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Full text of "The imperial gazetteer of India"

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THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA. 



MORRISON AND GIBB, EDINBURGH, 
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 



SIR WILLIAM WILSON HUNTER, K.C.S.I., 

CLE., B.A., LL.D. 

ADDITIONAL METilBER OF THE VICEROY'S LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, AND DIRECTOR-GENERAL 
OF STATISTICS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA; 

VICE-CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA ; HONORARY OR FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE 

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF NETHERLANDS INDIA AT THE HAGUE, OF THE INSTITUTO VASCO 

DA GAMA OF PORTUGUESE INDIA, OF THE DUTCH SOCIETY IN JAVA, AND OF 

THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, LONDON ; HONORARY FELLOW OF 

THE PUNJAB UNIVERSITY ; ORDINARY FELLOW OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, THE ROYAL 

GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC. 



VOLUME XIII. 
SIROHI TO ZUMKhX. 



UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 

CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH CENTER 

GEOPHYSICS 

RESEARCH LIBRARY 



SECOND EDITION. 



TRUBNER & CO., LONDON, 1887. 



DS 



/.|3 



UNIV. OF MASSACHUSETTS 
JiT BOSTON - LlBnAlU' 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 



OF 



INDIA. 



VOLUME XIII. 

Sirohi. — Native State in the Rajputana Agency under the Govern- 
ment of India, lying between lat. 24° 22' and 25° 16' n., and between 
long. 72° 22' and 73° 18' e. Estimated area, 3020 square miles. 
Population (1881) 142,903 souls. Sirohi is bounded on the north by 
Marwar or Jodhpur, on the east by Mewar or Udaipur, on the south by 
Palanpur and the Mahi Kantha States of Edar and Danta, and on the 
west by Jodhpur. 

Physical Aspects. — The country is much intersected and broken up 
by hills and rocky ranges. The main feature is Mount Abu, the highest 
peak of which rises 5653 feet above sea-level ; it is situated at the 
extremity of the Aravalli Mountain chain, being partially separated 
from the main range by a narrow valley. That range, running from 
south-west to north-east, divides the State into two not very unequal 
portions. The western half is comparatively open and level, and more 
populous and better cultivated than the other. Both portions, beinf' 
situated at the foot of the hill range, are intersected by numerous 
watercourses or ndlds, which become torrents of greater or less volume 
in the rainy season, but are dry during the remainder of the year. 
From the line of water-parting the streams discharge into the rivers Loni 
and Bands. The lower slopes of the Aravalli range in Sirohi are clothed 
with dense forest ; and the country generally is dotted with low rocky 
hills, which, as a rule, are thickly covered with jungle, consisting chiefly 
of the dhao tree (Anogeissus pendula) mixed with khair (Acacia 
Catechu), babul {\c2ic\2i arabica), ber (Zizyphus Jujuba), and Euj:)horbia. 

The only river of any importance is the Western Bands. Within the 
limits of the State this river is not perennial ; it usually ceases to flow 

VOL. XIII. A 



2 SIROHI. 

as the hot season commences, and only deep pools are then to be 
found. It is subject, during the rains, to occasional floods ; but these 
rapidly subside, leaving the stream fordable and the water clear and 
good. The Bands, rising in the Aravalli Hills, flows through the 
State into Gujarat, and after passing the cantonment of Disa, is finally 
lost in the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh). There are remains of many 
fine artificial lakes in Sirohi, but no lakes or jhih at present exist, with 
the exception of the Nakhi Talao on Mount Abu. The nature of the 
subsoil of Sirohi appears, as a rule, to be unsuited to the artificial 
storage of water, for in the village tanks the water generally subsides 
very rapidly after the end of the rainy season. The depth at which 
water is found below the surface varies a good deal in different parts of 
the State. Thus, in the north-east, the wells are from 90 to 100 feet 
deep, and the water is generally brackish. In the north-west, water is 
more easily found, at from 70 to 90 feet ; while in the eastern Districts, 
water of good quality is found at depths varying from 15 to 60 feet, the 
depth required to be sunk decreasing towards the south. In the 
w^estern Districts, the depth of the wells is generally 60 to 70 feet ; and 
at Sirohi town, and in its neighbourhood, water is often scarce and of 
inferior quality. 

The geological formation of the Aravalli range is granite overlying 
blue slate. The valleys exhibit variegated quartz and schistose slate. 
Rocks of gneiss and syenite appear at intervals. At the south-east 
corner of Sirohi, the Aravalli range takes a sweep to the south-west, 
enclosing a hilly tract called the bhakar. In this tract the rocks are 
primitive and metamorphic, with schists and limestone. Mica is found 
in large quantities. Near the village of Jariwao, on the south-eastern 
frontier of the State, are the marble quarries of that name, from which 
the celebrated Jain temples of Abu are said to have been built. The 
granite of Abu is used to a considerable extent for building, and the 
blue slate which underlies the granite is well adapted for paving and 
other purposes. It is said that a copper-mine was formerly worked in 
the hilly range above the town of Sirohi. 

Although a considerable portion of Sirohi is covered with tree and 
bush jungle, the forests, strictly speaking, may be considered as con- 
fined to the slopes of Abu and the belt of forest round its base. In 
the bhaka7\ there are here and there hills and valleys well wooded with 
valuable timber, such as the timru or ebony (Diospyros Ebenum), 
dJiaman (Cordia Macleodii), siris (Albizzia Lebbek), hu/dru, the large 
dhao^ and others. On the slopes of Abu a great variety of trees and 
shrubs are found. The most common are the bamboo, mango, siris, 
dhao of various kinds, Jdmi/n (Eugenia Jambolana), kachnar, etc. 

Tigers are numerous, and destroy a great number of cattle. Bears 
and leopards are common. Both sdmbhar and chiial deer were also 



SIROHL 3 

numerous, till the great famine of 1868-69, during which numbers of 
them either died, or were killed by the Bhils for food. Antelopes are 
scarce, but chikara (ravine deer) and the four-horned deer are to be 
found in parts. Field rats are abundant in the sandy portions of the 
State. Hares are very common. The grey partridge abounds, the 
painted and black partridge are rare. Quail of several kinds and sand- 
grouse are everywhere met with. Florican visit the country for a short 
time during the rains. Jungle and spur fowl are found in the hilly 
parts of the State. The fish are few and almost entirely confined to 
the Banas river ; they are chiefly the rohu, imirrel^ pat'i, and chilwa. 

History. — The present ruling family of Sirohi are Deora Rajputs, 
a branch of the great Chauhan clan, and claim to be directly 
descended from Deo Raj, a descendant of Prithwi Raj, the Chauhan 
King of Delhi. The earliest known inhabitants of Sirohi were the 
Bhils. The first Rajputs to settle in the country were the Gehlots. 
They were soon followed by the Pramara Rajputs, who appear to have 
been a powerfiil race, and to have had their capital at Chandrawati. 
The ruins of this place prove it to have been at one time a large and 
flourishing city. 

The Pramaras were succeeded by the Chauhan Rajputs, who seem to 
have first established themselves in the country about 1152 a.d., but 
who only dispossessed the Pramaras after a long series of years and 
much fighting. The Pramaras are said to have taken up their last 
refuge on Mount Abu, where remains of extensive fortifications are still 
to be seen. Being unable to drive them from their stronghold, the 
Deora Chauhans had recourse to stratagem. They sent a proposal that 
the Pramaras should bring twelve of their daughters to be married into 
the Chauhan tribe, and thus establish a friendship. The proposal 
being accepted, the story runs that the twelve girls were accompanied 
to Bhadeli, a village near the southern border of Sirohi, by nearly all 
the Pramaras. The Chauhans then fell upon them, massacred the 
majority, and pursuing the survivors back to Abu, gained possession of 
that place. It is said that the descendants of Pramaras now inhabit 
Abu, and, in memory of this act of treachery, never allow their 
daughters to go down to the plains to be married. 

During the reign of Sains Mall (about 1425 a.d.), the Rana Kambaji 
of Chittor obtained permission to take refuge at Achilgarh on Mount 
Abu, when flying from the Mughal Emperor. On the retreat of the 
imperial army, the son of Sains Mall sent word to the Rana to return to 
his own country ; but the latter, having found what a strong position 
Abu was, refused to leave, and had eventually to be driven out by 
force. In consequence of this, no other Raja was ever allowed to go up 
to Abu; and this custom remained in force till 1836, when, through 
the intervention of Colonel Spiers (at that time in political charge at 



4 SIROHL 

Sirohi), Maharana Jawan Singh of Udaipur was permitted to proceed to 
Abu on a pilgrimage to the temples. Since then the prohibition has 
been withdrawn, and many chiefs of Rajputana have visited Abu. 

During the early years of the present century, the State of Sirohi 
suffered much from wars with Jodhpur, and the constant marauding 
of the wild Mina tribes. The State became too weak to protect 
its subjects. Many of the Thakurs in the south threw off their 
allegiance, and placed themselves under the protection of Palanpur ; 
and the Sirohi State was nigh being dismembered. Under these cir- 
cumstances, in 1817, Rao Sheo Singh, then Regent, sought the pro- 
tection of the British Government. Captain Tod was at that time the 
Political Agent in Western Rajputana; and after making close 
inquiry into the history and relations of the two States, he disallowed 
the pretensions of Jodhpur to suzerainty over Sirohi. 

In 1823, a treaty was finally coiicluded between the British Govern- 
ment and the Sirohi State. Many of the Thakurs were in rebellion, 
supported by the wild Minas of the hills ; but they were eventually 
reduced to submission. Rao Sheo Singh did good service during the 
Mutiny of 1857, in consideration of which he received a remission of 
half his tribute, which is now fixed at ^:688. The Rao of Sirohi in 
1845 made over to the British Government some lands on Mount Abu, 
for the establishment of a sanitarium. The present Rao is named 
Kesari Singh ; he is entitled to a salute of 15 guns, and holds a sariad 
giving rights of adoption. 

Population.— i:hQ Census of 1881 returned the population of Sirohi 
State at 142,903, residing in i town and 365 villages, and occupying 
30,532 houses. Males 76,132, and females 66,771; proportion of 
males, 53-3 per cent. According to the religious classification, Hindus 
mimb'er 123,633, or 86-5 per cent.; Jains, 16,137, or 11-3 per cent; 
Muhammadans, 2935; Christians, 179; and 'others,' 19. The State 
contains a considerable number of Brahmans (13,288) and religious 
mendicants. The Baniyas and Mahajans (17,317) fo™ a very nume- 
rous class ; they are mostly Oswals and Porewals, followers of the Jain 
religion. ^The Rajputs (13,466) are divided into twelve different 
clans, or septs of clans. They are the dominant race, although not 
numerically the largest class. The greater portion are Deora Chauhans ; 
next in order come the Sesodia and Rahtor clans, who are about equal 
in number. Rajputs, who are not J a gir da rs or the immediate relatives 
oijdgirddrs, gain their living as State servants, soldiers, and cultivators ; 
they belong to the diwali band, or protectors of the villages, and culti- 
vate free of land-tax. Kalbis, Rabaris, and Dhers are also numerous. 
Aboriginal tribes and tribes of half-blood, including Bhils, Girasias, and 
Minds, form a considerable section of the population. The Girasias are 
principally confined to the bhakar or hilly tract in the south-east corner 



SIROHL 5 

of Sirohi. They were formerly great plunderers, but have now settled 
down to agriculture. They are said to be the descendants of Rajputs, 
married to Bhil women. Minas and Bhi'ls have always been trouble- 
some races, with a hereditary taste for plundering. Speaking generally, 
the Minas may be said to occupy the north, and the Bhils the western 
part of Sirohi. There are some Kolis who are believed to have immi- 
grated from Gujarat. They have now settled down as cultivators, and 
are principally found in the eastern and southern districts. The 
Musalmans mostly consist of tahsilddrs and sepoys, and a few colonies 
of Cutch (Kachchh) Bohras at Madar and Sirohi. The language of 
Sirohi is a patois of Marwari and Gujarati. 

Agriculture^ etc. — The principal spring crops {rabi) are wheat, barley, 
gram, and mustard (Brassica campestris), from which a kind of oil is 
prepared, much used by the people. Wheat and barley are the staple 
crops ; on these being reaped, many of the fields are at once ploughed 
up and sown with two kinds of small grain called kardng and chaina^ 
which come to maturity ver}' quickly, and are cut before the rains set 
in. Manure is used every second or third year ; but no rotation of 
crops is practised, the same land being sown with wheat or barley year 
after year. The chief rain crops {kkarif) are Indian corn, bdjra 
(Pennisetum typhoideum), jnung (Phaseolus Mungo), moth (Phaseolus 
aconitifoHus), arad (Phaseolus Mungo, var. radiatus), kulath (Dolichos 
biflorus), and guar (Cyamopsis psoralioides). Cotton and ambari or 
san (Hibiscus cannabinus), a kind of hemp, are grown in small 
quantities for local consumption. Til^ kuri (Sesamum indicum), kuri 
(Panicum miliaceum), basthi^ kudra, mal, and sai?iwatat scce only grown 
in walar cultivation, i.e. by cutting down and burning the jungle on the 
hill-sides, and sowing the seed in the ashes. This mode of cultivation 
is very popular with the wild tribes of Girasias, Bhils, and Minas, and 
has proved most destructive to the Aravalli forests. There is so much 
land in the State yet remaining uncultivated that the grazing grounds 
are very extensive. 

The agricultural tenures in Sirohi correspond with those generally 
prevailing throughout Rajputana. The ruler is the actual and sole 
owner of the land conquered by his ancestors. Those that came with 
him were granted portions of the conquered territory, on certain con- 
ditions of fealty and military service, and became his umras or nobles ; 
but the ruler still retained the ownership or bhum of the land. To this 
there are of course exceptions ; and the Girasias, the original inhabit- 
ants of the bhakar, still retain their bhum rights. The cultivators 
generally are hereditary tenants, and cannot be ejected so long as they 
pay the revenue regularly ; in fact, in such a sparsely populated country 
as Sirohi, the cultivator is too valuable to be parted with. There is a 
large class in Sirohi called the diiuali band^ consisting of Rajputs, Bhils. 



6 ' SIROHL 

Minds, and Kolfs, who cultivate land rent-free. The safety of the 
village is in their hands, and they are bound to protect it. Brahmans, 
Charans, and Bhats also cultivate their land free, out of respect for 
their religious duties. 

In all the jd^ir estates the State receives a portion of the land 
revenue and local taxes. The rates vary, but in the principal estates 
Rajputs pay three-eighths of the produce, and in others one-half. The 
cultivators get from two-thirds to three-fourths of the produce of the 
crops, after deducting the haks (dues) of the village servants, as black- 
smiths, carpenters, etc. In some portions, especially to the north, the 
State and jdgirddrs' shares of the rain crops are collected by a tax on 
the ploughs, varying from 4s. to 8s. a plough. 

The gross revenue of the State in 1881-82 amounted to ;£i45924- 
Since then a new source of income has been secured in the increased 
rate of opium duty, which has been assimilated to that prevailing in 
Marwdr. 

Natural Calamities. — Sirohi frequently suffers from drought. The 
years 1746, 1785, 181 2, 1813, and 1868-69 ^^^ recorded as having 
been years of terrible famine. It is calculated that in the latter year 
75 per cent, of the cattle perished. The distress was much increased 
and prolonged by a visitation of locusts, which destroyed a great 
portion of the rain crops. 

Education^ Commu7iicatio7is^ etc. — Education is but little sought after. 
There are vernacular schools at the three principal towns, Sirohi, 
Rohera, and Madar. In many of the villages, boys of the Baniya class 
are taught to write and keep accounts by the village y^///. A dispensary 
is supported by the State at the town of Sirohi. There are post-offices 
at Erinpura, Sirohi, Anadra, Abu road station, and Abu. The main 
road through the State is that from Ajmere, through Marwar, Sirohi, 
Palanpur, and the Gaekwar's territory, to Ahmadabad. This road 
enters Sirohi at Erinpura; and passing through the capital and along 
the western side of Abu, leaves the State again about 2 miles south of 
Madar, which is about 26 miles from the cantonment of Disa. The 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway, constructed on the metre gauge, which runs 
through the length of this State, passing just east of Mount Abu, was 
opened in December 1880. 

There is a jail at Sirohi. Criminal suits are tried by the minister 
at the capital, and by iahsilddrs at the head-quarters of districts. 
There are no other courts in Sirohi ; all civil suits are settled by 
panchdyats, or village assemblies. The military force of the State 
consists of 2 guns, 108 cavalry, and 500 foot-soldiers. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Sirohi is, on the whole, dry and 
healthy ; and there is a general freedom from epidemic diseases, which 
is doubtless in a measure due to the sparseness of the population. The 



SIR O HI CAPITAL— SIRONJ, 7 

heat is never so intense as in the North-Western Provinces or tlie 
Punjab ; but on the other hand, the cold season is of much shorter 
duration, and less bracing. In the southern and eastern districts there- 
is usually a fair amount of rain ; but over the rest of the State, the rain- 
fall is frequently scant. This is chiefly due to Mount Abu and the 
Aravalli Hills attracting the clouds driven inland by the south-west 
monsoon ; thus at x\bu the average annual rainfall is about 64 inches, 
while at Erinpura, less than 50 miles distant in a northerly direction, the 
average fall is only between 12 and 15 inches. The prevailing wind is 
south-westerly. The principal diseases are malarious fever and ague, 
complicated with enlargement of the spleen. Dysentery often occurs at 
the close of the rains, and during the early part of the cold season, 
especially in the jungle tracts round the base of Abu. 

Sirohi. — Capital of the Native State of Sirohi, Rajputana ; situated 
in lat. 24° 53' 12" N., and long. 72" 54' 28" e., 28 miles north of Abu 
road station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, and 171 miles from 
Ajmere. Population (18S1) 5699, namely, Hindus 5129, and Muham- 
madans 570. Manufacture of sword - blades, daggers, spears, and 
knifes. 

Sirol. — Western suburb of Benares City. — See Sikrol. 

Sironcha {Siiironchd). — Town in Sironcha iahsil, Chanda District, 
Central Provinces; situated in lat. 18° 51' n., and long. 80' i' e., on 
the left bank of the Pranhita river, 2 miles above its confluence with 
the Godavari, and 120 miles south-south-east of Chanda town. Popu- 
lation (1881) 3476, namely, Hindus, 2961; Muhammadans, 452 ; and 
Christians, d^. The public buildings and houses of the European 
officials stand on a ridge formerly covered with dense jungle, which 
slopes gradually northwards down to the village. The summit com- 
mands a fine view of the Pranhita, where it winds round a high bluff of 
sandstone, crowned by a ruined fort, built 160 years ago by direction of 
Wali Haidar, a holy man, whose tomb within is held sacred. Sironcha 
has no manufactures, and little trade, except in articles of local con- 
sumption. The town contains English and Telugu schools. The soil 
is sandy, and the drainage good. 

%Y£QTi^.—Parga7ia and town in Tonk State, Rajputana, under the 
control of the Bhopal Agency of Central India; situated in lat. 24° 6' 
23" N., and long. 77° 43' 30" e., 78 miles north-west of Sagar (Saugor), 
and 140 north-east of Ujjain. Population (1881) 1 1,356, namely, males 
5625, and females 5731. Hindus number 7383 ; Muhammadans, 3895 ; 
and ' others,' 78. Sironj is built at the foot of a pass connecting Malwd 
with the table-land to the north. It was once a large town, famed for 
its muslins and chintzes, but is now much decayed. One fine hdzdi- 
still remains, and there are many mosques. Good water is abundant. 
'Sironj, with the appertaining /a/'^w/^f,' writes Thornton, 'was in 179S 



8 SIRPUI^—SIRSA. 

granted to Amir Khan by Jaswant Rao Holkar; in 1809, the threaten- 
ing attitude assumed towards Nagpur by Amir Khan led to the advance 
upon Sironj of a British force under Colonel Close ; subsequently, in 
181 7, this town and district, with other territories, were guaranteed by 
the British Government to the Amir.' 

Sirpur. — Chief town oi ^ix^m pafgand, Basim District, Berar. Lat. 
20° 10' 30" N., long. 77° i' E. Population (1867) 3555; not returned 
separately in the Census Report of 1881. Here is the shrine of 
Antariksh Parasnath, one of the most sacred resorts of the Jains. The 
tradition is, that Yelluk, a Raja of Ellichpur, found the idol on the banks 
of a river, and his prayers for permission to transport it to his own city 
were granted on condition of his not looking back. At Sirpur, however, 
his faith became weak, and he looked back. The idol instantly became 
immovable, and it thus remained suspended in mid-air for many years. 
Here still exists a small but ancient Jain temple or shrine, having 
a covered roof with pendants richly carved. Post-office, first-grade 
vernacular school, and police station. 

Sirsa. — British District in the Lieutenant - Governorship of the 
Punjab, lying between 29° 13' and 30° 33' n. lat., and between 73° 
56' and 75° 22' E. long. Area, 3004 square miles. Population (1881) 
2535275 souls. Sirsa is a District of the Hissar Division. It is 
bounded on the north-east by the District of Firozpur and the Native 
State of Patiala, on the west by the river Sutlej (Satlaj), on the south- 
west by the Native States of Bahawalpur and Bikaner (Bickaneer), and 
on the east by the District of Hissar. The administrative head-quarters 
are at the town of Sirsa. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Sirsa is intermediate, both in 
geographical position and in physical features, between the barren 
desert of Bikaner and the sandy but cultivated plains of the cis-Sutlej 
States. It forms for the most part a bare and treeless plateau, stretch- 
ing from the valley of the little river Ghaggar on the east to the main 
stream of the Sutlej on its north-western border. Near the village 
tanks, a few straggling bushes may be seen ; but, as a rule, the monotony 
of the view is rarely broken by any larger vegetation. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Sutlej, hoAvever, is a fertile alluvial tract {hitdr, 
corresponding to the khddar of the North-Western Provinces), intersected 
by branches of the river, and flooded by their overflow during the rainy 
season. The surrounding tracts, rising by an abrupt bank from this 
favoured region, are irrigated for the autumn crops by means of 
temporary wells. Eastward of the hitdr lies the sandy central table- 
land, which used to be chiefly employed for purposes of pasturage, 
but is now being rapidly brought under the plough. Formerly the 
District was covered by excellent grazing grasses, one of the best of 
which was that known as dhdinan ; but these are now disappearing 



SIRSA. 9 

with the increase of cuhivation and consequent necessity for closer 
grazing, as the cattle eat down the heads before they have time 
to seed. East of this central plateau lies the valley of the Ghaggar, 
in which rich crops of rice and wheat are grown. Southward of the 
Ohaggar, again, spreads a barren sandy tract, beyond the reach of its 
fertilizing inundations, and of small agricultural value. Viewed as a 
whole, the District of Sirsa lay desert and abandoned until the British 
occupation ; and although colonization has since proceeded rapidly, 
bringing most of the soil into a state of comparative cultivation, it is 
only in the valleys of the Sutlej and the Ghaggar that rich crops and 
valuable pasturage are to be found. The general slope of the country 
is from north-east to south-west, from the Himalayas towards the sea, 
with a general fall of about i J foot per mile. 

The Sutlej, which forms the north-western boundary, is nowhere 
fordable at any time of the year ; and in the rainy season, when swollen 
by the melted snows of the Himalayas, and the drainage of the low 
country, its current is broad, deep, and rapid, and its floods spread far 
inland over the alluvial soil which forms its present valley, extending 
about 4 or 5 miles on the Sirsa side of the main stream. The 
inundation is assisted by the numerous irrigation cuts and branches 
which intersect the alluvial tract. The actual bed of the present main 
stream is broad and sandy. From the configuration of the country, it 
is evident that at one time the Sutlej flowed beneath the foot of the 
Danda, a clearly marked bank some 12 miles to the east of its present 
channel, which is a continuation of a similar bank in Firozpur District. 

The Ghaggar, which rises as a mountain torrent in the lower 
Himalayan hills, receives the waters of the Saras wati (Sarsuti) in Patiala 
State, enters Sirsa District a few miles south of Rori, and passing 4 
miles north of Sirs^ town, is finally lost in the desert of Bikaner, about 
290 miles from its source. Within Sirsa District, although the Ghaggar 
is generally confined to a comparatively narrow bed between steep 
banks, and with a depth in the rains of from 8 to 10 feet, yet here and 
there its banks recede, and leave a broad and shallow channel, or the 
stream overtops the banks and floods the neighbouring land. At 
Chanmal, 3 miles north-west of Sirsa town, the channel expands 
into a shallow lake {chhavib or /////) about 3 miles long by half a 
mile in breadth. It then contracts for a short distance, and again at 
Dhanur it fills another depression about 3 miles long by half a 
mile broad, but seldom anywhere more than 4 feet deep. Again, 
after 2 miles of narrow channel is another lake, the Annakal 
chhajnb, about 5 miles long by 2 miles broad and only about 3 feet 
deep. Below this lake a branch turns off southwards towards Ellen- 
c4bad, and fills a considerable depression among the sandhills south of 
that town. 



lo SIRSA. 

Between the Ghaggar and the Sutlej the plain is crossed in the same 
general direction, from north-east to south-west, by five old drainage 
channels, now completely dry. These drainage lines are too narrow 
and shallow to have ever carried any important volume of water, and 
they are evidently the channels of rainy season torrents from the 
Ambala hills. It is supposed that their waters were diverted by ill- 
constructed irrigation dams, which checked their courses through the 
dead level of the Karnal plains ; while the deposit of silt thus caused 
has prevented them from pushing their way in future across the barriers, 
stopping their natural channels. Another hypothesis to explain the 
existence of these now dry drainage channels, is a gradual up-rising 
of the whole watershed of the Indus and the Ganges systems outside 
the Himalayas — an hypothesis supported by the undoubted fact that 
the Jumna has within a recent period moved eastwards, while the Sutlej 
and other Punjab rivers have moved considerably to the west. 

For assessment purposes, Sirsa District is divided into five circles, 
each with different physical capabilities, as follows : — (i) The Bdgar, the 
sandy tract south of the Ghaggar valley, characterized by the lightness 
of its sandy soil, and the prevalence of shifting sandhills. It is con- 
sidered by the people a portion of the great bdgar tract, which includes 
part of the south-west of Hissar District, and almost the whole of the 
north of Bikaner territory. (2) The A\iii, or Ghaggar valley, including 
the Sotar valley with its hard alluvial clay soil, and the present valley 
of the Ghaggar, with the villages enclosed between the two valleys, and 
the neighbouring high land belonging to the Ghaggar villages or 
enclosed between them and the boundary of the District. These high 
lands are exactly similar on the one side to the sandy soil of the bdgar, 
and on the other to the loam of the rohi, but are for convenience of 
boundary included within the 7idH belt. (3) The Rohi, or great dry 
tract, the level tract of light loam stretching from the Ghaggar valley to 
the Danda, or old bank of the Sutlej, and known to the people as the 
rohi (dry country) or jangal (prairie, bush, or backwoods). (4) The 
Utdr, or upper belt between the Danda and the present Sutlej valley, 
a tract of light sandy soil with an admixture of river sand now beyond 
the reach of the Sutlej floods. (5) The Hitdr, or lower belt of alluvial 
soil, subject to inundation from the Sutlej. 

Wild animals and large game generally are extremely scarce. Tigers 
were formerly found in the neighbourhood of the Sutlej, and the wild 
ass on the prairies of the rohi or dry tract ; but they both disappeared 
about 30 years ago. The wild hog has also become extinct. The most 
common game are ravine deer and antelope, which do great damage to 
the standing crops, especially in the neighbourhood of the Bikaner 
border, where they literally swarm. Hares are common in the Ghaggar 
valley, and jackals are found in small numbers near the town. Of 



SIRSA. 1 1 

winged game, sand-grouse, kinij, florican, water-fowl, and wild duck are 
abundant in the cold weather. 

History. — As Sirsa formed a part of the Bhattiana territory, its early 
history is identical with that of Hissar District. The old town, 
whose ruins lie near the present head-quarters station, is said to have 
been founded thirteen centuries ago. Numerous ruined mounds 
{thehs) mark the sites of villages, which rose, flourished, and perished 
at different periods for probably thousands of years. During the 
1 8th century, the country appears to have been held by Musalman 
tribes claiming a Rajput origin, of whom the chief were Jaiyas 
about Bhatner and Bhattis about Rania, Sirsa, and Fathabad. The 
Bhattis were for a time the most important and powerful tribe in 
this neighbourhood ; and the name Bhatti was then, and is still, applied 
not only to the Bhattis proper, but to Jaiyas, Chauhans, Chahals, 
and other Rajput tribes quite distinct from the Bhattis, and even to 
Musalman Jats. The country came from them to be called Bhattiana, 
a name which it retained until 1857. These Musalman tribes lived 
a pastoral and predatory life, driving about their cattle in search of 
pasture, and carrying off their neighbours' cattle when they had a chance. 
Their hand was against every man, and every man's hand against them. 
The Bikaner annals tell of incessant struggles of the Hindu Rajputs of 
that State with the Jaiyas and Bhattis for the possession of Bhatner and 
sometimes of Sirsa ; and the chronicles of Patiala are full of raids 
and counter-raids between the Sikh Jats and their hereditary foes the 
Bhattis. 

