150 people buried in the ruins. Every fortified town 
in the State was injured, and, in the west, the fort of Tera, considered 
the strongest in Cutch, was levelled with the ground. One effect of 
this convulsion was the fall, at several parts of its surface, of the bed of 
the Rann. Sinking is reported to have taken place in the east, in the 
north, and in the west. In the west, the change of level was most 
marked ; for about 16 miles on either side of Sindri, a fortified custom- 
house on the left bank of the Kori river, the land would seem to have 
suddenly sunk from 8 to 12 feet, and the place has since been occupied 
by an inland lake or lagoon. North of Sindri, after the earthquake was 
over, a bank about 50 miles long and from 10 to 18 feet high, stood 
out from the plains which had before stretched as level as the sea. On 
account of its sudden appearance across the old bed of the Indus, the 
natives gave to this bank the name of Allah bandh, or 'God's embank- 
ment.' Early observers speak of it as an upheaval of the surface. But 
from the north side there is little sign of any rise in the land ; and a 
few years after its formation (1826), the flood-waters of the Indus, keep- 
ing their former course, forced their way through the dam. These two 
considerations would seem to show that the apparent height of the bank, 
as seen from the south, is to some extent due to the fall in the level of 
the land in that direction. 

Minerals^ etc. — Both iron and coal are found. Iron was formerly 
smelted, but at present the Cutch mines remain unworked. The coal 
found in the Charwar Hills is of an inferior description, and has not 
been found worth the expenses of working. Alum and a coarse variety 
of saltpetre are also produced. In former times, alum was prepared in 
great quantities ; but, partly owing to the competition of Chinese alum, 
and partly because Cutch alum is said to injure cloths prepared with it, 
the demand has of late years almost entirely ceased. The Karimori 
Hills furnish strong, tough millstones ; and good building stone abounds 
in Cutch. Some of the best varieties are furnished by the lower Jurassic 
rocks, and others much used are found in the upper tertiary beds. The 
yellowish marble of Khavda is largely found and exported. There are 
no forests in the State. Of large game, panthers and wild boar are to 
be found. 

Population and History. — The population of Cutch in 1881 was 
512,084 persons, inhabiting 102,007 houses; number of persons per 
square mile, 7873 ; per house, 5-0. The Hindus numbered 325,478 ; 
Muhammadans, 118,797; Christians, 96; Jains, 66,663; Parsis, 42; 
Jews, 19; Sikhs, 30; and aborigines, 959. About 87 per cent, of the 
total population are Rajputs, and 6*9 per cent. Brdhmans ; while the 
cultivating, artisan, and other lower castes of Hindus constitute about 



CUTCH. 6i 

48 per cent. Of the Rajputs, the Rao and his Bhayad, or ' Brethren of 
the Tribe,' are Jarejas. Among the land proprietors are a few Waghela 
Rajputs, who reside in the cultivated spots of the arid country between 
Cutch and Sind. The languages of Cutch are nominally two — 
Kachchhi (Cutchi) and Gujarathi ; the former being the colloquial 
dialect, but litde used now in literature or business. Gujarathi is the 
written language. Persian and Hindustani are but slightly used or 
known in the Province. The Jareja Rajputs, to which branch the Rao 
of Cutch belongs, are descended from the Summa tribe, and came 
originally from the north. They are said to have emigrated from Sind 
about the 15th century under the leadership of Jam Lakha, son of Jara, 
from whom the tribe derive their name. Till 1540, the Jams ruled over 
Cutch in three branches ; but about that year, Khengar, with the assistance 
of the Muhammadan King of Ahmadabad, succeeded in making himself 
head of the tribe, and master of the whole Province. He also obtained 
from the king the grant of Morvi in the north of Kathiawar, with 
the title of Rao. The Jam Rawal, the uncle of Khengar, who had, 
previous to the latter's accession to full power, ruled over a great part 
of Cutch, fled to Kathiawar, and founded the present reigning house of 
Nawanagar, the rulers of which are still called Jams. For six genera- 
tions from Khengar, the Raos succeeded according to primogeniture ; 
but on the death of Rayadhan, his third son, Pragji, opened to himself 
a road to the throne by murder and usurpation. In order, however, to 
pacify the son of his murdered brother, who had a superior right to the 
throne, he placed him in independent charge of Morvi, which is still 
in the possession of his descendants. Khengar gave his own niece, 
Kamabai, in marriage to the King of Ahmadabad, and one of Khen- 
gar's descendants gave his daughter in marriage to the Gaekwar. On 
the death of Rao Lakhpat, his sixteen wives burnt themselves on his 
funeral pile, and their tombs, built in a beautiful group, stand close 
to the British Residency in Cutch. The practice of female infanticide, 
for which the Jarejas were notorious, is said to have been introduced 
by the eponymous hero Jara, who killed his seven unmarried daughters 
because he had failed to find any suitable matches for them. 

Agriculture. — There is a fair proportion of good arable soil in Cutch, 
on which wheat and barley of indifferent quality are cultivated, as well 
as cotton, the ordinary varieties of millet and pulse, and a little garden 
produce. Irrigation is practised over a considerable area. The revenue 
system is the bhaghatai, or ' metayer,' and the State share is sold by 
auction. A high value is set upon the right of occupancy, but in 
gardsia villages the cultivators are tenants-at-will. In State lands, the 
right of occupancy is only accorded to those who have proved themselves 
worthy of the concession by sinking wells, or converting dry crop into 
garden land. The revenue survey has been at work for several years, but 



62 CUTCH. 

on measurement only, not on classification or assessment of the lands. 
Of domestic animals, the camel is the most important ; the Rao 
possesses large herds of these animals, as well as of cows and buffaloes. 
Cutch has long been famous for its horses. 

Trade a?id Manufactures. — Owing to the want of made roads, the 
country becomes almost impassable during the rainy months. But in 
the fair season, there is land communication northwards with the south- 
east Districts of Sind, with Marwar, with North Gujarat, and across the 
Little Rann with Jhalawar, the north-eastern division of Kathiawar. 
The trade of Cutch is chiefly by sea. The chief imports are of raw 
produce — grain, butter, sugar, groceries, fruit, and timber ; and of 
manufactured articles — iron, brass, and copper ware, cloth, furniture, 
stationery, and ivory. The exports are alum and cotton, Indian millet, 
pulse, and garlic, clarified butter, black coloured cloth, and silver ware. 
The Rajputana Railway is said to have had an injurious effect on the 
trade of Cutch, as traffic is diverted to Bombay and Karachi. In 1881, 
the imports amounted to ;£^585,34o, and the exports to ;£"i7o,i9o. 
The customs dues are for the most part farmed, and in 1881 realized 
^£"74,500. From Mandvi, which is the chief port of Cutch between the 
middle of August and the middle of June, vessels sail to Arabia, Muscat, 
Sind, Kathiawar, Bombay, and the Malabar coast. A breakwater to 
protect the Mandvi harbour is under construction. The Cutch sloops, 
called cotids, now generally built with decks, are esteemed very good sea- 
boats ; and the Cutch sailors, both Musalmans and Hindus of the Koli 
caste, are equal to any to be found on the western coast of India, both 
in skill and daring. Mandvi used at one time to have a close connection 
with Zanzibar, on the African coast, from which were imported ivory, 
rhinoceros hides, and slaves. The importation of slaves into Cutch 
was stopped in 1836. Transit duties have been abolished since 1874. 
As there are no forests in Cutch, timber for building purposes has to be 
imported. In addition to the beautiful embroidery and silver work, for 
which Cutch is chiefly noted, its manufactures of silk and cotton are of 
some importance. 

Admmisirati07i. — The territory of Cutch has a threefold jurisdiction ; 
the first comprises the State [Khdlsa) portion, under the direct 
management of the Rao ; the second, the estates of the Bhayad, or 
cadets of the Rao's house, a body of feudal landlords ; the third juris- 
diction is that over seven villages in the centre of the territory, known as' 
the Adhoi sub-division, which is held by one of the leading chiefs of the 
Rao's tribe, the Thakiir of Morvi in Kathiawar. For administrative 
purposes the State is divided into 8 Sub-divisions, namely, Abdasa with 
Nakhtarana, Aujar, Bhachan, Bhiij with Khavda, Lakhpat, Mandvi, 
Mundra, and Rapar with Khadir, each with an area of about 812 square 
miles, containing on an average the lands of 130 villages. Popularly, 



CUTCH. 63 

the province is divided into 7 Districts. The present Rao of Cutch, 
who is styled Maharaja Mirza Maha Rao Sri Khengarji, was born about 
1866, and succeeded on the death of his father, Rao Pragmulji, in 1876. 
He is the head of the Jareja Rajputs, whose possessions are spread 
over Cutch and a great part of Northern and Western Kathiawar. The 
present ruler is fifteenth in descent from Khengar. The gross revenue 
in 188 1 was stated to be ;£i 60,305. The land revenue was formerly- 
farmed out each year, but since the last few years it has been 
collected by Darbar officials, and is paid in kind, the State share being 
sold by auction. The Bhayad, who form the brotherhood of the Rao, 
are bound to furnish troops on emergency. The number of these chiefs 
has been estimated at 200, and the total number of the Jareja tribe in 
Cutch at about 20,000 souls. There have been several dissensions 
between the Rao and his Bhayad, in which the British Government has 
mediated. Their estates do not descend according to primogeniture, 
but a system of sub-division prevails. The chief of Cutch holds a 
patent or sanad from the British Government authorizing adoption, and 
in matters of succession the family follows the rule of primogeniture. 
The aggregate income of the Bhayad is estimated at about ;^.'i 50,000. 
A regular survey of Cutch is now being carried out, which will, when 
completed, form a valuable aid towards the general pacification of the 
country. The chief cause of British intervention has been the 
suppression of piracy, in which the inhabitants of Wagad, or eastern 
Cutch, were the chief offenders. Sati and female infanticide were at 
one time very prevalent ; the first has been suppressed entirely, and 
efforts for the suppression of the second have been attended with 
considerable success. In 1842, the proportion of males to females in 
the Jareja tribe was found to be as 8 to i ; in 188 1 it stood as 2*25 
to I. The proportion of males to females in the total population in 
1 88 1, was 1*03 to T. 

The State is by treaty bound to defray the actual expenses of the 
subsidiary force, stationed in Bhiij for the protection of the country, 
to the extent of ^18,695 a year. The Rao of Cutch is entitled to 
a salute of 17 guns. The military force consists of 240 cavalry, 404 
foot soldiers, 495 Arabs, and 40 artillerymen. In addition, there are 
some 3000 irregular infantry, and the Bhayad^could furnish on requisition 
a mixed force of about 4000 men. The police force numbers 602, 
or I man to 107 square miles, and to 850 of the population. There 
are 6 municipalities in the State, of which the principal are Bhiij, with 
an income in 1882 of ;^4i6o; Mandvi, of ;^346o ; and Anjar, of 
;£"ii6o ; average incidence of taxation, 2s. per head. The total income 
from the 6 municipalities in that year amounted to ;^999o. There 
were, in 1881-82, 86 recognised schools in the State, with a total attend- 
ance of 5342 pupils. The Census Report of 1881, however, returns 



64 CUTTACK. 

6502 boys and 419 girls as under instruction, besides 27,253 males and 
1 168 females as able to read and write, but not under instruction. 
Education is sadly neglected among the Bhayad, although the present 
Rao and his brother have set the young chiefs a good example in 
this respect; still a steady progress is observable, the number of 
cadets under tuition having risen from 50 to 93, while 8 Jareja girls also 
attend school. The education is very elementary. Total number of 
post-offices in the State, 38. 

Medical Aspects. — Lying along the parallel line of the tropic of 
Cancer, Cutch is almost beyond the rain-bringing influence of the 
south-west monsoon. The average annual rainfall at Bhiij for the 
21 years ending 1881, is returned at 1478 inches. During this period, 
the greatest amount registered in any one year was 34*88 inches in 
1862, and the least, I'lo inch in 1848. In i88t, the rainfall was 17*91 
inches, or 3*13 inches above the average. Along the sea-coast, through- 
out the year, the climate is agreeable ; and over the whole Province, 
for nearly nine months, it is cool and healthy. But in April and May, 
burning winds and dust storms prevail, and, again, during October 
and part of November the heat becomes excessive. In 1881, the 
mean temperature for the year at Bhiij was 78*4° F., ranging from 
a maximum of 113° in May to a minimum of 46° in January. The 
prevailing diseases are malarious and rheumatic fever, ague, small- 
pox, measles, ringworm, guineaworm, syphilis, and dysentery. [For 
further information regarding Cutch, see the Bombay Gazetteer^ by J. 
M. Campbell, Esq., C.S., vol. v. pp. 1-277 (Bombay, 1880). Also 
Treaties^ Engagements^ and Sunnuds relating to India^ etc. (Revised 
Edition, Calcutta, 1876), vol. iv. pp. 1-40.] 

Cuttack {Kataka, ' The Fort '). — District in the Orissa Division of 
the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, lying between 20° 2' and 21° 10' 
N. lat, and between 85° 43' and 87° 4' e. long. Area, 3517 square 
miles ; population (1881) 1,738,165. Cuttack forms the central District 
of the Orissa Commissionership or Division. It is bounded on the 
north by the Baitarani river and Dhamra estuary, which separate it from 
Balasor District ; on the east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the south by 
Puri District ; and on the west by the Tributary States of Orissa. 
The chief town, which is also the administrative head-quarters of the 
District and of the Orissa Division, is Cuttack City, situated at the 
bifurcation of the Mahanadi and Katjuri rivers. 

Physical Aspects. — Cuttack consists of three distinct tracts, which are 
continuations of three similar tracts which constitute Balasor District. 
The first is a marshy woodland strip along the coast, from 3 to 30 
miles in breadth ; the second, an intermediate arable tract of rice land 
in the older part of the delta ; and the third, a broken hilly region, 
which forms the western boundary of the District. The marshy strip 



CUTTACK. 6- 



3 



along the coast resembles the Bengal Sundarbans as regards its swamps, 
dense jungle, and noxious atmosphere, but lacks the noble forest scenery 
of the Gangetic tract ; it is intersected by innumerable streams and 
creeks, whose sluggish waters deposit their silt, and form morasses and 
quicksands. Cultivation does not begin till the limits of this dismal 
region are passed. The intermediate arable plains stretch inland for 
about 40 miles, and are intersected by several large rivers, which 
emerge from the western mountains, and throw out a network of 
branches in every direction. Their channels, after innumerable twists 
and interlacings, frequently rejoin the parent stream as it approaches 
the ocean. This arable region is rich in rice-fields, and is dotted over 
with magnificent banyan trees, thickets of bamboo, and fine palm and 
mango groves. It is the only really fertile part of the District. 
The hilly frontier tract separating the settled part of Orissa from the 
Tributary States, consists of a series of ranges from 10 to 15 miles 
in length, running nearly due east and west, with thickly - wooded 
slopes and lovely valleys between. This region sends down to the 
plains large quantities of jungle products— j-^// and other timber, resin, 
lac, tasar silk, beeswax, dyes, fibres, etc. Unfortunately, the timber is 
small, and only valuable as fuel. In this western tract lie all the hills 
of the District, except a few isolated peaks near Cuttack town. None 
exceeds 2500 feet in height, but many of them are interesting for their 
shrines or their ancient forts. The chief of these are Naltigiri, with 
its sandal trees and Buddhist remains ; Udayagiri (Sunrise Hill), with 
its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruined temples 
and caves; and Assiagiri, the highest hill in the District (2500 feet), 
with its old mosque. The Mahavinyaka peak in the Tributary States, 
visible from Cuttack, has for ages been consecrated to the worship 
of Siva. 

Rivers. — The conspicuous feature of Cuttack District is its rivers. 
These issue in three magnificent streams, by three gorges, through the 
mountainous frontier on the west. In the extreme north of the District, 
the sacred Baitarani, the Styx of the Hindus, emerges from Keunjhar 
State, in which it takes its rise, and forms the boundary between 
Cuttack and Balasor. In the south the Mahanadi, or ' Great River,' 
pours down upon the delta from a narrow gully at Naraj, about 7 miles 
west of Cuttack town. About half-way between the two, the Brahmani 
enters the District. As in the case of all deltaic rivers, the beds of 
these great streams lie higher than the surrounding country ; and the 
District is consequently divided into two great depressions, — one lying 
between the Baitarani and the Brahmani, and the other between the 
Brahmani and the Mahanadi. After innumerable bifurcations, the 
three rivers enter the ocean by three different mouths. The waters of 
the Baitarani and Brahmani meet before they reach the sea, and the 

VOL. IV. ' E 



66 CUTTACK. 

combined stream flows into the Bay of Bengal at Point Palmyras 
under the name of Dhamra. The Mahanadi, or rather that portion 
of it which remains in Cuttack District, after many interlacings, 
forms two great estuaries — one generally known as the Devi, which, 
with its connected channel the Jotdar, enters the bay at the south- 
eastern corner of the District ; and the other, bearing the name of the 
parent river, the Mahanadi, which empties itself into the sea at False 
Point, about half-way down the coast. Each of the three great rivers 
throws off, on its way through the District, a number of distributaries, 
those of the Mahanadi being the most numerous and important. The 
chief of these offshoots of the Mahanadi are the Katjuri (which again 
splits up into two branches, one of which is called the Devi, while the 
other retains the name of Katjuri) and the Paika, from its right or 
south bank ; and the Birupa and Chitartala (which eventually 
becomes the Nun), from its north bank. The Brahmani receives, soon 
after its junction with the Baitarani, an important tributary, the Kharsua 
which rises in the Tributary States. 

Estuaries and Harbours. — The great rivers of Cuttack thus enter the 
sea by three noble estuaries, — the Dhamra, Mahanadi, and Devi, — • 
which will be fully described under their respective names. The name 
Dhamra strictly applies only to the northern and more important of the 
two channels by which the united waters of the Baitarani, Brahmani, 
and Kharsua enter the Bay of Bengal. The southern channel is the 
Maipara river, the mouth of which is obstructed by bars and a high 
surf. The entrance to the Dhamra, though also difficult, has gready 
improved of late years, and is well marked ; the minimum reduced 
depth at the lowest possible tide, according to the latest survey, is 
6 feet lo inches, but during flood-tide vessels drawing as much as i8 
feet pass in with safety. The port lies within the jurisdiction of 
Balasor District, the village of Dhamra being situated on the north 
bank of the estuary. The Mahanadi estuary has several mouths, of 
which the principal debouches through the shoals to the south of the 
lighthouse on False Point. Although for many miles up the river there 
is abundant depth for ships of 300 or 400 tons burthen, its mouth is 
blocked by a bar, which adds to the perils of shoal water the dangers 
incident to constant changes in the channel. A description of False 
Point, and a sketch of the history of the harbour and its trade, will 
be found in its proper place. Two separate channels lead inland from 
the anchorage — the Jambu river on the north, and on the south the 
Bakud creek, a short, deep branch of the Mahanadi. Unfortunately 
for inland navigation by ships, bars of sand intervene between the 
anchorage and these channels, and, except at high water, block the 
entrance to both. At full tide, cargo boats and steamers enter with 
ease. The Devi (which, with its channel the Jotdar, forms the last 



CUTTACK. 67 

part of the great network of rivers into which the Kdtjuri branch of the 
Mahanadi bifurcates) enters the sea south of the boundary of Cuttaclc 
District. In this case, too, bars of sand across the mouth of the 
estuary render what would otherwise be an admirable harbour almost 
useless. Laden country boats can proceed up the river for a distance 
of 28 miles in the dry season; and an extensive rice trade has developed 
at Machhgaon, about 9 miles from its mouth. A permanent beacon 
has been erected at the entrance of the estuary. Several tidal creeks, 
generally very winding and narrow, connect False Point with the 
Dhamra and Devi estuaries, and are available for country boats all the 
year round. 

Canals. — The great problem in Orissa is to prevent the rivers 
from destroying the crops during the rains, and at the same time 
husband and utilize them for agriculture and commerce in the dry 
season. The five great rivers which collect the drainage of 63,350 
square miles of the hill country towards Central India dash down, in 
time of flood, 2,760,000 cubic feet of water per second upon the 5000 
square miles of the Cuttack and Balasor delta ; while, in hot weather, 
the supply dwindles down to 1690 cubic feet per second. To husband 
and control this enormous water supply, a vast system of canals was 
projected. An independent company (the East Indian Irrigation Com- 
pany), with unguaranteed capital, undertook the execution of the 
necessary works for the irrigation of the Province, and its protection 
from floods ; and in 1862, operations were commenced. An account 
of this great undertaking, designed to irrigate a total area of 1,600,000 
acres, will be found in the article on Orissa. The region over which 
the operations extend reaches along the coast from the Chilka lake, in 
the south of Puri District, to the Salandi (Salnadi) river in Balasor, 
and is traversed by the deltaic mouths of the three Cuttack rivers and 
the Salandi. The company proved unable to complete their project, 
and Government took over their whole works from 31st December 
1868. The chief canals of the system are four in number — viz. (i) The 
High Level Canal, originally designed to provide a navigable trade 
route between Cuttack and Calcutta via Midnapur and Ulubaria ; 
(2) the Kendrapara Canal, extending from Cuttack to Marsaghai, 
and designed to irrigate 385 square miles of country; (3) the Taldanda 
Canal, connecting Cuttack city with the main branch of the Mahanadi 
within tidal range, and intended both for navigation and irrigation ; 
and (4) the Machhgaon Canal, connecting Cuttack with the mouth 
of the Devi river. The idea of making the High Level Canal a trade 
route between Cuttack and Calcutta has been abandoned; and the 
Orissa branch is not carried beyond Balasor District. The Bengal 
branch, starting from Ulubaria, stops short at Midnapur town. A 
steamer traffic is now maintained by way of the canals between the 



6S CUTTACK. 

seaboard at False Point and Cuttack Town, although the great bulk of 
the trade is carried on by native cargo boats. 

Embankments.— \\. is obvious that the immense volumes of water 
poured down upon the comparatively small Orissa delta must spread 
over the country with overwhelming violence. From time immemorial, 
defensive embankments have existed along the banks of the rivers, but 
these have hitherto failed to protect the low lands lying between the 
various deltaic channels. In Cuttack District, 680 miles of Govern- 
ment and private embankments endeavour to regulate 35 rivers or 
distributaries; and it is recorded that between 1831 and 1867, 
;^i57,676 were spent in this District alone on the construction and 
repairs of these protective works. Adding the amount of revenue 
remitted in consequence of droughts during the same period, it has 
been officially estimated that the uncontrolled state of the Cuttack 
rivers cost during those thirty-six years a sum of ;£3oo,ooo. The two 
items for remissions of revenue and cost of protective works alone 
amount to an annual charge of more than \o\ per cent, on the land 
revenue of the District. The great inundation of 1866 made no fewer 
than 413 breaches in Cuttack District, not one of the 35 embanked 
rivers being effectually controlled. |H 

History. — In historical interest and administrative importancer 
Cuttack is by far the leading District of Orissa ; and the town of the 
same name has continued to be the capital of the Province for the 
last 900 years. The District, however, has no separate history apart 
from that w^hich will be found in the article on Orissa, to which the 
reader is referred. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 disclosed a total population of 
1,494,784 persons, dwelling in 5500 villages, and inhabiting 281,430 
houses. The next Census, in 1881, returned the population at 1,738,165, 
showing an increase of 243,381, or 16*29 per cent., during the 9 years. 
As explained in the article on Balasor District, this large increase repre- 
sents an actual advance in the numbers of a population recovering during 
a series of prosperous years from the devastating famine of 1866. Area 
of the District in 1881, 3517 square miles; number of villages or towns, 
12,841 ; houses, 344,540, of which 316,436 were occupied and 28,104 
unoccupied ; average density of population, 494*22 persons per square 
mile; villages per square mile, 3*65; houses per square mile, 97*96; 
persons per village, 135 ; persons per inhabited house, 5*49. Classified 
according to sex, there were — males, 849,254, and females, 888,911; 
proportion of males in the total population, 48*28 per cent. In religion, 
the population is almost entirely Hindu. The excess of females is 
explained by the fact that numbers of men from Cuttack District 
emigrate to Calcutta and other towns as palanquin-bearers, labourers, 
and domestic servants, leaving their wives and families behind thein. 



CUTTACK. 69 

The Census of 1881 returned the number of Hindus at 1,687,608; 
Muhammadans numbered 47,259; Christians, 2331; Sikhs, 104; 
Buddhists, 3; Erahmos, 3; and 'others,' 857, consisting mainly of 
aboriginal tribes still professing their primitive faiths. The Census 
Report, however, includes 58,087 other aboriginal tribes and castes, 
but classifies them as Hindus in religion. 

Among the higher castes of Hindus are the Brahmans, who number 
177,193, and the Rajputs 10,782. Next come the Khandaits, 339,425, 
the most numerous caste in the District. Their name signifies ' swords- 
man,' and they originally composed the ancient militia of the country, 
holding lands on a strictly military tenure. They are now chiefly 
cultivators. The Goala, or great pastoral caste, comes next, with 
140,870; followed by the Chasa or chief cultivating caste, with 103,314. 
Next in number come the Pans, a degraded caste of landless day- 
labourers, 78,967 in number; and the Kandaras, a cognate caste, 
73,882 in number. Th other Hindu castes, exceeding 10,000 in 
number, are represented as follows : — Karan, writers and Government 
servants, corresponding to the Kayasths of Bengal proper, 41,761 ; 
Baniya, traders, 32,709 ; Siidra or Sud, a respectable caste of cultivators 
and domestic servants, 53,436; Napit, barbers, 33,311 ; Dhobi, washer- 
men, 33,449; Kumbhar, potters, 19,985; Lobar, blacksmiths, 15,012; 
Kandu, sweetmeat makers, 15,754; Teli, oil-sellers and traders, 58,559 ; 
Tanti, weavers, 41,777; Barhai, carpenters, 19,488; Keut, fishermen, 
46,898; Chamars, skinners and shoemakers, 12,759; Bauri, labourers, 
56,819. There were also 31,328 Hindus not recognising caste, of 
whom 29,614 were Vaishnavs. The aboriginal population returned as 
Hindus in the Census Report numbered 58,087, including 24,792 
Gonds, 2443 Bhuiyas, and 146 Kharwars. The remainder, 30,706 in 
number, consist of the wilder tribes, such as the Kandhs, Savars, etc., 
and are not returned separately in the Census Report. The vast 
majority of the Hindus are Vishnu-worshippers, but almost all the 
Brahmans are Sivaites. The worshippers of Kali, one of the forms 
of the wife of Siva, are few in number, and are principally found 
among the Bengali settlers. The Muhammadans are divided according 
to sect into— Sunnis, 44,444; Shias, 799; Wahabis, 2; and unspecified, 
2014. Of the 2331 Christians, 278 are Europeans or Americans; 
210 Eurasians; 18 19 natives; and 24 unspecified. Two peasant colonies 
of native Christians have been founded by the Cuttack Baptist Mission — 
one at Chhagan, a village in Athgarh State, but within a short distance 
of Cuttack town, on the opposite side of the Mahanadi ; and the other 
at Khanditar, on the banks of the Kharsua river. These little colonies 
live entirely by agriculture ; while the town Christians find employment 
as Government servants, or in connection with the Mission, or as 
domesdc servants or day-labourers. 



70 CUTTACK. 

The occupations of the male inhabitants of the District are returned 
in the Census Report in 6 main divisions as follow: — (i) Professional 
class, including Government ofiEicers, military, and the learned pro- 
fessions, 24,974; (2) domestic servants, hotel and lodging-house 
keepers, etc., 9369 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, general 
dealers, carriers, etc., 12,161 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 
including gardeners, 265,599; (5) manufacturing, artisan, and other 
industrial classes, 101,923 ; (6) indefinite and non-productive (composed 
of 70,524 general labourers, 13 men of rank and property without 
occupation, and 364,691 unspecified, including children), 435,228. 

The population of the District is almost entirely rural, only 3 towns 
containing upwards of 5000 souls, namely, Cuttack, 42,656; Kendra- 
para, 15,696; and Jajpur, 11,233. Of the 12,841 villages and towns, 
10,360 contain less than 200 inhabitants; 2168 have from 200 to 500; 
287 from 500 to Tooo; 22 from 1000 to 2000; i from 2000 to 3000; 
and 3 upwards of 10,000 inhabitants. 

Ethnically, the population consists of three races — Aboriginal, Indo- 
Aryan or Hindu, and Afghan or Musalman. The aboriginal tribes, 
here as elsewhere, cling to their mountains and jungles. They chiefly 
consist of the Kandhs, Kols and Savars, and a brief account of them 
will be found in the article on the Orissa Tributary States. 
They are regarded by the orthodox Hindus as little higher than the 
beasts of the wildernesses they inhabit. Miserably poor, they subsist 
for the most part by selling firewood and the other products of their 
jungles ; but a few of them have patches of cultivated land, and many 
earn wages as day-labourers. They form, in fact, an intermediate stage 
of destitution between the comparatively well-off tribes in the Tributary 
States (the home of these races), and the Pans, Bauris, and Kandaras, 
who now rank as the basest of the Hindu community, but who are 
supposed to be remnants of the pre-Aryan people, from the similarity 
of their habits to those of the aborigines in the Tributary States. The 
great bulk of the Indo- Aryan or Hindu population consists of Uriyas, 
with a residue of immigrant Bengalis, Lala Kayasths from Behar and 
Upper India, Marathas from Central India, and Sikhs from the Punjab. 
The Musalman population are the descendants of the northern soldiery 
who swooped down upon Orissa in 1558, and during subsequent 
Muhammadan invasions. 

Agriculture, etc. — The staple crop of Cuttack, in common with the 
other Districts of Orissa, is rice. Bidliy corresponding to the dus or 
autumn rice of Bengal, is sown broadcast on high land in May, and 
reaped in September. A tradition relates that this rice was not created 
by Brahma, the author of the universe, but invented by the Sage 
Viswamitra. It is therefore considered less pure, and its use is pro- 
hibited in religious ceremonies. The sdrad rice corresponds with the 



I 



CUTTACK, 71 

dman or winter crop of Bengal. Some of its varieties are sown on low, 
marshy ground ; others are carefully reared in nurseries, and removed, 
plant by plant, to higher and drier land. All attempts to introduce 
Carolina seed into Cuttack District have failed, owing, it is thought, to 
the unsuitability of the soil. The area under rice has increased by 
about one-fourth during the last twenty-five years, but the productive 
powers of the land are said to have diminished. This is accounted for 
by the constant working, which allows it no rest; and rotation of 
crops, although known in Cuttack, is not systematically practised. 
Deficiency of labour is also sometimes alleged as a cause for this 
decrease of fertility. The large and important public works now in 
course of construction have, to a small extent, withdrawn hired labour 
from agriculture ; but the demand for it has increased. The other 
cereals grown in the District are mdndiid (a grain peculiar to Orissa), 
wheat, barley; pulses, fibres, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and pdii^ are also 
produced. 

Of the total area of 2,469,300 acres, 1,357,990, or 55 per cent., were 
returned in the Statistical Reporter for October 1876 as cultivated; 
242,010, or 10 per cent., as cultivable, but untilled ; and 869,300 
acres, or 35 per cent., as uncultivable waste. The cultivated area is 
thus distributed : — Under rainy season crops, 1,407,890 acres ; under 
dry season crops, 97,900 acres; total, 1,505,790 acres, including land 
bearing two crops in the year. Rice occupies 1,097,000 acres, or 81 
per cent, of the cultivated land. The average produce of each crop 
per acre is thus returned : — Rice, 1000 lbs. ; wheat, 150; inferior food- 
grains, 270; cotton, 150; oil-seeds, 300; fibres, 160; sugar, 120; tobacco, 
1000; vegetables, 3500 lbs. In 1882-83 the price of common rice 
was 4s. 4d. per cwt, and wheat iis. 6|d. per cwt. The year was a 
very favourable one, and the crops exceptionally good. Irrigation has 
hitherto been conducted almost entirely by means of natural water- 
courses, but the artificial works now open and in progress fertilize a 
large proportion of the District. 

In the Orissa famine of 1866, the maximum prices reached were 
as follows : — Best cleaned rice, 3 J sers per rupee, or 32s. per cwt. ; 
coarse rice, 4 sers per rupee, or 28s. per cwt. A farm of 25 acres 
or upwards is considered a very large holding; one of between 10 
and 25 acres, a good-sized one; and anything much below 10 acres, 
a small one. Every well-to-do villager has a few acres, and the 
standard by which a cultivator is judged is the number of ploughs 
he can command. This, however, is no true criterion as to the 
value of his farm, inasmuch as some kinds of crops, such as Mali rice 
and sugar-cane, require much more ploughing than others. In a 
holding consisting of two-crop and one-crop land in fair proportions, 
6 acres are technically termed a 'plough of land, — i.e. the quantity 



72 CUTTACK. 

which a husbandman with one plough and a single pair of bullocks 
can cultivate. A holding of 1 2 acres enables a Cuttack cultivator to 
live quite as well as a respectable shopkeeper, or as a person earning 
1 6s. a month. His family can afford to eat more food than either of 
these two classes. One-half of the peasantry may be set down as really 
well off. One-fourth are permanently in debt to the village money- 
lender or the landlord. The remainder are just able to live, although 
a change for the better has set in in this respect, and is steadily making 
progress. Able-bodied pauperism is unknown, except among the religious 
mendicants. The District seems to be steadily progressing. Vast sums 
of money have been spent on irrigation works, and much of it sinks 
into the country. The improvement has probably affected the mercan- 
tile and labouring classes more than the actual cultivators. Wages of 
agricultural day-labourers are generally paid in kind, and do not seem to 
have altered since 1850. The rate is about 12 to 15 lbs. of unhusked 
rice per diem. All labour, paid by money, has risen in price. Unskilled 
labourers now (1883) earn from 3d. to gd. a day, and skilled artisans in 
towns from 4jd. to is. 6d. a day. Roughly speaking, it may be said 
that labour fetches double in the towns what it does in the country. 

Natural Calamities. — The calamities of Cuttack. as of all the other 
Orissa Districts, are floods and droughts. The former arise from 
sudden freshets of the rivers before they enter the District, and not 
from excessive rainfall within it. Between 1830 and 1876, flood has 
caused a general destruction of crops in eight years out of the forty-six. 
For a description of the protective works of Cuttack, see the previous 
sections on Canals and Emba7ikme7its. Drought is more disastrous 
than flood, and when long protracted, has always been followed by 
famine. On five different occasions since 1850, drought has occurred 
on a sufficiently large scale to endanger the safety of the people. For 
an account of the great famine of 1866, see Orissa. 

Manufactures. — The manufactures of Cuttack District are insignificant. 
Brass vessels, brass ornaments, and coarse cloth are the chief articles 
made. The total annual out-turn of the cotton looms is roughly valued 
at ;£"3o,ooo ; the brass and copper work at £6000 ; the oil-pressing at 
jQ']6oo ; the joiners' work at ^8500. Silver filigree work, the speciality 
of Cuttack city, is confined to a very few hands, but the work is becom- 
ing better known, and the industry is extending. The salt manufacture 
has greatly declined in this District. In 1875-76, less than 1000 tons 
were manufactured, against a total consumption of 7407 tons, averaging 
II lbs. per head of the population. There is a considerable iron- 
smelting industry in the hill country to the south of Cuttack. The 
total annual out-turn of iron is valued at ;^2o,ooo. 

Commerce^ Trade., etc. — Till within the last few years, trade hardly 
existed in Orissa ; but the improvement of False Point Harbour has 



CUTTACK. 73 

recently opened a market for the surplus rice of the Province, and the 
sea-borne trade of Cuttack District is virtually that of False Point. 
During the seven years ending 1875-76, the total imports were valued 
at;2^652,Soo, having risen from ;£"3 1,000 in 1869-70 to nearly ^140,000 
in 1875-76. The exports in the same period aggregated ;2^6 18,609, 
having increased from ^^ 18, coo to ^127,000. In 1881-82, the sea- 
borne imports into Cuttack amounted to ^84,716, and the exports to 
;^i 99,389. The chief road is the Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta 
to Ganjam, which enters the District from Balasor. From Cuttack 
city a branch proceeds due south to the town of Puri. Other important 
roads are those from Cuttack city to Chandbali and Taldanda. The 
total length of all the means of communication was returned as follows 
in 1876: — Rivers, 527 miles; canals, 135 miles — total mileage of 
waterways, 662 : first-class roads, 72 miles; second-class roads, 173; 
third-class roads, 336 miles — total mileage of roads, 581. A preliminary 
survey for a railway to connect Benares with Cuttack has been recently 
carried out. Besides having a large pilgrim-passenger traffic, the rail- 
way, which would traverse Chutia Nagpur from north-west to south-east, 
would afiord an outlet to the traffic of the plateau to the North-Western 
Provinces and to Orissa. 

Administration. — For 1829-30, the first year in which Cuttack 
District had an existence in its present circumscribed limits, as distinct 
from Puri and Balasor, the gross revenue is returned at ^139,642, and 
the gross expenditure at ;^i 14,438. In 1860-61, the gross revenue had 
increased t0;^202,867, and the disbursements to ^193,882. In 1870- 
187 1, the total income realized was ^^243,958, and the disbursements 
amounted to ^223,659. In 1829-30, the land yielded ;;{^7 9,893 ; in 
1870-71, ^84,781; and in 1882-83, ^^87,482. In 1829, Cuttack 
District contained 1509 estates, held by 21 18 proprietors; by 1870-71, 
the number of estates had risen to 3571, and of proprietors to 9554. 
In 1882-83, the separate estates on the District rent-roll numbered 
3863. In 1805, when the jurisdiction of Cuttack included also the 
greater part of Balasor and Puri, the land revenue of the Province 
amounted to ^121,904, or only one-fourth more than that of the 
single District of Cuttack in 1882. This land revenue was paid by 
2275 estates, held by 2517 owners. At the present day, Cuttack 
District alone contains nearly double this number of estates, and 
quadruple the number of proprietors. Protection to person and pro- 
perty has increased still more rapidly. In 18 16, there were only 4 
courts, revenue and judicial, in the whole District. In 1850, the 
number rose to 11; and in 1882-83, to 13. For police purposes, 
Cuttack is divided into 9 thdnds or police circles. In 1881, the 
regular police consisted of 491 men of all ranks. The municipal 
force for the protection of the three municipalities of Cuttack, Jajpur, 



74 CUTTACK. 

and Kendrapara, was 86 strong. The village watch numbered 5541. 
The total protective machinery of the District, therefore, consisted 
of 61 18 officers and men; equal to an average of i man to every 
•57 of a square mile as compared with the area, or i man to every 
284 persons as compared with the population. 

There are 4 prisons in Cuttack — viz. the District jail at the civil 
station, and lock-ups at the sub-divisional towns of Jajpur and Kendra- 
para. In 1882, the daily number of prisoners was as follows: — Civil, 
8*i8; under trial, 21*42; convicts, 268'83 : total, 298*43, of whom 
15*90 were females. The prison manufactures do not lessen the cost 
of the jails in any material degree. There is no extramural work. 

The number of schools rose from 3 in 1856-57 to 50 in 1870-71, 
and the number of pupils from 168 to 2755 in the same period. By 
1875, the number of inspected schools had further increased to 539, 
attended by 10,196 pupils; and by 1881-82 to 3804 schools, and to 
40,674 pupils. These figures show i school to every *95 square mile 
of the District area, and 23*4 pupils to every 1000 of the popula- 
tion. This rapid increase is due to the extension of the grant-in-aid 
rules to previously unaided institutions. The Cuttack High School 
includes four departments — the college, the law department, medical 
department, and the zild school ; the students on the rolls on the 31st 
of March 1882 were 38 in the college, 8 in the law class, 30 in the 
medical class, and 288 in the school. European and Eurasian educa- 
tion was afforded by 2 Roman Catholic and 2 Protestant schools, 
attended by 229 pupils. Many pupils in the Roman Catholic schools, 
however, were natives. 

Medical Aspects, — The climate of Orissa is the same as that of the 
southern Districts of Bengal. It may be divided into three seasons — 
the hot, commencing in March ; the rainy, in the middle of June ; and 
the cold, in the beginning of November. The Meteorological Depart- 
ment has stations at False Point Lighthouse, and at Cuttack town. 
The average annual rainfall during the twelve years ending 188 1 
is returned at 56*59 inches at Cuttack town, and 73*19 inches at 
False Point. The average mean temperature at Cuttack town in 
1881 was 80*8° F. ; the maximum recorded being 106*9° i^ April, 
and the minimum 51*8° in January. At False Point, the mean 
temperature was 76*6° F. ; maximum, 103*5° i^^ April; minimum, 
49*8° in January. Intermittent fever is common throughout the 
year, and cholera always breaks out in the months of June, July, 
and August. Measles and small-pox are also prevalent. Cattle-disease 
of a fatal character often breaks out in Cuttack. There are two 
charitable dispensaries in the District, viz. the Cuttack Hospital and 
the Jajpur Dispensary. [For further information regarding Cuttack, 
see my Orissa (2 vols. ; Smith & Elder), and Statistical Account of 



CUTTACK—CUTWA. 75 

Bengal^ vol. xviii. pp. i to 243 (Trlibner & Co., London, 1877). Also 
Mr. A. Stirling's Geographical^ Statistical^ and Historical Account of 
Orissa, published in vol. xv. of the Asiatic Reseai'ches^ and written 
about 1822 ; Sketch of the History of Orissa from 1803 to 1828, by G. 
Toynbee, Esq., C.S. (Calcutta, 1873); Census Report of Bengal for 
1 88 1 ; Annual Administration Reports of the Government of Ben gal , 
from 1880 to 1883.] 

Cuttack. — Principal or head - quarters Sub -division of Cuttack 
District, containing an area of 989 square miles, with 4452 villages 
and towns, and 126,128 occupied houses. Situated between 20° 2' 45" 
and 20° 42' o" N. lat, and between 85° 35' o" and 86° 19' o" e. long. 
Population (1881), Hindus, 635,241; Muhammadans, 26,159; Sikhs, 
96 ; Buddhists, 3 ; Christians, 2052 ; * others,' 4 : total, 663,555, namely, 
325,342 males and 338,213 females. Average density of population, 
671 persons per square mile ; villages per square mile, 4*50 ; houses per 
square mile, 144; persons per village, 150; persons per house, 5 "2. 
The Sub-division comprises the three police circles {thdnds) of Cuttack, 
Salipur, and Jagatsinghpur. It contained in 1883, 9 magisterial and 
revenue courts, a regular police force of 369 of all ranks, besides 
2997 village watchmen. 

Cuttack {Kataka, ^ The Fort '). — Chief town and administrative 
head-quarters of Cuttack District, and capital city of the Province of 
Orissa ; situated on the peninsula formed by the bifurcation of the 
Mahanadi, where it throws off the Katjuri. Lat. 20° 29' 4" n., long. 
85° 54' 29" E. The city was founded about 900 years ago by one of 
the kings of the Long-haired or Lion dynasty, and has continued to be 
the seat of Government to the present day. Its position as the key of 
the hill territory, and as the centre of the network of the Orissa canals, 
gives it both military and commercial importance. At present, how- 
ever, Cuttack is mainly known in the world for its beautiful filigree 
work in gold and silver. The town contains a population of — Hindus, 
333O73; Muhammadans, 7687; Christians and 'others,' 1896: total, 
42,656, namely, 22,056 males and 20,600 females. Area of town site, 
31 1 2 acres. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^^3497 ; expenditure, 
;£"3o66 ; average rate of municipal taxation, is. 6d. per head of the 
town population. The citadel of Cuttack, known as Fort Barabati, 
is situated on the south bank of the Katjuri river, opposite the city. 
It was taken by storm by the British on the conquest of the Province, 
in October 1803 ; and is now in ruins. 

Cutwa. — Sub-division and town, Bardwan District, Bengal. — See 
Katwa. 



76 DABEIN—DABHOL, 



Dabein (Dhabein). — Tidal creek in Pegu District, Pegu Division, 
British Burma. It runs between the Pu-zwon-daung and Pegu rivers, 
and is 15 feet deep at high tide at Dabein village, up to which the 
largest boats can ascend at all times. In the rains, the water becomes 
fresh, and it is navigable throughout its entire course. 

Dabha. — Petty State of Mahi Kantha, Bombay Presidency; popu- 
lation (1881) 1922; estimated area under cultivation, 5045 acres; 
revenue, ^300. The Chief or Miah pays an annual tribute of ^15 to 
the Gaekwar of Baroda, and ^5 to the Thakur of Amalyara. The 
present ruler is a Mukwana Koli, converted to Islam. He has no 
j-^/^^^ authorizing adoption ; the family follows the rule o*f primogeniture. 
Transit duties are levied in the State. The religion of the Miahs of 
Dabha is a mixture of Muhammadanism and Hinduism ; they give 
their daughters in marriage to Muhammadans of rank, and marry the 
daughters of Koli chiefs. They burn their dead. 

Dabha. — Town in Chanda District, Central Provinces. Lat. 19° 38' 
N., long. 79° 42' E. Manufactures — tasar silk handkerchiefs, coloured 
cloths, and silver snuffboxes. Handsome woollen rugs were formerly 
also made, but this industry has now died out. Small local trade, prin- 
cipally in cotton cloths, groceries, and salt. Until the British occupation, 
Dabha was subject to the raids of the wild tribes across the Wardha, 
and even now the shopkeepers are afraid to expose their goods. 
Population (1881) 2036. Government school for boys, girls' school, 
police station-house, and District post-office. The population is almost 
wholly Telugu. 

Dabhoi. — Town in the territory of the Gaekwar of Baroda, Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency; 15 miles s.e. of Baroda. Lat. 20° 
10' N., long. 73° 28' E. ; population ( 1 881) 14,925, namely, males 7656, 
and females 7269. Contains a customs house, police lines, a travellers' 
bungalow, a railway station, a dispensary, a jail, several schools, and a 
cotton ginning factory. Dabhoi is connected by railway with Miagam, 
Baroda, and Chandod. One-third of the population is composed of 
Muhammadans. In the town is a place called mdmddokri^ where 
stands a khir7ii or musk-melon tree, through whose hollow trunk no 
guilty person can pass. Dabhoi is the Sanskrit Dha,rbhavati of the 
nth century, famous for its ancient fortress, and the beauty of its walls 
and gates. 

Dabhoi. — Town and port in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. 
Of considerable historical importance, and the principal port of the 
South Konkan in the 14th, 15th, and i6th centuries, carrying on an 
extensive trade with Persia and the Red Sea ports. Also noted for its 



DABKA-^DACCA. 



77 



beautiful mosque, which is the only specimen of pure Saracenic archi- 
tecture in the Southern Konkan. Dabhol was the capital of a province 
of the Bijapur kingdom under Yusaf Add Shah, which extended from 
the Sivitri river to Deogarh, including nearly the whole of the present 
District of Ratnagiri. 

Dabka. — Village in Baroda State, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presi- 
dency. Population (1881) 2823. Situated on the left bank of the Mahi 
river; 18 miles from Baroda. Noted on account of the deer and 
boar preserves in the neighbourhood. Contains a police station and 
school, and a couple of bungalows which are placed at the disposal of 
British officers who may accompany the Gaekwar on his hunting 
expeditions. 

Dabla. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) Native State, Rajputana. 
Originally a sub-fief of Bunera, but confiscated by the Rana, on his 
feudatory thdkur becoming insubordinate, and refusing to pay the quit- 
rent. 

Ddbling". — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab; situated in lat. 31° 
45' N., and long. 78° 39' e., on a belt of arable land near the left 
bank of the Sutlej (Satlej). The cliffs on the opposite side of the 
; river rise to a sheer elevation of 6000 or 7000 feet. The population 
; have the Chinese type of physiognomy, and profess the Buddhist 
faith. A mile east stands another village, known as Diibling ; the path 
between the two places is rendered practicable by means of hanging 
balconies or wooden scaffolds fastened against the face of the precipice. 
The two villages generally bear the joint appellation of Dabling-Diibling. 
Elevation above sea level, 9400 feet. 

Dabri. — A guaranteed Thakurate or petty chiefship of the Western 
Malwa Agency of Central India. Receives ;£'i8 per annum from 
Sindhia on Haveli Ujain and on Pan Bahar. 

Dabtura. — Village in Bisauli tahsil, Budaun District, North-Western 
Provinces, 24 miles distant from Budaun town ; only noticeable as 
being a station on the Chandausi and Bareli branch of the Gudh and 
Rohilkhand Railway. 

Dacca {Dhdkd). — Division or Commissionership of Eastern Bengal, 
lying between lat. 21° 48' and 25° 26' n., and between long. 89° 20' 
and 91° 18' E. Bounded on the north by the Garo Hills; on the 
east by Sylhet District, Tipperah, and Noalchali ; on the south by the 
Bay of Bengal; and on the west by Khulna, Jesse r, Pabna, Bogra, 
and Rangpur Districts. Dacca Division comprises the four Districts of 
Dacca, Faridpur, Bakarganj, and Maimansingh. Area, according to the 
Census of 1881, 15,000 square miles, containing 28,022 towns and 
villages, and 1,207,908 houses, of which 1,158,903 were occupied and 
49,005 unoccupied. The population in 1881 numbered 8,700,939, against 
7359Ij768 on a corresponding area in 1872, showing an increase of 



78 DACCA. 

1,109,171, or 14-61 per cent., in the nine years between the two Censuses. 
Number of males in 1881, 4,366,728; females, 4,334,211; average 
density of population, 580 persons per square mile ; number of villages 
per square mile, 1-87 ; inhabitants per town or village, 310 ; houses per 
square mile, 80*5 ; inmates per house, 7-5. According to religious 
classification, the Muhammadans formed the majority of the popula- 
tion, numbering 5,531,869 against 3,122,624 Hindus. Other religions 
were represented as follows: — Christians, 15,408; Buddhists, 4^59; 
Brahmos, 131; Jew, i; and 'others,' nearly all tribes professing 
aboriginal faiths, and confined to Maimansingh District, 26,047. 

Dacca {Dhdkd, derived either from the dhdk tree (Butea frondosa) or 
from Dhdkeswari^ ' the concealed goddess '). — District of Eastern 
Bengal, situated at the junction of the river systems of the Ganges 
and the Brahmaputra, between 23° 6' 30" and 24° 20' 12" n. lat., and 
between 89° 47' 50" and 91° i' 10" e. long. Bounded on the north by 
the District of Maimansingh ; east by Tipperah ; south and south-west 
by Bakarganj and Faridpur ; and west, for a short distance, by Pabna. 
To a great extent, rivers form the natural boundaries : on the east, 
the Meghna; south and south-west, the Padma, or main stream of 
the Ganges ; and west, the Jamuna, or present channel of the 
Brahmaputra. The District contained (i 881) an area of 2797 square 
miles, and a population of 2,116,350 persons. The administrative 
head-quarters are at Dacca City. 

Physical Aspects. — Dacca consists of a level plain divided into two 
parts by the Dhaleswari river, which intersects the District from east to 
west, varying considerably in their physical aspects. The northern part 
is again sub-divided by the Lakhmia river, which crossed it from north 
to south. The western of these two divisions contains the city, and is 
the larger of the two. The greater part of it lies comparatively high 
and above flood level, the soil consisting of red kankar with a strata of 
clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable 
mould, and near the banks of the rivers and streams by alluvial earth. 
At some points, the scenery on the river Lakhmia is very beautiful, the 
banks being high and well wooded. About twenty miles north of the 
city, small hilly ridges are met with in the Madhupur jungle adjoining 
Maimansingh. They are mere mounds, or tilds^ never more than 30 or 
40 feet high, some being covered with grasses and underwood, and 
others with forest. This tract of country is remarkable for the small 
size of the streams by which it is watered, and the greater part is an 
unproductive waste covered with jungle and infested with wild beasts. 
Of late years, cultivation has been extended in this direction, but very 
slowly, owing to the badness of the water. Towards the city, the red 
soil is intersected by creeks and morasses, the borders of which are well 
suited for the cultivation of rice, mustard, and /// seed ; while to the 



DACCA. 79 

eastward of the city, a broad, alluvial, well cultivated plain extends as far 
as the junction of the Dhaleswari and Lakhmia rivers. The north-eastern 
division is situated between the Lakhmia and Meghna rivers. It is 
inundated to a larger extent, and has a much greater area of alluvial soil, 
and is in a higher state of cultivation than the tract to the westward. 
The division of the District to the south of the Dhaleswari is by far the 
most fertile tract. The whole is one uniform level of rich alluvial soil 
annually inundated by the overflow of the great rivers, to a depth 
varying from two to fourteen feet. The villages are built upon mounds 
of earth, artificially raised above flood level. During the rainy season 
this tract presents the appearance of a vast sheet of green rice 
cultivation, through which boats sail to and fro ; diversified of late years 
by fields of jute, the cultivation of which is rapidly extending. 

The District is intersected by a complete network of rivers and 
streams, and the chief means of communication at all times of the year 
is by water. Besides the great bordering rivers of the Ganges or Padma, 
the Jamuna or Brahmaputra, and the Meghna, the following seven 
streams are navigable by boats of large tonnage : — (i) Arial Khan, (2) 
Kirtinasa, (3) Dhaleswari, (4) Buriganga, (5) Lakhmia, (6) Mendikhali, 
and (7) Ghazikhali. Many of these represent old channels or offshoots 
of the great rivers ; and the southern half of the District is everywhere 
liable to annual changes of configuration, due to constant fluvial 
action. The most important of the smaller rivers, which are all 
navigable by boats of two tons burthen, are — (i) Hilsamari, (2) Bansi, 
(3) Turag, (4) Tungi, (5) Balu, and (6) the old bed of the Brahmaputra. 
The banks of all the above rivers are cultivated, with the exception 
of a small tract along the Lakhmia river, and all are more or less 
affected by the tide, which rises and falls to the extent of two feet at 
the town of Dacca on the Buriganga. Numerous marshes have been 
formed by changes in the courses of the rivers, and are covered with 
rank vegetation. Several artificial watercourses or k/idls have been 
constructed as short cuts to facilitate cross communications between 
the rivers. The drainage of the District runs from north-west to 
south-east, the usual course of the rivers. All the latter take their exit 
in the extreme south-east of the District, at the point of junction of the 
two great rivers the Ganges and Meghna, into which the other streams 
of the District flow. With the exception of some wild herbs and water 
plants, no indigenous vegetable products of marketable value are found. 
There are no forests of any considerable extent, and most of the wooded 
land in the Madhupur jungle is so badly provided with means of 
communication as to be almost valueless. Nor is there any wide 
extent of uncultivated pasture ground, although many people send 
their cattle for a few months in the rainy season to the Madhupur 
jungle for pasturage. The fisheries of the District are estimated to yield 



8o DACCA. 

altogether about ;2^i 0,000 a year. The wild animals generally are of 
the same species as those found in the other parts of the Gangetic 
delta. 

History. — The historical interest of the District centres round Dacca 
city, an olden capital of the Muhammadan Mughals in Bengal, and, until 
recent times, the industrial centre of the Province. Here, as elsewhere 
throughout Bengal, authentic history begins with the Musalman 
chronicles ; but many local legends and crumbling ruins bear witness to 
the power of pre-historic Hindu rulers. This tract of country formed 
the easternmost District of Bengal, according to the natural limitations 
of the Province. On the north, rise the broken hills and thick jungles of 
Maimansingh, into which Hindu civilisation has but recently penetrated. 
Eastwards, the broad stream of the Meghna always served as a barrier 
against the wild aboriginal races, whose names are preserved in the 
dynasties of Tipperah and Cachar. Before the invasion of the Muham- 
madans, only part of Dacca appears to have been included within the 
Hindu kingdom of Bengal. The course of the river Dhaleswari, which 
marks off the alluvial delta of the Ganges from the highlands of Maiman- 
singh, then served also as a political boundary. To the south of this river, 
the mythical monarch Vikramaditya is said to have held sway, and his 
name is traced in the present pargand of Bikrampur. The dynasty ol 
Vikramaditya was succeeded by that of Adisur, and the last authentic 
Hindu occupant of the throne was Ballal Sen, whose connection with 
Bikrampur is proved by contemporary inscriptions. All these names 
are the common property of Bengali legend throughout the Province. 
The tract north of the Dhaleswari supplies traditions with a more 
distinct local colouring. Here was the home of the Bhuiya Rajas, as 
they are called, the founders of a dynasty which bore the family name of 
Pal, and are supposed to have professed the Buddhist faith. The ruins 
of the capitals and palaces of these Bhuiya Rajas lie scattered throughout 
Eastern Bengal, along the line of the Brahmaputra valley ; and their 
memory is still cherished in the household tales of the Hindu peasantry. 
In the portion of Dacca District lying north of the Dhaleswari, extensive 
earthworks and mounds of brick associated with their name are to be 
seen to this day at Madhabpur, Sabhar, and Durduria. 

The Muhammadans first entered Bengal in 1203 A.D.,but the eastern 
Districts were not conquered until a century later. The present 
District of Dacca was annexed to the Afghan kingdom of Gaur by 
Muhammad Tughlak about 1325, under the name of Sonargaon, which 
town long remained the frontier fortress of the Muhammadans and the 
terminus of their grand trunk road. The rise of Dacca city dates from 
the beginning of the 17th century, when Islam Khan, the Mughal Vice- 
roy, transferred the seat of Government from Rajmahal to Dacca. This 
change was dictated by military considerations. The valley of the 



DACCA. Si 

Ganges then enjoyed peace, but the eastern frontier of the Province was 
exposed to the ravages of numerous warUke invaders. From the north, 
the dreaded Ahams or Assamese ; from the south, the Maghs or Arakan- 
ese, in aUiance with the merciless Portuguese pirates, harried the country, 
and rendered all the waterways unsafe. The Mughal Viceroys protected 
their frontier by maintaining a powerful fleet, and distributing colonies 
of veterans on feudal holdings throughout the country. Both these 
features of their political system have left traces in the land tenures 
that exist at the present day. Except during an interval of twenty 
years, when Muhammad Shuja moved the administration back again to 
Rajmahal, Dacca was the capital of Bengal during the whole of the 
17th century. In the long list of Nawabs, the two most celebrated are 
Mir Jumla, the general of Aurangzeb, who failed disastrously in his 
expedition into Assam ; and Shaista Khan, the nephew of the Empress 
Niir Jahan, who broke the power of the Portuguese, and annexed 
Chittagong to the Mughal Empire. Both these Nawabs are also known 
for their encouragement of architecture, and for the construction of 
public works. This was the most flourishing era in the history of 
Dacca, for, like all eastern cities, its glory depended upon the 
presence of a luxurious court. It is said that the suburbs extended 
northwards for a distance of 15 miles, now buried in dense jungle. 
Portuguese mercenaries, and Armenian and Greek merchants, settled 
at Dacca from an early date. The English, the French, and the Dutch 
established factories about the middle of the i6th century, when 
the city was visited by the French traveller Tavernier. He describes 
all the wealth of Bengal, the richest Province of the Delhi Emperor, as 
concentrated in this spot. The muslins of Dacca became famous in 
Europe, and the hereditary skill of the weaving castes has not yet 
become extinct. Vide Dacca City. 

The downfall of Dacca dates from the beginning of the i8th 
century. In 1704, Murshid Kuli Khan transferred the seat of govern- 
ment to Murshidabad on the Bhagirathi, and the short-lived prosperity 
followed the movement of the court. Dacca continued to be governed 
by a ndib or nawdb, a deputy of the Viceroy at Murshidabad, whose 
appointment was regarded as the most valuable in Bengal, having a 
jurisdiction considerably more extensive than the area of the present 
Dacca Division. On the establishment of the British power in 1757, 
the office of ndib became an empty title, but it was continued in the 
family of the last representative until 1845 > ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ present 
day, small pensions are paid by Government on this account. The 
decline of the weaving industry of Dacca began with the present century. 
Prior to 1801, the East India Company and private traders are said 
:o have made advances for Dacca muslins to the annual amount of 
25 /df^/zi- of rupees (^250,000). In 1813, the investments of private 

VOL. IV. 1** 



82 DACCA. 

traders did not exceed ;£"2i,ooo, and the Commercial Residency of the 
Company was discontinued altogether in 1817. The only event of 
importance in the recent history of Dacca District is connected with the 
Mutiny of 1857. Two companies of sepoys were then stationed in the 
fort. On the first alarm of the outbreak at Meerut, a force of 100 men 
of the Indian Navy was despatched from Calcutta for the protection of 
the city. With these sailors, and about 60 civilian volunteers, it was 
resolved to disarm the sepoys, who offered a violent resistance, and 
were only dispersed after a sharp struggle, in which 41 rebels were killed 
on the field, and a number of others drowned in the river or shot down 
in their flight. Some of the mutineers are supposed to have escaped 
into the jungles of Bhutan. 

Population. — No trustworthy estimates of the population in early times 
exist. In 185 1, the total number was returned at 600,000, and in 1868 
the official estimate was 1,000,000. The first regular Census was taken 
in January 1872. The result disclosed a total population of 1,852,993 
persons, dwelling in 5016 villages, and in 290,593 houses, over an area 
as at present of 2797 square miles. The last Census in 1881 returned 
the population at 2,116,350, showing an increase of 263,357, or of 
14*21 per cent., in the nine years. The Census Report states that this 
advance is to be attributed to natural causes, aided by the great 
development of the jute trade, which is centred in the town of Narain- 
ganj, the head-quarters of the Sub-division of the same name, in 
which the largest increase of population is found. The general 
results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be summarized as 
follows: — Area of District, 2797 square miles; number of towns and 
villages, 6422 ; number of houses, 319,982, of which 308,695 were 
occupied and 1 1,287 unoccupied. The population numbered 2,116,350, 
namely, 1,033,863 males and 1,082,487 females. Average density of 
population, 756*6 persons per square m.ile ; villages per square mile, 
2*3; persons per town or village, 329; houses per square mile, 114; 
persons per occupied house, 6*86. Classified according to religious 
belief, the population was returned as follows : — Muhammadans, 
1,250,687, or 59 per cent. ; Hindus, 856,680, or 40 per cent. The 
remainder consisted of 8799 Christians, 49 Buddhists, 43 Brahmos, 
2 Santals, and 90 * others.' As throughout the rest of Eastern 
Bengal, the majority of the population are of semi-aboriginal descent, 
including the great mass of the Muhammadans, who constitute a very 
important element of the community, in rank as well as in numbers. 
The great majority belong to the Sunni sect. The few Shias to 
be found are descendants of the Mughal conquerors. The festival 
of the Muharram is celebrated in Dacca city with great pomp and 
enthusiasm, and police measures have occasionally to be adopted to 
prevent an outbreak between these two rival sects. In recent years, the 



DACCA. 83 

reforming faith of the Faraizis has spread rapidly through the District. 
{See Faridpur District.) Its members are intolerant, but not actively 
fanatical. Many of them are engaged in trade, dealing in rice, jute, 
hides, and tobacco. In clan or race distinction the Muhammadans 
are almost all Shaikhs ; the Sayyids, Mughals, and Pathans being few 
in number. The latter were, however, at one time numerous in the 
District, and a few of their descendants are still to be met with at 
the village of Pathantali, near Dhamrai. During the Muhammadan 
supremacy, large numbers of Hindu inhabitants of the District were 
converted to Islam, either willingly or through coercion. The Musal- 
man religion is not now an actively proselytising one in Dacca District, 
although it from time to time receives small additions from the Hindu 
and Vaishnav communities. The aborigines proper are very poorl}'- 
represented, being chiefly composed of the gipsy tribe of Nats. Among 
the semi-Hinduized aborigines, the great tribe of Chandals numbers 
202,510, and the Koch 13,498. Of the Hindus proper, the following 
are the principal castes: — Brahman, 60,542, including many Kulin 
^milies ; Kayasth, or clerks by hereditary occupation, 92,909. The 
most numerous of the other recognised castes are — Baniyd, traders, 
14,971; Barhai, carpenters, 15,336; Barui, growers of pan and betel 
leaf, 17,524; Dhobi, washermen, 11,028; GoaM, milkmen and herdsmen 
25,327; Jaliyd, fishermen, 39,274; Jugi, weavers, 17,080; Kaibartta, 
cultivators and fishermen, 40,422; Lobar, blacksmiths, 16,747; Kapali, 
weavers, 18,585; Kumbhar, potters, 17,015; Napit, barbers, 21,905; 
Sudra, the highest class of cultivators, 17,392; Siinri, merchants and 
wine-sellers, 57,917; Teli, traders and oil-pressers, 15,966. Among 
caste-rejecting Hindus, the Vaishnav sect numbers 1.7,239 members. 
The Brahma Samaj was first established in Dacca city in 1846. The 
society now possesses a large hall, erected by public contributions, in 
which meetings are held every week. There are about 100 regular 
subscribers, and at least 1000 sympathizers, throughout the District. 
Only 43 professing Brahmos were, however, returned separately as such 
in the Census Report. The Christians of Dacca, numbering 8799 
of all races and sects, are a motley race. They include Portuguese 
half-castes, Armenians, Greeks, and native converts, as well as the 
Europeans. The Portuguese mixed breeds,- or Firinghis, are scattered 
in little communities throughout the District. Most of them are 
cultivators, but many engage in domestic service. In religious 
matters they are subject to the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of 
Goa. The native converts or their descendants, numbering 7710 
persons, are principally either Roman Catholics, under the charge 
of a mission sent direct from the Propaganda at Rome, numbering 
3987 adherents ; or Baptists, under the charge of an active mission 
which in 1881 numbered 4319 followers. Both the Armenians and 



84 DACCA. 

the Greeks are said to be now declining in numbers and social 
position. 

According to the Census of 1881, the following are the only 7 towns, 
or collections of villages, containing upwards of 5000 inhabitants, 
namely, Dacca City, population 79,076 ; Narainganj, with Madan- 
GANj, 12,508; Manikganj, 11,289; Charjajira, 7647; Sholagarh, 
6079; Kamargaon, 5770; and Narisha, 6377. Total of these 
7 towns, 128,646, leaving 1,987,604 as the rural population. The 
first three named towns have been constituted municipalities, with a 
total income in 1881-82 of ;£"i2,863, and an expenditure of ;2f 13,898; 
average incidence of taxation, 2s. i^d. per head of the population 
living within municipal limits. The 6422 towns and villages in the 
District are classified as follows : — 3405 contain less than two hundred 
inhabitants; 191 7 contain from two to five hundred; 805 from five 
hundred to a thousand; 238 from one to two thousand; 40 from 
two to three thousand; 10 from three to five thousand; 4 from five 
to ten thousand ; 2 from ten to fifteen thousand ; and i upwards of 
fifty thousand inhabitants. Dacca City will be fully described in a 
succeeding article. The chief mart in the District is Narainganj, 
in conjunction with its suburb of Madanganj on the opposite side 
of the Lakhmia river, which is rapidly taking its stand as one of 
the most important trade centres of Eastern Bengal. Apart from that 
caused by the increasing importance of river trafiic, the people show 
no tendency to gather into towns, but rather the reverse. Manufacturing 
industry can hardly be said to exist. The following places deserve 
mention as sites of interest : — Sonargaon, the first Muhammadan 
capital of Eastern Bengal ; Firinghi Bazar, the earliest settlement of 
the Portuguese ; Bikrampur, the capital of the mythical monarch 
Vikramaditya, and his successors on the throne of Bengal ; Sabhar 
and DuRDURiA, both containing ruins of palaces ascribed to the Bhuiya 
or Pal Rajas. Many earthworks and ruins of Hindu or Musalman 
construction are scattered through the District. 

The Material Condition of the People has much improved of late years, 
and particularly that of the cultivating classes. This is partly owing to 
the increased prices of produce, but is also very greatly due to the 
increase in the cultivation of more valuable crops, especially of jute, 
safflower, and oil-seeds. The only persons who do not share in the 
general increased prosperity are those with fixed incomes, such as sub- 
ordinate landlords {tdlukddrs), Government servants, and minor officials. 
As regards occupation, the Census Report of 188 1 classifies the male 
population into the following six main classes : — Class (i) Professional, 
including Government officials, police and military, 23,391; (2) Domestic 
service, including hotel and lodging-house keepers, 29,777; (3) Com- 
mercial, including merchants, traders, carriers, messengers, etc., 53,532 ; 



DACCA, 85 

(4) ^Agricultural, including cultivators, gardeners, herdsmen, and others 
engaged about animals, 412,269; (5) Manufactures and industries, 
81,646; (6) Indefinite and unproductive (composed of 22,239 general 
labourers, and 411,009 male children and persons of no specified 
occupation), 433,248. 

Agriculture. — As elsewhere throughout Bengal, the staple food crop 
is rice, which is divided into four varieties — (i) the dman, or cold 
weather crop, which yields by far the largest portion of the food supply, 
sown on low-lying lands about April, and reaped in December; (2) the 
dus, or autumn crop, sown on comparatively high lands, about the same 
time as dma?!^ and reaped in July and August ; (3) the bora or ropd 
sown in marshy ground about January, subsequently transplanted, and 
reaped in May; (4) the uri ox jard dhdn, an indigenous variety found 
growing wild in the marshes, which is used as food by the poor. No 
improvement has recently taken place in the cultivation of rice, and 
sufficient is not grown to satisfy the local demand. Other crops 
include millets, pulses, oil-seeds, jute (the cultivation of which has 
greatly extended of late years), cotton, safflower, pdn leaf, areca-nut, 
cocoa-nut, and sugar-cane. The cultivation of cotton has fallen off, but 
the fibre produced is said to be of excellent quality. The chief staples 
of export are jute, oil-seeds, and safiflower, all of which are being more 
extensively grown year by year. Manure is not generally used, and 
never for rice land. Irrigation is sometimes practised in the north of 
the District; and, in the same tract, fields are occasionally suffered to 
lie fallow. In the south, the land is under continuous cultivation with 
the same crops, and the cultivators trust to the deposit left by the 
annual inundation to maintain the fertility of their fields. About two- 
thirds of the total area of the District is estimated to be under cultiva- 
tion. The out-turn of rice varies from 13 cwts. to 26 cwts. per acre. 
The best rice lands yield a second crop of oil-seeds or pulses. The 
out-turn of jute is about 17 cwts. per acre. The cultivators, as a class, 
are described as fairly prosperous. Comparatively few of them have 
obtained rights of occupancy ; but the recent rise in the value of all 
agricultural products, caused by the development of trade, has distinctly 
raised the standard of comfort among them. Rates of rent for rice 
land vary from is. lod. per acre for boro to^9S. per acre for dman land. 
Land that produces two crops sometimes rents at as much as 12s. an 
acre. As compared with the neighbouring Districts, Dacca has few 
great landlords, and sub - infeudation has not been carried to an 
excessive extent. There are seldom more than two classes of inter- 
mediate tenure-holders between the zaminddr and the actual cultivator. 
In the majority of cases, the landowner collects his rents by the agency 
of his own servants, and not through the intervention of a farmer. 
Spare land at the present day is only to be found in the hilly, broken 



86 DACCA. 

tract in the north of the District, where the aboriginal tribes are gradually 
extending the limit of cultivation. 

Dacca District is not specially subject to natural calamities, such as 
flood, blight, or drought. Each of these does occasionally happen, but 
rarely on such a scale as to affect the general harvest. In the year 
i777~7S) 3. terrible inundation occurred, succeeded by a calamitous 
famine. But, in more recent times, the drought of 1865 and the flood 
of 1870 merely raised the prices of grain, and did not produce acute 
distress. If the price of rice at the beginning of the year were to rise to 
1 6s. per cwt, that should be regarded as a sign of approaching scarcity. 
At the present time the means of communication with other Districts 
by water are so good, and the ordinary course of trade is so active, that 
importation could at any time prevent scarcity from growing into 
famine. There is no demand for either embankments or canals. 

Industrial. — The chief means of communication are by water. The 
rivers are crowded by native craft and by steamers at all seasons of the 
year, and no corner of the District is remote from some navigable 
channel. The principal road, the only one under the Public Works 
Department, leads from Dacca city through Tipperah to Chittagong. 
A second important road runs northward through the high country to 
Maimansingh. A line of railway from Dacca to Maimansingh has been 
sanctioned, and is now (1884) in course of construction, and will 
shortly be continued to Chittagong, via Narainganj, crossing the 
Meghna by means of a steam ferry. The only road that carries much 
traffic is the branch from Dacca city to the port of Narainganj, which is 
metalled. There are two short navigable canals, only open during the 
rainy season. The principal manufactures are cotton-weaving, em- 
broidery, silver-work, shell-carving, and pottery. The muslins of Dacca, 
once so celebrated, have now almost entirely ceased to be made. A few 
pieces are occasionally woven to order, to satisfy the taste of the curious. 
Coarse cotton cloth is still woven all over the District. The gold and 
silver smiths and the shell-carvers work in their own houses, and on 
their own account ; and their condition is decidedly prosperous. The 
w^eavers and embroiderers, on the other hand, manufacture their goods 
on behalf of merchants, working on a system of advances. The 
merchants take care that the artisan shall always continue in their 
debt. 

Dacca conducts a very large trade by water, and many of the mer- 
chants push their enterprise into remote countries. Europeans, 
Armenians, Muhammadans, and Marwaris maintain a brisk competition 
with each other. In former times, the export of manufactured cotton 
goods was by far the most important branch of trade. The two largest 
marts of commerce are Dacca city and the rapidly rising mart of 
Narainganj, with its suburb of Madanganj. A commercial fair is 



DACCA. 87 

annually held at Munshiganj, lasting for three weeks, which is attended 
by merchants from such distant quarters as Delhi, Amritsar, and 
Arakan. According to the registered statistics of river traffic for the 
year 1876-77, the total value of the exports from Dacca District was 
;£"i,944,ooo, including — jute, ;^742,ooo ; rice, ;£"232,ooo; hides, 
;^i3i,ooo ; oil-seeds, ;^5 1,000 ; spices, ^^46,000 ; betel-nuts, ;£"39,ooo ; 
safflower, ;£i 9,000. The total value of the imports was ^£"3, 245,000, 
the chief items being — piece-goods, ;^795,ooo ; salt, ^£"304,000 ; food 
grains, ;^366,ooo; tobacco, ;£'i69,ooo; sugar, ;£255,oooj timber, 
^135,000. No later District trade statistics are available, as since 
1878 the system of collection of statistics for the internal trade of 
Bengal has been altered, and is now limited to the registration of the 
trade of the ports of Calcutta, Chittagong, and Orissa, and of that 
carried on along the chief railway, river, and canal routes. 

In 1882 there were six printing-presses in the District, and six or 
eight newspapers or periodicals are published regularly. There are 
about forty native societies organized for the spread of education and 
for charitable objects, besides 'The Dacca Institute,' common to 
natives and Europeans. 

Administration. — In 1870-71, the total revenue of Dacca District was 
;^iii,62o, of which ;£53,67i was derived from the land; the total 
expenditure was ;£^5o,63i, or less than half the revenue. In 1881-82, 
the total revenue, Imperial, local, and municipal, amounted to 
^149,320, of which ^£"49,312 was derived from the land, ;^22,592 
from excise, and ^57,053 from stamps. The cost of civil administra- 
tion, as represented by the pay of officials and police of all kinds, 
was pf 46,502. In the same year, the regular police force numbered 
412 officers and men, maintained at a total cost of £90']']. In 
addition, the village watch numbered 3479 men, who received from the 
villagers and Government rent - free lands or money estimated at 
;^i4,9i7 ; and the municipal police consisted of a force of 277 officers 
and men, maintained at a cost of ;^2425. The total force, therefore, 
for the protection of person and property amounted to 4168 men, or i 
man to every o'6 square miles, or to every 507 of the population ; the 
total cost was ;£"26,4i9, being an average of ^9, 8s. lod. per square 
mile, and 3d. per head of population. In ^1881-82, the average daily 
number of prisoners in the District jail was 723, of whom 8 were 
females ; in the subsidiary jail of Munshiganj, the daily average prison 
population was 6, and in that of Manikganj, 5 ; total daily average of 
prisoners, 784, or i to every 2828 of the population. 

Education has made rapid progress in recent years. In 1860-61, 
there were altogether 21 schools in the District, attended by 2003 
pupils. By 187C-71, the number of schools had risen to 149, and the 
number of pupils to 7155. Sir G. Campbell's reforms, by which the 



88 DACCA. 

benefit of the grant-in-aid rules was extended to the village schools or 
pdthsdlds^ has greatly promoted primary instruction. In 1874-75, the 
number of schools had further increased to 416, and the number of 
pupils to 17,937, and in 1881-82 to 990 educational institutions under 
Government inspection, attended by 27,000 pupils. The great increase 
has been in the lower primary schools, which in March 1882 numbered 
913 out of the 990 Government schools, vvith 23,849 out of the 
27,000 pupils. Besides these State-inspected schools, the Education 
Department returns 286 unaided indigenous schools, with 3558 
pupils, making a total of 1276 schools attended by about 30,000 
pupils. The chief educational institution is the Dacca College, 
originally started in 1835, attended in 1882 by 290 students, and 
taught by a staff of six professors and lecturers. Special classes for law, 
medicine, and surveying are affiliated to the College ; to which is also 
attached the District Collegiate or High School, attended in 1882 by 
521 pupils. Female education is afforded in 26 schools, of which the 
most important is the Eden School in Dacca city, with an attendance 
in 1882 of 199 girls. A Normal Training School for Masters had 64 
students. For the special necessities of the Muhammadans, a Madrdsa 
or Muhammadan College had 332 pupils, of whom 113 were in the 
Arabic, and 219 in the English department. 

For administrative purposes, Dacca District is divided into 4 Sub- 
divisions, and into 12 thdnds or police circles, as follows : — (i) Dacca or 
head-quarters Sub-division, comprising the police circles of Lalbagh, 
Kapasia, Sabhar, and Nawabganj ; (2) Narainganj, comprising the 
police circles of Ndrainganj, Rupganj, and Raipura ; (3) Manikganj, 
comprising the police circles of Manikganj, Jafarganj, and Harirampur; 
and (4) Munshiganj, comprising the police circles of Munshiganj and 
Srinagar. The number of /^r^^;?^'^ or fiscal divisions is 182. In the 
year 1883, there were 11 magisterial and 15 civil and revenue courts 
open ; the number of European covenanted officers stationed in the 
District was 4. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Dacca during the hot months is 
sensibly cooled by the circumstance that the wind has passed over the 
wide surface of large rivers. The rainy season lasts from April to 
October. The most disagreeable weather in the year is experienced at 
the close of this season. The average rainfall for thirty years ending 
1881 was 74*73 inches. The rainfall in 1881 was 79*06 inches, or 4-33 
inches above the average. The average mean temperature in 1881 
was 78-8° F., the maximum being 99-5° in April, and the minimum 
48*2° in January. Earthquakes are of common occurrence. Specially 
severe shocks were experienced in April 1762, April 1775, and May 
1812. 

The principal endemic diseases are intermittent and remittent fevers, 



DACCA SUB-DIVISION AND CITY. 89 

elephantiasis and bronchocele, dysentery and diarrhoea, rheumatism, 
ophthalmia, and intestinal worms. Cholera and small-pox both 
occasionally visit the District in an epidemic form. No attention what- 
ever is paid to sanitation in the rural tracts ; but the munificence of the 
late Nawab Abdul Gani some years ago presented Dacca city with a 
fund for undertaking sanitary improvements, and also with a pure water 
supply. The institutions for medical relief comprise the lunatic 
asylum, the Mitford Hospital, an almshouse founded in 1866 by 
Nawab Abdul Gani, and 9 charitable dispensaries. In 1881, the 
dispensaries and the hospital were attended by 3530 in-door and 
66,304 out-door patients. [For further information regarding Dacca 
District, see my Statistical Account of Be7igal, vol. v. pp. 1-153 
(Triibner & Co., London, 1875) ; also the History a?id Statistics of the 
Dacca Division^ by A. L. Clay, Esq., C.S. (Calcutta, 1867) ; Topography 
and Statistics of Dacca ^ by Dr. D. J. Taylor (1840); Census Report 
of Bengal for 1881 ; Amiual Administration Reports of the Bengal 
Govermnefti from 1880-83.] 

Dacca. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Dacca District, lying between 
23° 34' and 24° 20' 12" N. lat., and between 90° 2' 45" and 91° i' 10" e. 
long.; including Dacca City. Area, 1266 square miles; towns and 
villages, 2082; occupied houses, 108,512. Population (1881), males 
343,228, and females 355,801 ; total, 699,029. Classified according to 
religion, there were — Muhammadans, 378,834; Hindus, 314,613; 
Christians, 5524; Buddhists, 11 ; Brahmos, 43 ; 'others,' 4. Average 
number of persons per square mile (exclusive of Dacca city), 552; villages 
per square mile, 1*64; persons per village, 305; houses per square 
mile, 90; inmates per house, 6 '4. Dacca Sub-division comprises the 
4 police circles of Lai Bagh, Sabhar, Kapasia, and Nawabganj. In 
1883, it contained 8 civil courts, besides an honorary Magistrate's 
court, and a municipal bench in Dacca city; and 8 criminal courts. 
The police force consisted of 479 regular police of all ranks, and 100 1 
village watchmen. 

Dacca. — The city of Dacca, the chief town of the District and 
Commissionership of the same name, and the fifth largest city under the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, is situated on the north bank of the 
Buriganga river (formerly, no doubt, as its name implies, the main 
stream of the Ganges), in 23° 43' n. lat, and 90° 26' 25" e. long., 8 
miles above the confluence of the Buriganga with the Dhaleswari. The 
municipal limits include an area of about 8 square miles, and the 
population, according to the Census of 1881, numbers 79,076 persons. 
In 1881-82, the municipal income was ;£i 1,342; rate of taxation, 
2s. 5d. per head. 

The town extends along the bank of the river for a distance of nearly 
4 miles, and inland, towards the north, for about one mile and a quarter. 



90 DACCA CITY. 

It is intersected by a branch of the Dolai creek. The two principal 
streets cross each other at right angles. One runs parallel to the river 
for upwards of two miles, from the Lai Bagh Palace to the Dolai creek. 
The other leads north from the river to the old military cantonments ; 
it is about one mile and a quarter in length, of considerable width, and 
bordered by regularly built houses. The chauk or market-place, a 
square of fine dimensions, lies at the extreme west. The remainder 
of the town is composed of narrow, crooked lanes, few of which 
admit wheeled conveyances. The native houses vary in height from 
one to four storeys. In some of the crowded quarters, such as those 
occupied by the weavers and shell-carvers, each house has a front- 
age of only 8 or lo feet ; but the side-walls run back for a distance of 
60 feet. The two ends only of such houses are roofed in, the middle 
forming an open court. The houses of the European residents extend 
along the river for a space of about half a mile, in the centre of the 
town. In the Armenian and Greek quarters, there are several large 
brick houses, now falling into decay. Dacca preserves few traces of its 
former magnificence as the Muhammadan capital of Bengal during the 
17th century. The old fort, erected in the reign of the Emperor 
Jahangir, has entirely disappeared. The only public buildings of this 
period still remaining are the Katra, built by Sultan Muhammad Shuja 
in 1645; ^^^ ^^^ palace of the Lai Bagh, which several successive 
Nawabs intended to associate with their name, but which was never 
completed. Both these buildings are now mere ruins, and their decora- 
tions have been wantonly destroyed. The factories built by the English, 
the French, and the Dutch during the 17th century have also been 
swept away. An outli'ne of the history of the city has been given in the 
preceding article on Dacca District. The city was first selected as 
the seat of the Muhammadan Government of Bengal about 1610, 
owing to its convenient position for controlling the waterways of the 
delta, which were then ravaged by Portuguese pirates in alliance with 
the Arakanese. In 1704, the Nawab Murshid Kuli Khan moved his 
residence to Murshidabad ; and though Dacca long retained a titular 
Nawab, its glory departed with the removal of the court. When in the 
height of its prosperity, Dacca must have been very populous. Its 
suburbs are said to have extended 15 miles northwards, as far as the 
village of Tungi, where mosques and brick houses are still to be dis- 
covered buried beneath thick jungle. During the 18th century, Dacca 
won a new reputation for its manufacture of fine muslins, which became 
famous in the markets of the West. The cotton grown in the neigh- 
bourhood is said to be of peculiarly fine quahty. The weavers, who 
were mostly Hindus, attained a wonderful delicacy of taste and 
dexterity of manipulation, by means of hereditary devotion to their 
industry. At the close of the last century, the annual investment made 



DACCA CITY. 91 

by the East India Company and by private traders for Dacca muslins 
was estimated at ;?^25 0,000. But in the beginning of the present 
century, this industry began rapidly to decline, under the competition 
of cheaper piece-goods from Manchester. By 1813, the value of the 
private trade had fallen to ^20,000, and four years later, the Com- 
mercial Residency of the Company was closed. The prosperity of the 
city has never recovered from this second blow. The reduced and 
impoverished population, the ruinous and abandoned houses, still show 
the disastrous results of the loss Dacca has sustained in her cotton 
manufactures. In 1800, the number of inhabitants w^as estimated, and 
apparently not over-estimated, at 200,000; in 1872, a Census of the 
town showed that the total had fallen to 69,212. A small colony of 
weavers of muslin still exists, who produce fabrics of exceptional excel- 
lence, working under a system of advances from native capitalists. In 
recent years, the general development of trade throughout Bengal has 
brought back to Dacca a little of its former wealth, and the city is now 
increasing in population. The city is favourably situated to command 
the three river systems of the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the 
Meghna. If we include the commerce of Narainganj and Madanganj, 
which may be regarded as the river ports of Dacca, its total trade 
exceeds that of any inland mart of Bengal except Patna. The collec- 
tion of jute, oil-seeds, rice, and hides, and the distribution of piece-goods 
and salt, constitute the most important functions of the Dacca merchants ; 
and Dacca boatmen are well known throughout Bengal as the most adven- 
turous of their class. In the year 1876-77, the total trade of Dacca city, 
excluding Narainganj and Madanganj, was valued at ;£" 1,1 83, 000. The 
chief articles of export were — hides, ;^i 30,000 ; jute, ;£^79,ooo; food 
grains, ;£'4 1,000; the imports included — piece-goods, ^,^436,000 ; 
cotton twist, ;2^79,ooo; timber, ;£^35,ooo; and salt, ;£'25,ooo. As 
explained on p. 87, in the article on Dacca city, no later trade statistics 
are available under the new system of registration. 
I The population of the city is thus classified in the Census Report 
of 1881 : — Hindus, males 22,774, females 16,861 — total, 39,635; 
Muhammadans, males 18,634, females 20,279 — total, 38,913; Chris- 
tians and others, males 295, females 233 — total, 528. Grand total, 
males 41,703, females 37,373 — total, 79,076.-. The large proportion of 
females among the Muhammadan population is worthy of notice. The 
total of Christians includes a few Armenians and Greeks, who formerly 
conducted a considerable share of the trade of the city. Foremost 
among the citizens of Dacca may be mentioned the late Nawab Abdul 
Gani, C.S.I., who in 1866 founded the Langar Khana, or almshouse, for 
the accommodation of poor persons permanently disabled from work. 
He subsequently made a donation of ;£'5ooo to the municipality for the 
, carrying out of sanitary improvements; and in 1878, a system of 



92 DADAR—DADHAL VA. 

water-works was opened, which he had constructed for the city at his 
own expense. 

Dacca is well provided with educational institutions. The Dacca 
College, with a staff of European professors, is one of the best of its 
class in India. In connection with the college there is an English 
school department, and English is also taught at the five following 
institutions : — The Pogose School, established by a wealthy Armenian 
gentleman ; Nawab Abdul Ganf s school ; the Jagannath school, founded 
by a Hindu zaminddr in memory of his father; the Ruplal Rag- 
hiinath school, established by the liberality of two wealthy native 
gentlemen of the above names ; and the Muhammadan Madrdsa. 

Until the conservancy reforms effected by the aid of the liberality 
of Nawab Abdul Gani, the sanitary condition of Dacca city was very 
unsatisfactory. During the rainy season, the whole city is surrounded 
by a labyrinth of brimming creeks, and the low-lying suburbs are liable 
to be flooded every year. In former times, the simplest rules of con- 
servancy were disregarded, and much difficulty has been experienced 
in overcoming the traditional prejudices of all classes of the com- 
munity. It is hoped, however, that the health of the city will now be 
sensibly improved by recent reforms, and by the introduction of a pure 
water supply. The principal charitable institution is the Mitford 
Hospital, estabUshed in 1858, by a bequest of a member of the Civil 
Service. The wards are well planned and lofty, and the building 
stands in grounds of its own, by the river-side. In 1881, the total 
number of in-door patients was 1634, and of out-door patients 19,138. 
A permanent endowment of ;^i6,ooo was left by the founder. 

Dadar. — Town in Kachhi Province, Baluchistan; situated in 
lat. 29° 28' N., and long. 67° 34' e., on the Bolan river, about 
5 miles east of the Bolan Pass, and 37 north-west from B^gh; 
elevation above sea level, about 700 feet ; population not exceeding 
2000. Surrounded by bare and rocky hills, which render the heat 
in summer perhaps greater than that of any other place in the 
world in the same parallel of latitude. DMar is supplied with ex- 
cellent water from the river Bolan during a great part of the year. 
Wheat, cotton, cucumbers, and melons are grown in the neighbourhood 
of the town. 

Dadhdlya.— Estate in Mahi Kdntha, Bombay Presidency. The 
area of the land under cultivation in 1881 was estimated at 5000 acres, 
the population at 3877, and the revenue at about ^330. The Thakur 
is a tributary chief, paying annually £^']o as ghds-ddna, or forage for 
cattle, to the Gaekwdr of Baroda, and ;£"6i as kichri, or supplies for 
troops, to the Raja of Edar. He has enjoyed semi-independent 
power since the establishment of his family in Mahi Kantha. The 
family are Sesodia Rajputs, who originally came from Udaipur 



DADRI—DAFLAPUR. 



93 



(Oodeypore) in Rajputana. They hold no sa?iad authorising adoption ; 
the rule of primogeniture is followed in regard to succession. The 
first Thakur entered the service of the chief of Edar with a body 
of horse, and obtained the gift of 48 villages, in 1674. At a later 
date, the Dadhalya chief, refusing to serve under the Marwar princes 
who assumed the Government of Edar, had his grant reduced to its 
present limits. 

Dadri. — Village in Bulandshahr District, North-Western Provinces, 
lying on the Grand Trunk Road, 20 miles north-east of Bulandshahr, 
and 23 miles south-east of Delhi. Population (1881) 2421 ; police 
station, travellers' bungalow, post-office, village school, encamping 
ground for troops, weekly market. The railway station (East Indian 
Railway) is a mile and a half s.-w, of the village, and connected with 
it by a broad metalled road. Ruins of a fort built at the end of the 
iSth century by Dargahi Singh, whose descendants held estates in the 
neighbourhood till 1857, when they joined the rebels. The police 
station is all that now remains of the fort. Two members of the 
family were hanged, and their possessions were confiscated. Colonel 
Greathed's column occupied Dadri on the 26th of September 1857, and, 
finding much property taken from Europeans, burned the neighbouring 
villages. 

Dadli. — Taluk in the Sehwan Sub-division, Karachi (Kurrachee) 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 26° 29' 30" to 26° 56' 30" n. ; 
long. 67° 22' 30" to 67° 57' 45" E. ; area, 762 square miles ; population 
(1881) 66,811, namely, 5101 Hindus, 59,181 Muhammadans, 2522 
Sikhs, and 7 Christians, dwelling in 2 towns and 77 villages, and 
occupying 12,132 houses. The Sub-division contains 3 criminal courts, 
with II police stations, and a police force of 71 men. • 

Dadu. — Chief town in Dadii taluk, Karachi District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 26° 43' 30" N. ; long. 67° 49' e. Population 
(1881) 2270, principally agriculturists. Municipal income (1880-81) 
;jf 232 ; incidence of taxation per head of population, 2s. A subordinate 
civil court, post-office, staging bungalow, and railway station. 

Daflapur (or Jath). — Jdgir within. the Political Agency of Satara, in 
Bombay Presidency, and really an integral part of the State of Jath, to 
which it will lapse on the demise of the three widows of the late chief. 
The founder of the Jath Jdgir was hereditary /(i/^/ of Daflapur village, 
and took his surname of Dafle therefrom. Lat. 17° o' n. ; long. 75'' 
7' E. In 1820, the British Government made an engagement with the 
ancestors of the present chief of Jath, confirming them in the estates 
they then held. In 1827, the Jath estate was attached by the Raja 
of Satara to pay off the chiefs debts, but, after their liquidation, it 
was restored in 1841. The British Government have more than once 
interfered to adjust the pecuniary affairs of the Jath Jdgir; and, in 



94 DAFLAPUR—DAHANU, 

consequence of numerous oppressions, were compelled in 1874 to 
assume the direct management on behalf of the holder. The estate 
of Daflapur consists of 6 detached villages in the Jath jdgir ; area, 
about 94 square miles ; population (1881) 6006 ; gross revenue, ;^9oi. 
The land is generally poor, but fairly good in the eastern villages. 
Products, the staple millets {bdjra and jodr), cotton, wheat, gram, 
safflower, and tur. There are 3 schools in the estate with 56 pupils. 
The present ruler is the senior widow, Lakshmibai Dafle, Deshmukh, 
a Kshattriya (Maratha) by caste.— ^^^ Jath. 

Dafldpur.— Chief town of the Daflapur estate, in Satara District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17° o' n., long. 75° 7' e. ; about 80 miles 
south-east of Satara, and 85 miles north-east of Belgaum. 

Daga. — A creek in Irawadi Division, British Burma, which leaves 
the Bassein River 3 or 4 miles from its northern mouth, in Henzada 
District, in lat. 17° 42' o n., and long. 95° 25' o" e., and after a 
tortuous south-west course, rejoins it near Bassein town, lat. 16° 55' o"n., 
and long. 94° 48' o" e. The northern entrance has silted up, and is 
now completely closed by the embankment of the Bassein ; the bed for 
about 8 miles down, as far as Ywathit, is dry during the hot season. 
In the rains the downward current is strong, but in the dry season the 
tide is felt as far as Thabye-hla at neaps, and fifteen miles farther at 
springs. The Daga is navigable by river steamers during the rains for 
36 miles, from its southern outlet to the Min-mnaing creek; it is 
practicable all the year round for native craft as far as Kyun-pyaw, 
where the creek is from 200 to 300 feet wide, and 10 to 15 feet deep. 
A few miles below Kyun-pyaw is the Inyeh-gyi Lake, communicating 
with the Daga by a small channel. 

Dagshdi. — Hill cantonment in Simla District, Punjab; situated 
on a bare and treeless height 42 miles south of Simla, on the cart- 
road to Kalka, in lat. 30° 53' 5" n. ; long. 77° 5' 38" e. Established 
in 1842 ; now regularly occupied by a European regiment. Population 
(1881) 3642; Hindus, 2129; Sikhs, 2; Muhammadans, 624; 'others,' 
nearly all European troops, 887 ; number of occupied houses, 612. 
The station, though usually healthy, suffered from an epidemic of 
cholera in 1872. 

Da-gyaing. — River in Amherst District, Tenasserim, British Burma. 
Rises in the Dawna spur, and, flowing westward, joins the Hlaingbweh 
about half-way between the villages of Kazaing and Hlaingbweh. 
In the rains it brings down a considerable body of water, but a swift 
current and numerous rocks render it unnavigable. 

Dahdnu. — Sub-division of Thana District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 634 square miles ; number of villages, 209. Population (1881) 
109,322, namely, 54,575 males and 54,747 females. Hindus number 
97,676; Muhammadans, 1678; 'others/ 9968. Land revenue (1882-83) 



DAHANU—DAKA TIA. 



95 



£12,6-]$. This Sub-division lies in the extreme north of the District; 
it has a picturesque aspect, most of the interior being occupied by 
forest-clad hills in small detached ranges of varying height. Towards 
the coast are broad flats, hardly above sea level, and seamed by tidal 
creeks. The climate of the interior is unhealthy, and though that of 
the coast is generally pleasant and equable, after the rains it becomes 
feverish. The Sub-division contains i civil and 4 criminal courts, with 
2 police stations {thdnds), and a police force of 87 men. 

D^hanu. — Seaport town in the Dahanu Sub-division of Thana Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 58' n., long. 72^45' e. ; popula- 
tion (1881) 3525. Average annual value of trade for the five years 
ending 1878-79 — exports, ;^i 4,5 20 ; imports, ;£"i7oi. Small fort on 
the north bank of the Dahanu river or creek. 

Dahi. — Petty State under the Bhil Agency of Central India, and a 
guaranteed thdkurate in Chakalda, tributary to Holkar, to whom it 

pays ^30- 

Dahira iDahidd). — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency, consisting of 3 villages. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at 
^1000. 

Dain-hdt. — Trading town and municipality in Bardwan District, 
Bengal. Situated on the banks of the Bhagirathi. Lat. 23° 36' 24" 
N., long. 88° 13' 50" E. ; population (1881) 5789, namely, Hindus 
5669, and Muhammadans 120; area of town site, 915 acres. Scene of 
a considerable annual fair. Manufactures, weaving and brass-work ; 
trade in grain, tobacco, jute, salt, English cloth, cotton, etc. Gross 
municipal revenue (1881-82), ;^39 1 ; expenditure, ;^38i ; average rate 
of taxation, is. 4^d. per head of the population. 

Dai-pai. — Lake in Okepo township, Henzada District,. Pegu Division, 
British Burma. — See Deh-peh. 

D^jal. — Town in Jainpur tahsil^ Dera Ghdzi Khan District, Punjab. 
Lat. 29° 33' 22" N., long. 70° 25' 21" E. ; population (1881) 5952, 
namely, 1922 Hindus, 4016 Muhammadans, and 14 Sikhs; number 
of occupied houses, iioi. First rose to importance under the rule 
of the Nahirs {vide Dera Ghazi Khan District), from whom it 
was. wrested by Ghazi Khan ; subsequently fell into the hands of the 
Khans of Khelat. Formerly a thriving town, trading wuth the country 
beyond the British frontier, but now in a ^decayed state, the traffic 
having taken different channels. Forms with the adjoining village of 
Naushahra a third-class municipality; revenue (1875-76) ;£"2 84, or 
lofd. per head of population (6335) within municipal limits. 

Ddkatia. — River of Bengal; rises in Hill Tipperah, and flows 
through the southern portion of Tipperah District, where it is joined 
by numerous hill streams. After taking a westerly course past Laksham, 
Chitosi, and Hajiganj, the Dakatia sweeps suddenly round to the south- 



96 DAKHINES WAR—DAKSHIN SHAHBAZPUR. 

ward 6| miles east of Chandpur, and empties itself into the Meghna a 
little above the village of Raipur, in Noakhali District. A direct canal 
has recently been cut from Shikarhat, about 20 miles east of Chandpur, 
to Raipur, thus cutting off a bend of about 40 miles. 

Dakhineswar. — Village on the Hiigli, in the District of the Twenty- 
four Parganas, Bengal ; situated a little north of Calcutta. Contains a 
powder magazine, and a few country houses of Europeans. Also noted 
for its twelve beautiful temples in honour of Siva, built on the river 
bank. Aided vernacular school here. 

Dakor. — Town in the Thasra Sub-division of Kaira District, Bombay 
Presidency, and a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, Anand-Godhra branch; 16 miles north-east of the Anand 
railway station. Latitude, 22^45' n. ; longitude, 73° 11' e. Popula- 
tion (1881) 7771, namely, Hindus, 7401; Muhammadans, 354; Jains, 
8; Parsis, 5; 'others,' 3; area of town site, 61 acres. Municipal 
revenue (1881-82) ;£"i7i9; rate of taxation, 4s. 9d. per head. Dakor 
is one of the chief places of pilgrimage in Western India. There are 
monthly meetings, but the largest gatherings take place about the full 
moon in October-November, when as many as 10,000 pilgrims assemble. 
Dispensary and post-office. 

