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The Imperial Gazetteer oe India. 

W. W. H' KK. C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D., 



ganjAm to INDI. 




MAY 1 1 1971 
^5/rY Of ^0^ 




I N D I A. 


Ganjam {Ganj-idm, 'the granary of the world'). — British District in 
the extreme north-east of the Madras Presidency, lying between 18° 15' 
and 20° 15' N. latitude, and between 83° 49' and 85° 15' e. longitude. 
Bounded on the north by the Orissa Tributary States of Nayagarh, 
Daspalla, and Bod, of Bengal; on the east by the Bengal District of 
Puri and the Bay of Bengal ; and on the west by the Feudatory States 
of Kalahandi and Patna of the Central Provinces, and Vizagapatam 
District of the Madras Presidency. Area, 83 11 square miles, of which 
5205 square miles are in the Agency or Hill Tracts. Population, 
according to the Census of 1881, 1,749,604. In point of size, Ganjam 
District ranks sixth amongst the Districts of the Madras Presidency. 
Geographically the District divides itself into the Maliahs or Hill 
Tracts, and the Plain country, and contains 16 large and 35 minor 
zamhiddris or proprietary estates, besides 3 Government taluks. There 
are altogether 16 towns, of which 2 are municipalities, and 6879 
villages; of the latter, 2706 are in the Agency Tracts. Berhampur 
is the chief town of the District, and is also a military cantonment. 

Physical Aspects. — The District is mountainous and rocky, but inter- 
spersed with valleys and fertile plains. In shape it resembles an hour- 
glass, contracted in the centre, where the Eastern Ghats nearly meet the 
sea, and widening out in the north and south into undulating plains. 
Pleasant groves of trees give to the scenery a greener appearance than is 
usually met with in the plains farther to the south ; whilst rugged moun- 
tains, frequently covered with dense jungle, relieve the eye. A chain of 
fresh-water or brackish lakes runs all along the coast, being separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of sand. Salt swamps and backwaters are also 
not uncommon. The chain of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Mdliahs 

VOL. v. A 

2 • GAXJAM. 

or Maliyds, which occupies the western portion of the District, has several 
well-defined gaps. On the Bod frontier it has a general elevation of 
about 2000 feet (the axis of the chain being here farther eastward and 
about 2500 feet high) ; west of Daringabadi the peaks rise above 4000 
feet, and the general elevation exceeds 3000 feet. A gap occurs where 
the chain is pierced by the 'Hot Springs' Pass, and here 1800 feet is 
the sunfhiit level for some distance. In the Pedda Kimedi and Paria 
Kimedi Hills, the chain is over 3000 feet, and the peaks approach 
to near 5000 feet. The principal peaks are— Mahendragiri (4923 feet), 
Singhardj (4976), and Deodonga (4534)- The passes which lead from 
the low country of Ganjam into the Maliyas, along their entire length 
of some 140 miles, are very numerous; but only one, the Kalinga 
Ghat, possesses a road available for wheeled traffic. Many of the passes 
are, however, practicable for elephants and other beasts of burden, 
although the paths are generally rocky, rugged, and steep. The chief 
rivers are — (i) the Rishikulya in the north, which rises in the hiHs 
beyond the District boundary, and, after a course of about 100 miles, 
falls into the sea near Ganjam town ; this river is not ordinarily 
navigable, but rafts can be floated down it in the flood season between 
June and November: (2) the Vamsadhara, which rises in the Jaipur 
(Jeypore) Hills, and, after a course of about 145 miles, falls into the 
sea near Kalingapatam in the south of the District ; it is more or 
less navigable for about 70 miles from its mouth : (3) the Languliya, 
which takes its rise in Kalahandi, and, after flowing for about 115 
miles, enters the sea near Mdphiiz Bandar. Besides these rivers, there 
are numerous mountain streams and torrents, which are utilized for the 
purposes of irrigation. The banks of the rivers are usually steep and 
high, and there is in all of them a great tendency to accumulate silt. 
Their channels dry up in the hot season, but during the rains between 
June and November they are usually in full flood. Owing to the 
vicinity of the Eastern Ghats to the sea, however, the floods subside 
with rapidity ; and from the same cause the rise of the waters in the 
rivers is frequently so great as to cause considerable damage to property, 
and not unfrequently loss of life. Sea and river fisheries form an 
important industry, and the fishing castes were returned in 1881 at 
41,856, or 2-48 per cent, of the Hindu population. Pearl oysters, of an 
inferior (}uality, are found in the Sonapur backwater, and in the canal 
which runs from the Chilka Lake to the Rishikulya river. Iron-ore^ 
limestone, building stone, sandstone, talc, and crystal comprise the 
mineral products. Timber forests are numerous and extensive, con--" 
sisting chiefly of sdl, with satin-wood, sandal, and ebony in smaller 
fjuantities. Beeswax, honey, turmeric, and myrabolans are jungle 
products, and important articles of commerce, being sold by the hill 
Kandhs (Khond'^) to the low-country merchants. Wide grazing grounds' 

GAN/AAf. 3 

exist, wliich afford pasturage to large herds of cattle. Wild beasts are 
numerous in the hills. 

History. — Ganjam anciently formed part of the southern kingdom of 
Kalinga. Its early history is involved in obscurity, and it was nut 
until the long line of Gajapati or Ganga-vansa kings (i 132-1532) 
occupied Orissa that the adjoining District of Ganjam was annexed to 
that Province. Owing to the nature of the country, Ganjam was only 
nominally reduced by the Musalmans, who overran Orissa from Bengal 
for the first time about 156S. In 1641, the king of the Kutab-Shahi 
kingdom sent a deputy, Sher jMuhammad Khan, to Chikakol (Chicacole) 
to rule over the country as its first Faujdar. The present District of 
Ganjam formed under the Musalmans a part of the Chikakol Circar, 
and the country south of the Rishikuliya river at Ganjam, as far as 
Kasibiiga, was known by the name of the Ichapur Province. Successive 
Faujdars and Naibs continued to rule over the Chikakol Circar until 
1753, in which year the Northern Circars were granted to the French by 
the Xizam, Salabat Jang, to cover the pay and equipment of the French 
auxiliaries in his service. M. de Bussy, who managed the affairs of the 
P'rench at Haidarabad in the Deccan, proceeded to the Northern Circars 
in person in 1757, in order to secure the revenues on behalf of his native 
allies. After reducing the country as far as Gumsar, on the south-west 
border of Ganjam, M. de Bussy was obliged to return, being recalled 
by M. Lally, the Governor of Pondicherri, who required his services at 
the siege of Madras (1758). In 1759, an expeditionary force under 
.Colonel Forde, sent from Bengal by Clive, was successful in taking 
Masulipatam ; and upon the key of their position in the Northern 
Circars falling into the hands of the English, the French found them- 
selves obliged to abandon Ganjam and their other factories in the 
north. In 1765, the Northern Circars were granted to the English by 
the Mughal Emperor's y^?/7//(f;/, dated the 12th August 1765; but it was 
not until the 12th November 1766, that Nizam All, the Siibah of the 
Deccan, agreed to ratify this farmdfi by actually ceding the country to 
the English. In August 1768, Mr. Edward Cotsford took possession 
of Ganjdm as the first English Resident, and founded an English 
factory there, which he secured by means of a small fort. From 176S 
down to 1802, the Ichhapur Province was ruled by a succession of 
Residents, Chiefs in Council, and Collectors; and in the latter year, the 
country south of the Piindi river, as far as Chikakol, was formed into 
the present District of Ganjam. The earlier records (i 768-1802) of 
the District show that the zam'inddrs were accustomed to pay their 
tributes only under actual pressure ; and that the country was con- 
tinually in a state of disturbance and confusion. Plunder, rapine, 
murders, and incendiarism were common ; and one zaminddr had to be 
reduced by troops. In 18 15, a severe epidemic fever prevailed in 

_^ GANJA.\f. 

the town of Ganjam, and carried off about 20,000 people in the course 
ot' the three years that it raged in the District. In 18 16, the Pindaris 
came down upon the Parla Kimedi zamindari, and spread fire and 
sword from Ichhapur to Ganjam. In 1819, the disturbances in the 
Parla Kimedi and Mohirr zaininddris had risen to such a height, that 
Government sent Mr. Thackeray to Ganjam, as Special Commissioner, 
to devise means for quieting the country. It needed the presence of a 
strong body of regular troops to crush the spirit of insubordination 
which had been fostered in the District by many years of a weak and 
vacillating policy. In 1834-35, the Parla Kimedi campaign took place, 
Brigadier-General Taylor in command. The judicious measures of 
Mr. George Russell, the Special Commissioner in this and the two suc- 
ceeding Giimsiir campaigns of 1835-37, did much to place the country 
on a more satisfactory footing, by reducing the two most refractory 
and influential zaminddrs in the District. The first contact of the 
English with the aboriginal Kandhs (Khonds) occurred in 1836, when 
it was discovered that they were addicted to the practice of human 
sacrifice {meriah). A special Agency, under European officers, was 
deputed to the tract, and succeeded in inducing the Kandhs to abandon 
the rite. In 1865, a partial rising of the Kandhs took place, but it was 
of an unimportant character, and was suppressed without the aid of 
regular troops. Since then the District has enjoyed undisturbed peace. 
(For further details, see Hunter's Orissa, vol. i. 18, ii. 49-5 3? ''ind article 

J\ypuIation. — A Census of the District taken in 1S71 returned a 
total population of 1,520,088, inclusive of the people of the hills. > 
The last Census of 18S1 returned the number at 1,749,604, or an 
increase of 229,516 in ten years. Of the whole number returned 
in 1 881, 246,303 inhabited the Hill Tracts, namely, 130,042 males 
and 116,261 females. The remainder, namely, 739,423 males and 
763,878 females, total 1,503,301, inhabited the plains portion of 
the District. Scattered over the lowlands and highlands are 16 
towns and 6879 villages. The number of houses is 336,646, of 
which 58,565 are in the Hill Tracts. This gives a proportion of 
5 "4 persons per house in the plains, and 4*2 in the hills. In 
density of population, Ganjam ranks third among the Districts of 
the Madras Presidency. The proportion in the plains is 484 persons 
to the square mile, being next to Tanjore and Vizagapatam Districts, 
and more than double the average. The proportion of males to 
females is 497 to 503 in every 1000 of the population. The 
number of children under 10 years were returned at 449,071, or 
221,590 boys and 227,481 girls; between 10 and 20 years there 
were 159,293 males and 141,948 females, total 301,241. So that 
nearly half the population of the District are under 20 years of 


age. The population is composed almost entirely of Hindus, of 
whom there were — males 865,229, females 875,945, total 1,741,174, 
or 99*58 per cent., distributed as follows: — Erahmans, 127,869; 
Kshatriyas (warriors), 4143; Shettis (traders), 23,683; Vallalars 
(agriculturists), 461,995; Idaiyars (shepherds), 56,567; Kammalars 
(artisans), 44,970; Kanakkan (writers), 25,665; Kaikalars (weavers), 
38,104; Vanniyans (labourers), 42,712; Kushawans (potters), 15,660; 
Satanis (mixed castes), 29,670; Shambadavans (fishermen), 41,856; 
Shanans (toddy - drawers), 44,467; Ambattans (barbers), 25,206; 
Vannans (washermen), 40,462 ; Pariahs, 198,179 ; other castes not speci- 
fied, 464,853. The Muhammadans numbered only 6073 ; Christians, 
1551, of whom 129 were Europeans, and 222 Eurasians; Jains and 
Buddhists, 270; and 'others,' 536. Sixty per cent, of the Christians 
are Roman Catholics. The distribution by occupation was as 
follows: — Under Class I., or professional, 29,843, or 171 per cent.; 
under Class II., or domestic, 22,133, O'" ^'26 per cent.; under Class 
III., or commercial, 21,523, or 1*23 per cent.; under Class IV., or 
agricultural, 568,843, or 32*51 per cent. ; under Class V., or industrial, 
180,382, or io'3i per cent. ; and under Class VI., or indefinite and 
non-producti\*e, 926,880, or 5 2 '98 per cent. Of the total popula- 
tion, 53*87 are employed in work, while 46 '13 are dependent on 
^ them for support. Of the males, 63*27 per cent., and of the females, 
44*59 are employed. There were in the plains, educated or under 
instruction, 61,406 persons, including 4268 females. The languages 
of the plains of Ganjam are Telugu and Uriya, while Kandh and 
Savara are the languages of the tribes in the hills known by those 
names. The aboriginal tribes are principally Kandhs and Savaras, 
who have now nearly all embraced some form of Hinduism, and 
are included in the general number of Hindus returned above. 
Ethnically, the Uriyas (777,558) form the largest part of the District 
population, the remainder being for the most part Telugus (692,931). 
Their manners and customs differ, and they speak a distinct language. 
The Uriyas are chiefly found in the north of the District, extending 
as far south as Parla Kimedi. South of Kasibiiga, and throughout the 
Chikakol tdh(k^ the larger number of the inhabitants are Telugus. 
There is, however, no clearly-defined line between the country occupied 
by the two races. The principal towns in Ganjam are — Berhampur 
(i88r), 23,599; Parla Kimedi, 10,812; Chikakol, 16,355; Ichkapur, 
5528; Baruva, 4298; Raghunathapuram, 7634; Kalingapatam, 
4465; AsKA, 3909; Gan-jam, 5037; Gopalpur, 2675; Boyarani, 
3339; Harimandalam, 3089; Mandasa, 4671; Narsannapet, 8230; 
Purushottapur, 3962 ; and Surada, 3594. Gopalpur is the chief 
seaport of the District : the others are Ganjam, Bdruva, and Kalinga- 
patam. The only municipalities are Berhampur and Chikakol. 


Ai^riculiute. — Agricultural operations commence in June, during 
which month the rains of the south-west monsoon usually begin to 
lalL In June the early dry grains and rice intended for trans- 
planting arc sown. Rice is sometimes sown broadcast, but is usually 
transplanted from specially prepared seed-beds. In July and September 
an ample and continued supply of water is essential to the growth of 
the young plants. The reaping of the rice crop commences soon 
after the ist November, and sometimes lasts until the 15th January, 
according as the season has been early or late. An early season 
betokens, as a rule, a favourable harvest. The dry grain crops {i.e. 
those grown upon unirrigated land) and early rice are reaped between 
the I St September and the 15th October. The after-crop of dry grains 
continues, however, to be reaped from the middle of February to the 
beginning of April. A second crop of rice in Ganjam is almost un- 
known ; it occurs, however, in a tract of land not far from Ichdpur, 
bordering upon the sea. Neither cotton nor fibre cultivation is 
])ursued to any considerable extent. The sugar-cane grown in Ganjam 
is of excellent quality, and is said to be the best in India. It demands 
more care and attention, however, than any other crop, and is never 
grown for two years in succession on the same land. The soil 
requires to be well manured with oilcake or other suitable manure. 
Sugar-cane is estimated to require one-third more water than rice, 
and takes ten months before it reaches maturity. In spite of these 
drawbacks, however, the crop is exceedingly profitable to the peasant 
who can afford to grow it. Sugar-cane is chiefly cultivated about 
Aska. The total area of the District amounts to 83 11 square miles, 
of which 5205 are comprised in the Maliya Hill Tracts, and 3106 
form the plains portion. The total cultivated area returned in 1881-82 
was 428,337 acres (or nearly one-twelfth of the total area of the Dis- 
trict), of which 203,184 acres were irrigated. The uncultivated area 
consisted of 70,763 acres of cultivable land, 28,139 acres of pasture 
and forest lands, and 147,090 acres of uncultivable waste; the total 
area assessed was 495-824 acres, and the total assessment amounted to 
-£^97'059- Of the cultivated area, cereals occupied 353,333 acres; pulses, 
•9.755 acres; orchards and garden produce, 14,838 acres; tobacco, 
2015 acres ; condiments and spices, 2090 acres ; sugar-cane, 4123 acres; 
oil-seeds, 27,564 acres; and fibres, 4445 acres, including 4093 acres 
under cotton. The Imperial and minor irrigation works of the Dis- 
trict comprise 45 irrigation channels, 112 large and 2661 minor tanks, 
which irrigated in 1 88 1-82 a total area of 268,135 acres, yielding 
a water revenue of ;^54,5i7- Rice occupies about two-thirds of the 
area under grain cultivation. The agricultural stock of the District in 
1881-82 consisted of 26,537 buffaloes, 81,400 bullocks, 66,279 cows, 
157 horses and ponies, 561 donkeys, 1S27 pigs, 25,768 goats, 12,093 

I \ GANJAM. 7 

sheep, 13,874 carts, and 47,440 ploughs. The peasantr}-, as a class, 
are poor, and generally in debt to the money-lenders, forestalling 
their crops by borrowing, or by selling the produce at a cheap rate for 
payment in advance. An average holding consists of about 8 acres, 
paying a yearly rental of about j[,2. The average rates of wages 
in 1SS1-S2 were, for ordinary labourers, from 2d. to 3d. per day; 
and for blacksmiths, carpenters, and other skilled labourers, 6d. to 8d. 
Prices of rice and food-grains have risen to more than double the 
rates prevailing in 1850, and in the case of rice, to treble the former 
rates. The rates in 1881, per maufid of 80 lbs., were as follow : — Rice, 
4s. ; ragi (Eleusine coracana), 2s. 2d.; kambu (Panicum spicatum), 2s.; 
millet, 2s. 3d. ; wheat, 5s. id. ; pulses, from 5s, 3d. to 2s. o|d. ; 
salt, 6s. loid. ; sugar, 21s. lod. ; gingelly, 6s.; tobacco, 22s.; cotton, 
14s. 2d.; and sheep, 3s. 6d. each. Tenures are of three kinds — (i) 
Kayatii'dri, or small farms held by individuals direct from Government ; 

(2) koshtguitj, in which whole villages unite in holding lands in 
common, direct from Government, with joint responsibility for rent ; 

(3) 7nustazdri, or the farming-out system, which is confined to the 
zaviinddri tracts. By the last system lands are put up to auction, 
either in lots or entire villages, and knocked down to the highest 
bidder, who is left to make what profit he can out of the actual 

1 cultivators. 

Natural Calamities. — Famines, caused by flood and drought, are 
the principal natural calamities to which the District is liable. The 
chief scarcities have been in 1789-92, 1 799-1801, 1836-39, and 
1865-66. The great famine of 1865-66 was principally confined to 
the northern portion of the District, but its ravages did not reach the 
same intensity as in Orissa. This famine was caused by the failure 
of the rains, following upon two years of partial scarcity in 1863 and 
1864. It is estimated that 60,000 persons perished, either from 
starvation or from diseases induced by privation. The cost of relief 
was about ;^37,5oo. 

j Communications, Manufactures, etc. — The District contains 664 miles 

' of made roads and 26 miles of canals in the plains, besides 323 miles 
of roads in the hill country. A tidal canal, 9 miles long, connects the 
Chilka lake with the Rishikulya river. Ganjam was formerly the seat 
of an important factory of the East India Company, and its looms 
supplied a considerable share of the annual ' Investment ' from the 
Madras coast. The manufactures of the District are now chiefly con- 
fined to those required for local consumption. Muslin, handsomely 
finished with gold thread, is made in Chikakol. Sugar and rum 

^ factories exist at Aska. The sugar manufacture is a modification of 
the German method. It consists in chopping up the cane mto small 
shavings by rapidly -revolving knives, and extracting the juice by 


thoroughly saturating the cane in water. Fine white sugar can be 
refined within 48 hours after commencing the process. In 18S0, 
the out-turn by the German process was valued at p^i 6,000. The 
rum is manufactured chiefly out of the surplus syrup which it is not 
found profitable to convert into sugar. For making country spirits, rice 
and mahud flowers (Bassia latifolia) are used. Cognac and milk punch 
are also manufactured in the Aska sugar factory. Annual out-turn of 
rum, 150,000 gallons. The season of sugar manufacture is from 
January to the end of March. Salt manufacture is a Government 
monopoly, and is carried on at Ganjam, Naupada, and Vomaravilli. 

Administration. — The District, which contains, besides the Hill tracts, 
the three Government taluks of Berhampur, Chikakol, and Gumsar, 
is administered by a Collector-Magistrate, who is the chief executive 
and revenue officer, aided by 3 European Assistants, a District Judge, 
4 District viunsi/s, a superintendent of police, and a staff of subordinate 
English and native officials. The Agency tracts are administered by a 
judge and 4 munsi/s. In 1805-6, the total revenue amounted to 
^88,512, and the expenditure to ^6143 ; in 1850-51, the revenue was 
^136,144, and the expenditure ^22,325 ; while by 18S1-82, the gross 
revenue had increased to ^^395, 87 9. The principal items of Imperial 
revenue are land, which yielded in 1881-82, ^.^i 18,459; excise, 
;^i2,o77; assessed taxes, ;^i 225 ; sea customs, ;2^i3,27o; salt, 
^-^'■:92>^ ', '"^nd stamps, ;:^ 1 2,9 1 2. For the protection of person and 
property, there are 26 magisterial and 13 civil and revenue courts in 
the District. The regular police numbered 1356 officers and men of 
all ranks in 1881-82, costing ^21,612, and showing a proportion 
of I policeman to every 6-i square miles of country, and to every 
1 290 of the population. The average daily number of prisoners in 
the District jail at Berhampur was 130, and at Russellkonda Hill jail, 
126, maintained at a total cost of ^1967, or £■], 12s. gd. per head of 
average strength. Education is comparatively forward, 8-3 per cent. 
of the population of the plains being able to read and write. In 
1881-82 there were in the District 850 schools, attended by 17,312 
pupils, besides 17 hill schools, attended by about 960 boys. [For 
Jurthcr information regarding Ganjdm, see the Ganjam District Manual, 
by T. J. Maltby and G. D. Leman, Escjuires (Madras, Lawrence Asylum 
Press, 1882). Also Report on the Kandhs of the Districts of Ganjdm 
and Cuttack, by Lieutenant (afterwards Major) Macpherson, Assistant 
Surveyor -(Jeneral, dated Madras, 21st June 1841, and printed in 
Calcutta, folio, 1842: The Madras Census Report for 1881 ; and the 
Administration and Departmental Reports of the Madras Presidency 
from 1880 to 1883.] 

Ganjam.— Z;/////' of Ganjdm District, Madras Presidency. Area, 
553 !>quarc rnilcs, with 300 villages. Population (188 1) 78,513, namely, 


39,357 males and 39,156 females; number of houses, 13,651. Hindus 
numbered 78,309; Muhammadans, 196; and Christians, 8. 

Ganjam. — Town in Ganjdm District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 19" 
22' 27" N., long, 85° 7' E. Formerly the capital of the District to 
which it gives its name, situated at the mouth of the Rishikuliya 
river, 697 miles north-east of Madras, 315 miles south-west of Calcutta. 
Population (1881) 5037, namely, 4995 Hindus, 37 Muhammadans, 14 
Christians, and i unspecified. The town itself and the remains of the 
old pentagon fort are on a rising slope ; but north of the town the 
ground is low and feverish. It was formerly a seat of considerable 
trade, and of a Factory and Fort (1768) presided over by a Chief and 
Council ; but since the removal to Berhampur of the head-quarters of 
the District in 18 15, Ganjam has declined in size and importance. 
The removal was occasioned by an epidemic fever which carried off a 
large proportion of the inhabitants, both European and native. The 
sanitary condition of the town has been much improved of late. While 
it remained the chief town, Ganjam was remarkable for the magnifi- 
cence of its European residences. Some of these still exist, as also the 
remains of the old forts (see Hunter's Orissa, vol. i. p. 17). The 
(Government salt manufacture forms now the principal industry. The 
fort of Ganjam is situated at the mouth of the Rishikuliya river, but 
has no harbour, and the heavy surf and constant shifting of the sand- 
banks render it difficult of access. There is a mud dock for the repair 
of native vessels. European steamers occasionally visit the port. The 
chief trade consists of the export of rice. 

Ganjam. — River in the Madras Presidency. — See Rishikuliya. 

Ganjam. — Suburb of Seringapatam, in Mysore District, Mysore 
State. Lat. 12° 24' n., long. 76° 47' e. It occupies the eastern or 
upper portion of the large island irf the Kaveri (Cauvery) river, on 
which Seringapatam is built. It was established by Tipii Sultan, who 
transported hither thousands of families from Sira. Now the most 
thriving part of the island, and the residence of several well-to-do 
merchants, with manufactures of cotton cloth. The KarighatayJ/'rrt' or 
festival held in February or March is annually attended by 20,000 

Gantang. — Mountain pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, over the range 
dividing Kunawar from Chinese territory. Lat. 31° 38' N., long. 78^ 
47' E. The highest part lies within the limit of perpetual snow. 
Scenery wild and rugged ; the Rishi Gantang mountain rises over the 
pass to a height of 21,229 feet above sea-level, while the crest of the 
pass itself has an elevation of 18,295 ^^^t. Fuel can be obtained with 
great difficulty, and the pass is consequently but little frequented. 

Ganutia. — Town in Bi'rbhum District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 52' 30" N., 
long. 87° 52' 45" E. Situated on the north bank of the river Mor, and 



famous as the centre of the silk industry of IJirblium. The Ganutia 
factory was established in 1786 by Mr. Frushard, a merchant, who 
engaged to supply the East India Company with silk at fixed rates. 
Mr. Fru^hard's story is typical of the 'private adventurers ' of the last 
century. It is told at length in Hunter's Annals of Rural Bengal, p. 357 
et seq., i\\\ edition. He met with much opposition from the District 
officials in his endeavours to become a producer of Bfrbhiim silk on a 
large scale. Tlie natives charged him the highest prices for everything, 
and the Company allowed him the smallest. At length, in 1 790, he was 
compelled to make a fmal appeal to the Government for relief; and in 
1 791. Lord Cornwallis commanded all his arrears of revenue to be 
remitted, and his rent to be reduced by about one-half. I'hus relieved, 
.Mr, Frushard began to prosper. He converted the forest and waste 
around Cianutia into thriving and prosperous villages, and founded 
little tributary factories throughout the whole north-eastern jungle of 
Birbhiim. His factory, rebuilt several times, now forms the most 
imposing edifice in the District, and is the property of an English firm 
in Calcutta. The single process of winding off the cocoons formerly 
emi)loyed 2400 artisans, and it has been calculated that the factory 
supported 15,000 persons; its average annual outlay was unofficially 
returned in 1868 at about ;^7 2,000. At present (18S3), owing to the 
decaying state- of the silk industry, the Ganutid factory only employs 
about 530 persons. 

Garag. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Dharwar District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Area, 699 scjuare miles ; contains 3 towns and 97 villages. 
Population (1881) 100,333, namely, 49,506 males and 50,827 females. 
Hindus number 88,853 ; Muhammadans, 10,314 ; 'others,' 1166. The 
Subdivision contains i civil and 3 criminal courts ; police circles 
(tliihids), 2 ; regular police, 56 men ; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs), 334. 
Garag (GaJax). — Chief town of the Sub-division of Garag, Dharwar 
1 )istrict, Bombay Presidency ; 43 miles east of Dharwar town. 15" 24' 50" N., long. 75° 40' E. Population (1881) 17,001. 
Hindus number 13,460; Muhammadans, 3176; Christians, 331 ; and 
Jains, 34. Together with the neighbouring town of Betigeri, Garag 
forms a municipality, with a municipal revenue (1882-83) of ^^1548 ; 
rate of taxaticjn, is. 5 id. per head of the joint population (17,001) 
within municipal limits. Garag is a flourishing town, with considerable 
trade in raw cotton and cotton and silk fabrics, the cotton trade alone 
amounting to upwards of ^^50,000 a year. There is a sub-judge's 
court, a telegrai»h and a ])ost-office, together with the chief revenue and 
polirc offices of the Sub-division ; a weekly market is held. 

Garai {Gorai). — The name given to the upper reaches of the 
.Madhumatf, the largest and most important river in Jessor District, 
Bengal. The Gardi is one of the principal channels by which the 


waters of the Ganges are carried to the sea ; its chief tributary is the 
Kumar, which was formerly itself the main stream, the Garai being then 
a feeder. Below Kushtia, the Gardi throws off several cross streams 
towards the Kumar, the most considerable being the Kaliganga. During 
the rains so much water flows through this channel into the Kumar that 
at Ramnagar, near Magura, the latter has to get rid of the surplus, and 
discharges part of its waters back again into the Garai channel. But in 
the cold season, when but little water comes down the Kumar, this 
cross stream flows in the opposite direction, and brings down the waters 
of the Garai towards Mdgura with the Nabaganga. The Garai flows in 
a southerly direction from Ganespur to Haripur, about 35 miles ; it is 
420 yards wide in the rains, and navigable by steamers all the year 

Garamli Moti. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency ; consisting of i village, with i independent tribute-payer. 
Population (1881) 327. Estimated revenue, ^200, of which ^^19, 12s. 
is paid as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda and ^2, 8s. to Junagarh. 

Garamli Nani. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency ; consisting of i village, with 2 independent tribute-payers. 
Population (1881) 400. Estimated revenue, ;^i5o, of which a tribute 
of ^19, 8s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Garaspur. — Town and fort in Gwalior State, Central India. Lat. 
23° 40' N., long. 78° 9' E. Noted for some fine ancient buildings 
elaborately sculptured, and carved out of the sandstone of the 
neighbouring hills. 

Garden Reach. — A suburb of Calcutta ; situated on the Hiigli, 3 
miles south of the city. Lat. 22° 32' 35" n., long. 88° 21' 40" e. The 
Peninsula and Oriental Navigation Company and the Messageries 
Maritimes have large establishments here, where passengers for Europe 
by their mail steamers embark. The small forts of Aligarh, on the left 
or Garden Reach side of the river, and Tanna, on the opposite bank, 
were taken by Lord Clive in the recapture of Calcutta, December 1756. 
Branch dispensary. The suburb was long a favourite place of residence 
for the European inhabitants of Calcutta, and contains many fine houses, 
situated in large ' compounds.' These houses are said to have been 
built between 1768 and 1780. The residence of the ex-King of Oudh 
has been fixed here by the Government, and he occupies a series of 
magnificent mansions on the river bank, with menagerie and pleasure- 
grounds attached. 

Garg'aon. — Ruined town and fort in Sibsagar District, Assam. — See 

Gargariba. — Town in Maldah District, Bengal. — See Haiatpur. 

Garh {Gad). — Petty State of the Sankhera Mehvas, in Rewa Kantha, 
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Bounded on the north and east by 



Chhota Udaii)ur, on the south by the Xarbada river separating it from 
Khdndcsh, and on the west by the estates of Palasni and Virpur. The 
estate includes 103 villages and is the largest in the Sankhera Mehvas, 
having an area of 128 square miles, and an estimated revenue of about 
p^2ooo. Pays a tribute of ^^47, los. to Chhota Udaipur. Population 
almost wholly Bhil. The chief, who is a Chauhan Rajput, represents a 
younirer branch of the Chhota Udaipur house. 

Garha.— Ancient town in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) District, Central 
Provinces ; 90 miles south-east of Sagar (Saugor). Lat. 23" 10' N., long. 
79° 56' 30" E. Population (1881)5587, as returned by the Deputy 
Commissioner, but the town is not shown separately in the Census 
Rei)ort. The figures probably include neighbouring villages. Garha 
was formerly the capital of the Gond dynasty of Garha Alandla, whose 
ruined keep, built about iioo a.d., by Madan Singh, and known as the 
Madan Mahal, still crowns the low granite range, along the foot of 
which the town stretches for about 2 miles. Under the Mahal, to the 
west, is the beautiful Ganga Sagar tank, and near it the large sheet of 
water called the Bal Sdgar. Garha has an excellent Government 
school, with about 125 scholars. The trade is insignificant, its decline 
dating from the removal of the Gond dynasty to Singaurgarh. The 
Garha mint, which coined an inferior rupee called the Bala Shahi, 
formerly current throughout Bundelkhand, was in full operation when 
Mr. Daniel Leckie passed through the ))lace in 1790. 

Garha. — Petty State of the Giina (Goona) Sub- Agency, under the 
C}walior Agency of Central India. — See Gharra. 

Garha Kalan. — Village in Banda District, North- Western Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2000, consisting chiefly of Brahmans and Chamars. 
Founded about 500 years ago, and burnt during the Mutiny by troops 
of the rebel Narayan Rdo of Karwi, in revenge for the inability or 
unwillinc:ness of the inhabitants to provide supplies. 

Garhakota. — The chief town of a tract of the same name in Sagar 
< Saugor) District, Central Provinces. Lat. 23° 47' N., long. 79° 11' 30" e. ; 
situated in an angle formed by the rivers Sonar and Gadhairi, 27 miles 
cast of Sagar; about 1435 ^^^t above sea-level. Population (1881) 
1 1,414, namely, Hindus, 7701 ; Sikh, i ; Satnami's, 7; Kabiri)anthis, 1293; 
Muhammadans, 1897; Jains, 474; Christians, 5 ; aboriginal religions, 36. 
Number of houses, 3473. It was probably founded by the Gonds, who 
held it until about 1629, when a Rajput chief from Bundelkhand, named 
Chandra Sdh, expelled them, and built the fort. In 1703, Hirde Sah, 
son of the famous Chhatra Sal, the Bundela Rdja of Panna, took the 
fort, K'^ing the Rdjput chief in lieu the single village of Naiguwan, in 
KchH, still held at a quit-rent by a descendant of Chandra Sah. Hirde 
Sih built another town east of the fort, on the other side of the river, 
and called it after himself, Hirdenagar. I'ive years after his death, 


which happened in 1739, dissensions arose between Subha Singh and 
Iiis younger brother Prithwi Singh. The latter invited the Peshwa to 
his assistance, promising in return a fourth of the revenues, and by these 
means succeeded in constituting himself ruler of the town and tract of 
Garhakota. In 1820, the Raja of Nagpur invested the fort. Mardan 
Singh, a descendant of Prithwi Singh, was killed in a skirmish, and his 
son, Arjun Singh, applied to Sindhia, offering to cede one-half of the 
territory in payment for his protection. Sindhia accordingly despatched 
an army under Colonel Jean Baptiste, who defeated the Nagpur troops, 
and retained Malthon and Garhakota for Sindhia, leaving for Arjun 
Singh the country of Shahgarh, with other territory. Baptiste remained 
for some time at Garhakota, as governor of the fort. In 1819, how- 
ever, Arjun Singh seized the fort by treachery, and held it for six 
months, when he was ejected by a British force under General Watson. 
From that time the English administered the country on behalf of 
Sindhia, till in 1861 an exchange was effected, and Garhakota became 
British territory. 

Garhakota really consists of two towns, divided by the river Sonar — 
Garhakota and Hirdenagar, in the latter of which all the trade of the 
place is carried on. The chief manufactures are red cloths called ddhi 
and pathi, worn chiefly by women. Gur, or coarse sugar, is largely 
produced and exported ; and grain, especially rice and wheat, sent both 
north and south. Besides the market held every Friday for the sale of 
grain, cattle, and native and English cloth, there is a large cattle fair, 
beginning on the i8th January, and lasting for six weeks, which is 
attended by about 30,000 persons from Gwalior, Bhopal, Bundelkhand, 
and most Districts of the Central Provinces. In 1868-69, ^he imports 
of Garhakota amounted to ^16,958, the exports to ^^20,068. There 
is a District post-office, and schools for boys and girls. The fort is 
solidly constructed on a lofty eminence east of the town, between the 
rivers Sonar and Gadhairi, with an artificial moat on its unprotected 
side. The inner walls enclose a space of 11 acres, mostly, covered 
with buildings. These, however, are in ruins, as also are the outer walls 
and bastions, which were pardy levelled by sappers, after Sir Hugh Rose 
captured the fort in 1858. About 2 miles north of the town, on the 
borders of the Garhakota Ramna, stand the remains of a larcre 
summer palace built by Mardan Singh. The square tower is still in fair 
preservation. At the base, each side measures about 15 feet; and the 
tower rises to the height of 100 feet, in 6 storeys, each slightly tapering 
upwards. There is a winding stone staircase the whole wav up. Near 
these ruins Sir Herbert jNIaddock, when Agent to the Governor-General 
at Sagar (Saugor), built a large flat-roofed house, which has lately been 
placed in charge of the Forest Department. Dispensary and police 


Garhakota Ramna. — Teak forest in Sagar (Saugor) District, 
Central I'rovinces. Area, 6 square miles. 

Garhauli (G^^///-<?////).— Rural town in Hamirpur District, North- 
western Provinces. Population (1881) 4003. Distant from Hamirpur 
-,5 miles. Large Chandel tank, now nearly silted up, testifies to former 
importanrc. Two annual fairs, halkdbaJidi school. 

Garhbeta.— Town in Midnapur District, Bengal ; situated in the 
nortli of the District, on the main line of road to Midnapur. Formerly 
the head-quarters of a Sub-division, since transferred to Ghatal. The 
seat of a munsifs court, and of a sub-registrar's oiifice. Magistrate's 
court sits twice a week. Police station. 

Garhbori. — Pargami in Chandd District, Central Provinces, con- 
tainini; 129 villages, with an area of 576 square miles. A hilly and 
thickly-wooded tract, intersected from north to south by four branches 
of the Andhari river, and rendered picturesque by several magnificent 
tanks or lakes. The soil is chiefly red, and devoted to rice and sugar- 
cane. The population mostly consists of Kori's and Manas. 

Garhbori. — Town in Chanda District, Central Provinces ; on a 
branch of the Andhari river, 16 miles north-north-west of Miil. Lat. 
20° 18' N., long. 79° 38' 30" E. Population (1881) 1269. Manufactures 
a sari (native female garment) of a peculiar pattern, and produces 
excellent pan. The houses cluster round a fortified hill, with forests 
on all sides ; and near the town are quarries of freestone and limestone. 
(iarhbori has Government schools for boys and girls, and a police 

Garbchiroli. — Town in Chandd District, Central Provinces; on left 
bank of the Wainganga river, 23 miles east-north-east of Mul. Lat. 
20° 11' N., long. 80° 3' E. Population (1881) 3099, namely, Hindus, 
2736; Muhammadans, 78; and aboriginal religions, 2S5. Brisk trade 
in cotton, cotton cloth, tasar cocoons and thread, jungle produce, 
carts, and salt. Government schools for boys and girls, and police 

Garhdiwdla. — Town in Hoshiarpur iahsil., Hoshiarpur District. 
Punjab. Lat. 31° 44' 30" N., long. 75° 47' 30" E. Population (iSSi) 
3438, namely, Hindus, 2037 ; Muhammadans, 1024; Sikhs, 337; and 
Jains, 40. Number of houses, 621. A third-class municipality. 
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;!^257; expenditure, ;^i97. A con- 
siderable entrepot of the sugar trade. Scene of an important fair, in 
honour of Devi, held in ^Larch and September. Average attendance, 
20.000 ]i<Tsons. 

GarhgJioil (spelt in Assamese, Gargdon). — Ruined town and fort in 
Sibsdgar District, Assam. The earliest seat of government of the Ahani 
princes, and the capital of their kingdom till the prosperity of the 
dynasty began to wane, when it was transferred to Rangpur in the same 


District about 1698. The fort and palace of Garhgaon are situated on 
the banks of the Dikhu river, to the south-east of Sibsagar town. The 
fort had bastions at the corners, but they are now destroyed. The 
magazine was situated a short distance east of the fort. The royal 
palace, one of the oldest buildings in the Province, is described by 
Robinson, in his Descriptive Account of Assam, as having been ' sur- 
rounded by a brick wall about 2 miles in circumference;' but the whole 
town and its suburbs appear to have extended over many square miles 
of country. The ruins of gateways, built chiefly of masonry, are still 
to be seen within the fortified circumvallations which surrounded the 
town. It may be observed that one of the gateways is composed prin- 
cipally of large blocks of stone bearing marks of iron crampings, which 
show that they once belonged to far more ancient edifices. From this 
evidence alone, w^ere there no other, it might safely be presumed that, 
long antecedent to the conquest of the Ahams, the country had been 
inhabited by a race far advanced in some of the arts of civilised life.' 
This ancient building has fallen into complete ruin, though not altogether 
by the hand of time ; for the fort and site were purchased from Govern- 
ment many years ago, on a thirty years' lease, by the Assam Company, 
for the sake of the bricks, which have been removed for the purpose of 
erecting fresh buildings on the Company's tea estates. 

Garhi {also known as Bhaisa Kher'i). — Guaranteed Thakurate of 
Dhar State, under the Deputy Bhi'l (Bheel) Agency of Central India. 
It consists of 3 villages in Dharampuri, for which the chief pays a small 
tribute, and 3 Bhi'l paras. The chief is responsible for all robberies. 
The present holder is Nahar Singh, whose residence is at Pipalda. 
Population (1881) 552. Revenue, about ;^2i5. 

Garhi-Adu-Shah. — Town in Sakkar taluk, Shikarpur District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) under 2000, mainly agricul- 
tural. A station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey. 

Garhi Ydsin. — Town in Sakkar taluk, Shikarpur District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Latitude 27° 54' N., longitude 68^ 33' 15" e. Popu- 
lation (1881) 5541, namely, Muhammadans, 2391, chiefly Pathans ; 
Hindus, 1755, principally Baniyas ; and 'others,' 1395. Municipal 
revenue (1881-82) ^1109; expenditure, ;^679 ; incidence of local 
taxation, 2s. 7d. per head. Considerable trade in oil. Travellers' 
bungalow, court-house, and post-office. 

Garhmukhtesar. — Ancient town in Meerut (Merath) District, North- 
western Provinces. Lat. 28" 47' 10" n., long. 78° 8' 30" e. Stands on 
the high cliffs on the right bank of the Ganges, 4 miles below its 
junction with the Burh Ganga; distant from Meerut 26 miles south- 
east. Population (1881) 7305, namely, Hindus, 4934; and Muham- 
madans, 2371. Area of town site, 109 acres. Originally a ward {mahalla) 
in the mythical city of Hastinapur, celebrated in the Bhdgavat Furdna 


and in the Mahahhdrata. Ancient fort, afterwards occupied b}; a 
Maniiha leader. Derives its name from the great temple of Mukhtes-| 
wara Mahadeo, dedicated to the goddess Ganga, consisting of four 
separate shrines, two on the cliff and two below it. Close by stand So 
sati pillars. A great fair at the full moon of Kartik attracts 200,000 
pilgrims from all parts of the country. Inhabitants chiefly Brahmans. 
Little trade except in timber and bamboos, rafted down the Ganges 
from the Diin and Garhwal. Police station, four sardis, staging 
bungalow, charitable dispensary. Ferry in the rains, and bridge of 
boats during the remainder of the year. 

Garhshankar. — Southern tahsll of Hoshiarpur District, Punjab ; 
situated between 30° 58' and 31° 25' 30" x. lat., and between 76° i' and 
76° 33' 45" E. long. Area, 451 square miles. Population (1881) 235,165, 
namely, males 127,275, and females 107,890; persons per square mile, 
521. The revenue of the tahsil in 1883 was ;;^34,8o9. The adminis- 
trative staff consists of i tahsilddr, i munsif, and i honorary magistrate, 
presiding over 3 civil and 2 magisterial courts. Number of police 
stations, 3; strength of regular police, 50 men; village watchmen 
{c/iaukiddrs), 384. 

Garhshankar. — Town in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, and head- 
quarters of (iarhshankar ta/isil. Lat. 31° 12' 58' N., long. 76° 11' 2" E. 
Situated on the road from Hoshiarpur to Riipar. Population (1S81) 
5275, namely, 2032 Hindus, 3157 Muhammadans, and 86 Sikhs. Con- 
siderable trade in sugar and tobacco. Ta/isili, police station, post-office. 
Police force of 16 men. 

Garhvi. — River of the Central Provinces ; rising near Chichgarh, in 
Hhandara District, in lat. 20° 52' n., long. 80° 34' e., and flowing south- 
wards for 150 miles, falls into the Wainganga river below Seoni, in 
Chanda District, lat. 20° 26' n., long. 80° e. According to a local legend, 
the stream issued from the earth at the i)rayer of a holy man named 
(iarga Rishi. 

Garhwdl. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
Western Provinces, lying between 29° 26' and 31° 5' x. lat., and between 
78° 1 7' 1 5" and 80° 8' e. long. Garhwal forms the north-western District 
of the Kumdun Division. It is bounded on the north by Chinese Tibet, 
on the east by Kumdun District, on the south by Bijna'ur (Bijnor) 
District, and on the west by Indei)endent Garhwal or Tehri, and Dehra 
Diin District. Estimated area, 5500 square miles; population (188 1) 
345,629 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at Pauki, but 
Skinaoar is the chief town of the District. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Garhwdl consists for the most part 

f'f ni^'ged mountain ranges, the central peaks or outliers of the main 

Jliindiayan chain, tossed about in the most intricate confusion, and 

■severed by narrow valleys, which may rather be described as gorges 


or ravines. The broadest among them, that of Srinagar, measures 
barely half a mile in width, and has an elevation of 1820 feet above 
sea-level. A narrow strip oi bhdbar, ox waterier -forest, some 2 or 3 
miles in breadth, intervening between the southern bases of the hills 
and the alluvial lowlands of Rohilkhand, forms the only level portion 
of the District. To the north, the mountains belong to the central 
upheaval line of the Himalayas, the principal peaks within the boundaries 
of Garhwal being — Trisiil, 23,382 feet; Nanda Devi, 25,661 feet; 
Dunagiri, 23,181 feet; Kamet, 25,413 feet; Badrinath, 22,901 feet ; 
and Keddrnath, 22,853 f^^t. North-westward from this massive chain, 
the mountains fall away to the elevated plateau of Tibet, scored by the 
valleys of the Saraswatf and the Dhauli, through which the Mana and 
NiTi Passes respectively lead across the frontier into Chinese territory. 
Southward from the main range, again, parallel spurs run towards the 
plain in a direction from north-east to south-west, while cross systems 
of irregular hills connect their lines from time to time, interspersed with 
occasional ridges of greater elevation, which reach a height of from 
10,000 to 12,000 feet. South of the river Nyar, however, the ranges 
assume a direction more parallel to the plains, and nowhere exceed an 
elevation of 7500 feet. Along the larger rivers, the hills present a 
gradual slope at their bases, and end in a succession of dry terraces, 
which are generally cultivated by artificial irrigation. Above, a belt of 
forest clothes their flanks ; while the actual summits rise high into the 
region of perpetual snow. The Alaknanda River, one of the main 
sources of the Ganges, marks the central line of greatest depression, 
and with its affluents receives the whole drainage of the District. The 
Alaknanda forms one of the holiest amongst Indian objects of reverence, 
and each of the points where it meets a considerable confluent is 
regarded as a sacred station in the pilgrimage which devout Hindus 
perform to Himachal. At Deoprayag, a place of special sanctity, it 
joins the Bhagirathi, and the united streams thenceforward assume 
the name of Ganges. The only important river in Garhwal that does 
not fall into the Ganges within the borders of the District is the Ram- 
ganga, which rises near Lobha, and, flowing through Kumaun and 
the plains of Rohilkhand, finally debouches into the great stream in 
Farukhabad District. Navigation is impracticable on all the rivers, 
owing to their great velocity, and the existence of shoals or rapids ; but 
Several of them afford a waterway for rafting timber. The southern 
portion of the District is still covered with primeval forest, and tiger- 
haunted jungles abound in the central tract ; but cultivation encroaches 
year by year on the w-ild lands, and the people are encouraged to settle 
and reclaim the soil by grants at a nominal rent. 

Hisfory. — In the almost total a'bsence of written records, the annals of 
Garhwal have to be constructed partly fi-om local tradition and partly 

VOL. V. B 


iroiu inference. About five hundred years ago, the valley of the 
Alaknandd was divided into 52 petty chieftainships, each chief having 
iiis own independent fortress {garh), from which the country is said to 
have derived its name. Between four and five centuries ago, Ajai Pal, 
ruler of Chandpur, reduced all these minor principalities under his 
own sway, and became the founder of the Garhwal kingdom. He 
J. laced his capital at Srinagar, where he built a palace, the ruins of 
which still remain in tolerable preservation. The Rajas of his line, 
known as the Chdnd Dynasty, ruled over Garhwal and the adjacent 
Tehri State until their expulsion by the Gurkhds in 1803. The suc- 
cession appears to have been strictly hereditary. One of the line, 
Pridhiman Sah, was chosen ruler of Kumaun ; but on his father's 
death, he preferred the certain tenure of his ancestral dominions to 
the precarious throne of the neighbouring State, which lay at the mercy 
of the party from time to time in power at Almora. The Chand Rajas 
seem generally to have ruled with justice and moderation, and their 
country attained a considerable degree of prosperity for a mountain 
])rincipality. Twice they successfully repelled an invasion of the 
Rohillas— on one occasion when the freebooters attacked them through 
Kumaun, and again when they attempted to enter the hill country 
through Dehra Diin. But a constant predatory warfare existed 
between Garhwal and Kumaun, each party making forays into the 
territory of their rivals whenever opportunity offered, and plundering 
all that came in their way. To the present day, a slumbering animosity 
between the inhabitants of the two Districts is only kept in check by 
the British authority. 

In 1803, the Gurkhds, then the dominant race in Nepal, made their 
way westward, conciuering everything before them, and drove Pridhiman 
Sdh, the Chand Rdja, into the plains. For twelve years they ruled with 
a rod of iron over the whole of Garhwal and Dehra Dun, and im- 
jjovcrished the country by their tyranny. They divided the District 
into a number of petty military fiefs, in which each commandant exacted 
as much as he was able in addition to the demand of the central 
])Ower. The villages were left waste ; the inhabitants fled into the 
most impenetrable jungles ; and to this day the name of Gurkha forms 
a popular synonym for all that is cruel and tyrannical. Years of our 
rule have hardly sufficed to obliterate the effects of this terrible in- 
vasion, which threw back the i)rogress of the country for at least a 
(juartcr of a century. The Gurkhas then commenced a series of petty 
encroachments on the British territories at the foot of the Himalaya?, 
which were not resisted with any vigour until the attention of our 
Government was attracted in 181 2 by their outrageous aggressions on 
the Gorakhpur and Tirhiit frontier. After an unsuccessful attempt at 
conciliation, war broke out in November 1S14. The events of the 


campaign, wliich resulted in our capture of Almora and the reduction 
of the two Districts, belong rather to the history of Kumaun. At the 
close of the war, the Tehri principality, known as Independent 
Garhwal, was restored to Sendurshan Sah, whose grandson, Pratdp 
Sah, still retains it ; but the valley of the Alaknanda was erected into 
a British District, and organized on the usual model. Under our 
strong and peaceful administration, British Garhwal has risen from a 
state of desolation scarcely paralleled elsewhere in India, to a height 
of material prosperity which it never before enjoyed. Cultivation has 
rapidly increased ; and the growth of tea culture has opened the Dis- 
trict to British capital and enterprise, which are turning this once 
wretched tract into an important and wealthy region. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 was taken over an area ap- 
proximately estimated at 5500 square miles ; it disclosed a total 
population of 310,288 persons, distributed among 3944 villages or 
townships, and inhabiting 57,293 houses. The last Census in 1881 
returned the population at 345,629, showing an increase of 35,341, or 
11-4 per cent, during the nine years. The results arrived at by the 
Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows: — Estimated area 
Df District, 5500 square miles; members of villages, 3862; houses, 
1-7)736. Total population, 345,629, namely, males 170,755, and 
'emales 174,874; proportion of males, 49-4 percent. Average density 
)f population, 62*8 persons per square mile ; villages per square mile, 
570 ; persons per village, 89-5 ; houses per square mile, 8*6 ; persons 
)er occupied house, 7-2. As regards the religious distinctions of the 
)eople, Garhwal is almost exclusively a Hindu District, as many as 
;43,i86 persons, or 99*4 per cent., being returned as adherents of the 
mcient creed; while the Muhammadans number only 2077, or o-6 
)er cent. The Musalmans live in such scattered localities that they 
)Ossess little or no social influence. Jains number 69, and Buddhists 
15. There is a mission at Chapra, near Pauri, and 242 persons 
rere returned in 1881 as being Christians. Of Hindu castes, Brahmans 
lumber 77,960; Rajputs, the great bulk of the population, 204,519; 
Janiyas or traders, 3657; Gosains, 2620; and Doms, 52,060. The 
reat Hindu temples of Badrinath and Kedarnath attract large 
umbers of pilgrims, and have produced a deep influence on the history 
nd manners of the people. They lie among the inmost recesses of the 
nowy range. The sanctity of these shrines has contributed to render 
tie inhabitants superstitious and bigoted ; but the yearly influx of 
ilgrims adds greatly to the wealth of the District. 

Three principal races inhabit the southern slopes of Garhwal. 
'he Dhiims (who are not returned separately in the Census Report) 
ppear to be the descendants of aboriginal tribes, and now form 
le menial class throughout the District. They differ totally in 


features, habits, and religion from the other castes by whom they have 
been brought into, subjection. The Khasiyas evidently came from 
the plains of Hindustan, but they preserve no memory of their im- 
migration. They comprise many castes of Brahmans, Rdjputs, etc., 
all of which, however, are regarded by the orthodox Hindus as Siidras. 
They reside principally in the central and northern pargands, and re- 
semble the C.urkhds in appearance, from which fact it may perhaps be 
inferred that they are not free from a Nepdlese admixture. The third 
class includes the true Brahmans and Rajputs, most of whom arrived 
in the country after the establishment of a settled government. Some 
of the Brahmans trace back their immigration to the times of Kanak 
Pdl, who first settled in Chandpur and built a fort, the ruins of which 
are still in existence. A totally distinct race inhabits the region lying , 
within the snowy range. These are the Bhutids, a tribe of Indo-Chinese | 
origin, much intermixed with Hindu elements. They talk the Hiinia 
or Tibetan language, as well as Hindi, and have besides a patois i 
of their own. They are few in number, but they control the whole 
carrying trade with Tibet. Both men and women are powerfully built, , 
dirty in their habits, and gready addicted to drink. Among the social i 
customs of Garhwdl generally, must be noticed the universal prevalence : 
of polygamy. Wives are looked upon in the light of beasts of burden, i 
so that every man obtains as many as his means will afford. Desertion ; 
and suicide are common, in. spite of all the efforts of the British officials 'i 
in amelioratintr the condition of women. The District contained no 
place in 1881 with a population exceeding 5000 persons. Pauri, the 
head-quarters station, can hardly claim any higher rank than that of 
a hill village ; and Srinagar, in the valley at its foot, is the only place 1 
which reaches the dignity of a town. Of a total of 3862 villages in 
1881, 35S2 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 270 had ' 
from two to five hundred ; and only 9 from five hundred to a 

Agriculture. — Out of an estimated area of 5500 square miles, only 
173 were returned in 1881 as under cultivation. Nevertheless, this 
amount is nearly treble of the tilled land in 1815. Agriculture is 
carried on with considerable skill and great industry. Taking into 
account the steep nature of the country, it must be allowed that the 
people deserve great credit for the manner in which they have divided 
it into terraces, some of the fields having a breadth of only 3 yards. 
Wheat, rice, and viandud form the staple crops ; and the quantities 
grown not only suffice for local wants, but leave a surplus for exporta- 
tion to the neighbouring District of Bijnaur (Bijnor) and to Tibet. 
The chief food of the lower classes is viandud, which yields a larger i 
return than any other crop. Cotton is little cultivated, as it can be 
purchased elsewhere at a cheaper rate than that for which it could be 


produced in the District. The people have grown richer of late years, 
and are enabled to keep more cattle than formerly, and consequently 
to employ more manure for their fields. Abundant pasture lands 
stretch along the upper slopes of the snowy range, affording excellent 
grazing for large herds of goats and sheep during the rains. Unlimited 
pasturage also exists in the valleys and in the hhdbar at the foot of 
the hills, but this has been preserved by the Forest Department, which 
levies dues on all animals permitted to enter its boundaries. Cattle in 
numbers come for grazing from the western pargands of Kumaun, 
where no pasturage is found. The cultivators chiefly consist of petty 
proprietors, and the peasantry as a whole are well-to-do and free from 
debt. Rents are generally paid in cash, except by tenants-at-will, who 
pay in kind at the rate of from one-fourth to one-third of the crop. 
Irrigation is practised wherever water can be obtained ; and two small 
canals in the blidbar supply an area of 1300 acres. The regular rota- 
tion of crops consists of rice, followed by wheat, and then by viandicd ; 
after which the land lies fallow till the next rice season. Tea-planting 
is carried on under European supervision to a considerable extent. 
The planters give occupation to about 400 permanent and 600 short- 
service labourers, the latter being employed during the tea-picking 
season. Wages have more than doubled during the last thirty years. 
In 1S50, ordinary coolies obtained |d. per diem- they now receive 3d. 
per diem. Smiths, braziers, and carpenters used to get from 3d. to 
4|d. ; they are now paid from 4|d. to Qd. Agricultural day-labourers 
are unknown in Garhwal. The ordinary price of viandud varies from 
30 to 40 sers per rupee, or from 3s. gd. to 2s. lod. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Floods occasionally occur on the Alaknanda, 
one of which, before the Gurkha conquest, swept away half the town 
of Srinagar. In 1868, again, an inundation of the same river inflicted 
considerable damage. Droughts also affect the District from time to 
time ; but owing to the high ranges of hills on every side, they are 
never general, though they may extend over so wide a tract as to make 
their effects felt throughout the whole country. The last great scarcity 
from this cause took place in 1867, when the rabi crops in all the lower 
and more fertile portion of Garhwal almost entirely failed. Govern- 
ment made an advance of jQiooo, and grain purchased in the bhdbar 
|was carried up by the people themselves for sale at certain established 
Icentres. Money was plentiful in the District at the time, so that most 
purchasers paid in cash, only a few giving labour in exchange for food. 
The kharif croY>s of the same year proved excellent in their yield, and 
entirely relieved the temporary distress. Garhwal suffered but little 
from the terrible famine of 1868-70, and probably gained in the end, 
as measures were taken to prevent the export of grain or the ingress 
of pilgrims; and the crop of 1869 turning out a good one, the 


people sold large quantities of grain after the removal of the em- 
bargo, at very higlf rates, to the inhabitants of Bijnaur. This famme 
also acted as an incentive to increased cultivation. The District 
suflered severely in 1S77-78, when about ^1200 worth of grain was 
advanced to the people to carry them over the scarcity. Want of 
carriage forms the great difficulty in relieving distress among the 
Garhwal hills, since supplies can only be drawn from the bhdbar, or 
the adjacent plain Districts : and to reach these places a very malarious 
jungle must be traversed. Sir H. Ramsay has done much to avert the 
recurrence of dearth by his settlements in the bhabar of Kumdun, but 
the similar tract in Garhwal does not possess like capacities for culti- 
vation. Famine rates are reached when wheat sells at 8 sets per 
rupee, or 14s. per cwt., and via7idud at 10 sers per rupee, or iis. 2d. 
per cwt. 

Commerce and Trade, f/r.— The Bhutias carry on a considerable 
traffic with Tibet, to which country they export grain, sugar, cloth, and 
tobacco ; while salt, borax, wool, gold, and precious stones form the 
chief staples of the return trade. Sheep and goats imported from 
Chamba are employed as beasts of burden on these routes, which lie 
over the lofty crests of the Mana and Niti Passes. Bird-skins and the 
I)ods of musk-deer formerly ranked as main items in the exports south- 
ward ; but owing to the reckless way in which the animals were . 
destroyed, measures have been taken to preserve them, which cause a 
temporary interference with the trade. Several valuable minerals are 
found in Garhwal, including copper, iron, lead, silver, and gold ; none, 
however, occur in paying (juantities or positions. Coin accumulates 
from year to year, mainly through the influx of pilgrims to the great 
temples. Tea-planting has not hitherto proved remunerative, but its 
financial prospects are improving, as the planters gradually learn to 
economize labour and to reduce expenditure. No railway station 
exists nearer than Sahdranpur, distant from Pauri about 100 miles. 
Good hill roads, from 10 to 12 feet in width, intersect the District in 
every direction. Most of them are bridged throughout. The total 
length of roads amounts to about 1000 miles. The chief routes, in a 
commercial point of view, are those — (i) from Srinagar to Ni'ti, 125 
miles, which serves the Tibet trade ; (2) from Srinagar to Kotdwdra, 
55 miles, which serves the traffic to the plains ; (3) from Kainur to 
the great trading mart at Ramnagar, which carries the hill produce ; 
and (4) from Pauri to Almora, connecting the two head-quarters 

Administration. — The District is administered by a senior- Assistant 
Commissioner, who resides at Pauri, and possesses criminal and revenue 
jurisdiction. The office is now held by a military officer in civil employ, 
assisted by an extra-Assistant Commissioner and a ta/isilddr, both of 


whom are stationed at Pauri. The Civil Judge, who exercises revenue 
and criminal powers, also resides at Pauri, which ^s the head-([uarters 
as well of the native civil judge. In 1822 the total land revenue 
amounted to ^5851; by 1875 it had risen to ;^9555 ; and by 
1 882 to ^i2,i6-j. There is no regular police except at head- 
quarters, and little crime of any kind. Long-term prisoners are sent 
to the jail at Almora, and the only place of confinement in Garhwal 
is a lock-up at Pauri. Education has made much greater progress 
among these mountain valleys than in the plain country at their feet. 
The total number of Government inspected schools in the District in 
the year 1883 amounted to 67 ; and the total number of pupils on 
the rolls to 3314. These figures show an average of i school to 
every 82 square miles of area, and 9 scholars per thousand of the 
population. This, however, is exclusive of uninspected schools, for 
the Census Report of 1881 returns 3744 boys and 177 girls as under 
instruction, besides 12,278 males and 135 females able to read and 
write, but not under instruction. For administrative purposes, the 
District is divided into 11 pargands and 86 pattis. The number of 
registered proprietors at the last settlement amounted to 31,118. 
There are no municipalities in Garhwal. 

Medical Aspects. — For six months in the year the climate of Garhwal 
is damp and rainy ; but during the remaining half of each twelvemonth 
it is dry and bracing. The natural features of the country, however, 
introduce many minor modifications in various portions of the District. 
Towards the Niti and Mana Passes, in the Bhutia country, periodical 
rains do not occur, and the climate is always cool. In the valleys, 
intense heat prevails during the summer months, while the nights and 
mornings in the cold season are bitterly cold. The average annual 
rainfall at Pauri is about 48*4 inches, and at Srinagar about 37'! 
inches. Fevers and bowel complaints form the chief endemic diseases, 
but cholera prevails to a much greater extent than in the plains. The 
total number of deaths recorded in i88r was 6910, or 20 per thousand 
of the population. Small-pox formerly ravaged the District, but owing 
to the vaccination arrangements lately made, this annual plague has 
ceased to recur with its former regularity. There are 7 charitable 
dispensaries — at Srinagar, Karnprayag, Ukhimath, Chimauli, Joshimath, 
Ganai, and Bikhia-kasain. During the year 1882 they gave relief 
to 18,861 patients. [For further information regarding Garhwal, see 
the Gazettcei- of the North-]Vester7i Provinces, vols. x. and xi., by E. T. 
Atkinson, Esq., C.S. (Government Press, Allahabad, 1882 and 1884). 
Also the Census Report for the North- Western ProviJices and Oudh 
in 1881 ; together with the Provincial Administration and Depar-t- 
niejital Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Garhwdl (or TehH). — A Native State in political relationship with 


the Government of the North- Western Provinces ; lying between lat. 
30" 2' and 31° 20' N., and between long. 77° 54' and 79° 19' e. It 
extends over the south-western declivity of the Himalayas, and consists 
throughout of a vast range of mountains of enormous height, inter- 
mingled with several valleys, the drainage of the whole ultimately 
finding its way to the Ganges. The chief town is Tehri, by which 
ai)pcllation the State is sometimes mentioned. The Raja of Garhwal, 
Tratap Sah, is a Kshatriya of the Lunar race. The early history of 
the dynasty is obscure ; but it appears that they exercised authority 
over the whole of Garhwal for many generations, paying, however, a 
small tribute to the Emperor of Delhi. In 1804, the Gurkhas overran 
the country and expelled the Raja, but he was replaced by the British 
after the Xei)al war of 181 5, and that portion of his hereditary pos- 
sessions which lay to the west of the Alaknanda river was restored to 
him ; the lands to the east, the Dehra Diin and the District of Garhwal, 
being retained by the British Government. {See GARHw^\L District.) 
During the Mutiny of 1857, the Raja, .Sudar Shan Sah, rendered 
valuable assistance to Government. He died in 1859 without legitimate 
issue, and, in accordance with the terms of the treaty, the State lapsed 
to Government ; but, in consideration of the services of Sudar Shan 
Sah, his eldest illegitimate son, Bhawani Singh, was allowed to succeed. 
Bhawdni Singh subsequently received a satiad giving him the right of 
adoption. He was succeeded in 187 1 by his eldest son, Pratap Sah, 
the present ruler, who was born about 1850. The State pays no tribute. 
The area of Garhwdl is about 4180 miles; the population in 1881 was 
returned at 199,836 persons, inhabiting 2249 villages and 22,728 
houses. Hindus numbered 198,738; Muhammadans, 10S9 ; and 
Christians, 9. The Raja's estimated revenue is ^^Scoo per annum. 
The hills are generally very steep, and a large portion of the territory is 
covered with forests, which include valuable deodar tracts. These were 
leased to the British Government in 1864. 

Garnimetta {Gurnimetta). — Town in Vayalpad tdhik, Kadapa 
(Cuddapah) District, Madras Presidency. Latitude 13° 48' n., longitude 
78' 56' E. Population (1881) 3934, namely, 3808 Hindus and 126 
Muhammadans; houses, 929. 

Garo Hills. — The District of the Gdro Hills forms the south-western 
corner of the Province of Assam. It lies between 25° 9' and 26° o' n. jj 
lat., and between 89° 52' and 91° 3' e. long. Bounded on the nortlM 
by Godlpard District; on the east by the Khdsi and Jdintia Hills; on 
the south and west by the Bengal Districts of Maimansingh and Rangpur. 
According to the recent survey, it contains an area of 3146 square 
miles, with a population in 1881 of 109,548 persons. The administra- 
tive head-quarters are at the station of Tura, on the mountain range of 
the same name. 


Physical Aspects. — The entire District, as implied by its name, is a 
mountainous tract, forming the western end of the great chain which 
runs between the Surma and Brahmaputra valleys. On the north, near 
the Brahmaputra river, the hills are low, and covered only with grass 
or scrub jungle; but they gradually increase in height towards the 
interior of the District. The two principal ranges are known as the 
Tura and Arbeld Hills, which run parallel to one another east and west. 
Their greatest height is 4650 feet, which is attained by two peaks in 
the Tura range. As is the case with all the mountains on the north- 
east frontier of India, these ranges take the form of a series of long 
even ridges, with deep valleys between, occasionally diversified by peaks 
or towering masses of rock. Except on the rare spots where juin 
cultivation has been introduced, they are clothed with dense forest, 
containing timber trees of majestic dimensions. From the summit of 
Tura Hill a magnificent view can be obtained over the flat Districts of 
Goalpard, Rangpur, and Maimansingh, and the sweeping course of the 
Brahmaputra can be traced for a distance of upwards of 100 miles. On 
a clear day in the months of October and November, the eye can discern 
the snowy peaks of the Himalayas, far beyond the distant station of 
Ddrji'ling. In the valleys, also, the scenery is of a very picturesque 
character. The hill streams break through rocky gorges, which are 
overgrown to the water's edge with forest trees, creepers of many 
varieties, and gigantic ferns. 

The Brahmaputra, called the Songdi by the Giros, nowhere touches 
the boundary of the District ; but several tributaries of that river take 
their rise among the hills, and find their way into the Districts of 
Goalpara and Maimansingh. Of these, the five most important are the 
Krishnai, Kalu, Bhogal, Nitai, and Someswari, all of which are 
used for floating down timber rafts, and can be navigated by canoes 
during the cold season. The Tura range constitutes the watershed of 
the District, all the streams north of that line draining into Goalpara, 
while those to the south flow into Maimansingh. The streams abound 
in fish, which the Garos are expert in catching by several ingenious 

The extensive forests of the District are too remote from means of 
communication to yield much profit at present. The valuable sal tree 
is very abundant, and the /////, hirdi, and ajar are also felled for timber. 
In recent years, the British authorities have adopted the policy of 
taking into their own hands the entire management of the forests, after 
compensating the zaminddrs and the hillmen for the rights which they 
formerly enjoyed. It is proposed to plant nurseries of sal in spots con- 
venient for water carriage, and carefully reserve them from the fires of 
jum cultivation. At present the woodcutters take out licences to fell 
timber within certain limits. In the year 1881-S2, the revenue derived 


from this source amounted to ^^907, but the collections are very 
fluctuating.' The jungle products are — lac, beeswax, various fibres, 
used for making string and cloth, and a few dyes. Wild animals and 
large game abound, including elephants, rhinoceros, tigers, wild dogs, 
butHaloes, mithun or wild cows, and many kinds of deer. Government 
has recently asserted its prerogative to the sole right of capturing wild 
elephants. It has been estimated that the District can annually supply 
nearly 200 of these valuable animals for several years to come, which 
alone would more than repay all the local expenses of administration. 
The mineral products known to exist are — coal of fair quality and 
under a large area, building stone, and lime. No metals have hitherto 
been discovered. 

History. — The Garo Hills were first constituted a separate admini- 
stration in the year 1866. Previous to that date, the independence of 
the tribes living in the remote hills had been tacitly recognised. From 
the time when the British obtained possession of the dhvdni of Bengal 
in the last century, numerous Garo villages along the foot of the hills 
were included within the Districts of Goalp.ira and Maimansingh. The 
frontier, however, was always very ill-defined, being fixed neither by 
geographical nor ethnical principles. The boundaries were finally 
settled by the survey executed between 1870 and 1875. Towards the 
east a line has been drawn along rivers and other natural boundaries, to 
demarcate the Garo from the Khasi Hills. On the north and west, some 
tracts previously included within Goalpara District have been definitely 
attached to the Garo Hills ; and the dues and cesses formerly levied by 
the lowland zaminddrs are now collected on their account by the direct 
agency of Government. On the south side, towards Maimansingh, a 
similar principle has been adopted; and a long-standing dispute has 
been terminated, which dated back to the Permanent Settlement. The 
Raji of Susang and other Maimansingh zaiiiinddn had persistently 
asserted their claim to a large portion of the hills, as having been 
originally included within their permanently-settled estates ; and they 
urged, accordingly, that such portion of the hills lay within the juris- 
diction of the Collector of Maimansingh, These claims, however, were 
never admitted by the Government. In 1866 the boundary was 
roughly drawn at its present line, and the Maimansingh landholders' 
claims were finally satisfied by money payments, and the land attached 
to the Gdro Hills. 

But though a British officer was appointed to the Garo Hills in 1S66, 
the mountainous interior still remained a terra incognita, and its inhabit- 
ants continued to be known as the Independent Giros. In December 
1867, the Deputy Commissioner took up his quarters at Tura, and by 
the end of 187 1 nearly 100 villages had tendered their submission. In 
that year, however, there occurred the unfortunate incident which led 


to the armed expedition of 1872-73. After the conclusion of the 
sur\-ey of the adjoining Khdsi Hills, the survey party was deputed to 
explore the countr}- of the Independent Garos. At first no active 
opposition was encountered, though it was found that the hillnicn 
gradually ceased to offer ready assistance. Their suspicions evidently 
were aroused. In March 187 1, two Bengali coolies of the survey party, 
who had been detached to procure labour from the secluded villages of 
Kangmagiri and Pharamgiri, were treacherously attacked, and one of 
them was murdered. This outrage was followed by several raids on 
the part of the Independent Garos against their countrymen who lived 
under British protection. The Deputy Commissioner immediately 
occupied the rebellious villages with bodies of police, but he was not 
strong enough to pursue the inhabitants into their retreat amid the 
forests. Accordingly it was determined to take advantage of the cold 
season of 1872-73, in order to enforce the authority of the British 
Government throughout the whole country, and to receive the submis- 
sion of about 60 villages that still held out. The expedition consisted 
of three strong detachments of police, operating from separate points, 
and three companies of the 43rd Assam Light Infantry. The military, 
however, were never required to advance farther than the frontier of 
the Khasi Hills. After one engagement, in which the Garos suffered 
some loss, the three police parties effected their junction, having 
marched through the country in all directions. Every one of the 
independent villages now tendered their submission. They surrendered 
the heads of the persons killed by them in their several raids, and 
paid the fine that was inflicted on them. At the same time, permanent 
measures were adopted for maintaining order in the future. Every 
part of the lately independent country was thoroughly examined, the 
number and size of the villages noted, and arrangements made for 
the appointment of lashkars or heads of circles. Every village was 
compelled to contribute to the revenue, according to an assessment 
levied on each house. By the end of May 1873, ^ "^^P o^ ^^ entire 
Garo Hills District had been prepared, on the scale of four miles to the 
inch ; and the wild interior was thus robbed of its chief protection, 
which our ignorance had conferred upon it. The results of this 
expedition have been most beneficial, and the civil administration has 
since been conducted with little or no trouble. 

Population. — No attempt at a regular enumeration of the inhabitants 
has ever been effected in the Garo Hills. The Deputy Commissioner 
in 1870 estimated the population at from 80,000 to 100,000. The 
Census of 1881 was only carried out in certain tracts, and careful 
estimates made from them for the remainder. The Census Report 
returns the total population at 109,548, of whom 23,914 reside in the 
plains, and 85,634 in the hills. In the hills proper, the only race to 


be found is the Garo itself, with the exception of one small isolated 
village called Thapa, which is inhabited by Rabhas. But several 
villages on the plains, which have recently been included within the 
boundaries of the District, are peopled by Rabhas, Kochs, Rajbansis, 
Dalus, Mechs, and a few Musalmans. All these tribes possess ethnical 
features in common with the Garos, but the latter retain sufficient 
national characteristics to be classed as a people by themselves. They 
are thought to represent the primitive stock, of which the Rabha, 
Mech, and Koch represent offshoots that have been modified by life 
on the plains and contact with Hinduism. According to local tradition, 
the Garo Hills were once occupied by Kochs, who were gradually driven 
northward by an invasion of Garos ; and it is a fact that the Kochs at 
the present day claim land in the hills. 

The Garos proper are a robust and active race, capable of enduring 
a great amount of exertion. They are of about the middle height, and 
of a dark-brown swarthy colour. Neither the men nor women have 
any pretensions to good looks. Their cheekbones are prominent, noses 
broad, lips thick, ears large, and eyes of a hazel colour. The men are 
remarkable for deficiency of beard, whatever hair grows on the face 
being carefully plucked out. The hair of the head with both sexes is 
never cut, but either tied up in a knot or kept off the face by means of 
a piece of cloth. The dress of the men consists merely of a strip of 
home-spun cotton cloth, about a yard and a half in length, which is 
passed round the waist and between the legs, and then tied at the back. 
The dress of the women only differs in being slightly more extensive. 
In addition, both sexes carry a small blanket, usually made from the 
bark of a tree. This is manufactured by steeping the bark in water, 
beating it out, and afterwards drying it well in the sun. In the 
eastern hills, the Garos have adopted the short fringed jacket, which is 
characteristic of the Khasias. Both men and women are inordinately 
fond of personal ornaments. The males wear three or four brass ear- 
rings, and as many bead necklaces as they can afford. Men of heredi- 
tary rank wear an iron or brass armlet above the elbow, and a i)eculiar 
ornament round the head, which consists of brass plates connected by a 
string. It is said that this last may only be assumed by one who has 
slain an enemy in battle. The women wear, besides necklaces of glass 
and bell-metal beads, ear-rings of enormous size and weight. It is a 
coveted mark of distinction to have the lobe of the ear altogether torn 
away by the strain thus caused, in which case the ear-rings are suspended 
from a string passed over the top of the head. The weapons of the 
Gdros consist of spear, sword, and shield. The sword, which is peculiar 
to these hills, is a two-edged instrument with an abrupt point, the blade 
and handle forming one piece. Besides being a weapon, it is used for 
every variety of domestic and agricultural purpose. The shield is com- 


posed of thin strips of bamboo ingeniously worked together, so as to be 
ahnost proof against a spear-thrust. In the back of the shield is a 
receptacle for bamboo spikes, which form an essential item in the 
equipment of a Garo warrior. These spikes are intended to be planted 
in the ground, so as to block the way against a shoeless enemy ; and 
they have been found to answer their purpose very effectually. In 
food, the Garos may be styled omnivorous ; they eat not only beef and 
pork, but also tigers, dogs, snakes, and frogs. Their staple diet is rice, 
and their drink rice beer. Milk they altogether eschew, as do all the 
aboriginal races inhabiting the hills between the Surma and Brahma- 
putra. They are great smokers of tobacco, but touch no intoxicating 
drug. Their villages are usually placed on the side of a hill, some 
distance from the crest, and within easy reach of water. The houses, 
as is the case among many other tribes of the north-east frontier, are 
built on piles, and are frequently of considerable size. The materials 
are bamboo and thatch. The structure is usually divided into the 
following compartments : — A large room where the family live, an 
apartment for the women, a place where the cattle are kept, and 
verandahs in front and behind, A rude fireplace, consisting merely of 
smoothed clay, occupies the middle of the house ; and the smoke is 
left to escape as best it can. During the agricultural season, the entire 
body of villagers occupy temporary huts in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the common cultivation. 

The most remarkable domestic custom of the Garos is one which 
they share with the Khasias. The wife is regarded as the head of 
the family, and through her the descent of property is traced. This 
custom is apparently a survival of the system of polyandry. That 
system still exists intact among Himalayan tribes ; for example, among 
the tribes between Simla and Tibet. It is also practised among 
the Nairs and the aboriginal Todas of Southern India. According to 
this system when in full force, a woman is the lawful wife of a family 
of brethren, and a man's property descends, not to his own, but to 
his sister's children. Among tribes who have advanced so far as to 
give up the practice of polyandry, but who still preserve its tradi- 
tions, it leaves behind curious customs of inheritance, such as that just 
described among the Garos and Khasias. Property still descends through 
the females, and the sons receive nothing, but have to look to the 
family into w^hich they marry for their advancement in life. As among 
the Khasias, the women enjoy a position of the highest consideration 
in all domestic matters, and it is said that their voice has great weight 
also in public councils. Marriages are arranged by the parents, and 
concluded when the parties are of fit age. No dower is demanded on 
either side. The husband immediately migrates to the house of his 
wife's family, and becomes one of her clan. Intermarriages between 


members of the same clan are not permitted, but otherwise no regard 
is paid to the ties of consanguinity. A second wife cannot be taken 
without the consent of the first Adultery is punished by a fine. 

The funeral ceremonies of the Garos imply the belief in a future state. 
The body is burned, and the ashes finally buried near the hut-door. At 
the time of cremation, dogs are sacrificed, in order that they may direct 
the spirit on his way. Up to a very recent period, human victims were 
offered on the occasion of the death of a chief. If no slaves were 
available, a foray was made into the plains to bring back heads. The 
Garos believe in a supreme being called Saljang, who is impersonated 
in the sun. But the real objects of their religion are numerous malig- 
nant demons, to whom is attributed every physical and moral evil, and 
whose wrath requires to be appeased by bloody sacrifices. It is the 
duty of the priest or kamdl to determine by certain omens which 
])articular evil spirit is at work, to arrange the ceremonies, and repeat 
the necessary incantations. Like the aborigines of Central India, the 
Garos are excessively superstitious, and believe in the existence of 
witches and imps of all kinds. They have a curious idea that certain 
persons are capable of leaving their human frames, and taking up their 
abode in the body of a tiger or other animal. 

The Garo villages vary greatly in size. Some may have as many 
as 2000, others no more than 30 inhabitants. Tura Station, with 
only 744 inhabitants, is the only place possessing any special charac- 
teristics. It is situated on a spur of the Tura range, about 2000 feet 
above sea-level, and the same distance from the summit. It contains 
houses for the Deputy Commissioner, Police and Medical Officers, 
barracks and huts for 200 constables, and the school-house of the 
American Mission. The stockade by which it was originally protected, 
and a small outpost station, have now been suff'ered to fall into decay. 
Water is plentiful in the immediate neighbourhood, and an aqueduct 
has recently been cut, running right through the station. 

A};r'uultun\ etc. — The Gdros cultivate their land on the system 
known as ji'an. A spot of land is selected on the hill-side, and the 
jungle cut down during the cold season. Towards the end of March, 
the trees and brushwood are burned as they lie ; and the rice crop is 
planted in April, at the commencement of the rains. Shortly after- 
wards, the seeds of vegetables, cotton, i)epper, and pulses are sown in 
the same clearing ; and each crop is reai)cd in rotation, as it comes to 
maturity. In the second year, rice only is grown ; and after twO years' 
cultivation, the clearing is abandoned and suffered to lie fallow for 
about ten years. The sole implement of agriculture is the large knife 
or sword, called dte by the Gdros. Neither plough nor spade is used, 
except in the few Hinduized villages bordering on the plains. The 
rice crop generally raised corresponds to the das of Bengal ; the out- 


turn is estimated at about 4^ cwts. per acre, valued at 15s. The cotton 
is short in staple and poor in quality, but has been found suited for 
mixing with woollen fabrics. Several experiments have been made with 
seed from Hinganghat, but hitherto without any success. The attempted 
introduction of the Khasia potato has also resulted in failure. Among 
miscellaneous crops may be mentioned — arhar (Cajanus indicus), reared 
as food for the lac insect, indigo, ginger, turmeric, and pan or betel- 
leaf Domestic animals are not used for agriculture. Cattle are 
purchased from the plains for sacrifice ; pigs, goats, and fowls are reared 
for food. Every village contains several watch-dogs, and numbers of 
dogs are imported from the plains for food. 

There are but few regular day-labourers in the District. A fair 
remuneration for the Garo casually engaged to carry baggage, would be 
from 4d. to 6d. a day. The work at the station is mainly carried on by 
coolies imported from the plains, but Garos now visit Tura in small 
numbers in search of work. The Garos have no weights nor measures 
of (quantity, but they are extremely acute in guessing the amount of 
the commodities they barter with Bengali traders. In 18S1, the price 
of the best cleaned rice at Tura was 13s. 8d. per cwt. ; of common rice, 
5s. 6d. per cwt. 

No such calamity as blight, flood, or drought sufficient to cause 
famine has been known to occur in the Giro Hills, although distress 
has occasionally occurred, as in 1879, when the remoter villages on the 
north-eastern boundary suffered to some extent. The country is well 
watered both by streams and rainfall, but the average harvest of rice is 
barely sufficient for the local consumption. In the improbable con- 
tingency of distress from a failure of the dus crop, the inhabitants could 
be best relieved by the establishment of food depots at the hill passes, 
which would prevent a turbulent population from crowding into the 
plains. A bridle-path joins Tura with Dhubri in the Assam valley, and 
there is also a cart-road to Dalu in Maimansingh District. Along 
the former route the telegraph line will be laid. The latter is the line 
by which Tura draws its supply of food. In 1882, means of communi- 
cation were afforded by 156 miles of navigable rivers, 37 miles of first- 
class, and 31 miles of second-class roads. 

Miifiufactures, etc. — There are no special local manufactures in the 
hills. The Garo women weave a coarse cotton cloth for the scanty 
garments of themselves and the men, using a loom which has evidently 
been borrowed from Bengal. The cloth is dyed blue with indigo, and 
generally ornamented with red stripes. A rude pottery is made in 
certain villages, but all metal utensils are imported. The District 
trade is entirely conducted at the small markets situated at the passes 
leading into the plains. The principal articles of export are — cotton, 
timber, boats, bamboos, firewood, rubber, and lac ; the imports received 


in exchange consist of— rice, dried fish, cattle, goats, fowls, pigs, cloth, 
and ornaments. The raw cotton grown on the ji'ims is brought up by 
Marwari merchants, to be shipped to Sirajganj. In 1881, about 
30,000 cwts. of uncleaned cotton were exported, valued at iis. per cwt. 
The exports of lac are estimated at about 1600 cwts., worth about j[^2> 
per cwt. 

Administration. — In tlie year 1869-70, the total revenue derived 
from the Garo Hills was ^798, while the expenditure on administra- 
tion amounted to ;£(i\'i(i. By i88r the revenue had risen to ^^5041, 
of which j[^(i\o was collected on account of certain zainindars in Goal- 
para District ; and the expenditure to ^13,271. 

Medical Aspects. — The rainy season generally lasts from about the 
middle of June to the end of October, but occasional showers set in as 
early as May. The cold weather lasts from November to February ; 
and the months of March and April are usually dry and warm. During 
the ten years ending 1881, the average annual rainfall registered 
at Tura station was i26'25 inches. The chief diseases affecting 
strangers to the hills are fevers of a malarious type, sometimes com- 
plicated with enlargement of the spleen or liver, diarrhoea, dysentery, 
rheumatism, chest affections, and ulcers. The Garos, in addition, 
suffer from bronchocele and elephantiasis. In 1871, a severe epidemic 
of cholera broke out at the station of Tura. Out of 80 persons 
attacked, as many as 32 died. [For a further account of the Garo 
Hills, see Hunter's Statistical Account of Assam (London : Triibner & 
Co., 1879).] 

Garol. — Petty State in Rewa Kdntha, Bombay Presidency. It has 
been lately transferred to the Panch Mahals District ; but the tribute of 
jQi is still paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda through the Rewa Kantha 

Garola. — Rent - free estate in Sagar (Saugor) District, Central 
Provinces ; consisting of one village, with an area of 5479 acres, and 
yielding a yearly revenue of ^164. Population (1881) 1017 ; number 
of houses, 235. The village became the head-quarters of a tract 
bestowed by the Emperor of Delhi on Rao Kam Chandra, the 
greater part of which was resumed by the Pesliwa in 1746. Garoli 
contains a small fort, and is surrounded by a stone wall. To the east is 
a fine lake, covering 76 acres j the soil around is fertile. Government 
school for boys. 

Garotha. — The north-eastern tahsiloi]\\in%\ District, North- Western 
Provinces; consisting of a hilly country, gradually sloping down to 
the plains along the Betwa and the Dhasdn rivers, and much inter- 
sected by native territory. Area, 501 square miles, of which 232 are 
cultivated. Population (1881) 87,897, namely, males 45,591, and 
females 42. 3°^ ; number of villages, 176. Land revenue, £\l,^(iS\ 


total Government revenue, ^15,340; rental i^aid by cultivators, 

Garrauli. — One of the petty States of Bundelkhand in the Central 
India Agency, under the Government of India. Gopal Singh, the first 
jdginhir, and the father of the present chief, was one of the most active 
and daring of the military adventurers who opposed the occupation of 
Bundelkhand by the British in 1803. He had been in the service 
of Darjan Singh and Hari Singh, the grandsons of Chhatarsal 
Singh, in Jaso ; and on the invasion of All Bahadur, he seized the 
pargand of Kotra for himself. For years he resisted all efforts of per- 
suasion or force to reduce him to submission ; but being at last con- 
vinced of the hopelessness of the unequal contest, he submitted on 
condition of obtaining a full pardon and a provision in land. 
Accordingly, in 181 2, he received the grant of the Garrauli Jdgir. 
He was succeeded by his son, Diwan Bahadur Parichit, a Hindu 
of the Bundela caste, who is the present chief or jdgirddr. He 
has received a sanad of adoption. The State contains an area of 
25 square miles, with 16 villages and 913 houses. Total population 
(1881) 4976, namely, Hindus, 4779; Muhammadans, 195; and abori- 
gines, 2. Estimated revenue of the chief, ^1600. The military force 
consists of 75 men. 

Gartida-giri (or Gardan-giri). — Hill peak in Kadiir District, 
Mysore State; 3680 feet above sea - level. Latitude 13° 29' n., 
longitude 76° 17' e. 

Ganidanadi (or Gaddilavi).. — River in South Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. It rises in the Yegal Tank, in Kallakurchi tdluk^ and is 
fed by the Mallatar, which connects it with the Ponniar, Its bed is 
sandy, and its banks for the most part low. After a course of 59 miles, 
passing on its way Fort St. David and Cuddalore, it falls into the Bay 
of Bengal. 

Garumari. — Forest reserve in Darrang District, Assam ; containing 
valuable ^(//timber (Shorea robusta). Area, 205-18 acres. 

Garvi. — Petty Bhil (Bheel) State in Khandesh District, Bombay 
Presidency. — See Dang States. 

Garwa. — Town and municipality on the Dauro river, Lohardaga 
District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 9' 45" N., long. 83° 51' 10" e. The chief 
distributing centre for the surplus produce of Palamau Sub-division, 
and of a great part of Sarguja and the tributary States of Chutia 
Nagpur. Population (i88r) 6043, namely, Hindus, 4977; Muham- 
madans, 1063; 'others,' 3. Area of town site, 2412 acres. The 
' Garwa market is held in the dry season, on the sands of the Dauro 
river ; and here sticklac, resin, catechu, cocoons of tasar silk, hides, 
1 oil-seeds, ghi, cotton, and iron are collected for exportation ; the imports 
are food-grains, brass vessels, piece-goods, blankets, silk, salt, tobacco, 

VOL. V. C 


spices, drugs, etc. Municipal revenue (1S82-83) ^225, or 8|d. per 
head of population. 

Gathar. — Town in Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Population (iSSi) under 2000. Lies on the Kambar-Nasirabad road. 
Well known for its rice. 

Gauhali. — Maods State, Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area unknown ; population (1881) 1946 ; supposed gross revenue, 
j[^220o. The country is extremely mountainous, covered with dense 
forests, and only partially cultivated. Principal produce, timber and 
bamboos, for the most part sold in the Taloda market. Climate 
unhealthy. The chief is a Bhil Hindu of the Giras family, and holds 
no patent allowing adoption. He resides at Raisinghpur. He is one 
of the superior chiefs of Khandesh ; and being a minor, the State is for 
the present under the direct management of the Political Agent. 

Gauhati {Gowhatty). — Chief town of Kaniriip District, Assam; 
situated on both sides of the Brahmaputra, but principally on the left 
or south bank, in lat. 26° 11' N., and long. 91° 48' e. Population (1881) 
11,695, namely, Hindus, 9220; Muhammadans, 2333; and Christians, 
142. Area of town site, 2172 acres. Municipal taxation (1882-83), 
;^i347 ; average rate of taxation, 2s. 2id. per head. Gauhati was the 
ancient capital of the Hindu kingdom of Assam previous to the conquest 
of the western portion of the valley by the Ahams. It then became the 
seat of the Bar Phiikan, or Viceroy of the Aham kings, whose capital was 
in Sibsagar District. When Assam was conquered from the Burmese in 
1825, Gauhati was selected as the head-quarters of the administration 
of the Province. On the constitution of the Chief-Commissionership 
of Assam in 1874, the administrative head-quarters were removed to 
Shillong in the Khasi Hills. Gauhati is, with the exception of 
Barpeta in the same District, the most populous town in the Brahma- 
putra valley, and spreads over an area of 2 square miles. According to 
local tradition, it is identified with the city of Prayagajyotishapura, the 
capital of King Naraka and his son Bhagadatta, monarchs mentioned in 
the i\fa/uil>hdrata. Of its former glories, whether as the capital of a 
Hindu King or of an Aham Viceroy, the only relics which exist are the 
mounds and extensive lines of brick fortifications which lie scattered 
along the banks of the Brahmaputra. The gateways which gave access 
to the enclosures within the fortifications, and which existed at the 
beginning of the present century, have now entirely disappeared. A 
large proijortion of the soil in the cultivated fields in the neighbourhood 
is composed of brick, mortar, and pottery ; and carved stones and 
beautifully-finished slabs, the remains of once noble temples, are 
frequently found beneath the surface. The numerous tanks, which 
attest the command of labour possessed by its former rulers, are now, 
in many cases, choked up with weeds and jungle, or are entirely effaced 

GAUR. 35 

by a false though luxuriant soil that floats on the stagnant waters 
concealed beneath. 

The site of the town is regarded, with some justice, as very 
unhealthy. The Brahmaputra is here almost surrounded by a circle 
of hills to the north, west, and east, and the basin thus formed is 
cut off from the breezes which at other points on the river purify the 
atmosphere. The houses of the European residents are situated along 
the southern bank of the Brahmaputra, on comparatively high ground ; 
the bazars lie behind them inland ; and beyond these, for a distance of 
six or seven miles, to the skirts of the Khasi Hills, stretches a malarious 
swamp, partly cultivated with rice, and partly covered with marsh 
vegetation. Some improvement has been effected in recent years in 
the sanitation and drainage of the town, and in cleaning and improv- 
ing the tanks in its immediate neighbourhood. Projects for a more 
extensive drainage, and for the provision of a pure water-supply, are 
now (1883) under consideration, and a matured scheme has been 
drawn up and submitted to the Chief Commissioner, with an applica- 
tion for a loan. Gauhati was formerly a military station, occupied by 
one of the Assam regiments, but the cantonments have now been 
abandoned, with the exception of a few military buildings for the 
accommodation of troops passing through. Gauhati is an important 
centre of river trade, and one of the largest seats of commerce in 
Assam. In 1876-77, European piece-goods were imported to the 
value of ;^i6,ooo, and cotton twist to the value of _;jrio,5oo. No later 
statistics of local traffic are available, the river traffic being now 
registered only at the border of the Province. An excellent cart road 
leads south to Shillong, a distance of 63^ miles. The High School at 
Gauhati formerly possessed a College Department, teaching up to the 
university examinations ; but it was very poorly attended, excessively 
expensive, and was abolished by Colonel Keatinge, Chief Commis- 
sioner of the Province, the money thus saved being expended to 
better advantage in primary and middle-class education. There is 
also a Persian School frequented by the children of a small body of 
Muhammadans settled here. In the immediate neighbourhood of the 
town is a frequented place of Hindu pilgrimage, the temple of 
Kamakhya (a name of Durgd). A picturesque temple to Siva, under 
the title of Umananda, situated on a rocky island in the mid-channel 
of the Brahmaputra, immediately opposite the centre of the town, is 
also an object of veneration. 

Gaur (or Lakhnauti). — Ruined city and ancient capital of Bengal, 
Maldah District ; situated on a deserted channel of the Ganges, in lat. 
24° 52' N., long. 88° 10' E. The time of the foundation of the city is 
involved in obscurity, and the whole course of its historj', down to 
the day when it was finally deserted, is only to be conjectured. With 





., ard to its origin, it is known that it was the metropolis of Bengal 
un°der its Hindu kings. Local traditions connect some of its ruins with 
the oft-recurring names of Adisiir, Ballal Sen, and Lakshman. The most 
ancient name for the city itself seems to have been Lakshmanawati, 
corrupted into Lakhnauti. The name Gaur is also of great anticiuity, 
but it is probable that this name was more strictly applicable to the 
kingdom (called Gauriya Bengala) than to the city. The ascertained 
history of Gaur begins with its conquest in 1204 a.d. by the Muham- 
madans, who retained it as the chief seat of their power in Bengal for 
more than three centuries. At the close of this period were erected the 
numerous mosques and other Muhammadan buildings, which yet remain 
in a tolerable state of preservation. When the Afghan kings of Bengal 
established their independence, they transferred the seat of govcrnJ 
ment to Panduah, a Hindu outpost of Gaur, also in Maldah District ^ 
and to build the public structures of their new capital, plundered Gaur 
of every monument that could be removed. Hence it is, that while the 
ruins of Panduah are covered with stones bearing Hindu sculptures, 
scarcely a single relic has been found on the site of Gaur that could be 
definitely referred to a Hindu building. Panduah was soon afterwards 
deserted, and the royal residence re-transferred to Gaur, which continued, 
under the name of Janatabad, to be the capital of Bengal so long as its 
Muhammadan kings retained their independence. During the latter 
years of the Afghan dynasty, the seat of government was again 
removed to Tandan or Tangra, a few miles south-west of Gaur, on the 
bank of the then main channel of the Ganges, which was gradually 
receding farther and farther west, and disturbing the drainage of the 
country east of its course. 

This change of the seat of government was made on account 
of the change in the course of the Ganges, and the alteration of the 
face of the country and of communications, as well as owing to 
the unhealthiness of Gaur from its malarious surroundings, after the 
recession of the Ganges. The fall of Gaur was hastened by its being 
sacked by Sher Shah and his Afghans in 1537. It finally dis- 
appears from history in 1575. During these last years of its great- 
ness, it suffered many vicissitudes. It was plundered by its own kings, 
repeatedly besieged, and more than once taken by storm, Diiid Khan 
was the last of the Afghdn dynasty. His refusal to pay homage to the 
Mughal Emperor at Delhi led to the final subjugation of Bengal. A 
large army under Mana'im Khdn finally defeated Daud in 1575, and 
occulted during the rainy and unhealthy season the already decaying 
city of Gaur. A pestilence broke out, by which thousands of the 
troops and inhabitants died daily. The people were unable to bury or 
burn the dead ; corpses of Hindus and Musalmans were thrown into 
the moats and tanks, and into the adjoining river Bhdgirathi. The few 


GAUR. 37 

people that survived the plague left the city, which was never again 
populated to any extent. The imperial general, who had resolved to 
maintain Gaur as the seat of government, and to restore its former 
magnificence, fell a victim to the general contagion. 

Henceforth the name of Gaur is scarcely to be found in Muhammadan 
annals, and the city was never reoccupied after this depopulation. Such 
appears to be the true account of the desertion of Gaur. But Ur. Buchanan- 
Hamilton discredits the story of the pestilence, and states that the 
Mughal viceroys of Bengal used occasionally to reside at the fortified 
I)alace at Gaur; and that as late as 1639, Shah Shuja, the brother of 
Aurangzeb, added buildings to the palace fort in the city. This prince 
made Rajmahal the capital of Bengal ; and from that time, according 
to Dr. Buchanan - Hamilton, dates the actual abandonment and 
desolation of Gaur. He thinks that ' the city then went to instant ruin, 
not from any great or uncommon calamity, but merely from the removal 
of the seat of government.' The ruins have been a quarry, not only 
for the brick houses of the neighbouring towns and villages, but also for 
the mosques, palaces, and public monuments of Murshidabad. It is 
said that the Commercial Residency at English Bazar was constructed 
with bricks from Gaur. Dense jungle now reigns supreme over the 
half broken-down ruins of walls, forts, and palaces. Tigers, rock 
pythons, and pelicans were the chief inhabitants of Gaur for centuries ; 
but during the last twenty years, extensive clearances of jungle have 
been effected, and the whole area of the- city is now more or less 
under cultivation. As the few ruins left crumble away, and as cul- 
tivation extends, only the ramps and ditches and old tanks, and 
remains of roads, will mark the site of the city of Gaur, 

The ruins were first explored by Mr. H. Creighton in 1801, and 
afterwards by Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton in 1810. This latter gentleman 
has left an elaborate description of the ruins as they then appeared, from 
which the following account is mainly condensed. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that their dilapidation, partly from natural causes, but 
chiefly by the hand of man, has rapidly advanced since that time. 

The city, with its suburbs, covered an area variously estimated at 
from 20 to 30 square miles. The situation is somewhat elevated, and 
the soil is clay, affording good material for bricks, and well suited to 
preserve the houses from inundation, and the site of the city from 
diluvion. Countless millions of small, thin bricks were used in building 
Gaur. The dimensions of the city proper, i.e. the part within the great 
continuous embankment (partly natural and partly artificial), were about 
l\ miles in length from north to south, and from i to 2 miles in breadth, 
giving a total area of about 13 square miles. The west side of the city 
was throughout washed by the main stream of the Ganges, the eastern 
side being protected partly by the Mahanada and partly by a line of 

^,8 GAUR, 


perennial swamps, which were formerly a channel of the Ganges. To 
the south but little protection was needed, for the junction a little lower 
down of the Mahananda and the Ganges would have prevented an 
invader from choosing such a circumscribed base of operations. To 
the nonh, which was the most accessible quarter, an artificial bulwark 
was required. A line of fortifications, about 6 miles in length, extends | 
in an irregular cur\-e from the old channel of the Bhagirathi at Sontala i 
to near the Mahananda at Bholahat This rampart, mainly composed of \ 
brick, is about loo feet wide at its base. At each end, where it touches 
on the rivers, it is cut off by a ditch 120 feet wide. At the north-east 
part of this curve is a gate, protected by a strong projecting outwork in 
the form of a quadrant, through which a high embanked road passes 
north and south. This outwork contains many tanks, and the monument 
of a Muhammadan saint. It seems to have been the station of the 
police officer who had charge of this part of the city. 

Near the north-east corner of the outwork, at the confluence of 
the Kalindri with the Mahananda, stands a mindr or tower, which, 
although now fallen to ruin, still presents a striking object as viewed 
from the ferry at Minasarai. North of the rampart, and entirely 
apart fi-om the city, are the sites of two isolated ruins, connected 
with the names of Adisur and Ballal Sen, early Hindu kings of 
Bengal, Close by is the site of the ruins of the palace where 
Ballal Sen is said to have resided, consisting, like the palace at 
Dacca, of a square of about 400 yards, surrounded by a ditch. 
Behind the rampart is the northern suburb of the city. It is of vast 
extent, in the shape of a quadrant of a circle, with an area of about 
6000 yards. It does not appear to have been at any time thickly 
inhabited. The eastern portion is now occupied by marshes ; but 
the western portion, near the Bhagirathi, is enclosed by earthworks, and 
contains many public buildings. Here is situated the large Sagar Dighi, 
the most celebrated artificial piece of water in Bengal It was formed 
by uniformly deepening, and embanking from north to south, natural 
hollows existing in the high clay lands. The place was probably used 
extensively for a long time for brickmaking before it was converted into 
a tank. Its dimensions are almost 1600 yards from north to south, and 
more than 800 from east to west The banks are built of brick, and 
the water remains pure and sweet to the present day. This was a ■ ^rj , 
Hindu structure ; and in the neighbourhood are the two most 
frequented places of Hindu pilgrimage in the District, namely, Vadullapur 
ghat and the Durbasine shrine. The banks, however, are now occupied 
with Muhammadan buildings, of which the most conspicuous is the 
tomb of Mukhdam Shah Jalal, a saint who is stated to have exercised 
great influence in the time of the early Musalman kings of Bengal. 
Near this tomb is a small mosque. Both these buildings are supported 

GA UR. 39 

by an endowment, and tolerably well cared for. Opposite this suburb, 
at a market-place now called Sadullapur, is the chief descent (ghat) to 
the old bed of the Ganges. To this spot dead bodies of Hindus 
are still brought from great distances to be buried. It is said to have 
been the only burning gMt allowed to the Hindus in Gaur by their 
Muhammadan rulers. 

Immediately to the south lies the cit>^ itself, which, towards each 
suburb and along the Ganges, has been defended by a strong rampart 
and ditch. On the side facing the Mahananda the rampart has been 
double, and in most parts there have been two immense ditches, and in 
some parts three. These works were designed for embankments against 
inundation, and were utilized for drains and for fortifications. The 
double embankment appears to have been constructed to prevent the 
Ganges from cutting away the site of Gaur, when the main body of its 
water east of the city began to gravitate westwards. This is known to 
have occurred in the early part of the sixteenth century. The hardness 
of the clay highlands on which Gaur was built, and these works, 
resisted encroachments by the river ; and the Ganges cut fresh channels 
west of the embanked city, instead of sweeping away and levelling the 
city as might have been expected. The base of the outer embankment 
was in one place measured by Mr. Creighton, and found to be 150 feet 

By far the greater portion of the 13 square miles thus enclosed 
ppears to have been thickly inhabited. Small tanks are ever}T;shere to 
be seen, as well as many foundations of houses and the remains of small 
laces of worship. Broad roadways from east to west traverse this 
Inorthern part of the city at irregular inter\als. There were also com- 
unications by water within the city, and a regular system of internal 
rainage for carrjing off the rain-water to the large natural and artificial 
eser\-oirs. In the southern part there have been numerous roads, 
aised very high, and so wide that, in many places, small buildings of 
rick were erected, with rows of trees in front, on their sides. These 
were probably chapels, or other places of public resort ; while the 
dwelling-houses were huddled together along the sides of the tanks. 
Somewhat to the south, on the banks of the Bhagi'rathi, was the citadel 
or kild, a work evidently of the Muhammadan period. It extends 
about a mile in length from north to south, by about 600 to 800 
yards broad. The rampart which encircles this area has been very 
strongly built of brick, with many flanking angles and round bastions at 
:he corners. The palace, at the south-east corner of the citadel, was 
surrounded by a wall of brick about 40 feet high and 8 feet thick. In 
the interior, the remains of several cross-walls are visible, but the 
irrangement of the apartments cannot be ascertained. Indeed, almost 
he whole site is now under cultivation. A little north of the palace are 

40 GAUR. 

the royal tombs, where Husain Shah and other independent kings of 
Bengal lie buried. This building has been almost entirely destroyed, 
but it had evidently considerable pretensions to elegance. The floor 
was paved with stone, and the graves were covered with slabs of 
polished hornblende. Not one of these stones, however, now remains. 
Within the citadel, also, are two mosques, the larger of which has fallen 
into ruins. The smaller, built by Husain Shah, or by his successor, 
Nazrat Shah, known as the Kadam Rasiil Mosque, is in good preserva- 
tion, being supported by an adequate endowment. Just outside the 
east wall of the citadel stands a lofty tower of brick, up the centre of 
which runs a winding stair leading to a chamber at the summit. It is 
known as the Pi'r Asa jManara, but no object is assigned for its erection 
by the natives. Mr. Fergusson, however, in his History of Eastern 
Architecture, states that it is evidently a pillar of victory, a Jaya 
Stambha, such as the Kutab Minar at Delhi. 

About a mile and a half north of the citadel is a place of 600 square 
yards, surrounded by a rampart and ditch, known as the Flower- 
Garden. South-east of this is the Piyasbari, or ' Abode of Thirst,' a 
tank of considerable dimensions, but containing bad brackish water. 
A tradition states that condemned criminals were allowed to drink 
nothing but water from this tank, and thus perished of thirst. 
There are many other large tanks within the city walls, some con- 
taining crocodiles, which are fed by the resident fakirs. Of these, 
the finest is the small Sagar Dighi, which is- inferior in size only to 
the tank of the same name in the north suburb. Between the 
Piyasbari and the citadel is the Great Golden Mosque, reckoned 
the grandest building in Gaur. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton thought its 
proportions mean. It is iSo feet from north to south, 60 feet from east 
to west, and 20 feet high to the top of the cornice. It is a perfect 
parallelepiped without projection or recess, except that it was formerly 
covered with n domes. The only other structure of interest is the 
fine central gate in the south wall of the city. It is called the Kotwali 
Darwaza, presumably from the circumstance that the superintendent of 
police was stationed here. This gate is still in good i^reservation 


Southwards from this gate stretches an immense suburb as far as 
Pukhariya, a distance of about 7 miles. Its width is comparatively 
small, but it bears abundant traces of having been at one time densely 
populated. It was called Firozpur, from Firoz Shdh, the second of 
the two kings of Bengal of that name. Towards the east and south 
lay an embankment and ditch, probably designed to ward off the 
floods, which have now created large marshes in that direction. This 
southern suburb contains a good number of public buildings. The 
most prominent among these are the Lesser Golden Mosque, which Dr. 


Buchanan-Hamilton describes as ' one of the neatest pieces of archi- 
tecture in the whole place ;' and the tomb of Niamat-ulla-Wdli. This 
person was the spiritual guide of Shah Shuja, and his monument, which 
is small and clumsy, is to this day carefully tended by his descendants. 

Such are the ruins of Gaur. No doubt many of the accounts of its 
vast population are oriental exaggerations. But even according to Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton, who places the inhabited area at 20 square miles, 
it would have contained over 600,000 or 700,000 souls. The actual 
city of Gaur was long entirely deserted, and was formerly overgrown 
with dense jungle ; but cultivation is gradually spreading, and clusters 
of habitations and new villages are appearing here and there amid the 
ruins of the ancient city. 

Gaura. — Town in Gorakhpur District, North-Western Provinces. — 
See GoRA. 

Gaura Jamiin. — Fargami in Musafirkhana iahsil, Sultanpur Dis- 
trict, Oudh. Area, 93 square miles, of which 49 are under cultivation. 
Population (i88i) 47,749, namely, males 23,282, and females 24,467 ; 
average density, 513 persons per square mile; 91 villages. Land 
revenue, ;2{;"6i53. 

Gaurangdihi.— Hills in Manbhiim District, Bengal. Three conical 
hills at a village of the same name, 24 miles from Bankura, on the road 
to Raghunathpur ; about 300 feet above the level of the surrounding 
country, covered with tree jungle, and so steep as to be only accessible 
to men. Lat. 23° 26' n., long. 86° 48' 45" e*. 

Gaurihar. — One of the petty States in Bundelkhand, under the 
Central India Agency; situated between 25° 14' and 25° 26' N. lat., and 
between 80° 12' and 80° 21' e. long. It is bounded on the east by 
Banda District and part of Hamirpur, on the north and west by Banda, 
and on the south by the Chhatarpur State. The area of the State is 
727 square miles; it contains 14 villages and 1903 houses. Total 
population (1881) 10,691, namely, Hindus, 10,295 ) Muhammadans, 
394 ; ' others,' 2. The estimated revenue of the chief is ;^5ooo a year. 
The predecessor of the last ruler was a guerilla leader of importance 
during the period of anarchy in Bundelkhand which prevailed at the 
close of the last century. He received a grant of the Gaurihar /a^/r in 
1807. The last chief, Rao Bahadur Rudra Singh, did good service, at 
great personal loss, during the Mutiny of 1857 ; for which he received 
the title of Rao Bahadur, a dress of honour worth Rs. 10,000, and the 
privilege of adoption, which was subsequently confirmed by sanad. 
Rudra Singh died in 1877, and was succeeded by an adopted son, 
Gajadhar Prasad, the present chief. He maintains a military force of 3 
guns, 35 cavalr}', and 240 foot soldiers. Gaurihar town is situated in 
lat. 25° 16' N., and long. 80° 14' e. 

Gauripur. — Village in Goalpara District, Assam, on the right bank 


of the Gadadhar river. 26° 1 1' N., long. 90° 7'E. Population (1881) 
1900. It is the residence of one of the wealthiest landowners in the 
District, and a busy centre of river traffic, A large trading fair is held 
here during the Durgd-Piijd festival in October or November. In 
1S76-77, Gauripur exported to Sirajganj, in Pabna District, 28,900 
maunds of jute. 

Gavipur. — Village in Bangalore District, Mysore State ; i mile south- 
west of the fort of Bangalore. Latitude 12° 56' N., longitude 77° 36' e. 
Population {1881) 624. Celebrated for the cave-temple of Gavi Gan- 
gadharesvara, constructed in the time of Kempe Gauda (1537)- The 
emblems of Siva — the trident, the umbrella, and the double drum — are 
carved out of the solid rock on a colossal scale, each being 15 feet 

Gavridar. — Petty State in Halar prdut or division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency; consisting of 6 villages, with i independent 
tribute-payer. Population (1881) 3055. The original seat of the 
chiefs of Palitana, with which place it is connected by a made road. 
Mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari and the Mirdt-i-Ahmadi. Estimated 
revenue, ^^1300; tribute of ;£,\o\ payable to the British Govern- 
ment, and ^61 to Junagarh. 

Gawilgarh. — Hill range, a branch of the Satpura mountains, in 
Berar ; situated between 21° 10' and 21° 46' 30" N. latitude, and between 
76° 40' and 77° 53' E. longitude; so named from the Gauh tribe. 
Immediately east of Betiil District the Satpuras divide into two dis- 
tinct chains — the one running on to the west coast between, and 
nearly parallel to, the Tapti and Narbada (Xerbudda) rivers; whilst 
the other, passing in a south-westerly direction through Betul, the 
Melghat or upland country of Eliichpur, and the southern portion 
of Nimar, terminates at the junction of the Tapti with its principal 
tributarj-, the Piirna. In Melghat, the crest of the range attains 
an average elevation of 3400 feet above sea-level, the highest point, 
Bairdt, being 3987 feet. The main height of the lower hills, border- 
ing upon the Tapti, is about 1650 feet. The chief passes are — 
Malhara on the east, Dulghat on the west, and Bingara on the 
extreme west ; the first two have been made practicable for wheeled 
vehicles ; several other roads are in course of completion or projected, 
which will open out this difficult portion of country entirely. There are 
also several smaller intermediate tracks, used by the Korkiis in bringing 
their wood and forest i)roduce for sale in the markets at the foot 
of the hills. 

Gawilgarh. — Hill fortress in the Gdwilgarh range, in the Melghat 
Sub-division of Eliichpur District, Berar ; situated on the watershed be- 
tween the Piirna and Tdpti rivers. Latitude 21° 21' 30" N., longitude 77° 
24' 30" E. ; elevation, 3395 feet above sea-level. The hill was first fortified 

GA YA. 43 

by the Gauli's, a tribe from whom it takes its name, and who are still 
numerous here. The fortress, however, dates from 1420, its construction 
being assigned to Ahmad Shah of the Bahmani dynasty. It was held 
at different times by the Nizam and the Marathas, being captured from 
the latter by the British in December 1803. At that time it consisted 
of one complete inner fort facing the steepest part of the mountain, 
covered by an outer fort, defending its approaches to the north and 
north-west. The walls were strongly built, and fortified by towers and 
ramparts. The communications with the fort are through three gates 
— one to the south with the inner fort, one to the north-west with the 
outer fort, and one to the north — and by a road made, after the 
capture, up the western face of the hills. A handsome mosque 
occupies one of the highest points of the fort, and in it are eight 
tanks, four only of which contain water during the warm season. The 
march of General Stevenson up the hills through the Malhara Pass 
eastward of Gawilgarh, and round to Labada on the northern side of 
the fort, is described by Sir Arthur Wellesley as one of the most diffi- 
cult, as well as successful, operations he had witnessed. The fort was 
breached by batteries from Labada, and gallantly carried by storm on 
the 15th December 1803. The fort was dismantled in 1853, and the 
only buildings now standing are two mosques, the powder factory, and 

Gaya. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, 
lying between 24° 17' and 25° 19' n. lat, and between 84° 4' and 
86° 5' E. long. It is bounded on the north by Patna District, on 
the east by Monghyr, on the south and south-east by Lohardaga and 
Hazaribagh, and on the west by Shahabad, the boundary line being 
formed by the river Son (Soane). Area, 4712 square miles. Population, 
according to the Census of 1881, 2,124,682. The chief place in the 
District is Gaya town, but the civil station and administrative head- 
(juarters are at Sahibganj, which is distinct from, although adjoining 
Gaya town. 