In 1 731 A.D., Ala Singh, the founder of the Patiala State (still known 
to the Sikh Jats as Ala-ka-Raj, or Ala's kingdom), commenced a struggle 
with the Bhatti chiefs of Bhatner and Fathabad which lasted for his 
lifetime; and in 1774 his successor Amar Singh made an expedition 
against the Bhatti chief Muhammad Amir Khan, took from him 
Fathabad, Sirsa, and Rania, and became master of almost the whole 
country now included in Sirsa District. Under Ala Singh and Amar 
Singh, the Sikh Jats established some villages along what is now the 
north-east border of the District; but the great famine of 1783 drove 
them back and laid the whole country waste. The herds of cattle 
which roamed over the prairie perished of thirst and starvation, 
and numbers of the population must also have died of famine. 
The survivors fled to more favoured tracts, and the town of Sirsa was 
wholly deserted. Only ten or twelve of the larger villages held 
out, and for a time almost the whole of the District must have been 
a desert. In 1799 the adventurer George Thomas, ^^hose head- 
quarters were first at Georgegarh in Rohtak District and afterwards 
at Hansi in Hissar District, established some authority over the 
Ghaggar valley, and allied with the Bhattis took a fort belonging to 



12 SIRSA. 

the Maharaja of Bikaner near Bhatner. On the defeat of Thomas 
by Bourquin at Hansi in 1802, the whole of this tract was held to 
have come under the power of the Marathas ; and in 1803, after the 
battle of Laswari, Sindhia by the treaty of Sirji Anjengaon ceded 
Sirsd along with the Delhi territory on this side the Jumna to the 
British. 

When the District first passed into our hands in 1803, it was found 
almost entirely uninhabited. The Bhattis were lords of the soil ; but 
they tilled little or none of the country, and only used it as a site for 
their scattered forts, from which bands of marauders made occasional 
raids into the surrounding regions. Sirsa was officially included in the 
territory conquered from the Marathas in 1803, but for some years it 
was not directly governed by British officers, and the Bhattis remained 
practically in undisturbed possession until 18 18, when the Ghaggar 
valley came directly under British rule. It was included in the northern 
province of the Delhi territory, and in 1820 formed part of the District 
of Hariana or Hissar. During the years that followed, the Sikh Rajas, 
taking advantage of British neglect and the waste condition of the 
dry tract beyond the Ghaggar, began a series of irregular colonizations, 
which continued uninterrupted till the year 1837. The British Govern- 
ment then asserted its supremacy over the dry tract, which was resumed, 
and together with the valley of the Ghaggar was made into a separate 
District under the name of Bhattiana and attached to the North-Western 
Provinces. A stream of immigration set in, and continued so long as 
any portion of the land remained unoccupied ; and every inducement 
was offered by the landowners to immigrant cultivators who settled 
on their demesnes. Additions were made to the territory by other 
resumptions from encroaching Native States, in 1844, 1847, and 

1855. 

Shortly after the organization of the District in 1837, a fiscal 
settlement of the pargajids then composing it was undertaken, and 
remained in force until 1852, when a new general settlement was 
effected. This was interrupted by the Mutiny of 1857, a detailed 
account of which will be found in the article on Hissar District. 
After the suppression of the Mutiny, Sirsa became, in 1858, a portion 
of the Punjab ; and the settlement was continued and completed in 
1862 under orders from that government. Only at the latter date can 
the colonization be considered as final ; but the whole area was then 
parcelled out into estates, and every acre has now its owner. Since 
the British occupation, the towns have grown to a considerable size ; 
and the modern station of Sirsa, founded by the Superintendent of 
Bhattiana in 1837, has now a population of over 12,000 persons, with a 
thriving trade in grain and sugar. 

Fopiilation. — No accurate statistics exist with reference to the num- 



SIRS A. 13 

ber of inhabitants earlier than the Census of 1868; but in 1862, the 
Settlement Report estimated the population of Sirsa as 151,182. In 
1868 the Census returned the total population at 210,795, showing an 
increase for the seven years of 58,918 persons, or 38-81 percent. Takin^ 
into account the continuous immigration from the Sikh States and from 
Rajputana, this high rate of increase cannot be far from the truth. 
In 1 88 1 the last Census returned the population at 253,275, showing a 
further increase of 42,480 since 1868, or 20 per cent, in thirteen years. 
Considering the depopulated state in which the District continued for 
many years after it nominally passed into British hands, and the 
continuous influx of immigrants since the organization of Bhattiana 
in 1837, this high rate of increase, though partially due to under- 
enumeration in 1862, is for the second period between 1868 and 1881 
believed to be at least within the truth. Indeed, it is thought that 
the Census of 1881 did not disclose the whole normal population. At 
the time of the enumeration, considerable portions of the District were 
suffering from drought, and numbers of people were away in search of 
food or work elsewhere. 

The results of the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows : 
—Area of District, 3004 square miles; number of towns 5, and of 
villages 630; number of houses, 34,276, namely, occupied 30,535, and 
unoccupied 3741 ; number of resident families, 51,596. Total popula- 
tion, 253,275, namely, males 138,691, and females 114,584 ; proportion 
of males, 54-8 per cent. Average density of population, 84 persons 
per square mile ; towns and villages per square mile, 0-21 ; persons per 
town or village, 399 ; houses per square mile, 11 ; persons per occupied 
house, 4-91. Classified according to sex and age, the population con 
sists of— under 15 years of age, boys 52,954, and girls 46,368; total 
children, 99,322, or 39-2 per cent, of the population : 15 years and 
upwards, males 85,737, and females 68,216; total adults, 153,953, or 
6o'8 per cent. 

i?^//>/^«.— Classified according to religion, there were in 18S1 

Hindus, 130,582, or 51-5 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 93,289, or 2,^-^; 
Sikhs, 28,303, or 1 1 -2 per cent. ; Jains, 1084; and Christians, 17. The 
ethnical division of the inhabitants shows the Jats or Jats as the leadin^^- 
tribe, with a total of 64,040 persons, of whom 39,112 were Hindus, 
21,853 were Sikhs, 3074 were Muhammadans, and i was returned as a 
Christian. With them may be taken the allied tribe of Rajputs, who 
come next in point of numbers with 46,827, of whom the Hindus and 
Sikhs together number only 3838, while the Muhammadans number 
42,989. The two tribes taken together number 110,867, or 44 per 
cent, of the whole population of the District. In the case of the 
Hindus and Sikhs, the distinction between Jats and Rajputs is clearly 
defined, the most marked difference being that the Jats allow the 



14 SIRSA. 

remarriage of widows, while the Rajputs do not. But among the 
Musalmans there is no such clear distinction; and in Sirsa District 
there are several clans which claim to be Rajputs, a claim allowed by 
some of their neighbours, and denied by others, who call them Jats. 
Speaking generally, the Jats are the best and most industrious of the 
cultivating classes. Of the Rajputs, the leading clan and still the 
dominant race, although not in a numerical point of view, are the 
Bhattis, 7358, almost all Muhammadans, chiefly inhabiting the Ghaggar 
and Sotar valleys. Like other predatory races, the Bhattis have sunk 
in the social scale since the British occupation, as their lazy and impro- 
vident habits unfit them for an industrial regime. Their chief occupa- 
tion is that of graziers, with which they combine, when practicable, 
their hereditary practice of cattle-lifting. They are now taking to 
agriculture, but only own 8 villages in the District, with shares in 19 
others. The Wattus, another Muhammadan Rajput clan, own the 
greater portion of the Sutlej valley tract, the richest portion of the 
District. They number 3810, and own 24 villages, with shares in 28 
others. The Jaiyas are another ancient and powerful Rajput clan, who 
formerly contested the possession of the country around Bhatner with 
the Bhattis and the Bikaner Rajputs. They number 5494, but own 
little land. 

Of the purely or almost purely Hindu castes and tribes, the Brah- 
mans number 5559, many of them engaged in agriculture. Of the 
trading castes, Baniyas number 10,496, and Aroras 5554. The 
Chamars or low-caste skinners and leather-workers number 18,022, 
and are next to the Jats the most numerous class among the Hindus, 
followed by the Chiihras, or sweepers, who number 12,293. Of the 
Muhammadan population by race as apart from religion, Sayyids, who 
form the priesthood, number 634; Pathans, 1554; Baliichis, 1380; and 
Mughals, 694. 

Urban and Rural Population. — Sirsa District contains only two towns 
with a population exceeding five thousand, namely, Sirsa, population 
(1881) 12,292 ; and Fazilka, 6851. Three other towns are also 
returned as municipalities, namely, Rania, 4626; Ellenabad, 413 i; 
and RoRi, 3063. These towns contain a total population of 30,963, 
or 1 2 '2 per cent, of the District population. Total municipal 
income (1883-84), ;j{^2 86i, or an average of is. lod. per head. Of 
the 630 minor villages, 212 contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 
29 T from two hundred to five hundred; loi from five hundred to a 
thousand; 25 from one thousand to two thousand; and i from two to 
three thousand. 

Material Condition of the People. — In material prosperity, the people 
of Sirsa District are better off than in many other Districts of the 
Punjab. They can ordinarily obtain with ease a sufficiency of good 



SIRS A. ,5 

food and comfcrtable clothing. Although the great majority of the 
dwellings are mere hovels, those who prefer a better house have little 
difficulty in making one ; and an unusually large proportion of the 
people have means enough to procure such utensils, comforts, and 
ornaments as take their fancy. Notwithstanding the precarious yield 
of the harvests, there is seldom any wide-felt scarcity at all ai)proaching 
famine ; for the population is still scanty as compared with the area, 
and the yield in good years is more than sufficient to provide a surplus 
for bad years, and the people have learned from experience to store 
up grain against years of drought, while their general prosperity has 
enabled them to do so. The peasants are unusually independent of 
the money-lender. 

As is natural in a newly-colonized country, the people are prone to 
wander. Not only are homeless tribes and families more numerous 
than in most other Districts ; but even after having lived in a place for 
some years, a settler who is not getting on so well as he had hoped, 
thinks it no hardship to quit the village with his family, cattle, and 
household goods, and migrate to a more favourable spot. Especially 
in a year of scarcity, such migrations are common, but they are not 
necessarily a sign of distress. Indeed, the colonist often pays up his 
rent and settles all his debts, and takes away with him a considerable 
amount of capital with which to start life afresh in a new village. As 
population increases, however, and land gets more scarce and capital 
accumulates, the people are becoming less migratory. The Sikhs are 
especially reluctant to leave the fields they have cultivated and learned 
to love, except when pressure of population drives some members of 
the family to move onwards, leaving the others in possession of the 
family holding and often retaining their rights in it. The Bagri Jats, 
too, are now settling down in their villages, though such tribes as the 
Bawariyas and Thoris are still very much given to wander, and Ods, 
Nats, and Bazigars never settle anywhere for any length of time. Even 
the Mu Salmans, who two generations ago lived a wandering pastoral 
life, have now generally settled down in particular villages, although 
the poorer classes are still ready to migrate on the slightest grievance 
or hardship. 

Occupations. — As regards occupation, the Census of iSSi divided 
'the adult male population of Sirsa into the following seven main 
classes: — (i) Professional and official class, 3348; (2) domestic and 
menial class, 1623; (3) commercial class, 2192; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, 53,021; (5) industrial and manufacturing class, 14,402; 
(6) indefinite and non-productive class, 6550 ; (7) unspecified, 4601. 

The proportion of adult males engaged in agriculture is larger in 
Sirsa than in any other District of the Punjab, being 66 per cent, 
as against 55 per cent, for the Province as a whole. Owing to the 



1 6 SIRS A. 

recent colonization of the District, few industries have yet had time to 
develop. Agriculture is the main support of even a larger proportion 
of the population than indicated by the figures given above. Land is 
so plentiful and cheap, that many men belonging to castes whose heredi- 
tary occupation is distinct from agriculture supplement their caste occu- 
pation by taking land as tenants, and cultivating it themselves. Agri- 
culture is the most respectable occupation open to a Sirsa artisan ; and 
when a man of this class is able to support himself from the land, he 
gives up his hereditary caste occupation, and endeavours to forget it, 
and to ignore his connection with his caste-fellows who still follow the 
ancestral caUing. The proportion of the population who do not engage 
in agriculture in any form is very small. Owing to the absence of an 
outside market, the manufactures are confined to the simple require- 
ments of the village, which are themselves dependent on the harvest. 
The people of all classes are so accustomed to provide against bad 
seasons, that the artisans proper, like the peasants, are better off than in 
many other parts of the Punjab. 

Agriculture. — Only a little over one-half of the cultivable area in Sirsa 
has been brought under tillage ; a large portion of the remainder is still 
devoted to grazing. The staple product is bdjra, which occupied 
413,493 acres in 1883-84. The other principal crops were— yWr, 
72,780 acres; pulses, 29,136 acres; and oil-seeds (///), 22,129 acres. 
These all belong to the autumn or kharif harvest, which is generally 
successful, and which occupies 543,119 acres, or two-thirds of the 
whole cultivated area ; but the spring or rabi crops are very precarious, 
owing to the capriciousness of the rainfall, and they not infrequently 
fail altogether. In 1883-84, the principal rabi crops occupied the 
following areas :— Barley, 160,932 acres; gram, ii4,359 acres; and 
wheat, 34,886 acres. Wheat is grown in the Sutlej and Ghaggar 
valleys, and rice for local consumption is produced in the latter. Total 
cultivated area (1883-84)—^//^/-//; 543^1 ^9 acres; and rabi, 323,146 
acres : grand total, 866,265 acres. The average out-turn per acre for 
the various crops is as follows :— Rice, 779 lbs.; wheat, 457 lbs.; 
gram, 477 lbs.; and cotton, 59 lbs. Irrigation is but little practised, 
and the District is almost entirely dependent on the rainfall. A good 
season secures a fair supply of coarse grains and abundant pasturage 
for the cattle ; but in a dry year, the whole country becomes an arid 
and desolate waste. 

Sirsa was formerly famous for its breed of cattle, which are still reared 
in large numbers ; but with the extension of cultivation, encroachments 
have been made upon the pasturage, and the closer grazing thus induced 
has proved very destructive to the dhdf?ian grass, from which the breed 
is supposed to have derived its good qualities. The agricultural 
stock, etc., was returned as follows in 1883-84 :— Cows and bullocks. 



S/J^SA. 17 

149,314; horses, 1377; ponies, 694; donkeys, 3447; sheep and 
goats, 187,167; camels, 15,187; carts, 2107; and ploughs, 34,189. 

As stated in a previous paragraph, the peasantry of Sirsa are generally 
freer from debt than in other Districts. A few of the more improvident 
are in the hands of the village shopkeepers, and in seasons of scarcity 
there is a more or less general appeal to the money-lenders. At present 
they are in thriving and comfortable circumstances. The chief incon- 
venience felt by the people is the scarcity of good drinking water 
in the dry tract ; but wells are being sunk by degrees all over the 
District. 

The position of the tenants is favourable, as the original owners of 
the soil, in their anxiety to secure cultivators from among the immigrant 
colonists, have granted very easy terms to settlers. Rents, when paid 
in money, are returned as follows, in accordance with the nature of the 
crop for which the land is suitable : — Rice, 7s. an acre ; v/heat, 3s. an 
acre; and other grains on unirrigated land, lod. an acre. About one- 
sixth of the whole area held by tenants pays rent in kind by a share 
of the crop. Wages fluctuate according to the season, and are reported 
to have risen 50 per cent, during the last twenty years. In towns 
they range from 2 to 4 annas (3d. to 6d.) per diem. Agricultural 
wages are almost invariably paid in grain. The prices of food-grains 
ruled as follows in January 1884 : — Bdjra, 27 sers per rupee, or 4s. 2d. 
per cwt. ; barley, 37 sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; wheat, 19 sers 
per rupee, or 5s. iid. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — As Sirsa is entirely dependent for its harvests 
upon the scanty rainfall, it is peculiarly liable to famine. In plentiful 
years, the local food supply is much more than sufficient for home 
consumption ; grain is exported in large quantities, and large reserves 
are kept for seasons of scarcity. For, sometimes, when the rains fail, 
the produce of the District is almost nothing. Sirsa suffered much 
during the disastrous seasons of 1868 and 1869. In October 1868, 
it was necessary to open poorhouses ; and during January 1869, relief 
was afforded to 40,715 persons. The spring crop proved a total loss, 
and the distress continued throughout the year. Rain fell in September, 
in time to save the autumn harvest; but it was not till the beginning 
of 1870 that relief measures could be brought to an end. In January 
1869, bdjra was quoted at 10 sers per rupee, or iis. 2d. per cwt. 
Scarcities arising from drought again occurred in 1876-77, and in 
1880-81, but in neither case amounting to famine; and ahuost the 
whole of the land revenue demand was realized without difficulty, 
although numbers of cattle starved for want of fodder. 

Commerce and Trade, €tc.—T\\% District has little trade, except in 
agricultural produce, which goes chiefly westwards towards Sind, and 
eastwards to Delhi, the chief local centres being Sirsa town in the east, 

VOL. XIII. B 



i8 SIRSA. 

and Fazilka in the west. Wool and mustard seed are exported to 
Karachi; while grain, cotton, European piece-goods, and hardware 
are imported from the east. A great cattle fair is held at Sirsa town 
in August and September, attended by purchasers from the Punjab 
and the North-Western Provinces. About 30,000 head of cattle from 
the District itself and the adjoining Native States are exposed for sale ; 
and the concourse of people is estimated at 25,000. Fazilka, on the 
Sutlej, is a mart of rising importance, its posidon on the river enabling 
it to conduct a direct traffic with the sea-coast, and to supersede 
Firozpur as an emporium for the commerce of this part of the Sutlej. 
The only manufacture of any importance is that of sajji, an impure 
carbonate of soda, used in washing and dyeing cloth. It is obtained 
by burning a plant of the same name, which contains large quantities 
of alkali. Coarse saltpetre is also manufactured to some extent. 

Means of Commujiicatio7i. — The Rewari-Firozpur Railway, opened 
in 1885, runs across the north-east of the District, passing through 
Sirsa town. There are no masonry roads in the District, except for a 
mile or two in and near Sirsa and Fazilka towns. A good wide 
unmetalled road enters the District at Narel from Hissar, and runs by 
Sirsa, Dabwali, and Fazilka to Muazzam on the Sutlej, where there is 
a ferry, and so on to Okara, a station on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi 
Railway in Montgomery District. Another broad road runs to the west 
of this, nearly the whole length of the District from Sirsa via Abohar 
to P'azilka, and is much used by Povindah traders from the frontier, 
who annually pass through the District in the cold weather, with their 
long strings of camels laden with merchandise from Kabul and 
Kandahar, on their way to Delhi and the North-Western Provinces. 
Other roads run from Sirsa north-east to Rori, south-east to Darba, 
south to Jamal, and west to Ellenabad ; from Malaut south-west to 
Abohar and Usman Khera, and north to Muktsar ; from Fazilka north- 
east towards Firozpur, and south-west towards Bahawalpur. Except 
during the rainy season, there are no serious obstacles to traffic, though 
in the dry hot weather great difficulty is sometimes experienced from 
want of water. Total length of District roads (1884-85), 500 miles; 
railways, 35 miles; navigable rivers, 20 miles. 

Administration. — The District is administered by a Deputy Commis- 
sioner, with an Assistant and Extra-Assistant, besides 3 iahsilddrs and 
their deputies. In 1872-73, the total revenue amounted to ^27,227, 
of which ^23,653 was derived from the land-tax. In 1883-84, while 
the general revenue of the District amounted to ^32,197, the land 
revenue had fallen to ^21,986. The rate of the land revenue is 
lighter in Sirsa than in any other part of the Punjab, amounting to 
an average of only 7d. per acre of cultivation. 

For police purposes the District is divided into 7 police circles 



SIJ^SA TAHSIL. 19 

{thiinds). In 1883 the regular and municipal police numbered 370 men, 
being i policeman for every S'l sc^uare miles of area and for every 68 + 
of the population. The District jail is at Sirsa town; the total numl)cr 
of inmates in 1883 was 720, while the daily average was 190. 

Education is still very backward, as might naturally be expected in a 
District so recently occupied and so thinly populated. In 1883-84 
there were only 22 Government-inspected schools in Sirsa, and the total 
number of pupils on the rolls was 775. There were also 105 unaided 
and uninspected schools, attended by 814 pupils. The Census Report 
of 1 88 1 returned 1655 boys and 34 girls as under instruction, besides 
6158 males and 57 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Sirsa is extremely dry. The average 
annual rainfall for the twenty-five years ending 1882-83 was as 
follows: — Sirsa, i5'3 inches; Dabwali, 13*8 inches; and Fazilka, 13-1 
inches. In 1880-81, a year of scarcity, the rainfall at Sirsa was only 
8*9 inches. The thermometer varies from a minimum monthly mean 
of 55° F. in January to a maximum of 93° in June. The principal 
disease is fever, to which about three-fourths of all the deaths are 
assigned ; but small-pox, cholera, and bowel complaints are also 
prevalent. The total number of deaths reported in 1884 ^^'^s 8364, or 
32 per thousand of the population; of which 5776 cases, or 22-80 per 
thousand, were assigned to fever alone. [For further information 
regarding Sirsa, see the Revised Settleirmit Report of Si?'sd District, 
conducted between 1878 and 1883 by Mr. J. Wilson (Calcutta, 1884) ; 
also the Punjab Census Report for 1881 ; and the several annual 
Administration and Departmental Reports of the Punjab Govern- 
ment. Sirsa was abolished as a District in 1884 as a part of the local 
reorganization of the Punjab effected in that year. Sirsa tahs'il and 
126 villages of Dabwali tahsil were transferred to Hissar District; 
while the Fazilka tahsil of Sirsa District, and the remaining 31 villages 
of Dabwali tahsil, were amalgamated with Firozpur District. The 
change took effect from the ist November 1884; but as the articles 
on Firozpur and Hissar Districts had been sent to the printer before 
that date, they do not take cognisance of it. It has been thought 
advisable, therefore, to insert the article on Sirsa District as it existed 
up to the time of its abolition. The population statistics all refer to 
1 88 1, and the administrative statistics have been brought down to 
March 31st, 1884, the last day of the financial year.] 

Sirsa.— South-eastern tahsil of Sirsa District, Punjab; consisting 
chiefly of a dry and sandy plain. Area, 992 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1881) 94,245, namely, males 51,540, and females 42,705 ; 
average density of population, 95 persons per square mile. Hindus 
number 60,793; Muhammadans, 32,601; Sikhs, 176; and 'others,' 



20 SIRSA TOWN. 

675. Of the total area of the tahsil, 613,827 acres were assessed for 
Government revenue in 1880-81, of which 386,193 acres were under 
cultivation. Revenue of the fahsil, ^^i 2,429. The administrative 
staff, including the District officers at head-quarters, consists of a 
Deputy Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, and a tahsiiddr, pre- 
siding over 3 civil and 3 criminal courts. Number of police circles 
{thdfids), 2 ; strength of regular police, 82 men; rural police or village 
watch {chaukiddrs)^ 190. 

Sirsa. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of 
Sirsa District, Punjab ; situated on the north side of a dry bed of the 
Ghaggar, in lat. 29° 32' 20" n., and long. 75" 7' e. The modern town, 
founded in 1837 by Major Thoresby, Superintendent of Bhattiana, 
occupies a square site within a mud wall 8 feet high, and consists of 
wide streets running at right angles, without any of those narrow 
winding lanes which usually occur in oriental towns. Major Thoresby 
desired to create a centre for local trade, with which object he invited 
traders from Hansi, Hissar, and the neighbouring towns of Bikaner 
(Bickaneer) and Patiala. Great success attended his efforts, and the 
town grew rapidly in population and wealth. Population (1881) 
12,292, namely, males 671 1, and females 5581. Hindus, 8492 ; 
Muhammadans, 3445; Jains, 241 ; Sikhs, loi ; 'others,' 13. Number 
of houses, 2019. Municipal income (1883-84), ^1854, or an average 
of 3s. per head. 

The ruins of old Sirsa lie near the south-west corner of the modern 
station, and still present considerable remains, though much of the 
material has been used for building the new houses. Tradition 
ascribes its origin to an eponymic Raja Saras, who built the town and 
fort about 1300 years ago. The historian of Firoz Tughlak mentions 
it under the name of Sarsuti, and it would then appear to have been 
a place of wealth and importance. Nothing is known of its later 
history, but its depopulation is attributed to the great famine of 
1726. 

The modern town is an entrep6t for the trade of the wheat-growing 
countries to the north and east with Bikaner (Bickaneer) and Marwar; 
and the opening of the Rewari - Firozpur Railway in 1885, with 
a station at Sirsa town, will doubtless further develop its import- 
ance. Grain of all kinds from Ludhiana, Ambala (Umballa), and 
Patiala, and sugar from the neighbourhood of Shamli, form the chief 
items of export. Salt and millets are the staples of the return traffic. 
The total value of the local commerce is estimated at ;z^9o,ooo a year. 
Most of the trade is in the hands of Hindu Baniyas from Rajputana 
and the country to the south-east. Some of them belong to firms of 
considerable wealth and repute, which have established permanent 
branches at Sirsa. Manufacture of coarse cloth and pottery. Court- 



I 



SIRS A TOWN—SIRSI. 21 

house and treasury, church, police station, municipal hall, tahsU'i, jail, 
staging bungalow, sa rd i {n:xi\\Q inn). Government charitable dispensary, 

2 schools. 

Sirsd. — Town in Meja tahsi/, Allahabad District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 14' 48" n., long. 82° 8' 22" e., on the 
south bank of the Ganges, and 8 miles north of Meja town, with 
which it is connected by a road. Station on the East Indian Railway, 

3 miles south of the village. Population (1881) 3442. The market 
here is the largest in the District, except those in Allahabad city. 
Large exports of linseed and food -grains, mostly to Lower Bengal. 
Opium warehouse, post-office, police station, and Anglo -vernacular 
school. Boat-ferry service across the Ganges. A small house-tax is 
raised for police and conservancy purposes. 

Sirsi. — Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 779 square miles. Population (1881) 62,400, namely, males 
36,398, and females 26,002 ; occupying 9799 houses in i town and 257 
villages. Hindus number 58,711; Muhammadans, 2681 ; and 'others,' 
1008. The Sahyadri range is situated on the western boundary of the 
Sub-division, and in its neighbourhood lie deep moist valleys containing 
rich garden land between hills covered with evergreen forest. The 
country, as far east as the middle of the Sub-division, is covered with 
trees. Farther east, except some scattered evergreen patches, the 
forest becomes gradually thinner, and the trees more stunted. 
Generally the region is healthy, but malarious between October and 
March. Water for drinking and irrigation is abundant. Staple crops 
—rice, sugar-cane, gram, i?iug (Phaseolus Mungo), kuiti (Dolichos 
biflorus), uriad (Phaseolus aconitifolius), and castor - oil ; garden 
products comprise areca-nuts, cardamoms, cocoa-nuts, and black 
pepper. Survey assessment rates vary from £1, 4s. to ;^i, 8s. per 
acre for garden land; from 8s. to los. per acre for rice land ; and from 
IS. 6d. to 2S. for ordinary dry crop land. The Sub-division forms an 
immense forest reserve. The felling and carrying charges amount to 
about £1, 6s. a ton ; and the sale price varies from £4, i6s. to ^10 a 
ton. Bamboo, teak, and sago-palm are the chief forest products. In 
1883 the Sub-division contained i civil and 3 criminal courts; police 
circles (thdnds), 9; regular police, 67 men; village watch {chaukiddrs\ 
30. Land revenue, £i'j,i'j6. 