Dakshln {Dakhin or Deccan). — Tract of country in Southern India. 
— See Deccan. 

Dakshin Shahbazpur. — A large low-lying island in the Meghna 
estuary, and now a Sub-division of Bakarganj District, Bengal, situated 
between 22° 16' 45" and 22° 51' 30" n. lat., and between 90° 39' 30" 
and 90° 57' 15" E. long. It was created a separate administrative Sub- 
division in 1845, and comprises the two thdiids or police circles of Bhola 
and Barhan-ud-din Haldar. Area, 615 square miles; 408 villages or 
towns, 21,209 occupied houses, and a population (1881) of 212,230, 
namely, males 113,880, and females 98,350; proportion of males in 
total population, 53*2 per cent. Muhammadans numbered 179,526; 
Hindus, 32,682 ; Christians, 7 ; and Buddhists, 15. Average density 
of population, 345 per square mile ; villages per square mile, '()() ; 
houses per square mile, 377; persons per village, 520; persons per 
house, 10. The cyclone of 31st October 1876 is said to have swept 
away almost the entire population of Daulat Khan, then the head- 
quarters town of the Sub-division. The island is a typical deltaic tract, 
formed out of the silt brought down by the Ganges and Brahmaputra. 
Its level is said to be higher than that of the adjacent delta or the 
Bakarganj mainland. The strong ' bore ' of the Meghna at spring tides 
rushes upon the east of Dakshin Shahbazpur, flooding all the water- 
courses and creeks. The north and eastern sides are being cut away 
by the river, many homesteads with their palm groves annually dis- 
appearing in the river; while large alluvial accretions are constantly 



DALA—DALHOUSIE. 97 

forming farther down the estuary, at the southern point of Dakshin 
Shahbazpur. 

Dala. — A suburb of Rangoon city, Pegu Division, British Burma ; 
situated on the right or western bank of the Rangoon river. Formerly 
the Dala circle included Angyi, now a part of Hanthawadi District, 
and Pyapiin, a portion of Thungwa ; but these were transferred at the 
end of the last century. The town was founded in the nth century, 
and was then called Dhalanagara. Population (1881) 6953. 

Dala. — A creek in Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, British 
Burma, which empties itself into the Rangoon river opposite Rangoon 
city. On the west side of its mouth are dockyards, and to the east, 
timber yards and steam sawmills. In the dry season it is navigable for 
a few miles only, but during the rains boats can traverse its entire 
length. 

Dala-nwun. — River in Shwe-gyin District, Tenasserim Division, 
British Burma. Rises in the eastern spurs of the Pegu Yomas, and, 
flowing south-east, falls into the Sittaung a few miles below Thayet- 
thamein. Navigable by large boats as far as Thungwa. 

Dalat {Dhalet). — River in Kyaukh-pyu District, Arakan Division, 
British Burma, rising in the main range, and falling into the sea at 
Combermere Bay. It is navigable as far as Dalet (sometimes called 
Talak) village, 25 miles from its mouth. In its upper reaches the 
stream is a mountain torrent, only passable by small canoes. 

Dalgoma. — Village in Goalpara District, Assam, at which a large 
fair is held annually in January, on the anniversary of the death of a 
former high priest of the temple. Lat. 26° 6' n., long. 90° 49' e. A 
revenue court {zaminddri kachdri) of the Raja of Bijni, the principal 
landowner of the District, is situated in this village. 

Dalhousie. — Municipal town, cantonment, and hill sanitarium, 
attached to Pathankot iahsil, Gurdaspur District, Punjab, but lying 
outside the limits of the main District. Lat. 32° 31' 45" n., long. 
76° o' 15" E. The Station occupies the summits and upper slopes of 
three mountain peaks in the main Himalayan range east of the Ravi 
river; distant from Pathankot 51 miles north-west, from Gurdaspur 74 
miles ; elevation above the sea, 76S7 feet. To the east the granite peak 
of Dain Kiind, clothed with dark pine forests, and capped with snow 
even during part of summer, towers to a height of 9000 feet ; while 
beyond, again, the peaks of the Dhaola Dhar, covered with perpetual 
winter, shut in the Kangra valley and close the view in that direction. 
jThe scenery may compare favourably with that of any mountain station 
'in the Himalayan range. The hills consist of rugged granite, and the 
houses are perched on a few gentler slopes among the declivities ; most 
of the houses are double-storied. The first project for the formation 
of a sanitarium at this spot originated with Colonel Napier, now Lord 

VOL. IV. G 



98 DALINGKOT—DALLL 

Napier of Magdala, in 1851. In the following year the British Govern- 
ment purchased the site from the Raja of Chamba, and the new station 
was marked off in 1854. No systematic occupation, however, took 
place until i860. In that year, Dalhousie was attached to the District 
of Gurdaspur; the road from the plains was widened, and building 
operations commenced on a large scale. Troops were stationed in the 
Baliin barracks in 1868, and the sanitarium rapidly acquired reputation 
as a fashionable resort. A military camel road now leads direct to the 
cantonment from below Dimiria ; and there is a good water-supply for 
the troops. The town now contains a court-house, branch treasury, 
police-station, post-office, dispensary, church, and several hotels. A 
European firm have built a brewery. The sanitary arrangements are 
still somewhat imperfect. Municipal revenue (1882-83), £^2^', 
expenditure, ;^64i. The population fluctuates greatly, according 
to the season of the year. At the time the Census was taken 
(February 1881), the population, including Baliin cantonments, was 
returned at 16 10, namely, of 1009 Hindus, 397 Muhammadans, 8 
Sikhs, and 196 'others;' and this may be considered as the permanent 
resident population, the visitors from the plains not arriving till later in 
the year. 

Dalingkot (or Kalimp07ig). — A hilly tract situated east of the Tista, 
west of the Ne-chu and De-chu rivers, and south of Independent 
Sikkim. It was acquired as the result of the Bhutan campaign of 1864, 
and now forms a part of Darjiling District, Bengal. The principal 
village in it is Kalimpong, situated at an elevation of 3916 feet, and the 
tract has now taken the name of KaUmpong. The Sub-division has 
recently been divided into three main tracts — (i) A tract set apart 
for native cultivators, of which 30,000 acres of cultivated land have 
been surveyed and settled with the occupiers on ten-year leases. 
(2) A forest and cinchona reserve, covering 140,433 acres. (3) Tea 
cultivation, 9000 acres. In the lower ranges, a small area has been 
reserved as a sanitarium for the tea-planters of the Dwars. Kalimpong 
village is on the trade route across the Jelep pass into Tibet. It has a 
bazar of about a dozen shops, mostly branch shops of Darjiling traders, 
and sub-divisional offices. The construction of a bridge across the 
Tista has rendered the tract accessible from the west at all seasons 
of the year, and the population is rapidly increasing. In 1872, the 
tract contained only 3526 inhabitants; by 1881, the population had 
risen to 12,683, namely, Hindus, 6475; Buddhists, 6153; Muham- 
madans, 9 ; Christians, 44 ; and * others,' 2. Area, 486 square miles ; 
number of villages, 32 ; and occupied houses, 2565. 

Dalli. — Zaminddri or estate in Bhandara District, Central Provinces 
Population (1881) 3431, namely, males 1766, and females 1665, 
chiefly Gonds, . residing in 1 7 small villages and 688 houses ; area, 



DALMA—DALMA U. 



99 



52 square miles, of which only 5 are rudely cultivated. The Great 
Eastern Road runs across Dalli, through the Mundipar Pass, the hills 
round which furnish an abundant supply of bamboos. The chief is a 
Gond. Principal village, Dalli, situated in lat. 21° 5' 30" n., long. 
80° 16' E. 

Dalma. — The principal hill in the mountain range of the same name 
in Manbhiim District, Bengal ; height, 3407 feet. It has been described 
as the 'rival of Parasnath;' but it lacks the bold precipices and com- 
manding peaks of that hill, and is merely a long rolling ridge rising 
gradually to its highest point. Its slopes are covered with dense forest, 
but are accessible to men and beasts of burden. The chief aboriginal 
tribes living on Dalma Hill are the Kharrias and Paharias. 

Dalmau. — Tahsil of Rai Bareli District, Oudh, consisting of the 
pargands of Dalmau, Sareni, and Khiron. Area (1881) 479 square 
miles. Population (1881) 262,499, namely, males 128,471, and females 
134,028. Hindus numbered 250,864; Muhammadans, 11,588; and 
'others,' 47. Total Government land revenue, ;£'39,373, being at the 
rate of 2s. 4jd. per acre. Of the 584 villages in the tahsil, 440 are 
held under talukddri tenure, 63 are zamiJiddri, 56 pattiddri^ and 26 
rent free. 

Dalmau. — Pargand of Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli ifistrict, Oudh. 
Bounded on the north by Rai Bareli pargand ; on the east by Salon ; 
on the south by Fatehpur District, the Ganges marking the border line ; 
and on the west by Khiron and Sareni pargands. Originally held by 
the Bhars till their extirpation by Ibrahim Sharki of Jaunpur, but first 
created Vi pargand by Akbar. The Bais were almost the sole proprietors 
till the forfeiture of the great estate of Raja Beni Madhu, and its 
distribution among other proprietors. A fertile tract, with an area 
of 253 square miles, of which 121 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
139,184, namely, 68,320 males and 70,864 females; average density, 
573 persons per square mile. Ten market villages, of which Lalganj 
is the most important. Main imports — rice and sugar from Faizabad 
(Fyzdbad), and cotton from Fatehpur ; extensive trade in cattle. 
Saltpetre was formerly manufactured in considerable quantities, but 
the industry now exists on a small scale in only two villages. Two 
large annual fairs, each attended by about 5p,ooo persons, are held in 
the paryand. 

Dalmau. — Town and head-quarters of Dalmau tahsil in Rai Bareli 
District, Oudh ; on the right bank of the Ganges, 16 miles south of Rai 
Bareli town, and 14 miles north of Fatehpur. Lat. 26° 3' 45" n., long. 
01 4 20" E. The town is said to have been founded about 1500 years 
ago by a brother of the Rija of Kanauj. It was for long in the posses- 
sion of the Bhars, and the surrounding country was the scene of a 
protracted struggle maintained by that tribe against the encroachments 



1 oo DA LMI—DAMAL C HERRI. 

of the Muhammadans. About 1400 a.d., the Bhars were almost 
annihilated by Sultan Ibrahim Sharki. Several Muhammadan mosques 
and tombs, in various stages of decay, and the ruins of the ancient 
Bhar fortress, attest the bygone importance of the town. During the 
last century it has steadily declined. Its population in 1881 consisted 
of 4443 Hindus and 924 Muhammadans; total, 5367, namely, males 
2725, and females 2642 ; area of town site, 1029 acres. The principal 
buildings are several mosques, a magnificent Hindu temple dedicated to 
Mahadeo, and a sdrdi or rest-house. A metalled road from the Ganges 
to Lucknow, via Rai Bareli, passes through the centre of the town, 
which is the seat of a tahsilddr exercising the powers of a magistrate, 
and also of an inspector of police. The mu7isif^s court exercises juris- 
diction over the whole of the Dalmau tahsil, and the pargand of Salon. 
Three bi-weekly markets, police station, post-office. Government Anglo- 
vernacular school, and branch dispensary. Large annual fair, attended 
by from 50,000 to 60,000 persons, is held on the last day of Kartik, at 
which a considerable trade is carried on. 

Dalmi. — Site of remarkable Hindu ruins on the Subarnarekha river, 
Manbhiim District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 4' N., long. 86° 4' e. Theyj 
comprise an old fort, with the remains of curious temples, dedicated! 
both to the Si'^aite and Vishnuvite objects of worship. There are somej 
indications that the Brahmans who built and used these temples werej 
preceded by Buddhists. 

Daltong'anj. — Administrative head-quarters of Palamau Sub-division, j 
Lohardaga District, Bengal. Prettily situated on the North Koel river, | 
opposite the old town of Shahpur. Lat. 24° 2' 15" n., long. 84° 6'| 
40" E. A brisk local trade is springing up. The town contains a| 
court-house, and the usual sub -divisional offices, a munsifi^ and thej 
head-quarters of a divisional forest officer. Population (1881) 7440, < 
namely, Hindus, 6025; Muhammadans, 1286; and 'others,' 129. 
Area of town site, 3374 acres. Municipal income (1881-82), ;j^2i8;: 
expenditure, ;^2i9. The town is named after Colonel Dalton, latei 
Commissioner of Chutia Nagpur. 

Daltonganj Coal-field. — The name given to an area of 2001 
square miles in the valleys of the Koel and Amanat rivers. The civil 
station of Daltonganj lies just beyond its southern border. Of the 
whole field, only about 30 square miles are considered by the| 
geological surveyors to be important as coal-bearing tracts. The coal- 
bearing area has not been ascertained with any certainty, but mining! 
engineers who have recently inspected the tract are of opinion that it 
contains a great deal more coal than set down in the estimate of thej 
Geological Survey. 

Damalcherri. — Pass in North Arcot District, Madras Presidency: 
by which the Maratha chief Sivaji made his first descent (1676) upon thej 



DAMAN, loi 

Karnatic ; and here, in 1 740, Dost Ali the Nawab was killed in battle 
with the Marathas. Latitude 13° 25' 40" n., longitude 79° 5' e. 
During the campaigns of 1780-82, it formed the main route for the 
supplies of Haidar All's troops when invading the Karnatic. 

Daman (//z<? ^ skirt ^ of the hills). — A tract of upland in the Punjab, 
lying between 28° 40' and 33° 20' n. lat., and between 69° 30' and 71° 
20' E. long., comprising the country lying at the eastern foot of the 
Sulaiman mountains, and the high right bank of the Indus in Dera 
Ismail Khan District. Naturally bare and devoid of vegetation, it 
derives fertility in places from the waters of hill torrents, particularly 
the Gumal, Tank Zani, Sohel, and Wahoa. 

Daman. — A Portuguese town and Settlement in the Province of 
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency; situated about 100 miles north 
of Bombay. Including the pargand of Nagar Havili, it contains an 
area of 82 square miles, with a total population (1881), including 
absentees and temporary residents, of 49,084 persons. The Settlement 
of Daman is bounded north by the river Bhagwan, east by British 
territory, south by the Kalem river, and west by the Gulf of Cambay. 
Daman town is situated in latitude 22° 25' n., longitude 72° 53' e. 

The Settlement is composed of two portions, in Daman proper, 
namely, parga?id Naer or Da7Jidn Grande., and pargand Calana Pavori 
or Da?ndn Pequeno, and the detached pargand of Nagar Havili, 
separated from it by a narrow strip of British territory, 5 to 7 miles in 
width, and intersected by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway. The town of Daman was sacked by the Portuguese in 1531, 
rebuilt by the natives, and retaken in 1558 by the Portuguese, who 
made it one of their permanent establishments in India. They con- 
verted the mosque into a church, and have since built eight other 
places of worship. The portion of Daman proper contains an area of 
22 square miles, and 29 villages, with a population of 21,622 souls; it 
lies at the entrance of the Gulf of Cambay, and is divided by the river 
Daman-Ganga into the two separate tracts known as Damdn Grande 
(Great Daman) and Da?ndn Piqueno (Little Daman). The first, on the 
south, is contiguous to the British District of Thana, while the other 
lies towards the north and borders on Surat District. This portion of 
the Settlement was conquered from Bofata on the 2nd of February 
1559, by the Portuguese under Dom Constantino de Braganza. The 
pargand of Nagar Havili, situated towards the east, has an area of 60 
square miles, with a population (1881) of 27,462 persons, and is like- 
wise sub-divided into two parts, called Eteli Pati and Upeli Pati, con- 
taining respectively 22 and 50 villages. It was ceded to the Portuguese 
by the Marathas, in indemnification for piratical acts committed against 
a ship carrying a flag of the former nation, in accordance with the 
treaty signed at Poona on 6th of January 1780. 



102 DAMAN, 

Physical Aspects. — The principal rivers are — (i) the Bhagwan, forming 
the northern boundary of the Settlement; (2) the Kalem, running along 
the southern boundary ; and (3) the Sandalkhdl or Daman - Gangd 
(Border Ganges), a deep navigable stream, rising in the Ghats about 40 
miles east of Daman proper. All these fall into the Gulf of Cambay. 
The Daman-Ganga has a bar at its mouth — dry at the lowest ebb tides, 
but with 18 to 20 feet of water at high tides. Outside this bar is a 
roadstead, where vessels of 300 to 400 tons may ride at anchor, and 
discharge cargo. Daman has long enjoyed a high celebrity for its 
docks and shipbuilding yards, due chiefly to the excellent teak with 
which the country is stocked. The climate of the place is generally 
healthy throughout the year. The Settlement has no minerals, but 
possesses stately forests in the pargand of Nagar Havili, whose total 
value is estimated at about ^^444,000. About two -thirds of these 
forests consist of teak (Tectona grandis) ; the other timber-trees include 
— sadiira (Pentaptera arjuna), khayer (Acacia catechu), sissu (Dalbergia 
sissoo), Idl khayer (Acacia sundra), tanas (Dalbergia ujjainensis), 
siwana (Gmelina arborea), dambora (Conocarpus latifolius), hedu (Nau- 
clea cordifolia), asafi (Briedelia spinosa), timbiirni (Diospyros montana), 
and babul (Acacia arabica). The forests are not conserved, and the 
extent of land covered by each kind of timber has not yet been pre- 
cisely determined. 

Agriculture. — The soil is moist and fertile, especially in the parga?id 
of Nagar Havili. Principal crops — rice, wheat, the inferior cereals 
common to Gujarat, and tobacco. Despite the facility of cultivation, 
only one-twentieth part of the territory is under tillage. In the pargand 
of Nagar Havili, the greater part of the soil is the property of Govern- 
ment, from whom the cultivators hold their tenures direct. A tax is 
levied on all lands, whether alienated or the property of the State. 
There is, however, no fixed rate of assessment, as the tax is regulated 
by a general estimate of the productiveness of each village. The total 
revenue thus obtained amounts to about ;^8oo. 

Trade, etc. — Before the decline of the Portuguese power in the East, 
Daman carried on an extensive commerce, especially with the eastern 
coast of Africa, to which the cotton fabrics made in Gujarat were largely 
exported in vessels carrying the Portuguese flag. From 181 7 to 1837, 
there was a flourishing trade with China in opium imported from 
Karachi (Kurrachee). But since the conquest of Sind by the British, 
the transport of opium has been prohibited, and thus Daman has been 
deprived of its chief source of wealth. In old days, Daman was noted 
for its weaving and dyeing. The former industry is still carried on to a 
limited extent, chiefly by the wives of Musalman khaldsis or sailors, while 
the latter is almost extinct. The piece-goods, made from a mixture of 
English and country twist, are of a quality and pattern worn only by 



DAMAN, 103 

the natives of Goa, Mozambique, and Diu, to which places they are 
exported. Mats and baskets of khajuri and bamboo are manufactured 
on a large scale. A noteworthy feature in connection with the industrial 
occupations of the place is its deep-sea fishing, giving employment to 
150 vessels, each with a crew of about 30 khandis. They make for the 
coast of Kathidwar, near Diu, where they remain for some months, and 
return laden with salted fish cured on board. 

Population. — The total population of the Settlement in 1881, includ- 
ing absentees and temporary residents, was 48,084, of whom 27,462 
(almost entirely Hindus) inhabit the pargand of Nagar Havili. Ac- 
cording to the Census of 1850, the population of Daman proper was 
returned at 33,559 — it is now said to be reduced to 21,622. In the 
total population the number of Christians is returned at 1615, of 
whom 15 are Europeans. The total number of houses amounts to 
10,202 ; but only a very few are of any size or pretensions. The native 
Christians adopt the European costume. Some of the women dress 
themselves after the present European fashion, while others follow the 
old style once prevalent in Portugal and Spain, viz. a petticoat and 
mantle. 

Adjninistration. — The territory of Daman forms, for administrative 
purposes, a single District, and has a municipal chamber or corporation. 
It is ruled by a Governor invested with both civil and military functions, 
subordinate to the Governor-General of Goa. The judicial department 
is superintended by a judge, with an establishment composed of a 
delegate of the attorney-general, and two or three clerks. The total 
revenues of Daman in 1873-74 amounted tO;2^796o, los., of which the 
larger portion was derived from the pargand of Nagar Havili. The 
chief sources of revenue are land-tax, forests, abkdri or excise, and 
customs duties. The expenditure in the same year was ;^788o, 4s. 
The police force consisted, in 1874, of 194 officers and men. 

The Settlement of Daman has two forts, situated on either side of the 
river Daman-Ganga. The former is almost a square in shape, and 
built of stone. It contains, besides the ruins of the old monastic 
establishments, the Governor's palace, together with the buildings 
appertaining to it, military barracks, hospital, municipal office, court- 
house, jail, two modern churches, and numerous private residences. 
On the land side this fort is protected by a ditch crossed by a draw- 
bridge, while at its north-west angle extends the principal bastion, 
which commands the entrance to the harbour. It is occupied by the 
Governor and his staff, the military establishments, officers connected 
with the Government, and a few private individuals ; all are Christians. 
The smaller fort, which is a more recent structure, is placed by the 
Portuguese under the patronage of St. Jerome. Its form is that of an 
irregular quadrilateral, enclosed by a wall somewhat higher than that of 



1 04 DAMAN-I-KOH— DAM-MA- THA. 

the other fort. The principal buildings within it are a church, a 
parochial house, and a mortuary chapel surrounded by a cemetery. 
Both the forts have brass and iron cannon on the walls, some of which 
are mounted, and others either attached to old carriages or lying on the 
ground. 

Ddman-i-Koh. — A tract of hilly country, literally ' Skirts of the 
hills,' in the District of the Santal Parganas, Bengal, and extending 
over portions of Dumka, Rajmahal, Pakaur, and Godda Sub-districts. 
Area, 1366 square miles, which was marked off by a ring fence in 1832. 
Number of villages, 2385 ; occupied houses, 60,052. The total popula- 
tion at the time of the Census of 1881 was 353,413? of whom 210,932 
were Santals, and 49,895 Kols and other aboriginal tribes, still pro- 
fessing their primitive faith. The balance of the population are also 
aboriginal by race, although most of them have adopted some form of 
Hinduism, and a few are converts to Muhammadanism and Chris- 
tianity. The first Census in 1872 was taken in this tract by the head- 
man of each village, by means of knotted strings of three colours, 
representing the males, females, and children separately. Each 
individual was ' knotted off,'" while in some villages an independent 
committee kept a reckoning by seeds or small pieces of gravel, 
arranged in three sets upon the ground. The women and children 
apprehended some terrible natural visitation in consequence of this 
numbering of the people. In 1881, agitators seized the opportunity 
afforded by the Census for a tribal demonstration. Objection was made 
to the numbering of the houses and of the people. The circumstance 
that the final enumeration was to be taken by night gave rise to rumours 
that Government meditated some widespread policy of violence, and 
the hillmen worked themselves up into a state of great excitement. 
It was found necessary to dispense with the nocturnal enumeration, 
and by a show of force in marching detachments of troops through the 
Santal country, the Census was effected without disturbance. 

The Daman-i-Koh is the property of Government, having been 
'resumed' from the zaminddrs who held it between 1780 and 1839, 
when the last formal resumption was effected. It has been kept 
exclusively for the hill tribes, who were first found in it, and for the 
Santals and other cognate primitive races who began to immigrate 
into it about 1820. Foreigners are not allowed to reside in this tract 
without special permission. 

Dam-Dama. — Sub-division and cantonment, Twenty-four Parganas 
District, Bengal. — See Dum-Dum. 

Dam-ma-tha. — A small town on the Gyaing river, in Amherst 
District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. To the south is an 
extensive outcrop of limestone rocks covered with dense forest, and 
pierced by a large cave, containing images of Buddha. These rock? 



DAMODAR. 



105 



terminate immediately below the village in an overhanging cliff, 
crowned by a pagoda ; and between this and the village is the Govern- 
ment rest-house, with a flight of steps down to the Gyaing river. The 
massive and rugged Zweh-ka-bin limestone ridge, known as the ' Duke 
of York's Nose,' is situated to the north of Dam-ma-tha. 

Damodar. — A river of Bengal ; rises in the Chutia Nagpur water- 
shed, and, after a south-easterly course of about 350 miles, falls into 
the Hugh just above the ill-famed ' James and Mary Sands,' a shoal 
which it has helped to deposit at its mouth. The junction is in lat. 
22° 17' N., long. 88° 7' 30" E. Together with its tributaries, it forms 
the great line of drainage of the country stretching north-west from 
Calcutta to the fringe of the plateau of Central India. That plateau 
throws off to the eastward a confused mass of spurs and outliers, which 
in the Districts of Hazaribagh and Lohardaga form a watershed, in 
the 84th degree of east longitude and 23rd of north latitude, of much, 
although inadequately recognised, significance in the hydrography of 
Bengal. The ridges culminate near Lohardaga town in a well-defined 
barrier, with peaks up to 3476 feet. Two important river systems 
here take their rise in close proximity, and then diverge on widely- 
separated routes. The drainage from the north-western slopes flows 
northwards into the wSon (Soane), the great river of Behar, which joins 
the Ganges between Patna and Baxar, 500 miles above the spot where 
the waters from the eastern slopes, as represented by the southerly 
flowing Damodar, enter the Hiigli. The Hazaribagh or Lohardaga 
watershed, therefore, forms the western apex of a vast triangle, with the 
Son as its north-eastern, and the Damodar as its south-eastern sides, 
resting upon the Ganges as its eastern base. The sources of the Damodar 
are a two-pronged fork, approximately in 23° 35' to 24° n. lat., and 84° 
40' to 84° 55' E. long., — the southern one, the true source, being in the 
'Iqx\ pargand of Lohardaga District; the northern one, the Garhi, in the 
north-west corner of Hazaribagh District. After a course of about 26 
miles as wild mountain streams, the two prongs unite just within the 
western boundary of Hazaribagh; and the combined river flows through 
that District almost due east for 93 miles, receiving the Kunar, 
Jamunia, and other affluents from the watershed on the north-west. It 
continues its course still eastward through Manbhiim, and receives its 
chief tributary, the Barakhar, also from the north, at the point where it 
leaves that District and touches Bardwan. A little lower down, the 
united stream becomes navigable, and assumes the dignity of an im- 
portant river. At the point of junction it turns to the south-east, 
separating the Raniganj Sub-division of Bardwan from Bankura ; next 
entering Bardwan District, it continues south-east to a little beyond 
Bardwan town ; then turns sharp to the right and flows almost due 
south for the remainder of its course through Bardwan and Hugli 



io6 DAMODAR. 

Districts. Shortly before entering the latter, it assumes the deltaic 
type, and instead of receiving affluents, throws off distributaries, the 
best known being the Kana nadi, which branches from the parent 
stream at Salimabad in Bardwan District, and finds its way as the 
Kunti nadi into the Hiigli near the village of Nawa Sarai. The main 
stream formerly debouched into the Hugh more directly and higher up 
than at present ; its old mouth being now marked by the insignificant 
watercourse known as the Kansond. khal. The Damodar thus exhibits 
in its comparatively short course the two great features of an Indian 
river. In the earlier part of its career it has a rapid flow, and brings 
down large quantities of silt. At the point of junction of the two 
prongs on the western border of Hazarib^gh District, the united stream 
starts with an elevation of 1326 feet above sea-level. In its course of 
93 miles through Hazaribdgh, its fall averages 8 feet per mile (total, 
744 feet), and it leaves the District with an elevation of only 582 feet 
to be distributed over its remaining course of about 250 miles. The 
fall continues rapidly through Manbhum and north-western Bardwan, 
in the latter of which Districts the Damodar deposits large and shift- 
ing sandbanks. In South Bardwan and Hiigli Districts it declines into 
a sluggish deltaic channel, and deposits the remainder of its silt at 
its point of junction wuth the Hugh river, opposite Falta. The 
Riipndrayan, a southern congener of the Damodar, from nearly the 
same watershed, also falls into the Hugli, a few miles lower down. 
Both streams enter the great river at a sharp angle from the west, and 
the ' James and Mary Sands ' have been thrown up between their 
mouths. These sands are formed from the silt brought down by the 
Hugh' and Damodar ; the deposit of the suspended matter at this 
spot being caused by the freshets of the Riipnarayan, which dam up 
the Hiigli by backwaters, thus checking its current and forcing it to 
drop its burden. During the dry season, the Damodar is only navigable 
as far as Ampta in Howrah District — about 25 miles from its mouth 
— by native boats of 10 tons burthen at neap, and of 20 tons at spring 
tides. In the rainy season it is navigable to near its point of junction 
with the Barakhar, in the north-western extremity of Bardwan District. 
A flotilla of 200 to 300 boats {pdutds)^ from 20 to 30 tons, built broad 
with strong transverse timbers to resist the strain caused by frequent 
grounding on sandbanks, brings down yearly about 40,000 tons of coal 
from the Raniganj mines, to depots at Maheshrekha in Howrah Dis- 
trict, whence Calcutta is reached via the Uliibaria Canal and the Hiigli. 
In seasons of abundant and evenly-distributed rainfall, each boat can 
make two or three trips between June and October. The Damodai 
is subject to sudden freshets, which used to desolate the surrounding 
country in Bardwan District. In 1770, a flood almost totally destroyed 
Bardwan town, ruined the whole line of embankments, and caused a 



DAMOH. 107 

severe local famine. In 1823, and again in 1855, inundations swept 
away the river-side villages, and the terror of a similar calamity has 
deterred the people from building on many of the deserted sites. 
'Picture to yourself,' writes the Calcutta Monthly Journal in 1823, *a 
flat country completely under water, running with a force apparently 
irresistible, and carrying with it dead bodies, roofs of houses, palanquins, 
and wreck of every description ! ' The floods lasted for three days, 
during which the fortunate owners of brick tenements camped on their 
roofs. The old landmarks of the peasants' holdings were swept away, 
and many years of bankruptcy and litigation ensued. Since the con- 
struction of the railway, which for a space follows the course of the 
Damodar, and the improvement of the river embankments, which 
Government took into its own hands after the flood of 1855, calamities 
on this scale have been unknown. The Damodar embankment now 
protects the country northwards of the river ; but this embankment 
has had the effect of throwing the spill of the river over the unpro- 
tected country on the right bank, attended with serious damage to 
crops, and laying waste a large tract of formerly fertile land. Towards 
the south, where the Damodar and the Rupnarayan rivers converge 
upon the Hugli, there is a great tract of eight square miles subject to 
inundations from eight to eighteen feet in depth. The engineering diffi- 
culties incident to this flooded region formed one of the arguments for 
taking the direct railway from Calcutta to Bombay round by the Barakhar 
route, instead of by the direct line across Midnapur District. 

Damoh. — District in the Jabalpur Division of the Chief Commis- 
sionership of the Central Provinces, lying between 22° 10' and 23° 30' 
N. lat., and 79° 5' and 80° e. long. Bounded on the north by Bundel- 
khand ; on the east by Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) ; on the south by Nar- 
singhpur; and on the west by Sagar (Saugor). Population in 1881, 
312,957 souls; area, 2799 square miles. The administrative head- 
quarters of the District are at Damoh, which is also the principal town. 

Physical Aspects. — The contour of the District is irregular, and in 
parts ill-defined. To the south, a lofty range of sandstone hills 
separates Damoh from Narsinghpur and Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), and at 
places sends forth spurs and ridges into the plain below. But these 
elevations are as a rule insignificant in size, and add but little beauty 
to the landscape. On the east rise the Bhondla hills, which run east- 
wards till they are lost in the loftier range of the Bhanrer mountains. 
The Vindhyachal hills, which stretch for a considerable distance along 
the western boundary, though of no great height, form the most 
picturesque feature of the District — from time to time opening out into 
broad uplands, thickly wooded with low jungle. In this part of Damoh 
the overlying trap of the Sagar plateau is met with. From these 
ranges, which more or less distinctly mark it off on three sides, Damoh 



io8 DAMOH. 

extends in a vast table-land, sloping gradually towards the north, till 
an abrupt dip in the surface occurs, beyond which the plains of 
Bundelkhand may be seen stretching far away into the distant horizon. 
Except on the south and east, where the offshoots from the surround- 
ing hills and patches of jungle break up the country, the District con- 
sists, therefore, of open plains of varying degrees of fertility, interspersed 
with low ranges and isolated heights. The richest tracts lie in the 
centre. The gentle declivity of the surface, and the porous character 
of the prevailing sandstone formation, render the drainage excellent. 
All the streams flow from south to north. The Sonar and the Bairma, 
the two principal rivers, traverse the entire length of the District, 
receiving in their progress the waters of the Beas (Bias), Kopra, Gurayya, 
and smaller tributaries, rolling with a rapid stream towards the northern 
boundary of Damoh. As it approaches the frontier, the Sonar takes a 
bend eastwards, and joins the Bairma ; the united stream then leaves 
Damoh behind it, and, after receiving the Ken, falls into the Jumna. 
Little use has yet been made of any of the rivers for irrigation, though 
in many places they offer great facilities for the purpose. 

Uistojy. — In early times, the Chandel Rajputs of Mahoba in 
Bundelkhand administered the present Districts of Sagar and Damoh 
by means of a deputy posted at Balihri, in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore). 
Excepting a few temples known as marhs^ of rude architecture, and 
entirely destitute of inscriptions, the Chandels have left no monuments 
of their rule. On the decay of the Chandeli Raj, about the end of 
the nth century, the greater part of Damoh became dependent upon 
the Gond power, which had its seat at Khatola, in Bundelkhand, until 
its subversion about 1500 by the notorious Bundela chief. Raja Bar- 
singh Deva. The Muhammadan power made itself felt in Damoh 
from a very early period. A Persian inscription, formerly legible on 
the principal gateway of the town of Damoh, bore the date 775 a.h. 
(1373 A.D.). Two hundred years, however, elapsed from this time before 
the Muhammadans actually occupied the District. Their invasion met 
with little opposition, except at Narsinghgarh, where the Gonds made 
a show of resistance to Shah Taiyab, the commander of the Imperial 
forces. During the supremacy of the Muhammadans, Damoh, Nar- 
singhgarh (or as they called it, Nasratgarh), and Lakhroni were the 
principal towns ; and their presence may still be traced in the ruins 
of forts, tombs, and mosques. The Muhammadan element in the 
population is now insignificant both in numbers and in position ; and 
though the Kazis of Narsinghgarh claim descent from Shah Taiyab, 
they have fallen so low that they are glad to take service as messengers 
and process-servers. When the Mughal Empire began to give way 
before the rising Maratha power, the Muhammadans fast lost their 
hold over their outlying dependencies ; and Chhatar Sal, the powerful 



DAMOH. 109 

Raja of Panna, took the opportunity to annex Sagar and Damoh. The 
Gonds and other wild tribes, however, who held the more mountainous 
regions in the south and east of Damoh, never acknowledged his 
authority. In his time was built the fort of Hatta. In the year 
1733, Raja Chhatar Sal was forced to solicit the assistance of Baji Rao 
Peshwa to repel an invasion of the Nawab of Farukhabad from the 
north. To repay the service then rendered. Raja Chhatar Sal con- 
sented to the cession called the tethrd^ by which all his territory was 
divided into three equal parts — one for each of his two sons, and the 
remaining third for the Peshwa, whom he formally adopted. In this 
distribution, a part of Damoh was allotted to each of the three ; but 
no long time elapsed before the Marathas wrested the whole of the 
District from- the Bundelas. From this period, Damoh continued sub- 
ordinate to the Maratha governors at Sagar (Saugor), until by the treaty 
of 18 18 it was made over to the British. Under the plundering 
revenue system of the Marathas, wide tracts relapsed into jungle, and 
the cultivating classes sank into a state of hopeless poverty. Half a 
century of British administration has now brought about a new era of 
prosperity for Damoh. Our earlier land settlements, based on the 
Maratha records, pressed heavily on the agricultural population; but 
this error has been rectified, and the District now enjoys a light 
assessment and fixed tenures. The result has already manifested itself 
in the spread of cultivation, and in the high market value of land, in 
some cases exceeding thirty years' purchase. The official records of 
Damoh were destroyed in the disturbances of 1857. 

Population. — A rough enumeration in 1866 returned the population 
of Damoh at 262,641 ; and a more careful Census in 1872 at 269,642. 
The last Census, in 1881, returned the population of the District, cover- 
ing the same area as in 1872, at 312,957, showing an increase of 
43?3i55 or 16 per cent., in the nine years. This increase is to a con- 
siderable extent due to immigration caused by the famine of 1877, 
when a large number of refugees from the Native States to the north 
settled down permanently in the District ; and also to the importation 
of labour for the new road from Damoh to Jabalpur. The results 
exhibited by the Census of 188 1 may be briefly summarized as follows : 
Area of District, 2799 square miles, with 2 towns and 1144 villages; 
number of houses, 73,602, of which 70,276 were occupied and 3326 
unoccupied. Total population, 312,957, namely, 162,570 males and 
^S^jS^y females. Average density, 112 persons per square mile; 
towns and villages per square mile, 0*41 ; persons per town or village, 
272; houses per square mile, 25*11; persons per occupied house, 
4*45- Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 288,894 ; 
Jains, 6665 ^ Kabirpanthis, 2423 ; Satnamis, 137 ; Muhammadans, 
9384; Christians, 33; and tribes professing aboriginal religions, 5421. 



110 DAM OH. 

Of the Hindus, the high castes, represented by the Brahmans and 
Rajputs, number 32,580. Of the lower castes, the best agriculturists 
are the Kurmis, who are said to have emigrated from the Doab of 
the Ganges and Jumna into the Central Provinces over two centuries 
ago. In 1 88 1 they numbered 23,635 in Damoh District, being found 
mostly in the rich black-soil tracts. They are a peaceable class, and 
have always been remarkable for their loyalty to the ruling power. 
They are very tenacious of their ancestral holdings, and seldom 
alienate their landed rights, except under the greatest pressure. 
Scarcely inferior to the Kurmis as agriculturists are the Lodhis, who 
form the most numerous caste in the District (36,897 in number in 
1881); they are descendants of immigrants from Bundelkhand nearly 
three centuries ago. They differ greatly from the Kurmis in tempera- 
ment, being turbulent, revengeful, and always ready to join in any 
disturbance. They make good soldiers, and are generally excellent 
sportsmen. The aboriginal tribe of Gonds (33,499 i^ number) and 
Ahirs (15,796) appear in this part of the country to have entirely 
lost their nationality, and to have become completely Hinduized. 
They are the only tribes which inhabit the wooded and hilly portions 
of the District, and are generally poor, of unsettled habits, and in- 
different agriculturists. In the plains they are principally employed 
as farm labourers. The Kachhis (14,848 in number) are a superior 
class of cultivators akin to the Kurmis, and raise good crops of sugar- 
cane and garden produce. They are also field labourers. The lowest 
castes of Hindus include Chamars (35^976), who are workers in leather, 
labourers, etc. ; Chandals (7558), weavers, field labourers, and village 
watchmen ; and Dhimals (10,239), fishermen, water-carriers, domestic 
servants, etc. The Muhammadan element amounts to only 3 per 
cent, of the population, and is composed mainly of the lower orders, 
who are employed as cotton carders, weavers, etc. They belong, almost 
without exception, to the Sunni sect. 

Division into Town a?id Coujiiry. — There are only two towns in 
Damoh District with a population exceeding 5000 — viz. Damoh, the 
District headquarters (population in 188 1, 8665), and Hatta (6325), and 
these form the only municipaUties. Of the 11 46 villages and towns, 
661 contained in 188 1 less than two hundred inhabitants ; 349 had from 
two to five hundred; 97 from five hundred to a thousand; 29 from 
one to two thousand ; 6 from two to three thousand ; 2 from three to 
five thousand ; and 2 upwards of five thousand inhabitants. As 
regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the male population 
into the following six main divisions :— Class I. Professional, including 
civil and military and learned professions, 3245 ; II. Domestic ser- 
vants, lodging-house keepers, etc., 2023; III. Commercial, including 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 2958; IV. Agricultural, including 



DAMOH. 



in 



cultivators, gardeners, and sheep and cattle tenders, 61,208 ; V. In- 
dustrial class, including manufacturers, artisans, etc., 25,818 ; VI. 
Indefinite and non-productive, including ordinary labourers and male 
children, 67,318. 

j Agriadture. — Of the total area of 2799 square miles, only 810 square 
miles were cultivated in 1881-82, and of the portion lying waste, 684 
square miles were returned as cultivable. Only 1147 acres were irri- 
gated — entirely by private enterprise. Wheat constitutes the principal 
crop, being grown in 1881-82 on 244,583 acres, while 199,724 acres 
were devoted to other food-grains. Rice and oil-seeds form the only 
other important produce. The cultivation of cotton is small, and 
the produce is used principally for local consumption. The average 
rent of land suited for wheat is 5s. per acre ; for inferior grain, 3s. ; 
for rice, 2s. 9d. ; and for oil-seeds, 3s. The produce per acre averages 
— wheat, 452 lbs. ; inferior grains, 305 ; rice, 377 ; and oil-seeds, 281 lbs. 
The average prices in 1881 per cwt. were — wheat, 3s. 9d. ; rice, 6s. 7d. ; 
linseed, 5s. 9d. ; and inferior food-grains, 2s. 9d. The usual wages for 
skilled labour amounted to is. per diem ; for unskilled labour, from 3d. 
to 6d. The total agricultural adult population, including agricultural 
labourers, in 1881 was 89,359, or 28*55 P^^ cent, of the total District 
population. Total assessed area, 1903 square miles, paying a total 
revenue to Government of ^£^28,379, or an average of is. per acre of 
cultivated, and 7|d. per acre of cultivable land. The total amount of 
rent, including cesses, paid by the cultivators to the landlords, was 
^66,769, or an average of 2s. 6d. per acre. Average area of cultivable 
and cultivated land per head of the agricultural population, 1 1 acres. 
The best agriculturists are the Kiirmis, who are said to have immigrated 
from the Doab about 250 years ago. The circumstance that their women 
engage in field-work equally with the men contributes in no slight 
degree to their success. A most peaceable race, and remarkable for 
their loyalty to the ruling power, the Kiirmis are exceedingly tenacious 
of their ancestral holdings, and will hardly alienate their rights in land 
under the greatest pressure. The Lodhis, who rank next as agri- 
culturists, made their way into the District about three centuries ago. 
Often turbulent and revengeful, they form good soldiers, and are 
generally excellent sportsmen. Both Kiirmis and Lodhis make no 
distinction between a mistress and a wife, provided the former is of 
the same caste as her partner, or, what is more respectable still, the 
widow of an elder brother or cousin. The children born from such 
connections inherit property, of whatever kind, equally with those born 
of regularly-married wives. In the wooded and hilly portions of 
Damoh, many Gonds pursue agriculture after a humble fashion ; in 
the plains they are principally employed as farm servants. Of the 
71 villages held by Muhammadans, 63 are in possession of one family, 



112 DAMOH. 

who obtained a whole taluk in proprietary right as a reward for loyal 
services rendered during the Mutiny. 

Commerce a?id Trade. — The chief trade of the District is conducted 
at the annual fairs held at Kundalpur and Bandakpur. The Kundalpur 
fair takes place in March, beginning with the yearly gathering of Jains, 
immediately after the Holt festival, and lasts a fortnight. It owes its 
origin to the Jain temple erected at Kundalpur by the Purwar Baniyas, 
to which the neighbouring Jains resorted to worship Neminath, and to 
settle caste disputes. In these adjudications, the delinquents often 
incur fines, which supply a fund for the repairs of the temple, and 
for embellishing the place with tanks and groves. The fairs at Ban- 
dakpur are held in January and February, at the Basantpanchiimi and 
Siva-rdtri festivals respectively, when crowds of devotees visit the place 
for the purpose of pouring water from the Ganges or Narbada (Nerbudda) 
on the image of Jageswar Mahadeva, in fulfilment of vows made for 
prayers granted, or favours solicited. Of the offerings made to the 
god on these occasions, to the value of nearly ;^i2oo in the year, 
one-fourth becomes the property of the priests. The proprietor of the 
temple claims the remaining three-fourths, and is said to expend his 
share on religious objects. This temple was erected in 1781 by the 
father of Nagoji Ballal, a respectable Maratha pandit of Damoh, in 
obedience to a dream, which revealed to him that at a certain spot in 
the village of Bandakpur an image of Jageswar Mahadeva lay buried. 
There he built a temple ; and in due time, as the vision foretold, the 
image arose without the help of man. The fame of this occurrence 
has attracted throngs of pilgrims, and consequently of traders ; and, in 
1881, the attendance amounted to 70,000 persons. Piece-goods manu- 
factured at Maria-Doh, hardware, with trinkets made at Hindoria and 
Patera, form the articles chiefly dealt in. The import traffic on the 
north-east frontier is considerable, consisting of European and country- 
made piece-goods, betel, cocoa-nuts, hardware, tobacco, spices, rum, and 
sugar from Mirzapur and the north-west. But a great proportion of 
these goods merely passes through the District on the way to Sagar and 
Bhopal. On the other hand, the Banjaras bring large quantities of salt 
from the Rajputana salt lakes, by w^ay of Sagar and Damoh, to supply 
the markets of Bundelkhand. The exports consist of wheat, gram, rice, 
hides, ghi, cotton, and coarse cloth. The total length of made roads in 
the District is returned at 40 miles of first class, 93 miles of the second, 
and 139 of the third class. The principal road is that connecting the 
military station of Sagar (Saugor) with the town of Jabalpur (Jubbul- 
pore). For the 40 miles of its course which lie within this District it is 
partially bridged, and all the streams it crosses are fordable. The 
shorter line which joins Sagar with Jokai on the Mirzapur road, travers- 
ing Damoh for 30 miles, should become an important railway feeder. 



DAM OH. 113 

The only other important line runs from Damoh towards Nagode via 
Hatta, and supplies the route for commerce with Mirzipur and the Upper 
Provinces. Besides these roads, two tracks start from the north-east and 
north-west of the District, along which the Banjaras drive their trains 
of pack-bullocks, laden with grain for the markets of Bundelkhand. 

Administration.— T)2imo\\ was first formed into a separate District 
under the British Government of the Central Provinces in 1861. It is 
administered by a European Deputy Commissioner with an Assistant 
Commissioner and tahsilddrs. Total revenue in 1881-82, ;£38,o94, of 
which the land revenue yielded ^26,676. Total cost of District 
officials and police of all kinds, ;^io,i88. Number of civil and revenue 
judges of all sorts within the District, 5 ; of magistrates, 8 ; maximum 
distance from any village to the nearest court, 50 miles; average 
distance, 25 miles. Number of police, 382 men (costing ^4812), being 
I policeman to about every 7-3 square miles and to 819 inhabitants. 
The daily average number of convicts in jail in 1881-82 was 44*33, of 
whom 4-10 were females. In the same year the number of Government 
or aided schools in the District under inspection was 50, attended by 
a total of 2386 pupils, besides a number of uninspected indigenous 
schools. The District English school at Damoh town was attended by 
218 pupils. The Census Report of 188 1 returned a total of 2853 boys 
and 130 girls as under instruction, besides 6575 men and 81 women 
not under instruction, but able to read and write. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate may be pronounced fairly healthy. 
The temperature is lower than is usual in the Districts of the Narbada 
(Nerbudda) valley, and the hot winds prove milder and of shorter 
duration than in Upper India. All the year round, the nights are cool. 
In the winter it generally rains, and then the weather becomes really 
cold, and sharp frosts sometimes occur. Rainfall in 1881-82, 42-03 
inches; annual average, 56-30 inches. Average temperature in the 
shade at the civil station for the three years ending 1881 : — May, 
highest reading 107° F., lowest 67-7° ; July, highest reading 90-7°, lowest 
71*2°; December, highest reading 73-7°, lowest 357°. Cholera some- 
times sweeps over the District. Small-pox carries off large numbers of 
children, but appears to be now on the decrease. Vaccination is being 
steadily pushed on, 11,753 persons having been vaccinated in 1881-82. 
Fevers are generally prevalent, especially at the conclusion of the 
monsoon. Those of an intermittent type are the most common forms 
of the disease. Ophthalmia is very common, as. also is guinea-worm. 
In 1881, 10,661 deaths from all causes were registered, at the ratio of 
about 35 per 1000 of the population. There were 27 cases of suicide, 
of which 1 6 were of women; 94 persons died from snake-bite, or were 
Killed by wild beasts. In the same year, 5 charitable dispensaries 
afforded medical relief to 14,290 patients. TFor further information 

VOL. IV. H 



114 DAMOH— BANGS, THE. 

regarding Damoh District, see the Central Provinces Gazetteer {\%']o)^ 
the Census Report of 1881, and the Administration Reports of the 
Central Provinces, 188 2-84. ] 

Damoh. — Tahsil or revenue sub-division in Damoh District, Central 
Provinces. Lat. 23° 9' to 24° 27' n., long. 77° 57' to 79° 24' e. Area, 
1792 square miles, of which 476 are cultivated, 420 cultivable, and 896 
uncultivable. Population (r88i) 187,897, namely, 97,405 males and 
90,492 females, residing in 698 towns and villages, and occupying 
34,986 houses ; average density, 105 persons per square mile. 
Amount of Government assessment, ;^i4,48i, or an average of ii^d. 
per acre of cultivation. Rental paid by cultivators, including cesses, 
;2^39,i6i, or an average of 2s. 7d. per cultivated acre. The ta/isil con- 
tains 4 civil and 7 criminal courts, including the head-quarters courts ; 
with 5 police and 9 outpost stations ; strength of regular police, 140 
men ; village watchmen ichaukiddrs), 484. 

Damoh. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Damoh 
District. Lat. 23° 50' n., long. 79° 29' 30" e., on the high road between 
Sagar (Saugor) and Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), and between Sagar and 
Allahabad via Jokai. Population (1881) 8665, namely, 4390 males and 
4275 females. The Hindu population, consisting chiefly of Lodhis. 
Kiirmis, and Brahmans, numbered 7027; Muhammadans, 1275 ; Jains. 
311 ; Kabirpanthis, 39 ; and Christians, 13. The porous sandstone or 
which the town is built does not easily retain water, and there are but 
few wells ; thus, in spite of the fine tank called the Phutera Tal, good 
water is scarce. The temperature is considerably increased by radiatior 
from the bluffs near Damoh. There are but few buildings of an) 
interest, most of the old Hindu temples having been destroyed by thf 
Muhammadans, and their materials used to construct a fort, which ir 
its turn has been destroyed. 

Damsang. — Tract of country, Darjiling District, Bengal. — Se( 
Dalingkot. 

DangS, The. — Tract of country, situated within the limits 
the Political Agency of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency 
Bounded north-west by the petty State of Warsavi in the Rewa Kanth; 
Agency ; on the north-east by the British Districts of Khandesh am 
Nasik ; on the south by Nasik District ; and on the west by the Bansd; 
State in Surat District. The Dangs consist of 15 petty States, rule( 
by Bhil chieftains, extending from 20° 22' to 21° 5' n. latitude, am 
from 73° 28' to 73° 52' E. longitude. The extreme length from nortl 
to south is 52 miles, and the breadth 28 miles. Estimated area 
about 1000 square miles; population (1881) 45,485; estimated gros 
revenue of all the chiefs, ^3100 (chiefly derived from dues on timber) 

Tlie country is covered with dense forest, intersected in all direction 
by precipitous ravines and rugged mountains, the general slope bein: 



f 



I 



BANGS, THE. j,^ 

towards the west. The rainfall is heavy ; and the air of the valleys 
walled in on all sides by steep hill ranges, is close and hot. The water 
obtained from pools and wells is always full of decaying vegetable 
matter. From these causes the climate is singularly unhealthy. Except 
for a iQ\\ months, from March to May, or during the driest season of 
the year, no European, and only the hardiest races of natives, can 
remain in the Bangs. The valleys contain tracts of rich black loam, 
but the soil on the uplands is the poorer variety of red. None of the 
mineral resources have as yet been ascertained. Of vegetable pro- 
ducts, teak and other timber-trees are by far the most important. With 
the exception of a little rice and pulse, the crops are confined to the 
mferior varieties of mountain grains. In the west or Lower Bangs, the 
valleys and ravine-sides are too densely wooded to be habitable ;' the 
it-^ villages and hamlets are generally found on the more open' flat- 
topped spurs and ridges. In the east the country is more open. There 
are no roads properly so called, but there are 4 principal cart-tracks. 
The inhabitants of the Bangs belong almost entirely to the wild forest 
tribes. Most of them are Bhils, who, accompanied by herds of sheep and 
goats, move about from place to place, supporting themselves in great 
measure on game and the natural products of the forest. Under the 
former Native Governments, the Bhils were the terror of the neighbour- 
mg Bistricts, and on occasions the most indiscriminate vengeance was 
taken on them in return for their habitual depredations. After the 
occupation of Khandesh by the British in 18 18, anarchy was at its 
height. The roads were impassable, villages were plundered, and 
murders committed daily, the only protection the inhabitants of the 
plain could obtain being through regular payment of black-mail. An 
expedition was sent into the Bang country ; but at the end of three 
months, less than half the force marched back into Maligaon, the 
others having succumbed to the malaria of the jungle. At that time, 
Captain (afterwards Sir James) Outram came among the Bhils. First 
conciliating them with feasts and his prowess in tiger-shooting, he 
eventually succeeded in forming a Bhil corps, originally based on 9 
men who had accompanied him on shooting expeditions. In 1827, 
this Bhil corps had reached 600 rank and file, who fought boldly for 
the Government and suppressed plundering.^ The Bistrict treasuries 
are now under their charge, and the chief police rests in their hands. 
The tribe next in importance to the Bhils is called Konkani. They are 
somewhat more settled in their habits and more inclined to agriculture, 
though little superior to the Bhils in appearance. The language of 
both these tribes is a mixture of Hindustani, Marathi, and Gujarathi, 
m which the last predominates. Education is in a very backward 
state. In the whole Bangs, not more than half-a-dozen persons can 
read and write. 



ii6 



BANGS, THE. 



There are fifteen petty chiefs in the Dang country, whose States are 
returned (i8Si) as follows : — 



Name of State. 



Da 



ig Pimpri, 

Wadhwan, . 
Ketak Kadupada, 
Amala, 
Chincbli, 
Pimpladevi, . 
Palasbihar, . 
Auchar, 
Derbhauti, . 
Garvi, . 
Shivbara, 
Kirli, .^ 
Wasurna, 
Dhude (Bilbari), 
Surgana, 



Total, 



Estimated 


Supposed 


Population. 


Revenue. 




Rs. 


3,572 


3,106 


253 


147 


218 


15s 


5,361 


2,885 


1,668 


601 


134 


120 


223 


230 


513 


201 


4,891 


3,649 


6,309 


5,125 


346 


422 


167 


512 


6,177 


2,275 


1,448 


85 


14,205 


11,469 


45,485 


30,982 



Of these petty estates, fourteen are held by Bhils, and one by a 
Kunbi. Four of the petty chieftains claim the title of Raja ; the others 
are called Nayaks. They are all practically independent, though a 
nominal superiority is awarded to the Garvi chief, under whose banner 
the rest are bound to serve in time of war. In former times, the 
Girvi chief was, in common with the other Dang chiefs, tributary 
to the Deshmukh of Malhar, a strong fort in the Baglan Sub-division 
of Nasik District. But the oppression exercised by the Deshmukh 
in collecting his annual tribute of £to gave rise to such frequent 
disturbances, that the British Government was induced to deduct the 
amount from the sums now paid to the Dang chiefs for the leases 
of their forests, and hand it over direct to the representative of the 
Deshmukh. 

The administration of justice, civil and criminal, in the Dangs is 
vested in the Collector of Khandesh as ex officio Political Agent ; capital 
sentences, or those involving more than fourteen years' imprisonment, 
being referred for the confirmation of Government. Petty cases are 
settled by the Rajas and Nayaks themselves, each in his own jurisdiction, 
the punishments inflicted being chiefly fines in money and cattle. 
None of the Dang chiefs possesses a sanad authorizing adoption, and 
the succession in all cases follows the rule of primogeniture. The 
whole area of the Dangs is leased to Government in perpetuity, but the 
lease may be relinquished at any time on giving six months' notice. 
[See also separate article on the Bhil tribe.] 



DANG URLI—DANKIA, 1 1 7 

Dangurli.— Small zaminddri or estate on the left bank of the 
Wainganga river, in Bhandara District, Central Provinces ; situated in 
lat. 21° 36' N., and long. 80° 11' e. ; and containing only one village. 
Area, 1905 acres, of which 11 76 acres are cultivated, producing a large 
quantity of the castor-oil plant. The chief claims to be a Rajput. 
Population (188 1) 777. 

Dankar. — Picturesque village in Kangra District, Punjab, and 
capital of the Spiti tract. Lat. 32° 5' 30" n., long. 78° 15' 15" e. 
Stands at an elevation of 12,774 feet above sea-level, on a spur or bluff 
which juts into the main valley, ending in a precipitous cliff. The 
softer parts of the hill have been denuded by the action of the weather, 
leaving blocks and columns of a hard conglomerate, among which the 
houses are curiously perched in quaint and inconvenient positions. 
Overtopping the whole rises a rude fort, belonging to Government ; 
while a Buddhist monastery stands on a side of the hill. The inhabit- 
ants are pure Tibetans. Dankar has formed the seat of Government 
for the Spiti valley from time immemorial. 

Dankaur. — Ancient town with a good market in Bulandshahr 
District, Meerut Division, North - Western Provinces. Situated in 
lat 28° 21' 25" N., long. 77° 35' 35" E., on the Jumna (Jamund), 
which now flows two miles to the south, but which formerly flowed close 
under it; distant from Bulandshahr 20 miles south-west, on the old 
imperial road from Delhi to Aligarh. Population (1881) 5122, namely, 
Hindus 3984, and Muhammadans 1138; area of town site, 125 acres. 
Founded according to tradition by Drona or Dona, a hero of the 
Mahabharata, from whom the town derives its name. A few ruinous 
fragments exist of a large fort, built by Kayam-ud-din Khan in the 
reign of Akbar, with a mosque of more modern construction. In front 
of the little shrine erected in honour of the traditional founder, is 
a masonry tank 210 feet square constructed in 1881, and supplied 
with water from the Jumna canal. Police station, post-office, village 
school. Traffic by Makanpur ghat passes through Dankaur. A small 
municipal revenue for conservancy purposes, etc., is levied under the 
provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Dankil— -Mountain in the north of the Chhola range, Sikkim, 
Bengal; height, 23,176 feet; situated 50 miles east-north-east of Kan- 
chanjanga. Lat. 27° 57' 30" n., long. 88° 52' 15" e. Although the Dankia 
mountain is 5000 feet lower than Kanchanjanga, it is the culminating- 
pomt of a much more extensive and elevated mass. An immense 
range, with an average elevation of 18,500 feet, runs for thirty miles, 
and thence turns south-west to Kanchanjangi, the river Zemu breaking 
through at an elevation of 13,000 feet at the bend. The range is again 
broken through by the Lachen river at a height of 14,000 feet, sixteen 
miles west of the Dankia peak. The well-known but little-frequented 



1 1 8 DANTA—DA-NIV UN. 

Dankia pass (elevation, 18,400 feet), at the head of the Lachung valley, 
is four miles west of the Dankia peak. 

Ddnta. — State under the Political Agency of Mahi Kantha, in the 
Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Comprises 78 
villages, and marches with Palanpur and Sirohi. A wild and hilly 
country, with an estimated population (1882) of 17,456; approximate 
gross revenue, ;j{^2 7oo, inclusive of transit dues. Tribute — £^2^'] to 
the Gaekwar of Baroda ; £^^\ to the Raja of Idar ; ;^5o to the Raja 
of Palanpur. Chief crops — millet, Indian corn, wheat, and sugar- 
cane : area under tillage, 15,000 acres. Marble is found and quarried 
in Danta. Manufactures are inconsiderable. There is i school, with 
51 pupils in 1882. The Chief is a Hindu and a Parmar Rajput by 
caste ; his title is Rana ; and his State ranks among those of the 
second class. In matters of succession, the family, which has held 
semi-independent power since 1069 a.d., follows the rule of primo- 
geniture, and does not hold a sanad authorizing adoption. The Amba 
Bhawani shrine, famous throughout India, is situated in this territory. 
A great portion of the Chiefs revenue is derived from the costly offer- 
ings of the pious at the shrine. Pilgrims of all ranks visit the place 
during August, September, October, and November. The history of 
Danta has been mainly a record of continual struggles with the 
neighbouring State of Idar. Together with all the adjoining region, 
Danta formerly experienced the incursions of one foreign dynasty after 
another — Khilji, Mughal, and Maratha. 

Danta. — Chief town of the State of Danta, Gujarat, Bombay 
Presidency; 38 miles east of Disa (Deesa), and 136 miles north of 
Baroda. Lat. 24° 12' 15" n., long. 72° 49' 30" e. 

Dantewdra. — Village in Bastar Feudatory State, Central Provinces ; 
situated in lat. 18° 54' n., long. 81° 23' 30" e., at the confluence of 
the Dankani and Sankani rivers, and to the west of the Bela Dilas, a 
lofty range of hills. About 60 miles from Jagdalpur, and 120 from 
Sironcha, on the direct route between these places. Population, about 
300. Famed for its temple to Danteswari or Kali, the patron goddess 
of the Rajas of Bastar, where human sacrifices were practised of old. 

Dantun. — Chief village in the parga7id of the same name in Midnapur 
District, Bengal. Seat of a vmnsifs and of a sub-registrar's court ; 
considerable trade in cloth, made of tasar and cotton, manufactured in 
Morbhanj State and within the District. 

Daniit-Paya-gyi. — A vast pagoda, now in ruins, in Twan-te 
township, Hanthawadi District, British Burma. It was formerly the 
site of a flourishing village, but there are no records extant bearing upon 
the history of either village or pagoda. 

Da-nwun. — A tidal creek in Shwelaung township, Thungwa District, 
Irawadi (Irrawaddy) Division, British Burma. Navigable by river 



DAPHLA HILLS. 119 

steamers. With the Irawadi it forms an island on which stands the 
village of Kyunpyathat. Lat. 16° 25' N., long. 95° 12' 30" e. 

Daphla (or Duffla) Hills. — A tract of hilly country on the north- 
east frontier of India, occupied by an independent tribe called Daphla, 
akin to the Abars, the Akas, and the Miris. It lies north of Darrang 
and Lakhimpur Districts, in the Province of Assam ; bounded west by 
the Aka Hills, and east by the Abar range. The westward boundary 
is formed by the BhoroH river, the eastward by the Sundri. The 
whole Daphla country is only some 60 miles from east to west and 
40 from north to south, the inhabited hills varying in height from 2000 
to 7000 feet. The Daphlas are divided into two clans — the Tagin 
Daphlas, whose villages border on Lakhimpur ; and the Paschim 
Daphlas, living on the Darrang frontier. According to the Assam 
Census Report of 188 1, the total number of Daphlas in British territory 
was 549, confined to Lakhimpur and Darrang Districts. They are of 
recent settlement in the plains, and of late years have been coming down 
in small communities of five or six famihes at a time, driven by scarcity 
or by the oppressions of the Abars. They assert a superiority over the 
Miris, and repudiate any relationship with them, although they practically 
speak the same language, and their deities Yapum and Orom are the 
same, and are propitiated by sacrifices of a white goat or a fowl. Their 
great god, however, who requires a mithan (a species of wild cow) to 
propitiate him, is called Ui or Wi, of whom no Daphla cares to speak 
much for fear of incurring his displeasure. While repudiating any 
connection with the Miris, the Daphlas claim a close relationship with 
the Abars, the most powerful of the three tribes. The Daphlas are less 
laborious cultivators than the Miris. Their villages are not so well 
stocked, nor so comfortable, nor are the men so tall as the Miris, 
although the eastern Daphlas are physically fine fellows. Going 
westwards, however, the race degenerates in physique and in outward 
appearances of prosperity, and the westernmost Daphlas are squalid and 
dirty. Cultivation is carried on both on the nomadic system oijiim, 
and permanently in terraced and irrigated lands in the Ranga valley, 
the chief crops being rice, Indian corn, tobacco, chillies, pulses, yams, 
pumpkins, poppy, and sesamum. The villages in their own hills vary 
in size from 10 to 200 houses, the houses being sometimes from 40 to 
60 feet long, and built on bamboo platform^s {chang). As many as 150 
people often live in one house, but many families live separately m 
small houses. Polygamy is practised when a man can afford a 
plurality of wives ; but polyandry is exceedingly common. The Daphlas 
bury their dead, and build a small hut over the grave in which they place 
water and food for five days. They mourn the dead for two days, and 
the bearers of the corpse to the grave are given two months' holiday 
from work. 



120 DA POLL 

The costume of the men consists generally of a wicker-work helmet 
with a plume of magpie feathers, but some of the chiefs wear a 
cylinder of silver round their heads. A cloth is worn tied crossways in 
front and round the waist and passed between the legs. Many wear a 
number of cane rings round the waist, arms, and legs, as a protection 
against sword-cuts. Their weapons consist of a long straight sword or 
ddo, slung round the neck by a piece of string, a bow and arrows, and 
occasionally a long spear. The term Daphla, which is of uncertain 
derivation, is that applied to them by the Assamese ; they call themselves 
Niso or Nising. Their political constitution is based upon an excessive 
subdivision of authority. There are as many as 388 gams, or village 
chiefs, in receipt of posd or commuted black-mail from the British 
Government, to the total annual amount of £2>M' I^^ former times 
the Daphlas were notorious for their raids upon the inhabitants of the 
plains. At the beginning of the present century, the northern valley of 
the Brahmaputra was entirely depopulated by the terror thus spread ; 
and during the early years of British administration, the passes leading 
from the Daphla Hills were regularly blockaded by military outposts. 
Recently, however, the Daphlas have shown a more peaceable disposition. 
In return for the annual payment of posd, they have kept the peace 
along their own frontier, and a trade has sprung up between them and 
the Assamese. In 1872 there was an unfortunate recurrence of their 
old practices. A party of independent Daphlas, of the Tagin clan, 
suddenly attacked a colony of their own tribesmen, who had settled at 
Amtola, in British territory, and carried away 44 captives to the hills. 
The motive of this raid was a belief that an outbreak of disease among 
them was introduced from the plains. During the next two years the 
hill passes were blockaded by police and soldiers, but with no result. 
In the cold season of 1874-75, an armed expedition was marched into 
the hills. No serious opposition was encountered ; all the captives that 
survived were released, and an excellent effect has been produced upon 
the hill tribes. 

Dapoli. — Sub-division of Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. 
Dapoli is the most northern of the Sub-divisions of the District. 
Bounded on the east by Kolaba and Khed ; on the north by Janjira 
and Kolaba ; on the south by the river Vashishti, which separates Dapoli 
from Chiplun ; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The area is not 
yet fully surveyed. The Census of 1881 shows an area of 505 square 
miles, with a population of 141,012 persons, dwelling in 247 villages. 
Males number 65,846 ; females 75,166, or more than 53 per cent. In 
point of religion the population is thus distributed : — Hindus, 123,836, 
or more than 87 per cent, of the whole; Muhammadans, 16,880; of 
other religions not specified, 296. As in other parts of the Presidency, 
the different castes represent various artisan classes and trade guilds. 



DAPOLI—DARAGANJ. 121 

Kunbis, or cultivators, predominate ; the Mangs, Mhars, and Bhangis 
constitute the inferior and depressed castes. 

The Khed Sub-division separates Dapoli from the Sahyddri range of 
hills. The seaboard of Dapoli, stretching for thirty miles, has the 
characteristics of other parts of the Konkan coast; bluff headlands 
stand at the mouths of the chief rivers, and the coast -line is 
indented with small and sandy bays. The coast villages, dotted over 
the low belts of sand lying between the sea and the cliffs, are thickly 
peopled, and are concealed in dense groves of palm. Bankot and 
Dabhol are the extremities of the seaboard, and are situated at the 
estuaries of the two main rivers of the Sub-division, the Savitri and the 
Vashishti. Along the coast lie Harnai, a good harbourage from 
northerly winds, and opposite Harnai the island fortress of Suvarndurg. 
Inland, the aspect of the Sub-division is bleak and rugged. Boulders 
of laterite crop out over the bare plateaux of the region, and lie in the 
innumerable watercourses of long dried-up streams. Eastward the 
prospect improves. The villages are shaded by clumps of jack and 
mango trees. Teak grows in some of the more sheltered ravines ; and 
the river banks are covered with brushwood. The climate on the whole 
is temperate and healthy. The sea-breeze is felt in all parts of the Sub- 
division. Annual average temperature for the eight years ending 1878, 
76° F. ; average rainfall for the ten years ending 1877, 112 inches. 
There are no canals or other irrigation works. The water required is 
raised from wells by bullock-draught. A small portion of alluvial soil 
is found on the banks of the rivers and on the flats formed by deposits 
at their estuaries. A good deal of salt marsh and tidal swamp has been 
turned into fertile gardens and productive rice-fields. The dry-crop 
soil is poor and unproductive. Agricultural stock (1879) — oxen, 22,000 ; 
cows, 16,200; buffaloes, 7700; sheep and goats, 6273; horses, 60; 
ploughs, 10,000. The Sub-division contains i civil and 3 criminal 
courts ; police stations, 7 ; regular police, 83. Chief town, Dapoli. 

Dapoli. — Head-quarters of Dapoli Sub-division, Ratnagiri District, 
Bombay Presidency. About 5 miles distant from the sea, wuth an 
elevation of 620 feet. One of the healthiest localities in the Konkan. 

Daraganj.— Suburb of Allahabad city, Allahabad District, North- 
western Provinces ; situated in lat. 25° 41' n., long. 81° 25' e., on the 
right bank of the Ganges, on Akbar's bandh or embankment, east of the 
Allahabad peninsula. Although shown in the Census Report as a 
separate town, it is in reality a part of Allahabad city, being included 
within its municipal limits, guarded by the city police, and within the 
jurisdiction of the city magistrate. Distant two miles from Kydganj, 
the nearest point of the city proper, and connected with it by the Grand 
Trunk Road. Population of Daraganj (1881) i3,i59» namely, Hindus, 
11,085; Muhammadans, 2073; Christian, i. Area, 149 acres. 



1 2 2 DARAPUR—DARBHANGAH. 

Darapur. — Village in Jehlam (Jhelum) District, Punjab ; situated in 
lat. 32° 46' N., long. 73° 36' E., about a mile from the right or west bank 
of the Jhelum river, just below its junction with the Bunhar torrent. The 
neighbouring ruins of Udainagar were identified by Burnes with those 
of NicEea, built by Alexander to commemorate his victory over Porus. 
General Cunningham, however, with greater probability, places the site 
of Alexander's great battle at Jalalpur. 

Darapur. — Tdhik and town in Coimbatore District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Dharapuram. 

Darauti. — Village in Shahabad District, Bengal ; 5 miles north-east 
of Ramgarh. Contains some old remains attributed to the Suars or 
Saviras. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton conjectures, from the style of this 
work, that the Cheriis once had a temple here, and that the obelisks 
now left standing commemorate its destruction by the Suars. 

Darbelo. — Town in the Naushahro Sub-division, Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. The population, 
which is below 2000, consists mainly of agriculturists, the Muham- 
madans being of the Kalhora and Pir tribes, the Hindus chiefly 
Lohanos. Annual export of grain, by the Naulakhi Canal, valued at 
^2000. 

Darbhangah. — District in the Patna Division or Commissionership 
of Behar, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
forming the eastern portion of the old District of Tirhut. It extends 
from 25° 30' to 26° 40' N. lat., and from 85° 35' to 86° 45' E. long. 
Bounded on the north by the independent territory of Nepal ; on the 
east by North Bhagalpur ; on the south by Monghyr and the Ganges 
river; and on the west by Muzaffarpur District. Darbhangah District 
is 96 miles in length from south-west to north-east, and contains an area 
of 3665 square miles, and a population, according to the Census of 
1 88 1, of 2,633,447 souls. The administrative head-quarters and chief 
place of the District is Darbhangah Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The District consists of one large alluvial plain 
intersected with streams, and in most parts well wooded. Mango 
groves and clusters of bamboo are numerous, and give a pleasing 
character to the scenery. But in some tracts, nothing meets the eye 
except an enormous tract of rice-fields. The District is divided from 
north to south into three separate tracts, Madhubani in the north, 
Taj pur in the south, and Darbhangah proper occupying an inter- 
mediate position. The main rivers are the Baghmah, Gandak, Little 
Baghmati, Karai, and Kamla. In the north, the fall of the ground 
is from north-east to south-west. In the south of the District, the 
fall is from north-west to south-east. The Baghmati and Gandak 
rivers cross into Darbhangah from Muzaffarpur about the latitude of 
Darbhangah town. The lower courses of these rivers are tortuous, 



DARBHANGAH. 



123 



and are interlaced with each other to an extreme degree. They run 
together and divide so as to make a great network of deep channels, 
called by many local names. From north to south the ground rises 
gradually above flood-level, and proceeding south grows gradually less 
and less fertile, rice and other crops requiring plentiful moisture. The 
soil in the southern tracts is saliferous, yielding saltpetre and common 
salt in considerable quantities. The rivers flow in high raised plateaux 
above the surrounding country, and flood extensive areas. South of Dar- 
bhangah town the river names give but little idea of the fluvial aspects 
of the District. The Tiljuga, Kamla, Dhaus, Baghmati, Little Bagh- 
mati, and Buri Gandak, all mix their waters, not by uniting in a single 
stream, but by forking and joining into innumerable streams each with 
different local names. One stream of the Kamla runs into the Little 
Baghmati, and afterwards into the Great Baghmati. The names Tiljuga, 
Little Baghmati, and Buri Gandak seem to have been given with rather 
inappropriate reference to other rivers of the same namiC, as if the 
Tiljuga was mistaken for the lower courses of the Nepal river Trijuga, 
a tributary of the Kusi river. The only broad sheet of water in the 
District deserving the name of a lake is the Tal Baraila, covering an 
area of about 20 square miles in the rainy season. Towards the north 
of the District and in Nepal, some small streams are dammed up every 
year. The rivers Kamla, Balan, and Tiljuga are also embanked, and 
well irrigation is also carried on. Common long-stemmed rice grows 
in most parts of the District, the best-known kinds being known as 
esarid and sittgrd, the former growing in from 14 to 18 feet, and the 
latter in about 5 feet of water. The jungle products of Darbhangah 
are necessarily few, for there are no forests or uncultivated pasture 
lands. The few jungle products are beeswax, lime burnt from shells, 
and a few drugs. The wild animals of the District comprise wolves 
and wild hog, of which the latter are especially common. Occasionally 
a stray tiger or leopard wanders down from Nepal along a river bank. 
Crocodiles infest the rivers ; and several kinds of reptiles are 
dangerous. Porpoises are also common. The small game consists of 
jackals, foxes, hares, wild ducks, teal, pigeon, snipe, quail, etc. The 
best kinds of fish are the arwdri or mulett, and the hilsa^ found 
chiefly in the Karai. The other species include the rohi^ boari^ mint, 
kaikdrd, tengrd^ fna, dewd^ belaunchd^ chilwd, puthiyd, dala, Jhmga, 
shrimps, and cray-fish. Snakes abound, the most common being the 
cobra, karait, gohuman, harhara, diwmhd. 

Population. — The population of Darbhangah as at present con- 
stituted, after the formation of Muzaffarpur and Darbhangah into 
separate Districts in 1875, amounted in 1872 to 2,139,298; while in 
i88i the population was returned at 2,633,447, showing an increase of 
494,149, or 23-09 per cent., in nine years, an increase, however, which 



124 DARBHANGAH. 

is to a considerable extent nominal, being the result of defective 
enumeration in the first-named year. The results arrived at by the 
Census of 1882 may be briefly summarized as follows: — Area of 
District, 3335 square miles, with 6359 towns and villages and 377,818 
houses, of which 362,576 were occupied. Total population, 2,633,447, 
namely, males 1,295,788, and females 1,3375659. Proportion of males 
in total population, 49*2; average density, 789-6 persons per 
square mile ; villages per square mile, i -90 ; persons per village, 
414; villages per square mile, 1*90; houses per square mile, 113*25; 
inmates per house, 7*3. Classified according to religion, there were^ 
Hindus, 2,323,976 ; Muhammadans, 308,985 ; Christians, 325 ; and 
152 'others,' nearly all Kols. Among the higher castes of Hindus 
are included Brahmans, 179,263; Babhans or military and cultivating 
Brahmans, 118,556 ; Rajputs, 90,083; Kayasths, 455I24; and Baniyas, 
38,343. The most numerous caste in the District are the Gwalas, 
341,112 in number; Dosadhs, 189,534; Dhanuks, 130,079; Mallahs, 
114,891; Koeris, 129,027; Chamars, 88,641; Telis, 79,449; Musahdrs, 
66,793; Tatwas, 61,315; Kurmis, 67,098; Kent or Kewat, 42,067; 
Madaks, 38,333; Barhais, 38,343; Kandus, 33,472; Napit, 31,958; 
Nuniyas, 27,788; Sunris, 25,429; Dhobis, 21,114 ; Tantis, 21,584; 
Sonars, 16,980; Lobars, 16,320; Pasis, 12,804; Kalus, 11,949; Bauris, 
11,871; Kallars, 11,030; Malis, 10,004. Total aboriginal population, 
including those who have embraced Hinduism, 10,986. Caste-rejecting 
Hindus, 5790. The 26 most numerous Hindu castes contain in all 91 
per cent, of the Hindu population of the District. 

Distrihition of the People into Town and Country, — Six towns in 
Darbhangah District contain a population exceeding 5000 souls, namely, 
Darbhangah, population 65,955; Madhubani, 11,911; Rusera, 
1 1,578 ; BiSHNUPUR Bhera, 5963 ; Sultanpur, 5860 ; and Madhupur, 
5084. Total urban population 106,351, or 4-04 per cent, of the 
District population, leaving 2,527,096, or 95*96 per cent., for the 
rural population. Of the 6359 villages and towns returned in 1881, 
2375 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 2048 had between 
two hundred and five hundred inhabitants ; 1092 between five hundred 
and a thousand ; 397 between one and two thousand inhabitants; 69 
between two and three thousand; 12 between three and five thousand; 
3 between five and ten thousand inhabitants ; 2 between ten and 
fifteen thousand ; and i upwards of 50,000 inhabitants. The 
Census Report classifies the male population as regards occupation 
into the following six main classes: — (1) Professional, including 
all civil and military officials and the learned professions, 6934 ; (2) 
domestic servants, hotel - keepers, etc., 42,447; (3) commercial, 
including merchants, traders, and carriers, 32,843; (4) agriculturists, 
including agriculturists, horticulturists, gardeners, etc., 507,425 ; (5.) 



DARBHANGAH, 125 

manufacturing and industrial class, 64,215; (6) indefinite and non- 
productive class, including labourers, male children, etc., 601,673. 

Agriculture — Land Te?iures. — Land is owned in estates of various 
sizes, from the huge estate of the Maharaja of Darbhangah, down to the 
cultivating petty ifiahdls of one-acre lots in the hands of the Brahmans 
Babhans, Rajputs, Kayasths, and Musalmans. Intermediate leases 
other than tliikas or farming leases, are rare. Partition of estates has 
gone on rapidly of late years. The average size of the small estates is 
very small indeed. Excluding the Darbhangah estate, which includes 
nearly one-fifth of the whole District, the average size of the small 
estates amounts to only about 50 acres. 

The principal crops are rice, linseed, indigo, mustard, tobacco, common 
cereals, and tuberous roots. The great rice country is in Alapur 
pargafid in the north-east of the District. The only village officials 
who in any way deserve the name are \}^^ patw arts, jet h rdyats or leading- 
cultivators, and the chaukiddrs or village watchmen. The first of these 
officials is paid by the landlord, and the last by the village cultivator • 
but both are directly subordinate to the District officer. The 'jeth 
rdyat is a petty tahsilddr or rent collector, and is paid by allowances 
from the landlord. Rates of rent fluctuate much owing to various 
causes. The highest rate known is about ;^i, 8s. an acre for the best 
tobacco land ; the lowest rates are about 2s. 6d. per acre for poor rice 
land. Local custom forms a strong factor in the rent question, the 
higher castes paying much lower rates than those below them in the 
social scale. Average rents may be taken at about 7s. per acre for rice 
and I OS. for land producing spring crops. Wages are generally paid 
in kind, ranging from 2d. a day in the country to 6d. a day in the 
towns. Skilled labour in the towns is paid for as highly as is. a day. 
Principal manufactures — indigo, sugar, tobacco, saltpetre, cloth, and 
pottery. The indigo trade is almost entirely in the hands of Euro- 
pean planters, and the sugar-cane is confined to natives. A tobacco 
factory has recently been estabhshed at Piisa in Tajpur Sub-division 
which turns out cigars and prepares tobacco after European and 
American methods. The trade of the District is considerable. In the 
north, merchandise is carried by means of carts and pack-bullocks from 
Darbhangah ; much of it goes south by rail via the Tirhilt State Railway ; 
and the less perishable articles are conveyed ^by water. The main line 
of the Tirhiit State Railway runs through Darbhangah District, and is 
continued into north-eastern Bhagalpur. The northern roads have the 
same general course as the rivers, namely from north-east to south-west. 
I Administration, — The gross revenue of Darbhangah District in 
1881-82 amounted to ;£"i67,278, of which the land revenue contributed 
;^8i,926 ; cesses, £ii,izz ', excise, ;£"i6,882 ; and stamps, £16,2^9. 
In the same year, the gross expenditure was ^52,748. The strength 



126 DARBHANGAH HEAD-QUARTERS AND TO WN. 

of the regular police was 312 men, costing ;^4936, besides a village 
watch numbering 3241, and maintained at a cost to the cultivators of 
;^ 1 1,751. The municipal police numbered 147 of all ranks, maintained 
at a cost of ^1113. The District contains one first-class and two 
second-class municipalities at Darbhangah, Rusera, and Madhubani, 
with an aggregate population of 89,444. Aggregate municipal income 
(1881-82), ;£4736, or an average taxation on the population within 
municipal limits of is. 3d. per head. Education is not making much 
progress. The Darbhangah estate maintains the zillah (or District) 
school, and affords liberal help to others. There are the usual English 
schools, with a large number of pdthsdlds, and a Sanskrit school at 
Madhubani. 

Climate. — The climate is dry, generally mild, and fairly healthy. 
The ordinary variations of the thermometer are not excessive. Average 
recorded rainfall, 50 inches. Fever is constant, and causes the highest 
mortality. Cholera attacks the District as an epidemic every four or 
five years. Small-pox is not common. 

Darbhangah. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Darbhangah District, 
Behar, Bengal. Area, 1222 square miles; number of towns and 
villages, 2260; occupied houses, 136,170. Population (188 1), males 
480,241, and females 489,758 ; total, 969,999. Classified according to 
religion, Hindus numbered 822,043, Muhammadans 147,817, and 
Christians 139. Average density, 793 persons per square mile; villages 
per square mile, i'85 ; persons per town or village, 429; houses 
per square mile, 113; persons per house, 7*12. The Sub-division 
comprises the three police circles {ihdfids) of Darbhangah, Bahera, and 
Rusera. In 1883 it contained i civil and 5 criminal courts, with a 
regular police of 255 officers and men, and a village watch or rural 
police of 1 132 men. 

Darbhangah. — The head-quarters station and principal town of 
Darbhangah District; situated in lat. 26° 10' 2" n., long. 85° 56' 39" e., 
on the left or east bank of the Little Baghmati river. It ranks 
third in population and size among the towns of Behar. The Census 
of 1 88 1 returned the population at 65,955, namely, males 33,633, 
and females 32,322. Hindus numbered 48,276; Muhammadans, 
1 7,566 ; and ' others,' 113. Area of town site, 3840 acres. The town has 
been constituted a first-class municipality, with an income in 1881-82 of 
^£3760, of which ^2031 was derived from taxation, being an average 
of 7id. per head of the municipal population ; expenditure in 1881, 
^2514. One of the principal features in Darbhangah is the number of 
laro-e tanks within the town. The three principal ones are situated in a 
line, with a drive passing from one to the other, their united length 
being 6000 feet. Darbhangah was originally a Muhammadan town. 
According to some authorities, the name is derived from one Darbhangi 



DARBHANGAH TO WN. 1 2 7 

Khan, the founder ; while others say the word is a corruption of Dar-i- 
Bangai, or 'Door of Bengal,' alluding to the fact that it was a 
Muhammadan cantonment. It has even been conjectured that the 
large tanks above referred to, were dug to make raised grounds for the 
soldiers' houses. The whole country around the town becomes a 
swamp during the rains, being subject to inundations from the Kamla 
and Little Baghmati ; and the scarcity of high ground caused some 
difficulty in finding a suitable site for the new civil station in 1875. 
The bazars are large, and markets are held daily. A handsome large 
market-place has recently been constructed between the hospital and 
the Maharaja's garden. A considerable trade is carried on, and the 
communications by road are good in all directions. The Tirhiit State 
Railway connects the town with Bajitpur on the banks of the Ganges, a 
distance of 45 miles ; and Bajitpur in its turn is connected by a steam 
ferry with Barh, one of the stations on the main line of the East Indian 
Railway. The principal exports from the town are oil-seeds, ghi, and 
timber; and the imports, food-grains, salt, gunny cloth, soft goods, 
lime, and iron. 

Darbhangah has been the residence of the Maharajas of Darbhangah 
since 1762. The family trace their origin to one Mahesh Thakur, a 
priest under the ancient Rajas of Tirhiit. After Tirhiit was conquered 
by the Muhammadans, and the race of the old princes became extinct, 
Mahesh Thakur is said to have proceeded to Delhi, where he obtained 
the grant of the Darbhangah Raj from the Emperor Akbar. But the 
title of Raja was not duly confirmed until the time of Raghu Singh in 
1700. The residence of the family was then at Bhawara, near 
Madhubani, where the remains of an old mud fort are still pointed out, 
which is said to have been built by Raghu Singh. A temporary 
settlement was concluded by the British Government with Madhu 
Singh, who succeeded to the Raj in 1776. A long series of disputes 
and misunderstandings ensued. The Rija refused to engage for the 
decennial settlement of 1790, alleging that grave injustice had been 
done him by the authorities. The estate was therefore leased out to 
two Muhammadan farmers. But in November 1 791, the one resigned 
his share, and shortly afterwards the other was killed by a fall from his 
horse at Patna, and his heirs refused to continue the lease. Madhu 
again refused the settlement. The lease was then renewed to a 
number of small leaseholders, from 1793 up to 1800, when it expired. 
Negotiations were again entered into with the Raja, but they fell through 
as before, and the estate was once more let in farm. At last the 
property was restored to the Raja on his consenting to pay an increase 
of revenue. Madhu Singh died in 1808. His son Chhatar Singh, who 
hved till 1839, was the first who received the title of Maharaja. On 
his death the succession was disputed, but after costly litigation, his 



128 DAREH-BA UK—DARJILING. 

eldest son, Rudar Singh, was declared heir to the title. Riidar Singh 
died in 1850. 

His son Maheshwar died in i860, leaving two sons, Lakshmeswar. 

the present Maharaja, and Rameswar his brother. As these were 

minors, the Court of Wards took charge of their possessions. 

Everything was in confusion ; the estate was ^^700,000 in debt. 

and the revenue was only ;2£^i 60,000. Under the management of the 

Court of Wards, the property has greatly improved ; the debt has been 

paid off, and the rental has increased by ^^40,000. Besides this, 

;£"547,6oo had been saved prior to the famine of 1874; but nearly 

^,^300,000 was then expended in charitable relief. The present 

Maharaja came of age in 1879. The estate supports a first - class 

dispensary at Darbhangah, another at Kharakpur, and a third at 

Narahiya ; an Anglo- vernacular school and 22 vernacular schools in its 

villages. It further contributes largely to 6 dispensaries and 27 schools. 

It has opened 150 miles of new road, along which about 20,000 trees 

have been planted. Seventeen iron and 148 masonry bridges have 

been erected over navigable rivers ; and extensive irrigation works, at 

a cost of ;£"7 0,000, have been constructed on the Kharakpur estate 

in Monghyr District. The wards were educated at Benares. When 

the Government took charge, the family residence at Darbhangah 

consisted of a few low-built houses, hemmed in by hovels in the town. 

Many of the latter have been removed, and new buildings have been 

erected, surrounded by well-laid-out gardens of about 55 acres in extent. 

A magnificent new palace, with a menagerie and aviary, has recently 

been erected for the Maharaja's residence. The estates of the Raj 

are situated in the Districts of Darbhangah, Muzaffarpur, Monghyr, 

Purniah, and Bhagalpur. The total rental is ^^238,000 ; the total 

Government revenue, ^40,000. 

Dareh-bauk. — The name given to the northern mouth of the Salwm 
river from Martaban to the sea. Several centuries ago, it was the ordinary 
entrance for ships coming to Martaban in Tenasserim, British Burma ; 
but for many years it has been so choked with sandbanks as to be 
impassable by sea-going vessels. 

Dareh-byii. — Creek in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, British 
Burma, forming one of the entrances from the sea to the Ywe. Its 
mouth, in lat. 15° 51' 20" n., and long. 90° 41' 20" e., is so obstructed by 
sandbanks as scarcely to afford a passage for the smallest sea-going 
craft, but the rest of the river is easily navigable by river steamers. 

Darjlling. — The District of Darjiling forms the most northerly 
portion of the Rajshahi Kuch Behar Division, under the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal. It lies between 26° 30' 50" and 27° 12' 45" N. 
latitude, and between 88° i' 30" and 88° 56' 35" e. longitude, 
running up between Nepal and Bhutan towards Independent Sikkim. 



DARJILING. 129 

The British frontier is demarcated on the north from Sikkim by a 
series of rivers and mountain torrents, on the west from Nepal by a 
lofty range of hills ; along the east and south run the British Districts 
of Jalpaiguri and Purniah. The area was returned in 1881 at 1234 
square miles; and the population, according to the Census of 1881, 
numbers 155,179 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at 
the station and sanitarium of Darjiling. 

Physical Aspects. — The District naturally divides into two distinct 
tracts— the ridges and deep valleys of the lower Himalayas, and the 
tardi or sub-montane marshy strip immediately beneath the hills. 
The surface of the plains from which the Sikkim Himalayas take their 
rise is said to be only 300 feet above sea-level, the mountains starting 
abruptly from the plains in spurs of from 6000 to 10,000 feet, densely 
clothed with forest to their summits. The scenery is of a magnifi- 
cent character. The background is formed by a jagged line of dazzling 
snow, connecting the two highest known peaks in the world, Everest 
and Kanchanjanga, each above 28,000 feet. Imposing series of parallel 
mountain ridges intervene, broken by almost perpendicular valleys. 
Up to 12,000 feet, these ridges are clad with dark-green foliage ; on the 
high slopes the rhododendron predominates, lower down occur forests 
of pine and deodar, and near the plains the valuable sal timber. To 
travellers fresh from the swamps of Bengal, this picturesque region 
would prove yet more alluring, were it not for the mists and showers 
which are continually closing upon the scene. European planters are 
now dotting the slopes of the lower ranges with trim tea-gardens. The 
tardi portion of the District was formerly overgrown with malarious 
jungle, amid which the aboriginal tribes of Mechs, Dhimals, and Kochs 
formed clearings by fire, and reared crops of rice and cotton on a system 
of primitive nomadic husbandry. It has now, however, been exten- 
sively cleared for settled tillage, and for tea gardens. 

The loftiest mountains are situated outside British territory; but 
within it on the Singalila range, marching with Nepal, are several 
peaks above 10,000 feet in height. The highest peaks are— Phalalum, 
height 12,042 feet; Subargum, 10,430 feet; and Tanglu, 10,084 feet! 
Situng is another bold peak in the District, of a conical form, situated 
south-east of DarjiHng. The station of Darjiling itself has an 
elevation of 7167 feet above sea-level; and on the long undulating 
range of Sinchal Pahar there were formerly barracks for a European 
regiment 1500 feet higher, but these have been abandoned for some 
years, owing to the exposed position of the place. The miUtary lines 
are now at Jallapahar, about a mile from Darjiling, and at an elevation of 
about 500 feet above the station. The chief rivers are the Tista, the 
^Mahananda, and the Balasan, with their numerous affluents. The Tista, 
''.ike many of the other great rivers of Northern India, rises on the farther 

VOL. IV. J 



130 DARJILING. 

side of the Himalayas, and bursts through the mountain barrier before 
it reaches British territory. One of its chief affluents is the Great 
Ranjit; and a little below the junction of the two rivers, a fine 
suspension bridge has been thrown across the Tista. This bridge 
is a most important addition to the communications of the District, 
as it connects the tract east of the Tista with the main portion of the 
District, and keeps open throughout the year the great trade route 
across the Jeylep pass into Tibet. At the point where the Tista 
debouches on the plains, through a gorge known as the Sivak 
Gold pass, its volume is very considerable, and it becomes at 
once navigable for boats of two tons burthen, although navigation 
is very difficult and precarious, owing to rapids, and numerous rocks 
and large stones in the bed of the river. Its tributaries include the 
Ranchu and Roli, on the left bank ; and on the right, the Great 
Ranjit, Rangjo, Rayeng, and Sivak. The Mahananda, while passing 
through Darjiling, is a smaller stream, and altogether loses itself in 
the sand of the tardi for a portion of its course. Its tributaries 
join it below the District boundary. The Balasan takes its rise a it^^ 
miles south-west of Darjiling, and after a southerly course enters the 
tardi, when it divides into two streams, one of which, the New Balasan, 
branches off and joins the Mahananda, while the parent stream 
continues its southerly course till it enters Purniah District. Two 
small lakes or tarns are situated amid the hills. 

The mineral products of the District comprise coal, iron, copper, 
calcareous tufa, and slate. There are several caverns situated in the 
hills, the most important of which is situated near the Cutcherry 
(Kachari) hill in Darjiling station, and is superstitiously believed by 
the natives to extend as far as Lhasa in Tibet. The Ramman river is 
crossed by a natural bridge of stone, between the junction of the Ratho 
and Sri with that river. With the exception of the Sivak Gola Pass, 
through which the Tista river debouches on the plains, there are no 
gorges or passes in the District ; but every valley and every turn of the 
road within the hills is highly picturesque. Several important revenue- 
yielding forests are strictly conserved by the Forest Department. 

The principal pasture grounds are the reserved Government forests, 
and in the rains the higher mountains. The Giirungs, a Nepali tribe, 
annually depasture large flocks of sheep in this District, taking them to 
the heights in the rains, and in the cold weather bringing them down to 
the plains for sale. The Ghalias, another Nepali tribe, and the Bhutias 
and Lepchas depasture large herds of buffaloes and cows indiscrimi- 
nately. The Mechs in the plains, and the Nepali's in the hills, 
collect jungle products for sale, but this is merely a subsidiary 
occupation to that of agriculture. Game is not abundant in the hilly 
tracts. Among the larger kinds are bears, leopards, and musk deer 



DARJILING, 131 

on the higher mountains ; large deer {sambhdr) on the lower ranges ; 
and a few elephants and tigers on the slopes above the plains. In the 
tcirdi, tigers, rhinoceros, deer, wild hog, and a distinct species of dwarf 
ho^ are pretty numerous. A few wolves are also found. Among the 
smaller sorts of game, hare, jungle-fowl, peacock, partridge, snipe, 
woodcock, wild duck, wild geese, and green pigeon, abound in the 
tiirdi. Jungle-fowl and pheasants are met with in the hills. Good 
mahs'ir fishing is to be had in the Tista. 

The History of Darjiling presents a late chapter in the extension of 
British Rule. The Gurkha war of 18 15-16 first brought the Company 
into direct relations with this region. It was then found that the 
ac^crressive Gurkhas had appropriated from the Raja of Sikkim the 
viorang or tardi portion of the present District ; and it was one of the 
articles of the peace of 1816, that this strip should be ceded to the 
British, who immediately gave it back again to the Sikkim chief. In 
1835, under the Governor-Generalship of Lord William Bentinck, the 
nucleus of what was originally known as ' British Sikkim ' was created by 
the purchase, from the Raja of Sikkim, of the sanitarium of Darjiling, 
with a portion of the surrounding hills, in consideration of an allowance 
of ^300, afterwards increased to ^^600 per annum. This ceded tract 
is described in the Deed of Grant as ' all the land south of the Great 
Ranjit river, east of the Balasan, Kahel, and Little Ranjit rivers, and 
west of the Rangmi and Mahananda rivers,' containing about 138 
square miles. Darjiling soon became a favourite summer retreat for 
the officials of Lower Bengal and their families ; it was also established 
as a sanitarium for invalided European soldiers. A good deal of land 
was taken up from the Government on building leases, but tea 
cultivation was not introduced till a much later date. In 1849, Dr. 
Hooker paid a visit to Darjiling, and founded upon his experiences 
then gathered his well-known and most interesting Himalayan Journals 
(2 vols., London 1854). His visit was also productive of important 
political consequences. With the sanction of the British Government, 
and with an express permission from the Raja of Independent Sikkim, 
he had crossed the frontier into that State, accompanied by Dr. 
Campbell, the Superintendent of Darjiling District. There they were 
treacherously seized and imprisoned, by the authority of the Raja's 
Diwan or Prime Minister. A military expedition was despatched to 
rescue the prisoners, and avenge the insult. The yearly allowance 
granted to the Raja was stopped. The Sikkim morang or tardi, at the 
'oot of the hills, was annexed ; and a considerable addition was also 
niade to the British territory that lay among the mountains. In all, 
-'ibout 640 square miles of land were acquired on this occasion, 
mally, in 1864, the District received a further augmentation by the 
cession of a hilly tract east of the Tista, which had become British 



132 DARJILING. 

territory as the result of the Bhutan campaign of that year. This 
tract covers an area of 486 square miles, and is known as the 
Sub-division of Kalimpong or Dalingkot. The relations between the 
British Government and the State of Sikkim, which are conducted 
through the Deputy Commissioner of Ddrjiling, are now of a most 
friendly character. The allowance to the Raja has not only been 
restored, but has been raised to ;^i200 a year; and his Darbar lends 
all the assistance in its power to the development of the through trade 
with Tibet. Darjiling has obtained a place in the history of oriental 
scholarship, as the residence for years of Mr. Brian Houghton Hodgson, 
of the Bengal Civil Service. Mr. Hodgson, after distinguished services 
as Resident in Nepal, retired from active employment, and devoted 
himself to the study of the Sub-Himalayan races. He fixed his head- 
quarters at Darjiling; and from that District issued his remarkable 
series of essays and researches, which still form the basis of any 
systematic study of the non-Aryan peoples of India. 

The popularity of Darjiling as a sanitarium has been fully maintained 
in recent years, notwithstanding the rival attractions of Simla and other 
hill stations in Northern India. The opening of the Northern Bengal 
State Railway to the foot of the hills, and of the Darjiling and Himalayan 
Railway up to Darjiling itself, has rendered the station easily accessible 
from the plains and Calcutta, from which it can be reached in 24 hours. 
The popularity of the place has rapidly increased since the railway 
extension ; and new private buildings and municipal improvements have 
been rapidly pushed forward during the past few years. {See Darjiling 
Town.) The enterprise of European capital, in the form of tea 
cultivation and manufacture, has opened a new era of prosperity. The 
oldest tea-garden now existing only dates back to 1856. In 1882-83, 
165 gardens were open, with an estimated production of more than 8 
million pounds of tea. The cinchona tree has been successfully 
introduced, so that Darjiling now aids in saving from fevers even those 
who are compelled to remain on the plains. 