Physical Aspects. — The southern boundary of Gaya is formed by an 
irregular ridge of hills of no great height, but prettily wooded, and full 
of game. These hills may be regarded as part of the Vindhyan system, 
by which the great Gangetic plain is bounded on the south ; from them 
the District slopes gently northward towards the Ganges. The country 
is generally flat, but here and there hills are found, either isolated or in 
groups, the higher ones covered with jungle and coarse grass, the others 
rocky and bare. The loftiest of these peaks is Maher Hill, about 12 
miles south-east of Gaya town, which rises to a height of 1620 feet 
above the sea. The only other remarkable clusters of hills in the 
District, besides the southern range already referred to, are the Barabar, 
or, as they are called in old maps, Currumshaw Hills; and a range 

44 CAVA. 

which forms portion of tlie boundary between Gaya and Patna, and 
contains (on the Patna side) Rajgriha, the famous sacred mount, a 
place of great antiquarian interest. 

The eastern part of Gaya is highly cultivated ; the portions to the 
north and west are less fertile, and the remainder of the District 
consists of hills and jungles, which are full of wild animals, and in which 
the hunters collect hisar silk, beeswax, resin, gums of all kinds, 
and the valuable fruit of the Ma/ii/d tree. This part of the country 
was formerly thinly peopled and little cultivated, but of late years 
much of the jungle has been cleared away, and the cultivated area is 
rapidly increasing. The soil generally is alluvial. Most of the rivers 
of the District take their rise in the southern mountains, and flow from 
south to north ; the principal of them, however, the Son, which forms 
the boundary between Gaya and Shahabad Districts, rises in the Central 
Provinces. It contains water at all seasons of the year, and in 
every part of its course; and its channel here is almost equal in 
size to that of the Ganges. After heavy rains this channel is almost 
filled, and the rapidity of the current is such as to render up-stream 
navigation almost impossible. But generally speaking, during the rainy 
season, boats of twenty tons burthen traverse the whole extent of Gaya 
District, and small boats of under a ton can navigate throughout 
the year. The Son derives its name from the golden colour of its 
sand, with which are intermixed many small pebbles, some of them 
prettily coloured, and susceptible of polish. The next river of import- 
ance is the Piinpun, which rises in the extreme south of the District, 
and flows in a north-easterly course towards the Ganges. During the 
driest part of the year there is always some stream ; and the water is 
extensively used for irrigation by the neighbouring villages. Small 
channels called paifis, often continuing for a considerable distance, dis- 
tribute the river water over the fields, or flow into large public reservoirs, 
a/iars, where it is stored until required by the cultivators. The Phalgii, 
formed by the junction of two hill torrents, flows through the District, 
and is chiefly noteworthy for the reverence in which it is held by the 
pilgrims who flock in large numbers to Gaya ; during the hot weather 
the stream dries up. The other rivers of the District are the Dharhar, 
the Donga, the Tiliya, the Dhanarji, the Shob, the Kusi, and the 
Sakri, all used for irrigation. 

Gayd District is traversed by two important lines of canal, the 
Eastern Main Canal from the Son to the Piinpiin river, a distance of 
8 miles ; and the Patna Canal, which branches off about 4 miles from the 
Son Canal, and flowing northwards as nearly as possible parallel to the 
Son, joins the Ganges in Patnd District between Bdnkipur and Dina- 
pur, after a course of 79 miles, of which 43 miles lie in Gaya District. 
Another principal branch of the Son Canal system, the Western Main 

GA YA. 45 

Canal, takes off from the other side of the river opposite the Eastern 
Canal, and flows through Shdhdbdd District. The wild animals of the 
District comprise tigers, found in the southern hill ranges ; leopards 
and bears in most parts of the District. Antelope and hog are 
common, and different varieties of deer are numerous in the south. 
Hyenas abound ; wolves are very troublesome, and deaths from these 
animals are common, especially in Nawada Sub-division. Smaller 
game include jungle-fowl, pea-fowl, wild duck, teal, (juail, snipe, and 

History. — Materials for the administrative history of Gaya are scanty, 
as the records were burnt during the Mutiny. After the acquisition of 
the Province of Behar by the English in 1765, the management was 
entrusted to a distinguished native, Shitab Rai. Gaya, as at present 
constituted, then formed part of the District of Behar, and its history 
for the first fifty years of British rule does not admit of separation from 
the Province of the same name. In 18 14, the south of the District was 
placed under the jurisdiction of a special Joint Magistrate, stationed at 
Sherghati. In 1825, Gaya was constituted an independent Collectorate, 
with a jurisdiction including the present Sub-division of Behar. For 
revenue purposes, the Collector was under the jurisdiction of the Board 
of Commissioners at Patna and Benares, created in 181 7. For judicial 
purposes, there were native viunsifs, under a Judge-Magistrate ; from 
whom, again, an appeal lay to the Provincial Civil Court at Patna. In 
1829, this Court, and also the Board, were abolished, and their powers 
were vested in a Commissioner at Patna, acting under the orders of the 
Board in Calcutta. In 1831, increased powers were given to the Judge- 
Magistrate of Gaya as a Sessions Judge, and his magisterial powers were 
made over to the Collector, Thus the present unit of administration, 
the Magistrate-Collector, was created. In 1845, the offices of Magistrate 
and Collector were separated, to be reunited by order of the Secretary 
of State in 1859. 

Though Gaya was not the scene of fighting during the Mutiny of 
1857, yet an incident took place in the District worthy of record. The 
Sepoys in the neighbouring cantonments at Dinapur mutinied in July, 
and escaped into Shahabad. After the first attack upon them by a 
British force had resulted in disaster, orders were issued by the Com- 
missioner of Patna to all the civil officers within his jurisdiction to 
withdraw their establishments and retire on Dinapur. A small garrison 
of the 64th Regiment, together with a few Sikhs, were then stationed at 
Gaya town. In obedience to the written orders of the Commissioner, 
the handful of soldiers and civilians at Gaya started on the road to 
Patna, leaving behind about 7 lakhs of rupees (^70,000) in the 
treasury. But on the way bolder counsels prevailed. Mr. Money, the 
Magistrate of the District, and Mr. Rollings, an uncovenanted official 

46 GA YA. 

in the opium agency, determined to return to Gaya and save what they 
could from the general pillage that would inevitably follow upon the 
abandonment of the town. The detachment of the 64th was also sent 
back. The town was found still at peace. A few days were spent in 
providing carriage for the treasure. But the Patna road had become 
unsafe, and the only means of retreat now open was by the Grand 
Trunk Road to Calcutta. As soon as the little party had started a 
second time, they were attacked by a mixed rabble of released prisoners 
and the former jail-guards. After repulsing the attack, Mr. Money 
conveyed his treasure safely to Calcutta, where his arrival was welcomed 
with enthusiasm. 

Population.— T\\Q population of the District, according to the Census 
of 1872, was 1,947,824 persons, dwelling in 6530 villages or towns, 
and 327,845 houses, the average density of the population being 
413 persons to the square mile. The Census of 1881 returned the 
population at 2,124,682, showing an increase of 176,858, or 9-07 per 
cent., in the nine years. The general results arrived at by the Census 
of 1882 may be summarized as follows: — Area of District, 4712 
square miles; number of towns and villages, 9657 ; number of houses, 
372,648, of which 346,794 are occupied and 25,854 unoccupied. 
Total population, 2,124,682, namely, males 1,043,441, and females 
1,081,242, Average density of population, 451 persons per square 
mile; villages per square mile, 2-05; persons per village, 220; 
houses per square mile, 79-1 ; persons per house, 6-13. Classified 
according to religion, Hindus numbered 1,891,484, or 89-0 per cent., 
and Muhammadans 213,141, or iro per cent.; Christians and 
'others,' 100. Of aboriginal and semi-Hinduized tribes, the most 
numerous are the Dosadhs, of whom there are 108,249 '> ^^^e Bhuiyas, 
who number 83,469 ; and the Kharwars, 3569. These aborigines, who 
in religion profess some sort of Hinduism, live chiefly in the south of 
the District, and support themselves on the produce of the jungles, 
or by thieving, cattle-lifting, and hunting. The high-caste Hindus 
include— Brahmans, 79,750 ; Rdjputs, 114,402; Babhans, agricultural 
Brahmans who have lapsed from pure Brahmanhood by reason of their 
occupation, 152,646; Baniyas or traders, 49,304 j Kayasths, Govern- 
ment officers, clerks and landholders, 43)965- 

Among the 79,570 Brahmans of Gayd are included a number of 
persons who, though not regular or orthodox Brahmans, are allowed 
a kind of brevet rank as such. Of these the most remarkable are the 
(iaydwals, of whom there are about 300 families in the District. Al- 
though they are held in great esteem at the places of pilgrimage in Gaya 
town, resjjectable lirdhmans look down upon them ; they live an idle, 
self-indulgent life, but are very wealthy, extorting large sums out of the 
numerous i)ilgrims. A detailed account of the origin and customs of 

GAV/I. 47 

this curious class of men is to be found in vol. xii. of the Statistical 
Account of Bcin-al {^\). 35, 49, 77). 

The agricultural and pastoral castes include — Goalas, 309,871 in 
number, the most numerous caste in the District ; Koen's, 144,675 ; 
Kurmi's, 43,791 ; Gareris, 15,597 ; Barui's, 5863 ; and Mali's, 7740. 
The principal artisan castes are the Barhais, or carpenters, 36,166 in 
number; Kumbhars, potters, 22,282; Lobars, blacksmiths, 21,425; 
and Sonars, goldsmiths, 15,863. Other respectable Siidra castes, 
mainly engaged in personal service — Napits, barbers, 37,838 ; Dhobis, 
washermen, 16,733 5 Kahars, domestic servants, palanquin-bearers 
and labourers, 116,961; Malas, 11,906; Kandus, confectioners, 
23,784; and Madaks, preparers of parched food-grains, 12,900. Other 
castes — Teh's, oil-sellers, 57,379 ; Nuniyas, labourers, 16,621 ; Tatwas, 
weavers, 5051 ; Sunris, wine-sellers, 6643; Pasi's, palm toddy sellers, 
39,293 ; Rajwars, labourers, 43,773 ; Chamars, leather dressers and 
labourers, 78,552. The Muhammadan population are divided into — 
Sunm's, 207,241 ; Shias, 3383 ; and unspecified, 22,474. 

Six towns contain more than 5000 inhabitants — namely, Gaya, with 
a population (1881) of 76,415; Tikari, population 12,187; Daud- 
NAGAR, population 9870; Sherghati, population 5862; Jahaxabad, 
population 5286 ; and Hasua, population 5019. Of the 9657 towns 
and villages in the District, 6395 contain less than two hundred 
inhabitants, 2460 from two to five hundred, 629 from five hundred to 
a thousand, 154 from one to two thousand, 10 from two to three 
thousand, 3 from three to five thousand, 4 from five to ten thousand, 
I from ten to fifteen thousand, and i upwards of fifty thousand. 

As regards occupation, the Census Report divides the male population 
into six main classes, as follows : — (i) Professional, including Government 
officers and servants and professional men, 17,481 ; (2) domestic 
servants, inn and lodging-house servants, etc., 52,642 ; (3) commercial, 
including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 31,546; (4) agricultural, 
including cultivators, gardeners, herdsmen, etc., 283,197; (5) manu- 
facturing and industrial, 84,208 ; (6) indefinite and non-productive 
(comprising 157,396 general labourers, and 416,971 male children and 
persons of no specified occupation), 574,367. 

The District of Gaya is full of places of the greatest sanctity. The 
rocky hills, which here run out far into the plain of the Ganges valley, 
teem with associations of the prehistoric religion of Buddhism, many 
of which have been diverted to new objects by modern superstition. 
The Brahmans stamped out the Buddhist faith, but they have utilized 
its local traditions to their own profit. At the present day, the chief 
pilgrims to the sacred tree at Budh Gaya are devout Marathas, who 
come to pray for the souls of their ancestors in purgatory. As a place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, the town of Gaya is of comparatively modern 

48 GA YA. 

interest. The name is derived from that of a pagan monster, whose 
fate is recorded in the Vdyu Purdna. His only crime was his desire 
to save sinners from perdition. Accordingly, Brahma himself under- 
took the task of putting a stop to his career. This he effected by 
treacherously persuading him to lie down, and then placing a heavy 
stone upon his body. When the monster struggled to get free, the 
gods prevailed upon him to keep quiet, by the promise that they would 
come and take up their abode on the spot, and that all pilgrims who 
worshipped there should be delivered from the pains of hell. The 
profitable lesson of this legend has been turned to good account by the 
Gayawals, or Brahman priests, who possess the monopoly of pointing 
out the sacred spots, and reciting the appropriate prayers. 

The pilgrim who would effectually secure admission for his ancestors 
into heaven, must scrupulously perform the whole routine of duties, each 
one of which involves presents to the priest. Before leaving his home, 
he must first walk five times round his native village, calling upon the 
souls of his ancestors to accompany him on his journey. Arrived at 
(iaya, he is forthwith placed in charge of a special Brahman guide. 
There are 45 sacred localities, which he should visit in proper order and 
on particular days. The full round occupies 13 days; but for those 
who have not sufficient devotion, or sufficient wealth, 38 shrines, two, 
or even only one, will serve the desired purpose. Each of these sacred 
places, bedi^ tirat, or tirlha, is supposed to represent the footprint of 
some deity. At each, a pindd or ball of rice and water has to be 
deposited by the pilgrim, while a hymn is chanted by the attendant 
Brahman. Some of the spots lie a considerable distance beyond the 
city walls, on the summit of steep hills, the ascent of which demands 
not a little enthusiasm on the part of the devotees. Others are 
crowded together within the walls of old narrow temples. The popu- 
larity of Gaya appears to have increased with the growth of the 
Maratha power. The records frequently refer to the arrival of 
Maratha princes, as matters of political importance during the early 
years of British rule. Towards the end of last century, a Peshwa is 
said to have expended ^10,000 upon a pilgrimage to Gaya. The 
average number of pilgrims in the year is now estimated at 100,000 ; 
and it has been calculated that a poor man might accomplish the full 
round at a cost of j[^2. The pilgrim-tax, varying from about 4s. to 
28s. per head, levied under the native government, was abolished 
during the early years of British rule. 

TiKARi, on the Murhar river, contains the fort of the Rdjas of Tikari ; 
Jahanabad and Daudnagar are chiefly interesting as having formerly 
contained flourishing cloth factories established by the East India 
Company. Among the other noteworthy villages in the District are 
Akwal on the Son, once famous for its paper and sugar manufactories, 

CAVA. 49 

and now the centre of the only indigo concern in Gaya ; Deo, the seat 
of the Rajas of that name, one of the most ancient families in the 
District ; Nawada, Wazirganj, Bela, Hasua, and Warisah'ganj, consider- 
able trading places. At Buddh (or Bodh) Gaya, about 6 miles south 
of Gaya, and a few hundred yards west of the Phalgii or Nilajan river, 
there are ruins of great sanctity. Here dwelt Sakya Muni, the founder 
of the Buddhist religion, and here is the ///^rt-/ tree under which he sat in 
mental abstraction for five years. Here, too, are extensive remains of 
temples and monuments, and of the Rajasthan or palace, said to be the 
residence of Dharma Asoka, and some of his successors on the throne 
of Magadha. Close at hand is a convent, the viahant or abbot of 
which shows the place to visitors. Another place of interest in the 
District is a temple of great antiquity, which crowns the highest peak of 
the Barabar Hills. This temple is sacred to Sidheswara, and contains 
a lingd said to have been placed there by Bara Raja, the Asar King of 
Dinajpur. In September, a large fair, attended only by men, is held 
here. The pilgrims, who number between 10,000 and 20,000, spend a 
night on the mountain. Near the foot of the hill are some caves cut in 
the rock about 200 B.C., and in the immediate neighbourhood are a 
sacred spring and tank, and several sculptures of great interest to the 

Agriculture. — The most important crop of the District is rice, which 
is sown in June or early in July. The bhaddi crop is reaped in August 
or September ; the khar'if crop is transplanted in July or August, and 
cut in December or January. Wheat is sown broadcast in September 
and October, and reaped in March. Among the other cereals grown 
are barley, Indian corn, marud, and kodo. The chief leguminous 
crops are khesdri, gram, peas, and beans. The other crops include 
yams and potatoes, hemp and flax, cotton, oil-seeds, opium, indigo, 
sugar-cane, and pdti. Rotation of crops is common in the District, 
and irrigation is much practised, the means used being natural and 
artificial watercourses, reservoirs, and wells. IManure is always used 
for cotton and opium. The area ordinarily cultivated with rice is 
about 900,000 acres, producing over 400,000 tons, of which a 
fourth part is exported ; the wheat-growing area has been estimated 
at nearly 170,000 acres, producing about 60,000 tons, of which 
about a half is exported ; and the area devoted to oil-seeds is about 
35,000 acres. The area under opium cultivation in Gaya cannot be 
given exactly, as the boundaries of the opium sub-divisions are not 
conterminous with those of the District ; but the two sub-divisions of 
Tehta and Gaya are almost co-extensive with Gaya District, and the 
sum of their areas is but little in excess of the opium area. In 
1872-73, the area under cultivation in these two opium sub-divisions 
was 67,858 acres, the amount of crude opium produced being 668 tons, 

- VOL. V. D 

so GA YA. 

and the average produce per acre about 22 lbs. In 1880-8 r, the 
estimated area under opium in Gaya District was 63,940 acres, the 
produce amounting to 501 tons, of the value of about ;^263,25o. 
There is only one indigo factory under European management in the 
District, and for some unexplained reason the dye here cannot be 
brought to such a state of perfection as it attains north of the Ganges. 
The area under sugar-cane has been estimated at 13,000 acres. 
Speaking roughly, a fifth of the total area of the District still lies 
uncultivated. A fair out-turn of paddy or unhusked rice from an acre 
of good land would be 30 cwts., value ^£2, 14s. ; from inferior lands, 
18 cwts., value ;£i, 12s. 5d. The out-turn of wheat or barley, and 
their value, is much the same as in the case of paddy ; but the cultiva- 
tion of these crops is less expensive, and the net profit to the cultivator 
is consequently higher. Wages for labour are generally paid in kind. 
There seems to have been little or no variation in money wages during 
the last quarter of a century, but at an earlier period they were 25 per 
cent, less than at present. The money wage of a day-labourer is now 
3d., that of a smith, bricklayer, or carpenter, from 4id. to 6d. per diem. 
Prices seem to have fallen of late years. In 1859, i860, and 1870, the 
prices of the best cleaned rice were respectively 6s. oid., 7s. 6d., and 
4s. 5d. per cwt. ; in the same years the prices of common rice were 
5s. 4d., 6s. lod., and 3s. gd. per cwt. respectively. Prices, however, 
were high in 1882, the rates in the month of September for that year 
being returned at 9s. 4d. per cwt. for best cleaned rice, and 6s. o|d. for 
common rice. 

Natural Calamities. — Gaya does not suffer from blight or flood to 
any great extent, but droughts are very common, and seriously affect 
the prospects of the District. The Son Canals, recently completed, 
will no doubt prevent much of the loss arising from dry seasons. The 
District suffered considerably from the famine of 1866, and the 
mortality was increased by an outbreak of cholera which took place in 
the middle of July in the town of Gay^, and spread through the greater 
part of the District. The number of recipients of gratuitous relief 
never exceeded a daily average of 1200, and the average daily number 
of persons employed on relief works was about 350. The maximum 
price of common rice was i8s. 6d., and of pAddy, 9s. 3d. per cwt. ; but 
prices in Gaya are not by any means a trustworthy index to the pressure 
from scarcity. The famine of 1873-74 did not afTect the District 
seriously; the food-supply was augmented by private trade, and the 
Ciovernment had only to supplement this supply by a small amount of 
grain, and by the provision of relief works on the canals. 

Commerce and Trade. — No important manufactures are carried 
on in Gayd, Common brass utensils for home use, black stone orna- 
ments, pottery, tasar silk cloth, and rope made of a grass called 

GA]'A. 51 

sal>i/i, are manufactured. Cloth and paper were formerly the princi* 
pal manufactures, but these industries have now almost entirely died 
out. Soda effloresces in parts of the District, and a considerable 
quantity of saltpetre is manufactured and despatched to Calcutta. The 
principal exports are — food-grains of all kinds (especially rice), oil-seeds, 
indigo, crude opium (sent to Patnd for manufacture), saltpetre, sugar, 
blankets, brass utensils, etc. Among the imports are — salt, piece-goods, 
cloth, cotton, timber, bamboos, tobacco, lac, iron, spices, and fruits. 
The principal trade with other Districts is by the State Railway from 
Bdnkipur to Gaya, which was opened for traffic in March 1879. Its 
total length is 57 miles; gross earnings for the year 1881-82, ;,^54,8 19 ; 
working expenses, ^34,241 ; net earnings, ;^20,578, or a return of 5*34 
per cent, on the capital outlay. 

Administration. — Owing to the loss of all office records at the time 
of the Mutiny, it is impossible to give the revenue of Gaya District 
before 1858-59. In that year the net revenue was ;2^2r3,i25; in 
1870-71, the net revenue was ;;^i92,87o; and in 1882-83, ^255,464. 
The land revenue constitutes in Gaya, as elsewhere in Bengal, the 
most important item of the revenue; in 1870-71, it amounted to 
^,{^138,032 ; and in 1882-83, to^i43>688. Sub-division of estates has 
progressed very rapidly in Gaya; the number of estates in 187 1 was 
4411, and the number of registered proprietors, 20,453. The average 
payment, therefore, from each estate was ;!^3i, 5s. lod., or from each 
individual proprietor, ^6, 14s. iid. By 1881-82, the number of 
estates had increased to 5614, and the registered proprietors to 59,172, 
the average payment from each estate being j[,2(i. Comparing 
these figures with the corresponding ones for 1789, found in an old 
register in the Patna office, it appears that in eighty years each estate 
had on an average split up into eight, and where there had in 1789 
been one proprietor there were in 1881 over fifty. The land revenue 
in the former year was ;^io4,i7o; the subsequent increase has not 
been great, as remissions have been granted to the Deo Rajas and 
others for military services. The machinery for the protection of person 
and property in the District has been steadily increasing in strength. 
There are now 1 2 magisterial and 5 civil courts, besides 3 honorary 
magistrates' courts. For police purposes, Gaya is divided into 14 
thdnds, with 24 outposts. The regular District police consisted 
at the end of 1882 of 3 superior and 99 subordinate officers, and 
475 constables ; the municipal police at the same time consisted of 
318 officers and men; and the village watch numbered 13,126 men. 
Included among these last is a body of digtvdrs or road policemen, 
maintained by the landholders. These digivdrs are peculiar to Gaya, 
and appear to have been first appointed early in the present century, in 
consequence of frequent accidents to travellers on roads and hill passes. 


Highway robbery, once very prevalent in the District, is said to have 
almost entirely ceased since the introduction of the digwdri system. 
The total cost of maintaining the regular and municipal police in 
1882 was ;^i 1,914, equal to a charge of i^d. per head of the popula- 
tion. Burglary and dakaiti are still very common ; the criminal 
classes are principally recruited from the Babhans, Goalas, Dosadhs, 
and Doms. There were 4 jails in the District in 1882 — the District 
jail at Gaya, and Sub-divisional lock-ups at Jahanabad, Aurangabad, 
and Nawadd. In that year the daily average number of prisoners in 
the Gaya jail was 298-48. Education (specially primary) has made 
rapid jirogrcss of late years. The number of pupils subject to the 
Education Department increased from 574 in 1856-57, to 8139 in 
1873-74, and to 19,118 in 1882-83; the total number of schools in 
1873-74 was 446, and in 1882-83, 1476, or i school to every 3-2 
square miles of area, and i pupil to every 1 1 1 of the population. 
Of the boys of school-going age, i in every 6-5 is under instruction. 
For administrative purposes, the District is parcelled out into 4 Sub- 
divisions—the sadr ox head-quarters Sub-division, with an area of 1839 
square miles; Nawada, 1020 square miles; Aurangabad, 1246 square 
miles ; and Jahdnabad Sub-division, 607 square miles. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Gaya is dry, and the District is 
regarded as very healthy. The average temperature is about 79*98° F. ; 
maximum in May 1882, iir5°, minimum 68-i°; maximum in July 
95"2° minimum 73*o''; maximum in December 81-9°, minimum 47"2°. 
Average annual rainfall at the town of Gaya, 39*8 inches. The wettest 
month is July, and in that month the average rainfall is 11 "3 7 inches. 
Among the diseases of the District are cholera, leprosy, small-pox, 
neuralgia, headache, and the 'Gaya sore.' Cholera breaks out every 
now and then in some part of the District. Small-pox is endemic, 
owing to the objection of the people to vaccination. Neuralgic 
headache occurs in a very intense form ; it often returns periodically, 
and in some cases defies treatment. Total number of registered^ 
deaths in 1882-83, 1416, or i9'49 per thousand of the population. 
[For further information regarding Gaya, see The Statistical Accotoit of j 
Bengal, vol. xii. (Triibner, 1877); the Bengal Census Report for 1S81 ; 
and the Administration and Departmental Reports of Bengal, from 18S0 
to 1883.] 

Gayd. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Gaya District, lying between 
24" 17' and 25° 6' 30" n. lat., and between 84° 20' 30" and 
85° 26' 45" v.. long. Area, 1839 square miles, with 3719 villages' 
or towns, and 137,370 houses. Population (1881) 805,364, namely, 
395,836 males and 409,528 females. Classified according to 
religion, there are 706,127 Hindus, 99,161 Muhammadans, and 76 
Christians. Average density of population, 438 persons per square 


mile; villages, 2 '02 per square mile; houses, 78"9 per square mile; 
persons per village, 217; per house, 5 "8. The Sub-division comprises 
the 5 police circles {t/id?ids) of Gaya, Atri, Tikari, Sherghati, and 
Barachati. In 1882, it contained 9 magisterial and 4 revenue courts; 
with a regular police force of 277 officers and men, besides 6590 
village watchmen. 

Gayd. — Chief town and (with Sahibganj) the administrative head- 
quarters of Gaya District ; situated on the right bank of the Phalgu river. 
Lat. 24° 48' 44" N., and 85° 3' 16" e. long. The town consists of two 
distinct portions adjoining each other — the old town or Gaya proper, 
which contains the residence of the priests ; and Sahibganj, the trading 
quarter, and also the seat of administration, where the civil offices 
and the dwelling-houses of the European residents are situated. The 
streets are wide, but the native houses are generally small and insig- 
nificant. Besides the ordinary official courts, Sahibganj contains the 
jail, police lines, hospital, circuit bungalow, and church. There is also 
a public library, billiard-room, swimming-bath, and racecourse. Gaya 
with Sahibganj forms one municipality. The population of the united 
towns in 1881 amounted to 76,415, namely, 38,493 males and 37,992 
females. Hindus numbered 60,181; Muhammadans, 16,161; and 
Christians and 'others,' 75. Municipal income (1882-83), ^^7253, of 
which ^^3807 was derived from taxation, mainly from houses and lands; 
expenditure, ;^6593 ; average incidence of taxation, iifd. per head of 
population within municipal limits. The town police force consists of 
73 officers and 138 men. For the history and shrines of Gaya, see ante, 
Gaya District. 

Gazzalhatti (' Tke Elephant Track '). — Pass in Coimbatore District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude 11° 33' n., longitude 77° 3' e. 
Formerly the principal pass from Coimbatore into Mysore, one track 
leading from Satyamangalam, and another from Coimbatore town via 
Denaiakenkota to the foot of the ghat. An old-fashioned bridge at 
the foot still stands, but the road is no longer kept in order. Pack- 
bullocks and donkeys still cross it in considerable numbers. The 
head of the pass, 2800 feet above sea-level, is 17 miles from the 
]\Iysore frontier. 

Gedi. — Petty State of Jhalawar prdnt or division, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency; consisting of 2 villages, with 2 independent 

I tribute - payers. Nine miles distant from Limbdi railway station. 

; Population (1881) 901. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ;!^428 ; 
tribute of ^120 is payable to the British Government and ^13, i8s. 
to Junagarh. 

Geonkhali {CowcoUy). — Village and lighthouse, on the Hugli 
river, 13 miles east of Contai, and about 40 miles below Calcutta in 
Tamluk Sub-division, Midnapur District, Bengal. Lat. 21" 50' 15" N., 


long. 87° 59' 15" E. The cyclone of October 1864, with its 
accompanying storm-wave, visited this place and the surrounding 
country with terrific force. For a full and interesting account of it, 
given by the lighthouse superintendent, see Statistical Account of Bengal^ 
vol. iii. pp. 220-226. The village contains a travellers' bungalow and 
police outpost station. At this point commences the Hijili (Hidgellee) 
tidal canal, which runs to Balasor in Orissa 

Georgegarh. — Village in Jhajjar tahsil, Rohtak District, Punjab, with 
remains of an old fort. Lat. 28° 38' n., long. 76° 37' e. Built by the 
adventurer George Thomas during his temporary dominion over this 
part of India. He was besieged here by the Marithas in 1801, but 
succeeded at the head of a small body of cavalry in cutting his way 
through the investing lines to Hansi, where he was finally overthrown. 
Two important cattle fairs are held here annually, about March and 

Gewarda. — Estate in Chindd District, Central Provinces. — See 


Ghdgar. — River rising in the Kotwalipara Marshes, Faridpur 
District, Bengal, in lat. 23° i' 45" n., long. 90° 8' 45" E. It flows 
south into the Madhumati (lat. 22° 48' 30" n., long. 89° 57' 15" e.), 
a distributary of the Ganges, and is called the Saldaha in the 
lower part of its course. Navigable throughout the year by large , 

Ghaggar. — River in the Punjab and Rajputdna. Once an important ] 
confluent of the Indus, but now a comparatively insignificant stream, 
which loses itself by evaporation in the deserts of Bhatner. Thai 
Ghaggar rises among the Himalayan slopes in the Native State of] 
Ndhan or Sirmiir (lat. 30° 41' n., long. 77° 14' e.), leaves the hills a few 
miles above the town of Mani Mazra, and crosses Ambala (Umballa) 
District at its narrowest point ; thence it traverses the Native State of 
Patidla, flowing close to the British frontier, and passing only 3 miles to 
the west of Ambala city, where it actually touches the borders of our 
territory ; emerging into Hissar District near the town of Akalgarh, it 
divides into two channels, and formerly passed on to Sirsa with a very 
uncertain water-supply, but the whole amount is now diverted in Hissdr 
itself for purposes of irrigation. Another branch, however, reaches Sirsa 
from Patidla direct, and crosses the District into the Rajputana deserts. 
The water penetrates no farther than the fort of Bhatner, just beyond 
the frontier, but the dry bed may be traced as far as Mirgarh in 
Bahawaljjur State. 

In ancient times the lower portion of the river appears to have 
borne the name of its confluent the Saraswati or Sarsuti, which 
joins the main stream in Patiala territory. It then possessed the 
dimensions of an important channel, receiving the whole drainage 


of the lower Himalayas between the Jumna (Jamna) and the Sutlej 
(Satlaj), and debouching into the Indus below the junction of the five 
great Punjab rivers. At present, however, every village through which 
the stream passes has diverted a portion of its vi'aters for irrigation, 
no less than 10,000 acres being supplied from this source in Ambdla 
District alone. The dams thus erected check the course of the stream, 
while the consequent deposit of silt, greatly facilitated by the dams, 
has permanently diminished the power of the water, both in the main 
stream and its tributaries, to force its way across the dead level of the 
Karnal and Patiala plains. In Sirsa District the river expands into 
three jhils or lakes, on which a few Persian wheels are worked for 
})urposes of irrigation. The Ghaggar water, in or near the hills, 
when used for drinking, produces disastrous results upon the health, 
causing fever, enlarged spleen, and goitre ; families die out, accord- 
ing to report, in the fourth generation ; and the villages along its 
banks are greatly under-populated. Only the prospect of obtaining 
exceptional returns for their labour can induce cultivators to settle in 
such an unhealthy region. During the lower portion of its course, in 
Sirsa District, the bed of the Ghaggar is dry from November to 
June, affording a cultivable surface for rich crops of rice and wheat. 
Even in the rains the water-supply is very capricious, and from time 
to time it fails entirely, except in the immediate neighbourhood of the 

Ghagra. — River of Oudh. — See Gogra. 

Gh^ibi Dero (or Dero Kot). — Jdgir or revenue-free town in 
Larkhana Sub-division, Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Lies on the Pauharo - Kambar road, 32 miles north-north-west of 
Larkhana. Latitude 27° 36' n., longitude 67° 41' E. Population 
under a thousand ; the Muhammadans are mainly Chandias, It is the 
principal town in the Jdgir of Ghaibi Khan Chandia, the chief of the 
Ghaibi Khan and Chandia tribes, long established in Chandko. 

Ghamar. — Town in Ghazipur District, North-Western Provinces. — 
See Gahmar. 

Ghan. — River of Berar, rising in the table-land north of the Pen- 
ganga valley, Buldana District, Berir, in latitude 20° 26' 30" N., longi- 
tude 76° 23' 30" E. The stream, which dries up in the hot weather, 
flows in a northerly direction past Pimpalgaon and Nandwa, and joins 
the Piirna in latitude 20° 55' N., and longitude 76° ^t,' e. Commonly 
known as the Dnyan Ganga. 

Ghara. — A name sometimes applied to the united stream of the 
Beas (Bias) and the Sutlej (Satlaj), from their confluence at Endrisa to 
their junction with the Chenab. Below the latter point the whole river 
bears the title of Panjnad. The length of the course between these 
points amounts to about 300 miles. 


Gharapuri (' Hill of Purification ' ?), sometimes also vulgarly called 
Gdripuri ; the Galipouri of Du Perron and Niebuhr; spelt Gdrdpiiri, 
and translated ' Town of Excavations ' by Dr. Stevenson. — See 

Gharo. — Village in Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency. Latitude 24° 44' 30" N., longitude 67° 37' 30" E. Popu- 
lation (1S81) under 2000, chiefly occupied in grain trade with Karachi, 
Tatta, and Mirpur Sakra. The Karachi-Kotri Railway, which runs 
within 8 miles, has diverted much of the former trade from this place. 
A bridge of four arches spans the creek of Gharo. 

Gharra. — Petty State under the Giina (Goona) Sub-Agency of Central 
India. Population (1881) 9544. Revenue about ^1700. This State 
is feudatory to Gwalior, and was formerly a portion of the Rajhugarh 
jdgir, which was divided in 1843 amongst the three principal members 
of the Khfchi family of Rajputs. During the minority of the present 
(1883) chief, Balbhaddar Singh, the management of the State is carried 
on by a kdmdar under the superintendence of the Political Assistant 
at Giina, 

Ghatal. — Sub-division of Midnapur District, Bengal. Area, 317 
square miles, with 913 towns and villages, and 50,144 houses. Popu- 
lation (1881) 287,333, namely, males 138,706, and females 148,627. 
Average density of population, 906 persons per square mile ; villages 
per square mile, 2*9; persons per village, 314; houses per square 
mile, 173; persons per house, 57. Classified according to religion, 
there were — Hindus, 274,310 ; Muhammadans, 13,006 ; Christians, 6 ; 
and Santals, 11. The Sub-division comprises the three police circles 
{t hands) of Ghatal, Chandrakona, and Daspur. It contained in 1883, 
I criminal and 2 civil courts; strength of regular police force, 113 
men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 1295. 

Ghatal. — Town and municipality in Midnapur District, Bengal, and 
head-quarters of Ghatal Sub-division ; situated on the SiMi river, near 
its junction with the Rupnarayan, and transferred a few years ago to 
Midnajiurfrom Hiigli District. Lat. 22° 40' 10" n., long. 87° 45' 50" e. 
Pojtulation (1881) 12,638, namely, males 6261, and females 6377. 
Hindus numbered 12,311; Muhammadans, 320; and 'others,' 7. 
Area of town site, 2560 acres. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;^4Si j 
expenditure, ;^394. Ghatdl is an important commercial town, carrying 
on trade in rice, silk, sugar, cotton cloth, etc. 

Ghitampur.^Southcrn tahsil of Cawnpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying along the banks of the Jumna, and traversed by a 
branch of the Lower Ganges Canal. The tahsil may be roughly 
divided into two portions, the river Non marking approximately the 
boundary between them. The northern is a tract of fertile loam 
{duniat), while the southern is occupied by the soils peculiar to the 


neighbourhood of the Jumna, and in parts is cut up by wild and 
bare ravines. Area, 336 square miles, of which 208 are cultivated. 
Population (1881) 113,946, namely, males 57,836, and females 56,110. 
Hindus numbered 108,532 ; and Muhammadans, 5414. Land 
revenue, ^29,204 ; total Government revenue, ;;^32, 708 ; rental paid 
by cultivators, ^^47,516. Of the 275 estates in the tahsil at the time 
of the recent settlement, 171 were zafntnddri, 96 pattidari^ 7 bhayd- 
c/idni, and i niudfi or revenue-free. 

Ghdtampur. — Town in Cawnpur District, North- Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Ghatampur tahsil, situated on the Hami'rpur road, 
26 miles west of Cawnpur city. Population (1881) 4916. The town 
was formerly a stronghold of the Bais clan, who expelled the Ahi'rs 
about five centuries ago, and gave the town the name of their leader 
Ghatam Deo. The principal building is a picturesque Gosain temple, 
situated in a mango grove south of the town. The public buildings 
comprise the tahsili, first-class police station, dispensarj', school, and 
post-ofiice. There is also an encamping-ground for troops. 

Ghatampur. — Pargand in Unao District, Oudh. A small pargmid, 
8 miles long by 7 broad. Area, 26^ square miles, or 16,937 acres, of 
which 12 square miles are cultivated. Government land revenue, 
;^2247, or an average of 2s. 7|d. per acre. Land is held under the 
following tenures: — Zmninddri, 15,056 acres; tdlukddri, 267 acres; 
and pattiddri, 1414 acres. Population (1881) 15,469, namely, 7615 
males and 7854 females. The Bais Kshatriyas form the most numerous 
caste. Number of villages, 29 ; average density of population, 620 per 
square mile. 

Ghatampur Kalan. — Town in Unao District, Oudh; 18 miles 
south-east of Unao town, and 12 south of Purwa. Lat. 26° 22' N., 
long. 80° 46' E. Said to have been founded many centuries ago by an 
eponymous Tiwari Brahman, whose heirs are still in possession. Noted 
for excellence in goldsmiths' and carpenters' work. Population (1881) 
1668 Hindus, and 45 Muhammadans; total, 17 13, dwelling in 372 
houses. ■ Four Hindu temples. 

Gh^tklil. — Fargatid in Chanda District, Central Provinces ; consist- 
ing of 81 villages, with an area of 368 square miles. Hilly and densely 
wooded, except in the east along the Wainganga river, where the 
black loam produces good crops of rice, sugar-cane, and wheat. Popu- 
lation chiefly Telingas. At the beginning of this century, plunderers 
from the opposite side of the Wardha constantly overran the pargand, 
and many villages remain desolate to this day. 

Ghats (meaning etymologically 'a pass through a mountain,' or 
' landing-stairs from a river ; ' in this case the ' passes ' or ' landing- 
stairs ' from the coast to the inner plateau). — Two ranges of moun- 
tains, forming the eastern and the western walls which support 

58 GHATS. 

the triangular table-land of Southern India. The Eastern and the 
Western Ghats pass through many Districts, and their sections are 
treated in detail in the articles on the Administrative divisions in which 
they are situated. The present notice of them must therefore be a very 
general one. The Eastern Ghats run in fragmentary spurs and ranges 
down the Madras side of India, receding inland, and leaving broad 
tracts between their base and the coast. The Western Ghats form 
the great sea-wall for the Bombay Presidency, with only a narrow strip 
between them and the shore. At one part they rise in magnificent 
precipices and headlands out of the ocean, and truly look like colossal 
' landing-stairs ' from the sea. The Eastern and the Western Ghats 
meet at an angle near Cape Comorin, and so complete the three sides 
of the interior table-land. The inner plateau itself lies far below the 
snow-line, and its ordinary elevation seldom exceeds from 2000 to 3000 
feet Its best known hills are the Nilgiris (Blue Mountains), which 
contain the summer capital of Madras, Utakamand (Ootacamund), 7000 
feet above the sea. The highest point is Dodabetta Peak, 8760 feet, 
at the southern extremity of Mysore. This wide region of highlands 
sends its waters chiefly to the eastern coast. The drainage from the 
north edge of the three-sided table-land falls into the Ganges. The 
Narbada (Nerbudda) runs along the southern base of the Vindhyas 
which form that edge, and carries their drainage due \vest into the 
Gulf of Cambay. The Tdpti flows almost parallel to the Narbada, a 
little to the southward, and bears to the same gulf the waters from the 
Satpura Hills. But from this point, proceeding southwards, the 
Western Ghdts rise into a high unbroken barrier between the Bombay 
coast and the waters of the inner table-land. The drainage has there- 
fore to make its way right across India to the eastwards, now twisting 
round hill ranges, now rushing down the valleys between them, until 
the rain which the Bombay sea-breeze drops upon the Western Ghats, 
finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. In this way the three great rivers 
of the Madras Presidency — namely, the Godavari, Kistna, and 
Kaveri (Cauvery) — rise in the mountains overhanging the Bombay 
coast, and traverse the whole breadth of the central table-land before 
they reach the ocean on the eastern shores of India. 

The entire geography of the two coasts of the Indian Peninsula is 
determined by the characteristics of these two mountain ranges. On 
the east, the country is comparatively open, and everywhere accessible 
to the spread of civilisation. It is here that all the great kingdoms of 
Southern India have fixed their capitals. Along the west, only a narrow 
strip of lowland intervenes between the barrier range and the seaboard. 
The inhabitants are cut off from communication with the interior, and 
have been left to develop a civilisation of their own. Again, the east 
coast is a comparatively dry region. Except in the deltas of the great 

GHATS. 59 

rivers, the crops are dependent upon a local rainfall which rarely 
exceeds 40 inches in the year. The soil is poor, the general elevation 
high, and the mountains are not profusely covered with forest. In 
this region the chief aim of the Forest Department is to preserve a 
sufficient supply of trees for fuel. 

On the west, all these physical conditions are reversed. The 
rivers are mere hill-torrents, but the south-west monsoon brings 
an unfailing rainfall in such abundance as to clothe even the 
hill-slopes with a most luxuriant vegetation. The average fall all 
along the coast from Khdndesh to Malabar reaches 100 inches, and in 
many exceptional spots high up among the mountains more than 200 
inches of rain are registered in every year. What the western coast 
loses in regular cultivation it gains in the natural wealth of its primeval 
forests, which display the most magnificent scenery in all India. The 
mountains of Kanara, Malabar, Mysore, and Coorg furnish the Forest 
Department with the richest supplies. Along the highest ridges, on 
both slopes, grow the trees constituting what is technically known as 
' the evergreen forest.' Chief among these is the pun (Calophyllum 
angustifolium), which often attains the height of 100 feet without branch 
or bend. No other tree in the world is better suited in every respect 
for supplying ships' spars and masts. Other timber-trees in this region 
are the jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), iron-wood (Mesua ferrea), Indian 
mahogany (Cedrela toona), ebony (Diospyros ebenaster), and champak 
(Michelia champaca). Interspersed among the tall trees grow an 
infinite variety of shrubs and creepers, among which latter pepper 
and cardamoms may be noticed for their commercial value. Farther 
east, sloping towards the plateau of Mysore, but still within the influence 
of the south-west monsoon, comes the region of ' deciduous forests,' in 
which the characteristic trees are blackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), teak 
(Tectona grandis), sandal-wood (Santalum album), and bamboo. 

In both these forest tracts European enterprise has recently intro- 
duced the successful cultivation of coffee. In wild beauty, nothing can 
surpass the luxuriance of a Coorg forest, as viewed from the summit of 
one of the peaks of the Western Ghdts. A waving sea of green, broken 
into terraces of varying elevation, extends beneath on every side. 
North and south run parallel ranges of peaks, wooded almost to the 
summit; while to the west, many thousand feet below, the view is 
bounded by the blue line of the Arabian Ocean. Wild animals of all 
kinds swarm in the jungle, and haunt the grassy glades. Of these the 
most characteristic are the elephant, the tiger, the still more furious 
bison, the sambhar deer, and the jungle sheep or ibex. 

The following details must here suffice with regard to the Ghats 
the reader being referred for further information to the separate articles 
on the Districts in which they are situated : — 

6o GHATS. 

The Eastern Ghats commence in Balasor District, Orissa, and 
form a continuation of the hills which close the south-western side of 
the Gangetic valley. They pass southwards through the Districts of 
Cuttack and Puri (in Orissa), enter the Madras Presidency in Ganjam 
District, and sweep southwards through the Districts of Vizagapatani, 
Godavari, Nellore, Chengalpat, South Arcot, Trichinopoli, and Tinne- 
vellL They run at a distance of from 50 to 150 miles from the coast, 
except in Ganjam and Vizagapatam, where in places they almost abut 
on the Bay of Bengal. Average elevation, about 1500 feet. Geo- 
logical formation, granite, gneiss, and mica slate, with clay slate, horn- 
blende, and primitive limestone overlying. 'The surface of the 
countr}',' says Thornton, ' appears to consist of the debris of granitic 
rocks as far north as the Pennar (Ponnaiyar), in approaching which, the 
laterite or iron clay formation expands over a large surface. From 
the Kistna northwards, the granite is often penetrated by injected 
veins of trap and dikes of greenstone. Passing on to Vizagapatam 
and Ganjam, syenite and gneiss predominate, occasionally covered by 

The Western Ghats start from the north of the valley of the 
Tapti, and run southwards through Khandesh, Nasik, Thana, Satara, 
Ratnagiri, Kanara, and Malabar, and the Native States of Cochin and 
Travancore. Length of range from the Tapti to the Palghdt gap, 
800 miles ; south of this pass they run for about 200 miles farther, to 
Cape Comorin. The coast-line from the sea to their base is generally 
flat and low, but the hills rise abruptly on the western side to an 
average height of 3000 feet. On the eastern side, the slope is more 
gradual. Highest peaks in the northern section — Mahabaleshwar, 
4700 feet ; Purandhar, 4472 ; and Sinhgarh, 4162. South of Maha- 
baleshwar, the elevation diminishes to about 1000 feet above sea-level. 
Farther south the elevation again increases, and attains its maximum 
towards Coorg, where the highest peaks vary from 5500 to 7000 feet; 
and where the main range joins the Nilgiris. South of the Palghdt gap, 
many peaks rise to the same elevation. ' Geologically,' says Thornton, 
' it may be observed generally, that the great core of the Western Ghats 
is of primary formation, enclosed by alternating strata of more recent 
origin. These strata, however, have been broken up by prodigious 
outbursts of volcanic rocks ; and from Mahdbaleshwar to the Tdpti, the 
overlying rock of the Western Ghats is stated to be exclusively of the 
trap formation. ... In consequence of the boldness of the declivities 
and the prccijjitous character of the faces of the trap rocks, the summits 
in many parts of the range are nearly inaccessible. The natural strength 
of these portions has in many instances been increased by art ; and the 
hill forts in all ages of Indian history have been regarded as the 
bulwarks of the Deccan. The trap formation terminates southward on 



the sea-coast in about lat. i8 n., and is succeeded by latcrite. This 
last-mentioned formation extends southwards as the overlying rock, 
almost without interruption, to Cape Comorin, covering the base of the 
mountains and the narrow strip of land that separates them from the 

Ghazi^bdd. — South - w^estern tahsil of Meerut (Mcrath) District, 
North-Westcrn Provinces, comprising the pargamis of Dasna, Jalala- 
bad, and Loni, lying along the bank of the river Jumna ; traversed 
by the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi, and the East Indian Railways; inter- 
sected by the Hindan river, and irrigated by the Ganges and Eastern 
Jumna Canals. Area, 494 square miles, of which 353 are cultivated. 
Population (1881) 244,815, namely, males 131,400, and females 113,415. 
Hindus numbered 190,670; Muhammadans, 53,628; Jains, 256; and 
'others,' 261. Land revenue, ;2^39,532; total Government revenue, 
^43,089; rental paid by cultivators, ^^78,786; incidence of Government 
revenue per assessed acre, 2s. 6d. The tahsil or Sub-division contains 
I civil and i criminal court, with 7 police circles {thdnds) ; strength of 
regular police, 94 men ; village watchmen {chauk'iddrs), 597. 

Ghdziabad. — Town and municipality in Meerut (Merath) District, 
North- Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Ghaziabcid tahsil. Lat. 
28° 39' 55" N., long. 77° 28' 10" E. ; distant from IMeerut 28 miles south- 
west. Population (188 1 ) 12,059, namely, Hindus, 8293 ; Musalmans, 
3592; Jains, 37; Christians, 130; and 'others,' 7. Area of town site, 102 
acres. Has risen greatly in importance of late years, owing to the junction 
of the East Indian Railway with the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi line at this 
point. The branch to Delhi also diverges from Ghaziabad junction. 
Founded in 1740 by the Wazir Ghazi-ud-din, brother of Salabat 
Jang, ruler of the Deccan, from whom it derived its original name 
of Ghazi-ud-din-nagar, shortened to the present form on the opening of 
the railway. In May 1857, a small British force from Meerut here 
encountered and defeated the Delhi rebels, who had marched to attack 
them. Several sardis, tahsili, school -house, municipal hall, police 
station, 6 mosques, several Hindu temples (the handsomest known as 
Mandir Dudheswarnath). Numerous barracks, bungalows, and houses 
for native employes have sprung up in the neighbourhood of the railway 
station. The town has a rapidly increasing trade, and is now an 
important grain mart. Weekly market for hides and leather manu- 
factures. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;^io57 ; from taxes, ^763, 
or IS. 3|d. per head of population. 

Ghazipur. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 25° 18' 29" and 26° 56' n. lat, 
and between 83° 21' 26" and 84° o' 7" e. long. Ghdzipur is a District 
in the Benares Division. It is bounded on the north by Azamgarh ; 
on the west by Benares and Jaunpur; on the south by Shahabad; 



and on the east by Ballia. Area, 1473 square miles; population 
(i38i) 1,014,099 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at 
Ghazipur town. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Ghazipur forms part of the great 
alluvial plain of the Ganges, stretching in equal portions on either 
side of the river. The northern part lies between the Gumti and the 
Sarju, whose confluences with the main stream mark its western and 
eastern limits respectively. The southern tract is a much smaller 
strip of country, enclosed between the Karamnasa and the great 
river itself. No hill or natural eminence is to be found within the 
District on either side ; but both north and south of the Ganges the 
country may be divided into an upland and a low-lying tract. The 
higher land consists of the ancient alluvial bed, deposited at some very 
early period by the vast streams which carried down toward the sea the 
detritus of the Himalayan range. Through this elevated plateau, the 
modern rivers at a later date have cut for themselves broad channels, 
flooded at certain periods of the year, but forming the low-lying tilth 
in the harvest season. The process of denudation still goes on with 
every inundation, and the upland slopes are gradually diminishing in 
extent under the erosive action of the torrents. The principal rivers 
are the Ganges, Sarju, Giimti, and Mangai. The first three are per- 
manent streams, which flow during the dry season in narrow channels, 
cut through their own alluvial deposits. A few lakes are scattered 
over the District, formed where a river has deserted its former 
channel, and a bank of silt has dammed up the abandoned bed. 
The soil in many portions of the upland shows a tendency to develop 
the noxious saline efilorescence known as reh^ the frequency of which 
is increased by the obstruction to drainage arising from the cul- 
tivation of rice. With this exception, however, the greater part of 
Ghazipur is fertile and fully cultivated. Game is comparatively scarce, 
owing to the general prevalence of tillage ; and deer, which prove so 
destructive to the standing crops in neighbouring Districts, are here 
almost unknown. 

History. — Tradition refers the foundation of the city of Ghazipur to 
a mythical hero. Raja Gidh, who is said to have called his stronghold 
Gddhi[)ur. The name, however, as will be presently proved, is of 
Musalman origin, and, in fact, the town was not really founded until 
the 14th century a.d. Nevertheless, the District can boast a long 
history of its own, stretching far back into the earliest days of Aryan 
colonization. Carved monoliths bear witness to a very ancient Hindu 
civilisation ; and one in particular, at Bhitri, contains an inscription of 
Samudra Gupta, who probably reigned over the surrounding country as 
far as Kanauj about the end of the 4th century a.d. Indeed, the 
monuments found in Ghazipur have been of inestimable value in 


enabling us to unravel the intricate history of the Ganges valley before 
the advent of the Musalmdns. The result of late investigations, as 
applied to these remains, may thus be briefly summarized. At the time 
of Sdkya Muni (Buddha), 550 B.C., the country from Sayyidpur to Baxar 
was already the seat of a civilised Aryan nationality, whose metropolis 
was situated near the former town, where numerous ruins and archi- 
tectural remains of the earliest age are still found. The country 
embraced the religion of the new teacher, and formed a portion of 
the Buddhist Empire under Asoka, who reigned about 250 B.C. 
Asoka erected here one of his well-known pillars, and at least two 
stupas. From the 4th to the 7 th century of our era, Ghazipur was 
included in the territories of the Gupta dynasty of Magadha, in whose 
columns and coins the District is unusually rich. Hwen Thsang, the 
Chinese pilgrim, about 630 a.d., found this tract inhabited by a 
mixed population of Buddhists and Hindus. He visited a monastery 
built by Asoka, and mentions many other buildings, whose sites have 
been identified with a high degree of probability. After the extirpation 
of Buddhism by Brahmanism in Northern India, the aborigines appear 
to have recovered these regions from their Aryan lords, who were 
perhaps weakened by internecine religious strife. 

In the interval between the Gupta monarchy and the Muhammadan 
conquest, an age of darkness supervenes, during which Ghazipur was 
apparently in the hands of Bhar chieftains. The ancient Aryan civilisa- 
tion would seem to have been utterly trampled out, as no great monuments 
or architectural remains mark this intermediate period. But just before 
the Musalman inroads, the Brahmans and Rdjputs from the north and 
west, driven from their own homes by the advancing wave of Islam, 
moved eastward to occupy the neglected tracts which had fallen for 
awhile into the hands of the indigenous races. The descendants of 
this second Aryan colony form the modern landowning class of the 
District ; but they have no traditions with respect to their predecessors, 
and attribute the ancient monuments of their fellow-tribesmen to the 
Bhar Rajas, whom their fathers found in possession of the soil. The 
Rajput settlers, however, did not long enjoy their independence in the 
new home to which they had migrated. The aggressive Muham- 
madan power followed eastward close upon their heels. In 1193, 
Behar and the middle Ganges valley were conquered by Kutab-ud-din, 
the general of Muhammad Ghori, first Musalman Emperor of Delhi. 
He had defeated and slain the Hindu champion, Jai Chand, Rahtor 
Raja of Benares and Kanauj, in the Jumna ravines of Etawah ; and the 
\\ hole country as far as Bengal lay at the feet of the conqueror. During 
the succeeding century we hear little of the present District; but 
about the year 1330, the city of Ghazipur was founded (according to a 
i'robable tradition) by a Sayyid chief named Masaiid, who slew the 


local Hindu Raja in battle. Sultan Muhammad Tughlak thereupon 
granted him the estates of his conquered enemy, with the title of Ghdzt, 
or ' Champion of the Faith,' which gave the name to the newly-founded 
city. From 1394 to 1476, Ghazipur was incorporated in the dominions 
of the Sharki dynasty of Jaunpur, who maintained their independence 
for nearly a century as rival to the Lodhi rulers of Delhi. After their 
fall, it was reunited to the dominions of the Western Sultans, and was 
conquered, like the surrounding country, by the Mughal Emperor 
Bdbar in 1526. In 1539, however, the southern border of the 
District was the scene of a decisive engagement between the Afghan 
Prince Sher Sh.ih and Humciyiin, the son of Babar, at Baxar, just 
within the Shahabad border, in which the latter was utterly defeated 
and driven out of the country. 

Sher Shah's victory settled the fate of Ghazipur for the next 
twenty years. It remained in the undisturbed possession of the 
Afghans, not only through the reigns of the three intrusive emperors 
belonging to the dynasty of Sur, but throughout the restored 
supremacy of Humayiin. It was not till the third year of Akbar 
that Ghazipur was recovered for the Mughal throne by Khanj 
Zamdn, Governor of Jaunpur, from whom the town of Zamania derivesj 
its name. After his rebellion and death in 1566, the District wasj 
thoroughly united to the Delhi Empire, and organized under the subahK 
of Allahabad. During the palmy days of Akbar's successors, the annalsj 
of Ghazipur are purely formal and administrative, until the rise of the! 
Nawab Wazi'rs of Oudh at the beginning of the last century. In i722,| 
Saadat Khan made himself practically independent as Viceroy of Oudh. 
About 1 748, he appointed Shaikh Abdulla, a native of the District who 
had fled from the service of the Governor of Patna, to the command 
of Ghdzipur. Abdulla has left his mark in the city by his splendid 
buildings, the chief of which, now in ruins, is known as the Palace of 
the Forty Pillars. He also constructed a garden, the Nawab's Bagh, 
near which he was buried under a handsome mausoleum. His son 
Fazl All succeeded him, but, after various vicissitudes, was expelled by 
Raja Pahvant Singh of Benares. Balwant Singh died in 1770, but the 
Nawab Wazir permitted his illegitimate son, Chait Singh, to inherit his 
title and principality. In 1775, the suzerainty of the Benares Province 
was ceded to the British by the Wazi'r Asaf-ul-dauld. The new Govern- 
ment continued Chait Singh in his fief until the year 1781, when he 
was deposed by Warren Hastings. From this final introduction of the 
British rule till the Mutiny, Ghazipur enjoyed undisturbed peace. 

In 1S05, Lord Cornwallis died here, and a monument, with a marble 
tomb adorned with a statue by Flaxman, was erected to his memory. 
In 1857, order was preserved till the mutiny at Azamgarh became 
known, on 3rd June. The fugitives from Azamgarh arrived on that 


day, and local outbreaks took place. The 65th Native Infantry, how- 
ever, remained staunch, and 100 European troops on their way to 
Benares were detained, so that order was tolerably re-established by 
the 1 6th June. No further disturbance occurred till the news of the 
Dinapur mutiny arrived on the 27th of July. The 65th then stated 
their intention of joining Kuar Singh's force; but after the rebel defeat 
at Arrah, they were quietly disarmed, and some European troops were 
stationed at Ghazipur. No difficulties arose till the siege of Azamgarh 
was raised in April, when the rebels came flying down the Gogra and 
across the Ganges to Arrah. The disorderly element again rose, and 
by the end of June the eastern half of the District was utterly dis- 
organised. In July 1858, a force was sent to Ballia which drove the 
rebels out of the Doab, while another column cleared all the pargands 
north of the Ganges. The pargands south of the river remained in 
rebellion till the end of October, when troops were sent across which 
expelled the rebels and completely restored order. 

Fopulaiion. — Ghazipur is one of the numerous Districts which, after 
suffering a loss of population about the middle of the present century, 
has partially recovered its lost ground of late years. In 1853 the 
total number of inhabitants was returned at 1,596,324, In 1865 it 
had sunk to 1,342,455, showing a decrease of 253,869 persons, or 16 
per cent., in spite of an intermediate enlargement of its area by 41 
square miles. By 1872, however, although 55 square miles of territory 
had been transferred to other Districts, the population had risen again 
to a total of 1,345,570, which showed an increase of 31 15 persons, or 
■2 per cent., although, allowing for the present further decreased area, 
the -population in 1872 was but 873,299. By 1881 the population had 
increased to 1,014,099, being 140,800, or i6'i per cent., over the popu- 
lation in the same area in 1872. The statistics of density display these 
changes even more conspicuously and truthfully than a mere enumera- 
tion upon a constantly-shifting area. The Census of 1853 gave an 
average of 732 persons to the square mile; that of 1865 showed only 
604 to the square mile; while that of 1872 disclosed a density of 621 
to the square mile, and that of 18S1, 688 to the square mile. The 
enumeration of 1881 was taken over an area of 1473 square miles, and 
it returned a total population of 1,014,099 persons, distributed among 
2606 villages or towns, and inhabiting 166,789 houses. These figures 
i yield the following averages : — Persons per square mile, 688 ; villages 
; per square mile, 17 ; houses per square mile, 113; persons per village, 

1389 ; persons per house, 6"o. 
Classified according to sex, there were — males, 507,117; females, 
506,982 ; proportion of males, 50-0 per cent. As regards religion, 
Ghazipur contains about the average proportion of Hindus and 
Muhammadans which is found throughout the North - Western Pro- 

VOL. V. E 



vinces. The Census showed 913,764 adherents of the Hindu faith, 
or 90'i per cent., as against 99,678 Musahiians, or 9"8 per cent. 
There were also 648 Christians, 8 Jews, and i Parsi. The higher 
Hindu castes were returned as follows: — Brahman, 67,840; Rajput, 
91,675 ; Kayasth, 15,421 ; and Baniya, 4251. The lower castes are repre- 
sented by the Ahir, cattle breeders, milkmen, and cultivators, 154,246, 
the most numerous caste in the District; Chamar, leather- workers, 
labourers, etc., 130,716; Kachhi, cultivators and gardeners, 77,262; 
Bhuinhar, landholders and cultivators, 47,181 ; Bhar, the early abori- 
ginal rulers of the country, now cultivators and labourers, 43,846 ; 
Kahar, cultivators, palanquin-bearers, and domestic servants, 35,989 ; 
Tell, oil-makers, 22,478; Lohar, blacksmiths, 21,419; Lonia, salt- 
workers by hereditary occupation, but now spadesmen and field 
labourers, 18,633; Kumbhar, potters, 14,247; Mallah, boatmen, 
14,029; Kalwar, distillers, 13,239; Kiinni, landholders and culti- 
vators, 10,023; Gadaria, shepherds, 8554; Nai, barbers, 8536; Sonar, 
goldsmiths, 7813; Dhobi, washermen, 7079; and Tambuli, betel- 
leaf sellers, 6269. Amongst the Musalmans, the Sunnis numbered 
96,787 ; and the Shias, 2891. 

The panchdyais, or caste guilds, have here as elsewhere very much 
the practical effect of trades-unions ; and they also regulate matters 
of social arrangement, petty debt, occupancy of land, and domestic 
questions generally. The District is permanently assessed, and both 
landowners and cultivators are richer and more independent than in 
the country farther west. In the poorer parts, the peasantry are 
generally in debt ; but in the more fertile tracts, where they have 
mostly rights of occupancy, they are well-to-do, and are (perhaps 
in consequence) the most litigious community in the North-Western 
Provinces, There are seven towns in the District with a population 
(18S1) exceeding 5000 souls — namely, Ghazipur, 32,885; Gahmar, 
10,443; RiOTiPUR, 10,297; Sherpur, 9030; Narhi, 5415; Zamania, 
5 1 16; and Bahadurganj, 5007. These give a total urban popula- 
tion of 78,193 souls, leaving the remainder, 935,906, as forming 
the village and rural poi)ulation. Of the 2606 towns and villages 
in the District in 18S1, 1300 contained less than two hundred 
inhabitants, 726 from two to five hundred, 385 from five hundred to a 
thousand, 145 from one to two thousand, 28 from two to three thousand, 
1 1 from three to five thousand, 8 from five to ten thousand (including 
scattered hamlets attached to four villages), 2 from ten to fifteen 
thousand, and i over thirty thousand. As regards occupation, the 
Census Report classified the male population into the following six 
groups: — (i) Professional, including civil and military, all Government 
employes, and the learned professions, 6865 ; (2) domestic servants, 
board and lodging-house keepers, 1859; (3) commercial, including 


merchants, general dealers, carriers, etc., 9585 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral, 236,517; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 54,230; (6) 
indefinite and non-productive (comprising 14,026 labourers and 
184,035 male children or persons of unsi)ecified occupation), 193,061. 

Agriculture. — The greater portion of the cultivable soil in Ghazi[)ur 
is already fully tilled, there being a total of 1006 square miles under 
cultivation, with an available margin of only 132 square miles. The 
black earth called kardil, resembling the tndr of Bundelkhand, is 
common in the lowlands and in the plateau south of the Ganges. It 
produces a good spring crop without irrigation, but its character is 
much improved if sand is spread over the surface ; otherwise it is liable 
to dry up into deeply-fissured masses of hardened clay. In all the 
Gangetic lowland, the upper layer of a well-raised tract always consists of 
alluvial mould ; but the sub-soil is sandy. The rivers which have had 
the longest course from the hills, deposit mud ; the others leave behind 
them beds of sand ; but the Ganges forms alternate layers of each. 
Hence a flood from the Sarju is injurious to the fields, while an 
inundation of the Ganges benefits the crops. The harvests are those 
common to the whole north-western plain. The kharif crops are sown 
after the first rains in June, and reaped in October or November. The 
early rice, however, is sometimes harvested as soon as the end of 
August, while cotton is not ready for picking till February. The other 
autumn staples are the millets bdjra and jodr., and moth. The rab'i or 
spring crops are sown in October or November, and reaped in March 
or April. They consist of wheat, barley, oats, vetch, and pulses. 
Manure is used, where it can be obtained, for both harvests ; and land 
is allowed to lie fallow whenever the cultivator can afford it. As a 
rule, spring and autumn crops are not taken off the same land, but 
sometimes a plot of early rice is reaped in August or September, and a 
second crop of some kind is sown in its place for the spring harvest. 
If rain is delayed beyond the 20th June, this keeps back the sowing 
and endangers the yield of the early autumn crops. 

At the Land Settlement of Ghazipur District, made in 1789, and sub- 
sequently declared permanent, fraternities or brotherhoods belonging 
to various Hindu and Muhammadan tribes were recognised by Govern- 
ment, in the great majority of cases, as the owners of the soil. The 
settlements were concluded with a few head-men on each estate, who 
were the representatives of the whole community. In some cases, by 
accident rather than by design, the head-man of a proprietary community 
was treated as sole owner. In no instance did Government admit 
the existence of any divided ownership, or of superior and inferior 
proprietary rights. No talukddrs were therefore recognised, though 
there were immense taluks, or single estates formed of many villages, 
held by brotherhoods of shareholders. A detailed record of the rights 


of ownership of the various shareholders was not attempted till 1S40. 
Meanwhile, estates were sold for arrears of revenue ; and, till after the 
Land Act of 1859, the purchasers were constantly at law with the 
old landowners, who rented and cultivated the fields they formerly 
possessed. The adult male agriculturists in the District in 1881 
numbered 235,971, cultivating an average of 273 acres each. The 
total agricultural population dependent on the soil, however, was 
726,369, or 7 1 "62 per cent, of the District population. Of the 1473 
square miles of area, 1470 square miles are assessed for Government 
revenue. Of this, 1006 square miles are under cultivation, 131^ square 
miles are available for cultivation, and 332^ square miles are uncultiv- 
able waste. Total amount of Government assessment, including local 
rates and cesses on land, ;^ 129,963, or an average of 4s. o|d. 
per cultivated acre. Total rental actually paid by cultivators, 
^^223, 254, or an average of 6s. iid. per acre. Wages ordinarily rule 
as follows: — Coolies and unskilled labourers, 2|d. to 3|d. per diem; 
agricultural labourers, 2|d. to 3d. per diem; bricklayers and carpenters, 
6d. to 2S. per diem. Women are paid about one-fifth less than men, 
while boys and girls get from one-half to one-third the wages of adults. 
Agricultural hands are most frequently paid in grain. In villages, 
payments for labour are made daily. The following were the average 
prices-current of food-grains in 1883: — Wheat, 18 sers per rupee, or 
6s. 3d. per cwt. ; best rice, 11 sers per rupee, or los. 2d. per cwt. ; 
common rice, i6f sers \)zx rupee, or 6s. 9d. per cwt. ; jodr, 32I sers 
per rupee, or 3s. 5|d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 27I sers per rupee, or 4s. o|d. 
per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — The District is not specially subject to flood, 
drought, or blight, and it has suffered from no great famine during 
the present century. It possesses ample means of external communi- 
cation in the rivers Ganges and Gumti, the East Indian Railway, and 
the branch railway from Dildarnagar to the bank of the Ganges 
0])posite Ghazii)ur town. In 1783, severe scarcity occurred from the 
failure of the rains in the previous year, but there were no deaths from 
famine as far as known. In 1803, the rice crop was destroyed and the 
spring harvest endangered. In 1837-38, there was again a scarcity, 
Vjut no actual famine occurred. There were also partial droughts in 
1859-60, 1864-65, and 1865-66, besides floods in 1871-72. Another 
scarcity occurred in 1868-69, when only 21 inches of rain fell in twelve 
months. The greater part of the autumn and about half the spring 
crops were lost, and severe distress resulted. Relief operations were 
set on foot, and continued from June to September 1869, but no actual 
deaths from famine occurred. The last year of scarcity was 1878, 
when prices rose very high owing to the scanty rainfall of 1877, and 
Government relief works were necessary from June to August 1878. 


Commerce and Trade, etc. — The cliief imports into the District are 
Enghsh piece-goods and yarn, cotton, salt, spices, and grain. The 
principal exports are country cloth, sugar, fuller's earth, oil-seeds, and 
hides. The head-quarters of the Government Opium Department for 
the North-Western Provinces are at Ghazipur. The poppy has been 
cultivated in India since the i6th century; and when the English first 
acquired the Benares Province, they farmed the monopoly to 
contractors. In 1797, an opium agent was appointed for Benares, but 
natives still managed the manufacture, and were paid by commission. 
In 1 85 2, Lord Dalhousie introduced the present system. There are 
10 deputies under the agent, and each of these has one or two 
European assistants. The 10 divisions are again sub-divided into 39 
offices, each supervised by a native overseer. Licences are granted and 
advances made to the cultivators, who in return engage to place a 
certain amount of land under opium. After the fields are sown, they 
are measured carefully, and estimates made of the quantity of opium 
which each cultivator ought to produce. In March and April the 
opium is collected and brought to the factory, where it is weighed, and 
its consistence is tested, before the cultivator is paid for it. The 
amount disbursed in working expenses at the Ghdzipur factory is 
about ;^ 1 0,000 per annum. The opium is classified according to its 
consistence, and is then made up into special balls, which are packed 
in boxes and despatched to Calcutta for sale by auction. Carbonate of 
soda is manufactured from the reh or saline efflorescence of the barren 
usar plains, and exported to Calcutta. Saltpetre is also largely 
prepared from the same source. The parga?uis south of the Ganges 
are traversed by the East Indian Railway for a length of 24 miles ; 
there are three stations within the District — at Zamania, Dilddrnagar, 
and Gahmar. Three stations in Shahabad District are also situated 
within easy distances from portions of Ghazipur. A branch State line 
has been constructed from Dildarnagar to Tari-ghdt opposite Ghazipur 
town, and is w'orked by the East Indian Railway. Total length of 
railways, 35 miles. Much of the heavy commerce of the District is 
still conveyed by the Ganges. Good roads, to the length of 568 miles, 
of which 112 miles are metalled, connect all the principal centres with 
one another and with the adjacent towns. A bathing fair is held on 
the full moon of Kartik, in October, at Chochakpur, which attracts 
some 10,000 visitors 

Advmiistration. — The ordinary District staff consists of a Collector- 
Magistrate, a Joint Magistrate, and 3 Deputy Magistrates. Ghazipur 
is the seat of a Civil and Sessions Judge, who is also Judge of Ballia. 
The whole amount of revenue raised in the District, for imperial, 
municipal, or local purposes, amounted in 1882-83 to ;!^i4o,ooo, being 
at the rate of 2s. gd. per head of the population. In the same year, the 


total strength of the regular police force was 392 ofificers and men, 
besides a municipal or town police of 161 men; the cost of their 
maintenance was returned at ;j^5799, of which ^^4793 was paid from 
Provincial sources, and ;^ioo6 from municipal funds. These figures 
show I policeman to every 27 square miles of the area, and to every 
1834 of the population. The District jail is at Ghazipur town. In 
18S2 it contained a daily average of 459 prisoners, of whom 34 were 
females. The District possesses 1 7 imperial and i local post-office ; 
and telegraph offices are connected with each of the stations on 
the East Indian Railway. Education was carried on in 1882-83 
in 150 Government - inspected schools, with a total roll of 5524 
scholars, being an average of i school to every 9*8 square miles, and 
5 scholars per thousand of the population. This is exclusive of unaided 
schools, for which no returns are available. The Census Report in 

1881 returned 5870 boys and 200 girls as under instruction, besides 
24,489 males and 456 females able to read and write, but not under 
instruction. For fiscal purposes, Ghazipur is sub-divided into 4 tahsils 
and 13 pargands. The District contains only one municipality, that of 
Ghdzi'pur town. 

Sanitary Aspects. — Ghazipur is one of the hottest and dampest 
Districts in the North-Western Provinces. In 1869, the mean annual 
temperature was 80° F. ; the lowest monthly mean was 61° in January, 
and the highest 98° in May. The average annual rainfall for the 
thirty years ending 1881 was 37*99 inches; during this period, the 
maximum was 50*5 inches in 1861, and the minimum was 2i'5 inches 
in 1868. The total number of deaths recorded in 1882 was 31,877, 
or 32*49 per thousand of the population. There are 3 dispensaries 
in the District, at Ghdzipur, Sayyidpur, and Pirnagar. During the year 

1882 they afforded relief to 24,393 persons, of whom 689 were in-door 
and 23,704 out-door patients. 

Ghazipur. — Central tahsil of Ghazipur District, North - Western 
Provinces, lying along the north bank of the Ganges. Area, 440 
square miles, of which 264 square miles are cultivated, 73 square miles 
cultivable, and 103 square miles uncultivable waste. Population 
(1881) 332,408, namely, males 168,751, and females 163,657. Hindus 
numbered 299,770; Muhammadans, 32,244; and 'others,' 394; land 
revenue, ^^32,118; total Government revenue, ^^35, 604 ; rental paid 
by cultivators, ^71,870; incidence of Government revenue, 2s. 3|d. 
per acre. In 1883 the tahsil contained 4 civil and 8 criminal courts, 
with 7 police circles {thdnas) ; strength of regular police, 95 men ; 
villaL'C watchmen {chaukidars), 745. 

Ghdzipur. — City, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of 
Ghazipur District, North-Western Provinces ; situated on the low 
alluvial northern bank of the Ganges, 44 miles north-east of Benares. 


Lat. 25° 35' o" N., long. 83° 38' 7" e. Population (1881) 32,885, 
namely, males 15,961, and females 16,924. Hindus numbered 
21,824; Muhammadans, 11,0475 ^^^ Christians, 14. Founded, ac- 
cording to Hindu tradition, by Raja Gadh, an eponymous hero, 
from whom it took the name of Gadhipur : according to Muhammadan 
history, by the Sayyid chief Masaiid, about the year 1330, from whose 
title of- Malik-us-Saadat Ghazi the city really derives its name. For 
later history and Mutiny narrative, see Ghazipur District. The city 
stretches along the bank of the Ganges for nearly two miles, with 
a breadth from north to south of about three-quarters of a mile. 
Palace of the Forty Pillars, built by Shaikh Abdulla, governor under 
the Oudh viceroys, now Hes in ruins. Tombs of Masaiid, Abdulla, 
and Fazl AH also adorn the city. Monument to Lord Cornwallis, 
who died here in 1805, consisting of a domed quasi -Grecian building, 
with a marble statue by Flaxman. Trade in sugar, tobacco, coarse 
long-cloth, and rose-water. Head-quarters of the Government Opium 
Department, where all the opium from the North-Western Provinces 
is collected and manufactured under a monopoly. Two weekly ver- 
nacular newspapers are published in the town. Municipal revenue in 
1882-83, ^2962; from taxes, ;!^2439, or is. i|d. per head of popu- 
lation (43,232) within municipal limits. 

Ghazipur. — Central southern iashil of Fatehpur District, North- 
western Provinces, lying along the north bank of the Jumna, and 
consisting of the pargands of Ayah Sah, Ghazipur, and Mutaur. Area, 
282 square miles, of which 158 are cultivated, and 61 still available for 
cultivation; land revenue, ^19,623; total Government revenue, 
;;^23,o69 ; rental paid by cultivators, ;^32,439 ; incidence of Govern- 
ment revenue per acre, 2s. 7^d. 

Ghazipur Khas. — Town in Fatehpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, and head-quarters of Ghazipur ia/isi/, situated on the Fateh- 
pur and Libra road about 9 miles from Fatehpur town, in lat. 25' 48' 
55" N., and long. 80° 46' 41" E. Population (1881) 2134, chiefly 
Rajputs. Said to have been founded in 1691 by Araru Singh, the 
ancestor of the present Raja of Asothar. The fort here was the chief 
stronghold of the family. Police station and post-office. 

Ghazi-ud-din-nagar. — Town in Meerut District, North-Western 
Provinces. — See Ghaziabad. 

Ghazni. — Town and fortress in Afghanistan ; situated on the left 
bank of the river of the same name, 85 miles south-west of Kabul, 233 
miles north-east of Kandahar, 145 miles north-east of Kalat-i-Ghilzai, 
264 miles west of Kohat by Kuram, 283 miles north-west of Dera 
Ismail Khan by the Gumal road, and 295 miles north-east of Quetta. 
Lat. 33° 34' N., long 68° 19' E. The town may be described as an 
irregular square, each side averaging 500 yards. Its circumference 


was measured in 1880, and was found, excluding the citadel, to be 
2175 yards. The citadel and town are thus described by Captain 
Larminie, a member of Sir D. Stewart's staff, who wrote in 18S0 : — 
' With a few slight exceptions, nothing whatever either in the shape of 
repairs or new buildings appears to have been done since the date of 
our last occupancy, nearly forty years ago ; hence the whole has fallen 
into a state of ruin and decay. A ruined citadel, broken and useless 
parapets, cracked and tumble-down towers, crumbling curtain walls, 
and a silted-up ditch, are all that remain of the once famous stronghold 
of Ghazni.' The town is surrounded by a high wall, and flanked at 
irregular intervals by towers. The city itself is composed of dirty 
irregular streets of houses, several storeys high, and will not bear 
comparison with either Kabul or Kandahar. The houses are built 
of mud, and variously estimated at from 900 to 3500; the inhabitants 
are composed principally of Afghans, about 200 families of Hazara 
labourers, and about 150 Hindu shopkeepers, bankers, and traders, 
the latter paying a small tax as infidels. With the exception of 
poshtins (sheepskin coats) there are no manufactures. Ghazni is cele- 
brated for its apricots, apples and melons, which go to Kabul in large 

The climate of Ghazni, for several months of the year, is extremely 
cold, and snow lies on the ground from November to March. In 
summer it is not so hot as Kabul or Kandahar, but at that 
season there are constant dust-storms. Three miles to the north- 
east of Ghaznf are the ruins of the old city, destroyed in the middle 
of the 1 2th century by the Prince of Ghor, who, however, spared 
the tomb of the renowned Mahmud of Ghazni. The citadel is 
situated at the north angle of the town, and commands the city 
completely. Ghazni was captured by Sir John Keane's force during the 
first Afghan war, being carried by storm on the 23rd July 1839. At 
the time of the Afghan rising in 1841, the citadel was garrisoned by the 
27th Bengal Native Infantry. The place was besieged by the Afghans, 
and the garrison forced to retire to the citadel. The little force held 
out, after suffering great privations, from November 1841 till the 6th 
March 1842, when, their supply of water fixiling, they were forced to 
evacuate the fort, and afterwards to surrender to the Afghan chief. 
The officers were brutally treated, and the Sepoys either sold into 
slavery or murdered. In September 1842, General Nott recaptured 
Ghazni. The citadel was destroyed before the withdrawal of General 
Nott's army to India. During the Afghan \Var of 1879-80, Ghazni 
was twice visited by a British force, namely, in April 1S80 by Sir Donald 
Stewart, when marching from Kandahdr to K:ibul, and in August of 
the same year by Sir Frederick Roberts, when returning from Kabul 
to Kandahdr. On the former occasion an unimportant engagement 



with the Afghans took place at Arzu, 6 miles south-east of Ghazni. 
Ghazni lies beyond British India, and does not, therefore, come within 
the strict scope of this work. 15ut its former importance as a great 
military centre on the north-western frontier deserves a passing word. 
It gave its name to the founder of the Musalman Empire of India, 
and Mahmiid of Ghazni (997-1030) was only the forerunner of a 
long series of invaders who streamed eastwards over the passes from 

Gheria. — Town and fort in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. 


Gheria. — Small town to the south of Suti, Murshidabad District, 
Bengal. Lat. 24° 30' 15" N., long 88° 8' 15" e. Famous as the scene 
of two important battles — the first in 1740, when the Nawab All 
Vardi Khan defeated Sarfaraz Khan, his rival for the government of 
Bengal; the second in 1763, when Mi'r Kasim, Nawab of Bengal, 
after declaring war upon the East India Company, was finally defeated 
and the throne bestowed for the second time upon Mir Jafar. 

Ghes. — Estate or zam'mddri attached to Sambalpur District, Central 
Provinces, about 43 miles west of Sambalpur. Population (1881) 7030, 
residing in 25 villages, on an area of 30 square miles, of which three- 
fifths are cultivated, chiefly with rice. The principal village, Ghes, 
situated in lat. 21" 11' 30" n., long. 83° 20' e., contains a population 
(188 1 ) of 979. The zaminddr's family are Banjaras. The estate 
occupies a small tract in the south-west corner of the District, and is 
much overrun by scrub-jungle, and the soil is inferior. The popula- 
tion is mainly agricultural, composed of Banjaras, and aboriginal Gonds 
and Kandhs. A few Kalita families hold the best villages. Staple 
products, rice and oil-seeds. Only 4 villages contain a population of 
between 500 and 1000, the remainder having less than 500. The 
estate is said to have been granted to an ancestor of the present family 
by the Sambalpur Raja two centuries ago, free of rent, but subject 
to a light tribute. In 1857, the zaminddr joined in the rebellion of 
Surendra Sah, but was pardoned under the amnesty of 1858. He was 
afterwards, however, convicted of harbouring proclaimed rebels, and 
sentenced to seven years' imprisonment. He died in jail, and was 
succeeded by his son Ujal Singh, who still (1883) holds the estate. 

Ghodbandar. — See Ghorbandar. 

Ghogha. — Town in Ahmadabad District, Bombay Presidency. — Sec 

Ghoghdro. — Town in Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 27° 29' N., long. 68° 4' e. Population (under 2000) chiefly 
Muhammadans of the Mangan, Siil, and W'agan tribes. Ghogaro 
possesses a considerable rice trade, being situated in one of the finest 
rice districts in Sind. 


Gholghd,t.— Village in Hiigli District, Bengal. Famous as the site 
of a fortress built by the Portuguese, which gradually grew into the 
town and port of Hugli. Traces of this fort are still visible in the bed 
of the river. 

Gholwad. — Town in Thana District, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 
20° 5' N., longitude 72° 46' e. Population (1881) i486. Station on 
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. The railway traffic 
returns show an increase in passengers from 5898 in 1873 to 9949 in 
18S0, and a fall in the amount of goods carried from 912 to 522 tons. 
Average exports for three years ending 1878-79, ;^i87o; average 
imports, ;^202. 

Ghord.— Chief town of the State of Jobat, under the Bhil Agency of 
Central India. — See Jobat. 

Ghorabari.— r(///^/C' of Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency ; situated between 24° 5' and 24° 34' n. latitude, and 67° 
21' 15" and 68° i' e. longitude. Population (1881) 34,360, namely, 
3417 Hindus, 30,202 Muhammadans, 697 Sikhs, and 44 'others^' 
area, 566 square miles, with i town and 97 villages ; revenue, /,"8i4o. 
In 1882-83 the /cfM' contained 3 criminal courts ; police circles {thdiids\ 
8; regular police, 44 men. Area assessed to land revenue, 41,560 
acres ; under actual cultivation, 25,360 acres. 

Ghorasar. — Petty State under the Mahi Kantha Agency in the 
Province of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Population (1881)84005 
gross revenue, ^^2854. Products— cotton and the ordinary cereals. 
For administrative purposes, the State is included in the Watrak 
Kdntha sub-division of the Mahi Kantha territory. Number of 
villages, 15; area under tillage, 22,500 acres. There are 2 schools, 
with 155 pupils. The present (1881) chief is Siiraj Mai ; he holds the 
title of Thakur, and is a Hindu of the Koli caste. The succession 
follows the rule of primogeniture ; there is no sanad authorizing 
adoption. An annual tribute is payable of ;i^48, i6s. to the British 
Government, and ^350 to the Gdekwar of Baroda. Transit dues 
are levied in the State. Chief town, Ghorasar, situated in latitude 
23° 28' N., longitude 73° 20' E. 

Ghorbandar (Ghodbandar). — Port in Salsette, Thana District, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 601. The customs' division 
called after Ghorbandar comprises 5 ports, namely, Rai Utan, Manori, 
Bandra, Vesdva, and Ghorbandar. The total trade of these 5 ports 
in 1881-82 was ^210,777, of which ^36,717 represents imports, and 
^174,060 exports, the last consisting of rice, stone, lime, sand, cocoa- 
nuts, salt, fish, and firewood. The imports are hardware, cloth, 
groceries, rice, oil, molasses, butter, tobacco, gunny-bags, hemp and 
timber. Ghorbandar lies on the left bank of Bassein creek, 10 miles 
north-west of Thdnd, and has been supposed to be the Hippokura of 


Ptolemy. Under the Portuguese, the place stood a siege by the 
Mardthd Sivaji, who appeared before it in 1672. In 1737 it was 
captured by the Marathas, and the Portuguese garrison put to the 
sword. Fryer calls the town Grebondel. Rest-house on the shore 
with accommodation for over fifty travellers. Portuguese architectural 
remains. The traders in Ghorbandar are Agris, Kolis, Muhammadans, 
and Christians, and most of them trade on borrowed capital. 

Ghotdna. — Town in Haidarabdd (Hyderabad) District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Latitude 25° 44' 45" n., longitude 68° 27' E. 
Population chiefly Mohanos and Lohanos. Being situated only 2 miles 
from the landing-place on the Indus, where the products of Shikarpur, 
Adam-jo-Tando, etc. are received for re-exportation, Ghotana possesses 
a large transit trade in grain, cotton, seeds, and potash. The local 
trade, chiefly in cereals, has an annual value of about ^1300. 

Ghotki. — Taluk of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; 
situated between 27° 46' 45" and 28° 18' n. latitude, and between 
69° to' and 69° 36' e. longitude. Population (1881) 42,453, namely, 
5600 Hindus, 35,253 Muhammadans, 753 Sikhs, and 847 'others.' 
Area, 385 square miles, with 2 towns and 98 villages ; revenue 
(1882-83), ;^i3.359- 'Phe area assessed to land revenue (1882-83) is 
53,545 acres; area under actual cultivation, 48,424 acres. The taluk 
contains i civil and 2 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds), 10; 
regular police, 49 men. 

Ghotki. — Town in Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Latitude 28° o' 15" n., longitude 69° 21' 15" e. Population (1881) 
3240, the Muhammadans being chiefly of the Pathan, Malak, Sayyid, 
Mochi, and Lohdr tribes, and the Hindus principally Baniyas. Founded 
about 1747. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^^276 ; disbursements, 
_;/'2 2 5 ; incidence of local taxation, is. 8d. per head. Situated on the 
Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway. Sessions court-house, head-quarters 
of a mukhtiarkdr, post-office, travellers' bungalow. The mosque of Pir 
Miisa Shah, the founder of the city, 113 feet long by 65 feet broad, 
is the largest in Sind, and of great sanctity. Local trade chiefly in 
cereals, indigo, wool, and sugar-cane. The Lobars (blacksmiths) of 
Ghotki are famed for their metal-work; wood carving and staining 
are also very creditably executed. 

GhugUS. — Village in Chanda District, Central Provinces; 13 miles 
west of Chanda town. Lat. 19° 56' 30" N., long. 79° 9' 30" e. Popula- 
tion (188 1 ) 748. The village contains three temple-caves, and near 
them some carved stones apparently meant to represent animals. 
Near Ghugus, about a.d. 1700, was fought the battle between the 
Gond king Ram Shah and the rebel princes Bagba, Agba, and Ragbi 
Agba fell on the field, where his tomb may still be seen ; and hard by 
is the ' Ghora Ghat,' so called from Bagba's fabled leap across the 


Wardha. On the bank of this river, between Ghugus and Chandur, a 
seam of coal, -^t^ feet thick, crops out on the surface, and is estimated 
to cover 3 square miles. An experimental shaft was sunk, but has 
now been abandoned. 

Ghusal. — Mountain pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, across the range 
of the Himalayas which forms the southern boundary of Kunawar. 
Lat. 31° 21' N., long. 78° 13' E. Two other passes, the Gund and the 
Nitrang, lie within half a mile to the north-west ; but Thornton states 
that only one of the three is ever practicable at any particular season. 
They lead from Sangla to Chuara. Elevation above sea-level, 15,851 feet. 

Ghusri. — Village in Howrah District, Bengal. Manufacture of dhuiis 
and sdr'is carried on according to European methods. Permanent 
market, with large trade in agricultural products. 

Ghutasan Devi. — Hill pass in Sirmur (Sarmor) State, Punjab, lying 
over the crest of a low transverse ridge, which runs across the Khiarda 
Diin from the sub-Himalayan chain to the Siwaliks. Lat. 30° 31' n., 
long. 77° 28' E. Thornton says that the ridge divides the waters of the 
Bhuta, a tributary of the Jumna, from those of the Markanda, flowing 
south-west toward the Sutlej. The route from Dehra to Nahan runs 
through this pass. Elevation above sea-level, 2500 feet. 

Ghwalari. — A pass leading from Afghanistan to the Derdjdt in the 
Punjab, across the Sulaiman range ; much frequented by the Povindah 
traders on their journeys from Kabul and Kandahar to the Punjab. 
This route should be termed Gumal rather than Ghwalari, the latter 
name being properly applicable only to a pass at the east end of the 
defile. Water and forage abundant ; the former in one or two places 
is, however, brackish. — See Gomal. 

Gldhaur. — Town in Monghyr District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 51' 20" N., 
long. 86^ 14' 25" E. Station on the East Indian Railway. The 
site of a deserted hill frontier town, and interesting as the seat of 
one of the oldest of the noble families of Behar. In the neigh 
bourhood are the ruins of an ancient castle, the erection of which 
is often attributed to Sher Shah, but it is probably of much earlier 
origin. The Gidhaur family, which now after twenty-two generations 
is still wealthy and influential, was founded about 1066 a.d. by 
Bir Vikram Singh, a Rajput of the Chandrabansi or Lunar sept. 
Puran Mail, the loth Rajd, built the great temple of Baidvanath ; 
and in the Sanskrit verse inscribed above the inner door of the 
sanctuary he is called ure pati, or ' king of men,' a title that bears 
witness to the position of the family centuries ago. Sir Jai Mangal, 
who has lately died, was created a ALahdraja in 1865, and a Knight 
Commander of the Star of India in 1S66, in consequence of his loyal 
exertions on our behalf during the Santal Rebellion of 1855 and the 
Mutiny of 1857. 


Gldhaur Gala. — Pass in Peshawar District, Punjab, lying on the 
old road from Peshawar to Attock, 5 miles north-west of the latter 
town. Lat. '^Ty° 56' N., long. 72° 12' e. Derives its name ('the Jackal's 
alley or lane ') from its extreme narrowness, being not more than 
10 or 12 feet wide, and bounded on either side by considerable hills. 
Its military importance is slight, from the facility with which it may be 

6idu-J0-Tand0.— Town in Haidardbdd (Hyderabad) District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Latitude 25° 22' 15' n., longitude 68° 21' E. 
Population (1881) under 2000. Situated on the Indus, and connected 
by a fine road, 3 J- miles in length, with the city of Haidardbdd, in which 
municipality it is included. Large transit trade, chiefly in cotton and 
grain. A steam ferry connects Gidu-jo-Tando with the railway station 
of Kotri on the opposite bank of the Indus. 

Gigasaran. — Petty State in South Kathidwar, Bombay Presidency ; 
consisting of i village, with 4 independent tribute-payers. Popula- 
tion (1881) 632. Lies 24 miles south of Kunkawav station on the 
Bhaunagar-Gondal railway. Estimated revenue, ;!^5oo. The tribute 
due is paid by Amreli in lieu of certain villages taken possession of 
by that State. 

Gijg"arh. — Town in the Native State of Jaipur (Jeypore), Rajputdna. 
Population (1881) 5171, namely, 4932 Hindus, 127 Muhammadans, and 
112 'others.' 

Gilgaon. — Ancient estate or zaminddri in Chanda District, Central 
Provinces; area, 60 square miles, with 14 villages or hamlets, and 235 
occupied houses. Population (1881) 1211. Most of the area is 
covered by hill and forest, the latter containing some good timber, 
mostly ^i/and bijesdl. Gilgaon village is situated in lat. 20° o' 30" n., 
long. 80° 5' 30" E. Population (1881) 503. 

Gilghit. — Valley and district in Kashmir State, Punjab, lying on the 
southern slope of the Hindu Kiish, or perhaps more correctly the 
Himdlayas, betw^een Baltistan and Yasin. The town of Gilghit, 
which gives its present name to the valley, lies in latitude 35° 55' n., 
longitude 74° 22' e. The river Yasin or Gilghit traverses the centre of 
the valley, and finally joins the Indus six miles north of the village of 
Bimji, Biinji, or as the Sikhs call it, Bawanji. Bimji was at one 
time a flourishing settlement with 8 forts, but was almost ruined in 
the course of a war, undertaken by the rulers of Yasin and Chitral, 
which led to the Sikh occupation of the valley of Gilghit. The 
lower part of the valley of the Gilghit river, nearly 40 miles in length, 
forms the Gilghit district. The town of Gilghit is distant 24 miles 
from the Indus, with an elevation above sea-level of 4S90 feet, a central 
position, good climate, and a considerable extent of fertile land. 

The ancient name of the place was Sargin ; later the name of Gilit 


was given to it, and this was changed to Gilghit by its Sikh conquerors; 
among the inhabitants it is still known as Gilit or Sargin - Gilit. 
The settled population of the Gilghit district, which is very mixed, 
amounts to about 4500. The language spoken is Shina, though the 
Shins are numerically inferior to the rest of the population. The 
former rulers had the title of Ra, and there is reason to suppose that 
they were at one time Hindus, but for the last five and a half centuries 
they have been Muhammadans, The names of the Hindu Ras, who 
were also called Shahreis, have been lost, with the exception of the last 
of their number, Sri Baddat; and tradition relates that he was killed by 
a Muhammadan adventurer, who married his daughter and founded a 
new dynasty called Trakhan^. The present holder of the title of Ra 
is Alidad Khan, who belongs properly to the ruling family of Nagar, 
but was installed as representative of the Trakhane on account of his 
descent from that family through his mother. 

The population of the Gilghit valley must at one time have been 
large, as traces of cultivated terraces high up on the mountain-sides to 
an elevation of 10,000 feet distinctly prove ; and the period of greatest 
prosperity was probably under the Shin Ras. According to tradition, 
Sri Baddat's rule extended over Chitral, Yassin, Tangir, Darel, Chilas, 
Gor, Astor, Hanza, Nagar, and Haramosh. A glance at the map will 
show that the Gilghit country is situated in the centre of the most 
mountainous region of the Himalayas. Nowhere else in the world, 
probably, is there to be found so great a number of deep valleys and 
lofty mountains in so small an area. Within a radius of 65 miles from 
Gilghit town, the survey maps show, amidst innumerable smaller peaks, 
eleven varying from 18,000 to 20,000 feet, seven from 20,000 to 22,000 
feet, six from 22,000 to 24,000 feet, and eight from 24,000 to 26,000 
feet, while half of the tract thus included still remains to be surveyed. 
A rival to Mount Everest and Kanchanjanga may yet be found among 
the lofty mountains of these parts. 

From Gilghit mountain roads radiate into all the surrounding valleys, 
and its position in the centre of the valley shows how favourable it is 
for the establishment of the head-quarters of a confederacy of small 
States, The lofty mountains around it, though barren and rocky at 
their bases, are covered with verdure higher up. Everywhere above 
7000 feet are fine thick forests, grassy glades, deep glens, and running 
streams, of which a view of the mountains from below gives little 
promise. On the lower and more barren hills below the forest, are to 
be found numerous flocks of the wild sheep {Oris Vigiici). At an 
elevation of 11,000 feet, wild onions grow in great i)rofusion, and to this 
fact the range is indebted for its Chinese name, Tsungling (' the Onion 

The principal difficulty in communication is caused by the rivers, 


which in winter shrink to small dimensions, but in summer, fed by 
snow - fields and glaciers of enormous extent, become impassable 
torrents, bringing down tons of soil in their turbid waters. Many of the 
streams are rich in gold, especially those flowing from the great 
Rakiposh mountains, and it is probable that a scientific search for 
minerals would be well rei)aid. The natives believe that the gold is 
generated by the glaciers, because the greatest quantity is found in the 
glacier mud, and there are traditions of small but rich veins of earth 
having been occasionally laid bare by earthquakes. Gold -washing 
is only practised by the poorest in winter, but is sometimes very 
remunerative, the best gold being of 20 carats. 

Nearly half-way between Gilghit town and the Indus is the Bagrot 
valley, which contains several flourishing villages. This valley is 
celebrated for the quantity and cjuality of its gold production, and 
there are many signs of mineral wealth. It was a favourite resort of 
the old Gilghit rulers, and was their last place of refuge, when hard 
pressed by external enemies. The Bagrot people belong almost 
entirely to the Shin caste or clan. 

The Hanza river joins that of Gilghit, a mile below the town. 
Though fordable in winter, in summer it is a deep and rapid torrent, 
more than a hundred yards in breadth. Kashmir jurisdiction extends 
some 25 miles up the valley to a point at which the river makes a sudden 
bend from a westerly course to the south-east. Immediately above 
the bend of the river is the district of Chaprot, consisting of the fort 
and village of that name, and three other villages. This district has 
always been a fruitful source of contention among the rulers of the 
three States of Gilghit, Hanza, and Nagar, between which it is situated, 
chiefly on account of the fort, which is locally considered impregnable. 
It is situated in the angle formed by the junction of two streams, with 
high precipitous banks, and can therefore only be approached on one 
side. It has belonged in turn to all three States, but at present is 
garrisoned by Kashmir troops. Continuing up the valley to the 
eastward, at about 52 miles from Gilghit town, the residences of the 
rulers of the two States of Hanza and Nagar are reached, the river 
forming the boundary between them. 

The great Rakiposh mountain, as viewed from the north, rises from 
the water's edge without a break for 19,000 feet to its topmost peak, 
which is over 25,000 feet above sea-level. Above Hanza the course of 
the Hanza river, which rises in the Hindu Kiish, lies entirely in Hanza 
territory. The people of Hanza and Nagar are of the same stock as 
those of Yasin, Ponyal, and the majority of the people of Gilghit and 
the neighbouring valleys. They are Muhammadan Shias, and slavery 
does not exist among them. Their rulers are called Thiim, and their 
families are descended from twin brothers, Moghlot and Girkis, who 


lived about tlie end of the 15th century. Although it is the smaller of 
the two States, Nagar has the larger population, owing to the greater 
amount of cultivable land which it contains ; the country is famous for 
its apricots, which are dried and exported to the Punjab in con- 
siderable quantities, and its streams are rich in gold. Nearly opposite 
Hanza, the Myetsil river joins the main stream from the south-west. 
The fort of Nagar and the Thiim's residence are on the southern side 
of this stream, about 3 miles from the junction, and at an elevation of 
8000 feet above the sea. The valley forms the eastern boundary of 
the Nagar State. In the ])rosperous times of Shin rule, the Thiims 
of Nagar acknowledged the Ras of Gilghit as their feudal superiors. 
At the time of the Sikh occupation of Gilghit, a very close connection 
existed between the rulers of the two States of Gilghit and Nagar. 
Since 1868, Nagar has been tributary to Kashmir, to which it makes 
an annual payment of 21 tolas (a tola = nearly ^ ounce) of gold, and 
two baskets of apricots. Hanza has an agricultural population of 
about 6000 souls. North of the great range of peaks which bisects 
the principality from south-east to north-west, the country opens out 
into rolling steppes. This tract is known as Little Gujhal to distinguish 
it from Wakhan, and supports a scattered pastoral population. Farther 
to the north-east of the principality are the two small communities of 
Pakhpu and Shakshu, said to contain between them nearly 10,000 
souls. Both pay tribute to the ruler of Hanza. These curious people, 
of whom very little is known, are of Aryan race, handsome, very fair, 
and of ruddy complexion. Nearly due north of Hanza is the small 
mountain State of Sirikol. The ruling family of Hanza is called 
Ayeshe (heavenly). The two States of Hanza and Nagar were formerly 
one, ruled by a branch of the Ras, the ruling family of Gilghit, whose 
seat of government was Nagar. Hanza used once to be the chief 
place of resort for slave merchants from Badakshdn. The principality 
is divided into 8 districts, each having its own fort. 

The people of Hanza and Nagar belong to the caste called Yeshkiin 
by the Shins of Gilghit, but known amongst themselves as Burish. The 
Yeshkiins, besides being numerically superior in Gilghit, form nearly all 
the population of Ydsin, Sai, Darel, and Astor. They are great wine 
drinkers, and are reproached by their neighbours for their readiness to 
eat unorthodox food, and for the immorality of their women. Muham- 
madanism sits but loosely on them. The most remarkable peculiarity of 
the Shins of these parts is their feeling with regard to the cow, in spite 
of their conversion to Muhammadanism. Orthodox Shins will not eat 
beef, drink cow's milk, or touch a vessel containing it. A sucking calf 
or any portion of a dead animal is especially unclean, and it is not 
uncommon for a Shin to make over his cow and calf to a Yekshiin 
neighbour, to be restored to him when the calf is veaned. The Shins also 


regard the domestic fowl as unclean, and in districts inhabited by them 
not a single fowl is to be seen. These peculiarities are strictly confined 
to the Shins, and they aftbrd good grounds for supposing that they were 
a race of Hindus who came from the south, and pressing up the Indus 
valley, established a Hindu State in these remote regions, under the 
crest of the Hindu Kush. In Gilghit itself there are a great number of 
Kashmiri's, or, as they are here called, Kashirus, whose forefathers 
settled in the place in the time of Ahmad Shah Abdali, about a.d. 
1760. They now form the largest section of the Gilghit population, 
and the shrewdness which forms so distinctive a part of the character 
of the ordinary Kashmiri has suffered little by transplanting. Some 
are said to have penetrated into Chitral, where they have since become 
merged in the regular population. Those in Gilghit are weavers and 
carpenters, and they are regarded with some contempt both by Shins 
and Yeshkiins. 

The Ponyal district, 19 miles above Gilghit town, stretches for some 
22 miles up to the Yasin frontier. Of old an appanage of Gilghit, 
Ponyal became in later times a bone of contention between the rulers 
of Yasin and Gilghit, who each possessed it in turn for a time, Ull it 
finally came into the possession of Kashmir in i860. 

Hanza raids against Gilghit villages were frequent, but in 1869 they 
were put an end to by the Thum of Hanza yielding allegiance and 
paying a yearly tribute of two horses, two hounds, and twenty ounces of 
gold dust. The elevation of Hanza is 8400 feet. Cultivation in this 
tract extends about 7 miles in length by i^ in depth. The Thum lives 
at Baltit. He is addressed as Soori or Sri, an appellation of Lakshmi, 
the Hindu goddess of wealth. In cutting the throat of an animal for 
food, the people of Hanza make a practice of turning it towards the 
Thiim's abode, even when many miles distant, instead of in the orthodox 
direction of Mecca. 

Ginaur. — -North-western tahs'il of Budaun District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying along the northern bank of the Ganges. — See Gunaur. 

Gingi {Chenji). — Fort in South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. 
Latitude 12° 15' 19" n., longitude 79° 26' 8" e. ; situated on the road 
from Kistnagiri to the coast, about half-way between Tindivanam and 
Trinomalai ; 82 miles south-west from Madras, and 50 north-east from 
Cuddalore, the chief town of the District. 

Formerly there was no village of Gingi beyond a few houses near the 
foot of the hills ; but now, in order to perpetuate the name, which is 
well known in history, Government have directed that the neighbouring 
village of Bagayah should be called Gingi. The interest of the place is 
exclusively historical. The fortress consists of three strongly-fortified 
hills, connected by long walls of circumvallation. The highest and 
most important hill is called Rajagiri ; the two others being known as 

VOL. V. F 


Kistnagiri and Chendrayan Drug. Rajagiri is about 500 or 600 feet 
high, and consists of a ridge terminating in an overhanging bluff, facing 
the south, and falUng with a precipitous sweep to the plain on the 
north. On the summit of this bluff stands the citadel. The walls 
of circumvallation, already alluded to, enclose an area over 7 miles 
in circumference. Before the fortifications existed, the summit of the 
Rajagiri bluff must have been utterly inaccessible on all sides but the 
south-west. At this point, where the crest of the ridge meets the base 
of the bluff, a narrow and steep ravine probably gave a difficult means 
of access to the top, across which the Hindu engineer built three walls, 
each about 20 or 25 feet high, rising one behind the other at some 
little distance, and rendering an attack by escalade in that direction 
almost impracticable. On the north side, a narrow chasm divides a 
portion of the rock from the main mass. This chasm, the fortifiers of 
the rock artificially prolonged and heightened ; and where it had a 
width of about 24 feet, and a depth of about 60, they threw a wooden 
bridge over it, and made the only means of ingress into the citadel 
through a narrow stone gateway facing the bridge, and about 30 yards 
from it, with flanking walls fitted with embrasures for guns and loop- 
holed for musketry. 

It is not known with certainty who constructed the fort. It is 
probable that the site was originally built on by the Chola kings, 
and quasi-authentic history attributes the commencement of the great 
fort to a son of Vijaya Ranga Naik, the Governor of Tanjore in 1442. 
The works were completed during the time of the Vijayanagar kings. 
The martello towers and cavaliers show traces of European super- 
vision, and some of the more modern embrasures were the work of 
the French. The great lines of fortification which cross the valley 
between the three hills were evidently built at different periods. In 
their original form, they each consisted of a wall about 5 feet thick, 
built up of blocks of granite, and filled in with rubble ; but subse- 
quently a huge earthen rampart, about 25 or 30 feet thick, has been 
thrown up behind these walls, and riveted roughly on the inside 
with stone, while at intervals in this rampart are barracks or guard- 

Several ruins of fine buildings are situated inside the fort Of these, 
the most remarkable are the two pagodas, the Kaliyana Mahal, the 
Gymkhana, the Granaries, and the I'dgah. There are various matidaps 
(porches) on each of the hills, and a large granary on the top of 
Kistnagiri. The most noticeable building of all, perhaps, is the 
Kaliyana Mahal. This consists of a square court surrounded by 
rooms for the ladies of the Governor's household. In the middle of 
this court is a square tower of eight storeys, and altogether about 80 
feet high, with a pyramidical roof. The first si.x storeys are all of the 


same size and pattern, namely, an arcaded verandah running round a 
small room, about 8 feet square, and communicating with the storey 
above by means of small steps. The room on the seventh storey has 
now no verandah, but there are indications of one having existed 
formerly. The topmost room is of smaller size than the others. The 
only other interesting feature in the building is an earthenware pipe 
leading to the sixth storey, and brought all the way from £ji tank 600 
yards off, outside the walls of the fort, and carried under the wall to 
the back of the ladies' quarters, and thence over the roof to the Mahal. 
One of the most singular features about Gingi is the water-supply. 
There are two perennial springs of excellent water on the top of Raja- 
giri — one outside the gateway of the citadel, and the other on the very 
summit of the rock. At the foot of the ridge at the back of Rajagiri, 
and between it and Chandrayan Driig, are two tanks, and on the western 
side of the bluff is a third reservoir constructed to catch the surface 
drainage. The principal objects of interest are — the great gun on the 
top of Rajagiri; the Raja's bathing-stone, a large smooth slab of 
granite, 15 feet square and 4 or 5 inches thick, near the spot where 
the palace is said to have stood ; and the prisoners' well. This latter 
is a very singular boulder, about 15 or 20 feet high, poised on a rock 
near the Chakrakulam and surmounted by a low circular brick wall. 
It has a natural hollow passing tiJirough it like a well, and the bottom, 
having been blocked up with masonry and the upper edges smoothed 
with a little masonry work plastered with chunatn, a natural dry well 
was formed, into which prisoners are said to have been thrown and 
allowed to die of starvation. The top of the boulder can only be 
reached by means of a ladder, but the hollow has now been filled up 
with rubbish. The metal of which the gun is made has little or no rust. 
It has the figures 7560 stamped on the breech. A little to the south 
of Rajagiri is a fourth hill called Chakli Drug. The summit is 
strongly fortified, but these fortifications are not connected with those 
of Gingi. 

History. — As mentioned above, Gingi was a stronghold of the 
Vijayanagar power, which was at the height of its prosperity towards 
the close of the 15th century, and was finally overthrown by the allied 
Muhammadan kings of the Deccan in 1564, at Talikot. It was not 
till 1638, however, that Bandulla Khan, the Bijapur general, caj^tured 
the fort of Gingi, after joining his forces to those of Golconda, which 
were then beleaguering the place. The division of the Bijdpur army 
that effected this was commanded by Shdhji, father of Sivaji the Great. 
In 1677, the fort fell to Sivaji by stratagem, and remained in Marathd 
hands for twenty-one years. In 1690, the armies of the Delhi Emperor, 
under Zulfikar Khan, were despatched against Gingi with a view to the 
final extirpation of the Maratha power. The siege was prolonged for 


eight years, but the fort fell in 1698, and afterwards became the head- 
quarters of the standing army in Arcot. In 1750, the French under 
M. Bussy captured it by a skilful and daringly - executed night-sur- 
prise, and held it with an efficient garrison for eleven years, defeating 
one attack by the English under Major Kineer in 1752. Captain 
Stephen Smith took the place after five weeks' siege in 1761. In 
1780 it was surrendered to Haidar Ali, but subsequently it played no 
part of importance in the wars of Southern India. Gingi has long 
enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most unhealthy localities 
in the Karnatic. The French are said by Orme to have lost 1200 
European soldiers during their eleven years' tenancy of it, and their 
garrison of Europeans rarely exceeded 100 men. There is no trace, 
however, of any burial-ground where these men were interred. The 
place is now deserted, but Government allows an annual grant for the 
preservation of the ruins. 

Gin^. — River of South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. — See 

Gir {Geer). — Range of hills in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency, ex- 
tending over 40 miles in length, commencing from a point about 20 
miles north-east of Diu island. Captain Grant of the Indian Navy was 
captured in 181 3 by an outlaw named Hawavvala, who kept him a 
prisoner on these hills for two and a half months. The region consists 
of a succession of rugged ridges and isolated hills covered with 

Girar. — Town in Wardha District, Central Provinces; 37 miles south- 
east of Wardha town. Lat. 20° 40' N., long. 79° 9' 30" e. The shrine 
of the Musalman saint. Shaikh Khwaja Fari'd, crowns the summit of a 
neighbouring hill, and attracts a continual flow of devotees, both Hindus 
and Musalmans. This holy man was born in Hindustan, and, after 
wandering for thirty years as Zl fakir, he settled on the Girar Hill about 
1244. Two travelling traders once mocked the saint, on which he 
turned their stock of cocoa-nuts to stone ; then moved by their suppli- 
cations, he created a fresh stock from dry leaves. The traders were 
so struck by these wonders, that they attached themselves to the saint's 
service, and their two graves may yet be seen on the hill. The shrine 
absorbs the revenues of five villages, Girar itself, however, not being 
among the number. The town has a police outpost, a good village 
school, and a weekly market. Population (1881) 1548. 

Girdabadi. — One of the peaks of the Eastern Ghats, in Chinna 
Kimedi 2<7w/«fl'r//7, Ganjdm District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 19° 29' 
44" N., long. 84° 25' 18" E. ; 3399 feet above sea-level. A Great 
TricronDmetrical Survey station. 

Giridhi. — Sub-division of Haziri'bdgh District, Chutid Nagpur, 
Bengal. Giridhi station is the terminus of a branch line from Madhu- 


pur on the East Indian Railway. This branch is at present 23 miles 
in length, and opens up the important Karharbari (Karharbali) coal- 
field. A convenient route to Parasnath is obtained by proceeding 
by railway to Giridhi, and thence 20 miles by palanquin or horseback to 
the foot of the sacred hill. Area of the Sub-division, 2446 scjuare miles ; 
number of villages, 3553; houses, 70,631. Total population (1881) 
432,504, namely, males 216,027, and females 216,477. Hindus 
numbered 356,230; Muhammadans, 45,321 ; Christians, 172; Santals, 
28,043 ; Kols, 2649 ; other aboriginal tribes, 89. . Average density of 
population, 177 persons per square mile; villages per square mile, i "45 ; 
houses per square mile, 29*96; persons per village, 121; persons 
per house, 6'i2. The Sub-division comprises the five thdnds or police 
circles of Pachamba, Gawan, Karagdiha, Kodarma, and Dumurhi. It 
contained in 1883, one civil and two criminal courts, a regular police 
force of 113 officers and men, and a rural police or village watch 
numbering 881. 

Giriyak. — Village on the Panchana river, Patnd District, Bengal. 
Lat. 25° i' 45" N., long. 85° 34' E. South-west of the village, and on 
the opposite side of the river, stands the peak at the end of the double 
range of hills commencing near Gaya, which General Cunningham 
identifies with Fa Hian's Solitary Mountain, suggesting at the same 
time that its name is derived from ek-giri, or ' one hill ; ' but this 
statement has been doubted. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton has described 
the ruins of Giriyak, which are full of archaeological interest. They 
were originally ascended from the north-east ; and remains of a road 
about 12 feet wide, paved with large stone blocks, and winding so as 
to procure a moderate gradient, still exist. It could, however, never 
have been practicable for wheeled carriages. At the west end of the 
ridge, a steep brick slope leads up to a platform, on which there are 
some granite pillars, probably part of an ancient temple. East of the 
ridge is an area 45 feet square, called the chabidara of Jarasindhu, 
the centre of which is occupied by a low square pedestal supporting a 
solid brick column 68 feet in circumference and 55 feet in height. Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton considers the general impression that the ruins 
on this hill are the remains of Jarasindhu's country house erroneous 
for the ascent to Giriyak must always have been too arduous to render 
it a place of luxurious retirement. The popular belief is that Krishna, 
on his w^ay to challenge Jarasindhu to combat, crossed the river at this 
point, and a bathing festival is annually held at the spot in the month 
of Kartik to commemorate the event. 

Gimar. — Sacred hill, with ruined temples, in Kdthiawdr, Bomoay 
Presidency; situated about 10 miles east of Junagarh town. Lat. 21° 
30' N., long. 70° 42' E. The hill rises to about 3500 feet above sea- 
level, and forms one of the sacred seats of Jainism, only second in 

86 GIR WA. 

importance to Pdlitana. A rock at the foot of the hill outside the 
town is covered with a set of Asoka's inscriptions, 250 b.c. Another 
inscription (150 a.d.) relates how the local monarch, Rudra Dama, 
defeated the king of the Deccan ; while a third (457 a.d.) records the 
bursting of the embankment of the Sudarsana tank, and the rebuilding 
of a bridge which was destroyed by the flood. There are, however, no 
remains of any ancient city, temples, or ruins of a corresponding age 
to these inscriptions, and but for their dates the place would have 
seemed to be unknown before the loth century. 