Sirsi. — Chief town of the Sirsi Sub-division of North Kanara 
District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 14° 3^' n., and long. 74' 
54' E., 320 miles south-east of Bombay, and about 60 miles south-east 
of the port of Karwar, 2500 feet above sea-level. The ground on which 
the town stands consists of quartz and gravel, the highest points of 
which are covered by a bed of laterite, while in the ravines on the 
western and northern sides there is micaceous schist broken through by 



2 2 SII^SI TO WN—SIR UR. 

diorite. Sirsi is a municipal town, with a population (1881) of 5633, 
namely, Hindus, 4336; Muhammadans, 976; Christians, 300; and 
Jains, 21. Municipal revenue (1883-84), ^£"986; incidence of taxation 
per head, 3s. 2|d. Every alternate year, a fair is held in honour of 
the deity Mari, which lasts for a week, and is attended chiefly by 
low-caste Hindus to the number of about 10,000 persons. Sub-judge's 
court, post-office, and dispensary, four schools, including one for girls. 
Colonel Wellesley in 1800 sent a battalion to Sirsi to drive out 
banditti. 

Sirsi. — Town in Sambhal tahs'il^ Moradabad District, North- Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 28" 36' 30" n., and long. 78° 39' 45" e., 17 
miles south-west of Moradabad town, and 3 miles east of the Sot river. 
Population (1881) 5947, namely, Muhammadans 4302, and Hindus 
1645. Number of houses, 803. The public buildings comprise a 
police outpost station, sardi or native inn, and the tomb of Makhdum 
Shah, the reputed founder of the town. A small house-tax is raised for 
police and conservancy purposes. 

Sirsi. — Guaranteed Chiefship, a feudatory of Gwalior under the 
Goona Sub-agency, Central India. In 1820, the Maharaja Daulat Rao 
Sindhia granted three-fourths of the revenue of the taluk of Sirsi to 
Bariit Sah, on condition that he would pay the other fourth, and reduce 
the Girasias and other lawless tribes to obedience. In 1837, however, 
by a fresh arrangement with Hindu Singh, the payment of the one- 
fourth of the revenue was remitted on condition of military service 
when required. Sirsi State lies in the midst of forest, 30 miles to the 
north-west of Goona, and is apt, from its peculiar position, to become a 
refuge for cattle-lifters and bad characters. The number of villages 
is only 27, and the population (1881) 4026, namely, Hindus, 4000; 
Muhammadans, 25; and 'others,' i. The revenue of the State was 
estimated in 1881 at ;£4oo per annum. The present Divvan of Sirsi is 
named Bijai Bahadur. 

Sirsi. — Town in Umrer tahsil^ Nagpur District, Central Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2107, namely, Hindus, 1872; Muhammadans, 80; 
Jains, 14; and non-Hindu aborigines, 141. 

Sirsundi. — Zaminddri estate in Brahmapuri tahsil^ Chanda Dis- 
trict, Central Provinces ; 24 miles east of Wairdgarh. Area, 38 square 
miles; number of villages, 12; houses, 179; population (1881), 755. 
Sirsundi village is situated in lat. 20° 26' n., and long. 80° 23' e., and 
contains (1881) 294 inhabitants. 

Siruguppa. — Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency. — See 

SiRAGUPA. 

Siriir. — North-eastern Sub-division of Poona (Piina) District, Bombay 
Presidency; lying between 18° 31' and 19° \' n. lat., and 74° 5' and 74° 
40' E. long.; 38 miles long, and 36 miles broad. Area, 577 square 



SIRUR TOWN—SIRUTANDANALLUR. 23 

miles. Population (18S1) 72,793, namely, males 36,392, and females 
36,401 ; occupying 13,633 houses in 76 villages. Hindus number 
67,006; Muhammadans, 4036; and 'others,' 1751. Siriir consists of 
stony uplands seamed towards the centre by rugged valleys, but towards 
its river boundaries sloping into more open plains. The chief features 
are low hills and uplands. The low hills are occasionally rugged and 
steep ; the uplands, in some parts poor and stony, have in other parts 
rich tracts of good soil, with, especially in the south-east corner, gentle 
undulations passing into a fairly level plain. The country is through- 
out sparsely wooded. The prevailing soil is a light friable grey, freely 
mixed with gravel. The best upland soils are very productive, even 
with a comparatively scanty rainfall. In 1881-82, 206,692 acres were 
under actual cultivation, of which 2 181 acres were twice cropped. 
Cereals and millets occupied 178,945 acres; pulses, 19,885 acres; 
oil-seeds, 7488 acres; fibres, 526 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 
2029 acres. The cultivating classes, who form nearly two-thirds of the 
total population, are chiefly Kunbis and Mali's, who are found through- 
out the Sub-division. About 5 per cent, of the husbandmen have to 
borrow both catde and field implements. In 1883 the Sub-division 
contained i civil and 3 criminal courts ; police circle {thdnd)^ i ; 
regular police, 46 men; and village watch {chaiikiddrs)^ 162. Land 
revenue, ^13,824. 

Sinir (or Ghodnadi). — Town, municipality, and cantonment in the 
Sirur Sub-division of Poona District, Bombay Presidency ; situated on 
the river Ghod, in lat. 18° 49' 45" n., and long. 74° 22' 51" e., 36 miles 
north-east of Poona city and 34 miles south-west of Ahmadnagar. Eleva- 
tion, about 1750 feet above sea-level. The country around is hilly and 
uncultivated. Siriir is a municipal town, with a total population (1881) 
of 4372, and a municipal revenue (1883-84) of ^737; incidence of 
taxation, 2s. lofd. Siriir has about 285 money-lenders, traders, and 
shopkeepers, some of whom are rich. They trade in cloth and grain. 
At the weekly market on Saturdays, large numbers of cattle and horses 
are sold. The garrison of Siriir cantonment consists of the Poona 
Auxiliary Horse. The most notable monument in the cemetery is the 
tomb of Colonel W. Wallace (1809), who is still remembered by the 
aged at Siriir as Sat Punish, ' the Holy Man.' Except Brahmans and 
Marwaris, all the Hindus of Siriir and neighbouring villages worship 
at Colonel Wallace's tomb. At harvest-lime the villagers bring first- 
fruits of grain as naivedya or ' food for the saintly spirit.' At a hamlet 
about 2 miles south of the town, a Hindu fair, attended by about 3000 
persons, is held yearly in ]\Iarch or April. Post-ofiice, dispensary, and 
travellers' bungalow. 

Sirutandanalllir (or /r^/). — Trading town in Tenkarai taluk, 
Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency ; situated near the mouth of the 



24 SIRVEL—SITABALDL 

Tambrapami, in lat. 8° 38' n., and long. 78° 35' 15" e. Population 
(1881) 6087, living in 1456 houses. Hindus number 4152; Muham- 
madans, 1363; and Christians, 572. 

Sirvel iSirvail). — Taluk or Sub-division of Karnill District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 623 square miles. Population (1881) 57,1971 
namely, males 28,754, and females 28,443; occupying 12,961 houses 
in 87 villages. Hindus number 49,004; Muhammadans, 7128; and 
Christians, 1065. In 1883 the taluk contained 2 criminal courts; 
police circles {thdnds)^ 4 ; regular police, 40 men. Land revenue, 

^14,843- 

Sirvel {Sirvail). — Chief village of Sirvel taluk, Karniil District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 2091, occupying 461 houses. 
Hindus number 12 10; Muhammadans, 880; and Christian, i. 

Sisang Chandli. — Petty State in the Halar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency; consisting of 2 villages, with 5 shareholders or 
tribute-payers. Area, i square mile. Population (1881) 17 12. Esti- 
mated revenue, ^£^750; of which £']2 is paid as tribute to the British 
Government, and ;!^2 2, 12s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Siskal-betta (or Sisukall-betta). — Lofty mountain, with a columnar 
peak, in the central range of the Western Ghats, which form the frontier 
between Hassan District, Mysore State, and the District of South 
Kinara, Madras Presidency. 

Sisotar.— Town in Bansdih tahsil, Ballia District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 26° 02' 46" n., long. 84° 07' 05" e., about 
2 miles north of Sikandarpur town, and 13 miles from Bansdih. 
Population (1881) 5970. The village is the head - quarters of a 
permanently settled estate owned by a family of Bhiiinhars or culti- 
vating Brahmans. Small manufacture of cotton cloth. Sugar refinery. 
Primary school. 

Sispara {Chichchipdrai). — Pass leading from Malabar to the Nilgiris 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 12' n., long. 76° 28' e. Now 
entirely out of repair. 

Sissaindi. — Town in Lucknow District, Oudh ; situated on the banks 
of the Sal river, 6 miles south-east of Mohanldlganj. The residence of 
Rajd Kasi Prasad, a wealthy tdlukddr. Population (1881) 2861. 

Sissana. — Agricultural town or collection of hamlets in Sampla taJisil, 
Rohtak District, Punjab. Population (1868) 5051, consisting of 3830 
Hindus, 467 Muhammadans, and 754 * others.' Not separately returned 
in the Census Report of 1881. 

Siswali. — Town in Kotah State, Rajputana; situated about 35 
miles north-east of Kotah town. Population (1881) 5030, namely, 
Hindus, 4041 ; Muhammadans, 734; and 'others,' 255. 

Sitabaldi. — Battle-field and cantonment near Nagpur city, in 
Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21° 9' n., long. 79° 8' e. 



L 



SITAKUND- SITAMARIIL 25 

Sitakund. — Highest peak in the Si'takund range, Chittagong District, 
Bengal. A sacred hill, 1155 feet above sea-level. Lat. 22° 37' 40" n., 
long. 91° 41' 40" E. 

Sitakund (or ChandrandtJi). — Sacred spring on the above mountain, 
said to have been bituminous, but now no longer in existence, having 
either dried up or filled up in the latter part of the last century. 
The site is, however, still a revered place of pilgrimage for Hindus 
from all parts of India. Tradition states that Sitakund was visited by 
both Rama and Siva; and it is believed to be one of the favourite 
earthly residences of the latter deity. The principal gathering is the 
Siva Chaturdasi festival, on the 14th day of the moon sacred to Siva 
(usually in February) ; it lasts about ten days, and is attended by from 
10,000 to 20,000 devotees. The pilgrims live at lodging-houses kejjt 
for the purpose by Brahmans, called adliikdris, each of whom is said 
to realize from ;^3oo tO;2^4oo during this festival. Minor gatherings 
take place at Sitakund in or near the months of March and November, 
and on the occasion of every eclipse of the sun and moon. The 
ascent of Sitakund or Chandranath Hill is said to redeem the pilgrim 
from the misery of a future birth. A meeting of Buddhists (chiefly 
hillmen) takes place on the last day of the Bengali year at a spot 
on Chandranith Hill, where the body of Gautama, the last Buddha, 
is locally reported to have been burned after death. Bones of 
deceased relatives are brought here, and deposited in a pit sacred to 
Gautama. At Bharatkund, in the same range of hills, there is a 
bituminous spring. The water is cold, but there is a constant 
emission of gas from the shale, which, being lighted, keeps up a 
flame. 

Sitakund.— An oblong tank, about 100 feet long by 50 feet wide, 
excavated in the Mandar Hill, Bhagalpur District, Bengal, nearly 
500 feet above the surrounding plain. The pilgrims who visit it are 
persuaded to believe that Sita used to bathe in it during her stay 
on the hill with her husband when banished from Oudh. On the 
northern bank of this tank stood the first temple of Madhu-siidan, 
ascribed to Raja Chola, now in ruins. 

Sitalpur.— Village in Saran District, Bengal; situated on the Gandak 
river. Population (1881) 2671. 

Sitamarhi.— Sub-division of Muzafi*arpur District, Bengal. Area, 
1014 square miles; number of villages, 1404; houses, 121,350. Popu- 
lation (1881)— males 420,544, and females 4i7o5o; ^^^^^^ 837,894. 
Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 715,710; Muham- 
madans, 122,155 ; and Christians, 29. Average density of population, 
826 persons per square mile ; villages per square mile, 1-38; persons 
per village, 597; houses per square mile, 123; persons per house, 6*9. 
This Sub-division consists of the 3 police circles of Sheohar, Sitdmarhi, 



2 6 SITAMARHI TO WN— SI TAMA U. 

and Pupri. In 1884 it contained i civil and 2 criminal courts, a force 
of 88 policemen, and 1356 village watchmen. 

Sitamarhi. — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Sitamarhi 
Sub-division, Muzaffarpur District, Bengal ; situated on the west bank 
of the Lakhandai, in lat. 26° 35' 20" N., and long. 85° 31' 33" E. 
Population (1881) 6125, namely, Hindus, 5160; Muhammadans, 964; 
'other,' I. Municipal income (1883-84), ^461, of which ;!^294 was 
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, lofd. per head of 
the population (6535) within municipal limits. The town contains a 
good dispensary, school, bdzdr^ and a mtmsiji formerly stationed at 
Koeh' ; daily markets with trade in rice, sakhwd wood, oil-seeds, hides, 
and Nepal produce ; chief manufactures — saltpetre, and the jando or 
sacred thread worn by Brahmans and others. Large fair held in the 
month of Chaitra, the principal day being the 9th of the Sukla Paksha, 
or Ramnami, the day on which Rama is said to have been born. This 
fair lasts a fortnight, and is attended by people from very great dis- 
tances. Sewan pottery, elephants, spices, brass utensils, and cotton 
cloth form the staple articles of commerce ; but the fair is noted for the 
large number of bullocks brought here, the Sitamarhi cattle being 
supposed to be an especially good breed. Tradition relates that the 
lovely Janaki or Sita, whose life is described in the Rdmdyana^ here 
sprang to life out of an earthen pot into which Raja Janak had driven 
his ploughshare. Nine temples, of which five are in the same 
enclosure as that of Sita, are dedicated to Sita, Hanuman, Siva, and 
Dahi. A wooden bridge here crosses the Lakhandai, built by Rai 
Chandhari Riidra Prasad Bahadur, of Nanpur Koeli. Sitamarhi is 
connected by road with the Nepal frontier, and also with Darbhangah 
and Muzaffarpur. 

Sitamau.^Native State under the Western Malwa Agency, Central 
India. Area, 350 square miles. Population (1881) 30,839, namely, 
males 16,354, and females 14,485. Hindus number 27,905; Muham- 
madans, 1528; Jains, 942; non-Hindu aborigines, 464. Estimated 
revenue from all sources, ^19,587 ; exclusive of Jdgirs, ^12,600. 
Tribute of ^5500 is paid to Sindhia. The tribute was originally fixed 
at ;£6ooo, but was reduced by ^500 in i860 in compliance with the 
representations of the British Government. The principal products of 
the State are grain, opium, and cotton. Sitamau, like Sailana, formed 
originally a portion of Ratlam, and was separated from it on the death 
of Ram Singh, Raja of Ratlam in 1660, when his second son Kassur 
Das succeeded to the lands now comprised in Sitamau. The chief is 
a Rahtor Rajput. He receives a salute of 11 guns. The military 
force consists of 40 horse and 100 foot. 

Sitamau. — Chief town of the State of Sitamau, Central India ; 
situated in lat. 24° n., and long. 75° 23' e. The town is built on an 



SITAMPETTA—SITAPUR. 27 

eminence, and is enclosed by a wall in good preservation. About 230 
miles south-west of the fort of Gwalior, 48 miles from Nimach, 58 miles 
from Agar. The nearest post-office is Mandesar, 17 miles west. The 
nearest telegraph office and railway station are at Dilanda, 15 miles 
west, on the Malwa branch of the Rijputana-Malwa Railway. Popu- 
lation (1881) 5764, namely, Hindus, 4443 ; Muhammadans, 931 ; and 
'others,' 390. 

Sitampetta. — Pass in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency, 
being one of the principal roads from Vizagapatam into Ganjam, and 
the usual route into Jaipur (Jeypore). Lat. 18° 40' n., long. 83° 55' e. 
The road is practicable for wheeled traffic. 

Sitanagar. — Town in Damoh tahsil^ Damoh District, Central Pro- 
vinces. Population (1881) 2513, namely, Hindus, 2181 ; Kabirpanthis, 
i8t ; Satnamis, 7; and Muhammadans, 144. 

Sitanagaram. —Hills in Kistna District, Madras Presidency, lying 
between 16' 28' and 16° 29'4o"n. lat, and between 88' 38' and 88^38' 
40" E. long., on the right bank of the Kistna river opposite Bezwara, 
and forming one base of the great anicut. Near this range are the 
Undavalli caves, including a four-storied rock-cut temple now adapted 
to Vishnu-worship. 

Sitang. — Bold conical peak in Darjiling District, Bengal ; situated 
to the south-east of Darjiling station. The northern slopes are occu- 
pied by the Government cinchona gardens. Lat. 26° 54' 45" n., long. 
88° 26' E. 

Sitapur. — Division or Commissionership of the Province of Oudh, 
under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western 
Provinces; lying between 26° 53' and 28° 42' n. lat., and between 79' 
44' and 81° 23' E. long. It forms the north-western Division of Oudh, 
and comprises the three Districts of Sitapur, Hardoi, and Kheri, 
each of which see separately. The Division is bounded on the north 
by the independent territory of Nepal ; on the east by Bahraich Dis- 
trict ; on the south by Bara Banki, Lucknow, and Unao Districts ; and 
on the west by Farukhabad, Shahjahanpur, and Pilibhit Districts. 
Area (1881), 7555 square miles, with 21 towns, 5824 villages, and 
440,579 houses. 

Populatio7i. — The Census of 1869 returned the population of Sita- 
pur Division at 2,602,425. The last enumeration in 1881 returned a 
total of 2,777,803, namely, males 1,482,709, and females 1,295,094. 
Increase of population in twelve years, 175,378, or 67 per cent. 
Average density of population (1881), 367*6 persons per square mile; 
number of villages per square mile, 77; persons per town or village, 
475 ; houses per square mile, 58*3. Classified according to religion, 
Hindus form the great bulk of the population, and were returned in 
1 88 1 as numbering 2,431,475, or 87-5 per cent. ; Muhammadans num- 



28 SITAPUR, 

bered 345,060,01 i2'3 per cent; Christians, 915; Jains, 264; and 
Sikhs, 89. Among the Hindu high castes, Brahmans numbered 
275,728; Rajputs, 135,094; Gosains, 11,770; Bhats, 8154; Baniyas, 
52,905 ; and Kayasths, 30,263. The most numerous caste in the 
Division are the despised Chamars, who are returned at 392,693; the 
other important Hindu castes according to numerical superiority being 
— Ahirs, 229,150; Pasis, 225,189; Kiirmis, 182,363; Kachhi, 166,644; 
Lodhs, 78,829; Kahars, 78,736; Gadarias, 68,719; Tehs, 58,711; 
Dhobis, 45^910; Koris, 37,098; Nais, 36,164; Bhurjis, 35,722; 
Barhais, 34,291; Lobars, 28,966; Kumbhars, 24,922; Lonias, 24,841 ; 
Kalwars, 24,827 ; Tamuhs, 15,452 ; Dhanuks, 14,905 ; Bhangis, 12,345; 
Sonars, 10,230; and Mah's, 5760. 

Town and Rjiral Population. — The following are the seven largest 
towns in Sitapur Division — Shahabad, population (1881) 18,510; San- 
dila, 14,865; Khairabad, 14,217; Bilgram, 11,067; Malawan, 10,970; 
Laharpur, 10,437 ; and Hardoi, 10,026. Thirteen smaller towns 
contain upwards of five thousand inhabitants, making a total urban 
population for the Division of 183,807, or 6*6 per cent, of the Divisional 
population. Of the 5825 minor towns and villages, 4021 contain less 
than five hundred inhabitants; 1256 between five hundred and a 
thousand ; 459 between one thousand and two thousand ; and 89 
between two thousand and five thousand. As regards occupation, the 
male population are divided into the following six classes : — (i) Profes- 
sional and official class, 21,910; (2) domestic class, including inn and 
lodging-house keepers, etc., 4960 ; (3) commercial class, including 
merchants, bankers, traders, carriers, etc., 23,981 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners, 721,105; (5) industrial class, in- 
cluding all manufacturers and artisans, 113,356 ; and (6) indefinite and 
non-productive class, comprising general labourers, men of rank and 
property without occupation, and male children, 597,397. 

Agriadtiu'e. — Of a total area of 4,533,820 acres assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue in 1883-84, 2,573,137 acres are returned as under culti- 
vation, 1,286,496 acres as grazing land, and 674,187 acres as uncultiv- 
able waste. Irrigation is supplied to 517,267 acres entirely by private 
enterprise, there being no Government irrigation works in the Division. 
The cultivated crops in 1883-84 were returned as follows: — Rice, 
342,299 acres; wheat, 418,869 acres; other food -grains, 1,867,640 
acres; oil-seeds, 25,502 acres; sugar-cane, 56,998 acres; cotton, 13,834 
acres; opium, 16,653 acres; indigo, 2124 acres; fibres, 6187 acres; 
tobacco, 4762 acres; and vegetables, 16,017 acres: total area under 
crops, including land bearing two harvests in the year, 2,770,885 acres. 

The male adult agricultural population in 1881 numbered 717,312, 
of w^hom 24,391 were returned as landholders, 6372 as estate agents, 
578,748 as cultivators, and 107,801 as agricultural labourers. The 



SITAPUR DISTRICT, 29 

total agricultural population dependent on the soil is returned at 
1,996,061, or 71*86 per cent, of the entire inhabitants of the Division. 
Total Government land revenue in 1881, including local rates and cesses 
levied upon land, ^363,395, or an average of 2s. rod. per cultivated 
acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, ^772,526, or an average of 
5s. lojd. per cultivated acre. 

Administration. — The administrative staff, from the Commissioner 
downwards, consists of 44 civil and revenue judges, and 53 magistrates. 
Total Government revenue of Sitapur Division (1883-84), ^407,997, 
of which ;^343,i38 was derived from the land-tax. The total cost 
of civil administration, as represented by the salaries of officials and 
police, was in the same year ^59,228. The regular and town pohce 
in 1883-84 numbered 1626 men of all ranks ; supplemented by 9006 
village watchmen or chaiikiddrs. The jails and lock-ups contained 
in 1883 a daily average of 928 prisoners, of whom 37 were females. 
In 1883-84, there were 401 State-inspected schools in the Division, 
attended by 14,581 pupils. No returns are available of the private 
and uninspected indigenous village schools. In 1881, the Census 
showed 13,048 boys and 509 girls as under instruction, besides 
52,709 males and 771 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Sitapur. — British District in the Sitapur Division or Commissioner- 
ship of Oudh, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor 
of the North-Western Provinces; lying between 27° 7' and 27° 53' n. 
lat., and between 80° 21' and 81° 26' e. long. The District is elliptical 
in shape ; greatest length from south-east to north-west, 70 miles ; 
extreme breadth from north-east to south-west, 55 miles. Bounded on 
the north by Kheri; on the east by Bahraich, the Gogra river marking 
the boundary line ; and on the south and west by Bara Banki, Lucknow, 
and Hardoi Districts, the Giimti river forming the boundary. Area, 
2251 square miles. Population (1881)985,251 souls. The adminis- 
trative head-quarters of the District are at Sitapur Town, but Khair- 
ABAD is the largest town. 

Physical Aspects. — Sitapur consists of one large plain, sloping imper- 
ceptibly from an elevation of 505 feet above sea-level in the north-west, 
to 400 feet in the south-east, the fall averaging ij foot per mile. 
Although containing no forest tracts and but little jungle, the country is 
well wooded with numerous groves, and closely cultivated, except 
where the soil is barren or cut up into ravines. It is intersected 
by frequent streams, and contains many shallow ponds and natural 
reservoirs, which are full of water during the rains, but gradually dry up 
in the hot season. The District is naturally divided into two parts 
by a low ridge running down from the north, parallel to the course of 
the Chauka and Gogra rivers. The western division occupies about 



30 SITAPUR DISTRICT. 

two-thirds of the entire District, and has a dry soil, which in the extreme 
west, towards the Giimti, becomes sandy. In the vicinity of the smaller 
streams, the surface is deeply scored by the ravines which form its 
natural drainage. The eastern division, locally known as the ganjar^ 
consists of the dodbs or alluvial plains between the Kewani and Chauka, 
and the Chauka and Gogra rivers. This is a damp, moist tract, growing 
good rice-crops, but interspersed with patches of land covered with 
saline efflorescence {reh)^ which is fatal to all wild vegetation except 
the stunted bahul tree (Acacia arabica). This tract is very liable to 
inundation. 

The principal rivers are the following : — The Gogra, the principal 
river of Oudh, forms the eastern boundary of Sitapur, and in the rainy 
season has a width of from 4 to 6 miles. The Chauka runs nearly 
parallel to the Gogra, 8 miles to the west, and finally falls into the latter 
river at Bahramghat in Bara Banki District. Numerous cross channels 
connect the Gogra with the Chauka. Proceeding westward are the 
Gon, Oel, Kewani, Sarayan, and Giimti, the latter forming the western 
and southern boundary of the District. The Gogra is the only river 
navigable by boats of large tonnage throughout the year. The others 
are all fordable at certain points during the dry season. There are no 
large river-side towns in the District, nor any river-trading population. 

The only mineral product is kaiikar or nodular limestone, which 
is found in abundance in many parts of the country. The indi- 
genous trees of the District are the mango (Mangifera indica), pipal 
(Ficus religiosa), giilar (Ficus glomerata), pdkar (Ficus infectoria), 
bargad or banian tree (Ficus bengalensis), nif?i (Azadirachta melia), 
sissii (Dalbergia Sissoo), tun (Cedrela Toona), simal or cotton tree 
(Bombax heptaphyllum),^;;//;^///'^? or phaj-euda (Eugenia jambolanum), 
bel (^gle Marmelos), kathal (Artocarpus integrifolia), babul (Acacia 
arabica), khayer (Acacia Catechu), dhdk (Butea frondosa), khejur 
(Phoenix sylvestris), donla (Phyllanthus Emblica), siras (Mimosa 
Sirissa), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), Jzachndr (Bauhinia variegata), 
and the common bamboo. Gums and dyes are collected in the 
jungles, and fibres are utihzed from the roots of the dhdk tree and 
from miinj and sa7pat grass. None of the larger wild animals are met 
with. Nilgdi, many varieties of deer, wild hog, wolf, jackal, fox, and 
hare are common. The dolphin and crocodile are found in the 
Gogra. 

History. — The history of Sitapur District presents no distinctive 
features apart from that of the Province as a whole ; but the following 
paragraphs respecting the territorial distribution of property among the 
clans, and their earlier history, quoted from the Oudh Gazetteer, may be 
found interesting : — 

' To the east; the Raikwars occupy most of the country between the 



SIT A PUR DISTRICT, 31 

Chauka and Kauriala, North and South Kundri forming part of the 
block of territory, extending north and south about 60 miles along 
both sides of the Kauriala, over which for one or two centuries the 
Raikwars have exercised a real or nominal supremacy. The great 
Raikwar estates of Baundi and Ramnagar are in Bahraich and Bara 
Banki Districts ; the younger branches of the clan settled in Sitapur, at 
Mallapur, at Chahlari, and at Rampur, all on the western bank of the 
Kauriala. The ancestor of each branch obtained three or four villages, 
and has gradually increased his possessions through the aid and influ- 
ence of the great lords of his blood in Baundi and Ramnagar. The 
estate of Chahlari was forfeited after the Mutiny for rebellion. The 
clan is a very small one in point of numbers. 

'To the north, in pai-gaiids Sitapur, Laharpur, Hargam, Chandra, 
and Tambaur, the great Bamhan Gaur clan from Narkanjari settled 
towards the close of Alamgir's reign. They commenced by attacking 
the Ahbans and the Janwars of Kheri, who were driven into exile about 
1760. The Gaurs then proceeded farther to the north-west, having 
meanwhile consolidated their power in Sitapur and Laharpur; thev 
attacked the Musalman Raja of Muhamdi, defeated and drove him out. 
At length the Rohillas came to the aid of the Raja, and drove back 
the Gaurs with heavy loss ; the last battle was fought at Mailani, 20 
miles north of Kukra, so far had the Gaurs carried their victorious 
arms. They then joined with the Raja of Dhaurahra in resisting Nazim 
Sital Prasad, the most sanguinary of all the satraps whom the early 
Oudh Nawdbs let loose upon the conquered country. They were 
defeated with heavy loss at Dhaurahra ; one of their chiefs was beheaded 
in the river under the fort of Khairigarh, and the clan then settled 
down into ordinary rural squires. 

'To the south, the Khanzada family of Bilahra, in Bara Banki 
District, has within the last seventy years occupied most of \.]\q parga?his 
of Mahmiidabad and Sadrpur, besides acquiring large estates in Biswan, 
by mortgage or simply as trustee. This family has generally numbered 
among its members men of ability and energy ; they were connected 
by marriage w^ith the influential Shaikhzadas of Lucknow, and were 
used by the Lucknow court as a check upon the great Raikwar kingdom 
along the Gogra, which their principality almost cut in two. 