Population. — In 1872, the population of Darjiling District, according 
to the Census Report of that year, was 94,712, spread over an area of 
1234 square miles. The Census returns for 1881 disclosed a total 
population of 155,179, living on the same area, showing an increase of 
60,467 persons, or 63*84 per cent., in the nine years. This remarkable 
increase, however, is to a great extent only nominal, owing to defective 
enumeration in the tardidjid. eastern Tista tracts in 1872. Nevertheless, 
the Census officer reports that at least one-half of the reported increase 
is real, being due to the rapid development of the tea industry, and 
the extraordinary demand for labour on the railway and other public 
works. * To meet this rapidly-increasing demand, the local supply of 
labour was quite unequal ; and the result has been an unexampled 



DARJILING, 133 

imml^^ration. So that in Darjiling District more than half the population 
(-2'44 per cent.) were born outside its limits. Of this number, 55,000 
are hillmen from beyond the British frontier, chiefly from Nepal ; nearly 
5000 came from the neighbouring District of Jalpaiguri, and more than 
10,000 from Purniah. The remainder are composed of representatives 
from almost every Province of India.' The general results arrived 
at by the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows: — Area 
of District, 1234 square miles; number of towns and villages, 943; 
number of houses, 29,904, of which 29,028 are occupied and 876 
unoccupied. The population numbered 155,179, namely, males 
88,948, and females 66,231 ; proportion of males in total population, 
57"45 per cent. Average density, 1257 persons per square mile; 
villages per square mile, 76; persons per village, 163; houses per 
square mile, 24*2 ; persons per house, 5*3. Classified according to 
religious belief, the population was returned as follows : — Hindus, 
126,717; Sikhs, 3 ; Muhammadans, 8204; Christians, 842 ; Buddhists, 
18,775; Brahmos, 14; aboriginal religions, 624. The great bulk of 
the population consists of aboriginal or semi-aboriginal tribes, among 
whom the Nepali's are the most numerous. The Lepchas, who are 
considered the primitive inhabitants of Sikkim, are included among the 
Buddhists, but are few in number, and the race is said to be declining. 
[Sie separate article, Lepcha, in its alphabetical order.) The Nepalis, 
including the Murmi's, are divided among no less than 42 sub-tribes, and 
are returned among the Hindus. The Rajbansi Kochs number 30,801. 
The Bhutias are not returned separately in the Census, but are included 
among the Buddhists. Of the Hindus proper, the two superior castes of 
Brahman (numbering, including Babhans, 10,739) ^^^ Rajput (6352) are 
the most numerously represented, very few of the other recognised Hindu 
castes exceeding 1000 in number. The population of Darjiling increased 
by more than one-half between 1872 and 1881, and is still growing at a 
rapid rate. The Nepali's are coming across the frontier in large numbers, 
and are eagerly welcomed by the tea-planters as their most valuable 
labourers ; while Bengalis from the plains are gradually extending over 
the tardi. The Brahma Samaj is represented by a few Bengali Govern- 
ment clerks at Darjiling station, who have no regular place of meeting. 
The population may be divided into those connected with the tea 
industry, and the aboriginal agriculturists. There are no towns with 
the exception of Darjiling station, 4033, which in February 1881 had 
a population of 7018, which may be assumed as the permanent popula- 
tion ; but to this number must be added the temporary visitors during 
the summer months. The only other place of any note is Karsiang 
(Kurseong), situated in the lower hills, 20 miles to the south, with a 
population in 1881 of 4033. Of the 943 villages, 769 contain less than 
two hundred inhabitants; 114 between two hundred and five hundred; 



134 DARJILING. 

46 between five hundred and a thousand; 11 between one and two 
thousand ; and 3 upwards of two thousand. 

Agriculture.— KicQ constitutes the one food-crop grown in the tardi 
portion of the District; but among the hills, Indian corn, millets 
{marud, etc.), wheat, potatoes, and cardamoms are also grown, wherever 
practicable. Subordinate crops in the plains are cotton, jute, pulses, 
oil-seeds, and sugar-cane. As usual throughout Bengal, the rice crop 
is divided into two harvests, the dinan or haiinantik, reaped in winter, 
and the dus or bhadai, reaped in the month of Bhadra (August to 
September). Rice cultivation is rapidly extending through the tardi, 
although somewhat retarded by the requirements of the Forest Depart- 
ment. Bengali and Nepali cultivators use the plough, and plough 
cultivation is also extending among the aboriginal tribes, especially in 
the tract to the east of the Tista. The nomadic method of agriculture 
known as jum, which consists in burning down a fresh patch of jungle 
land each successive year, is decreasing. The ddo or hill knife is used 
for all rustic operations. Manure is not commonly applied anywhere; 
but throughout the tardi^ and in the hills wherever natural facilities are 
afforded, irrigation is industriously practised by the cultivators of all 
classes. In the tardi and hills, the land measurements locally known 
are the hdl and pdti^ the former being the quantity of land which a 
plough and pair of oxen can turn up in one day, and the latter the weight 
of seed required to sow a given area. The seed standard is a most 
variable one ; but for general purposes one pdti may be taken as the 
equivalent of 8 lbs. weight of seed, and twelve pdtis as the measure of 
seed required for one acre. According to the other standard, an acre is 
represented by a quarter hdl., or a plough and pair of oxen for four acres. 
These local measurements are now being superseded by the English 
standard acre, by which the recent land settlement with the native 
cultivators was made, and according to which, no doubt, the hill- 
man will be able in the course of time to calculate the area of his 
holding. The average yield of Indian corn on the best lands in the 
hills is 7 J cwts. or 10 maunds per acre, and on inferior lands about 3J 
cwts. In the tardi.^ the yield of rice per acre varies from 8| cwts. or 12 
7>ia7mds to 3 J cwts. per acre. A revised land settlement was concluded 
in 1880 with ihejotddrs for a period often years, at rates varying from 
3s. to 4s. per acre. In the Kalimpong Sub-division in the hills east of 
the Tistd, most of the land under native cultivation has been surveyed 
and settled on ten years' leases with the occupiers, dating from 1882, 
the assessment being at the rate of is. per acre for the best and 6d. 
per acre for inferior lands, liable to enhancement at the expiry of five 
years to is. 6d. per acre for the best and gd. per acre for inferior land. 
This money assessment is in substitution for the poll-tax formerly paid 
by the cultivators. About thirty thousand acres have already been 



DARJILING, 135 

settled in this mdnner; but in the more sparsely-cultivated portions 
of the Sub- division, the poll-tax is still levied at the rate of 5s. 
for each adult male, and 4s. for each adult female. In the Govern- 
ment estates {Khds mahdls) west of the Tista, a house-tax of 6s. per 
house is levied ; but these estates will shortly be assessed with the 
cultivators on joint rdyattudri leases, at money rates approved by the 
Government, viz. is. 6d., is. ijd., and gd. per acre, according to the 
quality of the soil. The cultivated area of these mahdls is between 
20,000 and 30,000 acres. The other tenures in the District, which 
include the tea leases, are (i) freehold and (2) leasehold grants. The 
former consist of commuted leases ; the latter are for terms varying 
from ten to thirty years. All tea leases now falling in will, under recent 
orders of Government, be renewed for a term of twenty years at an all- 
round rate of one rupee or 2s, an acre. Besides the foregoing there 
are building leases for lands in Dirjiling station and Karsiang. The 
Darjiling municipality receives the ground rents of sites within municipal 
limits. 

The average price of rice in the tardi during the five years ending 
1881-82 was 8s. a cwt., the current rate in the last year being 6s. 8d. 
in the tardi and 8s. per cwt. in the hills. The average price of Indian 
corn in the hills for the five years was 6s. i id. per cwt., the current rate 
in 1881-82 being 5s. iid. per cwt. These are the two main food-crops 
of the District. The fall in prices, while due to some extent to good 
harvests, is in a great measure attributable to the improved means of 
communication afforded by the Darjiling and Himalayan Railway, and 
the Tista bridge. On the other hand, wages have risen. This is mainly 
due to the large demand for skilled labour for the great public works in 
progress — the railway, Tista bridge, hospital, etc. The following rates 
prevail : — Goldsmiths, ;£"3 per month ; Chinese carpenters, ^6 per 
month; native carpenters, from is. 3d. to is. 6d. per diem; masons, 
£1, 8s. per month ; day-labourers, 6d. to pd. per diem ; tea-garden 
coolies, 6s. to los. per month ; grass-cutters, 14s. per month; domestic 
servants, from i8s. to £1, 12s. per month. 

Tea. — The staple industry of Ddrjiling is the cultivation and manu- 
facture of tea. It is conducted almost entirely by means of English 
capital and under skilled European supervision. The discovery of 
tea in India dates from 1826, when a Mr. Bruce, who commanded a 
flotilla of gunboats in Upper Assam in the first Burmese war, found 
the plant growing wild, and brought down with him some plants and 
seeds. It was not till some time after tea cultivation had established 
itself in the Assam Valley that any attempt was made to introduce it 
into Bengal proper. The first regular tea-garden in Darjiling was opened 
in 1856 ; and after the natural mistakes of the first few years, the business 
has continued to prosper with accelerating prosperity. In 1866 there 



136 DARJILING. 

were 39 gardens established, with an area under cultivation of 10,392 
acres, yielding an out-turn of 433,715 lbs. of tea. By 1875 ^^ number 
of gardens had increased to 121, with an area under cultivation of 22,162 
acres, and an out-turn of 4,600,758 lbs. of tea. In 1882-83 the number 
of tea-gardens numbered 165, covering a total planting area of 44,482 
acres, of which 26,716 acres were under mature and 5854 under immature 
plant, while 12,282 acres taken up for planting had not been put under 
seed. The approximate yield of the season 1882-83 was 8,080,293 lbs. 
A favourable season and good markets combined to render the years 
1881-82 and 1882-83 very encouraging ones for the planters, and to re- 
establish many gardens to which the disastrous year of 1 880-8 1 had 
nearly proved fatal. Improved machinery and processes of manu- 
facture have been introduced into many of the gardens. Plucking 
is more carefully attended to than formerly, and greater regard is 
paid to the withering and manipulation of the leaf. Steam machinery 
is used now on many gardens, while in others water-power is em- 
ployed. The principal blights which tea-planters have to contend 
with are the red spider, green fly, and mosquito blight. This last- 
named insect causes most apprehension in the lower ranges of the 
hills. The plague is said to be increasing, and to be more serious 
than the red spider by attacking the bud, and not allowing the plant 
even to mature. The red spider proves a terrible scourge in some 
gardens, and baffles the efforts of the most energetic planter to get rid 
of. A white grub turning into a brown beetle attacks the roots of the 
tea plant, and wherever it makes its appearance is exceedingly destructive. 
Coolie labour is on the whole plentiful, and the light nature of the work 
attracts a number of immigrants from the surrounding hill States, espe- 
cially Nepal. The Census of 1881 shows that during the previous 
decade there has been a great increase of settled immigration of Nepalis 
with their wives and families to the Darjiling tea-gardens. Women and 
children take a large part in the labour on a garden, in plucking and 
sorting. The Darjiling and Himalayan Raihvay has greatly increased 
the facilities for the transport of tea to Calcutta. 

Cinchona^ etc. — The cultivation of cinchona was commenced by 
Government in 1862, and the experiment has now established its 
success. In 1875, a sum of ;^52i7 was expended on the plantations; 
the yield of dry bark was 211,931 lbs., which produced 1989 lbs. of 
quinine valued at ;£"3i82. This was the first year when the young 
trees came into bearing. The total number of trees in the plantation 
on the 31st March 1882, was 4,762,200 cinchonas of all sorts. The crop 
of bark amounted to 341,570 lbs. Of cinchona febrifuge, 10,878 lbs. 
were issued during the year; 4650 lbs. were sold to the general public, 
and the remainder was supplied to Government hospitals and dispen- 
saries. There was a net profit on the year's working of ^13,000, equal 



DARJILING. 137 

to a dividend of 13 per cent, on the capital expended. The saving 
effected by Government during the year by the substitution of cinchona 
febrifuge for quinine was ^35,000. The success of the Government 
plantation has induced private cultivation. One company has taken up 
a large tract of ground east of the Tista for this purpose, and another is 
rearing seedlings on its tea-gardens. The experimental cultivation of 
ipecacuanha has also been attempted, but without much success as yet. 
In 1876, a public botanical garden was established at Rangariin; but 
this has since been abandoned, and a new garden has been established 
in the station. 

Darjiling is not liable to either of the calamities of flood or drought. 
In the event of local scarcity from any cause, the hill people could 
always save themselves from starvation by migrating to other localities ; 
but in the tardi^ previous to the construction of the railway, the 
inhabitants were in some danger of isolation. If the price of rice were 
to rise rapidly in January, after the gathering of the dinan or low-land 
rice crop, that should be regarded as a sign of approaching scarcity. 

Manufactures^ Trade, etc. — Coarse cotton cloth is woven by all the 
aboriginal tribes, especially by the Lepchas. The favourite colours are 
white, with blue and red borders. These Lepcha cloths are in some 
request among the residents and visitors to the station. The price of 
the better sorts varies from J[],\ to £^\^ 8s. each. 

The local trade of Darjiling is entirely confined to the wants of 
European inhabitants, and of the tea plantations. A considerable trade 
is carried on by the hillmen with residents and visitors in China cups, 
turquoise, coral, and amber ornaments, jade and agate cups and beads, 
praying wheels, bells, amulets, and other curiosities illustrative of 
Buddhist monastic life ; kukris^ Bhutia, and Lepcha knives, etc. The 
Darjiling shopkeepers trade mostly in European piece-goods, stores, 
glass, hardware and crockery. Much attention has recently been directed 
to the development of through trade with Tibet via Sikkim, and with 
Nepal. In 1881, the import of untaxed salt from trans-Himalayan 
sources into Darjiling amounted to 1658 cwts. The chief articles of 
import from Nepal are sheep, goats, cattle, poultry, hides, food- 
grains, and country cloth ; the exports consisting principally of Euro- 
pean piece-goods, gram, salt, vegetables, betel-nut, sugar, and tobacco. 
The trade with Sikkim is of the same character as that with Nepal, but 
is more extensive. In 1882-83 the total value of the Sikkim trade 
through Darjiling was ;£"3 1,644, namely, imports ;^2o,oi4, and exports 
;£i 1,629. The Bhutan trade mainly passes through Jalpaiguri District. 
The Darjiling and Himalayan Railway is gradually absorbing all the 
District traffic, to the exclusion of bullock carts and pack ponies. 

Mines. — The mineral wealth of Darjiling was carefully investigated in 
1873 by Mr. Mallet of the Geological Survey. He was of opinion that 



138 DARJILING, 

the coal measures, which are easily exposed, but are of a peculiar friable 
character, might possibly be used remuneratively on the Northern Bengal 
Railway. Their chemical analysis is good, especially for the formation 
of artificial fuel, but there would be no little difficulty in delivering 
the coal on the plains. Both iron and copper are worked in several 
places by the Nepali's, but the character and accessibility of the mines 
is not such as to attract European capital. Lime can be procured in 
abundance from dolomite, tertiary limestone, and calcareous tufa. The 
last-mentioned is now largely burned in kilns. 

The Northern Bengal State Railway stops in the plains at Siliguri, 
about 8 miles short of the hills ; but railway communication is carried 
on to Darjiling by the Darjiling and Himalayan Railway, 40 miles in 
length. In 1882, the total length of roads within the District was 
returned at 617 miles. An excellent iron suspension bridge has recently 
been constructed across the Tista on the highway to Tibet. 

Adviinistration. — In 1880-81, the total revenue of Darjiling District 
amounted to ;2{^i 8,814, towards which the land-tax contributed;^! 1,967. 
The expenditure was ;^i4,i5i. In the following year, 1881-82, the 
total revenue had increased to ;£^3o,oo3, and the land-tax to ;2^i 3,843, 
while the civil expenditure w^as;£"i 7,667. Under the head of land revenue 
is included the house and bullock tax paid in a certain portion of the hills, 
and also the poll-tax levied in the still unsettled tract east of the Tista. 
In 1882 there were 3 covenanted officers stationed in the District, and 
6 magisterial and 4 civil and revenue courts open, presided over by 6 
stipendiary magistrates and 5 civil judges. In 1881, the regular police 
force consisted of 223 men of all ranks, maintained at a total cost of 
;^4093, and a municipal police of 35 officers and men, costing ;!^496. 
These figures give i policeman to 5 square miles of area, or to every 
601 persons in the population ; the cost averaged ;^3, 14s. 5d. per square 
mile, and 7 Jd. per head of population. In the same year, the number 
of persons in Darjiling District convicted of any offence, great or small, 
was 1492, being i person to every 104 of the population. By far the 
greater proportion of the convictions were for petty offences. The 
District contains one jail, which is necessarily a very expensive one on 
account of the small number of prisoners confined. In 1881, the daily 
average number of prisoners was 88*8, of whom 277 were females; the 
labouring convicts averaged 81 '6. These figures show i prisoner to 
every 1747 of the District population. 

Education has considerably advanced in recent years, despite the 
difficulties caused by an aboriginal population speaking various strange 
tongues, and dwelling in widely-scattered huts among the mountains. 
Up to i860 there was only i school in the District — the Government 
English School, attended by 33 pupils. By 1872, the number of schools 
had risen to 29 with 723 pupils; the total expenditure was ^1735, 



DARJILING. 139 

towards which Government contributed ;^667. In 1875, the schools 
further increased to 46 and the pupils to 994. The Census of 1881 
returned 1610 boys and 179 girls under instruction, and 5686 males 
and 269 females able to read and write, but not under instruc- 
tion. The principal educational institution is the St. Paul's School, 
established at Calcutta in 1845 for the sons of Europeans and East 
Indians, and removed to Darjiling in 1864. In 1881 it was attended 
by 134 pupils, and received a Government grant of ;£^5o5. Other 
schools for European and Eurasian education are — a Government 
boarding-school at Karsiang, attended in 1881 by 28 boys and 13 girls ; 
a Protestant girls' school, wdth 85 pupils ; St. Joseph's Roman Catholic 
Seminary, with 51 pupils; and the Darjiling Convent School, with 36 boys 
and 131 girls. A Government boarding-school for aboriginal tribes has 
also been established in Darjiling, and is attended by Lepchds from 
Sikkim, and Bhutias. All the pupils learn English and Tibetan. Its 
purpose is to train up a body of explorers, surveyors, and interpreters ; 
and it has been fairly successful in this respect. The Church of 
Scotland has established a number of primary schools, chiefly for the 
children of Nepali coolies working in the tea-gardens. An English 
newspaper, the Darjiling News, is printed at the station. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Darjiling is marked by excessive 
humidity. According to Dr. Hooker, ' Sikkim is the dampest region in 
the whole Himalayas. . . . Throughout the greater part of the year, the 
prevailing wind is from the south-east, and comes laden with moisture 
from the Bay of Bengal.' The few hours between sunrise and 9 a.m. 
form the only period of the day entirely free from clouds, mist, or rain. 
The average annual rainfall is returned at 120 inches. The rainfall in 
1 88 1 was 9 inches below the average. The average mean atmospheric 
pressure over a period of five years is 23*320. During 1881, the 
maximum temperature recorded was 76'2° F. in May and July; the 
minimum by night was 36*5° in December. 

The District is not unhealthy, the hills being almost free from 
endemic disease except goitre. In the ta?'di and the lower valleys 
malarious fevers occur. Cholera rarely if ever visits the station, and 
small-pox is disappearing before the introduction of vaccination. During 
1 88 1, the charitable dispensaries at Darjiling station, Karsiing and 
Kalimpong, were attended by 183 in-door and 9356 out-door patients. 
Before the close of that year a second dispensary was opened at 
Karsidng. 

[For further information regarding Darjiling District, see the Statistical 
Account of Bengal, vol. x. (Triibner & Co., London, 1877); Selections 
of the Governfnent of Bengal regardi7ig the Tea Industry in Bengal ; 
Paper by Mr. B. H. Hodgson on the Koch, Bodo, and Dhimal T?'ibe ; 
Dr. Hooker's Himalayan Journals, 2 vols. (London, 1854); Tofogra- 



I40 DARJILING SUB-DIVISION AND TOWN 

phical Survey conducted by the late Captain H. J. Harman, R.E., and 
continued by Lieut-Colonel H. C. B. James, of the Survey Depart- 
ment; the Bengal Census Report of 1881 ; together with the Annual 
Adjninistraimi and Depart??iental Reports for the three years ending 
1883.] 

Darjiling. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Darjiling District, 
Bengal. Area, 792 square miles; villages, 122; occupied houses, 
11,801. Population (1881) 65,001, namely, males 36,683, and females 
28,318. Hindus numbered 48,172; Muhammadans, 961; Christians, 
629; Buddhists, 15,225; and Brahmos, 14. Proportion of males, 
56*43 per cent. ; average density of population, 82 persons per square 
mile ; number of houses per square mile, 15 ; persons per house, 5*5. 
Darjiling Sub-division consists of the police circles {thdnds) of Darjiling 
and Kalimpong. It contained in 1883, 3 civil and 3 criminal courts, 
and a District police numbering 179 officers and men. The chaukiddri 
or village watch system is not in force in the District. 

Darjiling. — Town and administrative head-quarters of Darjiling Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in the lower Himalayas. Lat. 27° 2' 48" n., long. 
88° 18' 36" E. The station occupies a narrow ridge, which divides into 
two spurs, descending steeply to the bed of the Great Ranjit, up whose 
course the eye is carried to the base of the great snowy mountains. 
The ridge is very narrow at the top. The valleys on either side are at 
least 6000 feet deep, forest clad to the bottom, with very few level spots, 
but no absolute precipice. From the flanks of these valleys innumerable 
little spurs project, occupied by native clearings. The ridge varies in 
height from 6500 to 7500 feet above sea-level. Darjiling was acquired 
by the English Government in 1835 as a sanitarium, a tract of country 
138 square miles in extent being ceded by the Raja of Sikkim, in return 
for an allowance of ^300 per annum, afterwards raised to ;!^6oo. The 
station rapidly increased, and soon became a favourite summer retreat 
for the officials of Lower Bengal and their families. The Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal ordinarily spends several months of every year in 
Darjiling, which is now brought within 24 hours' journey of Calcutta, by 
the Northern Bengal State Railway, and its continuation, the Darjiling 
and Himalayan Railway. Darjiling is rapidly increasing in favour as a 
summer resort for visitors and for invalids. A fine building, the Eden 
Sanitarium, was opened in 1883 for the reception of sick and convales- 
cent, with accommodation for 52 patients. Private building enterprise 
has increased considerably in the last few years, especially on the 
property of the Maharaja of Kuch Behar. A line of pipes has been 
laid from the Senchal Springs which furnishes the town with an ample 
supply of good water. New secretariat and other public buildings are 
in contemplation. Besides the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor 
and the public offices, the other principal buildings are the Episcopalian 



DARKUTI—DARRANG. 1 4 1 

Church, Wesleyan Chapel, Roman Catholic Convent, St. Paul's School, 
Club, etc. Two gardens, Lloyd's Botanical Garden and the People's Park, 
are open to the public. A military depot, consisting of barracks for 
about 150 men, stands on the hill some 500 feet above the station, 
and about a mile distant, which is occupied by European invalids 
during the hot months. The situation, although very bleak, is healthy. 
The population of the town fluctuates according to the season, but 
the number was returned by the Census of February 1881 at 7018, 
namely, Hindus, 4592; Muhammadans, 614; 'others,' 1812; area of 
station, 3420 acres. This may be called the normal or resident popula- 
tion, but during the hot weather months, from April to October, it is 
much increased by the influx of visitors from the plains. The area of 
the municipality formerly coincided with that of the tract originally 
ceded by the Sikkim Raja, and comprised about 138 square miles. 
It is now, however, restricted to the station itself. Municipal income, 
1881-82, ;2f5964; expenditure, £si9^. 

Darkuti.— One of the petty Punjab Hill States under the Govern- 
ment of the Punjab. The Rana of Darkoti, Ram Singh, is a Rajput. 
When the Gvirkhas were driven out of the hills, the British Government 
confirmed the chief in possession of this State, which, owing to its 
smallness, pays no tribute. The area is 5 square miles. Lat. (centre) 
31' 7' o" N., long. 77° 38' 30" E. Population (1881) 590. Revenue, 

Dannan. — Town in Shakargarh fahsil, Gurdaspur District, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 1618, namely, 1242 Hindus and 376 Muhamma- 
dans; number of houses, 251. A third-class municipality, with a 
revenue in 1882-83 of £S2> ] expenditure, £s^ ; average incidence 
of taxation, 8d. per head of population. The town is the seat of a 
colony of Pahari Mahajans. 

Daro. — Village in the Shahbandar Sub-division, Karachi (Kurrachee) 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) about 1000, 
mainly agricultural. The Pinyari river is here crossed by a masonry 
bridge of six spans, each 25 feet wide. Police station; dharmsdla, 
or rest-house ; catde pound. Has road communication with Mirpur 
Batora, 8 miles distant, with Belo, and with Bano. 

Darod. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division, Kathiawar Province, 
Bombay Presidency. It consists of i village, with 2 independent tribute- 
payers. The revenue is estimated at ;£"ii8 ; tribute of ^36, 12s. is paid 
to the British Government, and oi £^ to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Darrang (Durrung). — District forming a portion of the upper 
valley of the Brahmaputra, in the Province of Assam. It lies between 
26° 12' 30" and 27° 2 30" N. lat., and between 91° 45' and 93° 50' e. 
long. Bounded on the north by the Bhutia, Aka, and Daphla Hills ; 
on the east by the Maramarnai river, separating it from Lakhirapur 



142 DARRANG. 

District ; on the south by the Brahmaputra ; and on the west by 
Kamriip District. Area, 3418-26 square miles. Population (1881) 
273,333 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at the town of 
Tezpur, situated near the confluence of the Bhairavi with the Brahma- 
putra. 

Physical Aspects. — Darrang consists of a narrow strip of land, shut 
in between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Brahmaputra. 
Its total length is 126 miles from east to west, with an average width 
of about 25 miles. Numerous rivers and streams cross it, flowing 
southwards from the hills ; and the general level is broken by a range 
of low hills, from 200 to 500 feet high, which sweep outwards in a 
crescent shape from the Bhairavi to the Brahmaputra, covering an area 
of about 25 square miles. The population of the District is sparse, 
and the area under cultivation is still very limited. Extensive tracts 
are overgrown with dense reed and cane jungle, characteristic of 
the Brahmaputra valley, amid which occur rare patches of rice culti- 
vation. Virgin forests cover a large portion of the region which lies 
under the northern hills. Forest reserves, from which timber-cutting 
and juin cultivation are carefully excluded, have recently been declared 
by the Government over an aggregate area of 272 square miles. In 
1880-81, the total amount of revenue realized from the direct sale of 
timber, and from royalties on the sale of timber, amounted to £,2^^^. 
Wild animals of all kinds abound, including elephants, rhinoceros, 
buffaloes, bison, and tigers. In 1879, it was found necessary to revise 
the rates paid for the destruction of wild animals. The following is the 
present (1883) sanctioned scale for Darrang District: — Tigers, ;£'2 ; 
leopards, los. ; bears, ;^i ; hyaenas, 5s. During 1880-81, £\^2 was 
paid on this account. Wild elephants occasionally do considerable 
damage to the crops. The right of capturing these animals has recently 
been placed under restrictions, and was leased out in 1882-83 for 
;^2 56. Gold- washing is carried on in several of the hill streams, 
especially in the Bhairavi. Limestone of an inferior quality is found in 
the west of the District ; and travertine, containing as much as 90 per 
cent, of lime, has been discovered just beyond the British frontier. 
Coal, also, is known to exist outside the northern boundary of the 
District, but not, it is believed, in valuable quantities or of good 
quality. 

The great river of Darrang is the Brahmaputra, which forms the 
continuous southern boundary, and is navigable for steamers all the 
year through. Among its tributaries, the five following are navigable 
for large native boats : — The Bhairavi, Ghiladari, Dhaneswari (Jia 
Dhansiri), Nonai, and Bar Nadi. These all- rise in the mountains 
beyond the frontier, and flow nearly due south into the Brahmaputra. 
There are about 26 minor streams, which only become practicable for 



DARRANG. 143 

small boats during the rains. Some of the rivers, immediately after 
leaving the hills, sink beneath the sandy soil, and reappear several 
miles lower down. There are no lakes or artificial watercourses in the 
District. Two embankments have been made for purposes of cultiva- 
tion, to restrain the flood-waters of the Brahmaputra and Bar Nadi ; 
and the old roads of the Aham Rajas, known as Raj All's, usually run 
along raised earthen banks. 

History. — Darrang District possesses no history apart from Assam 
generally. Besides sharing in all the vicissitudes of the Province, it has 
experienced special troubles of its own, owing to the proximity of the 
wild Bhutia and Daphla tribes. Archaeological evidence and local 
tradition attest the existence of Hindu civilisation high up the Brahma- 
putra valley in very early times. The hills encircling the town of 
Tezpur are still covered with ruins, hidden among the jungle, which 
reveal the traces of temples and palaces such as could only have 
been erected by a powerful dynasty. The building materials used were 
gigantic blocks of granite, which appear to have been supplied by the 
immediate neighbourhood. These blocks were carefully hewn to form 
altars, columns, and porticoes, and many of them are profusely orna- 
mented with carvings in basso-relievo, among which the emblems of 
Siva are conspicuous. It is conjectured, from the appearance of the 
ruins, that these buildings must have been overthrown by the hand of 
some invader ; and local tradition points to Kala Pahar, the General 
of Sulaiman, King of Bengal, as the author of the sacrilege. Another 
legend is preserved in the Prem Sagar, which relates the battles between 
Ban Raja and the god Krishna. Ban Raja's name is associated with 
many of the ruins near Tezpur. He was a demi-god, sixth in descent 
from Brahma, and was the first to introduce the worship of Siva into 
Assam. After the downfall of the early Hindu kingdom, however that 
may have been brought about, Darrang, like the rest of Assam, relapsed 
into primitive barbarism. The Ahams, a wild tribe, of Shan origin, 
from the Burmese Hills, first entered the valley of the Brahmaputra 
about the 13th century, and very gradually advanced downwards. The 
Ahams organized their conquered territory with minute precision, and 
held their own until the advent of the British. Though they have 
given their name to the Province, it is surprising to find how small are 
their present numbers. 

But the Ahams, though undisputed masters of the valley, never 
extended their sway far from the river banks. In the present admini- 
stration of Darrang District is still to be traced a curious relic of 
fluctuating jurisdiction. A tract of country extending along the foot of 
the northern hill ranges is said to have been ceded by the Aham Raja 
to the Bhutias for a period of eight months in each year, in order to 
afford them the means of cultivating rice and other necessaries, which 



144 DARRANG. 

they could not raise on their own bleak mountains. In consideration 
of this grant, the Bhutias were to pay an annual tribute to the Aham 
Raja of articles produced and manufactured in the mountains ; while 
the latter was to retain his jurisdiction over the tract for the remaining 
four months of the year, from about the middle of June to the middle 
of October. This arrangement was continued during the few first years 
after the British conquest of Assam. But in 1840, the claims of the 
Bhutia chiefs were commuted for a money payment of ;^5oo a year, 
which was calculated as the equivalent of the average emoluments they 
derived from the land. The revenue at present derived by the British 
Government from the ' debateable' tract amounts to ;^5i83. 

The Bhutias here referred to are commonly known as the Towang 
Bhutias, and are independent of the State of Bhutan, being directly 
subject to the Government of Lhasa. They carry on a consider- 
able trade direct with Tibet, and have uniformly manifested a quiet 
and friendly attitude. Next to the Bhutias on the east, come the 
Akas or Hrusso, a small tribe, who used formerly to commit frequent 
raids on British territory. They receive posd or black-mail to the 
amount of ;£"7o a year. Even so recently as 1883, the Akas, in assert- 
ing a claim to a tract of land which had been declared a forest reserve, 
raided upon British territory, and carried away the native forest officers 
as hostages into their hills. A military expedition was necessary to punish 
the offending tribe, and to effect the release of the captives. See article 
Akas, vol. I. pp. 135-6. Farther east, again, are the Daphlas, whose 
native mountains extend along the neighbouring District of Lakhimpur. 
The Daphlas are a tribe of whom little was known prior to the recent 
frontier expedition, which was caused by their wanton outrages on 
British subjects. In the year 1872, the village of Amtola, occupied by 
Daphla settlers, was attacked by a strong party of hill Daphlas, and 44 
persons were carried off to the mountains. It was ascertained that this 
raid had no political significance. The object was merely to seize a 
number of slaves as an equivalent for certain of their own people who 
had died of disease, said to have been introduced from the plains. 
The Daphla Hills were forthwith blockaded by a strong force of police, 
stationed in blockhouses at all the passes. The police were subse- 
quently replaced by military ; but this method of pressure was found 
ineffectual. Accordingly, in the cold season of 1874-75, an armed 
force entered the hills, and, without encountering any opposition, ; 
achieved the release of all the surviving captives. ; 

Population. — In 1840, the population of Darrang was estimated at 
about 80,000. The first regular Census was taken in 1872, when the 
population was ascertained to be 236,009. At the last enumeration in , 
1881, Darrang contained a total population of 273,333, being an j 
increase of 37,324 in the nine years since 1872. The results arrived at 



DARRANG. 145 

by the Census of 1881 may be briefly summarized as follows: — Area 
of District, 3418 square miles; number of villages, 1672; number 
of houses, 49)172. Total population, 273,333, namely, 142,418 
males and 130,915 females; average density, 79-9 persons per 
square mile ; villages per square mile, 0*49 ; persons per village, 163 ; 
houses per square mile, 14*4; persons per occupied house, 5*5. 
Classified according to religion, there were: — Hindus, 251,838; 
Muhammadans, 14,677; Christians, 371; Buddhists, 723; Jains, 27; 
Brahmos, 18; hill tribes professing aboriginal religions, 4852. In 
Darrang, as in the rest of the upper valley of the Brahmaputra, a great 
proportion of the population are of aboriginal descent, numbering 
143,467, although they have now nearly all embraced Hinduism. Of 
the aboriginal tribes, the most numerous are the Kachari's, numbering 
72,200, with their cognate tribe of Rabhas, 15,090. The Kochs 
number 42,061. The other tribes consist of Ahams, the former 
rulers of the Province, 3312 in number, with the cognate Chutiyas, 
1362; Bhutias, 723; Daphlas, 339; Garos, 84; Madahis, 2140; 
Miki'rs, 1315 ; Mirfs, 31 13; Santals, immigrants from Chutia Nagpur, 
employed on the tea-gardens, 1728. Of the foregoing tribes, all, 
with the exception of the Bhutias, who are Buddhists, and the Daphlas, 
Mikirs, and Miris, who practise different forms of aboriginal demon- 
worship, are returned in the Census Report as Hindus by religion. Of 
Hindus proper Brahmans number 8929 ; Ganaks, an inferior caste of 
mendicant Brahmans who practise astrology, number 8798; Kshatris, 
724 ; and Kayasths, 2464. Of the lower castes, by far the most numerous 
is the Kalita, 24,460, the ancient priesthood of Assam, who are now 
admitted to Hinduism as pure Siidras ; Katanis or Jugi, silk-weavers, 
16,609; Kent or Kewat, fishermen, 13,970; Dom, fishermen, a de- 
graded caste in Bengal, but with high assertions to ceremonial purity 
in Assam, 9418; Boria, 3002; Kiirmis, 2086. The Muhammadans are 
almost without exception of the Sunni sect. They are for the most 
part comparatively well off, but the religion of Islam has ceased 
to make further progress in the District by conversion. Of the 
Christian population, 235 are natives. The Church of England 
numbers 287 adherents; 33 are Presbyterians, 25 Baptists, and 21 
Roman Catholics. The native Christians belong for the most part 
to the Kachari tribe, among whom is established a Mission of the 
Church of England. A masonry church has been built, and an annual 
allowance of ^150 is made by Government towards the maintenance 
jOf the mission schools. As a class, the native Christian community 
fnay be said to be tolerably well off. The Brahma Samaj has a 
meeting-house at Tezpur town, established in 1872; but the members 
consist entirely of immigrant Bengalis, mostly engaged in Government 
service. Jain traders are settled at Tezpur town and at Nalbari. 

VOL. IV. K 



146 DARRANG. 

As throughout the rest of Assam, the entire population is absolutely 
rural. Out of 1672 villages in the District, only 51 contain upwards 
of a thousand inhabitants, while 1299 have less than two hundred, 316 
from two to five hundred, and 54 from five hundred to a thousand 
inhabitants. The largest place in the District is Tezpur town, with 
only 2910 inhabitants ; next comes the Sub-divisional station of 
Mangaldai. Other places of some importance as trading centres, or 
as containing the residences of wealthy men, are Biswanath (Bishnath), 
Hawala Mohanpur, Nalbari, and Kuruagaon. Generally speaking, the 
people are well off. Their wants are few, and the land is held on easy 
terms, subject to an annual re-settlement. Numerous ruins are 
scattered over the hills in the neighbourhood of Tezpur. 

Agriculture. — The one staple harvest of the District is rice, grown in 
two crops. The sdli crop, corresponding to the dma7i of Bengal, sown 
on low lands and reaped in the winter, furnishes much the largest pro- 
portion of the food-supply. The diis crop is sown broadcast on high 
lands, and reaped in the early summer, when the field is again available 
for a second or cold weather crop of oil-seeds or pulses. Agricultural 
statistics, which are more trustworthy in Assam than in Bengal, show 
that the area under rice greatly increased between 1850 and 1866, but 
has since diminished. In 1880-81, the total cultivated area was returned 
at 221,864 acres, thus divided :— Rice, 260,671 acres; mustard, 7565; 
sugar-cane, 191 2; kaldi, 6453; tea, 15,041; and other crops, 31,034 
acres. Of the total area returned as under cultivation, 10,193 acres 
produced more than one crop during the year. The aggregate out-turn 
of rice, oil-seeds, and pulses, is estimated at nearly 3 million cwts., with 
a value of ^^400,000. The land is divided into three classes, paying 
rent to Government at the following rates, which have remained fixed 
since 1868 : — Basti, or homestead land, on which vegetables, etc. are 
grown, 6s. an acre ; nipit^ or moist lands, suited for sdli rice, 3s. pd. 
an acre; pharifighati, for dus rice and second crops, 3s. an acre. 
The out-turn from an acre, whether of rupit or pharifighati land, is 
estimated at 16J cwts., valued at about ^2, 5s. The peasantry are 
fairly well off, and generally free from debt ; their present comfort- 
able condition affords a striking contrast to the miseries from which 
they were relieved by the expulsion of the Burmese in 1825. At the 
present day, a laborious and skilful husbandman is able to cultivate 
4 acres of sdli rice, i\ acre of mustard seed, a similar area under 
pulses, and about one-third of an acre each of sugar-cane and veget- 
ables. Seven acres of land would make a comfortable, fair -sized 
holding for a cultivator ; a small one would consist of three acres 
of moist and about half an acre of dry land. An ordinary pair of 
bullocks can cultivate from 5 J to 6 acres. All the cultivators hold 
their land direct from Government ; their tenure is permanent and 



DARRANG. 147 

transferable, and subject to a moderate rent, which is liable to enhance- 
ment from time to time. There are a few exceptions in favour of 
lakhirdj lands, or grants held either rent-free or at a very low rental. 
Manure is nowhere commonly used. Irrigation is only practised 
in the tract under the hills inhabited by the Kacharis, who are very 
industrious in leading the streams through artificial channels over their 
rice-fields, and frequently combine with one another to effect this 
operation on a large scale. Rupit lands are cultivated continuously 
with the sail rice crop ; but pharmghati lands, which generally bear 
two crops in the year, are occasionally allowed to lie fallow. There 
is abundance of cultivable waste in all parts of the District; but 
the heavy grass jungle and forest with which it is now overgrown 
would be very expensive to clear. There are no present indications 
among the people towards the growth of a distinct class of day- 
labourers, neither possessing nor renting land. Indeed, the tendency 
appears to be in the opposite direction. Those who have no land hire 
themselves out by the month as labourers on the tea-gardens, and soon 
save enough money to buy a pair of bullocks and rent a small patch of 
land. 

The rate of wages and the price of food-grains have both risen about 
three-fold within the last twenty years. In 1880-81, an ordinary labourer 
received from 6d. to 8d. a day. Agricultural labourers are paid in 
kind, and frequently live in the houses of their employers. But labour 
of all kinds is extremely scarce. The inhabitants have a passion for 
cultivating their own plots of land, and a short period of work on a tea- 
garden furnishes them with the capital necessary to purchase a pair of 
bullocks and the few implements required. In 1881, common rice was 
selling at 6s. lod. a cwt. ; fine rice, which is usually imported from 
Bengal, at 8s. iid. a cwt. The highest prices known to have been 
reached in Darrang were in 1857-58, when common rice fetched more 
than £1 a cwt. 

Darrang is not exposed to either of the natural calamities of flood or 
drought, and blight has never been known to have seriously injured the 
crops. In the event of excessive inundations, compensation would be 
found in the increased fertility of the uplands; and similarly, if the 
ramfall were ever to prove deficient, the drying up of the swamps would 
offer new fields to cultivation. The single famine recorded in Darrang 
was caused, not by the failure of the crops, but by the invasion of the 
Burmese in the early years of the present century. 

Manufactures, ^/<:.-— The only indigenous manufacture in Darrang is 

that of silk-weaving. The silk is of two kinds, known as erid and iimgd. 

Ihe former is the produce of the worm Phalaena cynthia, which is 

\ reared almost entirely in-doors, and fed on the leaves of the Ricinus 

\ <^ommunis or castor-oil plant. The mugd worm, or Phalaena saturnia, is 



148 DARRANG. 

fed on certain forest trees in the open air, but also requires careful 
tending. The entire manufacture is carried on without capital or 
division of labour. Each individual spins, weaves, and dyes his own 
web ; yet some of the fabrics attain a high standard of excellence, and 
are bought up for export by the Mdrwari traders. There are minor 
industries in certain villages of brass-work and pottery. The braziers, 
called Marias, form a community by themselves. 

The cultivation and manufacture of tea is chiefly carried on by means 
of European capital and under European supervision. In 1 88 1, there 
were altogether 122 tea-gardens in Darrang District, managed by 14 
European assistants and 138 native officials. The total area under 
mature plant was 12,123 acres, the out-turn amounting to 4,079,123153. 
The number of imported labourers employed was 14,007, of whom 3726 
were under contract under the Emigration Act. 

The external commerce of the District is conducted by means of the 
Brahmaputra, which is navigable by steamers all the year through. The 
local trade is in the hands of Marwari immigrants, chiefly from Bikaner 
and Jodhpur States. The principal exports are tea, oil-seeds, silk cloth, 
and miscellaneous forest produce brought in by the hill tribes. The 
imports consist of cotton and woollen cloth, salt, fine rice, dried fruits, 
spices, etc. The permanent centres of trade are Tezpur, Mangaldai, 
and BiswANATH. Weekly markets are held in the neighbourhood of 
the tea-gardens. Annual trading fairs have been instituted in certain 
villages at the foot of the northern hills, in order to encourage 
intercourse with the Bhutias. The most important of these is at 
Udalguri, on the north-west frontier. The principal articles brought 
for sale by the Bhutias are — ponies, blankets, salt, wax, gold, lac, and 
musk ; in return for which they carry away rice, cotton and silk cloth 
of native manufacture, and brass-ware. This gathering lasts for three or 
four weeks. In 1881-82, the total value of the articles interchanged 
was valued at ;£"3i,325, the balance of trade being greatly in favour of 
the Bhutias. 

Apart from the main highway of the Brahmaputra, means of com- 
munication are somewhat defective. Second in importance is the | 
Assam Northern Trunk Road, which runs through the entire length of | 
the District for a distance of 143 miles. There are several minor roads I 
crossing north and south, and an elephant path, or hdthi poti, skirts con- 
tinuously the base of the Bhutan Hills. The rivers are generally crossed | 
by ferries. The total length of roads in the District is returned at 571 
miles, and of navigable rivers at 230 miles. 

Administration. — In 1870-71, the net revenue of Darrang District 
amounted to ^66,654, towards which the land contributed £z^,S^h 
and opium, ^19,158 ; the expenditure was ;^2 6,461, of which £99^1 
was for the commission of the vianzdddrs or fiscal officials. In 1881-82, 



DARRANG, ^^^ 

the net revenue had increased to ;^88,87i, of which the land revenue 
amounted to ;^45595i5 and the excise to ;£'3 1,823. The civil 
expenditure in the same year was ^£25,225. The land revenue has 
nearly trebled within the past thirty years, having amounted in 1850 to 
only;^i5,668. In 1880-81, there were 2 European covenanted officers 
stationed in the District, and 10 magisterial and 4 civil and revenue 
courts open. For police purposes the District is divided into 6 ihdrids 
or police circles. In 1881, the regular police force numbered 290 
officers and men, maintained at a total cost of ^,^5237. These figures 
show I policeman to every 11 -8 square miles of the area, or to every 
942 of the population, and an average cost of £^\, los. 8d. per square 
mile, or 4|d. per head of population. There is no municipal police in 
Darrang, and the chaiikiddrs or village watch of Bengal are not found 
anywhere in Assam proper. The District contains i jail at Tezpur 
Station and i Sub-divisional lock-up at Mangaldai. In 1881, the daily 
average number of prisoners was 203-30, of whom 6-45 were females. 
These figures show i person in jail to every 1346 of the population. 
The total cost amounted to ^£"1348, or jT^d, 12s. 3d. per prisoner. 

Education does not make such progress in Darrang as in the wealthy 
Districts of Bengal, but yet some improvement has been exhibited in 
recent years. In 1856, the total number of schools was 20, attended 
by 613 pupils. The figures of 1870 show a positive decrease ; but by 
1880-81, when Sir G. Campbell's reforms had come into operation, 
the inspected schools had increased to 97, and the pupils to 2655. 
These figures show i school to every 35 square miles, and 7 pupils to 
every thousand of the population. The Government high school at 
Tezpur teaches up to the matriculation standard of the Calcutta 
University. The Census of 1881 returned 1484 boys and 15 girls 
under instruction, and 2795 adult males and 88 adult females able 
to read and write, but not under instruction. The normal school at 
Tezpur is under the management of the English Church Mission. 

The District is divided into 2 administrative Sub-divisions, and into 
7 thdnds or police circles, as under — (i) Tezpur Sub-division, containing 
the police circles of Tezpur, Khariapara, Chatia, and Gohpur; and 
(2) Mangaldai, containing the police circles of Mangaldai, Kalaigaon, 
and Chatgdri. There are 9 maJidls or fiscal divisions, corresponding 
to the pargands of Bengal, containing an aggregate of 1 1 1 inauzds or 
revenue estates. There is no municipality in the District. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Darrang does not differ from that 
common to the whole of the Assam valley. The north-east monsoon, 
which marks the opening of the cold season, sets in about the begin- 
ning of November, and lasts till the end of April. It is frequendy 
interrupted in March by heavy winds from the south-west, but the 
south-west monsoon proper lasts from May to October. The annual 



1 50 DARRANGIRI—DARSL 

rainfall for the five years ending 1 880-81 averaged 77*07 inches at 
Tezpur and 66*92 inches at Mangaldai. 

The prevalent diseases are intermittent fevers — generally quotidian or 
irregular — dysentery and diarrhoea, goitre, epilepsy. Dyspepsia is said 
to be common among the numerous class of opium-eaters. Small-pox 
breaks out almost every year, in consequence of the practice of inocula- 
tion. In recent years, cholera has repeatedly manifested itself with 
extreme epidemic violence, and with most fatal results. In 1874, out 
of a total of 8061 deaths reported throughout the District, as many as 
2997 were assigned to cholera, showing a mortality from this cause 
alone of 12*6 per thousand. The total mortality for that year was at 
the rate of 34'! per housand, being the highest death-rate recorded in 
any of the Assam Districts, and more than double the rate in Darrang 
for the previous year. In 1882, the number of registered deaths 
was 7840, or at the rate of 28*68 per thousand of the population. A 
contagious disorder is common among the cattle of Darrang, which is 
thought to have been introduced by imported buffaloes from Bengal. 
The chief symptoms are loss of appetite, excessive thirst, high 
temperature of the body, and watery evacuation. The proportion of 
deaths among the animals attacked is very high. Two charitable 
dispensaries afford medical relief to the poor. [For further information 
regarding Darrang District, see 'R.ohmsow''?, Descriptive Account of Assam 
(London, 1841); M'Cosh's Topography of Assam (Calcutta, 1837); 
Assam Census Report of 1881 ; together with the Provincial Administra- 
tion a7id Departmental Reports for the three years ending 1883.] 

Darrangiri. — Village in the Garo Hills District, Assam ; situated 
in lat. 25° 46' N., long. 90° 56' e., on the Someswari river, near which a 
fine out-crop of coal strata is to be seen. The coal-field is situated on 
both sides of the Someswari river ; it is about ten miles in length from 
west to east, and about six miles in breadth from north to south. 
Within these limits the coal measures occupy an area of about fifty 
square miles. The coal in the eastern half is not of a good quality, but 
that in the western half, covering an area of twenty square miles, gives 
at least one seam of coal of good quality of a thickness sufficient to be 
worked profitably. The amount of coal to be obtained from the seam 
is estimated at 76,000,000 tons. 

Darsenda. — Tahsil and pargand in Banda District, North-Western 
Provinces. — See Kumharsin. 

Darsi. — Zanmiddri tdluk, or Sub-division, Nellore District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 616 square miles ; containing 118 villages ; houses, 
12,174. Population (1881) 68,164, namely, 34,442 males and 33,722 
females. Chief town, Darsi. 

Darsi {Ddrische). — Town in the Darsi tdluk, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency ; situated in lat. 15° 48' N., long. 79° 44' e., 30 miles 



DAR WA—DAR YABAD, 



151 



north-west of Ongole. Population (1881) 231 1, namely, 1890 Hindus, 
189 Muhammadans, and 232 Christians; number of houses, 389. As 
the head-quarters of the taluk, Darsi possesses the usual native sub- 
ordinate establishments, police station, and post-office. 

Darwa. — Tlf////^ of Wtin District, Berar. Area, 1062 square miles; 
contains 323 villages. Population (1881) 132,788, namely, 68,468 
males and 64,320 females, or 125 persons per square mile; houses 
per square mile, 24; persons per house, 5*5. Since 1872, the popula- 
tion has increased by 37,089. Hindus number 124,084, or more than 
93 per cent; Muhammadans, 7804; Jains, 880; Sikhs, 19; and 
Christian, i. The agricultural population in 1881 numbered 98,031 ; 
cultivated area, 524 square miles; cultivable, but waste, 322; uncul- 
tivable waste, 215. Total revenue, ^^26,923, of which ^20,049 was 
derived from the land. In 1883, the taluk contained i civil and 2 criminal 
courts; police stations {thdnds), 8; regular police, 102 men; village 
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 217. 

Darwa. — Town and head-quarters of Darwa tdluk, Wun District, 
Berar, Central India. Lat. 20° 18' 30" n., long. 77° 49' o" e. Situated 
24 miles w.s.w. of Yeotmal, the head-quarters town of Wiin District, 
with which it is connected by a metalled road. Darwa lies in a basin 
surrounded on three sides by hills. Contains a police station, post- 
office, travellers' bungalow, and school. An ancient town, formerly the 
seat of one of the Bhonsla chiefs. Municipal revenue (1881), ^339 ; 
houses, 854; population (1881), 3842. 

Darwani. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thdnd), in 
Rangpur District, Bengal. Lat. 25° 53' 15" n., long. ^Z° 55' 15" e. 
Seat of an annual fair of considerable importance, at which cattle and 
horses form the principal articles of sale. 

Daryabad. — Pargand in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; bounded on the 
north by Bado Sarai, on the east by the Gogra (Ghagra) river, and 
on the south by Basohri pargand. Daryabad is said to be gradually 
increasing its area, owing to the recession of the Gogra towards the east. 
The present course of that river is now about 8 miles east of its ancient 
bank, the intervening ground being comparatively low. Area, 214 
square miles, of which 137 are cultivated. Of the 241 villages which 
comprise iht pargand, no are held under^ tdlukddri and 131 under 
zaminddri tenure, the principal landholders being Surajbans Kshatriyas. 
Cultivated area in acres — rice, 26,023; wheat, 23,801; jodr, 1097; 
jodr and bdjra, 500 ; sugar-cane, 2063 ; barley, 5479 ; gram, 5000 ; 
poppy, 802; vegetables, 215; oil-seeds, 400; miscellaneous, 18,434. 
Population (1881) 66,188 males and 62,456 females. Thispargandis the 
head-quarters of the Satnami sect of Hindus. The founder of the creed, 
Baba Jagjuvan Das, was born here, and the present religious head of 
the sect, Baba Jaskaran Das, is his descendant in the twelfth generation. 



1 5 2 DAR YABAD—DASARA, 

Daryabdd.— Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; situated on the 
high road from Lucknow to Faizabad (Fyzabad), about 24 miles east of 
Nawabganj. Lat. 26° 53' n., long. 81° 36' E. Founded about 450 years 
ago by a deputy {subahddr) of Sultdn Ibrahim Sharki. Formerly the 
head-quarters of the District, but some years ago the Government offices 
and courts were transferred to Nawabganj, owing to the unhealthiness 
of the place, induced by its low swampy situation. Daryabad has since 
declined in importance ; but it contains a few fine houses, the principal 
being the residence of the tdliikddr of Rampur. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 2896; Muhammadans, 2466; and Jains, 176: total, 5538. 
Two markets ; flourishing Government English school. 

Darya Kheri.— Thdkurate or Petty State held by Thakur Ranjit 
Singh as a guaranteed Girasia, under the Bhopal Agency of Central 
India. Area, about 6 square miles. The Thakur receives a pecuniary 
allowance {tankhd) of £\\^ from Gwalior, Dewas, and Bhopal in lieu 
of former rights over land. He also holds a grant of two villages in 
Shujdwalpur under the guarantee of the British Government, and pays 
to the Gwalior Darbar a quit-rent of ^107. 

Daryapur. — Tdluk, or Sub-division, of Ellichpur District, Berar. 
Area, 505 square miles; contains i town and 206 villages. Popula- 
tion (1881) 123,109, namely, 63,859 males and 59,250 females, or 
244 persons per square mile; number of occupied houses, 23,111; 
unoccupied, 1342; towns and villages per square mile, -4; houses per 
square mile, 48; persons per house, 5*3. Since 1872, the population 
has increased by 20,306. Hindus number 113,131, or 90 percent; 
Muhammadans, 9473; Jains, 488; Sikhs, 16; and Parsis, 7. The 
agricultural population number 84,026 ; cultivated area, 467 square 
miles; cultivable, but waste, 11 ; waste, 27. Total revenue, £sh^1^^ 
of which ^48,094 is land revenue. In 1884, the tdhik contained 
7 civil and 3 criminal courts ; police stations {thdnds)^ 2 ; regular police, 
69 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 343. 

Daryapur. — Town and head-quarters of Daryapur tdluk, Ellichpur 
District, Berar. Lat. 20° 56' N., long. 77° 22' 30" e. Situated 
about 36 miles south-west of Ellichpur town, on the banks of the 
Chandra Bhaga. Population (1881) 4392, chiefly Kiimbis. The town 
contains the usual offices of administration, a police station, and 2 
schools ; several temples and mosques stand outside it. 

Dasai. — Town in Gwalior (Sindhia's territory), the capital of the 
Dasai Jdgir, under the Bhil or Bhopawar Agency of Central India ; 
situated 10 miles north of Amjhera and 12 miles from Sirdarpur. The 
revenue of the jdgir is ^{^2400, and is a grant by Sindhia to Raja 
Dinkar Rao Raghunath. 

Dasdra. — Petty State of Jhdlawar division, Kdthiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency. It consists of 7 villages, with 6 independent tribute-payers. 



DASARAZUPALLI—DASKROI, 153 

The revenue is estimated at ^6000 ; a tribute of ;£*! 296, i6s. is payable 
to the British Government, and of £2, 6s. as siikhdi on account of 
Ahmadabad. Area, 265 square miles; population (1881) 16,971. 

Dasardzupalli. — Village in the Ongole idluk, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 2735 ; number of houses, 475. 

Daska.— ^^/^-i-// of Sialkot District, Punjab ; but as it has been con- 
stituted since 1881, the Census Report gives no statistics of area or 
population. Revenue in 1883, ^^22,282. The iahsil is administered by 
a iahsilddr, ??tunsif, and an honorary magistrate, who preside over 2 civil 
and 2 criminal courts ; number of police stations {thdnds), 3 ; strength 
of regular police, 34 men, with 460 village watchmen {chaukiddrs). 

Daska. — Town in Sialkot District, Punjab, and head-quarters of 
Daska tahsil. Population (1881) 5525, namely, Muhammadans, 2855 ; 
Hindus, 1667; Sikhs, 1000; and 'others,' 3; chiefly engaged in 
agriculture. Situated in lat. 32° 20' n., and long. 74° 24' 6" e., on the 
Gujranwala road, 16 miles south-west of Sialkot. The town contains 
a few well-built houses belonging to bankers and shopkeepers. It has 
been much improved of late years, and some of its streets have been 
paved with brick. Its public buildings consist of the iahsil, civil court, 
police station, post-office, dispensary. Government school, encamping 
ground for troops. The road from Wazirabad to Gurdaspur via 
Pasriir, crosses the Gujranwala road at this place. Daska is noted 
for its manufacture of brass vessels. Forms with the neighbouring 
village of Kot Daska a third-class municipal union. Revenue 
(1882-83), ;^224, or 7jd. per head of population (5525) within 
municipal limits. 

Daskroi {DashkroM). — Head-quarters Sub-division of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay Presidency. It stretches round Ahmadabad town for 
about 30 miles north and south, and 20 miles east and west. Bounded 
on the north by Baroda territory ; east by Mahi Kantha ; south by Kaira 
District ; and west by Sanand and Baroda territory. Area, 348 square 
miles. Population (1881), including the inhabitants of Ahmadabad 
town, 271,563; dwelling in i town and 137 villages, and occupying 
56,984 houses. Males number 138,880; females, 132,683. Classified 
according to religion, there are 219,658 Hindus, or about 80 per cent.; 
32,824 Muhammadans; and 19,081 'others,' not specified. The 
Revenue Survey returned 202,933 acres as occupied land; 135,941 
acres as cultivable waste; and 36,002 as uncultivable waste; 98,023 
acres are returned as being under tillage. In the year of settlement 
(1860-61) there were 17,476 holdings with an average of 7f acres, 
paying an average rent of ;if i, i is. 3d. 

The entire Sub-division, except for a ^qw gentle undulations in 
the east and south, is a uniform plain. The region is crossed by 
the Sabarmati, the Khari, and Meshvo rivers. Only in the extreme 



154 DASNA—DASPALLA. 

south are their waters used for irrigation. In 1877, there were 4083 
wells, in addition to 634 ponds and 47 water-lifts. The soil is light, 
gorat ; and varies from dry sand to rich loam. With good tillage and 
watering, the sandiest fields yield a large return to the husbandman. 
In the loops of land enclosed by the Sabarmati, patches of alluvial 
land produce the finest sugar-cane and tobacco. Staple crops are 
millets, bdjra, jodr, and rice. In 1878, 1344 acres were under cotton. 
The Sub-division contains (inclusive of the Ahmadabad courts and 
head-quarters) 5 civil and 10 criminal courts; police stations (t/idnds), 
2 ; regular police, 660 men ; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs), 520. 

Dasna. — Town in Meerut (Merath) District, North-Western Provinces. 
Lat. 28° 40' 30" N., and long. 77° 33' 55" e. Situated in the open 
plain, 23 miles south-west of Meerut, and i mile west of the Ganges 
Canal, a distributary from which irrigates the surrounding lands. 
Population (1881) under 5000, not returned separately in the Census 
Report. Founded by Raja Salarsi, a Rajput, in the time of Mahmiid 
of Ghazni. Formerly contained a large fort, destroyed by Ahmad Shah 
in 1760. Religious fair during the muhari-am in honour of a Musalman 
saint. Mr. Michel's indigo factory at Masuri employs a large number 
of workmen. Police outpost and post-office. Hindu fair twice a year. 
Weekly market held every Saturday. 

Daspalla. — Tributary State of Orissa, Bengal. Lat. 20° 10' 50" to 
20° 35' N., long. 84° 31' 45" to 85° 8' E. Area, 568 square miles. 
Population (1881) 41,608. Bounded on the north by Angul, 
Narsinghpur, and the Mahanadi river, which flows through the 
picturesque Barmiil gorge and forms an excellent waterway ; on the 
south by the Madras State of Gumsar (Ghumsara) ; on the east by 
Khandpara and Nayagarh ; and on the west by Bod. The principal 
mountain in the State is Goaldes, in the north, 2506 feet high. The 
chief village is Daspalla, in lat. 20° 18' 40" n., long. 84° 56' 21" e. The 
population in 1881 numbered 41,608, consisting of 29,036 Hindus, 24 
Muhammadans, and 12,548 belonging to other denominations (namely, 
non-Hindu aboriginal tribes, etc.). Of the aboriginal races, the Kandhs 
are the most numerous. Estimated annual revenue, ^1700; tribute 
payable to the British Government, ^£66. Daspalla State is said to 
have been founded about 500 years ago by a son of the Raja of 
Bod, the present chief, who claims to be a Kshatriya of the Solir 
race, being the sixteenth in descent. It is divided into two parts: 
Daspalla proper, lying south of the Mahanadi, the original princi- 
paHty ; and Joremuha, a small tract north of the Mahanadi annexed 
to Daspalla by conquest. The Raja's military force is returned 
at 521 men, and his police force at 269. There are 6 schools 
in the State, one of which is supported by the Raja, and a post- 
office. 



DASUYA—DATHA, 155 

DaSliya. — Northern tahsil of Hoshiarpur District, Punjab. Lat. 
31° 44' to 32° 5' N., long. 75° 34' 15" to 75° 57' E. Lies between the 
Kangra Hills and the Beas (Bias) river, which sweeps round three sides 
of its boundary line. Area, 384 square miles. Population (1881) 
218,644, namely, males 117,947, and females 100,697 ; average density 
of population, 570 persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 
105,057; Muhammadans, 104,026; Sikhs, 9142; and 'others,' 319. 
Revenue of the tahsil (1883), ^37,161. The administrative staff con- 
sists of a tahsilddr^ 2 miinsifs^ and an honorary magistrate exercising 
criminal powers. These officers preside over 3 civil and 2 criminal 
courts. Number of police stations (thdfids), 4 ; strength of regular 
l)olice, 78 men, with 458 village watchmen {chaukiddrs). 

DaSliya. — Tow^n in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, and head-quarters 
of Dasiiya tahsil ; situated 25 miles north-west of Hoshiarpur town, on 
the road to the Naushahra and Mithal ferries on the Beas (Bias). Lat. 
31° 49' N., long. 75° 41' 45" E. Population in 188 1, 6248, namely, 
Muhammadans, 4367 ; Hindus, 181 9; Sikhs, 43; and Jains, 19. The 
town, with the neighbouring village of Kaithan, forms a third-class 
municipality. Municipal income in 1882-83, ;^2 2o; expenditure, 
;^245. Tradition states that the town was founded 5000 years ago, 
and formed the capital of Raja Viratha mentioned in the Mahabha- 
rata. There is an old fort to the north of the town, mentioned in the 
Ain-i-Akbari. It was in great part demolished in 1848, but two of its 
towers still remain. The trade of the town is principally in grain and 
tobacco. Besides the ordinary Sub-divisional courts and police station, 
the town contains a Government middle-class school, dispensary, sardi 
or native inn, and a fine tank. 

Dataganj. — Tahsil of Budaun District, North- Western Provinces. 
Area, 430 square miles, of which 273 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
186,815. Land revenue, ^,^2 2,836 ; total revenue, ^25,610; rental 
paid by cultivators, ;£"5 2,062 ; incidence of Government revenue per 
acre, is. lod. 

Dataganj. — Town in Budaun District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Dataganj tahsil; 17 miles east of Budaun town. 
Population (1881) 2442. A small municipal income for the sanitation 
and watch and ward of the town is raised under the provisions of 
Act XX. of 1856. Besides the ordinary Sub-divisional offices and 
courts, the town contains a tahsili school and dispensary. 

Datdna. — A guaranteed thakurate or petty chiefship of the Western 
Malwa Agency of Central India. Receives a sum of ^18 as tankha 
from Sindhia. 

Datha.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. It consists 
of 26 villages, with 2 independent tribute-payers. The revenue in 
1881 was estimated at ;^23oo, of which £^0^, i8s. is paid as tribute 



156 DA TH WEH-KYA UK— DA TIA. 

to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and ^29, i8s. to the Nawab of Jun^garh. 
Area, 51 square miles. Population (1881) 9352. 

Dathweh-kyauk.— An unnavigable river in Prome District, Pegu 
Division, British Burraah. It rises in the southern slopes of the Sinlan 
spur, and flows south and west into the Zay, which it joins just before 
that river enters the Inma lake. The lower portion of its course is 
through rice-fields; but higher up it flows through forests, producing 
valuable timber, such as pyingado, ingying, banbweh (Careya arborea), 

and in. 

Dathweh-kyauk. — Village in Prome District, Pegu Division, British 
Burma. Lat. 18° 41' n., long. 95° 34' 35" e. Situated on the river of 
the same name, 20 miles south-east of Prome, and near the great rice 
tract which occupies the centre of the valley between the Pegu 
Mountains and the Prome Hills. The inhabitants are mainly 
agriculturists. 

Datia. — Native State in Bundelkhand, under the Central India 
Agency and the Government of India; lying between lat. 25° 34' to 
26° 17' N., and long. 78° 17' to 78° 56' e. Area, 836 square miles. 
Population (1881) 182,598, namely, Hindus, 174,202; Muham- 
madans, 8381 ; Jains, 150. Number of towns and villages, 454; 
number of houses, 29,396. Bounded on the east by Jhdnsi 
District, and surrounded on all other sides by the State of 
Gwalior. It came under the supremacy of the British Govern- 
ment with other territories in Bundelkhand, ceded by the Peshwa 
under the treaty of Bassein in 1802. The ruler at that time was 
Raja Parichhat, with whom a treaty of defensive alliance was con- 
cluded in 1804. After the deposition of the Peshwa in 181 7, Raja 
Parichhat was rewarded for his attachment to the British Govern- 
ment by the addition of a tract of land on the east of the river 
Sind, and a new treaty was made with him. He was succeeded by 
his adopted son, Bijai Bahadur, a foundling, who died in 1857, and 
was succeeded by his adopted son, Bhawani Singh, the present 
(1883) ruler. At his accession, however, an illegitimate son, Arjun 
Singh, disputed the succession, and it was necessary to send a British 
force for the settlement of the country. Raja Bhawani Singh is a 
Bundela Rajput, and was born about 1845. The revenues are estimated 
at ;^i 00,000. The State pays to Sindhia, through the British Govern- 
ment, ;£'i5oo of Nanashahi currency annually on account of the pargam 
of Nadigaon. The Chief has the right of adoption, and is entitled to a 
salute of 15 guns. The military force consists of 97 guns, 160 gunners, 
700 cavalry, and 3040 infantry. 

Datia.— Chief town of Datia State, Bundelkhand, lying on the road 
from Agra to Sagar (Saugor), 125 miles south-east of the former, and 
148 miles north-west of the latter. Lat. 25° 40' N., long. 78° 3° ^' 



DA TIVRE—DA UDNA GAR. 1 5 7 

Situated on a rocky eminence, surrounded by a stone wall, about 30 
feet in height, but incapable of defence against modern artillery. 
Though composed of narrow and intricate streets, the town presents a 
flourishing aspect, and contains a large number of handsome houses, the 
residences of the local aristocracy. Population (1881) 28,346, namely, 
Hindus, 23,393; Muhammadans, 4948; and 'others,' 5. The Raja's 
palace stands in the town, within the walls of a pretty pleasure-garden, 
planted with avenues of oranges, pomegranates, and other fruit-trees. 
The wall is pierced by a fine gateway, and surmounted at each corner 
by embattled towers. Besides the Raja's pavilion, the gardens enclose 
an octagonal building surrounded by a reservoir, containing a fountain 
composed of four elephants, from whose trunks arises a jet of water. 
Another palace, now untenanted, stands within the city precincts ; 
while a third, also deserted, but remarkable for its great size and 
strength, as well as for the beauty of its architecture, lies to the west of 
the town, beyond the walls. A curious cluster of Jain temples, at a 
distance of some 4 miles, deserves the attention of archaeologists. The 
rocky ground in the neighbourhood of Datia is overgrown with stunted 
copse, abounding in game ; and a small artificial lake lies close to the 
hill on which the town stands. 

Dativre {Dantivra). — Seaport in the Mahim Sub-division, Thana 
District, Bombay Presidency. Ten miles south-east of Mahim. Lat. 
19° 17' N., and long. 72° 50' e. Near the town is a small ruined fort 
built probably by the Portuguese. Average annual value of trade for 
five years ending 1878-79, ^11,569 — viz. exports, ;3^io,738, and 
imports, ;^83 1. 

Dattaw. — Stream in British Burma. Rises in the Kyi-ba spur 
west of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy), and falls into that river near 
Peinthalein. Its bed is sandy and muddy ; on its steep banks are 
found teak, cutch, ing-yin (Pentacme siamensis), much used in house- 
building, thingan and pyin-nia. The Dattaw is navigable only for a 
short distance during the rains. 

Dattigaon. — Town and jdgir in Sindhia's territory (Gwalior), 
Amjhera pargand, Central India. The residence of Maharaj Pahvant 
Smgh of Amjhera, who derives a revenue of ^1600 from the estate, 
paying a tribute of ^375 to Sindhia. 

Datt's Bazar (or Bim). — Village on the Brahmaputra, in the head- 
quarters Sub-division of Maimansingh District, Bengal, 37 miles from 
Nasirabad town. One of the principal marts of the District, carrying 
on a large trade in jute, etc. with Narayanganj in Dacca. 

Daiidnagar. — Chief town in Aurangabad Sub-division, Gaya District, 
Bengal. Lat. 25° 2' 39" n., long. 84° 26' 35" e. Population (1881) 9870, 
namely, 7831 Hindus, 2035 Muhammadans, and 4 'others;' area of 
town site, 3285 acres. Situated on the banks of the Son (Soane), and 



158 BA UDPUR—DA ULATABAD. 

consisting mainly of miserable crooked lanes and irregular streets, con- 
taining numerous hovels. The chief public buildings are the sardi or 
rest-house built by Daud Khan in the part of the town named after him, 
and intended probably for a stronghold ; and a small imdnibdrd and a 
chautdrd^ formerly used for the transaction of business. Manufactures 
of cloth, coarse carpets, and blankets ; river trade with Patna, which 
is likely to increase after the opening of the canal close to the town. 
Gross municipal revenue (1881-82) ^222 ; expenditure, ;£i74. Local 
police consists of 1 3 men. Four miles from Daiidnagar, on the road 
to Gaya, there is a beautiful temple, the carving of which was executed 
at Mirzapur. 

Daiidpur. — Depot in Rangpur District, Bengal. Trade in rice, 
paddy, and mustard. 

Daiidzai. — Tahsil of Peshawar District, Punjab. See Doaba 
Daudzai. 

Daulatabad {DeogiH). — Town and fort in the Nizam's Dominions 
(Haidarabad), Deccan. Lat. 19° 57' n., and long. 75° 18' e. ; 10 miles 
north-west from Aurangabad, 170 miles north-east of Bombay, and 28 
north-west of Haidarabad (Hyderabad). Population (1881) 1243. The 
fortress, also known by the name of Deogiri, has from remote antiquity 
been the stronghold of the rulers of the Deccan. It consists of a conical 
rock scarped from a height of 150 feet from the base. The fort has 
been provided with a counterscarp gallery, and a complete system of 
countermines ; the outer wall is 2| miles in circumference ; between 
the wall and the base of the upper fort there are three inner lines of 
fortifications, to which access is obtained through gates. On the 
summit of the rock is a small platform, on which are mounted a cannon 
and flagstaff. A short distance outside the ditch is a minaret 210 feet 
high, said to have been erected in commemoration of the first conquest 
of the place by the Muhammadans in 1294. The minaret is in good 
preservation, and from its summit a fine view of the surrounding 
country is obtained. Close to the minaret are the ruins of an extensive 
Jain temple. Near the temple are the ruins of the Chini Mahal (China 
Palace), where Sultan Ab-ul-Hasan, better known as King Tanashah, 
the last of the Golconda sovereigns, was kept a State prisoner by 
Aurangzeb. The hill on which the fort stands rises almost perpendicularly 
from the plain to a height of about 600 feet, and is entirely isolated, 
though commanded by several hills to the south. The moat or ditch is 
about 30 feet wide, and is crossed by a small stone bridge, near which 
is a subterranean gallery which winds through the hill until within a 
short distance of the summit, where the exit is defended by a huge iron 
plate. The original name of the place under the Hindus was 
Deogarh (Deogiri). It succeeded Bijapur as the capital of the Yadava 
kingdom. Little is known of its history before its capture by the 



DAULATABAD. 159 

Muhammadans under Ala-ud-din of the Khilji dynasty, who at the 
head of a body of 8000 horse appeared before the town in a.d. 1294. 
\fter sacking the town, he laid siege to the fort, which after a period 
of three weeks was, owing to the unexpected nature of the attempt, 
and to the failure of provisions, surrendered by the Raja Ramchandra 
of the Yadava dynasty, which had established itself at Deogiri about 
the close of the 12th century on the downfall of the Kalachuris, the 
successors of the Western Chalukyas. Ferishta relates that the terms 
of peace exacted by Ala-ud-din were as follows : — That Ramchandra 
should pay six hundred viminds (a maund is equal to 80 lbs.) of gold, 
seven mawids of pearls, two mau7ids of jewels, consisting of rubies, 
diamonds, jaspers, and emeralds ; one thousand maimds of silver, five 
thousand pieces of silk and other articles ; that he should hand over 
Ellichpur, then the capital of Berar, with its adjacent districts ; and 
that he should pay a yearly tribute. The capture of the fortress is 
noteworthy, as this event was the first appearance of the Muhammadans 
in the Deccan. The new conquest was neither lasting nor untroubled. 
In 1306, Ramchandra rebelled, and Malik Naib Kafur, a Muhammadan 
general, was despatched to Deogiri. Ramchandra was taken prisoner 
and carried to Delhi, where the Sultan treated him with clemency and 
even honour, and from whence in the end he was sent back to his 
dominions. Ramchandra was succeeded by his son Sankara, but as 
Sankara proved hostile, Kafur once more appeared, took the fortress, 
and put the king to death. When Kafur retired, he left strong 
garrisons in Deogiri and other Deccan points of vantage ; but immedi- 
ately after his withdrawal, Harpala, who had married a daughter of 
Ramchandra, rose in revolt. A Muhammadan army again appeared ; 
Harpala was defeated and captured; and after being flayed alive by 
order of Mubarik Khan, the new Sultan, his skin w^as hung over the 
gate of Deogiri. A succession of favourites of the Delhi Sultan now 
ruled in Deogiri ; until in 1325, Muhammad Tughlak Shah, the son of 
Ghiyas-ud-din, ascended the throne. In 1338, Muhammad Tughlak 
conceived the idea of making Deogiri the capital of the Muhammadan 
Empire ; and having re-christened the fort Daulatabad, or ' The For- 
tunate City,' issued stringent orders for the evacuation of Delhi and 
for the immediate removal of the population to Deogiri. The distance 
from Delhi to Deogiri is 800 miles. Delhi, called by an annalist of 
that time the ' Envy of the World,' became deserted at the order of 
the cruel and eccentric Emperor. The story runs that a paralytic 
and a blind man alone were found in the silent streets when the 
evacuation was over. The paralytic was blown from the mouth of a 
culverin ; the blind man w^as dragged from Delhi to Deogiri, a march 
of forty days; but 'the poor wretch fell in pieces during the journey, 
and only one leg reached Daulatabad.' Deogiri, however, rose into 



1 60 DA ULA T KHAN— DA UNDIA KHERA. 

importance. Ibn Batuta, a native of Tangiers, visited Daulatabad 
when Tughlak had his court there, and compares it for size and 
splendour to the former Delhi. Not once but twice did Deogiri gain 
at the expense of Delhi, and wholesale migrations were ruthlessly 
commanded and as ruthlessly enforced. On the second occasion, 
the ravages of a famine were added to the disasters of a long and 
painful journey. In a few years, the dynasty of Tughlak was fol- 
lowed, in this region, by the Bahmani kings of Gulbarga and chiefs of 
Bider. The Bahmanis held Daulatabad until they became extinct in 
1526. The Bahmanis were succeeded by the Nizam Shahi kings of 
Ahmednagar, who held the fortress until their kingdom fell beneath the 
sway of the Mughal. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the fortress 
of Daulatabad, with other Mughal possessions in the Deccan, passed 
into the hands of Asaph Jah, the founder of the Nizam's dynasty, in 
whose family they have remained ever since. Daulatabad has not 
been garrisoned as a fortress for many years. At present there is a 
force of about 100 military police stationed there. The gardens for 
which the place was once famous have nearly all disappeared. 

Daulat Khan. — Village and formerly the head-quarters of Dakshin 
Shahbazpur Sub-division, Bakarganj District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 38' N., 
and long. 90° 50' 30" e. Principal article of export, areca-nut. The 
village was destroyed and the inhabitants nearly all drowned by a 
cyclone and storm wave in October 1876. 

Daulatpur. — Village in Naushahro Sub - division, Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated in lat. 26° 
30' 30" N., and long. 68' o' 15" e. on the trunk road between Haidar- | 
abad and Rohri. Population insignificant, and mainly agricultural. 
The Muhammadans belong to the Hotpotra tribe; the Hindus are 
chiefly Lohanos. Rest-house for travellers. 

Dauleswaram. — Town, Godavari District, Madras Presidency. — See 

DOWLAISHVARAM. 

Daundia Khera. — Pargand in Purwa tahsil, Unao District, Oudh, 
Bounded on the north by Ghatampur and Bhagwantnagar pargands, 
on the east by Sareni, on the south by the Ganges, and on the west 
by Ghatampur pargand. Conquered from the Bhars by the Bais 
clan of Rajputs, who here first laid the foundation of their future 
greatness. They rapidly extended their dominions, and their descen- 
dants now hold considerable possessions in Rai Bareli and Bara 
Banki. Area, 64 square miles, of which 35 are cultivated. Govern- 
ment land revenue, ^5327, or an average of 2s. 6d. per acre. Principal 
autumn crops — cotton, rice, millet, iird, mug, vetches, etc. ; spring 
crops — wheat, barley, gram, arhar, oil-seeds, sugar-cane. Population 
(1881) 33,467, namely, 16,397 males and 17,070 females. Of the 104 
villages comprising the pargand, 26 are held under tdhikddri, 34 under 



DA USA— DA V A SI-BE TTA, i g r 

zaminddri, and 44 und^x pattiddri tenures. Six bi-weekly markets are 
held for the sale of country produce. 

Dausa.— Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputana, Central India. 
Population ( 1 881) 7384, namely, Hindus, 6057 ; Muhammadans, 1139; 
and unspecified, 188. Station on the Rajputana State Railway, distant 
about ^^ miles east from Jaipur. Dausa was once the capital of the 
State before Amber was wrested from the Minas. It stands on the 
slope of a large isolated flat hill nearly four miles in circumference, 
fortified with a loopholed wall with bastions of considerable strength. 
The town contains numerous Hindu temples and ancient edifices fast 
falling to decay. At the close of the Mutiny, Tantia Topi, the famous 
rebel leader, was caught between two columns of British troops in the 
neighbourhood of Dausa, when a battle was fought under its walls. 
Staging bungalow, dispensary, and post-office. The Agra and Ajmere 
trunk roads intersect at Dausa. 

Davangere.— T^i////^ in Shimoga District, Mysore State, Southern 
India. Area (including Harihar taluk, incorporated in 1875), 662 
square miles; land revenue (1882), exclusive of water-rates, ;^i5,59i. 
The taluk is watered by the Tungabhadra, which runs along the 
western boundary. The surface is a wide, level, and dreary plain. 
Black soil prevails in the west, and stony or gravelly soil in the east. 
Chief crops, Jola, cotton, and ragi. Rice and sugar-cane are grown 
to a small extent The dynasty of the Kadambas were probably 
the earhest Hindu occupants of the country. The Chalukya and 
Ballala dynasties followed, the seat of government being at Huchangi- 
Durga. The Yadavas of Deogiri were in possession when that dynasty 
declined on the advent of the Muhammadans in the 13th century. 
After falling to the Vijayanagar Empire and the Bednur chiefs, Davan- 
gere taluk eventually became part of Haidar All's possessions. Noted 
for the manufacture of finely -woven kaniblis or woollen blankets, 
which have been known to sell for £20 or ^,^30 a-piece. The taluk 
contains i criminal court ; police stations {thdnds), 10; regular police, 
76 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 294. 

Davangere.— Town in Shimoga District, Mysore State, Southern 
India.^ Lat. 14° 28' n., and long. 75° 59' e. ; 40 miles north-west 
of Chitaldriig. Population (1881) 6362, namely, 5584 Hindus, 763 
I^Iuhammadans, and 15 Christians. Origirially an obscure village, 
Davangere became a centre of trade under the patronage of Haidar 
All, who gave it as 3. Jdgir to a Maratha chief. The merchants are 
mostly Sivaite Bhaktas or Lingayats. Their most valuable business is 
the carrying trade between Wallaja-pet in North Arcot and the 
neighbourhood of Sagar and Nagar. Exports— areca-nut, pepper, and 
kamblis or country blankets. 

Davasi-betta.— Peak on the Brahmagiri Hills, Mysore. 

VOL. IV. L 



i62 r>A VID, FORT ST.- DA WNA. 

David, Fort St. (Native name, Thevanapatnam or Tegnapaiam).-^ 
A ruined 'fort in South Arcot District, Madras Presidency ; situated in 
lat. 11° 44' 20" N., and long. 79° 49' 3°" e., 100 miles south of Madras, 
and I J miles north of Cuddalore, of which it may be called a suburb. 
It was purchased from the Marathas in 1690, and was included in 
the kaul of that year, by which Cuddalore was granted to the Com- 
pany. All the land round the fort, to the distance of a ' randome shott ' 
fired on every side, was included in the purchase. It was christened 
* Fort St. David,' perhaps by its Welsh Governor M. E. Yale ; and 
from 1746 to 1752 it replaced Fort St. George as the chief settlement 
on the Coromandel coast. (See Cuddalore.) Upon the capitulation 
of Madras to the French under Bourdonnais in 1746, the Company's 
agent at Fort St. David assumed the general administration of British 
affairs in the south of India, and successfully resisted an attack by 
Dupleix. Clive was appointed Governor in 1756. In 1758, the French, 
under M. Lally, captured and dismantled the fort while Clive was 
serving in Bengal, but sufficiently restored it in 1783 to withstand an 
attack by General Stuart. The ruined houses on the ramparts are still 
interesting, and some parts of the fort are in good preservation. Sub- 
terranean passages appear to have run completely round under the glacis, 
thus forming a safe means of communication for the garrison ; while, at 
short intervals, other galleries striking off at right angles, and terminating 
in powder chambers, served as mines. At the south-east corner, the 
gallery ran down to the edge of the sea, while on the other three sides 
the fort was protected by the river Pennar and two canals. The ruins 
form a recognised landmark for mariners. 

Dawa.— Z^wf;^^«Vf or estate in Bhandara District, Central Provinces, 
lying to the north of the Great Eastern Road, and about 30 miles north- 
east of Bhandara. Population (1881) 4997, chiefly Gonds and Halbds, 
dwelling in 12 villages, on an area of 26 square miles, of which 7 square 
miles are cultivated. Dawa and Kor Seoni, the only large villages, both 
possess indigenous schools, and the latter contains a strong colony of 
Koris. The chief is a Halba. Dawa village is situated in lat. 2 1° 1 1' N., 
and long. 80° 13' e. 

Dawer. — Town in Mervvara, Ajmere-Merwara Division, Rajputana. 
Lat. 25° 26' N., long. 73° 51' E. Situated at the extreme south of 
Merwara, at the head of the Dawer pass into Jodhpur. Police station, 
school, and post-office. 

Dawna. — Range of mountains forming the eastern boundary 
of Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Th's 
chain starts from the Muleh-yit Hill (5500 feet high) in the main 
range, in lat. 16° 5' 45" n., long. 98° 42' 3" e., and extends north- 
west for 200 miles, dividing the waters of the Haung-tharaw and 
Hlaing-bhweh rivers from those of the Thaung-yin. The general 



DA YA—DEBI PAT AN. 



163 



appearance of the range is that of a wooded plateau of laterite cut up 
by drainage into ridges. At places the underlying rocks project into 
the bed of the Thaung-yin, indicating volcanic agency. Large areas on 
the Dawna Hills are covered with evergreen forests, containing many 
varieties of valuable timber. 

Dayd, (' The River of Mercy '). — The western distributary of the waters 
of the KoYAKHAi river, in Orissa, through Puri District into the Chilka 
Lake. Subject to disastrous floods, which in the rainy season burst the 
banks, and sometimes desolate hundreds of square miles. In the dry 
weather, a series of long shallow pools, amid expanses of sand. Fall per 
mile at section half-way between Cuttack city and the sea, 1 7 feet ; 
mean depth of section, 1678 feet; estimated discharge, 33,100 cubic 
feet per second. Thirty-six breaches were made in its embankment in 
1866. 

Dayang" or Doyong". — River in Assam, forming in part the eastern 
boundary between the Naga Hills District and the unexplored country 
occupied by the independent Nagas. It rises in the prolongation of 
the Barel range which runs through the Naga Hills, and divides that 
District from Manipur State, its source being between the lofty peaks 
called Khurrho and Kopamedza. It ultimately falls into the 
Dhaneswari (Dhansiri) river, a short distance above Golaghat, in lat. 
26° 26' N., and long. 93° 58' e. Navigable by small boats during the 
rainy season as high as its junction with the Dihinggjan. 

Debar. — Lake in Udaipur (Oodeypore) State, Rajputana, Central 
India. Situated about 30 miles south-east of Udaipur town, the 
centre lying in lat. 24° 18' n., and long. 74° 4' e. It is formed by a 
dam entirely made of massive stone, built across a perennial stream, 
where it issues through a gap in the surrounding hills.. This dyke is 
called /j/ Samand, after Rana Jai Singh, by whom it was constructed 
A.D. 1 68 1. The length of Lake Debar from east to west is 8 or 10 
miles, and its average breadth about a mile, with a circumference of 
about 30 miles ; elevation above sea-level, 960 feet. Its northern shore 
is dotted with picturesque fishing hamlets, and its surface with small 
wooded islands, adding greatly to the beauty of perhaps one of the 
largest artificial sheets of water in the world. 

Debhata. — Village and municipality in Maihati pargand, Khulna 
District, Bengal; situated on the river Jamu^a. Lat. 22° 33' 30" n., 
long. 89° o' 15" K Population (1881) 5514, namely, Hindus, 
4002; and Muhammadans, 1512 ; area of town site, 2400 acres. 
Municipal income (1881-82), ^336; average incidence of taxation, 
IS. id. per head of municipal population. Large trade in lime produced 
from burnt shells. 

•Debi Patan. — Village with temples and large religious fair, in Gonda 
I^istrict, Oudh. Lat. 27° 32' 8" n., long. 82° 26' 30" e. Stated to be 



1 64 DECCAN. 

probably one of the oldest seats of the Sivalte cultus in Northern India. 
The earliest legend connects it with Raja Kama, son of Kunti, the 
mother of the three elder Pandavas by the Sun-god, and hero of the 
impenetrable cuirass, who, abandoned in his cradle on the Ganges, was 
adopted by Adirath, the childless King of Anga. Brought up at the 
court of Hastinapur, Kama was refused by Drona the arms of Brahma, 
which, however, he eventually obtained from Parasurama by faithful 
service at his retreat on the Mahendra mountain. In after life, he 
attended Duryodhana to the Swayainvara, described in the Maha- 
bharata, and, having taken a prominent part in the great war, was finally 
granted the city of Malini by Jarasindhu, the Sivaite King of Magadha, 
over which he reigned as a tributary to Duryodhana. The ruins of an 
ancient fort, once occupying the site of the present temple, and an 
adjoining tank, are popularly ascribed to this legendary monarch. In 
the middle of the 2nd century a.d., Vikramaditya, the Brahminist king, 
who restored the sacred city of Ajodhya on the decline of Buddhism, 
erected a temple on the site of the ancient fort. This in its turn fell 
into ruins; and another was built on the same spot at the end of the 14th 
or beginning of the 15th century, by Ratan Nath, the third in spiritual 
descent from Gorakh Nath, the deified saint whose worship is spread 
all over the Nepal valley. As far as can be judged from the remains, 
this temple must have been of considerable size, adorned by profuse 
sculptures, and full of stone images of Siva and Devi in their various 
forms. For some centuries, the temple was a great resort for pilgrims, 
chiefly from Gorakhpur and Nepal, until its importance attracted the 
attention of the iconoclastic Aurangzeb, one of whose officers slew the 
priests, destroyed the temple and images, and defiled the holy places. 
The temple was soon afterwards restored, but on a smaller scale, and still 
exists. A large religious-trading fair, lasting for about ten days, and 
attended by about 100,000 persons, is held here each year. The 
principal articles of commerce are — hill ponies, cloth, timber, mats, 
ghi^ iron, cinnamon, etc. During the fair, large numbers of buffaloes, 
goats, and pigs are daily sacrificed at the temple. 

Deccan {Dakshi?i, 'The South'). — The Deccan, in its local accepta- 
tion, signifies only the elevated tract situated between the Narbada 
(Nerbudda) and Kistna (Krishna) rivers, but it is generally and properly 
understood to include the whole country south of the Vindhya moun- 
tains, which separate it from Hindustan proper. In its larger sense, 
therefore, it comprehends the valley of the Narbada, and all southward 
— the belt of lowland that fringes the coast, as well as the triangular 
table-land, the sides of which are formed by the Eastern and Western ' 
Ghats, and the base of the Satpura range of the sub-Vindhyas. On 
the western side, this table-land descends seaward by a succession of | 
terraces, the Ghats throughout averaging 4000 feet in height above the j 



DEC CAN. 165 

sea, and terminating abruptly near Cape Comorin, the extreme southern 
point of the peninsula, at an elevation of 2000 feet. From here, 
following the coast-line, the Eastern Ghats commence in a series of 
detached groups, which, uniting in about lat. 11° 40' n., run northward 
along the Coromandel coast, with an average elevation of 1500 feet; 
and join the main ridge, which crosses the peninsula in lat. 13° 20' n. 
They terminate in nearly the same latitude as their western counter- 
part. The Vindhyan range, running across the north of the Deccan, 
joins the northern extremities of the two Ghats, and thus completes the 
peninsular triangle. The eastern side of the enclosed table-land being 
much lower than the western, all the principal rivers of the Deccan — 
the Godavari, Kistna, Pennar (Ponnaiyar), and Kaveri (Cauvery) — rising 
in the Western Ghats flow eastward, and escape by openings in the 
Eastern Ghats into the Bay of Bengal. Between the Ghats and the sea 
on either side, the land differs in being, on the east, composed in part of 
alluvial deposits brought down from the mountains, and sloping gently ; 
while on the west, the incline is abrupt, and the coast strip is broken by 
inegular spurs from the Ghats, which at places descend into the sea in 
steep cliffs. 

Geologically, the Deccan table-land presents a vast surface of hypo- 
gene schists, penetrated and broken up by extraordinary outbursts of 
plutonic and trappean rock ; varied on the Western Ghats by laterite : 
on the eastern by laterite, sandstones and limestones ; and in the valley 
of the Kaveri by granite. To the north-west, this schistoid formation 
disappears, emerging occasionally from under one of the largest sheets 
of trap in the world. Underlying this surface throughout, is a granite 
floor; while in places overlying it are, in the following order, gneiss, 
mica and hornblende schists, clay-slate, marble — all destitute of organic 
remains — together with fossiliferous limestones, varieties of clay and 
sand rocks. Through all these aqueous deposits, the volcanic trap 
thrusts itself. Two rocks, characteristic of the Deccan, are found 
capping the trap — viz. laterite, an iron-clay, and 7'egar known in its 
disintegrated state as ' black cotton-soil.' The latter is remarkable for 
its retentiveness of moisture, and for its fertility. 

Litde is known of the history of the Deccan before the close of the 
13th century. Hindu legends tell of its. invasion by Rama, and 
archaeological remains bear witness to a series of early dynasties, of 
which the Dravida, Chola, and Andhra are the best known. Continuous 
history commences with the Muhammadan invasion of 1 294-1 300 a.d., 
\v1ien Ala-ud-din, the Khilji Emperor of Delhi, conquered ' Maharashtra,' 
' felmgana,' and ' Karnata.' In 1338, the reduction of the Deccan was 
completed by Muhammad Tughlak ; but a few years later, a general 
revolt resulted in the establishment of the Muhammadan Bahmani 
dynasty and the retrogression of Delhi supremacy beyond the Narbada. 



iC6 DEDAN—DEGAM, 

The Bahmani dynasty subverted the Hindu kingdom of Telingana 
(1565), and (at the battle of Talikot in the same year) the great Hindu 
kingdom of Vijayanagar or ' Karnata.' A few years later, it itself 
began to disintegrate, and was broken up into the five Muhammadan 
kingdoms of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golconda, Bidar, and Berar. 
The two last became extinct before 1630; the other three were 
successively restored to the Delhi Empire by the victories of Shah 
Jehan and his son Aurangzeb. The Deccan was thus for a second 
time brought under the Delhi rule, but not for long. The Marathas 
in 1706 obtained the right of levying tribute over Southern India. 
Their leader, concentrating his strength in what is now the Bombay 
Presidency, founded the Satara dynasty, which afterwards resigned 
all real power to the Peshwa of Poona. Another usurper, rallying 
the southern Muhammadans round him, estabhshed the Nizamati 
of Haidarabad (Hyderabad). The remainder of the imperial posses- 
sions in the Deccan was divided among minor chiefs, who acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Peshwa or the Nizam, according as 
they were north or south of the Tungabhadra respectively. Mysore, 
generally tributary to both, became eventually the prize of Haidar 
All ; while in the extreme south, the Travancore State enjoyed, by 
its isolated position, uninterrupted independence. Such was the 
position of affairs early in the i8th century. Meanwhile, Portugal, 
Holland, France, and Great Britain had effected settlements on the 
coast ; but the two former on so small a scale that in the wars of 
the Deccan they took no important part. The French and English, 
however, espoused opposite sides ; and the struggle eventually resulted 
in establishing the supremacy of the latter. The Deccan is to-day 
represented by the British Presidency of Madras and part of Bombay, 
together with Haidarabad (Hyderabad), Mysore, Travancore, and other 
Native States. 

Dedan.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. It consists 
of 1 1 villages, with 2 independent tribute - payers. The revenue in 
1881 was estimated at ;^3ooo, of which ^295, 12s. is payable as 
tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Area, 30 square miles ; population 
(1881) 5437. 

Dedarda.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. It con- 
sists of I village, with 2 independent tribute-payers. The revenue in 
1881 was estimated at ^410, of which ;^io, 6s. is payable as tribute 
to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Deeg" (Z>/^).— Town and fortress in Bhartpur State, Rijputana.— 5^^ 
Dig. 

Deesa {Disa). — British cantonment in Palanpur State, Bombay 
Presidency. — See Disa. 

Degdm (Z?^//^^iw).— Seaport in the Jambusar Sub-division, Broach 



DEGH—DEHEJ. 167 

District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 22° 11' n., and long. 72'' 
39' E,, on the left bank of the Mahi river, about a mile from the Gulf 
of Cambay, and 18 miles north-west of Jambusar town. Population 
(1881) about 2000; average annual value of trade for the five years 
ending 1871-72,^14,108, viz. exports, ^5135, and imports, ^8973. 
Mention is made of Degam as a seaport of Broach in the Ain-i-Akbari. 
Degh.— River in Jammu (Jummoo) State, and in Sialkot, Lahore, 
and Montgomery Districts, Punjab. Formed by the union of two 
streams at Parmandal, in Jammu, both of which take their rise in the 
outer Himalayan ranges. Enters British territory near the village of 
Lehri-Kalan in Sialkot, passes into Lahore District, and finally joins 
the Ravi in Montgomery District in lat. 31° 2' n., long. 73° 24' e. 
The Degh is a river of the lower slopes, and consequently depends 
entirely for water-supply upon the local rainfall ; but its channel in the 
upper portion never runs dry. In Sialkot District, a fringe of alluvial 
land lines the bank, and the current shifts constantly from side to side 
of the wide valley; but artificial irrigation is only practised by means of 
Persian wheels in a few isolated spots, where the banks rise somewhat 
higher than usual above the river bed. Large areas, however, benefit 
by the silt deposited from the summer floods. At Tapiala, in Lahore 
District, the Degh divides into two branches, — the western of which is 
only full of water during the rainy season, — and these join again near 
the village of Dhenga. Below Udeheri, irrigation can be effected by 
the natural flow of the water, the banks having subsided almost to the 
river's edge. Excellent rice grows upon the lands submerged by the 
inundations. In Montgomery District, the Degh again flows between 
high banks, but still contains sufficient water for irrigation. Its course 
in this portion of its course is remarkably straight, and it presents all the 
appearance of an artificial canal. So much water is withdrawn for 
agricultural purposes during its upper course, that the bed not unfre- 
quently runs dry by the time it reaches Montgomery District. Several 
bridges span the Degh, notably an ancient one of very curious con- 
struction, at the point where it passes from Sialkot into Lahore, besides 
two at Pindi Das and Hodial, erected by the Emperor Jahangir. 

Dehej.— Seaport in the Wagra Sub-division, Broach District, Bom- 
bay Presidency; situated in lat. 21° 42' 45".N., and long. 72° 38' 30" e., 
on the right bank of the Narbada (Nerbudda), about 3 miles from the 
sea, and 26 miles west of Broach. Houses, 618. Population (1881) 
about 2000. The port, though convenient of approach, does not admit 
of boats of more than 55 tons burthen. In 1804 it was closed, and 
opened again in 1819. Dehej was formerly the chief town of a fiscal 
division of 1 2 villages, which first came under British rule in 1 780. This 
tract was ceded to the Marathas in 1783, and recovered in 1818 on the 
final overthrow of the Peshwa's power. Mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari. 



i68 DEHLI—DEHRA DUN. 

Dehli. — Division, District, and City, Punjab. — See Delhi. 

Deh-peh. — Lake in Okepo township, Henzada District, Irawadi 
Division, British Burma ; situated near the foot of the eastern slopes of 
the Pegu Yoma hills, covering an area of nearly a square mile. Supplied 
principally by the drainage from the neighbouring hills; during the 
rains it has a depth of 9 feet, but in the dry season of only i or 2 feet. 

Dehra. — Tahsil in Dehra Diin District, North- Western Provinces, 
comprising the whole of the eastern and western Duns. Area (1882) 
715 square miles, of which 78 are cultivated ; population (1881) 98,953; 
land revenue, ^3850; total Government revenue, ;£"472i ; rental paid 
by cultivators, ;^i4,393 ; incidence of Government revenue per acre, 2d. 
The tahsil contains i civil and 8 criminal courts, with 14 thdnds or 
police circles. Strength of regular police, 196 men, besides 53 town 
police and 106 village watchmen. 