There are six parabs or rest-houses on the ascent to the temple of 
Neminath. The temple of Ambamata, which crowns the first peak 
of the hill, is much resorted toby newly-married couples of the different 
sub-divisions of the Brahman caste. The bride and bridegroom have 
their clothes tied together, and attended by their male and female 
relatives, present cocoa-nuts and other offerings to the goddess, whose 
favour is sought to secure a continuance of wedded felicity. 

IMr. James Fergusson, in his History of Indiati a?id Eastern 
Architediire (John Murray, 1876, pp. 230-232), thus describes the 
architectural features of Girnar : — ' The principal group of temples 
at Girnar, some sixteen in number, is situated on a ledge about 600 
feet from the summit, and nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea. 
The largest and possibly the oldest of these is that of Neminath. An 
inscription upon it records that it was repaired in a.d. 1278, and un- 
fortunately a subsequent restorer has laid his heavy hand upon it, so 
that it is difficult now to realize what its original appearance may 
have been. The temple stands in a courtyard measuring 195 feet 
by 130 feet over all. Around the courtyard are arranged 70 cells, 
with a covered and enclosed passage in front of them, each of 
which contains a cross-legged seated figure of the Tirthankar to 
whom the temple is dedicated (Neminath), and generally with a 
bas-relief or picture representing some act in his life. Immediately 
behind the temple of Neminath is a triple one, erected by the 
brothers Tejpdla and Vastupala, who also erected one of the principal 
temples in Abu.' 

Girwa.— River of Nepal and Oudh ; a branch of the KauriaL-^,' 
leaving that stream on its eastern bank a mile below the point where 
It emerges through a gorge in the Himalayas known as Shisha-pani or 
' Crystal waters.' Some years ago, the Gfrwa was a mere watercourse, 
but its volume has gradually increased till it is now considerably larger! 
than the parent stream. Both are rapid rivers ; their beds covered with 
large pebbles, often a foot in diameter, i)articularly at the fords where ' 
they are broad and shallow, enabling elephants to cross generally 
without difficulty. Both streams are about 400 yards broad, and from 
3 to 4 feet deep; they are unfordable by men, except at one or two. 


places. The Gi'rwa in particular is a beautiful stream, its banks being 
covered with dense sal, with the mountains showing over the tree-tops. 
In many places the river has worn for itself large clearings amid the 
jungle, several miles broad, through which the water passes in several 
clear channels. The islands thus formed are generally covered with 
shishdm trees and thickets of willow. Diagonally across the stream in 
its upper course extend ridges of katikar or conglomerate limestone, 
forming rapids, and causing a complete obstruction to navigation. In its 
lower course, the Gi'rwa enters Bahraich District, and finally reunites 
with the Kauriala a few miles below Bharthapur. The stream is navig- 
able by large boats up to Dhanaura, just beyond British territory. The 
waters of the Kauriala and Girwa, afterwards swelled by the Sarju and 
Chauka (or Sardi,), finally become the Gogra, or great river of Oudh. 
Girwan (or Sihonda). - — South-westerly tahs'il of Banda District, 
North-Western Provinces ; consisting of hilly eminences sloping down 
into an elevated plain, with detached granite rocks. Area, 331 square 
miles, of which 183 are cultivated. Population (188 1) 88,651, namely, 
males 44,558, and females 44,093. Hindus numbered 82,129; 
Muhammadans, 6517 ; and ' others,' 5. Number of villages, 176 ; land 
revenue, ;^i4,8o2 ; total Government revenue, ;^i6,529 ; rental paid 
by cultivators, ;^2 7,409. The tahsil, which is usually called Sihonda, 
although its head-quarters are at Girwan town, contains the famous 
fortress of Kalinjar. 

Goa. — Portuguese Settlement on the western coast of India, lying 
between 14° 53' and 15° 48' n. lat., and between 73° 45' and 74° 24' e. 
long., about 250 miles south-south-east from Bombay. Bounded on 
the north by the river Tirakul or Auraundem, separating it from the 
Sawantwari State ; on the east by the range of the Western Ghats, 
separating it from the District of Belgaum ; on the south by North 
Kanara District ; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. Extreme length 
from north to south, 62 miles; greatest breadth from east to west, 40 miles. 
Total area, 3370 square kilometres or 1062 square miles. Population 
(1881), including Anjediva, 445,449, or 4i9'4 persons per square mile. 
Number of towns, 4; villages, 400; parishes, 100; and houses, 

Goa forms a patch of foreign territory on the coast of the Bombay 
Presidency, surrounded on all sides, except to the seaward, by 
British Districts. It comprises the following 9 Districts, namely 
(Old Conquests), Ilhas (population 48,847); Salsette (109,620); 
Bardez (109,951); (New Conquests), Pernem (population 33,012); 
Sanquehm (45,179); Ponda (39,998); Sanguem (20,592); Quepem 
(19,663); and Canacona (18,490). It was not practicable to extend 
to this settlement the minute statistical survey which was carried out 
in British territory, and a personal visit disclosed the impossibility of 

88 GOA. 

adhering to the same arrangement. The following account was kindly 
drawn up for the Imperial Gazetteer by Dr. Jose Nicolau da Fonseca, 
President of the Sociedade dos Amigos das Letras, from official sources 
in Goa ; it is now printed (as requested) with as few modifications as 
possible, although in a much condensed form, and with some historical 

Physical Aspects. — Goa is a hilly country, especially that portion 
which was most recently acquired, known as the Novas Conquistas 
(New Conquests). Its distinguishing feature is the Sahyadri Mountains, 
or Western Ghats, which, after skirting a considerable portion of the 
north-eastern and south-eastern boundaries, branch off westwards across 
the territory into numerous spurs and ridges. Of the isolated peaks 
with which these ranges of mountains are studded, the most conspicuous 
are, on the north — Sonsagar, 3827 feet above sea-level; Catlanchimauli, 
3633 feet ; Vaguerim, 3500 feet ; Morlemchogor, 3400 feet, all in the 
Satari viahal or District ; on the east and west — Sidnato at Ponda, 
Chandarnate at Chandrawadi, Consid at Astragar, and Dudeagar at 

The territory is intersected by numerous rivers, which are generally 
navigable. Beginning on the north, the eight principal rivers are — 
(i^ The Tirakul or Auraundem, so called from the fortress of that 
name guarding its estuary ; has its source in the Western Ghats, in the 
Sawantwari State, flows south-west for 14^ miles, and, after forming 
the northern boundary of the District of Pernem, and also of the 
territory of Goa, discharges its waters into the Arabian Sea : (2) the 
Chapord or Colvalle, 18 miles long, rises at Ram Ghat, and, after 
separating the Districts of Bardez, Bicholim, and Sanquelim from 
Pernem, takes a zigzag direction to the south-west through the villages 
of Salem, Revora, Colvalle, and empties itself into the sea close to the 
village of Chapord : (3) the Baga, only i mile long, rises in Bdrdez, 
and passes a redoubt of the same name : (4) the Sinquerim, 3^ miles 
long, also rises in Bardez close to the village of Pilerne, and, after 
describing almost a right angle, westwards and southwards, and form- 
ing the peninsula of Aguada, falls into the bay of the same name : 
(5) the Mandavi, 38^ miles in length, is the most important stream in 
the territory, both the ancient and modern metropolis being situated 
on its banks ; it rises at Parvar Ghat in the District of Satdri, first 
runs north-west of Ponda, and then south-west of Bicholim and Bardez, 
and, after forming several islands and passing Panjim or New Goa, 
discharges its waters into the Bay of Aguada ; its principal offshoots 
j^ass the villages of Mapuca, Tivim, and Assonora, watering the Dis- 
tricts of Bicholim, Sanquelim, and Zambaulim, and are locally known 
by those names : (6) the Juari, 39 miles In length, rises at the foot 
of Digny Ghdt in the District of Embarbakam, runs northwards, 

GOA. 89 

separating Salsette from Ponda, and falls into the Bay of Murmagao ; 
like the Mandavi, it has numerous offshoots, one of which joins the 
former river between Marcaim and Sao Louren^o after forming the 
island of Tissuadi : (7) the Sal, 15 miles long, runs close to the town 
of Margao, and discharges itself into the sea near the fort of Betiil : 
(8) the Talpona, 7 miles long, rises at Ambughat in the District of 
Astragar, and, running westwards through the District of Canacona, 
falls into the sea near the small fort of Talpona. The boats by which 
these rivers are navigated are called tonas, and the ferries across them 
are designated passa-gens. 

The territory of Goa possesses a fine harbour, formed by the pro- 
montories of Birdez and Salsette. Half-way between these extremities 
projects the cabo (cape) from the island of Goa, dividing the harbour 
into two anchorages, known as Alguada and Murmagao. Both are 
capable of accommodating safely the largest shipping from September 
to May. Alguada is virtually closed to navigation during the south- 
west monsoon, owing to the high winds and sea, and the formation of 
sandbanks in the estuary of the Mandivi at that period ; but Murmagao 
is accessible at all times. A consequence of the intersection of 
numerous rivers, is the formation of many islands, of which the chief 
number 18. 

The rainfall for the three years ending 1875, ^s registered by the 
Meteorological Department, averaged ioo'22 inches. The prevail- 
ing diseases are intermittent and remittent fevers, diarrhcea, and 

Laterite is the stone most abundant throughout the territorj'. Iron 
is found at Baga Satdri, Pernem, and especially in the District of 
Zambaulim. The geological resources of Goa have not yet been 
scientifically explored. 

Stately forests are found in the Novas Conquistas. The reserve and 
other forests scattered over an area of 30,000 hectares, or 74,133 
acres, have an aggregate value, according to the Report of the Forest 
Committee of 187 1, of ^700,000. The wasteful practice of kianri 
or nomadic cultivation, till lately prevalent, has denuded them of 
valuable trees. More attention is now paid to this branch of public 
administration, which is entrusted to a special department. In 1874, 
the forest revenue amounted to ^^1040, 7s. 6d., and the expenditure to 
^^429, 1 6s. 

Populaticm. — The population of Goa Proper, in 1800, i.e. the Velhas 
without the Novas Conquistas, was calculated at 178,478 ; composed of 
91,436 males and 87,042 females. The whole population of the Velhas 
(old) and Novas (new) Conquistas, according to the Census of 1851, 
was 363,788 ; showing a density of 342*54 to the square mile. 

The population of the territory of Goa in 1881, according to the 

90 GOA. 

Census Report of that year, was 445,449, as shown by the table on the 
opposite page, being an increase of 81,661 since 185 1, or 22-4 per 
cent, in 30 years. 

The inhabitants are divided into three classes — (i) Europeans, (2) 
the descendants of Europeans, and (3) Natives, The last class may 
be again sub-divided into Christians and Pagans. The native Chris- 
tians, who constitute a little more than half of the total population, are 
the descendants of Hindus converted to Christianity on the subjuga- 
tion of the country by the Portuguese, and can still trace the caste to 
which they originally belonged. The predominating caste among the 
Pagans is that of Shenvis, or Saraswati Brahmans. Chitpavvans and 
Karadas are also to be found, as well as the low or depressed castes, 
such as Mahars, Chamars, etc., who are generally to be distinguished 
by their darker colour. The few Musalmans are, as a class, in a poor 
condition. The males among native Christians for the most part 
adopt European costumes, while the females still wear the indigenous 
sdri. The ordinary expenses of a middle-class family seldom exceed 
;£2i ^ month. All classes of the people, except Europeans, use the 
Konkani language, with some admixture of Portuguese words. But 
the official language is Portuguese, which is commonly spoken in the 
capital and the principal towns, as well as by all educated persons. 
French is understood by some, and English chiefly by those who have 
resided for a long time in British territories. 

The majority of the population profess the Roman Catholic religion, 
and are subject in spiritual matters to an x'\rchbishop, who has the title 
of the Primate of the East, and exercises jurisdiction over the Catholics 
of all the Portuguese colonies in the East, and of a great portion of 
British India. His nomination rests with the King of Portugal, subject 
to confirmation by the Pope. There are altogether 96 Christian 
churches in Goa, mostly built by the Jesuits and the Franciscans prior 
to the extinction of the religious orders in Portuguese territory. The 
chief of these churches is the cathedral or metropolitan church, called 
the Se Primacial de Goa. The religious orders have been abolished 
in Portuguese India, and the churches are under the charge of secular 
priests, all of whom arc natives of Goa. The Catholics of Goa are 
very regular in the fulfilment of religious duties, and celebrate the 
chief festivals sanctioned by the Catholic Church with much devotion 
and pomp. The Hindus and Muhammadans enjoy perfect liberty in 
religious matters, and have their own places of worship. The chief 
Hindu temples are those of Mangesh, Mdlsha, Santadurgd, Kaplesh- 
war, Nagesh, and Ramnath, all of which are situated in the Novas 

At the conquest of Goa by Alfonso de Albucjuerque in 15 10, the 

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92 GO A. 

\Sentence continued from p. 90. 
village communities, among which the inhabitants were distributed, 
were found to be in the enjoyment of certain immunities from taxa- 
tion and of other privileges. Albuquerque carefully maintained the 
constitution of the villages, and avoided all appearance of fresh 
taxation. The same policy was followed by his successors; and in 
1526, a register was compiled, called Foral dos usas e Cosiu>nes, con- 
taining the peculiar usage and customs of the communities, and the 
privileges enjoyed by them from time immemorial. This register 
served as a guide-book to subsequent administrators. But in time the 
communities were burdened with additional imposts, and placed under 
certain restrictions. At present they are under the supervision of 
Government, which appoints in each District (conselho) of the Velhas 
Conquistas, an officer called Administrador das Communidades, to 
watch rigidly over their proceedings. They are precluded from spend- 
ing even the smallest sum without Government sanction, and have to 
pay certain contributions to the parish churches and for the construc- 
tion and repair of roads, the establishment of schools, etc The 
staff of village servants is not the same in all parts, but it usually 
comprises the following members : — The tax-collector {sacador), the 
clerk {cscrivao), the carpenter {carpinteiro), the barber {barbeiro), the 
shoemaker {alparqueiro), the washerman (fnamato), the crier {parpoti), 
and the viahdr {faraz). There is, however, no village head-man. On 
questions affecting the interests of a whole village, a sort oi panchdyat 
or council is held, composed of one or more members of each clan 
{vangor), and the decisions are determined by the majority of votes. In 
the Velhas Conquistas, a great portion of the land is held by the village 
communities, which, after paying the rent and other Government taxes, 
divide the annual produce amongst themselves ; while in the Novas 
Conquistas the lands are distributed among the vangors, who cultivate 
them and enjoy their net produce. The total number of village com- 
munities is 421. The aggregate revenue of the villages comprehended 
in the Velhas Conquistas amounted in 1872 to jQtJjIii, i6s., against 
an expenditure of ;;^26,436, 6s. 8d. 

Agrici/lture. — The entire territory of Goa contains 679,680 acres, of 
which 234,754 acres are stated to be under cultivation, thus distributed 
among the different crops : — Rice, 122,566 acres; other cereals, vege- 
tables, etc., 77,076; cocoa-nut trees, 33,194; areca palms, 565; and 
fruit trees the remainder. The soil is chiefly argillaceous, but also 
contains light sand and more or less decayed vegetable matter. In 
many parts it is full of stone and gravel. Its fertility varies according 
to cjuality and situation in reference to the supply of water. Manure, 
consisting of ashes, fish, and dung, is largely employed. As a rule, the 
\'clhas Conquistas are better cultivated than the Novas Conquistas. In 

GOA. 93 

both these divisions of the Goa territory, a holding of 15 or 1 6 acres 
would be considered a good-sized farm, though the majority of holdings 
are of smaller extent. 

The staple produce of the country is rice (Oryza sativa), of which 
there are two harvests — (i) the winter crop, called sorodio, and (2) the 
summer crop or 7'a?iga?ia, raised by means of artificial irrigation from 
the rain-water accumulated in reservoirs, ponds, and wells. For the 
sorodio crop, the field is ploughed before the commencement of the 
monsoon, the seed scattered in May or June, and the crop harvested in 
September ; while as regards the va/igana, the ploughing operations 
begin in October, the sowing in November, and the harvesting in 
February. Rice is cultivated in low lands {cazana or cantor) situated 
near the banks of rivers, slopes of hills {fnolloy), stiff grounds {dulpan or 
dulip), and sandy soils {quero). The proportion of produce to seed 
is roughly estimated as follows : — Near the banks of rivers, fifteen-fold ; 
in dry and stiff soils, six-fold ; and in other places, eight-fold. The 
quantity of rice produced is barely sufficient to meet the local demand 
for two-thirds of the year. Next to rice, the culture of cocoa-nut 
trees (Cocos nucifera) is deemed most important, from the variety 
of uses to which the products are applied. They grow in luxuriant 
groves on all lands not hilly or serviceable for the production of rice, 
and along the sea-coast, Areca palm (Areca catechu) is chiefly culti- 
vated in the Novas Conquistas on lands irrigated from rivulets. Hilly 
places and inferior soils are set apart for the cultivation of such cereals 
as 7iachinvn (Dolichos biflora), urid (Phaseolus max), culita (Dolichos 
uniflorus), orio (Panicum italicum), vnig (Phaseolus radiatus), tori 
(Cytisus cajan). Of fruit-trees the most important are mango (Mangi- 
fera indica), jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), cashew (Anacardium 
occidentale). Among the various kinds of vegetables are potato 
(Convolvulus batata), radishes (Raphanus sativus), yams (Dioscorea 
sativa), melons (Cucumis melo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), bendas 
(Abelmoschus esculentus), etc. Besides these — chillies (Capsicum 
frutescens), ginger (Zinziber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa), 
onion (Allium cepa), and certain vegetables of daily consumption are 
extensively cultivated in some villages. In the District of Satari a 
party of enterprising foreigners rented some years ago from Govern- 
ment certain plots of ground for coffee plantations. Several experiments 
were tried, but the result did not prove encouraging, 

Goa is seldom subject to great floods, though some of its Districts 
occasionally suffer from partial inundation during heavy rains. In 
times of drought, the agricultural classes sustain heavy loss, but the 
people at large are supplied, though at great cost, with rice from 
British territory. It is only when a general famine occurs beyond the 
frontier that signs of extreme distress are visible amongst the inhabitants 

94 GO A. 

of Goa. Formerly the country was frequently subject to famine. The 
years 1553, 1570, and 1682 are said to have been seasons of great 
scarcity. In subsequent years, the constant incursions of the Marathas 
occasioned much distress. 

The condition of the agricultural classes in the Velhas Conquistas 
has of late improved, owing partly to the general rise in prices of all 
kinds of agricultural produce, and partly to the current of emigration 
IQ British territories. In the Novas Conquistas, however, the culti- 
vators are said to have been reduced to great want and misery through 
the oppression of the landowners. 

Commerce and Alanitfadures. — In the days of its glory, Goa was the 
chief entrepot of commerce between the East and West. But with the 
downfall of the Portuguese Empire, it lost its commercial importance, 
and its trade has now dwindled into insignificance. Few manufacturing 
industries of any importance exist, but the country is not devoid of 
skilful artisans, such as goldsmiths, carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, 
etc. Some of the articles produced are disposed of privately, while 
others are exposed for sale at the annual and weekly fairs held in 
various places. The principal exports are — cocoa-nuts, betel-nuts, 
mangoes, water-melons, jack, and other fruits ; cinnamon, pepper, salt 
fish, gum, coir-work, firewood, fowls, and salt. Of these the last forms 
one of the principal sources of profit, the numerous salt-pans that exist 
in the country yielding a large quantity of salt over and above the local 
demand. The chief articles imported are — rice, cloth, refined sugar, 
wines, tobacco, glass-ware, hardware, and other miscellaneous goods. 
The value of the imports largely exceeds that of the exports, thus 
causing a drain of money which would certainly have materially affected 
the financial condition of Goa, had not a stream of coin flowed con- 
stantly into the country from the savings of those of its inhabitants who 
reside temporarily in British territory. In 1874, the customs revenue 
amounted to ;!^2 1,388, i8s. The total number of vessels of every kind 
that entered the port of Goa in the same year was 1075, with 97,900 
tons of cargo, while the number of those that left was 2084, with 
119,756 tons. 

A line of railway now connects Murmagao with Hubli on the 
Southern Mardtha Railway, the length of line to Hubli being 124 miles, 
of which 49 miles lie in Goa territory. Several new roads have recently 
been made, and others are in course of construction. According to the 
report of the Committee of Engineers, published in 1870, there were in 
that year 3 1 roads, complete and incomplete ; of these the chief runs 
northwards from Verem, opposite Panjim, through the villages of 
Pilerne, Saligao, Parramaprica, and Assonora, meeting at Sankarwalle 
the road constructed in British territory. 

There are no banking establishments or professional money-lenders 

GO A. 


in the country ; but in cases of necessity, money can be borrowed from 
wealthy proprietors or religious confraternities at 5 per cent. In 
districts inhabited by Hindus, however, the current rate of interest is 
about 10 per cent. Landowners not unfrequently advance petty sums, 
or their equivalent in kind, without interest, to such of the cultivators 
or labourers as are their dependants, or live in their oarts (palmares), 
deducting the debt by monthly instalments from the wages due. In 
the Novas Conquistas, the rate of interest charged for an advance of 
grain is generally half as much as the value of the advance. 

Owing to the want of labourers, and the comparative increase in the 
price of grain, wages have of late risen considerably. Formerly they 
varied from 2d. to 3d. a day, but at present a male labourer earns as 
much as 6d., and a female 2|d. Agricultural labourers generally 
receive their wages in kind, either daily or weekly. Good masons and 
carpenters are paid at the rate of is. per diem; and male servants 
at about 4s. per month, besides food. Wherever female servants are 
employed, they, as a rule, receive no fixed wages, but it is usual to give 
them periodically some suits of clothes, and jewels on the occasion of 
marriage. The average price of a cow is about jQi ; of a pair of oxen, 
;^5 ; of a pair of buffaloes, ;£^ ; of a pig, ;£\ ; of a score of fowls, 
los. ; and of a score of ducks, ;£i. In 1874-75, rice sold at 26 lbs. 
per rupee (2s.) ; urid, at 30 lbs. ; culita, at 50 lbs. 

Administration. — Previous to 1871, Goa possessed a comparatively 
large Native army, but owing to the rebellion which broke out in that 
year it was disbanded, and a battalion composed wholly of Europeans 
was obtained from Portugal. The force now consists of 313 men of 
all ranks. The entire strength of the police is 919 men. The total 
expenditure on the public force was in 1874, ;£^(),6^'], 6s. 

There is at present no naval force at Goa; but in the year 1874-75, 
the Settlement contributed a sum of;!^98i5, 15s. towards the mainten- 
ance of the Portuguese navy. 

There is one telegraph office in Goa, at Panjim, maintained jointly 
by the British and Portuguese Governments, the latter contributing 
yearly the sum of jQi(>o, besides paying ^3 monthly as house rent. 
The receipts amounted to ;^i98, 3s. gd., and the expenditure to ^256, 
IIS. 6|d. The head-quarters of the post-office are also at Panjim, 
with branches at Margao, Mapu(;a, Ponda, Bicholim, Chinchinim, and 
Pernem. Letters sent from Goa to any part of British India, or vice 
versa, bear the postage stamps issued by both Governments. The total 
postal receipts in 1874-75 were ^^1815, 6s. 

There are two hospitals — one for military men ; and the other for the 
poor and destitute, called 'Hospital da Santa Caza de Misericordia ' 
(Hospital of the Holy House of Mercy). In the year 1875, the latter 
contained 520 inmates, of whom 226 were females. The most 

96 GOA. 

important charitable institutions are — the Santa Caza de Misericordia 
(Holy House of Mercy), at Chimbel; Sociedade de Caridade (Charit- 
able Society), at Panjim; Hospicio de Sagrodo Cora^ao de Maria 
(Asylum of the Sacred Heart of Mary), at Margao ; and Asylo de 
Nossa Senhora de Milagres (Asylum of our Lady of Miracles), at 
Mapuga. The first is coeval with the conquest of Goa by the Portu- 
guese, and maintains the hospital alluded to above and two establish- 
ments for the reformation and education of females. In 1874, these 
two houses contained a total of 48 inmates. 

Of late years, education has made considerable progress in Goa. In 
1S69-70 there were 137 lower schools, of which 52 were public and 85 
private, with 6027 pupils of both sexes; 29 higher schools, of which 21 
were public and 8 private, including i national lyceum or college, with 
2433 pupils; I medical school, with 60 pupils ; i school of chemistry, 
witli 48 pupils ; I mathematical and military school, with 137 pupils; 
I seminary for priests, with 92 pupils. Besides these, there are 3 public 
schools for girls. Since 1870 the military school has been closed, and 
a college for practical sciences, called Instituto Professional, established 
in its place. Besides the Government Gazette, called Boletivi do 
Govenw, there are five weekly periodicals — viz. (i) A Gazeta de Bdrdes, 
(2) A' India Foriuguesa, (3) A' Nova Goa, (4) A'Fatria, and (5) 
O' UltratJiar, all edited in the Portuguese language by natives. In 
addition, there is a Portuguese religious paper called A' Cruz, and a 
Marathi newspaper called Desha Sudhdrnechd. Of the four literary 
associations established in the country, the most important is the 
Instituto Vasco da Gama. 

'J'he total revenue in 1873-74 was ;,^io8, 148, los., and the ex- 
penditure, ;!^io7,i45, i8s. The sources of revenue are — tithes at 10 
per cent, on rice, cocoa-nuts, and salt, customs and postal dues, seal 
and stamp duties, tobacco licences, taxes on liquor-shops, etc. 

Goa is regarded as an integral portion of the Portuguese Empire, 
and, with Daman and Diu, forms, for administrative purposes, one 
Province subject to a Governor-General, who is appointefl directly by 
the King of Portugal, and holds his office for five years. Besides his 
civil functions, he is invested with the supreme military authority in 
the Province. His personal staff consists of two aides-de-camp, and 
a secretary styled the Chief Secretary of the Governor-General of 
Portuguese India, and likewise appointed by the king. Although he is 
the chief executive functionary, the Governor-General cannot, except in 
cases of emergency, impose new taxes, or abolish the existing ones, 
contract loans, create new appointments, or reduce the old ones, 
retrench the salaries attached to them, or generally incur any expenses 
not sanctioned by law ; nor can he, under any circumstances, leave the 
Province without the special permission of the Home Government. 

GOA. 97 

In the administration of the Province, the Governor-General is aided 
by a council composed of the Chief Secretary, the Archbishop of Goa, 
or, in his absence, the chief ecclesiastical authority exercising his func- 
tions, the Judges of the High Court, the two highest military officers 
in Goa, the Attorney-General, the Secretary of the Junta de Fazenda 
Publica (council of public revenue), the Health Officer, and the 
President of the Municipal Chamber or Corporation of the Capital 
(camara municipal de capital). As a rule, all the members give their 
opinions, and vote in every matter on which they are consulted by the 
Governor-General. There are also three other Juntas or councils, 
called the Junta Geral da Provincia (general council of the Province), 
the Junta da Fazenda Publica (council of public revenue), and the 
Conselho de Provincia (the council of the Province). The first of 
these is composed of the Chief Secretary, the Archbishop or his 
substitute, the Attorney-General, the Secretary of the Junta da Fazenda 
Publica, the Director of Public Works, the Health Officer, a Professor 
of the Medico-Surgical College, a Professor of the Institute Professional, 
a Professor of the Lyceum, a Professor of the Normal School, and a 
representative from each of the municipal corporations of the Pro- 
vince. This Junta discusses and decides all questions relating to 
public works, and the expenses necessary for their execution, the pre- 
servation of public health, the establishment of schools, the alteration 
of custom duties, etc. The Governor-General is empowered to suspend 
the operation of any resolution passed by this Junta, pending a refer- 
ence to the Home Government. The second council consists of the 
Governor-General as President, the Attorney-General, the Secretary of 
the same council, and the Accountant-General. This Junta exercises 
a direct and active control over the public revenues, making the 
requisite provisions for their proper collection and expenditure ; and 
no public expense can be made without its sanction. The third 
council is altogether of inferior importance. 

In addition to the above machinery of administration, there are sub- 
ordinate agencies for the local government of the different districts. 
In connection with these agencies, the entire territory of Goa is divided 
into two tracts, known as the Velhas and Novas Conquistas (old and 
new conquests). The former tract is sub-divided into three districts 
(conselhos) — viz. the Ilhas, Bardez, and Salsette — and each of these 
again into parishes, of which there are 85 in all. Every district has a 
municipal corporation, and is placed under the charge of a functionary 
called Administrador da Conselho. This officer is appointed by the 
Governor -General, and is entrusted with duties of an administrative 
character, besides those connected with the public safety and health. 
Every parish has likewise a minor council, called Junta da Parochia, 
; presided over by a magistrate, called Regedor, whose duties are to 

VOL. V. G 

98 GOA. 

inspect and direct the police establishments of the parish, keep a strict 
surveillance over liquor-shops, gaming-houses, etc., open wills and 
testaments, and report generally every important occurrence to the 
Administrador. Similarly in each of the six divisions into which the 
Novas Conquistas are sub-divided, there is an officer called Administrador 
Fiscal, whose duties are almost identical with those of the Administrador 
da Conselho. The functions of a Regedor are here exercised by a 
village kulkarni. Of the above-named six divisions, the first is 
Pernem ; the second, Sanquelim, or Satari and Bicholim ; the third, 
Ponda ; the fourth, Sanguem, or Astagrar and Embarbakam ; the fifth, 
Quepem, or Bally, Chandorowadi, and Cacora ; and the sixth, 
Canacona with Cabo de Rama. Each of the sub-divisions of the 
Velhas and Novas Conquistas is also known by the name of Province. 
The offices of Governor, Chief Secretary, Attorney-General, and some 
other important ones are almost invariably filled by Europeans ; while 
those of Administrador da Conselho and Regedor are held by natives. 
As stated above, there are three municipalities in the Velhas Con- 
quistas, the chief being that of the Ilhas. The municipal receipts in 
1S74-75 amounted to ^1232, 15s. 

Goaandits dependencies in India, viz. Daman and Diu, together with 
Mozambique, Macao, and Timor, constitute, for judicial purposes, but 
one judicial district. This district is divided into Comarcas, which 
are sub-divided into Julgados, and these again into Tregulsias or 
parishes. Each parish is superintended by a justice of the peace, 
whose appointment is honorary. It is the duty of this functionary to 
arbitrate between litigants in civil suits, except those affecting the 
interests of minors, and those relating to mortmain ; to institute pre- 
liminary inquiries into criminal matters previous to their submission 
for trial ; to try municipal offences, and decide petty suits not exceeding 
in amount or value 2500 reis (12s.). Against his decision an appeal 
lies to the court of a judge of higher jurisdiction called Juiz Ordinario. 

In every Julgado there is a Juiz Ordinario, with an establishment con- 
sisting of a sub-delegate of the Attorney-General, two clerks, two or 
more bailiffs, and a translator or interpreter. All these officials are 
paid by Government, and are besides entitled to fees, except the clerks, 
who receive fees only. A Juiz Ordinario holds his sittings twice a week, 
for the purpose of deciding civil and criminal cases within his juris- 
diction. The former are chiefly connected with disputes concerning 
landed property not exceeding the value of ^2, or moveable property 
not exceeding ^6. The latter relate to offences for which no higher 
jjunishment can be awarded than a fine of 15s., or three days' rigorous 

The Juiz de Direito holds the next grade, in charge of a Comarca, 
with a staff composed of a delegate of the Attorney-General, three 

GO A. 99 

clerks, one interpreter and translator, an accountant, four or five 
bailiffs, all of whom, except the clerks and accountant, receive, in 
addition to certain fees, fixed salaries. A judge of this class exercises 
ordinary and extraordinary jurisdiction in matters both civil and 
criminal. He is required to go on circuit annually to the Julgados, 
where he hears complaints against subordinate functionaries, examines 
their proceedings and registers, and sometimes tries those suits within 
his jurisdiction which may not have been submitted to his tribunal by 
the ordinary judges. His decision in suits relating to landed property 
exceeding in value ;^io, and moveable property above ^^15, are subject 
to appeal to the High Court of Goa. Within the limits of the Julgado, 
where the seat of his tribunal is fixed, this officer exercises the functions 
of a judge of ordinary jurisdiction as well as those of a district judge. 

The supervision of all the above judges is entrusted to a High 
Court (Tribunal da Relagao), whose seat is in Nova Goa (New Goa), in 
consequence of which it is sometimes called Rela(^ao de Nova Goa. 
This court consists of a Chief Justice (Presidente) and 3 puisne judges, 
with a staff consisting of an Attorney-General, an assistant, a registrar, 
2 assistant registrars, an accountant, and 2 bailiffs, all drawing salaries 
from the public treasury besides certain perquisites. The High Court 
has jurisdiction, both ordinary and extraordinary, in all cases, whether 
civil or criminal, and is invested with appellate powers. Its decisions 
are final in all suits except those relating to immoveable property 
exceeding in value ;^iSo, and moveable property above ;!{^25o, in 
which an appeal lies to the Supreme Tribunal of Portugal. Besides 
the High Court, there are in Goa 3 courts of the Juiz de Direito, 
established in the three Comarcas of the Ilhas, Bardez, and Salsette. 
The Ilhas are divided into two Julgados — (i) Panjim, and (2) Ponda. 
Bardez into four — (i) Mapu^a, the chief town of the Comarca, (2) 
Calangute, (3) Pernem, (4) Bicholim. Salsette into three — (i) IMargao, 
(2) Chinchinim, and (3) Quepem, The oftices of the judges of the 
High Court, and of Comarcas, are filled by Europeans, and those of 
the Julgados by natives. The total sum spent on judicial adminis- 
tration in 1873-74 amounted to ^^5551, i6s. The following are the 
statistics of the High Court in 1874 : — Civil judgments, 167 ; criminal 
judgments, 164; total, 331. 

History. — Certain inscriptions lately deciphered corroborate the 
evidence of the Purdnds that Goa was in ancient times known under 
the various names of Gomanchala, Gomant, Goapuri, Gopakapur, and 
Gopa-Kapatanua ; while recent investigations prove its identity with 
the Sindabur of Arab writers. The accounts handed down from 
antiquity teem with legendary tales, on which little reliance can be 
placed. In the Sahyadri Khanda of the Skanda Furdnd, it is recorded 
that at an early period the Aryans settled in Goa, having been brought 

loo GOA. 

by Parasurama from Trihotrapur or Mithila, the modern Tirhiit. 
Some of the inscriptions referred to above show that Goa afterwards 
passed under the sway of the Kadambas or Banawasi, whose first 
king, Trilochana Kadamba, is supposed to have flourished in Kahyug 
3220, or about a.d. 109-110. This dynasty continued to rule until 
13 1 2, when Goa fell for the first time into the hands of the Muham- 
madans, under Malik Kafur. They were, however, compelled to 
evacuate it in 1370, having been defeated by Vydyaranya Madhawa, 
the Prime IMinister of Harihara of Vijayanagar, under whose successors 
Goa remained for about 100 years. In 1449 it was conquered by 
Muhammad Gawan, the general of Muhammad 11., the 13th Bahmani 
King of the Deccan, and incorporated into the dominions of that 
sovereign. After the downfall of this house, Goa became subject 
to the Adil Shahi dynasty reigning at Bijapur, about the time that 
Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut in 1498. This dynasty retained 
possession until the 17th February 15 10, when Goa was captured by 
Alfonso d' Albuquerque. 

The Portuguese fleet, consisting of 20 sail of the line, with a few 
small vessels and 1200 fighting men, hove in sight of the harbour. A 
holy mendicant or jogi had lately foretold its conquest by a foreign 
people from a distant land, and the disheartened citizens rendered up 
the town to the strangers. Eight leading men presented the keys of 
the gates to Albuquerque on their knees, together with a large banner 
which was only unfurled on State occasions. Mounted on a richly 
caparisoned steed, Albuquerque entered the city in a triumphal pro- 
cession, drums beating, trumpets sounding, with the Portuguese banners 
carried by the flower of the Lisbon nobility and clergymen at the 
head, amidst the acclamations of an immense multitude, who showered 
upon the conqueror filagree flowers of silver and gold. Albuquerque 
behaved well to the inhabitants, but was shortly afterwards expelled by 
the Bijapur ruler. 

Yusaf Adil Shah, King of Bijapur, marched against the place with 
a considerable force, and after several sanguinary contests, retook 
it from the Portuguese on the 15th August of the same year. 
Reinforced, however, by the large armament which opportunely 
arrived from Portugal about this time, Albuquerque hastened back to 
Goa with his fleet, and conquered it a second time on the 25th of 
November. With 28 ships, carrying 1700 men, he forced his way into 
the town after a bloody assault, in which 2000 Musalmans fell. For 
three days the miserable citizens were given over as a prey to every 
atrocity. The fifth part of the plunder, reserved for the Portuguese 
Crown, amounted to ;;^2o,ooo. Albuquerque promptly occupied him- 
self in fortifying the place, embellishing the city, and establishing the 
Portuguese rule on a firm basis. 


GOA. loi 

From this time Goa rapidly rose in importance, and eventually 
became the metropolis of the Portuguese Empire in the East, 
which is said to have comprehended an area of about 4000 leagues. 
In 1543, during the governorship of Martin Alfonso, who came to 
India together with the celebrated St. Francis Xavier, the two im- 
portant Provinces or mahah of Bardez and Salsette were ceded to the 
Portuguese by Ibrahim Adil Shdh, who, however, not long afterwards, 
attempted to regain them, but was foiled in his endeavours by the 
intrepidity of Dom Joao de Castro. To provide against any future 
invasion on the part of the Muhammadans, the eastern part of the 
island of Goa was protected by means of a long wall. In 1570, All 
Adil Shah besieged the city with an army of 100,000 men; but it was 
so bravely defended by the little garrison under the Viceroy Dom Luis 
de Athaide that the Muhammadan army, greatly thinned in number, 
retreated precipitately after a tedious siege of ten months' duration. 
About this period, the Portuguese were alarmed by the appearance 
on the coast of India of a new enemy. The Dutch, having shaken off 
the Spanish yoke, assumed a warlike attitude towards the Portuguese, 
owing to the intimate connection between Portugal and Spain. 

The subsequent history of the town has been one of luxury, ostenta- 
tion, and decay. After bearing a siege by the King of Bijapur, and 
suffering from a terrible epidemic, Goa reached the summit of its 
prosperity at the end of the i6th century. During the very years when 
the English Company was struggling into existence under Elizabeth, 
' Goa Dourada,' or Golden Goa, seemed a place of fabulous wealth to the 
plain merchants who were destined to be the founders of British India. 
* Whoever hath seen Goa, need not see Lisbon,' said a proverb of that 
day. Indeed, if the accounts of travellers are to be trusted, Goa 
presented a scene of military, ecclesiastical, and commercial magnificence 
which has had no parallel in the European capitals of India. The de- 
scriptions that have been left of Calcutta in the last and during the first 
quarter of the present century, leave behind them a feeling of insignifi- 
cance compared with the accounts of Goa, written nearly three hundred 
years ago. To find a parallel, we must go to the travellers' tales 
regarding Agra and Delhi during the zenith of the Mughal prosperity. 
The brilliant pomp and picturesque display of Goa was due to the fact 
that it was not only a flourishing harbour, but also the centre of a great 
military and ecclesiastical power. The Portuguese based their dominion 
in India on conquest by the sword. They laboured to consolidate it by 
a proselytizing organization, which throws the missionary efforts of every 
other European power in India into the shade. The result has proved 
how rotten was this basis, and how feebly cemented was the superstructure 
reared upon it. But during the greatness of Goa it had all the splendours 
which the church and a powerful military court could cast around it 

102 GO A. 

After the genius of Albuquerque and the energies of the early 
Viceroys had spent themselves, these armaments constituted a vast idle 
population in the capital. The work of conquest was over, and it left 
behind it a gay and wealthy society of conquerors who had nothing to do. 
Every Portuguese in India, says a traveller, set up as a ' Fidalgo ' {sic). 
These gentlemen had to be amused. There were no hotels or inns in 
the city, but many boarding-houses and gambling saloons. The latter, 
writes a vo3'ager in the 17th century, were sumptuously furnished, and 
paid a heavy tax to the Government. People of all classes fre- 
quented them, and entertainments were provided for the lookers-on by 
jugglers, dancing girls, musicians, wrestlers, and native actors or buffoons. 
' Those who were inordinately fond of gambling stayed there sometimes 
for days together, and were provided with board and lodging.' 

Such gambling houses were not places for respectable women, and 
while the male society thronged their saloons, the Portuguese ladies were 
rigorously shut up at home. The family income was derived from the 
labour of slaves, and as no ' Fidalgo ' {sic) could follow a trade or calling 
without disgrace, so neither could his wife busy herself in domestic 
affairs without losing her social importance. The society of Goa, 
therefore, divided itself into two idle populations — an idle population of 
men in the streets and gambling houses, and an idle population of 
women in the seclusion of their own homes. This was one of the 
first results of the intensely military spirit, with its contempt for peaceful 
forms of industry, on which rested the Portuguese power in India. The 
ladies of Goa soon obtained an unenviable notoriety in books of travel. 
Excluded from male society, they spent their time in indolence, 
quarrelling, and frivolous pursuits. A European zaiidiia life grew up, 
and brought with it some very ugly consequences. A lady valued 
herself in her female coterie upon the number and the daring of her 
intrigues. Almost every traveller who visited Goa during its prime tells 
the same curious story regarding the rashness with which the Portuguese 
matrons pursued their amours. Both Pyrard and Linschoten relate, in 
nearly the same words, how the ladies of Goa were wont to stupefy their 
husbands with dhatiira, and then admit their lovers. The perils of 
such interviews became almost necessary to give a zest to their profligacy, 
and the Goanese became a byword as the type of an idle, a haughty, 
and a corrupt society. 

Strangers are inclined to laugh at Englishmen for adhering in India 
to the British costumes devised for a more temperate zone. There can 
be no doubt that the Dutch in Java have adapted their clothing much 
better to the climate than we have in Calcutta. But the very rigidity 
with which English society in India insists upon matters of dress is not 
without its value. It forms a ])er]K'tual check upon the tendency to 
fall into the slip-shod habits of Oriental domestic life. In Goa, these 


GO A. 103 

habits were carried to an extreme length. At home, both ladies and 
gentlemen dressed very much like the natives, except for the large 
rosaries which they wore round their necks. While untidy and careless 
in their dress at home, they made an ostentatious display when they stirred 
abroad. When a gentleman rode out, he was attended by a throng of 
slaves in gay and fanciful liveries, some holding large umbrellas, others 
bearing richly inlaid arms ; while the horse itself was loaded with gold 
and silver trappings, the reins studded with precious stones, with jingling 
silver bells attached, and the stirrups wrought into artistic shapes in gilt 
silver. The poor followed the example of the rich, and resorted to 
amusing makeshifts to maintain an air of dignity and grandeur. The 
gentlemen who lived together in a boarding-house had a few suits of 
silk clothes between them in common. These they used by turns when 
they went out, and hired a man to hold an umbrella over them as they 
strutted through the streets. 

Holland, having thrown off the Spanish yoke, began to assert herself 
in the East. While our own East India Company was struggling into 
existence during the last years of Elizabeth, the Dutch were preparing 
to dispute with the Portuguese for the supremacy in the Indian Ocean. 
In 1603 they blockaded Goa. The attempt proved abortive; but it 
left behind it a struggle between the two nations, which, during the next 
seventy years, shattered and dismembered the Portuguese power in 
India. One by one, the Portuguese possessions fell into the hands of the 
Dutch ; their fleets were captured, or driven within the shelter of their 
forts, and their commerce was swept from the seas. Goa suffered not 
only from these disasters, but also from a return of the fever which had 
afflicted the city in the preceding century. It broke out again in 1635, 
and raged for several years. Towards the end of this visitation, the 
Dutch once more blockaded Goa in 1639, but were again compelled to 

A period of pride and poverty followed, during which the splendour 
of the previous century was replaced by shabby devices to conceal the 
decay that had blighted the Portuguese power. In 1648, Tavernier 
admired the architectural grandeur of Goa, but was struck with the 
indigence of several Portuguese families whom he had seen in affluence 
and prosperity during his first visit. He says that many who had six 
years previously enjoyed an ample income, were now reduced to the 
necessity of secretly begging alms. ' Yet they did not put aside their 
vanity. The ladies were particularly observed going in palanquins to 
seek charitable relief, attended by servants who conveyed their messages 
to the persons whose assistance they implored.' ' The city,' says 
Thevenot in 1666, 'is great and full of beautiful churches and convents, 
and well adorned with palaces. There were few nations in the world 
so rich as the Portuguese in India ; but their vanity is the cause of theii 

I04 GO A. 

ruin.' In 1675, Dr. Fryer described Goa as ' Rome in India' — 'looks 
well at a distance — stands upon seven hills; everywhere colleges, 
churches, and glorious structures ; but many houses disgracing it with 
their ruins.' 

The Portuguese, indeed, were becoming unable to hold their capital 
even against the native banditti. In 1683 it narrowly escaped falling 
into the hands of Sambaji at the head of his roving Marathas, who 
plundered up to the very gates of the city. All hopes of resistance 
were abandoned, when a powerful Mughal force suddenly made its 
appearance from the Ghats, and compelled the Marathas to come to 
terms. This unexpected deliverance was ascribed to the miraculous 
interposition of St. Francis Xavier. Subsequently the Bhonslas from 
the State of Sawantwadi invaded the Goa territory ; but though at the 
outset they obtained partial successes, they were eventually defeated by 
the Portuguese, who conquered from them the islands of Corjuem and 
Panelem, and destroyed their fortress at Bicholim. To defend the 
place against future inroads, the Viceroy, Vasco Fernandes Csesar de 
Minezes (17 12-17 17), built a fortress on the frontiers of Bardez, and 
another at Chapora. During the administration of the Count of 
Sandomil (1732-41), the Portuguese became once more involved in a 
war with the Marathas, and lost some of their most important possessions 
towards the north of Goa. In 1741 the Marathas invaded the pen- 
insulas of Bardez and Salsette, and threatened the city of Goa itself. 
At the same time the Bhonslds availed themselves of the opportunity to 
overrun the settlement. At that critical period a new Viceroy arrived 
at Goa, the Marquis of Lourigal, bringing with him from Europe a 
reinforcement of 12,000 men. With this army he encountered and 
defeated the Marathas at Bardez with great slaughter, captured the 
celebrated fortress of Ponda and other minor forts, and compelled them 
to retire from Goa. He then marched against the Bhonslas, and 
forced them to sue for peace, making their chief, Khem Sawant, a 
tributary of the Portuguese. Shortly afterwards, however, the Bhonslds 
renewed hostilities, but were defeated by the Marquis of Castello-Novo, 
who conquered Alorna (whence his later title), Tiracol, Neutim, Rarim, 
Sanquelim, or Satari. 

In 175c the Marathds and Bhonslas jointly attacked the fortress 
of Neutim, which they closely invested both by sea and land. The 
Viceroy, the Marquis of Tavora, hastened to the relief of the place with 
all his available forces, and compelled the enemy to raise the siege, 
after which he turned his arms against the King of Sunda, and 
captured the fortress of Piro (Saddshivgarh). His successor, Count 
of Alva, prosecuted successfully for a time the war against the Mar- 
athds, but eventually lost Rarim and Neutim, and was killed at the 
siege of one of the fortresses which had fallen into the hands of the 

GO A. 105 

enemy. About this period, the Court of Lisbon sent peremptory orders 
to the Viceroy, Count of Ega, to restore the fortresses of Piro and 
Ximpem to the King of Sunda, and Bicholim, SanqueUm, and Alorna 
to Khem Sawant 11. Subsequently, however, the former allowed the 
Portuguese to possess themselves of Ponda, with the adjacent territory 
of Zambaulim, Cabo de Rama, and Cainacona, during the time that his 
dominions were invaded by Haidar Ali. After some years of repose, 
Khem Sawant again attempted to disturb the Portuguese ; but being 
defeated, had to surrender to them Bicholim, Sanquelim or Satari, 
Alorna, and Pernem. 

The decay of the capital had become so notorious that the Portuguese 
Government in Europe determined to rebuild it at a great cost. A.fter 
a century of fruitless efforts and foolish expenditure. Old Goa still lay 
in ruins, and the remnants of the population drew themselves together 
at Panjim or New Goa, at the mouth of the river. The changes in the 
river itself had contributed to render Old Goa still more unhealthy than 
of old, and to make the navigation of its channels dangerous even for 
the comparatively small class of ships which the Portuguese employed. 
During the i8th century, the decayed settlement, instead of being a 
centre of military pomp and courtly display, had become a burden on 
the Home Government, and cost Portugal a considerable sum of money 
annually. It required a force of 2000 European soldiers to protect it 
from the Marathas; the privates receiving a miserable subsistence of 
rice and fish, and the captains drawing a salary of 6 rupees (12 shillings) 
a month. Such commerce as survived was in the hands of the Jesuits. 
This fraternity still preserved the traditions, and something of the 
energy, of the proselytizing era. Captain Hamilton, early in the i8th 
centur)-, declared that he counted from a neighbouring hill nearly eighty 
churches and convents. He states the number of Roman Catholic 
priests at 30,000 for the city and settlement. The native merchants 
had been driven away by oppressions and insults ; and during the first 
half of the last century, the Jesuits monopolized the remnants of the 
trade, which still clung to the capital. In 1739, when the territory was 
overrun by the Marathas, the nuns and monks had streamed forth in 
panic to the refuge of Murmagao. Nevertheless, high offices and 
military commands were still lavished among the poverty-stricken 
remnants of the Portuguese in India. All the talk at Goa was about 
fine titles. ' A post which would be filled by a small tradesman every- 
where else, needed a general.' 

From 1794 to 1S15, the Government of Goa and other Portuguese 
Settlements in India received little attention from the Court of Lisbon, 
owing to various causes, the chief of which was the invasion of the 
Iberian Peninsula by the French. To protect Goa against any con- 
tingency, an English auxiliary force was obtained to garrison the two 

io6 GO A CITY. 

fortresses commanding the port, until the general peace in Europe after 
■the battle of Waterloo. In 1S17, the Viceroy, the Count of Rio Pardo, 
repelled the inroads of the predatory forces from the Sdwantwddi 
State, capturing the fortress of Uspa and Rarim. This Governor was, 
however, deposed in consequence of a revolution which took place in 
Goa in 1821. In 1835, ^ native of the place, named Bernardo Peres 
da Silva, was appointed Governor and Prefect of the Portuguese State 
of India by Dona Maria 11., in reward for his adherence to the House 
of Braganza during the usurpation of Dom Miguel. But his reforms in 
Goa during the 17 days of his government ended in an emeute and his 
flight to Bombay. 

For about sixteen years after this event, Goa was undisturbed 
either by external foes or internal dissensions, except a brief 
military revolt, which resulted in the deposition of the Governor, 
Lopez de Lima. During the administration of Pestana, in 1845, the 
disturbances at Savvantwadi, and the shelter afforded at Goa to the 
rioters who had fled thither, threatened for a time to bring about a A 
rupture with the British Government of Bombay. In 1852, the Rdni's 
of Satari, headed by Dipaji, revolted. In 187 1, a rebellion broke out 
among the native army at Goa, in consequence of the Portuguese 
authorities making a stand against its exorbitant demands. To sup- 
press this insurrection, the Court of Lisbon despatched a reinforce- 
ment, accompanied by the king's own brother, Dom Augusto. On the 
restoration of peace, the native regiments that had revolted were dis- 
banded, and the colony is now held by 313 Portuguese soldiers. The 
former army has not been reorganized, as native regiments could only 
be dangerous to the handful of European troops ; and the peace! 
maintained throughout India by the British supremacy renders them 
unnecessary for any practical purposes. 

The chief towns in the territory of Goa are — Nova Goa or Panjim, 
with 1 185 houses, and a po])ulation of 8440 souls; Margao, 2522 
houses, population 11,794; and Mapu^a, 2285 houses, populatiooj 

Goa City. — The capital of the Portuguese territory of the samel 
name; situated near the mouth of the river Mandavi, in 15° 30' n. lat.,| 
and 73° 57' E. long. Population of Old Goa (1S81), 1882, dwelling in* 
469 houses. 

Goa is properly the name of three cities, which represent three] 
successive stages in the history of Western India. The earliest of 
tlie three was an ancient Hindu city, before the invasion of the! 
Muhammadans ; the second, known as Old Goa, was the first capital] 
of the Portuguese, and is still the ecclesiastical metropolis of Roman! 
Catholic India ; the third, commonly called Panjim, is the present] 
seat of Portuguese administration. The original city of Goa (Goaj 

GOA CITY. 107 

Velha), built by the Kadambds, was situated on the banks of the river 
Juary. No traces of buildings exist at this day. The next town of 
Goa (Velha Cidade de Goa), generally known to foreigners as Old Goa, 
situated about 5 miles to the north of the Hindu capital, was built by 
the Muhammadans in 1479, nineteen years before the arrival of Vasco 
da Gama in India. This famous city, conquered by Albuquerque in 
1 5 10, became the capital of the Portuguese Empire in Asia; as such 
it was once the chief emporium of commerce between the East 
and West, and enjoyed the same privileges as Lisbon. It reached 
the climax of its splendour during the i6th century; but with the 
decline of the Portuguese power in the following century, it began 
gradually to lose its significance in every respect, save as an ecclesias- 
tical metropolis. 

The frequent plagues by which the population was repeatedly 
thinned, together with the removal of the seat of Government to 
Panjim, and the suppression of the religious orders, contributed 
finally to effect its complete downfall. Instead of the 200,000 inhabit- 
ants which once formed its population, hardly 2000 poverty-stricken 
creatures remain to haunt the few ecclesiastical edifices still standing. 
Foremost among the surviving edifices is the Cathedral dedicated to 
St. Catherine by Albuquerque, in commemoration of his entry into Goa 
on the day of her festival. Built as a parochial church in 15 12, it was 
reconstructed in 1623 in its present majestic proportions, having been 
about a century before elevated to the rank of a primatial see, which 
it has ever since retained. Service is regularly held every day by the 
Canons attached to the Cathedral. The Convent of St. Francis, 
originally a IMuhammadan mosque, converted into a church by the 
Portuguese, was the first structure consecrated to Catholic worship in 
Goa. Its chief portal, curious as being the earliest of its kind in 
Portuguese India, has been preserved intact to this day, though the 
convent itself was rebuilt in 1661. The Chapel of St Catherine was 
erected in 155 1, on the site of the gate of the Muhammadan city 
through which Albuquerque entered. The Church of Bom Jesus, 
commenced in 1594, and consecrated in 1603, is a splendid edifice, 
enjoying a wide renown for the magnificent tomb holding the remains 
of the apostle of the Indies, St. Francis Xavier, the events of whose 
life are represented around the shrine. The Convent of St. Monica, 
commenced in 1606, and completed in 1627, was constructed for a 
community of nuns, now represented by a single venerable member. 
The Convent of St. Cajetan, erected in the middle of the 17th century 
by the order of the Theatines, is noted for its resemblance to St. Peter's 
at Rome, and is in excellent preservation. 

Of the other historical edifices with which Old Goa was for- 
merly embellished, but few traces remain to give a conception of 

io8 GO A CITY. 

their pristine beauty and magnificence. The once renowned palace 
of the Viceroys, the spacious custom - house, and many other 
public buildings, have been completely destroyed. The College 
of St. Roque, belonging to the order of Jesus, the Senate-house, 
the once famous Palace of the Inquisition, the Church of the 
Miraculous Cross, the College of St. Paul, the Hospital of St. 
Lazarus, the Church and Convent of St. Augustine, as well as the 
college of the same name close by, are all in ruins. The arsenal, the 
chapel of the Cinco Chagas (the Five Wounds), and the ecclesiastical 
jail, still remain standing in a dilapidated condition, but every year their 
walls yield to the crumbling finger of decay. The sites of the vanished 
buildings have been converted into cocoa-nut plantations, the ruins are 
covered with shrubs and moss, and the streets are overrun with grass. 
But though Old Goa has long since lost its civil importance, forming 
at present only a suburb of Panjim, its ecclesiastical influence as 
the See of the Primate of the East still remains ; and, as long as it 
can boast of its noble monuments of Christian piety, and retains the 
shrine of the great Eastern evangelist, it will not cease to attract pilgrims 
from the most distant parts of the Catholic world. 

The history of Goa has been very fully given in the preceding article. 
As far back as 1759, the ruin of the old city was complete. The governor 
changed his residence to Panjim, near the mouth of the river, and in 
the same year the Jesuits were expelled. With them went the last 
sparks of commercial enterprise. In 1775, the population, which at 
the beginning of the century had numbered nearly 30,000, was reduced 
to 1600, of whom 1 198 were Christians. Goa remains in ruins to this 
day. Every effort to re-people it has failed, and Old Goa is now a city 
of fallen houses and of streets overgrown with jungle. Almost the only 
buildings which survive are the convents and churches, with miserable 
huts attached. In 1827, the Superior of the Augustinian Convent thus 
wrote : ' II ne reste plus de cette ville que le sacre : le profane en est 
entierement banni.' The stately mansions and magnificent public 
buildings of Old Goa are now heaps of bricks covered with rank 
grass, and buried in groves of cocoa-nut trees. ' The river,' wrote Dr. 
Russell in 1877, 'washes the remains of a great city, — an arsenal in 
ruins; palaces in ruins; quay walls in ruins; churches in ruins; all in 
ruins. We looked and saw the site of the Inquisition, the bishop's 
prison, a grand cathedral, great churches, chapels, convents, religious 
houses, on knolls surrounded by jungle. We saw the crumbling 
masonry which once marked the lines of streets and enclosures of 
palaces, dockyards filled with weeds and obsolete cranes.' 

N()7'a Goa, the present cajiital of Portuguese India, comprehends 
Panjim, Ribandar, as well as the old city of Goa, and is 6 miles in extent. 
It is situated on the left bank of the river Manddvi, at a distance of 


about 3 miles from its mouth. The suburb of Ribandar is connected 
with the central quarter of Panjim by a causeway about 300 yards long, 
through which lies the main road leading to Old Goa, Panjim occupies 
a narrow strip, enclosed by the causeway on the east, the village of St. 
Ignez on the west, the river on the north, and a hill which walls it on 
the south. In the last century it was a miserable village, inhabited by 
a few fishermen dwelling in cadjan huts, and remarkable only for the 
fortress built by Yiisaf Adil Shah, which is now transformed into a 
viceregal palace. As in the case of Bombay city, the surface has been 
gradually formed by filling up hollows and reclaiming large tracts of 
marshy land. The present (1S81) population, exclusive of Goa Velha, 
or Old Goa, is returned at 8440 persons, dwelling in 11 85 houses. 

Panjim was selected as the residence of the Portuguese Viceroy in 
1759 ; and in 1843 it was formally raised by royal decree to rank as 
the capital of Portuguese India. From the river, the appearance of the 
city, with its row of public buildings and elegant private residences, is 
very picturesque ; and this first impression is not belied by a closer 
inspection of its neat and spacious roads bordered by decent houses. 
Of public structures, the most imposing are the barracks, an immense 
quadrangular edifice, the eastern wing of which accommodates the 
College or Lyceum, the Public Library, and the Professional Institute 
for teaching chemistry, agriculture, and other sciences. The square 
facing this wing is adorned by a life-size statue of Albuc[uerque standing 
under a canopy. The other buildings include the cathedral, the vice- 
regal palace, the high court, the custom-house, the municipal chamber, 
the military hospital, the jail, the accountant-general's office, and the 
post-oftice. For trade, etc., see pp. 94, 95. 

Goalanda. — Sub-division of Faridpur District, Bengal ; extending 
from 23° 31' to 23° 55' N. lat, and from 89° 22' to 89° 54' e. long. Area, 
428 square miles; number of villages or townships, 1223; number of 
occupied houses, 47,287. Population (1881) 321,485, namely, males 
163,433, and females 158,052. Hindus, 123,262 ; Muhammadans, 
198,073 ; Christians, 137 ; and Buddhists, 13. Number of persons per 
square mile, 751 '13 ; villages per square mile, 2*86 ; persons per village, 
263; houses per square mile, 114; persons per house, 6'8. Goaldnda 
Sub-division includes the three thdiids or police circles of Godlanda, 
Balyakandi, and Pangsa. It contained in 1883, 2 civil and 2 criminal 
courts, with a regular police force of 71 officers and men, and a rural 
constabulary or village watch numbering 584. 

Goalanda. — River mart and municipality in Faridpur District, 
Bengal; situated in 23' 50' 10" N. lat., and 89° 46' 10" E. long., at the 
confluence of the main streams of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. 
Fifteen years ago but a small fishing village, with an evil reputation for 
river dakditi, Goalanda has now become one of the most important 


centres of trade in Bengal, and has taken the place of Kushtia as the 
terminus of the Eastern Bengal Railway and the point of departure of 
the Assam steamers. The population of the town, which in 1872 was 
estimated at about tooo, had at the time of the Census of 1881 
increased to 8652, namely 4508 Hindus, 4130 Muhammadans, and 14 
'others.' Area of town site, 2364 acres. Municipal revenue (1882-83), 
;^35o, or at the rate of gfd. per head of population. 

The modern career of GoaMnda has not been without vicissitudes ; 
and it is possible that the irresistible waywardness of the rivers, which 
have brought to it its prosperity, may again in a few years divert 
commerce to another direction. The town, which consists of little 
more than a railway station, a bazar, and a court-house, stands upon 
an alluvial tongue of land lying at the junction of two great river 
systems. During the cold weather, a temporary line of rail is laid 
down to the river bank, and the process of transhipping goods from 
steamer or boat to railway truck is conducted safely on the water's 
edge. But when the two rivers rise in flood about July, the operations 
of commerce are driven back inland. The river bank over which trains 
were running a few weeks before, becomes a boiling sea of waters, 
where even the steamers find a difficulty in making headway. At this 
season, the eye may look north or east over 3 or 4 miles of uninterrupted 
water. When a storm comes on, the native craft flee for shelter to 
various creeks. The railway extension from Kushtia to Goalanda was 
first opened in 1870 ; and up to 1875 the station stood upon an artificial 
embankment near the water's edge, protected by a masonry spur running 
out into the river. From first to last, about ;^ 130,000 was spent upon 
these protective works, and it was hoped that engineering skill had 
conquered the violence of the Gangetic flood. But in August 1875 
the river rose to an unprecedented height. The solid masonry spur, 
the railway station, and sub-divisional offices were all swept away ; and 
at the present time there is deep water over their site. A new terminus, 
which it was hoped would prove permanent, was afterwards erected 
about two miles from the river bank, but this was also soon afterwards, 
washed away. The site of the terminus has frequently been changed 
owing to the shiftings of the river channel, and none but temporary 
buildings are now erected. 

The trade of Goaldnda consists almost entirely in the transhipment 
of goods from river to rail. In addition to a large through traffic con- 
ducted direct with Assam, the agricultural produce of the surrounding 
Districts is here collected for despatch to Calcutta. In the year 1882, 
the value of the total trade, including both exports and imports, was 
returned at ^788,981. The principal item is jute, of which 2,184,393 
maunds were received during the year, valued at ;i^436,878. The 
aggregate amount of oil-seeds (chiefly mustard) was 87,614 maunds^ 


valued at ;^30,4SS ; of food-grains (chiefly rice), 478,400 maimtis, 
valued at jQ99,Sl^ > °f tobacco, 4578 7naunds, valued at ;^2 2 99. 
The most important articles obtained in exchange from Calcutta are 
European piece-goods and salt. In 1882, the imports of cotton goods 
were valued at ^Tjoo, entirely by rail; the importation of salt was 
100,014 maiuids, valued at ;^35,oo5. The steamers of three companies 
touch at Godlanda, running to Assam, Sirajganj, Dacca, and Cachar ; 
but the greater portion of the trade is still carried in country boats, of 
which it is estimated that 100,000 passed Goaldnda in 1882. This 
number does not include the fleets of fishing boats, which add so much 
to the liveliness of the scene. A good deal of hilsa fish is exported to 
Calcutta, but not to such an extent as formerly, the fisheries being less 
productive. Only a small quantity is cured, the drawback duty of 
Rs. 2. 12. o a maund on salt formerly allowed by Government being 
now discontinued. The merchants of Godlanda are chiefly Marwdris, 
locally called Kdyas. There are also many Bengali and Musalmdn 
traders. The bazar is held daily, and is largely frequented both by 
wholesale dealers and petty shopkeepers. 

Go^lpara. — The most westerly District of the Province of Assam, 
forming the entrance to the upper valley of the Brahmaputra. It lies 
on both sides of the great river, extending from 25° 45' to 26° 54' N. 
lat., and from 89° 44' to 92° 14' E. long. It is bounded north by the 
mountains of Bhutdn, and south by the newly-formed District of the 
Gdro Hills. It contains an area of 3897 square miles; and the popu- 
lation, according to the Census of 1881, numbers 446,232 persons. 
The administrative head-quarters are at Dhubri Town, situated on the 
right or north bank of the Brahmaputra. 

Physical Aspects. — The permanently-settled portion of the District 
(as distinguished from the Eastern Dwdrs portion, which is under the 
regular Assam land system of yearly settlements) occupies the narrow 
valley of the Brahmaputra, at the corner where the great river leaves 
Assam proper and turns due south to enter the wide plain of Bengal. 
It is very irregularly shaped, extending for only 65 miles along the 
northern bank of the Brahmaputra, and for 120 miles along its southern 
bank. The level land on the south bank forms but a narrow strip, in 
some parts not more than 8 miles across, being shut in by the ridges of 
the Gdro Hills. On the north, the cultivated plain gradually merges in 
the low jungle of the Eastern Dwdrs. The scenery throughout is of a 
striking character. Along the channel of the river grow dense clumps 
of cane and reed. Farther back, the wide expanses of rice cultivation 
are only broken by the fruit-trees surrounding the village sites. In the 
background rise forest-clad hiUs, crowned in the far distance by the 
snow-capped peaks of the Him-dlayas. The soil of the hills and of the 
higher ground consists of a red ochreous earth, interspersed with large 


blocks of granite and sandstone. The latter are subject to disintegra- 
tion from exposure to the weather. In the plains, the soil is of alluvial 
formation, being either tenacious clay or clay more or less mixed with 
sand. Earthquakes are common in Goalpara, and very severe shocks 
have occasionally been experienced. 

Besides the Brahmaputra, the three following tributaries of the great 
river on its northern bank are navigable for boats of considerable size 
throughout the year : — The Manas, Gadadhar, and Gangadhar or Sankos. 
These all rise in the Bhutan Hills, and flow through the Eastern Dwars 
into Goalpara. Several other minor streams become navigable during 
the rainy season. Alluvion and diluvion are continually taking place 
in the course of the Brahmaputra, as testified by the numerous islands 
and sandbanks that dot its broad channel. This river, also, annually 
inundates a large tract of country on both its banks ; and the flood- 
water stands all the year long in the wide bils or marshes, some of 
which cover an area of from 6 to 1 2 square miles. In the Eastern 
Dwars, the Government reserved forests form an important department 
of the administration, covering an area of 447 square miles. There 
are also valuable forests in private hands, estimated to yield about 
;;^3ooo a year to their proprietors. The financial results of the working 
of the Goalpara forests in 1880-81 showed a surplus of ;!^i233 of 
receipts over expenditure. Wild animals of all kinds abound in Goal- 
para, including tigers, rhinoceros, and buffaloes. It is on record that, 
about twenty-five years ago, more money was annually expended in 
rewards for the killing of wild animals than was realized from the land 
revenue. Even in the three years ending 1870, the average number of 
deaths from wild beasts and snake-bite averaged 116 annually. No 
coal or other minerals have been found in Goalpara, but the hills 
abound with large stones which might be utilized for building purposes. 

History. — Goalpara has always formed the frontier between Bengal 
and Assam, and has participated to the full in the vicissitudes attending 
such a position. In the earliest times it must have constituted part 
of the legendary Hindu kingdom of Kamrup, which is said to have 
extended from the head of the Assam valley far across the plains of 
Bengal to what are now the borders of Purniah District. The only 
remains of this period may perhaps be found in the ruined temple of 
Thakeswari. The next dynasty which can be localized in this region 
is that of the early Koch Rajds of Kuch Bchar, whose empire was 
almost as extensive as that of the fabled Kamrup. But it fell to pieces 
by subdivision in the generation after it was founded ; and the present 
Raja of Bijni, who owns a large zaminddri in the settled portion of 
the District, claims to be descended from a younger son of a Kuch 
Behar king, and to hold his lands as a royal appanage. About 1600 
A.D., two armies of invaders were closing upon Goalpdrd from difi'erent 


directions, and the divided kingdom could offer no resistance. From 
the east, the wild Ahams gradually spread down the valley of the 
Brahmaputra, to which they subsequently gave their own name of 
Assam ; while, from the west, the Mughals pushed forward the limits of 
the Delhi empire and of the faith of Islam. The JMuhammadans first 
appeared on the scene ; and thus Goalpara was definitively assimilated 
to Eastern Bengal in administration and ethnical characteristics. It 
was in the year 1603, twenty-seven years after Bengal had been wrested 
from the Afghans by Akbar's generals, that the Mughals first reached 
the Brahmaputra, and annexed the Assam valley as far as the present 
District of Darrang. But here they soon came into collision with the 
Ahams. After a decisive defeat in the neighbourhood of Gauhati, in 
1662, Mir Jumla, the well-known general of Aurangzeb, w^as obliged to 
retreat ; and the Muhammadan frontier was permanently fixed at the 
town of Goalpara. At this place and at Rangamati, on the opposite 
bank of the Brahmaputra, military officers were stationed, among 
whose duties it was to encourage the growth of jungle and reeds, 
to serve as a natural protection against the inroads of the dreaded 
Ahams. About this time, also, the Eastern Dwars fell into dependence 
upon Bhutan. 

This was the position of afifairs when the British obtained possession 
of the dhi'dni of Bengal in 1765. The comparatively small extent to 
which the Mughals here assimilated their conquest may be judged from 
the fact that the Musalman element in the population of the District 
now amounts to 22 per cent., as against 51 per cent, in the neighbour- 
ing jurisdiction of Rangpur. Another significant feature in the Mughal 
administration of Goalpara was the lightness of the revenue assessment. 
The land was left in the hands of border chieftains, whose residence in 
some cases lay beyond the recognised frontier, and who paid a merely 
nominal tribute. This system was stereotyped in the Permanent 
Settlement of 1793, by which the land revenue of the District was fixed 
in perpetuity at the trifling total of ^1170. At the present day, Goal- 
para is the paradise of great landlords. There are altogether only 19 
estates in the permanently-settled tract ; and it is estimated that the 
average rentals exceed the amount paid to Government by fifty-fold. 
The average rate of assessment throughout the settled portion of Goal- 
para is less than id. per head of population, as compared with is. 5d. 
in Assam generally, and is. 2d. in Bengal. 

During the early years of British administration, Goalpara was 
administered as an integral portion of Rangpur District; but in 1822 
it was formed into an independent jurisdiction under a Commissioner. 
This step was taken with a view to establishing a special system of 
government over the Garos and other wild tribes on the frontier. It 
was also thought desirable to place a European officer at Goalpara 

VOL. V. H 


town, which was then the outpost station towards the disturbed frontier 
of Assam. This town had long occupied a pecuHar position of com- 
mercial and political importance. So far back as 1788, a European 
merchant, Mr. Raush, who settled there, is stated to have despatched 
at his own charges an armed force of 700 men to assist the Assam 
Raja in quelling an insurrection of the Moamarias ; and as the opposite 
bank of the Brahmaputra lay within Assamese territory, Goalpara had 
become a sort of free port for river traffic. After the conquest of 
Assam by the British in 1825, Goalpara District was immediately 
annexed to the new Province, though for revenue purposes the admini- 
stration has always continued to be conducted in accordance with the 
Bengal Regulations. The Bhutan war of 1864 brought about another 
change. The Dwars ceded by the Bhutias were attached partly to the 
newly-formed District of Jalpaiguri and partly to Goalp£ra ; and the 
whole tract, together with the State of Kuch Behar, was erected into 
the Kuch Behar Commissionership under the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal. But this severance was not of long duration. In 1868, the 
civil and criminal jurisdiction of Goalpara was again transferred to the 
Judicial Commissioner of Assam; and in 1874, when Assam was con- 
stituted a Province independent of Bengal, the entire administration 
in all departments was included in the new Province. The Deputy 
Commissioner, as the chief European officer is now styled, exercises 
the powers possessed in Bengal by a Magistrate and Collector, and also 
those of a subordinate judge; while the functions of a civil and sessions 
judge rest with the Judge of the Assam Valley. 

People. — Goalpard, as forming part of the Bengal District of 
Rangpur, was included in the statistical survey conducted by Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton in the beginning of the present century. He 
estimated the total number of inhabitants at 176,000, within an area of 
2915 square miles. There can be no doubt that the population has 
largely increased since that date. The regular Census of 1872, which 
was confined to the permanently-settled tract of 2571 square miles, 
disclosed a total population of 407,714 persons, dwelling in 1330 
viauzds or villages, and in 65,767 houses. The last Census in 1881, 
taken over the entire District, including the Eastern Dwars, returned a 
population of 446,232 on an area of 3S97 square miles, residing in 
1225 villages and 87,362 inhabited houses; average density of popula- 
tion, ii4"5 per square mile ; villages per square mile, 0*31 ; inhabitants 
per village, 364 ; inmates per house, 5 ' 1 1 . Divided according to sex, the 
males numbered 229,149, and the females 217,083. Classified accord- 
ing to religion, persons professing Hinduism were returned at 329,066 ; 
Muhammadans, 104,777; Sikhs, 14; Christians, 513 ; Buddhists, 79; 
Jains, 39 ; Brahmos, 32 ; and aboriginal hill tribes, 11,712. 

Generally speaking, Goalpara presents the ethnical aspects of a 


frontier District, in which the hill tribes have been imperfectly 
assimilated by the Hindus. The aborigines of the Census Report are 
chiefly represented by the three kindred tribes of Rabha, Mech, and 
Kachari or Cachari, who are now returned as Hindus in religion. 
Next come the Garos, numbering 11,710, who are immigrants from 
the neighbouring hills on the south, r.nd are fully described in the 
article on the Garo Hills District. The great majority still hold 
their primitive aboriginal faiths, although an American Baptist Mission 
for Gciros has been established in the south of the District. The great 
bulk of the semi-Hinduized aborigines consists of the Kochs, who are 
properly an aboriginal tribe, akin to the Kacharis and Mechs ; but since 
the high position attained by the conquering Rajas of Kuch Behar, 
their tribesmen have been admitted within the pale of Hinduism under 
the high-sounding title of Rajbansi. The term 'Koch,' also, is vaguely 
used at the present time as applicable to all new converts made by the 
Brahnians ; and members of every rank in society may be found 
included in this caste. Among Hindus proper, the Brahmans number 
2970, and chiefly belong to the Vaidik sept, who are said to have migrated 
from Hindustan at a remote period; the Rajputs number only 57; 
the Kayasths, 1733. By far the most numerous caste is the Jaliya 
(19,230), whose occupation is that of fishermen, and w^ho are supposed 
to be connected with the well-known Kaibarttas of Bengal. Ne.xt in 
number come the Kolitas (11,299), ^ caste peculiar to Assam, who 
exercised priestly functions under the native dynasty before the advent 
of the Brahmans. They now rank as pure Sudras, and are chiefly 
employed in agriculture. They are found in greater numbers in the 
Districts of Upper Assam. 

A branch of the Brahma Samaj was established by Bengali 
immigrants in 1868, but theistic principles have not made progress 
among the natives of the District. Mention is made of a peculiar 
sect called Mahapuriishiyci Bhakat, whose members meet at night 
to eat flesh and drink wine. The Jains are represented by a few 
Marwari traders from the north-west, settled at Goalpara town. Of 
the Musalman population, a iQ.\\ of those residing in the towns have 
adopted the Faraizi or reforming creed, while many in the interior are 
described as scarcely diff"ering from their Hindu neighbours in their 
rites and image-worship. The native Christians are mainly Garos, 
dwelling on the southern boundary of the District, under the charge of 
the American Baptist Mission. 

The population of Goalpara is entirely rural. There is only one 
place with more than 5000 inhabitants, Goalpara Town, containing in 
1881, 6697 inhabitants, which is the chief centre of trade. Dhubri 
is the present head-quarters of the District ; and as the terminus in this 
direction of the Northern Bengal State Railway, is the principal point 


where passengers for Assam are taken on board the Brahmaputra river 
steamers. Gauripur, Bagribari, and Lakhipur possess a thriving trade 
in timber, and are the residences of wealthy za?ninddrs. 

Agriculture, etc.—'l\\z staple crop of the District is rice, which is not, 
however, cultivated so exclusively as in Upper Assam. The principal 
harvest is the haimantik, salt, or dman rice, sown on low lands about 
June, transplanted a month later, and reaped in mid-winter. Next in 
importance is the dus rice, sown about March on comparatively high 
lands, from which a second crop of pulses or oil-seeds can be taken 
later in the year, and reaped about July. Bdo or long-stemmed rice 
is cultivated in marshes, being sown in IMarch and reaped in October. 
Neither of these last two varieties is transplanted. Mustard is largely 
grown as an oil-seed on the chars and alluvial accretions in the bed 
of the Brahmaputra. The acreage under jute has rapidly increased in 
recent years, and this fibre, with oil-seeds, now furnishes the staple 
export from the District. The less important crops include many 
varieties of pulses and vegetables, wheat, sugar-cane, and />dn or betel- 
leaf The estimated area under the different crops in 1 880-81 is 
returned as follows. Rainy season crops — Rice, 361,312 acres; other 
food-grains, 2143; jute, 74,425; cotton, 19,895; sugar-cane, 1742; 
tea, 342 ; and indigo, 500 acres. Dry season crops — Wheat, 9765 ; 
other food-grains, 38,620; and oil-seeds, 61,198. Total cultivated 
area, 569,942 acres. 

Manure, in the form of cow-dung, is used on dus or high lands, 
especially for the sugar-cane crop. Irrigation is only practised in 
the neighbourhood of the northern hills, where the villagers com- 
bine to divert the hill streams over their fields by means of artificial 
channels. Land is nowhere suffered to lie fallow all the year through ; 
but, for the most part, only one crop in the year is taken off the same 
field. A fair out-turn from an acre of sdli land would be 18^ cwts. of 
unhusked paddy, worth about ;^3 ; from an acre of dus land, 15 cwts. 
of paddy, worth about ^2, 8s. Under favourable circumstances, a 
second crop from either description of land might raise the total value 
of the annual out-turn to nearly ;£4. As Goalpara (excepting the 
Eastern Dwars tract) is a permanently-settled District in accordance 
with the Regulations prevalent in Bengal, the rates of rent are not fixed 
by Government as in Assam proper, but vary on the estates of the 
several zaminddrs. According to ofiicial returns furnished in 1870, the 
rent paid for basti or homestead land varies, in the dA^Qxe.nX pargauds, 
from 3s. to 14s. an acre ; for sdli land, from 2s. 7d. to 6s. 3d. ; and for 
dus land, from is. to 5s. The forms of land tenure resemble those in 
the neighbouring Districts of Bengal. Various classes of under-tenants 
intervene between the zaminddr and the actual cultivator of the soil ; 
and in many cases the cultivator has no recognised interest in the 


land, but is merely a labourer paid by a certain proportion of the 
produce. The most numerous class of under-tenants with permanent 
rights are those ^XyXctA jotddrs : while //'rt'/i, ddhidr, and chiikdnidar ^x(t 
the common names for subordinate cultivators, the amount of whose 
service or remuneration varies in each case. Rights of occupancy are 
almost unknown. 

Rates of wages have approximately doubled within the past twenty- 
five years. Ordinary labourers, when paid in cash, now receive from 
14s. to 1 8s. a month ; skilled artisans can earn as much as £^2. The 
price of food-grains has also risen greatly. In 1S82-83, common rice 
sold at 4s. 9d. per cwt. 

The District is not specially liable to any form of natural calamity. 
Blights, caused by worms and insects, have been known to occur ; and 
in 1863 the country was visited by swarms of locusts. These visita- 
tions, however, have never been on such a scale as to affect the 
general harvest. Similarly, Goalpara is exposed to river floods, 
especially in the upper part of the District, where there is great need 
of protective embankments ; but no inundation has ever produced 
a scarcity. Partial droughts are caused by deficiency of the local 
rainfall ; but in such cases the sterility of the higher levels would be 
compensated by the increased area of marshy land brought into 
cultivation. If the price of common rice were to rise in January 
to 14s. a cwt., that should be regarded as a sign of approaching 
distress later in the year. 

Manufactures, etc. — The manufactures of Goalpara consist of the 
making of brass and iron utensils, gold and silver ornaments, the 
w^eavingof silk cloth, basket work, and pottery. It is said that in recent 
years the competition of the cheaper Bengal articles has seriously 
injured the local industries, which used to be of a highly artistic 
character and of honest workmanship. A speciality still remaining is 
the thagi or sardi, a silver tray occasionally inlaid with gold. Silk cloth 
is woven from the cocoons of the erid and ?iiugd worms. The former, 
which is the more domesticated variety of the two, is fed on the leaves 
of the castor-oil plant ; the latter on the saola or siim tree. The silk 
of Goalpara is regarded as inferior in texture, but superior in dura- 
bility, to that of Upper Assam. The cultivation and manufacture of 
tea has been introduced only recently into Goalpara. In 1880 there 
were 342 acres under cultivation (including newly-opened gardens), with 
an estimated out-turn of 41,305 lbs., the average yield being 160 lbs. 
per acre of mature plant. None of the labourers employed were 
imported under contract from Bengal, although all the immigration 
traffic passes by way of Dhubri town. 

The external commerce of the District is entirely conducted by 
means of the Brahmaputra, the chief centres of traffic being Goalpara 

ii8 GO ALP AR A. 

town, Dhubri, Jogighopd, and Singimdri. The local trade is principally 
in the hands of Marwari merchants from Rajputana. It is carried 
on at permanent bazars^ weekly hats or markets, and periodical fairs 
held on the occasion of religious festivals. The chief exports from 
the District are mustard-seed and jute from the plains, and cotton, 
timber, and lac from the hills ; there is also some export of silk 
cloth, india-rubber, and tea. The commodities received in exchange 
comprise rice, European piece-goods, salt and hardware, oil and 

The chief means of communication are the rivers, especially the 
Brahmaputra, which is navigated by steamers and the largest native 
boats all the year through. The Assam Trunk Road, running south of 
the Brahmaputra from a point opposite Dhubri to the Kamrup border, 
is the mail route, and much travelled by foot passengers. The roads 
in the District are in fair order, and are now all in charge of District 
Committees, constituted under the Assam Local Rates Regulation of 
1879. Dhubri, as already mentioned, is the terminus of the Northern 
Bengal State Railway, a daily communication being kept up with 
Kaunia on the Ti'std. by a service of small steamers, together with a 
tramway service between the Tista and Dharla, and between the Dharla 
and the Brahmaputra. Communication within the District is com- 
posed of 500 miles of navigable rivers, 265 miles of first-class roads, 143 
miles of second-class roads, and 76 miles of third-class roads. 

Administration. — In 1870-71, the net revenue of Goalpara District 
(including the Eastern Dwars) amounted to ;^"i 8,309, towards which 
the land-tax contributed ^4235, and the excise ^({^62 25 ; the expen- 
diture was ^^20,266, or nearly ;j^20oo more than the revenue. The 
balance in the treasury is adjusted by the receipt oi jQ6']'jo from Kuch 
Behar, being the tribute of that State, which is still paid at Goalpara. 
The total of the land revenue is extremely small, but it has increased 
somewhat since the annexation of the Eastern Dwars. By 1874-75 
it had risen to ;:^6229, of which only ;^ii7o was obtained from the 
permanently-settled portion of the District. In 1880-81, while the 
total land revenue had risen to ;^939i, that derived from the perma- 
nently-settled estates had slightly fallen tO;^ii4i. It is curious to 
observe that, in the matter of excise, Goalpard clearly manifests its 
character of a border region. Under this item, the incidence of 
taxation is 3id. per head of population, against 8|d. in Assam 
generally, and 2d. for the whole of Bengal. In 1880 there was i 
European officer stationed in the District, and 7 magisterial and civil 
and revenue courts were open. For police purposes, Goalpara is 
divided into 4 thdnds or police circles, with 15 outpost stations. In 
1880 the regular police force consisted of 322 men of all ranks, main- 
tained at a total cost of ^6062. There is a small municipal police 



force of 6 men, and a chauk'uiari or rural force of 621 men, costing 
^2787. There are two prisons in the District, one at Dhubrf, with a 
daily average population in 1880 of 25-30; and one at Goalpdrd, with 
a daily average of 17 '89 inmates in the same year. 

Education had not made much progress in Goalpdrd until within 
late years. In 1S56 there were only 15 schools in the District, attended 
by 194 pupils. By 1870, after a temporary decline, these numbers 
had increased to 31 schools and 862 pupils. The reforms of Sir G. 
Campbell, by which the benefit of the grant-in-aid rules was extended 
to the village schools ox pdt/tsdlds, raised the total number of inspected 
schools in 1873 to 92, and of pupils to 2137; while by 1880 the 
schools had further increased to 96, and the pupils to 2355. The 
chief educational establishment is the Higher-Class English School 
at Dhubri. This school was formerly situated in Godlpdra town, but 
it fell into a declining state on the removal of the head-quarters station, 
and the number of pupils steadily decreased. Since the removal of 
the school to Dhubri, the attendance increased, and in March 1881 
the school was better attended than for the five previous years. The 
American Baptist Mission is assisted by Government in maintaining a 
normal school and 9 pdthsdlds among the Garos, who live on the 
southern boundary of the District. 

For administrative purposes, Goalpara is divided into 2 Sub-divi- 
sions, including the Eastern Dwars, and into 4 thdnds or police circles, 
with 15 outpost stations. In the permanently-settled tract there are 
17 pargands or fiscal divisions, with an aggregate of 19 estates, of which 
only 7 date from a period subsequent to the Permanent Settlement. 
The temporarily settled estates in the Eastern Dwars, the engagements 
for which are made yearly with the actual cultivators, numbered in 
1880-81 no less than 14,606. Goalpdrd town was constituted a 
municipality in 1875, under Act vi. of 1868. The average municipal 
income is about ;^4oo, of which the greater part is expended on 

Medical Aspects. — The rainy season or monsoon lasts for five months, 
from the middle of May to the middle of October. It is succeeded 
by the cold weather, which is marked by heavy fogs during the early 
morning. The prevailing winds are easterly ; but during the three 
months from March to May, hot winds occasionally blow from the 
west, and thunderstorms come up from the south-west. The mean 
annual temperature is returned at 75° F. In 1880, the maximum 
recorded was 92*9° in the month of July; and the minimum, 49"3*, in 
December. The average annual rainfall at Godlpdrd town for the five 
years ending 1880-81 is ioo'46, and at Dhubri, 97'54 inches. The 
rainfall in the latter year, however, was only 72-66 inches at Godlpdra, 
and 6 2 '66 inches at Dhubri. 


Goalpara District is considered very unhealthy both for Europeans 
and natives, especially during the rainy season. The whole country 
round Goalpara town is charged with malarious exhalations. The 
prevalent diseases are — intermittent and remittent fevers, complicated 
with aftections of the spleen ; diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism, and 
chest affections. Epidemic outbreaks of cholera are frequent, and 
small-pox annually appears, owing to the popular custom of inocula- 
tion. The vital statistics for iSSi returned a registered death-rate of 
13T2 per thousand, but this is admittedly below the truth. Out of 
a total of 5855 deaths, 4840 were assigned to fevers, 57 to cholera, 87 
to small-pox, and 389 to bowel complaints. There are 4 charitable 
dispensaries in the District, which were attended in 1881 by 353 in- 
door and 51 21 out-door patients ; the total expenditure was ;^6o8. 

Goalpara. — Sub-division of Goalpara District, Assam ; containing a 
population (1881) of 164,222 persons, residing in 563 villages or towns, 
and 36,092 houses. Hindus numbered 137,903 ; IMuhammadans, 
15,420 ; and ' others,' 10,899. The Sub-division comprises the 2 police 
circles {thdiids) of Goalpara and Salmara. It contains i civil and 3 
criminal courts ; a regular police force of 94 officers and men, besides 
264 village watchmen {chaukiddrs). 

Goalpara Town. — Chief town and formerly head-quarters station 
of Goalpara District, Assam ; situated on the south or left bank of the 
Brahmaputra. Lat. 26° 11' n., long. 90° 41' E, Population (1881) 
6697, namely, males 4330, and females 2367. Hindus numbered 
4151 ; Muhammadans, 2373; and 'others,' 173. Municipal income 
in 1882-83, ;^253 ; incidence of taxation, gd. per head of popu- 
lation. Goalpara is said to derive its name from a colony of Hindu 
Goalas or cowherds who settled here in early times. It was the 
frontier outpost of the Muhammadans in the direction of Assam, 
and afterwards a flourishing seat of trade before the British annexed 
that Province. In 1788, the name of a Mr. Raush appears as a 
merchant settled here, who sent a force of 700 armed guards to assist 
the Raja of Assam against his revolted subjects. The civil station is 
built on the summit of a hill, rising 260 feet above the plain, which 
commands a magnificent view over the valley of the Brahmaputra; 
bounded north by the snow-capped Himalayas, and south by the Garo 
Hills. The native town is situated on the western slope of this hill, and 
the lower portions of its area are subject to inundations from the marshy 
land which stretches all around. The town is regularly laid out, but the 
houses are almost all made of wooden posts, mats, and thatch, so that 
destructive fires are of frequent occurrence. Goalpard is still an im- 
portant centre of river trade, but Dhubri is now the depot for the timber 
floated down from the Eastern Dwars. In 1876-77, the imports from 
Bengal included 153,400 jnaunds of rice, 97,400 maimds of salt, and 


European piece-goods valued at ^64,700. Communication is main- 
tained with Dhubri on the opposite bank of the Brahmaputra, about 50 
miles distant, by the Assam Trunk Road, and by a steam service branch 
of the Northern Bengal State Railway. 

Gobardanga. — Town and municipality in the nortli of the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal. Lat. 22° 52' 40" n., long. 88° 
47' 55" E. ; situated on the eastern bank of the Jamuna. Population 
(1881) 6154, namely, Hindus, 4264; and Muhammadans, 1890. Area 
of town site, 1920 acres. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ^390; '"^^c 
of taxation, loM. per head of population. Police force, 18 men. 
English school, branch dispensary. Export of jute, molasses, and 
sugar. Tradition points out this village as the spot where Krishna 
tended his flocks. 

Gobardhan. — Ancient town and place of pilgrimage in Muttra 
(Mathura) District, North- Western Provinces. Lat. 27° 29' 55" n., 
long. 77° 30' 15" E. ; lies among the low rocky hills on the western 
frontier. Noticeable only for its antiquarian remains, which include — 
the sacred tank of Manasi Ganga, where the pilgrims bathe at the close 
of the rains; the temple of Hari Deva, erected during Akbar's reign 
by Raja Bhagwan Das of Ambar, governor of the Punjab ; the two 
cenotaphs of Randhir Singh and Baldeva Singh, Rajas of Bhartpur, who 
died in 1823 and 1825; and the monument of Suraj IMall, erected by 
Jawahir Singh, his son, soon after his death at Delhi in 1764. The 
last-named memorial comprises three cenotaphs, nine kiosks, and a 
large garden with an artificial lake. 

Gobardhangiri. — Fortified hill on the frontier between Shimoga 
District, Mysore State (latitude 14'' 9' x., longitude 74° 43' e.), and the 
Madras District of South Kanara, commanding the old pass that leads 
by the famous Falls of Gersoppa. Annually traversed by 50,000 pack- 
bullocks. The fort is in fair repair, but abandoned. 

Gobindpur. — Sub-division of Manbhiim District, Bengal. — See 


Gobra, — Solitary village in the Khulna portion of the Sundarbans, 
Bengal. Cited as a proof that this tract was once inhabited. Ruins of 
masonry buildings still exist ; but embankments alone prevent Gobra 
from being washed away by the Kabadak. 

Gobra. — Village in Raipur tahsil, Raipur District, Central Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2368, namely, Hindus, 2097; Kabirpanthis, iii; 
Satnamis, 146; Muhammadans, 13; and Jain, i. 

Godagari. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle, Rajshdhi 
District, Bengal. Lat. 24^ 28' N., long. 88° 21' 33" E. ; situated in the 
extreme west of the District, on the banks of the Ganges. An important 
trading village, with a considerable river traffic with the North- Western 


Goddvari. — British District of the Madras Presidency. Lies 
between i6' 15' and 17° 35' n. latitude, and between 80° 55' and 
82° T^^' E. longitude. Area, 7345 square miles, inclusive of the Agency 
Tract, which comprises S20 square miles. Population (according to 
the Census of iSSi) 1,791,512, including 10,899 inhabitants of the 
Agency Tract. Bounded on the north by the Bastar State of the 
Central Provinces and by Vizagapatam District ; on the north-east by 
Vizagapatam District ; on the east and south by the Bay of Bengal ; 
on the south-west by Kistna District ; and on the west by the Nizam's 
Dominions. In point of size Godavari District ranks tenth among the 
Districts of the Madras Presidency, and in point of population seventh. 
The plains are divided into 10 Government taluks, area 6635 square 
miles ; and there are 3 saminddri divisions in the hilly portion, with an 
area of 710 square miles. The two taluks of Bhadrachalam and 
Rekapalle, whose area is 911 square miles, were transferred to this 
District from the Central Provinces in 1874. These, together with 
the Rampa country, are included in the Agency Tract under the Col- 
lector of Godavari. In 1881 the District contained 2249 inhabited 
villages, including 13 towns. Land revenue, ;^46i,oii ; gross revenue, 
^641,744. Administrative head-quarters and chief town, Cocanada. 

Physical Aspects. — The District is divided into two parts by the 
Godavari river. At Dowlaishvaram, 30 miles inland, the river 
separates into two main branches, enclosing the taluk of Amalapur, 
the central delta of the river. The eastern delta comprises the taluk 
of Rimachandrapur with the zaminddri of Cocanada ; the western, 
the taluks of Narsdpur, Bhimavaram, and Tanuku. These deltas are 
flat, in some places even marshy. They present a vast and unbroken 
expanse of rice cultivation, dotted by villages, and varied only by 
clusters of palmyra, cocoa-nut or betel-nut palms, and mango groves. 
North of the delta the land gradually undulates, and the horizon is 
broken by scattered conical hills. Farther north, the hills come 
closer together, and are thickly covered with jungle ; but there is 
no real range of mountains met with till the long broken table- 
land of Papikonda (2709 feet) is reached. Here the Godavari river is 
completely shut in by hills, forming a magnificent gorge, in some places 
only 200 yards wide ; whereas the river attains a breadth of about 
3 miles at Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry), 50 miles lower down. The 
hills in all parts of the District are covered with jungle more or less 
dense. They are never quite inaccessible, but the numerous blocks 
of gneissic rock with which they are strewn render the construction 
of any road through or over them almost impossible. Teak is found 
here and there, and some of the higher hill ranges are covered with 
clumps of the feathery bamboo. 

The only navigable rivers of the District are the Godavari and the 


Sabari, which joins the former at Vaddigudem in Rekapalle taluk. 
The Godavari has seven mouths, viz. the Tulyabhaga, the Atreya, the 
Gautami, the Vruddhagautami, the Bharadwajam, the Kausika, and the 
Vasishta. The large town of Narsapur is situated at the mouth of one 
of the two main branches, the French Settlement of Yanaon at the 
mouth of the other. Thirty miles up the river is the famous Dow- 
laishvaram anicut ; 4 miles farther on, the town of Rajamahendri 
(Rajahmundry). Northwards still, is the picturesque island of Patd- 
patteshim, covered with pagodas, and a favourite resort of pilgrims ; 
and close to it, the timber market of Polavaram. The shipbuilding 
trade of the District is carried on at Tallarevu, on the Coringa branch 
of the river. Owing to the volume of the Godavari, and the quantity 
of silt brought down by it, not only the islands of the river (termed 
lankas), but the sea-coast itself, are continually changing in form. 
Each of the seven mouths of the river is deemed holy, and the 
Godavari is one of the 12 rivers of India at which the feast of 
Pushkaram is celebrated. The bed of the Godavari, at the point 
where it enters the District, is sandy ; but gradually turns into alluvial 
mould in its course through the delta. The only lake of importance 
is the Koleru, which is studded with islands and fishing villages. 
Sea-fishing is carried on along the coast. Building and lime stone are 
found in abundance in the uplands, and iron is smelted in small 
quantities. The forest tracts are those of Rampa, Yemagudem, Jud- 
dangi, Dutsarti, Guditeru, and Bhadrachalam. Chief jungle products — 
myrabolans, soap-nuts, tamarind, bamboo-rice, honey, and beeswax. 
The wild animals comprise the tiger, leopard, hyrena, bison, nilgai, 
sdmbhar, wild-boar, antelope, deer, wolf, and bear. Game birds are 

History. — The present District of Godavari formed part of what 
is known as the Andhra division of the Dravida country ; the tract 
to the north-west of the river having probably been part of the 
kingdom of Kalinga, and more or less subject to the Orissa kings ; 
while the south-western tract belonged to the Vengi kingdom, and owed 
allegiance to the Ganapatis of Warangal. The District formed for 
centuries a battle-field, on which the Chalukyas, Narapatis, the Reddi- 
war chiefs, and the aboriginal hill tribes, fought with varying success, 
until the arrival of the Muhammadans in the beginning of the 14th 
century. After a struggle lasting a century and a half between the 
Hindu chiefs and the Musalman invaders from the west and north, 
the contest ended in the subjugation by the latter of nearly the whole 
of this District (1471-77). Subsequently, Krishna Raya, the King of 
Vijayanagar, overran the country in 15 16, and for a time restored 
the ancient Hindu kingdom. Lesser Hindu chiefs temporarily asserted 
and maintained their independence; but the whole of the country 


may be regarded as having passed under Muhammadan domination 
from the commencement of the i6th century. In 1687, the rule of 
the Kutab Shahi kings was succeeded by that of the Delhi Mughals ; 
Aurangzeb, after a long struggle, having succeeded in overthrowing the 
independent Bijapur and Golconda dynasties. Thenceforward the 
District became known as the Nawabship of Rajamahendri (Rajah- 
mundry) in the Suhahat of Golconda, under the governorship of the 
Nizdm, Asaf Jah. From the death of Asaf Jah in 1748, commenced 
the struggles between the English and the French in the Deccan and 
Karnatic, which terminated in the final overthrow of the French power 
in the East. By 1753, Godavari had become a French Province, but in 
that year it was overrun by the Marathas, then at the zenith of their 

Long anterior to this, the English, French, and Dutch had placed 
factories within the District. The English setded at Masulipatam in 
1611, the Dutch in 1660, and the French in 1679 J i" 1686, the Dutch 
seized the administration of the town. The English opened factories 
at Pettapalam, Viravasaram, and MadapoUiem in the 17th century, at 
Injeram, and Bandamiirlanka early in the i8th ; the Dutch held PalakoUu, 
Narsapur, and Cocanada in 1650 ; the French occupied Yanaon a cen- 
tury later (1750). In 1756, the French captured without resistance the 
English factories at MadapoUiem, Bandamiirlanka, and Injeram ; but 
Daily's ill-advised recall of Bussy to aid him in the Karnatic in 1758 
soon put an end to the French domination in the Northern Circars. 
In the latter year, Colonel Forde's expedition (consisting of 500 Euro- 
peans, 2000 sepoys, and 100 lascars) marched into the District, and in 
December completely routed the French army under Bussy's successor, 
the Marquis de Conflans, at Condore. 

The battle of Condore (Chandurti) was the most important ever 
fought in the District. The English forces have been enumerated : 
those of de Conflans were 500 Europeans, 6000 sepoys, and a great 
number of local troops, including 500 cavalry. The fortune of the 
day, at one time adverse to Colonel Forde, was turned by the pre- 
cipitous pursuit of the French after the English sepoys, while the whole 
European battalion, hitherto concealed behind the lofty stalks of 
an Indian corn-field, seized the opportunity and moved out to the 
attack. The French were taken by surprise. Thirty pieces of ordnance 
were captured, and 6 French olificers, with 70 men, were killed. M. de 
Conflans galloped to Rajdmahendri (40 miles), and reached the town 
at midnight without having drawn rein. The battle resulted in releas- 
ing the Northern Circars from French dominion. It was followed 
by the capture of Narsapur and Masuli[)atam, whicli practically left the 
Circars (including what now forms Goddvari District) in English hands, 
— a state of things confirmed by Imperial Sanad in 1765. Until 1823 


the Company paid an annual tribute to tlic Nizdm for the Northern 
Circars. In that year it was commuted for a lump payment of iif 
hikhs (^117,500). 

Till 1 794 this new acquisition of the East India Company was adminis- 
tered on the old system, namely, by a Chief and Provincial Council. As 
tliat arrangement was not found satisfactory and proved unequal to the 
suppression of risings, such as those in Polavaram and Gutala (1785- 
1787), a system of Collectorates was adopted ; and three of these, under 
a principal Collector at Masulipatam, nearly represented the present 
Godavari District. In 1793, Lord Cornwallis had permanently settled 
Bengal, and it was believed that a permanent settlement might also be 
with advantage applied to Madras. The Madras Government expressed 
its willingness to see the system introduced into the Northern Circars, 
although even there a great part of the country was held directly by the 
State. As in the case of Bengal, Lord Cornwallis formally reserved to 
Government the right of passing any laws which might be considered 
expedient for the protection of the raydts. From 1794 till 1802-3, 
when the Permanent Settlement was introduced, the history of the 
District is one continuous struggle with recusant zaminddrs. The 
Settlement, owing to insufficient knowledge, was unequal in its incidence, 
and consequently unsuccessful. Constant sales, lawsuits, and distraints 
were the result. The downfall of the proprietary estates, of small and 
large zatn'mdars alike, was equally rapid and equally sad. The failure of 
the system was pointed out by Sir Thomas Munro in 1822 ; but it was 
not till 1843, after several seasons of famine, distress, and steady 
decline in wealth and population (the latter decreased 30 per cent, in 
twenty years), that Sir Henry Montgomery was appointed to incjuire and 
report. The reforms instituted on his representations practically put an 
end to the Permanent Settlement in this District. In thirty years the 
population has doubled ; and, thanks to the splendid system of navigable 
irrigation works, the agriculture and commerce of the District are now 
in a most prosperous condition. In 1859 the boundaries were re- 
adjusted, and the three Districts of Guntiir (Guntoor), Rajamahendri 
(Rajahmundry), and Masulipatam became the present Districts of 
Kistna and Godavari. In 1S74, the taluks of Bhadrdchalam and 
Rekapalle were transferred to this District from that of Upper Godavari 
in the Central Provinces; and in 1881, the hill muttahs of Dutsarti and 
Guditeru from Vizagapatam District. 

Population has increased largely of late years. In 1856, the number 
of inhabitants was returned at 1,081,703; in 1861, at 1,366,831; in 
1871, at 1,592,939 ; while in 1881 the number had risen to 1,719,512, 
on an area, inclusive of Bhadrachalam and Rekapalle, of 7345 square 
miles, and occupying 319,733 houses. Males numbered 888,969, 
females 902,543 ; proportion of females to males (in the plains) in every 


I ooo of the population, 504 to 496. In point of density, Godavari District 
ranks ninth among the Districts of the Madras Presidency, the number of 
persons per square mile being 234, but excluding the agency tracts, 273. 
The population per house, exclusive of Bhadrachalam and Rekapalle, 
is 5-6. Classified according to religion, there were 1,748,734 Hindus, 
or 97'6 per cent, of the total population; 38,798 Muhammadans, or 
2*2 per cent.; 3893 Christians; 17 Jains; and 70 'others.' Of 
children under 10 years there were 251,926 boys and 252,322 girls, 
total 504,248. Between the ages of 10 and 20 there were 190,300 
males and 168,638 females, total 358,938. The classification 
according to caste showed the Hindu population to be distributed as 
follows: Brahmans, 89,412; Kshatriyas (warriors), 46,661; Shettis 
(traders), 43,171; Vellalars (agriculturists), 535,854; Idaiyars (shep- 
herds), 66,151; Kammalars (artisans), 35,678 ; Kanakkans (writers), 
4306; Kaikalars (weavers), 71,776; Vanniyans (labourers), 56,424; 
Kushavans (potters), 13,240; Satani (mixed castes), 17,078; Shem- 
badavans (fishermen), 3702; Shanans (toddy -drawers), 161,268; 
Ambattan (barbers), 19,011 ; Vannans (washermen), 45,631 ; Pariahs, 
423,218; 'others,' 116,153. The distribution of the total population 
by occupation was as follows: — Class I., or professional, 21,092, or 
i"i8 per cent. ; Class H., or domestic, 8275, or o"46 per cent.; Class 
HI., or commercial, 27,931, or 1*56 per cent. ; Class IV., or agri- 
cultural, 513,451, or 28"66 per cent; Class V., or industrial, 191,613, 
or 10*69 P^^ cent.; and Class VI., or indefinite and non-productive, 
1,029,150, or 57*45 per cent., of whom 6*09 were occupied. About 
48 per cent., or a little less than half the population, were returned 
as workers, while the remaining 51^ were dependent on them. Of 
the males 65*62 per cent., and of the females 31 '89 per cent, were 
workers. Excluding the hilly portion of the District, there were edu- 
cated, or under instruction, 76,026 persons, of whom 3846 were females. 
Only 8'i7 per cent of the male population, and 0*43 per cent, of the 
female, were returned as educated. The Christian population consists 
of 250 Europeans, 412 Eurasians, 2582 native Christians, and 649 
Christians whose nationality was not stated ; total, 3893. Of these, 
921 were Baptists, loii Protestants, 602 Roman Catholics, 5 followers 
of the Greek Church, 61 Lutherans, 12 belonged to the Church 
of Scotland, and 420 to the Church of England. The creed of 86 r 
was not returned. The following are the principal towns of the 
District: — Ellore, 25,092; Rajamahendri, 24,555; Cocanada, 

28,856; PlTHAPURAM, 11,693; PeDDAPURAM, 11,278; DOWLAISH- 

VAKAM, 8002; Amalapuram, 8623; Narsapur, 7184; Palakollu, 
7510; Attili, 7080; Achanta, 6568; Kapilkswarapuram, 5067; 
Mandapeta, 5914; Velpuru, 6282; Nagavaram, 5839; Chamar- 



CODA FAR I. 127 

505S; AtTARAVADI, 5747; PaLEKURU, 5141; PeRUR, 5264; MUMIDI- 

VARAM, 5409 ; and Palevella, 5561. Besides these there are 136 towns 
and villages of over 2000 inhabitants. Under Act iii. of 1871, three 
towns were constituted municipalities, viz. Ellore, Rajamahendri, and 
Cocandda, with an aggregate population of 78,503 ; total municipal 
.income (1881), ;z{^59io, or at the rate of is. 6^d. per head of municipal 
population. The municipal income in 1882 was ;j^7o84. Coringa, 
Cocanada, and Narsapur are the ports of the District. The two first- 
named places are the two principal ports on the eastern seaboard ot 
India. Telugu, spoken by 1,727,733 persons, is almost the only 
language of the District. 

Agriculture. — The total area of the District, including recent transfers, 
is 7345 square miles, of which (in 1881-82) 2914 square miles, or 
1,865,328 acres, were Government land; indm lands occupied 448,495 
acres. Of the Government land, 605,238 acres were under cultivation, 
433,986 acres were cultivable, 417,831 acres were pasture and forest 
lands, and 408,273 acres uncultivable waste. The total area assessed 
was 827,771 acres, b'earing a total assessment of ^162,075. The 
remaining area is comprised in the zam'mddri estates (for which no 
detailed information exists), or is forest land. In 1882-83, the total 
area assessed was 865,673 acres, the amount of assessment being 
^164,181. This area was Government land exclusive of indms. Of 
the cultivated Government area (1881-82), cereals occupied 697,681 
acres; pulses, 66,904 acres; orchards and garden produce, 28,021 
acres; tobacco, 8803 acres; condiments and spices, 13,282 acres; 
sugar-cane, 5762 acres; oil-seeds, 133,692 acres; indigo, 1677 acres; 
and fibres, 18,250 acres. 

The Imperial and minor irrigation works of the District consisted, 
in 1881-82, of 85 large and 928 minor tanks, which irrigated a 
total area of 107,738 acres, realizing a water revenue of ^^24,891. 
By far the greater portion of the cultivated land is under rice. 
The chief crops of the District are: — (i) Cereals — {a) rice trans- 
planted (white paddy), five varieties, sown in May and July, and 
reaped in November and January ; tw^o other sorts are sown in June 
and reaped in October; all these crops are grown on irrigated 
land ; {b) black paddy, sown in June, and harvested in October ; 
(<r) cholani, sown in June and reaped in November and January ; 
{d) ragi, sown in May and June, and reaped in September ; these 
last are grown on dry lands: (2) Green crops — (a) gram (4 
varieties), sown in December and reaped in February; {/>) red- 
gram, sown in June and reaped in December : (3) Fibres — (a) 
cotton, sown in October and gathered in March ; (If) jute, and 
(c) hemp, sown from June to August, and harvested from Sep- 
tember to January ; these are grown on dry land. The District 


also produces large quantities of gingelly, tobacco, sugar-cane, and 

The land on which tobacco is grown consists for the most part of 
alluvial islands lying within the banks of the Godavari river, called 
lankds, which are generally flooded every year. The soil of these 
islands, in the low parts, is covered with deep layers of coarse sand, 
and in other parts varies from a light friable loam to a stiff loam. 
The former, being composed of the finer parts of the silt brought 
down by the river, is the best for tobacco, though it seems to be 
grown on any part of the lankds almost indifferently. It is grown even 
on coarse sand, provided that it is not too deep, and that there is a 
layer of good soil not more than a foot or so below the surface. The 
seed is sown about September or October, in seed-beds which are very 
carefully prepared, cleaned, and heavily manured, the land being fre- 
quently stirred with the native plough until a good depth of loose 
mould is formed. The amount of seed allowed is i lb. for 8 acres, or 
2 oz. per acre ; and at the time of sowing it is mixed with fine sand in 
tlie proportion of i to i6, and sown broadcast over the area of the seed- 
beds. The beds are thereafter watered lightly three or four times a day 
for some time, and the plants come up in a week after sowing. The 
preparation of the tobacco ground begins after the last freshes have 
passed down the river. The plants are then transplanted into holes 
2 to 3 feet apart, and are watered by hand from pots daily for a month 
or more. The leaf, after being cured, is exported to British Burma 
to be manufactured into cigars. The leaf is cured after the crude 
native method ; but if a higher class of cured leaf could be turned out 
by persons properly trained to the work, the tobacco of the lankds 
would command a good price in European markets. 

Great improvement has taken place of late years in the quality of the 
rice and other food-grains raised in the District, owing to the extension 
of irrigation by canals. A farm loo acres in extent is considered a large 
holding for an agriculturist, one of about 30 acres a middling-sized one, 
and one of 5 acres a very small one. Government tenants have a 
permanent right of occupancy in their lands so long as they pay the 
(Government demand. In zaminddri estates, on the other hand, the 
cultivators are mostly yearly tenants. A few holders of service lands 
cultivate their fields for themselves without assistance. A number ol 
landless day-labourers are employed in cultivation, paid sometimes in 
money, and sometimes at a fixed rate in grain, but never by a regular 
share in the crop. The agricultural stock of the District, in 1 88 1-82, 
comprised 88,289 buffaloes, 171,932 bullocks, 110,737 cows, 70 horses, 
2320 ponies, 3125 donkeys, 101,162 sheep and goats, 30,468 pigs, 1131 
boats, 7815 carts, and 100,674 ploughs. The prices ruling in the 
District in the same year, per viaund of 80 lbs., were as follow :— for 

GOD AVAR/. 129 

rice, 4s ; for ra^ (Eleusine coracana), 2s. ; for cliolam (Sorghum vul- 
gare), 2s. ; for kambu (Panicum spicatum), 2s. 2d. ; for maize, 3s. 5d. ; 
for wheat, 6s. 4d. ; for guigelly, 6s. i ^d. ; for oil-seeds, 5s. ; for gram, 
2S. 6d. ; for tobacco, 25s. 6d. ; for sugar, 28s. 7d. ; for flax, 8s. ; for 
cotton, 7s. I -id. ; and for sheep, 4s. id. each. Wages have doubled since 
1850. A carpenter, smith, or bricklayer now (1882) earns from lod. to 
IS. a day, and an agricultural labourer from 3^d. to 4id. Women 
employed in weeding and transplanting are paid at from one-half to two- 
thirds of the rates for men, while children receive a yet lower rate. 

Natural Calamities. — Goddvari District was formerly liable to severe 
floods caused by a sudden rising of the river, but these arc now con- 
trolled by the embankments. No great famine has occurred since 1833. 
In that year, a famine caused by want of rain lasted from March 
to September, and numbers of the inhabitants fled the District. 
Private charity was widely extended, but no relief works were opened. 
Pressure from high prices was also experienced in 1876-77 ; but the 
mass of the people being themselves cultivators, and irrigation being 
abundant, the distress did not require extraordinary relief 

Means of Comtminicaiion, Manufactures, Trade, etc. — The District 
is well supplied with means of communication by 692 miles of good 
road, 511 miles of canals, and 352 miles of communication by 
river. Principal manufactures — cotton and woollen carpets, woollen 
blankets, Uppada cloths and sugar ; chiefly conducted by the people 
on their own account. Indigo manufacture is also carried on by 
natives. The chief articles of trade are grain, cotton, jaggery, 
turmeric, cocoa-nut, flax cloth, onions, garlic, lace cloth, tobacco, 
gingelly seed, lamp-oil seed, salt, tamarind, cattle, teakwood, hides, 
opium, indigo, etc. The commerce of Godavari District has been 
rapidly increasing. The largely augmented area under cultivation 
since the completion of the great Godavari anient, and the system of 
water communication in the Delta and with the adjoining District of 
Kistna, have applied an impetus to trade. Cocanada is the port 
through which the new trade must flow, and it is possible that an 
attempt will be made to remove the bar of accumulated silt that now 
forms the obstacle to a good harbour. The lighthouse at Cocanida 
was erected in 1865. Many of the native craft that enter the port 
hail from the Maldive Islands. The trade is carried on along the 
coast and in large towns and ports by means of permanent markets, and 
in almost all other places by fairs. The principal scats of commerce 
are Cocanada, Ellore, Rajamahendri, Mandapetta, Jaggampetta, Hasan- 
bada, Narsapur, PalakoUu, Dowlaishvaram, Ambajipetta, Jaganndthpur. 
The estimated value of imports in 1881-S2 was ^219,931, exclusive of 
treasure, which amounted to ^{^64,5 11. Estimated value of exports, 
;^i, 247,330, exclusive of ^75;Ooo of treasure. 