' To the east, the Ahbans formerly held pargands Nimkhar, Aurang- 
abad, Maholi, and part of Khairabad, besides part of the Districts of 
Kheri and Hardoi. Lon Singh, the great Raja of Mitauli, was banished 
for rebeUion in 1859, and his estate divided among a number of loyal 
grantees. His only brother tried in vain to recover a part of the pro- 
perty, which is said to have once included 2700 villages. The Ahbans 
produce a family tree with 109 generations; they are Chawar Kshattriyas, 
and came from Gujarat. Almost the only survivor of the clan in 



32 SITAPUR DISTRICT. 

Sitapur is called a Kunwar, and is a man of little property or influence. 
The clan is now of no importance, so hollow and transitory was the 
power of these great landowners. A number of deeds were produced 
in the Kheri courts in which the Ahban chiefs are styled Maharajas by 
the Emperors Akbar and Jahangir ; they were skilfully executed for- 
geries. Their ioxvcitx pargands are now held by Mughal grantees from 
the Oudh kings, by Kayasths and others, probably retainers of the 
ancient Ahbans. 

' The middle portion of Sitapur is held by many different clans of 
Kshattriyas. Originally, there was a powerful Chauhan sovereignty in 
Sitapur, and a Raghubansi principality in Tambaur ; they have both 
disappeared. A variety of clans occupy each dLpargand or the greater 
part of a pargand^ exxept in Biswan and Khairabad, which were the 
seats of local governors, who took care to destroy the coherence of 
the clan system by breaking up its possessions and distributing them 
miscellaneously. It is remarkable that no clan except the Gaurs 
asserted its supremacy over large areas like the Kanhpurias, Sombansis, 
or Bais in Southern Oudh. It is a mistake, indeed, to call them clans ; 
each is a collection of a few families, of whom the eldest member was 
the leader, and was called the Thakur. These gentlemen increased 
their estates during the later years of native rule by appropriating the 
shares of their brethren. 

' The different landowning Kshattriya clans are the following : — In 
Gundlamau parga?id, Bachhils ; in Bari, Bais ; in Pirnagar, Bais ; in 
Manwan, Panvvars ; in Ramkot, Janwars ; in Kurauna, Janwars ; in 
INIachrehta, Kachhwahas, Janwars, Bais, and Rahtors. The Janwars' 
possessions are mainly to the west of the Sarayan ; those of the Bais to 
the east. Both these clans are probably of indigenous origin, as are 
also the Bachhils and the Raghubansis. The Panwars, Kachhwahas, 
and Gaurs are immigrants from Rajputana. None of the above clans 
have a Raja in Sitapur ; but the Ahban Raja of Mitauli, the Panwar 
Raja of Itaunja, and the Raikwar Raja of Baundi did to a certain 
extent exercise a control over their clansmen in the District. It is 
noteworthy that there is not in this District a single Raja by descent 
recognised as such by the people, and the title is not even claimed by 
any one. The special feature of the Sitapur land proprietary is the 
existence of a number of men, about fifteen, with large estates paying 
from ;£5oo to ^1900 land revenue, who have not been entered in the 
tdliikddrs' list.' 

Sitapur figured prominently in the Mutiny of 1857. In that year, 3 
regiments of Native infantry and a regiment of military police were 
quartered in Sitapur cantonments. The troops rose in mutiny on the 
morning of the 3rd June, fired on their officers, many of whom were 
killed, as were also several miUtary and civil officers, with their wives 



SITAPUR DISTRICT. 33 

and children, in attempting to escape. Ultimately, many of the 
fugitives succeeded in reaching Lucknow, while others obtained the pro- 
tection of loyal s^;;////^tzVi-. On the 13th April 1858, Sir Hope Grant 
inflicted a severe defeat on the rebels near Biswan. Order was com- 
pletely restored before the end of that year, the courts and offices were 
reopened; and since then nothing has occurred to disturb the peace 
of the District. 

Population. — The population of Sitapur District, according to the 
Census of 1869, was 932,959. The last Census in 1881 returned a 
total of 958,251 inhabitants, showing an increase of 25,292 in the 
twelve years between 1869 and 1881. The results of the last Census 
may be summarized as follows: — Area of District, 2251 square miles ; 
towns 7, and villages 2301 ; houses, 150,849. Total population, 
958,251, namely, males 505,986, and females 452,265; proportion 
of males in total population, 52-8 per cent. Average density of 
population, 425*6 persons per square mile; towns or villages per 
square mile, 1*02 ; persons per town or village, 415 ; houses per square 
mile, 67 ; inmates per house, 6*3. Classified according to sex and 
age, the Census returns show — under 15 years of age, boys 193,534, 
and girls 172,817; total children, 366,351, or 38*2 per cent, of the 
population: 15 years and upwards, males 312,452, and females 
279,448; total adults, 591,900, or 6i'8 per cent. 

Religion. — The great majority of the population are Hindus, their 
number being returned at 818,738, or 85*4 per cent. Muhammadans 
number 138,733, or i4'5 per cent.; Jains, 263; Sikhs, 74; and 
Christians, 443. The higher castes of Hindus include — Brahmans, 
99,637; Rajputs, 36,320; Gosains, 5310; Bhats, 3358; Baniyas (as 
representing the Vaisya or trading caste of ancient India), 15,029 ; and 
Kayasths, 12,751. The lower or Sudra castes include the following: — 
Chamars, the most numerous caste in the District, 123,115; Pasi's, 
90,115; Ahirs, 86,808; Kilrmis, 78,908; Lodhs, 36,517; Kachhi's, 
36,163; Kahars, 25,790; Teh's, 17,624; Gadarias, 17,150; Dhobi's, 
16,552; Bhurjis, 12,783; Barhc4is, 12,109; Nais, 11,317; Koris, 
10,812; Lobars, 10,349; Kalwars, 9104; Lonias, 8778; Kumbhars, 
8740; Tamuhs, 4979; Sonars, 3669; Bhangis, 3485; Dhanuks, 2859; 
and Mall's, 2027. 

The Muhammadans are divided according to sect into Sunm's 
136,354, and Shias 2379. The Muhammadan converts or descen- 
dants of converts from the higher castes of Hindus are very few in 
number, and consist of Rajputs 577, and Mewati's 100. The ^rnham- 
madans by race apart from religion consist of Sayyids, Pathans, Mughals, 
and Shaikhs. These are chiefly idhikddrs and zaminddrs, or servants 
in respectable employ. The low-class Muhammadans, descended from 
Hindu low-caste converts, consist chiefly of weavers, tailors, greengrocers, 

VOL. XIII. c 



34 SITAPUR DISTRICT. 

milkmen, etc. The Christian population comprises — Europeans, 
365 ; Eurasians, 32 ; and natives, 46. 

Town and Rural Popidatiofi. — Sitapur District contains seven towns 
with a population exceeding five thousand inhabitants, namely, Sitapur, 
the administrative head-quarters of the District, population (1881) 
6780; Khairabad, 14,217; Laharpur, 10,437; BiswAN, 8148; 
Alamnagar-Thomsonganj, 7984; Mahmudabad, 7335; and Painte- 
PUR, 5199. These seven towns contain an aggregate of 60,100 persons, 
or 6-27 per cent, of the District population. The rural population, 
numbering 898,151, dwell in 2301 villages. Of these, 795 villages 
contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 905 between two hundred 
and five hundred; 498 between five hundred and a thousand; 91 
between one thousand and two thousand ; 8 between two thousand 
and three thousand; and 4 between three thousand and five thousand. 
Sitapur, Khairabad, and Biswan are the only regularly constituted 
municipalities. Total municipal income (1883-84), ;£2695, of which 
^1623 w^as derived from taxation, chiefly octroi; average incidence 
of taxation, 9|d. per head of the population (40,909) within municipal 
limits. Sitapur municipality, as distinct from the town and head- 
quarters station, contains a population returned at 18,544. As regards 
occupation, the Census divides the male population into the following 
six classes: — (i) Professional and official class, 8733; (2) domestic 
class, 2097 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders, carriers, 
etc, 8519; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 
236,849; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 
42,476 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general 
labourers and male children, 207,212. 

Agriculture. — Of the total area of the District in 1883-84 (1,442,066 
acres), 931,510 acres were returned as under cultivation, 326,102 acres 
as grazing land or as available for cultivation, and 184,454 acres as 
uncultivable waste. Two harvests are gathered in the year — the kharif or 
autumn crops, and the rabi or spring crops. The kharif consists of 
the following : — Rice (Oryza sativa), kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum), 
sawan (Panicum frumentaceum), mandua (Eleusine corocana), kdkiin 
(Setariaitalica),y^^V (Sorghum vulgare), bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), 
/// (Sesamum indicum), tirid or mas (Phaseolus radiatus), mug (Phas- 
eolus mungo), moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius), /^7 (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 
san (Crotalaria juncea). Rice forms the staple crop of the eastern or 
moist portion of the District. The rabi or spring crops are — wheat 
(Triticum sativum), gram (Cicer arietinum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), 
Idhi or mustard (Brassica nigra), tisi or linseed (Linum usita- 
lissimum), castor - oil (Ricinus communis), inatar or peas (Pisum 
sativum), masuri (Ervum lens), arhar (Cajanus indicus), safflower 
(Carthamus tinctorius). Besides the above, which are the staple kharif 



SITAPUR DISTRICT. 3^ 

and rabi crops, a considerable quantity of sugar-cane is raised, as also 
cotton, pdji, and tobacco. Poppy is cultivated under Government 
supervision. Garden produce consists of kitchen vegetables of every 
description, turmeric, spices, ginger, water-melons. The cultivated 
fruits are guavas, plantains, custard-apples, oranges and lemons, wood- 
apples, melons, pomelos, etc. The area under the different crops 
(including lands bearing two crops in the year) was returned as follows 
in 1883-84 :— Wheat, 150,819 acres; rice, 129,619 acres; other food- 
grains, 655,400 acres; sugar-cane, 17,851 acres; oil-seeds, 16,604 
acres; opium, 7505 acres; cotton, 4058 acres; tobacco, 2090 acres; 
fibres, 735 acres; and vegetables, 5202 acres. The male adult agri- 
cultural population of Sitapur District in 1881 was returned at 235,345, 
giving an average of 4-04 cultivated acres to each. The total 
population, however, dependent on the soil amounted to 662,272, or 
69-11 per cent, of the District population. The profits of cultivation, 
after paying for labour, are calculated at about 4s. per acre per year ; 
labour at the market price is worth about ;^3 per annum ; therefore a 
tenant cultivating i\ acres with his own hands will be worth about 
£Z^ 14s. per annum, and if his cattle are his own, and he is unburdened 
by debt, he may make £0,, i6s. What with bad seasons, unfore- 
seen expenses, etc., the small tenant is generally in debt, and his net 
earnings in that case will be about £t^ per annum. Of the total area of 
2251 square miles, 2179 square miles are assessed for Government 
land revenue, amounting in 1881 to ;£"i 38,943, or an average of 2s. 
iijd. per cultivated acre. Rental paid by cultivators, ;£"296,983, or 
an average of 6s. 3d. per cultivated acre. Rents, as a rule, are paid 
in kind, only about one-tenth of the whole being cash payments. The 
landlord's share varies from one-fourth to one-half. 

Where rents are paid in money, the following are given as the 
average rates per acre, according to crops, in the official returns : 
— Rice lands, 6s. 5d. ; wheat, los. ; inferior grains, 6s. ; cotton, los. ; 
opium, £1, 7s. 9d. ; oil-seeds, 7s. loid. ; sugar-cane, i6s. iid. ; tobacco, 
£1, IS. 3d. The average price of food-grains per cwt. during the five 
years 1866-70 is returned as follows: — Wheat, 5s. iid. ; barley, 3s. 
6|d. ; gram, 5s. 6d. ; and bdjra, 4s. 6d. In 1884, the average 
price of wheat was about 4s. 6d. per cwt., and of common rice, 
7s. 8d. per cwt. Wages are slightly higher than in the adjacent 
District of Bara Banki. In Mahmudabad pargand, an agricultural 
labourer engaged by the month receives wages at the rate of 6s. 
per month. If working by the day at raising water from wells or 
tanks, he is paid at the rate of 3d. per diem in towns ; and by an 
allowance of food-grain in rural parts. The prevailing tenures are as 
follows: — 105 1 villages or parts of villages hoXdm td/ukddri, 14 15 in 
zaminddri, 405 in pattiddri^ and 49 in bhdydchdra. There are 23 large 



36 SITAPUR DISTRICT. 

tdliiJiddrs paying a Government assessment of upwards of ;^5oo, of 
whom the following are the principal : — Raja Amir Hassan Khan, 
assessed at ;£"i 5,621 ; Thakurain Prithwi Pal Kunar, widow of Thakur 
Seo Baksh Singh, ;£"7652 ; Thakur Jawahir Singh, ;£'4i83; Thakur 
Pratap Rildra Singh, ;^3407 ; and Muhammad Bakr All Khan, ;£"3i59. 
Most of the tdlukddrs also hold estates in other parts of the Province. 
As indicated in the historical section of this article, the greater part 
of the land is in the hands of various clans of Rajputs, who are returned 
as holding 1379 villages in Sftapur. Muhammadans are the proprietors 
of 704 villages. 

Natural Calamities. — The eastern portion of the District is peculiarly 
liable to floods, being under water more or less entirely every year 
during the rains. These inundations often devastate whole villages, and 
invariably cause loss to the inhabitants through the injury to their houses, 
the drowning of their cattle, and the destruction of their kha?-if or 
autumn crops. In the great flood of 187 1, three-fourths of the autumn 
crops perished, and from July to September the country was one sheet 
of water. Drought, however, is the main cause of famine ; and the 
Deputy Commissioner reports that famine occurred in 1769-70, 
1784-85, 1837-38, and in 1860-61, caused by want of rain. Sftapur 
was also verging on famine for a few months at the close of 1869, 
but a plentiful late crop happily saved the District. 

Roads a?id Means of Communication., etc. — Two metalled lines of road 
run through Si'tapur District — one from Sitapur town to Lucknow for 
33^ miles, and the other to Shahjahanpur for 22 miles. Unmetalled 
roads communicate with Lakhimpur, Hardoi, Mahmudabad, Bahraich, 
Mallapur, Mehndighat, Sandila, Nimkhar, Kasta, Mitauli, Pihani, etc. 
Total length of roads in the District, 500 miles. Water communication 
is afforded by 180 miles of navigable rivers. The Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Railway nowhere touches on Sitapur District. The only manu- 
factures of any note are those of tobacco, and of tazids at Biswan, with 
a little cotton printing and weaving in many of the towns. Biswan 
contains about 100 families of weavers; but here, as elsewhere, the 
industry is decaying, owing to the competition of English manufactured 
cloth. 

Administration. — The judicial staff consists of a Deputy Commis- 
sioner, with two or three European and four or five native Assistants 
of various grades. The total imperial and local revenue of the 
District in 1883-84 was ^158,949, of which ^^130,096 was derived 
from the land revenue, ;£9539 from stamps, and £^^$6 from excise. 
Justice is administered by 17 civil and revenue judges, and 21 magis- 
trates. For police purposes, the District is divided into the follow- 
ing 10 police circles (t/idnds), viz. : — Sitapur, Sidhauli, Maholi, 
I^Iahmudabad, T^Iisrikh, Biswan, Laharpur, Tambaur, Thanagaon, 



SITAPUR TAIISIL, 



37 



and Hargaon ; with an outpost vStation at Nimkhar. The regular and 
town pohce force in 1883 consisted of 649 officers and men, maintained 
at a cost to Government of ^^6739; the village police or rural watch 
numbered 3820 men, maintained by the landholders or villagers at an 
estimated cost of ^14,232. Average daily number of prisoners in jail 
(1883), 470, of whom 14 were females; total number of convicts 
imprisoned during the year, 1433, including 56 females. 

Education is spreading steadily year by year. In 1883 there were 
152 Government and aided schools in the District, attended by 5468 
pupils. The Wesleyan Mission, the head-quarters of which is at Sitapur, 
have a school at Khairabad, and 6 girls' schools in the District. No 
return is available for uninspected indigenous schools. The Census of 
1881 showed 4590 boys and 323 girls as under instruction, besides 
20, 1 74 males and 417 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Medical Aspects, — The climate of the District is healthy, and the 
cantonment of Sitapur is famous for the low mortality of the British 
troops stationed there. There are no diseases peculiar to the District. 
Intermittent fever, but not of a bad type, is prevalent from August to 
November, Small-pox appears from March to September ; a i^w deaths 
from cholera are reported every year. Cholera appeared in an epidemic 
form in 1869 at the Nimkhar fair, when the mortality was very con- 
siderable. The mean temperature of the District ranges from 45° F. in 
the cold season, to 96° F. in the hot weather ; but it is often so cold as 
to produce hoar-frost in the early mornings, and the manufacture of 
ice in shallow earthenware vessels is carried on during December and 
January. Average annual rainfall for the fifteen years ending 1881, 39 
inches, distributed as follows: — January to May, 3-14 inches; June 10 
September, 3371 inches; October to December, 2-15 inches. Total 
number of registered deaths in 1883-84, 27,625, showing a death-rate 
of 29*59 per thousand, as against an average of 32*49 per thousand for 
the previous five years. Deaths from fevers alone in 1883 numbertd 
14,179, and from small-pox, 8761. Charitable dispensaries, stationed 
at Sitapur, Mahmudabad, and Tambaur, afforded medical relief in 
1883 to 566 in-door and 16,589 out-door patients. [For further 
information regarding Sitapur, see the Gazetteer of Oudh (published by 
authority, Allahabad, 1877), vol. iii. pp. 341-395. See also the Report 
of the Settlement of Sitapur District^ conducted between 1863 and 
1873, by M. S. Ferrar, Esq., C.S. (Lucknow Government Press, 1875); 
the Census Report of the North- We stern Provinces and Oudh for 1881 ; 
and the several annual Administration and Departmental Reports of 
the Oudh Government.] 

Sitapur. — Principal tahsil or Sub-division of Sitapur District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Lakhimpur, on the east by Biswan, on the 



38 SITAPUR PARGANA AND TOWN. 

south by Sidhauli, and on the west by Misrikh. Area, 569 square 
miles, of which 343 square miles are returned as under cultivation. 
Population (1881) 257,514, namely, males 135,475, and females 
122,039. Average density of population, 452*5 persons per square mile. 
Hindus number 207,584; Muhammadans, 49,395; Jains, 25; and 
'others,' 510. Of the 622 towns and villages, 483 contain less than 
five hundred inhabitants; 112 between five hundred and a thousand ; 
23 between one and three thousand; 2 between five and ten thousand; 
and 2 upwards of ten thousand inhabitants. This tahsil occupies 
the central strip of the District, comprising the 6 pargands of Sitapur, 
Hargam, Laharpur, Khairabad, Pirnagar, and RamkoL In 1884 it 
contained, including the District head-quarters, 3 civil and 7 criminal 
courts, 3 police circles (thdnds), a regular police force of 81 officers 
and men, and a rural police or village watch of 11 26 chaiikiddrs. 

Sitapur. — Pargand in Sitapur District, Oudh ; bounded on the north 
by Kheri District, on the eabt and south by the Sarayan river, and on 
the west by W.?ik\o\\ pargand. Area, 115 square miles, or 73,694 acres; 
of which 41,408 acres are returned as cultivated, 8650 acres as held 
revenue free, 13,842 acres as cultivable, and 9794 acres as uncultivable 
waste. Population (1881) 59,811, namely, males 32,879, and females 
26,932. Of the 159 villages constituting the pargand, only 5 are held 
by tdlukddrs, 115 of the remaining 159 being held in zaminddri tenure 
by Gaur Rajputs. Government land revenue, ^6624, being at the 
rate of 3s. 3d. per acre of cultivated area, 2s. 5d. per acre of assessed 
area, and 2 s. per acre of total area. Tradition states that Rama and 
his wife Si'ta sojourned here during their wanderings, and that a town 
was founded on the spot by Raja Vikramaditya, and named Sitapur in 
honour of Sita. About seven centuries ago, a tribe of Chauhan Rajputs 
under Goheldeo, a relative of King Prithwi Raj of Delhi, invaded the 
country, and drove out the Kurmis and low-caste tribes, who were then 
its possessors. Goheldeo and his descendants held sway for about five 
centuries, until the reign of Aurangzeb, when a tribe of Gaur Rajputs, 
led by Chandra Sen, dispossessed the Chauhans from their lands, with 
the exception of Sitapur, Saadatnagar, and Tehar. Chandra Sen had 
four sons, whose descendants still hold the greater part of the pa7'gand, 
Sitapur was originally constituted a parga?id by Raja Todar Mall, the 
finance minister of Akbar 

Sitapur. — Town, municipality, cantonment, and administrative 
head-quarters of Sitapur District, Oudh ; situated on the banks of the 
Sarayan river, half-way on the road from Lucknow to Shahjahanpur, in 
lat. 27° 34' 5" N., and long. 80° 42' 55" e. The population of the 
municipality in 1881 numbered 18,544. Sitapur itself contains 6780 
inhabitants; or with its suburb of Thomsonganj, 14,764, namely, 
Hindus, 8839 ; Muhammadans, 5780 ; Christians, 71 ; and ' others,' 74. 



SITAFUR TOWN—SIT-TAUNG. 39 

The cantonment contains a separate population of 3780, and was 
garrisoned in September 1885 by the Norfolk regiment. Municipal 
income (1883-84), ;^i854, of which ^£"1060 was derived from taxation in 
the form of octroi duties : average incidence of taxation, is. ifd. per head 
of the municipal population. The town and station are picturesquely 
situated among fine mango groves. Annual bazar sales average about 
;^48,ooo. Government school, attended by 170 pupils. 

Sitapur. — Town in Banda District, North - Western Provinces ; 
situated a short distance from the foot of the sacred hill of Chitrakot, 
on the left bank of the Paisuni river, 5 miles from Karwi and 43 miles 
from Banda town. Population (1881) 1977. Many old and highly 
venerated temples. Pilgrims flock hither all the year round, and, after 
bathing, measure the circuit of Chitrakot hill (5 miles) with their bodies 
extended flat on the ground, or by simply walking. The original name 
of the town appears to have been Jai Singhpura, when it was inhabited 
by Kols, at a time when Chitrakot was already an ancient place of 
worship. PoUce outpost; brisk trade. Village school. A small house- 
tax is levied for police and conservancy purposes. 

Sitarampalli {Satrapura??i). — Town in Ganjam District, Madras 
Presidency. Population (1881) 3138, occupying 537 houses. Hindus 
number 2983; Muhammadans, 71; and Christians, 84. — See also 
Chatrapur. 

Sitarampur. — One of the abandoned coal-mines of the Raniganj 
coal-field in Bardwan District, Bengal. There are five pits, one of which 
was opened in 1847 ^.nd the remaining four in 1864. Total out-turn of 
coal in 1866, 78,490 maiiuds. The mine was abandoned in consequence 
of the poor quality of the coal. 

Sitoung. — River of Burma. — See Sit-taung. 

Sitpur. — Municipal village in Alipur tahs'il, Muzaffargarh District, 
Punjab, situated 3 miles from the Chenab, and 11 miles south ot 
Alipur town. Population (1881) 2035, namely, Muhammadans, 1132; 
Hindus, 898; and Sikhs, 5. Number of houses, 369. Municipal 
income (1883-84), ^158, or an average of is. 6jd. per head. An 
ancient town, formerly the capital of a dynasty known as the Nahar 
princes, founded in the middle of the 15th century, the 26th descendant 
of whom is 2ijainaddr of chaprdsis, and receives a small allowance tor 
looking after the family tombs. The town, which is completely 
enclosed by a thick screen of date-palms, is very irregularly built, and 
has a dilapidated appearance. Small trade in agricultural produce. 
Sitpur formerly carried on a considerable manufacture of paper, and the 
industry still lingers, but at the point of extinction. The public buildings 
include a police station, municipal committee house, and school. 

Sit-taung.— Township in Shwe-gyin District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma, lying on both banks of the Sit-taung river, the larger 



40 SIT-TA UNG TO WN AND RIVER. 

portion being on the east side. In the north-east the country is hilly, 
but in the south it is low and subject to inundation ; in the west the 
land is extremely fertile. Chief towns — Sit-taung and Win-ba-daw. 

Sit-taung. — Town in Shwe-gyin District, Tenasserim Division, Lower 
Burma; situated in lat. 17° 26' 5" n., and long. 96' 57' 30" e., on the 
left bank of the Sit-taung river, 50 miles by water below Shwe-g}-in town. 
The head-quarters of both the Sit-taung Division and township until a 
few years ago, when the station of the Assistant Commissioner was trans- 
ferred to the more central town of Kyaik-to. To the north-east of 
Sit-taung stretch wide plains ; the court-house stands on the high ground 
east of the town. Bazar and police post. Population (1878) 978; 
not returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. The town of 
Sit-taung was founded about 582 a.d. by Tha-ma-la, the first king of Pegu. 
Sit-taung. — River of the Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma ; rises 
in the hills in Upper Burma, about 25 miles north-east of Te-me-thin, 
and about 130 above Taung-ngu town; flows southwards through the 
Districts of Taung-ngu and Shwe-gyin, and falls into the sea at the head 
of the Gulf of Martaban. The Sit-taung is remarkable for its trumpet- 
shaped mouth, the velocity and dangerous nature of the tidal wave 
which sweeps up it, and the enormous quantity of silt suspended in its 
water. Between Taung-ngu and Tan-ta-bin, a village about 10 miles 
lower down, the Sit-taung widens considerably, but is difficult of navi- 
gation, owing to its winding channel and numerous sandbanks. Below 
this it narrows, and the current is rapid, and from Mun southwards to 
Shwe-gyin town, navigation is almost impossible. South of Shwe-gyin, 
where it receives from the east the united waters of the Shwe-gyin, and 
the Mut-ta-ma streams, the river gradually widens, and the current alone 
impedes the ascent of large boats. Soon after passing Sit-taung town, 
it takes a large curve west and south, and then rapidly broadens till it 
falls into the sea. Following the crest of the bore is a heavy chopping 
sea of sand and water, as dangerous almost as the tidal wave itself. The 
tide is in the dry season felt even as high as Mun ; but during the rains, 
owing to the greatly increased volume of water brought down, as far only 
as Shwe-gyin. Boats rarely pass below Ka-ya-su at the mouth of the 
Paing-kywon or Ka-ya-su creek, which, until the new canal to Myit-kyo 
was opened, formed the highway of communication during the rains, 
and in the dry season for some fourteen days in each month before, 
at, and after spring tides, to the Pegu river and thence to Rangoon. 
During the rains, communication with Alaulmain — at this period 
entirely by boat — is kept up through the Win-ba-daw creek, the entrance 
to which is about 7 miles below Sit-taung town. Above Ka-ya-su are 
some extensive sandbanks covered by 6 or 7 feet of water at neap floods. 
Area drained by the Sit-taung between the Pegu Yoma and the Paung- 
laung mountains, about 22,000 square miles, of which about 7000 lie 



SIVAGANGA ZAAIINDART AA'D HILL. 41 

within British territory; total course as the crow flies, about 350 miles, 
of which the last 175 are through Lower PJurma, On the west, the 
banks are uniformly low ; but on the east, hills abut on the river in 
several places. Principal tributaries — on the west, the Swa, the Chaung- 
sauk, the Ka-baung, the Pyu, and the Kun ; and on the east, the Kwe- 
the, the Thit-nan-tha, the Kan-ni, the Thauk-ye-gat, the Yauk-thwa-wa, 
the Kyauk-gyi, the Shwe-gyin and Mut-ta-ma, which unite at their 
mouths. By the inhabitants of the villages on either bank of the Sit- 
taung, this stream is sometimes called the Paung-laung, and sometimes 
the Taung-ngu river. 

Sivaganga. — Zaminddri in Madura District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, about 1220 square miles ; number of villages, 1721. Population 
(1874) 432,023; (1881) 382,151, namely, males 175,741, and females 
206,410, occupying 75,315 houses. Hindus number 345,035; Muham- 
madans, 18,989; and Christians, 18,127. ThQ peshkash (fixed revenue) 
paid to Government is ^25,864. The zajjiinddri was formerly part of 
P^amnad or the Setupati's territory. About 1730, Kutta Tevan, 
nth Setupati, surrendered to the pdlegdr of Nalkotai ('four forts'), 
Seshavarna Tevan, two-fifths of his kingdom, which thenceforth became 
independent of Ramnad. In 1772, \}Li^ pdlegdr' s country was reduced 
by the British under Colonel Joseph Smith ; and the Raja was killed 
while endeavouring to escape by one of the gates of the fort of Kalaiyar 
Kovil. The Rani, with some of her friends, escaped to Dindigul, where 
they were protected by Haidar All. Later on, she was restored to the 
zcnninddi'i ; but on her death in 1800, Seshavarna's line became extinct. 
In July of the following year, Udaya Tevan was proclaimed za??nnddr 
of Sivaganga. The permanent settlement of the estate was made with 
him in 1803. The Sivaganga estate has figured in the civil courts for 
many years in one of the most notable of Hindu succession cases. 
The present zaminddr is in extremely narrow circumstances ; the pro- 
perty being still in the hands of creditors, and likely to remain so for 
many years to come. 