Dehra. — Town, cantonment, and administrative head - quarters of 
Dehra Diin District, North- Western Provinces. Lat. 30° 19' 59" n., 
and long. 78° 5' 57" e. Prettily situated in the midst of a mountain 
valley, at an elevation of more than 2300 feet above sea-level. Popula- 
tion (1881) 18,959, namely, Hindus, 13,307; Muhammadans, 4801; 
Jains, 88; Christians, 711 ; and 'others,' 52. Area of town site, 2315. 
Founded by Guru Ram Rai, who settled in the Diin at the end of 
the 17th century. His temple, a handsome building in the style of 
Jahangir's tomb, forms the chief architectural ornament of the town. 
The native city also contains a tahsili^ police station, jail, and schools. 
The European quarter lies to the north, and has a fixed English popu- 
lation of some 600 persons, being one of the largest in the North- 
western Provinces. To the west stand the cantonments of the 2nd 
Gurkha Rifles, or Sirmiir Battalion. English Church, Roman Catholic 
and Presbyterian chapels; dispensary, which in 1883 relieved a total 
number of 16,263 patients ; post-office ; head-quarters of Trigonometrical 
Survey. A large and successful mission of the American Presbyterian 
Church takes a prominent part in education. Municipal revenue (1883), 
^951, of which ;£599 was derived from taxation; incidence of taxation, 
IS. per head of municipal population. 

Dehra Diin. — District in the Lieutenant- Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 29° 57' and 30° 59' n. lat., and 
between 77° 37' 15" and 78° 22' 45" e. long., with an area of 1193 
square miles, and a population (1881) of 144,070 persons. Dehra Diin 
forms the northern District of the Meerut (Merath) Division. It is 
bounded on the north by Independent Garhwal, on the west by Sirmiir 
and Ambala (Umballa) District, on the south by Saharanpur, and on 
the east by British and Independent Garhwal. The administrative 
head-quarters are at the town of Dehra. 

Physical Aspects, — The District of Dehra Diin consists of two distinct 



DEHRA DUN. 169 

portions — the double valley of Dehra proper, and the outlying mountain 
tract of Jaunsar Bawar. It projects northward from the alluvial up- 
lands of the Doab, like an irregular triangle, towards the sources of the 
Jumna (Jamuna) and the main range of the Himalayas. To the south, 
I the Siwalik hills, a mass of Himalayan debris^ shut off the District from 
the level and fertile plain below. Between these hills and the great 
I mountain chain, whose farthest outliers they form, lie the two valleys 
I known as the Eastern and Western Diins ; the former sloping down 
I toward the stream of the Ganges, while the latter descends by wooded 
I undulations to the bed of its principal confluent, the Jumna (Jamuna). 
The scenery of these mountain dales can hardly be surpassed for 
I picturesque beauty even among the lovely slopes of the massive chain 
' to which they belong. The perennial streams nourish a fresh and 
luxuriant vegetation, whilst the romantic hills to the south and the 
sterner mountains on the north give an exquisite variety to the land- 
I scape. A connecting ridge, which runs from north to south between 
i the two systems, forms the watershed of the great rivers, and divides 
I the Eastern from the Western Diin. The Ganges, passing between 
I this District and Garhwal, pours rapidly over beds of boulder, through 
several channels, encircling jungle-clad islets, and debouches at length 
I upon the plains at Hardvvar. The Jumna sweeps round the whole 
I south-western boundary, and reaches the level uplands near Badshah 
I Mahal, in Saharanpur District, an ancient hunting-seat of the Delhi 
I Emperors. Their tributaries have little importance, except for artificial 
I irrigation. When the District first passed under British rule, remains 
of ancient dams, tanks, and canals studded its surface ; but these 
works had fallen completely out of use during the anarchic period of 
Sikh and Gurkha incursions. Our officers at once turned their atten- 
tion to the restoration of the ancient channels, or the construction of 
others ; and a number of diminutive but valuable irrigation canals now 
traverse both valleys in every direction, spreading cultivation over all 
available portions of their rugged surface. North of the Diin proper, 
the massive block of mountains known as Jaunsar Bawar fills in the 
space between the valleys of the Tons on the west and the Jumna on 
the east and south. The latter river, bending sharply westward from 
the Garhwal boundary, divides this northern tract from the Dun, and 
unites with its tributary the Tons near the Sirmiir frontier. Jaunsar 
Bawar consists of a confused mass of rocks, evidently upheaved by 
volcanic action. Forests of deodara, oak, and fir still clothe large 
spaces on the hill-sides ; but cultivation can only be carried on by 
means of terraces cut along the mountain slopes, and artificially irrigated 
hy dams upon the numerous minor streams. The wild elephant ranges 
over the Siwalik chain ; v;hile tigers, leopards, sloth bears, spotted or 
other deer, and monkeys abound in the remoter jungles. Wild elephants 



1 70 DEHRA DUN. 

occasionally do considerable damage to the crops, but their capture is 
regulated by Government rules. Among game birds may be mentioned 
the black and grey partridge, pea-fowl, floriken, snipe, woodcock, 
pheasant, etc. Birds of prey include several varieties of eagle, vuliure, 
kite, hawk, etc. The rivers abound in fish, the mahsir, a species of 
carp, being commonly caught from 40 to 60 pounds in weight, and fre- 
quently of a larger size. The smaller streams swarm with trout, sal, 
7'ohi, etc. Crocodiles, both of the snub-nosed and bottle-nosed varieties, 
are common, as is also a repulsive species of fresh-water shark. 

History. — In the earliest ages of Hindu legend, Dehra Diin formed 

part of the mythical region known as Kedarkiind, the abode of the 

great god Siva, whose sovereignty is still commemorated in the name 

of the Siwalik hills. Many generations later, according to the most 

ancient myths of the Aryan settlers, the valley became bound up with 

the two great epics of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Hither 

came Rama and his brother, to do penance for the death of the 

demon-king Ravana ; and here sojourned the five Pandava brethren, 

on their way to the inner recesses of the snowy range, where they finally 

immolated themselves upon the sacred peak of Maha Panth. Another 

memorable legend connects the origin of the little river Suswa with 

the prayers of 60,000 pigmy Brahmans, whom Indra, the rain-god, had 

laughed to scorn when he saw them vainly endeavouring to cross the 

vast lake formed by a cow's footprint filled with water. The indignant 

pigmies set to work, by means of penance and mortifications, to create 

a second Indra, who should supersede the reigning god ; and when 

their sweat had collected into the existing river, the irreverent deity, 

alarmed at the surprising effect of their devotions, appeased their wrath 

through the good offices of Brahma. Traditions of a snake, Bamun, 

who became lord of the Diin on the summit of the Nagsidh Hill, seem 

to point towards a period of Naga supremacy. The famous Kalsi 

stone, near Haripur, on the right bank of the Jumna, inscribed with 

an edict of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka, may mark the ancient 

boundary between India and the Chinese Empire. It consists of a 

large quartz boulder, standing on a ledge which overhangs the river, 

and is covered with the figure of an elephant, besides an inscription 

in the ordinary character of the period. Hwen Thsang does not 

mention any cities which can be identified as lying within the present 

District ; and tradition asserts that it remained without inhabitants until 

the nth century, when a passing caravan of Banjaras, struck with the 

beauty of the country, permanently settled on the spot. 

Authentic history, however, knows nothing of Dehra Diin till the 17th 
century, when it formed a portion of the Garhwal kingdom. The town 
of Dehra owes its origin to the heretical Sikh Guru, Ram Rai, a Hindu 
anti-pope, who was driven from the Punjab and the Sikh apostolate 



DEHRA DUN. 171 

by doubts as to the legitimacy of his birth, and obtained recommenda- 
tions from the Emperor Aurangzeb to the Raja, of Garhvval. His 
presence in the Diin shordy attracted numerous devotees, and the village 
of Gurudwara, or Dehra, grew up around the saint's abode. Raja Fateh 
Sah endowed his temple, a curious building of Muhammadan archi- 
tecture, with the revenue of three estates. The Guru possessed the 
singular and miraculous power of dying at will, and returning to life 
after a concerted interval ; but on one occasion, having mistaken his 
reckoning, he never revived, and the bed on which he died still forms 
a particular object of reverence to the devout worshippers at his ceno- 
taph. Monuments of earlier date, erected by one Rani Karnavati, still 
exist at Nuwada. Fateh Sah died soon after the arrival of Ram Rai, 
and was succeeded (1699) by his infant grandson, Partap Sah, whose 
reign extended over the greater part of a century. But the flourishing 
condition of his domain soon attracted the attention of Najib Daula, 
governor of Saharanpur, who crossed the Siwaliks with a Rohilla army 
in 1757, and occupied the Diin without serious opposition. Under 
Najib Khan's benevolent and enlightened administration, the District 
rose to an unexampled degree of wealth and prosperity. Canals and 
wells irrigated the mountain - sides, Muhammadan colonists brought 
capital to develop the latent resources of the soil ; and mango topes, 
still standing amid apparently primeval forest, bear witness even now to 
the flourishing agriculture of this happy period. But Najib's death in 
1770 put an end to the sudden prosperity of the Diin. Henceforth a 
perpetual inundation of Rajputs, Giijars, Sikhs, and Gurkhas swept 
over the valley, till the once fertile garden degenerated again into a 
barren waste. Four Rajas followed one another on the throne; but the 
real masters were the turbulent tribes on every side, who levied constant 
black-mail from the unfortunate cultivators. 

Meanwhile, the Gurkhas, a race of mixed Nepali origin, were 
advancing westward, and reached at last the territories of Garhwal. 
In 1803, Raja Parduman Sah fled before them from Srinagar into the 
Diin, and thence to Saharanpur, while the savage Gurkha host overran 
the whole valley unopposed. Their occupation of Dehra Diin 
coincided in time with the British entry into Saharanpur, and the 
great earthquake of 1803 proved the miraculous harbinger of either 
event. The Gurkhas ruled their new acquisition with a rod of iron, 
so that the District threatened to become an absolute desert. Under 
the severe fiscal arrangements of the Gurkha governors, slavery 
increased with frightful rapidity, every defaulter being condemned to 
lifelong bondage, and slaves being far cheaper in the market than 
horses or camels. From this unhappy condition, the advent of British 
rule rescued the feeble and degraded people. 

The constant aggressions of the Gurkhas against our frontier com- 



172 DEHRA DUN. 

pelled the Government to declare war in November 1814. Dehra 
was immediately occupied, 'while our forces laid siege to the strong 
hill fortress of Kalanga, which fell after a gallant defence, with great 
loss to the besieging party. The remnant of its brave garrison 
entered the service of Ranjit Singh, and afterwards died to a man in 
battle with the Afghans. A resolution of Government, dated 17th 
November 1815, ordered the annexation of our new possession to 
Saharanpur ; while the Gurkhas, by a treaty drawn up in the succeeding 
month, formally ceded the country. The organization of the District 
on a British model proceeded rapidly ; and in spite of an ineffectual 
rising of the disaffected Giijars and other predatory classes, led by a 
bandit named Kalwa, in 1824, peace was never again seriously disturbed. 
Under the energy and perseverance of its first English officials, the Diin 
rapidly recovered its prosperity. Roads and canals were constructed, 
cultivation spread over the waste lands ; and the people themselves, 
awaking from their previous apathy, began to acquire habits of industry 
and self-reliance. Jaunsar Bawar, historically an integral portion of 
Sirmur, had been conquered in the same campa'gn as the Diin ; but 
was at first erected into a separate charge under a Commissioner 
subordinate to the Resident at Delhi. In 1829, however, it was incor- 
porated with the present District, of which it has ever since formed a 
part. The Mutiny of 1857 produced Httle effect in this remote depend- 
ency, cut off by the Siwaliks from direct contact with the centres of 
disaffection in the Doab or the Delhi Division ; and though a party of 
Jalandhar insurgents, 600 strong, crossed the Jumna into Dehra Diin, 
they traversed the District without stopping, and never came into 
collision with the pursuing troops. 

Population. — It is probable that the number of the inhabitants has 
more than trebled since the introduction of British rule. The first 
regular Census, however, took place as lately as 1865, and it returned 
a total population of 102,831. In 1872, the numbers had risen to 
116,945, showing an increase of 14,114 persons, or 137 per cent. By 
1 88 1, the population had further risen to 144,070, showing an increase 
of 27,125, or 23*2 percent, since 1872. The principal results arrived 
at by the Census of 1881 may be briefly summarised as follows : — Area 
of District, 1193 square miles; number of towns and villages, 966; 
number of houses, 32,942. Total population, 144,070, namely, males 
83,985, and females 60,085 ; proportion of males in total population, 
58*3 per cent. Average density of population, 121 persons per square 
mile; villages per square mile, 0*81; persons per village, 149; houses 
per square mile, 27*6; inmates per house, 4*3. Classified according 
to religion, the Census Report returned the population as follows : — 
Hindus, 125,223, or 86*9 percent.; Muhammadans, 16,527, or 11 '5 per 
cent.; Christians, 2025, or i"4 per cent.; Sikhs, 160; and Jains, 134. 



DEHRA DUN. 173 

The leading Hindu castes comprise the Brahmans (17,274) and Rajputs 
(37>55°)' ^^^^^ ^^ which has two broad sub-divisions into mountain 
and lowland clans. The latter regard themselves as vastly superior 
to their hill brethren, and lose caste by intermarriage with them. The 
highland Brahmans will eat any kind of meat except beef. The other 
Hindu castes, numbering over 2000, in the District are as follows : — 
Ahir, shepherds and cultivators, 2027; Baniya, traders, 2932; Barhai, 
carpenters, 2999; Bhangi, a very low caste of sweepers, and engaged in 
other menial occupations, 10,781 ; Chamar, another very low caste, 
engaged as skinners and leather dressers, 16,715 ; Kahar, labourers, 
palanquin-bearers, and domestic servants, 4576 ; Kori, 8669, and Lodhi, 
2930, the two principal cultivating castes ; Lobar, blacksmiths and iron- 
workers, 2050. The Giijars, immigrant plunderers of the last century, 
still retain several villages, but they only numbered 529 in 1881. 
Among the lower castes, the Mehras and Dhiims possess the greatest 
interest, as being the probable representatives of the aborigines before 
the tide of Aryan immigration had set in. The Mehras inhabit the 
remoter portions of the Eastern Diin, inferior both in physique and 
intelligence, and timidly averse to intercourse with strangers. The 
Dhiims have dingy black skins and woolly hair ; they form the servile 
class, only just emancipated from actual slavery under British rule, and 
still retaining many traces of their ancient status. Their number is not 
returned separately in the Census Report. With the exception of 167 
Shias, the whole of the Muhammadans belong to the Sunni sect. They 
have secured few proselytes, except among the wretched Dhiims, and 
these generally prefer Christianity to Islam. The Christian community 
consists of 1 291 Europeans and Eurasians, and 734 natives; but the 
Census Report does not return the Christian population according to 
sect for each District. 

The District contained only one town in 1881 whose population ex- 
ceeded 5000, namely, Dehra, with 18,959 inhabitants. The sanitaria 
of Masuri (Mussooree) and Landaur, now united into a single town, 
contain a large number of permanent residents (3106 in February 1881), 
and attract many visitors from the plains during the hot season. Kalsi, 
the ancient mart of Jaunsar Bawar, has now sunk to the position of a 
country village ; while the cantonment of Chakrata, high among the 
mountains, has succeeded to local importance as the modern capital of 
the tract. Of the 966 villages, no less than 824 contained, in 1881, 
fewer than two hundred inhabitants ; in from two hundred to five 
hundred; 19 from five hundred to a thousand; 9 from one thousand 
to two thousand ; 2 from three thousand to five thousand ; and i 
upwards of fifteen thousand inhabitants. As regards occupation, the 
Census Report divides the male population into the following six main 
classes : — Class (i) Professional, including civil and military and the 



174 DEHRA DUN. 

professional classes, 3367 ; (2) domestic servants, keepers of lodging- 
houses, etc., 2379 ; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, car- 
riers, etc., 2125; (4) agricultural, including cultivators, gardeners, and 
cattle and sheep tenders, 29,989 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial class, 
including artisans, 12,249; (6) indefinite and non-productive (including 
9595 general labourers, and 24,281 male children and unspecified), 
33,876. The language in ordinary use consists of a very corrupt dialect 
of Hindi. 

Agriculture. — Out of a total area of 1193 square miles, only 106 were 
cultivated in 1881, 33 square miles were cultivable, and 102 1 square 
miles uncultivable waste. Tillage is chiefly confined to the valleys, or 
to terraces on the mountain slopes, artificially irrigated by dams and 
canals. The agricultural year follows the same seasons as in the 
Doab. The kharif^ or autumn harvest, consists chiefly of rice, the 
inferior kinds of which can be grown in land entirely dependent on the 
rainfall for its water-supply. Jodr, til, and sugar-cane form supplementary 
autumn crops. The rabi, or spring harvest, falls far short of the kharif in 
quantity. Its staples comprise wheat and barley, with very few inferior 
grains. The District produces no surplus for exportation ; and since 
the hill stations of Masuri and Chakrata have risen into importance, a 
considerable amount of food-stuffs is annually imported for their supply. 
On the other hand, Dehra Diin now raises tea for exportation to the 
plains, while timber and other forest produce turn the balance of trade 
in its favour. The cultivation of the Rhea fibre or China grass was 
attempted a few years ago, but the experiment proved a failure, and the 
cultivation has now been abandoned. Irrigation in 1881 was carried on 
over 9869 acres by means of Government works, and over 21,953 acres 
by private enterprise. Unirrigated area, 35,378 acres, or nearly one- 
half of the total area under cultivation. Government has endeavoured 
to promote the reclamation of the waste lands which abound in all parts 
of the District, by means of grants to European capitalists ; but hitherto 
little success has attended these enterprises. A grant of a large tract of 
land in the Eastern Dun has recently been given to Messrs. Lister & 
Co., a wealthy Yorkshire silk firm, for the purpose of introducing seri- 
culture, but the experiment has not yet (1883) reached a stage to justify 
predictions as to its success or otherwise. The various agricultural staples 
cover the following estimated areas : — Wheat, 12,890 acres ; barley, 5228 
acres; rice, 13,743 acres; mandivd, 6412 acres. The average out-turn 
of wheat per acre may be set down at 1 1 cwts. per acre, valued at ;£i, 5s. ; 
and that of barley at 15 cwts. per acre, valued at ;^i, is. Nearly 
three-fifths of the land is held by tenants with rights of occupancy. 
Average incidence of Government land revenue, is. ojd. per acre; 
average rent paid by cultivators, 3s. 9d. per acre. In the Ddn 
proper, the peasantry have not yet extricated themselves from a 



DEHRA DUN. 17- 

condition of indebtedness to the village banker ; but in Jaunsar Bawar 
they occupy a comparatively enviable position, free from debt, and 
usually cultivating their own little farms themselves. On the tea planta- 
tions, labour obtains excellent wages, which prove quite sufficient to 
attract Afghans and other foreigners into competition with natives of 
the Diin. Ordinary field-labourers receive generally 3d. per diem. 
Famine has never occurred within the historical period ; and it is 
believed that, among a people so favourably situated as regards the 
demand for labour, its future occurrence may be considered a very 
remote contingency. The average prices of food-stuffs for the ten 
years ending 1880 ruled as follows : — Common rice, 12 sers per rupee, 
or 9s. 4d. per cwt. ; best rice, 9 sers per rupee, or 12s. 5d. per cwt. ; 
wheat, 17 sers per rupee, or 6s. yd. per cwt. j barley, 25 sers per rupee, 
or 4s. 6d. per cwt. 

Conmierce and T?'ade, etc. — The traffic of Dehra Diin has two main 
channels, leading from the valley to the plains and to the hills respec- 
tively. The exports toward the lowlands include timber, bamboo, lime, 
charcoal, rice, and above all, tea. The total annual value of the latter 
article raised within the District is estimated at ^20,000. Some of 
it has even found its w^ay, through Afghanistan, to the Russians in 
Central Asia. In return, the Diin imports from the plains hardware, 
cotton cloth, blankets, salt, sugar, grain, tobacco, fruits, and spices. All 
these articles pass on also to the hills ; while the return trade consists 
of rice, ginger, turmeric, red pepper, honey, wax, lac, gum, resin, and 
other forest produce. With the exception of English-made beer, which 
is manufactured to a considerable extent by two breweries at Masuri, no 
manufactures of more than local importance exist. The mode of 
carriage is confined to bullock-carts, and the carrying trade remains 
chiefly in the hands of Banjaras. The District has only one bridged 
and metalled road, from Asamri to Rajpur, along which goes the traffic 
from the plains through the Mohan Pass, pierced by a causeway 7 miles 
long. Fair second-class roads connect the other centres of population 
with the principal passes of the Himalayas or the Siwaliks. The hill 
stations, however, can only be reached by means of horse-paths. Four 
printing-presses exist in the District, and an English newspaper is 
published at Masuri. 

Administration. — In 1881, Dehra Dun District contained 3 cove- 
nanted officers, the chief of w^hom bore the title of Superintendent, 
with the powers of a Magistrate and Collector. The total revenue 
raised in Dehra Dun during 1874-75 was returned at ;£"63o8, of 
which sum £si91 was due to the land-tax. By 1880-81, the 
gross revenue of the District had increased to ;^28,i62, of which 
;£62ii were derived from the land. The total cost of civil administra- 
tion, as represented by the cost of offic'als and police of all kinds, 



176 DEHRA DUN. 

was ;^io,454. The District contained in 1881, 9 Magistrates and 
6 civil and revenue judges. The number of policemen of all kinds 
amounted to 370, being at the rate of i constable to every 3-2 square 
miles of area and every 391 persons. The District jail and lock-up at 
Dehra Dun contained a daily average of 75 inmates in 1880, of whom 
72 were males and 3 females. In education, the District still remains 
very backward. In 1875-76, the number of inspected schools was 
returned at 32, with an aggregate roll of 1 196 pupils ; while in 1880-81, 
the inspected schools numbered 39, with an attendance roll of 1240 
pupils, giving an average of i school to every 30*6 square miles, 
and 8'-4 pupils per thousand of the population. There are also a few 
unimportant uninspected village schools. The Census Report in 
1880-81 returned a total of 1368 boys and 310 girls under instruc- 
tion ; and 6295 males and 578 females able to read and write, but 
not under instruction. The American Mission at Dehra, established 
in 1853, has taken a deep interest in educational matters, and main- 
tains a 'female school and girls' orphanage. For fiscal and admini- 
strative purposes, the District is sub - divided into 2 tahsils and 3 
pargands. Municipalities have been established at Dehra and Masuri. 
In 1880-81, their joint revenue amounted to ^379^? of which ;^2983 
was derived from taxation ; expenditure, ;^3o62. 

Medical Aspects.— Y.^Xxo.mt's. of heat and cold are unknown in the 
Dehra Diin. The proximity of the Himalayas cools the atmosphere ; 
the warm blasts from the plain do not reach so far among the 
mountain valleys, while the heavy summer monsoons bring abundant 
showers, and even in May or June occasional rainfall refreshes the 
country. The rainfall varies considerably in different parts of the 
District, the average for 20 years ranging from 57*62 inches at Chakrata, 
to 7578 inches at Dehra, 95-54 inches at Masuri, and 123-19 inches at 
Bhogpur. The temperature generally fluctuates between 37° and 
101° F. ; but at the sanitarium of Masuri (Mussooree), 6000 feet above 
sea-level, the thermometer has a range from 27° to 80°. Earthquakes 
occasionally occur, but seldom cause serious damage. The total number 
of deaths recorded in the District in 1881 amounted to 2994, being at 
the rate of 20-7 per 1000 of the population. During the same year, 
the Government charitable dispensaries at Dehra and Masuri gave 
relief to 20,042 out-door and 833 in-door patients. [For further infor- 
mation regarding Dehra Diin District, see the Historical and Statis- 
tical Memoir of Dehra Dun, by G. R. C. WiUiams, Esq. (Riirki, 1874); 
Settlement Report of Dehra Dim, by C. A. Daniell, Esq., 1866, this will 
expire in June 1886, when a revised settlement will be undertaken; 
Settlement Report of J aunsdr Bdwar Pargand, by H. G. Ross, Esq., 1883. 
Also the Census Report for 1881, and the Provincial Ad mi?ztstration and 
Depart7ne?ital Reports for the North- Western Provinces from 1 880 to i '^'^'h\ 



DEHRI^DELHL j^^ 

Dehri.— Town in Shihabad District, Bengal ; situated in lat. 24° 54' 
30" N., and long. 84° 12' 30" e., on the west bank of the Son (Soane), at 
the 338th mile of the Grand Trunk Road. Population (1881) 3512. 
Now noted as the site of the head-works of the Son Canals, and of the 
workshops designed by Mr. Fouracres in 1869-70, to construct and 
maintain the various stone, wood, and iron works distributed over the 
canal system. A training school was opened at Dehra in 1872 with 
the object of recruiting the upper subordinate establishments of the 
rublic Works Department, European, Eurasian, and native lads being 
taken as indentured apprentices ; but this school has recently been 
removed to Sibpur at Howrah, opposite Calcutta. To the north of 
Dehri town is a large indigo factory, the property of Messrs. Gisborne 
& Co. In 187 1, a convict camp was established at Dehri, as an 
experiment on a large scale, for the out-door employment of prisoners 
on remunerative public works. The prisoners were mainly employed 
on canal works connected with the Irrigation Department, till 1875, 
when they were moved to Baxar. 

Delhi {Dehli). — Division or Commissionership in the Punjab, lying 
between 27° 39' and 30° 11' n. lat., and between 76' 13' and 77° 
35' E. long. ; comprising the three Districts of Delhi, Gurgaon, and 
Karnal, each of which see separately. Area (1881)5610 square miles, 
with 2724 towns and villages; number of houses, 295,270, of which 
207,616 are occupied and 87,654 are unoccupied; number of resident 
families, 413,499. Total population, 1,907,984, namely, males 
1,019,104, and females 888,880; proportion of males in total popula- 
tion, 5 3 "4 per cent. Average density, 340 persons per square mile; 
average persons per town or village, 700 (including Delhi City); 
inmates per house, 9-2. Classified according to religion, there were — 
Hindus, 1,376,258, or 72*13 per cent.; Muhammadans, 504,623, or 
26-44 per cent.; Jains, 15,768; Sikhs, 9133; Parsis, 27; Christians, 
12172; and 'others,' 3. Of a total population of 1,907,984 persons, 
936,954 are agriculturists, 305,909 being returned as males of fifteen 
I years of age and upwards. The total area of land paying Government 
revenue or quit-rent is returned at 5166 square miles, of which 3201 
[Square miles are under cultivation, and 987 cultivable. Total amount 
|of Government land revenue and cesses, ;^303,379; total rental paid 
iby cultivators, including cesses, ;^622,366. 

, Delhi (Dehli). — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the 
(Punjab (Panjab), lying between 28° 12' and 29° 13' n. lat., and between 
|7o 51 15" and 77° 34' 45" e. long., with an area of 1277 square miles, 
l^nd a population in 1881 of 643,515. Delhi forms the Central Dis- 
trict in the Division of the same name. It is bounded on the north by 
/Carnal, on the west by Rohtak, on the south by Gurgaon, and on 
jtne east by the river Jumna (Jamuna), which divides it from the Districts 
' VOL. IV. ^^ '' M 



1 78 DELHI. 

of Meerut (Mirath) and Bulandshahr in the North- Western Provinces. 
The administrative head-quarters are at the city of Delhi, the ancient 
capital of the Mughal Empire. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Delhi forms the meeting place for 
the alluvial plain of the Jumna valley and the last outlying ridges of the 
Rajputana Hills. Its northern portion presents the usual monotonous 
features which characterize the dry lowlands of the Cis-Sutlej (Satlaj) 
tract ; but the waters of the Western Jumna Canal, which traverses the 
whole length of the tract, produce splendid crops wherever they do not 
collect in pestilential marshes, or by raising the salts of the soil to the 
surface, render vegetation impossible, as in parts of Karnal District 
[q.v.). Only near the Jumna does the nature of the soil exhibit any 
variety or increased fruitfulness ; but along the actual verge of the 
river an alluvial margin, some lo miles in width, fringing the bank, 
marks the western limit of the ancient bed of the main channel, which 
has gradually receded eastward during the course of ages, leaving a 
considerable cliff far to the west, the only vestige of its original path. 
As the river approaches the city of Delhi, however, this lowland region 
rapidly contracts in width, terminating about a mile above the town, 
where an offshoot of the Mewat Hills abuts upon the water's edge 
in a wide stony plateau. The range to which this northernmost 
outlier belongs may be considered as a prolongation of the Aravalli 
system. It enters the District from Gurgaon on the southern border, 
and immediately expands into a rocky table-land, some 3 miles in 
breadth, running in a north-easterly direction nearly across the District. 
Ten miles south of the city, the range divides into two branches, one 
of which, turning sharply to the south-west, re-enters the borders of 
Gurgaon ; while the other continues its northerly course as a narrow 
ridge of sandstone, and, passing to the west of Delhi, finally loses itself 
in the valley of the Jumna. The whole table-land nowhere attains an 
elevation of more than 500 feet above the lowlands at its base ; while its 
surface consists of barren rock, too destitute of water for the possibility 
of cultivation, even in the few rare patches of level soil. Nevertheless, 
the neighbouring villages of the lowland tract have allotted this stony 
plateau among their various communities, and watch over their respec- 
tive boundaries with the utmost jealousy. The land is only valu- 
able as inferior grazing ground. At the very foot of the hills, a few 
villages derive fertility from the torrents which course through the 
ravines during the rainy season, and spread their waters over the flat 
plain below, thus preparing the soil for the reception of the autumn 
sowing. The Najafgarhy/^//or lake, a shallow scattered sheet of water, 
covers a considerable surface in the south-east of the District, the area 
submerged amounting in October to about 27,900 acres. The Jumna, 
before reaching the borders of Delhi, has been so greatly drained of its 



DELHL ,75 

waters for the two older canals which it feeds, that it forms only a narrow 
stream, fordable at almost any point except during the rains; while 
at Okhla, a short distance below the city, the whole remaining cold- 
weather supply is drafted off into the new Agra Canal. Water, how- 
ever, reappears a few miles lower down. At the heads of the Eastern 
and Western Jumna Canals the river can often be crossed dry-shod 
immediately below the dam. But the water which flows under the river- 
bed, among the boulders and sand, presently reappears and restores the 
stream. 

Bisfor}'.— The tract immediately surrounding the Mughal capital can 
hardly be said to possess any history of its own, apart from that of the 
city, which will be found in full under the proper heading. From the 
earliest period of Aryan colonization in India, the point where the 
central hills first abut upon the Jumna seems to have formed the site for 
one great metropolis after another. The whole country, for some lo or 
12 miles around the modern Delhi, and particularly in the south and 
south-east, is covered with the del^ri's of ruined cities, whose remains 
extend over an estimated area of 45 square miles. First upon the list 
of successive capitals stands the name of Indraprastha, a city founded 
(as General Cunningham believes) not later than the 15th century b.c, 
by the earliest Aryan immigrants into India, when they first began to 
feel their way along the tangled jungles of the Jumna valley. The 
Mahabharata vaguely enshrines the memory of this primitive setdement, 
and tells how the five Pandavas, leading an Aryan host from Hastina- 
pur upon the Ganges, expelled or subdued the savage Nagds, the 
aboriginal inhabitants ; how, having cleared their land of forest, they 
founded the stronghold of Indraprastha, which grew into a great kingdom ; 
and how at last, as the Aryan race became strong enough for discord, 
they turned their arms against their own kinsmen, the Kauravas, 
whom they overthrew in a great war, the central theme of the Hindu 
Ihad. Yudisthira, the founder of Indraprastha, was succeeded on the 
throne by thirty generations of collateral descendants, until at length 
his line was extinguished by the usurpation of Visarwa, minister of the 
last Pandavite sovereign. Visarwa's family retained the sceptre for 500 
years, and was then followed, with the usual symmetry of early Indian 
mythical lore, by a dynasty of fifteen Gautamas. In the middle of the 
1st century b.c, the name of Delhi makes its earliest appearance 
^^ tradition or history; and thenceforth the annals of the District 
become identical with those of the whole Upper Indian Empire. Pass- 
ing in succession under the rule of Hindus, Pathans, Mughals, and 
Marathas, Delhi came at length into the hands of the British, after 
Lord Lake's victories in 1803. The tract then ceded to the Company 
included a considerable strip to the west of the Jumna, both north and 
south of the Mughal capital. The Governor-General assigned a large 



i8o DELHI. 

portion of the territory thus acquired for the maintenance and dignity 
of the royal family of Delhi. Shah Alam, released from his Maratha 
jailors, received as private domain for this purpose the greater part of 
the present Districts of Delhi and Hissdr. A Resident and Chief Com- 
missioner undertook the entire control of the fiscal arrangements, and 
exercised a general supervision over the criminal jurisdiction ; but the 
king retained exclusive power within the palace walls, while British 
officials administered Muhammadan law in his name throughout the 
assigned region. A few native princes, however, still held their inde- 
pendent estates within the Delhi territory, the principal instance in the 
present District being the Raja of Ballabhgarh. The anomalous 
mode of government thus instituted was obviously inconsistent with the 
full authority of the central power; and, in 1832, it became desirable 
to introduce a more practicable system of administration. A Regulation 
of that year abolished the office of Resident and Chief Commissioner, 
transferred the executive power to a Commissioner in correspondence 
with the Government of the North-Western Provinces, and vested the 
judicial functions in the High Court of Agra. This enactment placed 
the administration of the Delhi territory, nominally as well as actually, 
in the hands of the East India Company. The territory continued to 
form part of the North-Western Provinces up till the Mutiny of 1857. 
As early as 18 19, a District of Delhi had been regularly constituted, 
including a part of the present Rohtak District, but since enlarged by 
additions from Panipat tahsil in Kdrnal District, and from the con- 
fiscated principality of Ballabhgarh. On the outbreak of the Mutiny, 
the whole District passed for a time into the hands of the rebels ; and 
though communications with the Punjab were soon restored, enabling 
us to recover the northern />argands, it was not till after the fall of Delhi 
City that British authority could reassert itself in the southern portion. 
When the final suppression of the Mutiny in 1858 enabled the work of 
reconstruction to proceed, Delhi District was transferred to the newly- 
formed Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab. At the same time, the 
territories of the insurgent Rajd of Ballabhgarh, who had been executed 
for rebellion, were confiscated and added as a new fa/isi/ to the District ; 
while the outlying Doab villages, hitherto belonging to Delhi, and known 
as the Eastern Pargand, were handed over to the North-Western Pro- 
vinces. Since the banishment of the dethroned Emperor to Rangoon, 
where he died in 1862, the District has enjoyed peaceful administration. 
Population. — The frequent changes of boundary, both in the District 
as a whole and in its component pargaiids^ render it impossible to 
institute a comparison between the results shown by the Census of 1853, 
under the Government of the North-Western Provinces, and those of 
the Census of 1868, under the Punjab administration. The latter 
enumeration, taken over an area of 1276 square miles, disclosed a total 



DELHL i8i 

papulation of 608,850 persons, distributed among 772 villages or town- 
ships, and inhabiting an aggregate of 168,390 houses. The Census of 
February 17, 1881, returns the area at 1276 square miles, and the popu- 
lation at 643,515. This population is distributed through 701 towns and 
villages, composed of an aggregate of 73,359 occupied and 35,624 
unoccupied houses. These figures yield the following averages : — Persons 
per square mile, 504; villages per square mile, i*8; houses per square 
mile, 85; persons per village, 918; persons per house, 87. Classified 
according to sex, there were — males, 344,016; females, 299,499; pro- 
portion of males, 53*4 per cent. Classified according to age, there 
were, under 15 years — males, 119,769 ; females, 102,086 ; total, 221,855, 
or over 34 per cent, of the total. As regards religious distinctions, 
the Hindus number 483,332; Muhammadans, 149,830; Sikhs, 970; 
Jains, 7336 ; Parsis, 27; Christians, 2017; and 'others,' 3. These figures 
yield the following percentages: — Hindus, 72*9; Muhammadans, 232; 
Jains, 1*1; and all 'others,' 2*8. The classification with reference to 
occupations distributes the adult male population into the following six 
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including officials of every kind 
and the learned professions, 29,928 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and 
lodging-house keepers, 41,784; (3) commercial class, including bankers, 
merchants, carriers, etc., 20,969; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 
including shepherds, 313,977; (5) industrial class, including all manu- 
facturers and artisans, 161,801 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive 
class, including general labourers, male children, and persons of 
unspecified occupation, 83,855. 

Of the 701 towns and villages in the District in 1881, 140 contained 
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 240 between two and five hundred ; 
192 between five hundred and one thousand ; 91 between one and two 
thousand; 26 between two and three thousand; 8 between three and 
five thousand ; 2 between five and ten thousand ; 7 between ten and 
fifteen thousand ; and i more than fifty thousand. 

Among the castes and tribes, the Jats come first with 107,075, remark- 
able here as elsewhere for industrious habits, agricultural skill, and 
promptitude in the payment of revenue. North of Delhi the greater 
part of the land is in their possession, though they often share their 
villages with Brahman coparceners. They are found more frequently in 
the uplands of the interior than in the alluvial fringe of the Jumna valley. 
Two classes of Jats are found in the neighbourhood of Delhi, the Deswala 
and the Pachade. The latter are a later immigration from the west, but 
do not differ materially from the former. The greater number profess 
the Sivaite creed of Hinduism. With regard to the distribution of 
castes and tribes, the following facts appear from the returns of the 
Census: — Hindu Jats number 103,984; Muhammadan Jats, 2318; 
Sikh Jats, 765 ; ' others,' 4. Hindu Rajputs number 23,282 ; Muham- 



i82 DELHI. 

madan Rajputs, 10,511; Sikh Rajputs, 11; 'others,' 19. Hindu 
Brahmans number 59,640; Muhammadan Brahmans, 2333; and 'others,' 
34. Pathans number 15,969, all of them Muhammadans; Chamars, 
63,407 ; Gujars, 25,836 ; Chiihras, 26,067 ; Shaikhs, 50,195, all of them 
Muhammadans; Bdluchis, 13 18, all Muhammadans; Baniyas, 42,414, 
all Hindus; Ndis, 11,080; Lohars, 5934; Sayyids, all Muhammadans, 
8800; Sonars, 4085; Dhobis, 4157; Fakirs or begging-priest caste, 
1428; Mughals, all Muhammadans, 5806 ; and Jogis, religious mendi- 
cants, 5006. The Brd,hmans are most of them industrious culti- 
vators, sharing villages with the Jats, possibly as a remnant of some 
conquest-tenure, resembling the Sikh chahdrami of the Cis-Sutlej tract 
{see Umballa District). The Taga sub-division of Brdhmans is one 
of the most important in the District. They are of the Gaur family, 
and their tradition is that they were invited from Bengal for the purpose 
of exterminating snakes. Sir H. Elliot finds in this story an allusion 
to wars against ' Takshak Scythians ' of a Buddhist creed. Possibly 
many of the Delhi Brahmans are lineal descendants of the autoch- 
thonous Pandivas or original Aryan dwellers in the District. The 
Baniyas or trading classes are scattered as shopkeepers through the 
country villages, and form a large proportion of the mercantile body 
in Delhi itself. The idle and dishonest Gujars (25,836) carry on their 
usual pastoral and semi-nomad avocations in the hilly plateau of the 
south, with no better reputation for cattle-lifting and thieving propen- 
sities than their clansmen elsewhere. The Pathans are the only tribe 
of genuine Muhammadan origin, and still retain their nationality dis- 
tinct. The Ahirs are a high-caste pastoral Hindu tribe. The District 
contains 4 towns with a population exceeding 5000, in 1881 — Delhi 
City, 173,393; Sonpat, 13,077; Faridabad, 7427; and Ballabh- 
GARH, 5821. The aggregate urban population at the date of the Census 
amounted to 203,717 persons, or 31 per cent, of the District total. 
Urdu or Hindustani forms the prevailing dialect of all classes. 

Agriculture. — The District of Delhi had in 1882-83 a total cultivated 
area of 525,676 acres, of which 95,346 were irrigated from Government 
works, and 80,376 by private enterprise. The uncultivated area includes 
10,115 acres of grazing land, 133,642 acres of cultivable waste, and 
135,500 acres of barren rock or soil rendered useless by saline efflor- 
escence. The north-western uplands are watered by the Western 
Jumna Canal, except in a few spots where the surface of the country 
rises above the level of the main channel. Cotton and sugar-cane here 
form the commercial staples of the autumn harvest, while rice, jodr^ 
bdjra, and Indian corn are the chief food-grains. In the spring sowings, 
wheat, barley, and gram make up the principal crops ; but tobacco 
covers a considerable area, and rice of excellent quality is produced 
wherever water is abundant. The cultivation of cotton is on the increase. 



DELHI. 183 

a ready market being obtained at Delhi. The khddar, or alluvial fringe 
of the Jumna, cannot compete with the artificially-irrigated uplands. 
The crops in this tract include the same general staples, but the produce 
is inferior in kind. Well-irrigation is almost everywhere possible through- 
out the khddar, sweet water being found a few feet below the surface. 
South of Delhi, the nature of the soil deteriorates. Most of the land 
belongs to the stony ridge which projects into the District from the 
Aravalli range ; and though the new Agra Canal traverses this unfruitful 
region, its level is too low to permit of irrigation. The Najafgarhy////, 
after being filled in the rains, is drained into the Jumna by an escape 
channel, and crops are then sown upon the submerged land ; but only a 
partial success has hitherto attended the operations of the Canal Depart- 
ment in this respect, owing to the want of a sufficient fall. The follow- 
ing list shows the number of acres under each of the principal staples 
in 1882-83: — Wheat, 138,753; barley, 63,289; gram, 56,653; Indian 
corn, 11,954 ; tobacco, 4200 ; rice, 16,406 ; Jodr, 71,238 ; bdjra, 90,255 ; 
cotton, 31,991 ; sugar-cane, 27,223. The Government returns of 
1882-83 state the average out-turn per acre as follows: — Rice, 1005 
lbs.; cotton, 161 lbs.; tobacco, 737 lbs.; wheat, 635 lbs.; gram, 524 
lbs.; barley, 895 \hs. ] Jodr, 181 lbs.; indigo, 150 lbs.; oil-seeds, 168 
lbs.; and inferior grains, 226 lbs. The tenures consist of the types 
common in the North-Western Provinces, to which Delhi belongs in 
natural position and historical antecedents. The holding known as 
hhaydchdrd, or brotherhood, is the most frequent. The village com- 
munities are strong and united. From 50 to 100 acres would be 
considered a large holding for a cultivating proprietor; 20 would be 
regarded as above the average for a tenant ; while 5 acres represent the 
whole farm in many cases. By far the greater number of tenants possess 
no permanent rights of occupancy. Rents vary much with the nature 
of the crop which the land is suited to produce. Rice lands fetch from 
8s. to ;jf I per acre; cotton lands, from 6s. to i6s. ; sugar lands, from 
los. to j[^\, los. ; wheat lands, from 6s. to i6s. ; indigo lands, from los. 
to i6s. ; tobacco lands, from los. to ;^i, 4s.; and dry lands, suitable 
for inferior grains, from 2s. to 8s. Wages are almost universally paid in 
money. Agricultural labourers received 4d., or 10 lbs. of wheat, per 
diem in 1881. Prices ruled as follows in 1883: — Wheat, 19 j^rj- per 
rupee, or 5s. iid. per cwt. ; barley, 20 sers per rupee, or 4s. 4d. per 
cwt. ; gram, 24 sers per rupee, or 4s. 8d. per cwt. ; jodr, 25 sers per 
rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 22 sers per rupee, or 5s. id. per cwt. ; 
rice, 5 sers per rupee ; potatoes, 20 sers per rupee ; sugar, 3 sers per 
rupee ; tobacco, 2 sers per rupee ; salt, 1 1 sers per rupee. 

Commerce and Trade. — The trade of the District centres almost entirely 
in the city of Delhi. Sonpat, Fariddbad, and Ballabhgarh are local 
marts of some importance, but have no external transactions of any 



1 84 DELHI. 

value. The manufactures are also confined to the capital, which has 
a high reputation for gold and silk embroidery, jewellery, and other 
ornamental goods of fine workmanship. The glazed ware of the District 
has a reputation second only to that of the similar ware of Peshawar. 
The District now lies a little apart from the main channel of trade, 
owing to the diversion caused by the great northern line of railway, 
which runs through the Doab Districts on the other side of the Jumna. 
Nevertheless, the means of communication are amply sufficient, both 
by land and water. In 1882, there were 72 miles of navigable river, 
116 miles of metalled and 293 of unmetalled roads, and 12 miles of 
railway. The East Indian Railway has a branch from Ghaziabdd 
Junction, which crosses the Jumna by an iron bridge, and has a station 
within the city ; and this branch is also used by the Punjab fine. The 
Rajputana State Railway traverses the District for a short distance in 
the direction of Gurgaon. The Jumna is navigable during the rainy 
season for country boats of 400 inaunds burden. Good metalled roads 
connect the city with Lahore, Agra, Jaipur (Jeypore), and Hissar ; while 
a network of local trade-lines runs in every direction to the various 
minor towns and ghats. Bridges of boats lead across the river at 
Bhagpat and Chansa, Meniarpur, and Jhundpur ; and the railway bridge 
at Delhi has an underway for ordinary wheel traffic. 

Administration. — The District staff usually comprises a Deputy Com- 
missioner, I Assistant and 2 extra-Assistant Commissioners, a judge of 
the Small Cause Court, 2 mwisifs or subordinate magistrates, and 3 
tahsilddrs, besides the usual medical, fiscal, and constabulary officials. 
The total revenue raised in the District in 1882-83 amounted to 
;£"i 12,702, of which ^79,479 was due to the land-tax. Among the 
other items, the chief w^re salt, customs, and stamps. For police 
purposes, the District is distributed into 13 pohce circles {thdnds). 
In 1882-83, the regular police numbered 1141 officers and men of 
all ranks, of whom 539 were District, 591 municipal, and 11 
cantonment police. The police machinery was therefore i police- 
man to each square mile of area and to every 564 persons of the 
population. But as the city of Delhi alone has 457 policemen, the 
real proportion for the rural pargaiids may be more fairly estimated 
at I to every 2 square miles. The total number of persons brought 
to trial upon all charges, great or small, in 1882 amounted to 5227. 
The District jail, adapted from an old sardi., had an aggregate of 133^ 
prisoners in 1882, with a daily average of 443 inmates. In the District 
lock-ups during the year 667 prisoners were received. Cost of mam- 
tenance of prisoners, JP^io'^o. Education was carried on in 1882-83 by 
118 schools and colleges, having a total roll of 6126 pupils. The 
principal establishments include an aided mission college, the Upper 
District School, the Anglo-Arabic School, and the classes in connection 



DELHI HEAD-QUARTERS AND CITY. 185 

with the mission of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 
The Government Delhi College has been abolished within the last few 
years. For fiscal and administrative purposes, the District is sub-divided 
into 3 tahsils, with an aggregate of 800 villages, owned by 52,064 pro- 
prietors. Five towns within the District possess municipalities, namely, 
Delhi, Sonpat, Ballabhgarh, Faridabad, and Najafgarh. In 1882-83, 
the aggregate municipal revenue amounted to ;£"3i,2ii, or 3s. per 
head of the population (203,717) within municipal limits; municipal 
expenditure, ^25,400. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Delhi does not materially differ from 
that of other Districts in the Jumna basin. The maximum temperature in 
the shade in May 1882 was 116° F. ; the minimum in December, 46*4°. 
The prevailing winds are north-westerly or westerly. The total annual 
rainfall amounted to 21*8 inches in 1869-70, 237 inches in 1870-71, 
and 33'i inches in 1871-72. In 1882 it was 29-2 inches. The prin- 
cipal endemic diseases are fever and bowel complaints ; but small-pox 
often commits severe ravages in an epidemic form. The total number 
of deaths recorded in 1882 was 20,122, being at the rate of 31 per 
thousand; and of these 12,263, or 19 per thousand, were due to fevers 
alone. The District contains 8 charitable dispensaries, which afforded 
relief in 1882 to 1148 in-door and 55,982 out-door patients. [For 
further information regarding Delhi District, see the forthcoming Pimjab 
Gazetteer ; Mr. Stack's Settlement Memorandui?i ; Sir J. W. Kaye and 
Colonel Malleson's Mutiny Narratives /^j'J'/w. Also the Punjab Census 
Report iox 1881, and the Punjab An?iual Administration Reports ivom 
1880 to 1883.] 

Delhi. — Head-quarters tahsil of Delhi District, Punjab. Area, 434 
square miles. Population, including Delhi City, 317,802, namely, males 
^705579, and females 147,223 ; average density of rural population, 
323 persons per square mile; of the total population, 752 per square 
mile. As regards religion, Hindus number 220,352; Muhammadans, 
91,105; Sikhs, 892; and 'others,' 5453. Revenue of the tahsil, 
;^26,923. The administrative staff, including the head-quarters of 
the Division and District, consists of a Commissioner, Deputy Commis- 
sioner, Judicial Commissioner, 2 Assistant Commissioners, i Small 
Cause Court Judge, with a tahsilddr and 2 honorary magistrates. 
These officers preside over 7 civil and 9 criminal courts ; number 
of police stations, 6 ; strength of regular police force, 645 men ; village 
watchmen (chaiikiddrs), 294. 

Delhi.— City in Delhi District, Punjab, the administrative head- 
quarters of the District and Division, and former capital of the Mughal 
Empire. Lat. 28° 38' 58" n., long. 77° 16' 30" e. Population in 1881, 
^73>393 souls. Distant from Calcutta 954 miles, from Agra 113, from 
Allahabad 390 miles. 



i86 DELHI CITY, 

Situation and General Appearance. — The modern city of Delhi or 
Shahjahanabid abuts on the right bank of the river Jumna, and is 
enclosed on three sides by a lofty wall of solid stone, constructed by the 
Emperor Shah Jahan, and subsequently strengthened by the English 
at the beginning of the present century with a ditch and glacis. The 
eastern side, where the city extends to the river bank, has no wall ; but 
the high bank is faced with masonry. The circuit of the wall is 5I 
miles. It has ten gates, of which the principal are the Kashmir and 
Mori gates on the north \ the Kabul and Lahore gates on the east ; and 
the Ajmere and Delhi gates on the south. The Imperial palace, nm 
known as * the fort,' is situated in the east of the city, and abuts directly 
on the river. It is surrounded on three sides by an imposing wall of 
red sandstone, with small round towers, and a gateway on the west and 
south. Since the Mutiny of 1857, a great portion has been demolished 
in order to make room for English barracks. South of the fort, in 
the Dariaganj quarter of the city, is the cantonment for a regiment 
of native infantry, which, with one wing of a European regiment 
stationed within the fort, makes up the ordinary garrison of Delhi. On 
the opposite side of the river is the fortress of Salimgarh, erected in the 
1 6th century by Salim Shah, and now in ruins. At this point the 
East Indian Railway enters the city by a magnificent bridge across 
the Jumna, passing over Salimgarh, and through a corner of the fort, 
to the railway station within the city walls. Thence the line proceeds 
as the Rajputana State Railway, and, after traversing the city, emerges 
through the wall on the north-west. In the north-eastern corner of the 
city, within the walls and close to the Kashmir gate, are situated the 
treasury and other public offices. Dariaganj, the fort, the public offices, 
and the railway form an almost continuous line along the eastern and 
northern faces of the city, the angle between them being devoted to 
public gardens. The area thus occupied amounts to nearly one-half ot 
the entire city ; it presents a comparatively open appearance, and forms 
a marked contrast to the south-west quarter of the town, which is densely 
occupied by the shops and dwellings of the native population. 

The architectural glories of Delhi are famous alike in Indian and 
European literature. It is impossible in a brief notice like the present 
to attempt any adequate description of them. They have been treated 
with admirable knowledge and artistic appreciation in Mr. Fergussons 
History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (1876). The palace of Shah 
Jahan — now the fort — perhaps less picturesque and sober in tone than 
that of Agra, has the advantage of being built on a more uniform plan, 
and by the most magnificent of the Royal builders of India. It forms 
a parallelogram, measuring 1600 feet east and west by 3200 north and 
south, exclusive of the gateways. Passing the deeply-recessed portal, 
a vaulted hall is entered, rising two storeys, 375 feet long, like the 



DELHI CITY. 187 

nave of a gigantic Gothic cathedral — 'the noblest entrance,' says Mr. 
Fergusson, 'to any existing palace.' Omitting all mention of the 
music hall and smaller holdings, or fountains, however beautiful, the 
celebrated diwhi-i-khas or Private Audience Hall forms, ' if not the 
most beautiful, certainly the most ornamented of all Jahdn's buildings. 
It overhangs the river, and nothing can exceed the delicacy of its inlaid 
work or the poetry of its design. It is round the roof of this hall 
that the famous inscription ran : ' If there is a heaven on earth, it is 
this— it is this ! ' which may safely be rendered into the sober English 
assertion, that no palace now existing in the world possesses an 
apartment of such unique elegance. The whole of the area between 
the central range of buildings to the south, measuring about 1000 
feet each way, was occupied, says Mr. Fergusson, by the harem and 
private apartments of the palace, covering, consequently, more than 
twice the area of the Escurial, or, in fact, of any palace in Europe. 
'According to the native plan I possess (which I see no reason for 
distrusting), it contained three garden courts, and about thirteen or 
fourteen other courts, arranged some for state, some for convenience ; 
but what they were like we have no means of knowing. Not a vestige 
of them now remains. Of the public parts of the palace, all that now 
exists is the entrance hall, the naubdt khd?id, the dtwdn-i-dm, diwdn-i- 
khds, and the raitg ma/id/— now used as a mess-room — and one or two 
small pavilions. These are the gems of the palace, it is true ; but 
without the courts and corridors connecting them they lose all their 
meaning, and more than half their beauty. Being now situated in the 
middle of a British barrack-yard, they look like precious stones torn 
from their setting in some exquisite piece of oriental jeweller's work and 
set at random in a bed of the commonest plaster.' 

The buildings in the native town are chiefly of brick, well-built and 
substantial. The smaller streets are narrow and tortuous, and in many 
cases end in culs-de-sac. On the other hand, no city in India has finer 
streets than the main thoroughfares of Delhi, ten in number, thoroughly 
drained, metalled, and lighted. The principal thoroughfare, the Chandni 
Chauk, or Silver Street, leads eastwards from the fort to the Lahore 
gate, three-quarters of a mile long by 74 feet broad. Throughout the 
greater part of its length, a double row of nim and pipal trees runs down 
Its centre on both sides of a raised path, which has taken the place of the 
masonry aqueduct that in former days conducted water from the canal 
into the palace. A little to the south of the Chandni Chauk is the 
Jama Masjid, or great mosque, standing out boldly from a small rocky 
rising ground. Begun by Shah Jahan in the fourth year of his reign, 
and completed in the tenth, it still remains one of the finest buildings 
of Its kind in India. The front courtyard, 450 feet square, surrounded 
by a cloister open on both sides, is paved with granite inlaid with 



1 88 DELHI CITY. 

marble, and commands a view of the whole city. The mosque itself, 
a splendid structure forming an oblong 261 feet in length, is approached 
by a magnificent flight of stone steps. Three domes of white marble 
rise from its roof, with two tall and graceful minarets at the corners in 
front. The interior of the mosque is paved throughout with white 
marble, and the walls and roof are lined with the same material. Two 
other mosques in Delhi deserve a passing notice, — the Kala Masjid, or 
black mosque, so called from the dark colour given to it by time, and 
supposed to have been built by one of the early Afghan sovereigns ; 
and the mosque of Roshan-ud-daula. Among the more modern 
buildings of Delhi may be mentioned the Government College, founded 
in 1792, but recently abolished ; the Residency; and the Protestant 
church, built at a cost of ;j^ 10,000 by Colonel Skinner, an officer well 
known in the history of the East India Company. About half-way 
down the Chandni Chauk is a high clock-tower, with the Institute and 
Museum opposite. Behind the Chandni Chauk, to the north, he the 
Queen's Gardens ; beyond them the ' city lines ' stretch away as far as 
the historic ' ridge,' about a mile outside the town. From the summit 
of this ridge the view of the station and city is very picturesque. To 
the west and north-west, considerable suburbs cluster beyond the walls, 
containing the tombs of the imperial family. That of Humayun, the 
second of the Mughal dynasty, is a noble building of granite inlaid with 
marble. It lies about 2 miles from the city, amid a large garden of 
terraces and fountains, the whole surrounded by an embattled wall, 
with towers and four gateways. In the centre stands a platform about 
20 feet high by 200 feet square, supported by cloisters, and ascended 
by four great flights of granite steps. Above rises the Mausoleum, also 
a square, with a great dome of while marble in the centre. About a 
mile to the westward is another burying-ground, or collection of tombs 
and small mosques, some of them very beautiful. The most remark- 
able is perhaps the httle chapel in honour of a celebrated Musalman 
saint, Nizam-ud-din, near whose shrine the members of the late imperial 
family, up to the time of the Mutiny, lie buried, each in his own little 
enclosure, surrounded by very elegant lattice-work of white marble. 
Other buildings, ruins, and pillars will be described under the next 
section. History. The Kutab Minar is situated about 10 miles to the 
south of the city. {^See p. 191.) 

The palaces of the nobles, which formerly gave an air of grandeur 
to the city, have for the most part disappeared. Their sites are 
occupied by structures of less pretension, but still with some elegance 
of architectural design. The city is now amply supplied with water ; and 
much attention has of late been paid to cleanliness and sanitary require- 
ments generally. The principal local institution was, until 1877, the 
Delhi College, founded in 1792. It was at first exclusively an oriental 



DELHI CITY, 189 

school, supported by the voluntary contributions of Muhammadan 
gentlemen, and managed by a committee of the subscribers. In 1829, 
an Enghsh Department was added to it; and in 1855, the institution 
was placed under the control of the Educational Department. The 
old college attained to great celebrity as an educational institution, and 
produced many excellent scholars. In the Mutiny of 1857, it was 
plundered of a very valuable oriental library, and the building com- 
pletely destroyed. A new college vvas founded in 1858, and affiliated 
to the University of Calcutta in 1864. Under orders of the Government 
of the Punjab (February 1877), the collegiate staff of teachers have 
been withdrawn, in order to concentrate the grant available for higher- 
class education upon the central institution at Lahore, the capital of the 
Punjab Province. 

History. — Delhi stands upon a site which has been occupied by 
many successive capitals since the first Aryan immigration into the 
valley of the Jumna. Its modern aspect is thus described by Bishop 
Heber: 'A very awful scene of desolation, ruins after ruins, tombs 
after tombs, fragments of brickwork, freestone, granite, and marble, 
scattered everywhere over a soil naturally rocky and barren, without 
cultivation, except in one or two small spots, and without a single tree.' 
The waste of ruins extends from the southern end of the present city 
of Shahjahdnabad to the deserted forts of Rai Pithora and Tughlak- 
abad, a distance of 10 miles. The area covered with these vestiges of 
successive empires cover an area of 45 square miles. The village and 
fort of Indrapat or Purana Kila, 2 miles south of the existing walls, 
mark the spot where the earliest Pandava colonists placed their city of 
Indraprastha {see Delhi District) ; but the name of Dilli or Dillipur 
only makes its appearance in the middle of the rst century B.C. 
General Cunningham, following the authority of Ferishta, attributes the 
foundation of this original Delhi, 5 miles lower down the river than its 
modern representative, to Raja Dilu, apparently the last ruler of the 
Mayura dynasty, whom tradition names as successors to the Gautama 
hne of Indraprastha. But the earliest authentic information which we 
obtain with regard to the city is derived from the famous iron pillar of 
Raja Dhava, set up in the 3rd or 4th century a.d. This remarkable 
rehc consists of a solid shaft of metal, 16 inches in diameter and about 
50 feet in length, so firmly planted in the earth that less than half its 
height appears above the ground. A Sanskrit inscription, deeply cut 
on its western face, records the story of its origin. Mr. James Prinsep, 
the first decipherer of the legend, found that it commemorated the 
prowess of Raja Dhava, who ' obtained with his own arm an undivided 
sovereignty on the earth for a long period ; ' while the letters appear to 
be ' the typical cuts inflicted on his enemies by his sword, writing his 
immortal fame.' General Cunningham suggests the year 319 a.d. as an 



I90 DELHI CITY, 

approximation to the date, on the ground that the Raja may probably 
have contributed to the downfall of the great Gupta dynasty {see 
Kanauj), which is supposed to have occurred in that year. Tradition, 
however, running counter to the unimpeachable authority of the inscrip- 
tion, refers the erection of the pillar to Anang Pal, founder of the Tiiar, 
Tunwar, or Tomar dynasty in the 8th century a.d. A holy Brdhman 
assured the Raja that the pillar had been driven so deeply into the 
earth, that it reached the head of Vasuki, the serpent king, who 
supports the world; and, consequently, had become immoveable, 
whereby the dominion was ensured for ever to the dynasty of its founder, 
so long as the pillar stood. The incredulous Rija ordered the monu- 
ment to be dug up, when its base was found reddened with the blood 
of the serpent king. Thus convinced, Anang Pal at once commanded 
that the shaft should be sunk again in the earth ; but, as a punishment 
for his want of faith, it appeared that no force could restore it in its 
place as before. Hence the city derived its name of Dhih, from the 
fact that the column remained loose {dhila) in the ground ! Unfor- 
tunately for the legend, not only does the inscription prove its falsity, 
but the name of Dilli is undoubtedly earlier than the rise of the Tiiar 
dynasty. Anang Pal, whose accession is placed by General Cunning- 
ham in the year 736 a.d., restored Delhi, which had fallen into ruins 
for some generations, and made it the capital of his race. The later 
Rajas, however, appear to have taken up their residence at Kanauj, 
whence they were expelled about the middle of the nth century by 
Chandra Deva, the first of the Rahtor kings. Anang Pal 11. then 
retired to Delhi, which became once more the Tiiar metropolis. He 
rebuilt and adorned the city, surrounding it with a massive line of 
fortifications, whose ruins are still believed to exist in the great circle of 
masonry lying around the Kutab Minar. The date of this restoration 
has been preserved for us by a second inscription, cut into the more 
ancient pillar of Raja Dhava : ' In Sambat 1 109 ' [1052 a.d.], ' Anang Pal 
peopled Dilli.' Just a century later, under the reign of a third Anang 
Pal, last of the Tiiar hne, Delhi fell (1154) before Visaldeva or Bisaldeo, 
Chauhan ruler of Ajmere. The conqueror permitted the vanquished 
Raja to retain possession as a vassal ; and from a marriage between the 
two houses sprang the celebrated Prithvi Raja, the last champion of 
Plindu independence in Upper India, who thus succeeded to the joint 
realms of the Tiiars and the Chauhans. Prithvi Raja further 
strengthened the defences of the city by the erection of the fort called 
Rai Pithora, and by building an exterior wall, which ran round the 
fortifications of Anang Pal, and of which remains may still be traced 
for a considerable distance. At this point the history of Hindu Delhi 
ends. In 1191, Shahab-ud-din, better known as Muhammad of Ghor, 
made his first invasion of Upper India, bringing the religion of the 



DELHI CITY. 191 

Prophet and authentic history in his train. Prithvi Raja successfully 
defended his kingdom for a time ; Muhammad was routed at Thanesar, 
and his horde pursued for forty miles ; but two years later, the Muham- 
madan marauders returned, utterly overthrew the Hindus in a great 
battle, and put their prince to death in cold blood. 

Kutab-ud-din, the Sultan's Viceroy, attacked and took Delhi, 
which became thenceforth the Musalman capital. On the death of 
Shahab-ud-din, in 1206, the Viceroy proclaimed himself an independent 
sovereign, and became the founder of the Slave dynasty, to whom Old 
Delhi owes most of its grandest ruins. Kutab-ud-din's mosque was 
commenced, according to the inscription on its entrance archway, 
immediately after the capture of the city in 1193. It was completed in 
three years, and enlarged during the reign of Altamsh, son-in-law of the 
founder, and the greatest monarch of the line. This mosque consists 
of an outer and inner courtyard, the latter surrounded by an exquisite 
colonnade, whose richly - decorated shafts have been torn from the 
precincts of earlier Hindu temples. Originally a thick coat of plaster 
concealed from the believers' eyes the profuse idolatrous ornamenta- 
tions ; but the stucco has now fallen away, revealing the delicate work- 
manship of the Hindu artists in all its pristine wealth. Eleven magni- 
ficent arches close its western facade, Muhammadan in outline and 
design, but carried out in detail by Hindu workmen, as the intricate 
lacework which covers every portion of the arcade sufficiently bears 
witness. Ibn Batuta, the Moorish traveller, who was a magistrate in 
Delhi, and saw the mosque about 150 years after its erection, describes 
it as unequalled either for beauty or extent. The Kutab Minar, 
another celebrated monument of the great Slave king, stands in the 
south-east corner of the outer courtyard of the mosque. It rises to 
a height of 238 feet, tapering gracefully from a diameter of 47 feet at 
the base to nearly 9 feet at the summit. The shaft consists of 5 storeys, 
enclosing a spiral staircase, and is crowned by a now broken cupola, 
which fell during an earthquake in 1803. The original purpose of the 
minaret was doubtless as a Muazzam's tower, whence the call to morning 
and evening prayer might be heard throughout the whole city. The 
site chosen for the mosque was that already occupied by Raja Dhava's 
pillar, which forms the centre ornament of the inner courtyard. Around, 
in every direction, spreads a heap of splendid ruins, the most striking 
of which is the unfinished minaret of Ala-ud-din, commenced in 13 11. 

During the reign of the Slave kings, a queen, for the first and 
last time in the history of Muhammadan Delhi, sat on the throne 
of the empire. As the patriot Hungarians, in the annals of modern 
Europe, drew their swords for Rex Maria Theresa, so her admiring 
subjects gave to Queen Raziya the masculine title of Sultan. The 
Slave dynasty retained the sovereignty till 1290, when Jalal-ud-din, the 



1^2 DELHI CITY. 

Khilji, founded a new line. During the reign of his nephew and 
successor, Ala-ud-din, Delhi was twice unsuccessfully attacked by 
Mughal hordes, who swept into the country from Central Asia. 

In 132 1, the house of Tughlak succeeded to the Musalman Empire; 
and Ghiy^s-ud-din, its founder, erected a new capital, Tughlakabad, 
on a rocky eminence 4 miles farther to the east. Remains of a massive 
citadel, and deserted streets or lanes, still mark the spot on which 
this third metropolis arose ; but no human inhabitants now frequent 
the vast and desolate ruins. Ghiyas-ud-din died in 1325, and was 
succeeded by his son Muhammad Tughlak, who thrice attempted to 
remove the seat of government and the whole population from Delhi 
to Daulatabad {Deogiri) in the Deccan — more than 800 miles away. 
Ibn Batuta, a native of Tangiers, who visited his court in 1341, gives a 
graphic picture of the desolate city, with its magnificent architectural 
works and its bare, unpeopled houses. Firoz Shah Tughlak once more 
removed the site of Delhi to a new town, Firozabad, which appears to 
have occupied the ground between the tomb of Humdyun and the 
Ridge. Amid the ruins of this prince's palace, just outside the modern 
south gate, stands one of the famous pillars originally erected by Asoka, 
the great Buddhist Emperor, in the 3rd century B.C. This monolith, 
42 feet in height, known as Firoz Shah's Idt or pillar, is composed of 
pale pink sandstone, and contains a Pali inscription, deciphered by the 
painstaking scholarship and ingenuity of Mr. James Prinsep. Its con- 
nection with Delhi, however, does not date further back than the reign 
of Firoz Shah, who brought it from near Khizrabad on the upper waters 
of the Jumna, and fixed it on the summit of his comparatively modern 

building. 

In December 1398, during the reign of Muhammad Tughlak, the 
hordes of Timiir reached Delhi. The king fled to Gujarat, the army 
suffered a defeat beneath the walls, and Timiir, entering the city, gave it 
over for five days to plunder and massacre. Dead bodies choked the 
streets ; and when at last even the Mughal appetite for carnage was 
satiated, the host retired dragging with them into slavery large numbers 
both of men and women. For two months Delhi remained absolutely 
without a show of government ; until Muhammad Tughlak recovered a 
miserable fragment of his former empire. In 1412 he died; and his 
successors, the Sayyid dynasty, held Delhi with a petty principality in 
the neighbourhood until 1444. The Lodf family, who succeeded to the 
Musalman Empire in that year, appear to have deserted Delhi, fixing 
their residence and the seat of government at Agra. In 1526, Babar, 
the sixth in descent from Timiir, and founder of the so-called Mughal 
dynasty, marched into India with a small but disciplined force ; and 
having overthrown Ibrahim Lodi, the last dynastic Afghan prince, on 
the decisive field of Panipat, advanced upon Delhi, which he entered 



DELHI CITY. if)3 

in May of the same year. The new sovereign, however, resided mainly 
at A^^ra, where he died in 1530. His son Humayun removed to Delhi, 
and built or restored the fort of Purana Kila on the site of Indraprdstha. 
The Afghan Sher Shah, who drove out Humayun in 1540, enclosed 
and fortified the city with a new wall. One of his approaches, known 
as the Lil Darwaza or Red Gate, still stands isolated on the roadside, 
facing the modern jail. The fortress of Salimgarh, already mentioned, 
preserves the name of a son of Sher Shah. In 1555, Humayun regained 
his throne, but died within six months of his restoration. His tomb 
forms one of the most striking architectural monuments in the neigh- 
bourhood. Akbar and Jahangir usually resided at Agra, Lahore, or 
Ajmere (Ajmir) \ and Delhi again languished in disfavour till the reign 
of Shah Jahan. This magnificent Emperor rebuilt the city in its present 
form, surrounding it with the existing fortifications, and adding the title 
of Shahjahanabad from his own name. He also built the Jama Masjid, 
and reopened the Western Jumna Canal, Under the reign of 
Aurangzeb, Delhi was the seat of that profuse and splendid court whose 
glories were narrated to Europe in extravagant fables by travellers and 
missionaries. 

After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire fell rapidly to 
pieces ; but the numerous palace intrigues and revolutions amid which 
it broke up, belong to the general domain of Indian history. In 1726, 
(luring the reign of Muhammad Shah, the Marathas first appeared 
beneath the walls of Delhi. Three years later, Nadir Shah entered the 
city in triumph, and re-enacted the massacre of Timiir. For fifty-eight 
days the victorious Persian plundered rich and poor alike ; when the last 
farthing had been exacted, he left the city with a booty estimated at 
;f 9,000,000. Before the final disruption of the decaying empire in 
1760, the unhappy capital was devastated by a civil w^ar carried on for 
six months in its streets ; twice sacked by Ahmad Shah Durani ; and 
finally spoiled by the rapacious Marathas. Alamgir 11., the last real 
Emperor, was murdered in 1760. Shah Alam, who assumed the empty 
title, could not establish his authority in Delhi, which became the 
alternate prey of Afghan and Marathas until 1771, when the latter party 
restored the phantom Emperor to the city of his ancestors. In 1788, a 
Marathd garrison permanently occupied the palace, and the king 
remained a prisoner in the hands of Sindhia until the British conquest. 
On March 14th, 1803, Lord Lake, having defeated the Marathas, entered 
l^elhi, and took the king under his protection. Next year, Holkar 
attacked the city ; but Colonel, afterwards Sir David, Ochterlony, the first 
British Resident, successfully held out against overwhelming numbers for 
eight days, until relieved by Lord Lake. The conquered territory was 
admmistered by the British in the name of the Emperor {see Delhi 
District), while the palace remained under His Majesty's jurisdiction. 

VOL. IV. N 



194 DELHI CITY. 

For more than half a century Delhi was happy in entire freedom 
from the incidents of history. But the Mutiny of 1857 once more gave 
it prominence as the revived capital of the fallen Empire. The out- 
break at Meerut took place on the evening of May loth; and early 
next morning the mutinous troopers had crossed the Jumna, and 
clamoured for admission beneath the Delhi wall. The Commandant 
of the Guards, the Commissioner, and the Collector retired to the 
Lahore gate of the palace, and were there cut to pieces. Most of the 
European residents then had their homes within the city. The 
mutineers and the mob fell upon them at once, carrying murder and 
plunder into every house. The mutinous infantry from Meerut arrived ; 
and by eight o'clock the rebels held the whole city, except the magazine 
and the main-guard. News of these events soon reached the canton- 
ment beyond the Ridge, where three battalions of Native infantry and 
a battery of Native artillery were stationed. The 54th N.I. was marched 
promptly down to the main-guard, but proved mutinous on their arrival, 
and cut down several of their officers. Portions of two regiments, 
however, together with the artillery, remained all day under arms in the 
main-guard, and were reinforced from time to time by the few fugitives 
who succeeded in escaping from the city. The magazine stood half-way 
between the palace and the main-guard ; and here Lieutenant Wil- 
loughby, with eight other Europeans, held out bravely for some time, 
determined to defend the immense store of munitions collected within ; 
but about mid-day defence became hopeless, and the nine brave men 
blew up the magazine behind them. Five perished in the explosion; 
two reached the main-guard ; while the remaining two escaped by a 
different road to Meerut. All day long the Sepoys in the cantonment 
and the main-guard were restrained by the expected arrival of white 
regiments from Meerut ; but as evening drew on, and no European 
troops appeared, they openly threw off their allegiance, and began an 
indiscriminate massacre of the officers, women, and children. A few 
escaped along the roads to Meerut or Karnal, but most even of these 
were murdered or perished of hunger on the way. By nightfall, every 
vestige of British authority had disappeared alike in the cantonments 
and in the city. Meanwhile, in Delhi, some fifty Christians, European 
or Eurasian, mostly women and children, had been thrust indiscrimi 
nately into a room of the palace, and, after sixteen days' confinement, 
were massacred in the courtyard. 

The restoration of Mughal sovereignty, and the acts by which it 
was accompanied, belong rather to Imperial than local history. The 
Court of the rebel Emperor did not long enjoy its independence. On 
June 8th, 1857, the British forces fought the battle of Badli-ka-Sarai, 
and the same evening swept the mutineers from the cantonments, anc 
encamped upon the rocky ridge outside the city. For three month; 



DELHI CITY. 1 9^ 

the siege proceeded under the most disadvantageous conditions, and 
at length, on September 8th, the heavy batteries were got into action, 
and an assault was prepared. On the 14th, our troops advanced to 
storm the gates, in the face of an overwhelming rebel garrison, and, 
in spite of serious losses and heavy fighting, succeeded by a marvellous 
display of gallantry in carrying the bastions and occupying the whole 
eastern quarter of the city. For five days fighting continued in the 
streets, the rebels retreating from point to point, and every defensible 
position being occupied by our troops only after a severe struggle. On 
the night of the 20th, the palace and the remaining portions of the city 
were evacuated by the mutineers, and Delhi came once more into the 
possession of the British forces. The king, with several members of 
his family, took refuge in the tomb of Humayun, and surrendered on 
the 2ist. Tried by a military commission, he was found guilty of 
encouraging acts of rebellion and murder, but, owing to the terms of 
his surrender, received no heavier penalty than that of perpetual banish- 
ment. He died at Rangoon on October 7th, 1862. Delhi, thus 
recovered, remained for a while under military government ; and it 
became necessary, owing to the ffrequent murders of European soldiers, 
to expel the population for a while from the oky. Shortly after, the 
Hindu inhabitants were freely readmitted ; but the Muhammadans were 
still rigorously excluded, till the restoration of the city to the civil 
authorities, on January the nth, 1858. The work of reorganization 
then continued rapidly during the remainder of that year ; and after a 
few months, the shattered bastions and the ruined walls alone recalled 
the memory of the Mutiny. Since that date Delhi has settled down 
into a prosperous commercial town, and a great railway centre. The 
romance of antiquity still lingers around it, and Delhi was chosen 
as the scene of the Imperial Proclamation on the ist of January 
1877. 

Popiilation.—^^Xs^Q^xi the Census of 1868 and the Census of 188 1 
the population of Delhi City increased by 18,976. In 1853, the number 
of mhabitants was returned at 152,426. In 1868, the population 
numbered 154,417, showing an increase of 1991 persons in the fifteen 
years. Taking into consideration the actual losses during the Mutiny, 
the expulsion of the Musalmans after its suppression, and the large 
number of persons thrown out of employment by the removal of the 
court, the fact that such an increase should have taken place bears 
witness to the renewed prosperity of the city. According to the Census 
of February 17th, 1881, the population numbered 173,393, inclusive 
of those dwelling in the cantonments, civil lines, and suburbs. The total 
was composed of 93,165 males and 80,228 females. The Hindus 
numbered 95,484, being 52,467 males and 43,017 females; the 

luhammadans, 72,519, being 37,329 males and 35,190 females. 



196 DELHI CITY, 

There were also 856 Sikhs, 2676 Jains, and 858 'others.' In 1876, the 
population of Delhi and its suburbs was returned at 160,553. 

Institutions^ Public Buildings^ etc. — The Delhi Institute, a handsome 
building in the Chandni Chauk, erected by public subscription, with 
the assistance of a Government grant, contains a Darbar Hall, a 
museum, a library and reading-room, and the lecture theatre and ball- 
room of the station. The municipal committee and the honorary 
magistrates hold their sittings in the Darbar Hall. The official build- 
ings include the District court offices and treasury, just within the 
Kashmir gate, the tahsili and police offices, the District jail, the lunatic 
asylum, the hospital, and a dispensary, with two branches. The poor- 
house is supported by private subscription, supplemented by a grant 
from the municipal funds. Four churches exist in Delhi, the Station 
Church, the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian chapels, and a chapel 
belonging to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The 
Delhi College, founded in 1792, and supported by the voluntary con- 
tributions of Muhammadan gentlemen, acquired a large accession of 
income in 1829, from the gift of ;£i7,ooo by Nawab Fazl All Khan of 
Lucknow. In 1855, the Educational Department undertook the 
management. During the Mutiny, the valuable oriental library was 
plundered, and the building destroyed. A new institution, founded in 
1858, was affiliated to the Calcutta University in 1864, and, till lately, 
educated up to the level of its degrees. In 1883 there were 13 printing- 
presses at work in the city. 

Co?nmu?iicatioJts, Trade^ etc. — The East Indian Railway enters Delhi 
by an iron bridge over the Jumna, from Ghaziabdd Junction in Meerut 
District. The Punjab Railway also runs its trains over the same 
branch line. The terminus stands in the city, near the fort. The 
Rajputana State Railway, running to Ajmere, has its station adjoining 
that of the other lines. The Grand Trunk Road and other metalled 
highways lead to all important centres, and the Jumna carries a large 
portion of the heavy traffic. Delhi possesses a very considerable trade, 
though the continuation of the great north-western trunk railway on 
the eastern bank of the river has thrown it somewhat off the modem 
line of traffic. It still forms, however, the main entrepot for commerce 
between Calcutta or Bombay on the one side, and Rajputana on the 
other. The chief imports include indigo, chemicals, cotton, silk, fibres, 
grain, oil-seeds, ghi^ metals, salt, horns, hides, and European piece- 
goods. The exports consist of the same articles in transit, together 
with tobacco, sugar, oil, jewellery, and gold or silver lacework. Beyond 
the borders of the Province, Delhi merchants correspond with those of 
Jind, Kabul, Alwar, Bikaner (Bickaneer), Jaipur (Jeypore), and the 
Doab ; while with all the Punjab towns they have extensive dealings. 
The Bengal and Delhi banks represent European finance, and several 



DELL Y—DENALKANKOTAL 197 

cotton merchants have agents in the city. The great trade avenue of 
the Chandni Chauk, already described, is lined with the shops and 
warehouses of merchants, and is one of the chief sights of interest 
to the visitor at Delhi. The only manufacture of importance consists 
of gold, silver, or tinsel filigree work, for which Delhi has long been 
famous ; but the imitation of European models is unfortunately destroy- 
ing its originality and beauty. The abolition of the Mughal court has 
also acted prejudicially to this branch of industry. The manufacture 
of fine muslin is peculiar to Delhi among the Punjab towns, and glazed 
work, carved work, and shawl-weaving are also carried on. Jewellers 
and dealers in precious stones throng the Chandni Chauk, and have 
agents in every European settlement of any importance in Upper India. 
The internal affairs of the city are managed by a first-class municipality. 
The municipal income in 1881-82 amounted tO;£27,656; municipal 
expenditure, ;^25,59o. In 1882-83, the registration returns of Delhi 
show an import trade valued at ^4,342,500, and an export trade valued 
at ;^2,665,ooo. 

Delly.— Hill in the Chirakkal idluk, Malabar District, Madras Pre- 
sidency. The correct name is D'Ely (Monte d'Ely of the Portuguese), 
representing the name of the ancient Malabar State of Eli or Hely, 
belonging to the Kolattiri Rajas, one of whose seats is close to this 
hill on the south-east. Lat. 12° 2' n., long. 75° 14' e. ; height, 800 
feet above the sea. Situated on the coast, with creeks on either side, 
which, joining, make it an island. The fortifications, now in ruins, 
have been occupied at different periods by Dutch, French, and British 
troops. Delly is a station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, and 
a prominent landmark for mariners, being visible in fine weather at 
27 miles' distance. The jungle covering the hill and surrounding the 
base affords cover to large game, sambhar^ leopards, etc., and is a 
favourite resort of sportsmen. A project set on foot for the construc- 
tion of a harbour off this headland was abandoned on account of the 
enormous expense attending it. Mount Delly was the first Indian 
land seen by Vasco da Gama. 

Demagiri. — Falls on the Karnaphuli river, in the Chittagong Hill 
Tracts, Bengal. They are situated about three days' journey from 
Barkal, where the Karnaphuli leaves the higher ranges of hills in 
the District. Above the falls the river is an insignificant stream. A 
bazar or market for india-rubber and other jungle produce opened at 
the village of Demagiri in 1872, has now (1883) become a flourishing 
mart. 

Denaikankotai {Denkanikota).—Tov;n in Osiir taluk, Salem Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 31' 45" n., long. 77° 49' 5°" e. ; 
elevation above sea-level about 3000 feet; population (1881) 3899; 
houses, 915. Situated 94 miles north of Salem, 16 miles south of 



198 DENWA—DEOBAND. 

Osiir town, and 10 miles east of Thalli. The head-quarters of the 
deputy tahsilddr, the forest overseer, and inspector of police. Up to 
1859, Denaikankotai, the upland division of Osur, formed a separate 
taluk, now incorporated with Osur. It was ceded with the Bara Mahal 
to the British in 1792. The town is well laid out on the side of a hill, 
up which the principal streets trend. The water-supply is good. Fever 
is very prevalent. Trade in grain ; a former silk industry has died out. 
Denwa. — River in Hoshangd.bM District, Central Provinces, running 
in a rough semicircle round the scarped cliffs on the eastern and 
northern faces of the Mahadeo chain. Rising in lat. 22° 20' n., and 
long. 78° 27' 30" E., it winds through a deep glen into a small valley 
shut off from the main Narbada (Nerbudda) valley by an irregular line 
of low hills, and entering the hills again towards the west, it meets the 
Tawa (lat. 22° 34' n., long. 78° o' 30" e.) a few miles above Bagri 

Denwa. — Forest in Hoshangabdd District, Central Provinces, 
covering a level tract of about 100 square miles along the valley of the 
Denwa river. Abounds in fine sal wood. 

Deo. — Town in Aurangabad Sub-division, Gaya District, Bengal. 
Tat. 24° 39' 30" N., long. 84° 28' 38" E. Seat of the Deo Rajas, one 
of the most ancient families of Behar, who trace their descent from the 
Ranas of Udaipur (Oodeypore). In the struggle between Warren 
Hastings and the Rdja of Benares, the Deo Rdja, although too old to 
take the field in person, joined his forces to those of the British. His 
next successor mustered a loyal contingent against the mutineers at 
Sarguja. His son, in turn, rendered good service to us in quelling the 
Kol insurrection. The Raja stood boldly forward for the British 
during the Mutiny of 1857. Four generations of unswerving loyalty 
have been rewarded by liberal grants of land and villages; and the 
chief in 1877 received the title of Mahardja Bahadur, with a Knight 
Commandership of the Star of India, for his services in 1857. Seat of 
an old ruined fort and famous temple, at which thousands of people 
congregate twice a year to hold the Chhat festival in honour of the 
Sun-god. 

Deoband.— Southern tahsil of Saharanpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, consisting of a level agricultural plain, traversed by the 
Eastern Jumna (Jamund) Canal, and by the Sind, Punjab, and 
Delhi Railway. Area 387 square miles, of which 309 are cultivated; 
population (1881) 180,991 ; land revenue, ;£3o,i6o; total Government 
revenue, ;£"33,344; rental paid by cultivators, ;£"38,522; incidence 01 
Government land revenue, 3s. per cultivated acre. The tahsil contains 
I civil and i criminal court, with 5 thdnds or police circles ; strength ot 
regular police, 59 men, wuth 418 village watchmen. 

Deoband. — Town and municipality in Saharanpur District, North- 
western Provinces, and head-quarters of Deoband tahsil. Area, 245 



DEOCHA— DEODAR, 195 

acres. Population (188 1) 22,116, namely, 9325 Hindus, 12,457 Muham- 
madans, 332 Jains, and 2 ' others.' Situated in lat. 29° 41' 50" n., and 
\ovi^. 77° 43' 10" E., about 2 J miles to the west of the East Kali Nadi, 
with which it was formerly connected by a waterw\ay known as the J or. 
Half a mile from the town, the Jor expands into a small lake, the 
Devi-kiind, whose banks are covered with temples, ghats, and sati 
monuments, much frequented by devout pilgrims. The town has 4 
bazars, 3 of which are prosperous and clean. The dominant Musal- 
nian population maintain no less than 42 mosques. Yet Deoband is 
essentially a town of Hindu origin, with a legendary history of 3000 
years. The Pandavas passed their first exile within its precincts, and 
the fortress was one of the earHest to fall before the famous Musalman 
saint, Salar Masaiid Ghazi. The town originally bore the name of 
Deviban or the Sacred Grove, and a religious assembly still takes plac<; 
yearly in a neighbouring wood, which contains a temple of Devi. 
During the Mutiny several disturbances occurred, but they were 
repressed without serious difficulty. Export tro.de in grain, refined 
sugar, and oil ; manufacture of fine cloth. Dispensary, Anglo- 
vernacular school, police station, post-office, toihsili. Distant from 
Muzaffarnagar 15 J miles north. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;^iio9, 
of which £^']o was derived from taxes, or 9s. 3,|d. per head of 
population within municipal limits. 

Deocha. — Village in Birbhiim District, Bengal. One of the three 
or four places in the District where the smelting of iron was formerly 
carried on. The works, however, have now been stopped, owing to 
their unremunerative results. The characteristics of the Birbhiim 
metal are toughness and malleability. 

Deodangar (or Deodonga). — Mountain peak in Park Kimedi estate, 
Ganjam District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 18° 54' 35" N., 
and long. 84° 6' 2" e., 20 miles south-west from Mahendragiri, and 9 
from Namanagaram. Height, 4534 feet above the sea; a station of 
the Trigonometrical Survey. 

Deodar (Z)/W^r). — Native State under the Political Agency of Palan- 
pur, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency ; bounded on the north by 
Tharad, on the east by Kankrej, on the south by Bhabhar and Terwara, 
and on the west by Suigam and Tharad. Estimated area, 440 square 
miles; population (1881) 24,061, principally Rajputs and Kolis ; 
number of villages, 66; number of houses, 4651; estimated gross 
revenue, ^2500. The country consists of a flat, open plain, covered 
with low brushwood. The soil is generally sand}^, producing but one 
crop yearly, and that only of the common sorts of grain. There are no 
rivers, but numerous ponds and reservoirs, which, as a rule, dry up 
before the end of March. There are no means of irrigation, and the 
water, found at a depth of from 40 to 60 feet, is brackish. April, May, 



200 



DEOGA ON—DEOGARH. 



June, and July are excessively hot ; rain falls in August and September; 
October and November are again warm; while the period from 
December to March is cold and agreeable. Fever is the prevailing 
disease. Cholera is not infrequent. Coarse cloth, worn by the poorest 
classes, is manufactured by men of the Dher caste. There are numerous 
country tracks ht for carts, but no regular road has yet been made. 
Clarified butter is the only export, which finds a ready market in the 
neighbouring Districts. The chief holds the title of Thakur, and 
does not possess a sanad authorizing adoption, nor does the succession 
follow the rule of primogeniture. No military force is maintained. 
There is only i school with 21 pupils. The first relations between 
Deodar and the British date from 181 9. The State depends on 
the British Government for external defence, but is allowed complete 
freedom in the internal management of its revenue affairs. The Chief 
of Deodar exercises the powers of a third-class magistrate, and civil 
jurisdiction in suits for sums up to £2^ in his territory. The principal 
town of the State, Deodar, is situated in lat. 24° 8' 30" n., and long. 
71° 49' E., 45 miles west of Palanpur. 

Deogaon.— Southern tahsil of Azamgarh District, North-Westem 
Provinces, consisting of the \S\x^q pargands of Deogaon, Bela Daulatabad, 
and Bilahbans. Area, 389 square miles in 1881, of which 220 were 
cultivated; population (1881) 192,374; land revenue, ^28,402; total 
Government revenue, including cesses, £lZ,S^1 ', rental paid by culti- 
vators, ^58,395 ; incidence of Government revenue, 2s. 3d. per acre. 
The tahsil contains i criminal court, with 4 ihcinds or police circles; 
strength of regular police, 53 men, besides 310 village watchmen. 

Deogaon.— Town in Azamgarh District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Deogaon tahsil, situated 28 miles from Azamgarh 
town, on the metalled road to Benares. Lat. 25° 45' 50" n., long. 
83° i' 15" E. Population (1881) 3078, namely, 2128 Hindus and 
950 Muhammadans; number of houses, 478. It contains a first-class 
police station, with a cattle pound ; sub-post-office, and village school, 
attended by 63 boys in March 1882. Market held twice a week. 

Deogarh.— Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) Native State, Rajputdna. 
Population (1881) 6846. The residence of a first-class noble of 
Udaipur, with the title of Rao, who owns 82 villages. The town 
is surrounded by a wall, and contains about 3000 houses. The Raos 
palace, with a small fort at each side of it, is on the east of the 
town. 

Deogarh. — Sub-division of the District of the Santal Parganas, 
Bengal, containing 1076 villages; houses, 20,777; population (1881) 
127,846, namely, 65,237 males and 62,609 females. Hindus numbered 
211,270; Muhammadans, 18,815; Christians, 144; Santdls, 18,645; 
Kols, 2819; and other aborigines, 214. The Sub-division comprises 



DEOGARH. 201 

the 2 thdnds or police circles of Deogarh and Madhupur, with 2 
outpost stations at Sarwan and Sarhet. It contained, in 1881-82, 
^ ma<^isterial and revenue courts, a general police force of 172 men, 
and a village watch of 794 men. 

Deogarh. — Head-quarters town of Deogarh Sub-division, Santal 
Pargands District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 29' 34" n., long. 86° 44' 35" e., 
4 miles east of the Chord line of the East Indian Railway, with 
which it is connected by a steam tramway. Population (1881) 
8005, namely, 7704 Hindus, 297 Muhammadans, and 4 'others;' 
area of town site, 400 acres. Deogarh is a municipality ; revenue 
(1881-82), ;£^487 ; average rate of taxation, 2s. per head of population. 
The principal object of interest is the group of 22 temples dedicated to 
Siva, which form a centre of pilgrimage for Hindus from all parts of 
India. The oldest temple is called Baidyanath, and is said to contain 
one of the twelve oldest liiigams of Siva in India. The legend of the 
temples is told as follows in the Annals of Rural Bengal : — ' In the old 
time, a band of Brahmans settled on the banks of the beautiful high- 
land lake beside which the holy city stands. Around them there was 
nothing but the forest and mountains in which dwelt the black races. 
The Brahmans placed the symbol of their god Siva near the lake, and 
did sacrifice to it ; but the black tribes would not sacrifice to it, but 
came as before to the three great stones which their fathers had 
worshipped, and which are to be seen at the western entrance of 
Deogarh to this day. The Brahmans, moreover, ploughed the land, 
and brought water from the lake to nourish the soil ; but the hillmen 
hunted and fished as of old, while their women tilled little patches of 
Indian corn. But in process of time, the Brahmans, finding the land 
good, became slothful, giving themselves up to lust, and seldom calling 
on their god Siva. This the black tribes, who came to worship the 
great stones, saw and wondered at more and more, till at last, one of 
them, by name Baiju, a man of a mighty arm, and rich in all sorts of 
cattle, became wroth at the lies and wantonness of the Brahmans, and 
vowed he would beat the symbol of their god Siva with his club every 
day before touching food. This he did ; but one morning his cows 
strayed into the forest, and after seeking them all day, he came home 
hungry and weary, and having hastily bathed Jn the lake, sat down to 
supper. Just as he stretched out his hand to take the food, he called 
to mind his vow, and worn out as he was, he got up, limped painfully 
to the Brahmans' idol on the margin of the lake, and beat it with his 
club. Then suddenly a splendid form, sparkling with jewels, rose 
from the waters and said : " Behold the man who forgets his hunger 
and his weariness to beat me, while my priests sleep with their concu- 
bines at home, and neither give me to eat nor to drink. Let him ask 
of me what he will, and it shall be given." Baiju answered, " I am 



202 DEOGARH SUB-DIVISION AND VILLAGE. 

strong of arm and rich in cattle. I am a leader of my people ; what 
want I more ? Thou art called Ndth (Lord) \ let me, too, be called 
Lord, and let my temple go by my name." " Amen," repUed the 
deity ; " henceforth thou art not Baiju, but Baijnath, and my temple 
shall be called by thy name." 

' From that day the place rose into note ; merchants. Rajas, and 
Brahmans commenced building temples, each vying with the other who 
would build the handsomest temple near the spot where Mahadeo had 
appeared to Baiju. The fame of the spot, its sanctity, all became 
noised abroad throughout the country, until it gradually became a 
place of pilgrimage— at present, beset by a band of harpies in the shape 
of Brahmans, w^ho remorselessly fleece all the poorer pilgrims, beg of 
the rich with much importunity, and lead the most dissolute and 
abandoned lives. 

'The group of temples are surrounded by a high wall enclosing 
an extensive courtyard, paved with Chunar freestone ; this pavement, 
the offering of a rich Mirzapur merchant, cost a lakh of rupees, and 
serves to keep the courtyard in a state of cleanliness that could not 
otherwise be the case. All the temples but three are dedicated to 
Siva in his form of Mahadeo ; the remaining three are dedicated to his 
wife Parbati. The male and female temples are connected from the 
summits with silken ropes, 40 and 50 yards in length, from which 
depend gaudily-coloured cloths, wreaths, and garlands of flowers and 
tinsel. At the western entrance to Deogarh town is a masonry plat- 
form, about 6 feet in height and 20 feet square, supporting three 
huge monoliths of contorted gneiss ; two are vertical, and the third is 
laid upon the heads of the two uprights as a horizontal beam. These 
massive stones are 12 feet in length, quadrilateral in form, and each 
weighing upwards of 7 tons. By whom, or when, these ponderous 
stones were erected, no one knows. There is a faint attempt at 
sculpture at each end of the vertical faces of the horizontal beam, 
representing either elephants' or crocodiles' heads. A few ruins, like 
those of ancient Buddhist vihdras, stand near the monolithic group.' 

Deogarh.— Sub-division of Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. 
— See Devgadh, sub-division. 

Deogarh. — Seaport in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. -- 
See Devgadh, tow^n. 

Deogarh. — Village in Chhindwara District, Central Provinces; 
picturesquely situated among the hills, about 24 miles south-west of 
Chhindwara town. Ancient seat of the midland Gond kingdom. 
Though now containing only 50 or 60 houses, the traces of founda- 
tions in the surrounding jungle, and the numerous remains of wells 
and tanks, show^ that the former city must have covered a large area. 
Deogarh contains several old temples, and on a high peak outside the 



DEOHRA—DEOLL 203 

village stands a ruined stone fort. All the buildings are constructed of 
the finest limestone. 

Deohra. — Village in Jubal State, Punjab. — See Deorka. 

Deolali {Devldli). — Cantonment in the Nasik Sub-division, Nasik 
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 56' 20" n., and long. 73° 51' 
30" E. Population (1881) 2150, among whom are several families of 
Deshmukhs, who in former times, as head-men in their villages, had 
great influence over the Marathas of the District. The village is about 
4 miles south-east of Nasik, off the Puna (Poona) road, and has a 
station, known as Nasik Road, on the Great Indian Peninsula Rail- 
way. During the dry weather months the village is the gathering- 
place of numerous grain brokers from Bombay. The cantonment is 
situated about 3J miles to the south-west. The barracks afford accom- 
modation for 5000 men, and are in continuous occupation during 
the trooping season, as nearly all drafts are halted here after disem- 
barkation at Bombay, before proceeding farther up country, as well 
as drafts on their way to England. The situation is healthy, the 
water good, and the views of the distant ranges of hills remarkably 
fine. When the barracks are not required for the troops, they have 
of late years been occupied by the European children of BycuUa schools 
from Bombay, in the rainy season. Post and telegraph offices. 

Deoli. — Cantonment in Ajmere-Merwara District, Rajputana. 
Lat. 25° 46' N., long. 75° 25' E. Height, 1122 feet above sea-level. 
Estimated population (1881) 2266. Deoli is situated on an open 
plain, 57 miles south-east of Nasirabad (Nusseerabad). The station 
was laid out by Major Thom, commanding the late Kotah contingent. 
Lines exist for a regiment of native infantry and a squadron of native 
cavalry. The station is garrisoned by the Deoli Irregular Force. It 
is situated on the triple boundary of Ajmere, Jaipur, and Merwara, and 
is the head-quarters of the Haraoti Political Agency. Water-supply 
good. Post-office, dispensary, mission-house, and school. 

Deoli. — Town in Wardha District, Central Provinces, and the third 
largest cotton mart in the District; 11 miles south-west of Wardha 
town. Lat. 20° 39' n., long. 78° 31' 30" e. Population (1881) 5126, 
namely, Hindus, 4597; Muhammadans, 367; Jains, 72; and persons 
professing aboriginal religions, 90. At the ^market, held every Friday 
and Saturday, a brisk traffic is carried on in cattle and agricultural 
produce. Deoli has two market-places, one specially set apart for the 
cotton merchants, in which the ground is covered with loose stones, to 
preserve the cotton from dirt and white ants ; in the centre are two 
raised platforms, on which the cotton is weighed. The general market- 
place consists of rows of raised and masonry-fronted platforms for the 
tents and stalls of the traders, with metalled roads between, and a 
fenced-off ground for the cattle trade. A fine broad street runs through 



204 DEOLIA—DEOPRA YAG. 

the middle of the town, lined on both sides by the shops and houses 
of the resident merchants. Anglo-vernacular town school, Govern- 
ment garden, sardi with furnished rooms for Europeans, dispensary, 
and police station, etc. 

Deolia. — Former capital of Partabgarh State, Rajputana. Lat. 24° 
30' N., long. 74° 42' E. It lies 7J miles due west of Partabgarh town, 
at a height of 1809 feet above sea-level, or 149 feet higher than 
Partabgarh. The site is now almost deserted, and the old palace, 
originally built by Hari Singh about the middle of the 17th century, is 
gradually falling to decay. There are several temples still standing, 
two of which are Jain temples. Among the tanks, the largest is the 
Teja, which takes its name from Tej Singh, who succeeded his father 
Bhika Singh, the original founder of Deolia in 1579. Deolia stands 
on a steep hill detached from the edge of the plateau, its natural 
strength commanding the country on every side. 