VOL. v. I 



Administration. — The Government revenue has steadily increased. 
In 1 860-6 1, the first year after the present District was constituted, the 
total revenue amounted to ^421,246, and the expenditure on civil 
administration to ^48,017. In 1870-71, the revenue was ^531,043, 
and the civil expenditure ;!^23,368. By 1881-82, the revenue had 
reached ;;<^64i,744, while the expenditure was ^^28,362. The principal 
items of Imperial revenue are land, which yielded in 1881-82, 
;j£"46i,oii ; excise, ;^43,93i ; assessed taxes, ^^2819 ; customs, 
^4544 ; salt, ^^87,065 ; and stamps, ;!{;35o53- For the protection of 
person and property, there were in 18S1-82, 29 magisterial and 19 
revenue and civil courts in the District. The regular police and 
municipal police force in 1881 numbered 1469 officers and men, 
costing ^21,528, and showing a proportion of i policeman to every 5 
square miles of the area, and to every 12 19 of the population. In 
1881-82, there were 915 schools, with 25,435 pupils; of these schools 
681 were maintained or supported by the State. There were also 
1091 indigenous schools, with 27,607 pupils. The administrative 
head-quarters of the District are at Cocanada; but the Judge's court 
and the District jail are at Rajamahendri. Daily average number of 
prisoners in 1881 in Rajamahendri Central Prison, 958 ; and in the 
District jail, 162; expenditure for the year — Central Prison, ;^ 7064 ; 
District jail, ;,^i2oi : total, ^^8265. 

Medical Aspects. — The prevailing endemic diseases of Godavari 
District are heri-beri and fevers. Beri-beri is a rheumatic affection 
attended with dropsical swelling. Among Europeans its occurrence is 
very rare. It is more prevalent on the coast than inland. There is both 
an acute and a chronic form. It is a disease of middle life, and is said 
to be peculiar to the male sex. Cholera is prevalent during the hot 
seasons of the year ; small-pox also occurs at the same periods ; fevers 
come after the cessation of rain. Cattle diseases are also prevalent. 
Cholera is usually imported by travellers coming from the north. The 
average annual rainfall from 1871-72 to 1881-82 was 40*42 inches; the 
highest rainfall being in 1878-79, when 62-29 inches were registered, 
and the lowest in 1877-78, when only 27*46 inches fell. The mean 
temperature for each month during 1881 at Rajamahendri was — 
January 85° F., February 89°, IMarch 97°, April 90°, May 80°, June 84°, 
July 86', August 83°, September 74°, October 75°, November 74", and 
December 74°. The number of births per 1000, registered in 18S2, 
was 2 1 "6; number of deaths per 1000, i6'9. 

Storms. — A destructive inundation took place at Coringa in 1787. 
The first great cyclone recorded was in 1832. The sea broke in at 
Coringa, and destroyed a great number of peojjle, cattle, and houses ; 
a small village near Coringa was entirely swept away, and the country 
was laid under water for many miles inland. Again, on the i6th 



November 1839, a similar storm destroyed great parts of Cocandda, 
Coringa, Tallarevu, and Nilapalli. Most of the vessels lying near 
these places were wrecked, and the value of the property lost was 
estimated at ;j^ 100,000, Narsdpur, as it lies on the banks of the 
Godavari, has always been exposed to inundations during the high 
freshes of the river. Two cyclones visited the District in 1878, 
one on the 5th November and the other on the 6th December. 
The first commenced about 8 a.m., and continued up to 4 p.m. 
Considerable damage was done, but there was no encroachment of the 
sea upon the land. The second was accompanied with heavier rain, 
and lasted for more than a day. Many canals, tanks, and roads were 
breached, and much damage done to houses and trees. 

Godavari {Godavery). — A great river of Central India, which runs 
across the Deccan from the Western to the Eastern Ghats ; for sanctity, 
picturesque scenery, and utility to man, surpassed only by the Ganges 
and the Indus ; total length, 898 miles ; estimated area of drainage basin, 
112,200 square miles. The traditional source is on the side of a hill 
behind the village of Trimbak, in Nasik District, Bombay Presidency, 
about 50 miles from the shore of the Indian Ocean. At this spot 
is an artificial reservoir, reached by a flight of 690 steps, into which the 
water trickles drop by drop from the lips of a carven image, shrouded 
by a canopy of stone. From first to last, the general direction of the 
river is towards the south-east. After passing through Nasik District, it 
forms for some distance the boundary between Ahmadnagar and the 
dominions of the Nizam of Haidarabad. It then crosses into the 
territory of the Nizam, running for more than 500 miles of its course 
through a country that has been little explored. Near Sironcha, 
where it again strikes British territory, is the confluence of the 
Pranhita, itself a noble river, which brings down the united waters of 
the Wardha, the Penganga, and the Wainganga. From Sironcha to 
the point where it bursts through the barrier range of the Eastern 
Ghats, the south bank of the Godavari continues to lie within the 
Nizdm's Dominions ; while on the north stretches the narrow strip of 
country known as the Upper Godavari District, in the Central 
Provinces. In this portion of its course it is joined by the Indravati, 
the Tal, and the Sabari. 

On reaching this stage, the Godavari has grown into an imposing 
stream, with a channel varying from i mile to more than 2 miles in 
breadth, occasionally broken by long alluvial islands. The British bank 
is for the most part rocky and steep, and covered with primeval jungle. 
Parallel to the river run long ranges of hills, which at places advance 
their abrupt spurs almost to the water's edge. On the opposite side, 
the country is more open and cultivated. Several flourishing towns 
are to be seen, and the plain stretching away southwards, which 

132 G on A VARI RIVER. 

included the capital of the ancient kingdom of Telingdna, is thickly 
dotted with tanks for irrigation. Below the junction of the Sabari, the 
scenery assumes the character which has earned for the Godavari the 
name of the Indian Rhine. The channel begins to contract ; the 
flanking hills gradually close in on either side, until the precipitous 
gorge is reached, only 200 yards wide, through which the entire volume 
of water is poured upon the alluvial plain of the delta, about 60 miles 
from the sea. This mountain range, and the remainder of the course 
of the river until it reaches the Bay of Bengal by three principal mouths, 
is entirely included within the Madras District of Godavari. The 
head of the delta is at the village of Dowlaishvaram, where the main 
stream is crossed by the irrigation anicut. The largest of the three 
branches, known as the Gautami Godavari, turns eastward, and, after 
passing the quiet French settlement of Yanaon, enters the sea at Point 
Koringa, not far from the port of Cocanada. The most southerly 
branch, or the Vashista Godavari, debouches at Point Narsapur, after 
throwing off the third offshoot called the Vainateyam Godavari. 

The peculiar sacredness of the Goddvari is said to have been 
revealed by Rama himself to the rishi^ or sage, Gautama. The river is 
sometimes called Goda, and the sacred character especially attaches to 
the Gautami mouth. According to popular legend, it proceeds from 
the same source as the Ganges, by an underground passage ; and 
this identity is preserved in the familiar name of Vriddha-gangd. But 
every part of its course is holy ground, and to bathe in its waters will 
wash away the blackest sin. Once in every twelve years a great 
bathing festival, called Fushkaram, is held on the banks of the Goda- 
vari, alternately with the other eleven sacred rivers of India. The 
spots most frequented by pilgrims are — the source at Trimbak ; the town 
of Bhadrachalam on the left bank, about 100 miles above Rdja- 
mahendri (Rajahmundry), where stands an ancient temple of Rama- 
chandradu, surrounded by twenty-four smaller pagodas ; Rdjdmahendri 
itself; and the village of Kotipalli, on the left bank of the eastern 

Throughout the upper portion of its course, the waters of the Godavari 
are scarcely at all utilized for irrigation ; but within recent times, the 
entire delta has been turned into a garden of perennial crops by means 
of the magnificent anicut constructed at Dowlaishvaram. This great 
work was first projected towards the close of the last century by 
Mr. Michael Topping; but it was not until 1844, when the impoverished 
condition of the people, from repeated failures of the harvest, forced 
the matter on the attention of Government, that it became the subject 
of a special report from Sir H. Montgomery. It was resolved by 
Government to undertake irrigation works on a comprehensive scale ; 
and the management was entrusted to Captain (now Sir Arthur) 


Cotton, who had experience of the successful works on the Kdveri 
(Cauvery) in Tanjore District. Operations were commenced in 1847, 
and completed according to the original design by 1850. Up to 
1853, the total expenditure had been ;^i53,ooo. From March 1847 
up to April 1850, there had been expended in daily wages for the 
labourers ^23,913. In the year of the most extensive building 
operations there were in constant employment 641 bricklayers, 
365 stonemasons, and, upon an average, 6500 coolies or ordinary 

The principal work is the anicut or weir at Dowlaishvaram, at the 
head of the delta, from which three main canals are drawn off. The 
river channel here is about 3^ miles wide, including the space occupied 
by islands. The anicut itself is a substantial mass of stone, bedded 
in lime cement, about 2\ miles long, 38 feet above mean sea-level, 130 
feet broad at the base, and 12 feet high. The stream is thus pent 
back, so as to supply a volume of 3000 cubic feet of water per second 
during its low season, and 12,000 cubic feet at time of flood. As is the 
case with all deltaic streams, the river runs along the crest of a natural 
embankment several feet above the alluvial plain. Dowlaishvaram is 
about 20 feet above the lowest level, and therefore easily commands 
the whole area of the delta. The total length of the main channels of 
distribution is estimated at 528 miles, capable of irrigating 612,000 
acres. In 1882-83, the area actually irrigated from the Godavari 
Delta system was 504,213 acres ; profit during the same year, 
^^84,583, equal to an interest of 7 "68 per cent, on the total capital 
outlay. Of the 528 miles of canal, 458 miles are also used for navi- 
gation. In 1864, an extension of the original scheme was sanctioned, 
by which water communication has been opened between the river 
systems of the Godavari and the Kistna. Completion estimates for 
the entire Godavari Delta system, amounting to ^^1,303,265 for direct 
and indirect charges, were sanctioned by the Secretary of State in 
1882, For a detailed account of the history of these irrigation works, 
see The Manual of the Godavery District, by Mr. H. Morris (Triibner, 

The more recent project for opening for navigation the upper waters 
of the Godavari has not been crowned with equal success. In 185 1, 
before the railway had penetrated through the heart of the peninsula, it 
was hoped that the Godavari, or rather its tributary the Wardha, might 
supply a cheap means of carriage for the cotton and other agricultural 
produce of the Central Provinces. This line of navigation would have 
had its upper terminus at the mart of Nachangaon, not far from Ndgpur 
and Amraoti; and it would have passed by the great cotton emporium 
of Hinghanghat, and the towns of Wun and Chdnda, reaching the sea 
by the flourishing port of Cocanada. During nine months of the year 


there is sufficient water for shallow river steamers ; and the force of the 
current does not exceed 3 miles an hour. There are, however, three 
great obstructions to navigation, caused by rocky barriers and rapids. 
The first of these barriers is at Dumagudiem, about 115 miles above 
Rajdmahendri ; the second about 68 miles higher up, just below the 
confluence of the Pranhita ; the third is on the Wardha, about 75 miles 
above the second. It was proposed to construct canals round these 
barriers by means of anicuts and locks, and to clear the river-bed in 
other places by blasting. Between 1861 and 1863, about ;^7oo,ooo 
was expended upon the navigation works ; but comparatively little real 
progress had been made, and the prospects of any remunerative return 
had become more than doubtful. Finally, in October 1871, the entire 
undertaking was abandoned, in accordance with instructions from the 
Secretary of State. The navigation on the canals of the delta has 
already been alluded to. 

Godda. — Sub-division of Santdl Parganas District, Bengal ; situated 
between 24° 30' and 25° 14' n. lat., and between 87° 5' and 87° 38' e. 
long. Area, 966 square miles, with 175S villages and 58,195 
houses. Total population (1881) 348,493, namely, males 173,004, 
and females 175,489. Average density of population, 360 persons per 
square mile; villages per square mile, i"8; persons per village, 255 ; 
houses per square mile, 61 "6 ; persons per house, 6. Classified 
according to religion, there were — Hindus, 190,900; Muhammadans, 
25)273 ; Santals, 112,583 ; Kols, 929 ; other aboriginal tribes, 16,227 ; 
Christians, 84 ; unspecified, 2497. This Sub-division, which was con- 
stituted in 1856, consists of the thdnd or police circle of Godda. 
It contained in 1883, 2 civil and 2 criminal courts ; strength of regular 
police, 52 men; village watchmen, 666. 

Godhra. — Sub-division of Panch Mahals District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Area, 598 square miles ; contains i town and 232 villages. 
Population (1881) 78,318, namely, 40,895 males and 37,423 females. 
Hindus number 64,015 ; Muhammadans, 7712; 'others,' 6591. The 
Sub-division is well wooded and well tilled in the west, but in the 
north becomes a plain country of brushwood and forest with rough 
and scanty cultivation. The climate is unhealthy. Average annual 
rainfall, 457 inches. The Mahi and the Pdnam flow through the 
Sub-division. The rates of settlement were fixed for 30 years in 
1873-74; average incidence of land revenue i)er acre, is. 5d. In 
1873 there were 6430 holdings with an average of 14 acres each, and 
paying an average rent of 13s. lod. Maize is the staple of culti- 
vation. The Sub-division in 1883 contained i civil and 5 criminal 
courts; police station {thdnd), i; regular jjolice, 195 men. ].and 
revenue, /\^()Ot^ in 1884. 

Godhra. — Chief town of Codhrd Sub - division, District of the 


GODNA. 135 

Panch Mahals, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22" 
46' 30" N., and long. 73° 40' E. ; situated on the main road from 
Nimach (Neemuch) to Baroda, 52 miles north-east of Baroda town, and 
43 west of Dohad. Population (1881) 13,342. Hindus number 
5927; Muhammadans, 6339; Jains, 623; Christians, 41; Parsis, 12; 
and ' others,' 400. The town is almost surrounded by jungle. Formerly it 
was the head-quarters of a provincial governor under the Muhammadan 
kings of Ahmadabad. In addition to the usual District head-quarters 
offices and courts, there is a sub-judge's and mdmlatddr' s court, a post- 
office, a dispensary, and a subordinate jail for short-term prisoners. 
Godhrd is also the head quarters of the Rewa-Kdntha Political Agency, 
transferred from Baroda in 1880, consequent on its amalgamation with 
the Panch Mahals. A considerable area of rice land is irrigated from a 
large tank in the neighbourhood. The extension of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, 17 miles from Pali, across the river 
Mahi, has reached this town and increased its importance in trade by a 
revival of the old route from Malwa to Gujardt. A line to connect 
Godhrd with the opium mart of Rutlam was begun in 1884-85. 
Municipal income (1880-81), ^^612, and ;^504 in 1882-83 ; incidence 
of taxation per head of municipal population (10,641), is. 2d. in 
1880-81, and 9d. in 1882-83. Oil-pressing was started in 1867, and a 
steam mill was erected in that year. The mill, however, ceased working 
in 1877. Near the town is an embanked lake 70 acres in area. 
Godhra has 3 vernacular schools. 

Godna (or Revelganj). — Town and municipality in Sdran District, 
Bengal Lat. 25° 46' 56" N., long. 84° 41' 7" e. Situated just above 
the junction of the Ganges and Gogra (Ghagra), and built along the 
banks of the latter river ; the largest mart in Saran District. Its trade 
maybe classed under two heads: — (i) Its local trade as the port of 
Saran, representing also Champdran and Nepal ; exports — maize, barley, 
peas, oil-seeds, saltpetre, sugar, cotton, and wheat ; imports — rice, salt, 
and piece-goods : (2) Its through trade between Bengal and the North- 
west. Godna is the great changing station, where the boats from 
Lower Bengal transship their cargoes of rice and salt into the Faizabdd 
(Fyzdbad) and Gorakhpur boats, which give in exchange wheat, barley, 
pulses, and oil-seeds. Several Calcutta firms are represented in the 
town. The population of Godna in 1872 was returned at 13,415, 
and in 1881 at 12,493, namely, males 5683, and females 6810. Area 
of town site, 2560 acres. Hindus in 1881 numbered 10,399; ^"d 
Muhammadans, 2094. Municipalrevenue (1876-77), ^812; (iSSi-82), 
;^ii69 ; incidence of taxation, is. 7d. per head. ; municipal police, 41 
men. Dispensary, bazar, and fair held twice a year. The native name 
of this town is Godna. It is celebrated as the residence of Gautama, 
the founder of the school of Nydyd philosophy or Indian logic. No 

136 GODNA. 

traces of his dwelling exist : but a wretched hovel and a pair of shoes 
are still pointed out to pilgrims. 

The commercial importance of Godna dates from the end of the last 
century. In 17SS, Mr. Revell, collector of Government customs, was 
deputed to open a custom-house and bazar at this place. After his 
death he became an eponymous hero. To the present day his tomb 
is visited as a shrine by the market people, and his name is invoked 
on all occasions of calamity. The chief business done is in oil-seeds, 
brought down the Gogra from the Districts of Oudh, and here trans- 
shipped into larger boats for conveyance to Patna and Calcutta. The 
traders are mostly agents of firms at those two cities, and they transact 
business on commission. The principal European firm represented 
is that of Messrs. Ralli Brothers. A distinction in their course of 
business is observed by European and native merchants. The object 
of the Europeans is to use the railway at Patna to the utmost. They 
therefore have their oil-seeds cleaned at Patna by a special class of 
women. The rate of freight from Godna to Patna is i anna per 
bag, or Rs. 3 per 100 maiinds ; the voyage takes two days during the 
rainy season and three days at other times of the year. From Patnd. 
the cleaned seed is despatched by rail to Calcutta. The native 
merchants scarcely use the railway at all. They buy up oil-seeds 
when the prices are low, and store them along the river bank until 
they can obtain a good market at Calcutta. Then they despatch 
them all the way by boat, in their uncleaned state. There are no 
facilities for cleaning at Godna. The freight to Calcutta varies from 
Rs. 20 to Rs. 25 per 100 maiuids. The voyage occupies about fifteen 
days during the rains and forty days in the dry weather. The native 
traders do not insure. They draw bills, accepted by their bankers at 
Calcutta, who thus become practically the insurers ; for if a heavy loss 
is sustained, the traders fail, and the bankers have to pay. 

In the year 1876-77 (the last year for which figures are available, 
the inland river registration station being now abolished), the total 
registered trade of Godna, including both imports and exports, was 
valued at over one million sterling. But it is admitted that great 
part of the imports, especially European piece-goods from Dina- 
pur, escaped registration altogether. Oil -seeds were imported to 
the amount of 559,000 utainiiis, valued at ;!^207,ooo. Nearly 
one - half came from the District of Faizabad (Fyzdbdd), the rest 
from Bahrdich, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Sftdpur, and Basti. The exports 
of oil-seeds were 895,000 7Haii?ids, valued at ^^333,000, consigned 
in almost equal moieties to Patnd and Calcutta. Considerably 
more than half the total was linseed. Food-grains of all kinds were 
imj)orted to the amount of 976,000 maimds, valued at ;!^i8i,ooo. 
^Vhcat, pulses, and gram, and other spring crops, are received from 


Oudh, to be sent on to Calcutta, Patna, and the Districts of Behar. 
Rice is imported for local consumjjtion to the amount of 293,000 
?naufids, chiefly from Northern Bengal. The total export of food- 
grains was 530,000 maimds, valued at ^110,000, chiefly wheat to 
Calcutta and Patnd, and inferior grains to Tirhiit. Salt was imported to 
the amount of 203,000 viaunds, valued at ^101,000, of which 140,000 
7nau7ids came direct from Calcutta, and the rest from Patnd. The 
exports of salt were only 24,000 maunds, valued at ;,^i 7,000, principally 
to Gorakhpur. The other articles of trade included timber, ^35,000 ; 
sugar, ;,^i 6,000; saltpetre, ;^4ooo. No trade statistics arc available 
for 1 88 1-82, but the commerce of the place has greatly decreased of 
late years, and is likely to continue to do so as the Patna-Bahraich 
Railway is opened. 

Gogha. — Town and Sub-division in Ahmaddbad District, Bombay 
Presidency. — See GoGO. 

Goghat. — Village and police station in Hiigli District, Bengal. Lat. 
22° 53' 15 " N., long. 87° 44' 50" E. Recently transferred from Bardwdn 

Gog"0. — Sub-division of Ahmaddbdd District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 224 square miles; contains i town and 62 villages. Population 
(1881) 29,370, namely, 14,824 males and 14,546 females. Hindus number 
24,082; Muhammadans, 3S79 ; 'others,' 1409. Since 1871, the popu- 
lation of the Sub-division has decreased by 4459. There is but little 
State land in Gogo. The Khokhra hills, with a peak 600 feet high, 
bound one side of the Sub-division. Climate cool and healthy. A steady 
sea-breeze blows during the hot-weather months. The average Settle- 
ment holding is 24 acres in extent, and pays a rental of ^i, 4s. 5d. 
Joar is the chief crop, occupying 33,000 acres out of 37,000 under 
actual cultivation in 1877-78. About 2000 acres were under 
w'heat. Cotton and rice are seldom grown. The Sub-division in 
1883 contained 2 criminal courts and i police station {thdnd); regular 
police, 54 men ; village watch {chaukiddrs), 69. Land revenue 
(1882-83), .^^3870. 

Gogo (or Goghd). — Chief town of the Sub-division of Gogo, 
Ahmaddbdd District, Bombay Presidency ; situated in the peninsula 
of Kdthiawdr, on the Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 21° 39' 30" n., long. 72^ 
15' E., 193 miles north-west of Bombay. Population (1872) 9572; 
(1881) 7063, namely, 3389 Hindus, 2728 Muhammadans, 708 Jains, 53 
Christians, 3 Pdrsi's, and 182 '^others.' About three-quarters of a mile east 
of the town is an excellent anchorage, in some measure sheltered by the 
island of Perim {Firam), which lies still farther east. The natives of 
this town are reckoned the best sailors or laskars in India ; and ships 
touching here may procure water and supplies, or repair damages. The 
roadstead is a safe refuge during the south-west monsoon, or for vessels 

138 GOGRA. 

that have parted from their anchors in the Surat roads, the bottom 
being an uniform bed of mud, and the water ahvays smooth. When 
the Dutch raised Surat to be the chief port of Gujarat, the Cambay 
ports were more or less injured. Gogo has of late years lost its 
commercial importance. During the American war it was one 
of the chief cotton marts of Kathiawar. It is now deserted; 
its cotton presses idle ; and its great storehouses ruinous and empty. 
Its rival, Bhaunagar, is 8 miles nearer to the cotton districts. North 
of the town is a black salt marsh, extending to the Bhaunagar creek. 
On the other sides undulating cultivated land slopes to the range 
of hills 12 miles off. South of the town is another salt marsh. The 
land in the neighbourhood is inundated at high spring tides, which 
renders it necessary to bring fresh water from a distance of a mile. 
Average annual value of trade for five years ending 1 880-81 — exports, 
^39.393 ; imports, ^57,046. 

Gogra {Ghcigra, also called the Deoha and Great Sarj'ii). — The 
great river of Oudh. It rises in the upper ranges of the Himalayas, 
and, after passing through Nepal as the Kauriala, issues from the hills 
at a place called Shishapani, or the ' Crystal Waters,' where it sweeps 
down on the plains in a series of rapids over immense boulders which 
it has brought with it from the hills during the course of ages. Almost 
immediately after it debouches on the tardi, the stream splits into two; 
the western branch retains the name of the Kauriala, but the eastern, 
known as the Girwa, has a volume of water superior to that of the 
main stream. After a course of about 18 miles through the midst of 
fine sal forests, and over rough stony beds, the twin streams enter 
British territory in lat. 26° 27' n., long. 82° 17' e., a few miles distant 
from each other, and re-unite a few miles below Bharthapur ; and here 
the bed loses its rocky character and becomes sandy. Almost 
immediately below the confluence of the Kauriala and Girwa, the 
stream is joined by the Suheli from Kheri District ; but it receives no 
other affluents of any importance until, after a southerly course of 47 
miles, marking the boundary between Bahraich and Kheri, it is joined 
by the Sarju just above Kataighdt. Below the confluence, the united 
stream is swelled by the Chauka and Dahdwar at Bahramghat. From 
this point the river takes its name of the Gogra. It flows in a south- 
easterly and afterwards an easterly course, forming the boundary between 
Bahrdich and Gonda on the north, and ]3ara Banki and Faizabdd 
(Fyzdbad) on the south. It leaves Oudh jn the west; and, marking the 
boundary between the North-Western Provinces Districts of Basti and 
Gorakhpur on the north, and Azamgarh on the south, receives the Muchora 
and Rapti as tributaries on its left bank. In its course along the northern 
boundary of Azamgarh District, the Gogra throws off an affluent, the 
Lesser {chhota) Sarju, which takes a south-easterly course along what is 

GOGH A. 139 

supposed to be an ancient channel of the Gogra, through Azamgarh 
and Ghazfpur Districts, joining the Ganges below Ballia town. It then 
touches on the Bengal District of Saran at Darauli, and finally empties 
itself into the Ganges at Chapra, in lat. 25° 43' n., long. 84° 43' 30" k., 
after an estimated course of upwards of 600 miles. 

Many changes in the course of the Gogra have taken place in olden 
times. Its waters have shown an inclination towards abandoning 
lateral channels, and selecting a central one, as in the well-known 
case of the Sarda, from which a magnificent system of canals to 
irrigate the Gogra -Giimti dodb is about to be constructed. On 
both sides of the present stream are seen ancient channels of the 
river, and high banks within which it once flowed. There were 
formerly, probably, three main channels of the river, whose volumes 
varied each year as accidental circumstances diverted the greater 
part of the water into one or other. A great flood of the Gogra 
took place about 1600 a.d., which swept away the town of Khurasa 
in Gonda, and considerable encroachments have also been made 
by the river in Azamgarh District. During the past century, there 
has been but little change in the channel beyond slight encroachments 
on its banks, by which villages are occasionally swept away during 
the rains. The old eastern and western channels have to a great 
extent silted up, but in the rains contain a considerable quantity of 
water. The depth of the river in mid-channel is nowhere less than 
6 feet, but boats drawing more than 4 feet are not desirable, because 
they may be carried by the current on to shallows. The boats are 
generally clinker built, the largest carrying about 1200 maurids or 45 
tons. They are usually without decks, the cargo being protected by 
mat awnings ; the cost of carriage is very small. The only large town 
on the banks of the river is Faizabad (Fyzabad) ; Barhaj, at the 
confluence of the Gogra and Rdpti, is an important mart, but is in no 
other respects remarkable. A pontoon bridge crosses the Gogra at 
Faizabad ; and bridges of boats during the cold and hot seasons are 
kept up at Bahramghat and Dohrighat; during the rains they are 
replaced by a well-served ferry ; 45 other ferries are maintained at 
different points of the river in Gudh, and several in the North-Western 

The Gogra is, commercially speaking, the most important waterway 
in the North-Western Provinces and Gudh. The traffic which it 
carried in 1879-80, the year in which it was registered under the 
superintendence of the Dej)artment of Agriculture and Commerce, 
amounted to considerably more than one-fourth of the whole water- 
borne traffic; and if its tributary the Rapti be included, the united 
traffic comes to nearly half the whole water-borne traffic. The returns 
show the total traffic carried by the Gogra to have been over 23^ lakhs 


(2,35°.ooo) of viaunds, or about 86,000 tons; 21 Idklis (2,100,000) 
maunds being carried down stream, and 2A lakhs (250,000) mamids 
up stream. The down-stream trafific runs in three well-marked lines : 
(i) Transport of timber from the Nepal forests on the Kauriala, and of 
grain and oil-seeds from Bahraich to the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway 
at Bahramghat. (2) Transport of grain and oil-seeds from Bahraich to 
Patnl (3) Transport of grain and oil-seeds from Nawabganj (opposite 
Faizabdd) in Gonda District to Patnd. The weight of timber thus 
carried is estimated at 100,000 maicrids, and of grain and oil-seeds 
1,825,000 mau7ids, of which 875,000 maunds were despatched from 
Nawdbganj to Patna. The up-stream traffic is of comparatively small 
importance, consisting principally of rice, metals, salt, stone, and sugar, 
imported from Patna and consigned to Dohrighat in Azamgarh District. 

Gogunda. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur, Raji)utana. 
Contains about 1500 houses. Situated on the watershed at a height of 
2750 feet above the sea, and probably the highest town on the whole 
of the Aravalli range. The country around is open and undulating, 
and there is a good sheet of water to the south-east of the town. A 
first-class noble of Udaipur, who owns 104 villages, resides here, and 
the town gives its name to his estate. Twenty-five miles to the north 
is the temple of Jargo, where a large fair is held annually. 

Gohad. — Town in Gwalior State, Central India. Distant 60 miles 
south-east from Agra, and situated on the road from Etawah to Gwalior, 
55 miles south-west of the former, and 28 north-east of the latter town. 
Lat. 26° 25' N., long. 78° 29' E. A fortified town, formerly the capital 
of a Jat chieftain, who rose into power from the position of a land- 
holder during the troublous times at the beginning of the last century, 
and established himself at the expense of his neighbours. In 1779, the 
chief entered into alliance with the British, who assisted him in a 
struggle against Sindhia. Sindhia's capital, with the fort, was captured 
by a British force, and made over to the Gohad chief. Five years 
later, however, the position was reversed ; Sindhia besieged and re- 
obtained possession of Gwalior fort, and also captured the capital 
(Gohad) of his enemy. In 1803, certain territorial arrangements were 
effected by which the town and territory of Gohad were transferred to 
Sindhia, and the (iohad Rand received instead the territory of 
Dholpur, which his descendants still hold. The fortifications of 
Gohad consist of an outer curtain of mud, faced with stone, enclosing 
an extensive area, between which and the citadel are two other walls. 
The citadel is lofty, with massive towers, and has spacious and com- 
modious apartments. Thieffenthaler, who visited Gohad in the last 
century, describes it as a po[)ulous and rich place. It is now, however, 
murh decayed. 

Gohana. — Northern tahs'il of Rohtak District, Punjab ; irrigated by 


the Western Jumna Canal, which afifords a water-supply to 39,664 
acres. Area, 338 square miles; population (1881) 127,732, namely, 
males 69,079, and females 58,653, or 378 per square mile. Classified 
according to religion, there were — Hindus, 106,812; Muhammadans, 
17,579; Sikhs, 8974; and 'others,' 3295. The administrative staff 
consists of a tahsilddr, who presides over one civil and one criminal 
court. Strength of regular police, 32 men; village watchmen, 175. 
Land revenue of the tahsil, ;^2 1,482, 

Gohdna. — Town and municipality in Rohtak District, Punjab, and 
head-quarters of Gohana tahsil, situated half a mile west of the Rohtak 
branch of the Western Jumna Canal. Lat. 29° 8' n. ; long. 76° 45' E. 
Founded about the middle of the 13th century by a Rajput and a 
Baniya, converts to the faith of Islam, who were permitted to setUe on 
the present site. Population in 1868, 7124; in 1881, 7444, namely, 
Hindus, 2739; Muhammadans, 3883; Jains, 791; and Sikhs, 31. 
Number of houses, 948. Municipal income in 1875-76, £zi2> ; 
in 1880-81, ;^454; average incidence of taxation, is. 2|d. per 
head. Tahsili, police station, post-office, school, dispensary, and sardi. 
Yearly fair at tomb of Shah Zia-ud-di'n Muhammad, a saint who 
accompanied Muhammad Ghori in his invasion of Upper India. Two 
temples of the Jain deity, Parasnath, at which an annual festival takes 
place in the month of Bhadra. A fine tank is situated on the north- 
west side of the town. 

Gohelwar (or Gohehadd). — A tract of country lying to the south- 
east and forming one of the four divisions ox prdnths of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency, and so named from the tribe of Gohel Rajputs by 
whom it is principally peopled and owned. It lies along the Gulf of 
Cambay, and has an area of over 4000 square miles. Population of 
the division (1881) 98,395, of whom 52,238 were males and 46,157 
were females. Hindus numbered 70,447 ; Muhammadans, 18,076 ; 
Jains, 9180; Christians, 253; Parsi's, 116; and 'others,' 323. The 
principal State in this division is Bhaunagar. 

Gokak. — Sub-division of Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 671 square miles; contains i town and 113 villages, of which 85 
are Government. Population (1881) 93,029, namely, 46,464 males 
and 46,565 females, dwelling in 18,484 houses. Hindus numbered 
84,994; Muhammadans, 5909; 'others,' 2126. Since 1S71, the 
population of the Sub-division has decreased by 16,668. 

Gokak.— Chief town of the Gokak Sub-division, Belgaum District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16° 10' n., long. 74° 52' e. ; 42 miles north- 
east of Belgaum. Population (1872) 12,612 ; (1881) 10,307, namely, 
8579 Hindus, 1508 Muhammadans, 220 Jains; municipal revenue 
(1882-83), ^ySi ; rate of taxation, is. 3d. per head. In 1SS3 the Sub- 
division contained 2 criminal courts ; police stations {ihd/ids), 6 ; 


regular police, 47 men; village watch {c/iaukUars), 399. Head-quarters 
of the chief revenue and police officers of the Sub-division, post-office, 
and dispensary. Gokak was formerly the seat of a large dyeing and 
weaving industry; of late years this business has much decayed, but 
there is still a considerable trade in coarse paper. Toys representing 
figures and fruits, made of light wood, and of a particular earth found 
in the neighbourhood, command an extensive sale. 

Gokarn {Colo's car). — Town in North Kanara District, Bombay 
Presidency, ten miles north of Kumta. Population (1872) 3707; 
(1881) 4207, namely, 4191 Hindus, 7 Muhammadans, and 9 Chris- 
tians; municipal revenue (1SS2-83), ^178 ; rate of taxation, 9d. per 
head. Gokarn is a i)lace of pilgrimage frequented by Hindu devotees 
from all parts of India, especially by wandering pilgrims and ascetics 
who go round the principal shrines of the country. The Mahableshwar 
temple here is built in the Dravidian style, and is famed as containing 
a fragment of the original Linga given to Ravana by Siva. Upwards 
of a hundred lamps are kept perpetually alight from funds supplied by 
devotees. A fair is annually held in February, at which from 2000 to 
8000 people assemble. Gokarn is mentioned both in the Rdmdyana 
and Malidbhdrata. Buchanan visited the place in 1801. 

Gokul. — Town in Muttra (Mathura) District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces ; situated on the left or eastern bank of the Jumna river. Lat. 
28° 26' N., long. 77° 46' 30" E. ; 6 miles south-east of Muttra town. 
Hindu tradition regards the village as the spot where Vishnu first 
visited the earth in the form of Krishna. Also noted as the place 
where Vallabhi Swami, a Hindu reformer of the i6th century, first 
preached his doctrines. 

Gola. — Town in Bansgaon taJisil, Gorakhpur District, North-Western 
Provinces. Situated on the banks of the Gogra (Ghagra) river, at the 
converging point of three metalled roads from Gorakhpur town, -i^^) 
miles distant to the north. Population (18S1) 7193, namely, Hindus, 
6466; Muhammadans, 725; and Christians, 2. Area of town site, 74 
acres. A flourishing market town and a considerable depot for the 
collection and river export of grain. For police and conservancy 
purposes, a house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 
Police station, post-office, and good elementary school. The town is 
the head-quarters of a sub-division of the Opium Department. 

Gola. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh, on the road from Lakhimpur 
to Shahjahanpur. Lat. 28° 4' 40" n., long. 80° 30' 45" E. Picturesquely 
situated at the base of a semicircle of small hills, covered for the most 
part with sdl forests, with a lake to the south. Population (1869) 
2584; (1881) 3018, namely, 2425 Hindus, and 593 Muhammadans. 
The Gosdin community has a monastic establishment here, and 
numerous tombs have been built in honour of its principal men. 


Seat of considerable sugar manufacture. Daily market, and special 
bi-weekly market. Seat of an important Hindu fair held twice 
every year, in the months of Phdlgun and Chaitra, in honour of 
Gokarnath Mahadeo. These fairs last for fifteen days each, and are 
attended by from 75,000 to 100,000 persons, traders as well as pilgrims. 
Estimated average annual value of trade, ^10,000. 

Golaghdt. — Sub-division in Sibsagar District, Assam ; containing 
19 mauzds or village unions, and 16,845 houses. Population (1872) 
76,486; (1S81) 93,944, namely, 49,703 males and 44,241 females. 
Hindus numbered 84,385; Muhammadans, 4568; and 'others,' 4991. 
Average number of persons per viatizd, 4944 persons ; persons per 
house, 5 "5. The Sub-division was constituted in 1846. In 1883 it 
contained 2 magisterial and 2 revenue and civil courts, together with 
a regular police force of 26 men. An Assistant and extra-Assistant 
Commissioner are ordinarily posted in this Sub-division. 

Golaghdt. — Village in Sibsagar District, Assam, and head-quarters 
of the Sub-division of the same name, on the Dhaneswari (Dhansari) 
river. Lat. 26° 30' N. ; long. 94° E. Population (1881) 1906. The 
town has recently increased in importance as being the depot in con- 
nection with the transport and commissariat offices for the troops in 
the Naga Hills. It is built on high ground, broken by ravines, and 
ranks as one of the healthiest places in Assam. It was erected into a 
municipal union in 1881. Steamers are able to reach Golaghat during 
the rainy season, and the river is navigable for small boats all the year 
through. In the cold weather, the Nagas from beyond the frontier 
come down in large numbers, bringing cotton, and vegetables, such as 
yams, sweet potatoes, ginger, pumpkins, etc., to barter for salt, fish, and 
live stock. 

Golconda. — Fortress and ruined city, situated in the Nizam's Domi- 
nions, 7 miles west of Haidarabad (Hyderabad) city. Lat. 17° 22' x., 
long. 78° 26' 30" E. In former times, Golconda was a large and powerful 
kingdom of the Deccan, which arose on the downfall of the Bihmani 
dynasty, but was subdued by Aurangzeb in 1687, and annexed to the 
dominions of the Delhi Empire. Golconda was the capital of the 
Kutab Shahi kings, who had their court here from 15 12 to 1687. 
Originally it was a small fort built by the Raja of Warangal, who ceded 
it together with its dependencies to a Bahmani king of Gulburgah 
(Kalburga) in 1364. In 15 12 it passed from the Bahmani kings to 
the kings of the Kutab Shahi line. The boundaries of the kingdom 
of Golconda, one of the five sovereignties that rose on the downfall of 
the Bahmanis, extended along the left bank of the Tungabhadra river 
as far as its junction with the Bhima, and then followed the line of hills 
to the south-west, which formed the frontiers of the Bidar region. After 
a prosperous reign of thirty years, the first Kutab Shahi king was 


assassinated by the commandant of the fort at the instigation of the 
king's son. In the reign of Ibrahim Shahi, the existence of diamonds 
in Golconda territory was discovered at Partial and Kanat and other 
places. In 15S9, the son and successor of Ibrahim commenced to 
build the present city of Haidarabad, on the banks of the Musi, 5 miles 
from Golconda. The kingdom now reached the zenith of its prosperity. 
Ibrdhim's successor died in 161 1, and from that date until the arrival 
of Aurangzeb in the Deccan (1657), the annals of Golconda are un- 
certain. During Aurangzeb's viceroyalty on behalf of Shah Jahin at 
Aurungab^d, the famous j\Iir Jumla was Prime Minister or diwdn at 
Golconda, and having incurred the anger of the Golconda king, 
fled for protection to Aurangzeb. As an answer to Mir Jumla's 
appeal, Aurangzeb suddenly appeared before Haidarabad, plundered 
Golconda, and forced the Shahi king to pay a ransom equal to one 
million sterling. Mir Jumla took service with the Mughal and after- 
wards rose to power ; he was originally a servant in the train of a 
Persian merchant trading with the Deccan. After the submission of 
Golconda, Mir Jumla visited the court of Shah Jahan. In 1675, the 
Mughal commander in the Deccan advanced to punish Golconda for 
assisting the Maratha Sivaji after his escape from Agra, but the forces 
of Golconda defeated those of the Mughals. In 1687, Aurangzeb, now 
Emperor at Delhi, besieged and captured Golconda after a struggle of 
seven months' duration. Thenceforward Golconda, now deserted, lost 
even the memory of its former greatness. 

The fortress of Golconda, situated on a rocky ridge of granite, 
is extensive, and contains many enclosures. It is strong and in 
good repair, but is commanded by the summits of the enormous 
and massive mausolea of the ancient kings, about 600 yards distant. 
These buildings, which are now the chief characteristic of the place, 
form a vast group, situated in an arid, rocky desert. They have 
suffered considerably from the ravages of time, but more from the 
hand of man, and nothing but the great solidity of their walls 
has preserved them from utter ruin. These tombs were erected at 
great expense, some of them being said to have cost as much as 
^150,000. Golconda fort is now used as the Nizdm's treasury, and 
also as the State prison. It is held by a small Arab garrison in the 
service of Haidardbad. Visitors require permission from the Nizam's 
minister to go over the fort. The diamonds of Golconda have obtained 
great celebrity throughout the world ; but they were merely cut and 
polished here, being generally found at Partidl, near the south-eastern 
frontier of the Nizdm's territory. 

Golconda {Golugonda or Golgondd). — Taluk in Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude, 18° 28' to 18° 4' n. ; longitude, 81° 30' 
to 82° 40' E. ; area, 161 stjuare miles, with 178 villages, 21,711 houses, 


and (1881) 97,748 inhabitants — namely, males 49,383, and females 
48,365. Classified according to religion, there were, Hindus, 96,874 ; 
Muhammadans, 838 ; Christians, 6 ; and ' others,' 30. Of the villages, 
113 are rdyaUudri, or held direct from Government by the cultivators. 
Land revenue, ^11,486. This taluk, which contains a large tract of 
hill country, and about 600 square miles of Government forest, was one 
of the largest and most ancient zaminddris or landed estates in the 
District, the zaminddrs being relatives and feudatories of the Jaipur 
(Jeypore) chief. Of the tract above the ghdis, two muttds (Dutsarti 
and Guditeru), with an area of about 400 square miles, were transferred 
10 Godavari District in 1881. In 1836, in consequence of the 
murder of the Rdni, the British authorities sequestrated the estate 
and imprisoned the zaviinddr, and in the following year the estate 
was bought by Government at auction. In 1845 the sm-ddrs or chiefs 
rose in rebellion, and held their ground for three years ; and again, in 
1857-58, it was found necessary to send troops against them. The 
zaminddri has been converted into a Government tdliik with head- 
quarters at Narsapatam. The forests are of considerable value, but 
the attempt to conserve them has been abandoned, owing to there 
being no means for transporting the timber down the ghdts. The 
tdliik is also noted for the excellence of its oranges. In 1882 it 
contained 2 criminal courts; police stations {thdnds), 10; regular 
police, 126. 

Gollagudem. — Village on the Godavari river, in Goddvari District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude, 17° 39' N. ; longitude, 81° i' 30" e. 
Vessels navigating the Godavari take in and deliver cargo here, and 
travellers are permitted to occupy the small inspection bungalow 
belonging to the Public Works Department. 

Golugonda. — Tdluk in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. — 

Gomal. — Pass across the Sulaiman range, from the Punjab into 
Afghanistan. — See Gumal. 

Gonda. — District of Oudh in the Faizabad (Fyzdbdd) Division or 
Commissionership, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the North- Western Provinces, lying between lat. 26° 46' and 27° 50' n., 
and between long. 81° 35' and 82° 48' e. In shape, the District is 
an irregular oblong, slightly pinched in the middle, with an extreme 
length of 68 and an extreme breadth of 66 miles. Bounded on the 
north by the lower range of the Himalayas, separating it from Nepal ; 
on the east by Basti District ; on the south by Faizabad and Bara 
Banki, the Gogra river forming the boundary line ; and on the west by 
Bahraich. Area, 2875 square miles; population (1881) 1,270,926. 

Physical Aspects. — Gonda presents the aspect of a vast plain, with 
; very slight undulations, studded with groves of mango trees ; in parts, 

VOL. V. K 

146 GO NBA. 

the large mahud trees, left standing on green pasture grounds where the 
other jungle has been cut down, give the country an English park-like 
appearance. During the fine clear months at the end of the rainy 
season, the range of the Himalayas, with the towering peak of Diwala- 
giri in the centre, forms a magnificent background to the north. The 
villages, except in the north, are very small, being generally' divided 
into a number of minute hamlets, of which over thirty will sometimes be 
included in a single village boundary. This may be attributed partly 
to a comparative freedom from the disastrous clan wars which, in other 
parts of Oudh, drove the villagers to congregate for the sake of security, 
and partly to the fact that a large part of the District has been only 
lately reclaimed from jungle. Throughout the District, the surface 
consists of a rich alluvial deposit, which is divided naturally into three 
great belts, known as the tardi or swampy tract, the uparhdr or 
uplands, and the tarhdr or wet lowlands, (i) The first of these, the 
tardi, extends from the forests on the northern boundary, and reaches 
southwards to a line about 2 miles south of tjie Rapti, running through 
the towns of Balrampur and Utraula. The soil is generally a heavy 
clay, except in places where the rain-swollen mountain torrents which 
flow into the Rapti and Burhi Rapti have flooded the neighbouring 
fields with a sandy deposit of debris from the hills. (2) The uparhdr 
begins where the tardi ends, and extends south to a line drawn 
roughly east and west about 2 miles below Gonda town. The soiU 
is generally a good domat, or mixture of clay and sand, with occa- 
sional patches of pure clay. (3) The tarhdr or wet lowland reaches from 
the uparhdr to the Gogra, which forms the southern boundary of the 
District. The soil is a light domat, with an occasional excess of sand. 
These three belts are marvellously fertile; and there is said to be hardly 
an acre of land in the District which would not eventually reward patient 
labour. The vast tracts of barren saline efflorescence {reh) so common 
in the south of Oudh are quite unknown here. 

The chief rivers, beginning in the north, are the Burf Rapti, Rapti, 
Suwawan, Kuwana, Bisiihi, Chamnai, Manwar, Ti'rhi, Sarju, and Gogra, all 
flowing from north-west to south-east. The Gogra and Rapti are alone 
of any commercial importance, the first being navigable throughout the 
year, and the latter during the rainy months. The rivers in the centre 
of the District are mere shallow streams in the hot weather, fringed in 
most places with a jungle of young sdl trees, mixed with tnahud, and 
ending at the water's edge with a cane-brake or line oi Jdmun trees. 
Dangerous quicksands, covered with a green coating of short grass, are 
exceedingly common along the edge of the water. The whole District 
is studded with small shallow lakes, the water of which is largely used 
for irrigation, and on the margin of which grows a variety of wild rice 
(Jiiini), which furnishes an important article of food to the lower classes. 

GONDA. 147 

A strip of Government reserved forest runs along the foot of the hills, 
the most valuable trees being the sal (Shorea robusta), dhdtti (Cono- 
carpus latifolia), ebony (Diospyros melanoxylum), and Acacia catechu. 
The wild animals consist of tigers, leopards, bears, wolves, antelope, 
deer of various kinds, and wild pigs, among large game. Snipe, 
jungle fowl, quail, peacock, partridges, ortolans, and pigeons, are the 
principal game birds. Fish are abundant in the rivers and lakes ; 
crocodiles and dolphins are common. 

History. — The early history of the District is centred in that of 
Sravasti, the modern Sahet INIahet, capital of the kingdom ruled over 
by Lava, the son of Rama. After a period represented in the Vishnu 
Purana by fifty generations of kings, who ruled either at Sravasti or at 
Kapilavastu (Gorakhpur), the historical age commences (6th cent. B.C.) 
with King Prasenaditya, the contemporary of Buddha, and one of 
his early converts, who invited the Sage to Sravasti. During eight 
generations, Sravasti remained a principal centre of the Buddhist re- 
ligion. The kingdom re:jf hed its culminating power in the reign of the 
Oudh king Vikramaditya, in the 2nd century a.d. This monarch was a 
bigoted Brdhmanist ; and it was perhaps through civil wars between the 
followers of the rival religions that his kingdom so quickly collapsed. 
Within thirty years of his death, the sceptre had passed to the Gupta 
dynasty, and this thickly-populated seat of one of the most ancient 
"v kingdoms in India before long relapsed into jungle. The high 
road between the two capitals, Sravasti and Kapilavastu, was in 
the time of the Chinese pilgrims a dense forest infested with wild 

When it next emerges into history, the District was the seat of 
a Jain kingdom, which, in the hands of Sohildeo, was powerful enough 
to exterminate the victorious forces of Sayyid Salar, the nephew 
of Mahmiid of Ghazni. It was not long, however, before this dynasty 
shared the fate of its predecessors ; and at the time of the second 
Muhammadan conquest, a Dom Rija ruled Gonda with his capital at 
Domangarh on the Rapti, in Gorakhpur. The most famous ruler of 
this race was Raja Ugrasen, who had a fort at Dumriadih in Mahadewa 
pargand. The establishment of many villages in the south of the 
District is traced to grants of land, generally in favour of Tharus, 
Doms, Bhars, and Pasis, made by this Rd.ja. As no similar tradi- 
tion exists to the north of the Kuwana, it may be conjectured that 
that tract was then mainly covered with forest. This low-caste Dom 
kingdom was subverted in the beginning of the 14th century by 
the Kshattriya clans of the Kalhansis, Janwars, and Bisens. The 
first-named clan occupied the country from Hisampur in Bahraich 
far into the interior of Gorakhpur. It is related of them that their 
leader Sahaj Singh, at the head of a small force, came from the Xar- 

148 GONDA. 

bada (Nerbudda) valley, with the army of one of the Tughlak 
emperors, and was commissioned by him to bring into obedience 
the country between the Gogra and the hills. Their first settle- 
ment was in the Koeli jungle, about 2 miles south-west of Kurasa, 
which town subsequently gave its name to the chieftainship thus 
established. The thinly-populated country was distributed in jdgirs of 
about 3.^ kos each among the leading officers of the cavalry. 

The ruling family came to a tragic end. Raja Achal Narayan Singh, 
having carried off the daughter of a Brahman zaminddr by force, the 
latter sat down before the door of the oppressor's palace, and deliberately 
starved himself to death, after having pronounced the curse of extinction 
upon the Rajas, with the exception of the offspring of the youngest queen. 
The Brahman's prediction was speedily fulfilled, the Raja's palace and 
fortress being soon afterwards overwhelmed by the river Sarju, and 
himself and family drowned, save only the young queen, who was 
exempted from the Brahman's avenging prediction. She afterwards 
gave birth to a son, whose descendants are the present Kalhansi zatniti- 
ddrs of Babhnipair. The overthrow of the great Kalhansi dynasty 
occurred in the latter part of the 15th century. Some time before this, 
however, the north of the District had been occupied by the Janwars, 
whose forest kingdom comprised the whole sub-Himalayan tardi ; and 
for long they divided with the Kalhans the chieftainship of the whole 
of the District. The overthrow of the Kalhdnsi dynasty was followed by 
several years of anarchy. In the reign of Akbar, with the exception of 
Ikauna and Utraula, there were no powerful chieftains in this part of 
Oudh. The Kalhdnsis of Babhnipair and Guwarich wera never of any 
considerable importance ; and the rest of the District was covered with 
small semi-independent tribes of Bisens and Bandalghotis, and quasi- 
proprietary communities of Brahmans. During the next period, the 
Bisens, who had been steadily rising in power for some time, consoli- 
dated the great Bisen rdj of Gonda, comprising a territory of 1000 
square miles; the Janwars sent out an independent branch between 
the Kuwana and the hills, and the large chieftainships of Balrampur, 
Tulsipur, and Manikpur were formed. For some time before the 
separation of Oudh from the Delhi Empire, and its erection into a 
separate Muhammadan kingdom under Saddat Khan, the trans-Gogra 
chiefs had enjoyed a virtual independence, waging wars among them- 
selves, and exempt from any regular calls for the payment of tribute or 

The new Muhammadan power was vigorously resisted by the Raja 
of Gonda, who defeated and slew the first of the new Governors, 
Nawab Alawal Khdn of Bahraich. A second force was sent against him, 
and he was for a time reduced to extremities ; but the arrival of rein- 
forcements compelled the Nawab to raise the siege, and to be satisfied 

GONDA. 149 

with a partial submission, and a promise to pay a fixed tribute. For 
the next seventy years, a series of powerful Bisen chiefs retained a semi- 
independence, and engaged separately for the whole of their five ancestral 
pargafids of Gonda, Paharapur, Digsdr, Mahadewa, and Nawdbganj. 
It was not till the murder of Rdjd Hindupat Singh and his entire family 
by his hereditary enemies, the Brahman Pandes, that the Oudh 
Government, by obtaining possession of his successor, a youth named 
Guman Singh, was enabled to break up the power of the Gonda princi- 
pality, and to collect the revenue direct from the village head-men. 
Balrampur and Tiilsipur still held out for independence, and, though 
worsted in many fights, managed to retain their positions as chieftains, 
and were let off with a lump assessment on their whole estates, which 
left them considerable profits. The lords of Mankapur and Babhnipair 
in the same way were allowed to collect the rents in their own villages, 
and pay the revenue in a lump sum to the Nawab. Up to the 
commencement of the present century, there was nothing at all in 
Gonda District resembling the taluks in other parts of Oudh. The 
hereditary chieftains were each supreme within the territorial limits of 
his raj. 

As soon as Gonda and Utraula were broken up, and the revenue 
was realized by official collectors, tdbiks sprang into existence. The 
Nawabs found it convenient, and in some cases necessary, to let 
large numbers of villages to wealthy individuals as tdlnkddrs, or simple 
farmers of Government revenue. As a rule, these tdliikddris lasted but 
a short time, and their small collections of villages became absorbed by 
the Pandes, with whose power and wealth no one in the District could 
compete. The dispossessed Rajas of Utraula and Gonda attempted to 
acquire idliiks, and to combine the character of revenue farmer with 
that of feudal lord. The Raja of Utraula succeeded for a few years, 
but finally had to content himself with the few villages assigned for his 
support. The Gonda Bisens, however, got together the magnificent 
estate of Bisambharpur. The exactions of the Nazirns, or revenue 
deputies of the Lucknow Court, have been described in the account 
of Bahraich. The British annexation of Oudh brought relief to the 
people ; but in making the land settlement, the first Deputy Commis- 
sioner of the District, Colonel Boileau, was killed by a notorious 
freebooter named Fazl Alf. 

On the outbreak of the Mutiny, the Rdja of Gonda, after honour- 
ably escorting the Government treasure to Faizdbad (Fyzdbad), threw 
in his lot with the rebels, and joined the standard of the Begam of 
Oudh at Lucknow. The Raja of Balrampur remained loyal throughout 
the struggle. He steadily declined to recognise the rebel Government, 
received and protected Sir C. Wingfield, the Commissioner of Gonda 
and Bahraich, together with other English officers, in his fort, and after- 

150 GONDA. 

wards forwarded them safely, under a strong escort, to Gorakhpur. 
The Gonda Raja, after the reUef of Lucknow, fixed his camp at 
Lampti on the Chamnai river, with a force said to amount to 20,000 
men, who were, however, dispirited at the Enghsh successes else- 
where. After only a feeble resistance, the broken remnants of his 
forces were swept across the Rapti and over the lower range of the 
Himdlayas into Nepdl. Most of the rebel tdlukddrs accepted the 
amnesty, but neither the Rdja of Gonda nor the Rani of Tiilsipur could 
be induced to come in (although the conduct of the former throughout 
the Mutiny had been free from overt crime) ; and their estates were 
accordingly confiscated and conferred as rewards upon the late 
Mahdrajas Sir Dig Bijai Singh of Balrampur, and Sir Man Singh of 

Population. — The population of Gonda District, according to the 
Census of 1869, amounted to 602,862 males and 563,653 females, 
total 1,166,515 ; but upon the slightly increased area of the present 
District, was returned at 1,168,462, dwelling in 2834 villages or towns. 
The Census of 1881 returned the population at 1,270,926, showing 
an increase of 102,464, or nearly 10 per cent., in the thirteen years. 
The details of the Census are as follow : Area of District, 2875 
square miles; towns and villages, 2790; houses, 203,274. Total 
population, 1,270,926, namely, males 650,771, and females 620,155. 
Average density of population, 442 per square mile ; villages per square 
mile, -97; persons per village, 445; houses per square mile, 70-6; 
persons per house, 6*2. Classified according to religion, there were — 
Hindus, 1,102,193, or 867 percent, of the population ; Muhammadans, 
168,546, or 13-3 per cent. Sikhs numbered 28, and Christians 159. 

The Brahmans are the most numerous caste, numbering 213,024, or 
167 per cent, of the total population. They are almost all of the 
Sarwaria sept, with a slight sprinkling of Gaurs, Kanaujias, and 
Sakaldwipis. The Gonda Brahmans have long been noted for their 
military spirit ; and they formed one of the most important elements 
in the forces of the great Bisen Rajas. With the exception of the 
Pathdns of Utraula, the ruling classes are everywhere Kshattriyas, 
of which the principal families are the Kalhans of Babhnipdir and 
Chhedwara, the Bisens of Gonda and Mankapur, the Bandalghotis of 
Mankapur and Nawabganj, the Janwars of Balrampur, and the Goraha 
Bisens of Mahadewa. These Rajput castes number 53,027. The 
Kayasths, who largely make up the official element in the population, 
number 18,287 j ^"'i the Baniyas, or trading caste, 28,674. The 
great cultivating castes are the Ahi'rs, 128,439; K.oris, 124,252; 
Kurmis, 102,736 ; and Kachhfs, 41,934. The Kahdrs, mostly servants 
and palanquin-bearers, number 47,573. 'i'iie other principal Hindu 
castes — artisans, traders, labourers, etc. — arc as follow, arranged numeri- 

GONDA. 151 

cally : — Chamars, 33,950; Barhais, 21,574; Telis, 20,503; Dhobi's, 
18,984 ; Lonias, 17,576 ; Gadari'as, 16,562; Nais, 16,022; Bhurjis, 
14,852; Kahvars, 14,183; Kumbhars, 13,980 ; Tambulis, 13,547; and 
Lobars, 11,814. 1'he remnants of aboriginal tribes conii)rise the 
Bhars (8834), Doms (647), Basis (32,477), Khatiks (8482), Nats, 
Tharus, and Arakhs, the three last not being shown separately in the 
District Census. Of these, the first two are the pioneers of culti- 
vation. Settling along the edge of the jungle, they clear the trees 
and prepare the land for tillage, only to leave it, when the task is 
accomplished, to the steadier industry of the Kurmi or the Ahir. 
The Barwars are a predatory tribe of Hindus, who spread over the 
country in gangs of 40 or 50 ; they have no scruple in robbing 
temples, but will not steal cattle, or even commit thefts, within Gonda 
District. The Muhammadans are most influential, and most numerous 
in proportion to the Hindus, in the old Pathan estate of Utraula, where 
they form the majority of the village proprietors ; as common culti- 
vators they are very thick all over the north of the District. Their 
religion is strongly intermingled with Hinduism, and the services of the 
Brahman astrologer are held in high estimation by high and low. 

Five towns in the District contain a population exceeding 5000 — 
namely, Gonda, population 13,743; Balrampur, 12,811 ; Nawabganj, 
8373; CoLONELGANj, 5904 ; and Utraula, 5825 — all of which see 
separately. The different villages and townships are thus classified : — 
843 contain less than 200 inhabitants ; 1 105 from 200 to 500 ; 627 from 
500 to 1000 ; 170 from 1000 to 2000 ; 28 from 2000 to 3000 ; 12 from 
3000 to 5000 ; and 5 upwards of 5000 inhabitants. As regards occupa- 
tion, the Census Report classifies the population into the following 
six groups : — Class (i) Professional, including Government servants, 
civil and military, and the learned professions, 6883 ; (2) domestic 
servants and lodging-house keepers, 1675 ; (3) commercial, including 
merchants, general dealers, carriers, etc., 5159; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral, 341,994; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 38,608; (6) 
indefinite and non-productive (including 11,693 general labourers, and 
244,759 male children and persons of no specified occupation), 256,452. 
The principal places of pilgrimage are the temple of Pateswari Debi at 
Debi Patan, the thdkimhvdra of the new Vaishnava sect at Chhipia, 
and the temples of Baleswarnath Mahadeo at Mahadewa, Karnanath 
Mahadeo at Machhligaon, Bijleswari Debi at Balrampur, and 
Pacharanath and Pritwinath at Khargupur. 

Agriculture. — Rice, wheat, and barley are the chief agricultural 
staples, comprising more than one-half the total cultivated area of the 
District. There are three harvests — the kharif, the /letncdi, and the 
rabi — of which the relative importance varies in different parts of 
the District. In the centre table-land the rabi, and in the north the 

152 GONDA. 

heiiwdt, are most depended upon. In the south, the kharif, when 
the rains are moderate, yields a magnificent crop of Indian corn ; and 
excessive rains, while they are fatal to that particular crop, leave a fair 
crop of rice, and secure an abundant wheat harvest for the rabi. 
Ploughing for the kharif begins at the end of May, and continues 
throughout June ; the seed is sown in the beginning of July, and cutting 
commences in September, or, in the case of rice, even earlier. By the 
middle of October, all the autumn crops are off the ground. Land for 
the henwdt or Christmas crop is ploughed at the commencement of the 
rains, and the sowing continues during the growth of the kharif. In 
the case of transplanted rice {jarhan), the planting out is done at the 
beginning of August, and the cutting continues throughout November. 
In the middle of December, the cutting of the oil-seeds commences, 
♦and lasts till the first week of January. Preparations for the next year's 
spring crop commence before the rains set in ; and in the case of wheat, 
the first ploughing generally takes place in June. At the end of August 
the field receives two or three more ploughings, and a last ploughing in 
September. Sowing takes place in October and November, and the 
crop is cut early in March. April is occupied in threshing and winnowing. 

The total cultivated area of the District is returned at 1,135,002 
acres, but including land bearing two crops, 1,398,856 acres are 
cultivated yearly. The area under the seven principal crops in 1882 
was as follows: — Rice, 352,200 acres; wheat, 266,877; barley, 
41,246; Jodr, 127,123; arhdr, 4649; kodo, 16,078; alsi, 26,973 
acres. Irrigation is largely practised, the area watered in 18S1 
being returned at 231,681 acres, of which 128,452 acres were watered 
from tanks, 9632 from rivers, and 93,597 from wells. Prices of food- 
grains do not range quite so high in Gonda as in other Districts ; but 
they are higher than might be expected from the scanty population, 
owing mainly to the great facilities for export afforded by the Gogra. 
Prices have risen considerably of late years. Between the ten years 
1861-70, the rates for unhusked rice rose from 2s. 2d. to 3s. 6id. acwt. ; 
common husked rice from 4s. 2d. to 6s. 7d. ; wheat, from 3s. 3d. to 
5s. 9d. ; barley, from is. iid. to 4s. yd. ; bdjra, from 3s. 9d. to 4s. yd. ; 
;'^(zV, from is. iid. to 3s. lod. ; gram, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. 2d.; arhdr, 
from 4s. 2d. to 5s. 6d. ; ttrid, from 3s. gd. to 8s. 6d. ; mf/g., from 5s. gd. 
to 7s. 6d. ; vmsuri, from 2s. 3d. to 4s. 7d. a cwt. Prices, however, 
ranged unusually high in 1870, as the District had not recovered from 
the effects of the scarcity in the previous year. Prices were returned as 
follows in 1883: — Wheat, from 4s, lod. to 5s. 4d. per cwt.; rice, from 
6s. 3d. to 6s. 7d. per cwt. ; and gram, from 3s. 6d. to 33. lod. per cwt. 
The famine of 1874 was severely felt, and Government relief works on a 
large scale were undertaken. 

Gonda is pre-eminently a District of large landed proprietors ; 20 

GONDA. 153 

tdlukddrs were returned in 1SS2 as in possession of estates covering 
1,280,646 acres, and including 1S85 whole villages and 242 shares; 
950 villages or shares are held on ordinary tenure by small proprietors. 
The principal estates are those of the late Alahdrajd of Balrampur, with 
538,678 acres; Raja Krishna Datt Ram Pande, 201,450 acres; and 
the late Maharaja Man Singh, 201,960 acres. The taluks are 
assessed at a total Government revenue of ;^i 27,726, or an average of 
IS. lo^d. per acre over the entire area ; while the small proprietors are 
assessed at ^42,212, on a total area of 348,996 acres, or an average 
of 2S. 6d. per acre. The apparent advantage on the side of the 
tdlukddrs is due to the fact that the late IMaharaja of Ealrampur's 
estate consists of the whole of the thinly-populated and poorly-culti- 
vated plains of Tulsipur ; and also one-tenth of the entire assessment 
of Balrampur has been remitted as a reward for loyal services. As a 
rule, consideration has been had for coparcenary bodies of village 
proprietors, who have been assessed lower in proportion to the area of 
cultivated land in their possession than the large individual landholders. 
The cultivating classes are well-to-do and independent ; and, owing to 
the thinness of its population and the considerable area of fertile waste 
land, Gonda enjoys almost complete freedom from the worst forms of 
poverty. The system of cultivating land by means of Sawaks or bonds- 
men, as described in Bahraich District, is also common here. 

Communications, Trade, Co?nmerce, etc. — The three principal lines of 
road are — from Faizabad (Fyzabad) to Gonda town, 28 miles ; from 
Nawabganj to Utraula, 36 miles ; and from Nawabganj to Colonelganj, 
35 miles. The minor roads are — Gonda to Begamganj, 1 6 miles ; Gonda 
to Bahraich, 16 miles ; Gonda to Utraula, 36 miles ; Gonda to Colonel- 
ganj, 15 miles; Gonda to Balrampur, 28 miles; Colonelganj to 
Maharajganj, 28 miles; Colonelganj to Bahrdich, 28 miles; Utraula to 
Tulsipur, 16 miles; Khargupur to Chaudhari Dih, 28 miles; Balrampur 
to Ikauna, 14 miles. Rice and food-grains are the chief exports ; and 
cotton, European piece-goods, and salt the principal imports. 

Ad/ninisiratio?!. — The District is administered by a Dej^uty Commis- 
sioner, aided by 2 European Assistants, and i or more extra-Assistants. 
The courts number 15 magisterial and 22 revenue and civil. The total 
imperial revenue of Gonda in 1871-72 amounted to ;^i3S,795, 
of which ;^i 22,234 was derived from the land. The imperial 
expenditure in the same year amounted to ;^32,ioi, of which, how- 
ever, one-half, or jQ^S^Z^S^ ^^'^s on account of the Settlement Depart- 
ment, which has now ceased its operations. In 1S75-76, the revenue 
amounted to ;^i57,349, of which the land contributed ;^i35,509; 
the expenditure in that year amounted to ;^i5,8io. By 18S0 the total 
revenue had increased to ;^iSi,io3, and the land revenue to 
^^150,936; expenditure, ^16,720. The regular police force in 1S80 


consisted of 594 officers and men, including 120 municipal, maintained 
at a cost of ^7253, of which ^6624 was defrayed by Government; the 
village watch numbered 3271 men, costing ^^i 1,898 from local sources. 
Female infanticide is common in Aija and Colonelganj thdnds. Efforts 
have been made to stamp out this crime; but in 1874, in 52 
' proclaimed ' villages, the proportion of females to every 1 00 males was 
only 72. Education is still in its infancy, but village schools are now 
springing up in all directions. In 1880-81 there were 137 schools 
under Government inspection, attended by 4361 pupils. The Census 
Report, however, returned only 3900 boys and 72 girls as under 
instruction in 1881. 

Medical Aspects. — The average annual rainfall of the District during 
the fourteen years ending 1881 was 42-99 inches; the highest fall in 
any one year was 687 inches in 1871, the lowest was 6'io 
inches in 1874. The rainfall in 18S1 was 54-98 inches, or 11-99 
inches above the average. The heavy rains commence early in June, 
and continue, with slight interruptions, to the end of September or 
middle of October. Showers fall in every month of the year, and 
particularly in February and March. Owing to the proximity of the 
hills, the rains are more assured, and less subject to violent variations 
than in more southerly Districts. The average monthly temperature for 
the three years ending 1875 is thus returned— January 62° F., February 
64°, March 75°, April 82°, May 91°, June 87^ July 87°, August 86°, 
September 81°, October 80°, November 70°, December 64°; yearly 
average, 77-5° F. The highest recorded range of the thermometer is 
106°, lowest 48^ F. Fever is very prevalent in the tardl pargand of 
Tulsipur during the drying up of the rains, and is also common 
throughout the District. The other principal diseases are scurvy, 
cholera, diarrhaa, and goitre. [For further information regarding 
Gonda District, see the Oudh Gazetteer (Oudh Government Press, 
Lucknow 1877), vol. i. pp. 497-572; Settlement Report of Gonda 
District by W. C. Benett, Esq., C.S., dated 3cth April 1877; the 
North- Western Provinces and Oudh Census Report for 1881 ; and the 
North- Western Provinces and Oudh Provincial and Departmental 
Administration Reports, 1881 to 1883.] 

Gonda. — Tahsilox Sub-division of Gonda District, Oudh; bounded on 
the north by Bahraich and Balrdmpur tahsils, on the east by Utraula tahsil, 
on the south by Tarabganj tahsil, and on the west by Hisdmpur and 
Bahrdich tahsils. Area, 632 square miles, of which 392 are cultivated; 
population (1869) 247,107 ; (1881) 351,185, namely, Hindus, 308,527 ; 
Musalmans, 42,583; 'others,' 70. Males numbered 178,938, and 
females 172,247; number of villages or towns, 780; average density 
of population, 571 per square mile. The tahsil consists of the two 
pargands of Gonda and Pahdrapur. 


Gonda. — Pargand in Gonda taksil and District, Oudli. Bounded 
on the north by the Kuwana river, which divides it from Balrami)ur 
and Utraula /rt'r<;^//(Zi- ; on the east by Sadulldnagar and Manikpur; 
on the south by IMahadewa, Digsar, Guwarich, and Paharapur 
pargands ; and on the west by Bahraich District. The history of 
the pargand is identical with that of the District {vide supra). In 
appearance the pargand is a large, fairly well-wooded plain, with hardly 
perceptible undulations. In the north are some rather extensive sdl 
jungles, but the trees are not of sufficient size to be of much value. 
Excepting these jungle tracts, the whole pargand is under high cultiva- 
tion, and produces luxuriant crops of wheat, rice, sugar, gram, Indian 
corn, and barley. Groves of mahud trees are dotted all over the 
pargand. The soil is generally a light and fertile loam. Water is 
obtainable at a depth of from 15 to 20 feet, and irrigation is much 
practised. Area, 509 square miles, of which 307 square miles, or 
196,595 acres, are under cultivation; 111,474 acres yield spring, and 
128,410 acres autumn crops ; while 43,289 acres bear a double harvest. 
At the time of British annexation, a summary investigation was made 
into the assets of the pargand ; and on the principle of taking half as the 
Government share, the land revenue was fixed at ;^25,5oo. A revised 
assessment was made in 1869-70, when a thirty years' settlement was 
effected at an assessment of ;^42,404, equal to an average of 4s. 2^. 
per acre of cultivated area, or 2s. yid. per acre of total area. This 
increase of upwards of 66 per cent, probably represents, Avith some 
approach to accuracy, the rapid extension of cultivation during fifteen 
years of undisturbed peace. 

Of the 652 villages comprising the pargand, 476, paying a revenue 
of ;^33)53i) are held by tdlukddrs ; and 176, paying a revenue 
of ^8893, are held by independent zaminddrs. Population (1881), 
Hindus 242,852, and Muhammadans 32,995 — total, 275,907, namely, 
140,774 males and 135,133 females; average density of population, 
524 per square mile. The Brahmans are by far the most numerous 
caste, numbering 71,163, or nearly one-fourth of the entire popula- 
tion. They belong, almost without exception, to the great Sarwarid 
sept, and retain no tradition of their first settlement in the 
District, of which it is probable that they are among the most ancient 
inhabitants. Next to the Brahmans in point of number come the low- 
caste Koris (28,157), Kurmis (26,022), and Ahirs (18,450). The semi- 
monastic order of Gosains numbers 2528 members, some of whom are 
wealthy landed proprietors. The most peculiar tribe in the pargand are 
the Barwars, who are said to have migrated from Basti about 200 years 
ago. Their distinguishing profession is theft, which they carry on with 
great success, though the rules of their religion sternly restrict their 
operations to the period between sunrise and sunset. Any one stealing 


by night is at once turned out of caste. The Barwdrs go on distant 
plundering expeditions in parties of two or three, and on their return 
the proceeds are impartially divided, a share being set apart to buy 
sacrificial offerings of goats and ardent spirits to Devi, and a percentage 
being paid to the zaininddr of the village. A police Census returns the 
number of this caste at 125 1 of all ages and sexes in t\<\% parga7id. It is 
proposed to bring them under the Criminal Tribes Act. The principal 
markets are at Gonda town, Jigna, Dhangpur, Dubha, Rajgarh, and 
Khargupur. Principal exports, wheat and rice ; imports insignificant, 
consisting of salt, brass vessels, and English cotton cloth. Metalled 
road from Gonda town to Faizabad (Fyzabad), and several other 
unmetalled roads and cart tracks. 

Gonda. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Gonda Dis- 
trict, Oudh ; situated 28 miles north-north-west of Faizabad (Fyzdbad). 
Lat. 27° 7' 30" N., long. 82° E. The site on which the town now stands 
was originally a jungle on the estate of the Rajas of Kurasa, in 
the centre of which was a cattle-fold (Gontha or Gothdm) where the 
Ahirs enclosed their cattle at night as a protection against wild beasts, 
from which the town derived its name. Raja Man Singh of Kurasa 
built a palace and fortress here, and it has since been the residence of 
his successors, under whom the town gradually grew up. As mentioned 
m the account of Gonda District, the last Raja of Gonda at the time 
of the Mutiny threw in his cause with the rebels, and his large estates 
were confiscated. The population of the town and civil station in 188 1 
was returned at 13,743, namely, 7723 males and 6020 females. Hindus 
numbered 8954; Muhammadans, 4692 ; Christians, 69; and 'others,' 
28. Area of town site, 203 acres. The place is not now noted for any 
manufacture, but in the days of native rule was celebrated for its 
shields, which were in great request. It is not a commercial centre, 
nor is it of any religious importance to either Hindus or Muhammadans. 

The principal buildings in the native town are — 2 thakurdivdrds ; 
the palace, which for some hundreds of years formed the residence of 
the Gonda Rajas, but is now falling into decay; a handsome sardi 
or rest-house ; and a large masonry tank known as the Radhakund. 
North-west of the native town, and between it and the civil station, are 
the civil dispensary and District school, two fine buildings. Beyond 
these is a large handsome artificial lake, constructed by Raja Seo 
Prasad, and surrounded by groves of tall mango trees and ornamental 
grounds. On the bank of the lake is a Literary Institute, known as the 
Anjuman-i-rifah, supported by European and native subscribers, and 
containing a large library. Beyond the Sdgar or lake are the civil 
lines, and what were formerly the cantonments. The troops were with- 
drawn in 1S63 ; and the only traces of the military occupation of this 
quarter now left are the barracks, which up till recently were occupied 



as the civil court buildings, a church which has been reduced in size to 
suit the requirements of the small civil station, a burial-ground, racquet 
court, and a Government garden, which is carefully kept up, and forms 
one of the finest pleasure-grounds in Oudh. On what was the parade 
grounds the handsome new court-house now stands, and south of it the 
jail. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^(^^d; average incidence of taxa- 
tion, IS. 4|d. per head of population within municipal limits. 

Gonda. — Town in Partabgarh (Pratapgarh) District, Oudh ; 2 miles 
from Bela, on the road from Allahabad to Faizdbad (Fyzabad). Popula- 
tion (1881) 1752 Hindus, 672 Muhammadans — total, 2424. Said to 
have been founded by the Gonds. Hindu temple, Government school. 
Large bazar, with annual sales amounting to about ^j^isoo. Two fairs 
are held annually in honour of the tutelary goddess, Asht Bhuji Devi, 
each attended by about 2500 people. 

Gondal. — Native State in Halar/nf;//, Kathiawar, Province of Gujardt 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, 687 square miles; 174 villages; 
population (188 1 ) 135,604. Hindus numbered 105,329; Muhammadans, 
24,652 ; and 'others,' 5623. Estimated gross revenue, as shown in the 
Administration Report of 1880-81, ^125,815. With the exception of 
the Osham Hills, the country is generally flat. The soil is chiefly black. 
Several small streams intersect the State, the largest, the Bhadar, being 
navigable by small boats during the rains. For purposes of irrigation, 
water is drawn in leather bags from wells and rivers by means of 
bullocks. The climate is good. Products — cotton and grain. Manu- 
factures — cotton cloth, and silver and gold cord. There are 43 miles 
of first-class metalled road, and 44 miles of unmetalled road between 
Gondal and Rajkot; for the rest, internal communication is carried 
on by the ordinary country tracks. Gondal has always been 
pre - eminent amongst the States of its class for the vigour and 
success with which its public works have been prosecuted. The 
produce is exported from Mangrol, Verawal, and Joria, There are 38 
schools, with 2556 pupils. Gondal ranks as a second-class State among 
the many States in Kathiawar. The ruler entered into engagements 
with the British Government in 1S07. He is a Hindu, a Rajput by 
caste, of the Jdreja family. The name of the present (1883) chief is 
Bhagwatsinghji Sagramji, and his title Thakur Sahib. He was educated 
at the Rajkumar College at Rajkot, and afterwards travelled in Europe. 
The State of Gondal pays a tribute of ^11,072 in all to the British 
Government, the Gaekwar of Baroda, and the Nawab of Junagarh. 
The family holds no sajiad authorizing adoption : the succession follows 
the rule of primogeniture. The chief has power to try his own subjects 
only for capital offences. His military force consists of 198 cavalry, 
and 659 infantry and police, with 16 cannon. No transit dues are 
levied in the State. 

158 G ONDAL— G ON A. 

Gondal.— Capital of Gondal State, in Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Lat. 2 1° 57' 30" N., long. 70° 53' E. ; population (1881) 13,523. 
Hindus numbered 7893 ; Muhammadans, 3562 ; Jains, 2068. Gondal 
is connected with Rajkot, Jetpur, Junagarh, Dhoraji Upleta, and 
jManikwara by good roads. It is in contemplation to connect it 
with Sultanpur Road railway station by a made road. The town is 
fortified ; contains a hospital, dispensary, telegraph office, and post- 

Gond-umri. — Estate in Bhandara District, Central Provinces ; 5 to 
10 miles north-east of Sangarhi ; containing 10 small villages, the 
largest of which is Gond-umri. Area, 17,715 acres, of which only 2862 
are cultivated ; population (1881) 2722, chiefly Gonds and Dhers. The 
chief is a Brahman. 

Gondwana. — Tract of country. Central Provinces ; so called from 
the aboriginal tribe of Gonds who principally inhabit it. — See Central 

Gonikoppal. — Township in Coorg, known as the ' Bamboo,* on the 
Mysore-Cannanore Road. Pop. (1881) 328; 10 miles from Verajeu- 
drapett. Head-quarters of the Pdrpattigdr of the Betiethnad. Large 
weekly market on Sundays, attended by about 5000 coolies from the 
neighbouring coffee estates. 

Goomsar. — Tdluk and town, Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. 

^6^ GUMSAR. 

Goona {Guna). — District of Gwalior State, Central India; situated 
between latitudes 24° 5' and 25° 7' n., and longitudes 76° 53' and 
77° 55' E., with an area of 3678 square miles, and a population 
(1881) of 249,006. Length about 72 miles, with a varying breadth 
of from 50 to 70 miles. Bounded on the north by the pargand of 
Shahabad, the Jhdlawar State, and the Kailaras District of Sindhia's 
territory ; on the east by the Chanderi District of Gwalior ; on the 
south by the Sironj territory of Tonk, and Rajgarh State ; and on the 
west by the State of Jhalawar, and the Chhabra pargand of Tonk. 

The District comprises seven chiefships, feudatories of Sindhia, 
but mediatized or guaranteed by the British Government, namely, 
Bhadaura, Ragugarh, Garha, Dhanaodah, Umri, Paron, and 
SiRSi; and seven pargands of Sindhia, namely, Bajrangarh, Narod, 
Pachar, Chachora, Kumraj, Midna, and Aron. The general eleva- 
tion of the tract is about 1 800 feet, and it may be described as an 
elevated plateau drained by the tributaries of the Betwa river on 
the east, the river Sind in the centre, and the Parbati on the west. 
In the east and west the country is flat, well populated and cultivated ; 
but to the north and south it is much broken by hills, the range 
that runs through the District forming a continuation of the ghdts 
on the left bank of the Kiinu river. The forests of the hills yield 


much timber and bamboo ; and in some parts of the district a rich 
earthy iron-ore is extracted, which is roughly smcUed and worked 
up into farming implements for local use. The wild animals consist 
of tigers, leopards, hyasnas, wolves, antelope and deer of various 
kinds, and wild pigs. The population comprises Rajputs, Khcrars, 
Minds, Ahi'rs, Kachhis, Chamars, and Bhils, of whom the Ahirs are the 
most numerous. The Chauhan Rajputs of this tract have for centuries 
been distinguished by the name of Kichi, from which the name of 
Kichiwara is applied to this part of the Gwalior territory. The only 
towns of any importance are Guna, Bajrangarh, and Raghugarh. 

The crops grown are — wheat, barley, Indian corn, jodr, several 
pulses and fibres, sugar-cane, and opium. The land is cultivated by 
zaminddrs who are tenants-at-will, and, as a class, poor and generally 
in the hands of money-lenders. In Sindhia's seven pargands of the 
District, a fixed settlement for ten years is made ; but in the lands of 
the seven chiefships, his feudatories, the rental is liable to change 
yearly. The prevailing prices of food-grains and other articles in the 
District in 1881 were — for wheat, 54 lbs. per rupee (2s.); for grain, 
68 lbs. ; for barley, 40 lbs. ; iox Jodr, 72 lbs. ; for Indian corn, 89 lbs. ; 
for jaggery, or molasses, i'6 lbs. ; and for salt, 20 lbs. The district 
is not much subject to natural calamities, but the absence of rain in July 
or October causes an occasional drought. In 1868, when scarcely any 
rain fell, higher prices prevailed than had been known in the previous 
three decades. No canals or other irrigating works exist, as the rivers 
run dry periodically ; in a few places only has the country been 
embanked for tanks. The chief road through the District is that 
which runs from Agra to Indore. Several village roads of minor 
importance, and under local management, connect the larger places of 
the District with the outlying towns. 

Goona {Guna). — Town in Gwalior State, and head-quarters of 
the Giina District of Gwalior, Central India. Latitude 24° 40' N., 
longitude 77° 20' e. Situated on the Agra and Indore main road, 202 
miles south of Agra, and 135 miles south-east of Gwalior. Population 
(1881) 3700. Guna is also a British cantonment, at which a regiment 
of Central India Horse is stationed, the officer commanding being ex 
officio Political Assistant in charge of the Giina Sub-Agency, and also 
holding political and magisterial charge of the District and cantonment. 
Before the Mutiny a large force of the Gwalior cavalry contingent 
used to be quartered here. A fair is held annually in November, 
to Which large crowds from the neighbourhood resort, and much 
traffic is carried on. There is a school, with 80 pupils, which is 
unaided by Government, being maintained by contributions from 
the neighbouring chiefs, and by local funds to the extent of ^270 
yearly. Five miles south of Guna lies the large town of Bajrangarh, 


the head-quarters of the governor of the District, under whom is a 
detachment of 4 companies of Sindhia's infantry. 

Gooty {Guti). — Tdhtk of Anantapur District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, loio square miles, with 3 towns and 150 villages. Houses, 
21,577. Population (1S81) 110,597, namely, 56,400 males and 54,197 
females. Hindus numbered 100,160; ]Muhammadans, 9995; Christians, 
406 ; and ' others,' 36. The taluk contains i civil and 3 criminal 
courts; police stations {thdnds), 10 ; village watch, 77 men. Land 
revenue, ^18,322. 

GooXy {Giiti). — Town in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency; 
32 miles from Anantapur town. Latitude 15° 6' 53" n., longitude 
77' 41' 32" E. ; containing (1881) 1373 houses and 5373 inhabitants, of 
whom 3749 were Hindus, 15S7 Muhammadans, and 37 Christians. 
Head-quarters of a Deputy Collector and Magistrate, and of a District 
munsif or civil judge ; post and telegraph offices ; sub-jail ; and im- 
portant railway station, 257 miles from Madras. 

The fort of Gooty, built in the early part of the i6th century, 
was a place of immense strength. It was the stronghold of the 
great Maratha guerilla chief, Morari Rao, who joined Clive in 1751 
on the relief of Arcot. Originally belonging to a dependant of the 
Vijayanagar family, it formed one of the conquests of Mir Jumli, 
the Golconda minister, and a famous general of the Mughal 
Empire. Gooty was afterwards held by the Pathans of Cuddapah 
and Sawanur, from whom it was wrested in 17 14 by the Gauripur 
family of Marathas, the most distinguished of whom obtained, in 
1744, the Nizam's recognition of his territory as a Mardthi State. 
In 1776, Haidar AH besieged the tovm, which was forced to capitulate 
after a siege of four months, the water-supply being exhausted. Haidar 
used this fortress as his head-quarters in several expeditions against 
the neighbouring pdlcgdrs. Gooty was captured by the British in the 
Mysore campaign of 1799. 

Wilks describes the fort as follows : — ' The fort is composed of a 
number of strong works, occupying the summits of a circular cluster of 
rocky hills, connected with each other, and enclosing a level space 
which forms the site of the town. The town is approached from the 
plain by a single fortified gateway on the south-west, and by two small 
footpaths across the lower hills, communicating through small sally- 
ports. An immense smooth rock, rising from the northern limit of the 
circle, and fortified by gradations surmounted by 14 gateways, overlooks 
and commands the whole of the other works, and forms a citadel 
which famine or treachery alone can reduce. The rock is composed of 
granite, in which red felspar i)revails. Its extreme height above the 
sea has been ascertained to be 2 171 feet, but notwithstanding this, the 
heat in April and May is intense. Its height above the plain is 989 


feet. On the summit of the hill are several wells and reservoirs for 
water, and various buildings where State prisoners were confined.' 

On one of the bastions overlooking a precipice of about 300 feet, 
is a small building, called Morari Rao's seat. Here the Mardtha 
chieftain was wont to sit and play chess, watching at the same 
time all that was going on in the town below, or as a spectator of 
prisoners being hurled from the top of an adjoining precipice and 
dashed to pieces on the rocks. Besides the fort, the most interesting 
features in Gooty are the choultry, tomb, and memorial well of Sir 
Thomas Munro, who died at Pattikonda in 1827. 

Gopdlganj. — Town and police station in Faridpur District, Bengal ; 
situated on the Madhumati river, in lat. 23° o' 22" n., long. 89° 52' E. ; 
population (1881) 3402. Famous for jute, rice, salt, and clarified 
butter. Formerly noted for the manufacture of fine sitdlpati mats, but 
only a few of second-rate quality are now made. An evangelical 
mission was established here in 1874, which is doing good work among 
the Chandal inhabitants. 

Gopalgarh. — Town in Bhartpur State, Rajputana. Situated 40 miles 
north-west of Muttra, on the route from Muttra to Firozpur in the 
Gurgaon District Distance from Firozpur, 12 miles. Dispensarj'. 

Gopalnag"ar. — Town in Nadiya District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 3' 50" N., 
long. 88° 48' 40" E. One of the principal seats of commerce in the 
District, trade being chiefly carried on by means of permanent markets. 
The trade, however, has somewhat decreased of late years. 

Gopalpur {Gopmdpore). — Town and seaport in Ganjam District, 
Madras Presidency. Latitude 19° 21' 5" n., longitude 85° i' e. ; 
distant 9 miles south-east of Berhampur, the chief town of the District, 
of which it forms the chief seaport, and 13 miles from Ganjam. 
A place of rapidly increasing importance. Population (1881) 2675, 
namely, 2504 Hindus, 24 Muhammadans, and 147 Christians. It has 
a considerable export trade with Europe in grain, myrobalans, hemp, 
horns, hides, and seeds. The chief imports are cotton piece-goods, 
betel-nuts, and gunny-bags. French and English vessels load here. 
It is also a port of call for coasting steamers of the British India Steam 
Navigation Company, as well as for those of private firms. The number 
of registered boats in 1882 was 106. Value of exports (1880-81), 
;!^30757S5; imports, ;^i32,535. The exports to foreign countries 
in 1883-84 were valued at ^177,826; to British ports in other 
Presidencies, ;^i47,82 7 ; to British ports within the Presidency, 
;/^72,8oi ; and to Indian ports not British, ;i^i205 : total exports 
(1883-84), ;^399,659. Value of customs duty collected : — in 1879, 
^^2295 ; in 1883-84, ;^84S5. The port light (fixed white) is dis- 
played at an elevation of 80 feet, and is visible from 8 to 10 miles 
at sea ; good anchorage (sand and mud) is found in 8 to 9 fathoms 

VOL. V. L 


about li mile off the shore. Post-office; staging bungalow and tele- 
graph office. 

Gopalswami-betta (^ Hill of the shepherd god, Vishnu^). — Isolated 
peak, forming a spur of the Western Ghdts, in Mysore district, Mysore 
State; about 4500 feet above sea-level. Latitude 11° 43' 20" n., 
longitude 76° 37' 45" e. Crowned with fortifications, said to have been 
erected by the Danayak brothers in the 12th century. On the summit 
stands a temple of Vishnu, attended by two Brahmans, at which a car 
festival is held annually. 

Gopamau. — Pargand in Hardoi tahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh. 
Bounded on the north by Mansurnagar and Pihani pargands ; on the 
east by the Gumti river, separating it from Chandra, Misrikh, and 
Aurangabad pargands ; on the south by Sandila and Balamau pargands ; 
and on the west by Bangar, Bawan, and Sara pargatids, the Sai river 
marking the boundary for a considerable distance. 

The earliest traditions show the Thatheras in possession of this tract, 
which they still held in 1033 at the time of Sayyid Salar's invasion. 
A great battle was fought near Gopdmau between the Musalmans and 
the Thatheras, in which the former were successful ; but two years 
afterwards, on the defeat of Sayyid Salar at Bahraich, his army of 
occupation at Gopamau was overpowered and put to the sword. The 
Thatheris remained masters for some time, when they were ousted by 
an Ahban chief, named Gopi or Gopal Singh, who founded the present 
town of Gopamau. On the overthrow of the Hindu kingdoms of 
Delhi and Kanauj by Shahab-ud-din in 1193 and 11 94, the several 
Kshattriya clans poured into the trans-Ganges Districts, and effected 
fresh settlements. The Shaikhs obtained a footing in the pargatid in 
Humdyun's reign, when two Musalmans were appointed kdzis of 
Gopamau ; and a descendant still holds the Kasmandi estate. The 
pargand forms the watershed of the Gumti and Sai rivers. Round 
Tandidon, in the heart of the pargand, is all that now remains of the 
great Bangar jungle, which up to the British annexation was a robber 
haunt, which all the efforts of the Oudh troops could not reduce to 

Area, 328 square miles, of which 172 are cultivated. Staple pro- 
ducts — barley, bdjrd, and wheat, which occupy three-fifths of the 
cultivated area. Government land revenue, ;^i 7,544; average inci- 
dence, 3$. 3d. per acre of cultivated area; and is. Sd. per acre of 
total area. Of the 240 villages constituting the pargand, 145 are 
owned by Rajputs, the Ahbans slightly predominating ; Kayasths hold 
36^ villages; Brahmans, 2i; and grantees, 10. Muhammadans possess 
46 villages. Only 28^ villages are held under tdlukddri tenure, \\\\ 
are zaminddri, 95 pattiddri, and 5 bhaydchdra. Population (1872) 
112,006; (1881) 130,786, namely, 70,269 males and 60,517 females. 


The most numerous castes are Chamars and Pasi's, who form a third of 
the entire population, Brahmans and Rdjputs form each about a tenth. 
The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway runs along the western side of the 
pargand ; the Guniti in the east provides water communication; and 
the Sitapur and Mchndighdt road runs along the south. In the 
interior, the only road is the Hardoi and Si'tdpur road, with a branch 
northward to Gopamau, Majhia, and Pihdni. Five schools, of which 
two are for girls. ^ 

Gopamau. — Principal town in Gopamau pargaud^ Hardoi District, 
Oudh; 2 miles west of the Giimti river, 14 miles north-east of Hardoi 
town, and 20 west of Sitapur. Lat. 27° 32' n., long. 80° 19' 40" e. 
The town is said to have been founded in the nth century by an 
Ahban chief named Raja Gopi, who drove out the Thathenis from 
what was then a mere clearing in the forest The Muhammadan 
population dates from the invasion of Oudh by Sayyid Sdlar (1033); 
since which date it has always been an important seat of Musalmdn 
influence. The chief development of the town took place in the reign 
of Humayun, who first appointed a chaud/idri ^wd kdzi for the pargand, 
with their head-quarters in the town. Till iSoi, when Saadat AH 
removed the head-quarters of the pargand to Tandiaqn, Gopamau 
seems to have thriven. Many of its residents attained high posts under 
the Empire, and contributed to the wealth and importance of the town. 
Numerous mosques, wells, and large buildings attest its importance 
in the days of Musalman supremacy. In 18S1 the town contained a 
population of 3040 Muhammadans and 2334 Hindus — total, 5374. 
Area of town site, 159 acres. Two bi-weekly markets; Government 
school. The only manufacture is one peculiar to the place, the making 
of ars/s, or thumb-mirrors of silver. 

Gor^. — Town in Gorakhpur District, North - Western Provinces, 
lying on the river Rapti, i mile west of Barhaj. Lat. 26° 33' n., long. 
^3° 50' 30' E. Population (1881) 8485, namely, Hindus, 7848; 
and Muhammadans, 637. Area of town site, 91 acres. 

Gorabazar. — The southern suburb of Berhampur town, Murshid- 
abad District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 5' 15" n., long. 88° 17' 15" e. The 
population consists chiefly of Musalmans and Urdu-speaking immi- 
grants from the north-west. An annual fair called the Chaltia me/d is 
held here in honour of Raghunath, attended by about 20,000 people. 

Gor^gMt. — Ruined city in Dinajpur District. Bengal. Lat. 25° 
15' N., long. 89° 20' E. Once the capital of the eastern Mughal 
Government, with a revenue circle of 90 /d/c/is of rupees (;3^9oo,ooo). 
The capital was removed to Dacca by the Emperor Jahangir. The 
site of Goraghat is now a vast mass of ruins buried in dense jungle, 
on the west bank of the Karatoya river. 

Gorai. — River of Bengal. — See Garal. 


Gorakhpur. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 26° 5' 15" and 27° 28' 45" N. lat., 
and between 83° 7' and 84° 29' e. long. Gorakhpur is a District in 
the Benares Division. It is bounded on the north by the territory 
of Nepal, on the east by Champaran and Saran, on the south by 
the river Gogra, and on the west by Basti and Faizabad (Fyzabad). 
Area, 4598 square miles; population (1881) 2,617,120 persons. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Gorakhpur lies immediately south 
of the lower Himdlayan slopes, but itself forms a portion of the great 
alluvial plain derived from the detritus of the mountain region, and 
deposited by the mighty rivers which take their rise amid the snow- 
clad northern heights. No greater elevation than a few sandhills 
breaks the monotony of its level surface. It is, however, inter- 
sected by numerous rivers and streams, and dotted over with lakes 
and marshes. The water-supply is abundant, and the moisture of 
the soil gives a verdant appearance to the country, which contrasts 
strongly with the arid aspect of the Districts south of the Gogra. In 
the north and centre, extensive tracts of sal forest diversify the 
scene ; the trees are not, as a rule, of any great size, but the density 
and extent of the woodland strike the eye of a visitor from the 
populous and highly-cultivated Districts farther south. Immediately 
below the first range of hills stretches the tarai or lowland, a tract of 
sub-montane character, with clear and rapid streams, flowing through 
a thickly- wooded forest region. Here and there, glades used for 
pasturage open out among the wilder portions, and the cultivated 
patches are generally devoted to the growth of rice. The inhabitants 
are either hillmen like the Gurkhas and Nepalis, or else aboriginal 
Thdrus, who alone can live in the iardi during the rains, when its 
pestilential climate drives away all other tribes. The snowy range can 
be distinctly seen from the frontier. 

Moving southward, the forest disappears, and a well-tilled plain is 
entered, only broken by occasional woods or rare tracts of the saline 
waste known as mar. In the south of the District, the general expanse 
of cultivation is diversified by shady mango groves, or intersected by 
frequent lakes. The west and south-west are low-lying plains, subject to 
extensive inundations. In seasons of heavy rain, the water collects in the 
valley of the Ami, and, joining the lakes to the cast, forms an immense 
inland sea. Beyond the Rapti the ground rises slightly, but again sinks 
towards the south-east, and slopes away as it reaches the border of the 
District. The principal rivers are — the Rapti, a tortuous torrent, with a 
very shifting channel ; the Gogra, a large river, with a volume of water 
here surpassing that of the Ganges, navigable by steamers during the 
rains, and never fordable in the driest weather ; the Great Gandak, a 
clear and rapid stream, full of cataracts and whirlpools, and navigable 


with difficulty on account of its fierce current and sunken snags ; the 
Little Gandak, the Kuana, the Rohin, the Ami, and the Gunghi. 
The principal lakes are the RAmgarh, Nandaur, Nawar, Bhenri, 
Chillua, and Amiyar Tals. The tiger is found in the north, and the 
jackal, wolf, fox, and wild boar throughout the District; deer are 
rare. Wild-fowl of all kinds abound on the larger lakes, which are also 
well stocked with fish. The latter afford a livelihood to numerous 
boatmen {maids), who rent a lake of the landholder and then fish it in 

History. — The tract of country north of the river Gogra and between 
Oudh and Behar, which now forms the Districts of Gorakhpur and Basti, 
was originally included in the ancient kingdom of Kosala, of which Ajod- 
hya was the capital. It was visited by the deified hero Rama, whose 
death may be placed at about 750 b.c. Gautama Buddha, the founder 
of the widespread religion which bears his name, was born at Kapila 
just beyond the border, and died at Kasia within this District. A 
colossal statue still marks the place of his decease. Gorakhpur thus 
became the head-quarters of the new creed, and was one of the first 
tracts to receive it. Tradition further recounts that a prince belonging 
to the Solar dynasty of Ajodhya attempted to found here a great city 
which should rival the glories of Kasi (or Benares) ; but that when it 
was nearly completed, he was overwhelmed by an irruption of the 
Tharus and Bhars. These aboriginal and mixed races held all the 
country north-east of Oudh and the Ganges for a long period, and 
drove out the Aryans who had at first conquered them. Their re- 
appearance was apparently connected with the rise of the Buddhist 
faith. The Bhar chieftains seemed to have held the country at first 
independently, and afterwards as vassals of the Magadha Buddhists. 
On the fall of that dynasty, the Bhars regained their autonomy till 
about 550 A.D. From this time the Aryans began to recover their 
lost ground; and in 600 a.d., the Rahtors of Kanauj invaded the 
District, which they conquered up to the modern town of Gorakh- 
pur. Hweng Thsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, who visited 
this part of India about the year 630, notices the large number of 
monasteries and towers, the latter a monument of the continuous 
struggle between the aboriginal Bhars and their Aryan antagonists, the 

About 900 A.D,, the Domhatars or military Brahmans made 
their first appearance on the scene, and, with other tribes of mixed 
Brahman and Rajput descent, began to push up from the south 
and to dispossess the Rahtor chiefs, whom they expelled from the 
town of Gorakhpur. In the nth century, Bisen Sen of Nagar became 
the leading chief in this region ; but the Bhars continued to hold the 
western tracts, until ousted by the Jaipur (Jeypore) Rajas in the time 


of Akbar. Early in the 14th century, the Rajputs, expelled from 
the country farther west by the Muhammadans, began to enter this 
District. Dhur Chand established himself in Uhiiriapar, and Chandra 
Sen in Satasi. The latter murdered the Domhatar chief of Doman- 
garh (the Gorakhpur fort), seized his stronghold, and established 
himself in the city. During the whole century, the Batwal and Bansi 
Rajas carried on an incessant warfare, which desolated the whole 
country; and from 1350 to 1450 the Satdsi and the Majholi Rajas 
waged Avar without intermission. The present town of Gorakhpur 
was founded about 1400, A century later, the Majholi family held 
the south-east ; the descendants of Dhur Chand reigned in the south- 
west ; the Aonla and Satasi dominions came next ; while the extreme 
north-west belonged to the principality of Batwal. All these Rajas 
seem to have been quite independent of one another, and isolated 
from the outer world, as no bridges or roads attest any intercourse 
with the Districts to the south or east. Until the Mughal period, the 
Musalmans do not appear to have crossed the Gogra ; but in 1576, 
Akbar passed across it on his return from the successful expedition 
against Daiid Khan of Bengal. The Emperor's general, Fidai Khan, 
defeated all the Rajas who opposed him, and occupied Gorakhpur. 
Bahadur Shah visited the District for the sake of its sport during the 
lifetime of Aurangzeb ; but until the establishment of the Nawdb 
Wazi'rs of Oudh at Lucknow in 1721, the ]\Iusalmans interfered very 
little with Gorakhpur, and allowed it to be controlled entirely by the 
native Rajas. 

After Saadat All's accession, however, a firmer grasp of the 
District was taken; and in 1750, a large army under All Kasim Khdn 
reduced it completely to submission. Even then the Muhammadan 
governor exercised no real power, and collected what revenue he 
could obtain through the Rdjas, who carried on war amongst themselves 
as they pleased. At the middle of the iSth century, the Banjaras 
had become a perfect scourge to the District. They first appeared 
from the west about 1725; but thirty years later, united under able 
leaders, they were formidable enough to contend with chiefs like the 
Raja of Bdnsi. They kept the eastern pargands in a constant state of 
terror, and weakened the power of the Rajds so greatly that the latter 
could no longer resist the fiscal exactions of the Oudh ofiicials, who 
plundered and ravaged the country to an extent which they had never 
ventured to attempt in its more independent days. After the battle of 
Baxar in 1764, a British officer received command of the Nawib's 
troops, and was instructed to collect the taxes of Gorakhpur ; but all 
he could do was to sub-let the collection to native revenue farmers, 
who rack-rented the cultivators in a merciless manner. The District 
formed part of the territory ceded by Oudh to the British under the 


treaty of iSoi ; and an officer was immediately put in charge of the 
country now divided between the Districts of Gorakhpur, Azamgarh, 
and Basti. 

Efforts were made to bring this extensive region under a firmly- 
organized Government, and the revenue was reduced from time to 
time, to meet the needs of the landholders. An invasion of the 
Nepdlis in 181 3 was successfully repulsed ; and the District was happily 
free from the incidents of history until the Mutiny of 1857. It was 
then lost for a short time at the beginning of the disturbances, but soon 
after recovered by the aid of the friendly Gurkhas. Later on, in the 
month of August, the rebels under Muhammad Hassan occupied the 
whole District ; and it was not till the 6th of January 1858 that the 
Gurkhd, army under Jang Bahadur marched in and occupied Gorakhpur. 
Muhammad Hassan was then driven out of the city, and shortly after- 
wards the other rebels were expelled from the outlying /ar^a;za^, which 
once more passed under our rule. 

Population. — In 1853, the Gorakhpur Census returned the number of 
inhabitants at 1,816,390. By 1865 the figures had risen to 2,024,150, 
showing an increase of 207,760 persons, or 11 -4 per cent. In 1872, 
upon a reduced area, corresponding to the present District, there was an 
apparent falling off to 2,019,361, At the last Census, however, in 1881, 
the population was ascertained to be 2,617,120, showing an increase of 
597,759, or 29*6 per cent, in the nine years. The enumerations of 1872 
and 1881 are both calculated upon an area of 4598 square miles. 

The Census of the latter year disclosed a total of 2,617,120 persons, 
distributed among 7238 villages or towns, and inhabiting an aggregate of 
448,925 houses. These figures yield the following averages: — ^ Persons 
per square mile, 569; villages per square mile, 1*5 ; houses per square 
mile, 97 ; persons per village, 361 ; persons per house, 5*8. Classified 
according to sex, there were — males, 1,306,123 ; females, 1,310,997. In 
religion, Gorakhpur still retains for the most part the original creed of 
its Aryan conquerors. The Census shows a total of 2,354,915 Hindus, 
or 89-9 per cent., as against 261,196 Musalmans, or lo'i per cent. 
The District also contains 35 Sikhs, 41 Jews, and 933 Christians. The 
higher caste Hindus consist of 244,386 Brahmans, 90,266 Rajputs, 
and 97,005 Baniyds. The other respectable Hindu castes include — 
Kayasths or writers, forming an important element in the official class, 
27,272; Bhuinhars, landholders and cultivators, 27,802; Kurmi's, culti- 
vators, 149,812; Kachhis, cultivators, 150,186; Tambulfs, betel sellers, 
25,658; Telis, oil pressers and sellers, 73,042; Gadarids, shepherds, 
17)135 ; Nais, barbers, 35,591 ; Dhobi's, washermen, 37,974 ; Kumbhars, 
potters, 45,964; Lobars, blacksmiths, 47,803; Barhais, carpenters, 22,463 ; 
Kahars, domestic servants, palanquin-bearers, and agricultural labourers, 
102,653; Sonars, goldsmiths, 15,149. The inferior castes comprise — 

1 68 


Ahi'rs, agriculturists, 307,685 ; Chamars, leather dealers and labourers, 
the most numerous caste in the District, 326,205 ; Mallahs, boatmen, 
154,747; Kalwars, distillers, 30,806; Lonias, salt-makers and diggers, 
60,541; Pasis, palm-toddy sellers, 39,121; Bhars, cultivators and 
labourers, the modern representatives of the once dominant tribe of the 
country, 63,451. The Musalmdns consist of 260,708 Sunnis and 
488 Shias. 

South of Gorakhpur, and particularly along the Gogra, the country 
is densely inhabited, and the peasantry are comfortably housed, 
and as civilised as the inhabitants of the southern Districts ; but 
in the extreme north, where forests still abound, the people remain 
in a very backward condition, living in miserable huts, and being 
generally wilder, poorer, and more barbarous than the Doab tribes. 
The only trade in that part of the District is the through traffic from 
Nepal, and the roads are few and bad. The great density of popula- 
tion throughout renders the masses extremely poor, the standard of 
living low, and the margin of superfluity against evil times exceedingly 
narrow. There were 11 towns in 1881 with a population exceeding 
5000 souls — namely, Gorakhpur, 57,922; Barhaj, 11,715 ; Rudrapur, 
9843; Gora, 84S5 ; Lar, 7408; GoLA, 7193; Pania, 6642; Bans- 
GAON, 5873; Badhalgan'J, 5779; Majhauli, 5599; and Madanpur, 
5099. The aggregate urban population amounted to 131,549. 

The vast majority of the inhabitants are scattered over the country in 
small hamlets. Of the 7238 villages comprising the District, 3197 
contain less than two hundred inhabitants, 2741 from two to five 
hundred, 914 from five hundred to a thousand, 303 from one to two 
thousand, 55 from two to three thousand, 17 from three to five 
thousand, 9 from five to ten thousand, i from ten to fifteen thousand, 
and I upwards of fifty thousand inhabitants. Classified according 
to occupations, the Census Report returned the male population under 
the following six main groups : — Class (i) Professional, including all 
Government servants, civil and military, and the learned professions, 
9488 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 3830 ; 
(3) commercial, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 16,752 ; {4) 
agricultural and pastoral, 733,099 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 
40,694; (6) indefinite and unspecified (consisting of 23,138 general 
labourers, and 479,122 persons of unspecified occupation), 502,260. 

Village Covnnunities. — The villages in Gorakhpur exemplify each 
of the three usual Icnmes^pattiddri, with imperfect pattiddri^ zamin- 
ddri, and bhaydcMra ; but the village here has never assumed the 
same importance as a clearly separate unit which it possesses in the 
revenue system of other Districts. The bond of connection among 
the landholding classes was a feudal attachment to the Raja on whom 
they were dependent ; and village communities, in the sense of associa- 

GORAKJirUR. 169 

tions bound together by common proprietorship and residence in the 
same hamlet, were rare and of little imi)ortance. The various de- 
pendants and relatives of the Raja were at first obliged to live with their 
chief, in order to be constantly at hand for his defence ; and villages 
grew up around the fort or house of the Raja as soon as his following 
became too large to be accommodated within its walls. The more 
defined and customary unit in this District is the tappa or hundred, a 
sub-division of the pargand, which appears to have existed before the 
time of the Muhammadans. In many cases the tappas correspond 
with natural divisions formed by rivers or other physical features ; but 
very often they appear to be purely artificial, and probably represent the 
tract made over by a Raja to some one of his dependants on a feudal 
tenure. In consequence of this peculiarity, the earlier revenue settle- 
ments were not made by villages, but by taluks and tappas. The 
IMuhammadan divisions of chaklds and sarkdrs were never much known 
in Gorakhpur, as their revenue system did not fully develop itself under 
the imperfect and transitory administration which they maintained in 
this outlying dependency. The uniformity of British rule, however, is 
making itself felt in this respect. 

Agriculture. — Gorakhpur District contains a total cultivated area of 
2785 square miles, but there still remains a margin of 1171 square 
miles available for cultivation, most of which is now forest. The 
mode of tillage does not differ from that which prevails elsewhere 
throughout the great alluvial basin of the Ganges and its tributaries. 
There are two great harvests a year, in the autumn and in the spring. 
The khar'if or autumn crops are sown after the first rain in June, and 
gathered in October or November. They consist of cotton, rice, bdjra, 
jodr, moth, and other food-grains. The rali or spring crops are sown 
immediately after the autumn harvest, and reaped in March or April. 
They are mainly composed of wheat, barley, oats, peas, and other 
pulses. Manure is used, where it can be obtained, for both harvests. 
Spring and autumn crops are seldom taken off the same ground, but 
sometimes a plot of early rice is gathered in August, and a second crop 
sown in its place for the spring harvest. Owing to the heavy and long- 
continued rains at the foot of the Himdlayas, the country is often 
flooded, and the rati sowing delayed much later than in other Districts. 
A great part of the surface is so long inundated, that it yields no autumn 
crops at all, the spring seed being sown as soon as the water clears off. 
This flooded land, however, is rendered exceedingly fertile by the 
deposits which are left behind as the waters recede. The forests 
possess litde economical value. Wild honey is their chief product ; 
the Bhars contract to collect it, and sell it in the neighbouring towns. 
The trees used to be tapped for their gum, but this practice has been 
stopped since the forests passed into the hands of Government. Com- 


pared with the misrule and oppression which took place under the 
native Rajas and the JNIusalman revenue-farmers, the condition of the 
people is now vastly improved. 

The total male agricultural population of Gorakhpur in 1881 numbered 
731,365, cultivating an average of 2'44 acres each. The total agri- 
cultural population, however, dependent on the soil, amounted to 
2,276,514, or 86'99 per cent, of the District population. Of the 
total area of 4598 square miles, 4253 square miles are assessed 
for Government revenue. Of these, 2751 square miles are under 
cultivation, 866 square miles are cultivable, and 636 square miles 
are uncultivable waste. Total amount of Government assessment, 
including local rates and cesses on land, ;^ 199,835, or an average of 
2s. 3|d. per cultivated acre. Total amount of rental actually paid by 
cultivators, ;^45i,i79, or 5s. ofd. per cultivated acre. Wages and 
prices are still on the whole rather lower than in the Districts to the 
south of the Gogra ; but the construction of the Patna-Bahraich Railway 
will probably increase the demand for labour, besides equalizing the 
cost of necessaries. Coolies and unskilled hands receive from 2;^d. to 
3|d. a day ; agricultural labourers from 2\^. to 3d. ; bricklayers and 
carpenters from 6d. to 2s. Women get about one-fifth less than men, 
while children are paid one-half or one-third the wages of an adult. 
Prices ruled as follows in 1876: — Wheat, 24 sers per rupee, or 4s. 8d. 
per cwt. ; rice, 17 sers per rupee, or 6s. 7d. per cwt. ; jodr, 38 sers per 
rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; bdjra, 34 sers per rupee, or 3s. 4d. per cwt. 
Prices ranged higher in 1882-83, ^^^<^ ^^^ t'"'^^ returned in the official 
reports. Wheat, 19 se7-s per rupee, or 5s. iid. per cwt.; rice, from 19 
to 13^ se7-s per rupee, or from 5s. iid. to 8s. 4d. per cwt. ; Jodr, 30^ 
sers per rupee, or 3s. 8d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 23 J- sers per rupee, or 4s. gd. 
per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Gorakhpur, being a naturally moist and rainy 
District, suffers less from famine than most other portions of the great 
north-western plain. The distress in 1780 and 1783 did not seriously 
affect the Districts beyond the Gogra. In 1803 the rice harvest 
failed, and the spring crops were endangered, but rain fell in September, 
and the scarcity was never very severe. The next great famine, in 
1837-38, was most heavily felt in the Upper Doab and Bundelkhand, 
and did not seriously attack Gorakhpur. The District suffered some- 
what, however, in the dearth of 1S60-61, when, under the pressure of 
want, crimes against property became twice as numerous as in ordinary 
years. In 1873-74 the drought extended to the Districts of Gorakhpur 
and Basti, and it became necessary to establish relief svorks in the 
spring of 1874. The rains shortly afterwards put an end to the 
distress, and the relief measures were at once discontinued. 

Commerce arid Trade, etc. — The commerce of Gorakhpur is chiefly 

GORAKIirUR. 171 

confined to the export of agricultural produce ; but there is a small 
amount of through traffic with Nepal. Barhaj is the principal mart of 
the District. In the north, the trade in rice and pepper is considerable, 
and that in timber, iron, and copper is large and increasing. The 
means of communication are still imperfectly developed. No railroad 
passes through the District, and the nearest railway stations are at 
Faizdbad (Fyzabdd) (80 miles), Akbarpur (68 miles), or Zamdnia (76 
miles). A good metalled road runs due south from Gorakhpur to Benares 
via Barhalganj, with a length of 36 miles in this District. It is carried 
over the depression of the Amiyar and Bigra lakes by an embankment 
3 miles long, kno\yn as the Tucker bandh, flanked with solid masonry, 
and having four considerable bridges on its line. Another metalled 
road leads from Gorakhpur to Basti and Faizabad, with a length of 15 
miles in this District. There are 910 miles of unmetalled road, of 
which 527 are raised and bridged throughout. The Rapti is navigable 
for country boats, which convey a large amount of grain and timber 
into the Gogra, and thence down to the Ganges. The Gogra itself 
receives a considerable quantity of grain from Barhaj and Barhalganj 
for the Ganges ports. Rafts of timber are floated down the fierce and 
dangerous channel of the Great Gandak from Nepal, besides grain and 
sugar from this District. 