Sivagangd;. — Chief town of Sivaganga zaminddri, Madura District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 51' N., long. 78° 31' 50" e. Situated 
about 25 miles east of Madura town. Population (1881) 8343, occu- 
pying 1661 houses. Hindus number 7528; Muhammadans, 719; and 
Christians, 96. 

Sivaganga.— Hill in Bangalore District, Mysore State ; situated in 
lat. 13° 10' N., and long. 77° 17' e., 4559 feet above sea-level. Many 
religious associations are connected with this hill, and its face is crowded 
with sacred buildings and inscriptions. On the east its outline is 
supposed to resemble a bull, on the west Ganesha, on the north a serpent, 
and on the south a linga. The number of steps leading to the summit 
IS reckoned equal to the number of yojanas hence to Benares, and 



42 SIVA GIRI—SIVASAMUDRAM. 

consequently the ascent is held to be a vicarious pilgrimage to that city. 
The two principal temples on the northern face, dedicated to Ganga- 
dhareswara and Honna Devamma, are formed out of large natural 
caverns. On the eastern face is a Lingayat math, or monastery. 
The village of the same name is at the northern base of the hill. 
Population (187 1) 721 ; not returned separately in the Census Report 
of 1 88 1. The houses are all of stone, and form one street, approached 
by a gateway, through which the car of the god is drawn at religious 
festivals. 

Sivagiri. — Town in Sankaranainarkoil tdliiJz, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 20' 20" n., long. 77° 28' e. Population 
(1881) 13,632, namely, males 6801, and females 6831, occupying 2976 
houses. Hindus number 12,952 ; Muhammadans, 407 ; and Christians, 
273. Sivagiri is the head-quarters of Sivagiri zam'mddri, which pays a 
peshkash (revenue) to Government of ;£5458. The cattle here are of a 
superior breed. PoUce station ; post-office. 

Sivakasi.— Town in Satiir taluk, Tinnevelli District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 9° 27' 10" N., long. 77° 50' 20" E. Population (1881) 
10)^335 namely, males 5269, and females 5564, occupying 2273 houses. 
Hindus number 9484; Muhammadans, 1253; and Christians, 96. 
Active trade with Travancore, chiefly in tobacco. Police station ; post- 
office. 

Sivasamudram (or Sivandsamiidara?n, lit. 'Sea of Siva').— Island 
formed by the branching of the Kaveri (Cauvery) river into two streams, 
each of which makes a descent of about 200 feet in a series of picturesque 
rapids and waterfalls ; situated in the Madras District of Coimbatore, 
jn.st outside the frontier of Mysore; about 3 miles long by | of a mile 
broad. The island is properly called Heggura, but the name of Sivasa- 
mudram is derived from an ancient city (lat. 12° 16' n., long. 77° 14' e.), 
of which a few remains lie strewed around. This city is said to have 
been founded in the i6th century by Ganga Raja, a scion of the Vijaya- 
nagar line. His dynasty only endured for two generations; and the 
tragic story of its end is locally associated with the various spots that 
make up the picturesque scenery of the waterfalls. In 1791, at the 
time of the advance of the British arm}-, under Lord Cornwallis, upon 
Seringapatam, Tipii Sultan laid waste the surrounding country, and 
drove all the inhabitants and the cattle into this island. Subsequently 
the whole area became overgrown with jungle, and the old stone bridges 
connecting it with the mainland were impassable. 

About 1824, their repair was undertaken by a confidential servant of 
the Resident of Mysore, named Ramaswami Mudaliyar. He expended 
several thousand pounds on the work, and was rewarded by the British 
Government with the title of Janopakara Kamkarta or Public Benefactor. 
He also received d^jagir or rent-free estate from the British Government, 



SnVALIK HILLS. 43 

with a rental of ;^8oo a year, and seven villages from the Mysore Slate, 
yielding an additional ;£^9oo. The new bridges are built on pillars of 
hewn stone founded in the rocky bed of the stream, and connected by 
stone girders. A bungalow has also been erected by the jd^'i?'ddr, where 
European visitors are entertained. 

The most favourable time to visit the falls is in the rainy season, as 
during the winter months the island is malarious. On the western branch 
of the river, which forms the boundary between Mysore and Coimbatore, 
are the Gangaua Chukki Falls, about 2 miles below the bungalow. 
The waters divide round a small island called Ettikilr, and dash with 
a deafening roar over vast boulders of rock in a cloud of foam. Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton wrote : ' I have never seen any cataract that for 
grandeur could be compared with this.' The falls on the eastern 
branch of the river, called the Bara Chukki, are more easily accessible, 
and display a yet greater volume of water. In the rainy season an 
unbroken sheet, a quarter of a mile wide, pours over the rocks ; but 
during the dry months this separates into several distinct cascades. In 
the centre is a horse-shoe recess, down which the principal stream falls, 
and having been collected into a narrow gorge, rushes forward to again 
precipitate itself 30 feet into the deep pool below. 

Siwalik Hills. — Mountain range in Dehra Dun District, North- 
western Provinces, and in Sirmur (Nahan) State and Hushiarpur 
District, Punjab; lying between 29° 58' 4" and 30° 23' n. lat., and 
between 77° 45' and 78° 11' 28" e. long. The chain runs parallel with 
the Himalayan system, from Hardwar on the Ganges to the banks of 
the Beas (Bias). Geologically speaking, it belongs to the tertiary 
deposits of the outer Himalayas ; and it is chiefly composed of low 
sandstone and conglomerate hills, the solidified and upheaved detritus 
of the great range in its rear. Rising from the bed of the Ganges, at 
the point where that river debouches upon the plains of Saharanpur, the 
Siwalik chain runs across Dehra Dun District in a north-westerly 
direction, till it dips again for a while into the Jumna (Jamuna) valley. 
The northern slope leads gently down into the vale of Dehra Diin, a 
beautiful glen or depression between the Himalayas and their outlying 
Siwalik subordinates ; but southward, a steep and bold escarpment falls 
abruptly toward the Saharanpur plain. A thick forest of sci/ and sam 
clothes the lower sides, while on the higher crests pine woods indicate 
a cooler climate. Wild elephants abound ; and the fauna in this section 
also includes tigers, sloth-bears, leopards, hyaenas, spotted deer, hog, 
and monkeys. Beyond the Jumna, the Siwalik chain once more rises 
up in Sirmur State, the valley to the north, in continuation of that of 
Dehra, here bearing the name of the Khiarda Diin. Thence it passes 
through the Simla Hill States, dips so as to allow the passage of the 
Sutlej (Satlaj) through a depression in its line, and rises once more in 



44 SIIVAN—SIYANA. 

British territory in Hushiarpur District. The range runs in the same 
general direction till it reaches the Beas (Bias) basin, where it terminates 
near Ditarpur, in a cluster of round undulating hills, crowned by the 
Government bamboo forests of Bindraban and Karampur. The inter- 
mediate valley between the Siwaliks and the Himalayas, in Hushiarpur 
District, is known as the Jaswan Diin. After leaving the Sutlej, the 
range becomes more and more a mere broad table-land, at first enclosed 
by sandy hillocks, but finally spreading out into minor spurs of irregular 
formation. This pordon of the chain consists of a barren soil, rarely 
interspersed with patches of forest or cultivated fields. 

The total length of the range from the Ganges to the Beas is about 
200 miles, and its average breadth about 10 miles. The highest peaks 
have an elevation of about 3500 feet above the sea. The principal 
pass is that of Mohan in Dehra Diin District, by which the main road 
from Saharanpur to Dehra and Mussooree (Masuri) traverses the range. 
All the great rivers which run at right angles to the Siwaliks— the Ganges, 
Jumna, Sutlej, and Beas— have worn themselves valleys through this 
chain. Its outlying continuation may be traced east of the Ganges for 
600 miles, but of such inferior elevauon as to attract little attention. 

The paleontology of the SiwaUks possesses unusual interest from the 
abundant fossil remains of large vertebrates, especially mammals. The 
most remarkable are the sivatherium — a gigantic ruminant, whose 
dimensions exceeded those of the rhinoceros — and various quadrumana, 
whose occurrence in tertiary deposits was first noticed among these hills. 
Siwan.— Village in Bansdih tahsil, Ballia District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 26° 01' 36" n., and long. 84° 07' 14" e., 
3 miles south of the Sikandarpur- Bansdih road, 12 miles from 
Bansdih town. Population (1881) 2710. The place was founded by 
a family of Shaikhs who are said to have come from Medina in Arabia. 
The descendants of the original proprietors are still in possession, with 
the exception of a small share which has been privately sold. The 
village contains 15 sugar factories. 

Siyali. — Tdluk and town, Tanjore District, Madras Presidency. — 
See Shiyali. 

Siyana (Saidjia). — Ancient town in Bulandshahr District, North- 
Western Provinces ; situated in lat. 28° 37' 55" n., and long. 78° 6' 20" 
E., on a raised site, near the Aniipshahr branch of the Ganges Canal ; 
19 miles north-east of Bulandshahr town on the Garhmukhteswar road. 
Population (1881) 6532, namely, 4255 Hindus and 2277 Muham- 
madans. The name is said to be a corruption of Sainban or ' the forest 
of rest,' because Balaram, on his way from Muttra (Mathura) to Has- 
tinapur, slept here one night, and was hospitably entertained hy fakirs, 
who had excavated a tank in the centre of a vast forest. It was formerly 
under the rule of the Dor Rajputs, who were succeeded by the Taga 



I 



SKARDO—SOHAG, UPPER. 45 

Brahmans, and still later by the Shaikhs under Abdiil Fath, a faku', m 
the reign of Ald-ud-din Ghori. Capital of a inahdl in Akbar's time, but 
now a poor collection of mud huts. Indigo factory, trade in safiflower. 
Police station, post-office, village school. A small house-tax is raised 
for police and conservancy purposes. 

Skardo. — Town in Balti State, Kashmir, Northern India. — See 

ISKARDOH. 

Soane. — River and canal in Bengal. — See Son. 

Sobhapur. — Town in Sohagpur tahsil, Hosangabad District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 4883, namely, Hindus, 3588; Kabir- 
panthis, 215; Muhammadans, 576; Jains, 157; non-Hindu abori- 
gines, 347. 

Sobnali. — River in Khulna District, Bengal ; also known as the 
Kundria and the Bengdaha, and in its lower reaches as the Guntiakhali. 
It takes its rise from a number of small watercourses in the Bayra 
marsh, near the village of Baltia, and, after a south-easterly course, 
ultimately joins the Kholpetua. The Sobnali is so called from its 
passing the large village of that name. It forms one of the principal 
boat routes between Calcutta and the eastern Districts. 

Sobraon. — Village in Lahore District, Punjab ; situated on the west 
bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), in lat. 31° 7' N., and long. 74° 54' e., near 
the south-east corner of the District. Population (i 881) 4164. Opposite 
this village, on the east bank of the river, in Firozpur District, lies 
the famous battle-field where Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough 
gained his decisive victory of loth February 1846, which brought to a 
close the first Sikh war, and led to the occupation of Lahore by a 
British force. The Sikhs had taken up a strong position on the east 
side of the Sutlej, protecting the Hari'ki ford, while their rear rested 
upon the village of Sobraon. The battle took place on the Firozpur 
side, where the Sikhs gallantly held their earthworks until almost their 
last man had fallen. Comparatively few made their way back across 
the river. This battle immediately cleared the whole left bank of the 
Sutlej of the Sikh force, and the victorious army crossed into the 
Punjab by a bridge of boats opposite Firozpur, and took possession of 
Lahore. 

Soentha Kalan. — Large agricultural village in Khutahan tahs'il, 
Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 26° 5' 32" 
N., long. 82° 34' 28" E., 8 miles north of Khutahan town. Population 
(1881) 2639, chiefly Kewats or Keuts. 

Sohag, Upper. — Canal in Lahore and Montgomery Districts, Punjab, 
one of the 'Upper Sutlej Inundation Canals.' Lat. 30° 28' to 30° 46' 
N., long. 73° i^l to 74° 21' E. Has its head-waters from the Sutlej, 
in Lahore District, near the town of Mokhal, whence it flows on to Pak- 
pattan in Montgomery, and tails into the Para-nala. Width of bed, 40 



46 SOHAGPUR. 

feet. The canal is dry during the cold weather when the Sutlej is low. 
It usually flows from April to October ; and during the rains from July 
to September it carries a considerable body of water to tracts in which, 
without its aid, cultivation would be impossible. The canal irrigates 
on an average about 40,000 acres ; but the area is variable, and in 
1880-81 it rose to over 69,000 acres. The upper portion runs in a 
natural ndld, which was used as a canal previous to British rule. In 
1827, Sardar Govind Singh, of Mokhal, a large resident proprietor, 
compelled the people to repair the canal, which was done with forced 
labour ; but it again fell into disuse. In 1855, Colonel Anderson con- 
nected it with the Sutlej, since which time a fair supply of water has 
always been obtained. The canal has been much extended of late 
years, and in 1880-81 it afforded irrigation to 215 estates. 

A second channel, the Lower Sohag Canal, is confined to :Mont- 
gomery District. Formerly the bed of a hill stream, it remained dry 
for many years, till a Kardar of Hirali joined it to the Sutlej, by a cut of 
about 3 miles in length. It has hitherto afforded but little irrigation, 
the maximum area in 1881-82 being 3400 acres. It is now being 
enlarged and improved, and is expected to provide water by direct flow 
to an area as large as that benefited by the Upper Sohag Canal, at 
present lying waste for want of means of irrigation. 

Sohagpur. — Eastern iahsilox Sub-division of Hoshangabad District, 
Central Provinces. Area, 11 14 square miles, with i town and 444 
villages. Number of houses, 30,253, namely, occupied 28,814, and 
unoccupied 1439. Population (1881) 135,765, namely, males 70,023, 
and females 65,742 ; average density, 121-87 persons per square mile. 
Of the total area of the tahsil^ 171 square miles are comprised within 
the three revenue-free estates or zaminddris of Chhatar, Bariam Pagara, 
and Pachmarhi. Even within the Government {khdlsd) portion of the 
Sub-division (943 square miles), 567 square miles are alienated lands, 
paying neither Government revenue, quit-rent, nor peshkash, leaving only 
376 square miles assessed for Government revenue, of which 248 square 
miles are returned as under cultivation, 74 square miles as cultivable 
but not under tillage, and 54 square miles as uncultivable waste. The 
total adult agricultural population (male and female) was returned in 
1 88 1 at 33,689 in the khdlsd tract, or 25*84 per cent, of the whole 
population. Average area of cultivated and cultivable land available 
for each adult agriculturist, 6 acres. Total Government land revenue, 
including local rates and cesses levied on the land, ;;£"io,20o, or an 
average of is. 3|d. per cultivated acre. Total rental, including cesses, 
paid by the cultivator, ^£26,6^'], or an average of 3s. 3d. per cultivated 
acre. In 1883, Sohagpur /fz/^j/7 contained i criminal and 2 civil courts, 
3 police stations (thdnds), 5 outpost stations {chaukis), and a regular 
police force numbering 93 officers and men. 



so HAG PUR TOWN—SOHAWAL. 47 

Sohagpur. — Town and municipality in Hoshangabad District, 
Central Provinces, and head-quarters of Sohdgpur tahsil ; situated in 
lat. 27° 52' N., and long. 78° 1' e., on the high road from Bombay, 30 
miles east of Hoshangabad town. Population (1881) 7027, namely, 
Hindus, 4603; Muhammadans, 1946; Kabirpanthis, 237; Christians, 
88; Jains, 45; Parsis, 8; and non-Hindu aborigines, 100. Municipal 
revenue (1883-84), ;^782, of which ^591 was derived from taxation; 
average incidence of taxation, is. 8|d. per head. The stone fort, now 
dismantled, was built about 1790 by Faujdar Khan, a Muhammadan 
jdgirddr^ who held the country round for the Rajas of Nagpur. In 1803, 
Wazfr Muhammad of Bhopal attacked the fort without success. The 
town had for about ten years a mint, which struck a rupee worth 13 
annas, now very rare. Manufactures, silk-weaving and lac-melting. 
Sohagpur contains a tahsili^ police station-house, and good sardi (native 
inn) ; and the Great Indian Peninsula Railway has a station at the town 
(distance from Bombay 494 miles). Six miles to the east, at the 
village of Sobh^ipur, an important weekly market is held, with a lar^e 
trade in country cloth from Narsinghpur and elsewhere. A Gond Raja 
lives at Sobhapur. 

Sohan. — River in Rawal Pindi and Jehlam (Jhelum) Districts, 
Punjab. Rises in the JNIurree (Marri) Hills a few miles from the 
sanitarium of Murree, in lat. -^T) 5 2' n., and long. 73° 27' e., and flows 
down deep valleys for the first 10 miles of its course, till it reaches the 
plains near the ruined Ghakkar fortress at Pharwala. Thence it takes a 
south-westerly direction, and finally joins the Indus 10 miles below 
Mokhad. A magnificent bridge conveys the Grand Trunk Road across 
the stream, 3 miles east of Rawal Pindi. Quicksands are numerous in 
the river bed, and often dangerous in the lower part, occasionally swal- 
lowing up even elephants. Fordable except in the floods; no ferries. 
The water is but little diverted for mills, and hardly at all for irrigation, 
as the heavy inundations prevent the construction of permanent cuts. 
Innumerable torrents empty themselves into the channel from ravines 
on either side, and carry off the drainage of the surrounding country. 

Sohawal. — Native State in Baghelkhand, under the political super- 
intendence of the Baghelkhand Agency, Central India. The territories 
of the State lie in two distinct patches, separated from each other by 
Kothi ; the northern portion is also so intermixed with lands belonging 
to Panna, that it is difficult to calculate the area of Sohawal accurately. 
It is probably about 240 square miles; and the population (1881) 
37,747, namely, males 18,887, ^^^ females 18,860. Hindus number 
33,460; Muhammadans, 1061 ; and 'others,' 3226, namely, Kols 
2430, and Gonds 796. The gross revenue amounts to about ^10,000, 
but two-thirds of this has been alienated in rent-free tenures and 
religious and charitable grants, leaving the chief an estimated revenue 



48 SOBAWAL TOWN—SOHNA. 

of ;^320o with which to conduct the administration. The State of 
Sohawal was formerly a portion of Rewa territory; but about the 
middle of the i6th century, when Amar Singh was ruler of Rewa, his 
son Fateh Singh threw off his fathers authority, and established his 
independence as chief of Sohawal. His descendant, Lai Aman Singh, 
was found in possession on the British occupation of Baghelkhand, and 
was consequently confirmed in his State, on his tendering a deed of 
allegiance. In consequence of the improvidence and misrule of its 
chiefs, the State has more than once come under British management. 
It was last made over in 187 1, free of debt, to the present Raja of Soha- 
wal, Lai Sher Jang Bahadur Singh, who is by race a Baghel Rajput. A 
small police force is maintained of about 50 men. 

Sohawal. — Chief town of Sohawal State, Baghelkhand, Central 
India; situated in lat. 24° 34 35" N., and long. 80° 48' 50" e., on the 
river Satna, which is here crossed by a ford, and on the high road from 
Satna to Naugaon (Nowgong), distant 6 miles from the station of Satna 
on the East Indian Railway between Allahabad and Jabalpur. Elevation 
above the sea, 1059 feet. Thornton states that this town was formerly 
defended by a fort, which is in ruins. 

Sohi-ong. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Assam; presided over by 
2i lyng-doh. Population (1872) 1951. 

Sohna. — Town and municipality, with sulphur spring, in Gurgaon 
tahsi/, Gurgaon District, Punjab ; situated in lat. 28° 14' n., and long. 
77° 7' E., at the foot of the Mewat hills, 15 miles from Gurgaon 
town, on the main road to Alwar. Ancient Rajput settlement, 
first of Hindu, then of Musalman Rajputs, whose prosperity is 
attested by numerous old mosques. The original proprietors, how- 
ever, who had settled in Jalandhar (Jullundur) after their expulsion 
from Sohna, being directed in a dream by their patron saint, set 
out once more to recover their patrimony, and after a bloody battle 
{circa 1160), regained possession of the town, which their descendants 
still hold. On the British conquest in 1803, the Jals of Bhartpur 
were found in power. Population (1881) 7374, namely, Hindus, 
4571; Muhammadans, 2764; Jains, 34; Sikh, i; and 'others,' 4, 
Number of houses, 637. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£45i, or 
an average of is. 2|d. per head. Sohna is a thriving little town, 
with considerable local trade in grain and sugar, and a manufacture 
of glass bangles. The place is remarkable for its hot sulphurous 
spring, situated in the middle of the town, and enclosed by a sub- 
stantial reservoir, covered in with a dome-shaped roof. Several tanks 
for medicinal bathing surround the central building. The water has a 
temperature varying from 115° to 125° F., and is considered a specific 
for the well-known * Delhi ulcers.' It possesses remarkable curative 
properties in rheumatism and skin diseases. 



SOH-RAH—SOMASTIPUR. 49 

Soh-rah and Soh-rah-punji.— Petty State and Village in the Khasi 
Hills, Assam. — See Cherra and Cherra-punji. 

Sohwal. — Agricultural village in Zamaniah tahsil^ Ghazipur District 
North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 33' 24" n., and long. 83° 
41' 3" E., on the Ghazipur-Gahmar road, 9 J miles from Zamaniah town. 
Population (1881) 3934. Village school. 

Sojitra. — Town in Petlad Sub-division, Baroda State, Bombay Presi 
dency. Lat. 22° 32' N., long. 72° 46' e. Population (1881) 10,253 
namely, males 5264, and females 4989. In ancient times, Sojitra was 
the capital of a Rajput principality. Magistrates' office, police lines 
dispensary, post-office, two schools (one for girls). 

Solan. — Small cantonment and hill sanitarium in Simla District, 
Punjab; situated in lat. 30° 55' n., and long. 77° 9' e., on the southern 
slope of the Krol mountain, on the cart-road between Kalka and 
Simla, 30 miles from the latter station. Ground acquired for a rifle 
range in 1863-64; barracks afterwards erected, w^hich usually accom- 
modate a half battalion of European troops during the hot months. 

Solani. — River in Saharanpur and Muzaffarnagar Districts, North- 
Western Provinces. Rises in the Siwalik Hills, from the Mohan Pass, 
flows in a general south-westerly direction, and falls into the Ganges, 
after a total course of about 55 miles. A magnificent aqueduct of brick- 
work, with 15 arches, each 50 feet in span, conveys the waters of the 
Ganges Canal across the valley of this river near Rurki (Roorkee), and 
the Solani itself flow^s through the open passage beneath. In Muzaffar- 
nagar District, the Solani formerly occupied a deep channel of its own ; 
but of late years it has turned aside into a long line of marshy lakes 
{jh'ils)^ which mark the ancient bed of the Ganges. The pargand of 
Gordhanpur, which comprises the delta between the Solani and the 
Ganges, consists in great part of swamps fed by the overflow from this 
river, and percolation from the Ganges Canal. Efl'orts have been 
made by the Irrigation Department to check the inundation, and drain 
the sw^ampy area, but hitherto with only partial success. 

Solavandan. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Sholavandan. 

Soma-male. — Mountain in the territory of Coorg, Southern India. 
Soma-male is one of the highest peaks in the main range of the 
Western Ghats, about 6 miles south-east of Tadiandamol, overlook- 
ing the Kodantora pass. It is sacred to Maletambiran, a Malayalam 
god. 

Somastipur. — Trading village in Darbhangah District, Bengal ; 
situated on the south bank of the Buri Gandak river, about 2 miles 
west of Nagarbasti, on the road from Taj pur to Ruseri. Population 
(1881) 1456. Large export of ghi. Oil-seeds are also exported, and 
food-grains and salt received in exchange. Somastipur is now the 

VOL. XIII. D 



50 SOMESWARI—SOMNATH. 

junction station for the Muzaffarpur branch line of the Tirhiit 
State Railway. Fine railway workshop, and rifle range for the railway 
volunteers. 

Someswari. — River in Garo Hills District, Assam. — See Sames- 

WARI. 

Somna.— Village in Khair tahsil, Aligarh District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces; situated 14J miles north-west of Aligarh town, on the Grand 
Trunk Road. A station on the East Indian Railway, 889 miles from 
Calcutta (Howrah), and 65 from Delhi. Population (1881) 1743. 
Police station ; post-office. A small house-tax is levied for police and 
conservancy purposes. 

Somnath ^Deo Fattan, Prabhds Fatfa?t, Verdwal Pattan, or Pattan 
Somndfh). — Ancient town in Junagarh State, Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency ; situated in lat. 22° 4' n., and long. 71° 26' e., at the eastern 
extremity of a bay on the south coast of the peninsula of Kathiawar. 
Population (1881) 6644. The western headland of the above-mentioned 
bay is occupied by the port of Verawal, which gives to the locality its 
more common name of Verawal Pattan. On the edge of the sea, nearly 
half-way between the two towns, stands a large and conspicuous 
temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Siva. A few hundred yards 
behind this temple is the reservoir called Bhat Kund, the traditional 
scene of the death of Sri Krishna. Farther inland rises the wild hill 
district called the Gir, and in the remote distance stands out the sacred 
mountain which the people of Kathiawar delight to call the royal 
GiRNAR. The country near Somnath is full of memorials of Krishna, 
the principal centre of interest being a spot to the east of the city, 
where, near the union of three beautiful streams, the body of the hero 
is said to have been burnt. 

Somnath is a gloomy place — a city of ruins and graves. On the 
west, the plain is covered with Musalman tombs ; on the east are 
numerous Hindu shrines and monuments. The city was protected on 
the south by a fort, and on the remaining three sides by a deep trench 
cut out of the solid rock. The fort, situated on the shore within a few 
feet of high-water mark, does not depart in any important particular 
from the general design of Gujarat fortresses. It is square in form, 
with large gateways in the centre of each side, outworks or barbicans 
in front of these, and second gateways in the sides of the outworks. 

Somnath is now especially famous for the manufacture of door locks 
made of wood and iron. It is the head-quarters of a mahdl or revenue 
division, with the courts of a revenue and judicial officer. Though 
some wealthy bankers and merchants reside here, the monied classes 
have principally taken themselves to the neighbouring port of Verawal. 
Dispensary ; vernacular and girls' schools. 

Before its capture by Mahmud of Ghazni (1024-102 6 a.d.), Httle is 



SOMNATHPUR—SOMSA PARWAT. 51 

known of the history of Somnath. In the 8th century, this part of 
Kathiawdr is said to have been in the hands of a hne of Rajput princes 
bearing the surname of Chauda. These chiefs probably owned allegiance 
to that powerful Rajput family, the Chalukyas or Solankis, who reigned 
at Kalyan, near Bedar, in the Deccan. Mahmud of Ghazni, after his 
invasion, left behind him a Muhammadan governor at Somnath. Subse- 
quently the Vajas (a sub-branch of the Rathor tribe) acquired Somnath, 
and revived the glories of the ancient fane. But it was again over- 
thrown by Alagh Khan Sirka in 1300. From this date Muham- 
madan supremacy prevailed. Afterwards, on the downfall of the Mughal 
power, Somnath was ruled at different times by the Shaikh of 
Mangrol and the Rana of Porbandar ; but was finally conquered by 
the Nawab of Tunagarh, in whose hands it remains. 

The legend of Mahmud, ' The Idol-Breaker,' at Somnath, is examined, 
and its inaccuracies are exposed, in article India, vol. vi. of this 
edition of the Imperial Gazetteer. 

Somnathpur. — Village in Mysore District, Mysore State ; celebrated 
for its temple of Prasanna Chenna Kesava. According to an inscrip- 
tion at the entrance, it was completed in 1270 by a prince of the 
Hoysala Ballala dynasty. The whole is most elaborately ornamented ; 
and the structure is completed by three vinidnas or pyramidal towers 
surmounting the triple shrine. Round the exterior base are portrayed 
the leading incidents in the Rdmdyana^ Mahdbhdrata, and Bhdgavata, 
carved in relief in potstone, the termination of each chapter and section 
being indicated respectively by a closed and half-closed door. The 
number of separate sculptured images is 74. The workmanship is 
attributed to Jakanachari, the famous sculptor and architect of the 
Hoysala Ballala kings, under whom Hindu art in Mysore reached its 
culminating point. There is also at Somnathpur a large temple of Siva 
in ruins. 