Deonthal. — Village in Simla District, Punjab. Lat. 31° i' N., and 
long. 77° 2' E., on the route from Subathu to Simla, 3^ miles north 
of the former station ; situated in a romantic glen, on the banks of 
the Gambhar river, with cultivated terraces, artificially cut upon the 
mountain-sides. Elevation above sea-level, 2200 feet. The village is 
principally known to the country people for its shrine to a local deity, 
Deo Bijju, situated on the banks of the Gambhar, close to the iron bridge 
on the Simla road. The temple enjoys a considerable assignment of 
revenue-free land. 

Deonthal.— Hill in Hindiir State, Punjab. Lat. 31° 11' n., long. 
76° 53' E. A peak of the Malaun range, celebrated as the site of a 
decisive engagement during the Gurkha war of 1815. Situated \\ mile 
south of Malaun, between that fort and Surajgarh, both of which were 
held by the Gurkhas in April 1815, when General Ochterlony advanced 
to reduce them. A detachment under Colonel Thompson occupied 
Deonthal, and repulsed, with great loss, a body of 2000 Gurkhas, who 
attacked their position. The engagement is known to the country 
people as the battle of Loharghati, after the celebrated Gurkha leader 
Bhagtia Thapa, who, according to some accounts, charged up to the 
mouth of a gun, and so sacrificed his life. This fight terminated the 
war, and the Gurkhas soon afterwards gave up the Hill States, which 
were thereupon restored to their previous holders. 

Deoprayag. — Village in Garhwal District, North-Western Provinces; 
situated in lat. 30° 8' n., and long. 78° 39' e., at the confluence of the 
Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi rivers ; elevation above sea-level, 
2266 feet. Below the village the united stream takes the name of the 
Ganges, and the point of junction forms one of the five sacred halting- 
places in the pilgrimage which devout Hindus pay to Himachal. The 
village is perched 100 feet above the water's edge, on the scarped side 



DEORA KOT—DEORT. 205 

of a mountain, which rises behind it to a height of 800 feet. The o-reat 
temple of Rama Chandra, built of massive uncemented stones, stands 
upon a terrace in the upper part of the town, and consists of an 
irregular pyramid, capped by a white cupola with a golden ball and 
spire. The Brahmans compute its age at 10,000 years. Religious 
ablutions take place at two basins, excavated in the rock at the point 
of junction of the holy streams, one on the Alaknanda, known as Basist- 
kund, and another on the Bhagirathi, called the Brahmakund. An 
earthquake in 1803 shattered the temple and other buildings ; but the 
damage was subsequently repaired through the munificence of Daulat 
Rao Sindhia. The inhabitants consist chiefly of descendants of 
Brahmans from the Deccan, who have settled here. 

Deora Kot. — Town in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; 16 miles 
from Faizabad town, on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Popula- 
tion (1881), 2256 Hindus and 162 Muhammadans — totals 2418. 
Temple to Mahadeo. 

Deorha. — Village in Jubal State, Punjab, and residence of the Rana, 
situated in lat. 31° 6' n., and long. 77° 44' e., on a tributary of the river 
Pabar, in a deep valley, terraced for the careful cultivation of rice and 
other crops. The Rana's residence is built in partially Chinese style, 
the lower portion consisting of masonry, while the upper half is ringed 
round with wooden galleries capped by overhanging eaves. The palace 
is remarkable for the enormous masses of deodar timber used in its 
construction. Elevation above sea-level, 6550 feet. 

Deori {Devari). — Zatninddri or estate attached to Raipur District, 
Central Provinces ; on the west of the Jonk river. Consists of 50 poor 
and unproductive villages, the principal of which is situated in lat. 21° 
16' 30" N., and long. 82° 46' 30" e. The chief is an aboriginal Binjwar, 
and holds his estate under a very ancient grant. Good teak and sal 
forests. 

Deori. — Chief town of a tract of the same name in Sagar (Saugor) 
District, Central Provinces; situated in lat. 23° 23' n., and long. 79° 4' 
E., about 39 miles south of Sagar, on the Narsinghpur road, at an 
elevation of 1700 feet above sea-level. Population (1881) 7414, 
namely, Hindus, 5706; Kabirpanthis, 471; Jains, 468; Muhammadans, 
663 ; Christians, 4 ; and persons following aboriginal religions, 102. 
Number of houses, 1963. Deori is sometimes spoken of as Bara 
Deori, and was formerly called Ramgarh Ujargarh. The present name 
is derived from a temple still largely resorted to. Weekly market; 
coarse white cloth is manufactured for export. Deori is essentially an 
agricultural town, the chief trade being in wheat, which is usually 
procurable here at a cheaper rate than in other parts of the District. 
The fort, situated to the west of the town, and still in tolerable 
preservation, must once have been a place of great strength. The 



2o6 DEORIA—DEOTIGARH. 

walls enclose a space of 3 acres, formerly covered with buildings, but 
now a complete waste. It was built, as it now stands, about 17 13, by 
Durga Singh, the son of Himmat Singh, the Gond ruler of Gaurjhamar, 
at the traditional cost of a lakh of rupees, and taken from him in 
1 741 by the troops of the Peshwa. Under the Marathas, the town 
flourished. In 1767, the Peshwa bestowed Deori and the Panch 
Mahal, or five tracts attached to it, rent free on Dhonda Dattatraya, a 
Maratha pandit, whose descendant, Ramchandra Rao, still held it in 
181 7. In 1813, Zalim Singh, Raja of Garhakota, plundered the town, 
and set it on fire ; on which occasion 30,000 persons perished. In 
181 7, the Peshwa ceded Sagar to the British Government, but during 
the next year the Panch Mahal, with Deori, were made over to Sindhia, 
Ramchandra Rao receiving another estate in compensation. In 1825 
they were again transferred by Sindhia to the British Government for 
management, and were finally made part of British territory by the 
treaty of i860. In 1857, soon after the outbreak of the Mutiny, a 
Gond named Durjan Singh, who owned Singhpur and other villages 
near Deori, seized the fort with a band of rebels ; but about a month 
later he was expelled by Safdar Husain, the oficer in charge of the 
Deori police. Deori has a dispensary, police station, District post- 
office, and 3 schools — 2 for boys and i for girls. 

Deoria. — Southern tahsil of Gorakhpur District, North-Western 
Provinces ; consisting of an almost unbroken plain, co-extensive and 
identical with its single pargand Salimpur. Area, 587 square miles, 
of which 442 are cultivated; population (1881) 481,445; land revenue, 
;2^29,686 ; total Government revenue, ;£"33,266 ; rental paid by culti- 
vators, ^81,447 ; incidence of Government revenue, 2s. 4d. per 
cultivated acre. In general fertility, this tahsil perhaps excels any 
other part of the District. It is studded with fine mango groves, 
but except in the case of a few villages hardly any traces of forest 
survive. Its Kurmi husbandmen are noted for their laborious and 
skilful agriculture. The surface is drained by several minor rivers 
flowing south to meet the Ghagra. The tahsil is almost entirely 
protected by irrigation from the risks of famine. The soil is for 
the most part the light loam known as dords. Sugar-cane and 
poppy are the most valuable products, and potatoes and vegetables 
are successfully cultivated. In 1883, Deoria tahsil contained i civil 
and 2 criminal courts, with 7 thdnds or police stations; strength of 
regular police, 90 men, with 512 chaukiddrs or village watchmen. 

Deotigarh. — Mountain range in the Province of Assam, forming a 
portion of the south-eastern boundary of the Naga Hills District, where 
it marches with Manipur. The range is really a prolongation of the 
Barel range, and contains the fine peaks of Khurrho (8804 feet) and 
Kopamidza (8376 feet). It contains the sources of the Barak, Dayang, 



DERA—DERA GHAZI KHAN. 207 

and Makru rivers. The lower slopes project in table-shaped masses 
with grassy slopes. 

Dera. — Southern /^//^/Z of Kangra District, Punjab. Area, 502 square 
miles; population (188 1) 121,423 ; persons per square mile, 242. Males 
numbered 62,710, and females 58,713. Hindus, 116,067; Sikhs, 275 ; 
Muhammadans, 5070; and 'others,' 11. Revenue of the tahsil, ;£"i 1,460. 
The sub-divisional staff consists of a ta/isilddr and 2 honorary magis- 
trates, presiding over 3 civil and 3 criminal courts. Number of police 
stations, 3 ; strength of regular police, 52 men, with 210 c/iaukidd?'s. 

Dera Ghazi Khan. — District in the Derajat Division of the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab (Panjab), lying between 28° 
27' and 31° 15' N. lat., and between 69° 35' and 70° 59' e. long. 
Dera Ghazi Khan is the southernmost District of the Derajat 
Division or Commissionership. It is bounded on the north by 
Dera Ismail Khan ; on the west by tlie Sulaiman Hills ; on the 
south by the Upper Sind Frontier District ; and on the east by the 
Indus. The District forms a narrow strip of country, about 198 
miles long, with an average breadth of 25 miles, lying between the 
foot of the Sulaiman mountains and the river Indus. Area, 4517 
square miles; population, according to the Census of 1881, 363,346 
souls. The administrative head-quarters are at the town of Dera 
Ghazi Khan. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Dera Ghazi Khan consists of a 
narrow strip of sandy lowland, shut in between the Sulaiman Hills and 
the bank of the river Indus. On the west, the mountains rise in a succes- 
sion of knife-like ridges towards the hilly plateau beyond the frontier, 
and give shelter to independent tribes of Baluchi origin. From their 
feet, the plain slopes gradually eastward, in a dreary and monotonous 
level, only broken from time to time by sandy undulations, and con- 
posed of a hard clay which requires profuse irrigation before it will 
yield to the arts of the cultivator. Numerous torrents pour down from 
the hilly barrier on the west, but soon sink into the thirsty soil, or 
are checked by artificial embankments for the water-supply of the 
surrounding fields. The Kaha and the Sanghar alone possess perennial 
streams, all the minor watercourses drying up entirely during the 
summer months. The whole western half of the District, known 
as the Pachad, is then totally deserted, and its Baluchi inhabitants 
seek pasturage for their flocks either among the hills beyond the 
frontier, or in the moister lands which fringe the bank of the Indus. 
Water can only be procured from wells in this arid region at a depth of 
250 or 300 feet. Between the Pachad and the river, a barren belt of 
desert sand intervenes — without water, without inhabitants, and without 
vegetation. Of late years, attempts have been made by Government 
to sink wells, but the expense of such works is very great. An 



2o8 DERA GHAZI KHAN, 

artesian well was recently sunk to supply water to the military post at 
Rajanpur, which is 388 feet deep. Other similar wells are in course 
of construction at selected places on the frontier. As the plain still 
slopes eastward, it reaches at last a level at which the waters of 
the Indus begin to fertilize the sandy soil. This tract is known 
as the Sind or Indus country, owing to its being irrigated by canals 
or wells which owe their water to moisture imparted by the river. 
This tract supports a far denser population than the dreary Pachad. 
It is occupied, for the most part, by Jats, Hindus, and miscel- 
laneous tribes of Baluchis. The country rapidly assumes a fresher 
and greener aspect, a few trees appear upon the scene, and 
human habitations grow more and more numerous as the culti- 
vated plain approaches the Indus itself. Much of the land in the 
lower slopes lies open to direct inundation from its floods, while 
the higher tracts are irrigated by canals and wells. This portion 
of the District comprises the greater part of the whole cultivated 
area, and has also considerable tracts of jungle under the manage- 
ment of the Forest Department. Date palms grow luxuriantly in 
picturesque groves, and shelter the town and cantonment of Dera 
Ghazi Khan with their pleasant shade. With these exceptions, how- 
ever, the District is almost destitute of trees, and even in the most 
favoured parts the jungle seldom attains a height of more than 12 
or 15 feet. The wood serves chiefly as fuel for the steamers on 
the Indus. While the two great natural divisions of the country are 
those universally known as the Pachad and the Sindh, other minor 
tracts exist, such as the arid ddnda tract between the Pachad and the 
Sind, which lies beyond the reach of the canals on the one side, 
and of the hill streams on the other. Then there are the Kalapani 
tracts in the Sangarh and Jampur tahsils, so called because they are 
irrigated by the blue-black water of two perennial hill streams; and 
the Garkhab tract in Rajanpur tahsil, which is annually swept by 
inundations of the Indus. The main irrigation canals are 15 in 
number, two under private management, and the remainder controlled 
by the Irrigation Department. The principal peaks of the Sulaiman 
mountains are at Ek Bhai opposite Sakpi Sarwar, with an elevation of 
7462 feet ; the Gandhari peak opposite Rojhah is also lofty, but its 
exact height has not been ascertained. To the south of Dragul is the 
Mari mountain, the summit of which forms a large and fairly level 
plateau. This, and the Gaganka-Thal plateau below Ek Bhai, are now 
approached by good roads, and are occupied occasionally during 
the hot weather months by officers from Rajanpur and Dera Ghazi 
Khan. The temperature of the higher parts of the Sulaiman Hills is 
exceedingly pleasant at the time when the heat of the plains is most 
trying. The most important of the 92 passes leading from the 



DERA GHAZI KHAN. 209 

District, are those of Sanghar, Sakhi Sarwar, Chachar, Kaha, and Sori. 
They are all held by independent Baluchis, responsible to the British 
Government for the police duties of their respective highways, in 
return for which service they receive a money allowance from the 
Government of about ;£"5oo a year. The Sanghar pass leads into 
the Bozdar country ; the Sakhi Sarwar pass into the Khatrdn and Liini- 
Pathan country ; the Kaha and Chachar into the Khatran, Man', and 
Bugli ; and the Son' pass into the Mari and Bugli country. A chain 
of forts along the frontier road are occupied by detachments of cavalry 
or infantry from the Dera Ghazi Khan or Rajanpur garrisons, or by the 
Baluchi frontier militia. 

The Indus forms the eastern boundary of the District. In Sanghar 
iahsil it flows under a high bank, but elsew^here the level of the river 
is to all appearance very little below that of the surrounding country. 
The river is constantly changing its course. At one time the Sitpur 
tahsil^ which now forms part of Muzaffargarh District, was on the Dera 
Ghazi Khan side of the river ; and the former heads of the Dhiindi, 
Kutdb, and Kadra canals can still be traced in Muzaffargarh, whilst 
the canals themselves are now on the Dera Ghazi Khan side. Below 
the confluence of the Panjnad with the Indus, a series of large islands 
have been formed in the Indus, which flows now on one side, and 
the next year on the other side of these islands ; and as the river 
here forms the boundary between Dera Ghazi Khan District and 
Bahavvalpur State, many disputes necessarily arise as to the owner- 
ship of land between the villages on either bank. Inundations 
from the Indus of a disastrous character frequently occur, which 
are locally known as dial. Beginning to rise after the melting of 
the interior snows in June, the river gradually swells- till it fills its 
channel, in some places as much as nine miles in width, and finds an 
outlet at certain points into the country beyond, throwing it under water 
for miles around. The river usually rises about 8-J feet in the inunda- 
tion season, but occasionally even higher. The greatest floods on record 
are those of 1833 ^"^ 1841. In the latter year the river is said to have 
travelled as far as Torbela with a velocity of 1 1 miles an hour, and to 
have risen to a height of 20 feet at one of the widest parts of the Shayor 
valley. In 1856, a flood occurred from which the people still calculate 
their dates. The station and cantonment of Dera Gh^zi Khan was 
swept away by this flood, which spread some 10 miles inland. These 
inundations benefit the villages near which they take their rise, and 
in which they deposit their silt. But they impoverish other villages 
which they pass over after having left their silt ; and in those villages 
in which the water remains stagnant, reh efflorescence soon makes its 
appearance. 

Among minerals, iron, copper, and lead are said to exist in 

VOL. IV. o 



2IO DERA GHAZI KHAN. 

the hills, but no mines are worked. Coal of a good quality has 
been discovered in the hills a iQ.\N miles beyond the border, but 
not in veins of sufficient thickness to render its working in any 
way remunerative. Alum is excavated and refined in the extreme 
south of the District. Earth, salt, and saltpetre are also manu- 
factured. Multani 7natti, a saponine earth, of a drab colour and 
somewhat resembling fuller's earth, is found in the hills, and is used 
both medicinally and as a substitute for soap. True fuller's earth is 
also found. Sajji^ a coarse carbonate of soda, is manufactured from the 
burnt ashes of a bush called khar (Salsola griffithii). The jungle 
products include — niunj grass, which is found in great abundance in the 
tracts exposed to the inundations of the Indus. Shakh, a gum obtained 
from the tamarisk, is largely collected for medicinal use as a cooling 
beverage. The wild animals comprise tigers, deer, wild hog, wild asses, 
and numerous feathered game, including black and grey partridges, 
duck, teal, sand grouse, etc. Fish of many sorts abound in the 
Indus. 

History. — The tract between the Sulaiman mountains and the Indus 
appears to have been the seat of a Hindu population from a very 
remote date. Many towns in the District have close associations with 
Hindu legend, and especially with the mythical Punjab hero, Ras^lu. 
Ruins still exist at Sanghar and elsewhere, which probably date 
back to a period earlier than the Muhamm.adan invasion of India; 
while tradition connects the surrounding country with the ancient 
kingdom of Multan (Mooltan), of which it historically forms a part. 
Like the rest of that territory, it fell in the year 712 a.d. before the , 
young Arab conqueror Muhammad Kasim, the first Musalman in- ] 
vader of India. Throughout the period of Muhammadan supremacy, 
the District continued to rank as an outlying appanage of the Multan 
Province. About the year 1450 a.d., the Nahirs, a branch of the Lodi 
family, connected with the dynasty which then sat upon the throne ot ^ 
Delhi, succeeded in establishing an independent government at Kin j 
and Sitpur ; the former town lying in the southern portion of the 
present District, while the latter, by a change in the shifting channel 
of the Indus, has since been transferred to the eastern bank of the river. 
The Nahir dynasty soon extended their dominions for a con- 
siderable distance through the Derajat ; but as time went on, their 
power was circumscribed by the encroachments of Baluchi moun- 
taineers upon the western frontier. Malik Sohrab Baluchi, the first of these 
hardy invaders, was followed by the Mahrani chieftain Haji Khan, 
whose son, Ghazi Khan, gave his name to the city which he founded, 
and to the modern District which lies around it. This event must have 
taken place before the end of the 15th century. The new rulers at 
first held their dominions as vassals of the Multan Government, but 



DERA GHAZI KHAN. 



211 



in the third generation they found themselves strong enough to throw 
off the yoke and proclaim their independence of the Lodi court. 
Eighteen princes of the same family held successively the lower 
Derajat, and bore alternately the names of their ancestors Haji and 
Ghazi Khan. In the extreme south, however, the Nahir rulers con- 
tinued to maintain their position until the early part of the i8th cen- 
tury. Under the house of Akbar, the dynasty of Ghazi Khan made a 
nominal submission to the Mughal Empire ; but though they paid a 
quit-rent, and accepted their lands mjdgir, their practical independence 
remained undisturbed. During the decline of the Mughals, and the 
rise of the rival Durani Empire, the country west of the Indus came 
into the hands of Nadir Shah in 1739. The twentieth successor of 
Ghazi Khan then sat upon the throne of his barren principality ; but 
having made submission to the new suzerain, he was duly confirmed 
in the possession of his family estates. He died shortly after, however, 
leaving no heirs ; and Dera Ghazi Khan became once more, in name at 
least, an integral portion of the Miiltan Province. The date of this 
event, though by no means free from doubt, may be placed in or near 
the year 1758. About the same time, the District appears to have been 
overrun and conquered by the Kalhora kings of Sind, whose relations with 
the feudatories of Ahmad Shah Durani in this portion of their dominions 
are far from clear. In any case, Ahmad Shah's authority would seem 
to have been restored about 1770 by one Mahmiid Giijar, an active 
and enterprising governor, who did good service in excavating canals, 
and bringing the waste land into cultivation. A series of Afghan 
rulers succeeded, under the Durani Emperors; but this period was 
much disturbed by internecine warfare among the Baluchi clans, who 
now held the whole District. Before long, all semblance of order 
disappeared, and a reign of anarchy set in, which only terminated with 
British annexation and the introduction of a firm and peaceable 
government. Canals fell into disrepair ; cultivation declined ; the 
steady and industrious amongst the peasantry emigrated to more 
prosperous tracts ; and the whole District sank into a condition more 
wretched and desolate than that which had prevailed up to the accession 
of Ghazi Khan, three centuries before. 

The town of Dera Ghazi Khan was fpunded by Ghazi Khan, 
and it was not till his time that the District acquired its present 
name. Ghazi Khan died in 1494, and was succeeded by his son 
Haji Khan. For fifteen generations successive Ghazi Khans and 
Haji Khans ruled at Dera Ghazi. The village round the town 
of Dera Ghazi is thus Haji Ghazi. The first grant of the family 
estates by way of imperial jdgir is said to have been made by 
the Emperor Humayiin. Haji Khan 11., son of Ghazi Khan i., 
i^ade further acquistions of territory towards the south, in addition to 



212 DERA GHAZI KHAN. 

the estates acquired by his father and grandfather; and during the dis- 
tracted state of India which preceded the consolidation of the Empire 
under Akbar, the family maintained itself in complete independence. 
It was subsequently reduced to a comparatively dependent position, 
holding its estates merely as a jdgi?' under the Empire. In 1700, 
towards the close of Aurangzeb's reign, one of the Ghazi Khans 
rebelled, and was defeated by the Governor of Multan. The last 
Ghazi Khan died leaving no direct male heir; in 1739, Muhammad 
Shah the Persian ceded all the country west of the Indus to Nadir 
Shah. The kings of Khorasan were therefore the actual rulers of Dera 
Ghazi Khan for thirty-seven years before the dynasty became extinct. 
Nadir Shah was killed in 1747, and was succeeded by Ahmad Snah 
Durani, who was followed by a series of short-reigned Durani 
and Barakzai princes. Meanwhile the Sikh power had been rising 
in the Punjab proper, and culminated under Ranjit Singh in a 
great and consolidated empire. In 1819, the aggressive Maharaja 
extended his conquests in this direction beyond the Indus, and 
annexed the southern portion of the present District. Sadik 
Muhammad Khan, Nawab of Bahdwalpur, received the newly-acquired 
territory as a fief, on payment of an annual tribute to Lahore. In 
1827, the Nawab overran the northern portion of the District, all of 
which passed under the suzerainty of the Sikhs. Three years later, 
however, in 1830, he was compelled to give up his charge in favour 
of General Ventura, the partisan leader of the Lahore forces. In 
1832, the famous Sawan Mall of Multan {see Multan District) took 
over the District in farm ; and his son Mulraj continued in possession 
until the outbreak of hostilities with the British in 1 848. At the close 
of the second Sikh war in the succeeding year, Dera Gh^zi Khan passed, 
with the remainder of the Punjab Province, into the hands of our Govern- 
ment. Since that period, an active and vigilant administration has pre- 
served the District from any more serious incident than the occasional 
occurrence of a frontier raid. The wild hill-tribes have been brought 
into comparative submission, while the restoration of the canals has once 
more made tillage profitable, and largely increased the number of in- 
habitants. The Mutiny of 1857 found Dera Ghazi Khan so peacefully 
disposed, that the protection of the frontier and the civil station could 
be safely entrusted to a home levy of 600 men ; while the greater part 
of the regular troops were withdrawn for service in the field elsewhere. 
On the whole, the District may be cited as a striking instance of the 
prosperity and security afforded by a strong but benevolent Govern- 
ment in a naturally barren tract, formerly desolated by border strife and 
internal anarchy. 

Population. — In 1854 the number of inhabitants was returned at 
238,964. In 1868 it had reached a total of 308,840, showing an 



DERA GHAZl KHAN. 213 

increase for the fourteen years of 69,876 persons, or 29*24 per cent. 
The last Census, that of 1881, taken over an area of 4517 square 
miles, showed a total of 363,346 persons dwelling in 603 villages 
or towns, and in 58,543 houses. These figures yield the follow- 
ing averages : — Persons per square mile, 80 ; villages per square 
mile, -13; houses per square mile, 18; persons per village, 602; 
persons per house, 6*2. Classified according to sex, there were — 
males, 200,667; females, 162,679; proportion of males, 55*23 per 
cent. Classified according to religion, there were 46,697 Hindus; 
315,240 Muhammadans ; 1326 Sikhs ; 82 Christians ; and i unspecified. 
The Musalman element thus amounted to 8677 per cent, of the 
whole population, while the proportion of Hindus and Sikhs together 
was only 13-24 per cent. Among the Muhammadans, 160,405 are 
classed as Jats, a term which appears to include all the agricultural 
tribes, once Hindu, but long since converted to the faith of the 
dominant races from the west, who have more recently settled in the 
District. Foremost among the latter in social and political im- 
portance stand the different Baluchi tribes, who in 1881 numbered 
115,749, or 31-86 per cent, of the whole population. A few Pathans 
(987 1) and Sayyids represent the later colonists in the District. The 
geographical boundary between the Pathan and Baluchi races in the 
hills nearly corresponds with the northern limit of the District ; and 
it follows that the Baluchi's are more numerous in Dera Ghazi 
Khan than in any other portion of the Punjab. The settlers, in 
the western half of the District especially, retain in a very marked 
manner the tribal organization of their native hills. Each clan owes 
allegiance to a hereditary chieftain {tuitianddr)^ assisted by a council 
of head-men who represent the sub-divisions of the clan. Though 
shorn of certain monarchical prerogatives by the necessity of sub- 
mission to an alien rule, the influence of the tiimanddrs still ranks 
paramount for good or for evil ; and our Government has found it 
desirable to rule the clans through their means. They receive 
official recognition, and enjoy certain assignments of land revenue, 
fixed in 1873 ^t ^3600. The Baluchi's, inured to toil, and endowed 
with great powers of endurance, have a special hatred of control, and 
can scarcely be induced to enlist in our army, or to take any regular 
service. The mass of the population live in small hamlets, scattered 
over the face of the country ; and a vast majority subsist by agricultural 
or pastoral pursuits. For further information regarding the Baluchi 
tribes, see the article Baluchistan, vol. ii. pp. 27-40. 

The District contains five municipal towns, only two of which 
have a population exceeding 5000 — Dera Ghazi Khan, 22,309; 
I^AjAL, including Naushahra, with which it forms one municipality, 
7913; Jampur, 4697; Rajanpur, 4932; and Mithankot, 3353. 



214 DERA GHAZI KHAN. 

Dera Ghazi Khdn, the civil and military head-quarters, ranks as a 
trading mart of considerable activity. Rajanpur, in the south of the 
District, 73 miles from head-quarters, is the station of an Assistant 
Commissioner and of a regiment of cavalry. Mithankot, once a busy 
commercial centre, has now sunk into the position of a quiet country 
town. Several Muhammadan shrines of great reputed sanctity are 
scattered over the District, the principal being that of Sakhi Sarwar, 
which is resorted to by Muhammadans and Hindus alike, and is a 
curious mixture of both styles of architecture. One or more annual 
fairs are held at each of these shrines and holy places. 

Agriculture. — The cultivated area of Dera Ghazi Khan has increased 

enormously since the introduction of British rule. Early returns show 

the total area under tillage at 261,065 acres in 1849, and ^^ 276,981 

acres in. 1859 ; while the Punjab Administration Report for 1880-81 

gives a total cultivation of 1,086,413 acres, of which 438,205 received 

artificial irrigation, namely, 270,158 acres by Government works, and 

168,047 by private individuals. The staple crops of the District consist 

of wheat zxi^jodr. The former ranks as the principal produce of the 

rabi or spring harvest in the Sind ; the latter is grown as a kharif or 

autumn crop in the Pachad. Barley, poppy, gram, peas, turnips, and 

mustard also cover a considerable area in the rabi ; while rice, pulses, 

cotton, indigo, tobacco, and oil-seeds form the chief supplementary 

items of the kharif. The estimated area under the principal crops is 

thus returned in 1881 : — Wheat, 180,781 acres; rice, 22,939 acres; 

other cereals, such as jodr (great millet), bdjj'a (spiked millet), kangni 

(Italian millet), makai (Indian corn), jao (barley), 195,486 acres; 

pulses, including gram (Cicer arietinum), moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius), 

matar (peas), mash (Phaseolus radiatus), mung (Phaseolus mungo), 

w^^//r (Ervum lens), ^r/z^r (Caj anus indicus), 18,314 acres; oil-seeds, 

including sarson or mustard, /// (Sesamum orientale), and tdrdmira 

(Sinapis eruca), 28,841 acres; cotton, 99,545 acres; and indigo, 

11,655 acres. Throughout the whole District, cultivation depends 

entirely upon artificial irrigation, derived from three sources,— the 

hill streams, the wells, and the inundation canals from the Indus. 

The last begin to fill, in prosperous years, towards the end of June, 

when the sowings at once commence. The Pachad can only produce 

a good autumn crop if the hill torrents fill some time between May 

and August ; but when rain does not fall until September, the cuUi- 

vator abandons all hope of the kharif and sows his land with wheat 

or some other spring staple. The number of main channels drawing 

their supplies directly from the Indus is 15, two of which belong to 

private proprietors, while the remainder are controlled and kept in 

order by the State. A well, unaided by canal supplies, suffices to 

irrigate an average of 10 acres; with the assistance of a canal, it can 



DERA GHAZr KHAN. 



215 



water an area of 30 acres. In the latter case, however, only half the 
lind is cultivated at a time, and each field lies fallow after every 
second crop. The average out-turn of wheat or jodr per acre amounts 
to 7^^ cwts. ; that of cotton to i cwt. 14 lbs. of cleaned fibre. The 
qcrricultural stock in the District is approximately estimated as follows : 
—Cows and bullocks, 81,901; horses, 2913; ponies, 450; donkeys, 
4722; sheep and goats, 91,015; camels, 6930; ploughs, 12,125. 
The District has no village communities in the sense which the term 
usually implies in India. The villages consist of holdings classified 
into mere artificial groups for purposes of revenue collection. The 
only bond of union between the proprietors consists in their joint 
responsibility for the payment of taxes. The proportion of land be- 
longino' to each proprietor is stated by wells or fractions of a well in 
the Sind, and by band/is or irrigation embankments in the Pachad. 
Eight wells form a large holding, while one-fourth of a w-ell would be 
the smallest amount capable of supporting a cultivating proprietor. 
Rents usually take the shape of a charge in kind upon the produce. 
Tenants-at-will pay from one-seventh to one-half the gross out-turn ; 
a quarter may be regarded as the average. Agricultural labourers 
receive their wages in kind, to the value of from 4id. to 6d. per diem. 
Skilled workmen in the towns earn from is. to is. 3d. per diem. Of a 
total population of 363,340, 179,821 were returned in 1881 as male 
agriculturists, of whom 54,364 were above 15 years of age. Total area 
paying Government revenue or quit-rent, 3944 square miles, of which 
1404 square miles are cultivated, and 1580 square miles cultivable. 
Total Government revenue, including rates and cesses, £^^,2,6^; 
estimated value of rental paid by cultivators, ;^92,395. The prevailing 
prices per cwt. for the principal agricultural staples in 1880-81, are 
returned as follows: — Wheat, 9s. 8d. ; flour, 11 s. 2d.; best rice, 
17s. iid. ; barley, 6s. 8d. ; gram, 8s. id. ; Jodr, 6s. 9d. ; bdjra, 8s. 9d. ; 
cleaned cotton, ;^2, us. 2d. ; and sugar (refined), ^£2, i6s. 

Com77ierce and Trade, etc. — Petty Hindu merchants, settled in almost 
every village, entirely control the trade of the District. Their deal- 
ings centre chiefly in the commercial town of Dera Ghazi Khan. 
The Indus forms the high road of traffic. Mithankot, just below its 
junction with the united stream of the Punjab rivers, was long the 
mercantile capital of the District ; but a diversion of the navigable 
channel 5 miles to the east has turned the course of traffic to the 
head-quarters town. Thence, indigo, opium, dates, wheat, cotton, 
barley, millet, ghi, and hides, are despatched down the river to Sukkur 
(Sakkar) and Karachi (Kurrachee). The annual value of the opium 
exported amounts to ;£2 5oo ; that of indigo probably exceeds 
;£io,ooo. The grain of all kinds may be estimated at ^60,000. 
Sugar, gram, woollen goods, English piece-goods and broadcloth, 



2i6 DERA GHAZI KHAN. 

metals, salt, and spices form the principal items of the import trade. 
Little traffic at present exists with the country beyond the hills, owing 
to the turbulence of the independent Baluchi tribes. Commercial 
importance has lately attached to the annual religious gathering at 
the shrine of a Muhammadan saint, Sakhi Sarwar. The chief means 
of communication consist of— the Frontier military road, which passes 
through the District from north to south ; the river road from Dera 
Ghazi Khan to Sukkur ; and the road from the head-quarters station 
to Multan, crossing the Indus at the Kureshi ferry. None of these 
are metalled, but they cross the canals and hill-streams for the most 
part by means of bridges. The total length of unmetalled roads within 
the District amounted in 1882 to 1565 miles. The length of navigable 
river communication is 235 miles. 

Administration. — The District staff ordinarily comprises a Deputy 
Commissioner, with a judicial Assistant Commissioner, two Assistant 
and one extra-Assistant Commissioners, besides the usual fiscal, con- 
stabulary, and medical officers. The total amount of revenue (ex- 
cluding income-tax) raised in the District in 1861-62 was returned at 
^2^37, 182. In 1882-83 it had reached the sum of £a9->1Z9' The 
land-tax forms the principal item of receipt, yielding (exclusive of 
canal collections) in 1882-83 a total of £2>S^o2o, or four-fifths of the 
whole. The other chief items are stamps and excise. In 1882-83, 
the District contained 16 civil and revenue courts of all grades, 
and 18 magistrates' courts. The regular or Imperial police in 1882 
consisted of a force of 394 men, of whom 303 were available 
for protective or defensive duties, the remainder being employed 
as guards over jails, treasuries, etc. There is also a river patrol 
of 28, and a municipal force of 84 men. As regards crime, out 
of 896 ' cognisable ' cases investigated during the year, convictions 
were obtained in 436 ; the total number of persons arrested in 
connection with these cases was 1226, of whom 803 were finally 
convicted. Cattle theft is described as the normal crime of the Dis- 
trict, an offence which, owing to the large tracts of waste and jungle, 
is very difficult to deal with; 192 cases occurred in 1881. Murder is 
also a common offence; 19 such cases occurred in 1 881, of which 
conviction was obtained in 10. The District jail at Dera Ghazi Khan, 
a large and substantial building, had a daily average number of 372 
prisoners in 1880. The Rajanpur lock-up during the same year had 
a daily average of 80 inmates. The military force maintained in the 
District for the protection of the frontier comprises 2 regiments of in- 
fantry and 2 of cavalry. One regiment of cavalry and one company of 
infantry are stationed at Rajanpur ; and the remainder at Dera Ghazi 
Khdn. A force of mounted militia, levied among the Baluchi tribes 
of the Pachid, assists the regular troops in the maintenance of order. 



DERA GHAZI KHAN TAHSIL AND TOWN. 217 

In 1882-83, the District had only 40 regularly-inspected schools, 
with a total roll of 1895 scholars. There were also, according to Dr. 
G. F. Leitner's Report, a total of 179 indigenous village schools, in 
which education of some sort is imparted to about 1650 children. 
The five municipalities of Dera Ghazi Khan, Jampur, Rajanpur, 
Mithankot, and Dijal Avith Naushahra, had an aggregate revenue in 
1882-83 oi £^1^'^, and an expenditure of ^5255 ; average incidence 
of taxation, is. iid. per head of municipal population. 

Medical Aspects. — Dera Ghazi Khan cannot be considered an 
unhealthy District, although the heat in summer often reaches an 
intense degree. The annual rainfall for the eighteen years ending 
1880 averaged only 7-06 inches, the maximum during that period 
being io-8 inches in 1869-70. The total rainfall in 1880 was 
only 4"2 inches. Fever of the ordinary type prevails in August 
and September, when cold nights alternate with hot days. In 
June and July, a scorching and unhealthy wind sweeps down from 
the hills into the Pachad. Four charitable dispensaries gave relief 
in 1881 to 52,781 persons, of whom 1381 were in-patients; total 
expenditure on dispensaries in 1881, £\\o(^^ of which jQdio was 
derived from local sources, and ^468 contributed by Government. 
[For further information regarding Dera Ghazi Khan District, see the 
forthcoming /^?^;z/^^ Gazetteer; also Mr. F. W. R. Yry^r's Report 07i the 
Settlejfient Operations from 1869 to 1874; together with the Punjab 
Census Report for 1881, and the Punjab Administration and Depai-t- 
mental Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Dera Ghazi Khan. — Tahsil of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, 
consisting of a narrow strip of land between the Indus and the Sulai- 
man mountains. Lat. 29° 36' to 30° 30' 30" n., and long. 70° 11' to 
70° 59' E. Area, 1362 square miles. Population (1881) 159,733, 
namely, males 88,120, and females 71,613. Persons per square mile, 
117. Hindus numbered 22,750; Sikhs, 525; Muhammadans, 136,388; 
and 'others,' 70. Revenue of the tahsil, ;£i8,426. The administrative 
staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner, a Judicial Assistant, 2 Assistant 
or extra-Assistant Commissioners, i tahsilddr, i munsif, and 3 honorary 
magistrates. These officers preside over 8 civil and 8 criminal courts. 
Number of police stations, 4; strength of regular pohce, 105 men; 
with 68 village watchmen. 

Dera Ghazi Khan. — Town and administrative head-quarters of 
I)era Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. Lat. 30° 3' n., and long. 70° 50' e. 
Situated in lat. 30° 3' 57" n., and long. 70° 49' e., about 2 
miles west of the present bed of the Indus, which once flowed 
past its site. Population (1881) 22,309, namely 10,140 Hindus, 
11,687 Muhammadans, 413 Sikhs, and 69 Christians. Number 
of houses, 3159. The Kasturi Canal skirts its eastern border, 



2i8 DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 

fringed with thickly-planted gardens of mango trees ; while ghats line 
the banks, thronged in summer by numerous bathers. Above the 
town stands a massive dam, erected in 1858 as a protection against 
inundations. A mile to the west lies the civil station, and the canton- 
ments adjoin the houses of the District officials. The original station 
stood to the east of the town, but disappeared during the flood of 1857. 
The town owes its foundation to Ghazi Khan Mahrani, a Baluch settler 
in the District, who made himself independent in this remote tract 
about the year 1475. ^^ ^^^ continued ever since to be the seat of 
local administration under the successive Governments which have 
ruled the surrounding country. i^See Dera Ghazi Khan District.) 
The court-house occupies the reputed site of Ghazi Khan's garden; 
while the tahsili and police office replace an ancient fort, levelled 
at the time of the English annexation. The other public buildings 
include a town hall, school-house, dispensary, staging bungalow, and 
post-office. A handsome bazar has several good shops, built on a 
uniform plan. Many large and striking mosques adorn the town, the 
chief being those of Ghazi Khan, Abdul Jawar, and Chiitd Khan. 
The Sikhs converted three of them into temples of their own faith 
during their period of supremacy. Two Muhammadan saints are also 
honoured with shrines, and the earlier religion has four temples dedi- 
cated to Hindu gods. The trade of Dera Ghdzi Khan is not large : 
exports — indigo, opium, dates, wheat, cotton, barley, millet, ghi, and 
hides ; imports— sugar, Kabul fruits, English piece-goods, metal, salt, 
and spices. Silk and cotton manufacture, formerly thriving, has now 
declined. Weekly fair on the banks of the canal during the summer 
months. Ordinary garrison, i cavalry and 2 infantry regiments of the 
Punjab Frontier force. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;£26i9; ex- 
penditure, ^^3380 ; average incidence of municipal taxation, 2s. 4|d. 
per head. 

Dera Ismdil Khan. — District in the Derajat Division of the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab (Panjab), lying between 30° 36' 
and 32° 33' N. lat., and between 70° 14' and 72° 2' e. long.; with an 
area of 9296 square miles, and a population (1881) of 441^649 persons. 
Dera Ismail Khan forms the central District of the Derajat Division. 
It consists of a strip of country stretching from the foot of the Sulaiman 
Hills, across the hills into the Thai of the Sind Sagar Doab. It is 
bounded on the north by Bannu District; on the east by Jhang 
and Shahpur ; on the south by Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh ; 
and on the west by the Sulaiman mountains, which separate India 
from Afghanistan. Its average length from north to south is about no 
miles, and its average width about 80 miles. It is divided into 5 
tahsils, of which that of Tank occupies the extreme north-western 
corner of the District. The remainder of the Trans-Indus tract is 



DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 219 

divided between the tahsils of Dera Ismail Khan and Kulachi. The 
cis-Indus area is divided by a line running east and west into the 
two tahsils of Bhakkar and Leiah, the former comprising the northern 
portion. These two tahsils constitute a separate Sub-division, and are 
in charge of an Assistant Commissioner stationed at Bhakkar. The 
administrative head-quarters of the District are at the town of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Dera Ismail Khan, a purely arti- 
ficial creation for administrative purposes, comprises two distinct tracts 
d country, stretching from the Sulaiman mountains across the valley 
of the Indus far into the heart of the Sind Sagar Doab. The channel 
of the great river thus divides it into two sections, each of which 
possesses a history and physical characteristics of its own. To the west, 
the Sulaiman mountains rise barren and precipitous above the hard 
alluvial plain, ascending in a series of parallel ridges, which culminate 
nearly opposite Dera Ismail Khan in the two peaks of Takht-i-Sulaiman, 
11,295 and 11,070 feet respectively above the level of the sea. The 
range is the home of various independent tribes, responsible to our 
Government for the maintenance of peace upon the frontier, and the 
prevention of robbery among the passes. Numerous mountain torrents 
score the hill-sides, and cut for themselves deep and intricate ravines in 
the plain below; but Uttle of their water reaches the Indus even in times 
of heavy flood. Only one among them, the Gumal or Lilni, is a perennial 
stream. On the north, some low and stony spurs project into the 
valley, till finally the Shaikh-Budin range closes the view upward and 
separates this District from that of Bannu. Near the Indus, a third 
rugged group, the Khisor Hills, intervenes between the Shaikh-Budin 
system and the river, which is overhung by its eastern face in a precipi- 
tous mass, some 3000 feet above the sea. From this point the plain 
stretches southward along the river-side, till it merges in the similar 
tract of Dera Ghazi Khan District. Sloping downwards from the 
feet of the Sulaiman range through an intermediate barren belt, it 
gradually attains a lower level, at which percolation from the Indus 
makes its influence felt. Cultivation soon becomes general, and the 
soil of this lowland tract supports a population of considerable density. 
In the summer months, the river, rising 6 feet above its cold-weather 
level, submerges the country for 11 miles inland; while canals and 
natural channels convey its fertilizing waters to a still greater distance 
from the main stream on either side. The principal channel shifts from 
year to year, causing great alteration in the conditions of agriculture. 
The eastern or Sind Sagar portion of the District consists in part of a 
similar irrigated lowland, lying along the edge of the Indus. The limit 
of this favoured tract is marked by an abrupt bank, the outer margin of 
a high plateau, the Thai, which stretches across the Doab to the valley 



2 20 DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 

of the Jehlam (Jhelum). Below this bank, wide patches of closely- 
cultivated soil, interspersed with stretches of rank grass, or broken by- 
occasional clumps of trees, meet the eye; but above appears the 
ordinary monotony of a Punjab desert, extending in a level surface 
of sand, or rolling into rounded hillocks and long undulating dunes. 
Yet the soil beneath is naturally rich ; and unless the rainfall entirely 
fails, a yearly crop of grass pushes its way through the sandy covering, 
and suffices to support vast flocks of sheep and cattle. Patches of 
scrubby jungle here and there diversify the scene ; while the coarse 
vegetation of the general surface affords excellent fodder for camels. 
Cultivation, however, can only be carried on by means of laborious 
artificial irrigation from deep wells, and nothing but the brave and 
steady industry of the inhabitants renders life possible in this sterile 
region. 

Iron is produced in the Waziri hills, but no metals exist within 
the District itself. Traces of lignite and a little alum, naphtha, yellow 
ochre, and saltpetre are found in the Shaikh-Budin range. Sajji^ an 
impure carbonate of soda, is sometimes manufactured for sale, but 
chiefly by washermen for their private use. No quarries of any sort 
are worked. The hills supply abundance of limestone for building 
purposes. As regards wild animals, the antelope is unknown, and 
only a i^"^ ravine and hog-deer are found. Game is rapidly disap- 
pearing, owing to the increase of cultivation. The tiger is extinct ; 
and even wild hog are only to be found in certain outlying tracts. 
The wild ass {ghor-k/ior) has entirely disappeared from the District. 
Hares were formerly numerous, but were drowned out during a high 
flood in 1874, and hardly one is now left. Occasionally wolves, foxes, 
and jackals are found, and a few leopards haunt the Shaikh-Budin 
hills. Otters are common in the Indus, where they are caught by 
the Kehars, a wandering tribe, and used in hunting fish. A species 
of field mouse is often very destructive to the crops. Game birds 
consist of wild duck, wild goose, sand grouse, quail, grey and black 
partridges, chikor^ snipe, etc. The great bustard is occasionally met 
with, and the small bustard affords good sport for hawking. The 
fisheries are confined to the Indus and its tributaries. 

History. — The massive ruins of two ancient forts, overlooking the 
Indus from projecting spurs of the northern hills, alone bear witness to 
an early civilisation in the Upper Derajat. Both bear the name of 
Kafir Kot (infidel's fort), probably connecting their origin with the 
Grae'co-Bactrian period of Punjab history. The plain portion of the 
District contains none of those ancient mounds which elsewhere mark 
the sites of ruined cities. But the earliest traditions current in this 
remote quarter refer to its later colonization by immigrants from the 
south, who found the country entirely unoccupied. The Baluchi 



DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 221 

settlers, under Malik Sohrab, arrived in the District towards the end of 
the 15th century. Plis two sons, Ismail Khan and Fateh Khan, 
founded the towns which still bear their names. The Hot family, as 
this Baluchi dynasty was termed, in contradistinction to the Mahrani 
house of Dera Ghazi Khan, held sway over the upper Derajat for 300 
years, with practical independence, until reduced to vassalage by 
Ahmad Shah Durani about 1750 a.d. Beyond the Indus, too, the 
first important colony settled under the auspices of another Baluchi 
chieftain, whose descendants, surnamed Jaskani, placed their capital for 
nearly three centuries at Bhakkar in the eastern lowlands of the great 
river. Farther south, the family of Ghazi Khan established several 
settlements, the chief of which gathered round the tow^n of Leiah. 
About the year 1759, the Khans of Leiah were involved in the conquest 
of the parent family by the Kalhora kings of Sind. Shortly afterwards, 
Ahmad Shah Durdni became supreme over the whole of the present 
District. In 1792, Shah Zaman, then occupying the Durani throne, 
conferred the government of this dependency, together with the title 
of Nawab, upon Muhammad Khan, an Afghan of the Sadozai tribe, 
related to the famous governors of Multan (Mooltan). Armed with 
the royal grant, Muhammad Khan made himself master of almost all 
the District, and built himself a new capital at Mankera. He died in 
1815, after a prosperous reign of twenty-three years. His grandson, Sher 
Muhammad Khdn, succeeded to the principality, under the guardian- 
ship of his father, the late Nawab's son-in-law. Ranjit Singh, however, 
was then engaged in consolidating his powxr by the subjection of the 
lower Punjab. Nothing daunted by the difficulties of a march across 
the desert, the great Sikh leader advanced upon Mankera, sinking wells 
as he approached for the supply of his army. After a siege of twxnty-five 
days, the fortress surrendered, and the w^hole Sind Sagar Doab lay at the 
mercy of the conqueror. The young Nawdb retired beyond the Indus 
to Dera Ismail Khan, retaining his dominions in the Derajat for fifteen 
years, subject to a quit-rent to the Sikhs, but otherwise holding the 
position of a semi-independent -prince. His tribute, how^ever, fell into 
arrears; and in 1836, Nao Nihal Singh crossed the Indus at the head 
of a Sikh army, and annexed the remaining portion of the District 
to the territories of Lahore. The Nawab received an assignment of 
revenue for his maintenance, still retained by his descendants, together 
with their ancestral title. 

Under Sikh rule, the cis-Indus tract formed part of the Multan 
Province, administered by Sdwan Mall and his son Mulraj {see Multan 
District). The upper Derajat, on the other hand, was farmed 
out to the Diwan Laki Mall, from whom it passed to his son, 
Daulat Rai. British influence first made itself felt in 1847, when 
Lieutenant (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes, being despatched 



22 2 DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 

to the frontier as Political Officer under the Council of Regency at 
Lahore, effected a summary assessment of the land-tax. In the suc- 
ceeding year, levies from Dera Ismail Khan followed Edwardes to 
Multan, and served loyally throughout the war that ended in the 
annexation of the Punjab. The District then passed quietly under 
British rule. On the first sub-division of the Province, Dera Ismail 
Khan became the head-quarters of a District, which also originally 
included the trans-Indus portion of Bannu ; Leiah was erected into 
the centre of a second District east of the river. The present arrange- 
ment took effect in 1861, Bannu being entrusted to a separate officer, 
and the southern half of Leiah District being incorporated with Dera 
Ismail Khan. In 1857, some traces of a mutinous spirit appeared 
amongst the troops in garrison at the head-quarters station ; but the 
promptitude and vigour of the Deputy Commissioner, Colonel Coxe, 
loyally aided by a hasty levy of local horse averted the danger 
without serious difficulty. In 1870, the District attracted for a time 
a melancholy attention through the death of Sir Henry Durand, 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, who struck against an arch and 
was precipitated from his elephant as he entered a gateway in the town 
of Tank. His remains were interred at Dera Ismail Khan. 

Population. — The changes of territory in the cis Indus portion of the 
District since the Census of 1855, render it impossible to institute a 
comparison between that enumeration and the returns of 1868 and 
1 88 1. In the trans-Indus Sub-division, however, which remains sub- 
stantially unaltered in extent, a considerable increase took place between 
those dates. The Census of 1881 was taken over a total area of 9296 
square miles, and it disclosed a total population of 441,649 persons, 
distributed among 746 villages or townships, and inhabiting an aggre- 
gate of 88,908 houses. These figures yield the following averages : — 
Persons per square mile, 47 ; villages per square mile, o*o8 ; houses per 
square mile, 9'56 ; persons per village, 592 ; persons per house, 4*95. 
Classified according to sex, there were — males, 238,468 ; females, 
203,181 ; proportion of males, 53*99 per cent. As regards the religious 
distinctions of the people, Dera Ismail Khan contains an essentially 
Muhammadan population, as might be expected from the late date and 
quarter of its colonization. The Census showed 385,244 Musalmans, 
54,446 Hindus, 1691 Sikhs, 2 Jains, 13 Parsis, and 253 Christians. 
Amongst the Hindus, the Aroras form by far the largest element, 
numbering as many as 44,146 persons; they comprise the principal 
trading classes of the District, a few wealthy families being found in the 
larger towns, while the majority carry on business as petty dealers in 
corn or money throughout the country villages. The mass of the 
agricultural population are Jats, the great majority of whom profess the 
Muhammadan religion, but are of Hindu or Scythian origin. Their 



DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 223 

ancestors, according to tradition, accompanied the Baluchi chieftains on 
the first colonization of the District. The Pathans or Afghans occupy a 
strip of country extending immediately below the Sulaiman hills, through- 
out their whole length from north to south. Most of them belong to 
inconspicuous tribes, the highest in social position being connected 
with the Sadozai Nawabs of Dera Ismail Khan. In 1881, Pathans 
numbered 73,022. Only three towns contained a population exceeding 
5000 in 1881 — namely, Dera Ismail Khan, Kulachi, and Leiah. 
The municipal towns in 1881 were as follows: — (i) Dera Ismail 
[Khan, 22,164; (2) Kulachi, 7834; (3) Leiah, 5899; (4) Bhakkar, 
4402; (5) Karor, 2723; (6) Paharpur, 2496. Tank (population, 
2364) is the capital of an Afghan Principality till lately ruled by its 
semi-independent Nawab, but now brought directly under British 
administration. The sanitarium of Shaikh-Budin, at an elevation of 
4516 feet above sea-level, occupies the highest point in the hills which 
separate this District from Bannu. The seven municipal towns con- 
tained in 1881 a total of 47,882 inhabitants, leaving 393,767, or 89"i 
per cent., for the rural population. With regard to occupation, the 
Census Report returns the male population under the following seven 
main divisions: — Class (i) Professional, including civil and military 
officials and the learned professions, 6671 ; (2) domestic servants, 
lodging-house keepers, etc., 2631 ; (3) commercial class, including mer- 
chants, dealers, carriers, etc., 9960; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 
including gardeners, 68,931 ; (5) industrial and artisan and manufac- 
turing class, 23,634 ; (6) labourers, and unspecified, 29,576 ; (7) male 
children below 15 years of age, 97,065. 

Agriculture. — Throughout all portions of Dera Ismail Khan District, 
tillage depends entirely upon artificial irrigation. The hill streams 
render but scanty service in this respect, their volume being speedily 
lost in the intricate ravines which they have cut for themselves through 
the hard clay of the submontane tract. Nevertheless they afford to the 
Afghans of the border a chance of raising some few crops, sufficient for 
their own frugal subsistence. In the low-lying lands within the influence 
of the Indus, canals and wells offer an easy and abundant supply of 
water ; but in the Thai or Sind Sagar uplands, wells can only be worked 
at an enormous depth. Even here, however, the indomitable energy 
of the Jat cultivators succeeds in producing harvests not inferior to 
those of the richest alluvial tracts. The State does not maintain any 
irrigation works in this District; but in 1880, a total of 370,579 acres 
were artificially watered by private enterprise. The area cultivated 
without irrigation amounted to 435,432 acres, giving a grand total of 
806,011 acres under cultivation. The remainder of the District falls 
under the following heads: — Grazing lands, 806,791 acres; cultivable 
waste, 3,204,918 acres; uncultivable waste, 1,131,900 acres. Wheat 



2 24 DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 

and barley form the staple products of the rabi or spring harvest, while 
the common millets, /(^i/- and bdji'a^ constitute the principal kharifoi 
autumn crops. Sugar and tobacco are grown in the lowlands of the 
Indus, but not in sufficient quantities to meet the local demand. In 
1880, the area in acres under the principal staples were returned as 
follows : — Wheat, 283,433 acres ; rice, 1673 ; jodr (great millet), 18,360 
bdjra (spiked millet), 110,825 ; 7nakai (Indian corn), 542 ; Jao (barley), 
28,358; china (Panicum miliaceum), 600 acres; pulses, including gram 
(Cicer arietinum), jnoth (Phaseolus aconitium), matar or peas (Pisum 
sativum), 77iash (Phaseolus radiatus), miuig (Phaseolus mungo), masiii 
(Ervum lens), arhar (Cajanus indica), 39,270 acres; oil-seeds, 33,723 
acres; cotton, 9939 acres. Of a total population of 441,649, 215,714 
are returned as male agriculturists, of whom 60,925 were above fifteen 
years of age. Total area paying Government revenue or quit-rent, 7989 
square miles, of which 1056 square miles are returned as cultivated, 
and 4329 as cultivable. Total Government revenue, including rates 
and cesses in 1881, ;£"49,86o; estimated value of rental, including 
cesses, actually paid by cultivators, ;£^io7,54i. 

Throughout the District, village communities of the ordinary types 
prevail, though many of them, especially among the Pathans of the 
frontier, appear to have adopted the communal system only as a con- 
sequence of British fiscal arrangements. Elsewhere, in the Jat villages, 
the existence of immemorial common lands attests the indigenous 
nature of the institution. Rents are universally paid in kind, at rates 
which range as high as one-half of the gross produce. The agricultural 
stock in the District is approximately estimated as follows : — Cows and 
bullocks, 182,257; horses, 3228; ponies, 496 ; donkeys, 11,146; sheep 
and goats, 485,308; camels, 10,738; ploughs, 58,940. Unskilled, 
labourers in towns received from 4jd. to 6d. per diem in 1881 ; while 
skilled workmen obtained from is. to is. 3d. The prevailing prices 
per cwt. for the principal food-grains and agricultural staples in January 
1881 is stated as under: — Wheat, los. lod. ; flour, 12s. 5d. ; barley, 
7s. 3d. ; gram, 8s. ; Indian corn, 6s. i id. ; jodr, 6s. ; bdjra, 7s. 6d. ; rice 
(best), j[^\, 4s. 2d. ; cotton, £^2, i6s. od. ; sugar (refined), j[^2, iis. 2d. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — One of the main streams of caravan traffic 
between India and Khordsan traverses the District twice a year. The 
Povindah merchants cross the Gumal Pass between Tank and Kulachi 
from early in October till the middle of December, and, after passing, 
on into India proper, return again in April or May. They seldom, | 
however, unpack any portion of their wares in the local markets. The 
traffic of the District centres in the towns of Dera Ismail Khan, Leiah, 
and Bhakkar. Wheat, millet, and wool are thence despatched down 
the Indus to Multan (Mooltan), Sukkur (Sakkar), or Karachi (Kur- 
rachee), while Indian and English piece-goods form the staples of 



DERA ISMAIL KHAN. 225 

import trade. Hides from Shahpur and Jhang, salt from Kohat and 
Find Dadan Khan, and fancy ware of various kinds from Multan and 
Sukkur, also figure upon the list of entries. Dera Ismail Khan town 
and many villages have considerable manufactures of coarse cloth fur 
domestic use. The main channels of communication consist of — the 
Frontier military road, which skirts the base of the hills from north to 
south ; the Multan and Rawal Pindi road, which follows the high right 
bank of the Indus, via Kot Sultan, Leiah, Kharor, and Bhakkar; and 
the line from Dera Ismail Khan to Jhang, and thence to Chichawatni 
on the Lahore and Multan Railway. They are all practicable in 
ordinary seasons by wheeled conveyances or artillery. The Indus is 
bridged at Dera Ismail Khan, opposite the cantonments, by a bridge 
of boats, from early in October till the end of April. This boat bridge 
is the longest of the kind in the Punjab, if not in India. The total 
length of roads within the District in i88o-8r amounted to 31 miles of 
metalled and 1538 miles of unmetalled roads. Water communication 
is afforded by 120 miles of navigable river (the Indus). 

Administration. — The District staff ordinarily comprises a Deputy 
Commissioner, with one Assistant and three extra-Assistant Commis- 
sioners, besides the usual fiscal, constabulary, and medical officers. 
The total amount of revenue raised in the District during the year 
1880-81 was returned at;^59,286; of which sum, ^17,542 was con- 
tributed by the land-tax. A local revenue of about ^5000 provides 
for objects of public utility within the District itself In 1880-81, 
Dera Ismail Khan possessed 16 civil and revenue judges of all grades, 
2 of whom were covenanted civilians ; there were also 2 1 magistrates 
with criminal jurisdiction. The regular or Imperial police in 1881 
consisted of a force of 505 men, of whom 387 were available for pro- 
tective or defensive duties, the remainder being employed as guards 
over jails, treasuries, etc. There was also in the same year a municii)al 
force of 68 men, and a ferry police of 9 men. As regards crime, out 
of 633 ' cognisable ' cases investigated by the police during the year, 
convicdons were obtained in 393 ; the total number of persons arrested 
in connection with these cases was 954, of whom 703 were finally 
convicted. The District jail at Dera Ismail Khan received a total 
number of 1470 inmates in 1880; while the .daily average of prisoners 
for that and the two preceding years was 579. Education still remains 
at a low standard. The District contained 30 schools supported or 
aided by the Government in 1880-81, with an aggregate roll of 1996 
scholars. The Church Missionary Society has an educational station 
at Dera Ismail Khan, in receipt of a grant-in-aid from Government. 
I he troops quartered in the District, for the defence of the Frontier, 
comprise 2 regiments of infantry, i regiment of cavalry, and a battery 
of field artillery, amounting in all to 2200 rank and file of all arms, 

VOL. IV. P 



226 DERA ISMAIL KHAN TAHSIL AND TOWN. 

with 4 guns. The head-quarters are at Dera Ismail Khan. A small 
force of local militia supplements the regular troops in the outpost 
stations upon the Frontier. The 6 municipal towns had an aggregate 
revenue in 1880-81 of ;£"5635 ; expenditure, ^5765 ; average incidence, 
2S. 4jd. per head of municipal population. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of the District is dry and hot, the 
average monthly mean for a period of twelve years ending 1880 being 
73*9° R, ranging from 927° in June to 51-5° in January. In 1880, the 
thermometer registered a maximum temperature of 114*5° i^ May, and 
a minimum of 56*2° in December. Up to the middle of May, the 
climate is tolerable for Europeans ; but after that date, the season of 
fierce summer-heat sets in. The average annual rainfall for a period of 
eighteen years ending 1880 amounted to only 8*89 inches. In the 
latter year the rainfall was only 4 inches. The rainy season, or tather 
the period of occasional showers, occurs during the months of June, 
July, August, and September. Malarious fever, dysentery, and small- 
pox form the prevalent diseases of the District. The head-quarters 
station, however, bears a good reputation from a sanitary point of view. 
Six charitable dispensaries afforded relief in 1881 to 45,872 persons, of 
whom 1 164 were in-patients. [For further information regarding Dera 
Ismail Khan District, see the forthcoming Punjab Gazetteer ; also 
the Settlement Operations from 1872 to 1879, quoted in Mr. Stack's 
Settlement Memorandum., p. 313 ; Mauzdwdr or Village Survey ., by 
No. I Party (Revenue Branch), under Lieut. Col. D. Macdonald, 
quoted p. 26 of the Ad?ninistratio7i Report of the Survey Department 
for 1881-82. Also the Pimjab Census Report for 1881, and the 
Punjab Administration and Departmental Repo?'ts from 1880 to 
1883.] 

Dera Ismail Khan. — Tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab, 
consisting of a narrow strip of land between the Sulaiman mountains 
and the Indus. Lat. 31° 20' to 32° 2)Z n., and long. 70° 33' 30" to 
71° 25' E. Area, 1673 square miles. Population (1881) 120,142, 
namely, males 64,626, and females 55,516 ; average density of popu- 
lation, 72 persons per square mile. Hindus number 15,674; Sikhs, 
721; Muhammadans, 103,501 ; 'others,' 246. Revenue of the tahsil, 
^9997 . The administrative staff, which includes the Divisional 
head-quarters, consists of the Commissioner of the Division, with a 
Deputy Commissioner, Judicial Assistant, 2 Assistant Commissioners, 
a ta/isilddr, a munsif, 2 honorary magistrates. These officers preside 
over 8 civil and 8 criminal courts ; number of police stations, 3 ; 
strength of regular police, 102 men ; number of village watch {chauki- 
ddrs), 135. 

Dera Ismail Khan. — Town, cantonment, and administrative head- 
quarters of Dera Ismail Khan District and the Dera Jat Division, Punjab. 



DERA ISMAIL KHAN TOWN, 227 

Lat. 31° 50' N., long. 70° 59' E. Population (1881) 22,164, namely, 
8862 Hindus, 12,440 Muhammadans, 680 Sikhs, 2 Jains, and 180 
'others.' Distant from the right bank of the Indus 4J miles west, from 
Lahore 200 miles west, and from Multan (Mooltan) 120 miles north- 
west. Founded in the end of the 15th century by Ismail Khan, one 
of the sons of the Baluch adventurer Malik Sohrab, who called the 
town after his own name. 

The original city was swept away by a flood in 1823, and all 
the existing buildings are of quite modern construction. The town 
stands on a level plain, with a slight fall to the river, but so badly 
drained that pools of water collect for weeks after heavy rain, and 
many of the streets become impassable. Surrounded by a thin mud 
wall, with five gates, enclosing an area of about 500 acres. Tortuous 
and ill-ventilated alleys, especially in the Hindu quarter. The 
cantonments, which lie to the south-east of the town, contain a total 
area of 4f square miles. Lines exist for a regiment of Native cavalry, 
two regiments of Native infantry, and a battery of artillery. The canton- 
ments also contain a church, staging bungalow, and swimming-bath. 
European detachments garrison the small fort of Akalgarh, half a mile 
from the north-west angle of the town. The ordinary garrison of the 
station consists of a mountain battery of artillery, a regiment of Native 
cavalry, and two of infantry, belonging to the Punjab Frontier Force, 
and commanded by the general officer commanding the force at 
Abbottabad. Detachments from these regiments garrison the out- 
posts of Tank, Girni, Jatta, Manjhi, and Drabad. Ten militia posts are 
also maintained, exclusive of border police posts. 

The civil station, which lies to the south of the native town, contains 
the offices of the Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner, the court- 
house, treasury, jail, police lines, post-office, and dispensary. The 
Church Missionary Society has an important station, and supports a 
considerable school. In time of flood, the whole strip of land between 
the town and the river is covered by the inundations. The town is 
traversed by two main bazars running at right angles to each other, 
and intersected at the centre, which is the most crowded part, 
and is thronged with Povindah traders in the cold weather. Both 
the main hdzdrs are paved, and have been recently widened and 
provided with saucer-shaped drains along the main streets. The 
town itself is very well planned, though somewhat straggling. One 
specially good feature is the arrangement by which the Muhammadans 
and Hindus have each separate quarters ; and hence quarrels between 
the rival religions are of rare occurrence. The native town is of 
quite modern construction, and contains but few buildings of interest. 
It is, however, one of the most aristocratic towns in the Punjab, 
with a large number of resident native noblemeU; Pathans, or Mul- 



228 DERAJAT—DERA NANAK. 

tinis, including 4 Nawabs. The old town was situated some four 
miles to the east of the present site, on the bank of the Indus. It 
stood in a large wood of date trees, and probably resembled the 
present town of Dera Ghazi Khan. 

The trade of Dera Ismail Khan ranks as of second-rate importance 
only, but some foreign traffic with Khorasan passes through in the 
course of transit. Povindah caravans of Afghan merchants traverse 
the town twice a year, on their road to and from India. Chief 
imports — English and native piece-goods, hides, salt, and fancy wares ; 
principal exports — grain, wool, and ghi. Manufacture of scarves and 
inlaid wood-work. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;£'35ii ; municipal 
expenditure, ^3501 ; average incidence of taxation, 3s. 2d. per head 
of population within municipal limits. 

Derajat. — Division or Commissionership in the Punjab, situated 
between 28° 27' and 33° 15' n. lat., and between 69° 35' and 72° 2' e., 
occupying the valley of the Indus; comprising the three Districts 
of Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Bannu, each of 
which see separately. Area, 17,681 square miles, with 1809 villages 
and 17 towns; number of houses, 204,557. Population, 1,137,572, 
namely, Muhammadans, 1,001,486; Hindus, 131,786; Sikhs, 3807; 
Jains, 62; Parsis, 13; Christians, 417; unspecified, i. The Jats, 
who comprise the most important section of the population, number 
419,665, and are almost exclusively Muhammadans in religion. 
Pathans, all Muhammadans, come next, with 223,915 ; Rajputs, nearly 
all Muhammadans, number 7726; Brahmans, 7740; Khattris, or 
Hindu landholders and traders, 7686; Shaikhs, 21,784; Mughals, 
1930. The total area of the Division paying Government assess- 
ment amounts to 15,609 square miles, of which 3334 square miles 
were returned as cultivated in 1881, and 68,909 square miles as 
cultivable. 

Dera Nanak. — Town in Batala tahsil, Gurdaspur District, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 5956, namely, 1521 Hindus, 2409 Muhammadans, 
and 2026 Sikhs; number of houses, 1057. Lies in lat. 32° 2' 15" n., 
long. 75° 4' E., on the banks of the river Ravi, 13 miles north-west 
of Batala. Baba Nanak, the first Sikh Guru, settled and died at the 
village of Pakhoki, opposite the modern town ; and his descendants, 
the Bedis, continued to reside upon the same spot until the encroach- 
ing river swept away their village. They then crossed the stream, and 
built a new town, which they called after the name of their holy 
ancestor. The majority of the inhabitants still consist of Bedis. 
Handsome Sikh temple, dedicated to Baba Nanak. A second temple, 
known as the Tali Sahib, from a large tali or shishcun tree which stood 
near it, was carried away by an inundation in 1870, but has since been 
rebuilt. The Ravi has encroached considerably towards the town ; and 



DERAPUR—DERDI JANBAI. 229 

although an embankment ipandh) has been constructed to check further 
encroachments, there is great danger of the temple and town itself 
beino- carried away. The introduction of railway communication has 
led to the decline of the commercial importance of the town ; but it is 
still the centre of a considerable shawl-weaving industry. Consider- 
able export of cotton and sugar. Police station, Anglo-vernacular 
school, post-office, and dispensary. Municipal revenue (1882-83), 
^531; expenditure, ^425; average incidence of taxation, is. Qjd. 
per head. 

Derapur. — South-western tahsil of Cawnpur District, North-Western 
Provinces ; stretching inland from the banks of the Jumna, and traversed 
by the Bhognipur and Etawah branches of the Ganges Canal. Area, 
321 square miles, of which 189 are cultivated; population (1881) 
124,746 ; land revenue, ;£"27,798 ; total Government revenue, ;2^3i,i95 5 
rental paid by cultivators, ^42,102 ; incidence of Government revenue, 
3s. 3d. per acre. The river Sengur, flowing from west to east, divides 
the tahsil into two portions, the northern being a fertile loamy plain, 
watered by the canal and numerous wells. Towards the Sengur, 
however, this tract deteriorates, losing its fertility in rugged ravines. 
The southern portion has a soil much resembling that of the north, 
but with an almost complete lack of irrigation. The land between 
this depression and the Jumna is said to be the highest in the 
District. 

Derapur. — Town in Cawnpur District, North-Western Provinces, and 
head-quarters of Derapur tahsil, situated on the right bank of the 
Sengur river, 35 miles west of Cawnpur town, and 8 miles south of 
Rura railway station, communication with which is maintained by means 
of a good metalled road. Population (1881) 2117 ; area of town site, 
32 acres. The town possesses a tahsili, first-class police station, school, 
dispensary, post-office. It also contains the remains of several old 
mosques, and a fine masonry tank. In the time of Maratha rule 
(1756-1762), a fort was built here by Govind Rai Pandit, the Governor 
of the Province. 

I Derband. — Village in Hazara District, Punjab ; situated in lat. 

' 34° 18' N., long. 72° 55' E., on the left bank of the Indus, at the 
point where its stream expands on entering the plains. It is the 
principal village in the cis-Sutlej possessions of the Nawab of Amb, 
which he holds under the British as landlord. Population (1881) 785. 
Near this point, in 1827, Sher Singh, the Sikh commander, defeated 
Sayyid Ahmad, an Afghan fanatic who had excited a religious war 

,■ against the Sikhs. 

ij Derdi Janbai.— Petty State in North Kathiawar, Bombay Presi 
dency. It consists of i village with 2 tribute-payers. The revenue is 
estimated at ;z£'2 5o. 



230 DERI KOT—DEULGAON RAJA, 

Deri Kot. — Town in Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency.— 
See Ghaibi Dero. 

Deri Shahan. — Village in Rawal Pindi District, Punjab. — See Dheri 
Shahan. 

Dero Mohbat. — Tdluk of the Tando Sub-Division, Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 24° 58' 15" 
to 25° 19' N., and longitude 68° 32' 30" to 69° 20' 45" e. Area, 670 
square miles. Population (1881) 37,260, namely, 3535 Hindus, 30,528 
Muhammadans, 740 Sikhs, and 2457 aborigines ; dwelling in 65 
villages, and occupying 6741 houses. The tdluk contains 2 criminal 
courts ; poHce stations {thdnds), 5 ; regular police, 25 men ; land 
revenue, ^^5557. 

Detanaw. — A small but once flourishing village in Twan-te town- 
ship, Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, British Burma. At the 
close of the first Anglo-Burmese war, many of the inhabitants 
who had sided with the British escaped to Tenasserim, but the 
rest wTre massacred by the Burmese for their adherence to our cause. 
In the neighbourhood, there are the ruins of a large and very ancient 
pagoda. 

Deulgaon Rajd, {Dewalgdon). — Town in Buldand District, Berar. 
Latitude 20° n., longitude 76° e. Population {1881) 7025, namely, 
3467 males and 3558 females. Of the total population, 5740 were 
returned as Hindus, 825 as Muhammadans, and 429 as Jains. The 
original name was Dewalwari, from a wdri or hamlet close by, founded 
by a descendant of the Jadon family. On the north is a small range 
of hills, and on the south the small river of Amni. The town is 60 
miles east of Buldana. It was once fortified by a wall, now in ruins. 
The principal articles of trade are cotton and silk. There are about 
240 Koshtis or weavers, of both sexes ; and of Sali's or workers 
in silk and cotton, about 1338. The Srawaks or Jain traders, who 
deal in cloth, are said to have come from the north about 300 years 
ago. The origin of the great Jadon family, a member of which founded 
Deulgaon, is uncertain. Lakhji Jadon Rao, w^ho came from Northern 
India, gave his daughter Jijia to Shahji the son of Maloji; and in 
1627 she became the mother of Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha 
power. Rasoji, a natural son of one of the Jadon family, gained for 
himself the title of founder of Deulgaon, by enlarging the town. The 
hereditary dues enjoyed by the family were confiscated in 1851, when 
a body of Arabs under the command of Baji Rao, then head of the 
family, engaged in a severe fight against the Haidarabad contingent. 
Baji Rao died a State prisoner in 1856. Of all the dewasthdns in Berar, 
that of Balaji at Deulgaon, founded by the Jadon Rajas, is the most 
celebrated. At the annual fair held generally in October in honour of 
this deity, the offerings exceed half a Idkh of rupees, or ;£"5ooo in value. 



DEULGHAT—DEVANHALLL 231- 

At this time, food is supplied gratuitously to pilgrims and religious 
mendicants attending the festival. 

Deulghdt. — Town in Buldana District, Berar ; situated in latitude 
20° 31" N., and longitude 76° 10' 30" e., on the Penganga river. Popu- 
lation (1881) 3867. An ancient town, formerly known as Deoli, and 
perhaps built as a refuge in the troubled time of the Muhammadan 
invasions; now of little importance. The Hindu temples formerly 
existing were overthrown by the Nasir-ud-din, who was despatched by 
Aurangzeb to organize his conquests in the Deccan. 

Devala (or Namhalakod).— Chief town of the Nambalakod amshom 
(Division), South-east Wainad (Wynad), Nilgiri District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; situated 4 miles from the head of the Karkiir gJuit, on the 
highroad traversing Wainad to Vytheri, in latitude 11° 28' n., longitude 
76° 26' E. The village has long been known as a coffee centre, but 
has increased of late greatly in importance, owing to its being the 
centre of the gold-fields of South-east Wainad. It has a hotel, telegraph 
and police stations : the hills around are studded with bungalows 
inhabited by the European employes of the gold companies. Recently 
made the residence of the Head Assistant-Collector and Magistrate 
of Nilgiri District. 

Devalgaon.— Town in Buldana District, Berar. — See Deulgaon 
Raja. 

Devalia. — State in Rewa Kantha, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay 
Presidency. — See Dew alia. 

Devanhalli.— ^iz////^ in Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern 
India, Area, 238 square miles. Population (1881) 52,995, namely, 
51,576 Hindus, 696 Muhammadans, and 723 Christians. Land revenue 
(1874-75), exclusive of water-rates, ;^9748, or 3s. 3d. per cultivated 
acre. The taluk is composed of the old Devanhalli and Jangamkote 
taluks. The surface, watered by the Pinakini, is undulating, with 
many fertile and well-cultivated valleys. There is some cultivation of 
the poppy for opium. Potatoes and nummelos of excellent quality 
are raised. Sugar of a superior kind was formerly manufactured under 
the supervision of some Chinese introduced by Tipii Sultan. Vadi- 
genthalli in the taluk is a considerable mart. The region is crossed 
from north to south by the old Bangalore-Bellary high-road, and from 
east to west by the Kolar Dod-Ballapur road. 

Devanhalli.— Town in Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern 
India; 23 miles north of Bangalore. Latitude 13° 15' n., longitude 
77° 45' 30" E. Population (1881) 5776, namely, 5464 Hindus, 296 
Muhammadans, and 16 Christians. The former seat of a family of 
pdlegdrs, who traced their descent from one of the refugees of the 
Morasu Wokkal tribe, who founded petty dynasties throughout Mysore 
in the 14th century. The last of the Gaudas, as the chiefs were called, 



232 DE VARA YAPALLE—DE VGADH. 

was overthrown in 1748 by the Hindu Raja of Mysore. It was in the 
siege of Devanhalli, on this occasion, that Haidar Ali first gained dis- 
tinction as a volunteer horseman, and it was at Devanhalli that his son 
Tipii w^as born. Haidar erected a fort of stone, which was captured by 
Lord Cornwallis in 1 7 9 1 . A weekly fair held on Wednesdays is attended 
by 500 persons. Head-quarters of the Devanhalli idluk. 

Devarayapalle.— Village in the Atmakiir taluk, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 2466 ; number of houses, 466. 
Devaraydurga i^' Hill of Deva iP^y^ ').— Fortified hill in Tumkur 
District, Mysore State, Southern India. Latitude 13° 22' 30" n., 
longitude 77° 14' 50" e. ; 9 miles east of Tumkur; 3940 feet above sea- 
level. It consists of three terraces, well supplied with water, and is now 
used as a summer retreat for the European officials of the District. It 
was captured from a local chieftain in 1608 by Deva Raja, who 
built the present fortification. A small temple on the summit, 
dedicated to Durga Narasinha, was erected by a subsequent Raja of 
Mysore. It contains jewellery, etc., worth about ^1000, and is 
endowed with £%^ a year. An annual festival is attended by about 
3000 persons. 

Devgadh (Z^^^^^/-//).— Sub-division of Ratnagiri District, Bombay 

Presidency. Bounded on the north by Rajapur ; on the east by the 

Kolhapur State ; on the south by the Malvan Sub-division and the 

Savantwadi State ; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. Area, 543 

square miles. Population (1881) 112,993, dwelling in 121 villages; 

density of population, 2 1 7 persons to the square mile. Males number 

56,268; females, 61,631, or more than 50 per cent. Since 1872, the 

population has fallen off" by 65,016. Distributed according to religion, 

Hindus number 112,993, or 95-8 per cent; Muhammadans, 3639; 

'others,' not specified, 1267. The Devgadh Sub-division, about 26 

miles long, and on an average 32 broad, stretches from the sea-coast 

to the watershed of the Sahyadris. At the north-west corner the 

rocky headland of Vijayadurg juts out into the sea. The coast-line 

from Vijayadurg, the northern, to the mouth of the Achra river, the 

southern point, is fairly regular, although intersected by creeks and small 

river estuaries. In the sandy coves along the coast lie fishing villages 

picturesquely secluded in groves of palm. The only pass into the 

Deccan of any importance is the Phonda route ; the water-supply is fair 

for 20 miles inland. The soil is poor, and there are no irrigation 

works. The river Vijayadurg is navigable for vessels drawing seven 

feet of water as far as Vaghotan. Canoes can paddle up to Kharepatan, 

20 miles from the sea. The area of the Sub-division has not been fully 

surveyed. Agricultural stock in 1878-79: — Horned cattle, 69,47^5 

sheep and goats, 7964; horses, 56 ; ploughs, 14,840. In 1878, 30,325 

acres were cultivated, 80 per cent, of which was under rice, while 325 



DE VGADH—DE VIKO TA. 233 

acres were under sugar-cane. The Sub-division contains 7 civil and 
2 criminal courts ; police stations {thdnds)^ 7 ; regular police, 62 men. 

Devgadh {Deogarh). — Seaport in the Deogarh (Devgadh) Sub- 
division, Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency, 180 miles from 
Bombay. Has a safe and beautiful land-locked harbour, at all times 
perfectly smooth. Average depth of harbour, 18 feet. The entrance, 
only three cables in width, lies close to the fort point. The fort has an 
area of 120 acres; the walls are in a ruined state, and there is no 
garrison. The position, said to have been fortified by the Angrias, a 
Maratha pirate race, 175 years ago, was in 18 18 captured by Colonel 
Imlak. In 1875, the head-quarters of the Sub-division were moved 
here from Kharepatan, and there are now the usual subordinate offices, 
a sea-customs office, a post-office, and a vernacular school. Lat. 16" 
22' N., long. 73° 24' E. ; average annual value of trade for five years 
ending 1881-82 — exports, ;£"! 0,945 ; imports, ^10,364. 

Devi (literally ' T/ie Goddess,' a title specially applied to the wife of 
Siva, the All-Destroyer). River in Orissa, Bengal ; formed by the 
junction in Cuttack District of the Great and Litile Devi, two distribu- 
taries thrown off from the right bank of the Katjuri, an important 
offshoot of the Mahanadi. The united stream passes into Puri District, 
and falls into the Bay of Bengal a few miles below the southern 
boundary of Cuttack. The Devi forms the last part of the great net- 
work of channels into which the Katjuri branch of the Mahanadi 
bifurcates ; most of these streams reunite as they approach the sea, 
forming a broad and noble estuary, which, under the name of the Devi, 
enters the ocean in lat. 19° 58' n., and long. 86° 25' e. Some years 
ago, a permanent beacon was erected at the mouth ; an excellent 
channel of from 16 to 24 feet is obtained for 7 miles inland from the 
entrance to the Devi. Above this distance the river shoals rapidly, and 
is only navigable by country craft. This harbour is unfortunately 
rendered almost useless by bars of sand across its mouth, which vary 
in depth from year to year. As soon as the south-west monsoon sets in, 
the surf rages outside in such a way as to render the approach of 
vessels perilous in the extreme. The ordinary tidal rise is from 4 to 6 
feet, and runs for 28 miles up the river, the limit of navigation in the 
dry season. After the rains, a much greater depth of water is obtained, 
and an extensive rice trade has developed itself at Machhgaon, 9 miles 
up the Devi. The mouth of the river is surrounded by dense jungle, 
destitute of inhabitants. 

Devikota.— Town in Tiruvadanai tdhik or Sub-division, Madura 
^strict, Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 8451, namely, 7987 
Hindus, 405 Muhammadans, and 59 Christians. Number of houses, 
1255. 

Devikota (Z>/z7H'^//^/). — Small ruined fort in Tanjore District, 



234 DEVJAGAON—DEWA. 

Madras Presidency ; situated 24 miles north of Tranquebar, in latitude 
11° 22' 28" N., and longitude 79° 52' e., on the Coromandel coast, at 
the mouth of the Coleroon (Kolladam) river. Devikota was one of 
the earliest settlements of the Company, the fort with a small tract 
of adjoining country having been wrested in 1749 from the Raja of 
Tanjore, after two hazardous expeditions from Fort St. David. The 
first of these was undertaken at the instance of Saiyaji, the deposed 
Raja of Devikota; it consisted of 430 Europeans and 1000 Sepoys 
under Captain Cope; but owing to various mischances, the force 
had to return. The second expedition of a larger body under Major 
S. Lawrence was successful. In the course of the siege, Clive, who 
was then a lieutenant, had a narrow escape. The fort was found 
to be a mile in circumference, with walls 18 feet high. No factory 
was established, and the fort was abandoned on the approach of the 
French in June 1758. The French in turn evacuated it after Sir Eyre 
Coote's victory at Wandewash, and in 1760 it was re-garrisoned by our 
troops. 

Devjagaon {Devjdgafi). — Place of Hindu pilgrimage in the Jam- 
biisar Sub-division, Broach District, Bombay Presidency ; situated about 
three-quarters of a mile from the village of Nara, at the mouth of the 
Dhadhar river ; contains about 300 houses. A fair attended by 2000 
people is held here twice a year. The temple at Devjagaon is enclosed 
by a wall 80 feet from north to south, and 100 feet from east to west 
The interior forms one room 25 feet by 18 feet. A grant of 1562 
acres of land is attached to the temple. A lighthouse has been 
built on the mainland at the mouth of the Dhadhar river ; the height 
of the lantern above high water is 49 feet. 

Dewa. — Pargattd in Nawabganj tahsil^ Bara Banki District, Oudh. 
At the time of the first Muhammadan invasion of Oudh, under Sayyid 
Salar Masaiid, in 1030 a.d., this pargand appears to have been held 
by the Janwar Rajputs ; and the present Shaikh residents of Dewa 
assert that they are descended from Shdh Wesh, the first Musalman | 
conqueror of the village, and lieutenant of Sayyid Salar. But for a « 
long time it formed only their entrenched camp ; they did not acquire 
any proprietary rights in the pargand till about the commencement of 
the 1 6th century, when aimd grants were made to several Shaikh 
families. Another Musalman settlement is that of the Sayyids of 
Kheoli, who colonized a tract of 32 villages west of Dewa about the 
commencement of the 13th century. A third colony to the south is 
that of the Shaikhs of Kidwara, who probably came about the same 
time. Other smaller Musalman communities have also spread over 
the pargand. The Bais Kshatriyas also obtained a footing in the 
pargand ; and during the latter years of the native Government, they 
seized almost the whole of the north of the pargand^ by annexing the 



DE WA—DE WAL WAR A, 



jD 



villages of their weaker neighbours. They became the terror of the 
whole neighbourhood, and for a long time they set the King's Government 
at open defiance. Ultimately a strong force captured the fort of one 
of the chiefs, who was taken prisoner with his son, and beheaded at 
Lucknow. The other Janwar chief was afterwards killed in battle. 
Both estates were confiscated and partitioned out, principally among 
Muhamraadan Shaikhs. The percentage of cultivated land is higher 
than in any other pargand of the District, and south of Dewa the 
soil is very fertile and highly cultivated. Many of the husbandmen 
belono- to the industrious class of Ahirs, who pay high rents to the 
Musalman proprietors. Area, 141 square miles, of which 82 are culti- 
vated; Government land revenue, ^14,506, the average incidence 
bein«y 5s. 6jd. per acre of cultivated area, 3s. pd. per acre of assessed 
area, and 3s. 2|d. per acre of total area. Of the 163 villages which 
comprise ihQ pargand, only 57 are held by Hindus, the rest belong to 
Musalmans. Half the villages are held under tdlukddri, and half under 
zammddri tenure. Population in 1881, 64,846, namely, 33,787 males 
and 31,059 females; average density of population, 460 persons per 
square mile. Five towns only contain a population exceeding 1000 ; 
4 unmetalled roads intersect the pargand. 

Dewa.— Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; 8 miles from the 
town of Bara Banki. A Muhammadan colony of old standing, and the 
residence of two well-known families of Shaikhs. Population (1881) 
2930. Noted for its manufactures of glassware and delf. Govern- 
ment school. 

Dewala. — Small village in Chandd District, Central Provinces. 
Lat. 20° 6' N., and long. 79° 6' 30" e. ; 6 miles west of Bhandak. 
Population (1881) 595. Interesting on account of its architectural 
remains, for which see Bhandak. 

Dewalgdon.— Small village in Chanda District, Central Provinces. 
LaL 20° 23' N., and long. 80° 2' e. ; 10 miles south-west of Wairagarh. 
Near it stands a remarkably-shaped hill, from which excellent iron-ore 
is quarried. Population (1881) 427. 

DewalgMt.— Town in Buldana District, Berar.— ^^^ Deulghat. 

Dewalia.— Petty State in Jhalawar prdfith or division, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. It consists of 2 villages, with 2 tribute-payers. 
The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ;£'523, of which ^46, 14s. is 
payable as British tribute and £^, 12s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Dewalwara.— Small village in Wardha District, Central Provinces ; 
on the river Wardha, 6 miles west of Arvi. Noted for the large fair 
held every November for over a century past, in the bed of the river 
close by. The fair lasts from 20 to 25 days, during which time pilgrims 
and merchants from Nagpur, Poona, Nasik, Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), etc. 
flock to the fine temple of the goddess Rukmi, besides transacting 



236 DE WAL WARA—DE WAS. 

business to the value of ;£"io,ooo or ;£"i 2,500. Immediately opposite 
Dewalwara stood Kundinapur, described in the loth chapter of the 
sacred book Bhdgvat as extending from the river Vidarbha (Wardha) to 
Amraoti, where King Bhimak reigned over the Vidarbha country, and 
gave his daughter in marriage to the god Krishna. 

Dewalwara. — Village in Ellichpur District, Berar, Deccan ; situated 
in lat. 21° 18' N., and long. 77° 45' e., on the Piirna river, about 14 miles 
from Ellichpur. Formerly a^town of some importance, containing 5000 
houses, but now only noteworthy for its ancient buildings, the chief of 
which are a mosque, built about 300 years ago, and 2 Hindu temples. 
One of these is dedicated to the Nar Singh of Hindu mytholog}-, 
who, having killed Hirania Kasipii, was able, after faiUng everywhere 
else, to wash away the blood-stains at Dewalwara. Near the temple 
is a place now called ' Kar Shudhi Tirth,' or ' holy place of cleaning 
hands.' 

Dewas. — Native State under the Manpur Agency of Central India. 
Lat. 22° 42' to 23° 5' N., long. 75° 57' to 76° 21' e. Contains 2 towns 
and 455 villages. The chief products are grain, opium, sugar-cane, and 
cotton. The State has two chiefs, and the rule of each chief is distinct 
within his own limits. The elder chief, Kishnaji Rao Puar, is 
commonly known as the Baba Sahib ; the younger chief, Narayan Rao 
Puar, is styled Dada Sahib. They are of the Puar Rdjput race, and of 
the same stock as the Raja of Dhar. Originally true Rajputs, they 
intermarried with Marathas, and thus impaired the purity of their 
descent. The senior Branch keeps up a force of 87 horse and about 
500 foot, including police, with 10 guns for saluting purposes. The 
junior Branch maintains a force of 123 horse and about 500 foot, 
including police. The Census return of 1881 gives a total population 
for the combined States of 142,162, and an area of 289 square miles. 
Of the total population, 75,647 are males, and 66,515 females. A 
total of 73,940 represents the portion subject to the senior Branch. 
In Dewas senior, Hindus number 64,496 ; Muhammadans, 7469 ; 
Jains, 118; and Parsis, 4. Aborigines are returned at 1853. Of the 
Hindus, Brahmans number 1742, and Rajputs 3797. In Dewas 
junior, Hindus number 58,891; Muhammadans, 6435; Jains, 40; 
and aborigines, 2856. Among the Hindus, Brahmans number 3753, 
and Rajputs 9703. In the whole territory, 448 out of the 455 
towns and villages have less than 1000 inhabitants. The territories 
of Dewas, Sarangpur, and several other tracts were allotted by 
Baji Rao Peshwa to the common ancestor Kaluji. His two sons, 
Tukaji and Jiwaji, quarrelled, and the State was divided between 
them. By a treaty in 18 18, with the two chiefs conjointly, the State 
was taken under British protection; the chiefs undertook to forego 
communication with other States, and to supply a body of contingent 



DEWAS—DHADHAR. 237 

troops, which was ultimately commuted for an annual cash payment 
of about ^3560. In 1828, the chiefs of Dewas made over to the 
administrative charge of the British Government the pargana of 
Bagand, an outlying district in Nimar. The annual surplus revenue of 
\\\i^ pargand, which in 1881-82 amounted to ;£"662, after payment 
of all administrative charges, is paid to the chiefs of Dewas. Both the 
chiefs, who hold the title of Rajas, did good service during the 
Mutiny of 1857-58. Both have received sanads guaranteeing the right 
of adoption, and both are entitled to a salute of 15 guns. 

Dewas. — Chief town of the State of Dewas, under the Manpur Agency 
of Central India, situated about 20 miles to the north-east of Indore. 
Lat. 22° 58' N., and long. 76° 6' e. The two chiefs of the State 
reside in different palaces within the town, which is of comparatively 
recent origin, and irregularly built; population (1881) 11,921 souls. 
The town contains a post-oftice, staging bungalow, and dispensary, all 
under British supervision. To the north-west of the town is a small 
conical hill, about 300 feet high, on which stands the temple of 
Chamunda Devi, which is reached by a half-finished flight of masonry 
steps. The temple near the crest consists of a demi-spherical vault or 
cave cut in the side of a cliff, having a huge figure of the goddess 
brought out in relief. In front of the cavity is a small masonry room 
with steps descending to the level of an open space cleared out on the 
crest of the hill, on one side of which is a rectangular tank, with a 
small temple dedicated to Mahadeo, built on its edge; the hill is 
visited by numerous devotees from the town and surrounding country. 

Dhabien. — Tidal creek in Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, 
British Burma. — See Dabien. 

Dhabla Dhir.— Guaranteed girasid, or petty chiefship, under the 
Bhopal Agency of Central India. Area, 10 square miles; estimated 
population, 1000 souls. The Thakur, or chief, receives a tankha, or 
pecuniary allowance in lieu of rights over land, from Holkar, Sindhia, 
Dewas, and Bhopal to the total amount of ^^425. In addition, he holds a 
grant of 3 villages in Shujawalpur, under the guarantee of the British 
Government, for which he pays a quit-rent of £,^^o annually. He is 
also Thakur of Kankerkhera, in which right he holds another village in 
Shujawalpur, receiving a tankha of ;£8o, and paying an additional quit- 
rent of ^17, subject to a deduction of 2 per cent, on the transfer of the 
pai'gand to Sindhia. 

Dhabla Ghosi. — Guaranteed girasid, or petty chiefship, under the 
Bhopal Agency of Central India. The Thakur, or chief, receives a 
tankha — pecuniary allowance in lieu of rights over land — from Sindhia, 
Dewas, and Bhopal to the total amount of pf 500. He also holds a 
village in Shujawalpur, for which he pays a quit-rent of ;;^io5. 

Dhadhar. — River in Western India : rises in the western spurs 



238 DHAKA— DHALKISOR. 

of the Vindhya range, about 35 miles north-east of the village of 
Bhilapur, where it is crossed by a stone bridge, and in lat. 22° 20' n., 
and long. 73° 40' e., and after receiving on the right the Vishwamitri 
river, on the banks of which stands the city of Baroda, ultimately falls 
into the Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 21° 54 n., and long. 72° 38' e. Total 
length, 70 miles; drainage area estimated at 1850 square miles. 

Dhdka. — Division, District, and city of Eastern Bengal. — See 
Dacca. 

Dhalandhar. — Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
Bengal. Contains a native asylum for lunatics. The daily average 
number of inmates in 1881 was 207, 27-57 per cent, of whom were 
discharged as cured, and 773 per cent, as improved. The deaths 
amounted to 15*96 per cent. 

Dhaldighi. — Village and large tank in Dinajpur District, Bengal. 
Fair held annually on the bank of the tank, which lasts for eight days, 
commencing on the first day of Phalgun (latter half of February); 
attendance, about 25,000. Considerable trade carried on at this time. 

Dhaleswari. — The name of several rivers in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam : ( i ) an offshoot of the Jamuna, or main stream of the Brahma- 
putra, which runs across Dacca District and forms a valuable com- 
munication with the Meghna, although the quantity of water now 
(1882) coming into it from the Jamuna is decreasing rapidly, and 
steamers only run during the rainy season ; (2) the stream formed by 
the junction of the Surma and Kusiara rivers before its confluence with 
the Meghna, forming the boundary between the Districts of Maimansinh 
and Sylhet; (3) a river in Cachar District, rising in the Lushai 
country, and flowing northwards into the Barak through the fertile 
valley of Hailakandi. At the point where it crosses the frontier, a 
permanent bazar has been established for trade with the Lushais. In 
the lower part of its course, the stream has been diverted by an 
embankment, said to have been constructed by a Raj^ of Cachar. The 
old channel reaches the Barak at Sialtekh Bazar; the new channel, 
called the Katakhal, is navigable by large boats. This river has given 
its name to a forest reserve covering an area of 33 square miles. 

Dhalet. — River in Kyauk - pyii District, Arakan Division, British 
Burma. Rises in the main range and falls into Combermere Bay ; it is 
navigable as far as Dhalet (sometimes called Talak), a village 25 miles 
from its mouth. In its upper reaches the stream is a mountain torrent, 
only passable by small canoes. 

Dhalkisor (or Dwarkeswar). — River of Western Bengal. It rises 
in the Tilabani Hill in Manbhiim District, whence it flows through 
Bankura District, following a tortuous south-easterly course, with several 
bifurcations through ihdnds Bankura, Onda, Bishenpur, Kotalpur, and 
Indas. It enters Bardwan District 4 miles east of Katalpur; flows 



DHAMDA—DHAMONI. 239 

south-east and south past the town of Jahanabad, and leaves the 
District at Berari village, after which it is known as the Rupnarayan, 
eventually joining the Hiigli opposite Hugh Point. It is subject to 
sudden floods, but portions of the bordering country are now protected 
from inundation by embankments. In its upper reaches, within 
Bankura District, it is only navigable in the rainy months by craft of 2 
tons burthen. 

Dhamda. — Town in Raipur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21° 
27' N., long. 81° 23' E. ; about 24 miles north-west of Raipur. Popula- 
tion (1881) 2850, namely, Hindus, 2593; Kabfrpanthis, 24; Satnamf, i; 
Muhammadans, 172 ; and persons professing aboriginal religions, 60. 
The inhabitants include a colony of brass-workers, who manufacture 
the heavy brass anklets worn by the women of the country. Near the 
town are fine groves, and the remains of some large tanks, and of an old 
fort, with two handsome gateways in good preservation. Dhamda was 
formerly the head-quarters of a Gond chief, subordinate to the kings of 
Ratanpur. On the conquest of Chhatisgarh by the Marathas, their 
officers arrested the chief of Dhamda on a charge of treachery, and 
blew him from a gun. Dhamda has a school, a post-office, and police 
station-house. 

Dhdmi. — One of the Punjab Hill States under the Government of 
the Punjab, about 10 or 12 miles to the west of Simla. When 
Shahab - ud - din Ghori (Muhammad of Ghor) invaded India in the 
14th century, the founder of this family fled from Raipur, in Ambala 
(Umballa) District, and conquered the territory which now forms 
the State of Dhami. It was at one time a feudatory of Bilaspur, but 
was made independent of that State by the British Government when 
the Gurkhas, having overrun the country from 1803 to 1815, were 
finally expelled in the latter year. Fateh Singh, the Rana of Dhami, 
is a Rajput by caste. The area of the State (1881) is 26 square 
miles; with 214 hamlets and 688 houses. Population (1881) 3322, 
namely, 3294 Hindus, 3 Sikhs, and 25 Muhammadans. Estimated 
revenue, ;£8oo. The State pays an annual tribute of ;^72. The 
father of the present chief paid only ^36, one-half of the tribute 
having been remitted for his life on account of good services rendered 
during the Mutiny. The principal articles of production are grains 
and a little opium. 

Dham-ma-tha. — Town in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, 
British Burma. — See Dam-ma-tha. 

Dhamoni. — Village in Sagar (Saugor) District, Central Provinces. Lat. 
24° 12' N., long. 78° 49' E. ; 28 miles north of Sagar town. Surat Sah, 
a scion of the great Gond dynasty of MandM, the original founder of 
Dhamoni, was defeated about 1600 by Raja Barsingh Deva, the Bundela 
chief of the neighbouring State of Orchha, who took possession of 



240 DHAMPUR TAHSIL AND TO WN. 

the country, and rebuilt the fort and town on so grand a scale that it 
became the capital of a large tract with 2558 villages, including the 
greater part of the present Districts of Sagar and Damoh. His son 
and successor, Pahar Singh, continued to reign till 1619, when the 
country became an integral portion of the Delhi Empire.* During the 
next eighty years it was ruled by five successive governors from Delhi, the 
last of whom was, about 1700, defeated by Raja Chhatar Sal of Panna. 
His descendants retained Dhamoni till 1802, when Umrao Singh, Raja 
of Patau, a small neighbouring place, seized the fort and country by 
treachery, but was himself in a few months compelled to yield to the 
army of the Raja of Nagpur. In 18 18, soon after the flight of Apa 
Sahib, the fort was invested by a British force under General Marshall ; 
who, having ineffectually offered the garrison ^1000 'in discharge of 
arrears of pay, on condition of immediate evacuation,' opened batteries 
against the place, with such effect that in six hours it was surrendered 
unconditionally. Dhamoni thus came under British rule, but by that 
time the tract had been reduced to only 33 villages. Its present con- 
dition is desolate in the extreme, the population scarcely exceeding 100; 
but the ruins of mosques, tombs, and buildings for nearly a mile round 
the fort and lake attest the importance of the place under Muhammadan 
rule. The fort, which covers an area of 5 2 acres, stands on an eminence 
near the summit of the ghats leading to Bundelkhand, commanding the 
valley of the river Dhasan. The ramparts are in most parts 50 feet 
high and 15 feet thick, with enormous round towers. Interior works 
further strengthen the defences of the eastern quarter, where the 
magazine was probably situated. Inside and around it are large groves 
of custard-apple trees. The town lies to the west of the fort, and the 
lake, which is of considerable size, to the south-west of the town. The 
supply of water is excellent, and the soil near the village remarkably 
fertile, as the luxuriant and varied vegetation shows. Police outpost 
station. 