Adminisiration. — The local staff generally consists of a Collector- 
Magistrate, 2 Joint Magistrates, and i Deputy, besides the usual 
fiscal, medical, and constabulary establishments. The whole amount 
of revenue — imperial, municipal, and local — raised in the District in 
1876 was ;!£"227,738, being at the rate of 2s. 2|d. per head of the 
population. In 1880-81, the gross imperial revenue was returned at 
;^2ii,225. A new settlement of the land revenue was commenced in 
1859 and completed in 1871. The land-tax in 1876 produced a total 
sum of ;!^i68,o7i, and in 1881-82, ^170,171. In 18S0, the total 
strength of the regular police force amounted to 78S officers and men, 
including 162 municipal or town police ; while the cost of their 
maintenance was returned at ^^8953, of which the State contributed 
;j^8i2o, and local funds ^833. These figures give an average of i 
policeman to every 5-8 square miles of area and every 3334 of the 
population, maintained at a rate of j£\, 19s. 2d. per square mile, or 
less than id. per head of the inhabitants. The regular force was 
supplemented by a rural body of 229S \-\\\OigQ -wzichmen {c/iauk'idars). 
The District jail contained in 1880 a daily average of 584 prisoners, 
of whom 529 were males and 55 females. There are 18 imperial 
and 19 local post-offices in the District, but no telegraph station. 
Education was carried on in 18S0 by means of 8592 inspected 
schools, with a total roll of 8592 pupils. Fifteen of these were girls' 
schools. There are also numerous uninspected private schools for 


which no statistics are available ; and the Census Report returned 
20,291 boys and 278 girls as under instruction in 1881, and 47,653 
males and 10S7 females as able to read and write, but not under 
instruction. For fiscal purposes, Gorakhpur is sub-divided into 6 tahsils 
and 1 2 pargands. 

Sanitary Aspects. — The District is not subject to very intense heat, 
being secured from extremes by its vicinity to the hills, and by the 
moisture of its soil. Dust storms are rare, and cool breezes from the 
north, rushing down the gorges of the Himalayas, succeed each interval 
of very hot weather. The climate is, however, relaxing, and there is no 
bracing cold. The southern and eastern portions, where the jungle has 
been cleared, is as healthy as most parts of the Province ; but the tardi 
and the forest tracts are still subject to malaria. The average rainfall for 
a period of 30 years ending 18S1 was 48 •68 inches; the maximum was 
60 inches in 1861, and the minimum 25 inches in 1868. In 1881, the 
total rainfall was 5o"88 inches, or 2-20 inches above the average. The 
mean monthly temperature in the shade was 77° F. in 1870, and 76° in 
187 1; the extreme range was from 6i°in January to 9o°in June. The total 
number of deaths reported in 1S80 was 72,133, or 19-8 per thousand of 
the population. There are 6 charitable dispensaries in the District — at 
Gorakhpur, Rudarpur, Kasia, Barhalganj, Bela Haria, and Maharajganj. 
In 1882 they afforded relief to a total number of 50,126 patients, of 
whom 953 were in-door and 49,686 were out-door patients. [For further 
information regarding Gorakhpur District, see the Gazetteer of the 
North- Western Provinces, vol. vi. (Government Press, Allahabad, 1881) ; 
Settlement Reports, by various officers between 1861 and 1863. (A 
fresh Survey and Settlement of the District was sanctioned by Govern- 
ment in April 1883, although the present settlement does not expire 
till 1889.) Also the North- Western Provinces Census Report for i88i,' 
and the Provincial and Departmental Administration Reports from 
1 88 1 to 1883.] 

Gorakhpur. — Central tahsil of Gorakhpur District, North-Western 
Provinces; traversed by the river Rapti, and consisting throughout of 
a level plain. Area, 654 square miles, of which 379 are cultivated; 
population (1872) 330,886; (1881) 416,293, namely, males 208,878, 
and females 207,415, showing an increase of 85,407 in nine years. 
Land revenue (at time of settlement), ^^25,923 ; total Government 
revenue, ;j^28,426 ; rental paid by cultivators, ^62,021. In 1883, the 
tahsil (including head-quarters) contained 3 civil and i r criminal 
courts. Number of police circles {f hands), 3 ; strength of regular police, 
47 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 277. 

Gorakhpur. — City, municipality, and administrative head-quarters 
of Gorakhpur District, North-Western Provinces, situated on the river 
Ripti, about the centre of the District, in lat. 26° 44' S' x., long. 83° 23' 


44" E. Population (1872) 51,117; (iSSi) 57,922, namely, males 28,730, 
and females 29,192. Hindus numbered 37,710; Muhammadans, 
20,031; Christians, 125; and 'others,' 56. Area of town site, 746 
acres. Founded about 1400 a.d., on the site of a more ancient 
city. For early history and Mutiny narrative, see Gorakhpur 
District. Head-quarters of a civil and sessions judge ; District jail ; 
usual administrative offices. Considerable trade in grain and timber, 
sent down the Rapti to the Gogra and the Ganges. Government 
charitable dispensary. Municipal revenue in 1S81, ;;^4905 ; from 
taxes, ^^4466, or is. 6\d. per head of population. 

Gorhjhamar. — Town in Rehli tahsi/, Sagar District, Central Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2498; namely, Hindus, 2063; Kabirpanthis, 56; 
Satnamis, 52 ; Muhammadans, 108 ; and aborigines (by religion), 9. 

Gori-bidniir. — lliluk in Kolar District, Mysore State. Area, 150 
square miles; population (1881) 27,708, namely, 14,211 males and 
13,497 females. Hindus numbered 26,916; and Muhammadans, 792 
Soil loose and fertile, with water easily procurable below the surface 
Products — cocoa-nut and areca-nut, sugar-cane, rice, and turmeric. Tht 
taluk contains 2 civil and 7 criminal courts; regular police, 47 men 
village watch (chmikiddrs), 298. Land revenue (1883), ;,/^i 2,738. 

Gori-bidniir. — Village in Kolar District, Mysore State. Lies on the 
left bank of the North Pinakini river, 56 miles north-west of Koldr. 
Lat. 13° 37' N., long. 77° 32' 50" E. ; population (1881) 1392. 
Ancient town with a legendary history connecting with that of the 
Mahdbhdraia. Head-quarters of the taluk of Gori-bidniir. 

Gorigangd. — River in Kumaun District, North-Western Provinces ; 
one of the headwaters of the Gogra. Rises from a glacier about 12 miles 
south of the Unth or Unta Dhara Pass, at an elevation of 11,543 feet 
above sea-level ; runs in a perpetual cascade for 60 miles down the 
mountain valleys ; and joins the Kali in lat. 29° 45' N.,long. 80° 25' e., 
at a height of 1972 feet above sea-level. 

Gorinda Parsandan. — Pargand of Unao District, Oudh. A small 
J}a?-ga?id, formerly a waste and jungle tract used by Ahirs as grazing 
ground for their flocks and herds. Said to have been first cleared 
about 500 years ago by a Brdhman and a Kayasth. Area, 44 square 
miles, of which 25 are cultivated. Government land revenue, ^3434, 
or an average of 2s. i^d. per acre. Land is held under the following 
tenures: — Tdlukddri, 3492 acres; puk/itdddri, 504 acres; zam'niddri, 
8775 acres; pattiddri, 15,281 acres. Population (1881) 20,987, 
namely, 10,938 males and 10,049 females. Number of villages, 62 ; 
average density of population, 495 per square mile. 

Gosainganj. — Town in Lucknow District, Oudh ; 14 miles from 
Lucknow city, on the road to Sultanpur. Founded by Raja Himmat 
Gir Gosain, in the reign of the Nawab Shuja-ud-daula, in 1754. The 


Raja commanded a force of looo Rajpur cavalry, and held the par^and 
of Amethi in ja^if for the pay of the troops. On building the town 
and his fort, the extensive ruins of which are still in existence, he 
transferred the head-quarters of the pargana hither, and altered the 
name of the pargand to that of the town. His power must have been 
considerable, for on one occasion, when the Nawdb was flying before 
the English after the battle of Baxar, the Gosain refused him admission 
and shelter within the walls of his fort. On the conclusion of peace 
between the Nawab and the English, however, the Raja found it 
expedient to leave the place, and retire to his native village near 
Hardwar, where a small j'dgir was granted him by the British. The 
population of Gosainganj in 1881 amounted to 2923, almost ex- 
clusively Hindus, dwelling in 596 houses. The town is clean and well 
kept, with a conservancy establishment maintained by levy of a house- 
tax. Gosainganj has always been noted as a flourishing market town, 
and a brisk local trade is carried on. It has the advantage of direct 
communication with Lucknow and Cawnpur by a road connecting 
it with the Cawnpur imperial road at Bani bridge on the left bank 
of the Sai. This road is the great outlet for country produce, and 
in turn conveys to Gosainganj European piece-goods and articles 
of English manufacture. Annual value of sales in the market are 
estimated at ;j^i9,i5o. Two religious festivals in the year are held in 
honour of the local goddess, each attended by about 5000 people, 
at which some trade is carried on. Two mosques, and one or two 
small Sivaite temples ; police station ; Government school. 

Gosainganj. — Town in Faizabad District, Oudh. — See Ahankari- 


Gostanadi (Go-sfdni-nadI, ' River of the Cow's Udder '). — River in 
Godavari District, Madras Presidency. An important stream, which 
has been converted into a useful navigable irrigation channel by the 
Godavari engineers. Its waters are considered sacred by the Hindus. 

Gosthani {Champavati or Koiiddd). — River rising in Gajapatinagar 
tdluk^ Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency ; flows south-east for 
48 miles till it enters the sea at Konada. Principal villages, Gaja- 
patinagar and Andhra. 

Gotardi. — Petty State of Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
\\ square mile. There are four shareholders. Revenue in 1881 
estimated at j[^\2 ; tribute of ^42 payable to the Gaekwdr of Baroda. 

Govindgarh. — A fortress lying north-west of the city of Amritsar, 
Punjab, at a short distance from the walls. Lat. 31° 40' N., long. 74° 
45' E. Built by Ranji't Singh in 1809, nominally for the protection 
of pilgrims to the holy city of the Sikhs, but really to overawe their 
tumultuous assemblage. Now garrisoned by a portion of a battery of 
artillery and a company of British infantry. 


Govindpur. — Sub-division of Mdnbhiim District, Chutia Nagpur, 
Bengal ; lying between 23° 38' and 24° 3' 30" n. lat., and between 80° 
9' 15" and 86° 52' 15" e. long. Area, 803 square miles; number of 
villages and towns, 1781 ; houses, 31,189. Population (1881) 196,584, 
namely, males 97,992, and females 98,592. Hindus numbered 
151,888; Muhammadans, 14,684; Christians, 70; Brahmos, 3; 
Santals, 12,597; Kols, 480; other aboriginal tribes and unspecified, 
16,862. Average density of population, 245 per square mile; towns 
or villages per square mile, 2-22 ; houses per square mile, 40^36 ; 
persons per village, no; persons per house, 6-30. The Sub-division 
comprises the four t/idnds or police circles of Govindpur, Jharia, Nirsha, 
and Topchanchi. It contained in 1883, i civil, i revenue, and 2 
criminal courts. The sub-divisional officer has the powers of a magis- 
trate of the first class ; and an honorary magistrate, the zaminddr of 
Jharia, exercises third-class magisterial powers. The regular police 
consists of a force of 83 officers and men ; there is also a force of 681 
chaukiddrs or village watchmen, and 83 gJidhvdls, holding lands rent- 
free in return for police service. 

Gowhatty. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Kamriip 
District, Assam. — See Gauhati. 

Gramang. — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab. Lat. 31° 33' n., 
long. 78° 33' E. ; lies in the valley of Tidang, on the banks of a river 
bearing the same name, which flows with a violent course down the 
rapid descent. Well-built, neatly laid out, and intersected with water- 
courses. The neighbourhood contains an immense number of temples, 
shrines, and other sacred buildings, devoted to the religious exercises 
of the Buddhist monks and nuns who inhabit the village. Elevation 
above sea-level, 9174 feet. 

Guasuba. — River in Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal ; one of 
the principal arms of the Ganges, falling into the sea in lat. 21° 38' 
N., long. 88° 54' E. Although of considerable size, it is the most 
difficult river to enter of any on the coast, on account of a bending 
channel at its mouth. A vessel entering it must bring the middle of 
the land on the east side of the river to bear north, and steer directly 
in for it till near shore ; she ought then to steer to the westward until 
close to Bangadunx island, whence the channel takes a fairly straight 
direction to the north. 

Gubbi. — Town in Tumkiir District, Mysore State; 13 miles by road 
west of Tiimkiir; head-quarters of the Kadaba idluk. Lat. 13° 18' 40" x., 
long. 76° 58' 30" E.; population (1881) 3793, namely, 3342 Hindus, 
401 Muhammadans, 40 Jains, and 10 Christians. Entrepot for the 
trade in areca-nut between the high lands of Mysore and \Vallajah-pet 
in North Arcot, and also for local traffic. Said to have been founded 
about 400 years ago by the gauda or chief of Hosahalli, the head of 


the tribe of Nonaba Wokligars. His descendant was dispossessed by 
Tipu Sultan, and the family are now ordinary cultivators, though their 
rank is acknowledged in their own tribe. Gubbi has suffered much 
from the antagonistic spirit prevailing between the rival trading castes 
of Komatis and Banajigas or Lingayats, and was once in danger of 
being entirely abandoned owing to their dissensions. There are fairs, 
both weekly and annual, frequented by merchants from great distances. 
Hie neighbourhood produces coarse cotton cloth (both white and 
coloured), blankets, sackcloth, woldgra areca-nut, cocoa-nut, jaggery- 
sugar, tamarind, capsicum, wheat, rice, vagi and other grains, lac, steel, 
and iron. Large imports are received in exchange for these articles, 
and Gubbi forms an intermediate mart for goods passing through the 
south of the peninsula in almost all directions. The local trade in 
areca-nut is estimated at 335 tons — value, ;^2i,84o; kopri or dry 
cocoa-nut, 134 tons — value, ^^3328 ; cotton cloth, ;z^i5oo. In addi- 
tion, areca-nut, pepper, and cardamoms are imported from Nagar and 
transmitted to Vellore and Wallajah-pet, whence nutmeg, mace, and 
European piece-goods are received in exchange. Sugar, sugar-candy, 
and silk from Bangalore are exchanged for cotton and thread from 

Giidaliir. — Pass in Travancore State, Madras Presidency ; crossed 
by the road from Madura to Travancore. Giidaliir village is situated 
in lat. 11° 9' N., and long. 77° E. 

Giidaliir. — Town in Nilgiri District, Madras Presidency ; situated 
at the foot of the Neduwatham ghat, on the road to Utakamand 
(Ootacamund), and at the junction of the main roads from Mysore 
and Malabar. Lat. 11° 30' n., long. 76° 34' E. The chief town of the 
Nambalakod flw^/;«w^ ; it contains 488 houses and 1796 inhabitants, 
according to the Census of 1881. Since 1850, Giidaliir has become 
the centre of the south-east Wainad coffee industry, and is a place of 
growing importance. A sub-magistrate, with a munsifs jurisdiction, is 
stationed here. There are also police and post offices. The transfer 
of this station and the surrounding country to the jurisdiction of 
Nilgiri District was carried out in 1877. 

Gudi^tham {Gooriathim). — Taluk in North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 446 square miles, with i town and 246 villages. 
Houses, 22,821 ; population (1881) 154,646, namely, 76,491 males and 
78,155 females. Hindus numbered 140,126; Muhammadans, 13,376; 
Christians, 11 38; and 'others,' 6. The taluk contains 2 criminal 
courts ; police stations {thdnds), 6 ; regular police, 65. Land revenue, 
;^2 2,772. The td/uk forms a long strip lying along the north bank of 
the Palar. Its length is nearly 50 miles, while its breadth averages 9 
miles. Crops — rice, kambu, and jodr. The maximum assessment 
on irrigated land for land revenue is ^i, los. per acre. The soil 


is rich in iron, lime, and building stone. There are 109 miles of roads. 
Chief town, Gudiatham. 

Gudidtham. — Town in North Arcot District, Madras Presidency ; 
situated on the Madras Railway, 75 miles west from Madras, 15 miles 
west from Vellore (Velur). Lies 3 miles north of the Paldr, and is 
bisected by the Kaundinia river. Lat. 12° 57' 20" n., long. 78° 54' 
40" E. It contains (1881) 1678 houses and 10,641 inhabitants, namely, 
8567 Hindus, 2060 Muhammadans, 8 Christians, and 6 'others.' 
Head-quarters of the taluk, with court, sub-jail, school, post and 
telegraph offices. Centre of a considerable weaving industry ; exports 
rice to Malabar. 

Gudibanda {'Temple Rock').—Tdliik in Kolar District, Mysore 
State. Area, 220 square miles; population (1881) 32,415, namely, 
16,324 males and 16,091 females. Hindus numbered 31,484; Muham- 
madans, 928; and Christians, 3. Land revenue (1874-75), exclusive 
of water rates, ^6864, or 2s. 2d. per cultivated acre. 

Gudibanda. — Village and head-quarters of Gudibanda taluk, in 
Kolar District, Mysore State ; 55 miles north-west of Kolar, Lat. 13^ 
41' N., long. 77° 44' 35" E. ; population (188 1) 1788. Situated at the 
foot of a rock, crowned by fortifications, with a temple on the summit ; 
residence of a local chief during the 17th century. 

Gudiwara. — Tdluk in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. Area, 
596 square miles, with 203 villages; houses, 16,488 ; population (1881) 
99,233, namely, 50,346 males and 48,887 females. Hindus num- 
bered 94,446; Muhammadans, 3072; Christians, 1706; and 'others,' 9, 
The tdluk is a deltaic tract lying to the north of Masulipatam, and 
comprising a great portion of the curious depression called the KoUeru 
lake (see Kolleru), It contains 2 criminal courts ; police circles 
{ihdtrds), 11 ; regular police, 137 men. Land revenue, ;^42,422. 

Gudiwara. — Village in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. Popu- 
lation (1881) 4041. Lies about 20 miles from Masulipatam. A place 
of great antiquity, with the remains of a Buddhist stupa in the middle 
of the village. 

Gudlir. — Tdluk in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Area, 910 
square miles, containing i town and 163 villages; houses, 24,239; 
population (1881) 125,453, namely, 63,789 males and 61,664 females. 
Hindus numbered 119,858; Muhammadans, 5439; Christians, 149; 
and ' others,' 7. The tdluk contains 2 criminal courts ; police circles 
{tlidnds), 12 ; regular police, 93 men. Land revenue, ^31,458. Chief 
town, GuDUR. 

Glidlir. — Town in Nellore District, Madras Presidency ; situated on 
the Great Northern Trunk Road, about 23 miles south of Nellore 
town. Lat. 14° 8' 43" x., long. 79° 53' 30" e. It contains (1881) 
1093 houses and 4862 inhabitants, namely, 4276 Hindus, 520 Muham- 

VOL. v. M 


madans, and 66 Christians, The head-quarters of the Gudiir taluk, 
with the usual courts, sub-jail, post-office, poUce station, travellers' 
bungalow, and good caminng ground. 

Gudiir. — Town in Karnul (Kurnool) District, Madras Presidency ; 
situated about 19 miles north-west of Karnul town, with which it is 
connected by a newly-made road. Lat. 15° 43' n., long. 78° 34' 40" e. 
It contains (1881) 822 houses, and a population of 3547, namely, 2704 
Hindus, 746 Muhammadans, and 97 Christians. Formerly the head- 
quarters of a taluk. The town is of no importance, except for its 
cotton cloth, in the manufacture of which a large section of the 
population is employed. There is also a small silk-weaving business. 

Gugera {Gugaira). — Northern tahsil of Montgomery District, 
Punjab ; stretching on either side of the Ravi, and consisting for the 
most part of a dry and barren waste, with a narrow strip of cultivation 
along the river bank. Area, 1498 square miles. Population (1881) 
99,200, namely, males 53,863, and females 45,337 ; average density, 
66 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, there 
were — Muhammadans, 81,609; Hindus, 14,527; and Sikhs, 3064. 
The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr. One civil and i 
criminal court, with 6 police circles {thdnds) ; strength of regular 
police, 57 men, with 239 village watchmen {chaukiddrs). 

Gugera. — Town in Montgomery District, Punjab, and head-quarters 
of Gugera tahsil ; situated on the high southern bank of the Ravi, 30 
miles north-east of Montgomery. Lat. 30° 58' n., long. 73° 21' e. 
Formerly the head-quarters of the District, but abandoned in favour of 
Montgomery on the opening of the Lahore and Miiltan (Mooltan) 
Railway in 1864. Since that time the town has declined in population 
and importance, and has now little claim to notice. Tahsili, police 

Guindy {Kindi). — Village in Chengalpat District, and a suburb 
of Madras city, 4 miles south-west. Lat. 13° N., long. 80° 16' E. 
The country house and park of the Governor of i\Ladras are at 
Guindy. The Government farm and School of Agriculture are at 
Roshanbdgh Jail. 

Gujainli. — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab, on the road from 
Kotkai to the Burinda Pass. Inhabited by a mining population, who 
extract and smelt the iron-ore of the neighbouring hills. Lat. 31° 8'n., 
long. 77° 42' E. 

Glijar Khan. — South-eastern /^//j// of Rawal Pindi District, Punjab, 
lying some 20 miles south of the Marri (Murree) 'Hills ; situated between 
33° 4' and 33° 26' N. lat., and between 72" 59' and 73"" 39' 30" e. long. 
Area, 565 square miles; population (18S1) 133,396, namely, males 
68,163, ^^^ females 65,233 ; average density, 236 jjersons per square 
mile. The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and a munsif, 


who preside over i criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police 
circles {thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular police, 5 7 men ; village watch- 
men {c/iaukiddrs), 239. 

Gujardt {Guzerdt). — The name given to the northern maritime 
Province of the Bombay Presidency, extending from 20° to 24° 45' N. 
latitude, and from 69" to 74° 20' e. longitude. It includes the 
peninsula of Kathiawar, and is bounded on the north by Rajputana, on 
the cast by the spurs of the Vindhya and Satpurd. ranges, on the south 
by the Konkan, and on the west by the sea. On the mainland, it 
comprises the British Districts of Surat, Broach, Kaira, Panch 
Mahals, and Ahmadabad, with a total area of 10,158 square miles, 
and a population (1881) of 2,857,731 ; together with the scattered 
territories of the Gaekwar of Baroda, the Native States of Kathidwdr, 
the Mahi Kantha and Rewa Kantha Agencies, the States of 
the Palanpur Superintendency, the States of Cutch, Cambay, and 
Narukot, and the States under the Surat Agency (Bansda, Dharampur, 
and Sachin), with a total area of 59,880 square miles, and a population 
(i88i) of 6,922,049 ; grand total area for Gujarat, 70,038 square miles ; 
grand total population (1881) 9,779,780, or more than one-half the 
population of the Bombay Presidency. The term Gujarat is sometimes 
employed to exclude the peninsula of Kathidwar, with its 180 petty 
States. Total area, exclusive of the peninsula of Kathiawdr, 41,536 
square miles. For an account of the history, geography, etc. of Gujarat, 
the reader is referred to the articles on the various States and Districts 
mentioned above. Gujarat gives its name to the vernacular of Northern 
Bombay, viz. Gujarati, which forms one of the three great languages 
of that Presidency ; the other two being Kanarese on the south coast, 
and Marathi in the central and southern regions. 

Gujranwala. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the 
Punjab, lying between 31° 32' and 32° 33' n. lat., and between 73° 11' 
30" and 74° 28' 15" E. long. Gujranwala is the north-western 
District of the Lahore Division. It is bounded on the north-west by 
the river Chenab, which separates it from Gujrat and Shahpur ; on 
the south and south-east by the Districts of Jhang, Montgomery, and 
Lahore ; and on the east by the District of Sidlkot. Area, 2587 square 
miles; population (1881) 616,892. The administrative head-quarters 
are at the town of Gujranwala. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Gujrdnwdla forms the central 
portion of the Rechna Doab, intermediate between the fertile sub- 
montane plains of Sialkot and the desert expanses of Jhang. It 
displays, accordingly, all the transition stages by which the rich silt of 
the lower Himalayan slopes merges into the waterless level character- 
istic of North-Westem India. On the northern frontier, a belt of 
alluvial land, some 2 to 6 miles in breadth, fringes the Chendb 

I So 


throughout its course, and marks the wider valley within which the 
river has now and again shifted its uncertain channel. This low- 
lying strip is bounded on the south by a steep bank, whence the 
central uplands rise at once to the general level, which they maintain 
across the whole Doab. For lo miles from the river-bed, the influence 
of the water is felt in all the wells ; but beyond that line, the country 
becomes entirely dependent upon the rainfall for its harvest. The 
eastern portion of the plateau, bordering on Sialkot, has a rich soil, 
with accessible water, and is quite equal in productive power to the 
country immediately above it ; the villages here lie close together, 
while the people are careful and industrious cultivators. 

Receding from the hills, the soil becomes harder and drier, the water 
is hidden at greater depths, and the villages begin to lie farther apart. 
At last, in the extreme south, we reach the desolate table-land known 
as the bd)\ a flat expanse of seemingly barren land, covered with 
low jungle, and only covered by grass after the rainy season has brought 
out the natural fertility of its thirsty soil. On its southern border 
the bar assumes its worst characteristics, and passes slowly into the 
utter desert of J hang. Even here, however, a few large marshes are 
to be found, whose stagnant waters serve as the last resource of cattle 
in seasons of drought. In the south-east corner of the District, the 
little river Degh irrigates and fertilizes a tiny valley of its own, which 
its annual inundations supply with a rich deposit of loam. Two or 
three minor watercourses carry off the surface drainage into the Degh 
or the Chenab, and are used for purposes of irrigation in the villages 
through which they pass. The District is very bare of trees, having 
little timber except the scrubby brushwood of the bar, which is only 
useful for firewood. Its scenery is everywhere tame, and in the central 
plateau becomes tediously monotonous. Yet it would be possible, by 
means of an extensive irrigation system, to raise the productiveness of 
the driest parts to as high a level as that now attained by the most 
fertile portions of the northern slope. 

History. — The District of Gujranwala is essentially a modern creation, 
alike in its boundaries, its population, and its principal towns ; yet it 
can claim important relics of the past, constructed during an early 
period of prosperity, which is completely separated from its later annals 
by a comparative blank. It seems likely, indeed, that the District once 
contained the capital of the Punjab, at an epoch when Lahore had not 
yet begun to exist. We learn from the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, 
Hwen Thsang, that about the year 630 he visited a town known as 
Tse-kia (or Taki), the metropolis of the whole country of the Five 
Rivers. The site of this town has been identified by General Cunning- 
ham with a mound near the modern village of Asarur in this District, 
where immense ruins of Buddhist origin arc still to be seen, 'i'heir 


date is marked by the discovery of coins, as well as by the great si/c 
of the bricks, which is characteristic of the period in which they were 
constructed. After the time of Hwen Thsang, we know as little of 
Gujranwdla as of Indian Districts generally, until the Muhammadan 
invasions brought back regular chronological history. Meanwhile, 
however, Taki had fallen into oblivion, and Lahore had become the 
chief city of the Punjab. 

Under Muhammadan rule, the District flourished. From the 
days of Akbar to those of Aurangzeb, wells were scattered over 
the whole country, and villages lay thickly dotted about the southern 
plateau, now a barren waste of grass land and scrub jungle. Their 
remains may still be found in the wildest and most solitary reaches 
of the bar. Eminabad and Hafizabad were the chief towns, while 
the country vi^as divided into 6 well-tilled pargands. But before 
the close of the Muhammadan period, a mysterious depopulation 
fell upon this tract, the reasons of which are even now by no 
means clear. The tribes at present occupying the District are all 
immigrants of recent date, and before their advent the whole region 
seems for a time to have been almost entirely abandoned. Indeed, 
there is reason to think that most of the occupying clans have not held 
villages in the District for more than sixty years, and that previously 
their ancestors were nomad graziers in the ruined plain of the bar. The 
only plausible conjecture to account for this sudden and disastrous 
change is that of the settlement officers, who regard it as a simple result 
of the constant wars by which the Punjab was convulsed during the last 
years of Muhammadan supremacy. 

On the Sikh reaction, the waste plains of Gujranwala were seized 
by the military adventurers who then sprang up. Charat Singh, the 
grandfather of the great Maharaja Ranjit Singh, took possession of 
the village of Gujranwala, then an inconsiderable hamlet, and made it 
the head-quarters of himself and his son and grandson. Minor Sikh 
chieftains settled at Wazirabad, Shekhupura, and other towns ; while 
in the western portion of the District, the Rajput Bhattis and Chattahs 
maintained a sturdy independence. In the end, however, Ranjit Singh 
succeeded in bringing all the scattered portions of the District under 
his own power. The great Maharaja was himself born at Gujrdnwala, 
and the town continued to be his capital up to his occupation of 
Lahore. The Sikh rule, which was elsewhere so disastrous, appears to 
have been an unmitigated benefit to Gujranwala. Ranjit Singh settled 
large colonies in the various villages, and was very successful in en- 
couraging cultivation throughout the depopulated plain of the bar. 
In the Degh valley, especially, he planted a body of hard-working 
Hindus, the Labanas, to whom he granted the land at a nominal rent, 
on condition that each cultivator should break u]) and bring under 


tillage the ground allotted to him. On the other hand, the paternal 
rule of the Maharaja is said to have unfitted the people for self-reliant 
exertion under a more liberal regime. 

In 1847 the District came under British influence, in connection 
with the regency at Lahore; and two years later, in 1849, it was 
included in the territory annexed after the second Sikh war. It 
formed a part originally of the extensive District of Wazi'rabdd, 
which comprised the whole upper portion of the Rechna Doab. 
In 1852, this unwieldy territory was sub-divided between Gujranwala 
and Sialkot. The present District, as then constituted, stretched 
across the entire plateau, from the Chenab to the Ravi ; but in 
1853, the south-eastern fringe, consisting of 303 villages, was trans- 
ferred to Lahore ; and three years later, a second batch of 324 villages 
was similarly handed over to the same District. Since that time 
Gujranwala has enjoyed an immunity from the catastrophes of history, 
with the exception of the events of 1857, which, however, are in it more 
properly connected with the general annals of India than with the 
records of a single tract. Under Sikh and British rule, the relative 
importance of the various towns has been completely revolutionized ; 
Gujranwala and Wazirabad have risen to the first place in wealth and 
populousness, while the older cities have declined into mere villages. 
In the early days of British rule, there was a considerable military 
cantonment at Wazirabad. The only remains of it now visible are two 
European cemeteries. 

Population. — Owing to the large transfers of territory between 
this District and Lahore, it is impossible to employ the statistics 
afforded by the Census of 1855 for purposes of direct comparison ; but 
there is reason to believe that the total increase in the population of 
the District, as at present constituted, between 1855 and 1868, 
amounted to 63,420, or i3'oi per cent. The enumeration in the 
latter year disclosed a population of 550,922 on the area corre- 
sponding to the present District. In t88i the Census returned 
the population at 616,892, showing an increase of 65,970, or 11 -8 per 
cent., in thirteen years. The details of the enumeration of 1881 may 
be thus summarized — Area of District, 2587 square miles, with 
10 towns and 1186 villages; number of houses, 118,158, of which 
88,571 were occupied and 29,587 unoccupied. Total population, 
616,892, namely, males 333,605, and females 283,287; number of 
families, 124,492. These figures yield the following averages: — 
Persons per square mile, 238; villages per square mile, 0-46; persons 
per village, 518; houses per square mile, 46; persons per house, 6-96. 
In religion the District is mainly Muhammadan, though the Hindu 
element is much stronger here than in the border region to the north- 
west. The Census shows the following numbers and percentages : — 


Musalmdns, 452,640, or 73"3 percent.; Hindus, 127,322, or 20"6 per 
cent. ; Sikhs, 36,159, or 5-8 per cent. ; Jains, 577 ; and Christians, 194. 

As regards the ethnical division and caste distinctions of the people, 
the Brahnians number i8,oSo, a few of whom are employed in agri- 
culture or commerce, while the greater part maintain themselves by 
the exercise of their priestly functions. With the exception of 25 
returned as Muhammadans, they are all Hindus or Sikhs. The 
Khattris (21,301) and Aroras (30,079), both Hindus by creed, are 
the chief mercantile tribes. They also hold respectively 49 and 4 
villages in the District, their landed property having been generally 
acquired by recent purchase. The Baniyds are only represented by 160 
persons, as their usual functions of bankers and money-lenders are here 
usurped by the Khattris and Aroras. The Jats (or Jats, as they are 
locally called) number in all 173,979 persons, or 28-3 percent, of the 
whole population. Farther north, their fellow-tribesmen have almost 
universally abandoned the Hindu creed — with its caste exclusiveness 
and narrow restrictions which press so heavily on the inferior classes — 
in favour of the comparative equality offered by Islam ; but in Gujran- 
wala, more than one-sixth of the tribe still retain their ancient faith, 
133,727 being returned as INIusalmans, while 23,373 are enumerated as 
Hindus. INIost of them lay claim to Rajput origin, a pedigree which is 
not improbable, as large clans of Jats appear to be composed of broken 
Rajput stocks. As elsewhere, they are industrious and cheerful 
cultivators, and they own no less than 549 villages. Some of the clans, 
however, still lead a nomad life in the wild pasture-lands of the bar. 
The Rajputs returned as such number 36,484, almost exclusively Mu- 
hammadans ; amongst whom the half-tamed Bhattis of the south-west 
form the principal sub-division. They are a pastoral tribe, who till 
only so much land as is absolutely requisite for their subsistence, and 
accumulate great wealth from the produce of their herds. The other 
Muhammadan tribes are Shaikhs (S557), Sayyids (6339), Mughals 
(827), Pathans (912), Baluchis (2800), Giijars (1986), Kashmiris 
(6186), Mirasis (12,224), ^^id Khwdjas (3458). 

The Census Report returned the following ten towns: — Gujranwala, 
22,884; Wazirabad, 16,462; Ramnagar, 6830; Eminarad, 5886; 
SoHDRA, 4464; Akalgarh, 43 1 2 ; PiNDi Bhati'ian, 3528; Kila 
DiDAR Singh, 2822; Hafizabad, 2453; and Jalalpur, 2353. These, 
figures show a total urban population of 71,994 persons, or ii-6 per 
cent, of the inhabitants. Of the 1196 towns and villages comprising 
the District, 371 contained less than two hundred inhabitants, 491 from 
two to five hundred, 197 from five hundred to a thousand, 74 from 
one to two thousand, 36 from two to three thousand, 23 from three to 
five thousand, 2 from five to ten thousand, and 2 upwards of ten 
thousand. Classified according to occupation, the Census returns the 


adult male population under the following seven groups : — (i) Profes- 
sional, 9575; (2) domestic, 17,139; (3) commercial, 5798; (4) agri- 
cultural, S6,oSi ; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 50,770; (6) indefinite 
and non-productive, 15,670; (7) unspecified, 15,518. The language in 
common use is Panjabi, but the townspeople and more intelligent 
peasants understand Urdu. 

Agriculture. — According to the returns for 1881, the total cultivated 
area of Gujranwala amounts to 611,812 acres, while the cultivable 
margin reaches the high figure of 697,457 acres, of which 379,844 acres 
were grazing land. The cultivated area in 1850-51 amounted to only 
424,184 acres, the increase of tillage during the thirty years being 44*2 
per cent. The staple crop of the District is wheat, which occupies 
one-third of the cultivated area. The principal agricultural products, 
with the extent occupied by each, were returned as follows in 
1S81-82 : — Rabi or spring harvest — wheat, 231,694 acres; barley, 
86,810 acres; gram, 22,770 acres; tobacco, 3947 acres; oil-seeds, 
9046 acres; vegetables, 13,134 acres: Kharif or autumn harvest — 
rice, 14,609 acres; jodr, 53,249 acres; bdjra, 3413 acres; Indian 
corn, 23,471 acres; pulses, 67,763 acres; oil-seeds, 7179 acres; 
cotton, 32,551 acres; sugar-cane, 20,934 acres; vegetables, 20,454 
acres. Of all these, the most valuable crop in proportion to its 
acreage is sugar-cane ; it is the most remunerative product grown 
in the District, and its cultivation is steadily increasing. Within 
the last few years, the out-turn of sugar has doubled, and all the 
irrigated land of the Wazirabad and Gujranwala pargands is now 
covered by waving fields of the green cane. Cotton was largely 
])roduced during the scarcity which followed the American war, 
but the cultivation has now shrunk once more to the normal 
demand for home consumption. The evergreen shrub niehtidi, 
from whose leaves a valuable scarlet dye, the henna of the East, is 
procured, forms an occasional crop in the District ; it might be grown 
in much larger quantities to advantage, but the development of this 
important industry is retarded by the superstition of the peasantry, 
who regard the plant as unlucky, and walk about in the constant dread 
of sudden death if they possess a patch of it in their holding. Irriga- 
tion is very general, as many as 368,246 acres being artificially watered 
from private works in 1882. Part of this area is supplied from the 
natural overflow of the Chendb and the Degh ; the remainder is 
irrigated by wells, or by Persian wheels in connection with natural and 
artificial ponds. The use of manure is also common, especially for the 
richer crops, such as sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, maize, and garden 
I)roducc, almost all of which also require copious watering and great 
attention. Wheat is likewise very generally manured. Rotation of 
crops, though still in its infancy, is partially practised. The land always 


receives at least two or three ploughings for each harvest ; in the case 
of the richer products, eight or ten are found necessary; while soil 
intended for sugar-cane is sometimes ploughed as many as sixteen 
times. The average out-turn of wheat per acre is 454 lbs., valued at 
13s. 4^d. ; that of sugar-cane is 61S lbs., valued at ;£\, i6s. 4|d. Most 
of the land is held under the tenure known as pattiddri, in which the 
rights and liabilities of sharers are regulated by ancestral or customary 
usage. Few of the tenants have acquired hereditary or occupancy 

Rents ruled as follows in 1SS1-S2, in accordance with the nature 
of the crop for which the soil is fitted : — Rice lands, from 6s. to 
I OS. ; cotton lands, from 8s. to los. ; sugar lands, from i6s. to ;!^i, 4s. ; 
wheat (irrigated), from 6s. to los. and (unirrigated) from 4s. to 6s. ; 
inferior grains (irrigated), from 4s. to 6s. and (unirrigated) from 2s. 
Agricultural labourers are universally paid in kind. Of a total area of 
25S7 square miles, 1992 square miles are assessed at a Government 
revenue, including cesses and rates levied upon land, of ;^56,955. 
Rental actually paid by cultivators, ;^i33,645. In the towns, wages 
ruled as follows in 18S2 : — Skilled labour, from 4|d. to gd. per diem ; 
unskilled labour, from 3|d. to 6d. per diem. On the ist January 
1883, the prices of food-grains were returned at the following rates: — 
Wheat, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; gram, 36 sers per rupee, 
or 3s. id. per cwt. ; Indian corn, 46 sers per rupee, or 2s. 5d. ptr 
cwt. ; jodr^ 48 sers per rupee, or 2s. 4d. per cwt. 

Cofiimerce and Trade, etc. — The trade of the District is purely 
local in its character. The only exports are agricultural produce, 
brass vessels, leathern bottles, and timber. The return trade con- 
sists of salt, iron, cattle, spices, and English piece-goods. Sugar, 
wheat, ghi, and wool are sent down the Chenab from Wazirabad, 
Ramnagar, and other water-side towns; land transport is chiefly effected 
by means of camels. The manufactures are almost confined to cotton 
and woollen fabrics for home consumption ; but the smiths of Wazir- 
abad have a good reputation for small cutlery and ornamental hardware, 
and several of them are very fair armourers and gunmakcrs. The 
principal religious fair is held at Uhonkal, at which it is calculated that 
200,000 persons assemble. As usual, business is largely mixed with 
the sacred character of the festival. The great channel of communi- 
cation is the Northern Punjab State Railway from Lahore to Peshawar, 
which runs through the District, with stations at Kamoki, Gujranwala, 
Ghakkar, and Wazirabad. The Grand Trunk Road, connecting the same 
places, traverses the District for a distance of 42 miles, metalled and 
bridged throughout. Of unmetalled roads, there are 1055 miles in 
Gujranwala, besides a number of local by-ways. The Chenab is navig- 
able throughout for country boats, the chief river marts being those of 


AVazirabad, Rdmnagar, and Mahanwala. A line of telegraph runs along 
the side of the Grand Trunk Road. 

Administration. — The ordinary civil staff of Gujrdnwala consists of a 
Deputy Commissioner, Assistant and extra - Assistant Commissioners, 
and three tahsUddrs, besides the usual medical and constabulary 
officials. In 1871 the revenue was returned at ;^53,56o, of which 
the amount contributed by the land-tax was ^44,352. The other 
principal items are stamps and excise. In 1881-82 the total revenue 
w^as ;!^56,6i2, of which the land-tax contributed ;!^49,295. The 
District contained in 1881-82, 15 civil or revenue and 23 magisterial 
courts. In the same year, the imperial police numbered 391 men of 
all ranks, besides 86 municipal constables. There was thus a total 
police force of 477 men, being i policeman to every 1293 of the popu- 
lation and to every 5*4 square miles of area. The regular force was 
supplemented by 1092 village watchmen or chaukiddrs. There is i jail 
in the District, the total number of prisoners in which was 1081 (daily 
average, 413) in 1870, and 1726 (daily average, 429) in 1881. Education 
is still unfortunately backward, the agricultural population especially 
having made no advance in their appreciation of its advantages. The 
total number of pupils on the rolls of the various schools amounted in 
1873 to 5818. In 1881, there were in all 92 schools inspected by the 
Education Department, attended by 4S96 pupils. Of these, 19 were 
girls' schools, attended by 571 pupils. The District is sub-divided into 
3 tahsils and 11 pargands^ containing an aggregate of 1291 villages, 
owned by 33,757 proprietors or coparceners. Average land revenue 
from each village, ;!^4i, os. iid. ; from each proprietor, ^^i, 9s. 3d. 
The regularly constituted municipalities in the District are those of 
Gujrdnwala, Wazirabad, Rdmnagar, Akalgarh, Jalalpur, Pindi Bhattian, 
Hafizabdd, Kila Didar Singh, Eminabad, and Sohdra. Their aggregate 
population in 18S1 amounted to 71,601 persons, and their aggregate 
revenue amounted to ^6676 in 1881-82, being at the rate of is. lo^d. 
per head of their inhabitants. 

Sanitary Aspects. — No statistics as to the temperature of Gujrdnwdla 
are available for any date later than the year 1867. Observations 
made at that time show that the mean monthly temperature ranged 
from 53° F. in January to 95° in June ; while the minimum and maximum 
readings for the same year were 20° and 120° respectively. The 
average rainfall for the twenty years ending in 1881 was 25*68 inches 
for the whole District. The rainfall in 1881 was 25-80 inches, or •12 
inch above the average. The prevalent diseases are intermittent fever 
and small-pox, the latter of which exists always in an endemic form. 
The total number of deaths recorded in iSSi amounted to 14,174, or 
20-I per thousand of the population ; Init these figures are probably 
below the truth. The towns are badly drained, and the urban death-rates 


are extremely high. The Government maintains 4 charitable dispensaries 
— at Gujranwala, Akdlgarh, Wazirabad, and Hafizabdd, which afforded 
relief in 18S1 to 376 in-door and 34,846 out-door patients. [For further 
details regarding Gujranwala District, see the Gujra media Gazetteer^ by 
D. J. H. Ibbetson, Esq. (Lahore, 1883); Settleinoit Report of the 
District, by Lieutenant R. P. Nisbet, 1868 ; the Punjab Census Report 
for 1881 ; the Punjab Pro7n7idal Administration Reports^ 1881 to 1883.] 
• Gujranwala. — Tahsil in Gujranwala District, Punjab ; situated 
between 31^ 49' and 32° 20' n. lat., and 74° 28' 15" and 75° 50' e. long. 
Area, 770 square miles. Population (1868) 222,549; (1881) 250,720, 
namely, males 135,258, and females 115,462; average density, 326 
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, there were : 
Muhammadans, 163,061; Hindus, 66,343; Sikhs, 20,644; and 'others,' 
672. The revenue of the tahsil in 1882-83 was ;^i 7,283. The 
administrative staff consisted of — i Deputy Commissioner, i Judicial 
Assistant, 3 Assistant and extra-Assistant Commissioners, i ta/isilddr, 
I inunsif, and 2 honorary magistrates. These officers preside over 8 civil 
and revenue and 8 criminal courts. The tahsil contains 3 police circles 
(thdnds), with 143 regular police and 502 village watchmen {chaukiddrs). 
Gujrdnwala. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of 
Gujranwala District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 9' 30" N., long. 74° 14' E. Lies 
on the Grand Trunk Road and Northern Punjab State Railway, 40 miles 
north of Lahore. Population (1868) 19,381; (1881) 22,884, namely, 
males 12,345, and females 10,539. Muhammadans numbered 11,820; 
Hindus, 91 14; Sikhs, 1396; Jains, 412; and 'others,' 141. Number 
of houses, 3747. The town is of modern creation, and owes 
its importance entirely to the father and grandfather of Mahdraja 
Ranji't Singh, whose capital it formed during the early period of the 
Sikh power. Ranjit Singh himself was born at Gujranwala, and made 
it his head-quarters until the establishment of his supremacy at Lahore. 
Large dwelling-houses of Sikh architecture line the main streets ; the 
minor lanes consist of tortuous alleys, often ending in culs-de-sac. The 
town lies in a plain of dead level, destitute of natural drainage ; and its 
sanitary condition has called forth severe comments. Mausoleum to 
Mahan Singh, father of Ranjit Singh; lofty cupola covering a portion 
of the ashes of the great Maharaja himself. The civil station lies a 
mile south-east of the native town, from which it is separated by 
the Grand Trunk Road and the railway line. It contains the 
court-house, treasury, jail, dispensary, post-office, staging bungalow, 
and church. Trade in local produce only; small manufactures 
of country wares, including brass vessels, jewellery, shawl edgings, 
and silk and cotton scarves. Municipal revenue in 1875-76, ^3554 ; 
in 1882-83, ^4749, or an average of 4s. 3id. per head of the 

1 88 GUJRAT. 

Gujrat. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab, 
lying between 32° 10' and 33° N. lat., and between 73° 20' and 74° 33' 
E. long. Gujrat forms the easternmost District of the Rawal Pindi 
Division. It is bounded on the north-east by the Native State of 
Jammu or Kashmir, on the north-west by the river Jehlam (Jhelum), on 
the west by Shdhpur District, and on the south-east by the rivers Tavi 
and Chenab, separating it from the Districts of Sialkot and Gujranwala. 
Area, 1973 square miles; population (1881) 689,115 persons. The 
administrative head-quarters are at the town of Gujrat, 4 miles from 
the present bed of the Chenab. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Gujrat comprises a narrow wedge 
of sub-Himalayan plain country, enclosed between the boundary valleys 
of the Jehlam and the Chendb. The tract of land thus cut off 
possesses fewer natural advantages than any other portion of the sub- 
montane Punjab region. From the basin of the Chenab on the south, 
the general level of the country rises rapidly toward the interior, 
which, owing to the great depth of water below the surface, begins to 
assume a dreary and desert aspect almost from the very base of the 
great mountain chain itself. A range of low hills, known as the Pabbi, 
traverses the northern angle of Gujrat, commencing on the Jammu 
frontier, 5 miles below the town of Bhimbar, and passing south- 
westward in a direct line till it abuts upon the bank of the Jehlam ; 
rising again beyond the valley of that river, the system trends north- 
wards once more, and ultimately merges in the Salt range. These hills 
consist of a friable tertiary sandstone and conglomerate, totally destitute 
of vegetation, and presenting to the view a mere barren chaos of naked 
rock, deeply scored with precipitous ravines. The highest point attains 
an elevation of 1400 feet above sea-level, or about 600 feet above the 
surrounding plain. Immediately below the Pabbi stretches a high and 
undulating plateau, which runs eastward across the whole breadth of 
the Doab, and terminates abruptly in a precipitous bluff some 200 feet 
in height, overlooking the channel of the Tavi, an affluent of the 
Chenab, in the north-eastern corner of the District. At the foot of the 
plateau, again, succeeds a dry champaign country, bounded by a lowland 
strip some 8 miles in width, which forms the actual wider valley of the 
Chendb itself, and participates in the irrigation from the river-bed. 

Scarcely one-fifth of the plain has been brought under the plough ; 
the remainder consists of brushwood jungle, valued only as pasture- 
ground for the herds of cattle which make up the principal wealth 
of its inhabitants. The dreary and sterile aspect of the country 
increases in a marked degree as we move westward. Even in the 
best portion of the plain, water can only be obtained in wells at a 
dej)th of Co feet below the surface, which precludes the possibility of its 
general use for purposes of irrigation. At the foot of the high bank, 

GUJRAT. 189 

however, which terminates this central plain, the Chendb lowlands have 
a fertile soil of consistent loam, whose natural fruitfulncss is enhanced 
by artificial water-supply from the mountain streams, which pass in 
deeply-cut channels through the dry uplands, but expand once more 
into broad reaches as they flow through the alluvial flats. Close to the 
actual channel, a fringe of land, some 2^ miles in width, is exposed to 
inundation from the flooded river, and produces rich crops upon the 
virgin silt. A similar belt of lowland fringes the Jehlam; but the 
deposits from this river contain a large admixture of sand, which renders 
the soil far less fertile than in the valley of the Chenab. Besides 
the great boundary rivers, the Jehlam and Chenab, the District is 
intersected by numerous hill torrents rising in the outer Himalayas or 
the Pabbi Hills, the chief being the Bhimbar, Bhandar, Dalli, Dabuli, 
Doara, and Bakal. Most of these streams, although unmanageable 
torrents during the rains, either dry up entirely, or find their way into 
the Chenab by insignificant channels during the dry season. The 
District as a whole is well wooded, and great attention has been paid 
to arboriculture. The State preserves about 60,000 acres of waste land 
for the growth of timber, under the management of the Forest Depart- 
ment. The mineral products include saltpetre, limestone, and kankar, 
a calcareous concrete. 

History. — Numerous relics of antiquity stud the surface of Gujrat 
District. Mounds of ancient construction yield considerable numbers 
of coins, and abound in archaic bricks, whose size and type prove 
them to belong to the prehistoric period of Hindu architecture. 
General Cunningham has identified one of these shapeless masses, 
now occupied by the village of Moga or Mong, with the site of Nikaea, 
the city built by Alexander on the field of his victory over Porus. 
This mound, a conspicuous object for many miles around, lies about 
6 miles west of the Pabbi range, and has a height of 50 feet, with a 
superficial dimension of 600 by 400 feet. Copper coins of all the so- 
called Indo-Scythian kings are found in abundance amongst the rubbish 
which composes the heap. Gujrat itself evidently occupies an ancient 
site, though the existing town dates only from the time of Akbar. Jat 
and Giijar tribes form the principal elements of the population, and 
their legends afford a concurrence of testimony in favour of the view 
that their ancestors entered the District from the east in comparatively 
modern times. 

The Delhi Empire first made a settlement in this portion of the 
Punjab under Bahlol Lodi (a.d. 1450-SS), by whom the town of 
Bahlolpur upon the Chenab, 23 miles north-east of Gujrat, was 
founded as the seat of government. A century later, Akbar visited 
the District, and restored Gujrat as the local capital. That Emperor's 
administrative records are still extant, having been preserved in 


the families of the hereditary registrars {kant'uigos). They exhibit 
Gujrat as the centre of an administrative division comprising 2592 
villages, and producing a revenue of ;^i63,455. During the long 
decay of the Mughal power, the District was overrun by the Ghakkars 
of Rawal Pindi, who probably established themselves at Gujrat in 
1 741. The country also suffered at the same time from the ravages 
of Ahmad Shah Durani, whose armies frequently crossed and recrossed 
the District. Meanwhile the Sikh power had been asserting itself 
in the eastern Punjab; and in 1765, Sardar Gujar Singh, head of the 
Bhangi Confederacy, crossed the Chenab, defeated the Ghakkar chief, 
Mukarrab Khan, and extended his dominions to the banks of the 
Jehlam. On his death in 178S, his son, Sahib Singh, succeeded to 
the domains of his father, but became involved in war with Mahan 
Singh, the chieftain of Gujranwala, and with his son, the celebrated 
Ranjit Singh. After a few months of desultory warfare in 179S, the 
Gujrat leader found it well to accept a position of dependence under 
the young ruler of Gujranwdla. At length in iSio, Ranjit Singh, now 
master of the consolidated Sikh Empire, determined to depose his 
tributary vassal. Sahib Singh withdrew to the hills without opposition, 
and shortly afterwards accepted a small portion of the present Sialkot 
District as a private landowner. 

In 1846, Gujrat came under the supervision of British officials, 
a settlement of the land-tax having been effected under orders 
from the Provisional Government at Lahore. Two years later, the 
District became the theatre for the series of battles which decided 
the event of the second Sikh war. While the siege of Multan 
(Mooltan) still dragged slowly on, Sher Singh established himself 
at Ramnagar on the Gujranwdla side of the Chendb, 22 miles 
below Gujrdt, leaving the main body of his army on the northern 
bank. Here he awaited the attack of Lord Gough, who attempted 
unsuccessfully to drive him across the river, 22nd November 1848. 
Our commander withdrew from the assault with heavy loss ; but 
sending round a strong detachment under Sir Joseph Thackwell by 
the Wazfrdbad ferry, he turned the flank of the enemy, and won the 
battle of SaduUapur. Sher Singh retired northward, and took up a 
strong position between the Jehlam and the Pabbi Hills. The bloody 
battle of Chilian vvdla followed (13th January 1849), ^ victory as costly 
as a defeat. On 6th February, Sher Singh again eluded Lord Cough's 
vigilance, and marched southwards to make a dash upon Lahore ; but 
our army pressed him close in the rear, and, on the 22nd of February, 
he turned to offer battle at Gujrat. The decisive engagement which 
ensued broke irretrievably the power of the Sikhs. The Punjab lay at 
the feet of the conquerors, and passed by annexation under British 
rule. At the first distribution of the Province, the whole wedge of land 

GUJRAl. 191 

between the Chenab and the Jehlani, from their junction to the hills, 
formed a single jurisdiction; but a few months later, the south-western 
])ortion was erected into a separate charge, with its head-r|uarters at 
Shahpur. Various interchanges of territory took place from time to 
time at later dates; and in 1857, the north-eastern corner of the 
original District, comprising the tongue of land between the Tdvi and 
the Chenab, was transferred to Sialkot. Gujrat District then assumed 
its present form. 

Population. — The first Census of Gujrat took place in 1855, ^""^ 
it returned the number of inhabitants in the area now composing 
the District at 500,167 souls. In 1868 the population was returned 
at 616,509. The last Census in 1881 disclosed a total population 
of 689,115, showing an increase of 188,948 persons, or 377 per 
cent, in the twenty-six years since 1855. The Census of 1881 was 
taken over an area of 1973 square miles, and it resulted in the 
following statistics: — Number of villages, 1334; number of houses, 
83,193; persons per square mile, 349; villages per square mile, "68; 
houses per square mile, 50; persons per village, 516; persons per 
house, 8*28. The western portion of the District is very sparsely 
jjopulated. Classified according to sex, there were — males, 362,162; 
females, 326,953; proportion of males, 53*85 per cent. As regards 
religious distinctions, Gujrat is an essentially Musalman District, where 
the ancient religion has been almost crushed out, and the Sikh 
reaction has produced but little effect. In 1881, the Muhammadans 
numbered no less than 607,525, or 88'i6 per cent. ; while the 
Hindus numbered only 72,450, or 10-49 P^r cent, and the Sikhs 
8885, or 1-28 per cent. The District also contained 255 Christians, 
Among Hindus and Sikhs, the ethnical divisions comprised 8663 
Brahmans, 17,793 Khattris, 23,956 Aroras, and 3080 Jdts. The 
Muhammadans included 16,428 Sayyids, 21,233 Rajputs, 177,297 
Jats, 23,846 Julahas, 93,417 Gujars, and 21,546 Tarkhans. The 
mass of the Musalman population consists of converts to Islam, 
drawn either from the old Rajput aristocracy, who were forcibly 
brought under the faith of the Prophet, or from the lower castes, 
who readily exchanged the exclusive creed of their fathers for the 
comparative freedom of the Muhammadan belief. Among the 
Hindus and Sikhs, the large proportion of 70 per cent, belong 
to tribes engaged almost exclusively in commerce. The most 
important Rdjput tribe is that of the Chibs, who occupy the country 
immediately below the Himalayas, both in this District and in Jammu, 
and hold a high social rank. They are nearly all Muhammadans, 
but there is also a Hindu section. The conversion of the Muham- 
madan section dates from the reign of Aurangzeb, the example being 
set by Raja Sursadi, then head of the tribe, whose tomb at Bhimbar 

192 GUJRAT. 

is still an object of veneration. The tribe is divided into seven clans 
or septs. Its members hold themselves superior to other Rajputs, and 
although taking wives from other tribes, do not as a rule give their 
daughters in marriage out of the tribe, except to Sayyids. Like 
Rajputs generally, until their independence was overthrown by the Sikhs 
under Ranji't Singh, the Chibs disdained to carry on agricultural 
pursuits, but in this respect they are now in the same position as the 
Jats and other purely agricultural classes. The Jat tribe consists of four 
principal clans, the Baraich, Tarar, Gondal, and Ranjha, each of which 
occupies a special locality in the District. They are industrious and 
careful cultivators, professing IMuhammadanism with but few exceptions, 
but the retention of Brahman piiroh'its or priests in almost every one of 
their villages is an unmistakeable relic of their old religion. They lay 
claim to high social rank, and a marriage with a low-caste woman is 
regarded as a disgrace. The Gujdrs, also almost entirely Muham- 
madans, are divided into several clans, the chief being the Khu- 
thana, Chechi, and Chauhan, who all claim Rajput descent. They 
occupy themselves more as herdsmen and graziers than as agricul- 
turists. The Sayyids of Gujrat have been settled in the District 
from a very ancient date, and are divided into eight sections, named 
after the localities they first occupied in India on leaving their 
original home in Arabia. Amongst the Hindus, next to the Brdhmans 
and Khattris, are a clan of Sikhs called the Bahrupiyas, claiming 
Rajput origin, and with the high-sounding family names of Rahtor, 
Chauhdn, and Puar. Their claim to Rajput descent, however, is 
discredited, and they are not accorded a position of equality with other 
Sikhs of respectable Hindu origin. The Labdnas, another Sikh tribe, 
correspond to the Banjaras of Central India, and carry on an extensive 
trade by means of large herds of pack-bullocks. Of late years they 
have taken to agriculture, but as an additional means of livelihood, and 
not as a substitute for trade. 

In 1 88 1 the District contained 4 towns that have been consti- 
tuted municipalities — namely, Gujrat, 18,743; Jalalpur, 12,839; 
KuNjAH, 5799; and Dinga, 5015. Total urban population, 42,396. 
Of the 1334 towns and villages comprising the District in 1881, 
356 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 523 from two 
to five hundred; 310 from five hundred to a thousand; 116 
from one to two thousand; 22 from two to three thousand; 3 from 
three to five thousand; and 4 upwards of five thousand inhabitants. 
Classified according to occupation, the Census Report returns the 
adult male population under the following seven main groups: — (i) 
Professional, 7931 ; (2) domestic, S097 ; (3) commercial, 4596 ; (4) agri- 
cultural and pastoral, 1 1 3,995 ; (5 ) manufacturing and industrial, 49,63 7 ; 
(6) indefinite and non-productive, 10,932 ; (7) unspecified, 15,083. 

GUJRAT. 193 

Agriculture. — Wheat forms the staple product of the rabi or spring 
harvest; while the common millets, jodr and hajra^ make up the chief 
items in the kharif or autumn harvest. Barley, gram, rice, pulses, oil- 
seeds, and cotton also cover considerable areas ; while sugar-cane 
is grown in small quantities on the better irrigated soil. With the 
exception of rice, which is of inferior quality, all these staples reach 
an average level of goodness. The following statement shows the 
estimated area under the principal crops in 1880-81 : — Wheat, 
328,489 acres; rice, 7493; jodr, 62,352; bdjra, 137,284; barley, 
54,922; Indian corn, 16,789; pulses, 47,875; oil-seeds, 35,808; 
cotton, 16,237; vegetables, 16,128; sugar-cane, 6349 acres. 

No canals exist in the District, either public or private ; and artificial 
irrigation is entirely confined to wells. Of these, 6772 were returned 
as in operation during the year 1866-67. Each well may be con- 
sidered to supply water on an average to an area of about 18 acres. 
In the central plateau, cultivation depends entirely upon the compara- 
tively regular rainfall. In 1880-81, 801,339 acres were returned as 
under cultivation, of which 238,210 acres were provided with artificial 
irrigation. The area under tillage has largely increased of late 

Property in the soil rests for the most part in the hands of the village 
communities, which differ from one another only in the degree to 
which division of holdings has been carried. A very small number of 
villages still retain the principle of common proprietorship ; in the 
remainder, division has been either partially or wholly effected. In 
any case, the State holds the entire village responsible for the amount 
of the land-tax assessed upon it. 

Of a total area of 1973 square miles, 1835 square miles are assessed 
at a Government revenue, including cesses and rates levied upon land, of 
^66,854. Rental paid by cultivators, ;^i33,594- The current land 
revenue settlement, made for a period of twenty years, will expire in 
1888. Less than one-fourth of the tenants possess rights of occu- 
pancy. The average holding of a joint proprietor amounts to 18 
acres ; of an occupancy tenant, 8 acres ; of a tenant-at-will, 5 acres. 
The latter class invariably pay their rents in kind. Agricultural 
labourers also receive their wages in kind. 

In 1880-81, cash wages ranged from 7 id. to loM. per diem for 
skilled, and from 3d. to 4id. for unskilled workmen. Prices of food- 
grains ruled as follows on ist January 1881 : — Wheat, 7s. per cwt. ; 
flour, 8s. 7d. per cwt. ; barley, 5s. 7d. per cwt. ; gram, 6s. gd. per cwt. ; 
jodr, 5s. 7d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 6s. 3d. per cwt. ; rice (best), i8s. 8d. per 
cwt.; cotton (cleaned), £2, 5s. lod. per cwt.; and sugar (refined), 
£,2, 9s. lod. per cwt. Owing to the regularity of the rainfall, drought 
is comparatively infrequent. The famine of 1869-70 produced little 

VOL. V. N 

194 GUJRAT. 

effect on this District, beyond raising the price of grain to nearly 
double the above quotations. 

Covimerce and Trade, etc. — The merchants of Gujrat, Jalalpur, 
Kunjah, and Dinga hold in their hands the greater part of the local trade. 
The exports consist chiefly of grain, ghi, wool, and other agricultural 
produce, most of which goes down the river to Multan (Mooltan) or 
Sakkar ; but the opening of the Northern Punjab State Railway, which 
intersects the District from south-east to north-west, now affords a 
new outlet for traffic The imports come chiefly from Lahore, Amritsar, 
Jammu, and Find Dddan Khd.n. Boats sent down the stream seldom 
return, being bought up upon their arrival at their destination, and 
employed in the lower navigation of the three rivers. Fabrics made 
from pashm, or the under wool of the Tibetan goat, are woven at 
Gujrat and Jalalpur, but the manufacture is declining. The extrac- 
tion of an impure saltpetre from saline earth, formerly a flourishing 
industry, has also much declined. The mineral is produced for the most 
part to the order of the Find Dadan Khan merchants, by whom it is 
exported to Multan and other large marts after refinement. Lime- 
kilns, worked by Government, yield lime for official buildings, but the 
supply is all used locally. The Northern Funjab State Railway passes 
through the District from south-east to north-west, with stations at 
Gujrdt, Lala Musa, Khdrian, and Kariala. The bridge across the 
Chenab was formally opened by the Frince of Wales in January 1876; 
while another leads across the Jehlam into the District of that name. 
Bridges of boats conduct the Grand Trunk Road over both rivers. 
Good branch lines of road connect Gujrat with all surrounding centres; 
that to Bhimbar being much frequented as a route to Kashmir. In 
1880-81 the District contained 55 miles of metalled and 650 miles of 
unmetalled roads. Water communication is afforded by 72 miles of 
navigable rivers. 

Administratio7i. — The total revenue derived from the District in 
1861-62 amounted to ;!^55,i7i. By 1882-83 i^ had increased to 
;^75,269. This gain is chiefly due to improvement in the land-tax, 
while the remaining increase must be set down to excise and stamps. 
The land settlement now in force was made in 1865, and will have 
effect till the year 18S6-87. Besides the imperial revenue, the District 
contributes a sum of about ^10,000 by local cesses for expenditure 
on works of public utility within its limits^. \\\ 1882-83, 17 civil and 
revenue judges of all kinds held jurisdiction in the District. The 
regular or imperial police in 1882 consisted of 310 officers and men, 
of whom 226 were available for protective or detective duties, the 
remainder being employed as guards over jails, treasuries, escorts, 
etc. There was also in the same year a municipal force of 61 men, 
and a rural police or village watch of over 600 men. The District 


jail at Gujrat received in 1S82-83 ^ total number of 1095 prisoners, 
the daily average being 196. During the same year, the number of 
State-supported schools amounted to 49, having a total roll on the 31st 
March 1S83 of 4304 scholars. These figures show an average of 40*2 
square miles for each school, and 6 scholars per thousand of the popu- 
lation. The Census Report in 1881 returned 5831 boys and 163 girls 
as under instruction, besides 11,738 males and 126 females able to read 
and write, but not under instruction. The District school at Gujrat, 
which ranks among the 'higher class' schools of the Punjab, contained 
44 pupils in March 1883. In 1882-83, the District contained 4 muni- 
cipalities — namely, Gujrat, Jalalpur, Kunjah, and Dinga. They 
had a total revenue of ;^236o, and an expenditure of _;!^2487 ; average 
incidence, is. ijd. per head of their united population. 

Medical Aspects. — Gujrat generally bears an excellent reputation as 
a healthy District, but excessive irrigation in the neighbourhood of 
the head-quarters town is said to breed fever and ague. Small-pox 
prevails largely along the eastern border, imported probably from 
Jammu from time to time. The official returns of 1882 state the total 
number of deaths recorded in the District during that year as 14,769, 
being at the rate of 21 per thousand of the population. In the 
towns of Gujrat and Jalalpur, 376 and 471 deaths respectively were 
registered, being at the rate of 20 and 37 per thousand. The 
District contains 12 charitable dispensaries, which gave relief in 1882 
to 62,989 persons, of whom 341 were in-door patients. No ther- 
mometric returns are available, but the heat at Gujrat is considered 
moderate, even in the months of INIay and June, owing to the proximity 
of the hills. The average rainfall varies from t,-^ inches immediately 
below the Himalayas to 26 inches or less in the western uplands. As 
a rule, the fall is regular, nor does the District suffer from drought so 
much as many of its neighbours. The average for the whole 
District during the twenty years ending 1881 was 30-88 inches. In 
1880 the total rainfall was only 1 1'9 inches, in 1881 it was 25'9o inches. 
[For further information regarding Gujrat District, see the Gujrat 
District Gazetteer (Lahore, 1884); the Report on the Second Regular 
Settlement of Gujrat District., by Captain W. G. Waterfield, dated 31st 
March 1870 ; the Putijab Census Report for 1S81 ; the Punjab Provincial 
Administration Reports, 1881-83.] 

Gujrat. — South-eastern tahsil of Gujrat District, Punjab ; situated 
between 32° 24' and 32° 53' n. lat, and between 73° 49' 30" and 
74° 31' E. long., consisting chiefly of the lowland tract along the 
Chenab. Area, 554 square miles; population (1S68) 272,055; (1881) 
297,040, namely, males 156,339, and females 140,701 ; average density, 
536 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, 
there were: Muhammadans, 256,936; Hindus, 35,096; Sikhs, 4818; 


and 'others,' 190. Total assessed area (1878-79), 357,936, of which 
284,221 acres were returned as cuhivated, 21,086 acres as cultivable, 
and 52,629 acres as uncultivable. Amount of Government assessment, 
;;^2 7,i26. Average area under the different crops for the five years 
ending 1881-82 : Wheat, 121,769 acres; bajra^ 32,103 acres; barley, 
33,778 acres; Indian corn, 13,035 es ; j'odr, 19,009 acres; gram, 
8875 acres; mof/i, 4S62 acres; rice, 2668 acres; poppy, 40 acres; 
tobacco, 955 acres; cotton, 7697 acres; indigo, 71 acres; sugar-cane, 
3411 acres; and vegetables, 7363 acres. The administrative staff 
consists of a Deputy Commissioner, with a judicial Assistant, and 
2 Assistant or extra-Assistant Commissioners, a fa/isi/ddr, and munsif. 
These officers preside over 6 civil and revenue and 5 magisterial courts. 
Number of police circles {thdnds), 4 ; strength of regular police, 91 men, 
with 285 village watchmen {chaitkiddrs). 

Gujrat. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Gujrat 
District, Punjab, lying about 5 miles north of the present bed of the 
Chenab. Lat. 32° 35' n., long. 74° 7' e. Population (1868) 14,905 ; 
(1881) 18,743, namely, 13,637 Muhammadans, 4762 Hindus, 317 
Sikhs, and 27 'others;' number of houses, 3114. Stands upon an 
ancient site, formerly occupied by two successive cities ; the second 
of which General Cunningham supposes to have been destroyed in 
A.D. 1303, the year of an early Muglial invasion of Delhi. Nearly 200 
years later, Sher Shah turned his attention to the surrounding country, 
and either he or Akbar founded the existing town. Though standing 
in the midst of a Jat neighbourhood, the fort was first garrisoned by 
Giijars, and took the name of Gujrat Akbarabad. Remains of the 
imperial period still exist. During the reign of Shah Jahan, Gujrat 
became the residence of a famous saint, Pi'r Shah Dauld, who adorned 
the city with numerous buildings from the offerings of his visitors. The 
Ghakkar chief, Mukarab Khan of Rawal Pindi, held Gujrat for twenty- 
five years, till his expulsion in 1765 by the Sikhs under Sardar Gujar 
Singh Bhangi. For subsequent history, see Gujrat District. The 
town was rendered memorable during the second Sikh war by the 
battle which decided the fate of the campaign, bringing the whole 
Punjab under British rule. 

Akbar's fort, largely improved by Gujar Singh, stands in the centre 
of the town. The civil station lies to the north of the native quarter, 
containing the court-house, treasury, jail, dispensary, police lines, 
staging bungalow, and post-office. The taJisil and vitmsifs courts are 
situated within the fort. The town is traversed by three main streets 
running respectively from east to west, from north-west to east, and 
from north to south. With these exceptions the streets are very narrow 
and irregular. They are, however, well jjaved, and the sanitary arrange- 
ments are very good, being greatly facilitated by the elevated position 


of the town and the ample water-supply. The majority of the houses 
are of fairly solid build. The principal buildings of antiquarian or 
architectural interest are the Imperial bath-house or hainina/n, a large 
Imperial well with steps leading down to the water, and the shrine of 
Pir Shah Daula. The railway station lies about a mile south-west, and 
the military camping-ground nearly a mile north-west of the city. 
Gujrat contains 69 Muhammadan mosques, 52 Hindu temples, and 
II Sikh dhannsdlds. The principal educational institutions are the 
Government District School and the Mission School. 

Gujrat is the great commercial centre of the district, collecting agri- 
cultural produce from the surrounding villages for export. It is also 
an entrepot for piece-goods, raw iron, and other European goods. Some 
of the grain dealers have very large dealings, and there are several 
native banking-houses of high standing. A large traffic in dried fruits 
from Kashmir also passes through Gujrat. The chief local manufac- 
tures are cotton, cloth, shawl and pasliiiiina weaving ; the two latter 
industries, however, are on the decline. The brass vessels of Gujrat 
are well known, and the boot-makers supply boots and shoes to native 
regiments in different parts of the Punjab. Inlaid work in gold and 
iron, known as Gujrat ware, has acquired a considerable reputation, 
and meets with a ready sale among Europeans as a spccialitc of Punjab 

Municipal revenue in 1 880-S I, ^1306 ; in 1882-83, ;!^i 208 ; average 
incidence of municipal taxation, is. 3^d. per head of the population. 
The municipal income is almost entirely derived from octroi. 

Gulariha. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; 36 miles from Unao 
town, and 16 from Purwa. Eat. 26° 24' n., long. 81° i' e. Founded 
about 500 years ago by one Gular Singh Thakur. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 4013; Muhammadans, 86 : total, 4099. Government school. 

Guledgarh [Guledgud). — Town in Kaladgi District, Bombay 
Presidency; situated 22 miles south-east of Kaladgi, and 9 miles 
north-east of Badami. Eat. 16° 3' n., long. 75° 50' e. Population 
(1872) 10,674; (1881) 10,649, namely, 9459 Hindus, 985 Muham- 
madans, 31 Jains, 174 Christians. Eocal manufactures of cotton and 
silk cloth, which are exported to Sholapur, Poona, the Konkan, and 
Bombay. Guledgarh is one of the stations of the Basle mission ; in 
its neighbourhood are valuable stone quarries. Post-office. 

Guleri. — Pass across the Sulaimdn Hills, Afghanistan; much 
frequented by the Povindah traders on their journeys from Kabul and 
Kandahar into the Punjab. — See Gu.mal. 

Glilikalmala. — Mountain on the boundary of the Nilgiri and 
Malabar Districts of the Madras Presidency. Eat. 11° 14' 20" N., long. 
76° 29' 50" E. 

Guma. — One of the Eastern Dwars attached to Goalpara District, 


Assam. Area, 97*96 square miles, of which only 6 -53 are returned as 
under cultivation. — See Dwars, Eastern. 

Guma. — Village in Mandi State, Punjab, on the southern slope of 
the Himalayas. Lat. 31° 57' N., long. 76° 24' E. The village contains 
a mine of salt, which is, however, a good deal mixed with earth. The 
mineral is quarried here and at Drang (also in the Mandi State). 
The out-turn in 1881-82 amounted' to 115,828 maunds, or 4137 tons. 
A duty of IS. 3d. a maund is levied, in addition to the price of the 
salt, which is also is. 3d. a maund. This duty is shared between the 
British Government and the Mandi State, in the proportion of two- 
thirds and one-third respectively. 

Gumal. — Pass across the Sulaiman range from the Punjab into 
Afghanistan. It follows the course of the Gumal river, and is a 
route of great importance, being the great highway of the Povindah 
trading tribes from Kabul and Kandahar. The town of Gumal in 
Dera Ismail Khan District is situated at the point of debouchure of 
the pass. 

Gumani. — River of the Santal Parganas District, Bengal ; rises in 
the Rajmahal Hills in Godda Sub-division, and at first runs north- 
east into the Barhait valley. It is there joined by the Moral, coming 
from the northern hills ; and the united stream, which has thus col- 
lected the entire drainage of the range, flows south-east through the 
Ghatiari Pass to join the Ganges near Mahddeo-nagar. 

Gumani. — Name given to the Atrai River of Northern Bengal, 
where it passes through the southern extremity of the Chalan b'll in 
Rajshahi District, whence it enters Pabna. 

Gumar. — Village in Mandi State, Punjab, on the southern slope of 
the Himalayas. — See Guma. 

Gumg'don. — Town in Nagpur tahsil, Ndgpur District, Central Pro- 
vinces; situated on the Wana river, 12 miles south of Nagpur town. 
Lat. 21° i' N., long. 79° 2' 30" E. Population (1881) 2712, namely, 
Hindus, 2507; Muhammadans, 197; Jains, 6; and aborigines (by 
religion), 2. The people are chiefly agriculturists, though the Koshtis 
also manufacture cotton cloth. Near the police (juarters, and com- 
manding the river, are the remains of a considerable Mardthd fort, and 
near it a fine temple of Ganpati, with strongly-built walls of basalt 
facing the river. Both fort and temple were built by Chima Bai, 
wife of Raja Raghuji 11., since whose time this estate has continued 
in the direct possession of the Bhonsla family. 

Gumnayakan-palya. — Taluk in Kolar District, Mysore State, with 
head-fjuartcrs at Bagkpalli. Area, 342 square miles ; population 
(1872) 48,600; (1881) 38,575, namely, 19,440 males and 19,135 
females. Hindus number 37,260; and Muhammadans, 1315. The 
taluk contains i civil and i criminal court ; police circles (l/id;ids), 9 ; 


regular police, 76 men; village watchmen {c/iau/ddars), 299. Land 
revenue, ^9751. Products, a fine breed of sheep, and iron-ore. 

Gumnayakan-palya. — Village in Koldr District, Mysore State. 
Lat. 13° 48' 15" X., long. 77° 58' 10" E. ; population, which in 187 1 
was 239, had in 18S1 fallen to 84. Situated on a small rocky hill, 
crowned with fortifications, erected by a local chief, Gummi Nayak, 
about 1364. The family gradually extended their territory, and 
maintained their independence until overthrown by Htiidar All. 

Glimsur {Ghnmsar or Goomsar). — Tdluk'm Ganjam District, Madras 
Presidency. Bounded on the north by the Daspalla and Nyagar 
zaminddris of Cuttack ; on the east by Atagada zambiddri ; and on 
the west by the Eastern Ghats. Area, 291 square miles, with i town 
and 801 villages. Houses, 32,401. Population ( 187 1) 158,061 ; (1881) 
181,390, namely, males 89,407, and females 91,983. The Gumsiir 
country till 1836 was native territory; but in that year the chief 
rose in rebellion against the British power, a military expedition was 
despatched against him, and his territory was annexed. One result 
of this annexation was the suppression of the practice of Meriah, or 
human sacrifice, which, as was then discovered, prevailed to a con- 
siderable extent among the Kandhs, a wild tribe inhabiting the hilly 
country eastward of Gumsur. As a revenue division, Giimsiir includes 
the lapsed zatninddri (estate) of Surada, with an area of about 1250 
square miles. It enjoys a copious rainfall and fertile soil, and is 
watered by several large streams, which unite at Aska. The taluk 
is wild, and thickly covered with forests of sdl wood. Wild beasts 
(tiger, bear, sambhar) and game abound. A good deal of sugar-cane is 
grown in the centre and south, but irrigation is needed to develop the 
cultivation. The Surada and Gumsur /a//('i-, who hold quit-rent lands 
in the tdhik on condition of military service when called out against the 
Kandhs, are an interesting remnant of the old feudal system of Ganjam. 
The paiks, who hold about 10,000 acres of land, are occasionally used 
as guards at the salt factories in the manufacturing season. The 
Gumsur td/uk in 1883 contained i civil and 2 criminal courts; police 
circles (f/idnds), 11 ; regular police, 97 men. Land revenue, ;j^23,846. 
— See Orissa Tributary States, Bundare, Kandhs, etc. 

Giimsiir. — Town in Gumsur fd/uk, Ganjam District, INLadras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 19° 50' N., long. 84° 42' e. Formerly the chief town of 
the tdluk to which it gives its name ; 6 miles south-east from Russell- 
konda, the present head-quarters. Previous to the disturbances of 
1836-37 it was the seat of the Gumsur chiefs, and members of the 
family still reside here. The town is now of no importance. 

Giimti (6V/-'w//, identified with the Kuhi of the ancient geographers). 
— River of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. It rises in Pilibhit 
District of the North-Western Provinces, in an alluvial tract between 

2 00 GUMTL 

the Deoha or Garra and the Gogra (Ghagra) rivers. Its source is in a 
small lake or morass called the Phaljar Tal, in lat, 28° 37' n., long. 
80° 7' E. ; 19 miles east of Pilibhit town, and about 605 feet above sea- 
level. The river takes a sinuous but generally south-eastern course for 
42 miles, when it enters Oudh in Kheri District, in lat. 28^ 11' n., long. 
80^ 20' E. It continues its course to the south-east, till at about 94 miles 
from its source it receives the Kathna as a tributary on its left bank, 
in lat. 27° 28' N., long. 80° 27' E. Continuing south-eastwards for 
80 miles farther, and receiving during its course the Sarayan in lat. 
27° 9' N., long. 80° 55' E., Lucknow city is reached, where the river is 
spanned by five bridges. The river here becomes navigable throughout 
the year ; its banks are from 30 to 70 feet high, and it has a minimum 
cold-weather discharge of 500 cubic feet per second. Below Lucknow, 
the valley of the Giimti becomes very narrow, and the scenery 
picturesque. At Sultanpur, about 170 miles south-east of the Oudh 
capital, the stream in the dry season is 100 yards wide, with a depth 
of 4 feet, and a current running at the rate of 2 miles an hour. About 
52 miles south-east of Sultanpur, the river re-enters the North-Western 
Provinces in Jaunpur District. At Jaunpur town, 30 miles from the 
Oudh frontier, the Gumti has become a fine stream, spanned by a 
bridge of 16 arches; 18 miles below Jaunpur, it receives the Sai river 
on its left bank ; and 33 miles lower, in Benares District, the Nind 
river also on the left bank. Five miles below this last point, the 
Gumti falls into the Ganges, in lat. 25° 31' N., long. 83° 13' e., 
after a total course of about 500 miles. Just above the confluence, 
the Giimti is crossed by a bridge of boats in the cold and hot 
weather, which is replaced by a ferry in the rainy season. The 
Giimti is navigable by boats of 500 mmaids, or about 17 tons burthen, 
throughout the year as far as Dilawarpur Ghat, near Muhamdi in 
Kheri District. The traffic registered in 1879-80, at a station in 
]]enares District, close to its confluence with the Ganges, amounted to 
— down-stream, 141,580 vimcnds (grain constituting 78 per cent, of 
the total); up-stream, 42,209 inminds (stone constituting 90 per cent.). 
Higher up the river there is a very considerable local traffic between 
.Sultanpur District in Oudh, and Jaunpur District in the North-Western 
Provinces. The worst shoals arc in Sultanpur District. Average fall, 
8 inches per mile. 

Giimti. — River in Tipperah District, Bengal ; formed by the junc- 
tion of two rivers — the Chdimd and Raima, which rise respectively in 
the Athdramurd, and Lanktharai ranges of the Tipperah Hills. These 
streams unite to form the Giimti near the eastern boundary of the 
Tipperah State, just above the succession of rapids known as the 
Dumra Falls. The Giimti enters Tipperah District near the village of 
Ki'bfbdzdr, about 6 miles east of Comillah (Kumilla), and divides the 


District into two nearly equal portions. After a westerly course, it 
joins the Meghna above Daiidkandi, in lat. 23° 31' 45" n., long. 90° 
44' 15" E- Its entire length, inclusive of windings, is 66 miles ; but 
from the point where it enters British territory to where it empties 
itself into the Meghnd, its direct length is 36 miles. During the rains, 
the Gumti is deep and rapid ; in the cold and dry seasons, it becomes 
fordable at many places. The chief tributaries in Tipperah Hill State 
are the Kasiganj, the Pithraganj, and the Mailakcherral, all on the 
right or north bank. The principal towns on theGiimti are Comillah, 
Jafarganj, and Panchpukuria. Public ferries at Comillah, Cornpany- 
ganj, Muradnagar, and Gauripura, the latter village being one of the 
largest rice and jute marts of the District. 

Glina Agency {Goona Agency). — Tract of country in Gwalior terri- 
tory. Central India, comprising the States of Raghugarh, Paron, 
Garha, Dharnaoda, Umri, Bhadaura, and Sirsi. This tract is the 
charge of a Political Assistant, who lives at Giina (Goona), and who is 
also second in command of a regiment of the Central India Horse. — 
See Goona. 

Glinas. — Pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, across the southern 
Himalayan range. Lat. 31° 21' n., long. 78" 13' e. The path winds 
up the bank of the river Rupin, a tributary of the Tons, and crosses 
an expanse of snow, as wide as the eye can reach, over the northern 
slope. Elevation of the crest, 16,026 feet above sea-level. 

Gund. — Petty hill State in the Punjab ; tributary to the Raja of 
Keunthal. Area, 3 square miles; estimated population, 1000; 
estimated revenue, ^100. 

Gundamorla Bar.— Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 
31' N., long. 80° 16' 30" E. An opening into the sea about 2 miles 
south of the Gundlakamma river; about 325 yards wide, and 7 feet 

Gundar {Gimdu-dr or Shaumuganadi). — River in Madura District, 
Madras Presidency ; formed by the junction of several streams which 
rise in the Andipatti or Varshanad range, and meet about lat. 9° 36' 
N., long. 78° 14' E. After a south-easterly course of about 100 miles, 
it falls into the sea near Kilkarai, lat. 9° 8' N., long. 78° ^t^ 30" e. 

Gundardihi. — Zatn'mdari or estate attached to Rdipur District, 
Central Provinces. Area, 77 square miles. Population (1S81) 19,927, 
namely, males 9715, and females 10,212; average density of popula- 
tion, 25S'8 per square mile. The estate contains no jungle, and is 
generally well cultivated, the population and crops being similar to 
those of the Government portion of the District, by which it is sur- 
rounded. The estate has belonged for 300 years to the family of the 
present zamindar. Gundirdihi village is situated in lat. 20' 56' 30" n., 
long. 81° 20' 30" E. 


Gundiali. — Petty State of Jhaldwar District in Kathiawar, Bomba\' 
Presidency ; consisting of 2 villages, with i independent tribute-payer. 
Population (1S71) 1212 ; and (18S1) 916. Estimated revenue, ^1200 ; 
tribute of £,^^o, 16s. is payable to the British Government. Nine 
miles south of Wadhwan station on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway. 

Gundlakamma (literally, ' Stony Bed '). — River of Madras Presi- 
dencv, which rises in the Nalla Mallai Hills in Karniil District, near 
Gundla Brahmesvaram, in lat. 15° 40' n., long. 75° 49' E. After re- 
ceiving two mountain streams, the Jampaleru and the Yenamaleru, it 
passes into the low country through the Cumbum (Kambham) gorge, 
at which spot a fine lake has been formed by a dam thrown across the 
course of the river. This sheet of water, known as the Cumbum Tank, 
is about 13 miles in circumference. It then follows a tortuous course 
through Karnul, Kistna, and Nellore Districts, and finally falls into the 
Bay of Bengal, 12 or 14 miles north of Ongole, in lat. 15° 33' N., long. 
So° 18' E. The principal or new mouth of the river is always open, 
varying in width, according to the season, from 600 to 250 yards, and 
in depth from 6 to 12^ feet. The second mouth, called by the people 
Pata Gundlakamma, is open only in the rains, and has a maximum 
depth of 6 feet on the bar. 

Gundlamau. — ParganA of Sitapur District, Oudh. Bounded on the 
north by Machhrehta and Kurauna pargands ; on the east by the 
Sarayan river, separating it from Sidhauli tahsil ; and on the south and 
west by the Giimti river, separating it from Hardoi District. The 
early inhabitants of the parga/id were Kachheras, who were driven out 
by the three sons of a Bachhil Kshattriya, one of whom, named Gonde 
Singh, founded and gave his name to the place. The descendants of 
these Bachhils still own 53 out of the 67 villages which constitute the 
pargand. The Kuchlai estate in the north-east is owned by a com- 
munity of the same tribe. The pargand is, on the whole, a poor 
one, with a scanty population. The villages to the east, bordering 
on the Sarayan, are much cut up by ravines ; and those to the west 
are subject to a deposit of sand blown from the Gumti in the hot 
season ; a few of them, however, especially in the south, have a 
fertile tract of tardi land fringing the river. Area, 64 square miles, 
of which 44 are cultivated ; incidence of Government land revenue, 
2S. 6§d. per acre of cultivated area, 2s. o)A. per acre of assessed 
area, and is. g^d. per acre of total area. Rents are paid almost 
entirely in kind. Population (1S69) 20,220; (1881) 21,710, namely, 
11,510 males and 10,200 females. No made roads, but the Giimti 
and Sarayan afford good water communication. Three small market 
villages, at which only the commonest articles of trade are sold. No 

Gundlupet.— 7;f////v in Mysore District, Mysore State. Area, 539 


square miles. Population (1S81) 54,528, namely, 27,074 males and 
27,454 females. Hindus numbered 53,596 ; Muhammadans, 880; and 
Christians, 52. The tdhtk contains i criminal court; police circles 
{t/idnds), 9; regular police, 74 men; village \\:i\.ch {chaiikuMrs), 273. 
Land revenue, ^6798. The taluk has decreased in population and 
prosperity during the present centur}-. 

Gundlupet. — Principal village in Gundlupet idluk, Mysore District, 
Mysore State ; situated on the Gundal river, 36 miles south of Mysore 
town. Lat. 11° 50' N., long. 76° 44' e. Population (1881) 2951, 
including 360 Muhammadans, 38 Christians, and about 198 Marka or 
old Kanarese Brahmans. Old town, formerly called Vijayapura, 
refounded about 1674 by Chikka Deva Raja, Wodeyar of Mysore, as 
being the scene of his father's cremation. He built an agrahdra, now 
destroyed, and a fine temple to Aparamita Paravasa Deva, fast falling 
to ruin. The prosperity of the town suffered on the accession of Tipu 
Sultan, and it has since been depopulated by fever. 

Gundwa. — Fargand of Hardoi District, Oudh. Bounded on the 
north and east by the Giimti, separating it from Aurangabad, Gund- 
lamau, and Manwan pargands, in Si'tapur ; on the south by Malihabad, 
in Lucknow ; and on the west by Sandila and Kalyanmal. The 
portion of the pargand lying towards the Giimti consists of branching 
ravines, occasional sandhills, and poor uneven stretches of sandy bhi'ir 
land. Towards the south-east corner, an old channel of the river seems 
to have silted up, and become converted into a network of jhils. 
At a distance from the river, the soil changes from bhur to dutiid/, 
but the sand still remains as a substratum. A number of small creeks 
and water-courses fall into the Giimti, carrying with them the over- 
flowings of the Jhiis in the interior. Area, 140 square miles, of 
which 88 are cultivated. Government land revenue, ;^io,5i4; 
average incidence, 3s. 9|d. per acre of cultivated area, or 2s. 4^d. 
per acre of total area. Staple products — barley and wheat, which 
occupy fths of the cultivated area ; other crops — ?ndsh, gram, bdjra, 
a/iar, 7fwth, jodr, linseed, rice, kodo, and peas. Of the 117 villages 
comprising the paigand, 48 form the tdhik or estate of Bhardwan : 
36 are paitiddri, 30 zaminddri, and 6 bhaydchdra. Kshattriyas own 
94 villages ; Brdhmans and Kayasths, 7 each ; Kurmis, 3 ; and 
Muhammadans, 6. Population (1869) 56,871 ; (1881) 58,674, namely, 
31,138 males and 27,536 females. An unmetalled road intersects the 
pargand, and rough cart tracks link the main villages together. Three 
Government village schools. 

QiKXm.— Taluk in Haidardbad (Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency; situated between 24° 30' and 25° 13' N. lat., and between 
68° 19' and 68° 50' e. long. Population (1872) 59,971; and (18S1) 
71,162, namely, 6278 Hindus, 60,501 Muhammadans, 11 75 Sikhs, and 


320S aborigines; number of houses, 15,781 ; area, 9S9 square miles, 
with 127 villages. The area assessed to land revenue in 18S2-S3 was 
76,946 acres; area under actual cultivation, 38,727 acres. Land 
revenue, ^,^9444. The taluk in 1883 contained i civil and 3 criminal 
courts ; police stations {thdnds\ 8 : regular police, 45 men. 

Gunnaur. — Tahsil or Sub-division, forming the north-western 
portion of Budaun District, North-Western Provinces, and comprising 
the pargands of Rajpura and Asadjjur. Area 310J square miles, of 
which 177 square miles are cultivated. Population (1872) 128,788; 
(1S81) 117,535, namely, males 63,665, and females 53,870, thus 
showing a decrease of 11,253 persons in nine years. Classified accord- 
ing to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 105,150; and Muham- 
madans, 12,385. Land revenue (1872), ^16,437 ; total revenue 
(including cesses), ;^i8,o85. 

Gunnaur. — Town in Buddun District, North-Western Provhices, 
and head-quarters of Gunnaur tahsil. Population (1881) 4920, 
namely, males 2569, and females 2351. A small municipal income 
for police and conservancy purposes is levied in the shape of a 
house-tax. The town is situated about three miles from the left or 
north bank of the Ganges, on the unmetalled road between Buland- 
shahr and Budaun, and was at one time an emporium of some 
importance, but the opening of the Aligarh-Moradabdd branch of 
the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway has diverted the traffic which 
formerly passed through it. Tahsili, police station, sardi, dispensary, 
post-office, school, cattle-pound, and travellers' bungalow. 

Guntiir {Guntoor). — Tdluk in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. 
Bounded on the north by the river Kistna, and on the south by the 
Kondavidu range of hills. Area, 500 square miles, containing 2 towns 
and 112 villages. Houses, 22,853. Population (18S1) 136,083, 
namely, 68,476 males and 67,607 females. Hindus numbered 123,264 ; 
Muhammadans, 10,704; Christians, 2108; and 'others,' 7. In the 
south, the tdliik, when the rainfall is abundant, is a fertile garden, but 
extremely desolate in dry weather. The region is generally entered by 
way of Bezwdda, where the passage of the Kistna is made by means 
of a ferry. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil and 4 criminal courts; 
police stations {thdnds), 6; regular [)olice, 126 men. Land revenue 
(1884), ;^4i,o43. Chief town, Guxtur. 

Guntiir {Guntoor). — Chief town of Guntiir tdluk, Kistna District, 
Madras Presidency ; situated on the Grand Trunk Road, about 46 
miles from Masulipatam. Lat. 16° 17' 42" n., long. 80° 29' e. 
It contains 3877 houses and (1881) 19,646 inhabitants, namely, 14,706 
Hindus, 4618 Muhammadans, 314 Christians, and 8 'others.' The 
head-quarters of the Sub-Collector of Kistna ; municii)al revenue, 
^1999; incidence of taxation, is. 2^d. per head. Guntiir is divided 


into the old and new town, and has been much improved of late, and 
is considered healthy. The houses of the collector and other officials, 
as well as the courts of justice, lie to the north and west. Considerable 
trade in grain and cotton. Four cotton screw j^resses. A branch of 
the Ixink of Madras has been established in the town since 1869. 

Guntilr (Guntoor) was the capital of a Circar (Sarkar) under the 
Muhammadans. The town became prominent during the French 
occupation of Southern India in the second half of the 1 8th century. 
It was ceded to the French by the Nizam in 1752. At the time 
of the cession of the Northern Circars to the English in 1776, 
Guntiir was specially exempted during the life of Basdlat Jang, whose 
l)ersonal yt^'"//' it was. In 1778, the English rented it from him, 
but it was given up by order of the Governor-General in 17S0. In 
1788 it came again into British possession, and the cession was finally 
confirmed in 1823. The cemetery at Guntiir contains many remini- 
scences of the stirring times of the French occupation. On one- 
tombstone runs the following epitaph over the body of a French 
commandant : — '■ UHercide il egdla les travaux et la gloire : Alais tine 
mort trop cruelle a trovipe noire espoir.^ The great drawback to Guntur, 
which has a high reputation for healthiness, is its diflficulty of access. 
In the hot weather, when the canals are closed, there is no escape 
except by a fatiguing journey over a parched country to Masulipatam, 
there to await a steamer which anchors seven miles from shore. 

Guptasar. — Sacred cave in Shahabad District, Bengal ; about 7 
miles from. Shergarh and 18 miles from Sasseram, It is situated in a 
glen; and the entrance, about 18 feet wide by 12 high, lies a little 
way up the hill. The surface of the interior is everywhere broken and 
irregular, and masses of rock project from the sides. There are three 
galleries in the cave, one of which contains the chief object of worship, 
viz. a stalactite revered as Mahddeo. This cave has never been 
thoroughly explored, but its various windings are said to be half a mile 

Gurdaspur. — A British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
the Punjab, lying between 31° 37' and 32° 30' n. lat., and between 
74° 56' and 75° 57' E. long. Gurddspur forms the north-eastern 
District of the Amritsar Division. It is bounded on the north by the 
Native States of Kashmir and Chamba, on the east by Kdngra District 
and the river Beas (Bias), which separates it from Hoshiarpur District 
and Kapiirthala State, on the south-west by Amritsar District, and 
on the west by Sidlkot. Area, 1822 square miles; population (1881) 
823,695 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at the town 
of Gurdaspur ; but Batala is the chief centre of trade and 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Gurdaspur occupies the submon- 


tane portion of the Bari Doab, or tract between the Beas (Bias) and 
the Ravi, and stretches westward beyond the latter river so as to 
include a triangular wedge of territory which naturally belongs to the 
adjoining District of Sialkot. An outlying strip of British territory 
also runs northward as a cart road into the lower Himalayan ranges, 
to include the mountain sanitarium of Dalhousie. The rapid torrent 
of the Chaki separates the Gurdaspur Hills from those of Kangra ; 
while beyond the Ravi, the Kashmir boundary encroaches on the sub- 
montane tract for some lo miles below the southern escarpment of the 
Himalayan system. Dalhousie station crowns the westernmost 
shoulder of a magnificent snowy range, the Dhaola Dhdr, between 
which and the plain two minor ranges intervene. Below the hills 
stretches a picturesque and undulating plateau, covered with abundant 
timber, and made green by a copious rainfall. In the triangular wedge 
west of the Ravi, water from hill streams is everywhere available for 
irrigation, besides conferring additional fertility through the deposit of 
virgin loam. The streams of the Bari Doab, however, diverted by 
dams and embankments, now empty their w^aters into the Beas directly, 
in order that their channels may not interfere with the Bari Doab 
Canal, which derives its supply from the Ravi. The central watershed 
of the Doab consists of an elevated plain, contracted to an apex just 
below the hills, but rapidly spreading out like an open fan until it fills 
the whole space between the two river-beds. Well-defined banks 
terminate the plateau on either side, the country falling abruptly away to 
the present level of the rivers. The bank toward the Beas valley attains 
a considerable height, and is covered by a ridge of drifted sand ; that 
toward the Ravi is less marked. The plain, though apparently a dead 
level, has a sufllicient westward slope to cause a rapid flow of water in 
definite drainage lines after heavy rain. Five principal water-courses 
of this description collect a volume large enough to be employed for 
purposes of irrigation many miles beyond the borders of the District. 

The Beas touches the border of the District at Mirthal, flowing south- 
west. At this point it receives the Chaki on its right bank from the 
north, and after flowing west-south-west for about six miles, curves 
sharply southwards, which general course it continues till it leaves the 
District at its extreme southern point, forming the boundary between 
Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur for the whole distance. Its western bank is 
high and rugged, but the present course of the river-bed is at a distance 
from the high bank, ranging from one to six miles. The cold-weather 
stream has an average depth of about six feel, and is even fordable in 
some places ; in the rains its average depth is about 20 feet. The 
river-bed in the upper part of its course is composed of stones and 
sand, but becomes mixed with mould lower down. Many islands, some 
of considerable size, are formed. There are no bridges in this section 


of the river ; and the ferries, seven in number, are under the charge of 
the authorities of the neighbouring District of Hoshiarpur. The most 
important are those of Bhal Ghat and Nawdshahr, where the river 
is crossed by the roads from Batala and Gurdaspur respectively to 
Hoshiarpur. The Ravi first touches on the District on the northern 
l)order from the hills opposite Basdoli in Kashmir. It thence flows south- 
west, forming the boundary of British territory for about 25 miles, after 
which it turns south and enters the District by a bifurcating channel, 
which reunites after a few miles. The stream then turns west, 
and flows a winding south-westerly course till it leaves Gurdaspur 
and forms the boundary between Sialkot and Amritsar Districts. The 
river, which has a depth of 20 feet in the rains, is fordable almost 
everywhere between December and March, a large body of water being 
drawn off for the Bari Doab Canal. Numerous islands are formed. 
The river is not noted for important changes by alluvion or diluvion ; 
but in 1879 the stream altered its course, and set straight on to the 
town of Dera Nanak. In spite of strenuous efforts made to divert 
the channel, the river carried away the Tali Sahib temple, to the 
north-west of the town, which itself was only saved from destruction by 
the erection of a strong embankment or bandh. There are no bridges 
on the river, but ferries are established at fifteen places. The Bari 
Doab Canal, drawing its supplies from the Ravi at Madhupur, just 
south of the hills, runs for some miles through a deep cutting, 
but emerges on the level a little east of Gurddspur town, and divides 
into three main branches, which become immediately available for 

The District contains several large jhils or swampy lakes, whose 
shallows afford excellent opportunities for the cultivation of rice and 
singhdra, or water-nut. The largest is a lake in the neighbourhood of 
Kahnuwan, which is about 20C0 feet in width and 9 miles in length, 
with a depth of from 12 or 20 feet in the deepest parts, In the centre 
of the lake is a pavilion constructed by Maharaja Sher Singh. It is 
celebrated for its wild-fowl shooting. The District is well wooded with 
common trees, though only in scattered clumps. There is nowhere 
anything like forest. The wild animals of the District include tigers, 
leopards, wolves, and deer. The water-fowl shooting in the j'hils and 
marshes is excellent. 

History. — Few facts can now be recovered with regard to the early 
annals of Gurdaspur. The principal cities during the Mughal period 
were Batala and Pathankot. The former town, situated in the centre 
of the Doab, was the residence of Shamsher Khdn, the Emperor Akbar's 
foster-brother, who enlarged the walls, and built a magnificent tank, 
which still exists. Pathankot, at the foot of the hills, once formed the 
capital of a little Rdjput State, said to have been established in the 


1 2th century by one Jet Pal, an emigrant from Delhi. His family 
afterwards transferred their residence to Nurpur, a town situated within 
the hill tract now included in the neighbouring District of Kdngra. 
Kaldnaur also has some claims to antiquity, and finds mention in the 
Muhammadan annals as the place where the great Akbar learned the 
news of his father's death, and assumed the title of emperor. Dera 
Nanak, on the Ravi, preserves the name of the founder of the 
Sikh religion, who died in 1539 at a village on the opposite bank. 

In spite of such local reminiscences, however, we know little of 
the District as a whole during the days of the Mughal Empire, 
beyond the fact that its government was administered from the 
Provincial capital at Lahore. Our first distinct historical knowledge 
begins with the rise of the Sikh confederacy. After long struggles with 
the imperial governors on the one hand, and with Ahmad Shah Durani 
on the other, the vigorous young sect found itself at last triumphant ; 
and from 1764, its chiefs began to parcel out the Punjab and the 
cis-Sutlej country into such portions as each could conveniently hold. 
The western section of the Bari Doab fell into the hands of one Amar 
Singh, surnamed Bhaga, a Mdn Jdt from Amritsar, who joined the 
7nisl or community known as the Kanhia. Other chieftains of the 
same viisl occupied neighbouring estates on either side of the Ravi. 
Batala fell to Jagra Singh, the famous leader of the Rdmgharia com- 
munity, together with Dinanagar, Kalanaur, Srigovindpur, and 
other surrounding towns. Jagra Singh was expelled by the Kanhias, 
but returned in 1783, and securely established himself in his former 
dominions. He died in 1803, and his son Jodh Singh succeeded to his 
estates. The latter formed a close friendship with Ranjit Singh, the 
great Mahardja of Lahore. On his death in 1S16, however, Ranjit 
Singh took advantage of a disputed succession to annex the whole of 
his territories. The dominions of the Bhaga family in the western 
half of the District had been absorbed by the Lahore Government 
in 1809. Beyond the Ravi, the triangular wedge, now attached to 
this District, had fallen piecemeal into the power of Ranjit Singh by 
similar acts of spoliation between the years 1789 and 1813. Much of 
the territory thus acquired remained in the hands of its masters on a 
feudal tenure (Jdgir), while other estates were granted to new holders. 

Pathdnkot and a few neighbouring villages in the plain, together 
with the whole hill portion of the District, formed part of the area 
ceded by the Sikhs to the East India Company after the first Sikh 
war in 1846. Under the original distribution of the new territory, 
they were attached to Kdngra ; but after the final annexation in 1849, 
the upper portion of the Bari Dodb became a separate District, having 
its head-quarters at Batala. In 1855 the District received an addition 
by the transfer of Shakargarh ta/isil, beyond the Ravi, the head-quarters 


at the same time being removed to Gurddspur. In 1861-62, the neck 
of hill road connecting the plains with the new sanitarium of Dalhousie 
was acquired by the British Government by purchase from the Chamba 
State; and this addition brought the District into its present shape. 
The chief landholder in Gurddspur at the present time is Sardar 
Bhagwdn Singh of Batdla, nephew of the great Sikh general, Tej Singh, 
who commanded at Firozshdh and Sobrdon. 

Fopulaticn. — The numerous transfers of territory which took place 
in the interval between the Census of 1855 and those of 1868 and 1881 
render it impossible to give a detailed comparison of their results. The 
last enumeration, that of 1881, was taken over an area of 1822 square 
miles, and it disclosed a total population of 823,695 persons, distributed 
among 2272 villages or towns, and inhabiting 111,242 houses. From 
these data the following averages may be deduced : — Persons per 
square mile, 452; villages per square mile, 1*25; houses per square 
mile, 82 ; persons per village, 362 ; persons per house, 7 '4. Number of 
families, 185,133. Classified according to sex, there were— males, 
445,798; females, 377,897; proportion of males, 54"i per cent. 

As regards religious distinctions, the population of Gurddspur is evenly 
distributed. Hindus number 359,329, or 43*62 percent.; Muhamma- 
dans, 391,400, or 47*52 per cent.; Sikhs, ,72,395; Jains, 108; and 
Christians, 463. The ethnical division shows the following results : — 
Jats, 129,755, of whom 38,047 are Hindus, 46,079 Sikhs, and 45,628 
Muhammadans — they hold almost the whole of the uplands in the 
Bari Doab, the Muhammadans being most numerous in the neighbour- 
hood of the hills, while round Batdla the Jats are almost universally 
Sikhs; Rdjputs, 71,519, of whom 31,723 are Hindus, and the remainder 
Musalmans — the greater part of the submontane tract is in the hands 
of Hindu Rajputs; Brdhmans, 47,899, all Hindus or Sikhs; Gujars, 
43,571, Muhammadans almost without exception; Khattris, 15,778, 
the great majority being Hindus and Sikhs ; Kashmiris, 6662, 
all Muhammadans; Pathdns, 9784; Julahas, 40,456, all Muham- 
madans; Tarkhdns, 29,621, of whom 14,061 are Hindus, 10,309 
Sikhs, and 5251 Muhammadans; Baniyds, 14,804, almost without 
exception Hindus ; and Jhinwars, 34,300, the great majority Hindus 
and Sikhs. 

In 1 88 1 the District contained 16 municipal towns, but of these 
only 4 had a population exceeding 5000 — namely, Bat.\la, 24,281 ; 

SUJANPUR, 6039; DeRA NaNAK, 5956; DiNANAGAR, 5589. The 

other municipal towns, with their populations, are — Kalanaur, 
4962 ; Gurdaspur (the head-quarters of the District), 4706 ; Sri- 
GOViNDPUR, 4247 ; Fatehgarh, 4078 ; Pathankot, 4344 ; Narot, 
3706; SuKHUCHAK, 3355 ; Bahrampur, 2682 ; Darman, 1618 ; Naina 
KoT, 1452; Dalhousie, i6io; and Shahpur, 1258. Dera Ndnak 

VOL. V. o 



and Srigovindpur possess great sanctity in the eyes of the Sikhs. The 
sanitarium of Dalhousie, 76S7 feet above sea -level, though only 
returned as containing a permanent population of 16 10 inhabitants, 
has a large fluctuating population during the hot season. Of the 
2272 towns and villages comprising the District in 1881, 993 contained 
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 836 from two to five hundred ; 
307 from five hundred to a thousand ; 107 from one to two thousand; 
17 from two to three thousand; 8 from three to five thousand; and 4 
upwards of five thousand inhabitants. 

Condiiion and Occupation of the People. — It is impossible to form any 
satisfactory estimate of the wealth of the com_mercial and industrial 
classes. It may be said generally that a very large proportion of the 
artisans are extremely poor, while their fellows in the villages, who 
mostly receive their wages in the shape of a share of the produce, are 
hardly less dependent upon the harvests than the agriculturists them- 
selves. The leather-workers (Chamars) may perhaps be excepted, as 
they derive considerable gains from the hides of cattle which die in a 
year of drought. As regards the circumstances of the agricultural 
classes, the District officer wrote as follows in 1S79: — 'Owing to the 
successive bad harvests which have lately occurred, the zamindars of 
this District are not now well off. The owners who cultivate their own 
land are more in debt than the tenant class ; and of the tenants, those 
who pay cash rents are in better circumstances than those whose rents 
are fixed at a share of the produce. Consequently on last year's 
drought, some hereditary tenants have deserted their lands without 
attempting to sell their occupancy rights ; in other instances they have 
sold their rights ; and more of them would have deserted their lands, 
but that they feared they would nevertheless remain responsible for the 
revenue. Of the total number of agriculturists, three-fourths are in 
debt ; and one-fourth free from debt, able to pay their revenue from 
their own funds, and selling their grain produce themselves.' 

As regards the occupations of the people, the Census of 18S1 divides 
the adult male population into the following seven main groups: — (i) 
Professional, 14,971 ; (2) domestic, 27,409; (3) commercial, 6104; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral, 135,033; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 
66,513; (6) indefinite and non-productive, 22,305; and (7) unspeci- 
fied, 2830. 

Agriculture. — The District possesses throughout an excellent soil, 
except in some small patches on the Bids (Beas) side, where sand 
covers the surface. The chief agricultural staples are wheat, barley, 
and gram for the rabi or spring harvest, with rice, jodr., bdjra, pulses, 
cotton, and sugar-cane for the kharif or autumn harvest. Abundant 
means of irrigation exist where required, either from canals, wells, 
or mountain streams ; but in no part of the Punjab can better crops be 


21 r 

produced without such artificial aid. In iS8o, the total cultivated 
area amounted to 856,230 acres, of which 122,840 acres were protected 
by irrigation against the effects of drought. The Bari Doab Canal 
supplies 27,674 acres, and the remainder is watered by private enter- 
prise, chiefly from wells. The Ravi and the Beas (Bias) inundate 
about 44,000 acres in time of flood. The area under the principal 
crops in 1880-81 was returned as follows: — Wheat, 285,734 acres; 
barley, 96,165 acres; gram, 19,490 acres; rice, 80,373 acres; Indian 
corn, 29,892 acres ; y^flV, 27,690 acres; bdjra, 4641 acres; miscel- 
laneous pulses, 80,943 acres; cotton, 12,500 acres; oil-seeds, 29,781 
acres; tobacco, 9599 acres; sugar-cane, 46,895 acres; and vegetables, 
12,931 acres. The large proportion of the area devoted to the richer 
food-grains — wheat, barley, and rice — and to commercial crops like 
cotton and sugar-cane, sufficiently attests the agricultural prosperity 
of the District. The average out-turn per acre in lbs. in 1880-81 was 
returned as under — wheat, 425; rice, 560; inferior grains, 437; oil- 
seeds, 310; cotton (cleaned), 40; sugar (refined), 240. 

The usual types of communal village tenure prevail throughout 
the District, differing from one another only in the varying degrees 
of division between the coparceners. The returns of 1873-74 
show that out of a total of 1942 villages, a purely communal 
tenure exists in only 116. Among the remainder, either the 
whole or a part of the village lands has been divided off in definite 
portions to the individual holders. The agricultural stock was approxi- 
mately estimated as follows in 1879: — Cows and bullocks, 174,651; 
horses, 2530; ponies, 1370; donkeys, 5498; sheep and goats, 73,495 ; 
pigs, 3975 ; camels, 77 ; carts, 4475 ; and ploughs, 57,722. By far the 
greater part of the area is cultivated by tenants-at-will. Of a total 
area of 1822 square miles, 1550 square miles are assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue, of which 1 139 square miles are cultivated, 118 square 
miles are cultivable, and 293 square miles are uncultivable waste. 
Total Government revenue, including cesses and local rates levied on 
the land, ;!<i'i 24,970. Estimated rental actually paid by cultivators, 
;^2 74,372. Rents, however, are almost universally paid in kind, and 
the rent figures given above represent rather the estimated money 
value of the produce paid in lieu of a money rent. Agricultural 
labourers also receive their wages in kind. Cash wages range from 
6d. to IS. per diem for skilled workmen, and from 3d. to 4id. per diem 
for unskilled workmen. On the ist January 1882, the prices of food- 
grains and other produce ruled as follows : — Wheat, 1 7 sers per rupee, or 
6s. 7d. per cwt. ; flour (best), 14 sers per rupee, or 8s. percwt.; rice (best), 
6 sers per rupee, or i8s. 8d. per cwt. ; barley, 22 sers per rupee, or 
5s. id. per cwt.; gram, 17 sers per rupee, or 6s. 7d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 
13 sers per rupee, or 8s. 7d. per cwt.; Indian corn, 21 sers per rupee. 



or 5s. 4d. per cwt. ; jodr, 21 sers per rupee, or 5s. 4d. per cwt. \ cotton 
(cleaned), 2\ sers per rupee, or £^2, 4s. per cwt. ; and sugar (refined), 
\\ sers per rupee, or ^4, 8s. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — The famine of 1869-70, which caused severe 
distress in the adjoining District of Amritsar, scarcely affected the 
prosperity of Gurdaspur. The harvests attained an average excellence, 
and high prices enabled the cultivators to make large profits. On 
ist January 1870, wheat sold at 10 sers per rupee, or iis. 2d. per cwt. 

Coiin/ierce, etc. — The trade of the District consists mainly in the 
export of its agricultural produce, the chief items being wheat, rice, 
raw sugar, and cotton. These staples pass in small consignments by 
road to Amritsar, or by boat to Lahore and Multan (Mooltan). The 
imports are insignificant, as the wants of the District are chiefly met 
by home production. English piece-goods, salt, and fancy articles 
form the main items. The local traffic centres on Batala. Coarse 
cotton cloth is manufactured in the villages, and better fabrics at 
Batala, in imitation of the work of the Amritsar looms. Sericulture is 
an important and rising industry, and groves of mulberry trees are 
plentiful. The principal road of the District connects Amritsar with 
Pathankot, at the foot of the hills, and passes through Batala, Gurdas- 
pur, and Dinanagar. Minor lines radiate from Batila and Gurdaspur 
to Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, and other surrounding towns. The 
total length of highways in 1882 was 66 miles of metalled and 595 
miles of unmetalled road. Water communication is afforded by 109 
miles of navigable rivers. 