Sompet. — Zajninddri tdluk of Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 54 square miles. Population (1881) 56,578, namely, males 
27,193, and females 29,385 ; occupying 10,376 houses in 2 towns and 
73 villages. Hindus number 56,426; Muhammadans, 150; and 
Christians, 2. 

Sompet. — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency, and head- 
quarters of Sompet tdluk; situated near the high road between Ber- 
hampur and Chicacole, and connected with it by a road 2 miles 
from the travellers' bungalow at Kanchili. Population (1881) 2836, 
occupying 582 houses. Hindus number 2824; Muhammadans, 10; 
and Christians, 2. Head-quarters of a deputy tahsilddr and native 
magistrate. 

Somsa Parwat (Samse Panvat). — Peak of the Western Ghats in 
South Kanara District, Madras Presidency; 6300 feet high. Lat. 13° 8' 



$2 SOMWARPET—SON. 

N., long. 75° i8' E. The hill is used as a sanitarium by the European 
residents in South Kanara ; there are two bungalows, but no village ; 
easy access by road (56 miles) from Mangalore. The climate, except 
from June to September, during the south-west monsoon, is delicious, 
and for sportsmen there is abundance of game. Wood, water, and grass 
are also plentiful. There is no plateau, properly speaking, but undulat- 
ing ground along the ridge of the mountain for some miles. English 
fruits, flowers, and vegetables grow well, and in most respects the 
climate and soil resemble those of Kunur (Coonoor). 

Somwarpet. — Town in Coorg, Southern India ; situated in North 
Coorg on an open plateau of equal elevation with Merkara, on the high 
road to Monjirabid, 27 miles north of Merkara. Population (1881) 
1528. Municipal income (1882-83), £'](^. School, post-office, and 
market. 

Son {Soa?ie or So?ie ; said to be derived from the Sanskrit So7ia, 
* crimson '). — A great river of Central India, and (excluding the Jumna) 
the chief tributary of the Ganges on its right bank. It rises in 22° 41' 
N- lat., and 82° 7' e, long., in the Amarkantak highlands, about 3500 
feet above the sea. This table-land also supplies the sister sources of 
the Narbada and the Mahanadi, and is included in a tract of wild 
country recently transferred to the State of Rewa. Thence the Son 
flows in a generally northern direction, often forming the boundary 
between the Central Provinces and the States comprised in the 
Baghelkhand Agency, through an intricate maze of hills, until it strikes 
upon the Kaimur range, which here constitutes the southern wall of 
the Gangetic plain. At this point, in 24° 5' n. lat., and 81° 6' e. long., 
it is diverted to the east, and holds that direction in a tolerably straight 
course until it ultimately falls into the Ganges, about 10 miles above 
Dinapur, in 25° 41' 30" n. lat., and 84° 52' e. long., after a total length 
of about 465 miles. Its upper course, of about 300 miles, lies in a 
wild hilly country, which has been but imperfectly explored. In its 
lower section, of about 160 miles, it first flows across the British 
District of Mirzapur in the North-Western Provinces, and then, passing 
into Behar, separates Shahabad from Gaya and Patna. Its principal 
tributaries are — on the left bank, the Johila and Mahanadi, both in the 
upper portion of its course ; and on the right bank, the Gopat, Rehand, 
Kanhar, and Koel, the last of which, and by far the most important, 
falls into it nearly opposite the famous hill fort of Rohtasgarh. There 
are no towns on its banks, nor even commercial marts of any magnitude. 
So far as regards navigation, its stream is mainly used for floating down 
large rafts of bamboos and a little timber. In the rainy season, native 
boats of large tonnage occasionally proceed for a short distance up 
stream ; but navigation is then rendered dangerous by the extra- 
ordinary violence of the flood, and during the rest of the year becomes 



SOJV. 53 

impossible, owing to the small depth of water. The utility of the Son 
for irrigation will be dwelt upon at length in the following article. 
The fish found in this river are said to be superior to those of the 
Ganges. 

In the lower portion of its course, the Son is marked by several 
striking characteristics. Its bed is enormously wide, in some places 
stretching for 3 miles from bank to bank. During the greater part of 
the year, this broad channel is merely a waste of drifting sand, with an 
insignificant stream that is nearly everywhere fordable. The discharge 
of water at this time is estimated to fall as low as 620 cubic feet per 
second. But in the rainy season, and especially just after a storm has 
burst on the plateau of Central India, the river rises with incredible 
rapidity. The entire rainfall of an area of about 21,300 square miles 
requires to find an outlet by this channel, which frequently proves 
unable to carry off the total flood discharge, calculated at 830,000 cubic 
feet per second. These heavy floods are of short duration, seldom 
lasting more than four days ; but in recent years they have wrought 
much destruction in the low-lying plains of Shahabad. Near the site 
of the great dam at Dehri, the Son is crossed by the Grand Trunk Road 
on a stone causeway ; and lower down, near Koelvvar, the East Indian 
Railway has been carried across on a lattice girder bridge. This bridge, 
begun for a single line of rails in 1855, and finally completed for a 
double line in 1870, has a total length of 4199 feet from back to back 
of the abutments, divided between 28 spans, w^hich stand upon piers 
sunk in wells 30 feet below the level of low water. 

The Son possesses historical interest as being probably identical 
with the Erannoboas of Greek geographers. Arrian and Strabo, both 
apparently repeating the description of an eye-witness, Megasthenes, 
represent Palibothra, the capital of Magadha in the 3rd century B.C., as 
standing near the confluence of the Erannoboas wdth the Ganges. The 
Erannoboas they also agree in calling the third largest river in India, 
next after the Ganges and the Indus. Now, Palibothra is undoubtedly 
the same as the Pataliputra of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, 
and the modern Patna. Some authorities, including in recent times 
Mr. Beglar, Assistant to the Archaeological Surveyor, have been dis- 
posed to find the Erannoboas in the Gandak or Hiranya-vati. But 
General Cunningham himself, here following the arguments of Mr 
Ravenshaw, has no hesitation in identifying the Erannoboas with the 
Son, which anciently bore the name of Hiranya-bdhu^ or ' the golden- 
armed' (a title of Siva). In addition, we know that the junction of 
the Son with the Ganges has been gradually receding farther westwards. 
Old channels of the Son have been found between Bankipur and Dina- 
pur, and even below the present site of Patna. In the Be?igai Atlas of 
1772, the junction is marked near Maner, and it would seem to have 



54 SON CANALS. 

been at the same spot in the 17th century. It is now about 10 miles 
higher up the Ganges. 

Son Canals. — A grand system of irrigation works in the Province of 
Behar, taking its name from the Son river. It consists of a series of 
canals in the three Districts of Shahdbad, Gaya, and Patna, which all 
branch off from an anicut or dam thrown across the Son at the village 
of Dehri. The project dates from 1855, when Colonel Dickens, on 
behalf of the East India Irrigation Company, proposed the construction 
of canals, both for irrigation and navigation, from Chanar to Patna — a 
scheme subsequently extended to Mirzapur on the west, and Monghyr 
on the east. In 1867, the Company obtained the sanction of Govern- 
ment to their plans, on the understanding that their concession would 
fail if they did not make satisfactory progress. Beyond applying for a 
guarantee of interest on their capital, the Company scarcely commenced 
operations; and finally, in 1867, their claims were bought up by 
Government, who forthwith took up the enterprise in earnest, though 
with curtailed designs. 

The general plan of the works comprises the Dehri anicut, a Main 
Western Canal, branching off from the anicut on the left bank, and a 
Main Eastern Canal branching off on the right. As a matter of fact, 
these two main canals remain unfinished ; and the actual working of 
the system is confined to their subordinate branches. 

Dehri. — The little village of Dehri, or Dehri ghat, situated on the 
left bank of the river, near the 338th milestone from Calcutta on the 
Grand Trunk Road, is the head-quarters of the engineering staff and 
a centre of great activity. Work was begun here in 1869 by the con- 
struction of a tramway to Dhodhand or Dhaudang in the neighbouring 
hills, whence all the building-stone has been brought. At the same 
time, the workshops were commenced, from the designs and under the 
supervision of Mr. Fouracres,"whose originality and energy are impressed 
upon every department of the undertaking. These workshops are 
substantial stone buildings with iron roofs ; they comprise a foundry, 
sawmill, blacksmiths' and carpenters' shop, fitting-shop, and boatyard. 
They have turned out all the wood and iron work required for the 
canals, and also take private orders. In 1872, a training school was 
opened at Dehri for both Europeans and natives, with the object of 
providing a skilled staff of subordinates for the Public Works Depart- 
ment. 

The Anicut or dam consists of a mass of masonry, 12,500 feet long by 
120 feet broad, thrown across the main channel of the river. The 
foundations were formed by hollow blocks or wells, which sank by 
their own weight, while the sand was excavated from within. On these 
wells two solid walls were built, the upper or main wall to the height of 
8 feet above the normal level of the river bed, the rear wall to the 



SON CANALS. 55 

height of 5 J feet. The space between was filled up with rubble, faced 
on a sloping surface with hewn stone. To provide for superfluous 
water in time of flood three sets of sluices have been inserted, one in 
the middle of the weir, and one at either side. The two latter are 
also intended, by their scouring action, to prevent the mouths of the 
canals from silting up. Each of these sets of sluices contains 22 vents 
of 20J feet span, fitted with iron shutters, which open and shut by 
means of an ingenious system of self-acting machinery. The total cost 
of the anient, which was finished in 1875, amounted to ;£"i 53,668. 
The highest floods since recorded have risen 9J feet above the crest of 
the work, but no damage has been done to the main structure. 

The Western Mam Canal branches off from the left bank of the 
river immediately above the anient. It was intended to irrigate a total 
area of 1,200,000 acres. Its dimensions at starting are — width 
at base, 180 feet ; depth of water in full supply, 9 feet ; thus giving a 
maximum capacity of 45 1 1 cubic feet of water per second. At present, 
this canal is chiefly used to supply the Arrah and the Baxar and 
Chausa Canals, which all branch off within the first 12 miles. The 
main canal is continued for a total distance of 22 miles, as far as the 
Grand Trunk Road, 2 miles beyond Sasseram. It commands, with its 
branches, 198,314 acres. Its prolongation for a farther distance of 50 
miles to the frontier of the District, towards Mirzapur, was commenced 
as a relief work during the scarcity of 1874-75. The chief engineering 
work is the siphon-aqueduct of 25 arches, by which a formidable hill 
torrent called the Kao is carried under the canal. 

The Arrah Canal branches off from the preceding at its 5th mile, 
and is estimated to carry 1616 cubic feet of water per second. It 
follows the course of the Son for 30 miles, and then strikes northwards, 
running on a natural ridge past the town of Arrah, and finally falls into 
a branch of the Ganges after a total course of 60 miles. It is designed 
for navigation as well as irrigation ; but up to the present time no 
permanent communication has been opened with the main stream of 
the Ganges. To overcome the total fall of 180 feet, 13 locks have 
been constructed. This canal commands a total area of 441,500 
acres, which is estimated to be equally divided between kharifoind rabi 
crops. Besides four principal distributaries, its main offshoots are the 
Bihiya Canal, 30I- miles long; and the Diimraon Canal, 40^ miles long. 

The Baxdr Canal leaves the Main Western Canal at its 12th mile, 
and is estimated to carry 1260 cubic feet of water per second. It com- 
municates with the Ganges at Baxar, after a course of 55 miles, and is 
also intended for navigation. Its continuation, known as the Chausa 
Canal, has an additional length of 40 miles. The two together com- 
mand an area of 348,500 acres. The total fall is 159 feet, which is 
overcome by 12 locks. 



56 SOJV CANALS. 

The Eastern Main Canal takes off from the right bank of the river, 
just opposite the mouth of the Western Canal. It was originally 
intended to run as far as Monghyr, but at present it stops short at the 
Pilnpiin river, a total length of only 8 miles. 

The Patfid Canal leaves the preceding at its 4th mile, and follows 
the course of the Son till it joins the Ganges near the jail at Digah, 
between Bankipur and Dinapur. Its total length is 79 miles, of which 
43 miles lie within the District of Gaya, and 36 in Patna. It com- 
mands a total area of 307,610 acres. It was opened for navigation in 
October 1877. 

Financial Aspects. — Up to the close of the year 1881-82, the total 
outlay for works, establishments, tools, and plant amounted to 
;^2,355,777. This is the capital amount on which interest is charged ; 
but the actual expenditure on all heads at the same date was 
;^3,i59,i9o. The total estimate sanctioned is ;£"3, 173,034. It is 
still premature to anticipate what the future income will be ; but the 
experience of two recent years of scarcity — 1873-74 and 1877-78 — 
proves that the agriculture of this tract has now been saved from the 
former risk of uncertainty. In 1873-74, when even the main channels 
were unfinished, water was passed through them sufficient to irrigate 
nearly 160,000 acres, thus increasing the food supply by an amount 
estimated at 70,000 tons, and valued at p/^48,000. Again, in 1877-78, 
when the incomplete state of the distributaries on the Patna Canal 
prevented the enforcement of a water rate, the total area irrigated rose 
to nearly 300,000 acres, of which 64,000 acres were free. 

The areas leased for irrigation from the Son canals, at the end of 
March 1884, amounted to 260,230 acres, including 102,220 acres 
under five years' leases for all crops. The water rates for irrigation 
at present in force are the following : — Annual leases — rice, 6s. an acre ; 
autumn crops {bhadoi), except rice, 5 s. an acre ; winter crops, 5 s. an 
acre ; sugar-cane, los. an acre if watered by flow, a reduction of one- 
third being made if lifting power is required. Special rates for hot 
months — for all crops raised between ist April and 25th June, 8s. an 
acre ; five years' leases, 4s. an acre. 

The total length of all the main canals open at the end of March 
1884 was 219 miles, besides 148 J miles of branch canals and 1082 
miles of minor distributaries ; total length of canals and irrigation 
distributaries, 1449 miles. The value of cargo carried by the canals 
has much increased of late years, having risen steadily from £^i2'j,()26 
in value in 1877-78 to ^^535,447 in 1883-84. The number of boats 
using the canal in the latter year was 8831, of a burthen of 95,476 
tons, and paying a tollage of £a1S9' ^ steam transport service for 
passengers and goods has also been introduced, carrying in 1883-84, 
52,185 passengers and 69,537 maiaids of goods, paying a total sum for 



SONA GA ON—SONAKHAN, 5 7 

passage and freight of ^3687. In 1877-78, the financial results of 
the working of the Son canals showed a deficit of ^15,112 of working 
expenses over the receipts. The balance-sheet for 1883-84 is as 
follows: — Water rates, £^^Z^a,2\ \ navigation receipts, ^8519; mis- 
cellaneous, ^3440 : total income, ;£"6o,38o. The working charges in 
1883-84 amounted to ;^5 1,447, showing a surplus or net revenue of 
;^8933. This, however, is exclusive of interest charges on capital 
expended. 

Sonagaon. — Village in Wardha District, Central Provinces ; situated 
in lat. 20^ 38' N., and long. 78° 45' 30" e., 13 miles west of Wardha 
town. An ancient fair takes place every June and October, in honour 
of the god Murlidhar. The fort was built a century ago by an 
ancestor of the present vidlgiizdrs. 

Sonah. — Town and sulphur springs in Gurgaon District, Punjab. — 
See SoHNA. 

Sonai. — Town in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 19° 23' N., and long. 74° 54' e., about 24 miles north by east of 
Ahmadnagar town. Population (1881) 5483, namely, Hindus, 4880; 
Muhammadans, 295; Jains, 164; Christians, 84; and 'others,' 60. 
Sonai is a large market town, surrounded by a rich plain, and divided 
by a watercourse into the Peth occupied by merchants, and the Kasba 
or agricultural quarter. American Mission church built in 1861. Post- 
office. 

Sonai. — Town in Mahaban tahsil, jMuttra District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 27° 34' 18" n., and long. 77° 55' 47" e., 12 
miles north-east of Mahaban town. Population (1881) 2393. Bi- 
weekly market held on Sundays and Thursdays. Sarai or native inn ; 
police outpost station. 

Sonai. — Important navigable channel in Nowgong District, Assam, 
which issues from the Brahmaputra, and, after a winding course in a 
south-westerly direction, finally falls into the Kalang, itself a similar 
offshoot from the Brahmaputra. It contains 6 feet of water all the 
year round, and the current is sluggish. 

Sonai.— Hill streaiii in Cachar District, Assam, which rises in the 
Lushai Hills, and flows due north into the Barak at Sonaimukh, where 
there is a toll station for forest produce. Some shops have been erected 
on the banks of the Sonai, within Lushai territory, for which the traders 
pay rent to the Lushai chiefs. The Sonai, Tipai, and Dhaleswari are 
the three river trade routes from the Lushai country into Cachar. Total 
value of the Lushai trade in 1881-82, ^£'10,900. 

Sonair. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces.— 5^'^ Saoner. 

Sonakhan. — Estate in Bilaspur District, Central Provinces ; 60 
miles south-east of Bilaspur town ; comprising two small fertile villages, 
surrounded by hills. Narayan Singh, the chief, rebelled in 1857, and 



58 SONALA—SONAPUR. 

was executed, and his estate confiscated. The tenantry withdrew in a 
body, and the tract was left a desert, until, some years ago, part was 
taken as a waste-land grant by a European gentleman. The village of 
Sonakhan lies in lat. 21° 31' n., and long. 82° 37' e. 

Sonala. — Town in Akola District, Berar. Population (1881) 5130, 
namely, Hindus, 4692 ; Muhammadans, 436 ; and Jains, 2. 

Sonamganj.— Sub-division of Sylhet District, Assam. Population 
(1881) 382,560, residing in 21 16 towns and villages, and occupying 
65,025 houses. Muhammadans number 194,361 ; Hindus, 187,625, 
and 'others,' 574. The Sub-division comprises the four police circles 
{thdnds) of Sonamganj, Derai, Chhatak, and Dharmpasa. In 1884 it 
contained i civil and 2 criminal courts, with a police force of 88 men. 

Sonamganj (or Sundmganj). — Village with river trade in Sylhet 
District, Assam, and head-quarters of Sonamganj Sub-division; situated 
on the left or south bank of the Surma river. The exports are rice, 
limestone, dried fish, and tezpdt or bay leaves, of which the value in 
1881-82 was about ;^i 8,500. The imports are — cotton goods, salt, 
tobacco, sugar, spices, etc. Besides the usual Sub-divisional courts 
and offices, Sonamganj contains a police station, subordinate jail, 
dispensary, and post-ofhce. 

Sonamukhi. — Village in Bardwan District, Bengal ; recently trans- 
ferred from Bankura District. Lat. 23° 18' 20" n., long. 87° 27' 15" e. 
Formerly the site of a commercial residency and of an important 
factory of the East India Company, where weavers were employed 
in cotton-spinning and cloth-making. The introduction of English 
piece-goods led to the abandonment of these industries, the native 
fabrics not being able to compete with the imported European article ; 
and from that time the prosperity of this place has declined. Police 
station. Population (1881) under 5000, and not shown separately in 
the Census Report. 

Sondpur. — Market village in Kamriip District, Assam. Lat. 26° 16' 
20" N., long. 91° 40' 10" E. A considerable centre of local trade, con- 
ducted by Marwari merchants. The village stands on the river Dikru, 
near the point where that stream falls into the Brahmaputra. A small 
iron suspension bridge spans the river, which it is proposed to replace 
by a substantial masonry bridge with iron girders. Police outpost 
station ; tea-garden. 

Sonapur. — Village in Berhampur tdluk^ Ganjam District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 19° 6' 30" n., long. 84° 50' 40" e. Population 
(1881) 1424, occupying 275 houses. Hindus number 142 1, and 
Muhammadans 3. A decaying seaport, but formerly of importance. 
Its trade (with that of Mansurkota) has been absorbed by the rising 
port of Gopalpur. Considerable out-turn of salt at the Government 
factory at Surla, 3 miles distant. 



SONARGA ON—SONDA. 59 

Sonargdon. — The ancient Muhammadan capital of Eastern Bengal, 
but now an insignificant village, called Painam, in Dacca District, 
Bengal ; situated about 2 miles from the Brahmaputra, in lat. 23° 
39' 45" N., and long. 90° 38' 20" e. The village is completely con- 
cealed in a grove of palms and other trees, and is surrounded by a 
deep nmddy ditch, originally a moat. It was formerly famous for 
the manufacture of a fine description of muslin. In the vicinity of 
Sonargaon are the ruins of several mosques, but the place does not 
appear to have ever had any pretensions to architectural grandeur. 
Being the residence of the Musalman governors, who were generally 
sons of the reigning king, this village was frequently the centre of 
rebellion ; and it was here that Azim Shah, the son of Sikandar, pro- 
claimed his independence, and invited the poet Hafiz to his court. 
The town gave its name to one of the three great sarkdrs or Provinces 
into which Muhammad Tughlak divided Eastern Bengal in 1330. So 
long as Sonargaon remained the capital, it was a place of considerable 
trading importance, and formed the terminus of the Grand Trunk Road 
made by Sher Shah. 

Sonbarsa. — Village in Ballia tahsil^ Ballia District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 44' 04" N., and long. 84° 32' 46" E., 22 
miles from Ballia town. Population (i88t) 8714. Sonbarsa is not 
a town, but an aggregate of 23 separate villages and hamlets forming 
part of the Damodarpur taluk or estate, the property of the Maharaja 
of Dumraon. The inhabitants are principally Lohtamia Rajputs, noted 
in former times for their determined resistance to the authority of the 
revenue officers appointed by the Maharaja. The principal hamlet is 
Lalganj, in which a large bi-weekly market is held. 

Sonbarsa. — Town or collection of villages in Bhagalpur District, 
Bengal. Population (1881) 5237. 

Sonda. — Town in North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated 10 miles north of Sirsi. Population (1881) 5017. Sonda, 
now a small town, was, between 1590 and 1762, the capital of a family 
of Hindu chiefs. The only objects of interest are its old fort, and a 
Vaishnav and a Jain monastery. The fort is ruined and deserted, and 
its high walls are hidden by trees and brushwood. The masonry 
shows traces of considerable architectural skill. The posts of the 
gateway are single blocks 14 to 16 feet long, and in the quadrangle 
are several ponds lined with large masses of finely dressed stone. 
Perhaps the most remarkable of the fragments is a trap slab, 1 2 feet 
square and 6 inches thick, perfectly levelled and dressed, which rests on 
five richly carved pillars about 3 feet high. Except this slab, which is 
locally believed to be the throne, not a vestige is left of the palace of 
the Sonda chiefs. The town is said to have had three lines of fortifica- 
tions, the innermost wall being at least 6 miles from the modern Sonda. 



6o SONEPAT—SONGIR. 

The space within the innermost wall is said to have been full of houses. 
In the two spaces surrounded by the outer lines of wall the houses 
were scattered in clumps with gardens between. A religious festival 
called the car-procession takes place in April-May, attended by from 
2000 to 3000 people, and cloth and copper and brass vessels are sold 
worth about ^800. The Sonda chiefs were a branch of the Vijayanagar 
kings who settled at Sonda (1570-80). In 1682, Sambhaji led a detach- 
ment against Sonda, but apparently without effect. During 1745-1762 
the town suffered much from Maratha attacks. In 1764, Haidar All 
took and destroyed Sonda, and compelled the chief to take shelter in 
Goa with his family and treasure. The representative of the Sonda 
family still holds a position of honour in Goa. 

Sonepat {Simipat).—Tahsil and town in Delhi District, Punjab. — 
See SoNPAT. 

Songarh. — Village and fort in Baroda State, Gujarat, Bombay 
Presidency. Now a small village with a population (1881) of 2355 ; but 
once a flourishing town. Its huge buildings stood enclosed by a large 
brick wall, which is now nearly demolished. The buildings were 
destroyed by fire about eight or nine years ago. Post-office and dis- 
pensary. The fort of Songarh is situated to the west of the town on 
a small hill. It was originally seized from the Bhils, some families of 
whom still hoXdJdgirs in connection with it. In the lower part of the 
enclosed space are the ruins of what must once have been a handsome 
palace with several storeys. 

Songarh (originally named Sofipiiri). — Petty State in the Gohelwar 
division of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of i village, 
with 3 independent tribute-payers. Area, i square mile. Population 
(1881) 1181. Estimated revenue, ;£"2oo ; of which ;,^5o, 6s. is paid 
as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and £(i, i8s. to the Nawab of 
Junagarh. The village of Songarh is situated 19 miles west-south-west 
of Bhaunagar, and 15 miles north-north-east of Palitana. Close to the 
village is the British civil station, covering an area of 300 acres, for which 
an annual rent of ^30 is paid to the Girasias by the British Govern- 
ment. The entire station is planted with trees. Within the limits of 
the station are the Assistant Political Agent's and the Deputy Assistant's 
dwellings, the thdnd (police) buildings, hospital, dispensary, court- 
houses, library, and an excellent garden. In the village are the school, 
post-office, and dhar?nsdia. Songarh is a station on the Bhaunagar- 
Gondal Railway. 

Songir. — Town in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 21° 8' n., and long. 75° 4' e., 14 miles north of Dhulia. Popu- 
lation (1881) 4275. Songir, like Dhulia, has passed through the hands of 
the Arab kings, the Mughals, and the Nizam. From the Nizam it came 
to the Peshwa, who granted it to the Vinchurkar, from whom it fell into 



SONKH—SONPAT. 6f 

the hands of the British Government in 1818. Not long after the 
occupation of Songir by the British, the Arab soldiers, of whom there 
were many at that time in Khdndesh, made an attempt to recover the 
town ; and did actually take possession of a portion of it, but were 
eventually repulsed and completely defeated. Songir has a local reputa- 
tion for its brass and copper ware. Coarse woollen blankets and cotton 
cloths are also woven. The fort is partly commanded by a hill about 
400 yards to the south. The north and south ends are of solid 
masonry, and the walls, of uncut stone, are in a few places in good 
order. Of the inner buildings hardly a trace remains. Handsome old 
reservoir, fine old well, post-office, and travellers' bungalow. 

Sonkh.— Town in Muttra tahs'il, Muttra (Mathura) District, North- 
western Provinces; situated in lat. 27° 29' 12''' n., and long. 77° 52' 
40" E., 16 miles from Muttra town on the road to Kumbhir. Popula- 
tion (1881)4126. A thriving and well-to-do little town, with a large 
number of substantial brick-built shops and houses, many of them with 
carved stone fronts. Markets on Mondays and Thursdays. Police 
station ; post-office. 

Sonmidni. — Town and harbour in Baluchistan ; situated in lat. 24* 
27' N., and long. 66° 39' e., 70 miles south of Bela, and 52 north-west 
of Karachi (Kurrachee) in Sind. Mr. Hughes, in his Baluchistan^ gives 
the following account of the place, which he describes as ' small and 
insignificant ' : — 

' It is seated at the northern extremity of a kind of bay, or large inlet 
of the sea. The harbour, situated also at the northern head of the bay, 
which, says Carless (who wrote upon this place many years ago), has 
been formed by the Purali river, is a large, irregular inlet, spreading 
out, like that at Karachi, in extensive swamps, and choked with shoals. 
It is at the southern portion of the Bay of Sonmiani, Pottinger believes, 
ihat the port of Alexander, so named by Nearchus, was situated, and 
that here his fleet, according to Arrian, remained for a considerable 
period. The channel leading into the harbour is extremely narrow, 
and has a depth of 16 or 17 feet at high water in the shallowest part; 
but it shifts its position every year, and vessels of any size could not 
navigate it without great difficulty until it had been buoyed off. Inside 
there are 6, 7, and even 10 fathoms in some places; but towards the 
town the channels become shallow, and the trading boats cannot 
approach nearer than a mile.' 

The water-supply is very bad. Trade now unimportant, though once 
considerable. Oil is manufactured from the shira or sha}ignif \A:m\.. 
During the military operations in Southern Afghanistan (1879-81), 
Sonmiani was used as a port of debarkation for stores and munitions 
of war, especially for mules from Persia. 

Sonpat. — Northern tahsil or Sub-division of Delhi District, Punjab. 



62 so NP AT TOWN. 