Dhampur. — Tahsil oi Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces. Area, 323 square miles, of which 2 2 3 are cultivated. Population 
(1881) 170,039; land revenue, ;^26,63o ; total Government revenue, 
^29,905 ; rental paid by cultivators, ;£58,ioo; incidence of Govern- 
ment revenue, 2s. 7d. per acre. The /^/^^// contained in 1883, i civil 
and 2 criminal courts, with 4 police stations {thdiids) ; strength of 
regular police, 67 men, besides 61 municipal and town police, and 468 
village watchmen and road patrols. 

Dhampur. — Town in Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of the Dhampur tahsil, situated in lat. 29° 
18' 43" N., and long. 78° 32' 46" e. Lies on the road from Morad- 
abad to Hard war, 24 miles east of Bijnaur. Population (1881) 
5708, namely, Hindus, 3457; Muhammadans, 2121; and Jains, 130; 



DHAMRA RIVER AND PORT, 241 

area of town site, ^t^ acres. Total municipal income (1883), ;£"433, 
of which ;^288 was derived from octroi; average incidence of 
taxation, ii^d. per head. A small but wealthy and well-built town, 
described by the Sanitary Commissioner in 1876 as 'one of the best- 
looking small towns in the Province — a town of brick -paved public 
ways admirably kept in cleanliness.' The main street or bazar 
is a wide and busy thoroughfare, lined with handsome shops, chiefly 
those of dealers in ironware. The ironsmiths and braziers are noted 
for the manufacture of iron locks and plates, brass candlesticks and 
ornaments for native carriages, and gongs and bells of mixed copper 
and lead. Handsome matchlocks are also made, and a local gunsmith 
obtained a prize of 750 francs for two specimens sent to the Paris 
Exhibition in 1867. Markets are held twice a week, and there is a 
monthly fair. The town is aired by several open places containing fine 
old trees. To the north stand the iahsili buildings, and to the south a 
native inn {sardi). The other public buildings are a first-class police 
station, post-office, and tahsili school. The only events of importance 
in the history of the town are the defeat here of the Mughal forces by 
the Rohillas, about 1750 ; its pillage by the Pindaris under Amir Khan 
in 1805 ; and the attempted plunder of its treasury during the Mutiny 
of 1857. 

Dhamra. — River and estuary in Bengal, formed by the combined 
waters of the Brahmani and Baitarani and their tributaries, which 
enter the Bay of Bengal in lat. 20° 47' n., and long. 87° e. The 
Dhamra is a fine navigable river, but rendered dangerous by a bar 
across its mouth. It forms the boundary line between the Districts of 
Cuttack and Balasor, but lies within the jurisdiction of the latter ; the 
entrance is marked by the Kanika buoy in 21 feet reduced, and by 
Shortt's tripod beacon, on the extreme north-east dry portion of Point 
Palmyras Reef Since 1866, a second outer channel, with 10 feet at 
lowest tide, has opened about a mile to the south. The inner bar is 
constantly shifting. In 1859, 12 feet of water were found here ; in 1866, 
only 3; and in 1870, 8. The water in the Dhamra estuary rapidly 
shoals from a minimum depth of 21 feet at the Kanika buoy to 6 feet 
on the Central Sand. Within the southern outer channel (minimum 
depth, 10 feet at low tide) vessels are absolutely sheltered from the 
monsoon. The Survey Report (dated May 13, 1870) returns the 
tidal range of the Dhamra at 10 feet, with variations from a minimum 
of 6 feet 10 inches to a maximum of \o\ feet. Brigs and Madras 
traders drawing from 10 to even 18 feet frequent the harbour of the 
Dhamra, which was declared a port in 1858, with perfect safety. 

Dhamra. — Port in the estuary of the same name, Cuttack District, 
Bengal. Lat. 20° 47' 40" n., long. 86° 55' 55" e. The name is applied 
to the navigable channels of the rivers forming the Dhamra, as far as 

VOL. IV. Q 



242 



DHAMSIA—DHANA URA. 



they are affected by tidal waters. These limits embrace Chandbali, or 
the Baitarani, a seat of coasting steamer traffic, and a rapidly rising 
town ; Hansua, on the Brahmani, formerly a great salt emporium ; 
Patamundai, on the same river ; and Aul, on the Kharsua,— the three 
last within Cuttack District. The trade of Chandbali is mainly steamer 
traffic, monopolizing almost entirely the import and export trade of 
Balasor District. The rest of the trade of Dhamra port is carried on 
exclusively in sailing ships, and consists chiefly in the export of rice. 
The eastern boundary of the port is the Dhamra customs station. 

Dhamsia. — Estate of the Sankheda Mewas, Rewa Kantha, Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, lo square miles. Estimated 
revenue, ^400, of which £^\i is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. The 
estate is under the direct management of the Political Agent. 

Dhamtari. — Tahsil or revenue sub - division in Raipur District, 
Central Provinces. Lat. 20° 22' 30" to 21° i' n., long. 80° 41' 30" to 
81° 46' 30" E. Area, 2132 square miles, of which 692 square miles 
are cultivated, 717 square miles cultivable, and 723 square miles 
uncultivable waste. Population (1881) 286,694, namely, 140)833 
males and 145,861 females, residing in 899 villages and towns, and 
occupying 94,781 houses ; average density of population, 134-5 persons 
per square mile. Amount of Government assessment, ^11,645, or an 
average of 6jd. per acre of cultivation. Rental paid by cultivators, 
including cesses, ;£"25,668, cr is. ijd. per cultivated acre. Average 
area of cultivable and cultivated land per head of the agricultural 
population, 6 acres. 

Dhamtari. — The largest and most important town in the southern 
portion of Raipur District, Central Provinces, and the head-quarters of 
Dhamtari tahsil, lying in lat. 20° 42' n., and long. 81° 35' 30" E.,on the 
main road from the north to Bastar and Ranker, 36 miles south of 
Raipur. Population (1881) 6647, namely, Hindus, 5202; Kabi'r- 
panthis, 290; Satnamis, 260; Muhammadans, 371; Jains, 44; persons 
professing aboriginal religions, 480. The fertile plain around produces 
crops of wheat, rice, cotton, oil-seeds, and sugar-cane unsurpassed in 
any part of Chhatisgarh. Dhamtari does a considerable trade in lac, 
exporting from 2000 to 2400 bullock-loads yearly. It has a town 
school, girls' school, dispensary, post-office, and police station. 

Dhana.— Village in Sagar tahsil, Sagar District, Central Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2223, namely, Hindus, 2086; Muhammadans, 51 ; 
Jains, 62 ; and persons professing aboriginal religions, 24. 

Dhanaudah. — Chiefship in Sindhia's territory, under the Giina 
(Goona) Sub- Agency of Central India. — See Dharnaoda. 

Dhanaura. — Town and municipality in Moradabad District, North- 
western Provinces. Situated in lat. 28° 58' n., long. 78° 18' 30" E., 
9 miles east of the Ganges, and 45 miles by metalled road west from 



DHANA UTI—DHANDHUKA. 243 

Moradabad town. Population (1881) 5304, namely, Hindus, 4576; 
Muhammadans, 724; and Christians, 4. Area of town site, 115 acres. 
Municipal income in 1881, ;^42i, of which ;^32o was derived from 
taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. 4d. per head. A compact 
town, with a neat causewayed market-place. Police station, post-office, 
and two schools. Depot of sugar trade. 

Dhanauti. — River in Champaran District, Bengal. Formerly a 
branch of the Lai Begi, a bifurcation of the Lower Harha, a tributary 
of the Gandak. It is 113 miles long, but has now quite silted up in its 
upper parts, and for many years has received no flood discharge. It 
ultimately falls into the Sikhrena, near Sitakiind. A large iron railway 
bridge of 220 feet span crosses this river near Motihari town. 

Dhandhlika. — Sub-division of Ahmadabad District, Bombay 
Presidency. It is bounded on the north, west, and south by Kathia- 
war; on the east by the Gulf of Cambay. Area, 1098 square miles. 
Population (1881) 123,107, namely, 64,003 males and 59,104 females ; 
density of population, 112 persons per square mile. Since 1872 the 
population has fallen off by 1753. Classified according to religion, 
Hindus number 103,606, or 84 per cent, of the whole population; 
Muhammadans number 12,362; 'others' not specified, 7139. The 
surface of the Sub-division is an open, treeless, black-soil plain, sloping 
gently towards the Gulf of Cambay. In the w^st is a tract of bare hills 
and rough valleys with millet fields and garden patches. Cotton is 
grown in the centre and wheat in the east. The water-supply is scanty. 
There are no large rivers. The streams of the Bhadhar and the Utavli 
lose themselves in marshes. Wells are few, and irrigation limited. 
In 1877, there were 800 wells, 170 ponds or reservoirs, and 22 streams 
and springs. The climate is trying, except in the cold season. Rainfall 
varies from 16 to 24 inches yearly. In the year of the Bombay Settle- 
ment for thirty years (1857-58), for the Sub-division there were 140 
holdings, with an average area of 30 acres, paying an average rent 
of £2^ 4s. 9d. In 1877, there were 339,804 acres of land under 
cultivation, of which 27 per cent, was fallow or under grass. There are 
2 towns and 139 villages. The Sub-division has i civil and 3 criminal 
courts; police stations (thd?ids), 2; regular police, 126 men; village 
watchmen (chaiikiddrs), 558. Land revenue, ^23,089. 

Dhandhuka.— Chief town of the Dhandhiika Sub-division, Ahmad- 
abad District, Bombay Presidency, situated on the right bank ot 
Bhadhar. Lat. 22° 21' 15" n., long. 72° 2' 20" e., 62 miles south-west 
of Ahmadabad and 100 miles north-west of Surat. Population (1881) 
10,044 ; municipal revenue (1882-83), ^769 ; rate of taxation, is. 3fd. 
per head. The town lies in an open plain, exposed to the burning 
winds of the hot season. Water-supply extremely bad. Borahs form 
a large class of the population. Coarse cloth, pottery, and carpenter's 



244 DHANES WART—DHANUR, 

work are the chief industries. There are 5 Government schools, one 
of them for girls. Together with Dholka, the town w^as ceded to the 
British in 1802. Dhandhilka, which is a place of some antiquity, has 
a sub-judge's court, post-office, dispensary, and traveller's bungalow. 

Dhaneswari {Dhansin). — River of Assam, rising under Sama- 

guting in the northern spurs of the Barel mountains, which form the 

watershed between the Naga Hills and Cachar ; in lat 25° 20' n., and 

long. 93° 24' E. Its course through the Naga Hills District is on the 

whole northerly, through a vast plain of heavy jungle known as the 

Nambur forest, amid which are to be seen the ruins of Dimapur, until 

it is joined by the Dayang. The combined stream then turns towards 

the north-east, and finds its way after many windings into the 

Brahmaputra, near the village of Bagdwar Chapari, in lat. 26° 44' n., 

and long. 93° 42' e. The only important place on its banks is Golaghat, 

in Sibsagar District, which is a centre of trade for the Naga tribes. Up 

to this point it is navigable by steamers during the rainy season, but 

small boats can proceed as high as Dimapur in the cold weather, and 

boats of about 4 tons burthen can reach the same place in the rains. 

Dhangain. — Pass in Hazaribagh District, Bengal; by which the 
Old Trunk Road to Sherghati left the upper plateau for the lower 
level. Lat. 24° 23' 30" n., and long. 84° 59' 45'' e. It is now imprac- 
ticable for wheeled traffic, and has fallen into disuse. 

Dhangaon. — Guaranteed Thakurate, or petty chiefship, in Central 
India, under the jurisdiction of the Chief Commissioner of the Central 
Provinces. The Thakur or Chief receives an allowance of £_,i\^ 
from Sindhia, and jQ^^ 12s. from Holkar. He pays to the British 
Government a tribute of ;2^ioo. 

Dhdnikhola. — Town in Maimansingh District, Bengal, in lat. 24° 
39' 10" N., long. 90° 24' 11" E. Situated on the Satua river, an 
insignificant stream, about 1 2 miles from Nasirabad, the head-quarters 
town. 

Dhanori. — Village in Aroi tahsil^ Wardha District, Central Provinces, 
situated about 26 miles north-west of Wardha town. Population about 
1000, principally cultivators, with some dyers and weavers. Village 
school and police outpost station. Small weekly market, held on 
Fridays. 

Dhansiri. — River of Assam. — See Dhaneswari. 

Dhanu. — River in the south-east of Maimansingh District, Bengal, 
which falls into the Meghna. Navigable by boats of all sizes through- 
out the year. It contains fish in abundance. 

Dhanur. — Lake in Sirsa District, Punjab. One of the series of 
shallow basins of alluvial clay which, connected by short defined 
channels, form the lower course of the Ghaggar. It is about 3 miles 
long by I broad, but often dries up in the hot weather. The water is 



DHANUT BHURA- G YI—DHAR. 245 

largely used for rice irrigation, being drawn off by long irrigation cuts 
to the villages lower down. The deepening of the exit channel by 
erosion has gradually reduced the overflow from which it is fed, and 
the irrigation has somewhat fallen off of late years in consequence. 

Dhanut Bhlira-gyi. — A vast pagoda, now in ruins, in the Angyi 
township, Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, British Burma.— 6"^^ 
Danut-paya-gyi. 

DMola Dhar. — Mountain chain in Kangra District, Punjab ; formed 
by a projecting fork of the outer Himalayan range, marking the 
boundary between the Kangra valley and Chamba. The main system 
here rises steeply from the lowlands at its base, unbroken by any minor 
hills, to an elevation of 13,000 feet above the valley beneath. The 
chain is formed by a mass of granite, which has forced its way through 
the superincumbent sedimentary rocks, and crowns the summit with 
its intrusive pyramidal crests, too precipitous for the snow to find a 
lodging. Below, the waste of snow-fields is succeeded by a belt of 
pines, giving way to oaks as the flanks are descended, and finally 
merging into a cultivated vale watered by perennial streams. The 
highest peak attains an elevation of 15,956 feet above sea-level; while 
the valley has a general height of about 2000 feet. 

Dhapewara. — A clean and healthy town in Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces, on either side of the river Chandrabhdga, in a fertile plain. 
Situated in lat. 21° 18' n., and long. 78° 57' e., 20 miles north-west of 
Nagpur. Population (1881) 3666, namely, Hindus, 3455 ; Muham- 
madans, 197; and Jains, 14. The inhabitants are chiefly Koshtis, 
employed in the manufacture of cotton cloth, of which industry Dhape- 
wara was one of the earliest seats in the District. The fort, now 
dilapidated, was built for protection against the Pindaris about seventy- 
five years ago. Seat of an honorary magistrate's court. 

Dhar.— Native State under the Bhil (Bheel) or Bhopawar Agency, 
Central India ; situated between 22° I'and 23° 8' n. lat., and between 74° 
43' and 75° 35' E. long. Bounded on the north by Rutlam Native State, 
on the east by Sindhia's tracts of Barnagar, Ujjain and Dikthan, and 
by Indore ; on the south by the Narbadd ; and on the west by the State 
of Jhabua and Sindhia's district of Amjhera. The Dhar State is divided, 
for judicial and revenue purposes, into seven pargands, namely, Dhar, 
Badnawar, Nalcha, Dharampuri, Kiiksi, Tikri, and Nimanpur-Mukrar, 
the last being a desolate outlying pargand resting on the Narbada, and 
separated from the remainder of the State by the whole breadth of Indore. 
Feudatories of the Dhar State are the following Rajput chiefs and nobles 
who hold their lands under the guarantee of the British Government, and 
pay tribute or tankha to the State, namely, Multan, Kachhi-Baroda, 
Dhotria, Badwal, Bakhtgarh, Kod, Katodia, Manglia, Dharsikhera, 
Bairsia, Murwadia, and Panah \ also the following Bhiimia or Bhil and 



246 DHAR, 

Bhildla chiefs residing principally in the Dharampuri and Nalcha 
fargands, namely, IMota-Barkhera, Chota-Barkhera, Nimkhera, Kali- 
Baori, Garhi, J^^ninia (who pays tribute for the village of Dabir) and 
Rajgarh. The former chiefs or thakurs have the exclusive management 
of their own lands, which, however, does not extend to a power of 
life and death ; and all their subjects have the right of appeal to the 
Rdja of Dhar, who exercises general supremacy, the chiefs yielding 
him service and allegiance. This arrangement was due to Sir John 
Malcolm. The Bhiimias and Bhildld chiefs have far less power than 
the thakurs^ and are responsible for indemnifying all robberies occurring 
within their limits, and also for the general peace of their part of the 
country. 

Physical Aspects. — The only river of any size actually in the Dhar 
State is the Chamla, a tributary of the Chambal, which latter runs for 
a short distance through the east corner of the Dhar pargand. At 
Khal there is a fair-weather trestle bridge over the Narbada, and a 
ferry at the same place in the rains. Rivers of minor importance are 
the Maun, with a course of 35 miles, the Kariim, with a course of 24 
miles, and the Bangui, all of them dry for the most part during the 
warm season, but becoming torrents in the rains. The Vindhyas, with 
an elevation here of from 1600 to 1700 feet above the Narbada valley, 
runs across the southern portion of the State. Numerous passes lead 
through the range to the plain below; but with the exception of 
two, the Golpura and the Bariidpura, they are all difficult and unsuited 
for wheeled carriage. Among the wild animals are the tiger, leopard, 
bear, wild hog, and deer of various kinds. Iron ore of good quality 
exists all along the hills, but is nowhere worked. Above the Vindhyas 
the climate is mild, the nights always cool, and the hot season of 
short duration ; but below the ghdfs^ the heat is sometimes excessive. 
At the close of the rains fever is very prevalent, and guinea-worm is 
very common in the State. The mean annual rainfall for the five years 
ending 1881 was t,^ inches. Nearly every variety of grain is grown in 
the fertile lands above the g/idfs. About one-third of the wheat and 
gram crop is exported. A large quantity of opium, sugar-cane, cotton, 
tobacco, linseed, and turmeric is also produced. The principal roads 
through the State are the Indore and Gujarat postal line, rid Sardarpur, 
and on to Dohud in Gujarat : the road to Diidi from Ratlam, along 
which route much opium passes; and 67 miles of the new road from 
Mhow to Nasirabad. Various minor roads lead from the capital of 
the State to the surrounding country. 

History. — The present Raja of Dhar, Anand Rao Puar, K.C.S.I., who 
was born about 1S43, i^ a Puar Rajput. The annals of his State are 
part of the general annals of Malwa, the towns of Ujjain and Dhar at 
one period or another supplying a capital for the legendary Hindu 



DHAR. 247 

dynasties of the region. Early story assigns to the Pu^rs a sovereignty 
lasting more than a thousand years, and dating from a period long 
anterior to the Christian era. Among the semi-mythical Pudrs, the 
names of Vikramaditya (claimed as an ancestor by the present chief of 
Dhar) and Raja Bhoj are given special prominence. Raja Bhoj is 
said to have transferred the capital from Ujjain to Dhar. About 
500 A.D., as the tradition runs, the Puars' power declined before the 
rise of one Rajput house after another; and about this time the 
family is supposed to have made their way to Puna (Poona), in the 
Deccan. The true historical period, in Malwd as in the greater part 
of India, commences with the consolidation of the Muhammadan 
power towards the end of the 14th century. In 1398, Uilawan 
Khan came as governor from Delhi, and with the materials of the 
great Hindu temples of Dhar built mosques for the followers of Islam. 
Dilawan's son, who succeeded his father as viceroy, transferred the 
capital from Dhar to Mandii. And from the time of Akbar's visit 
in 1567, not long after the transfer, until the ascendancy of the 
Marathas, the Dhar State became an insignificant part of a province 
of the Delhi Empire. 

The Puars who migrated to the Deccan eventually supplied some 
of their most distinguished commanders to the great Maratha leader 
Sivaji and his warlike successors. The present Dhar dynasty was 
founded by Anand Rao, who in 1749 received the grant of Dhar from 
Baji Rao Peshwa. For twenty years before the British conquest of 
Malwa, Dhar was subjected to a series of spoliations by Sindhia and 
Holkar, and was preserved from destruction only by the talents and 
courage of Mina Bai, widow of Anand Rao 11. and adoptive mother of 
Ramchandra Puar, the fifth in descent from the founder of the family. 
Ramchandra Puar was succeeded by his adopted son, Jeswant Rao, 
who died in 1857, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Anand 
Rao, the present Raja. The State w^as confiscated for rebellion in 
1857, but subsequently restored to Anand Rao (then a minor), with the 
exception of the District of Bairsia, which was granted to the Sekandar 
Begam of Bhopal. 

The area of the State is 1740 square miles. The population in 1881 
was returned at 149,244, namely, 115,051 Hindus, 12,269 Muham- 
madans, 3087 Jains, 12 Parsis, 27 Christians, and 18,798 'aborigines.' 
The principal castes found in Dhar are Rajputs, Kanbis, Marathas, 
Bhils, and Bhilalas. The revenue is ^74,312. By the treaty of 
January 1819, Dhar was taken under British protection. The State 
pays a contribution of ^1965 to the Malwa Bhil corps. The military 
force consists of 276 cavalry and about 800 infantry, including police, 
2 guns, and 21 artillerymen. The chief has received a sanad of 
adoption, and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. There is i English 



248 DHAR—DHARAMPUR. 

school and i8 vernacular schools, 2 dispensaries and a new hospital 
recently built by the Raja. 

Dhar. — Chief town of Dhar State under the Bhil or Bhopawar 
Agency of Central India; situated in lat. 23° 36' N., and long, 75° 4' e., 
on the route from Mau (Mhow) to Baroda, Tyi miles west of the former 
and 183 miles east of the latter. The present town is nearly i\ miles 
in length and half a mile in breadth, surrounded by a mud wall, 
and contains many striking buildings, especially two large decayed 
mosques built of red stone. Water is abundant, being suppHed from 
two small and eight large tanks. A fort, built of red stone, is situated 
outside the town on an eminence 40 feet above the plain, and is 
surrounded by a rampart 30 to 35 feet high, with 24 round and 2 square 
towers, on the larger of which last stands the palace of the chief. The 
gate is on the western face, and is defended by an octagonal tower. 
The fort was the scene of operations of a British force under General 
Stewart in 1857. Elevation of the town above the sea, 1908 feet. 
Population (1881) 15,224, namely, Hindus, 11,858; Muhammadans, 
2832; 'others,' 534. Post-office, dispensary, and opium weighing- 
machine under European supervision. 

Dhdrakot. — ZaminddH or estate, 8 miles north-west of Aska, on the 
Rishikulya river, in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Area, 125 
square miles; number of villages, 188; population (1881) 31,691. 
The estate is divided into 3 sub-divisions — Jahada 7?mtd, with 85 
villages; Kunanogodo mufd^ with 37 villages; and Sahasrango 7mitd, 
with 66 villages. Peshkash^ or quit - rent, payable to Government, 
j[^2/if()(y. With the neighbouring divisions of Surada, Bodogoda, and 
Sergada, Dharakot formed part of the ancient estate of Khidsinghi, 
constituted by the Gajapati sovereigns of Orissa in the 12th century. 
In 1476, the Khidsinghi family divided their property into four baronies, 
of which Dharakot is one. 

Dharamkota. — Shrine in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Amravati {A77iraoti). 

Dharampur. — Native State within the Political Agency of Surat, 
Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Bounded on the 
north by the Chikhli Sub-division of Surat District and the State of 
Bansda ; on the east by the State of Surgana and the Dangs ; on the 
south by the State of Peint ; and on the west by the Balsar and Pardi 
Sub-divisions of Surat District. The territory is 40 miles long from 
north to south, and 20 in breadth from east to w^est ; contains i town 
and 272 villages. Area, 794 square miles. Population (1881) 101,289, 
namely, 15,549 Hindus, 1707 Muhammadans, and 84,033 'others.' 
A small portion of the State only is cultivable ; the rest is hilly, rocky, 
and covered with forest and brushwood. Dharampur is well supplied 
with rivers : the Damanganga, the Kolak, the Par, the Auranga, and 



DHARAMPUR—DHARAMPURL 249 

the Ambika flow through the State on their way to the Gulf of 
Cambay. Except in Dharampur town and a few other villages, where 
there are reservoirs, wells and river-pools are the only source of the 
water-supply. The rainfall is estimated at over 70 inches yearly. 
The climate is very unhealthy. Prevailing diseases are fever, dropsy, 
diarrhoea, and asthma. The principal products are the flower of the 
inahud (Bassia latifolia), teak, blackwood, and bamboos ; the crops — 
rice, pulse, gram, and sugar-cane ; the manufactures — mats, baskets, 
fans, molasses, catechu, and pottery. A cart-road, passing southwards 
through Peint, connects the State of Dharampur with Nasik station 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, while another rougher track 
running westwards, and passable for carts except during the rains, 
joins it with Balsar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway. There is a regular post, kept up by the Chief, between 
Balsar and Dharampur. The gross revenue is estimated at ;£;2 5,000. 
In 1882 there were 6 schools, with 275 pupils. The present (1883) 
Chief is a Hindu of the Sesodia clan of Rajputs, who claim descent 
from the Solar race. His name is Narayandevji Ramdevji, and his 
title Raja Maharana Sri. He is entitled to a salute of 9 guns, and has 
power to try his own subjects for capital offences without the express 
permission of the Political Agent. Persons convicted of murder are 
punished with life imprisonment. The Chief administers the State 
himself, and maintains a military force of 207 men, with 4 field guns. 
The house follows the rule of primogeniture in point of succession, 
and holds a saiiad authorizing adoption. It is probable that the terri- 
tory of Dharampur, or Ramnagar, as it was originally called, was once 
much more extensive than now, stretching westward as far as the 
sea-coast. In 15 76, the Chief of Ramnagar went to meet Akbar's minister 
Todar Mall at Broach, and accepted military rank at his hands. Seventy- 
two of the Dharampur villages were wrested away by the Marathas 
early in the i8th century. The claims of the Peshwa on the revenues 
of the State were ceded to the British under the terms of the treaty of 
Bassein (1802), and are still levied by oflicers of the British Govern- 
ment; they yield a yearly sum of from ;£"6oo to ^700. A district 
constabulary has recently been formed. In all, there are 8 schools in 
the State. 

Dharampur. — Chief town of the Native State of Dharampur, 
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 20° 34' n., 
and long. 73° 14' e. Population (1881) 5176, namely, 2271 Hindus, 
841 Muhammadans, 33 Parsis, and 2031 'others.' Three vernacular 
schools, one of them for girls. There is also a dispensary where 
vaccination is being gradually introduced. 

Dharampuri. — /'^r^^/zi of Dhar State, Bhil (Bheel) Agency, 
Central India. Population (1881) 18,574; number of houses, 4273, 



250 DHARAMPURI—DHARAPURAM. 

distributed in 138 villages. Agricultural stock — horned cattle, i6,J 
Number of wells, 560. Revenue, ;£"6898. 

Dharampuri. — Town in the Dharampuri pargand of the Dhar 
Native State, Central India ; situated on the north bank of the 
Narbada, in latitude 22° 10' n., and longitude 75° 26' e., and distant 
about 2i^ miles south-west from Dhar. During the period of Muham- 
madan rule at Dhar, the town is said to have contained 10,000 
houses, and the ruins of the old town extend far beyond its present 
limits. It now contains about 500 inhabitants, but is gradually 
extending. 

Dharangaon. — Town and municipality in Erandol Sub-division, 
Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 21° n., longitude 
75° 20' 20" E. ; 35 miles east by north of Dhiilia, and 20 miles west of 
the railway station of Jalgaon. Population (1881) 13,081; municipal 
income (1882-83), £^^'^^ 'y municipal expenditure, ;^582 ; rate of 
taxation per head of municipal population (12,388), 6|d. Dharangaon 
has a post-office, and is the head-quarters of the District superintendent 
of police and of the Bhil Corps. The lines for the Corps afford accommo- 
dation for 200 families. A considerable trade in cotton and oil-seeds 
is carried on with Jalgaon, where many of the Dharangaon merchants 
have agents. The paper and cloth of Dharangaon were formerly held 
in esteem. At present the manufacture of paper has entirely ceased ; 
but the weaving of coarse cloth still gives employment to more than 
1 00 looms. In the year 1855, Government established a cotton-ginning 
factory at Dharangaon, with 93 saw-gins, under the management of a 
European overseer; merchants and cultivators were charged j[^\ a 
month for the use of a gin. But the experiment proved costly, and 
was subsequently abandoned. Under Maratha rule, Dharangaon was 
the scene of a terrible massacre of Bhils, who had on several occasions 
plundered the town. A factory was established here by the English 
in 1674. The following year the town was plundered by Sivaji, and 
again in 1679 by Sivaji in conjunction with the Raja of Berar. It was 
at that time one of the most flourishing marts in this part of the 
country. Six years later, in 1685, it was again plundered and burnt 
by Sambhaji. In 181 8, Dharangaon came into the possession of the 
British Government ; and it was here that Lieutenant, afterwards Sir 
James, Outram was engaged from 1825 to 1830, in improving the 
position of the Bhils, by training them in an irregular corps. The town 
is badly supplied with drinking water. The most remarkable building 
is Outram's Bungalow, now used as an office by the Assistant-Collector. 
Its main hall is 40 feet long, 34 broad, and 16 high. Dharangaon 
contains four schools. 

Dharapuram. — Tdluk in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. 
Population (i88t) 195,232, namely, 94,800 males and 100,432 females: 



DHARAPURAM, 2 5 1 

number of houses, 43,554. Bounded on the north by Erode taluk ; on 
the east by Kariir ; on the west by Palladam and Udumalpatai ; and on 
the south by the Palani taluk of Madura District. Contains 82 villages 
with their numerous hamlets, and an area of 835 square miles, of which 
389,436 acres are occupied at an assessment of ^33,801. The taluk 
is chiefly dry land, only 71 17 acres being irrigated : 77 per cent, of the 
soil is entered as red sand. The rivers of the taluk are the Amravati, 
Uppar, and Noyel ; the first is crossed by 6 anicuts supplying irri- 
gation channels ; there are numerous private wells, by which good 
crops are raised ; the uplands are poor and badly tilled. The assessment 
averages is. 6d. per acre for dry, and i6s. for wet land. A large portion 
of the land is devoted to pasture, cattle being more numerous here 
than in the surrounding taluks. There are no forests or hills. The 
population is almost solely agricultural. Shops are few; but large 
weekly markets, especially at Kangayam and Dharapuram, supply the 
needs of the villagers. The chief products are cereals, pulses, tobacco, 
oil-seeds, cotton, and jaggery. The taluk is well supplied with roads, 
and contains 2 criminal courts, with a deputy tahsilddr at Kangayam, 2 
post-oflices, 7 police stations, several schools, including a middle school 
at Dharapuram, and a dispensary. Number of regular police, 68 men. 
Arrack and toddy shops number 165. Except Dharapuram town, 
there are no places of importance in the taluk. The Sivanmalai temple 
and the Nattaroyen Kovil, near Vella Kovil, are much resorted to by the 
people. Aqua marines were found formerly near Sivanmalai, and rock 
crystals of good size, form, and lucidity are often found ; so also is 
corundum. The taluk is on the whole healthy, being dry and open to 
the south-west winds from the Palghat gap. 

Dharapuram {Ddrapur). — Chief town in Dharapuram tdluk^ Coim- 
batore District, Madras Presidency. Situated in latitude 10° 44' 35" 
N., and longitude 77° 34' 28" e., 46 miles east-south-east of Coim- 
batore and 250 from Madras. Population (1881) 7310, namely, 5579 
Hindus, 1525 Muhammadans, and 206 Christians; number of houses, 
1327. The town lies on the left bank of the river Amravati, in 
a plateau of open country 909 feet above the sea, which stretches 
nearly to the Palani mountains, about 15 miles south. A channel 
from the river bisects the town. Dharapuram is said to have been 
the capital of the Kshatriya King Bhaja, and is otherwise interesting 
as having, in 1667, and again in 1746, been taken from Madura 
by Mysore. In the campaigns with Haidar Ali and Tipii Sahib, it 
was also a point of some strategical importance, being captured by 
Colonel Wood in 1768, retaken by Haidar in the same year, again 
occupied by the British in 1783, given up by the treaty of Mangalore, 
and finally resumed in 1790 by General Medows. In 1792 the fort 
was dismantled. For a time Dharapuram was the seat of the District 



252 DHARI—DHARMANPUR. 

court, but is now only the head-quarters of the taluk, and as such 
possesses the usual subordinate administrative establishments, a police 
station, post-office, school, and dispensary. At the weekly market held 
here, the ghi, paddy, and chillies, which, with tobacco, pulses, and oil- 
seed, form the staple products of the taluk, are collected for export in 
exchange for metal-ware and cloth. The town is connected by road 
with three railway stations — Tirupur, Penundurai, and Karur, the nearest 
being 30 miles distant. 

Dhari. — Petty State of Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
3 1 square miles ; there are 6 shareholders. The estimated revenue is 
^250, and a tribute of ;^95 is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Dharla (or Torshd). — River of Bengal, which rises in the Bhutan 
Hills, flows south through the Western Dwars of Jalpaiguri District, 
passing through the centre of Mdidixi pargand, till it enters Kuch Behar 
territory at Nekobarpara village. Chief tributaries in Jalpaiguri, the 
Bhela Kuba and the Hansmara. Its course through Kuch Behar is 
tortuous, its old beds and affluents forming a perfect network of 
channels. Gives off the Torsha river in Kuch Behar; joined by the 
Singimari or Jaldhaka near Durgapur; turns south through Rangpur 
District, and falls into the Brahmaputra at Bagwa, in lat. 25° 40' n., 
and long. 89° 47' 30" e. Navigable by cargo-boats during the rains. 

Dharma (or Dartnd). — Tract of country in Kumaun District, North- 
Western Provinces, lying on the southern side of the main Himalayan 
range; situated between 30° 5' and 30° 30' n., and between 80° 25' and 
80° 45' E. Of considerable elevation— its chief peak, Lebong, rising 
18,942 feet above sea-level; while the Dharma Pass, on the northern 
frontier, leading into Hundes, reaches a height of about 15,000 feet. 
The habitable portion consists of narrow and very rugged valleys, 
traversed by the Kali river (which rises in this tract), its chief tributary 
the Dhauli, and other feeder streams. The inhabitants are Bhotiyas, 
a Tibetan race, who carry on a trade between Hundes and Kumaun, 
by means of pack-sheep, over the Dharma Pass. Estimated area, about 
400 square miles. 

Dharmanpur. — Pargand in Nanpara tahsil, Bahraich District, 
Oudh ; bounded on the north by Nepal, on the east and south by ^i'cs.- 
piri J>arga7zd, and on the west by the Kauriala river, separating it from 
Kheri District. It was formerly included in Dhaurahra, and was only 
constituted a separate pargand since the British annexation of Oudh. 
Largely occupied by forest tracts, which comprise 172 square miles out 
of a total area of 304. The remainder, 132 square miles, is occupied 
by 64 villages, the cultivated area being only 47 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1881) 25,761, namely, males 14,097, and females 11,664. The 
Government land revenue, which, on account of the large area of 
cultivable waste land available, has been fixed at a rate progressively 



DHARMAPATAM—DHARMAPURL 253 

increasing every ten years, is as follows : — 1871, ;^3303 ; i^^i* ;£4i77 ; 
1891, ^5052. Average incidence of final assessment, 2s. ifd. per 
acre of cultivated area; lojd. per acre of assessable area, and 8|d. per 
acre of total area. Graziers from all parts of Northern Oudh drive 
their herds into the forests of this pargaiid. Game of every description 
abounds. 

Dharmapatam. — River in Malabar District, Madras Presidency, 
falling into the sea 3 miles north of Tellicherri. Dharmapatam town 
is situated on an island formed by the mouths of this river. 

Dharmapatam {Dharmdfattan ; Dharmatam ; the Dehfattan of Ibn 
Batuta, and the Darmaftan of the Tahfat-al-Mujahidin). — An island 
town in the Kotayam taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presidency, lying 
on the river of the same name, in latitude 11° 46' n., longitude 75° 
30' E. Area, 6 square miles. Population (1881) 5899, dwelling in 760 
houses. Dharmapatam formerly belonged to the kingdom of Kolattiri, 
but was ceded in 1734 to the East India Company. In 1788 it was 
taken by the Chhirakkal Raja, but recovered in 1789. 

Dharmapuri.— r^'/z//& in Salem District, Madras Presidency. The 
most southerly of the sub-divisional tdliiks, and once a portion of the 
ancient province known as the Baramahal. Bounded on the north by 
Hosur and Krishnagiri taluks ; on the west by Hosur and the Bhawani 
tdliik of Coimbatore District ; on the south by the Thopiir river ; and 
on the east by the Krishnagiri and Uttankarai taluks of Salem District. 
Population (1881) 135,826, namely, 66,200 males and 69,626 females. 
Number of houses, 28,108. Classified according to religion — Hindus, 
129,751 ; Muhammadans, 3888 ; Christians, almost exclusively Roman 
Catholics, 2187. The area is 937 square miles (599,680 acres). The 
taluk is entered from the south by the Thopiir pass, memorable in the 
narrative of military operations during the wars with Haidar All and 
Tipii Sultan. The country around is hilly, and from Thopiir the ghat 
road winds through picturesque mountain and valley scenery. The 
taluk is sparsely wooded. The only rivers are the Chennar and the 
Thopiir, the former much used for irrigation. The soil is chiefly 
ferruginous loam and sand, with (in the valleys) black alluvial clay. 
Iron-ore is the only mineral product. The average elevation of the 
/J/^/^ is from 1500 to 1700 feet above sea-level. The chmate is hot 
and dry. The rainfall for ten years ending 1875 averaged 21 inches. 
Tamil is the language most spoken. Rice and ragi are the staple articles 
of food. There are 7 ferries. The tdluk contains 2 criminal courts ; 
pohce stations, 13 ; regular police, 108 men. Land revenue, ^15,529. 
The area liable to revenue is distributed as follows : — Government 
villages, 440,132 acres; viutd (or permanently assessed) and shotriem 
(or revenue-free) villages, 144,769 acres. The extent actually under 
cultivation in rayatwdri villages is 1 10,363 acres, paying ^13,649. The 



254 DHARMAPURI—DHARMKOT. 

staples of cultivation are ragi on dry, and rice on wet lands ; but other 
grain crops, as varagii, aimba, and cholain are also grown largely. The 
rates of assessment vary from 6d. to 15s. an acre, according to the 
quality and class of land. Irrigation is carried on from small rivers, 
385 tanks, 56 minor reservoirs, and 8683 wells. The irrigated area 
in 1 88 1 v/as 8140 acres, assessed at ;£"373i. 

Dharmapuri. — Town in Dharmapuri tdluk^ Salem District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in latitude 12° 9' n., and longitude 78° 13' e., 42 
miles by road north of Salem. Population (1881) 7090, namely, 6131 
Hindus, 895 Muhammadans, and 64 Christians. As the head-quarters 
of the taluk, it contains the subordinate, judicial, and magisterial courts, 
a post-office, police station, school, and dispensary. The town is 
healthy, and the water-supply abundant. Until 1688, Dharmapuri 
belonged to the kingdom of Aura, but in that year was annexed by 
Mysore. In 1768 it was captured by Colonel Wood, but reoccupied 
by Haidar Ali until the signature of peace. Was for some years the 
residence of Sir Thomas Munro, Governor of Madras. 

Dharmavaram. — Tdluk of Anantapur District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 1192 square miles, with a population (1881) of 97,106, or 81 
persons to the square mile. Of the total area, 266,489 acres are 
cultivated, only 22,078, however, being under 'wet' crops, owing to 
the insufficiency of irrigation works. About 100 miles of made road 
connect the large towns — Dharmavaram, Kalyandriig, Konderpidrug, 
and Kambadiir — with each other. The idliik contains 2 criminal 
courts ; police stations {thdnds), 1 2 ; regular police, 80 men. Land 
revenue, ;^io,o6i. Chief town, Dharmavaram. 

DharmdvaranL — Town in Dharmavaram tdluk, Anantapur District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 24' n., long. 77° e. Population (1881) 
5916, namely, 5086 Hindus, 822 Muhammadans, and 8 Christians; 
number of houses, 1534. Situated on the Chitravati river, 50 miles 
south of Gutti (Gooty) and 196 north-west of Madras. It is the head- 
quarters of the tdluk, and the market held here is of considerable local 
importance. Said to have been founded by Kriyasakti Wodeyar, and 
formerly fortified. 

Dharmkot. — Town in the Zira tahsil of Firozpur (Ferozepore) 
District, Punjab. Lat. 30° 56' 45" n., and long. 75° 16' 30" e. Popula- 
tion (1881) 6007, namely, 1950 Hindus, 2673 Muhammadans, and 1384 
Sikhs. Lies on the road from Firozpur to Ludhiana, 56 miles east of 
the former city. Originally known as Kotalpur, but renamed after its 
occupation in 1760 by the Sikh chieftain, Tara Singh, of the Dallewala 
confederacy, who built a fort, now destroyed. Well paved and drained. 
Middle-class school, sardi, police station. Many wealthy merchants ; 
large trade in grain. Dharmkot being situated near the Grank Trunk 
Road, with a good bdzdr^ and being the only town in the immediate 



DHARMPUR—DHARNAODA, 255 

neighbourhood, a considerable trade is carried on in piece-goods, 
brought to the market via Ludhiana, and in grain. Many well-to-do 
native merchants reside in the town in substantial houses of two and 
three storeys high. Good bazar, police station, school-house, native 
inn {sardi), with accommodation also for European travellers. A third- 
class municipality, with an income in 1882-83 o^ £"^$9 \ expenditure, 

Dharmpur. — Village in Hardoi District, Oudh ; 1 1 miles east of 
Fatehgarh, and the first encamping-ground on the route from Fateh- 
garh to Lucknow and Hardoi. Noteworthy as the residence of Raja 
Tilak Singh, brother of the late Sir Hardeo Baksh, K.C.S.L, in whose 
fort were loyally sheltered several English officers during the Mutiny. 
Population (1881) 1256; number of houses, 161. 

Dharmsala. — Hill station, municipality, and administrative head- 
quarters of Kangra District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 15' 42" n., long. 76° 
22' 46" E. Dharmsala lies on a spur of the Dhaola Dhar, 16 miles 
north-east of Kangra town, in the midst of wild and picturesque scenery. 
It occupies the site of an old Hindu sanctuary or dharmsala (whence 
the name), and originally formed a subsidiary cantonment for the 
troops stationed at Kangra. In 1855, the District head-quarters were 
removed to the spot ; and a small town rapidly collected around the 
civil station. It now contains several private European residences, a 
church, two large barracks for soldiers temporarily invalided from English 
regiments, three bazars, public gardens and assembly rooms, court- 
house, jail, treasury, hospital, and other public buildings. Population 
(1881), including the cantonment population of 1483, 5322, namely, 
Hindus, 4630; Sikhs, 5; Muhammadans, 591 ; and 'others,' 96; number 
of houses, 789. This may be taken as the regular resident population, 
the Census having been taken in the winter month of February. 
There is also a considerable fluctuating population of visitors from 
the plains during the summer months. The municipal area had a popu- 
lation of 3839 persons'in 1881. Municipal income (1882-83), ;^445, or 
2s. 3|d. per head of the municipal population; expenditure, ;^462. 
The town and cantonments stretch along the hill-side, with an eleva- 
tion varying from 4500 to 6500 feet. The churchyard contains a 
monument in memory of Lord Elgin, who died at Dharmsala in 1863. 
Picturesque waterfalls and other objects of interest lie within reach 
of an easy excursion. A cart-road connects the town with Jalandhar 
(Jullundur) on the plains ; supplies can be obtained at moderate 
prices ; and the station bids fair to become a favourite retreat for 
civilians and invalids. The rainfall, however, is very heavy ; its annual 
average being returned at 148*3 inches. Trade is confined to the 
supply of necessaries for European residents and their servants. 

Dhamaoda. — A petty Chiefship in the Giina (Goona) Sub-Agency, 



256 DHARUPUR^DHAR WAR. 

under the Gwalior Agency, Central India. The State consists of 32 
villages, yielding an annual revenue of about £,^00 \ population 
(1881) 4196. The present thdkur, Bhiim Singh, is descended from 
thdkur Chatar Sal, who was given Dharnaoda for his separate main- 
tenance, with the possession of Raghagarh, according to the arrange- 
ments made in 1843, under the guarantee by the British Government. 
The family belongs to the Chauhan Rhichi clan of Rajputs. Thieving 
and cattle-lifting are incessant in the State. 

Dharupur. — Village in Partabgarh District, Oudh ; 24 miles from 
Bela, and 16 from Manikpur. Founded by Dharu Sah, the ancestor 
of the present tdlukddr, whose fort and residence are still in existence. 
During the Mutiny, British refugees were hospitably received here. At 
the bdzdr adjoining the fort, a considerable trade is carried on, the 
annual sales reaching ;^io,ooo in value, the market days being 
Wednesday and Saturday. Population (1881), Hindus, 2002, and 
Muhammadans, 496 ; total, 2498. Three Sivaite temples ; Government 
school. 

Dhdrwar. — British District in the Southern Maratha country, 
Bombay Presidency; lying between 14° 15' and 15° 51' n. lat., 
and between 74° 47' and 76° 55' e. long. Bounded on the north by 
the Districts of Belgaum and Kaladgi ; on the east by the Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) territory of the Nizam, and the river Tungabhadra which 
separates Dharwar from the District of Bellary, Madras Presidency; 
on the south by the State of Mysore ; and on the west by the District 
of North Kanara. Its greatest length from north to south is 116 
miles, and its greatest breadth 77 miles. Area, 4535 square miles. 
Population (1881) 882,907. 

Physical Aspects. — Dharwar District is roughly divided into two 
belts, characterized by differences of configuration, soil, and products. 
The Belgaum and Harihar road may be considered the dividing line. 
To the north and north-east of that road, in the Sub-divisions of 
Nawalgund, Ron, and the greater part of Gadag, spread vast unbroken 
plains of black soil, which produce abundant crops of cotton. In the 
south-eastern portion of this plain are the Kapad Hills ; and again, 
after passing over a stretch of black soil in the Karajgi Sub-division, 
there is an undulating country of red soil, which reaches to the boundary 
of Mysore. The western belt of the District is traversed by low hills, 
extending from the southern bank of the river Malprabha to near the 
Mysore frontier. This tract consists of a succession of low ranges 
covered with herbage and brushwood. The ranges are separated by flat 
valleys ; and it is to these valleys and the lower slopes of the hills 
that cultivation is chiefly confined. Farther west, the country becomes 
still more hilly, and the trees increase in size towards the frontier of 
North Kanara. In this tract all the Government forest reserves are 



DHARWAR. 257 

to be found. The Sub-divisions of Hangal and Kod, to the south of 
Dharwir, present almost the same appearance, small hills rising out of 
the plain in all directions with fertile valleys between. The number 
of tanks in these Sub-divisions is a special feature in the landscape ; 
but, with some marked exceptions, they are small and shallow, retaining 
water for not more than three or four months after the rains. 

From its position on the summit of the watershed of the Peninsula, 
Dharwar is devoid of large rivers. Of its seven principal streams, six 
run eastwards towards the Bay of Bengal, and one penetrates through the 
Western Ghats to the Arabian Sea. (i) The Malprabha, for about 
20 miles, forms the northern boundary of the District, dividing it from 
Kaladgi. (2) The Bennihallahas its source about 20 miles south of the 
town of Hubli, and, flowing northwards through the central plain of the 
District, falls into the Malprabha. Its water is brackish, and soon dries 
up. (3) The Tungabhadra, on the south-eastern frontier, divides Dharwar 
from Mysore and Bellary in Madras. (4) The Warda, a tributary of the 
Tungabhadra, passes from the south-west to east through two of the 
southern Sub-divisions of the District. (5) The Dharma crosses 
Dharwar in the south, and eventually joins the Warda; and (6) the 
Kumadwati flows north-east through Kod Sub-division, falling into the 
Tungabhadra near Holianaweri. (7) The one westward-flowing stream 
is the Birti Nala or Gangawali, which passes through the Kalghatgi 
Sub-division. None of these rivers are navigable, and the only one 
used for irrigation is the Dharma, in the Hangal taluk. A dam across 
it diverts its water, when the river is high, into a channel on the 
north side, which extends as far as Adiir, a distance of about 6 miles 
in direct line. This is an old irrigation work constructed under native 
rule. The channel, besides irrigating a large area, directly feeds a 
number of small tanks which depend on it for their supply. The waters 
of the Malprabha and Warda are considered the best for drinking, while 
the water of the Tungabhadra is said by the natives to be heavy and 
exceptionally sweet. In the west, near the hills, the rainfall is abundant ; 
and as the natural unevenness of the ground offers suitable sites, many 
tanks have been constructed, and a sufficient supply of water is thus 
kept in store. But in the central and eastern portion of Dharwar, the 
water-supply is very scanty, and the flat surface of the country presents 
few natural advantages for the storage of water on a large scale. 
Though almost every village has its own tank, the want of drinking 
water is at times keenly felt, for the shallow tanks rapidly become 
choked with the drainage from the black cotton-soil. Even in a season 
of ample rainfall, they dry up by the beginning of March. In 1869, 
the inhabitants of some of the villages in the plain were forced to 
fetch their water from distances of 10 or 12 miles, while many migrated 
with their cattle to the banks of the Tungabhadra and Malprabha. 

VOL. IV. R 



258 DHARWAR. 

Nor can a sufficient supply be easily obtained from wells. In most 
parts the water-bearing strata lie far below the surface, occasionally as 
deep as 80 or 90 feet, while the water obtained is often found to be 
brackish. Large sums are spent annually on the reservoirs and tanks 
of the District. The ' black soil,' or regar^ occurs in beds from a few 
inches to 30 or 40 feet in depth, but it is interrupted by chains of 
hills, and at places covered by alluvial soil and pebbles washed down 
from their sides. In the north-east of the District some singular hills 
are met with, rising abruptly out of the plain as isolated landmarks. 
They are not more than 300 feet high ; and the stone varies much in 
structure, being a loose variegated gritty substance, which sometimes 
approaches a compact quartz rock, showing grey, whitish yellow, and 
red bands of all shades of colour. The Kapad Hills are principally 
composed of hornblende and chloritic schists, gneiss, and mica slate. 
Manganese is found in considerable quantities. Some of the hills are 
capped with laterite. The bed of the Doni rivulet, which has its rise 
in these hills, contains gravel and sand, in which gold dust is found 
associated with magnetic iron-sand, grains of platinum, grey carbonate 
of silver, and copper. It is, however, chiefly among the chlorite slate 
hills on the western side that gold is found. The zone of hills on the 
west of the District, from 15 to 25 miles broad, consists entirely of 
various hypogene schists. In its northern part, jaspideous schists 
predominate ; in the centre, these pass into chloritic and argillaceous 
slates and shales of all shades of white, yellow, red, brown, and green, 
interstratified with beds of white or iron coloured quartz, and of jas- 
pideous rock. These layers generally form crests and mural ridges 
on the summits of the hills, which run in parallel ranges north-west 
by north, and south-east by south. 

In former times, gold is said to have been obtained in abundance, 
and even now the Kapad range of hills in the neighbourhood of 
Dambal in the east of the District, and the beds of streams issuing 
from them, yield some gold. Washing is practised by a class of people 
called Jalgars, but their employment is not constant, being carried on 
only for a short time in every year after the flood. At this season their 
gains are said not to average more than from gd. to is. a day. In the 
hiUs in the west of the District, iron was formerly smelted in consider- 
able quantities. Owing, however, to the great destruction of timber 
during the past forty years, fuel has become scarce, and this industry 
is now only carried on to a limited extent. The iron made is of superior 
quality, but cannot as a general rule compete in cheapness with im- 
ported iron. The western or hilly portion of the District contains 
much forest land, which has been set apart by Government for 
reserves. The black-soil plains, on the other hand, suffer from a 
scarcity of trees ; timber for building purposes has to be brought from 



DHARWAR. 259 

great distances, and sun-dried cakes of cow-dung are the chief fuel. To 
supply these wants, strict conservation, with replanting, is now being 
carried on in the Government forest reserves. 

FercE Natures. — Of wild animals, the District contains the tiger, 
leopard, bear, wolf, hyaena, fox, jackal, wild hog; and of game, the 
spotted deer and common antelope. Most of the rivers and tanks 
contain fish, and in the larger reservoirs some of great size are caught. 

History. — The territory comprised within the present District of 
Dharwar appears to have formed part of the ancient Hindu kingdom 
of Vijayanagar, which rose to power in the 14th century. On the 
overthrow of the Vijayanagar dynasty at the battle of Talikot, in 1564, 
by a confederacy of Musalman princes, Dharwar was annexed to the 
Muhammadan kingdom of Bijapur. In 1675, the country was over- 
run, and partially conquered, by the Marathas under Sivaji ; and from 
that time, for about a century, remained subject first to the Maratha 
ruler of Satara, and afterwards to the Peshwa of Poona. In 1776, 
under Haidar Ali, the usurper of Mysore, the Musalmans again 
occupied Dharwar \ but before five years were over, by the help of a 
British force, the Marathas, in 1791, captured a second time the fort 
and town of Dharwar. The country remained under Maratha manage- 
ment till 1 8 18, when, on the overthrow of the Peshwa by the British, 
it was incorporated with the Bombay Presidency. There are many 
old forts scattered through the District, and a few religious buildings, 
elaborately sculptured, and of beautiful though somewhat heavy design. 
The chief modern buildings are the religious houses or maths of the 
Lingayat sect. These are ugly but commodious structures, used as a 
residence for the priests or ayahas^ and also to a large extent as resting 
places for travellers. 

Population. — In 1872, the population of the District was 989,671. 
The Census of 1881 returned a total population of 882,907 persons, 
or 195 to the square mile. There has thus been a faUing off of 
106,764 persons since 1872. Of the population in 1881, 769,349, or 
87 per cent., were Hindus; 100,622, or 1 1 '40 per cent, Musalmans ; 
2356, or 0*30 per cent., Christians, including 79 Europeans, 73 East 
Indians, and 2204 native converts; 10,526, or 1*20 per cent., Jains; 31 
Parsis; 18 Jews; and 5 Buddhists. The males numbered 442,035, 
the females 440,872 ; percentage of males in the total population, 5o"o7. 
Classified according to caste, the Hindus included 28,403 Brahmans ; 
3450 Rajputs; 54,254 Berads; 2545 Chamars; 6579 Shimpis 
(tailors); 87,568 Dhangars; 6869 Dhobi's (washermen); 6880 Hajjams 
(barbers); 39,116 Jangams ; 44,345 Kunbis (cultivators); 4410 Kolis 
(cultivators); 18,953 Koshtis (weavers); 2641 Kumbhars (potters); 
4359 Lingayats ; 12 17 Lobars (blacksmiths); 1545 Mali's (gardeners) ; 
27,612 Mangs (inferior caste) ; 11,392 Mahars (inferior caste) ; 135,357 



26o DEAR WAR. 

Panchamsalis ; 21,686 Reddis; 2405 Sonars (goldsmiths); 2014 Sutars 
(carpenters); 22,499 Telis (oilmen); and 233,127 'other' Hindus. 
Among the Muhammadans are included 7994 Pathans ; 13,1 18 Sayyids ; 
78,261 Shaikhs; and 'others,' 1249. Of the adult males in the six 
classes into which the Census divides the people as regards occupation, 
there were in all 442,025 ; namely, in the professional class, 13,750; in 
the domestic, 4422; in the commercial, 3540; in the agricultural, 
207,143; in the industrial, 53,499; and in the indefinite and non- 
productive, 159,681. Of the 1285 towns and villages in the District 
in 1 88 1, 303 contained less than two hundred inhabitants, 493 between 
two and five hundred, 308 between five hundred and one thousand, 
114 between one and two thousand, 30 between two and three thousand, 
24 between three and five thousand, 9 between five and ten thousand, 
I between ten and fifteen thousand, i between fifteen and twenty 
thousand, and 2 between twenty and fifty thousand. 

In the Sub-divisions of Dharwar, Hubli, Gadag, and Bankapur, and 
in the State of Sawaniir, the population contains a considerable Musal- 
man element. Among the nomadic tribes, the chief are the Waddars, 
Lambanis, Collars, and Advichinchars. The Waddars move, with 
their wives and families, from place to place in search of work. They 
are generally employed on earthwork, quarrying, sinking wells, or 
making roads and reservoirs. The Lambanis also wander about in 
gangs. They correspond to the Banjaras, or gipsies, of Cujarat and 
Central India, and do a large carrying trade on pack-bullocks and 
ponies. The Collars and Advichinchars are a class of wandering 
jugglers, who live in the forest and pick up a precarious and often 
dishonest hvelihood ; but they are not thieves by profession. 

The population of Dharwar is, on the whole, prosperous. The soil is 
fertile, the climate favourable, and the people not wanting in energy. 
The cultivators have a good stock of cattle, especially in the eastern 
parts of the District. Towards the Western Chats, cultivation is 
scantier, and the people less thriving. 

There are three Christian Missions in the District. The chief one is 
subordinate to the Basle Cerman Mission, with resident missionaries at 
Dharwar, Hubli, and Cadag-Betigeri, and congregations at the villages 
of Unkal, Hebsiir, and Shagoti. The second mission is subordinate to 
the Roman Catholic Bishop of Bombay ; its chief station is Dharwar, 
and it has congregations at Hubli and Tumrikop. The third mission is 
subordinate to the Archbishop of Coa ; excepting the town of Dharwar, 
its congregational stations are situated beyond the District boundary. 

Kanarese is the vernacular language of the District, though the 
Dharwar dialect is not so pure as that spoken in Kanara itself. By 
many of the better classes Marathi is understood ; and Hindustdni is 
known to a few. . 



DHARWAR, 261 

The chief towns of the District are— (i) Hubli, population (1881) 
36,677; (2) Dharwar, 27,191 (town 26,520, cantonment 671); (3) 
Ranibennur, 10,202; (4) Gadag, 17,001; (5) Nargund, 7874; (6) 
Nawalgund, 7810; (7) MuLGUND, 5386; (8) Shahabajar or Banka- 
PUR, 6037; (9) Haveri, 5652; (10) Naregal, 6071; (11) Hangal, 

5272; (12) TUMINKATTI, 4622; (13) ByADGI, 4I16; (14) MUNDARGI, 

3826. 

Formerly all the principal towns, and even villages, were defended 
by a fort within which the richest inhabitants lived in well-built houses ; 
without the walls were the huts of the poorer and less influential classes. 
Though the fortifications have now been allowed to fall into decay, a 
marked distinction still exists between the town proper or pet and the 
houses within the fort. Villages in the western and southern parts of 
the District have in general a thriving appearance, arising from the 
common use of tiled roofs. In the northern and eastern parts, houses 
are, as a rule, flat-roofed, and there are few trees near the villages. 
The houses are chiefly constructed on massive woodwork frames, built in 
with mud bricks, the ends of which are triangular in shape. Formerly 
many of the villages were surrounded by low walls of mud and sun- 
dried bricks, as a protection against the attacks of thieves, but most of 
these walls are now falling into decay. 

Exclusive of hamlets, there were, in 1881, 14 towns and 1271 in- 
habited State and alienated villages, giving an average of 0*29 villages 
to each square mile, and 687 inhabitants to each village. The total 
number of houses was returned at 206,419, of which 455269 were 
unoccupied, showing an average of 45-5 houses per square mile, and 
of 5 "47 persons per house. 

Three annual fairs or religious meetings are held in the District — (i) 
at Hulgiir in Bankdpur Sub-division, in February, in honour of a famous 
Musalman saint; attendance of pilgrims about 3000; (2) at Yamnur 
in Nawalgund Sub-division, in March, also in commemoration of a 
Muhammadan saint; attendance of pilgrims, about 26,000; (3) at 
Gudguddapur in Ranibennur Sub-division, in September, in honour of a 
Hindu deity, Malhar Martand ; attendance of pilgrims, about 8700. 
Trade is carried on only to a very limited extent at these festivals. 
There are 2 1 other religious gatherings of less importance. 

The staff of the village community consists of two classes, one con- 
nected with the Government, and the other useful to the community 
alone. The first class comprises the pdtel, or head-man ; the hilkarni, 
or accountant ; shetsandi, or policeman ; and talwars^ barkis, and 
mahdrs, the menial servants. In the second class are the Joshi, or 
astrologer ; the kdzi and mulld, the Musalman priests ; the jangam, or 
ay a ; the siitdr, or carpenter ; the lohdr, or blacksmith ; the kumbhdr, 
or potter ; the sondr^ or goldsmith ; the hajjdm, or barber ; the vaidya, 



262 DHARWAR. 

or doctor; the dhor, or manufacturer of leathern articles for farmers- 
the dhohi, or washerman ; the piijdri, or worshipper ; the viathapati, or 
procurer of milk and butter for strangers ; and the viahdrs, or sweepers. 
In large villages, the organization may be found complete; but in 
small villages, the joshi, so?idr, vaidya, dhobi, and hajjdm, do not 
generally exist. Besides the above, in some few villages in the Hangal, 
Karajgi, and Kod Sub-divisions, there is a class of village servants 
called nir manegdrs, whose special duties are to keep the tank water- 
courses in repair, and let water on to the fields. 

Agriculture. — Exclusive of land belonging to other jurisdictions situated 
\vithin its limits, Dharwar District contains a total area of 2,902,400 
acres, of which 864,204 acres, or nearly 30 per cent., have been 
alienated. Of the remainder, 1,659,321 acres are assessed arable land, 
and 378,733 acres are unassessed waste. The total cultivated area in 
1882-83 ^vas 1,503,011 acres, including 1,409,175 acres under dry 
crops, 86,873 acres under rice, and 6963 acres irrigated for garden crops. 
The soil of the District may be divided into three classes, viz. red soil, 
black soil, and a rich brown loam. The red soil is a shallow gravelly 
deposit formed by the disintegration of hills and rocks. The black soil 
is the well-known regar, or cotton-soil, on which the value of Dharwar 
as a cotton-producing District depends. It ordinarily varies in depth 
from 2 to 20 feet. The brown loam is found chiefly on the west of the 
District, once the site of large forests ; it is supposed to be chiefly of 
vegetable origin, and is of little depth. The Government land is held 
under the Bombay Survey tenure, at a revenue fixed, in 1857-58, for 
a term of thirty years. The land alienated by the State is, as a rule, 
held at a fixed quit-rent. There are two chief crops in the year— the 
early or khaiif, and the late or rabi harvest. The early crops are sown 
in June, and harvested in October and November. The late crops, 
except cotton, are sown in October and reaped in February. Cotton 
is sown in August and picked in March. A field of black soil requires 
only one ploughing in the year, and is seldom manured. A field of 
red soil, on the other hand, is ploughed three or four times, and is 
generally manured. The entire stock of agricultural implements 
required by a single husbandman may be valued at from los. to £2. 

The oxen are of three varieties — two of inferior breed, indigenous 
to the District, and the large and well-made animals imported from 
Mysore. These Mysore bullocks are much valued ; an ordinary pair 
fetches about ;^i5, and for a superior pair as much as ^45, or even 
^200, is sometimes paid. The ponies of Dharwar were once famous, 
but of late years the breed is said to have fallen off. 

The agricultural stock in possession of the cultivators of Government 
or khdlsd villages during 1881-82 numbered 89,205 ploughs, 37,376 
carts, 224,170 bullocks, 111,352 buffaloes, 122,386 cows, 5162 horses, 



DHARWAR. 263 

174,528 sheep and goats, and 5633 asses. Of 1,507,942 acres, the total 
cuhivated area in the same year — cereals occupied 756,034 acres, or 
50*10 per cent.; pulses, 101,197 acres, or 670 per cent.; oil-seeds 
70,426 acres, or 4*67 per cent.; fibres, including cotton, 359,210 
acres, or 21*19 P^^ cent.; sugar-cane, 3742 acres; tobacco, 1251 
acres; and miscellaneous crops, 32,967 acres, or 2*20 per cent.: 
184,776 acres were under grass. The current prices of the chief 
articles of food, per ??iaund of 80 lbs., in the District in 1881-82, were, 
for wheat, 3s. 7jd. ; for rice, from 6s. 9d. to 9s. ; for bdjra (Holcus 
spicatus), 2s. lojd. ; for j oar (Holcus sorghum), 2s. 6d. ; for pulses 
or da/, 5s. 7d. ; for wheat flour, 5s. 2d. ; for gram, 5s. id. ; and for salt, 
8s. 7^d. 

Of the total just enumerated, 534,185 acres, or 21*06 per cent., were 
under cotton, the indigenous variety occupying 395,396, and Orleans 
cotton 138,789 acres. Several attempts had been made by Govern- 
ment to introduce the culture of New Orleans cotton, but up to 1842 
without success. In that year, however, the results were most satis- 
factory. Both in quantity and quality the out-turn was better than the 
indigenous variety, and the cultivation of New Orleans cotton has since 
spread rapidly. Its superiority is now generally recognised, not only 
in Dharwar, but in the neighbouring Districts. As American cotton 
cannot be properly ginned by the native process, it was found necessary 
to introduce new machinery. To ensure a sufficient supply of the best 
gins, they are imported from England and offered for sale at the 
Government factory at Dhdrwar, while for their repair branch factories 
have been established at local centres of trade. 

Natural Calamities. — From the earliest date of which historical 
record is available, the District appears to have suffered from droughts 
of more or less severity. Between 1787 and 1796 a succession of 
droughts, accompanied by swarms of locusts, occurred. This period 
of famine is said to have been at its height about 1791-92. The 
people were forced to feed on leaves and berries, and women and 
children were sold or deserted. No measures were taken by the 
Government of the day to relieve the sufferers. The next famine was 
in 1 80 2-1 803, occasioned by the immigration of people from the 
valley of the Godavari and the march of the Peshwas army through 
the country. In 1832, from want of rain, prices ruled very high, but 
the distress cannot be said to have amounted to famine. Owing to 
successive bad seasons, famines occurred in the years 1866 and 1877, 
and it was found necessary to employ large bodies of people on works 
of public utihty. 

Trade, etc. — In no part of the Bombay Presidency has more been 
done of late years to improve communications than in Dharwar. Thirty 
years ago, there were neither roads nor carts. In 1881-82, the 



264 DHARWAR, 

number of carts was returned at 37,376, and about 1000 miles of road 
were kept in sufficient repair to allow a spring carriage to be driven 
over them. The District is connected with the ports of Coompta, 
Karwar, and Vingorla by excellent roads, the distance from the western 
sea being about 100 miles. On the east, a road runs to the railway 
station of Bellary, in the Madras Presidency. The distance of Bellary 
from the Dharwar frontier is also about 100 miles. A line of railway is 
now under construction to pass through the District, from Bellary via 
Gadag and Hubli, to Marmagao in Portuguese territory, with a branch 
to Belgaum, while the Southern Maratha Railway, from Sholdpur, passes 
through the north-eastern portion of the District via Bijapur to Gadag. 
No returns of the internal trade of the District are available. Cotton 
is the chief article of export, and European goods, chillies, cocoa-nuts, 
molasses, and betel-nuts are imported from Kanara and Mysore. The 
local trade mjodr is also considerable. 

The manufactures consist of cotton and silk cloth, and the usual 
household utensils and ornaments. Common silk and cotton cloth 
are woven to a considerable extent in all the large towns. Fabrics 
of delicate texture and tasteful design are occasionally produced. 
Fine cotton carpets are manufactured at Nawalgiind, both for home 
consumption and for export to the neighbouring Districts. The wild 
aloe grows well, and the manufacture of matting from its fibre has been 
carried on at the jail with success. In the city of Dharwdr there is 
also a considerable manufacture of glass bangles. Blocks of blue and 
green glass in a rough state are imported from Bellary and re-melted 
in crucibles, made of a species of clay brought from Khanapur, in 
Belgaum. During eight months of the year (October to June) iron- 
smelting is carried on in small furnaces in parts of the District, but 
want of fuel prevents any extension of this industry. 

The majority of the traders are local capitalists, a few representing 
firms in Bombay and other important places. Except a few Parsis in 
the town of Dharwar, they are by caste generally Brahmans or Lingayats, 
a few being Muhammadans, Giijars, etc. Porters and other unskilled 
labourers earn from 4|d. to 6d. a day ; agricultural labourers from 3d. 
to 4id., bricklayers and carpenters from is. 3d. to is. 4jd. Female 
labourers earn about one-third less than males. Lads of from twelve to 
fifteen get about two-thirds less than full-grown men. 

Administration. — The District is divided into 11 Sub-divisions, or 
taluks, and into 3 petas or larger fiscal units. The 11 Sub-divi- 
sions of the District are — Dharwar, Hubli, Gadag, Nawalgund, 
Bankapur, Ron, Ranibennur, Kod, Hangal, Karajgi, and 
Kalghatgi. The administration in revenue matters is entrusted to a 
Collector and 5 Assistants, of whom 3 are covenanted civil servants. 
For the settlement of civil disputes there were, in 1881, 4 courts, 



DHARWAR, 265 

including the court of the District Judge. Thirty officers, including 6 
Europeans, shared the administration of criminal justice. In the same 
year, the total strength of the District or regular police force was 733 
officers and men. The total cost of maintaining this force was 
;^i2,i54. These figures show one policeman to every 6*i8 square 
miles as compared with the area, and i to every 1204 persons as 
compared with the population ; the cost of maintenance was 
;3^2, 13s. yd. per square mile, or 3d. per head of the population. 
There is i jail at Dharwar town, in which 562 male and 109 female 
prisoners were confined in 1880. The District contains 51 post-offices 
and 3 telegraph offices, viz. at Dharwdr, Hubli, and Gadag-Betigeri. 

In 1881-82, the re-settlement of the Dharwar District was com- 
pleted at a total cost of ;£44,o3o, resulting in a total increase of 
the land revenue to ;^266,54o, the annual increase consequent on 
re-settlement being ;j^45,489. The local funds, created since 1863 for 
works of public utility and rural education, yielded, in 1881-82, a sum 
of ;^i5,89i. There are 11 municipalities in the District; their total 
receipts in 1881-82 amounted to ^10,170, and their expenditure to 
;^ 1 0,64 1. The incidence of municipal taxation varied from lojd. to 
3s. ijd. per head. In the same year there w^ere 377 schools in the 
District, or an average of 5 schools for every 15 villages, with an 
attendance of 27,113 pupils. In Dharwar tow^n there is i library, and 
3 local newspapers are published. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate is, for both natives and Europeans, 
about the healthiest in the Bombay Presidency. In December and 
January, dews are heavy and general. From February to the middle 
of April is the hot season ; and from the latter date to the beginning 
of June, when the regular rainy reason sets in, showers are frequent. 
Except in November and December, when strong winds blow from the 
east, the prevailing winds are from the west, south-west, and south-east. 
The average maximum temperature for the hot months (March to May) 
is 93° F. ; the maximum for the rainy season (June to October), 83° ; 
the maximum for the cold season (November to February), 84° F. The 
average rainfall at Dharwar town for a period of seven years ending 
1 88 1 was 32-89 inches. At HubH the rainfall for the same period 
averaged 25*8 inches. 

There are 3 dispensaries in the District, and a civil hospital at 
Dharwar town. During 1881-82, 43,498 persons in all were treated, 
of whom 42,900 were out-door and 598 in-door patients. There 
is also a lunatic asylum at Dharwar. The births registered in the 
District in 1881 numbered 33,315, or 3773 per 1000 of population ; 
the deaths in the same year numbered 20,492, or 23*30 per 1000; the 
average death-rate for the five years previous being 41 "o. Number 
of persons vaccinated in 1881-82, 21,025. [For further information 



266 DHARWAR SUB-DIVISION AND TOWN. 

regarding Dharwar District, see Records of the Gove7'n?Jtent of Bombay 
(New Series), Papers i-egardvig the Revisio?i of the Settlement^ Nos. cxlv., 
CLV., CLVi., CLix., CLX., CLXi., and CLXii. See also the Bombay Ce7isus 
Report^ and the Bombay Annual Admi7iistration and Departmental 
Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Dharwar. — Sub-division of Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 425 square miles; contains i town and 127 villages. Population 
(1881) 111,137, namely, 55,524 males and 55,613 females. Hindus num- 
ber 92,547; Muhammadans, 15,011; 'others,' 3579. The Sub-division 
contained in 1883, i civil and 10 criminal courts; police stations 
{thdnds)^ 3 ; regular police, 70 men; village watchmen (^//^zz/y^/^iri-), 382. 

Dharwar. — The chief town of Dharwar District, situated in latitude 
15° 27' N., and longitude 75° 3' 20" e. Area, including the suburbs, 
3 square miles. Population (1881) 27,191, including 671 in canton- 
ments, thus classified — 19,709 Hindus, 6545 Muhammadans, 271 
Jains, 618 Christians, 24 Parsis, and 24 'others.' The fort stands 
on undulating ground. Towards the west, low hills run down to the 
plains, forming the last spurs of the Western Ghats. The fort and 
the town are almost hidden from view on the east by trees and rising 
ground. The approach from the south is striking. The highest point 
is occupied by the Collector's office, from which a commanding view 
of the town, suburbs, and surrounding country is obtained. Below the 
office and adjacent to it is the temple of Ulvi-Basapa, and beyond, the 
hill of Mailargud, formerly considered the key to the fort of Dharwar. 
The travellers' bungalow or rest-house is one mile west of the fort, and 
the cemetery is a little to the south-west. The church, about one mile 
to the south of the travellers' bungalow, belongs to the Basle German 
Mission. The cantonments lie to the north-west of the fort, about 2 
miles distant. Beyond the town extensive plains of black soil stretch 
across to the hills of Nawalgund and Nargund on the east, and on 
the north-east to the famous hills of Yellama (a Hindu deity) and 
Parsagad. Towards the south-east, the hill of Mulgiind appears at the 
distance of about 36 miles. There is no authentic evidence of the 
date when the fort was founded. A purdna or legendary chronicle 
concerning the origin of the neighbouring temple of Someswar makes 
no mention of Dharwar. According to local tradition, the fort was 
founded in 1403 by one Dhar Rao, an officer in the Forest Department, 
under Ram Raja, the Hindu King of Anigiindi. The Anigundi 
kingdom was overthrown by Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur in 
1568. In 1685, the fort was captured by the Mughal Emperor of 
Delhi ; and in 1753, it fell into the hands of the Marathas. In 1778, 
Dharwar was taken from the Marathas by Haidar All, the Muhammadan 
usurper of Mysore; and in 1791, it was retaken by a British force 
auxiliary to the Marathas under Parshuram Bhao. On the final over- 



DHASAN. 267 

throw of the Peshwa, in 1818, Dharwar, with the other possessions of that 
potentate, fell to the disposal of the British Government. The fort is 
described as being well planned and naturally strong. Previous to 
1857 it was kept in repair. Since then it has been breached; and, 
like all other forts in the District, it is now fast falling into ruins. 
In 1837, Dharwar was the scene of violent feuds between the 
Brahmans and Lingayats, compelling the interference of the British 
Government. 

The town, which is very straggling, is made up of 7 quarters, or 
mahdh. There are few good houses with upper storeys. A market is 
held every Tuesday. The only monument of historical interest is 
that erected in memory of the Collector, Mr. St. John Thackeray, and 
the sub-Collector, Mr. J. C. Munro, who were killed at the taking of 
Kittiir in 1824. About a mile and a half south of Dharwar is a hill 
called the Mailargad ; on its summit stands a small square stone 
temple, built after the Jain fashion, and facing the east. The columns 
and beams are of massive stone, and the roof of the same material is 
handsomely carved. On one of the columns is an inscription in Persian, 
recording that the temple was converted into a mosque in 1680 by the 
deputy of the King of Bijapur. The only prosperous classes of the popula- 
tion are the Brahmans and Lingayats. The influential Brahmans are 
generally public officers, vakils (advocates), zaminddrs (landowners), 
and saiikdrs (bankers and money-lenders). The Lingayats are, as 
a rule, traders, who almost monopolize the export of cotton, timber, 
and grain. Some of the Musalmans are also wealthy merchants. 
A few Parsis and Marwaris, who have recently settled in the town, deal 
chiefly in European goods. The principal articles of export are cotton 
and rice ; the imports comprise English piece-goods, chillies, cocoa-nut, 
molasses, dates, betel-nut, groceries, indigo, lead, zinc, and wrought and 
unwrought copper and brass. There are no manufacturing industries 
of any importance ; but in the jail, carpets, table-linen, cloths, and cane 
articles,— all of superior quality,— are made by the prisoners. In 
1882-83, the municipal income amounted to ^{^2509, and the expendi- 
ture to j{^2297 ; the incidence of municipal taxation being is. sd. per 
head. The water-supply is drawn from two reservoirs. There are also 
several wells in the town, but with one of two exceptions they are not 
used for drinking purposes, the water being brackish. The native 
. quarter was formerly unhealthy ; but since the introduction of the 
Municipal Act, some attention has been paid to drainage and sanitary 
requirements. 

Dhasan.— River of Central India, rising in Bhopal State, in latitude 
23° 30' N., and longitude 78° 32' e., a few miles north of Sirmau, at an 
elevation of 2000 feet. After a course of 10 or 12 miles, it enters Sagar 
(Saugor) District, Central Provinces; through which it flows for 60 miles, 



2 68 DHA ULA GIRI—DHA URAHRA, 

and then runs along the southern boundary of Lalitpur District, North* 
Western Provinces; finally, after a course of 220 miles, falling into the 
Betwa. On the road between Sagar (Saugor) and Rahatgarh, the 
Dhasan is crossed by a stone bridge. 

Dhauld,giri (Dewdldgiri). — Mountain in the State of Nepal. 
Latitude 29° 11' n., longitude 82° 59' e. One of the loftiest peaks of 
the Himalayas ; height, 26,826 feet above sea-level. 

Dhauleshvaram. — Town in Godavari District, Madras Presidency. 

See DOWLAISHVARAM. 

Dhaurahra. — Fargand of Nighasan tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh j 
bounded on the north by the Kauriala, on the east by the Dahawar, 
and on the south by the Chauka rivers ; the western boundary is 
Nighasan pargand. In early times, prior to the Muhammadan conquest 
of Kanauj, Dhaurahra was the freehold property of Alha and Udal, the 
famous generals of Mahoba. It then formed a part of Garh KiU 
Navva, which was settled and visited by Firoz Shah, and was probably 
owned by Pasis, whose Raja lived at Dhaurahra. The Bisens held this 
tract during the decline of the Mughal power ; but they were displaced 
by the Chauhan Jangres, who now own it. First constituted 2, pargand 
by Nawab Safdar Jang. It consists of alluvial deposits from the 
Kauriala and Chauka rivers, and is annually inundated. The inhabit- 
ants suffer much from fever, and cultivation is very backward. Soil 
principally loam and clay, rather sandy towards the Chauka. Area, 
261 square miles, of which 145 are cultivated and 72 cultivable. The 
117 villages which the pargand comprises are held in idlukddri tenure 
by 18 proprietors. Population (1881) 82,567, namely, Hindus, 74,510, 
and Muhammadans, 8057. Land revenue, ;£"8239. The roads consist 
merely of rough bridle-paths, crossing the rivers by ferries. Communi- 
cation principally by the Kauriala, Dahawar, and Chauka rivers ; by 
means of which, during ten months of the year, a brisk trade is carried 
on in grain and oil-seeds. 

Dhaurahra. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh ; 3 miles west of the 
Chauka river, 80 miles north of Lucknow, and 73 miles east of Shah- 
jahanpur. Lat. 28° n., long. 81° 9' e. Population (i88r) 5767, 
namely, Hindus, 4023 ; and Muhammadans, 1744. Area of town site, 
163 acres. Constituted a municipality under the provisions of Act xv. 
of 1873. Town police force consisting of i sub-inspector, 3 head- 
constables, and 12 constables. During the Mutiny of 1857, the 
fugitives from Shahjahanpur and Muhamdi, escaping towards Lucknow, 
sought the protection of the Dhaurahra Raji ; but he, on pressure from 
the rebel leaders, gave them up to their enemies. For this he was 
afterwards tried and hanged, and his estates confiscated. 

Dhaurahra.— Town in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; 4 miles 
from the Gogra river, and 20 miles from Faizabad town on the road to 



DHA URA-KUNJA RA—DHERI SHAH AN. 269 

Lucknow. Population (1881) 3168, namely, 3108 Hindus and 60 
Muhammadans. It contains neither temple, mosque, nor school ; but 
a handsome gateway, said to have been built by a king of Oudh, 
Asaf-ud-daula, stands just outside the town. On the opposite side of 
Dhaurahra is an ancient Hindu shrine, shaded by a magnificent grove 
of tamarind trees. A Hindu legend relates that Mahadeo once lived 
here, his body being buried in the earth. A party of religious mendi- 
cants on their way to Ajodhya conceived the idea of digging out 
the deity and exhibiting him for gain. As they dug, however, his 
head sank into the earth, and the party fled in horror. To com- 
memorate the miracle, a dome, surrounded by a masonry platform and 
a wall, was constructed over the spot by two devout merchants. The 
place is now almost in ruins. 

Dhaura-Kunjara. — Petty chiefship under the Indore Agenc>, 
Central India. A remuneration of ^8 is granted to the thdkur or 
chief for protection of the roads between Simrol Ghat and Sigwar. 

Dhenkdnal. — Tributary State of Orissa, Bengal. Lat. 20° 31' to 
21° 11' 30" N., and long. 85° 3' to 86° 5' e. ; area, 1463 square miles ; 
population (1881) 208,316. Bounded on the north by Pal Lahara and 
Keunjhar, on the east by Cuttack District and Athgarh, on the south 
by Tigaria and Hindol, and on the west by Talcher and Pal Lahara, 
the Brahmani forming the boundary for a considerable distance. This 
river runs from west to east, through a richly-cultivated valley, afford- 
ing a waterway for trade. Cultivable waste land abounds. Iron is 
plentifully found, but is only worked on a small scale. A petty trade 
in cochineal is also carried on. Chief village, also the residence of the 
Raja, Dhenkanal, situated in lat. 20° 39' 45" n., long. 85° 38' 16" e. 
Weekly markets, for the sale of country produce, are held at Hodipur 
and Sadaipur villages. Population (1881) 208,316, namely, Hindus, 
128,358; Muhammadans, 535; Christians, 2; Buddhists, 48; aboriginal 
tribes (the most numerous being the Savars), 79,347 ; and ' others,' 26. 
Estimated annual revenue, ;^79oo; tribute payable to Government, 
;£"509 ; militia, 44 men ; regular police, 41 ; rural police, 742. Dhen- 
kanal is the best organized and most prosperous of the Orissa Tributary 
States. The late chief received the title of Maharaja in 1869, in 
recognition of his moderation and justice towards his people, and of 
his liberality in the Orissa famine of 1866. The present chief being a 
minor, the State is now (1883) under the direct management of 
Government. 

Dheri Shahan (or Shdh Dheri). — Village in Rawal Pindi tahsil, 
Rawal Pindi District, Punjab. Lat. 33° 17' n., and long. 72° 49' 15" e. 
Identified by General Cunningham with the ancient city of Taxila. 
The existing remains extend over an area of 6 square miles, and rank 
as the most interesting and extensive, and the best preserved memorials 



270 DHI-DHARAMRAI—DHODAR ALL 

of antiquity in the whole Punjab Province. The number and size of 
the stupas and monasteries render them worthy of the greatest attention. 
The earliest inhabitants of the surrounding region appear to have been 
the Takkas, who originally held all the Sind Sagar Doab ; and from 
their name General Cunningham derives that of Taxila or Takshasila, 
which Arrian describes as ' a large and wealthy city, the most populous 
between the Indus and the Hydaspes ' (or Jehlam). The city stood a 
few miles to the north of the Margala Pass, where several mounds still 
mark the sites of its principal buildings. Alexander rested his army at 
this point for three days, and was royally entertained by the reigning 
sovereign. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Fa Hian, visited Taxila, 
as a place of peculiar sanctity, about 400 a.d. Again, in 630 and 
643, his countryman and co-religionist, Hwen Thsang, also made it 
a halting-place while on his pilgrimage, but found the seat of govern- 
ment removed to Kashmir. The ruins of Taxila consist of six separate 
portions. The mound of Bir, close to the modern rock-seated village 
of Dheri Shahan, abound in fragments of brick and pottery, and offers 
a rich mine of coins and gems for the antiquary. Hatial, a fortified 
spur of the Margala range, probably formed the ancient citadel ; it is 
enclosed by a ruined wall, and crowned by a large bastion or tower. 
Sir-Kap presents the appearance of a supplementary fortress, united 
with the citadel by a wall of circumvallation. Kacha-Kot possibly gave 
shelter to the elephants and catde during a siege. Babar-Khana con- 
tains the remains of a stupa, which General Cunningham identifies with 
that of Asoka, mentioned by Hwen Thsang. Besides all these massive 
works, a wide expanse, covered by monasteries or other religious build- 
ings, stretches on every side from the central city to a considerable 
distance. 

Dhi-Dharamrai. — Petty chiefship under the Bhil (Bheel) or 
Bhopawar Agency of Central India. The population is entirely Bhil. 

Dhoba {Dhobd-Dhobini). — Mountain peak in the Pratdpgiri or 
Chinna Kimedi estate, Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Latitude 
20° N., longitude 84° 23' e. It forms part of the Eastern Ghat range, 
8 miles distant from Dimrigiri. Height, 4166 feet above the sea. A 
station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. 

Dhoba-khal. — Village in the Garo Hills District, Assam ; on the 
Somesw\ari river, near which a fine outcrop of the coal strata was 
discovered in 1873 by the officers of the Survey. Lat. 25° 28' n., long. 
90° 46' E. 

Dhodar All. — One of the most important of the raised' roads or 
embankments constructed in Assam by forced labour during the rule 
of the Aham dynasty. It runs parallel to the Brahmaputra through 
the entire length of Sibsagar District, for a distance of 117^ miles, and 
is under the management of the District Road Committee. It joins 



DHOLA—DHOLKA. 271 

the Assam Trunk Road at the Dhaneswari river in the Golaghat Sub- 
division. 

Dhola. — Petty State in Gohelwar pranth or division, Kathiawar, 
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of i village, with i indepen- 
dent tribute-payer. Estimated revenue, ;£i5o, of which ^£"32, los. is 
payable as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda and ^^5, i8s. to Junagarh. 

Dholarwa. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay 
Presidency ; consisting of i village, with i independent tribute-payer. 
Estimated revenue, ^200 per annum, of which £,10^ 6s. is payable as 
tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda and ^^2, 6s. to Junagarh. 

Dholbaja. — Large village in Purniah District, Bengal. Lat. 26° 16' 
N., long. 87° 19' 21" E. Situated on the Matiyari road, 40 miles 
distant from Purniah town, and 16 miles from Basantpur Primary 
school. 

Dholera. — Seaport in the Dhandhuka Sub -division, Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay Presidency; 62 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. One 
of the chief cotton-marts in the Gulf of Cambay. Latitude 22° 14' 
45" N., and longitude 72° 15' 25" e. Population (1881) 10,301, namely, 
7266 Hindus, 1289 Muhammadans, 1740 Jains, 4 Christians, and 2 
Parsis. Situated in the swampy tract extending along the west of the 
Gulf of Cambay, within the limits of the Peninsula of Kathiawar. 
Though called a port, the town of Dholera lies about 12 miles from 
the sea. The Bhadar or Dholera creek on which it stands is said 
to have been, a century ago, open for boats up to Dholera; but for 
the last fifty years the creek has silted up and trade passes through tw^o 
ports — Khun, about 5 miles lower down on the same creek, and Bavliari, 
on an inlet of the sea about 16 miles south. The space between the 
town and the port was traversed by a tramway constructed by a 
company of native speculators at a cost of ;2^5ooo, but it has ceased 
to run. There is a lighthouse at the entrance to the creek, Post-office, 
telegraph office, 3 Government schools, police station, and dispensary. 
Dholera has given the trade name to a quality of cotton well known in 
the European market : during the American War (1862-65) ^^ was the 
chief cotton port in Gujarat. 

Dholka. — Sub-division of Ahmadabad District, Bombay Presidency. 
Bounded on the north by Sanand ; on the. east by Kaira District and 
Cambay ; on the south by Dhandhuka ; and on the west by Kathiawar. 
Area, 665 square miles ; contains i town and 117 villages. Population 
(1881) 111,192, namely, 56,485 males and 54, 707 females. Hindus num- 
ber 98,080; Muhammadans, 11,284; 'others,' 1828. The Sub-division 
is a plain sloping south-west to the little Rann. In the east along the 
Sabarmati the fields are hedged and the land is thickly planted with 
fruit-trees. The south-west is a bleak country exposed to the biting 
winds of the cold season. The only river is the Sabarmati. In 1877 



2 7 2 DHOLKA^DHOLPUR. 

there were 2534 wells, 132 water lifts, and 725 ponds. Average rain- 
fall, 30 inches. In the year of the Bombay thirty years' settlement 
(1856-57), there were 9763 holdings with an average acreage of 12 
acres, paying an average rental of ^i, os. pd. Agricultural stock 
in 1877 — horned cattle, 47,839; horses, 1068; sheep and goats, 
12,181; camels, 79; ploughs, 10,532; carts, 4358. In 1878, the 
total area of cultivated land was 222,141 acres, of which 27 per cent, 
were fallow or under grass. Cereals occupied 136,891 acres out of 
the 162,714 under actual cultivation; wheat occupied 91,638 acres; 
iodr, 29,889; cotton, 14,638. In 1884, the Sub-division contained i 
civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations, 3 ; regular police, 102 men ; 
village watchmen {chaiikiddrs), 334. Land revenue (1883), ;^2 9,986. 

Dholka. — Chief town of the Dholka Sub-division, Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay Presidency; 22 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. 
Latitude 22° 43' 30" n., longitude 72° 28' 30" e. Population (1881) 
17,716, namely, 11,880 Hindus, 5658 Muhammadans, 126 Jains, 
and 9 Parsis. Municipal revenue (1881-82), £^()2 ; rate of taxation, 
IS. ijd. per head. Dholka is situated amidst ruined palaces, 
mosques, mausoleums, and spacious tanks, embanked and lined with 
masonry. Though not regularly fortified, it is surrounded by a wall 
of mud 4 miles in circumference. Probably one of the oldest towns 
in Gujarat. Dholka lies on the river Sabarmati, on the chief land- 
route between Gujarat proper and Kathiawar. It is supposed, in 
the early Hindu period, to have been the resting-place of the 
Pandyas, of Prince Kanaksen of the Solar race, of Minal Devi, the 
mother of Sidhi Raj of Anhilwada (1094-1143), and of Vir Dhaval, 
the founder of the Vaghela dynasty (13th century). During the 
Muhammadan period, Dholka was the residence of a local governor 
from Delhi, and it still contains the remains of many fine Musalman 
buildings. It was taken by the Marathas in 1736; came into the 
Gaekwar's hands in 1757; and was eventually ceded to the British in 
1804. The greater part of the inhabitants are Kasbdtis ('townsmxen'), 
the descendants of the soldiers of fortune who came with the Vaghelas 
when driven from Anhilwada by the Khilji Ala-ud-din in 1297. The 
chief industry is the weaving of women's robes, saris, the best of their 
kind in Ahmadabad District. There are 5 schools, sub-judge's court, 
post-office, and dispensary. 

Dholpur. — Native State in Rajputdna, Central India, under the 
political superintendence of the Dholpur Agency. Lies between 
26° 22' and 26° 57' N. latitude, and between 77° 16' and 78° 19' e. 
longitude; area, 1200 square miles. It extends from north-east to 
south-west for a length of 72 miles, with an average breadth of 16 
miles. Dholpur is bounded on the north by the British District of 
Agra, from which it is for the most part divided by the Banganga river; 



DHOLPUR. 273 

on the south by the river Chambal, which separates it from the State of 
GwaHor ; on the west by the States of Karauh' (Kerowlee) and Bhartpur 
(Bhurtpore). Chief town, Dholpur. 

Physical Aspects. — The Chambal flows from south-west to north-east 
for over 100 miles through Dholpur territory. During the dry weather 
it is a sluggish stream 300 yards wide, and lies 170 feet below the 
level of the surrounding country. In the rains it rises generally about 
70 feet above its summer level ; its breadth is then increased by more 
than 1000 yards, and it runs at the rate of 5|- miles an hour. It is 
bordered everywhere by a labyrinth of ravines, some of which are 90 
feet deep, and extend to a distance of from 2 to 4 miles from the river's 
bank. The Chambal is unnavigable on account of its rapid changes of 
level. Boats ply at 16 ghats or crossings between the Dholpur and 
Gwalior banks. The most important crossing is at Rajghat, 3 miles 
south of the town of Dholpur, on the high road between Agra and 
Bombay. A bridge of boats is kept up between the ist November 
and the 15th June, and a large ferry-boat plies during the rest of the 
year. No tributaries fall into the Chambal during its course through 
Dholpur territory. The Banganga or Utangan river, rising in the hills 
near Bairat in Jaipur, runs for about 40 miles between the northern 
boundary of Dholpur and the District of Agra ; its bed is about 
40 feet below the surrounding country, and in the rains it is liable 
to floods, with a rise of from 17 to 20 feet. The other rivers are 
the Parbati, which rises in Karauli, and, traversing Dholpur in a 
north-easterly direction, falls into the Banganga; and its two tribu- 
taries, the Merka and Merki. These three streams dry up in the hot 
season, leaving only occasional pools where the channels are deep. 
The general nature of the soil being a friable alluvium overlying a 
stratum of stiff yellow clay, the beds of all the rivers in Dholpur are 
considerably below the general level of the country, and all their banks 
are more or less cut up and fringed with ravines. 

A ridge of red sandstone, varying in breadth from 2 to 14 miles, with an 
elevation of from 560 to 1074 feet above sea-level, runs for over 60 miles 
through the State in the direction of its greatest length. It affords a 
valuable stone for building purposes, fine grained and easily worked 
in the quarries ; it hardens by exposure to the weather, and does not 
deteriorate by lamination. The railway bridge over the Chambal 
is built entirely of this stone. Kankar, or nodular limestone, is 
found in many places in the ravines leading to the rivers ; and a bed 
of excellent limestone occurs on the banks of the Chambal, near the 
Agra and Bombay road, within 2 J miles of the town of Dholpur. 
No coal or metallic ores are found in the State. The soil is every- 
where poor on the sandstone ridge, and in its immediate vicinity ; 
but it becomes richer and more fertile in proportion to the increase of 

VOL. IV. s 



2 74 DHOLPUR, 

distance from the ridge. In the north and north-west, the soil is for 
the most part a mixture of sand and clay, known as domat^ which is as 
productive as the best land in Agra District. To the north-east, in the 
Rajakhera /^r§-^;/i, an area of about 90 square miles is covered with 
black soil, similar to that of Bundelkhand, yielding excellent cold 
weather crops. Dholpur is a grain-producing country, and is not j 
remarkable for any special manufactures. The chief crops raised are 
bdjra (Holcus spicatus), moth^ and jodr (Holcus sorghum) ; and in 
the cold season a considerable quantity of wheat and barley. Cotton 
and rice are also produced. Irrigation is carried on by means of 
tanks and wells, the average depth at which water is found being 25 
feet. Of the total area of the State (768,000 acres), about 50 per 
cent, is under cultivation. About 43*3 per cent, of the country is 
barren, and about 3 per cent, is occupied by villages, rivers, tanks, etc. 
The land tenures are in most respects similar to those of the North- 
western Provinces, with this important exception, that in Dholpur, as 
under other Native Governments, the chief is the absolute owner of the 
land. The zaminddrs, or la??ibarddrs as they are more usually termed, 
are persons (generally descendants of the original founders of the 
village) who contract with the State for the payment of the revenue 
demand, which they collect from the cultivators. So long as they 
observe their contract, they are considered as owners of the land 
actually cultivated by them and by their tenants, and also of uncultivated 
land sufficient for the grazing of the village cattle. The remainder of 
the untilled land, with its produce, groves, tanks, etc., belongs to the 
State. 

Population. — A rough Census of the population taken during the sur- 
vey of the State in 1876, showed a total of 227,976 inhabitants. The 
regular general Census of 1881, five years later, disclosed a population 
of 249,657 persons, dwelling in 4 towns and 534 villages, and occupying 
48,429 houses; average density of inhabitants per square mile, 208*04; 
number of towns and villages per square mile, "45 ; number of 
houses per square mile, 40*35 ; number of persons per house, 
5-15. Total males, 138,342; females, 111,315. Classified according 
to religion, there were returned 229,050 Hindus, 18,097 Muhammadans, 
27 Christians, and 2483 Jains. Among the Muhammadans were 
included 9680 Shaikhs, 970 Sayyids, 229 MughaJs, 5585 Pathans, and 
1633 ' others.' The most numerous classes are at two extremes of the 
Hindu social scale — Brahmans, 44,347, and Chamars, 35,075. Rajputs 
number 23,766; Giijars, 19,482; Kachhis, 2510 ; Minas, 11,924; Jats, 
3932; Baniyas, 13,664; Ahirs, 768; and other Hindu castes, 76,065. 
The Muhammadans live for the most part in the towns of Bari and 
Dholpur. The Giijars, the oldest known inhabitants of the country 
are generally found along the banks of the Chambal, in the Dang 01 



DHOLPUR, 



275 



ravine taluks of Ban and Gird ; they are great cattle-lifters. The 
Minas, believed to have come originally from Jaipur (Jeypore), are 
among the best cultivators of the State. The people generally are 
engaged in tilling the land, and the whole country is agricultural. The 
dominant religion is Hinduism of the Vishnuvite sect. Four towns 
have a population of over 5000, namely, Dholpur (15,833), Purani 
Chaoni (5246), Barf (11,547), and Rajakhera (6247). In 1882, 8 
schools, with a total daily attendance of 447 pupils, were maintained 
in the larger towns of the State. In one of these, English, Persian, 
and Hindi are taught ; in three, Persian and Hindi \ and in four, 
Hindi alone. 

The Trunk Road from Agra to Bombay runs through the State from 
north to south, passing by Dholpur town. There are no other 
metalled roads but a few fair-weather tracks — one leading from Dholpur 
by Rajakhera to Agra ; a second with a main direction west from 
Dholpur to Bari, and thence to Bhartpur on one side and Karauli on 
the other; a third having a main direction to the north-east from 
Dholpur to Kolari and Baseri, and thence to Karauli. 

The Sindhia State Railway, between Agra and Gwalior, runs through 
the State in a direction generally parallel to the Grand Trunk Road. 
It crosses the Chambal by a bridge of 12 spans of 200 feet each, about 
112 feet above the river bed. 