Administration. — The revenue of the District has been slowly but 
steadily increasing of late years. In 1876-77, the total receipts 
amounted to ^^123, 608; in 1880-81, to ;^i36,7o5 ; and in 1882-83, 
to ;2^ 1 38,6 2 7. The land-tax, however, has slightly decreased within 
this period. It amounted 10^108,641 in 1S76-77; to ^^104,677 in 
1880-81 ; and to ;^io5,9io in 1882-83. The other principal items 
of revenue are stamps and excise. The land settlement, effected in 
1863-65, expired in 1883. Besides the imperial revenue, an income of not 
less than ;j{^ 10,000 is raised by local cesses for expenditure upon works of 
public utility within the District. The administrative staff usually includes 
three covenanted or staff-corps civilians. An Assistant Commissioner is 
always stationed at Dalhousie. In 1882-83, the District contained 17 
civil and revenue judges of all ranks; and 16 ofificers exercised magis- 
terial powers. The regular or imperial police in 1882 consisted of a 
total force of 448 ofificers and men, of whom 332 were available for 
protective and detective duties, the remainder being employed as guards 
over jails, treasuries, and as escorts, etc. A municijxal force of 129 
men is maintained in the towns, and a ferry police of 16 men. These 
forces are further suj^plemented by a large body of rural watchmen 


{chaukiddrs), of whose numbers, however, no returns exist. In 1882, 
the poHce investigated 988 'cognisable' cases, in which convictions 
were obtained in 275. In these cases, 719 persons were put upon 
trial, of whom 411 were convicted. The District jail at Gurddspur 
and lock-up at Dalhousie received in 1882 a total number of 141 8 
prisoners, the daily average number of inmates being 262. Education 
makes slow but steady progress. In 1881-82, the State contributed to 
the support of 121 schools, having an aggregate roll of 5628 pupils, 
showing an average area of 15 '06 square miles to each school, and 6 '83 
scholars per thousand of the population. There are, however, a 
number of private schools; and the Census Report returned 7438 boys 
and 177 girls as under instruction, besides 17,480 males and 267 females 
who can read and write, but are not under instruction. The 16 
municipal towns had a total income of ;^7oi8 in 1882-83; average 
incidence of taxation, is. 9d. per head of population. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate at Gurdaspur town is comparatively 
agreeable to Europeans even during the summer months ; but the heat 
increases rapidly on receding farther from the hills. The mean 
temperature in 1871 was 86-85° F. in May, and 53'8° in December, at 
Gurdaspur; and 67'8° in May, and 46"96° in December, at Dalhousie. 
The maximum in the shade during the same year was ii3'3° at 
Gurdaspur, and 85° at Dalhousie. No later thermometrical returns are 
available. The rainfall is regular and plentiful, but decreases with the 
distance from the hills. The average annual rainfall at Gurdaspur for 
the 25 years ending 1881 amounted to 3175 inches. In 1881, the 
rainfall was 31 inches, or 75 of an inch below the average. The 
District is not considered unhealthy, though large swamps in the 
neighbourhood of some of the lesser towns expose them to malarious 
fevers and ague ; and the same results are attributed to excessive irriga- 
tion elsewhere in the plains. The total number of deaths recorded 
in 1 88 1 was 26,466, being at the rate of 32 '13 per thousand of the 
population. In 1882, the recorded death-rate was 26 per thousand. 
Thirteen charitable dispensaries afforded relief in the same year to 
110,259 persons, of whom 930 were in-patients. [For further infor- 
mation regarding Gurdaspur District, see the Gurdaspur Gazetteer; 
the Settlement Report of the Shdhpurkandi Tract of Gurdaspur 
District, by C. A. Roe, Esq., C.S., dated July 1873; the Punjab 
Census Report for 1881 ; the Putijab Provincial Administration 
Reports, 1881 to 1883.] 

Gurdaspur. — Central tahsU of Gurdaspur District, Punjab ; situated 
between lat. 32° 12' 45" and 31° 47' 30" n., and long. 75° 8' and 75° 
38' 30" E. Area, 484 square miles; population (1881) 208,228, 
namely, males 114,285, and females 93,943; average density, 431 
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, there were — 


Muhammadans, 106,836; Hindus, 86,325 ; Sikhs, 14,887 ; and 'others,' 
180. The revenue of the tahsil in 1882-83 was ;^2o,4i2. The 
administrative staff consisted of a Deputy Commissioner, with a judicial 
Assistant, and 3 Assistant or extra-Assistant Commissioners, with a 
iahsilddr and 2 munsifs. These officers presided over 6 civil and 
revenue and 7 criminal courts. Number of poHce circles (//idnds), 5 ; 
strength of regular police, 107 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 439. 

Gurdaspur. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Gur- 
daspur District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 2' 40" N., long. 75° 24' e. Situated 
on the elevated plain midway between the Ravi and the Beas, 44 miles 
north-east of Amritsar, on the Pathankot road. Population in 1872, 
4137; in 1S81, 4706, namely, 2518 Hindus, 1989 Muhammadans, 
168 Sikhs, 4 Jains, and 38 'others;' number of houses, 821. The 
town was selected as the head-quarters of the District in 1856, on 
account of its central position. Small civil station, containing court- 
house and treasury, jail, posting bungalow, sardi, tahsili, police station, 
post-office, dispensary, and school-house. Well wooded and compara- 
tively cool, even during the summer months. The town is unimportant, 
except as a trading centre for the produce of the neighbouring villages ; 
irrigated by the Pari Doab Canal. The streets are, as a rule, well 
paved, though many of them are narrow and crooked. The drainage 
and sanitary arrangements are fairly good. Exports of sugar and food- 
grains to Amritsar. The historical interest of the town centres in the 
fort of Gurdaspur, erected by the Sikh leader Panda during the 
troubles which ensued on the death of the Emperor Pahadur Shah in 
1712. The Sikhs rose as a body against the IMughals ; and, though at 
first successful, Panda was at length defeated by the Imperial forces, 
and was forced to seek refuge in Gurdaspur fort. After a lengthy 
siege, having consumed all his provisions, and eaten horses, asses, 
and even the sacred ox. Panda was forced to surrender. The vic- 
torious troops inaugurated a wholesale massacre of the unhappy Sikhs, 
Banda was marched to Delhi in an iron cage, and put to death with 
horrible torture. {Vide article India.) The remnant of the Sikhs 
sought refuge in the hills and jungles, and as a people they are scarcely 
heard of in history for a whole generation. The old fort now contains 
a monastery of Saraswati Prahmans, who have adopted many of the 
Sikh tenets and customs. The proximity of the hill sanitarium of 
Dalhousie renders Gurdaspur a favourite station with European 
officials. A third-class municipality, with a revenue in 1880-81 of 
p^38o ; in 1882, ;;^475 ; average incidence of taxation, 2s. ojd. per 
head of the population. 

Gurgaon. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab, 
lying bclwucn 27' 39' and 28° 30' 45" n. lat, and between 76° 20' 45" 
and 77'''' 35' e. long. Gurgaon forms the southern District of the 


Delhi Division. It is bounded on the north by Rohtak and Delhi 
Districts ; on the west and south-west by portions of the Alwar 
(Ulwur), Jaipur, Nabha, and Dujana Native States ; on the south 
by the Bhartpur State and Muttra District of the North-Western 
Provinces ; on the east by the river Jumna ; and on the north-east 
by Delhi District. Area, 1938 square miles; population {18S1) 
641,848. The administrative head-quarters are at the town of GuR- 
GAOx, but Rewari is the chief centre of trade and population. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Gurgdon comprises the southern- 
most corner of the Punjab, and stretches away from the level plain 
which composes the greater portion of that Province, towards the 
outlying hills of the Rajputana table-land. Its surface presents 
a greater variety of contour than is usual among the alluvial 
Districts to the north and west. Two low rocky ranges enter 
its borders from the south, and run northward in a bare and 
unshaded mass toward the plain country. The western ridge divides 
the District for some distance from the adjacent Native State of 
Alwar (Ulwur), and finally terminates in three low and stony spurs a 
few miles south of the civil station ; while the eastern line disappears 
some 25 miles from the frontier, but again crops up at the north-eastern 
angle, and runs on into the District of Delhi, where it abuts at last 
upon the Jumna close to the Mughal capital. The highest point of 
either range does not exceed 600 feet above the level of the neigh- 
bouring plain ; and a scanty growth of grass in the rainy season, 
together with a few patches of scrub jungle, alone redeems the coarse 
sandstone summits from utter sterility. The northern plain falls into 
two natural divisions, on either side of the western range. Eastwards, 
the valley between the two ridges lies wide and open throughout ; and 
after the escarpment of the shorter ridge, an alluvial level extends in 
an unbroken line to the bank of the Jumna. 

The soil, although abruptly diversified in character, affords fair 
facilities for agriculture. Midway between the river and the hills, water 
occurs at a depth of 70 feet below the surface. Immediately at the foot 
of the uplands, undulating hollows become filled with water during the 
rains, forming extensive swamps. Westward from the sandstone range 
lies the sub-division of Rewari, almost entirely separated from the 
remainder of the District, with which it is connected only by a narrow 
strip of territory. It consists of a sandy plain, dotted with isolated 
hills, but having water at a depth which permits of easy irrigation from 
wells. Though naturally dry and sterile, it has grown under the careful 
hands of its Ahir inhabitants into a well-cultivated tract. Numerous 
torrents carry off the drainage from the upland ranges ; and the most 
important among them empty themselves at last into the Najafgarh 
jhil. This swampy lake lies to the north and north-west of the civil 


station of Gurgaon, and stretches long arms into the neighbouring 
Districts of Delhi and Rohtak. Embankments raised for purposes of 
irrigation check the water of the smaller torrents at their exit from 
the hills, and distribute it among the neighbouring cultivated fields. 

The Jumna receives no tributaries in this District. Salt is manufac- 
tured from brine in wells at twelve villages near Noh, and in others on 
the border of Rohtak. Iron-ore abounds in the southern portion of 
the hills, and Firozpur (Ferozepore) Jhirku in the extreme south once 
possessed considerable smelting works, now rendered unremunerative 
by the exhaustion of the timber. The other mineral products include 
traces of copper-ore, inferior plumbago, and ochre. Sonah, at the base 
of the western range, has a sulphur spring whose medicinal properties 
rank high in the treatment of rheumatism, Delhi ulcers, and other 
cutaneous disorders. The District contains no forest, and few trees 
of any sort. Wolves are common in the hills, and leopards are occa- 
sionally shot. Deer abound throughout ; nilgai may be met with more 
rarely ; while jackals, hares, pea-fowl, and foxes are found in all parts 
of the District. 

History. — Gurgaon possesses but little historical interest, and con- 
tains no noteworthy relics of antiquity. In the Muhammadan annals, 
however, it finds frequent mention under the name of Mewat, or 
country of the Meos, who form to this day one of the most important 
of its tribes. These Ishmaelites of Upper India gave constant trouble 
by their turbulence to the authorities of Delhi during the Mughal 
period. Marauding bands would issue from the dense jungle, which 
then clothed the whole western portion of the District, and plunder the 
cultivated plain u]) to the very walls of the imperial city. So secure 
were their fastnesses among the hills, that no repressive efforts ever 
took permanent effect. Gurgaon remained without any annals during 
the whole period of Mughal and Maratha supremacy, and passed 
into our hands as a mere desert after Lord Lake's conquests in 1803. 
Semi-independent chieftains then held the territory on military tenures ; 
and only the unalienated portion passed under the civil administration 
of the Delhi Political Agent. Gradually, however, as estate after 
estate lapsed from failure of heirs, or from forfeiture through mis- 
conduct, the District assumed its present form. Many years passed 
before order could be firmly established in these savage wilds. Bishop 
Heber, who passed through Gurgdon in 1825, describes the country as 
still badly cultivated, while he speaks of its state only fifteen years 
before as resembling that of the tardi, abounding with tigers, and 
having no human inhabitants except banditti. But under the settled 
influence of British rule, improvements steadily and rapidly jjrogressed, 
so that the officers engaged upon the land settlement in 1836 found 
few traces either of the jungle or the tigers. The banditti were still 


represented, perhaps, by many turbulent tribes, especially among the 
Rajputs ; but the general condition of afifairs had been greatly 

No single date can be given for the extension of direct British 
administration over the whole of this outlying tract. The Rdja 
of Bhartpur (Bhurtpore) at first farmed Rewari and Bhasra divi- 
sions; but his grant was revoked on the outbreak of the Bhartpur 
war in 1S04. Thenceforth, the native chieftains held their lands direct 
from our Government during good conduct ; and the District was 
iormed from the various lapsed estates which fell in from time to time. 
The last important addition took place in 1858, when the territories 
held by the Nawabs of Farukhnagar and Jhajjar were confiscated on 
account of their participation in the Mutiny. The administrative 
head-quarters were originally fixed at the small cantonment of Bharawas, 
near Rewari, but were transferred to the unimportant village of Gurgaon 
in 1 82 1. The District, with the rest of the Delhi territory, was annexed 
in 1832 to the Government of the North-Western Provinces, and so 
remained until 1858. On the outbreak of the Mutiny at Delhi in 
May 1857, the Nawab of Farukhnagar rose in rebellion. Ihe maraud- 
ing Meos followed his example, and flew to arms. The public buildings 
and records at Rewari were preserved from destruction ; but with this 
exception, British authority became extinguished for a time throughout 
Gurgaon. So long as the siege of Delhi lasted, no attempt was made 
to restore order ; but after the fall of the rebel capital, a force marched 
into the District, and easily captured or dispersed the leaders of 
rebellion. Civil administration was resumed under orders from the 
Government of the Punjab, to which Province the District was formally 
annexed on the final pacification of the country. 

Population. — A Census of the District effected in 1853, under the 
Government of the North-Western Provinces, returned the total number 
of inhabitants at 682,486. A second Census, taken in 1868, on the 
reduced area of the District as it at present stands, returned a popu- 
lation of 689,034. In 1 88 1, at the last Census, the population was 
ascertained to be 641,848, or a decrease of 47,186 upon that of 1868. 
This decrease is due to deaths and emigration caused by the terrible 
distress owing to want of rain, and by sickness, from which Gurgaon had 
suffered for four years previous to the Census of 1881. The details 
of the last Census may be thus summarized : — Area of District, 1938 
square miles ; number of towns and villages, 1160 ; number of houses, 
94,845, of which 65,986 were occupied, and 28,859 unoccupied. Total 
population, 641,848, namely, males 338,917, and females 302,931. 
Number of families, 153,421. These figures yield the following 
averages: — Persons per square mile, 331; villages per square mile, 
'6; houses per square mile, 49; persons per village, 553; i;ersons 


per house, 97. As regards religious distinctions, Hindus numbered 
439,264, or 68-4 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 198,610, or 30-9 per cent.; 
Jains, 3777 ; Sikhs, 127 ; and Christians, 70. 

With reference to the ethnical divisions and caste distinctions of the 
people, the Meos form the largest element, being returned at 103,678. 
The Jats rank second in numerical order, with a total of 64,342. 
The Meos are probably almost pure aborigines of the same stock as the 
Mi'nas, though perhaps with an admixture of Rajput blood. They hold 
large tracts of land in the southern portion of the District, and are 
now without exception Musalmans, though retaining many Hindu 
customs. The tribe has laid aside its former lawless turbulence ; and 
the Meos, though still thriftless, extravagant, and lazy, now rank among 
the most peaceable communities in the Punjab. The Jats live chiefly 
in Palwal and the northern pargands. Very few of them, as well as 
of the Giijars, have here, as they have done in other Districts, deserted 
their ancestral religion for the faith of Islam. Some of their villages 
worthily sustain the general high reputation of the tribe ; but others 
are reported as ill cultivated. The Ahi'rs number 64,884. They 
form the bulk of the population in Rewari, and are justly esteemed 
for the skill and perseverance with which they have developed the 
naturally poor resources of that sterile region. The Brahmans are 
returned at 52,642 ; Baniyas, 36,809 ; Giijars, 20,955 j Rajputs, 26,483. 
The Muhammadan tribes by race descent include — Shaikhs, 10,157 ; 
Pathdns, 4945; Sayyids, 3518; and Baluchis, 2166. The two last- 
named tribes bear a bad name as indolent and thriftless cultivators, 
and swell the returns of crime far beyond their just proportion. The 
criminal class of Mi'nas are notorious for their thieving propensities. 
Devi, under the name of Sitala, as goddess of small-pox, forms one of 
the chief objects of Hindu worship throughout the District. 

The Census Report returns the following eight towns :— Rewari, 
23,972 ; Palwal, 10,635 J Farukhnagar, 8378 ; Sohna, 7374 ; FiROZ- 
PUR Jhirka, 6878 ; Hodal, 6453 ; Nuh, 4219; and Gurgaon, the civil 
station, 3990. Of the 11 60 towns and villages comprising the District 
in 1881, 352 contained less than two hundred inhabitants, 464 from two 
to five hundred, 214 from five hundred to a thousand, 84 from one 
to two thousand, 27 from two to three thousand, 13 from three to 
five thousand, 4 from five to ten thousand, and one upwards of 
twenty thousand. The head-quarters town is only noticeable from the 
presence of the civil station. 

General Condition arid Occupation of the People. — It is impossible to 
form any satisfactory estimate of the wealth of the commercial and 
industrial classes. A large proportion of the artisans in the towns may 
be described as extremely jjoor, while their fellows in the villages whose 
wages in many cases take the form of a fixed share of agricultural pro- 



ducc, are scarcely less dependent upon the harvest than arc the culti- 
vators themselves. 

As regards the position of the cultivators, the District officer wrote as 
follows in 1879: — 'The general condition of the agricultural popula- 
tion may be said to be painfully dependent on the seasons ; all their 
income comes from the land. Where a landowner, besides the actual 
produce of his own separate holding, can count in his income the 
proceeds of hiring his cart between the busy times or of the sale 
of his ghi, he finds that in a year of drought even these are apt to 
fail him, for the difficulty of feeding his oxen and his buffaloes swallows 
up all the income they bring, and where a cultivator ekes out the 
produce of his fields by his dues as a village servant or family priest, he 
finds the villagers, in seasons of scarcity, unable to pay him the full fee. 
The Jats of Palwal are now pretty well protected against drought, but 
are in danger of increasing their expenditure too fast, and losing 
some of their old industry and thrift ; but they may be generally 
described as well off, especially the landowners. They can easily stand 
a year of scarcity, and will probably soon recover themselves, though 
even they, like all agriculturists, are apt to neglect payment of the 
principal, and even of the interest, of a debt once contracted, and 
often carelessly allow the sum against them in the money-lender's 
books to grow and grow until they can have little hope of paying it 
off, the wily banker knowing it to be his interest not to press for ready 
payment, but to encourage his debtor deeper into the toils, until he 
has him completely at his mercy. When this is so with men having 
such advantages as the Jats of Palwal, what must it be with the Meos ? 
Their condition is rapidly becoming hopeless. They live literally 
from hand to mouth, carelessly contracting debt for marriages, funerals, 
and petty luxuries even in average years, so that when a year of drought 
comes they are thrown on the money-lender, who can make with them 
what terms he likes. During the past fifteen months about five per cent, 
of the cultivated area of the two Meo tahsils of Niih and Firozpur has 
been mortgaged, and now 1 7 per cent, of the total cultivated area is so 
burdened that there is little hope of its ever being redeemed. The 
Meo landowners are rapidly becoming practically reduced to the position 
of tenants. Their condition loudly calls for special consideration, 
though it is difficult to see what can be done for them. A large 
amount of revenue due from them has been suspended, but they have 
had to borrow for food, and the evil has only been reduced, not 
removed. Not a few who had no land to mortgage left the District 
to seek a means of livelihood elsewhere until better times. It is 
pleasant to turn from this state of things to the Ahi'rs in Rewari. 
With all their disadvantages, their industry reduces the evils of a 
year of drought to a minimum, and their thrift supplies them 

2 30 GURGAON. 

with a means of tiding over it, and reduces their expenditure for the 
time. Though the drought of last year was as bad with them as 
anywhere, they paid their revenue, and that without contracting a 
larger amount of debt than they are hkely to clear off in a year or two 
of favourable seasons, should they be fortunate enough to have them.' 

Classified according to occupation, the Census Report of 1881 returned 
the adult male population under the following seven main groups : — (i) 
professional, S621; (2) domestic, 9290; (3) commercial, 5017; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral, 107,907; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 
43)963; (6) indefinite and non-productive, 21,952; (7) unspecified, 

Agriculture. — Out of a total area of 1,240,366 acres, as many as 
993)512 were returned in 1881-82 as under cultivation. From the 
remainder, 162,096 acres must be deducted for uncultivable waste, 
leaving a narrow margin of only 84,758 acres of available soil not yet 
brought under the plough. Wheat and barley form the principal 
staples of the rabi or spring harvest ; while Jodr and bdjra, the two 
common millets, make up the chief items among the khar'if ox autumn 
harvest. These millets compose the ordinary food of the people 
themselves, the wheat and barley, where grown singly, being 
universally reserved for exportation. Wheat and other cereals are 
largely grown intermixed, in inferior soils, for home consumption. 
Gram, oil-seeds, pulses, cotton, and tobacco are also important crops. 
Irrigation is not very generally practised. The Agra Canal, which 
draws its supplies from the Jumna some miles below Delhi, and 
traverses the eastern portion of the District, irrigates about 50,000 acres ; 
and dams on the hill torrents irrigate about 7000 acres at the foot of 
the table-land. With these exceptions, however, artificial irrigation can 
only be practised with great labour from wells, often of immense depth. 
The use of the Persian wheel is unknown, and water is drawn in 
leather buckets. The returns of 1881-82 give the area irrigated by 
State works at 38,492 acres; by private enterprise, 122,575 acres; 
dependent upon the seasons, 832,445 acres. The area under the 
principal crops in the same year was returned as follows : — Wheat, 
60,446 acres; barley, 141,839 acres; jodr, 110,822 acres; bdjra, 
248,459 acres; gram, 75,485 acres; pulses, 150,109 acres; oil-seeds, 
7882 acres; cotton, 67,399 acres; and tobacco, 1363 acres. 

Village communities own the soil in varying degrees of communal 
or individual proprietorship. Out of a total number of 11 39 
villages in 1873-74, only 237 retained the primitive form of joint 
tenure ; in the remainder, the whole or some part of the land 
had been divided into definite portions for the separate sharers. 
Under all circumstances, the State holds the entire village responsible 
for the payment of the land revenue assessed upon it. By far the 


larger number of under tenants possess no rights of occupancy. 
Of a total area of 1938 square miles, 19 19 square miles are 
assessed at a Government revenue, including cesses and local rates, 
of ^133,700. Total estimated rental paid by cultivators, ^,^260,624. 
Rents are often but not usually paid in kind, by division of the pro- 
duce, the landlord receiving from one-fourth to one-half of the gross 
out-turn. Agricultural labour is also paid in kind. Cash wages 
in 1881-82 ranged from 7 id. to 9d. per diem for skilled work- 
men, and from 3d. to 4^d. per diem for unskilled workmen. Prices 
of food-grains ruled as follows on ist January 1S82 : — Wheat, 19 sers 
per rupee, or 5s. iid. per cwt. ; barley, 27^ sers per rupee, or 4s. id. 
per cwt.; gram, 22^ sers per rupee, or 4s. ii^d. per cwi. ; Jodr, 25 
sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 22 sers per rupee, or 5s. id. 
per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Owing to the deficiency of artificial irrigation, 
Gurgaon must always be exposed to great risk from drought. Eight 
periods of dearth have occurred since the disastrous year 1783, known 
throughout Upper India as the San chdlisa famine — namely, in 1803, 
1812, 1S17, 1833, 1837, i860, 1869, and 1877. In 1833 and 1837, 
many villages, according to report, lost their entire population through 
death and emigration. In 1869-70, the distress was chiefly confined 
to the crowd of starving immigrants from Rajputana, many of whom 
entered British territory in too emaciated a condition to permit of their 
being employed upon relief works. The autumn harvest of 1869 
proved moderate in its yield, thus averting the extremities of famine 
endured in some of the neighbouring Districts, Government organ- 
ized measures of relief, both gratuitously and by means of public 
works ; and in September 1869, the total number of persons obtaining 
relief amounted to 8336. On ist January 1870, wheat sold at 8 sers 
per rupee, or 14s. per cwt. ; barley at 16 sers per rupee, or 7s. per cwt. ; 
and bdjra at 20J sers per rupee, or 5s. 5id. per cwt. The drought of 
1877 resulted in a total failure of the autumn crop; and though prices 
did not rise so high as in 1869, and there was no actual deficiency of 
grain in the District, the poorer class of cultivators and all village 
servants suffered severely, and hundreds of immigrants, arriving in a 
half-starved condition from Native States to the south, died of want. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The traftic of Gurgaon District centres 
in the town of Rewari, which ranks as one of the chief trading 
emporiums in the Punjab. Its merchants transact a large part of the 
commerce between the States of Rajputana and the Northern Provinces 
of British India. Salt from the Sambhar Lake, together with iron, 
forms the principal import ; while sugar, grain, and English piece-goods 
compose the staple items of the return trade. Hardware of mixed 
metal is the chief manufacturing industry. In 1S71-72, the imports of 


Rewari were valued at ^,^208,892, and the exports at ^99,028. Cereals 
and pulses are produced in the District considerably beyond the needs 
of home consumption ; but while the traders formerly hoarded the 
surplus supply, and only parted with it when high prices in some neigh- 
bouring market afforded an unusually good opportunity for the seller, 
of late years a steady export trade in grain has sprung up, since the 
extension of railway communications has produced an equalization of 
prices throughout the country. In ordinary years, very little export of 
grain takes place. NuH, Firozpur (Ferozepore), Palwal, Hodal, 
and Hasanpur are the chief minor marts for country produce. 
Farukhnagar is the entrepot for the Sultanpuri salt, obtained by 
evaporation on the banks of the NAjAFGARHy/«7, both in this District 
and in Rohtak. The means of communication are not of the highest 
order. One good metalled road traverses the District, from Delhi to 
!Muttra, but the lines of greatest mercantile importance are unmetalled, 
and become heavy and difficult during the rainy season. The Rajputana 
State Railway, however, now passes through the District, with stations 
at Gurgaon, Garhi Harsaru, Jataoli, Khalilpur, and Rewari. A branch 
line from Jharsa connects Farukhnagar with the main system. In 
1S82-83, Gurgaon contained 45 miles of metalled and 741 miles of 
unmetalled road, besides 48 miles of railway, and 15 miles of navigable 
water communication. 

Admifiistration. — The total revenue derived from the District in 
1875-76 amounted to ;^i 11,885, of which ^107,008 was contributed 
by the land-tax. In 1881-82, the total revenue had increased to 
;^i34,35o, and the land revenue to ;^i2i,837. The present settle- 
ment was begun in the year 1871-72. Besides the imperial revenue, 
an income of about ;^8ooo is annually raised by local cesses, for 
expenditure upon works of public utility within the District. The 
administrative staff usually includes two covenanted civilians. In 
1881-82, II civil and revenue judges had jurisdiction in the District, 
and 15 officers exercised magisterial powers. During the same year, 
the regular police force, including the municipal constabulary, numbered 
501 men, yielding an average of i policeman to every y^ square 
miles of area and every 1280 of the population. This establishment 
is further supplemented by the usual body of village watchmen 
(chaukiddrs), whose numbers, however, are not on record. The District 
jail at Gurgdon had a daily average prison population of 79. Education 
makes slow progress. In 1875-76, the State supported or aided 66 
schools, with a total roll of 3560 pupils; in 1882 these schools 
had increased to 84, and the pupils to 4025. There are also 
several private indigenous schools, which in 1882 were returned 
at 71 in number, with 731 pupils. For fiscal and administrative pur- 
poses, the District is sub-divided into 5 tahsils. The 7 municipal 



towns had a total revenue of ;^6495 in 1881-82, being at the rate of 
IS. lojd. per head of the population within municipal limits. 

Medical Aspects. — The summer heat of Gurgaon reaches a great 
intensity. No neighbouring mountains or shady groves temper the 
scorching rays of the sun ; while burning winds from the barren uplands 
of Rajputana sweep over it with full effect. No record of temperature, 
however, exists. The average annual rainfall for twenty years ending 
1S81 amounted to 27*69 inches. The total rainfall in 1881 was 21 71 
inches, or 5*98 inches below the average. The dryness of the air is 
generally favourable to health, but small-pox is very prevalent, and 
severe fevers occur in September and October at the close of the rainy 
season. The total number of deaths recorded in the District durins: 
the year 1882 was 17,311, being at the rate of 27 per thousand of the 
population. The District contained 8 charitable dispensaries in 1882, 
which afforded relief to 36,907 persons, of whom 161S were in-patients. 
[For further information regarding Gurgaon District, see the Gurgdon 
District Gazetteer, by D. J. H. Ibbetson, Esq., C.S. (Lahore, 1884); 
the Fufijab Census Report for i88r ; and the Punjab Provincial and 
Departfuental Administration Reports., 1881 to 1883.] 

Gurgaon. — Northern /^//^// of Gurgaon District, Punjab; consisting 
for the most part of a level cultivated plain. Area, 407 square miles 
Population (1881) 122,371, namely, males 65,382, and females 56,989; 
average density, 301 per square mile. Classified according to religion, 
there were — Hindus, 99,227; Muhammadans, 21,661; Sikhs, 65; and 
'others,' 1418. Revenue of the tahsil, ^£20,412. The administrative 
staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner, with 3 Assistant or extra- 
Assistant Commissioners, a ta/isilddr, and 2 honorary magistrates. 
These officers preside over 6 civil and revenue and 5 criminal courts. 
Number of police circles (t/idnds), 3; strength of regular police, 61 men, 
with 271 village watchmen. 

Gurgaon. — Administrative head-quarters of Gurgaon District, 
Punjab; situated on the Rajputana State Railway, distant 21 miles 
south of Delhi. Lat. 28° 27' 30" N., long. 77° 4' e. Population (1S72) 
3539; (1881) 3990, namely, Hindus, 2382; Muhammadans, 1449; 
Sikhs, 34; Jains, 100; 'others,' 25. Number of houses, 451. 
The town scarcely deserves to rank higher than a country village, with 
an administrative importance from the presence of the civil station, 
which was removed hither from Bharawas in 1821. The main bdzdr 
consists of a street of good brick-built shops, and a trade in grain is 
springing up, but is not yet (1883) well established. At the beginning 
of the present century, Gurgaon formed part of the estates held by the 
well-known Begam Samru of Sardhana, which lapsed on her death in 
1836, and were incorporated with British territory. The place then 
served for some time as a military cantonment ; and this circumstance, 


combined with the healthiness of the situation, led to its adoption as 
District head-quarters. The station stands like an island in the midst 
of cultivated fields. The public buildings include a court-house and 
treasury, police co\xrt,tahsiIi, police station, dispensary, staging bungalow, 
and sardi. Good public garden. 

Gurguchha. — Town in Malwa, Central India. Latitude 23° 46' 
30" N., longitude 75° 35' e. Population (1881) 1170, dwelling in 480 
houses. Residence of a tahsilddr. 

Gurha. — Petty State in Guna (Goona) Sub-Agency of Central India. 
— See Gharra. 

Guriattam. — Tdluk and town in North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Gudiatham. 

Gurjipara. — Trading village in Rangpur District, Bengal ; with an 
export of rice, paddy, and mustard. 

Gurkha. — Village in Nepal Native State; situated about 53 miles 
west of Khatmandu, the capital. Approximate lat. 27° 52' n., long. 
84° 28' E. It was formerly the capital of the Gurkhalis, or ruling race 
of Nepal, to whom it gave its name, A rough bridle-road, over country 
for the most part steep and difficult, connects Gurkha with Khatmandu. 
The Trisulganga is crossed near Nayakot by an excellent bridge, which 
is carefully guarded. A small and badly-equipped local levy is the only 
military force maintained in Gurkha. A coarse cotton cloth is manu- 
factured for local consumption. The annual fair in honour of Gorakh- 
nath takes place in February. 

Glirpur. — River in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency; 
enters the sea 2 miles north of Mangalore, and, with the Nitravati, 
forms the Mangalore harbour. — See Mangalore. 

Gurramkonda. — Town and ancient fort in Kadapa (Cuddapah) 
District, Madras Presidency. Latitude 13° 46' n., longitude 78° 38' E. ; 
containing 201 houses and (1881) 1060 inhabitants, namely, 827 Hindus 
and 233 Muhammadans. One of the most important fortresses in the 
Balaghat. It is supposed to have been first built by the Golconda 
kings, and is situated on the summit of a detached and almost inac- 
cessible hilL It was the capital of Haidarabad (Hyderabad) Balaghat, 
one of the five circars {sarkdrs) of the Karnatic, at the commencement 
of the 18th century. Afterwards, when held by a Palegar under the 
Kurpa (Cuddapah) Nawab, it was of such importance that the tenure 
was purely military, and the governor had the privilege of coining 
money. When Mir Sahib betrayed Sira (1766), he received Gurram- 
konda (which had at some former time been held by his ancestors) as 
a Mardtha jdgh: Two years later, he made it over to Haidar, his 
l)rother-in-law. In 1771, Sayyid Shdh, Haidar's general, surrendered 
it to Trimbak Rdo. Tijiu recaptured it in 1773. In 1791, the Nizdm's 
forces, aided by a British battery under Captain Read, besieged 


Gurramkonda, and captured the lower fort, but the citadel held out till 
the peace, when the place was ceded to the Nizam. In 1799 it was 
transferred to the British, with the rest of the District of Cuddapah. 

Gursarai. — Town in Jluinsi District, North-Western Provinces, and 
capital of a small /((i^vV estate. Situated on the Jalaun and Sagar road, 
40 miles north-east of Jhansi, in lat. 25° 36' 55" n., long. 79° 13' 15" E. 
Population (1872) 6368 ; (18S1) 6528, namely, Hindus, 5939 ; Muham- 
madans, 512; and Jains, 77. The Raja is a Deccani Pandit, whose 
family settled in Bundelkhand under the Maratha Peshwas. The 
town consists in large part of brick-built houses and double-storied shops. 
An imposing fort, with buildings raised to a height of 250 feet, over- 
looks it from the west. Numerous retainers and followers of the Raja 
swell the population of the town. Trade in sugar, imported from 
Hamirpur District. The estate comprises 63 surrounding villages. 

Gurudwdra. — Town in Dehra Diin District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces. — See Dehra. 

Guru-Sikar. — The name given to the highest peak of Mount Abu, 
Rdjputana; elevation, 5653 feet above sea-level. — See Abu. 

Guruvayiir. — Village in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. 
Latitude 10° 36' N., longitude 76° 4' e. ; containing 1160 houses and 
(1881) 6686 inhabitants, namely, 4946 Hindus, 527 Muhammadans, 
1206 Christians, and 7 'others.' Notable for its large temples, 
destroyed by Tipu in 1774, and restored by the Zamorin in 1791. 

Guthni. — Town in Saran District, Bengal, situated on the east bank 
of the Little Gandak river, 54 miles north-west of Chapra town. Lat. 
26° 9' 45" N., long. 54° 5' E. ; population (1881) 4703. Noted as being 
a principal seat of the sugar manufacture. The town possesses 4 sugar 
refineries, and has a large export trade. Fine bazar. 

Gliti. — Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency. — See Gooty. 

Guwarich {Gwarkh). — Parga?id of Gonda District, Oudh. Bounded 
north by the Terhi river and Gond.0. pargand ; east by lylgsAx pargatid ; 
south by the Gogra river, separating it from Bara Banki District ; 
and west by Kurasar pargand in Bahraich. In the time of Suhel 
Deo, the head of the Rajput confederate princes who ousted the 
Muhammadan invaders under Sayyid Salar Masaiid in 1032 a.d., 
Guwarich was included in the pargand of Ramgarh Gauriya in the 
kingdom of Gauda, which comprised the present Districts of Gonda, 
Basti, and Gorakhpur. It afterwards became included in the Kurasa 
rdj ; and on the downfall of Achal Singh {vide Gonda District), it 
passed into the hands of Maharaj Singh, an illegitimate son of the late 
Raja, whose descendants are still in possession of the soil. Several 
rivers and streams intersect the pargand, which slopes from north- 
west to south-east, the lower levels being the most fertile. Area, 267 
square miles, or 170,962 acres, of which 99,155 acres are cultivated, as 

VOL. V. P 

2 26 G UZERA T— G W A LI OR. 

follow: — Indian corn, 37,394 acres; rice, 25,342; wheat, 24,355; 
barley, 10,549; gram, 7776; other crops, 23,145 acres. Government 
land revenue, j[^\(d,oT^'^. Population (1869) 164,745 ; (1881), Hindus, 
132,485; Muhammadans, 10,582; Native Christians, 9 : total, 143,076, 
namely, 73,737 males and 69,339 females. Number of villages, 219; 
average density of population, 535 per square mile. 

Guzerat. — Northern maritime Province of the Bombay Presidency. 
— Sec Gujarat. 

Gwalior. — Native State in political relationship with the Central India 
Agency and the Government of India, The possessions of the great 
Marath^ chiefs of the house of Sindhia consist of several detached Dis- 
tricts, which are so intermingled with Muhammadan, Rajput, and other 
principalities, and with British territory, that the boundaries here given 
will be restricted to that portion of territory which exhibits the largest 
and most compact area generally included in the name Gwalior ; that 
is to say, the immediate centre at once of the Maharaja Sindhia's 
power, and of those protective influences which are exercised over 
His Highness' country by the Imperial Government of India. This 
country forms the northern and main portion of the Gwalior State; 
it contains the city and fortress of Gwalior, and the British cantonments 
of Morar, Giina (Goona), and Jhansi, and lies between the parallels of 
23° 20' and 26° 52' N., and the meridians of 76° 15' and 79° 12' e. 
It is bounded on the north-east and north-west by the Chambal river, 
which separates it from the British Districts of Agra and Etawah, 
and the Native States of Dholpiir, Karauli, and Jaipur (Jeypore) of 
Rajputana; on the east by the British Districts of Jalaun, Jhansi, 
Lalitpur, and Sagar (Saugor) ; on the south by the States of Bhopal, 
Tonk, Kilchipur, and Rajgarh ; and on the west by those of Jhalawar, 
Tonk, and Kotah of Rajputana. The detached pargaiids of the 
Gwalior State, not included in the above main portion, are as follow : — 
Under the Western Malwa Agency of Central India, the pargands of 
Agra, Shahjahinpur, Ujjain, Mandaser, and Nimach (Neemuch); under 
the Bhi'l or Bhopawar Agency, Amjhera (the extreme southern tract), 
Manawar, Dikthan, Sagor, Bag, Bi'kaner, and Piplia. Previous to i860, 
Mahardja Sindhia possessed territories south of the Narbada(Nerbudda) ; 
but in that year and in 1861, these were exchanged for lands of equal 
extent and value on the Sind and Bctwa rivers. 

The area of the whole State, including Khania-dhana and Maksiidan- 
garh, was returned by the Census of 1881 at 29,046 square miles, with 
a population of 3,1 15,857 persons, inhabiting 10,346 villages and towns, 
and 529,650 houses; number of persons per square mile, 107-3; 
towns and villages per square mile, 0*35 ; houses per square mile, 
18-23; persons per house, 588. No previous Census has ever been 
taken in the State. 


Centrally situated as tlie Gwalior State thus is in India as a whole, 
and strategically important on that account, as well as because of 
the famous natural fortress which it contains, its situation is not 
equally convenient relatively to the country now governed from it. 
The Marathas were a spreading, not a consolidating, nor even always 
an occupying power; and when the Gwalior fortress passed, for the third 
time in its history, into the possession of the Sindhias, under treaty 
with our Government in 1805, Daulat Rao Sindhia and his predecessors 
had up to that time been nearly always in the field with their armies. 
But in 1805, the day had come when farther extensions of territory by 
conquest by native chiefs was to cease, and from then until now the 
Sindhias have only had to observe from Gwalior, their capital, the 
establishment of the power which has given fixed limits to the several 
Native States of India. 

Physical Aspects. — Gwalior District, as above defined, is the least raised 
of the three great plateaux into which Sindhia's territory is divisible ; 
its general elevation towards the central and more depressed portion, in 
which the capital lies, falling considerably short of 1000 feet. The 
extreme north-eastern part of Gwalior, adjoining Agra, is generally level, 
of no great fertility, and much cut up by deep precipitous ravines in the 
vicinity of the streams. The upper country is dotted over with small 
isolated hills, which start abruptly out of the level plain. It has 
generally a stony and sterile aspect, being only slightly wooded ; in 
some parts absolutely bare and rugged, and in others sparsely clothed 
with babid, tamarind, and low^ brushwood. Considerable tracts, though 
sprinkled in some of the hilly parts {ddiigs) with forest, are fairly 
well covered in autumn with various species of grass, preserves of 
which, known as rak/is and riinds, are maintained to supply forage. 
The geological formation of the hills is a fine-grained sandstone, 
disposed in horizontal strata ; this sandstone can be quarried to any 
extent, and is much employed for building purposes, as it can be hewn 
in slabs of great length and breadth. The extent to which stone takes 
the place of wood, not only in the roofs and walls, but even in the 
small interior fittings of houses and other buildings, forms one of the 
features of Gwalior. This stone is very easily wrought, and Gwalior 
w'orkmen excel in carving it into designs of great beauty and delicacy 
for lattices, etc. The southern tracts of the State form a portion 
of Malwa, a plateau having an average elevation of about 1500 
feet, though there are some points rising greatly above that height, as 
in the instance of Shaizgarh, in the Mandu range, which is 2628 feet 
above the sea. 

The State is watered by numerous rivers. By far the greater portion 
of the drainage of the Gwalior territory is discharged into the 
Chambal, which, receiving the waters of several minor tributaries, flows 


along the north-west frontier, separating Gwalior from Jaipur (Jeypore), 
Karauli (Kerowlee), and Dholpur Native States. Subsequently turning 
south-east, it forms the north-eastern boundary towards Agra and 
Etawah, and joins the Jumna in the latter District. The Sind flows 
parallel with the Chambal, but farther to the east, and, after receiving 
the waters of the Mordr, Parbati, and Pabuj, finally falls into the Jumna 
a short distance below the confluence of the Chambal with that river. 
The Kuwari, Asan, Sankh, and other lesser streams, after flowing in a 
north-easterly and easterly direction, fall into the Sind close to its 
junction with the Jumna. The south-western and southern portion of 
Gwalior is noted for its abundant production of the Malwa opium of 
commerce. Other products — wheat, gram, pulses of various kinds, 
jodr (Holcus sorghum), bdJ7-a (Holcus spicatus), mug (Phaseolus 
mungo), maize, rice, Unseed and other oil-seeds, garlic, turmeric, 
ginger, sugar-cane, indigo, dl (IMorinda multiflora) yielding a fine 
red dye. Tobacco of excellent quality, but in no great quantity, is 
raised in the vicinity of Bhilsa. Cotton is largely grown, and iron- 
ore, containing 75 per cent, of metal, is raised and smelted in many 

Trade. — The imports consist of British woollens, cottons, silks, 
cutlery, Cashmere shawls, pearls from the Persian Gulf, Ceylon 
diamonds, and agates from Bundelkhand, gold, silver, mercury, copper, 
lead, and zinc. Opium is the principal export, sent to the coast by 
way of Bombay. Cotton is also largely sent to Bombay, and to 
the towns on the Jumna and Ganges. The remaining exports of any 
importance are tobacco, dyes, and iron. The Rajputana-Malwa State 
Railway passes through a portion of the territory of the Gwalior State 
on the west ; while a railway on the broad gauge connects Gwalior town 
with Agra. 

Climate. — In the dry and hot seasons the climate, though extremely 
trying, is not unhealthy, but during the rainy season fevers prevail, 
especially in the north. The range of the thermometer is small, except 
during the latter part of the year, when great and sudden changes often 
take place. During six months of the year, the mercury sometimes 
stands at about 100° F. in the shade for long periods, without 
varying more than a few degrees day and night ; the mean deviation 
being about 3^' in twenty-four hours in September, and about 10^' 
in February. The cool season comprises the period between the 
beginning of November and the end of February ; the hot season 
succeeds, and continues to the middle of June, when the periodical 
rains set in, and last to the close of September, the average fall being 
between 30 and 40 inches. In 1S75, the rainfall was i9"6 inches; in 
1S81, it was 33 inches. During the sultry season hot winds prevail ; 
but they are of short duration, and though the thermometer rises to 


nearly 100° during the day for long periods, the nights are frequently 
cool and refreshing, 

^F/A/rt'/z/w^/j' comprise the tiger, leopard, bear, wolf, hyaena, wild dog, 
jackal, fox, ounce, lynx, badger, ichneumon, civet, otter, rat, bat, mouse, 
wild hog, 7u7gai, various kinds of antelope and deer, buffalo, monkey, 
squirrel, porcupine, and hare. Of birds, there are the vulture, eagle, 
hawks of various kinds, kite, buzzard, owl, hornbill (Buceros), raven, 
crow, parrot, jay, cuckoo, humming-bird, wild goose, wild duck, pelican, 
cormorant, spoon-bill, stork, crane, heron, adjutant, curlew, snipe, 
bustard, florican, peafowl, pheasant, partridge, quail, pigeon, dove, and 
sparrow. The rivers abound in fish, especially of the carp kind. Of 
snakes, there are the boa, water-snake, cobra, black-spotted snake, 
spectacled snake, yellow-clouded snake, whip-snake, and leaping 
snake. The magar or blunt-snouted crocodile infests all the rivers. 

Population. — The population of the north-eastern part of the territory 
is essentially Hindu, and of a mixed kind, comprising, besides the 
ruling order of Marathas, Bundelas, Jdts, and Rajputs, with other castes 
of Hindus and various tribes of Muhammadans. Until the Mardtha 
inroads in the last century, the country was from an early period in the 
possession of the Muhammadan rulers of Delhi. In no part of Gwalior 
do the Marathas form any large proportion of the inhabitants, and 
according to the best information available, they do not number much 
more than 15,000; upwards of 10,000 of them are connected with the 
court or army (more especially the Paigah horse). In the greater part 
of the southern and south-western parts, comprising a portion of Malwa, 
a very considerable section of the population is Hindu. There is 
perhaps no part of India where the tribes of the local or indigenous 
Brahmans are so various and their numbers so great. They are all 
included by their Maratha conquerors under the generic name of 
J^dngres, or rustics (said to come from ra?i, a forest, and garia, a man) ; 
though strong in numbers, they show little of the Brahmanical character, 
either in point of piety, learning, or wealth. The total number of 
Brahmans returned by the Census of iS8r for the whole State was 
380,193. Rajputs exist in large numbers, and they are the most 
numerous and important of all Sindhia's subjects. Their number in 
1881 was returned at 422,267, Classified by religion, the Census of 
1881 returns 2,768,385 Hindus, 167,320 Muhammadans, 12,230 Jains, 
208 Christians, 198 Sikhs, and 167,516 aborigines. The Muham- 
madan population is about a nineteenth of the whole. 

The total 7-evemie of the State is estimated at ;,^i, 200,000, in- 
cluding ;^783,89o derived from the land, and ^"147,020 from 
customs ; the remainder consists of tributes from feudatories, and 
jdgir and local taxes. The customs revenue is realized from transit 
duties on iron, tobacco, and sugar, all other articles being free. 


No transit duties are taken on those portions of the Agra and 
Bombay road or its branches which pass through the State, or 
on the roads connecting GwaUor with Etawah, Farukhabad, Datia, 
Jhansi, and Kalpi. Education is afforded by 92 schools, attended 
by 2767 pupils. The average attendance at the Lashkar College 
amounts to 548 persons. The present (1S83) Prime Minister is 
Rao Raja Sir Ganpat Rao Kharke, K.C.ST., who is assisted in the 
administration by 8 Naib Diwans, for the several departments of 
revenue, civil, criminal and police, appeal, military, kdrkhdnajdt or 
matters specially pertaining to His Highness, foreign, and legislative. 
There are 16 courts of justice and 7423 police, including 3000 drilled 
police called ndjibs. 

History. — The Gwalior family, whose armies and chiefs have played 
so conspicuous a part in the history of India, and whose representative 
now rules over a State larger than Scotland and Wales united, and 
richer than some independent kingdoms, was founded by the Maratha 
Ranoji Sindhia, who was the slipper-bearer of Balaji Peshwa at 
the beginning of the last century. His father was the hereditary 
pdtel (head-man) of a Deccan village. Once in the household of the 
Peshwa, Ranoji's rise was rapid, and he soon found himself at the head 
of the bodyguard. After leading many jNIaratha raids through Mahva 
into Hindustan, he was, at the time of his death, the acknowledged 
possessor of lands which still form part of the Gwalior State. 

Ranoji was succeeded by his second son, Mahadaji Sindhia, whose 
ability as a statesman and a soldier has rarely been surpassed, 
Mahadaji was conspicuous for his gallantry at Panipat in 1 761, being 
amongst the last to leave that field — so disastrous to the Marathas. 
Probably the events of that fight led him to see the value of discipline, 
for when the Maratha tide of fortune again set in, there was a change 
of system. He turned his Maratha horse into disciplined infantry 
with sword and matchlock, and formed them into brigades ; he paid 
great attention to his artillery, and placed his entire army under the 
command of French and English adventurers. Though nominally the 
servant of the Peshwa, he was practically independent, and made his 
State one of the strongest in India. The Delhi Emperor sought his 
protection ; the Rajput chiefs, with hosts of the best cavalry India could 
produce, fought in vain against his battalions. He negotiated and 
guaranteed the treaty at Salbai (1783) between the Peshwa and the 
British Government. 

Mahddaji was succeeded in 1794 by his grand-nephew, Daulat 
Rdo Sindhia. During the distractions which followed the death of 
Madhu Rao Narriyan Peshwd, Daulat Rao gained an ascendancy 
which enabled him to place Bdji Rao in power, ^o usurp most of 
the possessions of Holkar, and to secure to himself the fortress of 


Ahmadnagar in the Deccan, which gave him the entrance into the 
territories both of the Peshwd and the Nizam. The power of 
Daulat Rao, whose army was commanded by French officers, had 
now become dangerous to the British Government. \\'hen by the 
treaty of Bassein the British Government recovered its influence at 
Poona by the establishment of a subsidiary force, Daulat Rao Sindhia 
entered into a league with Raghuji Bhonsla, Raja of Berar, to defeat the 
objects of the treaty ; and the allied chiefs in 1803 invaded the territory 
of the Nizam, which was at that time under the protection of the East 
India Company. On the 23rd of September in that year, the Maratha 
army was attacked at Assave by a British force of about an eighth of 
its number, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley, subsequently Duke 
of Wellington, and, after a prolonged and fiercely-contested battle, was 
totally defeated. The overthrow of Sindhia's military resources in the 
Deccan was completed by the defeat which the confederated Marathas 
received from Sir Arthur Wellesley at Argaum, in Berar, on the 28th 
of November 1803. 

The destruction of the Maratha power to the north of the Narbadd 
(Nerbudda) had in the meantime been not less signally effected by 
General (afterwards Lord) Lake, the British commander-in-chief, who 
in the beginning of September 1803 stormed Aligarh ; and a few days 
afterwards, nearly opposite Delhi, totally defeated Sindhia's disciplined 
army, commanded by the Frenchman Bourquin, and effectually cleared 
the Doab of the Marathas. Delhi was immediately occupied by the 
victorious army. Before the close of the same year, Agra also yielded 
after a brief attempt at defence. General Lake, indefatigably following 
up his advantages, a few weeks afterwards destroyed the remnant of 
Sindhia's disciplined force at Laswari (Laswaree). The power of Daulat 
Rao being thus completely broken, he was compelled to sue for peace, 
and to sign the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, by which he resigned his con- 
quered territories in Hindustan and south of the Ajanta Hills, with the 
exception of some hereditary villages. The discontent which Daulat Rao 
felt at the determination to deprive him of Gohad and Gwalior, under 
this treaty, induced him to enter into a correspondence with Holkar, 
which nearly led to a fresh rupture with the British. Among other 
acts of hostility, he attacked and plundered the Resident's camp, and 
detained the Resident a prisoner. The change, however, in the policy 
of Government on the arrival of Lord Cornwall is, who, independently 
of any reference to the settlement of differences with Sindhia, deemed 
it inexpedient to retain possession of Gohad and Gwalior, led to the 
renewal of negotiations on the basis of the restoration of these territories. 

A treaty was accordingly concluded on 22nd November 1805, which 
confirmed the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon in part, but ceded Gwalior and 
Gohad to Sindhia, and constituted the Chambal the northern boundary 


of his territory ; the British Government bound itself not to make 
treaties with Udaipur (Oodeypore), Jodhpur, Kotah, or any chiefs 
tributary to Sindhia in Malwa, IMewar, or Marwar, or to interfere in 
any arrangements he might make regarding them. Daulat Rao so 
highly appreciated the advantages arising from the strength of the fort 
of Gwalior, that he fixed his residence in a permanent camp at the base 
of the rock, and since that time it has always been considered the 
capital of the State, to which it has also given its name. 

On the outbreak of the Pindari war in 1S17, the plundering hordes 
who had been generally hangers-on to the Maratha camps during their 
campaigns in the latter half of the i8th century looked for support to 
Sindhia, as the most powerful of the Maratha princes. Daulat Rao 
was also subjected to strong solicitations from the Peshwa, who was 
endeavouring to resuscitate the old Maratha confederacy. But the 
Marqiiis of Hastings, then Governor-General, promptly advanced with 
a formidable army to the river Chambal, and so far overawed Sindhia 
that a treaty was executed abrogating the article of the treaty of 1805 
which restrained the British Government from forming engagements 
with the Rajput States, and binding Sindhia to co-operate with the 
British against the Pindaris, and also to give up the forts of Asi'rgarh 
and Hindia for three years as a security for the lines of communication, 
and as a guarantee for the performance of his engagements. The 
fortress of Asi'rgarh was not, however, surrendered, and it became 
necessary to occupy it by force. In the captured fort a letter was 
found, in which Sindhia directed the governor to obey all orders of the 
Peshwa, who, by attacking the Residency at Poona, had declared war 
with the British Government. In consequence of this want of good 
faith, Sindhia was required permanently to cede the fort of Asi'rgarh. 

Daulat Rao died at Gwalior in 1827 without an heir, and without 
having adopted a successor. On his death-bed, he left the State and 
succession in the hands of the British Government, indicating a wish 
that his younger widow, Baiza Bai, might be treated with consideration. 
The death of Daulat Rao was followed by internal discord throughout 
the State. The succession of a boy of Sindhia's family, Miigat Rdo, 
to whom it was thought the wishes of Daulat Rao turned, was admitted 
by the British Government, under the regency of Baiza Bai. The 
young Mahc-irdja was subsequently married to the grand-daughter of 
Daulat Rao and Baiza Bai. He took the name of Jhankuji Sindhia. 
But Baiza Bdi's regency came to a sudden collapse in 1833. Jealous 
of power and headstrong, her treatment of the young chief at last 
became intolerable, and he broke away from her, supported by a large 
portion of the troops, who now found themselves masters of the situa- 
tion. The wealth of Baiza Bai was enormous, and it was used for 
intrigue and dissension without scruple, until it became necessary to 


remove her from Gwalior. During the whole of the reign of Jhankuji, 
although the State was at complete peace with external foes, there was 
constant turbulence within the borders. Jhankuji Sindhia died in 1843, 
without issue, and without having expressed any wish in regard to the 
succession, though repeatedly urged to do so by the Resident. His 
widow, with the concurrence of the chief nobles, adopted Baghirat Rdo, 
a lad eight years of age, belonging to a distant branch of the Sindhia 

The British Government recognised the adoption, and Baghirat Rao, 
under the name of Jaiaji Rao Sindhia, succeeded. Pearly in the 
regency, disturbances took place, and the advance of British troops 
on Gwalior became necessary to restore order. This, however, w-as 
not effected without hard fighting. Two battles, Mahdrajpur and 
Panniar (Punneah), were fought on the same day — the 29th 
December 1843 — between the British forces and the mutinous army. 
They both resulted in the total defeat of the insurgent troops. The 
young chief was replaced in power by the British Government. The 
Gwalior army was disbanded, and the force was reduced to a fixed 
number — 5000 cavalry, 3000 infantry, and 32 guns. Indemnity was 
taken for the war expenses, and an annual provision of _p/^ 180,000 
assigned to the British Government for the maintenance of a force to 
preserve order. Thus matters continued till the Mutiny of 1857, when 
the Gwalior contingent and Sindhia's army again revolted. The Maha- 
raja, then but a youth, displayed courage and unswerving loyalty to 
the British Government. In June 1858 he was deserted by his troops 
on the approach of the rebels under Tantia Topi, and he and his 
minister, Dinkar Rao, were compelled to flee to Agra. On the 19th 
June, Gwalior was retaken by Sir Hugh Rose's force, and the Maharaja 
Avas re-established in his palace. In recognition of his services, the 
Government conferred upon him the right of adoption, together with 
lands yielding a revenue of ^30,000, and permitted an increase to his 
army, which now stands at 48 guns, 6000 cavalry, and 5000 infantry. 

The Maharaja is an honorary general in the British army, a Knight 
Grand Cross of the Bath, Knight Grand Commander of the Star of 
India, and a Companion of the Indian Empire. On the Gwalior 
Seal of State are engraved the following titles, which, with the 
name of the ruling chief in the middle of them, are hereditary with 
the Sindhias — Mukhtar-ul-Mulk, 'master of the country;' Azim-ul- 
Ikhtidar, ' great in power ;' Rafi-us-Shan, ' high in prestige ; ' Wdld-Shikuh, 
' exalted in majesty ; ' Mutasham-i-Dauran, ' the great man of the age ; ' 
Undat-ul-Umara, 'pillar of the nobles;' Maharaj, 'the great Rdja;' 
Dhi'raj, ' raja of rajas ;' Alijah, 'the high of place ;' Mahardja Jidji Rdo 
Sindhia Bahadur ; Srinath Mandur-i-Zamdn, 'the victorious of the 
period;' Fideoi-i-Hazrat, Malika, Muazzama, Rafi-ud-darjih, Inghstaw, 


1863, 'Vassal of Her Majesty the honoured and exaUed Queen of 
England, 1863.' The old flag of the Sindhias, so well known on 
Indian battle - fields, was of the orange or brick-red colour called 
bgagwa, with the representation of a serpent on it ; after a fable that 
a cobra once sheltered the founder of the family with its hood, as he lay 
asleep in the sun. In 1862, however, a kind of Union Jack was 
adopted in lieu of, or in addition to, the old banner, having two patches 
of orange on it, with the figure of the serpent on each patch. The 
Maharaja is entitled permanently to a salute of 19 guns in British 
territory, but to a salute of 2 1 guns in his own territory. The present 
Maharaja enjoys a personal salute of 21 guns in British territory also. 

Gwalior. — The capital of G\valior State, and residence of the 
Maharaja Sindhia; situated in lat. 26° 13' n., and long. 78° 12' e., 
65 miles south from Agra, and 277 north-west of Allahabad. In the 
absence of new materials, this article has been compiled partly from 
Thornton (1S62) and Fergusson {History of Indian Architecture^ 

Gwalior city has a threefold interest. First, as a very ancient 
seat of Jain worship ; second, for its example of palace archi- 
tecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); third, as the 
fortress capital of one of the greatest native chiefs of India. A 
considerable British force is posted in its immediate neighbourhood ; 
but this aspect will be treated of in a separate article on the 
MoRAR Cantonments. The fort of Gwalior stands on an isolated 
rock of ochreous sandstone formation, capped at places with basalt. 
The face of the fort is perpendicular, and where the rock is naturally 
less precipitous it has been scarped, and in some portions the upper parts 
overhang the lower. Its greatest length from north-east to south-west 
is a mile and a half, and the greatest breadth, 300 yards. The rock at 
the northern end attains its maximum height of 342 feet. On its eastern 
side are sculptured several colossal figures in bold relief. A rampart 
accessible by a steep road, and farther up by huge steps cut out of the 
rock, surrounds the fort. This vast staircase, the principal entrance of 
which is known as the ' Elephant's ' Gate, from the figure of that animal 
being sculptured above it, is protected on the outer side by a massive 
stone wall, and is swept by guns. The citadel stands at the north- 
eastern corner of the enclosure, and presents a very picturesque 
appearance. The old town of Gwalior, which is of considerable size, 
but irregularly built, and extremely dirty, lies at the eastern base of the 
rock. It contains the tomb of Muhammad Ghaus, which was erected 
during the early part of Akbar's reign. Fergusson thus describes the 
building : — ' It is a square measuring 100 feet each way, exclusive of the 
hexagonal towers, which are attached to the angles. The chamber of 
the tomb itself is a hall 43 feet square, with the angles cut off by pointed 


arches, so as to form an octagon, on which the dome rests. Around 
this square building is a gallery, 20 feet wide between the piers, 
enclosed on all sides by a screen of the most exquisite tracery in 
pierced stonework, with a projecting porch on each face.' 

Jain Remains. — There are two remarkable Hindu temples in Gwalior. 
* One,' says Mr. Fergusson, ' known as the Sas Bahu, is understood to 
be a Jain erection, and seems to be so designated and dedicated to 
Padmanath, the sixth Tirthankara. General Cunningham doubts this 
ascription, in consequence of the walls being adorned with bas-reliefs, 
belonging certainly to the Vaishnav and Siva sects. This temple was 
finished apparently in a.d. 1093, and, though dreadfully ruined, is still 
a most picturesque fragment. What remains is the cruciform porch of 
a temple which, when complete, measured 100 feet from front to rear, 
and 63 feet across the arms of the porch. Of the sanctuary, with its 
sikra, nothing is left but the foundation ; but the porch, which is three 
storeys in height, is constructively entire, though its details — and 
principally those of its roof — are very much shattered. An older Jain 
temple is described by General Cunningham ; but as it was used as a 
mosque it is more likely that it is a Muhammadan building, although 
made up of Jain details.' Another temple in the fortress of Gwalior is 
called the Tdi-ka-Ma7idir or ' Oilman's Temple.' It is 60 feet square, 
with a portico on the east projecting about 11 feet, and terminates in 
a ridge of about 30 feet in extent. ' The building,' says Mr. Fergusson, 
' was originally dedicated to Vishnu, but afterwards converted to the 
worship of Siva. There is no inscription or any tradition from which 
its date can be gathered, but on the whole I am inclined to place it 
in the loth or nth century.' 

The most striking part of the Jain remains at Gwalior is a series 
of caves or rock-cut sculptures excavated in the rock on all sides, 
which number, when taken together, hardly less than a hundred, great 
and small. Most of them are mere niches to contain statues, though 
some are cells that may have been originally intended for residences. 
One curious fact regarding them is, that, according to inscriptions, they 
were all excavated within the short period of about thirty-three years, 
between a.d. 1441 and a.d. 1474. Some of the figures are of colossal 
size ; one, for instance, is 57 feet high, which is greater than any other 
in the north of India. 

Hifidu Palace- Architecture. — The palace built by Man Singh (a.d. 
1486-15 1 6) forms the most interesting example of early Hindu 
work in India. Its external dimensions, according to Mr. Fergus- 
son, are 300 feet by 160 feet; and on the east side it is 100 feet 
high, having two underground storeys looking over the country. On 
all its faces the flat surface is relieved by tall towers of singularly 
pleasing design, crowned by cupolas covered with domes of gilt copper 

2^,6 GWALIOR town: 

when Babar saw them in 1527. Man Singh's successor, Vikramdditya, 
added another palace, of even greater extent, to this one in 1516 ; and 
Jahdngir and Shah Jahan added palaces to these two, — the whole 
making up a group of edifices unequalled for picturesqueness and in- 
terest by anything of their class that exists in Central India. Among 
the apartments in the palace was one called the Bdradart, supported 
on 12 columns, and 45 feet square, with a stone roof, which was one 
of the most beautiful apartments of its class anywhere to be found. 
It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to which the 
Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the vaults of the 
Moslems. They had not then learned to copy them, as they did 
at the end of that century at Bindraban and elsewhere under the 
guidance of the tolerant Akbar. Of the buildings, however, which 
so excited the admiration of the Emperor Babar, probably little now 
remains. The Moslems added to the palaces of the Hindus, and 
spared their temples and the statues of the Jains. 

Rock Fortress. — According to Wilford, the fort of Gwalior was built 
in 773 by Surya Sen, the Raja of the neighbouring country. In 1023, 
it was unsuccessfully besieged by Mahmiid of Ghazni ; in 1196, 
it was captured by Mahmvid Ghori; in 12 11, it was lost by the 
Musalmdns, but recovered in 1231, after a blockade of a year, by 
Shams-ud-din Altamsh, the Slave King of Delhi. Narsinh Rai, a 
Hindu chief, taking advantage of the trouble produced by the invasion 
of Tamerlane in 1398, seized Gwalior, which was not regained by the 
Musalmdns until 1519, under Ibrdhim Lodi, the Pathdn monarch of 
Delhi. In 1526, Bdbar took the fortress by stratagem; and in 1543, 
after the expulsion of his son Humayiin, it fell into the hands of his 
rival, Sher Shah ; but after the re-establishment of Humdyun, Gwalior 
was, in 1556, recovered by his successor Akbar, who made it a state 
prison for captives of rank. In the dismemberment of the Delhi 
Empire, Gwalior was seized by the Jat Rand of Gohad. Subsequently 
it was garrisoned by Sindhia, from whom it was wrested in 17S0 by 
the forces of the East India Company. Transferred by the British 
Government to the Rdnd of Gohad, Gwalior was, in 1784, recovered 
by Mahddhaji Sindhia, from whose successor, Daulat Rdo Sindhia 
(i 794-1827), it was taken in 1803, but restored again in 1805. 

After Daulat Rao's death in 1827, his widow governed as guardian of 
her adopted son, Jhankuji, till 1833, when he assumed the Government. 
Jhankuji died in 1843 without an heir. A contest took place between 
his uncle and the adopted relative of his widow. A revolution was im- 
pending, and the Government decided to interfere. Our troops crossed 
the Chambal, and unex])ectedly found the forces of Gwalior drawn u]i 
at Mahardjpur, a few miles distant from the fortress. A battle ensued 
on the 29th December 1843, resulting in the complete overthrow of the 


Mardthas. On the same day, another victory was gained by the British 
troops at Pannidr (Punneah). The British contingent stationed in the 
town was increased, and affairs were placed on a peaceful footing. 
The last event of historical importance was the revolt of the Gwalior 
contingent in October 1S57. 

The population of the new town called Lashkdr, where the Mahdraja 
resides, was returned in iSSi at 88, 066, namely, 70,742 Hindus, 
17,135 IMuhammadans, and 189 ' others.' Lashkar has a charitable dis- 
pensary, a new jail, and post-office, and is connected with the Gwalior 
railway station by a new metalled road. The Maharaja has recently 
established a paper mill, which is now at work. — See Gwalior State. 

Gwarich. — Parga?id in Gonda District, Oudh. — See Guwarich. 

Gwe-chyo. — River in the north of Prome District, Pegu Division, 
British Burma. It rises in the Padauk spur, 20 miles west of the 
main range of the Pegu Yomas ; after a south-westerly course, it joins 
the Nawin by the same mouth as the In-gon and Chaung-sauk. Near 
its source the bed is rocky, but lower down, sandy and muddy ; it is 
unnavigable. The trees most common on its banks are in and htien 
(Nauclea sp.). 

Gyaing. — River in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British 
Burma. It is formed by the junction of the Hlaing-bwai and 
Haungtharaw near Gyaing village, in lat. 16° 34' n., and long. 98° 3' e. 
The united waters flow west for 45 miles, and fall into the Salwin at 
Maulmain. The Gyaing is a broad but shallow river, containing 
numerous sandbanks ; it is navigable by boats all the year round. 
The most important places on the banks are — Kado, at the mouth, 
the Government timber-revenue station ; Zatha-byin ; Tarana ; and 

Gyaing Attaran. — Township in Amherst District, Tenasserim 
Division, British Burma; situated between 15° 59' and 16° 40' n. lat., 
and between 97° 41' and 97° 55' e. long. It occupies the valley of 
the Attaran river, and extends from the hills forming its southern 
boundary northwards to the Gyaing. Above the junction of the Zami 
and Winraw, which unite to form the Attaran, are large tracts of 
valuable forest land. The timber can only be felled by licence. Teak 
was formerly very plentiful, but the supply has diminished consider- 
ably, owing to the indiscriminate felling in the lirst years after the 
British occupation. {See Amherst District.) The head-quarters of 
the township are at Nga-bye-ma (population in 1S81, 267), on the 
Attaran. A few miles above is Yebaw, famed for its hot springs. 
Gyaing Attaran is divided into 15 circles. Population (1881) 27,790; 
gross revenue, ;^5947. 

Gyaing-than-lwin. — Division of Amherst District, Tenasserim 
Division, British Burma; situated between 16" Z'^ and 16° 56' n. lat., 


and between 97° 38' and 98° o' e. long. The three chief rivers are 
the Salwin, the Hlaing-bwai, and the Gyaing, with their tributaries. 
In the west and south-west, the country consists of an extensive plain 
traversed by parallel ridges of limestone rocks, having a general north 
and south direction, with intervening narrow and cultivated valleys. 
Portions of this tract are occasionally inundated by the Salwin. In 
the east and north-east .of the township there is a series of low laterite 
hills, open bamboo forests, and small low-lying grassy plains. The 
southern part is a long, narrow rice-producing area. In the more hilly 
portion, where water and fodder are plentiful all the year round, cattle 
are extensively bred, and are sold to purchasers who come from 
Tha-tun and Pegu, and other places west of the Sittaung. Cattle are 
also imported by the Shans ; the chief export is rice. Gyaing-than-lwin 
contains 16 revenue circles ; the head-quarters station is Za-tha-byin. 
Population (1881) 47,901 ; revenue, ^£^13,070. 


Hab. — River on the western frontier of Sind, Bombay Presidency, 
and for some distance the boundary between British territory and 
Baluchistdn. It rises in Khelat (lat. 26° 22' 30" n., long. 67° 16' E.), 
flows south-east for 25 miles, then due south for 50 miles, and then 
south-west, till it falls into the Arabian Sea, in lat. 24° 52' n., long. 
66° 42' E., after a total length of about too miles. Except the Indus, 
it is the only permanent river in Sind. It abounds in fish. A pro- 
posal to supply Karachi (Kurrachee) with drinking water from the Hab 
was put before the Bombay Government in 1867; but a scheme for 
bringing water from the Maler river was subsequently sanctioned, and 
the latter work will soon be completed. 

Habiganj. — Sub-division of Sylhet District, Assam, consisting of 
the four police circles {ihdnds) of Habiganj, Nabiganj, Madhabpur, and 
Banidchang. Area, 971 square miles; villages, 2495 ; houses, 98,196. 
Total population (1872) 455,009 ; (1881) 482,051, showing an increase 
of 27,042, or 5*94 per cent., in nine years. Classified according to 
religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 235,955; Muhammadans, 
246,089; and 'others,' 16. 

Habiganj. — Large bazar in the south-west of Sylhet District, Assam, 
on what was once the main stream of the Barak river, and the head- 
<iuarters of Habiganj Sub-division. It is situated on the southern edge 
of the inundated tract which fills the west centre of the Surmd valley, 
and on the northern edge of the fertile valley of the Khsai river. It 
stands, as do all the other villages of the inundated tract, on an arti- 
ficial mound. A busy fleet of cargo boats loads and unloads at the 


very door of the merchants' warehouses. It is an important centre of 
trade. Population (1881) 4061, namely, Hindus, 3257 ; Muhamma- 
dans, 803 ; 'others,' i. In 1881-82, the imports from Bengal by 
country boats were valued at ;^5 2,000, chiefly consisting of salt, 
tobacco, and European piece-goods. The exports, chiefly rice, were 
valued at ^^30,000. 

Hdbra. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thcuia) in 
Dinajpur District, Bengal ; situated on the Tilai river, a tributary of the 
Jamuna. Lat. 25° 36' 3" N., long. 88° 57' 50" e. Large river mart, 
trading in rice, tobacco, gunny-cloth, sugar, jute, etc. 

Hadarnaru. — Village in Mysore District, Mysore State. Population 
(1881) 1643. It formed the scene of a chivalrous story of the 14th 
century, and is regarded as the cradle of the present ruling family. 

Hafizabad. — Southern tahsil of Gujranwala District, Punjab, lying 
between 31° 32' and 32° 20' 30" n. lat., and between 73° 11' 30" and 
74° 7' 15" E. long. ; consisting for the most part of a dry and uncul- 
tivated upland plain. Area, 1362 square miles; area under cultivation, 
202,372 acres. Population (1868) 176,986; (1881) 196,604, namely, 
males 107,451, and females 89,153; average density, 144 persons per 
square mile. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — 
Muhammadans, 154,368 ; Hindus, 31,325 ; Sikhs, 10,905 ; 'others,' 6. 
Revenue of the /a/w// in 1882-83,^16,774. The administrative staff 
consisted of a tahsilddr, a inunsif, and an honorary magistrate, presiding 
over 3 civil and 2 criminal courts. Number of police circles {i/idnds), 4 ; 
strength of regular police, 85 men ; village watchmen {c/iaukiddrs), 441. 

Hafizabad. — Town in Gujranwala District, Punjab, and head- 
quarters of the Hafizabad tahsil. Distant from Gujranwala 32 miles 
west ; formerly a place of great importance, and mentioned in the Ain-i- 
Akbari as head-quarters of a mahal, but now only important as being 
the sub-divisional head-quarters. Founded by Hafiz, a favourite of the 
Emperor Akbar. Population (1881) 2453, namely, Hindus, 1317; 
]Muhammadans, 994; and Sikhs, 142; number of houses, 380. The 
town contains, besides the ofticial courts and oftices, a sardi or 
native inn, with a good European rest-house attached to it ; a thdtid or 
police circle ; and a vernacular middle-class school. 

Haggri. — River in the Madras Presidency. — See Hugri. 
Haiatpur. — Town in Maldah District, Bengal ; situated on the left 
bank of the Ganges. Lat. 25° 16' 20" n., long. 87° 54' 21" e. The 
town occupies an important situation at the spot where the waters of 
the Ganges have effected a junction with the Kalindri, and is the largest 
river mart in the District. It lost a good deal of its trade some years 
ago, when the main stream of the Ganges shifted its channel several 
miles from the town ; but the stream has recently returned to its old bed, 
and commerce has revived and restored the importance of the i)lace. 


Haidarabad {Hyderabad, or the Nizam's Dominions). — A Native 
State or feudatory kingdom, roughly co-extensive with the Deccan 
{Dakshin) or central plateau of Southern India, which takes its name 
from its capital, Haidarabad City. 'The form of the territory, 
inclusive of the Haidarabad Assigned Districts, known as Berar, is 
that of a trapezium. Its base is about 420 miles in a direction from 
north-east to south-west, from Hampasagar in lat. 15° 10' x., long. 76° 
5' E., to Maripad in lat. 17° 20' x., long. 81° 22' E. ; its north-eastern 
side extends from south-east to north-west a distance of 390 miles, from 
Maripad, above mentioned, to Melghat in laL 21' 41' x., long. 77" 
15' E. ; its north-western, in a direction from north-east to south-west, 
a distance of 220 miles from Melghat, as above, to Phiiltamba, lat. 19° 
47' N., long. 74° 40' E. ; and the south-western, a distance of 330 miles 
from Phiiltamba to Hampasagar. Though such is the general outline 
of the country, the boundaries are marked by numerous sinuosities, 
causing them to deviate greatly from right lines. The territory lies 
between lat. 15° 10' to 21^ 46' x., including the Haidarabad Assigned 
Districts, or Berar, and long. 74° 35' to 81° 25' e. Excluding Berar, 
the extreme northern part of the State reaches the parallel of 20° 4'. 
It is 475 miles in length from south-west to north-east, and about the 
same distance in breadth.' The area of Berar, or the Haidarabad 
Assigned Districts, is 17,711 square miles, that of the remaining portion 
of the Nizam's Dominions is estimated at about 80,000 square miles ; 
the total area of the whole State being thus about 98,000 square miles. 
' It is bounded on the north and north-east by the Central Provinces ; 
on the south and south-east by territory subject to the Presidency of 
Madras ; on the west and north-west by territory subject to the Presi- 
dency of Bombay. Within the western part are some small isolated 
British possessions.' Excluding the Haidarabad Assigned Districts, or 
Berar, the Districts comprising the Native State of Haidarabad are, in 
the Eastern Division, Kamamet, Nalgonda, and Nagar Karniil ; in the 
Northern Division, Mehdak, Indor, Yelgandal, and Sirpur Tandiir ; in 
the Western Division, Bidar, Nander, and Naldrug ; in the Southern 
Division, Raichor, Lingsagar, Shorapur, and Gulbargah ; and in the 
North-west Division, Aurangabad, Bhi'r, and Parbaini ; while the capital 
Haidarabad, with its suburbs, forms the City District. 

In this article the passages within inverted commas are from an 
article prepared by Mr. Edward Thornton under the directions of the 
East India Company. 

Physical Aspects. — ' Haidarabid is a tract of considerable elevation, 
averaging 1250 feet above the level of the sea, and some granite summits 
attain a height of 2500 feet. The elevation of the fort of Golconda, near 
the city of Haidarabad, has been ascertained to be 2024 feet above sea- 
level. With the exception of the valley of the Tapti at the northern 


extremity of the territory, which is bounded on the north by the 
Vindhya range and on the south by the high land of the Goddvari, the 
whole drainage of the country is either from west to east or from north- 
west to south-east, discharging into the Bay of Bengal by the channels 
of the Godavari and the Kistna. The drainage of the valley of the 
Tapti, flowing westward, falls into the Gulf of Cambay.' This wide 
expanse of country presents much variety of surface and feature. In 
some parts it is mountainous, wooded, and picturesque ; in others, flat 
or undulating. The champaign lands are of all descriptions, including 
many rich and fertile plains, much good land not yet brought under 
cultivation, and numerous trac^ too sterile ever to be cultivated at all. 
The most important mountain ranges running through the State are — 
the Balaghat range, running east and west from the taluk of Biloli in 
the Indor District to the tdlnk of Ashti in the Bi'rh District, a distance 
of 200 miles within the Nizam's territory ; the Sabiadri range, running 
from the District of Indor to the Assigned Districts of Haidarabad, and 
on to Khandesh in the Bombay Presidency. The entire length of the 
Sahyddris within the Nizam's State is about 250 miles, of which a length 
of about 100 miles is called the Ajanta Ghat range. The Gawalgarh 
range runs east and west in Berar for about 64 miles, and the Jdlna 
range runs for a length of 120 miles from Daulatabad eastward in the 
direction of Jalna. 

' The geological formations are on a large scale : in the north-west 
being of the great volcanic formation extending through the greater 
part of the Deccan, consisting principally of trap, but in some parts 
basalt. In the middle, southern, and south-western parts, the greater 
part of the country is overlaid with gneissic formations. In the north- 
east, along the right bank of the Godavari, there is much sandstone, 
some of it carboniferous.' Near the junction of the Penganga with the 
Wardha, and in the valley of the latter river, there are coal-fields. Those 
which have been examined over a small area near Sasti and Paoni show 
an average of 40 feet in thickness. The quality of the coal hitherto 
mined is inferior to that of Raniganj, but good enough for railway pur- 
poses. Iron-ore is found in the same neighbourhood, also limestone 
and kankar^ or nodular limestone, at Kamaram in the extreme east ; 
and 100 miles north-east of EUore there is another small coal-field. At 
Shahibad, near the junction of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
with the Nizam's State Railway, are quarries of excellent limestone, 
which are extensively worked for a considerable distance along the line 
of the latter railway. The stone found is of two colours, grey and 
black, and takes a polish almost equal to marble. It is now imported 
into Haidardbad city, and exported elsewhere in large quantities for 
building purposes, for which it is well suited from its regular cleavage 
and the ease with which it can be worked. 

VOL. V. Q 


Ri'oers. — The Haidarabdd territory is, on the whole, well watered, 
rivers being numerous, while tanks or artificial pieces of water also 
abound. The Godavari, rising on the eastern declivity of the Western 
Ghats, near Nasik in the British District of that name, takes a course 
south-east for about 90 miles to Phultamba, where it first touches on 
this territory, and continues to flow along the border south-eastward 
for 70 miles to Miingi, in lat. 19° 27' x., long. 75" 30' e. Here it enters 
Haidarabad territory, through which it holds a course nearly easterly 
for about 160 miles, to the vicinity of Lasona, in lat. 19° 7' N., long. 
77° 5' E. At that place, it receives on the left side the Dudna river, 
which flows from the north-east and has a considerable stream after 
its junction with the Purna river. About 85 miles lower down, in 
lat. 18° 48' N., long. 77° 55' E., it receives on the right side the Man- 
jira. It thence continues to hold a course generally easterly for 
about 190 miles, to Kulaisar, in lat. 18° 52' n., long. 79° 53' e., where, 
on the left, it receives the Pranhita, a large river from the north. 
After the confluence, turning south-east, it flows for about 155 miles in 
that direction along the south-western base of the mountains of Bastar 
to Kottiir, in lat. 17° 29' n., long. 81° 29' e., w'here it passes into 
Godavari District of the Madras Presidency. Below Kulaisar, it forms 
the north-eastern boundary of Haidarabad territory. Thus the total 
length of this great river, along the border and through the territory, 
is about 600 miles, for above 200 of which it is navigable from June to 
February. The Wardha, rising in the hills of Betul and Chhindwdra, 
Districts of the Central Provinces, flows south-west for a few miles, and 
first touching on this territory at Gudra, in lat. 21° 35' n., long. 78" 
25' e., thence flows towards the south-east 1 70 miles towards Chanda. 
In lat. 19° 55' N., long. 79° 15' e., it receives on the right side the 
Penganga, a large river from the west, which for the greater part of its 
course forms the boundary between East Berar and the more southern 
portions of the Nizam's Dominions. After the junction with the Pen- 
ganga, the Wardha continues to flow in a south-easterly direction for 
60 miles, and in lat. 19° 37' N., long. 79° 15' e., on the left bank 
receives the Wainganga, from the north. Below the confluence, the 
united stream, now called the Pranhita, flows in a tortuous direction, 
but generally south, for about 80 miles to Kulaisar, in lat. 18" 52' N., 
long. 69° 53' E. This stream, through nearly its whole length, whether 
denominated the Wardha or the Pranhita, marks the boundary between 
this territory and the Central Provinces. It is navigable for about 170 

The KiSTNA or Krishna, rising near Mahdbaleshwar, in the 
Western Ghats, holds a course south-east for about 320 miles to lat. 
16° 10' N., long. 76" 18' E., where it touches, and 10 miles farther 
passes into, this territory, through which it flows in a direction generally 


north-east for about 75 miles to Kadlur in lat. 16° 24' n., long. 77° 
20' E., where on the left bank it receives the Bhi'ma from the north- 
west, and is soon after spanned by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
bridge. From near this point the river, turning south-east, flows 80 
miles in that direction to its confluence with the Tungabhadru in lat. 
15° 58' N., long. 78° 19' E., where it turns north-east and flows 180 
miles to lat. 16° 50' n., long. 80° 10' e., at which point it passes into 
Kistna (Krishna) District of the Madras Presidency. From the 
confluence to the point last named, it forms part of the south-eastern 
boundary of Haidarabad territory. Thus its total length of course 
connected with this territory is 345 miles ; but in consequence of the 
ruggedness of its bed, it is of little use for navigation. The Tunga- 
BHADRA, formed by the junction of the rivers Tunga and Bhadra in 
Mysore, flows north-eastward, and at Mudlapur, in lat. 15° 8' n., long. 
76° i' E., first touches this territory, along the south-eastern boundary 
of which it flows, separating it from the Madras Districts of Bellary and 
Karniil (Kurnool) for a distance of 200 miles, to its confluence with the 
Kistna. Many other streams (considerable rivers during the periodical 
rains, but much reduced in volume at other times of the year) discharge 
into these main channels of drainage. Tanks for irrigation are, as 
before observed, numerous, and some of them are of very great size, as 
that at Pakhal, which is at least 30 miles in circuit. The bandh or dam 
of this tank is about 2000 yards in length. When full of water, the 
depth at the sluice is 36 feet. These tanks are generally formed by 
throwing an embankment across the lower end of a valley, and thus 
causing the accumulation of the water of such streams as may flow into 
it. The total number of tanks in the State is about 18,200. 

' The climate may be considered as in general good ; and as there are 
no arid, bare deserts, similar to those of Rajputana and some other tracts 
of Northern India, the hot winds are less felt. In the vicinity of the 
city of Haidarabad, the mean temperature in-doors, according to 
observations made at sunrise, at two o'clock in the afternoon, and at 
sunset, for one year, was — in January, 74^° F. ; February, 76;!^°; March, 
84°; April, 91^°; May, 93°; June, 88°; July, 81°; August, 8o|^° ; 
September, 79° ; October, 80° ; November, 76^° ; and December, 74^° ; 
giving as an annual mean 81 1°. Ophthalmic diseases are prevalent in 
the sandstone district. The wells in general yield impure, unpalatable 
water, productive of disease, especially the • dracunculus or guinea- 
worm, from which those who use the water from tanks or streams are 

The annual fall of rain is estimated at from 28 to 32 inches at 
Haidarabad ; this occurs principally during the south-west monsoon 
between June and October. In the north-west monsoon there is a 
fall of only 4 to 7 inches. In 18S1, the total rainfall was 29-6 inches. 


The winds are generally westerly in June, July, August, and September ; 
during October, November, December, January, and February they 
blow from the east ; and in March, April, and May north-westerly 
breezes are frequent. 

Animals. — Horses adapted for military or general purposes are not 
reared in the same number as formerly in the Nizam's Dominions. 
The chief mart for Deccan-bred horses is a fiiir at ^lalegaon in Bidar 
District, about i6o miles from Haidarabdd and 200 from Poona. There 
is also a horse bazar near the capital, which is open throughout the 
year, and is resorted to by merchants from almost every quarter of 
Asia, with strings of elephants, horses, and camels. 

Agriculture. — ' The soil is in general fertile, though in some parts it 
consists of chilka, a red and gritty mould, litde fitted, from the 
coarseness of its particles, for agriculture. Resembling this, but 
composed of particles more minute, is lal-zam'm, a soil also of a 
reddish hue, and considered by Walker to be formed of the remains 
of broken-down ant-hills, which are surprisingly numerous in this 
country. "Thus," observes the writer just referred to, "we see that 
those insects, usually looked upon as troublesome and destructive pests, 
are not without their use in a grand natural operation. The peculiar 
acid (the formic), which is their chief constituent, acts upon the alkali 
and lime, and most probably on the silica of the rock debris, pulver- 
izing it, and facilitating, in all probability, fresh combinations. The 
soil, when manured, is fitted for the reception of all kinds of crops 
without reference to season." Though less extensive than the kinds 
just enumerated, the regar or black cotton-soil occurs in many places, 
and is esteemed the best of any, and, as indicated by the epithet above 
applied to it, peculiarly suited for the cultivation of cotton. It 
requires no manure, except that left by sheep generally fed upon it 
when under fallow previous to cultivation. This is, however, an im- 
portant resource, as flocks of sheep are everywhere to be seen. There 
is also a soil denominated talao-ka-zamin, a black earth, dug from the 
bottoms of tanks ; but not much prized, being a stiff clay and con- 
taining a profusion of small fresh-water shells. Its extreme tenacity 
is found unfavourable to vegetation, which is still further thwarted by 
a large impregnation of carbonate of soda. This, however, is collected 
in great rjuantities for manufacturing and commercial purposes. All 
those soils effervesce with acids, thereby indicating that they contain 
carbonate of lime. Throughout this territory the ground, wherever 
left uncultivated, even but for a year or two, becomes covered with a 
low jungle, composed chiefly of the Cassia auriculata and Zizyphus 
microphylla. In process of time, the appearance of the jungle is 
enlivened by the growth of numerous trees, of which the principal are 
Butea frondosa, Bombax hcptaphyllum, Erythrina indica, Hypcranthera 


moringa, Cassia fistula, Anona reticulata, Melia azadirachta, Bauhinia 
parviflora, Capparis trifolia, Ficus indica, Ficus religiosa, Bombax 
gossipium, Feronia elephantum, and several species of Acacia. 

' The toddy palms, Borassus flabclliformis and Phccnix sylvestris, are 
extensively cultivated on account of their sap, which is drawn off, and 
fermented into an intoxicating beverage. The cocoa-nut tree cannot 
be brought to perfection, even with the greatest care, accompanied 
by the most favourable circumstances; and in consequence, its cul- 
tivation is very circumscribed. Mango and tamarind trees occur in 
great numbers about the villages. The betel vine is also cultivated, 
but in no great quantities. The principal grain crops are rice (of 
which there are no less than eight varieties), wheat, maize of various 
kinds, jodr (Holcus sorghum), bdjra {Holcus spicatus), ragi (Cyno- 
surus corocanus) ; of oil-seeds — mustard, Sesamum orientale, and 
Ricinus communis or castor -oil plant; of leguminous growths — 
Dolichos lablab, Dolichos gladiatus, Phaseolus mungo, cke?ifia (Cicer 
arietinum). Melons, cucumbers, gourds, and some other cucurbitacea 
are largely grown, and form important articles of diet. The gardens 
produce onions, garlic, carrots, radishes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, 
coriander,' ginger, turmeric, and various kinds of amaranth used as pot- 
herbs. Tobacco is cultivated, but not to a great extent. Cotton, 
indigo, and sugar-cane are the more important objects of the agri- 
culturist's care. Al (IMorinda citrifolia) and chayrut (Oldenlandia 
umbellata), valuable dyes, occur wild, and are also cultivated.' 

The cotton-producing capabilities of the country are well known. The 
produce of Kunar Idlabad District, which chiefly finds its way to the 
Hinganghat market, is greatly valued, and fetches a high price. In 
1875, there were no mills or manufactories in the territory ; but a 
cotton-spinning factory has recently been constructed in connection 
with a wealthy European firm in Bombay. Fruit of many different 
kinds is plentiful. The mango and custard-apple grow wild over large 
tracts. The melons and pine-apples of Haidarabad are as celebrated 
in their way as the oranges of Nagpur, and the large purple grape of 
Daulatabad is exported to many distant markets. Plants rich in textile 
fibre are not less abundant, and will one day, it may be presumed, be 
utilized on a large scale. ' Tasar silk, the produce of a wild species 
of worm, is everywhere gathered in the jungles. Hides, raw and 
tanned, both of domesticated and wild quadrupeds, are articles of 
some importance in commerce. Wild bees swarm in all the jungles ; 
consequently wax and honey are abundant and cheap. Lac, suit- 
able for use as a resin or a dye, may be obtained in quantities far 
beyond the present demand. Mucilaginous gums are produced in the 
woods in inexhaustible quantities, and there are some considered not 
inferior in quality to the best African gums. Of gum resins, the most 


worth notice is that yielded by the Boswellia thurifera. Dika-viali^ a 
resin yielded in great quantities by several species of Gardenia, is 
much used in native pharmacy, and probably might serve important 
purposes in the arts, but its properties have not been adequately 
tested. Some sorts of nuts yield oils, which might prove important 
articles of commerce. Cordage is supplied by the common saii 
(Crotalaria juncea), also by some species of Bauhinia, and of admir- 
able quality by Asclepias tenacissima. Of timber, the teak (Tectona 
grandis) produced in this territory is stunted and indifferent ; but 
some of fine quality is floated down the river from the forests of 
Nagpur. Other valuable woods are Diospyros melanoxylon and 
Dalbergia or sissii.^ 

People. — A Census of the population of the Nizam's Dominions 
in 1 88 1, excluding Berar or the Haidarabad Assigned Districts, 
which are under British administration, returned a total of 9,845,594 
persons, of whom 925,929, or about one-tenth, were Muham- 
madans. The principal sects among the Muhammadans are the 
Shaikhs, who number 484,155; the Sayyids, 89,909; the IMughals, 
15,423; and the Pathans, 61,437 ; the 'unspecified' being returned at 
2 75)005. The chief divisions among the remaining population were 
thus given — Brahmans, 259,147; Rajputs, 49,843; Bairagis, 5057; 
Bedars, 119,161 ; Bhois, 92,170; Chamdrs (leather-workers), 447,312 ; 
tailors, 30,937 ; Dhangars, 482,035 ; Gaondi's, 30,039 ; Gaolis, 212,608 ; 
Gosains, 21,395; Gujaratis, 3544; Lingayats (traders), 97,836; Jogi's 
(jugglers), 4371 ; Lobars (smiths), 56,128 ; Kamatis (traders), 194,284; 
Kolis (cultivators), 213,966; Koshtis, 79,142; Kunbi's (cultivators), 
1,658,665; Mangs, 315,732; Malis, 83,806; Mahars, 806,653; 
Kumbhars (potters), 90,835; Mahali's, 102,213; Manbhaos, 2627; 
Marathas, 369,636 ; Marwaris (money-lenders and bankers), 42,009 ; 
Sonars (goldsmiths), 88,769; Telingas, 327,338; Teh's, 67,564; 
Waddars, 54,833; Banjaras (carriers), 6120; Baniyas (village shop- 
keepers), 392,184; Bhils, 8470; Gonds, 39,513; Koyas, 45'3oo ; 
Lambdni's, 85,204; and Pardhis, 21 14. The above figures would 
give an average density of population for Haidarabad of about 123 
to the square mile. In the south-eastern part of the territory, 
the Telugu language prevails ; and in the south-western Districts, 
in the vicinity of the Kistna river, Kanarese is spoken. In 
the northern and western parts, Mardthi is generally used ; and, as 
the border-land between this language and the Dravidian languages 
passes through the Nizam's Dominions, there is a considerable inter- 
mixture of people speaking different languages. The Marathds are 
most numerous in the west. The Musalmdns are chiefly to be met 
with in the ca]>ital, and everywhere in the civil and military service 
of Government. In addition to the Hindu and Muhammadan popu- 



lation, there is a large admixture of Pdrsi's, Sikhs, Arabs, Rohillds, 
aborigines, and 'others.' 

Owing to the general distribution of arms among all classes, the 
people of Haidarabad, as of other Native States, present to the 
casual observer a more formidable appearance than is borne out, 
perhaps, by anything ir# their actual character or disposition. The 
Telingas or Telugu-speaking folk, though not in a highly-advanced 
state of civilisation, are by no means sunk in barbarism. They gene- 
rally inhabit straggling villages, in houses built of mud, with pyramidal 
roofs of palmyra leaves, though a few dwellings are more substantially 
constructed of brick, and tiled. In some of the less civilised parts, 
the habitations are mere sheds of palmyra leaves, or hovels made of 
bamboos and wattle. There is usually to each village a detached fort, 
constructed either of masonry or mud, about 50 yards scjuare, and 
containing the dwellings of the zaminddr and his immediate depend- 
ants. There is a considerable proportion of Brahmans among the 
Telingas ; and the usual diet of these and the higher classes consists 
of rice in some localities and of wheat and jodr in others, with 
vegetable curries, and cakes flavoured with garlic or assafcetida and 
fried in butter. The Brahmans profess to abstain from animal food ; 
but the zatninddrs of the Kunbi caste consume mutton, poultry, and 
game. The lower orders subsist on rogi and other inferior sorts of 
grain ; all are addicted to intoxication with the fermented sap of various 
kinds of palms and spirit distilled from the flowers of the mahua 
(Bassia latifolia). Tobacco is generally used, both for smoking and 
chewing, as well as in the form of snufif. Bhang, or the intoxicating 
narcotic obtained from hemp, and opium are also in use, but to no 
great extent. The Gonds, who lurk in the hills and fastnesses, are a 
wild and savage race; yet they may be rendered tractable and 
obedient by kind treatment. At present the majority are nearly in a 
state of nature, sheltering in caves or hollow trees, and feeding on 
game when obtainable, at other times on vermin, reptiles, and wild 
roots or fruits. 

Commerce, etc. — The principal articles of export are cotton, oil-seeds, 
country cloth, hides, metal ware, and agricultural produce ; the 
imports are salt from the eastern and western coasts, grain, timber, 
European piece-goods, and hardware. In the absence of any complete 
system of registration, the only means of approximately estimating the 
annual value of the trade of the Nizam's Dominions with other Pro- 
vinces is by calculating it from the known yield of the ad valorem 
duties levied at customs houses. The amount thus deducible would 
be about ^10,000,000 sterling per annum. Among the manufactures 
of the country may be mentioned the ornamental metal ware of Bidar ; 
the gold-embroidered cloth {kamkhab) of Aurangabad, Gulbarga, and 


other towns ; and the excellent paper of different kinds which is made 
by the inhabitants of the hamlet of Kaghazpur, near the famous 
fortress of Daulatibid. 

Communications. — The railway connecting Y>oxt\\iZ.y with Madras 
traverses the south-western part of the State. The Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway works the line as far as Raichur, where it is joined 
by the Madras Railway. At Wadi, 7 miles from the station of 
Shahabad, on the Great Indian Peninsula line, the Nizam's State 
Railway branches off to Haidarabad and to the military cantonment of 
Secunderabad (Sikandrabad). From Haidarabad two lines of telegraph 
separate, one going south-west to Eellar)-, the other with an easterly 
direction towards Masulipatam, near the mouth of the Kistna. ' The 
principal roads are the military ones — (i) from north to south, from 
Nagpur through the city of Haidarabad to Bangalore ; (2) from south- 
east to north-west, from Madras and Masulipatam through the city of 
Haidarabad to Poona and thence to Bombay; (3) from south-east to 
north-west, from the city of Haidarabad to AurangabaxL' 

Administration. — The revenue of the Nizam's Dominions, Berar 
included, may be stated in round numbers at ;£'4,ooo,ooo, inclusive of 
receipts from all sources. About three-fourths of the above large sum 
is collected by the Nizdm's own Government from tracts under native 
rule. The remaining one-fourth is realized by British officers principally 
from Berar. All revenue collected by our Government from Districts 
owning the sovereignty of the Nizam is either spent by us in admini- 
stering those Districts, or is handed over to him as unexpended surplus. 
The only feudatorj' of the Nizam is the Raja of Gudwal, who is 
independent in his internal administration so long as he pays an annual 
tribute of j£i 1,^00. 

The land revenue is still collected in kind in some parts of the 
countr)' ; the rate for irrigated crops being half to the Government and 
half to the cultivator. Where it is paid in money, the rate is much the 
same, about 8 annas in the rupee or one shilling out of every two on 
the value of the crop. 

The Haidarabad Government has a mint and a currency of its own. 
In former days, ruf>ees of different kinds were manufactured in various 
parts of the country'. Now there is only one mint, situated in the 
city of Haidarabad ; and only one kind of rupee, namely, the M/i sicca, 
or ' rupee of the period,' is turned out. Though smaller in disc, it is 
also a good deal thicker than our ru[X;e, and the difference in weight 
and intrinsic value between the two coins is trifling. 

Jliitory. — The dynasty of the "^'uAxtv was founded by Asaf Jah, a 
distinguished general of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, of Turkoman 
descent After a long life at the Delhi Court, distinguished alike in 
war and political cunning, he was appointed in 17 13 Subahdar or 


Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Regulator of 
the State), which has since become hereditary in the family. The 
Mughal Empire was at this time torn by internal dissension, and at the 
same time threatened by the rising power of the IMarathas. Amid the 
general confusion, Asafjah had little difficulty in asserting his indepen- 
dence against the degcncfate descendant of Aurangzeb, though he was 
less successful in repelling the inroads of ISIaratha cavalry. At the time 
of his death in 1748, he was firmly established as an independent 
sovereign, with Haidarabad for his capital, and a kingdom roughly 
co-extensive with the present State. 

The right of succession was fiercely contested among his descen- 
dants. The claimants most favoured were two. One of these, Nasir 
Jang, the second son of the deceased ruler, being on the spot when his 
father died, had seized the treasure, and obtained the support of the 
army ; and, moreover, he fortified his claim by an alleged renunciation 
of the right of inheritance on the part of his elder brother. The 
other, Muzaffar Jang, was a grandson of Nizam-ul-Mulk by a favourite 
daughter ; and to him, it was said, the succession was conveyed by 
testamentary bequest. Each of the two candidates had the good 
fortune to secure the countenance and support of one of the great 
European powers then commencing their career of contention for 
supremacy in the East, — the English espousing the cause of Nasir Jang, 
the French that of his rival, Muzaffar Jang ; but after a very brief 
period, dissensions between the commander and his officers caused the 
retirement of the Erenth force from the field, and Muzaffar Jang, 
deprived of support, became the prisoner of Nasir Jang. Nasir Jang 
soon afterwards perished by the hands of his own followers, and 
Muzaffar Jang was proclaimed Subahdar of the Deccan ; but his 
authority was exercised under the control of the French commander, 
])ui>leix, whose will was supreme. Muzaffar Jang was not destined 
long to enjoy even the appearance of power. He fell in an affray with 
some Pathan chiefs, who, having been instrumental in placing him on 
the throne, were disappointed in the amount of reward to which they 
thought their services entitled. A new occupant of the seat of power 
was now to be sought ; and the French, passing over an infant son of 
Muzaffar Jang, selected Salabat Jang, a brother of Nasir Jang, to be 
ruler of the Deccan. Another claimant for the dignity, however, 
shortly afterwards appeared in the person of Ghazi-ud-din, the eldest 
son of the Nizam Asaf Jah. The impending contest between the 
brothers was averted by the sudden death of Ghazi-ud-din ; and 
though the Marathas, by whom he was supported, continued for 
their own jjurposes to maintain hostilities, their unvarying ill-success 
disposed them to listen to proposals for procuring their withdrawal on 
the usual terms. 


The English and French, however, continued to struggle for power 
and influence in the Deccan ; but the latter were compelled after 
a while, by the danger threatening their own possessions from the 
victories gained by Clive, to withdraw from the support of Salabat Jang, 
who thus weakened, and apprehensive, moreover, of the designs of a 
younger brother, Nizam All, entered into* an engagement with the 
English, by which he promised to dismiss the French from his service, 
and renounce all connection with them. In 1761, this weak prince 
was dethroned by his own brother, Nizam All, whom, contrary 
to the advice of the most judicious of his French councillors, 
he had entrusted with power which was used to supplant the donor. 
Two years afterwards, the usurper made further acknowledgment of 
his brother's favour by putting him to death. In 1765 he ravaged the 
Karnatic, exercising in his course a measure of cruelty far beyond what 
was necessary to his purpose ; but he retired on the approach of a 
British force. Still the British Government was anxious to be on better 
terms with him, partly from a desire to obtain his concurrence to their 
retention of the maritime Province known as the Northern Circars, 
formerly possessed by the French, but now occupied by the English, 
who had fortified their right by the. firman of the Emperor. 

Accordingly, in 1 766, a treaty was concluded by which, on condition of 
a grant of the Circars, the British Government agreed to furnish the Nizam 
with a subsidiary force when required, and to pay 9 hikhs of rupees (say 
;^ 90,000) a year, when the assistance of their troops was not required. 
The Nizam on his part engaged to assist the British with his troops. There 
were other stipulations ; and among them one reserving the life right of 
Basilat Jang, a brother of Nizam All, in one of the Circars, subject to 
his good behaviour. The aid of British troops was afforded, as provided 
by the treaty, to enable Nizam All to march against Haidar All of Mysore, 
then rapidly rising to power ; but after a good deal of vacillation, 
Nizam Ali preferred to unite with that adventurer. The allies, however, 
were unprosperous, and the Niz^m was compelled to sue for peace, which 
was concluded by a new treaty in 1768. By the Sixth Article, the East 
India Company and the Nawab of the Karnatic (who was a party to 
the treaty) were to be always ready to send two battalions of Sepoys 
and six pieces of artillery, manned by Europeans, wherever the Nizdm 
should require them, and the situation of affairs should allow of such 
assistance being rendered, the Nizam paying the expense during the 
time such force should be employed in this service. In 1782, Basdlat 
Jang died ; but the Company did not obtain possession of the Circar 
held by him till 1788. The /e'^///C'^^//, or payment to be made to the 
Nizam on account of the Circars, had fallen into arrcar, and was not 
adjusted till a later period. These matters, however, having been 
at length arranged, the British Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis, in 


1789, addressed a letter to the Nizam explaining and interpreting the 
treaty of 1768, but declining to enter into any new treaty, as had been 
suggested. That letter was subsequently declared, by a resolution of 
the House of Commons, to have the full force of a treaty executed in 
due form. In it the Governor-General agreed that the force stipulated 
for in the Sixth Article of the treaty of 1768 should be granted whenever 
applied for, provided it was not to be employed against any power in 
alliance with the Company. In the following year, on the breaking 
out of a war with Tipii, son of Haidar Ali, a treaty of offensive and 
defensive alliance was concluded between the Nizam, the Peshwa, and 
the British Government. Tipii purchased peace at the price of half 
his dominions, and the Nizam had no reason to be dissatisfied with 
his share of the spoil. At a later period, the Nizdm, being engaged in 
war with the Marathas, claimed the assistance of the British Government 
under the subsisting relations between them ; but the Governor-General, 
Sir John Shore, was precluded by the treaties with the Marathas from 
interfering further than as mediator, and the Nizam was eventually 
obliged to conclude an ignominious peace with his enemy. The refusal 
of assistance and its results so incensed the Nizam, that he requested 
that two battalions stationed at his capital as a subsidiary force should 
be withdrawn. 

The Nizam now sought safety in the enlistment of a body of 
troops commanded by French officers, who, however, were dismissed 
in accordance with the provisions of a treaty (1798), under the admini- 
stration of the Earl of jNIornington, afterwards Marquis Wellesley. By 
this treaty, a subsidiary force, augmented to 6000 Sepoys with a due 
proportion of field-pieces, was assigned to the service of the Nizam, 
who on his part agreed to pay a subsidy for the support of the force 
of ;;^24i,7io. On the fall of Seringapatam and the death of Tipii 
Sultan, the Nizam participated largely in the division of territory, under 
the partition treaty of 1799, and his share was increased on the Peshwa's 
withdrawal from the treaty. In 1800, the subsidiary force with the 
Nizam was further augmented, and the pecuniary payment for its 
maintenance was commuted for a cession of territory. The country 
ceded on this occasion consisted of the acquisitions made from Tipii 
allotted to the Nizam under the treaty of Seringapatam in 1792, and the 
treaty of Mysore, concluded in 1799, after the destruction of Tipii's 
power and government. This territory is known to the present time 
under the title of the Ceded Districts. 

By the treaty of 1800, the Nizdm agreed to furnish in time of war 
6000 infantry and 9000 cavalry to co-operate with the British army, and 
to employ every effort to bring into the field as speedily as possible 
the whole force of his dominions. But his troops proved very 
inefficient in the first Maratha war, and, after the conclusion of the 


campaign, various schemes were from time to time proposed for their 
reform, with little success. Eventually battalions were raised, which 
were clothed, armed, and equipped like the Company's troops ; and for 
the regular payment of this contingent, advances were made in 1843 
from the British treasury, on the distinct understanding that in the 
event of further advances becoming necessary, a territorial security for 
the payment of the debt would be demanded. No efforts, however, 
were made to pay off the debt, which continued to increase. At last, 
in 1853, a new treaty was concluded, by which the British Government 
agreed to maintain an auxiliary force of not less than 5000 infantry, 
2000 cavalry, and 4 field batteries, and to provide for its payment and 
for certain pensions and the interest on the debt ; the Nizam on his part 
agreed to cede in trust Districts yielding a gross revenue of 50 lahks 
of rupees (say ;^5oo,ooo). By this treaty the Nizam, while retaining 
the full use of the subsidiary force and contingent, was released from 
the unlimited obligation of service in time of war ; and the contingent 
ceased to be part of the Nizam's army, and became an auxiliary force 
kept up by the British Government for the Nizam's use. 

In 1857, when the ]\Iutiny broke out, the condition of Haidarabad 
and the Nizam's Dominions became critical ; and in July, an attack, 
which was repulsed, was made upon the Residency. The Haidarabad 
contingent displayed its loyalty in the field against the rebels. In i860, 
a fresh treaty was made by which the territorial acquisitions of the 
Nizam were increased, a debt of 50 lakhs of rupees was cancelled, 
and the Assigned Districts in Berar, yielding a gross revenue of Rs. 
3,200,000 (say ;^3 20,000), were taken in trust by the British Govern- 
ment for the purposes specified in the treaty of 1853. Under British 
administration the revenues of Berdr have greatly increased. They 
amounted in 1882-83 ^o ;^85 5,233. The surplus is paid over to the 
Haidarabad State. 

The present Nizam, Mir Mahbub All, was born in 1866. He is in 
point of rank the first Muhammadan ruler in India, and is entitled to 
a salute of 2 1 guns. The military force of the Nizam consists of 7 1 
field and 654 other guns, 551 artillerymen, 1400 cavalry, and 12,775 
infantry, besides a large body of irregulars. 

Haidardbad {Ilyderdhdd). — Chief city and capital of Haidarabad 
State; situated in lat. 17° 21' 45" N., and long. 78° 30' 10" e., on the 
river Musi, which is here between 400 and 500 feet wide. It stands at 
a height of about 1700 feet above sea-level, and is distant 389 miles 
north-west from Madras, 449 south-east from Bombay, and 962 south- 
west from Calcutta. According to the Census taken in February 18S1, 
the population of the city was returned at 123,675 ; and of the suburbs, 
231,287; making a total of 354,962. The city is about 6 miles in 
circumference, with a stone wall, flanked with bastions, encircling 


it. The street architecture is not imposing, and there are few buildings 
with any pretensions to architectural merit. Perhaps there is no city in 
India with a population so varied or so warlike. Every man goes about 
armed with a weapon of some kind, while the military classes are 
literally armed to the teeth. Here may be seen the Arab, the Sidi, the 
Rohilla, the Pathdn, the Maratha, the Turk, the Sikh, Persians, Bokha- 
riots, Parsis, Madrasis, and others. 

The scenery around Haidarabad is wild and picturesque, the country 
being hilly and dotted with numerous granite peaks and isolated rocks. 
Approached from the west, the appearance of the city is very striking ; 
the palace and mosques and magnificent pile of buildings erected for the 
British Residency towering above the outer wall. A large lake, a few 
miles south of Haidarabad, supplies the city. When full, this sheet 
of water is nearly 20 miles in circumference, and covers an area of 
10,000 acres. 

The palace of the Nizam, the mosques, and the British Residency 
are the principal buildings. The former has, however, no pretensions 
to splendour, but is of considerable size. M. Langl^s describes it as 
being more than a league in circumference, and guarded by a valiant 
body of Amazons. Haidarabad is a great Muhammadan stronghold, and 
contains several mosques. The Jama Masjid or ' Cathedral ' Mosque, 
so called after the one at Mecca, from which it is designed, is large, and 
crowned by minarets of an extraordinary height. The pillars within consist 
each of a single piece of granite, and are very lofty. In the environs of 
Haidarabad there are many fine gardens, with gorgeous pavilions. That 
of the Nizam's minister is said to be wonderfully beautiful. It is enclosed 
by high walls, and in the centre is a marble tank. Carved trellis-work 
forms an important feature in the building. One of the most interesting 
places in Haidarabad is the College or Char Mindr (so called from its 
4 minarets), built upon four grand arches, at which the four principal 
streets of the city meet. Above are several storeys of rooms, and 
formerly each storey was devoted to a science. These apartments are 
now turned into warehouses. 

On the north side of the Musi is an extensive suburb known as the 
Begam or ' Princess ' Bazar, because the imposts levied there are a 
perquisite of the Nizam's principal wife. The British Residency is in 
this quarter, and communication between it and the palace of the 
Nizam is maintained by a handsome bridge, planned by Colonel 
Oliphant, of the Madras Engineers. It was built in 1831, of squared 
granite, and has eight arches; the roadway is 24 feet wide. The 
British Residency was designed by Mr. Russell, and is remarkable, 
among other things, as having been constructed entirely by native 
workmen. The north front looks away from the river and the city. It 
is adorned by a splendid portico, to which leads up a flight of twenty- 


two steps, having on either side a colossal sphinx. From the summit of 
the steps six Corinthian columns, faced with chundm stone of dazzling 
whiteness, rise to the top of the upper storey of the main building. The 
Company's arms, in alto-relievo, form the central ornament. The interior 
of the portico is elaborately carved, and the whole building stands in 
ornamental pleasure-grounds, enclosed by a wall with two gateways. 
The staircase is the finest in India, each step being a single block of 
the finest granite ; the walls are richly decorated, and the apartments 
are furnished with the utmost luxuriance. The pavilions, galleries, and 
terraces are ornamented in the florid style of Oriental architecture, with 
a profusion of delicate trellis-work, painting, and gilding. The finest 
private residence in the city is the palace of the Bdj-a Dari or 'Twelve 
Doors,' now occupied by the present minister of the Nizam, Sir Salar 


History. — Haidarabad was founded in 1589, by Kutab Shah Mu- 
hammad Kiili, the fifth in descent from Sultan Kuli Kutab Shah, 
the founder of the dynasty at Golconda. Muhammad Kiili removed 
the seat of government from Golconda on account of its want 
of water and consequent unhealthiness, and built a new city on the 
banks of the Musi river, 7 miles from his former capital. He called it 
Bhdgnagar, ' Fortunate City,' from his favourite mistress, Bhagmati ; 
but after her death he named it Haidarabad, 'The City of Haidar,' 
though for many years it retained its former appellation. The history of 
Golconda and of Haidarabad after 1589 are almost identical. Soon 
after establishing himself in his new capital, Muhammad Kiili 
carried on with the neighbouring Hindu Rajas the war which his 
predecessor, Ibrahim Shah, had begun. He extended his conquests 
south of the Kistna river; the strong fortress of Gandikota was captured, 
and one of his detachments sacked the town of Cuddapah. Some of 
his troops penetrated even to the frontiers of Bengal, and Muhammad 
Kiili defeated the Raja of Orissa, and subjugated the greater part of 
the Northern Circars. 