It consists partly of riverain land on the right bank of the Jumna, and 
partly of a high plateau, watered by the Delhi branch of the Western 
Jumna Canal, which is the southern continuation of the alluvial plain 
known as the cis-Sutlej tract. The watershed between the Gangetic 
and Indus river systems extends across the tahsil. Area, 454 
square miles, with 223 towns and villages, 26,431 houses, and 42,024 
families. Total population (1881) 186,835, namely, males 99,662, 
and females 87,173; average density of population, 411 persons per 
square mile. Hindus number 154,689; Muhammadans, 28,548; 
Jains, 3546; Sikhs, 47; and Christians, 5. Of the 223 towns and 
villages, 102 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 65 between 
five hundred and a thousand ; 35 between one and two thousand; 17 
between two and three thousand ; 3 between three and five thousand ; 
and I between ten and fifteen thousand. Average area under cultiva- 
tion for the two years 1880-81 and 1881-82, 197,178 acres, the 
principal crops being — wheat, 67,019 acres; bdjra^ 33,212 acres; 
gram, 16,116 acres; rice, 11,487 acres; Indian corn, 7486 acres ; y^fi;', 
6610 acres; moth, 4146 acres; barley, 3886 acres; sugar-cane, 12,558 
acres; cotton, 12,151 acres; tobacco, 624 acres; and vegetables, 596 
acres. Revenue of the tahsil^ ;£33, 029. The administrative staff 
consists of a tahsilddr, munsif, and an honorary magistrate, presiding 
over 2 civil and 2 criminal courts ; number of police circles {thdnds), 
4 ; strength of regular police, 93 men ; rural police {chaukiddrs), 336. 

Sonpat. — Town and municipality in Delhi District, Punjab, and 
head-quarters of Sonpat tahsil ; situated in lat. 28° 59' 30" n., and long. 
77° 3' 30" E-j 28 miles north-west of Delhi city. Population (1881) 
13,077, namely, males 6449, ^^^d females 6628. Muhammadans 
number 6764; Hindus, 5297; Jains, 1011; and Sikhs, 5. Number 
of houses, 2097. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£"984, or an 
average of is. 6d. per head. Sonpat is a town of great antiquity, 
founded by the earliest Aryan settlers. Popular tradition, accepted 
by General Cunningham, identifies it with one of the 'pats' de- 
manded by Yudishthira, in the Mahdbhdrata, from Duryodhana as the 
price of peace. Picturesquely placed on the side of a small hill, 
evidently formed from the debris of buildings. This point is, however, 
doubtful, and other authorities assign its foundation to Raja Soni, 13th 
in descent from Arjuna, the brother of Yudishthira. A terra-cotta figure 
of the sun, dug up in 1866, is pronounced by General Cunningham to 
be at least twelve centuries old. In 187 1, a hoard of some 1200 Greco- 
Bactrian hemidrachms was also unearthed at Sonpat. The present 
town occupies an area of about a square mile in extent. It is 
picturesquely situated, surrounded by trees, and approached from the 
Grand Trunk Road by two metalled roads from the north-west and 
south-east, each about 5 miles long. There is also a direct road 



SONFUR VILLAGE AND STATE. 63 

from Delhi, the old Imperial road, but not now much used. The 
iahsili courts and offices, munstfi, and police station are situated on an 
eminence in the centre of the town. Other prominent buildings are 
a dispensary, school, and two Jain temples. Sonpat forms a market 
for a circuit of 7 or 8 miles; and the baniyd or trading quarter 
contains a flourishing bazar and several handsome houses. In the 
neighbourhood of the town are some ancient Pathan tombs, one of 
which has been converted into a rest-house. 

Sonpur. — Village in Saran District, Bengal; perhaps the most 
widely known place in the District; situated in lat. 25° 41' 35" x., and 
long. 85° 12' 50" E., at the confluence of the Gandak and the Ganges. 
The village has a resident population (1881) of only 295 souls, but is 
famous for its great fair, held for ten days during the full-moon of 
Kartik. This is probably one of the oldest melds in India, its origin 
being said to be contemporaneous with Rama and Sita. It was at 
Sonpur that Vishnu rescued an elephant, who had gone to drink, from 
the clutches of a crocodile. A temple was subsequently erected here 
by Rama, when on his way to Janakpur to fight for Sita. Sonpur is 
considered to be a spot of exceptional holiness. The fair, attended 
by great numbers of persons, lasts a fortnight ; but it is at its height 
two days before, and two days after, the bathing in the Ganges. 
The chief articles of trade are elephants and horses and piece- 
goods. But the great attraction of Sonpur is the annual race 
meeting, the occasion of one of the most agreeable social gatherings 
for Europeans held in Northern India. A large camp is pitched in 
a magnificent grove. There are also an excellent racecourse and stand. 
The races last for a week. 

Sonpur. — Native State attached to Sambalpur District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 20° 40' and 21° 10' n. lat, and between 83" 
20 and 84° 18' E. long. Bounded on the north by Sambalpur District, 
on the east by Rairakhol, on the south by Bod, and on the west by 
Patna States. Population (1881) 178,701, residing in 869 villages 
or towns, and 25,521 houses, on an area of 906 square miles, of 
which 556 were cultivated in 1877, while of the portion lying waste 
90 square miles were returned as cultivable. Density of population, 
197 persons per square mile. The country generally is flat, with isolated 
hills rising abruptly here and there. The Mahanadi flows through 
the centre of the State, receiving the waters of the Tel and Suktel ; 
to the north, the Jira river divides Sonpur from Sambalpur. The State 
contains no large forests, and such as exist do not yield any valuable 
timber. The soil is poor and sandy, but, owing to the numerous popu- 
lation, well cultivated. Rice forms the staple crop ; but pulses, oil-seeds, 
sugar-cane, and cotton are also grown. Coarse country cloths constitute 
the only manufacture; and though iron-ore is found in many parts, no 



64 SONPUR ESTATE— SOOREE, 

mines are regularly worked. The State contains no made roads, except 
the line which branches off from the Raipur and Sambalpur road at 
SoheU, southward to Cuttack, and is continued through Sonpur, along 
the right bank of the Mahanadi; and from Bod, 30 miles below Sonpur, 
there are bungalows every 10 miles. In the Mahanadi, just opposite 
Sonpur, a dangerous rapid impedes navigation ; nevertheless, by this 
river and the Tel, timber is floated down, and in good years rice and 
oil-seeds are also exported. 

Sonpur was originally a chiefship subordinate to Patna; but was 
constituted a separate State by Madhukar Sa, about 1560, and from 
that time formed one of the cluster known as the 'Athara Garhjat,' 
or Eighteen Strongholds. The succession has continued regularly 
from Madan Gopal, the first Raja, down to Niladri Singh Deo 
Bahadur, Raja in 1877, who obtained the title of 'Bahadur' for his 
services to the British Government in the field. The family is Chauhan 
Rajput. Estimated gross revenue, ;£28oo; tribute, ;£5oo. The 
climate of Sonpur resembles that of Sambalpur, and is considered 
unhealthy. 

Sonpur. — Zaminddri estate in Chhindwara tahsil, Chhindwara 
District, Central Provinces; south-west of Harai. Area, no square 
miles, with 61 villages and 201 1 houses. Population (1881) 10,849, 
namely, males 5497, and females 5352. The chief is a Gond, and 
pays to Government an annual quit-rent of ;£t, ids. Sonpur village lies 
in lat. 22° 21' N., and long. 79° 3' e. 

Sonpur Binka. — Town in Sonpur Native State, Sambalpur 
District, Central Provinces. Population (1881) 4680, namely, Hindus, 
4555 J Muhammadans, 109; Christians, 3; and non-Hindu aborigines, 

13. 

Sonpur Manda. — Village in Sonpur Native State, Sambalpur 
District, Central Provinces. Population (1881) 2158, namely, Hindus 
2136, and non-Hindu aborigines 22. 

Sonsari. — Za??i'mddri estate in Brahmapuri iahv,l^ Chanda District, 
Central Provinces; 14 miles north-north-east of Wairagarh. Area, 56 
square miles, with 20 villages, 679 houses, and a total population 
(1881) of 3558 souls. The chief is a Halba. Sonsari village lies in 
lat. 20° 31' N., and long. 80° 15' e. 

Sonwani. — Village in Ballia tahsil, Ballia District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 46' 26" n., and long. 84° 20' 46" e., ii 
miles distant from Ballia to\Yn. Population (1881) 2274. It forms 
the principal village of the Sonwani Jagir^ which was granted by 
Warren Hastings in 1782 to his head munshi. Manufacture of sindur 
(red lead). Bi-weekly market ; village school. 

Sooree. — Sub-division and town in Birbhiim District, Bengal. — See 

SURI. 



SOPARA—SORAB. 65 

Sopara. — Ancient town in Bassein taluk^ Thana District, Bombay 
Presidency; said to have been the capital of the Konkan from 1500 
i;.c. to 1300 A.D. Situated about 3|- miles north-west of the Bassein 
Road station, and about the same distance south-west of Virar station 
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Sopara is still a 
rich country town, with a crowded weekly market. Under the name 
of Shurparaka, Sopara appears in the Mahabhdrata as a very holy 
place, where the five Pandava brothers rested on their way to Prabhas. 
According to Buddhist writers, Gautama Buddha, in one of his former 
births, was Bodhisat Suppdrak^ that is Bodhisattwa of Sopira. This 
old Hindu fame gives support to Benfey's, Reland's, and Renaud's 
suggestion that Sopara is Solomon's Ophir. Jain writers make frequent 
mention of Sopara. Under the names Soparaka, Soparaya, and 
Shorparaga, it is mentioned in old Devanagiri inscriptions, about the 
first or second centuries after Christ. The author of the Periplus 
in the 3rd century a.d. mentions Ouppara between Broach and Kalyan 
as a local mart on the coast. 

Sorab. — Tdluk in Shimoga District, Mysore State. Area, 438 -5 square 
miles, of which, including /;ziw lands, 167 are cultivated. Population 
(1881) 66,514, namely, males 34,934, and females 31,580. Hindus 
number 63,770; Muhammadans, 2703; and Christians, 41. Land 
revenue (1883), ;£'23, 987. The woodland scenery is marked by peculiar 
patches of forest called kdjis^ on which grow^ groves of magnificent 
timber-trees, demarcated by sharp lines from the surrounding country. 
These kdns are caused by corresponding depressions in the substratum 
of laterite, which permit a surface-soil of great depth to gather ; whereas, 
over the rest of the country, the mould is only about 4 inches deep. 
Among the forest trees, the valuable wild pepper-vine grows in large 
quantities. The hollow valleys supply rich rice lands, and the in- 
habitants are generally prosperous. Wild animals are numerous, espe- 
cially leopards. Iron-ore is largely smelted in certain localities. In 
1883 the tdluk contained i criminal court; police circles {thdnds)^ 6; 
regular police, 56 men; village watch (chaukiddrs), 271. 

Sorab {Surabhi, ' The Cow of Plenty '). — Municipal village in 
Shimoga District, Mysore State; situated in lat. 14° 22' 45" n., and 
long. 75° 7' 55" E., on the right bank of the Dandavati river, 46 miles 
north-west of Shimoga town. Head-quarters of Sorab tdluJz. Popula- 
tion (1881) 1544. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ;^53; rate of taxa- 
tion, S^d. per head. The principal centre of the industry of sandal- 
wood carving, for which the country round is celebrated. The gudigars 
or carvers chiefly manufacture boxes, caskets, and cabinets, which they 
cover with minute and complicated reliefs. The native designs consist 
of vegetation and scroll-work, interspersed with figures from the Hindu 
pantheon; but any European pattern can be copied to order. The 

VOL. XIII. E 



66 SORAON—SORATH. 

workmanship is considered finer than that of Bombay or Canton, and 
commands a high price. 

Soraon. — The westernmost of the three trans-Gangetic tahsils of 
Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces, comprising the J^argands 
of Nawabganj, Soraon, and Mirzapur Chauhari. The small island-like 
group of villages entirely surrounded by Oudh territory, containing 
nearly the whole of pargand Mirzapur Chauhari, forms the chief 
peculiarity in the configuration of the tahsil. Mirzapur Chauhari is the 
most densely populated parga?id in the whole of the North-Western 
Provinces, the reason being that its position rendered it the most acces- 
sible home for refugees from Oudh, when the latter was under native 
rule. Area of Soraon tahsi/^ according to the latest official statement, 
245 square miles, namely, cultivated, 149 square miles; cultivable but 
not under tillage, 35 square miles; revenue-free, 2 square miles; and 
uncultivable waste, 59 square miles. Total population (1881) 184,894, 
namely, males 90,867, and females 94,027. Average density, 758 persons 
per square mile. Classified according to religion, the population consists 
of — Hindus, 157,768; Muhammadans, 27,111; and Christians, 15. 
Of 432 inhabited villages, 309 contain less than five hundred inhabit- 
ants ; 88 between five hundred and a thousand ; 34 between one thou- 
sand and three thousand : and there is only i town with upwards of 
three thousand, namely, Mau-Aima(8423). The principal land-holding 
castes are Brahmans, who own 244 out of 587 estates within the tahsil. 
The cultivating castes occur in the following order : — Kurmis, Brahmans, 
Ahirs, Rajputs, Kachhis, Shaikhs, etc. As regards their material condi- 
tion, the peasantry of Soraon, owing to the predominance of old resident 
13roprietors, and the lightness of the assessment, are better off than 
those in the adjacent tahsil of Phiilpur. Government land revenue, 
^£"29,886, or including local rates and cesses levied on the land, 
^35>oo5- Total rental, including rates and cesses, paid by the 
cultivators, ^£"47,786. In 1885 the tahsil contained i civil and i 
criminal court ; number of police circles {thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular 
police, 48 men ; village police {chaukiddrs), 533. 

Soraon. — Village in Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Soraon tahsil ; situated in lat. 25° 36' 17" n., and 
long. 81° 53' 33" E., on the Faizabad road, 13 miles north of Allahabad 
city. The village contained in 1881 a population of only 1665 souls, 
and apart from being the tahsil head-quarters, possesses no import- 
ance whatever. Besides the usual Sub-divisional courts and offices, 
Soraon contains a post-office, police station, and tahsili school. 

Sorashtra (Sorath). — Old name of Kathiawar, Bombay Pre- 
sidency. 

Sorath. — Prant or division of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in the south-east corner of the peninsula of Kathiawar, and 



\ 



so RON. 67 

including among others, the chicfships of Junagarh, Porbandar, and 
Jetpur. Area, 5385 square miles. Population (1881) 639,780, 
namely, males 332, 945^ and females 306,835; occupying 135,877 
houses in 12 towns and 1205 villages. Hindus number 520,270; 
Muhammadans, 109,248; and 'others,' 10,262. 

Soron. — Town and municipality in Kasganj tahsil, Etah District, 
North-Western Provinces ; situated on the Burhgangd, or ancient bed 
of the river Ganges, in lat. 27° 53' 40" n., and long. 78° 47' 35" e., on the 
Bareilly and Hathras road; distant from Etah town 27 miles north- 
east. Population (1881) 12,745, namely, males 6554, and females 
6191. Hindus, 10,209; Muhammadans, 2519; Christians, 15; and 
Jains, 2. Municipal income (1883-84), ^939, of which £^27, was 
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, is. 3|d. per hear". 

Soron has some pretensions as a trading mart ; but it is chiefly im- 
portant for its religious associations, and as the scene of frequent 
pilgrim fairs. Devout Hindus, after visiting Muttra (Mathura), come 
on to Soron to bathe in the Burhganga, which here forms a consider- 
able pool, lined with handsome temples and ghats. Half the Hindu 
population consists of Brahmans, distinguished by wearing a scarlet 
pagn (head-dress). They derive a large income from donations sent 
from remote parts of India, and also from annual tours among their 
pilgrim clients, as well as from the numerous festivals. A fine masonry 
bridge connects Soron with the opposite village of Badariya, and was 
supplemented in 1873 by a screw-pile bridge. The pool of the 
Burhganga consists of stagnant dirty water, except during the rains, 
when it becomes a running stream. Pipal trees surround the temples, 
which number 60 in all. Several handsome dharmsdlas or rest-houses 
for pilgrims, exquisitely carved in Agra stone, attest the wealth and piety 
of pilgrims from Gwalior and Bhartpur. Considerable trade in 
grain. Police station, post-office. Government charitable dispensary, 
and school. 

Soron is a place of great antiquity, originally known as Ukala-kshetra ; 
but after the destruction of the demon Hiranyakasyapa by Vishnu in 
his boar avatar, the name was changed to Sukara-kshetra. A mound, 
bearing the title of kild or fort, marks the site of the ancient town. 
The temple of Si'ta Ramji and the tomb of Shaikh Jamal form the only 
buildings now standing upon this mound; but large antique bricks 
strew the ground on all sides, and the foundations of walls may be 
traced throughout. The temple was destroyed during the fanatical 
reign of Aurangzeb, but restored a few years since by a wealthy 
Baniya, who built up the vacant interstices of the pillars with plain 
white-washed walls. The architectural features of the pillars resemble 
those of the Kutab at Delhi. Numerous inscriptions in the temple 
bear date from 1169 a.d. downward. 



68 SO UNTH—SPITI. 

Sounth. — State and town in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. — 
See SuNTH. 

South Kanara. — District in Madras Presidency. — See Kanara, 
South. 

South Maratha Jagirs, The. — A group of Native States in 
Bombay Presidency, under the political superintendence of the Kolhapur 
Agency, comprising the following States : — Sangli, Jamkhandi, Miraj 
(Senior and Junior Branch), Kurandwar (Senior and Junior Branch), 
MuDHOL, and Ramdurg. The/i^V^ of Sangli, Jamkhandi, Miraj (2), 
and Kurandwar (2) belong to Brahman chiefs of the Patwardhan 
family; their territories are divided into a large number of isolated 
patches — one portion of the Sangli State being close to the southern 
•frontier of the Bombay Presidency, whilst another is on the river Bhima, 
near Pandharpur. Total area, 2734 square miles. Population (1881) 
523,753, namely, males 260,136, and females 263,617 : occupying 90,799 
houses in 13 towns and 589 villages. Hindus number 458,078; 
Muhammadans, 41,420 ; Jains, 23,943; Christians, 304; and Parsis, 8. 
TheyV/^/rj- lie partly in the old Hindu Province of Maharashtra, partly in 
that of the Karnatik ; and the division of language on which these old 
Divisions were founded is still maintained, for of the population 279,294 
speak Kanarese and 195,528 speak Marathi. Prior to 1S12, the power 
of the Patwardhan family had for some years excited the jealousy of 
the Peshwa, who had attempted to strip them of their rights ; in that 
5^ear, however, they were taken under the protection of the British 
Government. 

South-Western Frontier Agency. — The name formerly given to 
the Chutia Nagpur Tributary States, Bengal. 

Spiti. — An extensive Sub-division of Kangra District, Punjab, con- 
sisting of an outlying Tibetan valley among the external ranges of the 
Himalayan system, lying between 31° 42' and 32° 58' n. lat., and 
between 77° 21' and 78° 32' e. long. It has the form of a rough triangle, 
its apex lying at the convergence of the Kanzam ridge and the 
Outer Himalayas, while the transverse ridge of Manirang in the South 
Himalayas, dividing Kangra District from Bashahr State, forms the 
base. The triangular tract thus enclosed has an estimated area of 
2155 square miles, the base measuring about 58 miles, and a line from 
base to apex about 60 miles. The whole valley is drained by the Li 
or river of Spiti, which for the most part of its course flows in a broad 
shingly bed, and from whose banks the spurs of the surrounding 
mountain ranges rise almost immediately with a steep but smooth 
ascent. The Li or Spiti river rises in the angle between the 
Kanzam and Outer Himalayan ranges, at the base of a peak 20,073 
feet in height, and after a south-easterly course of 10 miles, is joined 
by another stream from the south-west, the Lichu, which drains the 



SPITI. 69 

mountains on either side of the Kanzam pass. Thence it flows east- 
wards for 13 miles, washing the base of the Outer Himalayas, when 
it turns to the south-east till it reaches Mani at the base of the southern 
hills. Here it sweeps eastwards, and ultimately leaves Spiti at its 
north-east corner by a narrow gorge hemmed in on either side by lofty 
mountains. In Bashahr (Bassahir) State it turns southwards, and 
ultimately joins the Sutlej after a course of 120 miles, its fall averaging 
about 60 feet per mile. 

The principal tributaries of the Spiti in its course through the valley 
are — on its left bank, the Kibjuna, Tanmu, Lagudarsi, Parang, Shilla, 
and Lingti ; and on its right bank, the Giundi, Ratang, and Pin. The 
latter is the most important tributary. It rises in the angle of the 
mid-Himalayan and Manirang ranges, and joins the Spiti after a course 
of 45 miles, a short distance above Dankar, the principal village of the 
valley. The greater part of its course is through an uninhabited 
country ; but near the mouth of its valley the country opens and affords 
space for cultivation by eleven villages. On the Spiti river the first 
inhabited spot is Losar, 12 miles from the Kanzam pass. From this 
point downwards villages are frequent, occupying every available corner 
in the valleys, both of the main stream and of its tributaries from the 
north. The southern tributaries flow through an utterly barren and 
uninhabited country. 

The mountains of Spiti are more lofty than in the neighbouring 
country of Lahul. In the Outer Himalayas is one peak of 23,064 feet, 
and many along the whole line are considerably over 20,000 feet. Of 
the mid-Himalayas, two peaks exceed 21,000 feet, and in the southern 
range the Manirang is 21,646 feet in height. From the main ranges 
transverse lines of mountains project far into the valley on either side, 
leaving in many cases only a narrow interval through which flows the 
Spiti river. Even these minor ranges contain peaks the height of 
which m many instances exceeds 17,000 feet. The mean elevation of 
the Spiti valley is 12,981 feet above sea-level. Several villages are 
situated at an elevation of upwards of 13,000 feet, and one or two as 
high as 14,000 feet. Scarcely any vegetation clothes the bare and 
rocky mountain slopes ; yet the scenery is not devoid of a rugged 
grandeur, while the deep and peculiar colour of the crags often gives 
most picturesque effects to the otherwise desolate landscape. Red 
and yellow predominate in the rocks, contrasting finely with the white 
snowy peaks in the background and the deep blue sky overhead. The 
villages stand for the most part on little flat plateaux, above the cliffs 
of the Spiti river ; and their white houses, dotted about among the 
green cultivated plots, afford rare oases in the desert of stony debris 
which covers the mountain-sides. 

History. — The history of Spiti commences with the first formation of 



70 SPITI. 

the kingdom of Ladakh, after which event the valley seems for awhile 
to have been separated from that government, and attached to some 
other short-lived Tibetan principality. About 1630 a.d., it fell into 
the hands of Sinagi Namgyal, King of Ladakh, who allotted it to his 
third son, Tenchbog. Soon afterwards, it became a part of the Guge 
principality, which lay to the east, in what is now Chinese Tibet; and it 
did not again come under the dominion of Ladakh till about 1720. In 
that year the King of Ladakh, at the conclusion of a war with Guge 
and Lhasd, married the daughter of the Lhasan commander, and 
received Spiti as her dower. Thenceforward the valley remained a 
province of Ladakh ; but, from its remote and inaccessible position, it 
■was practically left for the most part to govern itself, the official sent 
from Leh usually disappearing as soon as the harvest had been gathered 
in and the scanty revenue collected. Spiti was always liable to be 
harried by forays ; but the people, being an unwarlike race, preferred 
the payment of black-mail to the armed defence of their barren valley. 

After the Sikhs annexed the neighbouring principality of Kulu in 
1 841, they despatched a force to plunder Spiti. The inhabitants, in 
accordance with their usual tactics, retreated into the mountains, and 
left their houses and monasteries to be plundered and burnt. The 
Sikhs retired as soon as they had taken everything upon which they 
could lay hands, and did not attempt to annex the valley to Kulu nor 
to separate it from Ladakh. In 1846, however, on the cession of the 
trans-Sutlej States to the British after the first Sikh war, the Govern- 
ment, with the object of securing a road to the wool districts of Chang 
Thang, added Spiti to Kulu, giving other territory in exchange to the 
Maharaja of Kashmir. In the same year. General (then Captain) 
Cunningham and Mr. Vans Agnew demarcated the boundary between 
Spiti, Ladakh, and Chinese Tibet. Since that date, the valley has 
been peacefully governed by British officials, with the assistance of the 
native hereditary rulers, who still practically manage all internal affairs 
after their own fashion. 

Population. — The population of Spiti, in 1881, amounted to only 
2862 persons, almost exclusively of Tibetan origin. The religion is 
Buddhism, and extensive monasteries often crown the lower ridges 
overhanging the villages. The five principal monasteries are at Dankar, 
Tabo, Ki, Tangiut, and Pin, and contain about 300 monks. These 
monasteries, which are endowed by tithes of grain {pun) levied from 
every field, are extensive buildings, standing on high ground, and apart 
from the villages. In the centre of the pile are the public rooms, 
consisting of chapels, refectories, and store-rooms ; round them are 
clustered the separate cells in which the monks live. Each landholder's 
family has its particular tdsha or cell in the monastery to which it is 
hereditarily attached, and in this all the monks of the family, uncles, 



SPITI. 71 

nephews, and brothers, may be found hving together. The monks 
ordinarily mess in these separate quarters, and keep their books, 
clothes, cooking utensils, and other private property in them. Some 
mess singly, others two or three together. A boy monk, if he has no 
uncle to look after him, is made a pupil to some old monk, and lives 
in his cell ; there are generally two or three chapels, one for winter, 
another for summer, and a third perhaps the private chapel of the abbot 
or head Idmd. 

The monks meet in the chapel to perform the services, which 
ordinarily consist of readings from the sacred books ; a sentence is 
read out and then repeated by the whole congregation. Narrow 
carpets are laid lengthways on the floor of the chapel, one for each 
monk ; each has his allotted place, and a special position is assigned 
to the reader : the abbot sits on a special seat of honour, raised a little 
above the common level of the floor ; the chapels are fine large rooms 
open down the centre, which is separated from the sides by rows of 
wooden pillars. At the far end is the altar, consisting of a row of large 
coloured figures, the images of the avatar or incarnation of Buddha of 
the present age, of the coming avatar of the next age, and of Giiriis 
Rimbochi, Atisha, and other saints. In some chapels a number of 
small brass images from China are ranged on shelves on one side of 
the altar, and on the other stands a bookcase full of the sacred books, 
which are bundles of loose sheets printed from engraved slabs in the 
fashion w^hich has been in use in Tibet for many centuries. The walls 
all round the chapel are painted with figures of male or female divinities, 
saints, and demons, or hung with pictures on cloth with silk borders ; 
similar pictures on cloth are also suspended across the chapel on ropes. 
The best pictures are brought from Great Tibet as presents to the 
monastery by monks who return from taking the degree of Gelang 
at Lhasa, or who have been living for some years in one of the 
monasteries of that country. They are painted in a very quaint and 
conventional style, but with considerable power of drawing and colour- 
ing. Huge cylindrical prayer-wheels, which spin round at a slight 
touch of the finger, stand round the room, or on each side of the altar. 
In the store-rooms among the public property are kept the dresses, 
weapons, and fantastic masks used in the chain or religious plays (these 
masks much resemble the monstrous faces to be seen in the carving 
outside Gothic cathedrals) ; also the drums and cymbals, and the 
robes and quaint head-dresses worn by the superior monks at high 
ceremonies. 

The refectory or public kitchen is only used on the occasion of 
certain festivals, which sometimes last several days, during which 
special services are performed in the chapels ; while these festivals last, 
the monks mess together, eating and drinking their full of meat, barley. 



72 SPITI. 

butter, and tea. The main source from which the expense of these 
feasts is met is the pim, which is not divided among the monks for 
every-day consumption in the separate cells. To supply his private 
larder, each monk has, in the first place, all he gets from his family in 
the shape of the produce of the Hdmd's field' or otherwise; secondly, 
he has his share, according to his rank in the monastery, of the hula 
or funeral offerings and of the harvest alms ; thirdly, anything he can 
acquire in the way of fees for attendance at marriages or other cere- 
monies or in the way of wages for work done in the summer. The 
funeral offerings made to the monasteries on the death of any member 
of a household consist of money, clothes, pots and pans, grain, butter, 
etc. ; the harvest alms consist of grain collected by parties of five or six 
monks sent out on begging expeditions all over Spiti by each monas- 
tery just after the harvest. They go round from house to house in 
full dress, and standing in a row, chant certain verses, the burden of 
which is— 'We are men who have given up the world, give us, in 
charity, the means of life ; by so doing you will please God, whose 
servants we are.' The receipts are considerable, as each house gives 
something to every party. On the death of a monk, his private 
property, whether kept in his cell or deposited in the house of the 
head of the family, goes not to the monastery, but to his family, first 
to the monks of it, if any, and in their default, to the head or kdng 
chvjipa. When a monk starts for Lhasa, to take his degree, his kdng 
chhnpa is bound to give him what he can towards the expenses of the 
journey, but only the better-to-do men can afford it. Many who go to 
Lhasa get high employment under the Lhasa Government, being sent 
to govern monasteries, etc., and remain there for years ; they return in 
old age to their native monastery in Spiti bringing a good deal of 
wealth, of which they always give some at once to their families. 