Ad}ninist7'aiio7i. — The land revenue of Dholpur in 1882-83 amounted 
to ;!^7 1,400. Customs and other sources of revenue brought up 
the gross total to ;^i 10,572. The expenditure in the same year 
was ^91,001. The land, which had not been surveyed since 1570, 
in the reign of Akbar, was re-surveyed in 1875-76, preparatory to a 
re-settlement which was conducted on a basis similar to that of the 
North-Western Provinces, but simpler in its details. For fiscal purposes 
the State is divided into the following five sub-divisions or tahsils — 
namely. Gird Dholpur, of 5 taluks ; Bari, of 7 taluks ; Baseri, of 2 
taluks ; Kolari, of 3 taluks ; and Rajakhera, of 2 taluks. Fifty-seven 
villages in the State belong to jdgirddrs^ who in return are expected 
themselves to serve in the State army, and to furnish a certain number 
of horsemen for the State service ; 44 villages have been set apart 
principally as religious grants ; and the State exercises the right of 
interference in cases of oppression or exaction on the part of the 
jdgirddrs. The Maharaj Rana is assisted by a council of regency 
consisting of three members. The Dholpur jail is managed on 
a system similar to that in British jails. It contains an average 
of 130 prisoners. The police and judicial administration is under 
the Nazim, or chief civil and criminal judge, who tries all cases ; but 
those involving a punishment heavier than three years' imprisonment 
must be referred for confirmation to the Council of Manasrement. In 



2 76 DHOLPUR. 

1882-83, 1978 criminal cases were disposed of; and 348 civil suits 
were heard. There are 1 1 police stations and 44 outposts, with a 
watchman in each village. A small forest department is employed in 
each pargand under the tahsilddr. The arrangements for the collection 
of customs are co-ordinate with those for land revenue. 

The climate is generally healthy. The hot winds blow steadily and, 
strongly during the months of April, May, and June. The annual rain- 
fall averages from 27 to 30 inches. There are three State dispensaries, 
at which 20,561 cases were treated in 1882; 7895 persons were vac- 
cinated during the same period. 

History. — According to local tradition, Dholpur derives its name from 
Raja Dholan Deo Tonwar (of the ancient Tomar or Tonwar dynasty of 
Delhi), who about 1004 a.d. held the country between the Chambal 
and Banganga rivers. Previous to that time it is supposed to have 
formed part of the kingdom of Kanauj. Very little is authentically 
known of the country until the Musalman conquests, with which it 
became early incorporated. Dholpur for a time resisted Babar, but 
under Akbar the State formed part of the Muhammadan Subah, or 
province, of Agra. In 1658, the sons of Shahjahan, Aurangzeb and 
Murad, fought for empire at Ranka Chabutra, three miles east 
of Dholpur, Aurangzeb proving victorious. After the death of 
Aurangzeb, Dholpur was again the scene of a struggle for empire. 
Within its territory the sons of Aurangzeb, Azam and Muazzam, 
decided their pretensions in the field, and the former prince was 
slain ; but Raja Kalian Singh Bhadauriya, taking advantage of the 
troubles which beset the new emperor on every side, obtained 
possession of the Dholpur territory. The Bhadauriyas remained 
undisturbed till 1761, when the Jat Raja, Siiraj Mall of Bhartpur 
(Bhurtpore), after the battle of Panipat, seized upon Agra and overran 
the country. During the succeeding forty-five years, Dholpur changed 
masters no less than five times. In 1775, it shared the fate of the rest 
of the Bhartpur possessions, which were seized by Mirza Najaf Khan. 
On the death of Mirza in 1782, it fell into the hands of Sindhia. At the 
outbreak of the Maratha war in 1803, it was occupied by the British, 
by whom, in accordance with the treaty of Sarji Anjengaon, it was, at 
the end of the year, ceded to the Gwalior chief. In 1805, under fresh 
arrangements with Daulat Rao Sindhia, it was resumed by the English, 
who in 1806, finally uniting the territories of Dholpur, Ban', and Raja- 
khera with Sir Muttra into one State, made it over to Maharana Kirat 
Singh (the ancestor of the present chief of Dholpur) in exchange for his 
territory of Gohad, which was given up to Sindhia. The reigning 
family of Dholpur are Jats of the Bamraolia family, belonging to the 
Deswali tribe, which claims a very ancient lineage. The ancestor of the 
family is said to have been in possession of lands at Bamraoli near 



DHOLPUR, 277 

Agra in 11 95, from which circumstance they have taken their name. 
They joined the side of the Rajputs against the Musahiians, and 
received a grant of the territory of Gohad, whence the title of Rana was 
assumed. This is said to have occurred in 1505 a.d. They appear to 
have become connected with Baji Rao Peshwa ; and in 1761, when the 
Marathas had been completely defeated at Panipat, Rana Bhim Singh 
seized the fort of Gwalior. In 1777, Sindhia besieged and took the 
fortress. In order to form a barrier against the Marathas, Warren 
Hastings in 1779 made a treaty with the Rana, and the joint forces of 
the English and the Rana retook Gwahor. In 1781, a treaty with 
Sindhia stipulated for the integrity of the Gohad territories ; but after 
the treaty of Salbye, the Maharana was abandoned, on the ground that 
he had been guilty of treachery, and Sindhia re-possessed himself oi 
Gohad and Gwalior. The Rana went into exile, until Lord Wellesley's 
policy against the Marathas again brought him forward, when the terri- 
tories of Dholpur were made over to Kirat Singh in 1804. But in 1805, 
Lord Cornwallis re-transferred Gohad and Gwalior to Sindhia, leaving 
to the Rana the lands which he still possesses. Kirat Singh's successor, 
Bhagwant Singh, showed a loyal attachment to the British Government, 
especially during the Mutiny of 1857, for which he received the insignia 
of K.C.S.I. He died in 1873, and was succeeded by his grandson, 
the present chief, Maharaja Rana Nihal Singh, born in 1863, whose 
mother is a sister of the Raja of Patiala. The Rana of Dholpur is 
entitled to a salute of 15 guns. The military force of the State consists 
of 600 cavalry, 3650 infantry, 32 field guns, and 100 gunners. 

Dholpur. — The capital of the Native State of Dholpur, Rajputana, 
Central India, situated in lat. 26° 42' n., and long. 77° 56' e., on the 
Grand Trunk Road between Agra and Bombay, about 34 miles 
south of Agra and 37 miles north-west of GwaHor. In 1881 it 
contained a population of 15,833, namely, 10,587 Hindus, 5215 
Muhammadans, and 31 'others.' Three miles south of Dholpur, the 
Chambal river is crossed at Rdjghat by a bridge of boats between 
the I St November and the 15th June, and by ferry during the rest 
of the year. The Sindhia State Railway between Agra and Gwalior 
passes through Dholpur, and the railway bridge across the Chambal 
is within a distance of 5 miles. The original town is supposed to have 
been built by Raja Dholan Deo in the beginning of the nth century, 
to the south of the present site. The Emperor Babar mentions 
Dholpur, and states that it surrendered to him in 1526. His son, 
Prince Humayiin, is said to have moved the site farther to the north, 
in order to avoid the encroachments of the Chambal river. An enclosed, 
and to some extent fortified, sm'di was built in the reign of Akbar. The 
new portion of the town and the palace of the Rdna were built by Rana 
Kirat Singh, the great-grandfather of the present chief. K fair is held 



278 DHOL SAMUDRA—DHRANGADRA. 

here for fifteen days in the latter part of October, when a large traffic in 
merchandise, cattle, and horses is carried on. Goods are brought from 
Delhi, Agra, Cawnpur, and Lucknow. Religious fairs for the purpose 
of bathing are held at Machkiind, a lake 3 miles to the west of 
Dholpur, in May, and again at the beginning of September. The lake, 
which covers an area of 41 acres, lies in a natural hollow of great 
depth ; it is filled in the rains by the drainage of the surrounding 
country, and maintained by the convergence of springs having their, 
sources in the sandstone hills by which it is surrounded. The lake has 
no less than 114 temples on its banks, none of an earlier date than the 
15th century. Another large fair is held at Salpau, 14 miles north-west 
of Dholpur, at the end of February. 

Dhol Samudrd. — Marsh in Faridpur District, Bengal ; situated to 
the south-east of Faridpur town. During the rains it expands into 
a lake of about 8 miles in circumference, the water extending close 
to the houses of the town. In the cold weather it gradually dwindles, 
and in the hot season is only a mile or two in circumference. 

Dhonegaon. — Town in Buld^na District, Berar. Population (1881) 
4259- 

Dhoraji. — Fortified town in the peninsula of Kathidwdr, Gujarat, 
Bombay Presidency. Latitude 21° 45' n., longitude 70° 37' e. ; 43 miles 
south-west of Rajkot, and 52 miles east of Porbandar. Population {1881) 
16,121, namely, 6991 Hindus, 8210 Muhammadans, and 920 Jains. 

Dhotria-Baisola. — Petty chiefship of Dhdr Native State, under 
the Bhil or Bhopawar Agency, Central India. Under a settlement 
made in 18 18 the thdkur or chief engaged to pay annually ;i{^2 5o to 
the State of Dhar. Population entirely Bhil. The chief holds 9 
villages. 

Dhrafa. — Petty State of the Halil prd?it or division of Kathiiwdr, 
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. It consists of 24 villages, with 9 
independent tribute - payers. The revenue is estimated at ^^6000 ; 
tribute is paid of ;£37o, 12s. to the British Government, and of 
;^ii6, I OS. to the State of Junagarh. 

Dhrangadrd.— Native State under the Political Agency of Kathid- 
war, Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. It Hes 
between 22° 30' and 23° n. latitude, and between 71° and 71° 49' e. 
longitude, and contains an area of 1142 square miles, with 129 
villages. Population (1881) 99,686, namely, 88,665 Hindus, 5686 
Muhammadans, and 5335 ' others.' An uneven tract intersected 
by small streams, and consisting of hilly and rocky ground, where 
stone is quarried. With the exception of a small extent of rich 
black loam, the soil is of inferior quality. The climate is hot, but 
healthy. The principal crops are cotton and the common varieties 
of grain. The manufactures are salt, copper and brass vessels, stone 



DHRANGADRA—DHROL. 279 

handmills, cloth, and pottery. There are no made roads, but the 
country tracks permit the passage of pack-bullocks. Dholera, 
about 70 miles to the south-east of Dhrangadra town, in Ahmadabad 
District, is the nearest port. There are 31 schools, with 1400 pupils. 
The chief of Dhrangadra entered into engagements with the British 
Government in 1807. Among the small chieftains of Kathiawdr, he 
holds the position of a ruler of a first-class State, and is entitled to a 
salute of 1 1 guns. The chief bears the title of Raja Sahib. He is a 
Hindu, a Rajput by caste, and of the Jhala stock. He pays to the 
British Government and the Nawab of Junagarh an annual tribute of 
;£'4467, 143., and maintains a military force of 2150 men. He holds 
no sanad authorizing adoption, and the succession follows the rule of 
primogeniture. He has power of life and death over his own subjects. 
The Jhala family is of great antiquity, and is said to have entered 
Kathiawar from the north, and to have established itself first at Patri, 
in the Viramgam Sub-division of Ahmadabad District, whence it moved 
to Halwad, and finally to its present seat. The greater part of this 
territory would seem to have been annexed at one time by the 
Muhammadan rulers of Guzerat. Subsequently, during the reign of 
the Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the Sub-division of Halwad, then 
called Muhammadnagar, was restored to the Jhala family. The petty 
States of Limri, Wadhwan, Chiira, Sayla, and Than-Lakhtar in Kathia- 
war are offshoots from Dhrangadra ; and the house of Wankaner claims 
to be descended from an elder branch of the same race. Transit dues 
are not levied in the State. The gross revenue in 1882 was ;£4o,ooo. 
Dhrangadra.— Chief town of the Native State of Dhrangadra, 
Kathiawdr, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22' 59' 10" n., long. 
71° 31' E.; 75 miles west of Ahmadabad. Population (1881) 12,304, 
namely, 8914 Hindus, 1473 Muhammadans, 19 13 Jains, and 4 Christians. 
The town is fortified. 

DhroL— Native State under the Political Agency of Kathiawar, Pro- 
vince of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency; situated between 22° 14 and 
22° 42' N. lat, and between 70° 24 and 70^45' E. long. It lies inland, and 
contains i town and 64 villages. Area, 400 square miles. Population 
(1881) 21,777, namely, 18,501 Hindus, 2644 Muhammadans, and 631 
* others.' The country is for the most part undulating and rocky. The soil 
is generally light, and irrigated by water drawn from wells and rivers by 
means of leather bags. The cUmate, though hot in the months of 
April, May, and October, is generally healthy. The crops are sugar- 
cane and the ordinary varieties of grain. Coarse cotton cloth is 
manufactured to a small extent. There are no made roads, but the 
country tracks permit the passage of carts. The produce is chiefly 
exported from Jodiya, a town on the coast. The gross revenue is 
estimated at ^11,700. There are 4 schools, with 270 pupils. Dhrol 



28o DHROL—DHULIA. 

ranks as a second-class State among the States in Kathiavvar. The 
ruler entered into engagements with the British Government in 1807. 
The chief is a Rajput by caste, of the Jareja branch, with the title of 
Thakur Sahib. He holds no saiiad authorizing adoption, and the 
succession follows the rule of primogeniture. He pays a tribute of 
^£1023, 2S. to the Gaekwar of Baroda and the Nawab of Junagarh, 
and maintains a military force of 118 men. He has power of life and 
death over his own subjects. No transit duties are levied in the 
State. 

Dhrol. — Chief town of the Native State of Dhrol, Kathiawar, 
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency; situated in latitude 12° 34' n., and 
longitude 70° 30' e. Population (1881) 4613, being 3109 Hindus, 
1 133 Muhammadans, and 371 Jains. 

Dhubri. — Sub-division of Goalpara District, comprising the two 
police circles of Dhubri and Sukchar. Total population (1881) 
282,010, namely, Hindus, 191,163; Muhammadans, 89,357; and 
'others,' 1490. Number of villages, 662 ; number of houses, 50,617. 

Dhubri.— Chief town of Goalpara District, Assam, the head-quarters 
having been removed from Goalpara town in 1879; situated in lat. 
26° 2' N., and long. 90° 2 e., on the right bank of the Brahmaputra, 
at the point where that river leaves the valley of Assam, and turns south 
to enter the plains of Bengal. Population (1881) 2893. Dhubri 
is also the head-quarters of the Superintendent of Telegraphy, Assam 
Division ; and as the terminus of the emigration road running through 
Northern Bengal, and a stopping-place for Assam steamers, the town 
is rapidly rising in importance. Dhubri is now (1882) the terminus 
of a service conducted by the Northern Bengal State Railway ; and 
steamers ply daily in connection with that railway, between Dhubri and 
Kurigram on the Dharla river in the rainy season, and with Jatrapur 
on the Brahmaputra in the cold weather. A steam ferry crosses the 
Brahmaputra to Fakirganj town. 

Dhude.— Petty State in the Bombay Presidency. — 6'f^DANG States. 

Dhulapra.-^/^//, or natural reservoir in Saharanpur District, North- 
western Provinces, 7 miles west of Saharanpur town. In connection 
with the drainage arrangements of the Eastern Jumna Canal, a cut has 
been made from this jJiil for purposes of reclamation ; but up to the 
end of 1882, only 500 bighds had been reclaimed. 

Dhulatia. — A guaranteed Thakurate or petty chiefship of the 
Western Malwa Agency, Central India. Receives ^£"40 per annum 
from Sindhia, and ;£6o from Holkar as tankha on Malidpur and 
Depdlpur. 

Dhlilia. — Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 759 square miles. Population (1881) 78,137; average density, 103 
persons per square mile. Since the Census of 1872, the population 



DHULIA. 281 

has increased by 9814. Number of villages, 152, of which 2 are 
alienated. Bounded on the north by Virdel ; on the east by Pachora 
and Amalner ; on the south by Sub-divisions of Nasik District ; and on 
the west by Pimpalner. Four square miles are occupied by the lands 
of alienated villages. The remainder, according to the revenue survey, 
contains 345,250 acres, or 72 per cent., of arable land. Of these, m 
1878, 178,109 acres, or 53 per cent, were under tillage. In 
1862-63, the year of the Bombay settlement for the Sub-division, it 
embraced 6747 holdings, with an average area of 24 acres, paymg an 
average rent of ^2, 3s. 4d. In 1878, cereals occupied 61 per cent, of 
the land under tillage; pulses, 6*5 per cent; oil-seeds, 87 per cent; 
cotton, 22 per cent. The Sub-division is broken by low hills, is 
watered by the Panjhra and Bori rivers, and is on the whole fairly 
wooded and well cultivated. It is traversed from north to south by 
the road from Agra to Bombay, which divides it into two nearly 
equal portions, and passes through the town of Dhiilia. The climate 
is fairly healthy, except just after the rains. The average rainfall of 
the last 12 years was 23*16 inches. The water-supply, especially in 
the south, is scanty. The prevailing soil is red, but there are some 
patches of excellent black loam. The petty district of Songir is 
included in Dhiilia Sub-division. Land revenue of the Sub-division 
(1883), ^18,651. 

Dhiilia.— Chief town of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency, 
and head-quarters of the Dhiiha Sub-division ; situated in latitude 20° 
54' N., and longitude 74° 46' 30" e., on the southern bank of the Panjhra 
river, and 30 miles north of Chalisgaon, the nearest railway station. 
Area, including suburbs, about 2 square miles ; houses, 3000. Popula- 
tion (1881) 18,449, namely, 14,018 Hindus, 2973 Muhammadans, 445 
Jains, 245 Christians, 26 Parsis, and 742 'others.' Municipal revenue 
(1882-83), ^2998 ; municipal expenditure, ;£2535 ; rate of taxation, 
2S. 7|d. per head. The town is divided into New and Old Dhiilia. 
In the latter, the houses are irregularly built, the majority being of 
a very humble description. In the former there are regular streets 
of well-built houses, with a fine stone bridge crossing the Panjhra. 
In 1872, Dhiilia was visited by a severe flood, which did much damage 
to houses and property. 

Until the beginning of the present century, Dhiilia was an insignificant 
village, subordinate to Laling, the capital of the Laling or Fatehabad 
Sub-division. Under the rule of the Nizam, Laling was incorporated 
with the District of Daulatabad. The fort of Ldling occupies the 
summit of a high hill, about 6 miles from Dhiilia, overhanging the 
Agra road and the Avir Pass leading to Malegaon. This stronghold, 
Hke all ancient buildings in Khandesh, is locally ascribed to the Gauli 
Rajd, but it was more probably built by the Farrukhi kings, whose 



282 DHULIA. 

frontier fortress it subsequently became. To the same Arab princes 
may be attributed the numerous stone embankments for irrigation 
found throughout the country, of which those on the Panjhra river 
above and below Dhiilia are good examples. The old fort at 
Dhiiha is also assigned to this dynasty, but it was probably, Hke the 
village walls, restored and improved by the Mughal governors. The 
town appears to have passed successively through the hands of the 
Arab kings, the Mughals, and the Nizam, and to have fallen into the 
power of the Marathas about 1795. In 1803 it was completely deserted 
by its inhabitants on account of the ravages of Holkar and the terrible 
famine of that year. In the following year, Balaji Balwant, a de- 
pendant of the Vinchurkar, to whom the pargands of Laling and 
Songir had been granted by the Peshwa, re-peopled the town, and 
received from the Vinchurkar, in return for his services, a grant of 
mam land and other privileges. He was subsequently entrusted with 
the entire management of the territory of Songir and Laling, and 
fixed his head-quarters at Dhiilia, where he continued to exercise 
authority till the occupation of the country by the British in 1818. 
Dhiilia was immediately chosen as the head-quarters of the newly- 
formed District of Khandesh by Captain Briggs. In January 181 9 he 
obtained sanction for building public offices for the transaction of 
revenue and judicial business. Artificers were brought from distant 
places, and the buildings were erected at a total cost of j[^2']oo. 
Every encouragement was offered to traders and others to settle in 
the new town. Building sites were granted rent free in perpetuity, 
and advances were made both to the old inhabitants and strangers to 
enable them to erect substantial houses. At this time. Captain 
Briggs described Dhiilia as a small town, surrounded by garden 
cultivation, and shut in between an irrigation channel and the 
river. In 1819 the population numbered only 2509 persons, 
living in 401 houses. In 1863 there were 10,000 inhabitants; 
while by 1872 the number had increased to 12,489, and by 1882 
to 18,449. From the date of its occupation by the British, the pro- 
gress of Dhiilia appears to have been steady ; but it is only since 
the recent development of the trade in cotton and linseed that the 
town has become of any great importance as a trading centre. 
Coarse cotton and woollen cloth and turbans are manufactured for 
local use, and a steam cotton-press was opened in 1876 by Volkart 
Brothers of Bombay. Since 1872, a little colony of Musalmans from 
Allahabad, Benares, and Lucknow have settled at Dhiilia, who say 
that they left their own homes on account of poverty. They are 
Momins by caste, and declare themselves orthodox Muhammadans, 
but their co-religionists in Dhiilia take them to be Wahabis. They 
support themselves by weaving saris of fine texture, which they sell 



DHULIAN— DIAMOND HARBOUR. 283 

at a lower rate than the local merchants. Dhiilia is a cantonment 
town, and possesses 2 hospitals, telegraph and post offices. Since 
1873, on the withdrawal of the detachment of regular Native infantry, 
the Bhil Corps have occupied the lines lying to the south-west 
of the town, where also are the jail, the court-house and offices, 
and the dwellings of European officers. In the lines situated 
near the hamlet called Moglai outside Dhiilia proper, is stationed a 
detachment of Poona Horse. Briggs' Suburb is the newest and most 
prosperous part of the city. Weekly fair on Thursdays, at which 
commodities to the estimated value of ^£"5000 change hands. There 
were in 1879, 5 Government schools, with 551 pupils. In 1883, 465 
in-door and 3393 out-door patients were treated in the dispensary. 

Dhulidn. — Village in Murshidabad District, Bengal ; situated on the 
Ganges. Site of an annual fair, and one of the most important river 
marts in the District. Large trade in rice, pulses, gram, wheat, and 
other food-grains. 

Dhulipnagar. — Town and cantonment in Bannu District, Punjab. 
— See Edwardesabad. 

Dhuma. — Village in Seoni District, Central Provinces; situated 13 
miles north of Lakhnadon and 34 miles from Jabalpur on the northern 
road, at an elevation of 1800 feet above sea-level. Encamping 
ground, school, police station, and travellers' bungalow. Population 
about 1000. 

Dhurwai. — One of the Hasht-bhai jdgirs or petty States in 
Bundelkhand, under the Central India Agency. The founder of the 
family was Rai Singh, a descendant of Bir Singh Deo, Raja of 
Orchha, who held the territory of Baragaon. He divided it amongst 
his eight sons, whence their jdgirs were called the Hasht-bhai (or 
eight brothers). There now remain four, of which Dhurwai is one. 
The present holder, Diwan Ranjiir Singh, is a Hindu Bundela. 
Area of State, 18 square miles; population (1881) 1598; revenue, 
^1200. 

Dhlisan. — River of Bengal. — See Parwan. 

Diamond Harbour. — Sub-division of the District of the Twenty- 
four Parganas, Bengal ; situated between 21° 31' and 22° 21' 30" n. lat., 
and between 88° 4' and 88° 33' 30" e. long. Area, 417 square miles ; 
villages, 1569; occupied houses, 44,402. Total population (1881) 
344,330, namely, males 171,732, and females 172,598. Propor- 
tion of males in total population, 49*9 per cent. Hindus numbered 
253,041; Muhammadans, 88,536; Christians, 2602; Santals, 34; 
other aboriginal tribes, 117. Number of persons per square mile, 826 ; 
villages per square mile, 376; persons per village, 219; houses per 
square mile, 118; inmates per house, 7*4. The Sub-division com- 
prises the five police circles {thdnds) of Diamond Harbour, Debipur, 



284 DIAMOND HARBOUR— DIAMOND ISLAND, 

Bankipur, Kalpi, and Mathurapur. It contains 3 civil and 3 crimina' 
courts, with a regular police force of 106 officers and men, and 921 
village watchmen {chaukiddrs). The cyclone of October 1864, with itj 
accompanying storm-wave, caused a fearful destruction of life anc 
property here. The greater number of deaths occurred on Sagai 
Island, within Diamond Harbour Sub-division, and in the Sundarbans. 
Out of a population of 5625, only 1488 persons escaped. It waj 
estimated that in all the villages within one mile of the river the losj 
of life was 80 per cent., with a loss of cattle in the same proportion 
The famine of 1866 also caused great distress. The extension of the 
Diamond Harbour line of railway from Sonapur on the Calcutta anc 
South-Eastern State Railway, recently opened, will speedily develop 
the resources of this tract. 

Diamond Harbour. — Port and head-quarters of Diamond Harboui 
Sub-division, Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal; situated on the 
left bank of the HiigU river, in lat. 22° 11' 10" n., long. 88° 13' 37" e. 
Well known as the anchorage of the Company's ships in old times 
now a telegraph station. A harbourmaster and customs establishment 
are maintained here to board vessels proceeding up the river ; and the 
movements of all shipping up or down are telegraphed from Diamond 
Harbour, and published several times a day in the Calcutta Telegraph 
Gazette. But no town or even village has sprung up ; and since the 
introduction of steam, few vessels have to wait here for the tide. The 
chief relic of its historical importance is its graveyard. A great scheme 
for dock - building at Diamond Harbour, as an auxiliary port for 
Calcutta, has been recently brought forward ; but no final decision has 
yet (1883) been arrived at. Diamond Harbour has now been brought 
within 38 miles of Calcutta by rail, by the construction of a railway 
from Sonapur station, on the Calcutta and South-Eastern State Railway. 
Distant from Calcutta 30 miles by a good road, 41 by river. 

Diamond Harbour Canal. —In Diamond Harbour Sub-division, 
Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ; extending from Thakurpukur to Khola- 
khali, a distance of 23 miles, although a portion of it for three miles in 
length has silted up. 

Diamond Island. — A low wooded island, about I mile square in 
area, and visible at 5 leagues, lying off the mouth of the Bassein river, 
in Pegu, British Burma. Lat. 15° 51' 30" n., and long. 94° 18' 45" e. 
It is 50 miles distant from Pagoda Point, and about 8 miles from 
Negrais Island or Haing-gyi. In shape it is quadrilateral, its angles 
facing the points of the compass. During strong southerly gales, land- 
ing is difficult. This island appears to have been never occupied by 
the Burmese, to whom it is known as Meimma-hla-kyun ; but it is 
visited by those engaged in collecting the eggs of turtles, which are 
very abundant. Important as the home station of the Alguada Reef 



DIBAI—DIBR UGARH. 285 

lighthouse establishment ; and connected with Bassein by telegraph, 
principally for the use of masters of ships calling for orders. 

jy^^i, — Thriving market town in Bulandshahr District, North- 
western Provinces; lat. 28' 12' 30" n., long. 78° 18' 35" e. Distant 
from Bulandshahr 26 miles south-east, and from Aligarh 26 miles north. 
It lies between the two head branches of the Chhoiya Nala, whose 
ravines form an efficient natural drainage-channel ; and is said to have 
been built about the time of Sayyid Salar Masaud Ghazi, 1029 a.d., 
upon the ruins of Dhundgarh, a captured Rajput city. Population 
(1881) 8216, namely, Hindus, 5107 ; Muhammadans, 3077 ; Jains, 14; 
' others,' 18. Area of town site, 90 acres. Trade has greatly increased 
since the opening of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, which has a 
station called Dibai at the village of Kaser, 3 miles distant by metalled 
road. The weekly market held on Monday is now the largest in the 
District ; a spacious masonry terrace has been built for the convenience 
of traders, and adjoining it a fine tank is now {1883) far advanced 
towards completion. The town contains four sardis or native inns, two 
schools, a post-ofihce, and a police station. The bazar is being greatly 
enlarged. The fortunes of this town have varied inversely with those 
of Anupshahr, the present head-quarters (as Dibai was formerly) of 
the tahsil, which is now declining. A small revenue for police and 
conservancy purposes is raised in Dibai under the provisions of Act xx. 
of 1856, but the town will doubtless soon be constituted a regular 
municipality. 

Dibru (or Sondpiir). — A river in the southern half of Lakhimpur 
District, Assam, which flows from east to west, nearly parallel to the 
Brahmaputra, for about 100 miles, and finally empties itself into that 
river just below the town of Dibrugarh, to which it has given its name. 

Dibrugarh. — The head-quarters Sub-division of Dakhimpur District, 
Assam, comprising the two divisions formerly known as Matak and 
Sadiya, consisting of the whole of the District lying south of the Brah- 
maputra, and the eastern portion of the area to the north of it. Area, 
2038 square miles. Population in 1881, 126,143, namely, Hindus, 
109,053; Muhammadans, 4029; and 'others,' 13,061. Number of 
villages, 697; number of houses, 19,718. The Sub-division contains 
the police circles {thdtids) of Dibrugarh; Dum-duma, Jaipur, and, 
Sadiya. 

Dibrugarh {^ Fort on the Dibru river''). — Chief town and head^ 
quarters of Lakhimpur District, Assam ; situated in lat. 27° 28' 30" n., 
and long. 94° 57' 30" e., on the Dibru river, about 4 miles above its 
confluence with the Brahmaputra. Population (1881) 7153, including 
the troops in the military cantonment Hindus numbered 5222; 
Muhammadans, 1881 ; and Christians, 50. Dibrugarh is the terminus 
of the river trade, as commercial steamers never run higher; they 



288 DIHANG—DIKTHAN. 

town, on the banks of the Sai. Population (1881) 2751, namely, 
Hindus, 2536 ; Muhammadans, 215. Good bazar. 

Dihang (or Dihong). — River in Lakhimpur District, Assam, one of 
the three which contribute to make up the Brahmaputra. It brings 
down the largest volume of water, and is generally regarded as the con- 
tinuation of the Tsanpu or great river of Tibet, and thus the real parent 
of the Brahmaputra. It is supposed to pierce the barrier range of the 
Himalayas through a narrow gorge in the Abar Hills. 

Dihing. — The name of two rivers in Lakhimpur District, Assam, 
which contribute to make up the \vaters of the Brahmaputra— (i) the 
Noa Dihing, rising in the Singpho Hills in the extreme eastern frontier 
of British territory, flows in a westerly direction into the main stream of 
the Brahmaputra just above Sadiya; (2) the Buri Dihing rises in the 
Patkai Hills in the south-east corner of Lakhimpur District, and also 
flows in a westerly direction, past Jaipur town, and finally forms the 
boundary between Lakhimpur and Sibsagar Districts before reaching 
the Brahmaputra. It is navigable up to Jaipur by steamers during the 
rainy season. The two rivers are connected by an artificial channel, 
passing near the village of Bisagaon. The valley of the Buri Dihing 
contains an extensive coal-field, with outcrops at Jaipur and Makum. 
The total marketable out-turn is estimated at about 20 million tons, of 
excellent quality, and there are tolerable facilities for water-carriage. 
Petroleum also exists in abundance in the same tract. In 1866, both 
the coal and the petroleum were worked under a Government grant by 
a European capitalist, but on his death the enterprise was discontinued. 
In the years 18 74-1 8 7 6, the mineral resources of this tract were 
examined by an officer of the Geological Survey, and favourably 
reported on. A company called the Assam Railway and Trading 
Company, formed for the purpose chiefly of exploiting the Makum coal, 
has recently constructed a railway on the metre gauge from the 
Dibrugarh steamer ghat to Dam-Dama, a distance of 45 miles, and 
thence on to Makum coal-fields, crossing the Dihing river above the 
Makum fort. The first rails were laid in 188 1, and the line was opened 
throughout in 1883. 

Diji {Kot Diji, also called A hmaddbdiT). —¥ort in the Khairpur State, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 27° 20' 45" n., longitude 6?>° AS' ^• 
Of no importance as a place of strength. A jail has recently been built 
below the fort. 

Dikthan. — Town in Sindhia's territory, and the capital oid^pargana 
of Gwalior, under the Bhil or Bhopawar Agency of Central India ; 
situated 16 miles west of Mhau (Mhow) and 14 miles due east of 
Dhar. T\i^ pargand is held vajdgir by Hunwant Rao Madik and Ram 
Rao Madik, and the revenue is ^£'4000 per annum. The pargana is 
managed by two kumaisddrs, or agents for the jdgirddrs^ who always 



D2LA WAR—DIMAPUR. 289 

reside at Gwalior. Appeals from the kwnaisddrs decisions are referred 
to the Naib Subah of Amjhera. 

Dila war. — Fort in Bahawalpur State, Punjab. Lat. 28° 44' n., 
long. 71° 14' E. Situated in a desert, 40 miles from the kft bank of the 
river Panjnad. Very difficult of access. The old fort is said to have 
been originally built by Rai Dhera Sidh Bhalt in 843 a.d. It remained 
in the possession of the Rajas of Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere) until 1748, 
when it was seized by the Daiidputras shortly after their settlement in 
Bahawalpur. 

Dilwara. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) Native State, Rajputana. 
Situated among the eastern ranges of the Aravallis, 14 miles north-east 
of Udaipur. Dilwara is the chief town of the estate of a first-class 
noble of Udaipur, who owns 149 villages. The palace of the chief 
is on a hill to the south, overlooking the town. About 2\ miles 
farther to the south is the hill-temple of Dilwara, on a remarkable 
conical peak about 1000 feet above the town ; the ascent is by a zig-zag 
road cut out of the rock on its western and south-western faces. This 
hill forms a landmark for miles around. 

Dimapur. — Village in the Naga Hills District, Assam; on the 
Dhaneswari (Dhansiri) river, 12 miles north of Samaguting ; the site 
of an early capital of the Cachari Rajas, the ruins and tanks of 
which are still to be found amid the jungle. 

The following description of these ruins is quoted, in a somewhat 
condensed form, from the Assa?}i Administration Report for 1880-81, 
pp. 233, 234 : — ' The site of the city is now overgrown with dense 
jungle, and till recently, when a small bazar was started, was entirely 
uninhabited. There are several splendid tanks of clear water, and a 
walled enclosure, supposed to have been a fort. The walls can be 
distinctly traced, and must originally have been upwards of 12 feet 
in height by 6 in width. They are built throughout of burnt brick of 
excellent quality. The enclosure is entered by a solid brick-built gate- 
way with some pretensions to architectural beauty ; it has a Moorish 
arch, and the stone hinges of the door are still visible, though all traces 
of woodwork have vanished. Much of the wall has fallen into decay, 
and the bricks falling on either side form a^iass oi debris, now covered 
with vegetable mould. The enclosure is as nearly as possible a perfect 
square, each side being about 800 yards in length. Two faces are 
further protected by a deep moat, and it is noticeable that these two 
are those farthest from the river; indeed, it seems probable that the 
builders of the structure refrained from continuing the moat on the two 
faces nearest the river, lest the stream might cut into them and under- 
mine the foundations of the walls. Inside the fortification are three 
small ruined tanks, one of which has a flight of brick steps leading to 
where the water once was ; and immediately to the back of it a ruined 

VOL. IV. T 



29a DINAJPUR. 

mass of brick and earth, with the remains of brick steps leading up to 

it. This is supposed to have been either an altar or a chabutra (raised 

platform) on which the Rajas used to sit after bathing. The most 

interesting relics in the fort, however, are the monolithic pillars, one 

group of which, ranged in four rows of 15 each, stands not far from the 

gateway, on the left hand, and another smaller group at a little distance 

on the right. Of the first group, two rows consist of mushroom-shaped 

pillars with rounded heads, and the other two of square pillars of a very 

peculiar V-shape. All are richly covered with tracery of some artistic 

merit. For what purpose the round-headed pillars were erected it is 

impossible to say. They cannot have supported a roof, because they 

are of unequal heights, and the tracery with which they are covered 

extends over the whole head. The site has been so long deserted, and 

the people whose capital it once was are so widely scattered, that no 

trustworthy traditions have survived to explain the uses of the building. 

There is nowhere any trace of inscriptions or written character of any 

kind. At present, with the exception of the site of the pillars, where 

the trees have been cut down, the whole interior of the fort is covered 

with dense jungle ; and when the undergrowth is cleared, other relics 

may possibly be brought to light.' 

Dimapur is now a police outpost, and the centre of some trade with 
the Nagas, as the river is navigable up to this point by country boats. 
All around is wild jungle. 

Dinajpur. — The District of Dinajpur occupies the west of the Raj- 
shahi Kuch Behar Division, under the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal.' 
It lies between 24° 43' 40" and 26° 22' 50" n. lat., and between 88° 4' 0" 
and 89° 21' 5" E. long., being bounded roughly on the east by the 
Karataya, and on the west by the Mahananda river. Area, 41 18 square 
miles; population (1881) 1,514,346 souls. The administrative head- 
quarters are at Dinajpur Town, on the left bank of the Purnabhaba. 

Physical Aspects. — The District exhibits a less uniformly level appear- 
ance than the rest of Northern Bengal. The plain that stretches from 
the Himalayas to the Ganges is here represented by a peculiar clay 
formation, locally known as khidr^ which is sufficiently stiff to resist the 
diluviating action of the rivers. In the southern part of the District, 
and again in the north-west along the Kulik river, this clay soil rises 
into undulating ridges, some of which attain the height of 100 feet. 
The entire country is intersected by numerous rivers, which run in well- 
defined channels and have deposited in their floods a later alluvium of 
sandy loam, called pali. The agriculture of the District is determined 
by the difference between these two kinds of soil. The river valleys 
are everywhere much wider than the narrow limits within which the 
streams are confined during the dry season. In the rains, the nooa- 
water spreads out into large lakes, about 2 miles across ; but there are^ 



DINAJPUR. 291 

few permanent marshes of any size throughout the District. The clay 
ridges in the south are still much overgrown with scrub-jungle, which 
affords cover to numerous wild beasts, and yields little forest produce 
of any value. 

The rivers in Dinajpur arrange themselves into two systems, one of 
which carries off the drainage southwards by the Mahanandd, into 
Maldah District, while the other is connected with the old Tista river, 
and flows in a south-easterly direction towards Bogra and Raj shah 1. 
The Mahananda itself only skirts the western frontier of the District 
for about 30 miles ; its chief tributaries are the Nagar, Tangan, and 
PURNABHABA. All these rivers are only navigable for large boats during 
the rains. They run through the khidr country, along shallow valleys, 
bordered by elevated clay ridges. The Tista river system has been 
much broken up by the violent changes which took place in the course 
of the main channel towards the close of the last century. The various 
channels of the old Tista still flowing through Dinajpur are now known 
as the Atrai, Jamuna, and Karataya. Their value for boat traffic 
has been gready lessened by the circumstance that the main volume 
of the water now finds its way eastwards into the Brahmaputra. There 
are several short artificial canals in the District ; but some of them 
appear to have been dug with a view to facilitate religious processions, 
rather than as a means of assisting trade. 

Sal woods occur throughout the District, but are principally found in 
small patches along the course of the Karataya river. These forests 
yield a considerable revenue to the landholders to whom they belong, 
but the trees generally are stunted in growth, and the timber is of 
inferior quality. The jungle products consist of beeswax, anantdmul 
and sdtdmiil (vegetable drugs), and the flowers of a tree called 
sm!(dhdr, from which a dye is made. Large breadths of pasture-land 
are scattered throughout the District. They pay no rent, and some of 
the peasantry engage in pasturing cattle in these tracts as an additional 
means of subsistence. The wild animals of the District comprise the 
tiger, leopard, civet cat, tiger cat, polecat, buffalo, wild hog, /^ard 
singha or large deer, hog deer, jackal, fox, mongoose, badger, 
crocodile, etc. Tigers mostly infest the dense, tangled jungle and grass 
patches; leopards are found everywhere, and numbers of cows and 
goats are annually destroyed by them ; buffaloes and hog commit great 
havoc amongst the sugar-cane and rice cultivation. Game and other 
wild birds are plentiful, and lish of many varieties are numerous, the 
fisheries being of considerable value. 

ffistory.—BmiJT^UY District, with the rest of Bengal, passed under 
British rule in 1765, and has no independent history of its own. 

Poptilation.~ln the beginning of the present century. Dr. Buchanan- 
Hamilton, in the course of his statistical inquiries, arrived at a most 



292 DINAJPUR. 

elaborate estimate of the population of Dinajpur. His calculations 
yielded a total of about 3 millions, or 558 persons to the square mile. 
The District was then about one-third larger than at present. During 
the Revenue Survey (1857-61), when the area of the District was 
also somewhat larger than now, the number of houses was counted, 
and the inhabitants living therein were estimated to number 1,042,832, 
or only 227 per square mile. It seems probable that this latter estimate 
was as much too low, as Dr. B. Hamilton's estimate must have been too 
high. The Census of 1872 disclosed a total population of 1,501,924 
persons, on an area corresponding to that of the present District. In 
1 88 1, the Census returned the population at 1,514,346, showing an 
increase of 12,422, or less than i per cent, during the nine years from 
1872 to 1 88 1. This small increase is due to the ravages of malarious 
fever, for which the District has an evil reputation. The general results 
arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows:— 
Area of District, 41 18 square miles, with 6921 towns and villages, 
and 272,368 houses, of which 268,647 were occupied and 3721 un- 
occupied. Total population 1,514,346, namely, males 782,292, and 
females 732,054; average density, 368 per square mile; villages per 
square mile, i-68; persons per village, 219; houses per square mile, 
66-14; inmates per house, 5*64. Classified according to religion, 
there were — Hindus, 716,630; Muhammadans, 795,824; Christians, 
457; and Santals, still professing their aboriginal faith, i435- 
There can be no doubt that in Dinajpur, even to a greater extent than 
in the rest of Bengal, the great bulk of the people are of aboriginal 
descent; and that the majority became willing converts to the conquer- 
ing faith of Islam, in preference to remaining out-castes beyond the 
pale of exclusive Hinduism. The tribes now ranked as aboriginal are 
poorly represented, numbering 23,355. They come from Chutia 
Nagpur to work on the roads or to clear jungle. Among them are the 
Bhumij, 6834; Santal, 6813; Kol, 316; Kharwar, 213; Bhuinya, 45 ; 
and 'others,' 9450. The semi-Hinduized aborigines, who are nearly 
twice as numerous as the Hindus proper, mostly consist of the kindred 
races of Pali, Rajbansi, and Koch. These three tribes number collec- 
tively 407,923 of the Hindu population. The it\N who retain the name 
of Koch are palanquin-bearers; Rajbansi is the high-sounding title 
which they have adopted for themselves ; whereas Pali is the appella- 
tion applied to them by their neighbours. This last term is almost 
confined to Dinajpur and the adjoining District of Maldah; it would 
not be recognised in Kuch Behar State. Among Hindus proper, the 
Brahmans number 8913 ; they are traditionally reported to have settled 
in the District within recent times. The Rajputs number only 2885 ; 
the Kdyasths, 6024. By far the most numerous castes are the Kaibartta 
with 37,785, the Hari with 31,934, and the Baniya with 21,149 



DINAJPUR. 293 

members; the fishing castes are also strongly represented, especially 
the Jaliya, with 13,560 members. The other castes with upwards of 
5000 members are — Napit, 12,735; Tanti, 9045; Chandal, 7180; 
Dosadh, 6000; Lobar, 5725; Kumbhar, 5352; Gwala, 5123; and 
Sunri, 5096. The Brahma Saraaj has a small body of followers at 
Dinajpur town, who are mostly engaged in Government service; and at 
the same place there are a few families of Jain merchants, immigrants 
from the north-west, with their servants and retainers. The Vaishnavs 
are returned at 19,349, which num,ber only includes the professed 
religious mendicants ; many of the Pali tribe are said to belong to 
this sect The Muhammadans belong almost entirely to the agricul- 
tural class ; few of them are landholders, and still fewer engage in 
trade. The reforming sect of Wahabis or Faraizis is known to have 
exercised some influence among them, but no active fanaticism exists. 
A little immigration into Dinajpur of a temporary character takes place 
every harvest season ; emigration from the District there is none. 

The entire population is absolutely rural. The only place returned 
in the Census Report as containing more than 5000 inhabitants is 
Dinajpur Town, population (1881) 12,560. The people display no 
tendency towards urban life, but rather the reverse. The trading marts 
consist merely of a line of golds or warehouses along the river banks, 
where agricultural produce can be conveniently stored until the rainy 
season opens the rivers for navigation. Out of a total of 6921 villages, 
as many as 4749 contain less than two hundred inhabitants each ; 1544 
from two to five hundred; 445 from five hundred to a thousand; 149 
from one to two thousand; 26 from two to three thousand; 7 from 
three to five thousand ; and i upwards of ten thousand inhabitants. 
As regards the occupations of the people, the Census Report divides 
the male population into the following six main classes : — Class (i) Pro- 
fessional, including military, civil, and all officers of Government, with 
the learned professions, 10,571; (2) domestic servants, and keepers of 
lodging-houses, etc., 29,776; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, 
and carriers, 17,022; (4) agricultural, including cultivators, gardeners, and 
tenders of sheep and cattle, 393,589; (5) industrial class, comprising 
manufacturers and artisans, 41,359; (6) indefinite and unproduciive, 
including general labourers, male children, and persons of no stated 
occupation, 289,975. Almost the whole population live by agriculture ; 
even among the shopkeeper and artisan classes, nearly every house- 
hold supplement their ordinary means of livelihood by cultivating a 
small patch of land, either by their own hands, or if sufficiently well off, 
through others, who receive a share of the crop in return for their 
labour. Generally speaking, a cultivator's entire holding is under rice, 
with the exception of a small patch around the homestead, on which he 
raises crops of vegetables. The material condition of the people is said 



294 DINAJPUR. 

to be, as a rule, superior to that of the peasantry of the more advanced 
Districts of the Gangetic delta, and the mode of living much more 
simple than in the Districts to the south. As a rule, every husband- 
man has more than one wife. The husband does all the work of the 
fields, while the wives stay at home and weave clothing or sackcloth, 
the surplus of which, after providing for home consumption, is disposed 
of at the nearest village market. The weaving of jute into gunny 
cloth is entirely a feminine occupation. 

AgricuUure. — Rice constitutes the staple crop throughout the District. 
Of the total food-supply, the dmaii or winter crop, grown on low lands 
and usually transplanted, furnishes about 80 per cent. ; the dus or 
autumn crop, grown on high lands, about 16 per cent. ; the boro or 
spring crop, grown on the borders of marshes and rivers, in certain 
tracts about 4 per cent. This last is the only crop in the District 
which demands irrigation, and the water required is easily obtained 
from the immediate neighbourhood. Among miscellaneous crops 
may be mentioned maize and millet, pulses, oil-seeds, tobacco, jute, 
sugar-cane, pdii or betel leaf. The staples grown for export are 
rice and jute. The cultivation of sugar-cane is on the decline. 
Manure, in the form of cow-dung, is applied to khidr rice lands, and to 
the more valuable crops grown on pali soil. Khidr land is never 
allowed to lie fallow, but pali requires an occasional rest of about one 
year in every five. The principle of the rotation of crops is not known. 
There is still a good deal of spare land capable of cultivation, to be 
found in most parts of the District. Horned cattle are very abundant ; 
but owing to the indifference shown in breeding, they are mostly of a 
poor class. There is abundance of the ordinary pasturage of Bengal in 
the District. The average produce of an acre of good rice land renting 
at 9s. is about 20 cwts. of rice, valued 2X j£,\, i8s. ; exceptionally good 
land will sometimes yield as much as 37 cwts. per acre. Khidr X-xsA 
produces only one rice crop in the year ; but from pali land a second 
crop of oil-seeds or pulses is obtained in the cold season, in addition to 
the diis rice. This cold-weather crop may be valued at from p^i, los. 
to ;^2, 2S. per acre. The rate of rent paid for khidr \zxi6. varies from 
9s. to I2S. an acre; pali land rents at from 6s. to ;^i, los. There is 
little peculiarity in the land tenures of Dinajpur. It is estimated that 
over about five-eighths of the total area of the District the superior 
landlords have parted with their rights in favour of intermediate tenure- 
holders. Only a small fraction of the cultivators have won for them- 
selves rights of occupancy by a continuous holding of more than twelve 
years ; the great majority are mere tenants-at-will. 

The following were the current rates of wages in 1881 : — Coolies and 
agricultural day-labourers received 6s. a month with food, or los. a 
month without food; bricklayers and carpenters, from 12s. to ^i, los. 



niNAJPUR. 295 

a month; smiths, from 12s. to jT^i. In the same year, the prices of 
food-grains were as follow : — Common rice, 2 s. 6d. per viaundoi^o lbs. ; 
common paddy or unhusked rice, 2s. per niaund; barley, 4s. ^^^x maund ; 
barley flour, 8s. per 7Ttmmd. The highest price reached by rice in 1866, 
the year of the Orissa famine, was 8s. per maund. 

Dinajpur is exceptionally free from either of the calamities of flood 
or drought. Owing to the rising of the rivers and the heavy local rain- 
fall, a considerable portion of the District is annually laid under water ; 
but this inundation is productive of good rather than harm. The 
single occasion on which the general harvest has been known to be 
injuriously affected, was in the autumn of 1873, when the protracted 
drought caused a failure of the dma7i rice crop, upon which the popu- 
lation almost entirely depends for its food-supply. It was only the 
prompt interference of Government that prevented scarcity from 
intensifying into famine, and ;^ 16 2, 188 was expended on relief 
operations. 

For the future, Dinajpur District will be saved from the danger of 
isolation by the Northern Bengal State Railway, opened a few years ago, 
which runs northward for about 30 miles through its eastern half, and 
which is being still further extended from east to west, passing through 
Dinajpur town. Roads are numerous, and traverse the District in all 
directions to the extent of 1200 miles. Another important means of 
communication are the rivers, which unfortunately are only navigable 
by large boats during three or four months in the year. 

Manufactures, etc. — The whole population is so entirely agricultural, 
that scarcely any manufactures exist. Neither indigo nor silk is 
prepared, and the production of sugar has decreased since the beginning 
of this century. A little coarse cotton cloth is made for home use ; 
and in some parts a durable fabric called mekli is woven from the wild 
rhea grass. Gunny cloth is manufactured to a considerable extent in 
the north of the District, this industry being chiefly confined to the 
women of the Koch tribe. 

Until the opening of the railway, Dindjpur was almost entirely 
dependent upon its rivers for all its trade. The chief exports are rice, 
jute, tobacco, sugar, gunny cloth, and hides; the imports are piece- 
goods, salt, and hardware. The western half of the District, so far as 
the valley of the Purnabhaba, exports its surplus rice towards Behar 
and the North-Western Provinces by means of the Mahananda ; the 
eastern half uses the old channels of the Tistd and the Northern Bengal 
State Railway, and sends its produce direct to Calcutta. During the 
dry season, pack-bullocks and carts traverse the whole country, carrymg 
the surplus rice to the river marts, to be there stored until the streams 
swell. The principal of these depots are Nitpur, Chandganj, Birampur, 
and Patiram. The most important centre of local buying and selling is 



296 DINAJPUR. 

the Nekmard fair, which is held annually in honour of a Musalman 
saint, and attended by about 150,000 persons. Properly, it is a cattle 
fair, but traders frequent it with miscellaneous articles collected from 
the farthest corners of India. Lesser gatherings take place at 
Alawdrkhawa, Dhaldighi, and Sontapur. The registration returns of 
river traffic are only useful for Dinajpur in so far as they refer to the 
exports. The imports into the District are chiefly received overland, 
passing by routes that escape registration. For the year 1881-82 the 
exports were valued at ^480,750, against imports worth only ;^ 17 2,000. 
The chief exports are — Rice and paddy, 2,600,000 maunds, valued 
together at ^325,000 (placing Dinajpur seventh in the list of rice- 
exporting Districts in Bengal) ; jute, 275,000 7?iaunds, valued at 
;^68,75o; gunny cloth, 600,000 pieces, valued at ;^72,ooo; hides, 
80,000 in number, valued at ;^io,ooo ; other exports valued at ;£5ooo. 
The principal imports are — salt, 160,000 maunds^ valued at ;^48,ooo ; 
and European piece-goods, valued at ;^8o,ooo. Of the local marts, 
Rdiganj stands first, with exports valued at ^47,300 (almost entirely 
jute and gunny-bags), and imports valued at ^12,000 ; Nitpur exported 
;^4o,ooo (solely rice), and imported ^6000. Of the total quantity of 
rice, 1,400,000 maimds were consigned direct to Calcutta, and the 
remainder to Behar and the North-Western Provinces. 

Administration. — In 1870-71, the net revenqe of Dinajpur District 
was ^212,340, towards which the land-tax contributed ;£^i73»454> or 
81 per cent. ; the net expenditure amounted to ;£"36,839, or little more 
than one-sixth of the revenue. By 1881-82, the total net revenue had 
slightly decreased to ^197,137, towards which the land-tax contributed 
^163,755, or a little over 83 per cent. The net expenditure amounted 
to ^£"37,376. The large proportion derived from the land revenue 
is to be explained by the circumstance that Dindjpur was in an 
exceptionally prosperous condition at the date of the Permanent 
Settlement. In 1881-82 there were 3 covenanted civil servants 
stationed in the District, and 7 magisterial and 9 civil and revenue 
courts open. For police purposes, Dinajpur is divided into 17 thdfids 
or police circles. In 1881 the regular police force numbered 385 men 
of all ranks, maintained at a total cost to Government of ^£"6680. In 
addition, there was a municipal poHce of 32 men, and a rural police or 
village watch of 5 199 men, maintained by the villagers at an estimated cost 
in money and rent-free land of ;!^i 1,457. The total machinery, therefore, 
for the protection of person and property amounted to 5626 officers 
and men, giving i man to every 73 of a square mile of area, or to every 
260 persons in the population. In 1881, the total number of persons 
convicted of any offence, great or small, amounted to 1250, or i person 
to every 1 2 1 1 of the population. By far the greater number of the 
convictions were for petty offences. The District contains i jail at 



DINAJPUR. 297 

Dinajpur town. In 1881, the average daily number of prisoners was 
175, of whom 4 were women; the labouring convicts averaged 145. 
These figures show i person in jail to every 8904 of the population. 

Education has widely spread of recent years, owing to the changes 
by which the benefit of the grant-in-aid rules has been extended, first to 
the vernacular middle-class schools, and ultimately to the village schools 
Qxpdthsdlds. In 1856 there were only 10 schools in the District, attended 
by 532 pupils. In i860 both these numbers had actually decreased; 
but by 1870 the number of schools had risen to 247, and the pupils to 
5723. In 1872 there was a further increase to 456 Government inspected 
schools and 8174 pupils ; and in 1881-82, to 487 Government and aided 
schools, attended by 11,188 pupils, showing i school to every 8 square 
miles, and 7*3 pupils to every 1000 of the population. The higher-class 
English school at Dinajpur town was attended by 185 pupils. There 
are also a number of private indigenous schools. The Census Report 
in 1881 returned 19,493 boys and 318 girls as under instruction; and 
44,408 males and 430 females as able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Up to the close of 1883, the sub-divisional system of administration 
had not been extended to Dinajpur. The District is divided into the 
following 17 police circles : — (i) Dinajpur, (2) Rajarampur, (3) Birganj, 
(4) Thakurgaon, (5) Ranisankail, (6) Pirganj, (7) Hemtabad, (8) Kaliganj, 
(9) Bansihari, (10) Patnitala, (11) Mahadeo, (12) Porsha, (13) Patiram, 
(14) Gangarampur, (15) Chintaman, (16) Parbatipur, and (17) Nawib- 
ganj. The pargands or Fiscal Divisions are 81 in number, with an 
aggregate of 778 revenue-paying estates. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Dinajpur is considerably cooler 
than that of the Gangetic delta. The hot weather does not set in so 
early, and the temperature at night continues low until the end of April. 
During the winter months a heavy dew falls at night, and a thick mist 
hangs over the ground until dispelled by the morning sun. It has been 
observed that the hot season proves the least healthy to strangers, 
while the natives suffer most at the close of the rains. The average 
annual rainfall for a period of over 20 years is returned at 76*83 inches. 
In 1 88 1, the rainfall was 60-32 inches, or 16-51 inches below the 
average. The mean annual temperature is about 83-5° F. ; the 
maximum being 104° in the month of May, the minimum d^ in 
December. 

The principal diseases of the District are remittent and continued 
fevers, ague, enlargement of the spleen, bowel complaints, cholera, and 
small-pox. The outbreaks of small-pox are to be referred to the popular 
practice of inoculation. The District has a bad reputation for malarial 
fevers, which during the nine years from 1872 to 1881 kept down the 
increase of the population to less than i per cent. In 1872, the 



298 DINAJPUR TOWN. 

reported deaths from fever in Dinajpur were higher than in any other 
District of the Division. The four following years showed little 
improvement, and in 1876 the fever mortality was 22*05 P^^ thousand 
of the whole population. In 1877, which a general consensus of 
opinion declares to have been the most unhealthy year in this District 
within living memory, over 30,000 deaths were reported from fevers 
alone. Out of seventeen adult Europeans, fifteen had to leave the 
District during the year, broken down by repeated attacks of fever, and 
official business could hardly be carried on. This terrible mortality 
drew renewed attention to the insanitary condition of the District, 
and a committee was appointed to report on the causes of this great 
unhealthiness and to suggest means for improving the health of the 
station. The investigations demonstrated the existence of a terrible 
amount of constant sickness and a very high death-rate. An examina- 
tion of nearly a thousand individuals showed that nearly 75 per cent, 
of the inhabitants were in bad health, while 53 per cent, had marked 
enlargement of the spleen. It so happened that this District was at the 
time that in which death registration was best carried out in all Bengal ; 
and it was found that the death-rate in the municipality was 42 per 
thousand, nearly double the death-rate of London, while the police 
died at the rate of 46, and the prisoners in jail at the rate of 74*6 per 
thousand. Eventually, a scheme was drawn up and carried out for 
draining the neighbourhood of Dinajpur town, which has been attended 
with beneficial results. A slight remission of fever followed in 1878 
and 1879, but it returned with increased virulence in 1880. In i88r, 
the total registered deaths were returned at 29,403, or 21*50 per 1000 
of the population. The real death-rate was no doubt much higher. 
There were in 1881 eight charitable dispensaries in the District, namely, 
at Dinajpur town, Raiganj, Churaman, Mahadeopur, and Baliirghat, at 
which 322 in-door and 8843 out-door patients were treated during the 
year. [For further information regarding Dinajpur, see Hunter's 
Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. vii. pp. 355-461 (Triibner & Co., 
London, 1876). Also the Geographical and Statistical Account of 
Dinajpur District, hy Major Sherwill, Revenue Surveyor (1863); the 
Bengal Census Report {or 1881 ; and the Amitial Adi?iinistration Reports 
of Bengal irom. 1880 to 1883.] 

Dinajpur. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Dinajpur 
District, Bengal ; situated on the east bank of the Purnabhaba, just 
below its point of confluence with the Dhapa river, in lat. 25° 38' N., and 
long. 88° 40' 46" E. Population (1881) 12,560, namely, 6407 Muham- 
madans, 6059 Hindus, and 94 'others.' Area of town site, 3200 acres. 
Dinajpur is the only municipality in the District, with a total revenue 
in 1881-82 of ^6297, of which £iz^6 was derived from taxation, and 
the balance from other sources, chiefly receipts from municipal lands, 



DIN ANA GAR—DINAPUR, 299 

public gardens, etc., ;^465i \ and grant from provincial revenues, 
^1500. Expenditure in 1881-82, ^'j'j4i. 

Dinanagar. — Town in Gurdaspur ^a/isi/, Gurdaspur District, Punjab. 
Situated in lat. 32° 8' 15" n., and long. 75° 31' e., on a low and swampy 
plain, the source of the river Kirran, whose malarious exhalations render 
the town unhealthy, and produce endemic fever. Population (1881) 
5589, namely, 2842 Hindus, 2700 Muhammadans, 40 Sikhs, and 6 
'others.' Derives its name from Adina Beg, the opponent of the Sikhs 
in 1752. A dilapidated mud wall surrounds the town ; the neighbour- 
hood is profusely irrigated from the Bari Doab Canal, and dense vegeta- 
tion comes up to the very gates. Centre of trade in country produce ; 
annual cattle fair during the Dasahdra festival. Groves of mango and 
plum trees surround the town, which was the residence of Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh during the rainy season. The navigation canal runs close by the 
town. Head-quarters of a police sub-division ithdna) and charitable 
dispensary. Lies on the main road from Amritsar to Pathankot, 
8 miles north-east of Gurdaspur. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, 
;^76i ; expenditure, ;£"6o8 ; average incidence of taxation, 2s. 6;^d. per 
head of the population. 

jyiTik^-WX {Dd?idpiir). — Sub-division of Patna District, Bengal; 
situated between 25° 32' and 25° 44' n. lat., and between 84° 50' 15" 
and 85° 7' E. long. Area, 143 square miles ; number of villages, 349 ; 
houses, 27,041. Total population (1881) 166,128, namely, 78,503 
males and 87,625 females. Hindus numbered 140,013 ; Muham- 
madans, 24,122 ; Christians, 1985 ; and Jews, 8. Average number of 
persons per square mile, 1162 ; villages per square mile, 2*44 ; persons 
per village, 476 ; houses per square mile, 211 ; inmates per house, 6-i. 
The Sub-division comprises the police circles {thdnds) of Dinapur and 
Maner. It contains i civil and 3 criminal courts ; strength of regular 
police, 180 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 244. 

Dinapur (Z)i/m/wr).— Cantonment and military head-quarters of 
Patna District, Bengal, in the Allahabad Military Division ; situated on 
the right or south bank of the Ganges, in lat. 25° 38' 19" n., long. 85° 
5' 8" E. Divided into two parts, the Cantonments and the Nizamat or 
municipal area. Population (i 881) of the Cantonment and the town 
proper, 37,893, namely, Hindus, 26,513; Muhammadans, 9700 ; 
Christians and 'others,' 1680; area, 5884 acres. Municipal income 
(1882-82), ;£873, of which ^839 was derived from taxation, or at the 
rate of ^^. per head of the population (23,740) within municipal limits. 
The military force quartered at Dinapur in September 1883 consisted of 
2 European and i Native infantry regiment, with 2 batteries of Royal 
Artillery. The cantonment magistrate administers the whole Dinapur 
Sub-division. The road from Dinapur to Bankipur, the civil head-quarters 
of Patna District, 6 miles in length, is lined throughout with houses and 



300 DINDIGAL. 

cottages; in fact, Dinapur, Bankipur, and Patna may be regarded as 
forming one continuous narrow city hemmed in between the Ganges 
and the raihvay. 

The Mutiny of 1857, in Patna District, originated at Dinapur. 
The three Sepoy regiments stationed there broke into open revolt in July, 
and went off en masse, taking only their arms and accoutrements with 
them. Thus lightly equipped, the majority effected their escape into 
Shahabad, a friendly country, with nothing to oppose them but the 
courage of a handful of English civilians, indigo planters, and railway 
engineers. A reinforcement was sent from the European garrison of 
Dinapur to aid in the defence of Arrah, which was shortly after 
besieged by the rebel Sepoys. The expedition failed disastrously, 
but individual acts of heroism saved the honour of the British name. 
Two volunteers, Mr. Eraser M'Donell and Mr. Ross Mangles, both of the 
Civil Service, conspicuously distinguished themselves by acts of intrepid 
valour. The former, although wounded, was one of the last men to 
enter the boats. The insurgents had taken the oars of his boat and had 
lashed the rudder, so that although the wind was favourable for retreat, 
the current carried it back to the river bank. Thirty-five soldiers 
were in the boat, sheltered from fire by the usual thatch covering ; but 
while the rudder was being fixed, the inmates remained at the mercy of the 
enemy. At this crisis, Mr. Eraser M'Donell stepped out from the shelter, 
chmbed on to the roof of the boat, perched himself on the rudder, and 
cut the lashings amidst a storm of bullets from the contiguous bank. 
Strangely enough, not a ball struck him ; the rudder was loosened, the 
boat answered to the helm, and by Mr. M'Donell's brilliant act the 
crew were saved from certain destruction. Mr. Ross Mangles' conduct 
was equally heroic. During the retreat, a soldier was struck down 
near him. He stopped, lifted the man on to his back, and though he 
had frequently to rest on the way, he managed to carry the wounded 
man for 6 miles, till he reached the stream. He then swam with his 
helpless burden to a boat, in which he deposited him in safety. Both 
these civilians afterwards received the Victoria Cross as a reward for 
their valour. 

Dindigal {Dindii-kal), — Taluk or Sub-division of Madura District, 
Madras Presidency ; area, 1132 square miles, containing i town and 208 
villages; number of houses, 52,527; population (1881) 304,783, namely, 
147,736 males and 157,047 females. Classified according to religion 
— Hindus, 272,679; Muhammadans, 12,239; and Christians, 19,865, 
of whom 17,166 are native Roman Catholics. Formerly a separate 
Province, though subject to Madura, it was ceded by the treaty of 1792 
to the East India Company. It is watered by the Kodavar, Mageri, and 
other streams, and contains also 1542 tanks, with abundance offish. A 
pearl-bearing mussel is said to have been once found here. Among the 



DINDIGAL TOWN. 301 

vegetable products are enumerated * croton, sarsaparilla, and senna, the 
last equal to that brought from Egypt.' The ironworks at Giitum and 
Kalampetti were once of considerable importance. In 1883 the taluk 
contained i civil and 3 criminal courts ; number of poHce circles, 15 ; 
strength of regular police, 122 men. Land revenue, ^35,446. Chief 

town, DiNDIGAL. 

Dindigal {Dindu-kal, ' The Rock of Dindu,' an Asura or demon). 
—Town in the Dindigal fd/uk, Madura District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 10° 21' 39" N., long. 78° o' if e. Number of houses, 2115. 
Population (1881) 14,182, namely, Hindus, 10,484; Muhamma- 
dans, 1601 ; and Christians, 2097; about 15 per cent, of the whole 
are weavers, 18 per cent, traders, and 13 per cent, agriculturists. 
Formerly the Christians lived in a separate quarter, their houses being 
distinguished by a cross on the roof. Their priest was a native of 
Malabar, subject ecclesiastically to the Bishop of Cannanore. Situated 
880 feet above the sea, about 54 miles from Kodaikanal, the sanitarium on 
the Palani Hills, and 40 from Madura. Dindigal is connected by railway 
with the chief towns of the Presidency. The staples of local trade 
are hides, tobacco, coffee, and cardamoms, for the export of which 
the system of roads radiating from the town afford exceptional facilities. 
The silks and muslins manufactured here had once a high repute, as had 
also the blankets made from ' Carumba ' wool. As the head-quarters 
of the Sub-division, Dindigal contains the courts of European as well 
as native officials, police and telegraph stations, travellers' bungalow, 
school, dispensary, and post-office. There are two churches, the 
one Protestant and the other Roman Catholic. ' The municipal 
revenue for 1882-83 was ;£ii73, the incidence of taxation being 
IS. per head of the population. 

Dindigal was formerly the capital of an independent Province, 
which nominally formed part of the Madura kingdom. The fort, 
built on a remarkable wedge-shaped rock 1223 feet above the sea, 
to the west of the town, remains in good preservation, having been 
occupied by a British garrison until i860. As a strategical point of 
great natural strength, commanding the passes between Madura and 
Coimbatore, its possession has always been keenly contested. Between 
1623 ^^d 1659 it was the scene of many encounters between the 
Marathas and the Mysore and Madura troops, the pdlegdr of Dindigal 
holding at that time feudal authority over eighteen neighbouring 
chieftains. Chanda Sahib, the Marathas, and the Mysore troops 
occupied the fort in turn, and during the intervals in which no greater 
power was in possession, the strongest local chief made it his head- 
quarters. In 1755, however, Haidar Ah garrisoned Dindigal, and, 
while still ostensibly the faithful soldier of Mysore, used it as the basis 
of his schemes for distant conquest and self-aggrandisement, subduing 



302 DINDIVARAM—DINDORL 

in succession the powerful /i/^^ir^ of Madura, and annexing the greater 
part of that District, as well as Coimbatore, to his fief. As the gate to 
Coimbatore from the south, the fort proved, in the wars with Haidar, a 
serious obstacle to the operations of the British troops at Trichinopoli 
and Madura. It was taken by the British in 1767, lost again in 1768, 
retaken in 1783, given up to Mysore by the treaty of Mangalore in 
1784, recaptured on the next outbreak of war in 1790, and finally ceded 
to the East India Company by the treaty of 1792. 

Dindivaram i^Tindivaram). — Taluk or Sub-division of South Arcot 
District, Madras Presidency. Area, 844 square miles, of which about 
four-fifths are cultivated or cultivable, yielding a revenue of ;£"54,655. 
Number of villages, 564; number of houses, 33,559. Population 
(1881) 264,261, namely, Hindus, 248,377; Muhammadans, 5888; 
Christians (native Roman Catholics), 6369; 'others,' 3627. The 
taluk contains 3 criminal courts; police circles (thdnds), 13; regular 
police, 116 men. Twenty-two miles distant from Dindivaram, the chief 
tow^n, lies Merkanam, a small sub-port with little or no trade. The 
South Indian Railway runs through the taluk from north to south for 
about 17 miles, with 3 railway stations. Chief places, Dindivaram and 
Gingi. 

Dindori. — Sub-division of Nasik District, Bombay Presidency. 
Bounded on the north by Kalvan and the Saptashring hills ; on the 
east by Chandor and Niphad ; on the south by Nasik Sub-division ; and 
on the west by the Sahyadri hills and Peint. Area, 529 square miles ; 
number of villages, 128. Population (t88i) 72,290, namely, 36,052 
males and 36,238 females. Density of population, 137 persons to the 
square mile. Hindus number 70,165 ; Muhammadans, 1210 ; ' others,' 
915. Most of the Sub-division is hilly. In the north and west there 
are only a few cart tracks, and travelling is difficult. A fair road leads 
to Balsar through the Saval pass, and to Kalvan through the Aivan 
pass. Rainfall abundant ; climate in April and May healthy, in other 
months feverish. Average rainfall for 12 years ending 188 1, 26 inches. 
The main stream is the Kadva, used as well as the Banganga for irriga- 
tion. In 1880-81 there were 6886 holdings in the Sub-division, with 
an average extent of 30*5 acres, and paying an average rental of £2^ 
2s. 6d. The area under actual cultivation was 153,287 acres; 37,195 
acres were under wheat ; 23,399 acres under ndgli (Eleusine corocana) ; 
14,592 acres under bdjra ; other crops, rice, pulses, and Bombay hemp. 
The Sub-division contains 2 criminal courts ; i police circle {thdnd) ; 
regular police, 26 men; village watch {chaukiddrs), 150; land revenue, 

^15.387. 

Dindori.^Chief town of the Dindori Sub-division, Nasik District, 

Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 2794. Situated about 15 

miles north of Nasik. Besides the ordinary sub-divisional revenue and 



DINGARH KINER—DIPALPUR. 303 

police offices, the town is provided with a post-office and dispensary. 
In 1881, the number of patients treated was 4500. 

Dingarh Kiner. — Village in Sirmur (Sarmor) State, Punjab. Lat. 
30° 44' N., long. 77° 21' E. Stands on a picturesque site, in the gorge 
traversed by the route from Nahan to Rajgarh. Northwards, it looks 
towards the Chaur (Chor) mountain ; southwards, along the valley of the 
Jalal river. Well-built flat-roofed houses, arranged in rows on the solid 
limestone ledges of the mountain in its rear. The surrounding country, 
though rocky, contains some fertile spots, which produce luxuriant 
crops of wheat. 

Dingi. — Fort (with walls 15 feet high) in Khairpur Native State, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 26° 52' n., long. 68° 40' e. The rendezvous 
of the forces of the Mirs in 1843. Water-supply abundant. 

Dingier (pronounced Diing-yeh). — Range of mountains in the 
Khasi and Jaintia Hills District, Assam. The highest peak is 6400 
feet above sea-level. The range takes its name from a mythical tree 
(Dung-tree), which, according to Khasi legend, grew here in ancient 
times and reached up to heaven. The fable says that the tree was 
destroyed by God on account of the impiety of men who essayed to 
invade heaven by climbing up its branches. 

Diodar. — State in the Palanpur Agency, Bombay Presidency. — See 
Deodar. 

Dipalpur. — Tahsil of Montgomery District, Punjab. Area, 956 
square miles, about one-third being under cultivation, one-half of which 
is irrigated by canals. The remainder consists for the most part of 
desert waste, portions of which are being slowly reclaimed under the 
influence of settled Government. Population (1881) 154,590, namely, 
males 83,549, and females 71,041 ; average density, 162 persons per 
square mile. Muhammadans numbered 118,126; Hindus, 30,379; 
Sikhs, 6068; 'others,' 17. Revenue, ;£'24, 107. The administrative 
staff consists of a tahsilddr and an honorary magistrate, who preside 
over 2 civil and 2 criminal courts. Number of police circles, 4 ; 
strength of regular police, 57 men ; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs)^ 147. 

Dipalpur. — Ancient and decayed town in Montgomery District, 
Punjab ; head-quarters of the Dipalpur tahsil. Situated upon the 
old bank of the Beas (Bias), 17 miles from the railway station of 
Okhara and 28 miles north-east of Pakpattan. Population (1881) 
3435, namely, Muhammadans, 2124; Hindus, 1194; Sikhs, 113; and 
' others,' 4 ; number of houses, 639. A third-class municipality, 
with an income in 1882-83 ^^ ^243 ; expenditure, ^248. Dipalpur, 
now an insignificant village, once formed the capital of the Northern 
Punjab under the Pathan Emperors of Delhi; and even as late as 
the 1 6th century, Babar mentions it as the sister city of Lahore. 
General Cunningham attributes its foundation to Raja Deva Pal, 



304 . DIPALPUR—DISA. 

whose date is lost In immemorial antiquity. Tradition, however, 
ascribes the origin of Dipalpur to one Bija Chand, a Kshatriya, from 
whose son it derived its earliest name of Sripur. Old coins of the 
Indo-Scythian kings have been frequently discovered upon the site; 
and General Cunningham believes that the mound on which the 
village stands may be identified with the Daidala of Ptolemy. 
Firoz Tughlak visited the city in the 14th century, and built a large 
mosque outside the walls, besides drawing a canal from the Sutlej to 
irrigate the surrounding lands. At the time of Timur's invasion, 
Dipalpur ranked second to Multan (Mooltan) alone, and contained, 
according to popular calculation, the symmetrical number of 84 towers, 
84 mosques, and 84 wells. At the present day, only a single inhabited 
street runs between the two gates. A high ruined mound on the 
south-west, connected with the town by a bridge of three arches, pro- 
bably marks the site of the ancient citadel. The walls apparently 
completed a circuit of 2 J miles, but suburbs stretched around in every 
direction, and may still be traced by straggling mounds and fields 
strewn with bricks. The decay of the town must be attributed to the 
drying up of the old Beas (Bias), after which event many of the inhabit- 
ants migrated to Haidarabad (Hyderabad) in the Deccan. The restora- 
tion of the Khanwa Canal, since the British annexation, has partially 
revived the prosperity of Dipalpur as a local trade centre. Tahsili, 
police station, sardi. 

Dipalpur. — Town in Indore (Holkar's territory), Central India; 
situated in lat. 22° 51' n., and long. 75° 35' e., on the route from 
Mhow (Mau) to Neemuch (Ni'mach), 27 miles north-west of the former, 
and 128 south-east of the latter. A tank to the east of the town 
irrigates a large area of ground in the neighbourhood. 

Dipla. — Taluk in the Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 24° 16' to 24° 57' 15" n., and long. 69° 5' 30" to 
69° 45' E. Population (1881) 17,1 14, namely, males 9498, and females 
7616, dwelling in 4 villages and occupying 2987 houses. Hindus 
number 2291 ; Muhammadans, 11,548 ; Sikhs, 13 ; and aboriginal tribes, 
3262. Areaunder cultivation, 15,804 acres. Revenue (1881-82) ;£3383, 
of which ;^3332 was derived from imperial and ;£"5i from local sources. 

Dipla. — Chief town in Dipla idluk, Thar and Parkar District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 24° 28' n., long. 69° 37' 30" e. Population 
(1881) under 2000. The municipal revenue in 1873-74 was jQ"]^, 
but the municipahty was abolished in 1878, on the introduction into 
Sind of Bombay Act vi. of 1873. Head-quarters of a mukhtidrkar. 
Ruined fort, built about 1790. 

Dirdpur.— 7l7/w// of Cawnpur District, North-Western Provinces. 
— See Derapur. 

Disa {Deesa). — Town and cantonment in Palanpur State, Gujarat, 



DISAUN—DIU. 



305 



Bombay Presidency ; situated on the river Banas, in lat. 24° 14' 30" n., 
and long. 72° 12' 30" e., about 301 miles north-west of Mau (Mhow), 
251 west by south of Ni'mach (Neemuch), and 390 north by west of 
Bombay. Population (1881) 8376, namely, Hindus, 5357; Muham- 
madans, 2455 ; ' others/ 564. Anciently the town was called Faridabdd. 
The British cantonment (containing 4546 out of the total population) is 
stationed on the left bank of the Bands, 3 miles north-east of the native 
town. The force consisted in 1880 of a regiment of Native cavalry, a 
regiment of Native infantry, a British regiment, and a battery of artillery. 
A Brigadier-General holds command. Post and telegraph offices. 
Di'sa is surrounded with a wall and towers, now in ruins. In former 
times it successfully resisted the attacks of the Gaekwar of Baroda and 
of the Radhanpur forces. 

Disaun. — River of Central India. — See Dhasan. 

Disoi (Disai). — River in Sibsagar District, Assam ; rising in the Naga 
Hills, and flowing northwards into the Gela bhil^ which communicates with 
the Brahmaputra near Nigiriting. This river formerly discharged itself 
into the Brahmaputra direct at Kokilamiikh, but has latterly changed 
its course. On its left bank is Jorhat, the most important mart in the 
District, but its importance as a river port has much diminished since 
the change in the course of the Disoi. Goods landed at Kukilamiikh 
have to be conveyed to Jorhat on carts; but a tramway is now (1882) 
under construction from Jorhdt to Gohamgaon, a mile distant from 
Dinagaon on the Brahmaputra, which is a stopping-place for steamers 
in the rainy season. 

Diu. — An island forming portion of the Portuguese possessions in 
Western India; situated in lat. 20° 43' 20" N., and long. 71° 2' 30" e., 
and separated by a narrow channel through a considerable swamp 
from the southern extremity of the peninsula of Kathiawar in the 
Bombay Presidency. Its extreme length from east to west is about 7 
miles, and its greatest breadth from north to south 2 miles. Area, 52*5 
square kilometres. On the north the narrow channel separating it from 
the mainland is practicable only for fishing boats and small craft. On 
the south, the face of the island is a sandstone cliff washed by the 
sea, with deep water close beneath. Several groves of cocoa-nut trees 
are scattered over the island, and the hills attain an elevation of about 
100 feet. It has a small but excellent harbour, where vessels can 
safely ride at anchor in 2 fathoms of water. The climate is generally 
dry and sultry, the soil barren, and water scarce. Agriculture is 
much neglected. The principal products are — wheat, millet, ?idc/mi\ 
bdjra, cocoa-nuts, and some kinds of fruit. The entire population of 
Diu island, according to the Census of 1881, numbered 6229 males 
and 6407 females; total, 12,636 persons, of whom 303 are Christians, 
including 4 Europeans. 

VOL. IV. U 



3o6 DIU. 

The town of Diu stands at the east end of the island, the castle 
being in lat. 20° 42' n., and long. 70° 59' e. ; distance from Nawa 
Bandar, 5 miles. In the days of its commercial prosperity, the town 
alone is said to have contained above 50,000 inhabitants. There are 
now 2929 houses, which, with very few exceptions, are poorly con- 
structed. Some of the dwellings are provided with cisterns, of which 
there are altogether about 300, for the accumulation of rain-water. 
Diu, once so opulent and famous for its commerce, has now dwindled 
into utter insignificance. Not long ago, it maintained mercantile 
relations with several parts of India and Mozambique, but at present 
its trade is almost stagnant. The castle is separated from the other 
fortifications by a deep moat cut through the solid sandstone rock, 
through which the sea had free passage at one time, but now it only 
enters at the highest tides. Besides Diu town, there are 3 large 
villages on the island, namely — Monakbara, with a fort commanding 
the channel on the west ; Bachawara, on the north ; and Nagwa, wuth 
a small fort commanding the bay, on the south. The principal 
occupations of the inhabitants were formerly weaving and dyeing, and 
articles manufactured here were highly prized in foreign markets. 
At present, fishing affords the chief employment to the impoverished 
inhabitants. A few enterprising persons, however, emigrate temporarily 
to Mozambique, where they occupy themselves in commercial pursuits, 
and, after making a sufiicient fortune, return to their native place to 
spend the evening of their lives. The total revenue of Diu in 1873-74 
was ^3802. 

The Governor is the chief authority in both the civil and military 
departments, subordinate to the Governor - General of Goa. The 
judicial department is under 2i.Juiz de Direito^ with a small establish- 
ment to carry out his orders. For ecclesiastical purposes, the island 
is divided into two parishes, called Se Matiiz and Brancawara, the 
patron saints being St. Paul and St. Andrew. Both parishes are under 
the spiritual jurisdiction of a dignitary styled the Prior, appointed by 
the Archbishop of Goa. The office of Governor is invariably filled 
by a European, other posts being bestowed on natives of Goa. The 
public force consisted in 1874 of 97 soldiers, including officers. The 
present fortress of Diu was reconstructed, with several later improve- 
ments, after the siege of 1545, by Dom Joao de Castro. It is an 
imposing structure, situated on the extreme east of the island, and 
defended by several pieces of cannon, some of which are made of 
bronze, and appear to be in good preservation. It is surrounded by 
a permanent bridge and entered by a gateway, which bears a Portu- 
guese inscription, and is defended by a bastion called St. George. 
Towards the west of the fortress lies the town of Diu, divided into 
two quarters, the pagan and the Christian. The former comprehends 



DW. 307 

two-thirds of the total area, and is intersected by narrow and crooked 
roads, lined with houses. Besides the villages of the island already 
named, the Portuguese possess the village of Gogola, towards the 
north, in the Kathiawar peninsula, and the fort of Simbor, conquered 
in 1722, and situated in an islet about 12 miles distant from the 
town. 

Diu town was formerly embellished with several magnificent edifices, 
some of which are still in existence. Of these the most noteworthy 
is the college of the Jesuits, erected in 1601, and now converted into 
a cathedral, called Se Matriz. Of the former convents, that of St. 
Francis is used as a military hospital ; that of St. John of God, as a 
place of burial ; that of St. Dominic is in ruins. The parochial hali 
of the once beautiful church of St. Thomas serves as a place of meet- 
ing for the municipal chamber. The mint, where, in the days of the 
greatest prosperity of the Portuguese, money of every species used to 
be coined, is now gradually falling into decay. The arsenal, once so 
renowned, contains a few insignificant military stores. Besides these 
buildings, there are the Governor's palace, a prison, and a school. 
The Hindus possess to small temples, and the Muhammadans 2 
mosques, one of which is in good condition. 

Owing to the great advantages which the position of Diu afforded for 
trade with Arabia and the Persian Gulf, the Portuguese were fired 
from an early period with the desire of becoming masters of this island ; 
but it was not until the time of Nuno da Cunha that they succeeded 
in obtaining a footing in it. When Bahadur Shah, King of Gujarat, 
was attacked by the Mughal Emperor Humayiin, he concluded a de- 
fensive alliance with the Portuguese, allowing them to construct, in 
1535, a fortress in the island, and garrison it with their own troops. 
This alliance continued till 1536, when both parties began to suspect 
each other of treachery. Tn a scuffle which took place on his return 
from a Portuguese ship, whither he had proceeded on a visit to Nuno da 
Cunha, the Gujarat monarch met his death in 1537. In the following 
year, the fortress was besieged by Muhammad in., nephew of Bahadur 
Shah ; but the garrison, commanded by Antonio de Silveira, foiled the 
attempts of the enemy, and compelled hirh to raise the siege. Sub- 
sequently, in 1545, Diu was again closely invested by the same ruler; 
but was obstinately defended by the gallant band within, under the 
command of Dom Joao Mascarewas. While the Muhammadans were 
still under the walls, Dom Joao de Castro landed in the island with 
large reinforcements, and immediately marching to the relief of the 
place, totally routed the army of the King of Gujarat in a pitched 
battle. This heroic defence, and the signal victory gained by Castro, 
which form a brilliant page in the annals of the Portuguese empire in 
the East, were followed by the acquisition of the entire island. In 



3o8 DIVI POINT— DIVING. 

1670, a small armed band of the Arabs of Muscat surprised and 
plundered the fortress, retiring to their country with the booty they 
had acquired. Since this event, nothing worthy of note has occurred 
in connection with the Portuguese settlement. 

Divi Point. — A low headland in the Bandar taluk (Masulipatam), 
Kistna District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 15° 57' 30" n., and 
long. 81° 14' E., at the mouth of one of the branch outlets of the Kistna 
river, and surrounded by shoal flats for 6 miles south and east, the edge 
of the shoal sometimes extending 5 or 6 leagues out to sea. A dioptric 
light on a column 43 feet high marks the danger. ' Divi False Point ' 
stands 16 J miles south-west by west of ' Divi Point.' 

Diwala.— Village in Chanda District, Central Provinces. — See 
Dewala. 

Diwalgaon. — Village in Chanda District, Central Provinces.— 6"^^ 
Dewalgaon. 

Diwalgaon Raja. — Town in Buldana District, Berar. — See Deul- 
GAON Raja. 

Diwalghat. — Town in Buldana District, Berar. — See Deulghat. 

Diwdlia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. — See 
Dewalia. 

Diwalwdra. — Village in Wardha, Central Provinces. — See Dewal- 

WARA. 

Diwalwara. — Ruined town in Ellichpur District, Berar. — See 
Dewalwara. 

Diwangiri. — Village in the north of Kamriip District, Assam ; 
situated in lat. 26° 51' n., and long. 91° 27' e., 8 miles from the 
plains, on the lower range of the Bhutan Hills. The village con- 
tains an old fort, formerly occupied by a Bhutia governor, known as 
the Diwangiri Raja. A British detachment received a check at Diwan- 
giri during the Bhutan War of 1864-65, and the tract to which the fort 
belongs was annexed to British territory at the conclusion of the campaign. 
It is inhabited permanently by a few Bhutia settlers. In the cold weather 
the place is visited by Bhutias from beyond the frontier in considerable 
numbers, who bring with them large herds of magnificent cattle to feed 
on the rich pasturage of the lower ranges of hills and the adjacent 
plains. They also trade with the villages in the neighbourhood, and 
with Marwari and other shopkeepers who establish themselves there 
for the season. The chief articles of import are blankets, ponies, 
yak's tails, knives, and dogs, which are exchanged for rice, dried fish, 
coarse silks, etc. A large fair is held annually at Diwangiri in the 
cold season. 

Diwas. — Native State in Central India. — See Dewas. 

Diying. — River in North Cachar, Assam, rising in the Barel range, 
and flowing a generafly northerly course till it fails into the Kopiii 



DOAB, 309 

shortly after the latter stream issues from the hills. The Diying for a 
considerable portion of its course formed till recently the western 
boundary of the Naga Hills District ; but by a notification issued in 
July 1882, another boundary drawn farther east was fixed between 
North Cachar and the Nagd. Hills. 

Doab {Dudb, or two rivers). — A tract of country in the North- 
western Provinces, comprising the long and narrow strip of land 
between the Ganges and the Jumna, from the Siwalik range south-east- 
ward. The name properly applies to any wedge-shaped tract enclosed 
by confluent rivers, but it is especially employed to designate this great 
alluvial plain, the granary of Upper India. The Doab includes the 
British Districts of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Buland- 
SHAHR, Aligarh, parts of MuTTRA, and Agra, Etah, Mainpuri, the 
greater portion of Etawah, and Farukhabad, Cawnpur, Fatehpur, 
and part of Allahabad,— all of which see separately. Naturally a 
rich tract, composed of the detritus brought down from the Himalayan 
system by its great boundary rivers, the Doab has been fertilized and 
irrigated by three magnificent engineering works, the Ganges, the Lower 
Ganges, and the Eastern Jumna Canals. Throughout its entire length 
it presents an almost unbroken sheet of cultivation, varied only by a 
few ravines along the banks of the principal streams and their tributaries, 
or by occasional patches of barren usar plain, covered with the white 
saline efflorescence known as reh. It supports a dense population, 
most of whom derive their subsistence from agriculture. Allahabad, 
Cawnpur, Meerut, and Aligarh are the chief commercial centres, 
and the principal stations of the civil and military authorities. The 
East Indian Railway enters the Doab at Allahabad, and passes through 
the heart of the tract, by Cawnpur, Etawah, and Aligarh, to Delhi on 
the opposite shore of the Jumna. A branch line also runs across the 
river to Agra. The Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway continues the 
East Indian line from Ghaziabad Junction, nearly opposite Delhi, by 
Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, and Saharanpur, to Ambala (Umballa) and the 
other Punjab towns. Other lines of railway to connect with the main 
lines, namely, the Hathras and Muttra, and the Cawnpur and Farukh- 
abad lines, have been lately constructed as provincial light railways, on 
the metre gauge, through this tract. An extension of the Cawnpur and 
Farukhabad line to Hathras, 103 miles in length, has been sanctioned 
by the Secretary of State ; and a further line is projected from Bareli 
to Kdsganj, but not yet (1883) commenced. The Doab thus possesses 
unrivalled means of communication, both by land and water, with all 
the neighbouring tracts ; and its surplus grain can be transported in 
i almost every direction, upon any pressure of scarcity or famine. Three 
! principal divisions are commonly recognised ; the Upper Doab, from 
Saharanpur to Aligarh ; the Middle Doab, from Muttra and Etah to 



310 no ABA DAUDZAI—DOD-BALLAPUR. 

Etawah and Farukhabad ; and the Lower Doab, from Cawnpur to the 
junction of the two rivers at Allahabad. For history, inhabitants, and 
other particulars, see the various Districts separately. 

Do^ba Daiidzai. — 7"^//^// of Peshawar District, Punjab. Area, 182 
square miles. Population (i88t) 68,902, namely, males 37,955, and 
females 30,947 ; average density, 378 persons per square mile. Mu- 
hammadans numbered 66,754; Hindus, 1954; Sikhs, 185 ; 'others,' 9. 
The tahsil includes two tracts, formerly constituting separate tahsils^ 
Doaba to the north-east, and Daiidzai to the south-west. The Adizai, 
or northern branch of the Kabul or Nagaman river, takes off near Fort 
Michni at the point of its entrance into the District, while the Shah 
Alim or southern branch leaves it a little lower down ; both rejoin the 
main stream at its junction with the Swat river. Doaba is the tract 
between the Swat and Adizai rivers ; while Daudzai includes the area 
between the Adizai and Shah Alim, as well as a triangle of land abutting 
on the latter. Doaba is occupied by the Gigiani Pathans, and contains 
the two forts of Michni and Shankargarh. The Halimzai Mohmands 
have a large settlement at Panjpao, and the Tarakzai Mohmands a 
similar one near Fort Michni. Both plans belong to the independent 
Mohmands beyond our border, and pay merely a nominal revenue. 
Daudzai is occupied by the Daudzai Pathans. The tahsili is located 
at the village of Nahuki between the Kabul river and its Shah Alim 
branch. The old Doaba tahsili at Shabkadr has been abolished. 
Irrigation by canals from the Kabul and Swat rivers make the tract 
very fertile. Revenue (1883), ;£'i6,676. The administrative officer is 
a iahsilddr, who presides over i civil and i criminal court. Number of 
police circles {thdjtds), 2 ; strength of regular police, 38 men ; village 
watchmen {chaiikiddrs\ 180. 

Dobbili. — Zaminddri in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. — 
See BoBBiLi. 

Dobhi. — Village in Gadarwara tahsil, Narsinghpur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2117, namely, Hindus, 2007; Mu- 
hammadans, 35 ; Jains, 11 ; and persons professing aboriginal 
religions, 64. 

Dodabetta {'The Big Mountain;' Toda-Nanc—V^ixn2.x\.7).—Viit 
highest peak of the Nilgiri mountains, Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 
25' N., long. 76° 40' E. ; height, 8760 feet above the sea. 

Dod-ball4pur.— ri/z/^ or Sub-division of Bangalore District, Mysore 
State. Area, 292 square miles. Population (1881) 44,435, namely, 
21,094 males and 22,531 females. Hindus number 42,637; Muham- 
madans, 1783; and Christians, 15. Revenue (1882-83), ^^13,209, or 
2s. lod. per cultivated acre. In 1883, the tdlnk contained i criminal 
court ; police circles {thdnds)^ 8 ; regular police, 64 men ; village watch 
{chaukiddrs), 314. 



DOD-BALLAPUR—DOHAD. 31 1 

Dod-ballapur {Great Balldpur, to distinguish it from Chik-balla- 
pur).— Town in Bangalore District, Mysore State, on the right bank 
of the Arkavati river. Lat. 13° 13' 40" n., long. 77° 22' 50" e. ; 27 miles 
by road north-west of Bangalore. Population (1881) 7032, namely, 
6197 Hindus, 831 Muhammadans, and 4 Christians. The fort was 
built in the 14th century by one of the refugees of the Morasu Wokkal 
tribe, who also founded Devanhalli. In 1638 it was captured by a 
Bijapur army under Ran-dulla Khan ; and after forty years' possession 
by that power, was surrendered to the Mardthas. About 1700 it was 
re-taken by the Mughals, by whom it was entrusted to a succession 
of rulers as part of the Province of Sira, until annexed to Mysore by 
Haidar All in 176 1. In the fort are the remains of several fine build- 
ings and tanks. Cotton cloth of good quality and great variety is 
woven. A weekly fair, held on Thursdays, is attended by 3000 people. 
Head-quarters of a taluk of the same name. 

Dodderi. — T^i/w^ or Sub-division of Chitaldriig District, Mysore 
State. Area, 851 square miles. Population (1881) 65,767, namely, 
33,508 males and 32,259 females. Hindus number 63,355; Muham- 
madans, 2401; and Christians, 11. A wide and level plain, formerly 
including the taluk of Molkamuru, watered by the Vedavati river. 
Products — rice, ragijola^ wheat, tobacco, gram, and fruits. 

Dodderi.— Village in Chitaldriig District, Mysore State. Latitude 
14° 17' 50" N., longitude 76° 45' 5"e. Population (1881) 658. Among 
the local manufactures are cotton cloth, silk scarves, kamblis or country 
blankets, carts, agricultural implements, brass utensils, and various 
articles of bamboo and leather. The industry of papermaking has died 
out. 

Dodka.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency, ruled by 
three chiefs called P^tels or head-men. Area, 2 J square miles ; estimated 
revenue, ^250, of which ;^iio is payable as tribute to the Gaekwar of 
Baroda. 

Dohad.— Sub-division of the Panch Mahals District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Bounded on the north by Jhalod ; on the east by Jambua ; on 
the south by Central India territory ; and on the east by Rewa Kantha. 
Area, 600 square miles ; contains 2 towns and 218 villages. Population 
(1881) 100,639, namely, 50,231 males and 50,408 females, dwelling in 
18,499 houses. Hindus number 30,044; Muhammadans, 5797; 'others,* 
64,798. The Sub-division is a compact, circular, and well-wooded 
tract ; hilly and picturesque throughout. Occasional frosts in the cold 
weather; average rainfall for the 12 years ending 1877, 287 mches. 
The Anas river flows along the eastern boundary. Several large 
reservoirs for the storage of water. In 1883 the Sub-division contained 
I civil and 2 criminal courts ; police circle {thdnds), i ; regular police, 
262 men. Land revenue, ;£i 0,939. 



3 1 2 DOHAD—DOMARIA GANJ, 

Dohad. — Chief town of the Sub-division of Dohad in the District 
of the Panch Mahals, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 22° 53' n., and 
longitude 74° 19' e.; 77 miles north-east of Baroda. Population (1881) 
12,394, namely, 5845 Hindus, 4204 Muhammadans, 445 Jains, 5 Parsis, 
3 Christians, and 1892 'others.' As the name Dohad (or 'two boun- 
daries ') implies, the town is situated on the line separating Malwa on 
the east from Gujarat (Guzerat) on the west. It is a place of con- 
siderable traffic, commanding one of the main lines of communication 
between Central India and the seaboard. A metalled and bridged 
road, 43 miles long, connects the town with the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway at Godhra. The strongly-built fort dates from 
the reign of the Gujardt king, Ahmad i. (1412-1443). It was repaired 
by Muzaffar 11. (15 13-15 26), also a Gujarat monarch, and is said to 
have been again restored under the orders of the Emperor Aurangzeb 
(1658-1707). The town contains a sub-judge's and mdmlatddi^ s court, 
post-office, civil hospital, and the District jail. In addition to the 
unarmed police, the Gujardt Bhil corps, 530 strong, is quartered at 
Dohad. This regiment is not on the rolls of the army, but is com- 
manded by the superintendent and assistant superintendent of police. 
About half the strength of the corps is employed on outpost duty. 
Municipal income (1882-83), ;2^58i ; incidence of taxation per head 
of municipal population (11,472), is. 

Doharighat. — Town in Azamgarh District, North -Western Pro- 
vinces; lies in lat. 26° 16' n., and long. 83° 33' 30" e., on the bank of 
the Gogra, at the point where the roads from Ghazipur and Azamgarh 
to Gorakhpur cross the river. Population (1881) 3634, namely, Hindus, 
3141 ; and Muhammadans, 493; number of houses, 518. For police 
and conservancy purposes, a small municipal income is raised under the 
provisions of Act xx. of 1856, amounting in 1881-82 to ;^43. First- 
class police station, cattle pound, and sub-post-office. Extensive through 
traffic to the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Great bathing festival 
on the full moon of the month of Kartik. 

Dolphin's Nose. — Promontory in Vizagapatam District, Madras 
Presidency. Latitude 17° 41' n., longitude 83° 17' e. Elevation above 
the sea, 1500 feet. The southern point of Vizagapatam harbour, forming, 
with the ruined castle on it, a conspicuous landmark to mariners. 
The light formerly shown here was destroyed in the cyclone of 1876, 
and has not been replaced. 

Domariaganj. — North-western tahsil of Basti District, North- 
western Provinces. Traversed by the river Rapti, and consisting 
chiefly of a marshy and water-logged submontane plain. Area, 583 
square miles, of which 410 are cultivated. Population (i88t) 280,254, 
namely, Hindus, 211,852; Muhammadans, 68,399; and 'others,' 3. 
Number of towns and villages, 1092; land revenue, ;£"26,i78; total 



DOMEL—DONGARGARH. 3 1 3 

Government revenue, £2(),^^\; rental paid by cultivators, ^69,170; 
incidence of Government revenue, is. y^d. per acre. The tahsil contains 
I criminal court and 4 police stations {thdnds) \ strength of regular 
police, 42 men, besides 310 village watchmen. 

Domel. — An island in the Mergui Archipelago, between lat. 11° 26' 
and 11° 28' N., and long. 98° 2' and 98° 11' e., forming a portion of 
Mergui District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. It lies 3 or 4 
miles west of Kissering, the navigable channel between them, however, 
being very narrow. Extreme length from north to south, about 28 
miles ; breadth from east to west, about 4 miles. 

Domeli.— Agricultural town in Jhelum (Jehlam) tahsil, Jhelum Dis- 
trict, Punjab. Lat. 33'' i' n., long. 73° 24' e.; population (1881) 4679. 
Head-quarters of a police circle {thdnd). 

Dommasundra.— Town in Anekal taluk, Bangalore District, Mysore 
State. Population (1881) 1835. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^54. 