In 1603, an ambassador from Shah Abbas, King of Persia, arrived 
at Haidarabad with a ruby -studded crown and other magnificent 
gifts. The palace of Dil-kusha was allotted to the envoy, who 
remained there six years, receiving from Muhammad Kuli ;^2ooo 
annually for his expenses. When the ambassador left for Persia, an 
officer of the court of Haidarabad accompanied him, bearing return 
presents, and amongst them some gold cloth manufactured at Paitan, 
which it took five years to make. In 161 1, Muhammad Kiilf died, 
after a prosperous reign of thirty-four years. The principal memorials 
of this monarch are the palace and gardens of Ilahf Mahal, the 
Muhammadf gardens, the palace of Nabat Ghat, the Char Mindr 
or College already described, and the Jama Masjid or ' Cathedral ' 


Mosque. According to the accounts of Mir Abii Talib, the king's 
private treasurer, ;^ 2,800,000 was expended on public works during 
the reign of Muhammad Kiih', and ^24,000 was distributed every 
year among the poor. The king's example of liberality was followed 
by his nobility ; and the number of handsome buildings throughout 
the dominions of the Kutab Shah monarchs is unsurpassed, if not 
unequalled, in any other of the Muhammadan kingdoms of the 

Muhammad Kiili was succeeded by his son. Sultan Abclulla Kutab 
Shah. The Mughals under Shah Jahan, the fifth Emperor (1627-58), 
now make their appearance in Southern India. Aurangzeb, Shah 
Jahan's son, was sent as viceroy into the Deccan by that prince, who 
seemed bent on compensating for failures beyond the Indus by the 
subjugation of Bijapur and Golconda. The immediate cause of his 
attack on the latter kingdom was an appeal from Mir Jumla, the Prime 
Minister, whose son had involved him in a dispute with the court. 
Mir Jumla, finding himself unable to obtain such concessions as he 
desired from his own sovereign, determined to throw himself on the 
protection of the Mughal Emperor. Such an opportunity for intrigue 
suited Aurangzeb's character, and he strongly urged his father to 
entertain Mir Jumla's petition. Shah Jahan, influenced by this advice, 
issued a mandate to Abdulla to redress the complaints of his minister ; 
but Abdulla was so incensed by this questioning of his independence 
that he sequestrated Mir Jumla's property, and committed his son, 
Muhammad Amin, to prison. Shah Jahan now despatched Aurangzeb 
to carry his demands into effect by force of arms. Under pretext of 
escorting his son Sultan Muhammad to Bengal, to wed the daughter 
of his brother Prince Shuja, Aurangzeb made a treacherous attack on 
Haidarabad. The road from Aurangabad (the capital of the Deccan) 
to Bengal made a circuit by Masulipatam in order to avoid the forests 
of Gondwana, and thus naturally brought the viceroy within a short 
distance of Haidarabad. Abdulla Kutab Shah was preparing an 
entertainment for Aurangzeb's reception, when he suddenly advanced 
as an enemy, and took the king so completely by surprise that he had 
only time to flee to the hill-fort of Golconda, 7 miles distant, whilst 
Haidarabad fell into the hands of the Mughals, and was plundered and 
half burned before the troops could be brought into order. Abdulla 
did all in his power to negotiate reasonable terms, but the Mughals 
were inexorable ; and after several attempts to raise the siege by force, 
he was at last forced to accept the severe conditions imposed on him, 
viz. to give his daughter in marriage to Sultin Muhammad, with a 
dowry in land and money; to pay a crore of rupees (^1,000,000 
sterling) as the first instalment of a yearly tribute ; and to make up the 
arrears of past payments in two years. Mir Jumla remained in the 


service of the Mughals, and became a favourite general of Aurangzeb, 
and one of the most useful instruments of his ambition. 

AbdulLi died in 1672, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Abu 
Husain, who in his youth had been notorious for dissipated habits. 
He fell entirely under the influence of a Maratha Brahman, named 
]\Iadhuna Panth, who became his Prime Minister. In 1676, at the 
invitation of this man, Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha supremacy, 
entered Haidarabad with a force of 70,000 men, on his way to the 
Karnatic. He also concluded a treaty with x\bu Husain. Sivaji's 
reception at Golconda afforded grounds for a war with the State of 
Bijapur, but the invasion was resisted and defeated by Madhuna Panth. 
Sivaji died in 1680, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sambaji, 
with whom Abu Husain also entered into an alliance. Aurangzeb was 
prevented from at once turning his arms against Golconda, owing to a 
convention made by his son, Prince Muazim. When, in 1686, Khan 
Jahan was sent against that State, and found himself unable to oppose 
its army, he begged urgently for reinforcements ; and Prince Muazim 
was despatched to his assistance. The leader of the Golconda troops 
proved unfaithful to his cause, and allowed the united forces to proceed 
unmolested to Haidarabad, where he joined the Mughals with the 
greater part of his troops. The king, Abu Husain, shut himself in the 
fort of Golconda ; and Haidarabad was again left open to plunder. 
IMadhuna Panth was killed in a popular tumult, and the king accepted 
such terms as he could obtain. A payment of 2 millions sterling in 
money and jewels was demanded. The treaty, however, was of short 
duration, for in 1687 Aurangzeb formally declared war against Abii 
Husain. The king bravely defended the fort of Golconda for seven 
months, and lost it at last by treachery, and was sent a captive to 
Daulatabad, where he resided until his death. Abii Husain was a very 
popular monarch, and many anecdotes of his virtues are still current 
in the Deccan. Aurangzeb immediately took possession of all the 
territories of Bijapur and Golconda, but his occupation was little more 
than military. The Districts were farmed out, and were governed by 
military leaders, who received 25 per cent, for the expense of collecting 
the revenue. 

No event of any importance occurred at Haidarabad until 1707, the 
year of Aurangzeb's death. A dispute for the crown took place between 
his two sons. Prince Azi'm and Prince Muazim. The latter was 
victorious, and ascended the throne as Bahddur Shdh. Prince Kam 
Bakhsh refused to acknowledge his brother asking; and Bahadur Shah, 
after attempting in vain to win him over by concessions, marched 
against him to the Deccan, and defeated him in a battle near Haidar- 
abad (February 1708), in which Kam Bakhsh was mortally wounded. 
Bahddur Shdh then made a truce with the Mardthas; and affairs in 



the Deccan remained quiet until tlic end of his reign, in 17 12. The 
viceroyalty was given to Zulfikar Khan, an adherent of Prince Azfm ; 
and the administration of the government to Ddiid Khdn, a Pathan 
officer, who had distinguished himself under Aurangzeb. The death 
of Bahddur Shah was followed by struggles amongst his sons. The 
incapacity of the eldest, Jahandar Shah, had given a great ascendancy 
to the second, Azfm-us-Shan, who was supported by the army and the 
nobility. A battle ensued \ Azi'm-us-Shdn was repulsed and slain, and 
Jahandar Shah remained undisputed master of the throne. One of 
his first acts was to put all the princes of the blood within his reach 
to death. Among those whom he could not get into his power was 
Farukhsiyyar, the only son of Azim-us-Shan ; but the cause of this 
prince was espoused by the governor of Behar, Sayyid Husain Alf. 
The rivals met near Agra on the 28th of December 1712 ; and on the 
ist of January 17 13, Farukhsiyyar ascended the throne, and conferred 
dignities upon all his adherents. Among these was Chin Khilich Khan, 
a noble of high rank, and a brilliant statesman, to whom was given the 
title of Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Jah. Zulfikar Khan was put to death, and 
Sayyid Husain Alf appointed viceroy of the Deccan in his stead. But 
the Emperor was jealous of his powerful subject, and wished to get 
rid of him. He therefore \rrote to Daiid Khan, promising him 
the viceroyalty if he would attack Husain All on his arrival in the 
Deccan and destroy him. No more acceptable commission could have 
been offered to Daud Khan than that of revenging the death of his 
friend and patron Zulfikar ; and taking up a position at Burhanpur, he 
proclaimed himself viceroy, and awaited Husain All's appearance. A 
severe battle was fought, in which Daud Khan was on the point of 
victory when he was struck by a bullet, and killed instantly (17 16). 
Husain All immediately took the field against the Marathas, but was 
completely routed. He and his brother Sayyid Abdulla Khan, the 
Wazir of the Deccan, now united their forces against Farukhsiyyar, 
whose schemes for the destruction of Husain Ali had proved abortive. 
In December 17 19 the allies advanced upon Delhi, and the Emperor 
submitted to their demands, which became more exorbitant day by day, 
and ended in their obtaining possession of the royal citadel and palace, 
which were occupied by their troops. In February 18 19, Farukh- 
siyyar was deposed, and, two months later, put to death by order of 
Husain Alf and Abdulla Khan. 

The two Sayyids, as the brothers were called, selected as Emperor 
Rafi-ud-daula, who died in a few months. He was succeeded (17 19 
to 1748) by Muhammad Shah, the last independent Emperor that sat 
on the Delhi throne. The first great event in his reign was the over- 
throw of the two Sayyids, which was effected in great measure by a 
league between Asaf Jah and Saadat Khan, his coadjutor and rival, 

VOL. V. R 


and afterwards the founder of the Oudh dynasty. Asaf Jah saw in the 
disturbed condition of the country an excuse for raising troops ; and 
as he perceived the difficulty of estabhshing a permanent control at 
Delhi, he determined to lay the foundation of his power on a firmer 
basis, and turned his attention first to the Deccan. His plans against 
the Sayyids succeeded. In October 1720, Husain Ali was assassi- 
nated, and at the end of the year AbduUa Khan was defeated and 
taken prisoner by Muhammad Shah ; but the power of this monarch 
was rapidly declining. In January 1722, Asaf Jah arrived at Delhi, 
and assumed the office of Wazir. He found the court in a state of the 
utmost weakness ; the Emperor and his favourites were given up to 
pleasure ; and after some months of mutual dissatisfaction, they devised 
plans to free themselves from the troublesome counsels of Asaf Jah. 
The Wazi'r was despatched against the refractory governor of Gujarat, 
but speedily returned, strengthened by the addition of a rich Province. 
In October 1723, shortly after this victory, Asaf Jah resigned his post 
as Wazir, and set oft' for the Deccan, a proceeding amounting in reality 
to a declaration of independence. The Emperor, although he graciously 
accepted Asaf Jah's resignation, and conferred on him the title of 
Lieutenant of the Empire, — the highest that could be conferred on a 
subject, — did not on that account abate his hostility. He sent orders 
to the local governor of Haidarabad to endeavour to dispossess the 
viceroy, and assume the government of the Deccan in his place. 

Mubariz Khan entered zealously on this task, and succeeded in gather- 
ing together a powerful army. Asaf Jah protracted negotiations for 
several months, and endeavoured to sow sedition among the adherents 
of the governor. At last he was forced to come to open war, and soon 
gained a decisive victory over Mubariz, who lost his life in the battle, 
fought in October 1724. As the Emperor had not avowed the attack 
which he had instigated, Asaf Jah, not to be outdone in dissimulation, 
sent the head of Mubariz to court with his own congratulations on 
the extinction of the rebellion. He then fixed his residence at 
Haidarabad, and became the founder of an independent kingdom, 
now ruled over by his descendants, who derive from him the title 
of the Nizams of Haidarabad State. (In the compilation of this 
section, considerable use has been made of Elphinstone's History of 
Ifidia. ) 

Haidarabad {Hyderabad) Assigned Districts. — A Province in 
Central India, better known under the name of Berar, administered by 
the British Resident at Haidarabad, under the title of Chief Commis- 
sioner of Berar. It comprises the six Districts of Akola, Buldana, 
Basim, Amraoti, Ellichpuk, and Wun. Bounded on the north and 
east by the Central Provinces ; on the south by the Nizam's Dominions ; 
and on the west by the Bombay Presidency. Lies between 19" 26' 



and 21° 46' N. latitude, and between 75° 58' 45" and 79° 13' 13' e. 
longitude. Area, 17,711 square miles; population (1S81) 2,672,673 
persons, dwelling in 5585 towns and villages, and in 466,027 houses; 
number of persons per house, 574; average density, 151 persons per 
square mile. 

Physical Aspects. — Berar is, in the main, a broad valley running east 
and west; lying between the Satpura range on the north and the Ajanta 
range on the south. The old local name of the valley at the base of 
the Satpuras was Berar Payanghat ; that of the tracts situated among 
the uplands and hills of the Ajanta range being Berdr Bdlaghat. The 
real strength of the Province is found in the valley at the base of the 
Satpuras. This valley is watered or drained, as the case may be, by 
the Piirna (an affluent of the Tapti), and a perfect network of streams 
descending into the main river, both from the hills in the north and 
from the hills in the south. Its soil is one vast superstratum of black 
loam overlying trap and basalt. Its rainfall is regular and copious; its 
area is now almost entirely cultivated, nearly the whole surface being 
covered over at harvest time by a sheet of crops. Its population is 
dense, and consists of Kunbis and other hardy and industrious agri- 
cultural castes. It is traversed from west to east, for the greater 
part of its breadth, by the railway from Ndgpur to Bhusawal and Bom- 
bay. It possesses one of the richest and most extensive cotton-fields 
in India, and several cotton marts of the first rank. Its other pro- 
ducts, especially millets and oil-seeds, are also excellent. Altogether, 
it is one of the most promising regions in India ; and in respect to 
natural and material advantages, it surpasses any tract in either the 
Central Provinces or the Deccan. 

The area of Berar may be reckoned at a little more than 1 7,700 square 
miles, being about equal to that of the kingdom of Greece without the 
Ionian Islands. Its population is double that of Greece. Its length 
from east to west is about 150 miles, and its breadth averages 144 
miles. The principal rivers are the Tdpti, the Purna, the Wardha, and 
the Penganga or Pranhita. The Tapti is the only river of the first 
class, but the Wardha is by far the most important as commanding the 
drainage and irrigation. The Province has but one natural lake, the 
salt lake of Lonar in Buldana District, a great curiosity. The view of 
the lake is striking. It is shut in by a ridge of well-wooded hills, and 
is perfectly circular. The area of the lake is 345 acres, and the cir- 
cumference 5 J miles. The forest area of the Province on the 31st 
March 1883 was 4344 square miles, of which 1106 square miles were 
State reserves, 283 District reserves, and 2955 unreserved forests. 
The area of forests actually protected from fire was 552,931 acres in 
1882 and 622,640 acres in 18S3. The most valuable forests are those 
on the Gawilgarh Hills. The greater part of the Berar valley is sup- 


plied with bamboos and wood for building purposes from this range of 
hills. The teak produced in the Melghat tract of the Gangra valley 
finds its way to the country above the g/iats in South Berar, while 
the villages north of the Piirna river, and north of Amrdoti, draw their 
supplies of grass and firewood to a great extent from the same region. 
Annually, during the rains, large herds of cattle are sent into the hills 
for pasture. A plantation garden has been established at Makhla ; 
area of regular plantations (iSSi-82), 1409 acres. The Berar forests 
are worked on the following system. Timber is only allowed to be cut 
on permission given by the Deputy-Commissioner, and it must in all 
cases be paid for at certain fixed rates. Fuel may be cut, but not 
exported, without permission. Grass and minor produce are sold by 
auction. The expenditure on the Forest Department of Berar was 
^15,169 in 1S81-S2, and ;!^i4,997 in 1882-83. The income in the 
former year was ;!^23,38i, and in the latter year ^28,704. Con- 
victions in 1882-83 fo'^ breaches of forest rules, 363. 

Iron-ore is plentiful throughout large tracts on the east, especially 
in the hills about Kdranja, and along the low range close to Amraoti 
on the north-east. It is not worked by the natives, and the proportion 
of iron in the ore has not been scientifically determined. The only 
District within Berdr w-hich yields coal is Wun, where, stretching 
along the valley of the 'Wardha river, in a direction roughly north 
and south, a group of beds of thick coal of fair quality has lately been 
found. This group may be said to extend from near the Wardha river 
on the north to the Penganga on the south. The beds associated with 
the coal can be traced throughout ; and, although the existence of coal 
throughout the entire distance has not been proved, there can be little 
reasonable doubt that it will be found to occur. An examination of 
the coal capacity of the region was begun in 1875, but the operations 
were stopped because there appeared no immediate prospect of a 

Climate. — The climate differs very little from that of the Deccan 
generally, except that in the Payanghat valley the hot weather is some- 
times exceptionally severe. It sets in early, for the freshness of the short 
cold season disappears with the crops, when the ground has been laid 
bare by carrying the harvest ; but the heat does not much increase 
until the end of March. From the ist of May until the rains set iuj 
about the middle of June, the sun is very powerful, though its eff'ect is 
not intensified by the scorching winds of Upper India. The nights 
are comparatively cool throughout, probably because the direct rays 
of the sun have their influence counteracted by the retentivencss of 
moisture peculiar to the black soil, and by the evaporation which is 
always going on. During the rains, the air is moist and cool. In the 
Baldghat country, above the Ajanta Hills, the thermometer stands 


much lower than in the plains. On the loftiest Gdwilgarh Hills, the 
dimate is always temperate; the sanitarium of Chikalda (3777 feet) 
is on this range, 20 miles from Ellichi)ur. The average rainfall for 
the whole Province is not nocurately known ; it is said to be about 
27 inches a year in the valley, and 30 inches above \\\q. ghdts. The 
average for the whole region lies between 27 and 40 inches. The rain- 
fall at Ellichpur in iSSa was 287 inches, and at Chikalda in the same 
year, 60 inches. On the Gawilgarh Hills it is, of course, much heavier 
than elsewhere. Tlie vital statistics of Berar are fairly reliable. The 
number of births registered in 1882 was 110,454, or 42 per thousand; 
number of deaths 77,214, or 29 per thousand. Of the deaths, 3573 
were assigned to cholera, 369 to small-pox, and 39,340 to fevers. 
There were 36 civil hospitals and charitable dispensaries in the Province 
open in 1882, or \ to every 492 square miles ; in-door patients, 2091 ; 
out-door, 178,919; expenditure, ;^ii,4oi. On sanitation, the six 
municii)alities of Berar spent ^{^5213 in 1882. There is a special 
vaccination establishment; number of operations, 90,058 in 1881, and 
i°3>5f7 iri 1882. Total cost, jQiTig in 1S81, and ^1706 in 1882. 

History. — In early times, the greater part of the Deccan, as far north- 
ward as the Narbada (Nerbudda), was subject to Rajput ])rinces of the 
Chalukya race, whose capital was at Kalyan near Gulbargah, from 
about 1000 to 1200 A.D. Rain Deo, who was conquered and slain by 
Ala-ud-din, was the last of the Yadava line of kings, who reigned not 
without fame at Deogarh, the modern Daulatabad, down to the end 
of the 13th century. We may be .allowed to guess that Berar was 
at one period under the sway of Kalyan, or of Deogarh, probably 
of both successively, tl>ough the south-eastern District of the old Pro- 
vince may have belonged to the kingdom ruled by the ancient Hindu 
Rajas at Warangul. Remains of ancient Hindu architecture attest 
the received hypothesis that the Province must long have formed part 
of that principal Rajput kingdom which occupied the heart of the 
Deccan. But local tradition tells of independent Rdjis who governed 
Berar from ElUchpur, which is said to take its name from one of them, 
called Raja I'l. The same authority states, what may possibly be 
corroborated by architectural relics, which Iwve yet to be examined 
by a competent antiquary, that the princes or governors of Berar, 
immediately before the Muhammadan invasion, were /ains. 

In 1294, Ala-ud-dfn, nephew and son-in-law to the Delhi Emperor 
Firoz Ghilzai, made his first expedition into the Deccan. After defeat- 
ing the Yadava Prince Ram Deo at Deogarh, he is said to have been 
bought out of the country by a heavy ransom, accompanied by the 
cession of Ellichpur. Soon after his return to Upper India, Ald-ud-din 
murdered his uncle and usurped the Delhi throne. Throughout 
his reign the Deccan was plundered by successive bands of Muham- 


madans from the north; but on his death, the Hindus seem to have 
recovered the Provinces previously subject to Deogarh. However, 
this insurrection was crushed in 131S-19 by ^Mubarak Ghilzai, when 
he flayed alive the last Hindu Prince of Deogarh ; and Berar has ever 
since been nominally under the dominion of Muhammadan rulers. 

Under them it has always kept its distinct name ; and there is reason 
to believe that from the first it formed a separate Provincial charge, of 
course with constant change of boundaries. In 135 1, on the death of 
the Emperor Muhammad Tughlak, the southern Provinces fell away 
from his house, and for 250 years maintained their independence of 
Delhi. For the next 130 years, Berar remained under the dominion 
of the Bahmani kings, so called because the founder of their line was 
either a Brahman or a Brahman's servant. This man ruled all the 
Deccan under the title of Ala-ud-din Husain Shah, and divided his 
kingdom into four Provinces, of which Mahur, Ramgarh, and part of 
Berar formed one. 

On the collapse of this dynasty in 1526, we find Berar one 
of the five kingdoms into which the Deccan had virtually split up, 
fairly embarked on a period of independence under the Imad 
Shahi Princes, whose capital was EUichpur. The founder of this 
dynasty had been, it is said, a Kanarese Hindu captured in war, whom 
Khan Jahan, Governor of Berar, promoted to high office. He rose to 
the title of Imad-ul-Mulk, and the command of the Berar forces. But 
he bequeathed to his successors no share either of his good fortune or 
abilit)'. An attack by the allied Kings of Bijapur and Ahmadnagar 
gave Berar to the latter in 1572. The Ahmadnagar dynasty, however, 
was not destined long to hold possession of the prize. The cession of 
Berar to the Emperor Akbar by the Ahmadnagar Government took 
place in 1596. In 1599, the great Emperor himself came down to 
Burhanpur and organized his recent conquests. Ahmadnagar was 
taken ; and all the country recently annexed, including Berar, was 
placed under Prince Danyal (the Emperor's son) as viceroy, Berar 
retaining its separate formation as an imperial siibah, of which the 
extent and revenue are pretty accurately known from the Ain-i-Akbari. 
The death of Akbar in 1605 distracted for a time the attention of the 
Mughal Government from their new Province in the Deccan ; and 
Malik Ambar, who represented Nizam Shahi independence at Daulat- 
abad, recovered the greater part of Berar. This man, an Abyssinian by 
race, is well known as the great revenue administrator of the Upper 
Deccan. He first made a regular assessment by fixing the Government 
share in the estimated produce, commuted to money value, says Duffs 
History of the Mardthds ; but the native officials of Berdr assert that 
the assessment was on the quality of land, at so much per bighd, 
said to have been made in 16 12. Mdlik Ambar held his own in these 




parts until he died in 1628. In 1630, the Mughals recovered Berar, 
and re-estabHshed the imperial authority. Shah Jahan divided his 
Deccan dominions into two governments, of which one comprised 
Berar, Payanghat, Jalna, and Khandesh ; but these were soon reunited 
under one head. The revenue assessment was reorganized, and the 
fasli era introduced from 1637-38. 

It is very difficult, and would not be very profitable, to pursue 
the separate thread of Berar Provincial history through the tangled 
coil of Deccan warfare, from 1650, when Aurangzeb became Viceroy 
of the Deccan, until the hour when he died at Ahmadnagar, in 
1707. Berdr underwent its share of fire and sword, Maratha plunder- 
ing and Mughal rack-renting. After Aurangzeb's death, the Marathas 
consolidated their predominance, and chauth and sardeshmukhi were 
formally granted by the Sayyid Ministers of the Emperor Fariikhsiyyar 
in 171 7, upon the six and a half suba/iats of the Deccan. But, in 
1720, Chin Khilich Khan, Viceroy of the Deccan, under the title 
of Nizam-ul-Mulk, won his independence by three victories over the 
imperial lieutenants, or rather over the armies commanded by the 
partisans of the Sayyid Ministers who governed in the Emperor's 
name. Nizam-ul-Mulk had been joined by the Subahdar of Berar. 
The first battle was fought near Burhanpur in 1721 ; the second at 
Balapur soon after ; and the last decisive victoiy was gained, in August 
1724, at Shakar-Khelda, called Fateh-Khelda from that day, in the 
present Buldana District. From this date Berar has always been nomi- 
nally subject to the Haidarabad dynasty. 

The material and even moral injury caused to this Province by the 
wars of the 18th century must have been wide and deep. Described 
in the Ain-i-Akbaji as highly cultivated, and in parts populous, 
supposed by M. de Thevenot in 1667 to be one of the wealthiest 
portions of the Empire, it fell on evil days before the close of the 17th 
century. Cultivation fell off just when the finances were strained by 
the long wars; the local revenue officers rebelled; the army became 
mutinous; and the Marathas easily plundered a weak Province, when 
they had divided its sinews by cutting off its trade. Wherever the 
Emperor appointed a jagirddr, the Marathas appointed another, and 
both claimed the revenue, while foragers from each side exacted forced 
contributions ; so that the harassed cultivator often threw up his land, 
and joined in the general business of plunder. The Marathas suc- 
ceeded in retaining their hold on this Province ; but its resources were 
ruined, and its people must have been seriously demoralized by a 
rf^/w^ of barefaced plunder and fleecing, without pretension to principle 
or stability. By the partition treaty of Haidarabad (dated 1804), the 
whole of Berar, including Districts east of the Wardha, — but excluding 
certain tracts left with the Nagpur chiefs and the Peshwa, — was made 


over in perpetual sovereignty to the Nizam. The forts of Gawilgarh 
and Narnala remained subject to Nagpur. A fresh treaty was made in 
1822, which settled the frontier of Berar, and conferred upon the 
Nizam all the country west of the Wardha. The tracts lying east of 
that river were at length formally ceded to Nagpur ; but the Districts 
taken by the Peshwa in 1795, and those which had been left to 
Nagpur in 1803, were all restored to the Nizam. The disbanding 
of large numbers of troops filled the country with gangs of plunderers ; 
and it was sometimes necessary for the British Government to inter- 
fere for the preservation of peace, as in 1849, when Apa Sdhib was 
captured and his followers dispersed. Meanwhile, the Nizam's finances 
had sunk into such a desperate state that in 1843, ^^d in several 
succeeding years, the pay of the force maintained under the treaty of 
1800 had to be advanced from the British Treasury. 

The bankruptcy of the Haidarabad State at length necessitated, in 
1853, a new treaty, under which the existing Haidarabad Contingent 
is maintained by the British Government, in lieu of the troops which 
the Nizam had been previously bound to furnish on demand in time 
of war; while, for the payment of this Contingent, and other claims 
on the Nizam, Districts yielding a gross revenue of 50 lakhs of rupees 
(^500,000) were assigned to the British Government. There is a 
garrison of the Haidarabad Contingent now at Ellichpur, consisting of 
a detachment of 73 cavalry, a battery of artillery with 127 men, and 
765 infantry. At Akola and Amrdoti, two outposts, there are 193 
infantry and 113 infantry respectively. 

The territory made over to the British under this treaty comprised, 
besides the Assigned Districts as they now exist, the Districts of 
Dharaseo and the Raichur Doab. It was agreed that accounts 
should be annually rendered to the Nizam, and that any surplus 
revenue should be paid to him. On his part, he was released from 
the obligation of furnishing a large force in time of war ; while the 
Contingent ceased to be part of the Nizdm's army, and became an 
auxiliary force kei)t by the British Government for his use. The pro- 
visions of the treaty of 1853, however, which required the submission of 
annual accounts of the Assigned Districts to the Nizam, were productive 
of much inconvenience and embarrassing discussions. Difliculties had 
also arisen regarding the levy of the 5 per cent, duty on goods under 
the commercial treaty of 1802. 

To remove these difficulties, and at the same time to reward the 
Nizdm for his services in 1S57, a new treaty was concluded in 
Decemljer 18C0, by which a debt of 50 lakhs due from the Nizam was 
cancelled ; the territory of Siirapur, which had been confiscated for 
the rebellion of its Hindu Rdja, was ceded to the Nizam ; and 
the Districts of Dharaseo and the Raichur Doib were restored to 


him. On the other hand, the Nizam ceded certain Districts on the 
left bank of the Godavari, traffic on which river was to be free from 
all duties; and he agreed that the remaining Assigned Districts in 
Berar, together with other Districts, tlicn yielding a gross revenue of 
Rs. 3,200,000 (;,£^3 20,000), should be held in trust by the British Govern- 
ment for the purposes specified in the treaty of 1853, but that no 
demand for accounts of the receipts and expenditure of the Assigned 
Districts should be made. Certain territorial exchanges were also 
effected, with the object of bringing under British administration 
those lands within the Assigned Districts which were held in jih^ir 
for payment of troops, or which were allotted for the Nizam's privy 

The history of Berar since 1853 is marked by no important political 
events beside the change made under the treaty of 1861. Its smooth 
course was scarcely ruffled even by the troubles of 1857 ; whatever fires 
may have been smouldering beneath the surface, the country remained 
calm, measuring its behaviour, not by Delhi, but by Haidarabad. In 
1858, Tantia Topi reached the Satpura Hills, and tried to break across 
southward that he might stir up the Deccan ; but he was headed back 
at all outlets, and never got away into the Berar valley. The Province 
has rapidly progressed under British rule. ' When it was made over to 
us,' writes Sir Richard Temple in his official report, ' the neighbouring 
Districts w^ere full of families who had emigrated thither from Berar, 
and who, with the usual attachment of the people to their original 
patrimony, were anxious- to return on any suitable opportunity. Thus 
hundreds of families and thousands of individuals immigrated back 
into Berar. Many villages in the Nagpur country lost many of their 
hands in this way, and were sometimes put to serious straits.' The 
American war, which shortly supervened, stimulated the cotton trade 
to an enormous extent in Berar; wages rapidly rose with the unprece- 
dented demand for labour which followed ; and the opening of the 
Great Indian Peninsula and Nizam's State Railway systems has tended 
still further to enhance the prosperity of the Province. 

Population. — The first Census ever taken in the Province was 
carried out in November 1867. It disclosed a total population of 
2,227,654 persons. The next regular Census, taken in February 1881, 
returned a population for the whole Province of 2,672,673 persons, an 
increase of 445,019, or nearly 20 per cent, in 14 years. Area, 17,711 
square miles; towns, 34; villages, 5551; occupied houses, 466,027; 
unoccupied houses, 33,356 ; towns and villages per square mile, "32 ; 
houses per square mile, 28. Of the total population, 1,380,492 were 
returned as males and 1,292,181 as females; proportion of males 
517 per cent. The average density of the population in Berar is 
151 persons per square mile, — a number higher than in any Division 


of the neighbouring Central Provinces, though far below the average 
(416) of the North- Western Provinces. Akola stands first as regards 
its urban and its total population. In it and in Amraoti District, 
the density is over 200 to the square mile. In Wiin the density 
is only 100. Towns and villages are most numerous in Ellichpur 
taluk, where there are 45 to each square mile ; in Melghat there is 
only one village to every 5 square miles. There are now in Berar the 
same number of houses per square mile (28) as there were in England 
and Wales eighty years ago ; the number of persons to each occupied 
house (57) is about the same in both countries. The increase in the 
population since 1867 is largely due to immigration from Khandesh, 
Haidarabad (Deccan), and the Central Provinces. It is observed by 
the Census authorities (1881) that although there is a tendency in the 
Berar population to concentrate in large villages, there is no marked 
tendency, except in Akola District, for the large villages to grow into 
towns. About 12 per cent, of the population are urban, in the sense 
that they inhabit towns containing more than 5000 inhabitants. 

Hinduism is the religion of Berar, being professedly nearly 91 per 
cent, of the population. Siva is the chief deity in this region, as Vishnu 
is the deity of the nations on the Ganges. Among the great gods of 
the Hindu pantheon, Balaji (an avatar, or incarnation, of Vishnu), 
Mahadeo, Ganpati, and Devi are objects of popular worship, Hanuman 
(the monkey god, who led the monkey host to Lanka or Ceylon in aid 
of Rama) and Arjun are also worshipped. The Muhammadans, 
Parsis, Jains, and Christians number together about 10 per cent, 
of the population. According to the Census, there were in Berar in 
1881 — Hindus, 2,425,654; Muhammadans, 187,555; Jains, 20,020; 
Christians, 1335; Sikhs, 525; Parsis, 242 ; aborigines, 37,338; and 
'others,' 4. The Hindus were thus distributed as regards caste: — 
Brahmans, 65,754; Rajputs, 40,174; Khettris, 3959 ; Wanis {Baniyds), 
67,071; Kunbi's (agriculturists), 834,174 ; Malis (gardeners), 219,671; 
Maliars (mixed castes), 307,994; Telis (oilmen), 75,552; Dhangars 
(shepherds), 74,559; Banjaras (carriers), 60,511; Kolis (labourers), 
30,398; Sutdrs (carpenters), 30,314; Sondrs (goldsmiths), 14,265; 
Lobars (blacksmiths), 13,883; Vidurs (half-castes), 11,747; Kalals 
(distillers), 14,943; Shimpis or Darzis (tailors), 15,509; Pardhis (hunts- 
men), 300S ; Manbhaos (mendicants), 41 11; Bairagis (mendicants), 
1529; Naths (mendicants), 716; Chambhars (leather-workers), 26,885; 
Mahalis (barbers), 33,517 ; Kumbhars (potters), 20,006 ; miscellaneous, 
291,885; and aboriginal tribes (Bhi'ls, Gonds, Korkus, etc.), 

The Muhammadans were thus sub-divided according to sect : — 
Sunnis, 185,686; Shiahs, 1360; Wahabis, 39; and 'others,' 470; and 
according to tribe as follows: — Shaikhs, 125,178; Pathdns, 37,633; 


Sayyids, 9135; Mughals, 2788; Arabs, 25; Fakirs, 1397; 'others,' 
11,399. Since 1867 the Muhammadans of Berar have increased 21 
per cent. 

Of the total number of Christians in Bcrdr (1335), British-born 
subjects numbered 97 ; other British, 105 ; other Europeans or 
Americans, 12; Eurasians, 542; and natives, 579. Adopting a classi- 
fication by creed, there were in 1881 — Church of England, 583 ; Roman 
Catholic, 620; Presbyterian, 71; 'others,' 61. Many of the native 
Christians in Berar are Madrasi and Portuguese (Goanese) domestic 
servants. There are churches and chapels at Amraoti, Akola, and 

Among the Hindus the chief Sivaite sects are the Smartas (40,606), 
the Lingayats (19,338), and the Naths (9113): the chief Vishnuite 
sects are the Vaishnavas (11,933), the Bhagawats (3707), and the 
Manbhaos (5958). The Smartas are the Brahman followers of Sankar 
Acharya, the Sivaite reformer of the ninth century. The Lingayats, 
who worship the linga or emblem of Siva, are chiefly traders. Pink 
is their sacred colour, and every male Lingayat should wear at least 
one garment of this hue : for a female it matters not. Jangam is 
the term applied to the Lingayat jmestly order. The sect observe no 
ritual and reject the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. The 
Naths, or ' hail-averters,' are properly coenobite ascetics, and in early 
times exhibited Buddhistic leanings. They are now mostly fortune- 
tellers and mountebanks. The ALanbhaos are a Vaishnava sect, founded 
about two hundred years ago. Among them the re-marriage of widows 
is allowed. The Muhammadans are divided into Shariyat, or the 
ordinary followers of the Prophet's precepts, and Tariyakat, or his 
ascetic disciples. There are four schools of the former — Hanafis, 
Shafais, Hambalis, and Malikis, distinguished by different ways of using 
their hands in prayer. The Bohoras (Borahs) are heterodox Shiahs. 
Many of the Bombay traders belong to this sect. They are said to 
have their origin at Burhanpur, and all good Borahs desire to lay their 
bones in that city. The J-iins in Berar are of greater antiquity than 
the Muhammadans, and Jain princes are said to have reigned at 
Kaliyan. The Jain is enjoined to ijcrform five duties and to avoid five 
sins. The duties are — (i) mercy to all animated beings ; (2) alms- 
giving; (3) venerating their sages while living and worshipping their 
images when deceased; (4) confession of faults; (5) and religious 
fasting. The sins to be avoided are — (i) killing; (2) lying; (3) steal- 
ing; (4) adultery; (5) and worldly-mindedness. The number of Jains 
in Berar has more than doubled since the last Census (1867). The 
Parsi's are mostly residents of the towns ; they have a fire-temple at 
Akola and a Tower of Silence for funeral purposes near Balapur. Many 
of the Parsi's are in railway employment. 


As regards occupation, the Census of iSSi distributes the adult male 
population into the following six main groups:— (i) Professional class, 
including State officials of every kind and members of the learned pro- 
fessions, 40,000 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 
i-)956; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, and 
carriers, 27,263 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including shepherds, 
692,366; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 
141,617; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, including all 
male children, general labourers, and persons of unspecified occupation, 


The Province of Berdr contained (1881) — 2225 towns with under 
two hundred inhabitants; 1883, with from two to five hundred; 962, 
with from five hundred to one thousand; 356, with from one to two 
thousand; 72, with from two to three thousand; 53, with from three to 
five thousand ; 24, with from five to ten thousand ; 6, with from ten to 
fifteen thousand ; 2, with from fifteen to twenty thousand ; and 2, with 
from twenty to fifty thousand ; — in all, 5585 towns and villages. 

With regard to education, the Census of 1881 returned 27,347 males 
and 356 females as under instruction ; 57,827 males and 789 females 
as not under instruction but able to read and write; and 1,295,318 
males and 1,291,036 females as not under instruction and unable to 
read and write. 

Agriculture. — The agriculturists form by far the largest part of the 
population of Berar. In i88r, out of every 10,000 males productively 
employed, 7317 were agriculturists. The common land tenure of the 
country is by cultivation occupancy : ihe exceptional tenures are known 
as jdgir., ijdra, and vid»i. The jdgirddrs hold rent-free one or more 
villages under patents from the Delhi emperors, the Nizam of 
Haidarabad, or the Maratha Peshwa. The number of jdgirddrs in 
1881 was 161. The villages held under .this tenure occupied an area of 
385,748 acres and numbered 2 iS. The 7jdrdddr, or Government lessee, 
farms an integral waste village, but pays no assessment for the first 
three years. As the land is brought under cultivation, rent has to be 
];aid. 'Yhc nnmhtx oi ijdniddrs in 1881 was 64. Jndms are rent-free 
grants of fields for religious or charitable purposes — for the maintenance 
of temples, shrines, guest-houses, and the like. Their number in 1881 
was 1437. The general occupancy tenant of Berar, known as khateddr, 
holds a surveyed and marked-oft" plot of land assessed at rates fixed 
for 30 years. The khateddrs hold direct from the State, and are 
almost absolute proprietors of their lands. Their number in 1881 was 

The Berar cultivator follows a primitive system of rotation of crops. 
He manures very little, though as much as he can, since he is obliged 
to use so much dung for fuel that he has little to spare for his fields. 


Good cultivable land is never enclosed for hay and pasture, though 
plenty of grass is cut and stacked from wide uncultivated tracts ; 
and the working bullocks arc well fed, partly on this hay, more 
generally on the jodr stalks, a little on cotton seed. Large droves 
of cattle, sheep, and goats graze on commons and barren wolds. 
From wells the cultivators irrigate patches of wheat, sugar-cane, 
opium, and market-garden produce. At places they obtain water from 
small reservoirs and surface streams, especially under the hills and to 
the southward. But in the Benir valley, which contains the richest 
land, water is scarce even for the drinking of man and beast ; there is 
a dearth of grass and wood ; hired labour is insufficient and dear. 

Capital in agricultural hands is scanty. The cultivators are slowly 
(though surely) emerging out of chronic debt. Agriculture is supported 
by the good-will M'ith which all small money-lenders invest in it, 
because there are no other handy investments which pay so well as 
lending on bond to the farmers. Cultivation is obliged to support 
the peasant and his family, to pay the State revenue, to return the 
capital invested with not less than 18 per cent, interest to the Marwan' 
money-lender, and to furnish the court fees on litigation whenever the 
rustic sees a chance of evading his bond. But the petty cultivator 
keeps his hold of the land ; no one can make so much out of it as he 
can ; and he is much aided by the customs of metayer tenancy and 
joint-stock co-operative cultivation, which enable him to get cattle, 
labour, and even a little cash on favourable terms. He is fond of 
arrack or the black liquor distilled from the inahtia flower. This he 
buys at from 3d. to is. per quart. On the whole, the Berar culti- 
vator is lazy and easy-going, starts late to his field and returns early. 
Neither hope of great profits nor fear of ruin will drive him to do the 
full day's work which is extracted from the English farm labourer. 

Three varieties of tenant are found in Berar. These are the tenant 
paying a money rent, the tenant paying rent in kind on the haiai or 
metayer system of produce-partnership, and the tenant-at-will (/<'/- 
laofiiddr) who pays his rent in kind or money, the landlord meeting the 
revenue demand. The 7netaycr tenure is very common in Berar. 
These are its ordinary terms — the registered occupant of the holding 
pays the assessment, but makes the holding entirely over to the 7/ietayer, 
and receives as rent half the crop after it has been cleaned and made 
ready for market. Sometimes the metayer deducts the seed before 
dividing the grain. The /w/fl^'^r finds all the necessaries for cultivation. 
In 1 881, the number oi 7?ietayer tenures was 9503. 

The average size of a holding in Berdr was 24 acres in 1870, and 42 
acres in 1881. The area actually under crops in 1881-S2 was estimated 
at 6,641,023 acres, and 6,567,323 acres in 1882-83. J^'-^^ ^"d cotton 
are the staple crops of the Province, occupying respectively 34*6 and 


32-5 per cent, of the entire cultivated area in the latter year. The 
other principal crops are wheat (11 '3 per cent.) and inferior grains, oil- 
seeds and fibres. Sugar-cane and tobacco are also grown to a small 
extent. Only 47,163 acres were under irrigation in 1882-83. The 
cultivation of wheat and linseed is said to be extending in the Province. 
The cultivation of the poppy for opium was prohibited in 1878-79, 
and opium for consumption has since that year been imported by 
rail, and only to the towns of Amraoti and Khamgaon. The amount 
of licensed opium imported in 1882 was 44,380 lbs., and paid an 
import duty of ;;^2 2, 1 90. The consumption, on an average, of every 
100 of the population is i lb. 9 oz. of the drug. Gdnja, an intoxicating 
preparation of hemp, is also cultivated, chiefly for the use of religious 
mendicants. Area under gdnja was 143 acres in 1S81, and 89 acres 
.n 1882. There is a Government farm at Akola, where numerous 
interesting agricultural experiments have been carried out. The area 
under the different crops is thus shown in 1882-83 '•~'J'^^fi 2,276,220 
acres; bdjra, 92,322 acres; wheat, 746,391 acres; rice, 22,827 acres: 
gram, 177,893 acres; linseed, 397,639 acres; til, 147,391 acres; hemp, 
8898 acres; tobacco, 24,722 acres; sugar-cane, 4530 acres; cotton, 
2,139,188 acres; and miscellaneous produce, the remainder. The 
average rental of cotton land is is. iid. per acre; wheat and oil-seed 
land, 2S. to 2s. 3d. ; tobacco land, 3s. 4d. ; and land under sugar-cane, 
8s. 8^d. per acre. The yield per acre of the different crops is as 
follows: — Rice, 161 lbs.; wheat, 305 lbs. ; yW/-, 374 lbs. ; gram, 258 
lbs.; cotton (cleaned), 51 lbs.; oil-seeds, 164 lbs.; and tobacco, 287 
lbs. These figures refer to 1881-82. The statistics for 1882-83 are 
as follows : — Average rental of land for cotton, 2s. ; oil-seeds, is. iid. ; 
tobacco, 3s. id. ; jodr, 2s. ; wheat, 2s. 2d. ; rice, 2s. id. ; and the 
yield per acre of rice, 287 lbs. ; wheat, 470 lbs. ; jodr, 374 lbs. ; gram, 
296 lbs. ; cotton (cleaned), 44 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 380 lbs. ; and tobacco, 
422 lbs. 

Average prices of produce in 1881-S2 were returned as follows: — 
Clean cotton, 45s. per cwt. ; wheat, 5s. 4d. per cwt. ; gram, 4s. per cwt. ; 
rice, I OS. 2d. per cwt. ; jodr, 3s. 4d. per cwt. ; oil-seeds, 7s. 2d. per cwt. ; 
and tobacco, 32s. per cwt. Wages in the same year varied from is. 3d. 
to 2s. a day for skilled labour, and from 4d, to 4id. per diem for 
unskilled labour. 

Alanufadures and Trade. — A rich agricultural Province like Berar 
finds it more profitable to raise raw produce to pay for imported 
manufactures, than to pursue manufactures of its own. Cotton cloth, 
chiefly of the coarser kinds, some stout carpets, and chdrjdinahs, 
or saddles, are made within the Province. A little silk -weaving 
goes on, and the dyes are good at certain places. At Dewalghat, 
near Bulddna, steel is forged of fair quality. Nagpur supplies fine 



cloths ; nearly all articles of furniture or luxury come from the 

During 1882-83, there were 16 steam cotton -presses at work in 
Berdr, and i oil-press worked by steam. The cotton-presses turned 
out 282,888 bales of cotton; and the oil-press 27,701 gallons of oil. 
The presses are superintended by 14 Europeans, and afford employ- 
ment to — men, 961 ; women, 120. There are also hand-looms through- 
out the Province, but the indigenous unskilled handicrafts cannot 
compete with English and Bombay made piece-goods. The 
following statement shows the value of the imports and exports in 

Trade of Berar in 1S81-82. 

Value of Im- 

Value of Ex- 

Total Value. 

By Raihuay. 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 
East Indian Railway, .... 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 


Holkar State Railway, 

Madras Railway, .... 

Nizam's State Railway, 

Wardha Valley State Railwav, . 

Nagpur Branch Great Indian Peninsula 

Railway, ..... 
Chhattisgarh State Railway, 

Total Railway-borne trade, 

By Road. 
Nizam's Dominions, .... 

G In AND Tot A I., 



















i^3: 347.095 

;^5, 207,380 

;^2, 100,903* 



• The corresponding statistics for 1882-83 are as follows: — Value of imports, 
;i^2,7i5,944; value of exports, £lAS'^,^19 '■> tot'^l value, ;^6, 168,623. 

Of the total value of the goods imported (1881-82) into the Province, 
88 per cent, were conveyed by rail, and 1 2 per cent, by road. Simi- 
larly of the exports, 96"5 per cent, were conveyed by rail, and 3*5 per 
cent, by road. In 1882-83, the railroad carried 83 per cent, of the 
imports, and 89 per cent, of the exports. The chief imports are rice, 
salt, sugar, spices, cocoa-nuts, liquors, cotton twist, piece-goods, silk 
fabrics, coals, oil, timber, and gunny-bags ; chief exports — raw cotton, 
wheat, and oil-seeds. The bulk of the Berar trade is with Bombay and 
Districts lying west of the Province, and next in order with the Central 
Provinces. The two principal marts are Amraoti and Khamgaon. The 


internal trade is mostly carried on at weekly markets and annual fairs. 
Of the latter there are 31, the most crowded being that of Deulgaon in 
Buldana District. 

The following quantities of goods were exported and imported in 
1881-S2 and 1S82-83 : — Imports (1881-S2) — 1,629,171 viaiiuds, viz. 
by rail, 1,285,059; and by road, 344,112: exjjorts — 4,421,710 niaunds, 
viz. by rail, 4,341,946; and by road, 79,764. Imports (1882-83) — 
3,102,454 ina!i?ids, viz. by rail, 1,611,126; and by road, 1,491,328: 
exports — 4,402,510 inminds, viz. by rail, 4,209,270; and by road, 

Administration. — The Province of Berdr is administered under the 
orders of the Resident of Haidarabad, by one Revenue and Fiscal Com- 
missioner, and one Judicial Commissioner. It is now divided for 
purposes of administration into 6 Districts, which are again sub-divided 
into 22 tahsils, or revenue and judicial Sub-divisions, with an average 
area of 810 square miles each. There are no tributary or feudatory 
States, and no Government or wards' estates in the Province. The 
Revenue Commissioner is the head of the local administration, while 
the Judicial Commissioner exercises the powers of a Civil and Sessions 
Judge, and superintends the working of the courts of justice in 
all their departments, subject to such instructions and limitations as 
the Resident may from time to time prescribe. As the sovereignty 
is that of a native prince, the Acts of the Indian Legislature in 
force in Berar are made to apply by order of the Governor-General 
in Council in his executive capacity, on the recommendation of the 
Resident. The Resident at the Court of Haidarabad stands in the 
position of Chief Commissioner of Berar, directly subordinate to the 
Government of India. The other administrative officers of the Pro- 
vince are — 6 Deputy Commissioners, 17 Assistant Commissioners, 
9 e.xtra-Assistant Commissioners, i Inspector-General of Police, who 
is also Inspector-General of Jails and Registration, 6 District Superin- 
tendents of Police, 2 Assistant Superintendents of Police, i Sanitary 
Commissioner, who is also Inspector-General of Dispensaries and 
Vaccination, 6 Civil Surgeons, i Director of Public Instruction, i 
Conservator of Forests, 3 Assistant Conservators of Forests, and 
I Sub-Assistant Conservator of Forests. There were 60 Magistrates 
in 1882, and 69 in 1883, most of them exercising civil and revenue 
powers. The average distance of each village from the nearest court 
is 28 miles. 

The principal towns of Berar are Amraoti, 23,550; Akola, 16,614; 
Akot, 16,137; Anjangaon, 9842; Balai'ur, 11,244; Baslm, 11,576; 

DliVALGAON, 7025; ElI-ICHPUR, 26,728; HlWARKHED, 73OO; JaLGAON, 

10,392; Karinja, 10,923; Khamgaon, 12,390; Karasgaon, 7330; 
Malkapur, 8152; Paratwara, 9445 ; Pathur, 7219; Sendurjana, 




8501; Shegaon, 11,079; Yeotmal, 2420. The following are muni- 
cipalities : — Amrdoti, Akola, Khamgaon, Shegaon, Ellichpur, and 
Basfm. Total municipal population, 101,937 in 188 1. The total 
number of committee men was 87, of whom 37 were Europeans ; 43 
were non-officials. Income, ;^io,332 in iSSi, and ^10,922 in 1882 ; 
market dues in 1SS2 contributed £,2yOi\, and town fund, ;,{^2662. 
The town fund is a tax on trades and professions. Incidence of 
municipal taxation in 18S2, 8^d. per head. 

Marat hi is the vernacular of the Province, except in a small tract 
in the south-east corner, where Telugu is spoken. 

The land revenue demand in 1881-82 was ;^635,775, and the gross 
revenue ;!^847,766. Subjoined is a table showing the contributions to 
these totals from the several Districts, with the population of each as 
ascertained by the Census of 188 1 : — 

Area, Population, and Revenue of Berar in 1881-82. 

Name of District. 

Area in 

Sq. Miles, 


Land Revenue, 


Gross Revenue, 

Popul.-ition in 


Buldana, . . .. 

Basim, ..... 



Wiin, . . . ^ 














Grand Total, . 17,711 




In 1882-83 the land revenue amounted to ^638,716, and the gross 
revenue to ;^9S5,753. The total expenditure in the same year was 
_;;r892,894, of which ;^336,26o were spent on the military establish- 
ments (Haidarabad Contrngent), ^368,858 on the civil administra- 
tion, and ;,^i2 2,549 on public works and railways. The receipts from 
railways in 1882-83 amounted to /.37,509, or 3 per cent, on the 
capital (^1,222,779) invested, as against 2*3 per cent, in 1S81, and i'8 
per cent, in 1880. Passengers carried, 401,085 in 1882; goods carried, 
89,293 tons in the same year. 

From the very outset the work of education in the Assigned 
Districts seems to have been fostered by Government without any 
local assistance. No independent exertion on the part, of the 
people preceded the introduction of the State system ; and great 
difficulty has been experienced in obtaining the support of the leading 
individuals, whether in town or village. The school-going male popula- 
tion (between 4 and 15 years) is estimated at 321,432, for whom there 
are (1882) 896 schools of all kinds, with 35,891 scholars. There is 
thus I school for every 19 square miles of area, and 11 per cent, of 

VOL. v. S 


the school-going male population is under instruction. The number 
of schools has risen from 224 in 1867 to 896 in 1882. Of the 896 
schools in the latter year, 477 are Government, with 28,950 scholars; 
212 are aided, with 4269 scholars; and 207 are unaided, with 2672 
scholars. Of the Government schools, 2 are high schools, 5 middle- 
class schools, and the rest primary schools. There is one normal 
school, with 79 pupils. In 1883, the number of schools had slightly 
decreased, but not the number of pupils: — number of schools (1883), 
889; number of pupils, 36,278. In 1883, the average number of 
pupils to each school was 40. The ratio of female pupils to the 
female school-going population was "3. In point of education, Wun 
District is now most behind-hand, having one school to every 50 
square miles of area; while in Akola District there is one school to 
every 10 square miles. The expenditure on education in Berar was 
^33)931 i" 1881-82, and ;^35,683 in 1882-83. Of the latter sum, 
an educational cess supplied ^9564, and voluntary subscriptions j[,\2. 
School fees amounted to ;j^2 2 12, There are 114 gymnasiums in the 
province. It is noted with satisfaction by the educational authorities 
that the higher and lower caste pupils are beginning to mingle more 
freely in the class-rooms. 

The police force in 1881-82 consisted of 2636 officers and men, 
costing ;j^49,78o, of which ^^48,086 was debited to Provincial and 
^^1694 to municipal funds. These figures show one policeman to every 
1015 of the population. Number of police circles {thdnas)y 74. There is 
no organized police force in the Melghat, where the Gond Rajas receive 
an allowance for keeping order. Of the regular police of Berar, 1298 
are provided with firearms. Number of persons arrested by the police 
(iSSo), 8718; convicted, 5204. The number arrested in 1882 was 
3676; convicted, 2629. 

Haidar^bad {Hyderabad). — District in the Province of Sind, 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 24° 13' and 27° 15' n. lat., and 
between 67° 51' and 69° 22' e. long. Bounded on the north by 
Khairjjur State ; on the east by the Thar and Pirkar District ; on 
the south by the same tract and the river Kori ; and on the west 
by the river Indus and Karachi (Kurrachee) District. Area, 9030 
square miles; population (1S81) 754,624. 

Physical Aspects. — The District is a vast alluvial plain, 216 miles 
long by 48 broad. Fertile along the course of the Indus, which forms 
its western boundary, it degenerates towards the east into sandy wastes, 
sparsely populated, and defying cultivation. The monotony of its great 
flats is relieved only by the fringe of forest which marks the course 
of the river, and by the avenues of trees that line the irrigation 
channels branching eastward from the beneficent stream. The 7 ando 
De])Uty Collcctorate, in the south of the District, has a special feature 



in its large natural watercourses, called dhoras, and basin-like shallows, 
or chhaus, which retain the rain for a time sufficient to nourish the 
hardy babul trees on their margins. In the Haidarabad taluk, a lime- 
stone range, called the Ganja, and the pleasant frecjuency of garden 
lands, break the unvaried landscape. Except in these two divisions, 
the District is an unrelieved plain ; its western side, however, inter- 
sected by canals ; its eastern, beyond the limits of artificial irrigation, 
a sandy waste. The soil, wherever irrigated, is very fertile. The chief 
indigenous forest trees are the p'lpal (Ficus religiosa), nim (Azadirachta 
Indica), tali ox blackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), sirih (Albizzia lebbek), 
ber (Zizyphus jujuba), bdhaii (Populus euphratica), bar (Ficus Indica), 
kandi (Prosopis spicigera), geduri (Cordia latifolia), babul (Acacia 
Arabica), with several varieties of tamarisks. In a District so grudgingly 
treated by Nature, an extensive fauna is not to be looked for. The 
hyaena, wolf, fox, jackal, the smaller deer, and the hog almost complete 
the list of wild animals. Among birds, the tilur (lesser bustard) 
is remarkable, and most of the w'ild duck and water-fowl of Europe 
are to be met with during the cold season. Venomous reptiles abound. 
The Indus supplies a great variety of fish, one of which, the pala^ is 
said to be peculiar to this river. 

History. — The history of Sind, since 1768, centres in this District, 
for all the events of the last century affected more or less nearly 
Haidarabad, the modern capital of the Province. Under its old name 
of Nerankot, this city was, in the 8th century, sufficiently important to 
be the first object of Muhammad Kasim's invasion of Lower Sind. A 
hundred years later, Ghulam Shah, the Kalhora chief, burst out from 
the desert, overthrew his usurping brothers, and made Nerankot, then 
renamed Haidarabad, his capital. Thenceforth this District assumes 
a foremost place in Provincial history. Under the Talpur dynasty it 
remained the leading State ; and within its limits were fought the battles 
of Miani (Meeanee) and Dabo, which decided (1843) i'^ the British 
favour the fate of Sind. Its local history is, however, so mixed up 
with that of the Province, that little could be here said of it separately 
which will not more properly find a place under the history of Sind. 
The area and boundaries of the District have not been changed since 
1861 ; but prior to that date, the Umarkot District (now under the 
Thar and Pdrkar Political Superintendent) and a large portion of the 
eastern delta (now part of the Shahbandar Deputy Collectorate) were 
included within Haidardbdd. The pargaiids of Kandiaro and Naushahro 
were resumed by Government in 1852, from the domains of Mir All 
Murad of Khairpur, on his public conviction for forgery and fraud, and 
transferred to this Collectorate. 

Population. — According to the general Census of 1872, the popula- 
tion of Haidarabad District was divided as follows : — Muhammadans, 


560,349; Hindus, 118,652; other creeds and tribes, 44,882; total, 
723,883. The Census of 1881 returned the population as follows : — 
Males, 407,243 ; females, 347,381 ; total, 754,624 persons, dwelling on 
an area of 9030 square miles, in 2 towns and 1103 villages, and occu- 
pying 150,488 houses. Number of persons per square mile, 83 ; 
villages per square mile, o-i2; houses per square mile, 21; persons per 
house, 5'o. Classified according to religion, there were 89,114 Hindus, 
594,485 Muhammadans, principally of the Sunni sect (583,604) ; 428 
Christians, 144 Jains, 21 Parsis, 31 Jews, 42,940 Sikhs, and 27,461 
aborigines. Among the Hindus, Brahmans number 2739 ; Rajputs, 
571 ; Lohanas, 72,797; other Hindu castes, 13,007. 

Of the Muhammadans, more than three-fifths, or 392,472, are Sindi's 
of the Halpotro, Junejo, Dul, Powar, Thebo, Sumro, Sand, Katiyar, 
and other clans, — the descendants of the original Hindu population 
converted to Islam during the Ummayide dynasty of Khalifas. 
The Sindis have a fine physique^ but an inferior moral character, 
being reputed cowardly, although quiet and inoffensive ; they are 
looked down upon by the more warlike tribes of the District as 
natural serfs. Their language is Sindi, of the Sanskrit family of 
speech, and more closely connected \\-ith the Prakrit than either 
Marathi, Hindi, Panjabi, or BengaK. It has three dialects, all of 
which meet in this District as on common ground — namely, the lari, 
or dialect of Southern Sind ; the siraiki of the north ; and the thareli, 
' the language of the desert.' 

Next in point of numbers among the Muhammadans are the Baluchi's 
(129,482), sub-divided into a great number of tribes, the chief being 
the Rind, Bhugti, Chang, Talpur, Jatoi, Laghari, Chandio, Kaloi, 
Khoso, Jakrani, Lashari. They are descended from the mountain 
tribes of Baluchistan, through whom they trace their origin to Aleppo 
in Syria. Their leading clan is the Rind, and its members are held 
by the rest of the community in high respect. Fairer in complexion 
than the Sindis, they are also a hardier race ; honourable after their 
own code, and manly in field-sports. They are Sunnis by sect. 
More important, however, as regards social status and personal 
character are the Pathans (2810), found chiefly about Haidarabid 
and Upper Sind, with the naturalized Sayyids (14,572), divided into 
four families, the Bokhari, Matari, Shirazi, and Lekhiraji. Together 
they number in this District 17,382 persons. They are superior to 
the foregoing in personal appearance and morale. From their being 
held in great esteem by the princes of the Kalhora dynasty, they 
acquired considerable grants of land, which they still hold. The re- 
maining Muhammadan classes worthy of special mention are the 
following: — (i) Memons, formerly Kachhi-Hindus, who emigrated to 
Sind under the Kalhora rule, and devoted themselves to agriculture 


and cattle-breeding. They now supply a learned class, who have done 
more than any other to introduce sacred learning into Sind, and 
are accordingly held in high respect. (2) The Khwdjas, fugitives from 
Persia when their creed (the Ismailyeh heresy) was persecuted by 
Halaku Khan. They have isolated themselves from all the other 
]Muhammadans of the District, not only by maintaining their own 
special tribunal in religious differences, and separate officers (Mukhi, 
etc.), but by the singularity of their dress, in which they avoid dark 
blue, the colour of the country. The Memons and Khwdjas aggregate 
about 13,000. (3) Sidhi's, natives of INIaskat (Muscat), Zanzibar, and 
Abyssinia, who until the British Conquest were bought and sold as 
slaves. (4) The Shikaris or Daphers of Tando, a small number. 
Though Muhammadans they eat carrion, and are excluded from the 

The subordinate ranks of Government service are almost exclu- 
sively recruited from the Lohanos, and the vast majority of Hindu 
shopkeepers and traders also belong to this caste. In their complex 
sub-divisions, they are mixed up with the Muhammadans. Although 
wearing the thread, they become the disciples of Musalmdn teachers, 
assume their dress, eat meat, drink spirits, and disregard all the customs 
of orthodox Hindus with regard to receiving food from inferiors, etc. 
Their marriage ceremonies are so expensive that many remain single 
till late in life. 

Classified according to occupation, the males of the District were 
returned as follows:— Class I., or professional, 4378; Class H., or 
domestic, 53S1 ; Class HI., or commercial, 5 114; Class IV., or agri- 
cultural, 158,886; Chss v., or industrial, 44,460; and Class VI., or 
indefinite, 189,024. The most numerous guilds are — the sonars or 
goldsmiths, who, owing to the popular taste for ornaments, are, as a 
rule, well-to-do ; inochis or shoemakers, who will not, however, skin 
carcase or tan leather, but buy it from Muhammadans ; khdtis or dyers ; 
and hajdms or barbers. They have all adopted the thread, intermarry 
only in their own castes, and have no priests but Brahmans. Never- 
theless they are held in Sind in no higher estimation than elsewhere. 

Brahmans of pure descent are not numerous in Haidarabad, their 
aggregate number being under 4000 ; but their acknowledged 
superiority to the castes around them invests their small com- 
munity with importance and interest They are divided into 
two chief septs, which do not intermarry — the Pokarno and 
Sarsudh. The former are the more orthodox Hindus, refusing 
flesh, wearing the turban and never the Sind cap, reading Sanskrit, 
abstemious in habit, and employing themselves only in instructing 
the Hindus in their religious duties, or deciding for them questions 
of horoscope and ceremonial. The Sarsudh, though not abstaining 


altogether from meat, conform sufficiently to the traditional usages 
of high-caste Hinduism to be held in great respect, not only by 
inferior castes of Hindus, but also by the Sikhs. The Sikhs so called 
are in reality a nondescript class, recruited from both Hindus and 
Muhammadans, containing, however, a percentage of veritable followers 
of Nanak. They are divided into two well-defined sects, the Lohano 
Sikh and the Akali or Khalsa, which differ in certain details of food 
and shaving the hair. Their devotions are conducted in the Punjabi 
language, and their holy books, the Adi Gratith, etc., are in the 
guardianship of appointed iidhdsis, in special dharmsdlds. The religious 
mendicant classes of the District are those of India generally — the 
yellow-clothed Sanyasis, Jogis, and Gosains, who subsist by begging and 
by the sale of amulets and written charms. All the Hindus, except the 
mendicants, who are either buried or thrown into the river, according 
to their testamentary wish, burn their dead with complex funeral rites. 

In attire, dwellings, and food, the people of Haidarabad do 
not differ from the general population of the Province. Both 
Muhammadans and Hindus are addicted to gd?ija, an intoxicating 
preparation of hemp ; and the lowest classes of the latter con- 
sume country spirits largely. Opium is much used, and its use 
is said to be on the increase. As regards occupation, the Hindus 
of the District may be called the shopkeeping class ; the Muham- 
madans, the artisan and agricultural. The Hindu Baniya is astute 
in business, supple with his superiors, industrious, timid ; the Muham- 
madan is idle, improvident, and often licentious, but more indepen- 
dent and outspoken, and of a finer physique. The two chief towns 
of the District are Haidarabad, population (1881) 48,153 (including 
the cantonment population, 2958), and Matari {5054). Of the towns 
and villages of the District, 257 contained under 200 inhabitants, 141 
from 200 to 500, 497 from 500 to 1000, 164 from 1000 to 2000, 24 
from 2000 to 3000, 17 from 3000 to 5000, 4 from 5000 to 10,000, 
and one over 20,000 inhabitants. 

Agriculture. — Of the total area of the District, nearly one-third is 
uncultivable ; 3,678,544 acres are cultivable though not cultivated, and 
1,060,520 are (1881-82) under cultivation. In 1882-83, the area 
cultivable but not cultivated was 2,277,832 acres; area cultivated, 
997,628 acres; fallow, 320,144 acres. Agriculture in Haidarabad is 
entirely dependent upon artificial irrigation, and is regarded as a 
lotterj' in which the cultivator stakes his labour and seed on the 
chance of getting an exactly suitable flood. If the water rises 
too high, or not sufficiently high, the cultivator loses his crop. 
Wells of great depth are used to irrigate garden land. There are 
in the District 325 canals, all of which are Government property. 
In addition to these, there are numerous smaller canals and water- 


courses, the property of jd'^irddrs and zainindars. Forty of the 
Government canals are main channels, which taj) the Indus direct ; the 
remainder are connectincr branches. The revenue derived from this 
source is very steady, never having risen above ;^ 104,5 14 "O'" f^^^^n 
below ^93,423 between the years 1864 and 1874. The cost of clear- 
ance has, however, been equally regular, and during the same decade 
has reduced the net annual income by an average of ^22,000. 

The irrigation carried on in the District by means of canals 
may be divided into three classes — (i) 'Lift,' where the water 
has to be raised from the river or from a canal by means of 
machinery ; (2) ' Flow,' where during the inundation the water 
from a canal flows by gravitation through side channels over 
lands favourably situated; (3) 'Spill,' where the land lies so low as 
to be subject to uncontrolled inundation during the rise of the river. 
These three classes are known in Sindhi as (i) charkhi, (2) mok, 
(3) saildb. The first mode is, of course, the most expensive, but 
it is also by far the most certain, and the greater portion of 
the kharif crops (with the exception of rice) is irrigated by this 
method. The second affords during favourable inundations facili- 
ties for raising much larger crops with the same amount of capital, 
and with less labour than is possible with 'lift.' In an unfavourable 
inundation, however, 'flow' has often to be supplemented by 'lift,' and 
if this be not done, the failure, partial or total, of the crop is the result. 
The third is risky to a great degree, and is rarely had recourse to for 
kharif cultivation, except in the case occasionally of rice lands. 
Excellent rahi crops are, however, raised on saildb lands, the area 
available for such cultivation being, of course, entirely dependent on 
the character of the inundation. Unless a canal fails to carry its 
proper supply, a thing happily of rare occurrence, irrigation by 'lift,' 
or by ' flow with lift,' may be looked on as practically quite safe. 
Irrigation by 'unaided flow' is always more or less risky; whilst the 
cultivation of saildb lands partakes to a great extent of the nature of a 
lottery, in which, however, prizes are not infrequent. 

Three varieties of the Persian wheel are in use — (i) the tidl or 
Persian wheel proper, for the working of which one pair of bullocks or 
a single camel is required ; (2) the hnrlo, a modified form of the 
Persian wheel, for which one bullock is sufficient ; (3) the perdti 
(rarely met with), which is worked by the feet. The relative powers of 
the three are as 20, 11, and 4. To keep a ndl going day and night 
several pairs of bullocks or camels will be required, and so with the 
other varieties. In the northernmost tdluk of the District (Kandiaro), 
in parts of which the water lies comparatively near the surface, there is 
a considerable area of wheat cultivation watered by wells. Wells here 
are numerous, and their number is increasing. Elsewhere in the 


District, well cultivation is confined almost exclusively to garden lands. 
The area under garden produce in 1882-83 was 5073 acres. 

The canals begin to fill about May in proportion to the annual rise 
of the Indus, and are again dry by October; some are, however, in 
a fair way of becoming perennial. 

Only two crop seasons are recognised by the Revenue Department, 
namely, the kharif or inundation crop, sown from May to July, and 
reaped from September to November; and the rabi or spring crop, sown 
in November and December, and reaped in March and April. The 
khar'if cxo^ occupied in 1882-83 an area of 937,716 acres; and the 
rabi, 40,501 acres. Of the kharif 3xe2L, 716,072 acres were irrigated 
by 'lift;' 42,186 acres by 'flow;' and 179,459 acres were under rice. 
Of the rabi area, 1845 acres were irrigated by 'lift;' while of the 
remaining rabi area, 38,656 acres were irrigated by ' spill,' or the saildb 
method. When heavy rain falls, either kharif or rabi crops, or both, 
according to the time of the rainfall, are raised on lands thus saturated. 
This is called bardni cultivation. In the vast tracts of waste lands 
lying to the eastward of the District, and untouched by canal water, 
extensive dams of earth are thrown up in favourable situations to 
intercept the drainage and so secure the more perfect saturation of 
the soil lying above them. Cultivation thus carried on is called bandh 
bardni. In 1882-83, the area under the bardni methods of irriga- 
tion was 12,592 acres. The kharif cxo^^^ are j'odr, bdj'ra, til (sesamum), 
rice, cotton, sugar-cane, hemp, tobacco, water-melons, and indigo. 
The rabi crops are wheat, barley, oil-seeds, pulses, and vegetables. 
The area nnder jodr in 1882-83 was 80,463 acres; bdjra, 190,166 
acres; oil-seeds, 54,836 acres; rice,- 86,146 acres; cotton, 42,587 
acres; sugar-cane, 1359 acres; tobacco, 4333 acres; and indigo, 
6088 acres. In the same year the area under wheat was 35,702 
acres; barley, 1302 acres; pulses> 14,942 acres. Of the whole area 
under cultivation, 6428 acres were twice cropped in 1882-83. Haidar- 
abad is the largest cotton-producing area in Sind. The number of 
cwts. raised was 80,507 in 1881-82, and 83,900 in 1882-83. The 
average yield per acre may, approximately, be taken as follows in 
cwts. : — Rice, 5 ; jodr, 6 ; bdjra, 5 ; cotton (uncleaned), 2 ; ///, 3^ ; 
tobacco, 6^ ; sugar-cane {gnr), 30 ; wheat, 5^ ; pulses, 3. Prices 
current in 1882-83 ^^'ce as follows per 80 lbs. : — Wheat, 6s. ; barley, 
3s. 5d. ; rice, 4s. 9d. ; bdjra, 3s. 4d. ; jodr, 3s. ; salt, 6s. i id. ; ddl^ 8s. ; 
,v/«, or clarified butter, j[,2, 8s. 4d. The cultivators of Haidarabad do 
not follow any regular method of rotation in their crops. Their imple- 
ments are of the usual primitive kind, and correspond in general 
character to the European plough, harrow, spade, hoe, drill, and sickle. 
The agricultural stock of the District in 1882-83 included buffaloes, 
cows, camels, horses, sheep, and goats. The rates of daily wages are — 


for skilled labour, is. 6d., and for unskilled, 7^d. The daily hire for 
a camel is is. lid. \ for a pack-bullock, gd. ; and for a cart, 3s. 

The land tenures of the District are simple. Broadly divided, all 
land is either 'assessed' or 'alienated.' In the former case, the land 
is cultivated either by the zam'inddr himself, or by occupancy holders 
and tenants-at-will. The occupancy holder (inaurasi hdri) is really 
an hereditary cultivator, for his rights are heritable and transferable ; 
and the zam'inddr, except as regards the actual payment of rent, has no 
power over him. The tenant-at-will {g/iair maurasi) is legally the 
creature of the zaminddr ; but the large landholders in the District do 
not exercise their powers oppressively. The zaminddr' s own tenure is 
hardly more definite here than elsewhere in India, and whatever of 
certainty it possesses is owing entirely to British legislation. 

In the second class of lands (the alienated) there are four chief 
varieties, each having sub-divisions, viz. Jdgirs, pattiddris, charitable 
grants, garden and forest grants. The Jdgirs of the District at 
the first settlement under British rule were computed at 40 per 
cent, of the total area, but now only about one-sixth of the whole 
is alienated. The jdgirs are officially classified according as they 
are permanent and heritable, for two lives only, or merely life 
grants. All alike are subject to a cess of 5 per cent, for local 
purposes, and some pay besides to Government a percentage of 
the produce assessed according to their class, the maximum being 
one-fourth, Pattiddri grants, which are of Afghan origin, exist only 
in the Naushahro sub-division. They obtained recognition at the 
settlement from the long possession of the then incumbents, dating, in 
the majority of cases, from the first reclamation from waste or purchase 
from the earliest proprietors. The total area held on charitable grants 
is not great. Garden grants are held free of assessment or at a nominal 
rate, so long as the gardens are properly maintained ; and, in the same 
way, Miris or tree-plantation (not orchard) grants are held revenue-free 
so long as the land is exclusively reserved for forest growth. Scri grants 
are those made in consideration of ofiicial services. 

For the purposes of assessment, villages are classified into six 
varieties, the maximum rates in each ranging as follows : — On land 
perennially irrigated, from is. 6d. to 9s. ; on saildbi lands, from is. to 
7s. ; on mok lands, from is. 6d. to 5s. 6d. ; on land irrigated by wheel 
for part of the year only, from iSv to 4s. The average rate per acre 
on cultivable land is about is. 5d. Under the revised settlements, 
villages are grouped into four classes, the maximum and average rates 
per acre being as follows : — Class I., maximum rate, los. 9d. ; average 
rate, 5s. 2\d.. Class II., 9s. 6d. and 4s. 6^,d. ; Class III., 8s. 6d. and 
4s. oid. ; Class IV., 7s. 6d. and 3s. 6|d. Formerly the Government 
assessment was levied in kind, but since 1S51 the payment has been 


received in cash. The zaminddrs, however, are paid by the tenants in 
kind at the following rates : — On land under charkhi cultivation, one- 
third of the produce ; on mok and sailabi lands, two-thirds. In the case 
of the best lands, yielding cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, etc., the 
zaminddr receives his rent, as a rule, in money. 

Manufactures a7id Trade. — The manufactures of the District maintain 
the excellence for which they have been famous from early times. The 
Haidarabad taluk in particular still enjoys much of its old pre-eminence 
for lacquered work, enamelling (the secret, it is said, of one family only), 
and gold and silver embroidery. In the fighting days of the Mirs, 
the arms of Haidarabad were also held in the highest esteem ; but 
owing to the reduced demand for chain armour, shields, and sabres 
under British rule, the trade is now in abeyance. In the Hala Sub- 
division special features of the local industry are striped and brilliant 
cloths known as susi, khes, and also glazed pottery. This effective work 
is turned to various ornamental purposes, especially tiling, and is 
remarkable for excellence of both glaze and colour. In nearly all the 
villages of the District, some manufacture is carried on ; blankets, 
coarse cotton cloths, camel saddles, and metal work being perhaps the 
most prevalent. 

The total number of fairs is 33, and the average attendance at each 
about 5000 ; they last from three to eighteen days. 

The transit trade of the District is considerable. The returns for 
Hala and Tando show totals in the money value of the goods in transit 
of ;^ 190,000 and ^^90,000 respectively; but returns for the other 
two Sub-divisions of the District — namely, Haidarabad and Naushahro 
— are not available. The municipality of Haidarabad derives an 
annual income of ;;^i2,ooo, of which ^10,000 is received from octroi. 

Salt of excellent quality, and in considerable quantity, is found in 
Tando ; but the deposits are not allowed to be worked. 

Means of Communication, etc. — The roads of the District aggregate 1925 
miles in length, of which 263 are trunk roads, metalled, bridged, and 
marked with milestones. The Sind Railway does not actually enter 
the District, but touches at Kotri, on the opposite bank of the Indus 
to Gidu-Bandar (3^ miles from Haidarabad), where a steam ferry 
connects Haidarabad with Kotri. The only telegraph station in the 
District is at Haidarabad, the chief town, which is in communication 
with Karachi on the south-west ; with Multan via Kotri ; and with 
Disa (Deesa) via Umarkot on the south-east. Postal communication is 
represented by i disbursing station (at Haidarcibdd), 1 1 branch offices, 
and 14 sub-offices. The ferries number in all 48, one (at Gidu) being 
a steam ferry. A small income is derived from this source, the returns 
for 1880-81 being jQatj. There are in the District, 21 travellers' 
bungalows and 50 dharmsdlds^ or native rest-houses. 


Administration. — The chief revenue and magisterial authority of 
Haidarabdd District is vested in a Collector and Magistrate, who is 
assisted by 4 Assistant Collectors, for the Hala, Tando Muhammad 
Khan, Naushdhro, and Haidarabdd Sub-divisions respectively, besides a 
Huziir Deputy Collector permanently stationed at the city of Haidardbdd. 
A Cantonment Magistrate has been recently appointed in addition. The 
District and Sessions Judge holds sessions at the towns of Haidarabdd, 
Sakrand, Hala, and Tando Muhammad Khdn several times in the year, 
and at Umarkot in the Thar and Pdrkar Political Superintendency 
once a year. In each Sub-division there is a subordinate judge with 
powers up to cases involving ^^500. Three of these judges visit certain 
specified places for a limited period once yearly. The subordinate 
revenue statif consists of 13 jnukhtidrkdrs, each of whom collects the 
revenue and exercises limited magisterial powers within the limits of a 
taluk ; and tapddars, responsible for the correct measurement of lands, 
enumeration of irrigation-wheels, etc., each within his tapd. 

The canal divisions are supervised by executive engineers of the 
Public Works Department, with suitable establishments. The northern 
half of the Collectorate is included in the Haidardbdd canal division, 
the canals in the southern making up the Fuleli division. 

The crimes most prevalent throughout the District are cattle-stealing, 
thefts, burglaries. The total of all offences during 1880-81 was 5610, of 
which about 1500 fall under the above three heads. In 1881-82, the 
total number was 3527, of which 2383 fell under these three heads. It 
is noteworthy that in the Tando courts the Hindus filed against 
Muhammadans twice as many civil suits as against Hindus, and that 
the Muhammadans filed ten times as many against Hindus as against 
their co-religionists. 

The police force of Haidardbdd District is under the charge of a 
European District Superintendent, with head-quarters at Haidardbdd, 
and consists of the following : — District police (including 100 horse 
and 37 camel police), 581 ; town police, 126 ; total, 707 men, including 
4 inspectors, 19 chief and 92 head constables. There is therefore i 
policeman to every 127 square miles and to every 1070 of the entire 
population. Excluding the police of the city and cantonment of 
Haidardbdd, the proportion of the purely District police is i policeman 
to every 15 "9 square miles of country, and to every 1221 of the rural 

The revenue of the District is derived chiefly from the land. 
The following is a statement of the average net land revenue for four 
successive periods of six years each — 1856-62, ;£io'^,^o6; 1862-68, 
^106,670; 1868-74,^111,655; 1874-80, ;^x 15,986. The receipts 
from the farm of liquor-shops has shown a steady advance from ;:£'3i26 
in 1856-57 to ^11,400 in 1881-82, but in 18S2-83 the receipts fell to 


^9342. There is but one distillery (at Haidardbad city), and the number 
of farmers' shops is 147. Since 1863, all farms for the sale of liquor 
are sold by public auction to the highest bidder. During the same 
period (1856 to 1874), the number of European liquor-shops has risen 
from I to 6, and the receipts from £\, los. to £,60. The drug revenue, 
which in 1856 realized ^1618, had risen by 1882-83 to £s^2i, 
including ^^40 19 from opium. The number of shops for drugs is 
183, and for opium 114. Neither the imperial nor the local revenue of 
the District shows much variation during the past sixteen years, the 
former being in 1864, ^137,112, and in 1S80-81, ;^i64,34o; the 
latter in 1864, ^10,326, in 1S74, ;^i2,434, and in 1880-81, ;^ii,674. 
In 1S82-83, the gross imperial revenue of the District was ^141,475, 
of which ^137,243 was land revenue. This disproportion in the in- 
crease of local, as compared with imperial revenue, is due to the fact 
that formerly the one anna cess was levied on dbkdri revenue, but as 
this was illegal, the practice has been discontinued. 

The Local Fund revenue is made up from three taxes, levied under 
Act viii. of 1865 — viz. the 1 anna cess (about 6 per cent.), the 3 per 
cent, jdgir cess for roads, and the 2 per cent, jdgir cess for schools. 
The forests in the District — 32 in number — occupy an area of 133 
square miles, and yield an annual revenue of ;!^ 12,000. In 1880-81 
the revenue was ^8557, the falling off being due to the fact that no 
firewood is now required for the Indus Flotilla steamers. 

The only jail in the District is at Haidardbad city ; average daily 
population, 500 ; cost of prisoners, about £^ each per annum ; rate 
of mortality, 7 '6 per cent. There are 3 first-class sub-jails, viz. at 
Xaushahro, Hala, and Tando Muhammad Khin, and i second-class 
at Mi'rpur. Jailors are provided for first-class sub-jails on Rs. 15 or 
£\, IDS. each per mensem, and prisoners sentenced to three months' 
imprisonment and under are detained in these jails. The second 
7nunshi of the tdluk office is ex offi':io jailor of the second-class sub-jail, 
and he receives an allowance of los. per mensem. Prisoners sentenced 
to one month and under are confined in this class of sub-jail. Lock- 
ups are attached to the head-quarters station of each jnuk/ttidrkdr. 

The total number of Government schools for boys has risen from 
21 in 1868 to 105 in 1881-82, and the number of pupils from 1355 
to 5348; the number of girls' schools during the same period has 
increased from 10 to 12, and the pupils from 262 to 368. These 
figures include the returns for the high, normal, engineering, and 
Anglo-vernacular schools in Haidarabdd city, where also the Church 
Missionary Society supports a school with about 100 j^upils. Little 
seems to be known of the jirivate indigenous schools, but, with two 
exceptions, they are of a very inferior kind. 

The fisheries of the District yielded in 1880-S1 a revenue of ;;^i475. 


They are carried on, not only in the Indus, but also in the Fuleli river 
and some of the dhandhs and koldbs or natural reservoirs in which the 
flood waters are retained. The pala fish is the staple of the Indus 
fisheries, and for a part of the year forms the principal food of the 

The municipalities of the District are 14 in number, deriving their 
revenue from octroi dues, licence fees, market tolls, cattle pound 
fees, etc., and expending their income upon conservancy, lighting, 
police, public works, and grants-in-aid to local education. The 
municipal statistics in each of the four Sub-divisions are as follows : — 
Hala, 6 municipalities, with incomes ranging from ^202 to jQlod, ; 
Haidarabad, 2, viz. that of the city with an income of ^12,000, and 
another with an income of ;£iiS> Tando, i, with an income of 
;^744; Naushahro, 5, with incomes ranging from ^94 to ;;^ 174. 

Climate. — Considerable variations of climate obtain within the 
District. In the north, the hot season of April and May is followed by 
two months of flood, the rest of the year being cold and drj'. In the 
central tract, including Hala and the Haidarabad tdliik., the cold season 
succeeds the hot without any intervening inundations to graduate the 
transition ; and the change occurs sometimes with such suddenness 
that, to quote a local saying, ' sunstroke and frost-bite are possible in 
one and the same day.' In the south, the temperature is more equable 
throughout the year, 60° F. and 100° representing the extremes. 
Following these climatic variations, the medical aspects of the District 
vary, the fevers so frequent in the northern division being almost 
unknown in the southern portion, where there are no floods to leave marsh 
land behind them. The rainfall average of five years ending 1881 is 
8 inches per annum, the local distribution being — Hdla 5^ inches, 
Haidarabad 6|, Tando Muhammad Khan 4, Naushdhro ^\ inches. 
The rainfall at Haidarabad city in 1881 was 6"37 inches. In 1869 
there was an . extraordinary fall of 20 inches all over the District. 
The same year is memorable for an outbreak of epidemic cholera, and 
in Haidarabad tdliik of severe fever. In normal years, the District is 
healthy as compared with other parts of India. Fevers, however, are 
very prevalent in September and October, when the inundations cease 
and the canals are drying up ; and they last till the northerly winds 
set in. Dispensaries (excluding Haidardbad Civil Hospital) are 7 in 
number, with an annual admission of 18,583 patients, of whom about 
300 are in-door. Besides these institutions, there is at Haidarabad a 
civil and police hospital, a convict hospital (in the jail), and a chari- 
table dispensary, with (1883) 26,797 admissions, 828 being in-door 

Haidarabad {Hyderdbdd). — One of the four Sub-divisions of 
Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; lying between 25° 10' 


and 25° 31' N. latitude, and between 68° 19' and 68" 41' e. longitude; 
bounded on the north and east by the Hala Sub-division ; on the west 
by the river Indus ; and on the south by Tando. Area, 404 square 
miles, or 258,560 acres, of which 80,817 were cultivated in 1880-81. 
Population, according to Census of t88i, 103,025, or 255 to the square 
mile. Of this population 5952 were returned as 'floating.' The Sub- 
division is divided into the 7 tapds of Hatri, Gundar, Husri, Khathar, 
Bhindo, Kathri, and Fazal-jo-Tando ; and contains 59 villages and 2 
towns, viz. Haidarabad and Matari. The general aspect of the tdhtk is 
more diversified than that of the rest of the District, for the low lime- 
stone hills, known as the Ganjo range, run through 13 miles of its length, 
and besides the extensive forests there is a large proportion of garden 
land. It is well provided with canals, there being 43 (all Government 
property), with an aggregate length of 177 miles, and yielding an average 
annual revenue of ^7330. There are no floods or lets in this taluk 
except in the villages of Seri and Jam Shoro, and only one dhandh or 
natural reservoir — fed by the Niirwah channel. 

The seasons, according to the native division, are four — the kharif^ 
rain, peshrds, and dddrcas — viz. February to IMarch, April to July, 
August to October, November to January; but in average years the 
transition from the hot weather to the cold is so sudden that inter- 
mediate seasons can hardly be recognised. The mean yearly 
temperature is 80° R, varying from an average, of 64° in January 
to 92' in June ; average annual rainfall, between 6 and 8 inches. 
The prevailing winds are northerly from November to March, and 
for the rest of the year from the south, the hot wind from the desert 
being felt in May. The arable soils of the Sub-division do not differ 
from those of the rest of the District ; and the only mineral peculiarity 
is the met, a kind of fuller's earth dug from mines in the Ganjo Hills, 
which is largely used by the natives as soap. The farm of these mines 
realizes a revenue of ;^45o per annum. The chief timber tree is 
the l?al>ul or babar (Acacia Arabica), extensively grown in the forests 
of Miani (Meeanee), Kdthri, Ghaliiim, Khathar, and Husri, which 
aggregate an area of 12,070 acres, yielding to Government an annual 
revenue of ^1837. 7"hey were all planted by the Mi'rs of Sind at 
different dates between 1790 and 1832. The three fisheries of the Sub- 
division (the Badd, Sipki, and Karo Khaho) yielded an annual revenue 
of ;^8i3 in 1880-81. 

The population of the Sub-division, 103,025, of whom 55,097 were 
males and 47,928 females, was divided in the Census of 1881 as 
follows: — Muhammadans, 67,181; Hindus, 21,293; Sikhs, 11,883; 
aborigines, 2240; Christians, 386; Jews, 22; and Parsi's, 20. 

The revenue and magisterial charge of the Sub-division is vested in 
an Assistant Collector, with i niukhtidrkdr and 7 tapaddrs. In the city 


of Haidarabad there is also the Huziir Deputy Collector, the Canton- 
ment Magistrate, and the subordinate judge of the Civil Court. The 
police force numbers 332 men, of whom 313 are in the city, and 
the remainder, 19, distributed over the Sub-division in 6 ihdnas or 

The revenue of the Sub-division for 1880-81 was ;^24,753, being 
;^23,202 imperial and ^1551 local, derived from the following 
sources: — Imperial — Land-tax, ^^8486; abkdri or excise, ;2^684o; 
stamps, ;^39oS; registration, ^264; telegraph, jQlo'] ; licences, 
jQm '■> postal and miscellaneous, ^2220: Local — Cesses on land, 
jC.\91 ; percentage on alienated lands, ^^113; ferry funds, excluding 
steam ferry, ;j^i24; fisheries, ;^8i4j miscellaneous, jQt,. 

The topographical survey of the Sub-division for the purposes of 
settlement was completed in 1858. The prevailing tenure is the usual 
zaminddri of the District. There are in the taluk 40 jd^irJdrs, holding 
between them 53,996 acres, and paying an annual revenue of ^£48^. 
A single jdgirddr, Mi'r Jam Khan, holds 19,785 acres, all arable. The 
number of sen grants is 31 j total area, 699 acres; and there are 
besides 56 mdjiddrs holding small patches rent free. 

The only medical establishments, jails, post - office, and telegraph 
station in the District are in Haidarabad Citv, as are also the chief 
educational institutions. 

Haidardbad {Hyderdbdd). — Chief town of Haidarabad District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Latitude 25° 23' 5" n., longitude 
68° 24' 51" E. Population (1881) 48,153, including 3069 returned as 
' floating,' and 2958 in cantonments. Of the total population, 21,878 are 
Muhammadans, 14,861 Hindus, 386 Christians, and 11,028 'others.' 
The municipal area is about 15 square miles. The municipal revenue 
(1880-81) was ^12,590, and the disbursements j£,\o,i2\; rate of 
municipal taxation, 5s. 2|d. per head. In 1882-83 the municipal 
income was ;^i 2,000, and the incidence of municipal taxation 5s. per 
head of the municipal population. Upon the site of the present 
fort is supposed to have stood the ancient town of Nerankot, which in 
the 8th century submitted to Muhammad Kisim Sakifi. In 176S the 
present city was founded by Ghulam Shah Kalhora ; and it remained 
the chief town of the Province until 1843, when, after the battle of 
Miani (Meeanee), it surrendered to the British, and the capital was 
transferred to Karachi (Kurrachee). The city is built on the most 
northerly hills of the Ganjo range, a site of great natural strength, i\ 
miles east of the Indus, with which it is connected by the high road to 
Gidu-Bandar, where a steam ferry crosses the river to Kotri on the Sind, 
Punjab, and Delhi Railway. In the fort, which covers an area of 36 
acres, are the arsenal of the Province, transferred hither from Karachi 
(Kurrachee) in 1861, and the palaces of the ex-Mirs of Sind. 


Haidarabad is now plentifully supplied with water, which is pumped up 
from the Indus by powerful machinery, located on the river bank at 
Gidu. Thence the water passes along an aqueduct raised on masonry 
arches, into two large reservoirs or depositing tanks, situated about 500 
yards from the river bank, each tank capable of holding 1,200,000 
gallons. From these tanks the water Hows by gravitation to within a 
short distance of the foot of the rocky plateau on which the canton- 
ments are built ; from here the water is pumped up into a stone 
tank on the crest of the plateau, which holds about 100,000 gallons, 
from which the supply for the cantonments is taken. The main 
conduit, passing through the plateau, discharges into a tank below 
the fort, from whence the water is pumped up to a point higher 
than the surface of the ground within the fort, and discharged 
through iron pipes all over the city by gravitation. 

Haidarabad, as the historic capital of Sind, is the centre of all 
the Provincial communications — road, telegraphic, postal. From 
the earliest times, its manufactures — ornamented silks, silver and 
gold work, and lacquered ware — have been the chief of the Province, 
and in recent times have gained prizes at the Industrial Exhibitions of 
Europe. A local specialty is the manufacture of the earthen vessels, 
7nati, which are used by the pala fishermen to buoy themselves up on 
the water while fishing. Statistics of local trade are not available ; 
but, as the municipality derives an annual income of about ^{^6000 
from octroi dues, it must be very considerable. 

The chief public buildings are the jail (capable of holding 600 con- 
victs), the Government Anglo-vernacular school, engineering, high, and 
normal schools, post-office, municipal markets, court-houses, civil and 
police hospital, charitable dispensary, library, travellers' bungalow, 
and lunatic asylum. To the building of the last. Sir Cowasjce Jahangfr 
Readymoney subscribed ^^5000. The barracks are built in 1 2 blocks, 
with hospitals, bazar, etc., to the north-west of the city. The only note- 
worthy antiquities are the tombs of the Kalhora and Talpur Mirs. The 
Residency, memorable for its gallant defence by Sir James Outram 
against the Baluchi's in 1843, situated 3 miles from Haidarabdd, no 
longer exists. For history, see Sind Province. 

Haidarabad. — Pargami of Muhamdi tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh. 
A part of the old pargami Bhiirwara belonging to the Ahbans and 
Pasis ; afterwards seized by the Sayyids, and then occupied by the 
Gaurs, with whom a zamifiddri settlement was effected about 1792. 
Since then various branches of the old Ahban family have recovered 
possession, and they now own the principal estates. The rest of the 
zatninddrs are retainers or followers of the Sayyids and the chakladdrs. 
Along the banks of the Kathna, which forms the western boundary, 
the land lies very low, and is covered with jungle. The ground slowly 


rises, and the cultivated tract commences about two miles from the 
river. The soil here is a light domat ; but it rapidly improves, and 
about half a mile from the border of cultivation is of the very highest 
quality, producing every variety of crop, and paying high rents. The 
belt of villages lying across the centre of the pargana, most of which 
are the property of Government, produce sugar of great purity, which 
requires hardly any refining to make the clearest candy, and realizes 
a considerably higher price than any other in the Shdhjahanpur 
market. Fine groves also dot the pargana. Area, 98 square miles, of 
which 41 are cultivated. Population (1S81) 40,761, namely, Hindus 
34,592, and Muhammadans 6169. Land revenue, ;^4i32. Number 
of villages, 108. In the south of the pargafid, near the Kathna, are 
the ruins of the jungle fort of Mahmiidabad ; a similar fort is found at 
Alimadnagar. Both attest the former greatness of the Sayyids of 
Pihani, by whom they were erected. 

Haidarabad. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; 19 miles north of 
Undo town. Lat. 26° 55' n., long. 80° 17' e. Founded about iSo 
years ago by Haidar Khan, who named it after himself. Population 
(1881), Hindus, 3061 ; Muhammadans, 758 ; total, 3819. Two weekly 
markets ; small annual trading fair. Average sales, about ;^240o. 
Village school and post-office. 

Haidargarh. — Tahsi I or Sub-division of Bara Banki District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Bara Banki and Ram Sanehi tahsils, on the 
east by Musdfirkhana tahsil of Sultanpur, on the south by Maharajganj 
ta/isil of Rai Bareli, and on the west by Mohanlalganj iahsil of 
Lucknow; lying between 26° 31' 30" and 26° 51' n. lat., and between 
81° 12' and 81° 39' E. long. Area, 297 square miles, of which 181 are 
cultivated. Population (1881) 170,381, namely, Hindus, 154,669, and 
^Muhammadans, 18,712. The Sub-division contains one criminal court, 
with two police circles [ihdnds), and a police force of 40 men. 

Haidargarh. — Pargand of Haidargarh tahsil, Bara Banki District, 
Oudh ; bounded on the north by Siddhaur pargand, on the east by 
Subeha /ar^vzwcf, on the south by Bachhrawan pargand of Rai Bareli, 
and on the west by Lucknow. Originally occupied by the Bhars, who 
were dispossessed by Sayyid Miran, and afterwards extirpated by Sultan 
Ibrahim of Jaunpur. It is now chiefly in the possession of the Amethia 
clan of Rajputs. Area, 103 square miles, of which 59 are cultivated. 
Government land revenue, ;!^905i, or an average of 3s. id. per acre. 
Autumn crops — rice of excellent quality, cotton, hemp, millet, and 
pulses ; spring crops — wheat, barley, gram, linseed, peas, sugar, tobacco, 
and poppy. Of the 118 villages of which the pargand is composed, 
61 J are tdlukddri, 2gh zaminddri, 26 pattiddri, and i bhayachdra. 
Population (1881) 58,522, namely, 28,679 males and 29,843 females. 
Grain is exported to Lucknow, Sultanpur, Dariabad, and Cawnpur ; 

VOL. V. T 


principal imports, cotton and salt. Saltpetre is manufactured in four 
villages to the extent of 35,000 inaunds, or 1277 tons, annually. Seven 
market villages. 

Haidargarh. — Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; 25 miles east 
of the head-quarters station. Founded by Amir-ud-daula Hafdar Beg 
Khan, Prime Minister of Nawab Asif-ud-daula. It is now the seat of 
the tahs'il revenue courts, but otherwise of little importance. Popula- 
tion (1881) 2128, namely, Hindus 1441, and Muhammadans 687. 

Haidargarh. — Pass in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency. 
— See Hassangadi. 

Hailakandi. — Sub-division in the south of Cachar District, Assam. 
Area, 344 square miles. Population (1881) 65,671, namely, Hindus, 
40,495; Muhammadans, 34,281; and 'others,' 1141. 

Hailakandi. — Village in the south of Cachar District, Assam, on 
the right or east bank of the Dhaleswari river. Head-quarters of the 
Sub-division of the same name, and also a thdnd or police station. It 
gives its name to a fertile valley, which is entirely laid under water by 
the floods of every rainy season. 

Haing-gyi (or Negrais). — An island in the Bassein or Nga-won 
river, Irawadi Division, British Burma. Lat. 15° 54' n., long. 94° 
20' E. It is situated near the western bank, 3^- miles distant from 
Pagoda Point, and is rendered conspicuous by a hill at its northern end, 
which slopes away towards the centre. A narrow belt of level ground 
skirts the coast. The channel between Negrais and the Bassein river 
is I mile broad on the south and 4^ miles broad on the north, opposite 
the abandoned station of Dalhousie. Captain Taylor {Sailifig Directions, 
p. 496) warns shipmasters that no vessel drawing over 14 feet should 
attempt to pass between the island and the mainland towards Port 
Dalhousie. For the history of Negrais Island, see Bassein District. 

Hajamro (or Sian). — River of Sind, Bombay Presidency; one of 
the central deltaic channels of the Indus ; debouches into the sea 
south-east of Karachi (Kurrachee), in latitude 24° 6' n., and longitude 
67° 22' E. In 1S45, the Hajamro was so small as to be only suited for 
the passage of small boats during flood; in 1875 it had taken the place 
of the Khedawari channel, and become the principal outlet of the 
Indus to the sea. In shape the Hajamro is somewhat like a funnel, 
the wide part to the sea. At the eastern entrance is a beacon 95 feet 
high, visible 25 miles. Two pilot-boats wait inside the bar to point out 
to entering vessels the dangers of the navigation. 

Hdjiganj. — Town and head-quarters of a police circle {f/uh/d), in 
Tippcrah District, Bengal ; situated on the Dakatia river. Lat. 23° 15' 
N., long. 90° 53' 30" E. An important seat of river traffic. Betel-nut 
is e.xtensively cultivated, and a considerable trade in the article carried 
on with Dacca, Ndrainganj, and Calcutta. 

HAjrPUR—HAJO. 291 

Hajipur. — Sub-division of Muzaffarpur District, Bengal. Area, 771 
square miles, with 1707 villages and 101,713 occupied houses; lying 
between 25° 29' and 26° i' n. lat., and between 85° 6' 45" and 85" 
41' E. long. Population (1S81) 724,531, namely, Hindus, 657,421 ; 
Muhammadans, 30,126 ; and Christians, 34. Males numbered 344,281, 
and females 380,250. Proportion of males in total population, 477 
per cent. ; average density of population, 940 per square mile ; number 
of villages per square mile, 2*21 ; persons per village, 422 ; houses per 
square mile, 140; persons per house, 7'i2. The Sub-division, which 
was formed in 1865, comprises the 3 t/uinds or police circles of Hajipur, 
Ldlganj, and Mahwa. It contained in 1883 one civil and two criminal 
courts, with a regular police force of 146 officers and men, and a 
village watch or rural police numbering 1304. 

Hajipur. — Municipal town, and head-quarters of Hajipur Sub-division, 
and a police circle {thdnd), Muzaffarpur District, Bengal ; situated on 
the right or east bank of the Little Gandak, a short distance above 
its confluence with the Ganges opposite Patna. Lat. 25° 40' 50" n., 
long. 85° 14' 24" E. Said to have been founded by one Haji Ilyds, 
about 500 years ago, the supposed ramparts of whose fort, enclosing an 
area of 360 bighds, are still visible. The old town is reported to have 
reached as far as Mohnar thdnd, 20 miles to the east, and to a village 
called Gadai-sanii on the north. Hdjipur figures conspicuously in 
the history of the struggles between Akbar and his rebellious Afghan 
governors of Bengal, being twice besieged and captured by the imperial 
troops, in 1572 and again in 1574. Its command of water traffic in three 
directions makes the town a place of considerable commercial importance. 
Population (1872) 22,306; (1881) 25,078, namely, males 11,564, and 
females 13,514. Hindus numbered 20,895; Muhammadans, 4169; 
and ' others,' 14. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^740, of which ;!^6i4 
was derived from taxation ; expenditure, ;^679 ; incidence of taxation, 
4|d. per head of population, within municipal limits. Within the area 
of the old fort is a small stone mosque, very plain, but of peculiar 
architecture, attributed to Haji Ilyas. Its top consists of three 
rounded domes, the centre one being the largest. They are built of 
horizontally-placed rows of stones, each row being a circle, and each 
successive circle being more contracted than the one immediately below 
it, until the key-stone is reached, which is also circular. Two other 
mosques and a small Hindu temple are in the town or its immediate 
vicinity. A Buddhist temple, surrounded by a sardi or rest-house, 
was built for the accommodation of the late Sir Jang Bahddur, on the 
occasion of his visits from Nepdl. Besides the ordinary courts, the 
town contains a school, police station, post-office, charitable dispensary, 
and distillery. 

Hajo. — Village in the north of Kamrup District, Assam, near the 



left or east bank of the Baraliyd river, and about 6 miles north of 
the Brahmaputra. In the immediate neighbourhood is the celebrated 
Mahamuni temple, situated on the summit of a low hill. The place is 
annually visited by thousands of pilgrims from all parts of India, not only 
Hindus, but also Buddhists from beyond the Himalayas, who venerate it 
as a spot rendered sacred by the presence of the founder of their faith. 

Hdla. — Sub-division or Deputy Collectorate of Haidarabad (Hyder- 
abad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency, situated between 25° 8' 
and 26° 15' N. latitude, and between 68° 16' 30" and 69" 17' e. longitude. 
It is bounded on the north by the Naushahro Sub-division \ on the 
south by Haidarabd.d taluk ; on the east by the Thar and Parkar 
Political Superintendency ; and on the west by the Indus. Area, 2522 
square miles; population (1872) 216,139 ; (1881) 224,847. The Sub- 
division is divided into 4 taluks, namely, Hala, Alahyar-jo-Tando, 
Shahdadpur, and Mfrpur Khds. It contains 279 villages and 6 towns, 
14 of which have a population of over 800. Occupied houses, 41,724. 
In general aspect, the tract is an unbroken plain, sandy and unprofit- 
able on the eastern side ; but intersected by canals and fringed with 
forest on the west. These canals, 95 in number, are, with the exception 
of one, Government property; they have an aggregate length of 938 
miles, and yield an annual income of ;2{^3 2,945. Temperature, 74° to 
103° F. ; average annual rainfall, about 6 inches. The chief tree is the 
babul, or Asiatic acacia. The forest areas aggregate 24,764 acres, yield- 
ing in 1873-74 a revenue of ^3066. They were all planted between 
1790 and 1830 by the Mirs of Sind. The fisheries, six in number, 
yielded in i88o-8i a revenue of ^162. 

The population of the Sub-division (224,847) was divided in the Census 
of 1 88 1 as follows : — IMuhammadans, 173,285 ; Hindus, 31,490 ; Sikhs, 
915 1 ; aborigines, 10,764; 144 Jains; 2 Christians; 9 Jews, and 2 
'others.' In character, habits, dress, etc., the inhabitants of Hala are 
not distinguished by any peculiarities from those of the rest of the 
District. As elsewhere in Sind, the prevalent crimes are cattle-stealing, 
theft, and housebreaking. The criminal returns for 1881 show A total 
of 1772 offences, or i in 127 of the population. The civil returns fur 
the same year give a total of 1296 suits; value in dispute, ^{^14,578. 
The chief revenue and magisterial cliarge is vested in a Deputy Col- 
lector and Magistrate, who has under him a i/iukktiarkdr for each of 
the 4 taluks, and a tapdddr for each of the 24 tapas. The only civil 
court in the Sub-division is that at the town of Hala, presided over 
by a native subordinate judge, who goes on circuit annually to 
Adam-jo-Tando and Alahyar-jo-Tando. The Hala police number 
164 officers and men, or i constable to 1317 of the population. Forty- 
three of the whole are mounted. The only jails are the 4 lock-ups at 
the mukhtidrkdr stations. 


The revenue of the Sub-division for 1880-81 was ^^46,216, being 
;;^43,3oo imperial and j[^2\c)(i local, derived from the following sources : 
— Imperial — Land-tax, ;^35,67o; abkari, jQ2^()2 ; stamps, ;^40oo ; 
salt, ^2; registration, ^214; postal and miscellaneous, ;^io22 : 
Local — Cesses on land, ;^2 156 ; percentage on alienated lands, ^539 ; 
ferry funds, ^^59; fisheries, ^£162. A topographical survey for the 
purposes of assessment was completed in 1865. The rates of the Settle- 
ment concluded in 1871-72 for ten years vary from is. for inferior 
soils to 8s. for high-class irrigated lands. Tenants, as a rule, pay the 
zami/iddr in kind, but the Government dues are now received in 
money. The prevailing tenure is the ordinary zajfitJidari of Haidar- 
AEAD District, but Jdgirs are very numerous, 168 grantees holding 
between them 163,078 acres. The total number of seri grants is 35, 
aggregating 490 acres. The number of Diafiddrs is 37. 
• There are 6 municipalities within the Sub-division — Alahydr-jo-Tando, 
Adam-jo-Tando, Hala, jMatarf, Nasarpur, and Shahdadpur — with an 
aggregate income of ^^2331 in 1882-83. There are four dispensaries — 
at Hala, Alahyar-jo-Tando, Adam-jo-Tando, and Mirpur — total admis- 
sions (during 1881-82), 11,553 ; average daily attendance, 40. There 
are in all 15 Government schools, with an attendance of 849 pupils; 
the indigenous schools number 11, with 120 pupils. 

The trade of the Sub-division is confined almost wholly to agricul- 
tural produce. Exports, ^139,798 ; imports, ^85,163. Transit trade, 
about ^190,000. Lacquered ware, glazed pottery (for which prizes 
were gained by the Hala workmen at the Karachi Exhibition of 
1869), and striped cloths called susis and khesis are the chief manu- 
factures. There are in all 22 fairs, the chief one (a Hindu) being 
attended annually by 35,000 persons ; the remainder are Muhammadan 
fairs, with an average attendance of 3000. Roads aggregate nearly 
600 miles in length ; none are metalled, but many are partially 

The chief antiquities are the ruins of Brahmanabad and Khuddbad. 
The latter, 2 miles from Hala (New), was once the favourite residence 
of the Talpur chiefs, and is said to have rivalled Haidarabad in size 
and population. The ancient tombs at Lal-Udero, Kamdro, and Myo 
Vahio are all noteworthy. 

H^la. — Taluk of the Hala Sub-division, Haidardbdd District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 78,149, of which 4153 are 
'floating'; area, 531 square miles, containing 3 towns and 70 villages. 
The population occupies 15,339 houses. Males number 42,265, females 
35,884 ; classified according to religion, there were 9855 Hindus, 63,086 
Muhammadans, 3297 Sikhs, 1761 aborigines, 144 Jains, and 6 Jews. 
Revenue for 18S3-84, ^8819. The area assessed to land revenue in 
1882-S3 was 1 10,964 acres ; area under actual cultivation, 42.500 acres. 


'Jhe tdhik contains i civil and 3 criminal courts ; police stations 
{thdnds), 6 ; regular police, 39 men. 

Hala, New. — Town in the Hdla Sub-division, Haidarabad District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency; formerly known as Murtizabdd. Latitude 
25° 48' 30" N., longitude 68° 27' 30" e. ; population (1881) 3967. 
Municipal income (1880-81), ;j^363; expenditure, j[^-^^2; rate of taxa- 
tion, IS. 9|d. per head. The local trade consists chiefly of grain, piece- 
goods, gh'i^ cotton, and sugar, valued approximately at ;2{^390o. The 
transit trade (in the same articles) is valued at about j[^']oo. Hala has 
long been famous for its glazed pottery and tiles, made from a fine clay 
obtained from the Indus, mixed with powdered flints. The ornamenta- 
tion is brilliant and tasteful. The susis or trouser-cloths, for which 
Hala is also celebrated, are manufactured to the value of ^750 yearly. 
Hala (New) was built about 1800 in consequence of Hala (Old), 
2 miles distant, being threatened with encroachment by the Indus. 
Among the antiquities round which the new town has grown up are the 
tomb and mosque of a Pir or Muhammadan saint, who died in the i6th 
century, and in whose honour a fair, largely attended by Muhammadans 
from all parts of the Province, is held twice a year. The British 
Government contributed, in 1876, ;!^ioo to the repair of this tomb. 
Hdla is situated on the Ali'ganj Canal, and is immediately connected 
with the Trunk Road at two points. It contains a subordinate judge's 
and vmkhtidrkdr' s courts, dispensary, and travellers' bungalow, also 
a first-class subordinate jail. The number of patients relieved 
in the dispensary in 1883 was 3761, namely, 13 in-door and 3748 

Hala, Old. — Town in the Hala Sub-division, Haidarabad District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Population under 2000 in 1S81 : mainly 
agriculturists. It is said to have been founded about 1422, but was 
jjartially abandoned in 1800 owing to threatened encroachments of 
the Indus ; and Hala (New) was built in its stead, 2 miles off. 
Government vernacular school. 

Halani. — Town in the Naushdhro Sub-division, Haidardbad District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Population under 2000 in 1881 : mainly 
agriculturists ; the Muhammadans are chiefly Sahatas, and the Hindus 
are Lohdnos and Punjabis. Export trade in grain ; annual value, 
jQloo. Near Halani the Talpur forces defeated, in 1781, the last of 
the Kalhora dynasty, and the tombs of the chiefs who fell in the battle 
mark the spot. The town lies on the high road, and is about 200 
years old. 

Halaria. — Petty State of South Kdthiawar, Bombay Presidency ; 
consists of 4 villages, with 3 separate tribute-]jayers. Population, 895 
in 1872, and 1066 in 1881. Lies on the Shatranji river, 16 miles 
south-east of Kunkawar railway station. The revenue is estimated at 


^^1500; tribute of ^10 is paid to the Gaekwdr of Baroda, and 
;£-], 14s. to Junagarh. 

Haldd.. — River of Chittagong District, Bengal ; one of the chief 
tributaries of the Karnaphuh'. Navigable by native boats for a distance 
of 24 miles throughout the year, and for 35 miles in the rainy season. 
One of the principal fishing rivers of the District. 

Haldl. — River of Southern Bengal, rising in lat. 22° 18' 30" N., and 
long. 87° 13' 15" E., near the western boundary of Midnapur District. 
The river is formed by the junction of the Kasai (Cossye) and Tengra- 
khali, whence it flows south-south-east till it falls into the Hugh', in lat. 
22° o' 30" N., long. 88° 6' 15" E., near Nandigaon, in the Tamliik Sub- 
division, a few miles south of the confluence of the Rdpndrdyan and 
Hiigli, and opposite Mud Point in Sagar island. The Haldi is a large 
river at its mouth, and is navigable throughout the year up to Tengra- 
khali, but with difficulty, owing to numerous shoals and sandbanks. 
The Haldi is connected with the Riipnarciyan on the north, and with 
the Rasiilpur river on the south, by a tidal navigable canal. — See 
RuPNARAYAN and Rasalpur Canal. 

Halebid (^ Old Ruins^). — Village in Hassan District, Mysore State. 
Latitude 13° 12' 20" n., longitude 76° 2' e. Population under 2000. 
The site of the ancient city of Dorasamudra or Dvaravatipura, the 
capital of the Hoysala Ballala dynasty. It was apparently rebuilt in 
the 13th century by king Vira Sameswara, described in certain inscrip- 
tions as the founder. To him is assigned the erection of the two 
magnificent temples in honour of Siva, which rank among the master- 
pieces of Hindu art. The larger of these, the Hoysaleswara temple, 
though never completed, has elicited from Mr. Fergusson the opinion 
that ' taken altogether, it is perhaps the building on which the advocate 
of Hindu architecture would desire to take his stand.' Its dimensions 
are roughly 200 feet square, and 25 feet high above the terrace on which 
it stands. The material is an indurated potstone of volcanic origin, 
found in the neighbourhood, which takes a polish like marble. The 
ornamentation consists of a series of friezes one above another, each 
about 700 feet long, and carved with the most exquisite elaboration. 
One frieze alone represents a procession of not less than 2000 elephants. 
The smaller or Kaitabheswara temple has unfortunately been entirely 
split to pieces in recent years by the growth of trees and their roots 
through the joins of the stones. Some of the most perfect sculptures 
have been removed to the Museum at Bangalore. There are also ruins 
of Jain bast'is and of other buildings in the neighbourhood. The city 
of Dorasamudra was taken and sacked by the Muhammadans in 1310, 
and the capital of the Ballalas transferred to Tondaniir. 

Haleri. — Village in the territory of Coorg ; has an historical interest 
as the first settlement of the family of Lingayats from Ikkeri in 


Mysore, who established themselves as Rajas of Coorg in the 17th 
century. The old palace, which was built on the usual plan of Coorg 
houses, though on a larger scale, and with breastworks and other 
defences, became a complete ruin, and all the material composing it 
was sold in 1881. Latitude 12° 27' n., longitude 75° 52' e. 

Halhalia. — River of Bengal, formerly a considerable stream rising 
in ]\Iaimansingh District, which has now almost disappeared, or been 
absorbed by the Brahmaputra or Jamuna. Branches of it, however, 
remain on both sides of the Jamund ; that on the west bank being much 
the larger of the two, and flowing in a very tortuous course through 
Bogra District, for about 30 miles, until it joins the Karatoya at Khan- 
pur. The lower part of the Halhalia is navigable for large boats. 
Chief markets on the banks — Kaliani, Pachibari, Dhunot, Gosainbari, 
and Chandanbasid. The Halhalia is locally confounded with another 
river, the Manas, which has almost disappeared in consequence of the 
same causes to which the Halhalia itself owes its diminished size. 

Haliyal {Supa). — Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 980 square miles; contains i town and 215 villages. 
Population (1881) 61,154, namely, 33,326 males and 27,828 females. 
Hindus number 53,802; jNIuhammadans, 3864; 'others, 34SS. Since 
1872, the population has increased by 7368. The region consists of 
waving upland, seamed by the river Kalinadi and its tributaries. The 
north and east form an open plain. Staple crops, rice and sugar-cane. 
Rainfall, 47*8 inches. The forests of teak, blackwood, and bamboo 
cover an area of 251 square miles. More than a million bamboos 
(for which a fee of from 6s. to 2s. a hundred is paid) were exported 
in 1S82. The forests are everywhere open to carts. The incidence 
of land revenue per cultivated acre varies from i6s. to is. Total land 
revenue, ;,£"io,669. 