Donabyii.— Township in Thungwa District, Irawadi (Irrawaddy) 
Division, British Burma. It lies principally on the right bank of the 
Irawadi, and was formerly a part of Henzada District ; protected from 
inundation by extensive embankments along the west bank of the river. 
Population (1881) 43,760; gross revenue, ^10,856, of which ^7827 
was derived from the land-tax, ;^4o8o from the capitation-tax, and 
;£"4495 from the fishery-tax. 

Donabyii.— Town on the right bank of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy), 35 
miles south of Henzada, in Thungwa District, Irawadi Division, British 
Burma. Lat. 17° 15' n., long. 95°4o'e. The inhabitants in i 88 inumbered 
3273; houses, 526; revenue (1881-82), £^^z. Police station, court- 
house, and bazar. In the first Burmese war, after the capture of 
Rangoon, the Burmese commander-in-chief, Bandula, entrenched him- 
self in Donabyii with a force of 15,000 men; but he was killed by the 
bursting of a shell when the British batteries opened fire on the town, 
and the Burmese retreated. During the second war, the Burmese 
general evacuated the place before the arrival of the English ; but 
shortly after this, Maung Myat Thiin made it his head-quarters. He was 
routed in 1853 by a detachment under Captain Loch, R.N., and later 
on was finally overtaken by Sir John Cheape and killed. ^ From this 
time Donabyii remained in undisputed possession of the British. 

Dondi 'Lo\ikTd.—Zaminddri or estate attached to Raipur District, 
Central Provinces. Area, 364 square miles. Population (188 1) 
30,134, namely, males 15,313, and females 14,821, residing m 120 
villages, and inhabiting 10,440 houses. Average density of population, 
82-8 persons per square mile. 

Dongargarh. — Town in the south-east of the Khairagarh State, 
attached to Raipur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21° n' 3°" N., 
long. 80° 50' E. Formerly an important town, and still the seat of a 



314 DONGARPUR—DOSA. 

large weekly market, and a station on the Nagpur-Chhatisgarh railway. 
Population (1881) 5543, namely, Hindus, 439^; Kabirpanthis, 391; 
Satnamis, 48; Muhammadans, 322; Christians, 3; Jains, 13; and 
persons professing aboriginal religions, 375. The remains of the fort, 
which must have been a place of great strength, stretch along the north- 
east base of a detached rocky hill, about 4 miles in circuit, near the 
village. The spurs of the hill, which is very steep and covered with 
large boulders, were connected by walls of rude and massive masonry, 
inside which tanks were dug, while a deep fosse ran beyond the walls. 
On its other faces the hill is almost inaccessible, and no works can be 
traced ; nor have any remains of buildings been found, although the 
fort could only be held by a large garrison. The village contains a 
good school; also a dispensary, post-office, and a zaminddri police 
station. 

Dongarpur. — Native State in Rajputdna. — See Dungarpur. 

Dongartdl. — Village in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 
21° 36' N., long. 79° 24' E. Situated on the old road between Seoni and 
Nagpur. Celebrated for its breed of cattle, and inhabited by Gaulis. 
Fine tank and ruins of an old fort. 

Dorandd. — Mihtary cantonment in Lohardaga District, Bengal; 
situated to the south of Ranchi, the civil station of the District. Lat. 
23° 21' 31" N., long. 85° 22' 5" E. It has a parade-ground and a rifle- 
range, with a small bazar. Military force quartered here (September , 
1883), the 14th Regiment of Madras Native Infantry. A rural munici- 
pality under x\ct xx. of 1856. 

Dorka {Dodka). — The smallest of the 3 Mehwdsis under the 
Rewa Kantha Agency, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. The Mehwdsi 
consists of 3 estates, of one village each ; namely Dorka, with an area 
of 2 J square miles and a revenue of £,2\o ; R^eka, area 2J square 
miles, revenue ;£"i5o; and Anghar, area 3 J square miles, revenue 
^^500. Dorka contains one school, and a t hdna ddr xtsidiQS here, with 
the powers of a third-class magistrate, and civil jurisdiction in suits to 
the extent of ;£ioo. Population of the Mehwdsi (1881) 4576, or 
538 persons per square mile. The estates lie on the left bank of the 
Mahi river, between Kaira District and Baroda territory. 

Dornal Ghat. — A pass over the Eastern Ghats, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude 14° 41' n., longitude 79° 14' e. The 
main road to Cuddapah (Kadapa) from Nellore and the coast passes 
through it. The road from Nellore to the Ghat is 58 miles in length, 
and the distance beyond to Cuddapah is 52 miles. 

'Do%B,{Daiisa). — Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Raj putana, situated on 
the road from Agra to Ajmere. Lat. 26° 51' n., long. 76° 23' e. Population 
(1881) 7384, of whom 6057 are Hindus, 1139 Muhammadans, and 118 
unspecified. A town of considerable size, built on one side of a rocky 



DOUBLE ISLAND— DO WLAISHVARAM. 315 

hill, nearly four miles in circumference, and containing a State prison. 
The town is in a decaying state, and is surrounded by a half-ruined 
wall. There is a station of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway about 
half a mile north-west of the town ; and about 500 yards from the station 
is a travellers' bungalow. 

Double Island. — A small island about 12 miles south of Amherst 
Point, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. It is raised high above 
the sea, and lies in lat. 15° 52' 30" n., and long. 97° 36' 30" e. On it 
stands a lighthouse containing a dioptric fixed light of the first order, 
with a catadioptric mirror visible 19 miles, and first exhibited in 
December 1865. ^^^ object is to guide ships making for Maulmain, 
and to prevent their running up the Sittaung river to certain destruction. 

Doulatabad. — Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Krishnagiri. 

Doung-gyi. — Town in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, British 
Burma ; situated on the Bassein river, in lat. 17° 22' 30" n., and long. 
95° 8' E., surrounded by an open waste country, which is covered with 
grass and tree forest, and liable to inundation. The inhabitants, 760 
in number in 1881, residing in 112 houses, are chiefly employed in 
fishing and in the manufacture of clay pots for salt-boiling. 

Dowlaishvaram {Doivlaishwar ; Davaleshwaram^ or ' White Siva '). 
— Town in Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry) tdluk^ Godavari District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude 16° 56' 35" n., longitude 81° 48' 55" e. 
Population (1881) 8002, namely, Hindus, 7602; Muhammadans, 260; 
and Christians, 140. Situated 4 miles south of Rajamahendri, at the 
bifurcation of the Godavari river, where the great anient, 12 feet 
high and 1650 yards in length, has been constructed at a cost 
of ;^ 15 1, 707. The anient extends to Pichika island. During its 
construction, which was commenced in 1847, Dowlaishvaram, as the 
head - quarters of the sappers and miners and a large engineering 
staff, was a place of much importance. At present it is the 
permanent station of the District engineering staff; the Government 
workshop established here turns out a large quantity of work for the 
Public Works Department. The houses x)f the former European resi- 
dents, built on the hills in the neighbourhood, are now in ruins. 
Quarries of good building-stone are worked to the extent of 10,000 
cubic yards annually, and the demand appears to be increasing 
year by year. During the wars between the Sithapatis of Raja- 
mahendri and the Muhammadan rulers of EUore, in the 15th and 
1 6th centuries, Dowlaishvaram was the usual crossing-point of the 
contending armies, and the scene, therefore, of frequent struggles. At 
present the town is connected with the coast at several points by 
numerous navigable canals of the Godavari irrigation system ; and also 
with Madras through the Kistna system and the Buckingham Canal. 



3i6 DOWLATABAD—DRUG. 

Distance from Cocanada, by the shortest canal, 32 miles. — See Goda- 
VARi River. 

Dowlatabad. — Town in the Nizam's Dominions, Haidarabad. — See 
Daulatabad. 

Doyang. — River in Assam. — See Dayang. 

Dravida {Dravira), — A division of the Indian Peninsula, ethno- 
logical and philological rather than geographical. It comprises India 
south of the Vindhya range and the Narbada (Nerbudda) river, excepting 
those parts of the eastern coast where Uriya is the vernacular, and the 
Districts of Western India and the Deccan, where Gujarathi and 
Marathi are spoken. As early as 404 a.d., Dravida is spoken of (in the 
Brihat Samhita of Varaha Mihira) as being divided into Chola, Pandya, 
Kerala, Karnataka, Kalinga, and Andhra. Manu mentions the in- 
habitants, ' the Dravidas,' as outcasts and barbarians, i.e. not in com- 
munion with Brahmans, nor incorporated into the Hindu community. 
Modern authorities assign twelve dialects to the division, the four 
chief being Tamil, spoken in Pandya, Chola, and Eastern Kerala, 
i.e. throughout the central and southern Districts of Madras ; Telugu, 
the language of the Kalinga and Andhra countries, or ' Telingana,' 
corresponding to the ' Northern Circars,' spoken by a population of 14I 
millions ; Malayalam, spoken in Western Kerala, i.e. Malabar, Travan- 
core, and Cochin, the language of about 4 millions ; and Kanarese, in 
' Karnatika,' or Kanara, Mysore, and a few tracts of the Wynad and 
Coimbatore, comprising about 9 million inhabitants. Tulu is spoken 
round Mangalore by some 300,000 persons, and in Coorg by some 
150,000. The other six 'uncultivated' dialects belong to some 2J 
millions of people, so that the entire division of * Dravida ' may be 
taken to include nearly 46 millions of inhabitants. The identification 
of the words Dravida and Tamil (or Tamul) has been ingeniously 
proposed by a modern scholar, as also the identity of both with the 
Dimyrice of the Peutingerian tables and the Limyrice of Ptolemy. 
The great authority on the languages of Southern India is Bishop 
Caldwell's Comparative Grafjwiar. As Dravida is a linguistic and 
not an administrative division, the above inadequate notice must suffice 
here. 

Drug. — Tahsil or revenue Sub-division in Raipur District, Central 
Provinces. Lat. 20° 45' 30" to 21° -j^t^ n., and long. 80° 54' to 80° 41' e. 
Area, 1104 square miles, of which 789 square miles were cultivated 
in 1 88 1, 241 square miles cultivable, and 74 square miles uncultivable 
waste. Population (1881) 250,363, namely, 122,592 males and 127,771 
females, residing in 628 villages, and occupying 74,452 houses; average 
density, 226*8 persons per square mile. Amount of Government 
assessment, ;£i3,o75, or an average of 6jd. per acre of cultivation. 
Rental paid by cultivators, including cesses, ;£"25,7i7, or an average 



DRUG—DUBLANA, 317 

of IS. o|d. per cultivated acre. Average area of cultivated and 
cultivable land per head of agricultural population, 6 acres. 

Driig". — Town in Raipur District, Central Provinces, and head- 
quarters of Drug tahsil, lying in lat. 21° 11' n., and long. 81° 21' e., 
on the Great Eastern Road, 24 miles west of Raipur town. Population 
(1881) 3797, namely, Hindus, 3300; Kabirpanthis, 73; Satnami, i ; 
Jains, 34; Muhammadans, 191; and persons professing aboriginal 
religions, 198. The Marathas made Drug their base of operations in 
1740-41, when they overran Chhatisgarh. Besides occupying the 
ancient fort, which is now dismantled, they formed an entrenched camp 
on the high ground on which the town stands, commanding a clear 
view of the surrounding country. Drug manufactures excellent cotton 
cloth, and has a tahsili, police station, town school, post-office, travellers' 
rest-house, and dispensary. 

Dudb. — A long narrow wedge-shaped tract of country enclosed by 
two confluent rivers. The name is specially applied to designate the 
great alluvial plain between the Ganges and the Jumna. — See Doab. 

Dlib. — Pass on the border between British territory and Kashmir 
State, Punjab, on the route from Attock to Kashmir by the Baramula 
road. Lat. 34° 17' n., long. 73° 21' e. Held by freebooters during 
the Sikh period, whom Hari Singh attacked and exterminated. Lies 
on the watershed dividing the feeders of the Kishanganga and the 
Jehlam (Jhelum) on the east, from those of the Indus on the west. 

Dubari. — Large village in Azamgarh District, North- Western Pro- 
vinces. Situated 4 miles south of the river Gogra (Ghagra), nearly 26 
miles east of the head-quarters of the Sagri tahsil, and 36 miles north- 
east of Azamgarh town ; in lat. 26° 11' 20" N., and long. 83° 49' 5" e. 
The largest agricultural village in the District, with a population that 
has steadily increased from 4854 in 1865 to 7502 in 1881. In the 
latter year, Hindus numbered 6984, and Muhammadans 518. Area of 
town site, 138 acres. Markets for miscellaneous produce are held twice 
a week. Most of the village belongs to the heirs of a Mr. Venables, 
on whom it was conferred for gallant service during the Mutiny. 

Dub-chi. — Valley and pass in Kashnifr State, Punjab ; situated in 
lat. 33° 45' N., and long. 75° e., between the Fateh Panjal and Pir 
Panjal mountains, at an elevation of 11,800 feet above sea-level. 
Through it lies the route from the Punjab to Kashmir by Rajawar. 
The Remdeara river takes its rise on the summit of the pass, and, 
flowing north-east, flows into the Jhelum (Jehlam). There is a sardt 
(rest-house) in the pass for the accommodation of travellers. 

Dublana.— Town in Biindi (Boondee) State, Rajputana. Lat. 25° 
35' N., long. 75° 41' E. ; 12 miles north of Biindi town. Scene of a 
battle fought in 1744 between the forces of the exiled Raja of Biindi 
and of Jaipur (Jeypore), in which the former were defeated. 



31 8 DUBRAJPUR—DUGARL 

Dubrdjpur.— Town in Birbhum District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 47' 35" 
N., long. 87° 25' E. Contains a munsif or subordinate judge's court, 
and a police station; also a good market for English piece-goods, 
cloth, brass pots, sugar, lac, rice, and sweetmeats. Dubrajpur is 
surrounded by tanks, the banks of which are generally planted with 
fan-leaved (toddy) palms, yielding a spirituous liquor from their 
juice, which brings in a considerable revenue to Government. The 
supply of fish in the tanks is abundant. In the south of the town, 
huge picturesque rocks of granite and gneiss (composed of glassy 
quartz, pink and grey felspar, and black mica) crop up through the soil, 
covering an area of about one square mile. In the centre is a vast 
block of granite united to a mass of gneiss, which adheres to it at an 
ande of 45°. A good view of the surrounding country, with the Parasnath 
mountain, Rajmahal, and Panchet hills in the distance, can in clear 
weather be obtained from the summit of this rock, which is about 60 
feet high. A flat-roofed temple has been built on one of these granite 
rocks, and the whole block is worshipped by the Brihmans as 
Mahadeo. 

Diidhpur. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. 
The State contains an area of fths of a square mile. The chief is a 
Rahtor Rajput. The revenue is estimated at £^0, and tribute of £1 
is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Dudhrej. — Petty State of Jhalawar prdiit or division of Kathiawar, 
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. It consists of 2 villages, with 3 indepen- 
dent tribute-payers. The revenue is estimated at;^i834; a tribute 
oi £\io\^ paid to the British Government, and ^9, 14s. to the Nawab 

of Junagarh. 

I),i(iii, — Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputana. Distant 41 
miles west from Jaipur town. Contains a fort, and is surrounded by a 
mud wall. Dispensary and staging bungalow. 

Duduya.— One of the chief rivers of Jalpaiguri District, Bengal ; 
formed mainly by the junction of the Gayerkata and Nanai, which 
streams, after uniting, flow in a south-easterly direction through the 
Western Dwdrs of Jalpdiguri, passing into Kuch Behar territory at a 
village called Dakalikobd Hat. The Forest Department has a timber 
depot on the east bank of the river where it is crossed by a ferry, 
up to which point it is navigable. Its principal tributaries are the 
Gulandi, the Kalua or Rehti, Barabank, Demdema, and Tasati, all of 
which rise in the Bhutan Hills. 

Dug^ri.— Town in Biindi (Boondee) State, Rajputana. Estimated 
population, 2000. Contains the largest sheet of artificially enclosed 
water in Biindi, with an area of about 3 square miles, known as Kanak- 
Sagar. Dugari is held in jdgir by a relative of the chief, and has 
several temples, two belonging to the Jain community. 



D UGRIA—D UMA G UDIEM. 3 1 9 

Dugrid. — Guaranteed thdkiirate or petty chiefship under the Bbopal 
Agency, Central India. On the settlement of Mdlvva, Raja Khan, 
brother of the notorious Pindari chief Chitu, was allowed an assign- 
ment of land in Shujawalpur for his lifetime. But in 1825 he was 
assured that, in consideration of his past good conduct, the circum- 
stances of his family would receive favourable consideration after his 
death. In accordance with this promise, at his death the estate was 
divided among his five sons. The third son received Dugria. 

Dujana. — One of the Native States, under the Government of the 
Punjab; situated between 28° 39' 15" and 28° 42' 15" n. lat., and 
between 76° 37' and 76° 43' e. long. Muhammad Sadat All Khan, 
the Nawab of Dujana, comes of an Afghan stock. The estates of the 
family were originally granted to Abdul Samand Khan and his sons 
for life by Lord Lake, as a reward for service rendered. In 1806, the 
tenure was made perpetual by a sanad of the Governor-General, and 
several estates in Haridna District were added, which were afterwards ex- 
changed for the villages of Dujana and Mehana in Rohtak. Dujana is 
about 37 miles west of Delhi. The chief holds his tenure on conditions 
which may be briefly described as fidelity to the British Government 
and military service when required. The force to be furnished on 
application is 200 horse. The territories of the Nawab are 114 
square miles in extent, with 28 villages and 2981 houses. Population 
(1881) 23,416, namely, males 12,525, and females 10,891; average 
density of population, 205 persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 
18,102; and Muhammadans, 5314. The estimated revenue of the 
Nawab is j[^(^^oo. The principal products of the State are grain and 
opium. There is a force of cavalry and infantry, including police, 
amounting to 130 men. 

Dulhi. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh ; 2 miles north-east of the 
Chauka river. Population (1881) 3778, namely, Hindus, 3360; and 
Muhammadans, 418. Formerly the residence of a large landholder, 
who was transported, and his estates confiscated, for disloyal conduct 
during the Mutiny. 

Dlimagudiem {D 00771a). — Town in the Bhadrachalam tdhik^ Goda- 
vari District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 17° 48' n., long. 80° 55' e. 
Population (1881) 2121, chiefly Kois. Situated on the Godavari river, 
15 miles above Bhadrachalam and 116 north of Rajimahendri (Rajah- 
mundry). Until recently the head-quarters of the Upper Godavari 
engineering works, and still the station of an overseer, with police 
establishment, telegraph office, and post-office. With the rest of the 
tdluk^ the town formed part of the Nizam's territory until i860, when 
it was incorporated with the Central Provinces. In 1874 it was 
transferred to Madras. The ' first barrier,' or rocky obstruction to 
irrigation, on the Godavari is at Diimagiidiem. — See Godavari River. 



3 20 D UM-D UM—D UMRA ON: 

Dum-Dum. — Sub-division of the District of the Twenty-four Par- 
ganas, Bengal ; situated between 22° 34' and 22° 41' n. lat., and between 
88' 26' and ^S° 31' e. long. It consists of the single police circle 
{thdna) of Dum-Dum. Area, 24 square miles ; number of villages, 43 ; 
houses, 6241. Population (1881) 31,578, namely, males 17,008, and 
females 14,570; average density, 13 16 persons per square mile; villages 
per square mile, 1*79; persons per village, 734; houses per square 
mile, 282 ; persons per house, 5. Hindus numbered 17,868 ; Muham- 
madans, 12,640; Christians, 1045; Buddhists, 6; and ' others,' 19. 
The Sub-division contains i civil and 4 criminal courts. Strength of 
regular police, 72 men; village constables {chaukiddrs), 36. The 
Bengal Central Railway runs through the Sub-division. 

Dum-Dum {Dam Damd). — Town, municipality, and cantonment in 
Dum-Dum Sub-division, Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal. Lat. 
22° 37' 52" N., long. 88° 27' 51" E. ; 4 J miles north-east of Calcutta. 
Population (1881) 4223, including the troops. The force stationed 
here in 1883 consisted of the Royal Welsh Fusilier Regiment. The 
barracks are built of brick and are very commodious, with a bazar some 
distance from the lines. Dum-Dum is a station on the Eastern Bengal 
Railway ; contains an English school. In Major Smyth's Report, 
referring to a period anterior to 1857, it is stated that Dum-Dum was 
the head-quarters of the artillery from 1783 until their removal to 
Meerut, a more central station, in 1853. At that date the town 
possessed a magazine and percussion - cap manufactory ; barracks ; 
European and native hospital ; a large bazar ; several clear-water 
tanks ; and a Protestant church, containing monuments erected to the 
memory of Colonel Pearse, the first commandant of the artillery 
regiment, and of Captain NichoU and the officers and men of the ist 
troop, I St brigade. Horse Artillery, who perished during the retreat from 
Kabul in 1841. The treaty by which the Nawab of Bengal ratified 
the privileges of the British, and restored the settlements at Calcutta, 
Kasimbazar, and Dacca, was signed at Dum-Dum, February 6, 1757. 

Dumka. — Sub-division and town in the District of the Santal Par- 
ganas, Bengal. — See Naya Dumka. 

Dumra Falls. — A succession of rapids in Hill Tipperah, Bengal ; 
situated just below the point where the Chaima and Raima unite to 
form the Giimti. These rapids continue for a distance reckoned at a 
day's journey, and end in a picturesque cascade, which leaps into a 
pool whence the stream issues through a narrow gorge. 

Dumraon. — Town and municipality in Shahabad District, Bengal. 
Lat. 25° 32' 59" N., long. 84° 11' 42" E. Station on the East Indian 
Railway. Population (1881) 17,429, namely, Hindus, 14,110; and 
Muhammadans, 3319; area of town site, 3393 acres. Municipal 
revenue (1881-82), ^551, of which ^477 was derived from taxation, 



D UMRA ON—D UNGA GALL 3 2 1 

or an average rate of taxation of 7 Jd. per head of the population ; 
expenditure, ^d^i. 

Dumr^on. — Branch of the Arrah Canal in Shahabad District, 
Bengal ; forming a portion of the Soane (Son) system. It is 40J miles 
long, with 12 distributaries, and leaves the main canal at the 17th mile. 

Dumurdah. — Town in Hiigli District, Bengal ; situated on the Hugli 
river just above Naya Sarai, in lat. 23° 2' 15" n., and long. 88° 28' 50" e. 
Formerly notorious for its gangs of river ddkdits, and as the home of 
the ill-famed robber chief Biswanith Bdbu, who was at last betrayed 
by one of his comrades and hanged on the scene of his capture. Even 
as recently as 1845, it was said that 'people fear to pass by this place 
after sunset, and no boats are ever moored at its ghat even in broad 
daylight.' 

Dun. — A range of hills in the north-west of Champaran District, 
Bengal ; extending in a slightly south-easterly direction from the Rohua 
nadi to the Achui nadi, a distance of about 20 miles, the average 
breadth being 4 miles. It has been suggested by some that this range 
is adapted for tea cultivation ; others consider the climate too dry. 
The Diin valley is inhabited by the aboriginal tribe of Tharus. 

Dunal Ghat. — Pass over the Eastern Ghats, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. — See Dornal Ghat. 

Dundwaraganj. — Small trading town in Etah District, North- 
western Provinces, situated on the Sahawar and Patiali road, 22 miles 
north-east of Etah. Lat. 27° 43' 50" n., long. 78° 59' 34" e. Area, 
65 acres. Population (1881) 5692, namely, 2788 Hindus and 2804 
Muhammadans. Consists of two separate villages, Dundwaraganj and 
Dundwara Khas, separated from each other by a strip of open country, 
but sufficiently close to one another for inclusion under a common 
title. The town derives its name from a colony of Dundiya Kayasths, 
established on the spot by Shahabud-din Ghori in 1194 a.d., on the 
expulsion of a settlement of Kont Rajputs, who had previously owned 
the land. Bazar, market-place, sarai, school. The central roadway 
generally presents a busy scene, and the town, though small, contains 
many comparatively wealthy residents. Markets are held twice a week. 
For police and conservancy purposes, a small municipal income in the 
shape of a house-tax is (1882) levied under the provisions of the 
Chaukidari Act (xx. of 1856). Dundwara Khas is an agricultural 
village, containing many large mud-built houses and enclosures belonging 
to Musalman za77iinddrs. Both villages are narrow and of no great 
size, but are situated on a well-raised site, and the short road which 
joins them is wide and metalled. A good unmetalled road connects 
the two villages with Patiali and Sahawar. 

Dungagali {Dungd Gdli). — Small sanitarium in Abbottabid iahsily 
Hazara District, Punjab ; composed of a few houses, or rather huts, 

VOL. IV. X 



322 DUNGARPUR, 

scattered over the southern slopes of the Mochpura Hill, belonging to 
Europeans, who visit it from Abbottabad and Murree during the 
summer. Staging bungalow and branch post-office. 

Dlingarpur. — Native State in Rajputana, under the political super- 
intendence of the Agent to the Governor-General for the States of 
Rajputana. It extends from latitude 23° 31' to 24° 3' n., and from 
longitude 73° 37' to 74° 16' e. Its length from east to west is 40 miles, 
and its breadth from north to south 35 miles ; total area, according to the 
Census of 188 1, 1000 square miles. Bounded on the north by Udaipur 
(Oodeypore) State ; on the east by Udaipur and the river Mahi, which 
separates it from the State of Banswara; on the south and west by 
the Rewa Kantha and Mahi Kantha Agencies in Gujardt. The 
country consists for the most part of stony hills covered with low jungle 
of cactus, jujube trees, and a gum-producing tree called salar by the 
natives, together with several other varieties of shrubs and trees re- 
quiring neither a deep soil nor moisture. In the north and east of 
the State the landscape is wild and rugged, but towards the south- 
west border the harsher features are much softened, and for several 
miles the country resembles Gujarat in character and appearance. 
There are two or three large forest tracts, producing blackwood, ebony, 
and other valuable timber-trees. Of pasture-land, properly so called, 
there is scarcely any ; and during the hot season the numerous cattle 
kept by the Bhils are reduced to a miserable state of leanness. The 
cultivated area is almost entirely confined to the valleys and low ground 
between the hills, where the soil is of a rich alluvial nature, and can 
be irrigated from numerous wells and tanks. On the hill-sides, the only 
cultivation attempted is by burning down occasional patches of forest, 
and scattering seed in the ashes. Though the country is broken and 
hilly, none of the hills attain a great height. The geological structure 
of Dlingarpur is of trap ; the rocks belong to the granitic, primitive, or 
metamorphic order of formation, their chief constituents being gneiss, 
hornblende, argillaceous schist or clay slate, mica, calcareous sandstone, 
quartz, etc. A good durable stone of the granitic class, fit for building 
purposes, is quarried from a hill about 6 miles south of the capital. A 
soft greenish greystone (serpentine) is found near the village of Matu- 
gamra, about 6 miles east of the capital. This is carved extensively 
at Dlingarpur town and elsewhere, into idols, drinking cups, and effigies 
of men and animals. Another species of hard stone (basaltic), of 
which grindstones and similar articles are manufactured, is mined near 
the town of Sagwara. Lime is found in tolerable abundance, but not 
of very pure quality. No attempt appears ever to have been made to 
work an iron mine in the State, although the presence of this ore 
in the form of iron pyrites is manifest. 

The only rivers are the Mahi and Som, which meet near the sacred 



DUNGARPUR. 323 

temple of Baneswar, where a large fair is held every year. The Mahi 
divides the State from Banswara, and the Som from the estate of Salumbar 
in Udaipur (Oodeypore). Both these streams are perennial, although 
in several places the water of the Som runs in a subterranean channel, 
suddenly disappearing and emerging again, apparently but little affected 
by its temporary subsidence. The bed of the Mahi is on an average 
about 300 or 400 feet in breadth, and is, on the whole, stony. Its 
banks are in many parts steep, but never very high, and are thickly 
lined in many places with Vitex trifolia (chaste tree), called by the 
natives bena. which affords cover in the hot weather to tigers and other 
wild beasts. There are no natural lakes in the State, but there are 
some five or six large pieces of water artificially enclosed. The climate 
is temperate and dry. The mean temperature is about 75° F., with an 
annual range of about 25°, and the average rainfall is 24 inches. With 
the exception of ague and fever of a mild type at the end of the rains, 
the country is considered to be on the whole healthy, cholera and 
other epidemics being almost unknown ; guinea-worm is a common 
complaint. 

The natural productions of the State are — wheat, barley, gram, 
millet, Indian corn, rice, and a few inferior sorts of grain ; also cotton, 
opium, oil-seeds, ginger, chillies, turmeric, and sugar-cane. Vegetables 
(onions, yams, sweet potatoes, egg plants, and radishes) are grown in 
considerable quantities. Fruit is not abundant, little else being seen 
but melons, limes, mangoes, and plantains. MaJiud trees are very 
numerous, and from their flower a strong fermented liquor is distilled. 

The total population returned by the Census of 1881 was 153,381, 
of whom 66,952 were Bhils, the whole being distributed in 421 
villages and towns, and occupying 36,226 houses, of which 16,759 ^^'^^^ 
those of the Bhils. Classified according to religion, the Hindus 
numbered 75,260; the Muhammadans, 3609; and Jains, 7560. Ex- 
cluding the Bhils, whose enumeration as to sex was not determined, 
the males numbered 44,568; females, 41,861; average of the total 
population, 153 persons per square mile. There are said to be 
sixteen first-class nobles or Thakurs and 4;hirty-two of inferior rank, 
who compose the aristocracy of the State. All these are Rajputs, 
who hold their land nominally by grant from the ruling chief, but 
really by right of kinship or alliance with his family; their united 
estates comprise lands in which are situated 170 villages. The State 
is divided into 6 pargands or tappds, namely, Bara, Barel, Kitara, 
Chaurasi, Tirpod, and Chiisat, in each of which are several villages, 
which are classed as follows : — (i) Khdlsa, or crown lands; (2) Jdgirs, 
or those held by the nobles ; and (3) KJiairdt, or religious grants. The 
greater portion of the land is irrigated by wells. The principal traders 
are the Mahajans among the Hindus, and the Bohras (Borahs) among 



324 DUNGARPUR. 

the Muhammadans. A number of Pathans and Mekranis reside in 
Diingarpur territory, most of whom are employed as soldiers or armed 
retainers. The language spoken is a mixture of Gujarathi and 
Hindustani, locally called Bagar. 

Some years ago, carefully-prepared statistics showed that the total 
land revenue of Diingarpur amounted to about ^18,335, of which 
^7968 went to the State, ;^9i96 to the Thakurs, and the balance to 
the religious orders. In 1882-83, the revenue of the State was reported 
to the Meywar officials as being ^20,931. The State pays tribute to 
the British Government of about ^^350. No schools have been estab- 
lished in Diingarpur, nor is there any system of education. All civil and 
criminal cases of any importance are settled by a court of officials 
called kdmddrs, presided over by the diwdn or minister, from which, 
however, an appeal lies to the Maharawal. There are six police centres 
in the Districts, at each of which is stationed an official called a 
thdndddr. The thdndddfs are of two classes ; the first can sentence 
offenders to one month's imprisonment, or impose a fine of 50s. The 
second can impose a fine of^i, or eight days' imprisonment. The 
police arrangements of the capital are conducted by a kotwdl or super- 
intendent and 25 constables. There is a jail at the capital. 

There are no made roads in the State. The principal towns are the 
capital DuNGARPUR, Galliakot, and Sagwara. Two fairs are held 
during the year, one at Baneswar in February or March, the other at 
Galliakot about the end of the latter month, each lasting about fifteen - 
days. Baneswar is also a place of Hindu pilgrimage. 

Maharawal Udai Singh is the present chief of Diingarpur. He 
belongs to the Sesodia clan of Rajputs, and claims descent from an elder 
branch of the family which now rules at Udaipur. The early history 
of the family is not known with certainty ; but when the Mughal 
Empire had been fairly consolidated, the Diingarpur chief appears 
to have opened communication with the Mughal court. His successors 
paid tribute and did military service. Upon the fall of the Empire, 
Diingarpur became tributary to the Marathas, from whose yoke the 
prince and his people were rescued by the British, and a treaty was 
concluded in 181 8. As in other States inhabited by wild hill-tribes, it 
became necessary at an early period of the British supremacy to employ 
a military force to coerce the Bhils, who had been excited to rebellion by 
some of the disaffected nobles. The Bhil chiefs, however, submitted to 
terms before any actual hostilities commenced. The Maharawal Jaswant 
Singh was found incompetent as a ruler, and deposed by the British 
Government in 1825. His adopted son, Dalpat Singh, second son of 
the chief of Partabgarh, was made regent, and succeeded him* But on 
his accession to the State of Partabgarh, he was permitted to adopt the 
present ruler, Udai Singh, then a minor, as his successor in Diingarpur. 



DUNGARPUR—DUNYIN. 325 

The military force consists of 4 guns, about 400 cavalry, and 1000 
infantry. The chief is entitled to a salute of 15 guns, and holds a 
sanad from the British Government authorizing adoption. 

Dungarpur. — Town and residence of the Maharawal of the 
Diingarpur State in Rajputdna ; lies in latitude 23° 52' n., longitude 
73° 49' E., on the route from Nimach (Neemuch) to Disa (Deesa), 139 
miles south-west of the former and 121 miles south-east of the latter. 
The town is overlooked by a hill about 700 feet high, and 5 miles in 
circumference at base, which, with the Maharawal's palace on its side, 
and a lake at its foot, forms a striking picture. 

Diini. — Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputdna. Latitude 25" 
52' N., longitude 75° 38' e. ; 70 miles south of Jaipur. Population 
(188 1) 3383. Contains a fort, and is surrounded by a mud wall. 

Duns, The. — See Dehra Dun. 

Dunthami. — River in the Tenasserim Division, British Burma, which 
has never been thoroughly explored. It rises somewhat below the 
latitude of Shwe-gyin, between the Bilin (Bhileng) and Sal win rivers, 
and, after a tortuous course southwards, unites with the Kyauk-sarit in 
about lat. 16° 59' 30" n., to form the Binlaing (Bhenglaing), a tributary 
of the Salwin. Navigable by native boats. In the upper part of its 
course it flows through a hilly teak-covered country, and its tributary 
streams facilitate the transport of the timber in the rains. 

Dlinwon. — Village in Tha-tdn township, Amherst District, Tenas- 
serim Division, British Burma; situated on the left bank of the Bi'lin 
(Bhileng) river now embanked. Population (188 1) 285. In former 
times Dlinwon was an important walled city, and the capital of the 
surrounding country. In 1306 and 1351, when it formed a portion 
of Martaban, it was captured by the King of Chiengmai, east of the 
Salwin ; later on, it was taken by Radzadirit. 

Dlinyian. — Tidal creek in Thungwa District, Irawadi Division, 
British Burma. Its total length is 13 miles, and it runs from the To 
or China Bakir in a southerly direction to the sea. The depth of water 
varies from \ fathom to 8 or 9 fathoms, the northern end being shallow, 
and the southern deep ; the water is sweet, except at spring tides, when 
a high bore is formed. On account of numerous shoals, the river is 
only navigable by small boats. On its right bank, in the interior, 
stretch extensive plains abounding in game; and on the left, wild 
elephants are found. 

Dlinyin.— A peak in the Zweh-ka-bin Hills, north of Maulmain, 
Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. It is difficult 
of ascent, owing to the precipitous nature of the limestone rocks. At 
the summit is a large basin, which appears to be the crater of an 
extinct volcano ; this is surrounded for miles by dark precipitous crags 
of every form. Down a steep descent of one or two hundred feet, 



326 DURDURIA—DUYA. 

an uneven plain covered with a luxuriant forest is seen. This impreg- 
nable natural fortress was the refuge of the Karengs for many genera- 
tions. Its great drawback is the deficient water-supply. It is said 
that a large number of Karengs, besieged here by the Siamese, perished 
for want of food and water. Diinyin means ' City of weeping,' and 
derives its name from this tradition. 

Durdurid;. — Site of a ruined fort in Dacca District, Bengal, said to 
have been built by the Bhuiya Rajas; its popular name is Ranibari. 
Dr. Taylor states that the fort is laid out in the shape of a crescent, 
bounded by the river Banar. In 1839, the outer wall, upwards of 2 
miles in circuit, was 12 or 14 feet high. The citadel, which appears to 
have had three openings, contains the remains of two buildings, one 
of which seems to have been a tower. Opposite to Durduria are the 
foundations of a town, of which the only vestiges existing in 1839 were 
mounds and loose bricks scattered over the surface of the plain. 

Durgarayapatnam ( YuvarayapataiJi^ 'City of the Minister,' Telugu). 
— Town in the Giidiir tdluk^ Nellore District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 13° 59' N., long. 80° 12' E. Population (t88i) 2123, namely, 1829 
Hindus and 294 Muhammadans. Number of houses, 400. Formerly 
the chief of the group of small ports — Piidi, Pamanji, Tiipili — lying near 
the Armeghon lighthouse, but now of as litde commercial importance 
as the others, the East Coast Canal having diverted the coasting traffic 
upon which they depended. Still possesses a customs station and a fine 
travellers' bungalow. The salt manufacture at this place is of some 
repute. Historically, Durgarayapatnam, or Armeghon as it is sometimes 
called, is of interest as being the first British settlement on the Coro- 
mandel coast. In 1625, after unsuccessful attempts to settle at Pulicat 
and Masulipatam, a colony was established here ; and in 1628 a factory 
was built at Chenna Kuppam (re-named ' Arumugam,' in recognition of 
the friendly aid given by Arumugam Mudelliar, the chief man of the 
native town), and fortified with 12 guns. The remnants of the 
Masulipatam settlement were then transferred here. But owing to the 
interference of the Dutch at Pulicat, and the hostility of the Raja of 
Venkatagiri, the trade languished; and on the chief factor's recom- 
mendation to move the settlement to some spot south of Pulicat, the 
site of Madras city was purchased. 

Dumnig. — District of Assam. — See Darrang. 

Duttallir. — Village in Udayagiri idluk^ Nellore District, Madras 
Presidency. Population (1881) 2926 ; number of houses, 552. 

Duttia. — State in Bundelkhand, Central India Agency. — See Datia. 

Duya. — An extensive group of intercommunicating lakes in Henzada 
township, Henzada District, Irawadi (Irrawaddy) Division, British 
Burma. The Diiya proper is 2 square miles in extent, and, until the 
embankments were made, was connected with the Irawadi by the Atha- 



D WARBAND—D WARKES WAR. 327 

yiit stream. It is divided into two portions by an island. The Mosun 
portion is 2|- miles in length, and from 300 to 400 yards in breadth, 
with a depth of from 6 to 9 feet of water in the dry season. The other 
chief lakes are the Intha-nyiit, length 1400 feet, maximum breadth 700 
feet, and depth of water 4 to 6 feet ; and the Mobaleh, with about 5 
feet of water in the dry weather. These lakes are fed by the drainage 
of the surrounding country, but the Irawadi embankments have now 
closed the mouths of the streams by which they communicated with 
that river during the rains. 

Dwarband. — Pass in the Tilain range of hills, in Cachar District, 
Assam, through which the road has been led joining Hailakandi with 
the station of Silchdr. 

Dwarikeswar. — River of Bengal. — See Dhalkisor. 

Dwarkd. — Seaport and place of Hindu pilgrimage, situated in the 
peninsula of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency, within the dominions of 
the Gaekwar of Baroda. Latitude 22° 14' 20" n., and longitude 69° 
5' E. ; 235 miles south-west of x\hmadabad, and 270 west of Baroda. 
Population (1870) 4712 ; in 1881, under 5000; number of houses, 743. 
Dwarka is the principal town in the Vigher District of Okhamandal, 
and besides a company of Bombay Native Infantr}', contains the head- 
quarters of the Okhamandal Battalion, which has a non-commissioned 
officer and three privates stationed at every Vagher village. The 
temple of Dwarkanath is resorted to by about 10,000 pilgrims annually. 
The devout Hindu believes it to have been raised in one night 
by supernatural agency. It consists of a shrine, a spacious hall of 
audience, the roof of which is supported by 60 granite and sandstone 
pillars and a conical spire 170 feet in height. The body of the temple 
has five stories, its height being 100 feet. Annual revenue derived from 
the temple, £,200. Vessels occasionally lie off the roadstead at 
Dwarka, but the anchorage is insecure during stormy weather. Five 
schools ; military and civil hospitals. Dwarka has, since the rebellion 
of the Vagher tribes in 1859, been the head-quarters of an officer 
deputed by the Bombay Political Department. 

Dwarka (or Babla). — An unnavigable river of Bengal, rising in the 
Santal Parganas District ; in lat. 23° 57' N^, and long. 87° 21' e. Thence 
it enters Birbhiim from the north, and from Birbhiim passes into 
Murshidabad near Margram town. At first the course of the Dwarka 
is easterly, until joined by the Brahmani stream at Ramchandrapur. It 
then turns towards the south-east, and receives the Mor and Kuiya, 
two rivers also flowing down from Birbhiim towards the Bhagirathi. 
At this point the numerous back-waters commence which connect 
the Dwarka with the Bhagirathi, a branch of the Ganges or 
Padma. 

Dwarkeswar. — River of Bensral. — See Dhalkisor. 



328 DWAR-KHALING—DWARS, EASTERN, 

Dwdr-khaling. — Forest reserve in Darrang District, Assam. — See 
Khaling-Dwar. 

Dwars, Eastern. — The tract called the Eastern Dwars forms an 
integral portion of Goilpara District, under the Chief Commissioner of 
Assam. It lies between 26° 19' and 26° 54' n. lat., and between 89° 55' 
and 91° E, long. It is bounded on the north by the hills of Bhutan ; 
on the east by the Manas river, separating it frorri the District of 
Kamriip ; on the south by the main portion of Godlpard District ; and 
on the west by the Gangadhar or Sankos river, which separates it from 
the Western Dwars, attached to Jalpaiguri District, in Bengal, and the 
State of Kuch Behar. According to the Revenue Survey conducted in 
1874-75, the area amounts to 1569-92 square miles, and the Census of 
1 88 1 returned the population at 56,136 persons. The principal town, 
or rather village, is Bijni ; but the tract is. administered from Dhubri 
town, which is also the head-quarters of the entire District of Goalpard. 

Physical Aspects. — The Eastern Dwars form a flat strip of country, 
lying beneath the Bhutan mountains. The only elevated tract is 
Bhumesw^ar hill, which rises abruptly out of the plains to the height of 
nearly 400 feet, and may be regarded as a detached spur of the Garo 
Hills on the south of the Brahmaputra. The remainder is an absolute 
level, intersected by numerous streams, and overgrown with wild vege- 
tation. In some parts there are extensive tracts of sal forest ; but the 
greater portion is covered with heavy grass and reed jungle, amid which 
the beautiful cotton-tree (Bombax pentandrum) is the only timber to 
be seen. This grass jungle is especially thick along the banks of the 
rivers, where it is almost impenetrable to man. The few villages are 
marked by clearings of rice and mustard cultivation. The houses 
themselves are embowered in clumps of bamboos and plantains, above 
which tower the graceful betel-nut palm, and various fruit-trees. At 
the foot of the mountains, where the rivers debouch upon the plain, the 
scenery assumes a grander aspect. 

The following eleven rivers are navigable by native boats throughout 
the year: — Manas, Dalani, Pakajdni, Af, Kanamakra, Champamatf, 
Gaurang, Saralbhanga, Gangia, Gurupala, and Gangadhar. In addition, 
there are numerous small streams which become navigable during the 
rainy season. By far the most important channel of communication is 
afforded by the Manas, which might be navigated by steamers of light 
draught. All the rivers take their rise in the Bhutan Hills, and flow in 
a southerly direction into the Brahmaputra. Their beds are filled with 
boulders in the hills, but they become sandy as they advance into the 
plain. There is a peculiar tract of pebbles, gravel, and sand fringing 
the hills, into which the water of all the minor streams sinks during the 
greater part of the year, not again appearing above ground until it 
reaches the alluvial clay. 



DIVARS, EASTERN. 329 

The valuable forests of the Eastern Dwars have within the last few 
years been placed under Government supervision; and in 1881 an area 
of 447 square miles, or just one-quarter of the aggregate area of the 
entire tract, had been ' reserved,' and placed under the management 
of the Forest Department. About 80 square miles are sal timber, 
which is described as the most valuable property in the whole Province 
of Assam, and should yield an annual produce of 25,000 trees. At 
present, however, owing to the indiscriminate havoc wrought in former 
years by the Bengali woodcutters, there are no mature trees left stand- 
ing. Besides sal (Shorea robusta) the following timber-trees are care- 
fully preserved in an 'open forest': — Sissu (Dalbergia sissu), khair 
(Acacia catechu), and chelauni (Schima vel Gordonia mollis) ; all other 
timber is free. The great danger to which the forests are exposed is 
the spread oi jum cultivation, by which fresh tracts of jungle are fired 
every year. Stringent regulations are now enforced against this practice 
within Government reserves. The jungle products include lac, bees- 
wax, pipali or long pepper (Chavica roxburghii), and a creeper from 
which a red dye called dsu is obtained. No metals or mineral products 
are known to exist. Wild animals of all kinds abound, including 
elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo, tiger, bear, hog, and deer. 

History. — This tract first became British territory as the result of the 
Bhutan war of 1864-65, and does not possess any independent history 
of its own. It is known, however, that the despotic rule of the Bhutias 
was only of recent date. The earliest dynasty that can be localized in 
this tract is that of Visu Singh, the ancestor of the Kuch Behar Rajas, 
who founded an empire in the i6th century on the ruins of an earlier 
kingdom, extending from Darrang in the upper valley of the Brahma- 
putra to the frontier of Purniah in Bengal. But this wide empire 
rapidly fell to pieces, owing partly to the anarchical system, by which 
large tracts were granted out as appanages to younger sons of the royal 
family. In this way the Rajas of Bijni and SidU Dwars, as well as 
the Raja of Darrang, acquired their present estates. While the State 
thus became enfeebled, invaders were pressing forward from every 
quarter. On the west, the Mughals rapidly advanced, and annexed the 
permanently-settled portion of Goalpara to their Province of Bengal. 
The wild tribe of Ahams spread down the Brahmaputra valley, and 
maintained themselves at the ancient capital of Gauhati against the 
Musalman armies. At about the same time, the Dwars or lowland passes 
along the foot of the mountains fell to the Bhutias, who here found the 
cultivable ground that their own bare mountains did not afford. 1 hey 
exercised predominant influence over the whole tract from the frontier 
of Sikkim as far east as Darrang, and frequently enforced claims of 
suzerainty over the enfeebled State of Kuch Behar. They do not 
appear to have occupied this tract permanently, but merely to have 



330 DWARS, EASTERN. 

exacted a heavy tribute, and subjected the miserable inhabitants 
to the cruellest treatment. In contradistinction to the results of 
Muhammadan rule, it is to be observed that the Buddhism of the 
Bhutias has left no traces in the religion of the native population. 
Kuch Behar was delivered from the Bhutia tyranny by the treaty of 
1772, in accordance with which the Raja placed himself under British 
protection, and paid tribute to the East India Company. The Bhutan 
Dwars, as they were called, remained for nearly a century longer in a 
state of anarchy. In 1863, a British ambassador was subjected to gross 
insults by the Bhutan Government ; and, as a punishment, it was 
resolved to annex the Dwars to British territory. Accordingly, in 
December 1864, four strong military columns made a simultaneous 
advance, and occupied the low country and the hill passes above, after 
slight opposition. At the fort of Diwangiri {q.v.) a reverse to the 
British arms was experienced; but before the close of 1865, the 
Bhutias consented to accept the terms of peace which had been 
offered to them before the outbreak of hostilities. By this treaty, 
the Dwars were ceded in perpetuity to the British Government, and 
an annual allowance of ^£2500' was granted to the Bhutan Raja, 
which sum may be increased to ;!^5ooo, or withdrawn altogether, at 
the option of the British. Since that date our relations with Bhutan 
have been entirely peaceful. The frontier raids, which were formerly 
of frequent occurrence, have altogether ceased. A brisk traffic has 
sprung up on the frontier, and cultivation is rapidly extending in the 
annexed territory. 

The Bhutan Dwars were forthwith divided into the two administra- 
tive Districts of the Eastern and Western Dwars, of which the latter 
has since been apportioned between the Bengal Districts of Jalpaiguri 
and Darj fling. The Eastern Dwars were at first placed in charge of a 
Deputy Commissioner, with his head-quarters at the village of Datma, in 
the QxOdX^ixk pargand of Khuntdghat. In December 1866 they were 
completely incorporated with the District of Goalpara, and have since 
shared in all the changes of jurisdiction by which that District has been 
transferred between Bengal and Assam. Since 1874, when Assam was 
erected into an independent Province under a Chief Commissioner, the 
Eastern Dwars have been permanently detached from Bengal. But 
though the settled portion of Goalpara and the Eastern Dwars are under 
the control of a single officer, the system of administration is quite 
distinct. By Act xvi. of 1869, all matters relating to immoveable 
property, revenue, and rent, are exempted from the jurisdiction of the 
civil courts. The property in the soil is vested in the State. By the 
settlement which expired in March 1877, leases were granted for seven 
years. In some of the Dwdrs these leases were granted direct to the 
cultivators, without the interposition of any middle-men ; but in other 



DWARS, EASTERN. 331 

cases the Rajas received farming leases of the whole area over which 
they claimed to exercise authority. The latter system has not been found 
advantageous ; and in regard to the Dwars of Ripu, Guma, and Chirang, 
the management has, since the expiry of the previous settlement, been 
carried on under the regular Assam Settlement system, by annual pattds 
or leases granted direct to the cultivators through representatives of 
villages {inauzdddrs). In Sidli and Bijni Dwars it has recently been 
decided to recognise the Rajas who derive their titles from those 
estates, as zanii7iddrs or proprietors at a permanently-fixed Government 
rental, for the greater part of the area, and to conclude a settlement 
direct with them for the remainder, protecting the cultivators by a sub- 
settlement. 

Population. — At the time of the settlement of 1869-70, the Deputy 
Commissioner personally conducted an enumeration of the people, 
which showed a total population of 37,047 persons, dwelling in 2863 
enclosures or villages and in 6888 houses, on an area of 1569 square 
miles. In 1881, the total population was returned at 56,136, but no 
details are available. The great bulk of the inhabitants belong to the 
two aboriginal tribes of Mech or Cachari and Koch or Rajbansi. The 
number of Hindus proper is very small, and the Muhammadans only 
number no, who are supposed to represent proselytes made at the time 
of the Mughal conquest of Goalpara. The Mechs are returned by the 
Deputy Commissioner as numbering in 1870, 8752 adult males, or 70 
per cent, of the total. This tribe is generally regarded as cognate to 
the Koch, Cachari, and Rabha, all of whom inhabit this part of 
the country. The names of Mech and Cachari are indifferently applied 
to the same people, the latter name being especially used in the extreme 
east of the District. The tribe is widely scattered over all North- 
Eastern Bengal, being able to support life in the malarious tardi that 
continuously fringes the first slopes of the Himalayas. In the Eastern 
Dwars, and especially in Sidli Dwar, where, under the Bhutan Govern- 
ment, they remained comparatively free from Hindu influences, they 
have preserved their own language and customs in greater purity than 
elsewhere. They describe themselves as having originally come from a 
place they called Rangsar, on the south side of the upper valley of the 
Brahmaputra, whence they were gradually pushed westwards mto Assam. 
Owing to the anarchy that prevailed in Assam towards the close of the 
last century, a considerable portion of the population of Kamrup 
crowded into the frontier District of Goalpara. The upper classes 
returned to Assam upon our annexation of the Province in 1824-25 ; 
but the poorer wanderers settled permanently in the pargands of 
Khuntaghat and Habraghat, whence they have recently moved into 
Eastern Dwars. At the present time they are rapidly falling under the 
influence of Hinduism, and converts find no difficulty in being received 



332 nWARS, EASTERN. 

among the Rajbansi and other mongrel castes. Their indigenous 
religion consists in the propitiation of evil spirits by the sacrifice of 
fowls. Converts to Hinduism are known as Soronias, but the change 
does not seem to be very extensive ; they are only required to bathe, to 
call on the name of some guru or spiritual instructor, and to abstain 
from beef, pork, and liquor. Their social condition is very low. They do 
not appear to have ever achieved any form of polity of their own. They 
have but few traditions, no ancient songs, no monuments, no written 
character, and no literature of any kind. Their marriage ceremony 
preserves the primitive form of abduction. They still retain migratory 
habits, which are illustrated by the nomadic form of agriculture known 
as jum. On the other hand, they are not destitute of the virtues of 
savages. They are more uniformly honest and trustworthy than the 
lowland peasantry ; chastity is esteemed a virtue, and crime of any sort 
is rare. Above all, the Mechs are possessed of a physical constitution 
that enables them to live and flourish all the year through in a malarious 
tract which is absolutely fatal to strangers ; and their rude methods of 
agriculture are gradually rendering the country habitable for successors 
of a superior race. The Rajbansis riumbered in 1870, 2400 adult males, 
or 20 per cent, of the total. This tribe is identical with the Koch of 
Assam and of Kuch Behar. They are said to have originally inhabited 
the lower ranges of hills to the north, and to have first descended into 
the plains in about the i6th century. The high-sounding name of 
Rajbansi, meaning ' of the royal kindred,' is adopted by those Kochs 
who have embraced Hinduism, as well as by converts from other 
aboriginal tribes. According to Mr. Brian H. Hodgson, Koch is 
beyond doubt simply the name of Hinduized Mechs or Cacharis. Their 
original seat in Assam was probably in the Northern Cachar Hills and 
in Nowgong and Darrang Districts. The most numerous of the pure 
Siidra castes is the Kolita, who acted as priests to the native kings of 
Assam, and are now engaged as peons, clerks, and cultivators. The 
Bairagis are the religious mendicants of the Vishnuvite sect ; and the 
Goswamis or Gosains are their spiritual preceptors. The Brahma 
Samaj has no followers in the Eastern Dwars. 

The population is absolutely rural, every person being directly 
engaged in agriculture. The only village that possesses a permanent 
bazar is Bijni, and even small shops are rarely to be seen. There is 
abundance of spare land that can easily be brought under cultivation, 
and the sparsely-scattered inhabitants are described as being all 
prosperous and contented. Immigration is steadily going on from the 
neighbouring pargands of Kamrup and Goalpara, and the new-comers 
at once amalgamate with the rest of the people, as they are usually of 
the same race. An interesting experiment in colonization was begun 
in 1880 by the introduction of some Santal families, all professing 



DWARS, EASTERN. 333 

Christianity. These settlers now (1882) number about 75 households, 
and more are expected to follow. 

Agriculture, etc. — The staple crop throughout the Eastern Dwars is 
rice, which is cultivated in three principal varieties. The dus or dsu 
crop is sown on comparatively high lands in March ; it is not trans- 
planted, and is reaped in July. The bdo or bdvd, which is a long-stemmed 
variety, is not much grown. The avian, haimantik, or sdli furnishes the 
greater portion of the food-supply ; it is sown broadcast in nurseries in 
June, transplanted in the following month, and reaped in December. 
Mustard seed is extensively grown as a second crop after dus rice. 
Minor crops include vegetables, barley, pulse, tobacco, pdn or betel-leaf, 
and betel-nut (Areca catechu). According to the Survey of 1869-70, 
out of a total area of more than one million acres, only 51,224, or 
about one-twentieth, were then under cultivation, — thus sub-divided : 
sdli rice, 32,296; dus rice and mustard, 15,498; homestead lands, 
2493. The cultivated area in 1882 had increased to 66,572 acres. The 
Mechs follow the jum method of cultivation, and raise a good deal of 
cotton on their forest clearings in addition to the ordinary crops. 
Manure is only used for the pdn plant, and then in the form of refuse 
from the cow-sheds. Irrigation is universally practised in the case of 
the sdli rice crop. The cultivators combine to cut channels from the 
hill streams, by which they distribute the water over their fields. Waste 
land is abundant on all sides, and consequently the same fields are 
never cultivated after they begin to lose their natural productiveness. 
Aus land is generally abandoned after two years ; but sdli land continues 
to yield annual crops for a longer period. The entire soil is the 
property of Government, and, by the settlement of 1869-70, was leased 
out for a term of seven years, on conditions favourable to the spread of 
cultivation. The rates of rents then fixed, which still continue in 
force under the present system of annual settlements, were the following : 
—For homestead and sdli lands, 3s. per acre ; for dus lands, is. 6d. per 
acre. The average out-turn from an acre of sdli land is estimated at 
about 23 cwts. of paddy or unhusked rice, valued at £2, 15s. ; an acre 
of dus land yields about 1 5 cwts. of paddy, and an additional 5 cwts. of 
mustard seed, the whole being valued at £2, 5s. Women and children 
are largely employed in the fields. 

No professional class of day-labourers exists in the Eastern Dwdrs ; 
but coolies may sometimes be obtained for 4d. a day. Agricultural 
labourers are generally remunerated by being allowed to retain a fixed 
share of the produce, without having any interest in the soil. Artisans 
also, such as smiths or carpenters, are paid in kind for any odd job they 
may do. The price of rice varies regularly with the season of the year. 
Best rice shortly after harvest sells at about 5s. 5d. per cwt., which 
gradually rises through the year till it reaches 8s. 2d., just before the 



334 DWARS, EASTERN. 

dman crop is gathered. Similarly the price of common rice varies from 
28. 8d. to 5s. 5d. per cwt. Unhusked paddy fetches from one-third to 
one-half the price of cleaned rice. The prices of food-grains were not 
affected by the famines of 1866 and 1874. 

Since the Eastern Dwars came under British rule in 1864, such a 
calamity as the general destruction of the harvest by either flood, 
drought, or blight, has been unknown and unthought of. The rice 
crops have been occasionally injured by river floods and excessive local 
rainfall. The irrigation universally practised by the cultivators furnishes 
an efficient guarantee against the effects of drought. If an unpre- 
cedented misfortune were to happen, and the price of rice were to rise 
to I OS. per cwt. at the beginning of the year, that should be regarded 
as a sign of approaching famine. The inhabitants, however, know 
how to support life on various jungle products, and the numerous rivers 
afford ample means of communication. The only road in the Eastern 
Dwars is one that crosses the whole tract from east to west, running 
a length of 73 miles. It is interrupted by unbridged rivers and swampy 
tracts, and becomes altogether impassable during the rainy season. 
Wheeled carts are nowhere used, v 

Manufactures, etc. — There is no manufacturing class in the Eastern 
Dwars. In addition to their livelihood of agriculture, the people make 
for themselves their own houses, their own clothes, baskets, and mats. 
Brass utensils and pottery require to be purchased from Goalpara. 
The only article manufactured for sale is a coarse silk fabric called erid, 
which is woven from the cocoons of a worm fed on the castor-oil plant 
(Ricinus communis). A piece, 14 feet long by 4 feet broad, sells for 
from I2S. to ;£i, according to the fineness of its texture. The Mechs 
also hollow out the trunks of trees into boats, called dungds, which are 
floated down the streams in the rainy season for sale on the Brahma- 
putra. This industry is mainly supported by advances from the 
Goalpara merchants. 

The trade of the Eastern Dwars is mainly conducted by barter, and 
is in the hands of Marwari merchants from Goalpara and Kamriip. 
Boats come up the rivers during the rainy season^ and transact their 
business at the villages on the river banks. There are no large 
permanent markets. The principal articles of export are rice, 
mustard seed, erid cloth, cotton, india-rubber, a dye called dsu, timber, 
and boats; in exchange for which are received brass-ware, pottery, 
salt, cotton cloth, oil, spices, cocoa-nuts, and miscellaneous hardware. 
In ordinary seasons, the crops provide a considerable surplus for 
exportation. 

Administration. — The Eastern Dwars consist of the following 5 Dwars : 
— BijNi — area 374 square miles, population (1881) 24,882 ; Sidli — 
area 361 square miles, population 23,657 ; Chirang — area 495 square 



DIVJJ^S, WESTERN. ^^^ 

miles, population 1216; Ripu — area 242 square miles, population 
3040; GuMA — area 98 square miles, population 3341. The ad- 
ministrative statistics cannot be separated from those of the District 
of Go^lpard, and are given in the aggregate in the special article on 
that District. It is there stated that the total land revenue from 
temporarily-settled estates, which may be assumed to be co-extensive 
with the Eastern Dwars, amounted in 1874-75 to ^5158, collected 
from 27 estates. The tract is entirely administered from Dhubri town, 
and no European officer is permanently stationed in it. 

A settlement of the land revenue was made for seven years in 1870. 
Chirang Dwar was held khds, or, in other words, engagements were 
taken from the occupants actually in possession ; for the four other 
Dwars collective leases were granted to neighbouring landlords or 
chiefs. Provision was made for the protection of occupancy rights, 
and permission to extend cultivation was conceded to the leaseholders, 
who receive the profits arising from such extension during the currency 
of their term. As already mentioned, the Assam system of settlement 
has now been substituted for the leases granted in 1870, in all but two 
of the Dwars, which have been settled with the Rajas of Sidli and 
Bijni, who have been held to be entitled to the position of zaminddrs. 
The Eastern Dwars are included within the head-quarters Sub-division 
of Dhubri. 

Dwars, Western.— A tract lying along the foot of the Himalayas, 
and including some of their outermost spurs, in the north-east of 
Jalpaiguri District, Bengal. The Western Dwars, together with 
their continuation, the Eastern Dwars {q.v.), were annexed to the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal as the result of the Bhutan war of 
1864-65. The Eastern Dwars now form part of the Chief-Commis- 
sionership of Assam (Goalpara District) ; while the Western Dwars 
remain under the Bengal Government. The entire tract contains a large 
area of waste land covered with jungle, but intersected by streams from 
the mountains, and well suited for reclamation. A considerable popu- 
lation of husbandmen has already moved into the Dwars ; and the 
Western Dwars have been lately (1881-84) opened for tea-planting on 
a large scale. Grants of land for the latter purpose have been taken 
up with increasing rapidity, and tea-planting is being pushed forward, 
not only by private persons, but also by companies commanding an 
amount of capital almost unprecedented in this line of industry. 
The labour difficulty which has to be encountered in Assam, occurs 
here in a much less serious form. Large numbers of coolies 
find their way into the Western Dwdrs under the guidance of native 
contractors, without the intervention of the Labour Transport 
Laws. They receive high wages in the tea-gardens, and most of 
them return to their villages in the interior of Bengal with con- 



2,2,6 EASTERN D WARS—EDAR. 

siderable savings, after a few years. Indeed, the success of free 
immigration into the Western Dwars holds out a hopeful promise for 
the settlement of the difficulties attending the movement of labour to 
other tea-growing tracts. The climate is unhealthy, but this deterrent 
influence disappears as the jungle is cleared, and considerable tracts are 
opened up, and as substantial houses are built for the planters, and 
suitable coolie lines for the labourers. 

The Western Dwars, now called parga?zds, extend from the Sankos 
river on the east, which forms the boundary between Goalpara and 
Jalpaiguri Districts, and the Tista river on the west. They are 9 
in number, viz.: — (t) Bhalka, area (1881) 119 square miles; (2) 
Bhatibari, area 149 square miles; (3) Baxa, area 300 square miles; 
(4) Chakao-Kshattriya, area 138 square miles; (5) Madari, area 
194 square miles; (6) Lakshmipur, area 165 square miles; (7) 
Maraghat, area 342 square miles ; (8) Mainaguri, area 309 square 
miles ; (9) Chengmari, area 146 square miles. 



E. 

Eastern Dwd,r3. — Tract of country in Goalpara District, Assam. — 
See Dwars, Eastern. 

Eastern GhdtS. — Mountain range extending along the eastern 
coast of India. — See Ghats. 

Edapadi. — Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Popula- 
tion (1881) 3942, namely, 3650 Hindus, 277 Muhammadans, and 15 
Christians. 

Edar {Idar), — The principal Rajput State of the Mahi Kantha 
Agency in Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency ; bounded 
on the north by Sirohi (Sirohee) and Udaipur (Oodeypore), on the east 
by Diingarpur, and on the south and west by the territories of the 
Bombay Presidency and of the Gaekwar of Baroda. Population (1881) 
258,429, including 10,916 Bhils ; estimated gross revenue, including 
transit dues, ^52,444. The area of the State, according to the Census 
statement of 1881, was returned at 4966 square miles, of which the cul- 
tivable waste was estimated at 833 square miles, and the non-cultivable 
at about the same. The number of towns and villages in the State, 
excluding the hamlets of the Bhils, was returned by the Census at 805, 
containing 56,602 occupied and 12,052 unoccupied houses. The Bhil 
population occupied 2729 houses in 94 hamlets. In the whole popu- 
lation the males numbered 131,823, the females 126,606. Number 
of persons per square mile, 52. Classified according to religion, 
Hindus numbered 243,399 ':> Muhammadans, 8760; Jains, 6266 ; there 
were also 3 Parsis and i Christian. Among the Hindus, 17,441 were 



EDAR, 337 

Brahmans, and 10,309 Rajputs. The soil of the State is generally 
fertile ; in some places it is of a light sandy nature, in others rich and 
black ; towards the north and north-eastern parts near the hills, poor 
and stony. A peculiar feature of the country is the abundance of 
ma/iud, mango, khirni, and other fruit-trees. The jungle in some parts, 
particularly at the foot of the hills, is very thick and intersected with 
ravines. Principal products — grains, oil-seeds, sugar-cane. Manu- 
factures — a small quantity of country soap. There are quarries in the 
neighbourhood of Ahmadnagar, and the stone is used for building 
purposes. 

The greater part of the population are Kolis, the remainder consists 
of Rajputs, Brahmans, Baniyas, Kumbis, etc. The present ruling family, 
though Rajputs of the most ancient lineage, only arrived in Edar at a 
comparatively recent date. Tradition relates that the original sovereigns 
of Edar, as in most of the rest of Gujarat, were Bhalsur Kolis. The 
last chief of this tribe was named Sambla. A debauched and vicious 
man, his ministers conspired against him, and invited Rao Sonag 
of Simatra, the ancestor of the Raos of Pol, to their aid. This 
chief killed Sambla, and took possession of his territory. About 
twelve generations of this family are reckoned to the expulsion of 
Jagannath, the last Rao of Edar,, in 1656, by Murad Baksh, at that 
time the Subahdar of Gujarat. A Desai or Deputy was afterwards 
placed in charge of Edar for some years. In 1729, Anand Singh and 
Rai Singh, two brothers of the Raja of Jodhpur, accompanied by a 
few horsemen from Vamo and Palanpur and the Kolis of Godwara, 
established themselves in Edar without much difficulty. This family 
is the last that effected a settlement in Gujarat by conquest. They 
are said to have acted under an order from Delhi; but the truth 
seems to be that they were tempted by the state of the country, and 
most likely assisted by the Marwar princes who at that period held 
the Subahdari of Ahmadabad. The Edar principality consisted of the 
Districts of Edar, Ahmadnagar, Morasa, Baad, Harsol, Parantij, and 
Vijapur, to which five other Districts were rendered tributary. Some 
years after the conquest, at the instigation of the Desai above mentioned, 
who appears to have been displaced by the Marwaris, an officer in the 
service of Damdji Gaekwar, named Bachaji Duvaji, was despatched on 
the part of the Peshwa to take possession of Edar. This he accom- 
plished with the aid of the Rah war Rajputs, the servants of the late 
Rao. Anand Singh was killed about 1753 ; and Bachaji, after leaving 
a detachment behind, returned to Ahmadibad. Rai Singh, however, 
collected a force, and again obtained possession of Edar. Seo Singh, 
son of Anand Singh, now became ruler under the guardianship of his 
uncle Rai Singh, who died in 1766. During the rule of Seo Singh, the 
State was stripped, by the Peshwd, of Parantij, Vijapur, and half of 

VOL. IV. y 



338 EDAR. 

the three Districts of Morasa, Baad, and Harsol, which Districts 
were afterwards ceded by the Peshwa to the British Government. The 
other half of the Edar territories fell to the Gaekwar, who contented 
himself with the exaction of a share of the annual revenues, which 
at the settlement of 1812 was fixed in perpetuity at £2/^00 for 
Edar, and ;£"895 for Ahmadnagar. Seo Singh died in 1791, 
leaving five sons, the eldest of whom, Bhawan Singh, succeeded 
him, but died in a i^w days, leaving the State to his son Gambhir 
Singh, a boy of ten years. Dissensions in the family now arose, which 
resulted in the temporary dismemberment of Edar. Sugram Singh, 
second son of Seo Singh, who had received Ahmadnagar from his 
father in feudal grant, assumed independence ; and with his assistance 
Zalim Singh and Amir Singh, two other sons of Seo Singh, after a long 
struggle possessed themselves respectively of Morasa and Baad during 
Gambhir Singh's minority. Indra Singh, the fifth son of Seo Singh, 
who was blind, received Siir and three other villages for his support. 
Sugram Singh, chief of Ahmadnagar, died in 1798, and was succeeded 
by his son Kuran Singh. Zalim Singh of Morasa died childless in 
1806, and his appanage ought to have lapsed to Edar. His widow, 
however, was allowed by the Gaekwar to adopt Pratap Singh, Kuran 
Singh's brother, on whose death, in 1821, Morasa was united with 
Ahmadnagar. On the death of Amir Singh of Baad without children, 
the reversion was claimed by both Edar and Ahmadnagar. The chief 
of Ahmadnagar, Kuran Singh, died in 1835, ^^^ was succeeded by his 
son Takht Singh, who was elected ruler of the State of Jodhpur in 
1843. On his removal to Jodhpur, he still claimed the right to 
retain Ahmadnagar in his family; but in 1848, the British Government 
decided that Ahmadnagar should revert to Edar, and with it Morasa 
and Baad. 

Maharaja Juwan Singh, Knight Commander of the Star of India, 
and a member of the Legislative Council of Bombay, died in 1868, and 
was succeeded in 1882 by his son Keshri Singh, the present Maharaja, 
who was born in 1861, and educated at the Rajkumar College at 
Indore. He is a Rajput of the Rahtor clan and of the Joda family. 
He exercises first-class jurisdiction, having power to inflict capital 
punishment. He holds a sanad giving him the right of adoption, 
and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. Many relatives of the 
Maharaja, and feudal chiefs whose ancestors helped to secure the 
country for the present dynasty, now enjoy large estates on service 
tenures. The revenues of the State are shared by the Raja with these 
feudal chiefs. In 1875, out of a total gross revenue of ;£76o,ooo, it 
was estimated that only ;^2 5,000 was received by the central authority. 
The Maharaja receives ;£'i9i4 annually from several chiefs in the Mahi 
Kantha, and pays ;£3034 as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda. The 



EDAR--ED WARDESABAD. 3 39 

chiefs subordinate to Edar hold their estates on condition of military 
service, the quota being 3 horsemen for every ^100 of revenue. The 
actual force maintained by them amounts to about 568 cavalry, and 
the same number of infantry, all undisciplined. The State contains 
22 courts for criminal justice, and maintains a police force of 30 
mounted and 418 foot, at an annual cost of ;^3597. There are 25 
schools with 1278 pupils, of which two are girls' schools. A forest reserve, 
covering 54 square miles, is in contemplation. The State has agreed 
to suppress the cultivation of poppy, and to prevent smuggling. A 
special establishment to grapple with the practice of infanticide has 
been working for some time. An attempt to induce the Bhils to send 
their children to school has failed ; they laughingly say their sons 
must learn to drive cattle and use the bow. Transit dues are still 
levied in the State. 

Edar. — Chief town of the State of lidar in Gujarat, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Latitude 23° 50' n., longitude 73° 4' e. ; 64 miles north-east 
ofAhmadabad. The town is traditionally known as Ildurg. Popula- 
tion (1881) 6223, namely, 4206 Hindus, 970 Muhammadans, and 1047 
Jains. Dispensary and post-office. The streets have recently been 
lighted. 

Edawauna. — Village in Malabar District, Madras Presidency ; 
situated in latitude 11° 59' 45" n., and longitude 75° 45' 50" e., on the 
left bank of the Beypore (Bepur) river, at the head of its navigable 
course, and 8 miles above Arikkod. Population (1881) 4800; number 
of houses, 820. 

Edwardesabad (or DhuUpnagar). — Town, cantonment, and ad- 
ministrative head-quarters of Bannu District, Punjab. Population (1881) 
8960, namely, 4284 Hindus, 41 10 Muhammadans, 503 Sikhs, and 
63 'others.' Situated in lat. 32° 59' 45" N., and long. 70° 38' 51' E., 
near the north-west corner of the District, i mile south of the river 
Kuram, 84 miles south of Kohat, and 89 miles north of Dera Ismdil 
Khan. Founded in 1848 by Major (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes, 
who selected the site for political reasons. The fort, erected at the 
same time, bore the name of Dhulipgarb, in honour of the young 
.Maharaja of Lahore ; and the bazar was also known as Dhulipnagar. 
A town gradually grew up around the bazar ^ and many Hindu traders 
•removed hither from the village of Bazar Ahmad Khan, which formed 
the commercial centre of the Bannu valley prior to annexation. The 
main bazar consists of a wide and handsome roadway, and containr. 
a fine market-place. A mud wall runs round the town, within which 
lie the tahsili and police office. The civil station, to the west of the 
fort, includes the court-house, treasury, jail, sardi, staging bungalow, 
dispensary, mounted police lines, and post-office. The Church Mission- 
ary Society supports a small church and a school-house. The cantor.- 



340 EGA TPURA—ELEPHANTA, 

ment centres round the fort of Dhulipgarh, which possesses quarters 
for two infantry regiments ; outside the fortifications are lines for a 
cavalry regiment and a field battery of artillery. There are also a few 
bungalows for officers. The profuse irrigation and insufficient drainage 
of the surrounding fields render Edwardesabdd an unhealthy station ; 
and the troops in cantonments suffer greatly from malarious fevers 
and prostration. The town has a considerable trade, embracing the 
whole traffic in local produce of the Bannu valley. The nearest 
railway station is at Kushalgarh on the Punjab Northern State Railway, 
124 miles distant by road. A weekly fair collects an average number 
of 2000 buyers and sellers. Chief articles of trade — cloth, live stock, 
wool, cotton, tobacco, and grain. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, 
;^i94o; expenditure, ;j^2 502. 

Egatpura (or Egutpoora). — Town in Nasik District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. — See Igatpuri. 

Egmore. —A quarter or suburb of Madras City. 

Ekamba. — Village in Purniah District, Bengal. Lat. 25° 58' n., 
long. 87° 36' 30" E. One of the chief seats of commerce in the District, 
with trade in agricultural products, spices, piece-goods, hides, etc., 
carried on at permanent markets. 

Eklaspur. — Town in Shahabad District, Bengal. 

Ekwd.ri. — Town in Shahabad District, Bengal. 

Elattiir. — River in Madras Presidency. Rises in the mountains west 
of the Tamarasseri Pass, in latitude 1 1° 30' o" n., and longitude 75° 56' o" 
E., and, after a devious course of 30 miles through Malabar District, 
flows into the extensive backwater which communicates with the sea 
near Elattiir town, in latitude 1 1° 20' 30" n., and longitude 75° 45' 45" ^• 
Near this town are several islets whence fine views of the Wainad 
Mountains are obtained ; it is a favourite resort of the residents 
of Calicut. — See Alattur. 

Elavarasanandal {lUyarasainendal). — Group of agricultural hamlets 
in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Latitude 9° 1 2' n., longitude 
77° 50' E. Population (1881) 14,390; number of houses, 3059. 

Elephanta (called by the natives Ghdrdpuri). — Island in Bombay 
harbour, latitude 18° 57' n., and longitude 73° e., about 6 miles 
from Bombay City and 4 from the shore of the mainland. In- 
cluded in the Panwell Sub-division of Thana District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. The island measures from 4 to 4^ miles in circumference, 
and consists of two long hills separated by a narrow valley; the 
superficial area varies from 6 to 4 square miles according as the tide 
is at ebb or flow. It was named Elepha7ita by the Portuguese, 
from a large stone - elephant which stood near the old landing- 
place on the south side of the island. This elephant was 13 feet 
2 inches in length, and about 7 feet 4 inches high; but its head 



ELEPHANTA. 341 

and neck dropped off in 18 14, and subsequently the body sank down 
into a shapeless mass of stones, which were removed in 1864 to 
the Victoria Gardens in Bombay. Near the point where the two 
hills approach each other, and not far to the south-east of the Great 
Cave, once stood the stone statue of a horse, described by an early 
writer as being *so lively, with such a colour and carriage, and the 
shape finisht with that Exactness, that many have rather fancyed it, at 
a distance, a living Animal, than only a bare Representation.' This 
statue has disappeared. Except on the north-east and east, the hill- 
sides are covered with brushwood ; in the hollows under the hill are 
clusters of mango, tamarind, and karanja trees. A broken line of 
palms stands out against the sky along the crest of the hill. Below is 
a belt of rice-land. The foreshore is of sand and mud, bare and black, 
with a fringe of mangrove bushes. At one period, from the 3rd to 
perhaps the loth century, the island is supposed to have been the site 
of a city, and a place of religious resort. Some archaeologists would 
place here the Maurya city of Puri. The Caves are the chief objects 
of interest ; but in the rice-fields to the east of the northern or Shet 
bandar (landing-place), brick and stone foundations, broken pillars, 
fallen statues of Siva, and other traces of an ancient city have 
been found. The landing-place is now on the north-west of the 
island. Steam launches or sailing boats, which can be hired at the 
Apollo Bunder, Bombay, run to Elephanta in about an hour; and a 
small steamer can lie alongside the pier which has been built at the 
landing-place. 

The island is greatly resorted to by visitors to the far-famed rock- 
caves ; in 1880-81 the number reached 5400. Of these wonderful 
excavations, four are complete or nearly so; a fifth is a large cave 
now much filled up, with only rough masses of stone left to support 
the roof; and a sixth is merely the beginning of the front of what 
seems to have been intended for a very small excavation — possibly 
two or three cells for recluses. The most important and most frequently 
visited of these Brahmanic rock-temples is the Great Cave, which 
is situated in the western or larger of the two hills of the island, at an 
elevation of about 250 feet above high-water level. The entrance is 
reached by a winding path about three-quarters of a mile in length from 
the landing-place. The cave faces the north, and is entirely hewn 
out of a hard compact variety of trap rock. From the front entrance 
to the back it measures about 130 feet, and its length from the east 
to the west entrance is the same. It does not, however, occupy the 
entire square of this area. What may be called the porticoes, or the 
three open sides, are only about 54 feet long and 16J feet deep. 
Omitting these and the back aisle, immediately in front of three of the 
principal sculptured compartments, which is of about the same dimen- 



342 ELEPHANTA. 

sions as each portico, the body of the cave may be considered as a square 
of about 91 feet each way, supported by 6 rows of columns with 6 
columns in each row, except at the corners, where the uniformity is 
broken on the west side to make room for the shrine or sacelliim, which 
occupies a space equal to that enclosed by four of the columns. 
There were originally 26 columns, with 16 half-columns; but 8 of the 
separate pillars have been destroyed, and others are much injured. 
As neither the floor nor the roof is perfectly horizontal, they vary in 
height from 15 to 17 feet. The most striking of the sculptures is the 
famous colossal three-faced bust, or trwmrti, at the back of the cave, 
facing the entrance. This is a representation of Siva in his threefold 
character of Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer; and all the other 
sculptures relate to the same god, the cave being, like every other 
Hindu rock-temple of Western India, a Sivaite one. The irimurti 
is 17 feet 10 inches in height; and a line drawn round the three 
heads at the level of the eyes measures 22 feet 9 inches in length. 
The length of the middle face (Vishnu's) is 4 feet 4 inches; 
those of the others (Brahma and Riidra), 4 feet i inch and about 
5 feet. In 1865, this unique bust was mutilated by some 
'barbarian clothed in the garb of civilisation,' who broke off a 
portion of the noses of two of the faces ; and since then some of 
the other sculptures in the temple have been similarly treated, so 
that it has been found necessary to place a sergeant and two native 
policemen to protect the cave. The tr'wiu7'ti is guarded by two gigantic 
iwdrapdlas or doorkeepers of rock, respectively 1 2 feet 9 inches and 
13 feet 6 inches high; both figures are much defaced. The Linga 
chapel, on the right-hand side of the temple on entering, contains 
several dwdrapdlas and other figures ; and two compartments on either 
side of the tr'wiurti are also ornamented with numerous sculptured 
groups. There are several other compartments in the Great Cave, 
all containing interesting sculptures, of which it is impossible to give 
even a bare list in the limits here available. The reader who desires 
to pursue the subject cannot do better than consult the lucid and 
exhaustive account of Mr. Burgess {The Rock Temples of Elephanta or 
Ghdrdpuri, Bombay 187 1), from which this article is chiefly condensed. 
* The impression on the mind,' writes Mr. Burgess, * may be imagined 
rather than described, when one enters the portico [of the Great Cave], 
passing from the glare and heat of tropical sunshine to the dim light 
and cool air of the temple, and realizes that he is under a vast roof of 
solid rock, that seems to be supported only by the ranges of massive 
columns that recede in the vistas on every side, some of which appear 
to have split or fallen under the tremendous superincumbent weight. 
And the feeling of strange uncertain awe that creeps over the mind is 
only prolonged when in the obscure light we begin to contemplate the 



ELEFHANTA. 345 

gigantic stony figures ranged along the walls from which they seem to 
start, and from the living rock of which they are hewn.' De Couto 
describes the stone of the mountain where the temples have been 
carved as of a grey colour. The same traveller, writing at the beginning 
of the 1 7th century, continues : — ' But the whole body inside, the 
pillars, the figures, and everything else, was formerly covered with a 
coat of lime mixed with bitumen and other compositions, that made 
the temple bright and very beautiful, the features and workmanship 
showing very distinct, so that neither in silver nor in wax could such 
figures be engraved with greater nicety, fineness, or perfection.' At 
the present time there is no trace of this coating. 

The Second Cave, which is situated a short distance to the south-east 
of the Great Temple, faces east-north-east, and is 109 J feet in length, 
including the chapel at the north end. The fa9ade, which was nearly 
80 feet in length, is completely destroyed, and the cave is so full of 
debris and so ruined by water that no proper estimate can now be 
formed of the appearance it originally represented. It contains at 
present only one sculptured group. At the south end of the portico of 
this cave is a large block of rock not hewn away, above which is a hole 
through a thin partition of rock into one of the cells of the Third Rock 
Temple. The proper entrance, however, is a litde to the south. This 
cave is in an even more dilapidated condition than the second. The 
Fourth Temple, now known to the natives as ' Sita Bai's Diwala,' is 
situated on the other hill of the island, and about 100 feet above the 
level of the Great Cave. It is in better preservation than those last 
mentioned, and had formerly a beautiful gate with a marble porch of 
exquisite workmanship ; but these have now disappeared. 

Sufficient data do not exist to enable us to fix with precision the 
date of the Elephanta Caves. Tradition attributes them variously to 
the Pandavas, to a king of Kanara named Banasur, and to Alexander 
the Great; and many not less unreasonable conjectures have been 
hazarded regarding them. Mr. Fergusson concludes (for reasons for 
which the reader is referred to his Rock-cut Temples of India) that 
the Great Temple was excavated in the^ loth century of our era ; 
but Mr. Burgess, while admitting that there are grounds for this 
conclusion, is inclined to attribute them to the latter part of the 8th 
or to the 9th century. No inscription is now to be found in the caves. 
It is hoped, however, that the date and name of the excavator may 
yet be learned from a stone, taken to Europe about 1540 by the 
Portuguese Viceroy Dom Joao de Castro, which may one day be 
re-discovered and deciphered. 

The Great Temple is still used on Sivaite festivals, and specially by 
Hindus of the Baniya caste ; and at the Sivardtri, the greatest of the 
Sivaite festivals, just before the first new moon falling after the middle 



344 ELLENABAD—ELLICHPUR. 

of February, a religious fair is held here. The view from the front of 
the great cave is very beautiful ; and from the site of an old bungalow, 
not far from the porch, a fine prospect is commanded of Bombay 
harbour, with Butcher Island in the foreground. 

Ellen^bad {Khai-idl). — Town and municipality in Sirsa tahsil^ Sirsa 
District, Punjab ; situated in lat. 29° 26' n., and long. 75° 54' e., on the 
banks of the Ghaggar, 23 miles west of Sirsa town. Founded in 
1865 by Mr. Oliver, Deputy Commissioner, to replace the village of 
Kharial on the opposite side of the Ghaggar, founded some 40 years 
before by settlers from Bikiner (Bickaneer) State, which had been washed 
away by floods. Mr. Oliver called the new town Ellenabad, but it is 
still commonly known to the people as Kharial. It is a small town, 
but notwithstanding a high death-rate, the population shows a steady 
increase at each successive Census. Population in 1881,4131, namely, 
Hindus, 3455 ; Muhammadans, 555 ; and Jains, 121 ; number of 
houses, 631. A third-class municipality. Municipal income in 
1882-83, ^^376; expenditure, ^^190. Export and import traffic in 
country produce and salt with Bikaner State. Manufacture of coarse 
woollen cloth. Police outpost ; dispensary. On the opposite side of 
the Ghaggar lie the ruins of old Kharial. 

Ellichpur {liichpur). — District in the Commissionership of Berar, 
within the Haidarabad Assigned Districts, lying between 20° 50' 30" 
and 21° 46' 30" N. lat., and between 76° 40' and 77° 54' e. long. Tiie 
most northerly District in the Berdrs. Bounded on the north-west 
and north by Nimar, Hoshangabad, and Betul Districts of the Central 
Provinces ; on the east by the Wardha river and Amraoti District ; 
and on the south and west by Amraoti and Akola Districts. Area, 
2623 square miles; population (1881) 313,805. The administrative 
headquarters are at Ellichpur Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The entire northern half of Ellichpur consists of 
a succession of hills and valleys known as the Melghat or Gawilgarh 
Hills, a section of the Sdtpura Mountains. The main ridge or water- 
shed of the Satpuras runs through the District from east to west, 
attaining its greatest elevation at Bairat, 3987 feet above sea-level. 
The southern portion of the District is flat, and drained by numerous 
small streams flowing into the Wardha and Purna rivers. The only 
present metalled road is that from Ellichpur town to Amraoti; but 
several other roads are under construction. The country roads and 
fair-weather tracks from village to village are passable for eight months 
in the year. In the hill country, the chief passes are by Hewra-devi, 
Komi, and Malhara on the east, and by Dulghat and Bingara on the 
west, of which those by Komi, Malhara, and Dulghat are practicable 
for wheeled vehicles. The country is well supplied with mango groves, 
and when the green crops cover it, has a very park-like appearance. 



ELLICIIPUR. 



345 



Popiilatio7i. — In 1867, a Census taken in Berar gave the popula- 
tion of Ellichpur District at 279,022. The Census of 1881 returned 
a population of 313,805 ; so that since the former year an increase of 
34,783 has taken place. The more recent enumeration affords the 
following figures. Males number 162,590; females, 151,215. Density 
of population, 119*6 persons per square mile. Number of towns, 6 ; 
villages, 727; occupied houses, 58,091, and unoccupied, 3945. Houses 
per square mile, 23*6; persons per house, 5*4. Distributed according 
to religion, Hindus number 282,000 ; Muhammadans, 30,299 ; Jains, 
1280 ; Christians, 197 ; Sikhs, 27 ; and Parsis, 2. According to caste, 
the Hindus are divided into Brahmans (7422), Rajputs (4830), Kunbis, 
a cultivating caste (77,280), and 'others' unspecified (193,268). The 
strength of the Muhammadan tribes is as follows : — Shaikhs, 19,714 ; 
Pathans, 6453 ; Sayyids, 1801 ; Mughals, 565 ; unspecified (Arabs, 
Bhils, P^akirs), 1766. Among the Christians the Roman Catholics 
number 119. In regard to occupation the adult males are classed in six 
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every kind 
and members of the learned professions, 5502 ; (2) domestic servantJ^, 
inn and lodging-house keepers, 2607 ; (3) commercial class, including 
bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 2977 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including shepherds, 75,069; (5) industrial class, including all 
manufacturers and artisans, 21,032; and (6) indefinite and non-pro- 
ductive class, including male children, general labourers, and persons 
of unspecified occupation, 55,403. The population is mostly Hindu, 
and their favourite God not Vishnu, but Mahadeo. The languages 
spoken are Urdii, Maratha, and Gond. 

Agriadttcre arid Co?nmerce. — The principal agricultural products are 
cotton, yWr, rice, and wheat (of excellent quality), gram, pulses, yams, 
and oil-seeds ; and these, together with ghi and forest timber, comprise 
the chief exports of the District. Cotton is the staple of the valley, 
but mangoes, tamarinds, guavas, grapes, oranges, and pomegranates 
are cultivated in addition to the cereal crops. Tea is said to thrive 
in the Melghat. In 1882-83, 254,018 acres were under cotton ; 
207,458 acres under y^i/-/ 51,148 acres under wheat ; and 4271 acres 
under tobacco. The imports are mainly English and country cloth, 
iron and copper utensils, tobacco, salt, sugar, etc. 

As regards physical aspects and economic conditions, the Melghat, 
or Upper Tract, forms the most interesting part of Ellichpur District, 
and has been dealt with separately. 

History. — The history of the District centres in Ellichpur town, 
which formed an important nucleus of Muhammadan influence in the 
Deccan. Tradition asserts that the city was founded by Raja II, a 
Jain, who came from Khanjama Nagar, near Wadgdon, about 1058 
A.D. Whatever may be the date of its foundation, the town holds 



346 ELLICHPUR. 

no mean rank among the ancient historical cities of India, and 
during a short period it was a well-known capital. It lost most of its 
local importance from the time when the first Nizam-ul-Mulk became 
supreme ruler in the Deccan, and the city was placed under a viceroy 
or governor. The first governor appointed was Iwaz Khan, who ruled 
for five years — from 1724 to 1728 — and was succeeded by Siijayat Khan 
(1729 to 1740), who quarrelled with the Maratha Raghuji Bhonsla, 
fought with him near Bhiigaon, and was killed in the battle. The 
Ellichpur treasury on that occasion was plundered by the victor. Sharif 
Khan next succeeded, and held office from 1741 to 1752. He claimed 
equality with the Nizam, who consequently deposed him. The Nizam's 
son, All Jah Bahadur, was then appointed governor, but he administered 
by deputy, and was succeeded by Salabat Khan, who, though he only 
remained two years at Ellichpur, did much to improve the city. He 
enlarged the palace, made a public garden, and extended the ancient 
water-channels. He was a brave soldier, and on the war breaking out 
between the Nizam and Tipii Sultan, he was ordered to join the army, 
and distinguished himself there. He also saw service at the battle of 
Kardla, and was with General Wellesley's army in 1803. Namdar Khan, 
son of Salabat Khan, received, besides his jdgir of 2 lakhs of rupees 
(^20,000), another of like value at Ellichpur, and managed his estate 
with the title of Nawab until his death in 1843. He is said to have 
been placed specially under the protection of General Wellesley by 
his father, and he received a jdgir for the payment of the Ellichpur 
brigade. After some years, getting into arrears, he gave up the greater 
part of his jdgir^ retaining only a rental of ;£^35oo. Namdar 
Khan was succeeded by his nephew, Ibrahim Khan, who lived till 
1846, when his widow's father, Ghulam Hassan, was allowed to 
inherit the estate and the title of Nawab, on payment of a nazardna 
of 7 Idkhs, This sum he borrowed of a local banker, at whose suit 
the palace, with other property of the Nawab at Ellichpur, is now 
under attachment. In 1853, the District was assigned to the British 
with the rest of Berar. 

From the time that the Nizam-ul-Mulk declared his independence, 
the history of Ellichpur has been intimately connected with that of the 
family of Shadi Khan and Nasib Khan, two Pathan zaminddrs, who 
originally came from Jaipur (Jeypore) to Haidarabad (Hyderabad) as 
horse dealers ; and there attracting the notice of the Nizam, Nasir 
Jang, rose to high importance. From their descendants the governors 
of Ellichpur were generally chosen ; of these, Ismail Khan, Salabat 
Khan, Ballal Khan, Namdar Khan, and Ibrahim Khan were governors 
of Ellichpur, Namdar Khan receiving the title of Nawab. 

Administration. — In 1882-83, the administration was carried on by 
6 civil judges and 10 subordinate magistrates. The gross revenue was 



ELUCHPUR TALUK AND TOWN. 347 

;^i23,652, of which £()2,2<^\ was derived from the land. The number 
of police in 1882 was 260, maintained at a cost of ;^4299. Average 
distance between a village and its nearest court, 38 miles. The chief 
towns of the District are Ellichpur (26,728), Anjangaon (9842), Parat- 
wada (9445), and Karajgaon (7330). Ellichpur is the only municipaHty. 
No railroads run through the ]3istrict, and there are only 65J miles 
of made road. Average daily population of District jail in 1882, 53. 
Number of schools in 1883, 135; of scholars, 5437; schools to each 
TOO square miles, 5. A printing-press issues a weekly newspaper at 
Ellichpur town. 

Climaie.—^xom. November to March may be considered the cold 
season. Even then the sun is very powerful at mid-day. The nights 
are cold, but frost is rare. The rains commence about the loth of 
June and last until the end of August September and October are 
the most unhealthy months. Cholera, small-pox, fevers, ague, and a 
severe form of rheumatism called wdi, are prevalent. For the climate 
of the Melghat, see that article. In 1882, the rainfall at Ellichpur town 
was 29-4 inches ; average temperature, from 97° F. in May to 56° in 
December. There are 6 dispensaries; total patients relieved in 1882, 
31,009, at a cost of ;^i24o. Vaccinations in same year, 10,958. [For 
further information regarding Ellichpur, see the Berdr Gazetteer, edited 
by Sir Alfred C. Lyall, K.CB., Bombay, 1870 ; also Settlement Report 
of the Amrdoti and Ellichpur taluks, by Major P. A. Elphinstone, 
Bombay, 1870; the Berdr Census Report oi 1881 ; and the Berdr 
Administration and Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Ellichpur.— r^////^ of Ellichpur District, Berar. Area, 469 square 
miles ; contains 5 towns and 208 villages. Population (1881) 148,041, 
namely, 76,514 males and 71^527 females, or 315 persons per 
square mile. Hindus number 127,751; Muhammadans, 19,304; 
Jains, 785 ; Christians, 172 ; and Sikhs, 9. The agricultural population 
numbers 76,651. In 1883, the tdluk contained 4 civil and 6 criminal 
courts, including the head-quarters' courts ; police circles {thdnds), 6 ; 
regular police, 193 men ; village watch (chaukiddrs), 41 1. Total revenue, 
^56,205, of which £ao,2>S9 is derived from land. Area occupied by 
cultivators, 258,110 acres. 

Ellichpur. — Chief town and municipality of Ellichpur District, 
Berar. Lat. 21° 15' 30" n., long. 77° 29' 30" e. Population (1881) 
26,728, namely, 13,346 males and 13,382 females. Of the total 
population, 19,092 were returned as Hindus, 7428 as Musalmans, 
and 208 as Jains. Ellichpur was once a great and prosperous 
city, and is said to have contained 40,000 houses. It is not 
on any line of traffic, nor is it the centre of any particular 
trade, but it was the capital of a local Government, until the first 
Nizam, throwing off his dependence on Delhi, became supreme ruler 



348 ELLORA. 

of the Deccan. Ellichpur was then placed under a viceroy or governor, 
and from this time it declined rapidly. The town contains several 
interesting buildings. The dai'gdh or burial shrine, in memory of 
Dalla Rahman, built 400 years ago by one of the Bahmani kings, on 
the banks of the Bichan river, has a spacious chabutra or masonry 
platform, 1 1 bastions, and 4 gates, and is endowed by the State. The 
extensive palace, built by Salabat Khan and Ismail Khan, and after- 
wards added to by Namdar Khan, has some good carving and 
stonework, but is rapidly falling to ruin. Some of the tombs of the 
Nawabs, commenced by Salabat Khan sixty or seventy years ago, are 
very handsome. A detached fort, called Sultan Garhi, built more 
than a hundred years ago by Sultan Khan, and a well (said to be 
500 years old) called Mamdel Shah, built of stone finely cut, are also 
worthy of notice. An English-Marathi school is maintained, and 
also a school for girls. Police stations, dispensary, etc. Municipal 
revenue in 1881, ;^i487 ; incidence of taxation, is. id. per head of 
population within municipal limits. 

About 2 miles from the city, on the Bichan stream, lies Paratwada, 
the military cantonment and civil station. A force of all arms of the 
Haidarabad Contingent is generally stationed here. In 1882-83 
there were 73 cavalry, a battery of artillery with 125 men, and 765 
infantry. The cantonment is well laid out ; the hills in the back- 
ground give it an attractive appearance, but the site is low, and it 
lies too near the hills to be quite healthy. A police station and 
reserve guard are located in the bazar. English school and two others in 
the bazar — one for boys and one for girls. A Government garden has also 
been formed. The courts of the Deputy Commissioner, and of two 
Assistant Commissioners, with a treasury, are situated here. The popula- 
tion varies with the strength of the troops; in 1881 the total was 9445. 

Ellora {Eluru or Verul). — Village in the Nizam's Dominions, 
Haidarabad, Deccan. Lat. 20° 2' n., long. 75° 13' e. Distant north- 
west from Aurangabad 13 miles, from Daulatabad 7 miles. Population 
(1881) 742. The village is partly walled, and contains a Muhammadan 
shrine famed throughout the Deccan for its marvellous heahng powers. 
Ellora is famous for its rock-caves and temples. These contain, besides 
the symbols of Sanskrit mythology and statues of the Hindu deities, 
several Jain and Buddhist objects of worship. 

The road from Aurangabad to the caves winds round the base of the 
fortress of Daulatabad, and traverses the Pi'pal ghat to Raoza, below 
which the caves are excavated. The Pipal ghdi^ or road upward, is so 
called from the pipal or sacred trees of the Hindus which line its sides. 
Half-way up the arduous ascent stand two pillars inscribed with the 
names of some nobles of the Court of Aurangzeb, who are supposed to 
have paved the road to the caves. 



ELLORA. 349 

The caves are first mentioned by Mahsudi, the Arabic geographer 
of the loth century, but merely as a celebrated place of pilgrimage. 
They were visited in 1306 by Ala-ud-din or his generals, when, as Dow 
{History of Hindostan) relates, the capture occurred of a Hindu princess 
of Gujarat, who was here in concealment from the Muhammadans, but 
was afterwards carried to Delhi and married to the Emperor's son. 
Thevenot is said to be the first European who has described the caves ; 
I in the quaint style of the traveller of his period (1667) he details a 
visit to the ' Pagods of Elora.' The hill or plateau in which the caves 
are situated is crescent-shaped. Contrasting the caves of Ellora and 
Ajanta, Mr. Fergusson writes : 'Architecturally the Ellora caves differ 
from those of Ajanta, in consequence of their being excavated in the 
sloping sides of a hill, and not in a nearly perpendicular cliff. From 
this formation of the ground, almost all the caves at Ellora have court- 
yards in front of them. Frequently, also, an outer wall of rock, with 
an entrance through it, is left standing; so that the caves are not 
generally seen from the outside at all, and a person might pass along 
their front without being aware of their existence, unless warned of the 
fact.' The caves extend along the face of the hill for a mile and a 
(quarter. They are divided into three distinct series, the Buddhist, the 
Brahmanical, and the Jain, and are arranged almost chronologically. 

' The caves,' writes Mr. Burgess, the Archaeological Surveyor to the 
Government of Bombay, * are excavated in the face of a hill, or rather 
the scarp of a large plateau, and run nearly north and south for about 
. a mile and a quarter, the scarp at each end of this interval throwing 
out a horn towards the west. It is where the scarp at the south end 
begins to turn to the west that the earliest ca