Haliyal. — Town in Haliyal Sub-division of North Kanara District, 
Bombay Presidency. It lies 21 miles to the south-west of Dharwar, in 
latitude 15" 19' 50' n., and longitude 74° 48' e. Population (1881) 
5527; municipal revenue (1881-82), ;;^489 ; rate of taxation, is. gd. 
per head. Colonel Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, visited 
Haliyal, and speaks highly in his despatches of its importance as a 
frontier post. The Haliydl timber depot supplies the best bamboo, 
teak, and blackwood of the Kanara jungles. The new railway under 
construction from Dhdrwar to Marmagao runs about 9 miles to the 
north of Haliydl. Post-ofifice, 2 schools, and dispensary. Number of 
patients treated in the dispensary in 1883 — in-door, 86; out-door, 

Hallar {HdllduHlr). — A Plant or division of Kathidwdr, Gujardt, 
Bombay Presidency; lying between 21° 44' and 22° 55' n. latitude, and 
69" 8' and 71° 2' e. longitude. Takes its name from the Jareja Hdlla 


Rajputs, and includes, among others, the chivjfships of Nawanagar, 
Rajkot, Morvi, Dhoraji, Gondal, Dhrol, and Kotra-Sangani. 
Limits of tract not strictly defined, but includes an area of 7060 square 
miles. Population (iSSi) 150,444, namely, 76,115 males and 74,329 
females. Hindus numbered 93,644 ; Muhammadans, 44,999 ; Jains, 
11)797; P^rsi's, 193; Christians, iSi ; and 'others,' 130. The division 
lies in the west of Kdthiawar, and embraces the level tract between the 
Gulf of Cutch, the district of Okhimandal (Baroda territory), the Barda 
Hills, and the Arabian Sea. Locally, the tract is known as the Barari. 
Halon. — River of the Central Provinces, rising in 22° 6' n. latitude 
and 81^ 5' E. longitude, about 8 miles south of the Chilpighat, or pass, in 
the Maikal range ; Hows northwards for about 60 miles through Balaghat 
and Mandla Districts, Central Provinces ; and falls into the Burhner 
in latitude 22° 40' x., and longitude 80° 47' e. Average elevation of its 
valley, 2000 feet. 

Halwad. — Fortified town in the peninsula of Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency; 85 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. Lat. 23° i' n., long. 
71° 14' 30" E. Population (1881) 5967, namely, 4749 Hindus, 1075 
Muhammadans, and 143 Jains. Once the capital of the Dhrangadra 
State. The town is said to resemble a plough in shape. Fine palace, 
built on Lake Samatsar. 

Hambar.— Village in Firozpur (Ferozepore) District, Punjab; on the 
road to Ludhiana, io| miles west of Firozpur. Lat. 30° 57' n., long. 
75° 46' E. 

Hamirgarh. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore), 
Rajputana. Situated on the Nimach and Nasi'rabdd road, 61 miles 
from the former and 83 from the latter. A second-class noble of the 
State resides here. The town is commanded by a small hill fort. 

Hamirpur. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 25° 5' and 26° 10' n. lat., and between 
79° 22' 45" and 80° 25' 15° E. long. Hamirpur forms the south-western 
District of the Allahabad Division. It is bounded on the north by the 
Jumna (Jamuna) ; on the north-west by the Native State of Bdoni and 
the Betwa river ; on the west by the Dhasan river ; on the south by 
the Alipura, Chhatarpur, and Charkhari States ; and on the east by 
Banda District. It encloses the Native States of Sarila, Jigni, and 
Bihat, besides portions of Charkhari and Garauli. Area, 2288-5 square 
miles. Population (1881) 507,337. The administrative head-ciuarters 
are at the town of Hamirpur ; but Rath has the largest population in 
the District. 

Physical Aspects. — Hamirpur forms part of the great plain of Bundel- 

khand, which stretches between the banks of the Jumna (Jamund) and 

the central Vindhyan plateau. The District is in shape an irregular 

parallelogram, with a general slope northward from the low hills on the 


southern boundary toward the valleys of the Jumna and Betwa, which 
limit it on the north and west. The plains of the District are level, 
dry, and cultivable. They consist for the most part of black soil {mar), 
known as cotton soil, and a blackish soil {kabar), both of which dry up 
and form large holes and fissures during the hot season. The hilly 
southern region is composed of scattered outlying spurs from the main 
line of the Vindhyan range. Their general elevation does not exceed 
300 feet above the Jumna valley, or a total of about 800 feet above 
the level of the sea, and their sides are generally bare of trees or jungle. 
They are rendered picturesque, however, by their rugged outline and 
artificial lakes, for which, particularly those of Mahoba, the District 
is celebrated. These magnificent reservoirs were constructed by the 
Chandel Rajas, about 800 years ago, for purposes of irrigation and as 
sheets of ornamental water. They are hemmed round on two or three 
sides by rocky hills, while the outlets are stopped by dams of massive 
masonry, whose antiquity conceals all traces of their artificial origin. 
Many of them enclose craggy islets or peninsulas, crowned by the ruins 
of granite temples, exquisitely carved and decorated. The largest lake, 
Bi'janagar, has a circumference of about 5 miles. The waters of several 
of these lakes are utilized for irrigation j)urposes by means of small 
canals, fourteen in number, varying from half a mile to over six miles 
in length. 

Descending from the hill and lake country, the general plain of the 
District is reached, which spreads northward, almost unbroken by 
isolated heights, in an arid and treeless level towards the broken banks 
of the rivers. Of these, the principal are the Betwa and its tributary 
the Dhasan, both of which are unnavigable. On the triangle formed 
by their junction with the stream of the Jumna, stands the town of 
Hami'rpur, which is thus isolated from the remainder of the District by 
the Betwa river and the Native State of Baoni. The Hami'rpur bank of 
the Jumna is high ; its opposite shore is low and shelving. There is 
little waste land, except in the ravines by the river-sides and hills. 
The deep black soil of Bundelkhand, known as mar, retains the moisture 
under a dried and rifted surface, and renders the District fertile ; but 
unhappily the kdns grass, the scourge of the Bundelkhand agriculturist, 
periodically overruns the country, except where cultivation is carefully 
conducted. There are no large jungles, though those of Bilki, in 
pargand Mdhoba, and Pasindbdd, in pargand Jaitpur, give cover to a 
considerable quantity of game. The wild animals found consist of 
tigers, leojjards, hy?enas, wolves, jackals, antelopes, and pigs. 

History. — The early annals of Bundelkhand, of which Province 
Hamirpur forms a portion, have been briefly sketched in the article 
on Band.\. During the Chandel supremacy, from the 9th to the 14th 
century, Mahob.v, in the south of the District, was the capital of that 

HA MIR PUR. 299 

dynasty. The Chandels adorned the town and its neighbourhood with 
many splendid edifices, remains of which still exist in great numbers ; 
besides constructing the noble artificial lakes already described. The 
last of their Rajas, Parmal, was defeated in 11 83 by Prithwiraj, 
the Chauhdn ruler of Delhi ; after which disaster the Chandel princes 
abandoned Mdhoba and fixed their capital at the hill fort of Kalinjar, 
in Bdnda District. About twelve years later, Mahoba was conquered 
by Kutab-ud-din, the general of Shahab-ud-din Ghori, and with 
occasional interruptions, remained in the hands of the Musalmans for 
500 years. 

In 1680, the District came into the possession of Chhatar Sdl, the 
great national hero of the Bundelas, and was the theatre of many battles 
during his long struggle with the imperial forces. On his death, about 
1734, he assigned to his ally, the Peshwd of the Marathas, one-third 
of his territories ; and Mahoba formed a portion of the region so granted. 
The larger part of the present District of Hamirpur fell to his son 
Jagat-rdj. During the next seventy years, the District continued 
under the government of his descendants, who, however, carried on 
among themselves that intestine warfare which was universal in 
Bundelkhand throughout the latter half of the iSth century. Rival 
Rajas had forts in every village, and one after the other collected 
their revenue from the same estates. Moreover, the Bundela princes 
were opposed by the Marathd chieftains ; and AH Bahadur, an illegiti- 
mate descendant of the Peshwi who had made himself Nawab of 
Banda, succeeded in 1790 in annexing a portion of the District. He 
was defeated by the British, and died in 1802. The British District of 
Bundelkhand was formed in the succeeding year (1803), a part being 
granted to our ally, Rdja Himmat Bahadur, as the price of his 
allegiance. The town of Mdhoba itself, with the surrounding country, 
remained in the hands of the Pandits of Jalaun, until, on the death 
of their last representative in 1840, it lapsed to the British. The Sub- 
division known as Jditpur was ruled by the descendants of Chhatar 
Sal until 1842, when the last Rdjii, believing that our reverses at Kdbul 
would prove fatal to British rule, revolted, and having been easily 
captured, was removed to Cawnpur, receiving from us a jjension of 
;!{^2oo a month. Jaitpur was handed over to another claimant, who 
mortgaged it to the Government, and died without issue in 1849. His 
territories lapsed to Government, and have since formed a part of 
Hamirpur District. 

When the British first occupied Hamirpur in 1803, they found 
it in the same wretched condition as the remainder of Bundelkhand. 
The land had been impoverished by the long war of independence 
carried on under Chhatar Sal ; overrun and ravaged by predatory 
leaders during the disastrous period of Maratha aggression ; and dcvas- 


tated by robber chiefs, who levied revenue on their own account, 
granting receipts for the payment, which the authorized collectors were 
obliged to accept. As early as 1819, the attention of Government was 
called to the fact that many estates were being relinquished by the 
zaminddrs, through their inability to meet the demands for the land 
revenue. In 1842, land in Hami'rpur District was reported to be utterly 
valueless, and many instances were adduced in which purchasers of 
estates had been comi)letely ruined through over-assessment. Several 
estates were held by Government for arrears of revenue, because no 
purchasers could be found for them. A new land settlement was 
effected in 1842 on a greatly reduced assessment. On the outbreak of 
the Mutiny, Hami'rpur exhibited the same return to anarchy which cha- 
racterized the whole of Bundelkhand. On the 13th of June 1857, the 
56th Native Infantry broke into mutiny, and the massacre of Europeans 
began. Only one Christian escaped with life. The surrounding native 
chiefs set up rival claims to portions of the British territory, and 
plundered all the principal towns. The Charkhari Raja alone main- 
tained a wavering allegiance, which grew firmer as the forces of General 
Whitlock approached Mahoba. That town was reached in September 
1858, and the fort of Srinagar was destroyed. After a short period 
of desultory guerilla warfare in the hilly regions of Bundelkhand, the 
rebels were effectually quelled, and the work of re-organization began. 
Since the Mutiny, the condition of Hamirpur seems to have improved ; 
but it has not yet recovered from the long anarchy of the Maratha rule, 
and the excessive taxation of the early British period. The poor and 
neglected aspect of the homesteads, the careless and apathetic appear- 
ance of the people, and the wide expanse of shadeless plain, all bear 
witness to the prolonged disorganization and mistaken economy of 
former days. 

People. — Hamirpur is one of the Districts of the North-Western Pro- 
vinces in which the population api)ears to have reached its limits, and 
even to be on the decline. The enumerations of 1842 and 1853 did 
not include the whole of the present District, which has since been 
enlarged by the addition of Mahoba and Jaitpur ; and they are con- 
sequently of little use for purposes of comparison. The Census of 1865 
returned the population at 520,941 persons, on an area corresponding 
to that of the present District; and that of 1872 returned the popula- 
tion at 529,137, showing an increase of 8196, or i'57 per cent. In 
1 88 1, the Census returned the population at 507,337, showing a 
decrease of 21,800, or 4'i per cent., in the nine years since 1872. The 
results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be briefly stated as 
follows : — Area of District, 2288*5 square miles ; number of towns and 
villages, 755 ; houses, 83,544. Total jwpulation, 507,337, namely, 
males 259,778, and females 247,559; proportion of males, 5r2 per 


cent. The preponderance of males is due jjartly to the unwilHng- 
ness of the Rajputs to state the number of their women, and partly to the 
former prevalence of female infanticide, which has not yet been quite 
stamped out. Average density of population, 221 '6 per square mile; 
towns or villages per square mile, "32 ; persons per town or village, 
672 ; houses per square mile, 36'5 ; persons per house, 6-07. 

As regards religious divisions, the Hindus numbered 474,092, or 93^4 
per cent. ; and the Musalmans, 33,228, or 6-6 per cent. Christians 
numbered 17. Of the higher class Hindus, Brdhmans numbered 
53,666; Rdjputs, 37,810; and Baniyas, 16,232. The Brdhmans are 
mainly engaged in agriculture, and have consequently lost much of the 
respect due to their caste. The Rdjputs have been very minutely 
reckoned in the Census, in order to discover which classes amongst 
them are addicted to infanticide. The Census of 1881 returned the 
males among the Rajputs at 21,135, and the females at 16,675 '> 
proportion of males, 55-9 per cent. The Rajputs amount to 62 clans; 
three of which were found to be specially guilty of the jiractice of 
female infanticide, namely, the Parihars, Chauhdns, and Bais. The 
Chandels and Bundelas, the old dominant classes, mostly still cling to 
the neighbourhood of Mahoba, the seat of their former supremacy. 
The Bais are far the most numerous of the Rajput classes in the 
District. Among the trading classes the only division of any i)eculiarity 
is that of the Marwaris. They act as bankers and money-lenders, but 
they have also acquired much landed property. Kayasths, or the 
writer caste, number 7940. Among ihe Siidras or low castes, the most 
numerous are the Lodhi's (57,300), Chamars (69,079), Ahirs (28,448), 
Kachhis (29,808), and the Ron's (26,228). The jNIusalmans are the 
descendants of converted Hindus, who were originally Thakurs, and 
their habits are still much the same as those of their fellow Rajputs. 
Other Hindu Sudra castes include — Bhangis (13,791), Kahars (13,046), 
Kumbhars (12,610), Nais (i 1,328), Telis (10,943), and Gadarias (9976). 
There are only 2 Native Christians in the District, and no settlement 
has been effected by the Brdhma Samaj. The Musalmans are making 
no converts. There are very few wealthy inhabitants, the landholders 
being often scarcely at all better off than their labourers, and living in 
much the same style. 

The District contains 8 towns with a population of more than 5000 
persons — namely. Rath, 14,479; Hamirpur, 7155; Kharela, 7633; 
Mahoba, 7577 ; M.\udha, 61 16 ; Kulpahar, 6066 ; Su.merpur, 5222 ; 
and Jaitpur, 5440. The urban population is on the decrease. Of the 
755 townsand villages comprising the District in 1881, 232 contained less 
than two hundred inhabitants, 210 from two to five hundred, 168 from 
five hundred to a thousand, 1 10 from one to two thousand, 16 from two 
to three thousand, 1 1 from three to five thousand, 7 from five to ten 


thousand, and i upwards of ten thousand. As regards occupation, the 
Census Report classifies the male population into the following six main 
groups: — Class (i) Professional, including Government servants, civil 
and military, and the learned professions, 5374; (2) domestic servants, 
inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 451 ; (3) commercial, including 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 1S76 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 
116,071 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial, 37,846; (6) indefinite and 
uni)roductive (comprising 9548 general labourers, and 88,612 male 
children and persons of unspecified occupation), 98,160. The language 
in common use is Bundelkhandi, which is a dialect of Hindi. 

Agriculture. — The staple produce of the District is grain of various 
sorts, the most important being gram. Pulses, wheat, and millet are 
also largely cultivated. The autumn crops are heavier than the spring, 
cotton being the most valuable amongst them. Its cultivation is on 
the increase. Out of a total area in 1881-82, of 1,464,609 acres, 
232,491 acres were returned as barren, and 1,232,118 as cultivable, of 
which latter area 852,778 acres were actually under cultivation. Manure 
is little used, except for garden land. Irrigation is practised on only 
13,838 acres, chiefly in the south, where water can be obtained from 
the artificial lakes constructed by the Chandel princes. There are 
fourteen small canals connected with these lakes, and belonging to 
Government; but they supply water to an area of only 13 19 acres. 
The remainder of the irrigated land is watered by hand labour. The 
out-turn ol bdjra, a kind of millet much grown in the District, is about 
;^i, IS. 8d. per acre; that of ///, an oil-seed, about ^i, 4s. per acre. 
In Hamirpur, as elsewhere in Bundelkhand, the cultivators have 
suffered much from the spread of the kans grass, a noxious weed, 
which overruns the fields and is found to be almost ineradicable 
wherever it has once obtained a footing. It is usual to abandon the 
lands thus attacked, in the hope that the kdns may use up the soil, 
and so finally kill itself out, which it is said to do in from twelve to 
fifteen years. 

The peasantry are hopelessly in debt, and careless as to comfort or 
appearances. Most of the landowners have no capital, and the few 
wealthy zafninddrs are foolishly penurious in all matters of improve- 
ment. The land is for the most part cultivated by tenants-at-will. The 
total male agricultural population of Hamirpur in 1881, numbered 
i^5)457> cultivating an average of 7*25 acres each. The total popula- 
tion, however, dependent on the soil, amounted to 336,029, or 66"23 
per cent, of the total District population. Of the total area of 
2288'5 square miles, 2259 square miles are assessed for Government 
revenue. Of these, 1290 square miles are under cultivation, 594 square 
miles are cultivable, and the remainder is uncultivable waste. Total 
amount of Government assessment, including local rates and cesses on 

HAM.RrUR. 303 

land, ^,£"1 26,805, or 3s. ofd, per cultivated acre. Total rental actually 
j)aid by cultivators, including cesses, ;!{^i57,543, or 3s. Q^d. per 
cultivated acre. Rents vary much with the nature of the soil ; the best 
lands are returned at from 12s. to ^i, 4s. per acre ; the poorest at from 
2s. to 4$. Few farms extend to 100 acres ; from 20 to 25 acres form a 
fair-sized holding. The rates of wages are as follow : — Smiths, 4id. to 
6d, per diem ; bricklayers and carpenters, 3fd. to 4id. ; labourers in 
towns, 3d. — in villages, 2^d. Wages have risen from 15 to 100 per 
cent, during the last twenty years. The average prices of food-grains 
for the ten years 186 1-7 1 arc as follow: — Gram, 4s. 8d. per cwt. j 
hajra, 4s. 5|d. per cwt. ; wheat, 6s. 2|d. per cwt ; barley, 4s. 5fd. 
j)er cwt. On the whole, prices have been rising of late years, although 
in 1882-83, owing to an exceptionally favourable season, they ranged 
somewhat below the averages given above. Gram was quoted at 3s. 6d. 
per cwt. ; baj'rd. ^•s.\)Q.x cwi. ; wheat, 7s. per cwt. ; andyWr, 4s. per cwt. 
Nahiral Calamities. — The District of Hamirpur is little subject to 
blight or flood ; but droughts and their concomitant, famine, are 
unhappily common. The last great famine was that of 1837, which 
produced so deep an effect upon the native mind that the peasantry 
still employ it as an era by which to calculate their ages. The 
scarcity of 1868-69 ^^'''^s severely felt in Hamirpur, though most of the 
deaths which it induced were due to disease rather than to actual star- 
vation. It pressed more heavily on the upland villages than on the 
country near the banks of the Jumna. Symptoms of distress first 
appeared early in the year 1869, and the scarcity was not allayed till 
November. Relief measures were adopted in March, partly by 
gratuitous distribution, chiefly by means of local works. During the 
whole period of distress, a daily average of 546 persons received 
aid, and 2736 persons were employed on famine works. Gram, 
the staple food of the people, rose from its average of 4s. 8d. per 
cwt. to a maximum of los. 8d. per cwt. in September. Famine rates 
may be considered to be reached when gram sells at 8s. lod. per cwt, 
and Government relief then becomes necessary. This test, however, 
cannot altogether be relied on, as the cultivators cease to employ 
labour on the approach of scarcity, and prices become merely 
nominal, the poorer classes having no money to purchase food. In 
portions of the District, a regular scale of remission of revenue and 
rent, in famines of var}'ing intensities, has been drawn up, and neither 
Government nor the zaminddrs are permitted to recover more than 
the stipulated proportion. The means of communication are now 
probably sufficient to avert the extremity of famine. 

Cotnnierce and Trade, etc. — The commerce of Hamfrpur District 
is chiefly carried on by means of its great river highway — the Jumna. 
The cotton and grain, which form the staple exports, are carried down- 

304 HAMIRPrjR. 

ward ; while rice, sugar, tobacco, and Manchester goods constitute the 
chief imports upward. The navigation between Allahdbad and Agra is 
rendered dangerous by shoals, rocks, and sunken trees. Efforts have 
been made to improve this part of the river, but with little success. 
About one-fourth of the grain raised in the District is exported, and the 
remainder used for home consumption. The manufactures consist of 
coarse cotton cloth and soapstone ornaments. No railway passes 
through the District, and the nearest station is Mauhar, on the East 
Indian main line, about 30 miles from the town of Hamirpur. There 
is only one metalled road, between Hamirpur and Naugdon, 70 miles 
in length, with a branch from Banda meeting it at Kabrai ; and there 
are four other fair-weather roads. There is no printing-press in the 

Administration. — The first land settlement, in 1805, included only a 
small portion of the present District ; and much of the revenue was 
necessarily remitted, owing to the depredations of freebooting chiefs. 
The second arrangement, two years later, was equally futile, from the 
same cause, and from the badness of the seasons. From 1S09 till 1842, 
the assessments were several times increased, in face of the fact 
that the revenue could not be collected through the poverty of 
the zaminddrs. Large balances were constantly accruing. Unfortun- 
ately the area and fiscal divisions for these settlements varied so much 
that the statistics are not available for purposes of comparison. In 
1842, the District had become so impoverished that a considerable 
decrease in the Government demand became imperatively necessary. 
The incidence of the land revenue was accordingly altered in that year 
from 3s. io|d. per acre on the cultivated area, to 3s. T,\d.. This 
settlement, which continued in force until 1872, is considered to 
have been a fair one, and succeeded in removing the pressure of former 
assessments. The total land revenue demand for 1870-71 amounted 
to ^108,410, of which ^^108,332 was collected. In 1881, out of a 
total revenue of ;2^i 16,448, ^106,828 was derived from the land-tax. 
The number of estates in 1870-71 was registered at 11 27, and the 
proprietors or coparceners at 28,086. Average land revenue paid by 
each estate, ^.^96, 4s., and by each proprietor, ^,^3, i8s. In 1S82 
there were 1450 estates on the rent-roll, assessed at an average of 
^73, 1 6s. 3d. each. 

The District is administered by a Magistrate, Assistant Magistrate, 
2 Deputy Collectors, and 5 taJisilddrs. . The District contained 
in 1 88 1, 12 civil and revenue, and 12 magisterial courts. 
In the same year there were 26 police stations and 4 outposts, 
with a regular police force of 549 officers and men, including 
133 municipal or town police; giving i jjoliceman to every 4' 17 
square miles and to every 924 inhabitants. The cost of the police 




was ^6262, of which ;!^5407 was paid by the State. The regular 
poHce were supplemented by 1953 village watchmen {chaukiddrs\ 
or I to every 260 inhabitants, maintained by the villages and land- 
holders. The District contains one jail, with an average daily number 
^^ 195 prisoners in 1881. Education makes but slow progress. In 
1850 there were only 1078 persons under instruction in the District. 
In i860 there were 104 schools, attended by 1414 pupils. By 1870 
the number of schools had increased to 112, and the pupils to 3066. 
In 1 88 1 the number of Government-inspected schools had fallen to 91, 
but the pupils had increased to 3557. This is exclusive of uninspected 
private schools, for which no details are available. The Census Report, 
however, returns 4286 boys and 21 girls as under instruction in 1881, 
besides 13,052 males and 67 females able to read and write, but not 
under instruction. The greater part of the expense of education is borne 
by Government. The District is divided into 7 fiscal divisions 
{pargands). It contains no municipal towns at present, as Rath, which 
for a short time was erected into a municipality, found its trade impaired 
by the octroi, and was accordingly relieved of its burdens. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Hamirpur District is dry and hot, 
owing to the absence of shade and the bareness of the soil, except in 
the neighbourhood of the Mahoba lakes, which cool and moisten the 
surrounding atmosphere. No accurate thermometrical observations 
have yet been taken. The rainfall was i7"2 inches in 1868-69 (the year 
of scarcity); 37-1 inches in 1869-70; 38-1 inches in 1 87 0-71 ; and 
27-31 inches in 1881, the average for the previous thirty years being 
returned at 3178 inches. In 1882, which was a very unhealthy year, 
the total number of deaths recorded was 19,562, being at the rate 
of 38-49 to each thousand inhabitants. Of these, 9261, or 1879 
per thousand, were assigned to fever (which is endemic in the District), 
and 5216, or io'58 per thousand, to bowel complaints. Hamirpur is 
comparatively free from small -pox, only 147 deaths, or -30 per 
thousand, being due to this cause in 1S82. Snake-bites and the 
attacks of wild animals were answerable for 113 deaths; and 38 
were attributed to suicide. There are charitable dispensaries at 
Hamirpur, Mahoba, and Rath. In 1882 they afforded medical relief 
to 588 in-door and 11,677 out-door patients. [For further information 
regarding Hamirpur, see the Settlement Report of the District, by W. E. 
Neale, Esq., dated ist July 1868; also Gazetteer of the North- Wester )i 
Provinces, vol. i. pp. 1 38- 189 (Allahabad, 1874); the North-Wcstern 
Provinces Census Report (1S81) ; and the Administration and Depart- 
mental Reports for the North-Western Provinces and Oudh from 1880 to 

Hamirpur.— Northern tahsil of Hamirpur District, North-Western 
Provinces ; comprising the pargands of Hamirpur and Sumerpur, 

VOL. V. u 


and consisting of the nan-ow tongue of land enclosed by the con- 
fluence of the Betwa and the Jumna (Jamuna), together with a large 
strip of countiy on the eastern bank of the former river. Area, 
375 square miles, of which 2iSi are cultivated. Population (1872) 
95,388; (1881) 75,398, namely, males 37,936, and females 37,462, 
showing a decrease of 19,990, or 20*9 per cent, in the nine years since 
1872. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 
71,215; Muhammadans, 4168; and 'others,' 15. Of the 124 villages 
comprising the iahsil, 79 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. 
Land revenue, ;^i 7,945 ; total Government revenue, ;j^2o,io3; rental 
paid by cultivators, ;^34,i97; incidence of Government revenue per 
acre, is. 6d. 

Hamirpur. — Administrative head-quarters of Hamirpur District, 
North- Western Provinces. Lat. 25° 58' n., long. 80° 11' 50" e. 
Situated on a tongue of land at the continence of the Betwa and the 
Jumna (Jamuna), on the right bank of the latter river. Population (1872) 
7007; (1881) 7155, namely, Hindus, 5546 ; Muhammadans, 1594; and 
Christians, 15. Area of town site, 197 acres. Founded, according to 
tradition, by Hamir Deo, a Karchuli Rajput, expelled from Alwar 
(Ulwur) by the IMuhammadans. Capital of a District under Akbar. 
Possesses little importance apart from the presence of the civil 
station. Ruins of Hamir's fort and a few ]\Iusalmdn tombs form the 
only relics of antiquity. Several Europeans were murdered here 
during the Mutiny. The public buildings consist of the court- 
house, treasury, police station, hospital, jail, dispensary, school, 
circuit-house, travellers' bungalow, two sardis, hdzdr. No manufactures ; 
small trade in grain. The civil station is small, and deficient in houses 
and roads. The town lies on the route from Nowgong to Cawnpur ; 
distant from Banda 39 miles south, from Kalpi 28 south-east, 
from Agra 155 south - east, from Allahabad no north - west. Local 
taxation supports a municipal police of 12 men, at an annual cost 
of ^8 1. 

Hamirpur. — Southern tahsil of Kangra District, Punjab ; consisting 
of a wild mountain country, but more thickly inhabited than the other 
portions of the District. Area, 644 square miles. Population (1881) 
176,609, namely, males 90,619, and females 85,990 ; average density, 
274 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, 
there were — Hindus, 170,555; Muhammadans, 5774; Sikhs, 161; 
'others,' 119. The revenue of the iahs'il in 1882-83 ^^''^s ;^io,6oi. 
The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and 2 honorary 
magistrates, presiding over 3 civil and 3 criminal courts. Number of 
police circles {thdnds\ 3 ; strength of regular police, 50 men ; village 
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 125. 

Hampi. — Ruined city in Bellary District, ^Lidras Presidency. 

HAMPI. 307 

Latitude 15° 19' 50" x., longitude 76° 30' 10" e. ; on the south bank of 
the Tungabhadra, 36 miles north-west of Bellary. The site of the 
ancient capital of the Vijayanagar kings. The ruins cover 9 square 
males, including Kamalapur on the south, and Anagiindi, the later 
seat of the dynasty. 

Hamj)i was founded on the fall of the Rallala dynasty, about 
1336 .'v.D., by two brothers, Bukka and Harihara, whose descendants 
flourished here till the battle of Talikot, 1564, and after^vards at 
Anagiindi, Vellore, and Chandragiri for another century, until finally 
overwhelmed by the advancing powers of Bijapur and Golconda. 
During the two and a quarter centuries that the Vijayanagar Ra'jas held 
the city of Hampi, they extended it and beautified it with palaces and 

Edwardo Barbessa describes the capital as ' of great extent, highly 
populous, and the seat of an active commerce in country diamonds, 
rubies from Pegu, silks of China and Alexandria and Cuinabar, 
camphor, musk, pepper, and sandal from Malabar.' The palaces of the 
king and his ministers, and the temples, are described as ' stately 
buildings of stone,' but the greater part of the population lived in 
'hovels of straw and mud.' In the travels of Ccesar Frederic, the 
palace is thus spoken of: 'I have seen many kings' courts, yet have 
never seen anything to compare with the royal palace of Bijianuggur, 
which hath nine gates. First, when you go into that part where the 
king lodged, there are five great gates, kept by captains and soldiers. 
Within these are four lesser gates, which are kept by porters, and 
through these you enter into a very fair court at the end.' He describes 
the city as being 24 miles round, enclosing several hills. The ordinary 
dwellings were mean buildings with earthen walls, but the three 
palaces and the pagodas were all built of fine marble. Of the remains 
of all this greatness now visible, Mr. J. Kelsall, in his Manual of the 
Bellary District (Madras, 1872), says : ' Many of the buildings are now 
so destroyed that it is difficult to say what they were originally meant 
for, but the massive style of architecture and the huge stones that 
have been employed in their construction at once attract attention. 
Close to Kamalapur there is a fine stone aqueduct, and a building 
which has at some time or other been a bath. The use of the arch in 
the doorways, and the embellishments used in decorating the inner 
rooms, show that the design of this building was considerably modified 
by the Musalmdns, even if it was not constructed by them altogether. 
A little to the south of this is a very fine temple, of which the 
outer and inner walls are covered with spirited basso-relievos, repre- 
senting hunting scenes and incidents in the Ramdyana. The four 
centre pillars are of a kind of black marble, handsomely carved. 
The flooring of the temple, originally large slabs of stone, has 


been torn up and utterly ruined by persons in search of treasure, 
which is supposed to be buried both here and in other parts 
of the ruins. The use of another covered building close by, with 
numerous underground passages, has not been ascertained. It also 
is covered with basso-relievos, in one of which a lion is represented. 
At a little distance is the building generally known as the " Elephant 
Stables," and there seems no reason to doubt that it was used for this 
purpose. Two other buildings, which, with the " Elephant Stables," 
form roughly three sides of a square, are said to have been the concert 
hall and the council room. Both, but especially the latter, have been 
very fine buildings.' 

Besides these, the remains of the zandnd and the arena are still 
visible. But the huge monoliths applied to various purposes form 
perhaps the most distinctive feature of these ruins — one, a water-trough, 
is 41 1- feet long ; another, a statue of Siva, 35 feet high. There are two 
fine temples, between which the road passes, but which are remarkable 
for nothing but the enormous size of the stones which have been used 
in their construction. Masses of cut granite, many of them 30 feet in 
length by 4 in depth, are seen high up in the wall, and no explanation can 
be given of the mode in which they were placed in their present position. 
There are also several temples in a fair state of preservation, notably one 
dedicated to Vishnu, about three-quarters of a mile from the palace, and 
close to the river. It is entirely of granite, and contains some splendid 
monolithic pillars, richly carved. The inscriptions at Hampi have 
contributed materially to our knowledge of Vijayanagar history. 

There is still a great annual festival here, although the village is in- 
significant in size, with a population of 693 in 18S1. — See Vijayanagar. 

Handia. — North-eastern tahs'il of Allahabad District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying along the northern bank of the Ganges, and com- 
prising the pargands of Mah and Kiwai. Pargand Mah may be briefly 
described as consisting of two low-lying tracts, with a high ridge between 
them, and pargafhi Kiwai as a hollow of low-lying land between the Mah 
ridge and the high bank of the Ganges. The soil of the low-lying tracts 
in both pargands is clayey in character, the cultivated land of the 
former being interspersed with patches of usar waste. The soil of the 
Mah ridge is mainly loam, varying in quality according to position and 
level, and with little or no traces of usai-. The high bank of the 
Ganges, which forms the southern edge of^ the Kiwai depression, is a 
strip of high-lying, uneven kankar land, varying in width from one to 
three miles. North of this is a strip of level loam, and only in the 
south-west corner of the tahsil is there any alluvial soil. The tahs'il is 
intersected by the Barnan and Bairagia ndlds, but neither of them 
carries any water except in the rains. Area, 296 square miles, 
of which 175 square miles are cultivated, 41 square miles cultivable, 


and the remainder uncultivable waste. Population (1872) 166,677; 
(r88i) 184,754, namely, males 93,664, and females 91,090, showing 
an increase of 18,077, or io'8 per cent., in the nine years since 1872. 
Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 165,420; 
and Muhammadans, 19,334. Of the 5S6 villages comi)rising the 
ta/isil, 478 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. Land 
revenue, ^32,214; total Government revenue, including rates and 
cesses, ;;!^37,724 ; rental paid by cultivators, including rates and cesses, 
^56,101. The principal land-holding classes are Muhammadans, 
Rajputs, and Baniyds. Of the Musalman proprietors, the Sayyids of 
Utraon and the Shaikhs of Basgit are the oldest, their possessions 
dating as far back as the cession. Many of the Rajputs are also old 
hereditary landholders. The principal cultivating classes are Br^h- 
mans, Rajputs, Ahirs, and Kurmis. 

Handia. — Village in Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Handia iahsil, situated on the Grand Trunk Road, 
23 miles east-south-east of Allahabad city, in lat, 25° 21' 56" n., long. 
82^ 13' 50" E. Population (1881) 1992. Besides the usual tahsill 
courts and offices, it contains an imperial post-office, first-class police 
station, Anglo-vernacular school, and dispensary. The village market 
carries on a trade, chiefly in hides, with Mirzapur and Jaunpur. 

Handia. — Ancient INIuhammadan town in Hoshangabad District, 
Central Provinces, on the left or south bank of the Narbada (Nerbudda) 
river ; with a dismantled stone fort, said to have been built by Hoshang 
Shah Ghori of Malwa. Latitude 22° 28' 30" N., longitude 77° 2' e., on 
the route from Betul to Mhau (Mhow), 80 miles north-west of the 
former and 90 miles east of the latter. Handia was the head-quarters 
of a sarkar or District under Akbar's rule, and, lying on the old high 
road from the Deccan to Agra, attained considerable size and pro- 
sperity, as appears from its ruins. On the withdrawal of the Mughal 
officials, about 1700, and the construction of a better road across the 
Vindhya Hills, via Indore, Handia sank into insignificance. Ceded to 
the British Government by the Maharaja Sindhia in 1844, but not 
finally transferred till the treaty of i860. The fort commands several 
river ghats or ferries. 

Hangal. — Sub-division of Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
299 square miles; contains i town and 161 villages. Population (1881) 
65,787, namely, 33,590 males and 32,197 females. Hindus numbered 
55,462 ; Muhammadans, 9341 ; -others,' 9S4. Since 1872, the popula- 
tion has decreased by 1603. The Sub-division contains 2 criminal 
courts; i police station {thdnd); 38 regular police; and 140 village 
watchmen {chaiikiddrs). 

Hangal. — Town in Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency. Popula- 
tion (1S81) 5272, namely, 3271 Hindus, 1996 Muhammadans, 4 


Christians, and i Parsi. Hdngal is a municipality; income (1882-83), 
;^99 ; incidence of municipal taxation, 4?yd. per head. 

Hangarkatta. — Port in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency. 
Situated about 5 miles from Old Barkur, at the mouth of the Silanadi 
river, and 10 miles north of Udipi. Called in the Government returns 
the port of Barkur. Considerable export trade in rice (principally to 
Goa), etc, and import trade in cotton piece-goods, cocoa-nut oil, and 
salt from Goa. Value of imports in 1S80-81, ;!^i 7,896; exports, 
^47,870. Exports in 1S83-84, ^^49,541. 

HangO. — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab ; situated near the north- 
eastern base of the Hangrang Mountains, at the head of an agricultural 
valley, watered by three tributaries of the river Li. Lat. 31° 49' n., long. 
78^ 34' E. Contains a temple of local reputation, described by Thorn- 
ton as devoted to a mixed faith, partly Hindu and partly Buddhist. 
Elevation above sea-level, 11,400 feet. 

Hangrang. — Mountain pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, between 
Kunawar and the Chinese territory. Lat. 31^ 48' n., long. 78^ 35' e. 
Thornton states that the valley to the south is well wooded and culti- 
vated, but the northern slope is thickly covered with snow. Elevation 
of crest above sea-level, 14,800 feet. 

HangU (or Miranzdi). — Western tahsil of Kohat District, Punjab ; 
consisting of the Miranzai valley, inhabited by a tribe of Bangash 
Pathans. It is divided into the tappds of Upper and Lower Miranzai. 
Upper or Western Miranzdi was annexed in 1851, but British govern- 
ment was not really established till 1855. It long remained a wild, 
lawless tract. Area, 419 square miles. Population (1S68) 36,060; 
(1881) 36,308, namely, males 21,479, ^"^^ females 14,829; average 
density, 87 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, 
there were in 1881 — Muhammadans, 31,846; Hindus, 3656; Sikhs, 
663 ; ' others,' 147. The revenue of the tahsil in 1882-83 was ^^2424. 
Tahsilddr, i civil and i criminal court, and 2 police circles ; strength 
of regular police, 32 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 36. 

HangU. — Village in Kohat District, Punjab, and head-quarters of 
Hangu tahsil. Lat. 33'' 32' n., long. 71° 6' e. Lies in a small open 
plain, 25 miles west of Kohat town. Picturesquely situated close under 
steep hills on the north, with 2 shrines, one of which overlooks the 
village westward. Population (1881) 2918, namely, Muhannnadans, 
2609 ; and Hindus, 309. The tahsilddr oi Hangu is chief of the Upper 
Bangash, and through him (jovernment conducts all its dealings with 
the Orakzai borderers. The town is a very old one, and is mentioned 
l)y the Emperor Babar in his Memoirs. 

Hdnsi. — Tahsil of Hissar District, Punjab, lying between 28° 50' and 
29' 25' .\. lat., and between 75° 50' 30' and 76^ 22' E. long. , Area, 
761 square miles. Population (1881) 130,612, namely, males 71,050, 


and females 59,562; average density of population, 172 persons per 
square mile. Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 
105,781; ^luhammadans, 23,014; Sikhs, 39 ; ' others,' 1778. Revenue 
of the tahsil (1SS3), ^14,244. One civil and one criminal court, 
with 2 police circles {t/uinds); strength of regular police, 53 men; 
village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 246. 

Hansi. — Town and municipality of Hissar District, Punjab, and 
head-quarters of Hansi tahsil. Lat. 29° 6' 19" n., long. 76° o' 19" E. Lies 
on the Western Jumna Canal, and on the Hissar and Delhi road, 16 miles 
east of Hissar town. Population (1S68) 13,563; (1881) 12,656, 
namely, 7663 Hindus, 5483 Muhammadans, 8 Sikhs, and 2 Christians. 
Founded, according to tradition, by Anang Pdl Tuar, King of Delhi. 
Centre of local administration under Hindus and Muhammadans, and 
long the principal town of Hariana. Desolated by the famine of 1783, 
after which it lay in ruins for many years. In 1795, the famous 
adventurer George Thomas, who had seized upon the greater part of 
Hariana, fixed his head-quarters at Hansi. Thenceforth the town 
began to revive; and on the establishment of British rule in 1802, it 
was made a cantonment, where a considerable force, consisting chiefly 
of local levies, was stationed. In 1857, the troops mutinied, murdered 
all Europeans upon whom they could lay their hands, and combined 
with the wild Rajput tribes in plundering the country. On the restora- 
tion of order, it was thought undesirable to maintain the cantonment. 
A high brick wall, with bastions and loopholes, surrounds the town, 
while the canal, which flows at its feet, contributes to its. beauty by a 
fringe of handsome trees. Since the Mutiny, however, the houses have 
fallen into decay, and the streets lie comparatively deserted, owing 
to the removal of the troops. A large dismantled fort overlooks 
the town on the north. Local trade in country produce — cotton, ^V;/, 
and cereals. The streets are wider and less tortuous than in most 
native towns. They are, as a rule, well metalled, and the drainage 
and sanitary arrangements are in a fairly satisfactory condition. 
Tahs'di, school-house, police station, sardi. There is no special local 
manufacture worth mentioning. Station on the Rewari - Firozpur 
Railway, Municipal revenue in 1881-82, ^664, or is. 6d. per head 
of population (12,251) within municipal limits. 

Hanskhdli. — Town and head-quarters of a police circle {ihdnd) in 
Nadiya District, Bengal ; situated on the left bank of the Churni river. 
Lat. 23° 21' 30" N., long. 88° 39' 30" e. Seat of considerable trade. 

Hanthawadi. — District in the Pegu Division, British Burma. 
Occupies the seaboard from the China Bakir mouth of the Irawadi to 
the Hlaing or Rangoon river ; known to the ancients as Bokkharadesa, 
a name which survives in China Bakir, and extending northwards up the 
valley of the Irawadi to about 17' x. lat. Bounded on the north 

3 1 2 HA NTH A WA DI. 

by the Districts of Thonegwa and Tharawadi ; on the east by Pegu 
sub-District ; and on the west by Thonegwa, On the first formation of 
the District it was known as Rangoon, and included Baw-ru, a strip of 
country extending along the eastern slopes of the Pegu Yoma Hills, 
from the Bawrugale stream to Taung-gii. In 1S64, Baw-ru was added 
to Taung-gu, and in 1866 transferred to Shwe-gyin ; subsequently the 
Kawliya circle was joined to Shwe-gyin, and the Thonzay circle to 
Henzada ; still later, a large tract in the west was cut off to form a 
portion of Thonegwa; and in 1883, the eastern and south-eastern town- 
ships, Pegu, Hlaygu, and Syriam were taken from it and formed into 
the Pegu sub-District. The head-quarters are at Rangoon town. Area, 
according to the Census of iSSr, 4236 square miles; according to the 
British Burma Administration Report for 1882-83, 4376 square miles. 
Population (1881) 427,720 persons. 

Physical Aspects. — Hanthawadi District consists of a vast plain stretch- 
ing up from the sea between the To or China Bakir, and the Pegu Yomas. 
Except the tract lying between the Pegu Yomas on the east, and the 
Hlaing river, the country is intersected by numerous tidal creeks, many 
navigable by large boats, and some by steamers. The chief of these 
are — the Bawlay, with its branch, the Pakwun, communicating with the 
Irawadi, and practicable during the rains for river steamers ; the Pan- 
HLAiNG, which leaves the Irawadi at Nyaung-don, and joins the Hlaing 
a few miles above the town of Rangoon, forming in the rains the usual 
route of river steamers from Rangoon ; the Thakwat-pin (popularly 
Bassein Creek), which connects the Rangoon river with the To or 
China Bakir, and is navigable at all seasons, river steamers using it in 
the dry season when the Pan-hlaing is closed. 

The Pegu Yomas attain their highest elevation, namely 2000 feet, 
in the extreme north of Hanthawadi District, and a few miles lower 
down divide into two main branches with many subsidiary spurs. 
The western branch, which has a general south-south-west direction, 
separates the valleys of the Hlaing and Pugun-daung rivers, and except 
in the extreme south, Hanthawadi and Pegu Districts. After rising 
into the irregularly - shaped limestone hill called Taung-nyo, a little 
south of lat. 17°, it forms the laterite hills round the great Shew-dagon 
Pagoda, and beyond the Pegu river it merges into the alluvial plains of 
the delta in Pegu District, being last traceable in the rocks in the 
Hmaw-wun stream. The slopes of the main range are, as a rule, steep, 
and the valleys sharply excavated. 

The principal river in the District is the Hlaing, which rises near 
Prome as the Zay, and, entering Hanthawadi in about lat. 17° 30' n., 
flows south-south-east, falling into the sea in about lat. 16° 30' n., under 
the name of the Rangoon river. It is navigable at all seasons by the 
largest seagoing vessels as far as Rangoon. Its chief tributaries in 


Hanthawadi are the Okkan, Magoyi, Hmawbi, and Leingon. On the 
west the Bawlay, Pan-hlaing, and other tidal creeks connect it with the 
Irawadi. The Pugundaung rises in the southern spurs of the Pegu Yoma, 
and falls into the Pegu river at Rangoon. 

The principal trees found in the District are the mangrove, ^yin-fua 
(Lagerstrcemia regina^), kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus), /// (Dipterocarpus 
tuberculatus),/////-^''/?^^; (Xylia dolabriformis), etc. There are two teak 
reserves, both on the western slopes of the Pegu Yonias, the Maguyi 
and the Kyet-pyugan. The area of reserved forests in Hanthawadi 
I~)istrict in 1884 was 554,540 acres, or 867 scjuare miles: revenue, 
^10,464; expenditure, ^"16,752. 

History. — Local legends, said to be confirmed by Tamil and Telugu 
traditions, state that in some unknown century before Christ, the 
inhabitants of Telingana, or Northern Madras, colonized the coast of 
Burma, finding there a Miin population, by which designation the 
Peguans still call themselves, whilst Telingana appears in the modern 
word Talaing. The Palm-leaf Records assert that the Shew-dagon 
Pagoda was founded by two brothers who had met and conversed with 
Gautama Buddha in India. But the first notice of the country that 
can be considered as historical is given in the Singhalese Ma/uhuanso, 
which mentions the mission of Sono and Uttaro, sent by the Third 
Buddhist Council (244 B.C.) to Suvarna-bhiimi (Aurea Regio), to spread 
the Buddhist faith. It seems clear that the delta of the Irawadi did 
not escape from the contest between the followers of the Brahmanical 
and Buddhist faiths, which lasted for hundreds of years, until about the 
end of the eighth century the victory eventually passed to the one body 
in India, and to the other in Burma. One of the results of these 
differences was the founding of the city of Pegu, the kings of which 
gradually extended their dominions, until in 476 a.d. they ruled the 
whole of Ramanna, from the Arakan mountains on the west to the 
Salwin on the east. 

About 1050 A.D., the country was conquered by Anarawta of 
T'agan, and after this it remained subject to the Burmans for about 
two centuries. On the gradual disintegration of the Burmese kingdom, 
the Takings rose in rebellion, and the delta remained subject to the 
Peguan kings for many years. During the reign of Nandaburin, the 
Arakanese took Syriam ; and in 1560, Philip de Brito, then in the 
service of the Arakanese sovereign, was commanded to hold it. He, 
however, proved faithless, and sided with the Portuguese envoy at Goa, 
and seized Pegu. He was eventually captured and impaled, and the 
delta again passed to the Burmans till 1740, when the Talaings re- 
conquered it, only to lose it in 1753 to Alaungpaya. In 1824 the first 
Anglo-Burmese war broke out, and a British force entered the river and 
took Rangoon. At the close of the campaign the British restored Pegu 

3 1 4 B A NTH A WAD I. 

to the king of Burma. Disputes on matters of trade led to the second 
Anglo-Burmese war of 1S52, at the close of which the present District 
of Hanthawadi, with the rest of the Pegu and Irawadi Divisions and 
part of the present Tenasserim Division, was annexed. 

Population. — Continual war and the cruelties of successive sovereigns 
had depopulated the country. In 1855, when Hanthawadi included all 
the tracts alluded to above, the population, including that of Rangoon 
town, was returned as 137,130. In 1881, the Census showed that there 
were 427,720 persons, on an area of 4236 square miles, dwelling in 
I town and 1393 villages, and occupying 72,115 houses. Number 
of persons per square mile, loi ; villages per square mile, 3*33; 
houses per square mile, 17 "8; number of persons per house, 5"9. 
The total agricultural population numbered 308,118; and the non- 
agricultural, 119,602. Classified according to se.x, there were 239,018 
males and 188,702 females. Classified according to religion, there 
were 408,016 Buddhists, 470 Nat-worshippers, 7908 Hindus, 4085 
Muhammadans, 7227 Christians, 11 Brahmos, and 3 Pdrsis. Classified 
according to occupation, 4371 males and 313 females were returned as 
belonging to Class I., or professional; 1225 males and 2522 females to 
Class II., or domestic ; 14,469 males and 3663 females to Class III., or 
commercial; 88,504 males and 44,894 females to Class IV., or agri- 
cultural; 17,605 males and 17,966 females to Class V., or industrial; 
and 112,844 males and 119,314 females to Class VI., or indefinite and 
non-productive. The chief towns (exclusive of Rangoon, which is a 
District by itself) are — Pegu, with 5891 inhabitants; Twan-te, once 
an important place, but now a small village ; Pyawbway, with 2043 
inhabitants; and Tanmanaing, the head - quarters of the Pyawbway 
township, with 1603 inhabitants. Of the towns and villages of the 
District, 601 contain less than 200 inhabitants, 594 from 200 to 500, 
149 from 500 to 1000, 45 from 1000 to 2000, 4 from 2000 to 3000, and 
I above 5000 inhabitants. 

Antiquities. — The principal pagodas in the District are the Shwe-dagon 
and the Sandaw at Twan-te. The Shwe-dagon is the most celebrated* 
object of worship in all the Indo-Chinese countries, as enshrining 
several hairs of Gautama Buddha. Not far from Twan-te stand a few 
ancient pagodas, indicating the site of Khappanganagara and Min- 
sladon Hmawbi. Hlaing and Tdnbii are sites of more modern, but 
still ancient towns. 

Agriculture. — The District was once highly cultivated ; but the con- 
tinual wars and rebellions, and later on the measures adopted by the 
liurmese conquerors, depopulated the land. The British annexation 
gave a new stimulus, and the area under rice (the exportation of which 
was prohibited in the Burmese times) commenced at once to increase. 
The richest tract is that lying between the To, the Hlaing, the Pan- 


hlaing, and the sea, which now forms the Twan-te and Pyawbway town- 
ships. The out-turn varies from 40 baskets (about 12 cwt.) to 30 
baskets (9 cwt.) per acre. In 1881-82, the total area under rice was 
879,770 acres, and the total area under cultivation, 904,994 acres; 
in the year following (1882-83) '■h'^ ^^ea under rice was 984,814 acres, 
and the total area under cultivation, 1,013,019 acres. The cultivable 
waste in 1881-82 was returned at 2379 square miles, and the uncul- 
tivable waste at 421 square miles. Mixed fruit-trees, as mangoes, 
jaiks, plantains and mayan (a kind of aciil plum), are grown in abun- 
dance, occupying 21,615 acres in 1881-82, and 25,375 acres in 1882-83. 
At Twan-te is a small grove of Sapodilla plum trees, producing the 
royal fruit of the Talaings. 

In 1860 a pair of buffaloes or plough bullocks cost^^io; in 1881 the 
l)rice had doubled. The average holding of an agriculturist in 1852 was 
about 10 acres; in 1881 it was, in the case of rice land, nearly 24 acres. 
As a general rule, an owner of more than 8 acres hires labourers, 
who are paid by the season and live with the farmer. The engagement 
includes ploughing, sowing, reaping, threshing, and garnering; but 
in some parts natives of India are engaged in gangs at the harvest 
season. The average number of a cultivating family is 5 "68, and their 
average yearly cost of living is about ;!^ 18, los. a year ; the average cost 
of cultivation per acre is j£,\, os. 9d., or ^^24, i8s. for an average 
holding. This, with the cost of living, brings the annual expenditure 
up to j[^\T,, 8s. The out-turn would be about 850 baskets, selling at 
^1 per 100 baskets, or £^^<^, los., giving a net gain of about £,^1. 

The District contained, in 1881-82, the following agricultural 
stock: — 53,799 cows and bullocks, 282 horses and ponies, 671 
sheep and goats, 7710 pigs, 91,599 buffaloes, 34 elephants, 22,840 carts, 
42,753 ploughs, and 7076 boats. The average rent per acre of land 
fitted for rice, is 6s. lod. ; and the average produce per acre, 864 lbs. 
The prices ruling in the District in 1881-82, per tnaund of 80 lbs., were 
— for rice, us. 6d. ; for cotton, 28s. 9d. ; for sugar, 31s. 7^d. ; for salt, 
56. 9d. ; for tobacco, 34s. 6d. ; for oil-seeds, 43s. i|d.; for cocoa-nut oil, 
40s. ; and for earth oil, 17s. Skilled labour in 1882-83 ^'^^^ (rom. 2s. 
to 2S. 4d. a day; and unskilled labour, is. 

Natural Calamities. — West of the Hlaing river the country is liable 
to inundation. No doubt this has always been so ; but the embankment 
along the right bank of the Irawadi, which protects large areas of land 
in other Districts to the westward, causes the floods — which formerly 
spread west as well as east — to flow eastward to a greater e.xtent than 
before, and has not only increased the flooded area, but has made the 
floods higher than formerly. The flood-water enters by the numerous 
creeks connecting the Irawadi with the Hlaing, and, i)assing down the 
Pan-hlaing, forces back the Hlaing, causing substantial injury. 

3 1 6 HA NTH A WAD I. 

Manufactures, etc. — The principal articles manufactured in the Dis- 
trict are — salt, pottery, nga-pi or fish-paste, mats, and silk and cotton 
cloth. The pottery and fish-paste alone are exported. Salt is made 
during the hot weather at various places along the sea-coast, and in the 
Syriam and Angyi townships, partly by solar evaporation and partly 
by boiling in earthen pots. The boiling season lasts for about two 
months, and the average out-turn from each pot may be taken at 250 
7'iss, or about 8 cwt., which would sell for ^\, i6s. or ^i, i8s. The 
quantity manufactured is decreasing year by year, owing to the cheap- 
ness of imported English salt. Pots for salt -boiling are made at 
Kwon-chan-gun, and in the adjoining village of Taw-pa-lway in the 
Pyawbway township. The price per hundred varies from ^d,, los. to 
p/^9. A party of four good workmen will turn out from 100 to 125 pots 
per diem. The cost of 100 baskets of sand is 163. ; of earth, 5s. The 
mixer gets 2s. a day ; the wheel-turner, fashioner, and finisher, each get 
6s. per 100 pots. The expenditure during a season for manufacturing 
1250 pots is estimated at ^50, and the net profit at ^25. Ordinary 
cooking pots cost from 12s. to 16s. per 100 in the cold season, and los. 
in the rains. A water-pot costs 3d. in Rangoon city. At Twan-te are 
made large water or oil vessels, glazed outside with a mixture of galena 
and rice-water, and commonly known as ' Pegu jars.' Nga-pi and 
coarse mats, used for ships' holds, are made chietly in Pyawbway. Silk- 
worms are reared in the Hlaing township, and silk and cotton cloth are 
woven in almost every house. The trade of the District centres in 
Rangoon Town. 

Communication is carried on mainly by the numerous tidal creeks. 
The total length of water-way in the District is 492 miles. A 
new canal has recently been cut from the Rangoon river, opposite 
Rangoon to To, near Twan-te. There are 112 miles of made 
roads in the District, the principal being, one from Rangoon towards 
Prome, now taken up by the Irawadi Valley State Railway; the 
Rangoon and Taung-gii road from Tauk-kyan to Pegu, crossing the 
Pegu river by a wooden bridge, and proceeding northwards along the 
eastern foot of the Pegu Yomas. The Rangoon and Irawadi Valley 
State Railway runs nearly due north for 6oi miles to the Minin river, 
with stations at Pauk-taw, Hlaw-ga, Hmawbi, Taik-gyi, and Okkan. 
The line is single, with a gauge of 3'282 feet. Another line is being 
constructed from Rangoon to Taung-gii. In 1884 it was finished as far 
as Pegu. 

Revenue. — No records exist showing the exact revenue raised before 
British annexation. The amounts were fixed in viss (3*65 lbs.) of 
Gwek-ni silver, each of which is equivalent to about ^13. The total 
sum paid by the people in what is now Hanthawadi, Pegu, and a part 
of Thonegwa, has been estimated at about ;;^i 14,560. In 1855-56, the 


net revenue was ^1^54, 509 ; in 1S75-76, ;j^96,o4o. The gross revenue 
of Hanthawadi District in 1881-82 (the town of Rangoon not 
included) was ;^28i, 145 ; and the land revenue, ;^2i6,oo4. In the 
following year, the gross revenue was ;^266,42o and the land revenue 
^2i6,c)GS. The land revenue, capitation tax, and fisheries yield almost 
the entire income. The fisheries here, as elsewhere in the Province, 
are leased out for a term of five years by auction, and only l)ona fide 
fishermen can bid. 

Administration. — Under Burmese rule, Hanthawadi and Pegu 
consisted of several townships, each under an officer; and the 
whole was controlled by a Governor, with the power of life and 
death, who was in direct communication with the central Government 
at Ava. When the British took possession, the local jurisdictions 
were to a great extent retained. A Deputy Commissioner was placed in 
charge of the District ; and a myo-ok was appointed to each township, 
with limited judicial, fiscal, and police powers ; with ihi/gyis in charge 
of circles, and goiiiys under them in charge of village tracts. 

Little alteration has been made in the general principles of 
administration, with four exceptions — (i) the formation in 1861-62 
of a regular police ; (2) a few years later, of an independent prison 
department ; (3) later still, of an educational department ; and 
(4) the gradual division of the District, as revenue, j^opulation, 
and administrative labour increased, culminating in the complete 
separation of Rangoon town, and the formation in 1883 of three 
out of the seven townships into a new District called Pegu. Hantha- 
wadi District now comprises two sub-divisions, each containing 
two townships. The number of revenue circles is 29. There are 6 
courts, presided over by 26 officers exercising civil, criminal, and 
revenue powers. The Deputy Commissioner, as magistrate, can try all 
offences not punishable with death, and he hears all civil appeals. 
The average distance between a village and the nearest court is 26 
miles. Gang robberies, which formerly were frequent, are now of rare 
occurrence. The police force in 1881-82 consisted of 2 superior 
officers, with 53 subordinate officers and 512 men; and cost in that 
year, ^14,268, of which ;£\/[,o()^ was paid from imperial, and ^174 
from local funds. The Central and District prison is at Rangoon. 

Climate, etc. — The climate is generally depressing, though December 
and January are cool and bracing months, with little rain. The rains 
last from about the middle of May till the early part of November, 
and their commencement and ending is usually marked by con- 
siderable electrical disturbance. The average annual rainfall at 
Rangoon, which may be taken as the same as that of the whole 
District, is 9871 inches: the rainfall at Rangoon in i88r was 100-4 
inches. In the same year the temperature ranged between 106° F. 


as the maximum, and 57° as the minimum. Fever, rheumatism, and 
pulmonary complaints are the most prevalent diseases. The hospital 
is in Rangoon town. The number of births registered in the District 
in 18S1 was 7219, and deaths 515S: and in 18S3— births, 8320; 
deaths, 5643. 

Hanuman-betta. — Peak of the Brahmagiri, Mysore State. Height 
above sea-level, 5276 feet. 

HanumcLngarh, — District and town in Bikaner State, Rajputana. — 
See Bhatxair. 

Hanza. — A principality of the Gilghit country, Kashmir, Punjab. — 
See Gilghit. 

Hapur {Hauper). — South-eastern taJml of Meerut (Merath) District, 
North-Western Provinces, comprising the parga?ids of Hapur, Sarawa, 
Garhmukhtesar and Puth, lying along the western bank of the Ganges, 
and irrigated by distributaries from the Ganges Canal. Total area, 
408 square miles, of which 284 are cultivated. Area assessed for 
Government revenue, 389^ square miles, of which 269^ square miles 
are cultivated, 63 square miles cultivable, and the remainder uncultiv- 
able waste. Population (1872) 205,140; (1881) 199,898, namely, 
males 105,414, and females 94,484, showing a decrease of 5242 in 
the nine years since 1872. Classified according to religion, there were 
in 1881 — Hindus, 150,258; Muhammadans, 49,509; Jains, 95; and 
'others,' 36. Of 301 villages comprising the tahsilin 1881, 167 con- 
tained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land revenue (at time of 
settlement), ^{^29,412; total Government revenue, ;!^32,534; rental 
paid by cultivators, ;!^59,568; incidence of Government revenue per 
acre, 2s. 3d. The to/isil contains i criminal court and 5 police 
stations (i/uinds) ; strength of regular police, 66 men ; village watch- 
men, 448. 

Hapur (yHaupcr). — Town and municipality in Meerut (Merath) Dis- 
trict, North-Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Hapur tahsil. Lat. 
28° 43' 20" N., long. 77° 49' 45" E. Lies on the Meerut and Bulandshahr 
road, 18 miles south of Meerut city. Founded, according to tradition, 
in 983 A.D. by the Dor chieftain Hardatta, from whom it took the name 
of Haripur. Perron, the French general in the service of the Maratha 
chief Sindhia, established in the neighbourhood a system oi Jdgirs or 
grants for his disabled veterans. During the Mutiny, Walidad Khan 
of Maldgarh threatened Hdpur, but was obliged by the loyal Tdts of 
Bhatona to retire. Several fine groves surround the town, but the wall 
and ditch have fallen out of repair, and only the names of the five gates 
now remain. Population (1872) 14,544 ; (1881) 13,212, namely, males 
6861, and females 6351. In 188 1, Hindus numbered 7484; Muham- 
madans, 5646 ; and Jains, 80 ; Christian, i ; and i * other.' Area of 
town site, 293 acres. Towards the Jamd ^L^sjid or principal mosque, 


in the centre of the town, the site is somewhat high, but as a rule it is 
level, and in places lower than the surrounding fields. Around the town 
on all sides are numerous small excavations often filled with water. 
The principal bazar, known as the Purdna (old) bazar, runs from the 
Meerut to the Delhi gate. West of this are the Purdna (old) and 
Naya (new) jnandis or markets, and Mahddeoganj, all large business 
places running parallel to each other, and bounded on the north by 
the Khubdri bazar, and on the south by the Bazdz (cloth merchants) 
and Halwdi (sweetmeat makers) bazars, which run out west from the 
Purdna bazar. All these bazars are well lined w^ith shops, and form a 
compact business quarter. The Musalmdns reside chiefly to the east, 
and here the character of the town is that of a large agricultural village 
full of cattle and all the appliances of husbandry. In the west, the 
houses are substantial and the streets metalled and drained with 
saucer-shaped brick drains; but to the east and throughout the 
suburbs, apart from the principal roads, the streets are uneven and 
unmade. Water-supply good. Tahsili, police station, school-house, 
dispensary, 3 sardis, 28 mosques, 29 temples. There is an encamping 
ground for troops outside the town. Considerable trade in sugar, 
grain, cotton, timber, bamboos, and brass utensils. Municipal revenue 
in 1875-76,^1208 ; in 1881-82, ;,^i5i2 ; from taxes, ;^i405, or 2s. i|d. 
per head of population. The town was formerly the head-quarters 
of the famous Hapur Stud. 

Harai. — Estate or zaminddri in the north-east of Chhindwara 
District, Central Provinces ; comprising 90 villages, of which 89 are 
inhabited. It consists of a mountainous country north of Amarwdra, 
and a lowland tract opening on the Narbadd (Nerbudda) valley, and 
containing a masonry fort, where the chief resides. Area, 164 square 
miles. Population (18S1) 13,449, namely, males 6881, and females 
6568. Number of houses, 251 1. The chief is a Gond, and receives 
from Government ^512 per annum, in commutation of former privi- 
leges. Chief village, Harai, lat. 22° 37' N., long. 79° 18' E. Population 
(1881) 1797, inhabiting 420 houses. 

Haramak. — Mountain in Kashmir State, Punjab ; a peak of the 
lofty range which bounds that kingdom on the north. Lat. 34° 26' N., 
long. 75° E. Thornton states that a small lake, knowTi as Ganga Bal, 
nestles on its northern slope, and forms an object of great veneration 
to the Hindus. Estimated elevation above sea-level, 13,000. 

Hardoti {Harcnctee). — Tract in Rdjputdna. — See Kotah. 

Harappa. — Village in Montgomery District, Punjab ; lying on the 
south bank of the Rdvi, 16 miles south-east of Kot Kamalia. Lat. 
30° 40' N., long. 72° 53' E. Now a hamlet of no importance, but 
identified by General Cunningham with the site of a town in the 
territory of the Malli, attacked and taken by Alexander the Great. 


The ruins cover an area 3 miles in circumference, scattered over with 
large broken bricks. The principal remains occupy a mound forming 
an' irregular square, with sides about half a mile in length. On the 
western side, where the mass of ruins lie, the mound rises to a height 
of 60 feet, and encloses solid walls built of huge bricks, apparently 
belonging to some extensive building. Coins of early date have been 
l)icked up amongst the debris. Tradition assigns the foundation of the 
ancient city to an eponymous Raja Harappa. The only modern public 
building is a police station ; but till (juite recently, Harappa ranked as 
head-quarters of a tahsil. It is a station on the Sind, Punjab, and 
Delhi Railway. 

Harchokd.— Village in Chang Bhakar State, Chutia Nagpur. Lat. 
23' 51' 30" N., long. 81° 45' 30" E. ; situated on the Muwdhi river near 
the northern boundary of the State. Remains of extensive rock 
excavations, supposed to be temples and monasteries, were discovered 
here a few years ago. 

Harda. — Western tahsil or revenue Sub-division in Hoshangdbad 
District, Central Provinces. Area, 1942 square miles, containing i 
town and 5S4 villages, with 30,222 houses. Total population (1881) 
146,782, namely, males 76,183, and females 7o>599 ; average density 
of population, 75 "58 persons per square mile; number of persons per 
villao-e, 251. Of the total number of villages, 518 contain less than five 
hundred inhabitants. Of the total area of the tahsil, 926 square miles, 
or less than half, are assessed for Government revenue. Of these, 476 
square miles were returned in 188 1 as under cultivation; 309 square miles 
as cultivable ; and 141 square miles as uncultivable waste. Total amount 
of Government land revenue, including local rates and cesses, ^14,477, 
(jr I i|d. per cultivated acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, including 
cesses, ;^49,io8, or an average of 2s. iid. per cultivated acre. The 
total adult male and female population in 1881 numbered 47,236, 
or 32-18 per cent, of the total tahsil population; average available 
area ~of cultivated and cultivable land, 13 acres per head. The 
/a//.f/7 contains (1884) i criminal and 3 civil courts; number of 
police stations {thdnds)^ 4, besides 8 outpost stations ; strength of police 
force, 176 men. 

Harda. — Town and municipality in Hoshangabad District, Central 
Provinces, and head-quarters of Harda tahsil. Lat. 22° 21' N., long. 
77° 8' E. ; lying on the high road to Bombay. Being a station on 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, it has superseded Handia, 
which is 12 miles distant. Population (1877) 9170; (1881) 11,203, 
namely, males 6018, and females 5185. In 188 1, Hindus numbered 
8471 ; Muhammadans, 2138; Christians, 244; Jains, 323 ; Parsi's, 26; 
and Jew, i. Under the Marathds an dmil or governor resided at 
Harda; and on the opening of the campaign of 1817, Sir John 


Malcolm made the town his head-quarters. Since the cession in 
1844, this already thriving place has been further improved, mainly by 
Mr. J. F. Beddy, formerly Assistant Commissioner at Hardd, who 
among other benefits secured a good water-supply by throwing a dam 
across the river. Principal trade, export of grain and oil-seeds. 
Municipal income (1882-83), ^3344, of which /^,2'j6^ was derived 
from taxation, mainly octroi dues ; average incidence of taxation, 
5s. 4|d. per head. 

Hardoi. — A District of Oudh in the SMpur Division or Com- 
missionership, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the North-Wcstern Provinces, lying between 26° 53' and 27° 47' n. lat., 
and between 79° 44' and 80° 52' e. long. In shape, the District forms an 
irregular parallelogram between the Giimti and Ganges ; greatest length 
from north-west to south-east, 78 miles ; average breadth, 46 miles. 
Bounded on the north by Shdhjahdnpur and Kheri ; on the east by 
Sitdpur, the Gilmti marking the boundary line ; on the south by 
Lucknow and Undo ; and on the west by Farukhdbdd, from which it 
is separated by the Ganges. Area, 23 11 "6 square miles. Population 
(1881) 987,630 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at 
Hardoi Town. 

Physical Aspects. — Hardoi is a level District, the highest point '.ying 
north of Pihdni, near the Giimti, 490 feet above sea-level. The country 
continues high along the Giimti, with a breadth of from 3 to 8 miles, 
sinking eastward into the central plain, which is from 10 to 20 miles 
broad, and intersected by the Sdi river. Beyond this plain the country 
again rises, forming the watershed between the Sdi and Garra, with 
other tributaries of the Ganges, the elevation being from 470 to 480 
feet. The main portion of the District is formed by the valley of the 
Sdi. Beyond the Garra lies the valley of the Ganges, with an elevation 
of 396 feet at Sandi. Towards the Ganges, near Sandi and Bilgrdm, 
the land is uneven, and often rises into hillocks of sand, cultivated at 
the base, and their slopes covered with lofty mi'inj grass, whose large 
waving white plumes form a graceful feature in the landscape. Wide 
usar or saline plains run through the middle of the District on each 
side of the line of railway, and are almost wholly uncultivable. The 
soil of Hardoi is lighter than that of perhaps any other District of 
Oudh, 27 per cent, being sand, 56 per cent, loam, and 17 per cent, 
clay. The rivers of Hardoi, commencing from the west, are the 
Ganges, Ramgangd, Garra, Sukhetd, Sdi, Bdita, and Giimti. The 
first three are navigable by boats of 500 maunds or about 17 tons 
burden. The Giimti is here a small river, whose dry-weather discharge 
is not more than 300 cubic feet ; it has high sandy banks, and is easily 
fordable. The Sdi is also an insignificant stream in Hardoi. 

There are no river marts in the District except Sandi on the Garra, 

VOL. V. X 

^^2 HARDOI. 


and no fisheries or river-side industries are carried on, with the exception 
of a httle timber traffic on the Ganges. Several large jViUs or lakes are 
scattered throughout the District, the largest being that of Sandi, 
which is 3 miles long by from i to 2 miles broad. These jViils are 
much used for irrigation, 126,000 acres being watered from them. 
Large tracts of forest jungle still exist, and formerly afforded shelter to 
bands of robbers. Tigers have been exterminated, but leopards are 
still found in the northern jungles. Antelope, spotted deer, and 
fn'/odi are common. Wild duck, teal, grey duck, and the common goose 
are more abundant in Hardoi than in any other District of Oudh ; and 
the chain oi jhils which dot the lower levels of the Sai valley abound 
in all kinds of water-fowl. Fine rohu fish are found in the Garra and 
Ramganga rivers. 

History. — The early traditions of this District go back to the days of 
the Mahdbhdrata, and relate how Balaram, the brother of Krishna, 
accompanied by Brahmans, was making a tour of the sacred places of 
the land. On coming on Nimkhar, he found certain holy Rishis 
engaged in hearing the sacred books read ; and as one of them would 
not rise to salute him, he smote off his head with a blade of kusd grass. 
In order to purge himself of his guilt, it was required of him that he 
should rid the holy men of a certain demon named Bil, who dwelt in 
a lonely spot where now stands the town of Bilgram, and who used to 
persecute the worshippers at Nimkhar, by raining blood and filth upon 
their sacrifices. Balaram accordingly slew the demon, and a low 
mound at Bilgram is still pointed out as the site of his abode. 

Passing from mythological times, the first authentic records of Hardoi 
are connected with the Musdlman colonization. Bawan was occupied 
by Sa}7id Salar Masaiid in 1028 a.d. The Shaikhs declare that they 
conquered Bilgram in 1013, but the permanent Muhammadan occupation 
did not commence till 121 7. Gopamau was the earliest conquest in 
Oudh effected by Sayyid Salar ; and descendants of the early conquerors 
are still to be found. The settlement of Pali by a Pande Brahman, a 
Risaldar, and a Shaikh, all three of whom are represented at this day by 
men of property in the neighbourhood, is a curious illustration of the 
occasional stability of oriental families. Isauli in Bangar was also 
conquered by Sayyid Salar ; but Sandi and Sandi'la were not occupied 
until long afterwards. The latter was the capital of a Pasi kingdom, 
which seems to have spread over the country down both banks of the 
Gumti and the Sai, extending from its original seat at Dhaurahra and 
Mitauli. The Pasis are still very powerful in Hardoi. 

Owing to the situation of the District on the eastern side of the 
Ganges, and to the fact of its commanding the fords near the great city of 
Kanauj, Hardoi formed the scene of many sanguinary battles between 
the rival Afghdn and Mughal Empires. It was here that the Sharki kings 


of Jaunpur mustered their forces, and bid defiance to the Lodi sovereigns 
of Delhi. Here, again, the Khilji for a brief space ralhed his forces against 
the Mughals, and established his head-quarters at Ri'lgrdm. In yet later 
times, Hardoi formed the border-land between the Nawdb Wazi'r of Oudh 
and the Rohilla Afghans. It was this constant passage of armies 
which rendered the formation of any organized government in Hardoi 
impossible till after the accession of Akbar. In his time, the whole of 
the north of the District was a jungle, and the few settlements which 
had been made there were mere military outposts. With the Mughals 
cannon came into general use ; and the fords of the Ganges lost their 
former strategical importance, as the crossing of troops could be pro- 
tected by the new engine of warfare. Hardoi then ceased to be the 
natural meeting- place of eastern and western India; jungles were 
cleared ; new Muhammadan colonies were established at Gopdmau by 
Akbar, and at Shahdbad and Sandi by Shah Jahdn. 

It is not clear what were the precise relations of these Musalman 
chieftains to their Hindu neighbours. The Bilgrdm family pretend to 
have had authority over pargands Bawan, Sandi, and Hardoi. But the 
few villages comprising their present estate appeared to have been 
slowly acquired by purchase at different times, extending over a long 
period. In like manner, the Sandila Musalmans are not even mentioned 
by Colonel Sleeman as landlords, and the larger part of their property 
was acquired at a very recent date. The country was probably covered 
with jungle, and the few scattered villages of Hindus were dominated 
by the brick forts of the Musalmdns. The principal landed clans of 
Rajputs are the following : — The Ahbans, really Chdwars, who claim to 
be sprung from Raja Gopi, and to have occupied Gopamau, having 
previously ousted the Thatheras, about 100 a.d. The Sombansis came 
from Kumhrawan to Sindi about 1400. Their chief was compelled to 
yield to the Musalmans, but he retained Sandi for some time, and 
then abandoned it for Sivaji'pur, where his descendant still remains. 
The Gaurs, the most powerful clan in the District, occupy the central 
tract, having, as alleged, driven out the Thatheras from Bawan and 
Sara during the time of the Kanauj sovereignty, about 11 18. The 
Nikumbhs say that they came from Alwar (Ulwur) about 1450 ; the 
Katiars from Farukhdbdd about 1550; and the Bais of Gundwd from 

Under native rule, Hardoi was the most turbulent of all the Districts 
of Oudh. It was divided into the chakhis of Sdndfla, Sdndi, Pdli, and 
Tandidon, the latter including the wild tract of Bangar, east of and 
along the Sai, in which the Pdsis, the ancestral lords of the soil, had 
taken refuge, and maintained a guerilla warfare against all authority, 
Hindu or Musalmdn, supported in many cases by their Rdjput neigh- 
bours. Ahrori, in pargand Gopamau, was their main residence. Colonel 

324 HARD 01. 

Sleeman in his ' Diary,' under date 22nd January 1S49, thus describes 
the state of this part of the country : ' Tandiaon, 8 miles west. The 
country level ; in parts well cultivated, particularly in the vicinity of 
villages ; but a large portion of the surface is covered with jungle, 
useful only to robbers and refractory landholders, who abound in the 
pargand of Bangar. In this respect, it is reputed one of the worst 
Districts of Oudh. Within the last few years, the king's troops have 
been frequently beaten and driven out with loss, even when commanded 
by a European officer. The landholders and armed peasantry of the 
different villages unite their quotas of auxiliaries, and concentrate at 
a given signal upon the troops when they are in pursuit of robbers 
and rebels. Almost every able-bodied man of every village in Bangar 
is trained to the use of arms ; and none of the king's troops, save those 
who are regularly disciplined and commanded by European officers, 
will venture to move against a landholder of this District. When the 
local authorities cannot obtain the use of such troops, they are obliged 
to conciliate the most powerful and unscrupulous by reductions in the 
assessment of the lands, or additions to their nankdr.' 

This, be it remembered, was written in 1849, shortly before the 
annexation. Hardoi, together with the rest of Oudh, became 
British territory under Lord Dalhousie's Proclamation of February 
1856. Since the Sepoy rebellion in 1857, civil order has been 
firmly established, and nothing has occurred to disturb the peace of 
the District. 

Population. — The population of Hardoi District, according to the 
Census of 1869, amounted to 931,377 persons. In 1881, the popula- 
tion was returned at 987,630, showing an increase of 56,253, or 6 per 
cent., during the twelve years since 1869. The results arrived at 
by the Census of 1881 may be briefly stated as follows: — Area of 
District, 231 1 "6 square miles; number of towns and villages, 1882; 
houses, 147,073. Total population (1881) 987,630, namely, males 
531,704, and females 455,926; proportion of males, 53*8 per cent. 
Average density of population, 427 per square mile; towns or villages 
per square mile, "81; persons per town or village, 524; houses per 
square mile, 63*6 ; persons per house, 67. Classified according 
to religion, the Hindus number 884,967, of whom 54"i per cent, are 
males and 45*9 per cent, females. Female infanticide was formerly 
extremely common in Hardoi, and the small proportion of females is 
probably due to the fact that the offence has not yet been altogether 
stamped out. The iMuhammadans number 102,572, of whom 51 "8 per 
cent, are males and 48*2 per cent, females ; Christians, European and 
native, 75 ; Sikhs, 15 ; and Jain, 1. 

The most numerous caste are the Chamars, 160,939, who form 
18 per cent, of the Hindu population. Next in order of number 

HARDOI. 325 

come the Brahmans, 108,981 ; and the 44 clans of Rdjputs, 73,808. 
All these castes are mostly yeoman proprietors and cultivators. The 
other principal high castes are — Baniyds, 25,487 ; and Kayasths, 9495. 
Of lower castes, there are — Ahirs, 70,358; Kachhis, 87,680; Kurmis, 
19,014; Basis, 72,326; Gaddrias, 35,500; Kahdrs, 24,661. The 
strongest sections among the Muhammadan population are the Bathdns, 
Shaikhs, Juldhds (Muhammadan weavers), Sayyids, and Mughals ; but 
the Census Report does not give the Muhammadan population according 
to race or clan. In religion, the Muhammadans are returned as — Sunnis, 
99,458; Shids, 31 14. The Musalmdns reside principally in the large 
towns, but even in these they form the minority of the population. In 
some cases they have inhibited the building of temples ; and recently, 
on a protest being made against a temple being erected by a Hindu 
Rajd on his own land in the town of Sdndi'la, it appeared on inquiry 
that no Hindu temple had ever been built in the town, owing to the 
bigotry of the Muhammadans. But such instances are not common, 
and Musalmdns often join in the Rduilild, and other religious celebra- 
tions of the Hindus. Hardoi has a larger urban population than 
any other Oudh District except Lucknow. Out of 14 towns in Oudh 
containing upwards of 10,000 inhabitants, 5 are situated within this 
District. None of them, however, are places of any trade, and only 
one, Sandi, is situated on a navigable river. The 9 largest towns and 
their populations are — Shahabad, population (1881) 18,510; Sandila, 
14,865; BiLGRAM, 11,067; Mallanwan, 10,970; Hardoi, I0,026 ; 
Sandi, 9810; Bihani, 7540; Gopamau, 5374; and Madhuganj, 
3088, — all of which see separately. Of these, the first seven are 
regularly constituted municipalities. The several villages and town- 
ships are thus classified in the Census Report of iSSi : — 584 contain 
less than 200 inhabitants ; 652 from 200 to 500 ; 418 from 500 to 1000 ; 
184 from 1000 to 2000 ; 36 from 2000 to 5000; 3 from 5000 to 10,000 ; 
and 5 from 10,000 upwards. 

As regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the popula- 
tion into the following six main groups: — Class (i) Brofessional, 
including Government servants, civil and military, and the learned 
professions, 7932 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house 
keepers, etc., 1432; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, 
carriers, etc., 8274; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 259,644; (5) manu- 
facturing and industrial, 42,009 ; (6) indefinite and unproductive 
(comprising 24,626 general labourers, and 187,787 male children and 
persons of unspecified occupations), 212,413. 

The principal religious fairs are the following : — At Bflgrdm, in 
September, on the occasion of the RdviUld festival, lasting ten days, 
and attended by about 40,000 persons ; at Hattia Haran, during the 
whole month of Bhadra (August — September), attended by 100,000 

3-6 HARD 01. 

persons ; at Barsuya, in April and November, the Faramhansa Saviddh 
festival, lasting for a single day on each occasion, and attended by from 
15,000 to 20,000 persons. These, together with several smaller fairs, 
are held for religious purposes, and have no commercial importance. 

Agriculture. — Rice, wheat, and other food -grains form the great 
staples of agriculture. With regard to the crops cultivated, the 
seasons of sowing and reaping, rates of rent, condition of the cultivators, 
etc., the remarks on these heads made in the articles Kheri and 
LucKNOW apply equally to this District. The area under crops is 
863,004 acres, or 1349 square miles, being more than half the entire 
area. The remaining area consists of 394,309 acres available for 
cultivation and for grazing lands, and 214,796 acres of uncultivable 
waste. The area under each description of crop in 1882-83, including 
land bearing two crops, is thus returned : — Wheat, 449,379 ^cres ; rice, 
25,062 acres; other food-grains, 554,646 acres; oil-seeds, 8902 acres; 
sugar-cane, 10,263 acres; cotton, 14,014 acres; opium, 8014 acres; 
indigo, 6889 acres ; fibres, 2426 acres ; tobacco, 7928 acres ; and 
vegetables, 13,086 acres: total (including land bearing two crops), 
1,100,609 acres. The average out-turn of the different crops in 
1882-83 is returned as follows :— Wheat, 420 lbs. per acre; rice, 
267 lbs.; inferior food-grains, 370 lbs. ; cotton, 64 lbs. ; other fibres, 
136 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 70 lbs. ; opium, 20 lbs. ; sugar, 1834 lbs. ; and 
tobacco, 264 lbs. an acre. Excluding revenue-free grants, the area of 
the District is thus classified : — 59 j>er cent, under crops; 2 per cent, 
groves ; 25 per cent, cultivable waste ; 5^ per cent, barren ; 5^ per cent, 
water area; 3 per cent, roads and village sites. A plough and pair of 
oxen are able to cultivate 6 acres of loam or clay, or 8 acres of sandy 
soil. The agricultural stock in the District in 1882-83 ^^as returned 
as follows: — Cows and bullocks, 377,351; horses, 1463; ponies, 
i3>i59; donkeys, 3552; sheep and goats, 106,142; pigs, 37,139; 
carts, 4756; ploughs, 115,417. The average price of wheat and 
bdjra for the three decennial periods ending 1870 are returned as 
follows: — 1841-50, wheat 3s. 5id. per cwt, bdjra 3s. 2d. per cwt. ; 
1851-60, wheat 3s. 2^., bdjra 3s. id.; 1861-70, wheat 4s. 2d., bdjra 
4s. 3d. per cwt. The average rates in 1870 for food-grains at the 
Madhuganj mart were as follows: — Common unhusked rice, 4s. 9^d. 
per cwt. ; common husked rice, los. 8d. ; wheat, 5s. iid. ; barley, 
4s. 2d. ; bdjra, 5s. 4d. ; jodr, 5s. id. ; gram, 4s. 7d. ; arhar, 4s. 4d. ; 
urid, 7s. 6d. ; moth, 7s. ; miig, 5s. 7d. ; viasuri, 4s. 8d. per cwt. The 
average prices for staple food products in 1883 were returned as 
follows : — Wheat, 5s. 7d. ; gram, 4s. ; rice (best), 8s. 7d. ; rice 
(common), 7s. ; sugar (refined), £2, 6s. ; and giir or crude sugar, 
8s. 7d. per cwt. 'l"he food-grains in common use among the peasantry 
are maize, kodo, bdjra, and jodr, made into bread-cakes ; barley and gram 

HARDOr. 327 

parched and eaten dry ; and peas, moth, and 211 id as pottage. Two meals 
arc taken a day, at noon and sundown. Fish are abundant, and ought 
to form an important article of diet, but owing to the dearness of salt, 
the people are unable to cure them ; and thus, while they are used as 
manure at one time of the year, there is a scarcity during the remaining 

Landed property in Hardoi is more evenly divided under the 
different tenures than is usual in Oudh. The distribution is as follows : 
■ — Tdlukddri, 392 villages ; zaminddri, 802 ; paitiddri, 765 villages. 
The several clans of Rajputs hold 1163 villages; the Musalmdns 
come next with 409; and following them are the Kayasths with 158, 
and the Brahmans with 157. Hardoi is conspicuous for the absence 
of the great feudal chiefships so common in other Oudh Districts. 
There are only 17 tdlukddrs, holding altogether 432 villages (com- 
prising 364,925 acres), and paying ^36,035 of Government revenue. 
The largest estates are those of Khaslat Husain, 53,857 acres, paying 
;^5ii6; and of Raja Tilak Singh, 43,166 acres, paying ^4406 of 
Government revenue. The small proprietors number 21,758, holding 
1588 villages, covering 1,105,000 acres, or an average of 50 acres each. 
The total male agricultural population of Hardoi District in 1881 
amounted to 258,580, cultivating an average of 3*57 acres each. The 
total population, however, dependent on the soil, amounted to 724,135, 
or 73*32 per cent, of the District population. Of the total District 
area of 231 1"6 square miles, 2190 square miles are assessed for 
Government revenue. Of these, 1408 scjuare miles are under culti- 
vation ; 483 square miles are cultivable, and the remainder uncultiv- 
able waste. Total amount of Government assessment, including local 
rates and cesses on land, ^^141, 787, or 3s. i|d. per cultivated acre. 
Total rental actually paid by cultivators, including cesses, ^^295, 534, 
or 6s. 4|d. per cultivated acre. The average wages of a skilled 
workman is 7id., and of an unskilled workman, 5|d. per diem. 

Commimications, Trade, Com?>ierce, etc. — The Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railway from Lucknow to Shdhjahanpur runs through Hardoi for a 
distance of 62 miles, with stations at Sandila, Kachond, Sitapur road, 
Hardoi, Chandpur, and Shahdbad. There are also 329 miles of raised 
and bridged roads, and 73 miles of minor roads, intersecting the 
District. The principal imports are cotton, salt, country cloth, and 
European piece-goods ; the exports are food - grains, sugar, tobacco, 
horned cattle, and hides. In 1S75, the value of the imports was 
returned at ^^102,952, and the exports at ^62,977. The only manu- 
facture of any note carried on is in the weaving of a peculiar description 
of muslin known as mahmudi. 

Administration. — The judicial staff consists of 3 European and 6 
native magistrates, besides 9 native honorary magistrates, all of whom 


2S HARD 01. 

have also civil and revenue powers. The total revenue of the District 
in 1S71 amounted to ^158,676, of which ;;^i45,2i3, or 90 per cent., 
was derived from the land; and the civil expenditure to ;j^i8,705. At 
the recent revised land settlement, between 1864 -'^rid 1868, the Govern- 
ment land revenue demand was enhanced by 42 per cent. In 1875 
the gross revenue amounted to ^170,952, of which the land con- 
tributed ;^i5i,396; total civil expenditure, ;j^i8,476. The total 
revenue of the District showed a slight falling off in 1 88 1-82, and 
amounted to ^161,897, of which the land-tax contributed ;^i3i,994; 
civil expenditure, ;i^24,o8i. The regular police force in 1881-82 con- 
sisted of 448 officers and men, maintained at a cost to Government of 
;jo5903j the village watch or rural police numbered 1254, maintained 
by the landholders or villagers at a cost of ^z^()2 ; and the municipal 
force of 137 men, costing ;£■]?>•] from municipal funds. Hardoi 
District possesses a singular immunity from crime ; daily average 
number of prisoners in the District jail and lock-up in 1882-83, 2787. 
Education has made considerable progress. In 1873 there were 4762 
scholars attending 102 schools (of which 13 were girls' schools). By 
1875 the number of schools had increased to 142, and of pupils to 
5877. In 1 88 1 there was a total of 153 Government-inspected schools, 
with a roll of 5108 pupils. This is exclusive of unaided and uninspected 
schools; and the Census Report in 18S1 returned 5479 boys and 112 
girls as under instruction, besides 18,838 males and 206 females able to 
read and write, but not under instruction. There are no newspapers, 
or literary or educational societies, in the District. 

Medical Aspects, etc. — The climate of Hardoi does not differ from 
that of Oudh generally, except that it has perhaps the smallest rainfall 
of any District in the Province. The average annual rainfall for the 
fifteen years ending 1SS2 was about 35^ inches, that of the Province 
generally being about 42. In 1873, the rainfall was only 21 inches, 
in 1874, 31 inches, and in 1881, 34-6 inches, being the lowest recorded 
in Oudh in each year. The average mean monthly temperature for the 
three years 1869 to 1871 was as follows: — January, 59° F. ; February, 
66^°; March, 75°; April, 75°; May, 92^; June, 94^; July, 87°: 
August, 86^^; September, 82^°; October, 77^^; November, 69°; 
December, 61° F. No later thermometrical returns are available. 
Malarial fevers are the only prevailing endemic disease of the District, 
and are attributable to the extensive marshes. Epidemic cholera 
occasionally occurs, and small-pox prevails annually, generally in the 
cold season. Cattle diseases known as pasdiima and kurd are common. 
The total number of deaths registered in the District in 1882 was 
29,116, or at the rate of 29'4i per thousand of the population. Of 
the deaths, 22,009, O"" 23"86 per thousand, were assigned to fevers ; 1347, 
or I '46 [jcr thousand, to small-pox; and 1013, or I'lo per thousand, to 


cholera. Charitable dispensaries at Hardoi, Sindila, Shahdbad, and 
Bilgrdm afforded medical relief in 1SS3 to 36,928 out-door and 1076 
in-door patients. [For further information regarding Hardoi District, 
see the Settlement Report, by Messrs. E. O. Bradford, A. H. Harrington, 
and W. Blennerhassett (1875-76); the North- IVestern Protl/ices and 
Ojidh Census Report for 1881 ; the Oiiah Gazetteer (vol. ii., Lucknow, 
1877) ; and the Administrative and Departmental Reports for the North- 
Weslern Provinces and Oiidh, 1S80-1883.] 

Hardoi. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Hardoi District, Oudh ; lying 
between 27° 9' and 27° 39' n. lat., and between 79° 52' 30" and 80° 31' 
E. long., and bounded on the north by Shdhdbdd tahsil, on the east by 
Misrikh tahsil of Sitapur, on the south by Sdndila and Bilgrdm tahsils, 
and on the west by Bilgrdm. Area, 638 square miles, of which 359 
are cultivated. Population (1869) 227,909; (1881) 261,107, namely, 
Hindus, 242,026; Muhammadans, 19,011; and 'others,' 70; males 
numbered 142,184, and females 118,923. Increase of population in 
the twelve years since 1869, 33,198, or 14-6 per cent. Number of 
villages or towns, 467, of which 280 contained less than five hundred 
inhabitants; average density of population, 409 per square mile. The 
tahsii consists of the 5 pargands of Bangar, Gopdmau, Sara (South), 
Bdwan, and Barwdn. It contains i civil and 6 criminal courts, 
including the head-quarter courts ; 2 police circles (thdnds) ; regular 
police, 45 men; municipal police, 21 ; village watchmen (chauhiddrs), 


Hardoi. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Hardoi 
District, Oudh ; on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 63 miles from 
Lucknow, and 39 from Shdhjahanpur. Lat. 27° 23' 40" n., long. 80° 
10' 5 " E. The town appears to have been founded more than 700 years 
ago by a body of Chamdr Gaurs from Narkanjari, near Indore, who 
drove out the Thatheras and destroyed their fortress, the remains of 
which still exist in the shape of large mounds. The present town is 
largely built of bricks dug out of the old Thathera remains. Hardoi 
itself is a place of no importance. It was selected as the head-quarters 
of the District on the occupation of the country after the Sepoy Mutiny 
of 1857, apparently for its central position. Population (1872) 7156 ; 
(1881) 10,026, namely, males 6020, and females 4006. Classified 
according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 7S52; Muham- 
madans, 2107; Christians, 53; and 'others,' 14. Area of town site, 
480 acres. The Government buildings consist of the usual courts, 
police station, jail, school, dispensar)-, iahsilddr's office, etc. Bi-weekly 
market. Hardoi has been constituted a municijiality under Act xv. 
of 1873; revenue in 18S1-82, ;^8oo, derived almost entirely from 
octroi ; expenditure, ;^7S3. 

Hardoi. — Pargand oi tahsil Digbijaiganj, Rai Bareli District, Oudh; 


bounded on the north by the little river Naiya, on the east by Suti- 
rauta, on the south by Rai Bareli, and on the west by Bachhrawan 
pargands. The land was formerly occupied by the Bhars, who suc- 
ceeded in defeating a party of Sayyid Saldr's invading force about 1030 
A.D. They continued to hold this pargand, just in the centre of Oudh, 
and far from any seat of civilisation, 400 years longer, till the beginning 
of the 15th century, when they were attacked and utterly annihilated 
by Ibrahim Sharki of Jdunpur, who bestowed the estate upon one of 
his followers, Sayyid Jalal-ud-din, whose descendants still reside in 
the town. Area, 15,561 acres; Government land-tax, ^3996, or at the 
rate of 5s. lid. per acre. Population (1S69) 15,706, residing in 23 
villages, of which 1 5 were tdlukddn and 8 the property of village com- 
munities. Population (1881) 13,173, namely, males 6397, and females 
6776, showing a decrease of 2533, or i6-i per cent., in the twelve years 
since 1869. The soil is very fertile, yielding the best crops ; and rents 
in consequence are high. In one township, Asni — celebrated for its 
tobacco— the rents are as high as £i„ i6s. per acre. Kurmfs are the 
chief cultivating caste. Saltpetre and salt were formerly manufactured, 
but this industry has been discontinued since the British annexation. 
Two small markets, in Atehra and Para Khurd. About 15,000 fnautids 
of wheat are annually exported to Lucknow and Cawnpur. 

Hardoi.— Town in Digbijaiganj tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh, 
and head-quarters of Hardoi tahsil ; situated on the road from Digbi- 
jaiganj to Bachhrawan, 12 miles north of Rai Bareli town, and 4 miles 
east of Thulendi. Lat. 26° 28' n., long. 81° 15' e. Founded by a Bhar 
chief named Hardoi, prior to Masaiid's unsuccessful invasion. On the 
extermination of the Bhars by Sultan Ibrahim of Jaunpur, a mud fort 
was built here, the ruins of which still exist. Two masonry mosques, 
and idgah, and Hindu temple. 

Harduaganj.— Town in Aligarh District, North-Western Provinces. 
Lies in the open plain, 6 miles east of Aligarh. Lat. 27° 56' 30" N., long. 
78° 11' 40" E. Area, 80 acres. Population (1872)5205 ; (1881)4520, 
namely, 3901 Hindus, 585 Muhammadans, and 34 Jains. Founded 
by Hardwa or Balaram, brother of Krishna, but containing no remains 
to justify this mythical anticjuity. Occupied by Chauhdn Rdjputs after 
the Musalman conquest of Delhi. Plundered during the Mutiny by 
neighbouring villagers. Fine open bdzdr lined with good shops, police 
station, post-office, school. Rampur station on the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Railway lies 3 miles north ; and the Ganges Canal, passing i 
mile east, carries off most of the local traffic. Inii)orts — salt, timber, 
and bamboos; exports — cotton and grain. The canal irrigates the 
surrounding lands. A small municipal revenue is raised for police and 
conservancy purposes under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Hardwar. — Ancient historical town and place of pilgrimage in Sahd- 

HARD WAR. 331 

ranpur District, North- Western Provinces. Lat. 29° 57' 30" n., long. 78° 
I2'52"e. Population (1872) 4800 ; (1881)3614. Distant from Riirki 
(Roorkee) 17 miles north-east; from Sahdranpur town 39 miles north- 
east. Situated on the right bank of the (langes, at the foot of the 
Siwalik Hills, close by the gorge through which the river debouches upon 
the plains. On the opposite shore rises the hill of Chandi Pahar, whose 
summit is crowned by a temple, connected with those of Hardwar. 
The Ganges here divides into many shallow channels, intercepted by 
islands. The town is of great anticjuity, and has borne many names. 
It was originally known as Kapila or Gupila, from the sage Kapila, 
who passed his life in religious austerities at the spot still pointed out 
as Kapilasthana. Hwen Thsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, in 
the 7th century a.d., visited a city which he calls Mo-yu-lo, and the 
remains of which still exist at Mayapur, a little to the south of the 
modern town. He describes the site as some 3^ miles in circumfer- 
ence, enclosing a dense population ; and General Cunningham finds 
that the existing ruins strongly confirm his account. The ruins are 
thus described in the Report of the Archccological Survey, vol, ii. p. 

233 ■■— 

' These traces extend from the bed of a torrent, which enters the 

Ganges near the modern temple of Sarovandth, to the old fort of Rdja 

Ben, on the bank of the canal, a distance of 7500 feet. The breadth 

is irregular ; but it could not have been more than 3000 feet at the 

south end, and at the north end, where the Siwdlik Hills approach the 

river, it must have been contracted to 1000 feet. These dimensions 

give a circuit of 19,000 feet, or rather more than 3^ miles. Within 

these limits there are the ruins of an old fort, 750 feet scjuare, attributed 

to Raja Ben, and several lofty mounds covered with broken bricks, of 

which the largest and most conspicuous is immediately above the canal 

bridge. There are also three old temples dedicated to Ndrdyana-sild, to 

Maya Devi, and to Bhairava. The celebrated ghat, called the Pairi or 

"feet" ghat, is altogether outside these limits, being upwards of 2000 

feet to the north-east of the Sarovandth temple. The anticjuity of the 

place is undoubted, not only from the extensive foundations of large 

bricks which are everywhere visible, and the numerous fragments of 

ancient sculpture accumulated about the temples, but from the great 

variety of the old coins, similar to those of Sugh, which are found here 

every year. The temple of Ndrdyana-sild, or Nardyana-bali, is made of 

bricks 9^ inches square and 2^ inches thick, and is plastered on the 

outside. Collected around it are numerous squared stones and broken 

sculptures. One of the stones has belonged to the deeply-carved, 

cusped roof of an old temple. Amongst the broken sculptures I was 

able to identify only one small figure of Buddha, the ascetic, surrounded 

by smaller figures of ascetic attendants. The temple of Mdya Devi is 


built entirely of stone ; and, fronri the remains of an inscription over the 
entrance doorway, I think it may be as old as the loth or nth 
century. The principal statue, which is called Maya Devi, is a thret- 
headed and four-armed female in the act of killing a prostrate figure. 
In one of the hands I recognised the chakra, or discus; in another 
there was an object like a human head ; and in a third hand the trisul. 
This is certainly not the figure of Mdya Devi, the mother of Buddha, 
nor is it exactly that of any goddess with which I am acquainted. It 
corresponds best with the figures of Durga ; but if the name assigned 
to it is correct, the figure must be that of the Puranik Maya Devi, who, 
according to the Bhagavata, was the " energy of the supreme, and by 
her, whose name is Maya, the- Lord made the universe." But the 
action of the figure is most decidedly opposed to this identification ; 
and I am therefore inclined to assign the statue to Durga, the consort 
of Siva, to whom Vishnu gave his discus, and Siva his trident. This 
attribution is the more probable as there is, close beside it, a squatting 
male figure with eight arms, which can only be Siva ; and on the outside 
of the temple there is a Lingam, and a statue of the bull Nandi. There 
is also a fragment of a large female statue, which may possibly have 
been Maya Devi, but it was too imperfect for recognition. As there 
was nothing about the temple to give any clue to its identification, I 
can only conjecture that the original figure of Maya Devi must have 
been destroyed by the Muhammadans, and that the vacant temple was 
afterwards occupied by the votaries of Siva. Outside the modern 
temple of Sarovanath, I found a statue of Buddha seated in abstraction 
under the Bodhi or sacred fig-tree, and accompanied by two standing 
and two flying figures. On the pedestal there was a wheel, with a lion 
on each side as supporters ; and as the figure was apparently naked, I 
concluded that it represents Adi Buddha, the first of the twenty-four 
Jain hierarchs.' 

The name of Hardwar, or Hari-dwara, literally ' Vishnu's Gate,' 
seems to be of comparatively modern origin, as both Abu Rihan and 
Rashid-ud-din mention only Gangd-dwira, or the ' Ganges Gorge ' 
(literally, gate). Its earlier names, Mayura, or Mayapur, connect it 
with Sivaite worship, rather than with any form of Vishnu. Abul Fazl, 
in the time of Akbar, speaks of Maya, vulgarly Hari-dwara on the 
Ganges, being sacred ground for 36 miles in length. In the next reign, 
Tom Coryat visited the place, and described it as ' Hari-dwara, the 
capital of Siva.' A dispute exists to this day between the followers of 
Siva and Vishnu, as to which of these deities gave birth to the Ganges. 
The VisJnm Ptinhia is cited by both, as it ascribes the Ganges to 
Vishnu, and the Alaknanda, or eastern branch of the Ganges, to Siva. 
The Sivaites argue that the proper name is Hara-dwAra, ' Siva's Gate ; ' 
the Vishnuites maintain that it is Hari-dwara, ' Vishnu's Gate.' The 

HARD WAR. 333 

truth is that it was a scene of sacred rites long before either Sivaism or 
Vishnuism developed in their present forms. As the spot where the 
Ganges issues forth on its fertilizing career, Hardwar obtained the 
veneration of each of the great religions of India, and preserves the 
memorials alike of Buddhism, Sivaism, and Vishnuism, and of rites 
perhaps earlier than any of them, 

'The present town,' says the Government official account of 
Saharanpur District, ' and the ruined village of Mayapur, both lie on 
the right bank of the Ganges, at the southern base of the Siwalik range, 
through which, by a gorge or natural breach, the river enters the 
plains. On the left is the Chandi Pahdr, on the top of which is a 
temple connected with those in Hardwar itself The river occupies the 
whole gorge, the width of which at its narrowest point is about i mile. 
Owing to its proximity to the hills and the great declivity to its bed, the 
Ganges here divides into several channels, intercepted by large islands, 
many of which are placed beyond the reach of high-flood water. One 
of these channels commences about 2\ miles above Hardwar, and 
flows by Hardwar, Mayapur, and Kankhal, rejoining the parent river 
a little below the last town. It is from a spot on this branch, between 
Mdyapur and Kankhal, that the head-waters of the Ganges Canal 
are taken. Hardwar was visited in 1796 by Hardwicke, who calls it 
a small place situated at the base of the hills. Raper describes it in 
1808 as very inconsiderable, "having only one street, about 15 feet in 
breadth and a furlong and a half in length. Most of the houses have 
the upper part of brick and the lower part of stone, which is of good 
quality." The street is now fully three-quarters of a mile long.' 

Alodcrn Ceremo7iies. — The great object of attraction at the present day 
is the Hari-ke-charan or bathing ghat^ with the adjoining temple of 
Ganga-dwara. The charan, or foot-mark of Vishnu, is imprinted on a 
stone let into the upper wall of the ghat, and forms an object of 
special reverence. Each pilgrim struggles to be the first to plunge into 
the pool, after the propitious moment has arrived ; and stringent police 
regulations are required to prevent the crowd trampling one another to 
death, and drowning each other under the sacred water. In 1819, 
430 persons, including some Sepoys on guard, lost their lives by 
crushing in this manner ; after which accident. Government constructed 
the present enlarged ghat of sixty steps, 100 feet in width. The great 
assemblage of pilgrims takes place on the first day of the month of 
Baisakh, the commencement of the Hindu solar year (March-April), 
and the anniversary of the day upon which the Ganges first appeared 
upon earth. Every twelfth year, the planet Jupiter being then in 
Aquarius, a feast of peculiar sanctity occurs, known as a Kumbh-mela^ 
which is attended by an enormous concourse of people. The ordinary 
number of pilgrims at the annual fair amounts to 100,000, and at the 

334 HARD WAR. 

Kufjihh-Jtida to 300,000. The number of pilgrims attending the last 
Kumbh-mda in 1882 was estimated at 270,000. The total was formerly 
given in much larger figures, Hardwicke, an eye-witness, estimated the 
pilgrims to the Kutnhh-mela at 2\ millions. Raper, who was present 
at the following Kumbh-fnela in 1808, placed them at over two millions. 
Unless these estimates were greatly above the truth, even for the whole 
shifting crowds which came and went throughout the festival, the 
popularity of the shrine has greatly decreased during the present century. 
Riots and bloody fights were of common occurrence amid the excited 
throng. In 1760, on the last day of bathing (loth April), the rival 
mobs of the Gosain and Bairagi sects had a long-continued battle, in 
which some 1800 are said to have perished. In 1795, the Sikh pilgrims 
slew 500 of the Gosains. Tamerlane plundered and massacred a great 
concourse of pilgrims at Hardwdr shortly after he had seized Delhi. 
From Hardwdr the pilgrims often proceed to visit the Sivaite shrine of 
Kedarnath and the Vaishnav temple of Badrinath, in British Garhwal, 
worshipping on their way at the various praydgs or sacred confluences 
of two rivers. Large numbers come from the Punjab and distant parts 
of Rajputana. 

The Hardwdr meeting also possesses considerable mercantile import- 
ance, being one of the principal horse-fairs in Upper India, where 
Government purchases large numbers of remounts for the Native 
Cavalry. Commodities of all kinds, Indian or European, find a ready 
sale, and the trade in the staple food-grains forms a lucrative 
traffic. Great attention has been paid to the police and sanitary 
arrangements of these fairs, which have now been regulated as 
effectually as the large concourse permits. The Hardwdr Municipal 
Union manages the funds derived from leasing the sites for booths, and 
has lately expended large sums upon ghats, sardis, roads, latrines, and 
other works of public utility. 

The Ganges Canal draws its supplies of water from a branch channel 
of the river, close to Hardwdr, between Mdyapur and Kankhal. Third- 
class police station, post-office. Telegraph office at Mdyapur, in 
connection with the canal works at RUrki (Roorkee). A considerable 
through trade from Dehra Diin passes through the town. The local 
business is almost entirely confined to supplying the wants of pil- 
grims. Hardwdr Municipal Union includes the town itself and the 
neighbouring villages of Jawdlapur and Kankhal. Municipal revenue 
in 1882-83, ;;^2i33; from taxes, jQ\G()^, or is. 2J|d. per head of 
population (28,106) within municipal limits. Height above sea-level, 
1024 feet. [For further information, see General Cunningham's Report 
of the Archceological Survey, vol. ii. ; also Gazetteer of the N'orth-Wcsteni 
Frotn'nces, vol. ii., Sahdranpur District, Government Press, AUahdbdd, 


Harek. — Village in Lahore District, Punjab ; situated on the right 
bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), 3 miles below its confluence with the Beas 
(Bias). Lat. 31° 10' N., long. 74" 59' E. Formerly possessed a consider- 
able trade with Afghanistan, Kashmir, and the Punjab generally ; but 
now an insignificant place. — Sec Harike. 

Hargdm. — Pargand of Sitapur District, Oudh ; bounded on the 
north by Kheri District \ on the east by Laharpur ; on the south by 
Khairabcid, and on the west by Sitapur pargands. First constituted a 
pargand by Akbar's finance minister, Todar Mall, and included within 
the Khairdbad chakld. In 171 2, a body of Gaur Rajputs took 
forcible possession of Hargam town and the surrounding country ; and 
their descendants still hold five-sixths of the soil. Area, 66 square 
miles, of which 43 are cultivated. The incidence of the revised 
Government land-tax is at the rate of 2s. 9|d. per acre of cultivated 
area, 2s. 2d. per acre of assessed area, and is. pfd. per acre of total 
area. Population (1S72) 23,861 ; (1881) 24,516, residing in 3992 
houses. Bi-weekly markets at Hargdm, Kutikaldm, and Mumtazpur. 

Hargam. — Town in Sitapur District, Oudh, and head-quarters of 
Hargam tahstl, situated about half-way on the high road between Kheri 
and Sitapur towns. Lat. 27° 45' N., long. 80° 47' e. Although now in 
a state of decay, Hargam was once apparently a very extensive city. 
Local tradition tells how it was founded by the mythical Harish Chandra 
of the Solar dynasty ; how it fell away after his death ; how, many 
years afterwards, it was restored by a Rdjd named Bairat ; how it again 
decayed ; and how it was once more rebuilt by the great Vikramadit}-a 
in the 2nd century a.d. In 1712, a tribe of Gaur Rajputs from 
the west attacked and took it, and it has since gradually sunk to its 
present condition. Population (1881), including the surrounding 
villages of Sardi, Pithu, Tarpatpur, Jalalipur, and Rdmpur Baraura, 
2946, residing in 462 houses. The village of Hargam proper contains 
only 328 inhabitants and 53 occupied houses. School, registration 
office. At a sacred tank known as the Surajkund, a biennial religious 
trading fair is held in the months of Kdrtik and Jaishtha, that in the 
former month being attended by about 40,000 persons. One mosque 
and four Hindu temples. Bi-weekly market. Military camping ground 
just outside the town. 

Harha. — Pargatid of tahsil Unao, Unao District, Oudh ; triangular 
in shape, with the apex to the south. The Lodh family who held the 
pargand were ousted by a Kdyasth named Chaturbhuj Das, an agent 
of Rdjd Jai Chdnd of Kanauj, who thus acquired the estate, and 
founded 75 new villages. His family in turn has decayed, and the 
present representative holds only two villages. The present chief of 
Mauranwdn acquired the town of Harha by mortgage from this Kdyasth 
family. The pargand is the largest in Unao, covering an area of 


146,167 acres, or 228 square miles, of which 100 are cultivated. 
Government land-tax, ;;^i7,iio, or at the rate of 2s. 4d. per acre. 
The tenures are — tdlukddri^ 55)^27 acres; copyhold, ySio ; zaminddri, 
48,245 ; pattiddri^ 34)573 acres. Principal crops — wheat and gram. 
Soil good, but water is about 75 feet from the surface. Two small 
streams are used freely for irrigation, but both run dry in the hot 
weather. Nilgai and antelope abound. Fourteen ddzdrs, and three 
religious trading fairs, the largest of which is held in November at 
Kolhwagard on the Ganges, and attended by 120,000 persons. The 
pargatid contains 1 1 7 villages. 

Harha. — Town in Unao District, Oudh, and head-quarters of 
l^zx\iz. pargand ; about 8 miles south-east of Unao town. Lat. 26° 25' 
20" N., long. 80° 34' E. The present town was founded early in- the 
nth century, in the time of Mahmud of Ghazni. Prior to that date 
there was a village of Shaikhapur on the same spot, in the possession 
of the Ahi'rs. The chief of the village quarrelled with the Lodh chief 
of the neighbouring village of Indrapur. The Lodhs were victorious 
in the fight that ensued ; Shaikhapur fell into their hands, and they re- 
built the place, called in fresh settlers, and changed the name to Harha. 
The Kayasth family, who succeeded the Ahfrs, has supplied many 
officers of high note at the Delhi and Lucknow courts. The town is 
now of no importance. Population (1869) 5440 ; (1881) 4847, namely, 
3602 Hindus and 1245 Muhammadans. Bi-weekly bdzdr, Government 

Harhar. — Village in Shamli tahsil^ Muzaffarnagar District, North- 
western Provinces ; distant from Muzaffarnagar 23 miles north-west. 
Population (1881) 977. Has an old ruined fort, overgrown with jungle. 
The place is only noticeable for the turbulence of its Ranghar Musal- 
mdn population, who lost their proprietary rights after the Mutiny, as 
a penalty for plunder and robbery. The British flying column found 
here upwards of forty cart-loads of plundered property belonging to 
merchants at Shamli. 

Haria {Haraia). — South-western tahsil or Sub-division of Basti 
District, North-Western Provinces, comprising pargand Amorha, with 
portions of pargands Basti and Hagar ; lying along the north bank of 
the river Gogra, and containing the town of Basti. Area, 477 square 
miles, of which 330 are cultivated. Population (1872) 305,222; (1881) 
334,378, namely, males 169,783, and females 164,596; showing an in- 
crease of 29, 156, or 9"5 per cent, in the nine years since 1872. Classified 
according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 308,426; and 
Muhammadans, 25,952. Of 1543 villages comprising the tahsil in 
1 88 1, 1429 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land 
revenue, ;!^27,284; total Government revenue, ;^30,728; rental paid 
by cultivators, ^72,818; incidence of Government revenue, 2s. per 


acre. The Sub-division in 1SS3 contained i criminal court, with 5 
pohce stations {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 5S men, besides 428 
village watchmen (chaukidcirs). 

Haridi {Haraia). — Town in pargajid Amorha, Basti District, North- 
Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Haria tahsil, situated on the 
Basti and Faizdbdd road, 1 7 miles south-west of Basti town. Principal 
export, grain ; import, cloth. Tahsili, police station, school, post- 

Haridna. — Tract of country in Hissar District, Punjab ; deriving its 
name, according to tradition, from an eponymous Raja, Hari Chand, 
who came hither from Oudh at some unknown period, and peopled 
all the surrounding territory. The tract consists of a level upland 
plain in the heart of the District, interspersed with patches of sandy 
soil, and largely overgrown with brushwood, which formerly covered 
almost the whole surface. The Western Jumna Canal, which divides 
the tract into two nearly equal portions, now fertilizes villages along 
its banks ; but under its series of native rulers, Hariana was known as 
a dry region, bordering on the outskirts of the great desert. Water is 
only reached in wells at a depth varying from 100 to 130 feet, and the 
cost of constructing such a well seldom falls below ^150. Well- 
irrigation is therefo