The monks of Pin are of the Dukhpa, and not of the Gelukpa or 
celibate class, to which those of the other four monasteries belong ; 
they marry in imitation of their patron saint Giirii Rimbochi, though 
in their books marriage is not approved. This saint founded several 
orders, of which that to which the monks of Pin belong is the most 
ancient, and is called Ngyangma. The wives and families of the 
monks live not in the monasteries, but in small houses in the villages. 
Every son of a monk becomes a bozaji, which is the name given to 
a low order of strolling monks or friars. The endowments consist of 
tithes of grain. 

In appearance, the population belong to the Mongolian stock, and 
their dress is characterized by the love of colour conspicuous among 
that division of mankind. The figures both of men and women are 
short and stout ; their complexions are a ruddy brown instead of a 
black brown or dusky yellow ; their faces are broad and flat, with high 



SPITI RIVER. 73 

cheek-bones and oblique eyes ; broad mouths and flat noses, with wide 
nostrils. Except in extreme youth, the skin of the face is always 
marked with lines and wrinkles. In fact, none can be said to be 
good-looking, and the old women are hideous ; the one redeeming 
point is the look of honesty and smiling good humour exhibited in 
almost every countenance. Polyandry does not now exist, as in the 
adjacent region of Lahul ; the same object being attained by the 
peculiar practice of primogeniture, by w^hich only the eldest son marries, 
while the younger sons become monks. Crime is rare ; but both 
chastity and sobriety are almost unknown. The language in use is 
pure Tibetan. The chief village and immemorial seat of government 
is Dankar. 

Agi'iadtiire and Commerce. — The principal crop is barley. The 
hereditary native head-man of Spiti bears the title of Nono. The 
exports include cereals, manufactured cloth, yaks, and yak's tails. 
The imports comprise salt, tobacco, madder, and tea from Lhasa ; 
wool, turquoises, amber, and wooden vessels from Kunawar; coarse 
cloth, dyes, and soda from Ladakh ; and iron from Mandi and Kunawar. 
A handsome breed of ponies is imported from Chamarti. 

Administration. — For administrative purposes, Spiti forms part of the 
Kiilu tahsil of Kangra District, under the Assistant Commissioner at 
Nagar on the Beas (Bias). The Nono ranks as an honorary magistrate 
with limited powers. The Government revenue amounts to only ^75. 
There is no school in the valley ; but two boys from each local sub- 
division (of which there are 5) attend the Government school at Kyelang 
in Lahul. The climate is warm in summer, but intensely cold during 
the winter, when its natural severity is aggravated by piercing wdnds 
from the snowy ranges. Snow begins to fall in December, and lies on 
the ground till April, to a depth of about 2J feet. Slight showers of 
rain occur in July and August, though the valley lies beyond the regular 
influence of the monsoon. The health of the people is excellent ; goitre 
and cretinism are unknown. Messrs. Schlagintweit give the mean 
temperature of the Upper Spiti valley at 17° F. in January, 2^^° F. in 
April, 60° F. in July, and 39° F. in October. 

Spiti.— River in Kangra District and Bashahr State, Punjab, draining 
the whole Sub-division of Spiti. Rises at the converging angle of the 
Kanzam and Outer Himalayan ranges, at the base of a peak 20,073 
feet above the sea, and after a south-easterly course of 10 miles, receives 
the Lichu, a stream of equal volume, carrying off the surface waters of 
the mountains on either side of the Kanzam pass ; flows eastward for 
13 miles, washing the foot of the Outer Himalayas; then turns south- 
eastward till it reaches Mani, at the foot of the southern hills ; thence 
sweeps eastward and leaves Spiti by a narrow gorge at its north-east 
corner; in Bashahr it pursues a southerly direction, and finally joins 



74 SRA VAN BELGOLA—SRIGO VINDPUR. 

the Sutlej (lat. 31° 42' n., long. 78° 39' e.) after a total course of 120 
miles, with an average fall of 60 feet per mile. The greater part of 
the valley drained by the Spiti and its tributaries consists of barren 
rocks, through which the various torrents have cut themselves deep 
channels. The chief affluent of the Spiti is the Pin. 

Sravan Belgola. — Temples in Hassan District, Mysore State.— 6V^ 
Shravan Belgola. 

Sravasti. — Ruins in Gonda District, Oudh. — See Sahet Mahet. 

Srlgonda. — Sub-division in the south of Ahmadnagar District, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 625 square miles. Population (1881) 
51,291, namely, males 26,020, and females 25,271; occupying 7078 
houses, in i town and 83 villages. Hindus number 48,080 ; Muham- 
madans, 2086; and 'others,'' 11 25. The greater part of the Sub- 
division lies in the valley of the Bhima, and has a gentle slope from 
the north-east towards that river on the south, and its tributary the 
(jhod on the south-west. For the most part it is a level plain, with an 
average elevation of 1900 feet above sea-level, skirted on the north-east 
by a chain of low hills with flat summits, or pathdrs, which have a 
uniform elevation of about 2500 feet. Towards the hills the soil is 
generally of a very poor description. That of the centre of the Sub- 
division is tolerably fertile; but in the neighbourhood of the Bhima deep 
clayey soils prevail which require much labour in their cultivation, and 
only yield good crops in years of plentiful rainfall. The old mail road 
from Ahmadnagar enters the Sub-division on the north in the 15th 
mile from Ahmadnagar, and runs south. The Dhond-Manmad State 
Railway completely traverses the Sub-division from north to south. In 
1881-82, 192,081 acres were under cultivation. Cereals and millets 
occupied 152,371 acres; pulses, 19,420 acres; oil-seeds, 16,794 acres; 
fibres, 1653 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 1843 acres. In 1883 the 
Sub-division contained 2 civil and 2 criminal courts, and i police 
circle (thdnd) ; regular police, 31 men ; village watch {chaukiddrs)^ 131. 
Land revenue, ;^i2,i34. 

Srigonda {Shrigo?ida, also called Chafndrgonda, from Govind, a pious 
Chamar). — Chief town of the Srigonda Sub-division of Ahmadnagar 
District, Bombay Presidency ; situated about 32 miles south of Ahmad- 
nagar city, in lat. 18° 41' n., and long. 74° 44' e. Population (1881) 
5278, namely, Hindus, 4717; Muhammadans, 424; Jains, 132; and 
Christians, 5. Sub-judge's court, post-office, market on Mondays, four 
temples, and two mansions belonging to Sindhia (Gwalior). 

Srigovindpur. — Town and municipality in Gurdaspur District, 
Punjab; situated in lat. 31° 41' n., and long. 75° 32' e., on the river 
Ravi, 18 miles south-east of Batala. Population (1881) 4247, namely, 
2434 Hindus, 1211 Muhammadans, 598 Sikhs, and 4 'others.' 
Number of houses, 668. Place of great sanctity amongst the Sikhs, 



I 



SRI HA RIKO T—SRINA GAR. 75 

having been founded by Guru Arjun, who bought the site and built 
a town, which he called after his son and successor, Har Govind. 
The proprietary rights are still held by his descendant. Guru Jawahar 
Singh, who lives at Kartarpur in the Jalandhar Doab. Exports of 
cotton and sugar, the latter in large quantities, by river to Sukkur on 
the Indus. Police station, post-office, sardi (native inn), good school. 
Municipal revenue in 1881, ^{^269; average incidence of taxation, 
IS. 3d. per head. 

Sriharikot. — Insulated tract of alluvium and marine deposit, in 
Nellore District, Madras Presidency. It lies between the Pulicat Lake 
and the sea, stretching from Coromandel to Dugarazpatnam ; and it 
contained in 187 1, 13,578 inhabitants, residing in 2064 houses. Not 
returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. Sriharikot contains 
dense jungle, which under Government management forms a source 
of firewood supply to Madras city. The wood and jungle produce are 
collected and carried to the banks of the Pulicat Lake, chiefly by 
Yanadis, a wild aboriginal tribe, from whence it is conveyed to Madras 
city by the Buckingham Canal. 

Srikakulam. — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Chicacole. 

Sri Kalastri. — Town in North Arcot District, Madras Presidency. 
— See Kalahasti. 

Srikanta. — Mountain peak in Garhwal State, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, lying in lat. 30° 57' N., and long. 78° 51' e., enclosed by a great 
bend of the Bhagirathi river. A sharp and lofty peak, 20,296 feet 
above sea-level. Thornton says it is visible from Saharanpur, a distance 
of T05 miles in a straight line. 

Srikundapuram (the Surrukundapura7?i of the India Atlas). — 
Small village in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 3' n., 
long. 75° 34' E. Situated on the right bank of the principal tributary 
of the Valarpattanam river. Is inhabited almost exclusively by 
Mappillas (Moplas), who settled here under the protection of the 
Choyali chieftain, a feudatory of the Kolattiri Rajas. Famous for its 
mosque, locally believed to be one of the original mosques founded 
by Malik Ibn Dinar in the 9th century a.d. 

Sri Madhopur. — Town in Jaipur State, Rcijputana; situated 
about 40 miles south-east of Tonk. Population (1881) 6847, namely, 
Hindus, 6279; Muhammadans, 539; and 'others,' 29. 

Srinagar (or Surjyanagar, 'The City of the Sun'). — Capital of 
the Native State of Kashmir in the Western Himalayas, Northern India. 
Picturesquely situated in the ' Happy Valley ' of Kashmir, about midway 
between its two ends, and close to the hills which bound its north- 
western side, on the banks of the river Jehlam, in lat. 34° 5' 31" n., and 
long. 74° 51' E. The city extends for about 2 miles along the banks of 



76 SRIiVAGAR. 

the river, which divides it into two nearly equal portions, connected by 
seven bridges. Dr. Ince (in his excellent Kashmir Handbook^ 1876) 
states that the average breadth of the river is about 88 yards ; its depth 
is variable, but the average during the summer season is about 18 feet. 
Its banks were formerly faced with long rectangular blocks of limestone, 
some of which are of large dimensions, and handsomely carved ; but 
much of the embankment has crumbled or been washed away. There 
are several fine stone ghats or landing-stairs ; and the city is also 
intersected by several canals, the principal of which are the Sunt-i-kut, 
the Kut-i-kut, and the Nali-mar. 

Srinagar is built at an elevation of about 5276 feet above the sea; 
but is surrounded by low swampy tracts, which render it unhealthy. 
The population numbers about 150,000, — 20,000 being Hindus and 
the remainder Musalmans, — living in about 20,000 houses, which 
are mostly built of wood, three or four storeys high, with pent roofs 
overlaid with earth. Fires are frequent, and often very destructive. 
Dr. Ince, who was civil surgeon at Srinagar in 1864 and 1865, thus 
describes the general appearance of the city : — ' The public buildings 
are few. The principal of them are the bdra-dari^ palace, fort, gun- 
factory, dispensary, school, and mint ; also some ancient mosques, 
temples, and cemeteries, which the student of Kashmirian history may 
study with advantage. The streets are generally narrow, and some of 
them are paved with large and irregular masses of limestone ; they are 
all, however, very dirty, and unfit to be visited by ladies. There are 
several bazars or market-places in different parts of the city, one of 
which, called the Maharajganj, has been lately built for the conveni- 
ence of visitors, in which all the manufactures peculiar to Kashmir can 
be readily obtained. There are several large mansions on its outskirts, 
chiefly occupied by the great shawl merchants and bankers ; some of 
them exhibit beautiful specimens of trellised woodwork, and in other 
respects are very tastefully fitted up.' 

There is a famous poplar avenue, which is the ' Rotten Row ' of 
Srinagar. It was planted by the Sikhs, and is quite straight; about \\ 
mile in length, and 56 feet in average width. Dr. Ince states that in 
1865 it contained 17 14 trees, of which 1699 were poplars and 15 
chenars. 

The Takhf-t-Suldinidn, or ' Throne of Solomon,' is a hill overlooking 
the city, from which a good view is obtained. On the top is a fine old 
stone temple, called by the Hindus Sankar Achdrya ; it was originally 
Buddhist, and was built by Jaloka, son of Asoka, about 220 B.C., but 
now converted into a mosque. Elevation above sea-level, 6950 feet. 

The Hari Farbat^ or ' Fort Hill,' is an isolated hill on the northern 
outskirts of the city. It is about 250 feet high, and is crowned by 
the fort. A \vall surrounds the hill, in which the principal gateway, 



i 



SRI NAG AR TOWN AND TAHSIL. 77 

called the Kdti Danvdza^ is surmounted by a Persian inscription. 
Both wall and fort were built by Akbar about 1590 a.d., at a cost of a 
million sterling. The length of the wall is about 3 miles ; its height, 
28 feet. 

The Sher Garhi^ within the city, contains the city fort and the royal 
palace. It is 400 yards long by 200 wide ; its walls are about 22 feet 
high; and the interior contains the state apartments. Government 
offices, and barracks. Th.QjaTnd Masjid^ or cathedral-mosque, which 
is also in the city, is a very large four-sided building, with an open 
square in the centre and a wooden steeple in the middle of each side ; 
the roof of the surrounding cloister is supported by wooden pillars, 
each formed of a single deodar tree about 30 feet high. 

The Dal^ or City Lake of Kashmir, which has been sung by Moore 
in Lalla Rookh, lies on the north-eastern side of the city. It is about 
5 miles long, 2^ miles broad, with an average depth of about 10 feet. 
Its surface in many parts is covered with the famous Kashmirian 
' floating gardens.' Shalimar Bagh, well known as the scene of Moore's 
Light of the Hare77i^ is a beautiful pleasure-ground laid out by Jahangir ; 
the Nazib Bagh, or 'Garden of Bliss,' another picturesque pleasure- 
ground, is said to have been first planned by Akbar; and there are 
several other gardens of similar character in the environs of Srinagar. 

The local government of the city is vested in a Viceroy or Governor, 
assisted by a Financial and Revenue Commissioner, a Judge of the 
Chief Court, an Accountant-General, a Superintendent of Shawls, and 
a Judge of the Civil Court. The present Governor resides in the Sher 
Garhi. 

Srinagar. — Town in Narsinghpur District, Central Provinces; on 
the Umar river, 22 miles south-east of Narsinghpur town. Population 
(1881) 1609. A considerable place in the Gond period, and the 
quarters of a large garrison under the Marathas, but now greatly 
decayed. 

Srinagar. — Pargand in Kheri District, Oudh. Bounded on the 
north by Dhaurahra. J>a?gand, from which it is separated by the Chauka 
river ; on the east by Tambaur pargand of Sitapur ; on the south by 
Yik\^x\ pargand, the river Ul marking the boundary line; and on the 
west by ^\\yix pargand. Area, 229 square miles, of which 120 are 
returned as under cultivation. Population (1881) 88,499, namely, 
Hindus 77,351, and Muhammadans 11,148. Number of villages, 146, 
chiefly belonging to the tdlukddrs of Oel and Mahewa. A iQ.\N villages 
are owned by the kanungo of Kheri. 

Srinagar. — Tahsil of Garhwdl District, North- Western Provinces ; 
embracing the whole District, and consisting of a wild mountain 
country along the valley of the Alaknanda. The eleven pargands com- 
prising the tahsil and District are — Barasan, Badahan, Chandpur, 



78 SRnVAGAR VILLAGE— SRJNGERI. 

Chandkot, Diwalgarh, Dasoli, Nagpur, Painkhanda, Ganga Salan, Malla 
Salan, and Tala Salan. Estimated area, 5500 square miles, of which 
209 square miles are cultivated. Population (1881) 345,629, namely, 
males 170,755, and females 174,874. Hindus, 343,186; Muham- 
madans, 2077; Jains, 69; and 'others,' 297. Land revenue, jQ()6i2 ; 
total Government revenue, ;^io,92o; estimated rental paid by 
cultivators, ;£"i9,ii6. [For further details, see the District article, 
Garhwal, ante, vol. v. pp. 16-23.] 

Srinagar. — Principal village in Garhwal District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in the valley of the Alaknanda, in lat. 30° 13' n., 
and long. 78° 48' 15" e. A place of small importance, only noticeable 
as the most populous village in the District, with 2100 inhabitants in 
1 88 1. The District administrative head-quarters are at Pauri. Several 
Hindu temples ; general air of decay and poverty. Once the capital of 
the Garhwal Rajas. Heat oppressive in summer, owing to the position 
in an enclosed valley. 

Srinagar. — Decayed town in Hamirpur District, North - Western 
Provinces ; situated on the Nowgong (Naugaon) road among the 
Mahoba Hills, 6t, miles south of Hamirpur town. Population (1881) 
4186. Founded by !vIohan Singh, illegitimate son of Chhatar Sal, the 
Bundela chief, about 17 10 a.d. Mohan Singh built a fort on a hill 
overlooking the town, where was situated the mint from which the 
Srinagari rupees were issued, still the commonest coinage throughout 
Southern Bundelkhand. He also constructed the Mohan Sagar, a fine 
tank, containing a picturesque little island, the building on which is 
now greatly out of repair. Sacked during the Mutiny of 1857 by the 
outlaw Despat, and has never since recovered its prosperity. Ruins of 
fine houses occur in every part, wholly or partially uninhabited. Police 
station, post-oftice, village school, bazar. Declining manufacture of 
brass idols. 

Srinagar. — Village in Ballia tahsU, Ballia District, North-Western 
Provinces ; situated on the Bairia-Reoti road, 24 miles from Ballia town, 
in lat. 25° 49' 10" N., long. 83° 28' 06" e. Srinagar is not a separate 
village, but an aggregate of eleven hamlets forming part of the 
Damodarpur taluk or estate belonging to the Maharaja of Dumraon, 
and containing a total population in 1881 of 4432 souls. 

Sringeri (or Sringa-giri ; lit. 'Hill of Sringa '). — Sacred village in 
Kadiir District, Mysore ; situated in lat. 13° 25' 10" n., and long. 75^ 
17' 50" E., on the left bank of the Tunga river. Population (1871) 1661 ; 
not returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. According to 
local tradition, the spot where Vibhandaka Rishi performed penance, and 
where Rishya Sringa, a celebrated character of the Rdmdyana, was born. 
In the 8th century, the famous Sivaite reformer Sankar Acharya settled 
here, bringing, it is said, from Kashmir the image of Sarad-amma or 



i 



SRINIVASPUR—SRIPERAMBUDUR. 79 

Saraswati. (But see India, vol. vi.) The spiritual throne which he 
founded has been handed down in unbroken succession t o the present 
day. The present Sringeri Swdmi, named Narasinha Achari, the ja}:;at 
gurti of the Smarta Brahmans, is a man of great learning. His claims 
to sanctity are admitted by all votaries of Siva. It is his habit to be 
absent for many years on tours to the farthest corners of India ; and 
the enormous contributions collected from the pious during these 
expeditions are lavishly expended on hospitality and charitable works. 
The vidgaiii of Sringeri, comprising a fertile tract in the upper valley 
of the Tunga, forms an ancient endowment of the math or conventional 
establishment over which the guru presides ; and a monthly grant of 
;^ioo is allowed in addition by the Mysore State. The village consists 
of a single long street, with a loop on one side encircling the small 
hill of Sringa-giri, on which stands the temple of Sarad-amma, the 
tutelary deity of the place. Several large festivals are held during the 
year, each attended by from 3000 to 10,000 people. On these occa- 
sions all classes are fed at the expense of the math ; cloths and bodices 
are distributed to the women, and pieces of money to the men. For 
list of 29 successive heads of the monastery, see H. H. Wilson's Religion 
of the Hifidus, i. 201, ed. 1862. In this list Sankara stands second. 

Srinivaspur (now (1884) called Chintd?/idui). — Taluk in Kolar 
District, Mysore State. Area, 331 square miles, of which 82 are under 
cultivation. Population (1881) 52,436, namely, males 26,029, ^^id 
females 26,407. Hindus number 49,101; Muhammadans, 3329; and 
Christians, 6. Much of the area is occupied wath forest-clad hills. In 
1883 the taluk contained 2 criminal courts; police circles {ihdiids), 7 ; 
regular police, 61 men; village watch {chaukiddrs)^ 538. Revenue, 

Srinivaspur. — Village in Kolar District, Mysore State ; 14 miles 
by road north-north-east of Kolar town ; head-quarters of the tdluk of 
the same name. Population (1871) 2843; not returned separately in 
the Census Report of 1881. Formerly known as Papan-halli ; but the 
name was changed by the diwdii Purnaiya, who called it after his son 
Srinivasa Murti. Rough bits for horses and other small articles of 
iron are manufactured. 

Sriperamblidur (called also Sriperumdtur). — Town in Conjeveram 
tdluk^ Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency ; situated on the 
western trunk road, 25 miles from Madras city. Population (1881) 
5092, namely, Hindus, 4976; Muhammadans, 112; and Christians, 4; 
number of houses, 812. The birthplace of the celebrated Hindu 
reformer Ramanuja, 10 16 a.d. A stone chamber is erected over the 
spot where he was born. Ramanuja founded no less than 700 colleges, 
and sought to secure the permanence of his religious system by estab- 
lishing 89 hereditary ^//r//-ships. Those at Conjeveram, Srirangam, 



8o SRIRAMPUR—SRIRANGAM. 

Rameswaram, Totadri, and Ahobalam still remain. Ramanuja's philo- 
sophical system is chiefly distinguished by his adherence to the 
Vaisishtha Adwaita or 'almost non-dual doctrine.' In contradiction 
to the Adwaita doctrine, he held that the divine soul and human soul 
are not absolutely one, but are closely connected. Everlasting happi- 
ness was not to be obtained by knowledge alone, however profound ; 
in addition, a devout observance of public and private worship was 
essential. 

Srirampur. — Sub-division and town in Hiigli District, Bengal. — See 
Serampur. 

Srirangam {SertJigham). — Town in Trichinopoli District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in lat. io° 51' 50" N., and long. 78° 43' 55" E., 
2 miles north of Trichinopoli city, and almost in the centre of the 
island of Srirangam, formed by the bifurcation of the Kaveri (Cauvery) 
into two branches at a point about 11 miles west of Trichinopoli. 
Population (1881) 19,773, namely, males 9330, and females 10,443 ; 
occupying 3372 houses. Hindus number 19,543 ; Muhammadans, 61 ; 
Christians, 168; and 'others,' i. The southern branch of the river 
retains the name of Kaveri, while the northern channel is known as the 
Coleroon (KoUidam). In his retirement at Srirangam, the celebrated 
Hindu reformer Ramanuja worked out his system of the Vishnuite 
religion, which he preached through the length and breadth of Southern 
India. He died at Srirangam about the middle of the nth century. 

The town chiefly owes its fame to its great temple dedicated to 
Vishnu. The temple and the town are indeed almost conterminous, 
the greater portion of the houses having been built inside the temple 
walls. 

The shrine has been fully described by Fergusson in his History 
of Indian Architecture. He makes it an illustration of the way in 
which many South Indian temples have grown around a small original 
shrine, so that the finest parts of the whole structure are in the 
wrong place, that is, outside; and the absence of a general design 
spoils the effect of the details. 'The temple which has been most 
completely marred by this false system,' writes Mr. Fergusson, ' is 
that at Srirangam, which is certainly the largest, and if its principle 
of design could be reversed, would be the finest in the South of India. 
Here, the central enclosure is small and insignificant, and except that 
its dome is gilt, has nothing to distinguish it from an ordinary village 
shrine. The next enclosure, however, is more magnificent. It 
encloses the hall of 1000 columns, which measures some 450 feet by 
130 feet. The number of columns is 16 in front by 60 in depth, or 
960 altogether. They consequently are not spaced more than 10 feet 
apart from centre to centre ; and as at one end the hall is hardly over 
10 feet high, and in the loftiest place only 15 or 16 feet, and the pillars 



SRIRANGAM. 8i 

spaced nearly evenly over the floor, it will be easily understood how 
little effect such a building really produces. The pillars are, however, 
each of a single block of granite, and all carved more or less elaborately. 
' A finer portico stretches across the court from gopura to gopura ; 
the pillars in it are more widely spaced, and the width of the central 
aisle is double that of those on the sides, and crosses the portico in 
the centre, making a transept ; its height, too, is double that of the side 
aisles. It is a pleasing and graceful architectural design ; the other is 
only an evidence of misapplied labour. The next four enclosures have 
nothing very remarkable in them, being generally inhabited by the 
Brahmans and persons connected with the temple. Each, however, 
has, or was intended to have, four gopuras^ one on each face ; and 
some of these are of considerable elaboration. The outer enclosure 
is practically a bazar ^ filled with shops, where pilgrims are lodged 
and fed. The wall that bounds it measures 2475 ^^^^ by 2880 feet; 
and had its gopuras been finished, they would probably have surpassed 
all others in the South to the same extent as these dimensions exceed 
those of any other known temple. The northern gopura^ leading to 
the river and Trichinopoli, measures 130 feet in width by 100 feet in 
depth ; the opening through it measures 21 feet 6 inches and twice that 
in height. The four jambs or gate posts are each of a single slab of 
granite more than 40 feet in height, and the roofing slabs throughout 
measure from 23 to 24 feet. Had the ordinary brick pyramid of the 
usual proportion been added to this, the whole would have risen to 
a height of nearly 300 feet. Even as it is, it is one of the most 
imposing masses in Southern India, and perhaps because it never was 
quite finished, is in severe and good taste throughout. Looked at from 
a distance, or in any direction whence the whole can be grasped at once, 
these 14 or 15 great gate towers cannot fail to produce a certain 
eftect ; but even then it can only be by considering them as separate 
buildings. As parts of one whole, their arrangement is exactly that 
which enables them to produce the least possible effect that can be 
obtained either from their mass or ornament. Had the four great 
outer gopuras formed the four sides of a central hall, and the others 
gone on diminishing in three or four directions to the exterior, the 
effect of the whole would have been increased in a surpassing degree 
To accomplish this, however, one other defect must have been remedied; 
a gateway even 150 feet wide in a wall nearly 2000 feet in extent is a 
solecism nothing can redeem ; but had the walls been broken in plan 
or star-shaped like the plan of Chalukyan temples, light and shade 
would have been obtained, and due proportion of parts, without any 
inconvenience. But if the Dravidians ever had it in them to think of 
such things, it was not during the 17th and i8th centuries, to which 
everything in this temple seems to belong.' 

VOL. XIII. F 



8 2 SRIRANGAPA TNAM—SRIVILLIPA TUR. 

During the annual festival in December or January, one yard is 
covered by a large pandal (shed), erected every year at a cost of about 
;£3oo. In booths round this pa?idal, which is handsomely decorated, 
are to be seen various figures of gods and other mythical personages. 
Among the groups of images, that of a very sallow-faced Collector 
administering justice, surrounded by peons, with a prisoner in front of 
him, is never omitted. Running round this enclosure is a street in 
which there are ordinary dwelling-houses and shops. The Madras 
Municipal Act (iii. of 187 1) was extended to Srirangam in 187 1. Since 
that time, the municipality have done much towards the general con- 
servancy of the place, and have built a hospital close to the southern 
gate of the temple, at which a large number of in-patients and out- 
patients are treated. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£i377 ', incidence 
of taxation, is. 3jd. per head. 

For the part played by Srirangam as a fortress, in the wars of the 
Karnatik, the reader is referred to the article on Trichinopoli 
District. 

Srirangapatnam. — Town in Mysore District, Mysore State. — See 
Seringapatam. 

Srirangavarapukot {Srungavarapukotd). — Zam'mddri tdliik or 
Sub-division of Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Area, 102 
square miles. Population (1881) 126,610, namely, males 63,519, and 
females 63,091 ; occupying 25,740 houses, in i town and 177 villages. 
Hindus number 125,308; Muhammadans, 1278; Christians, 8; and 
' others,' 16. 

Srirangavarapukot. — Head-quarters of Srirangavarapukot taluk, 
Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 18° 6' 34'' n., long. 
83° 11' 11" E. Population (1881) 5329, inhabiting 1091 houses. 
Hindus number 5210; Muhammadans, 103; and 'others,' 16. Court 
of a sub-magistrate. 

Sri-SUrjya-pahar. — Isolated hill in Goalpara District, Assam ; 
situated on the left bank of the Brahmaputra, 8 miles north-east of 
Goalpara town ; supposed from its name ('Hill of the Sun') to have 
been used as an observatory by Hindu astronomers of old. 

Srivaikunthain iSrivigundaui). — Town in Tenkarai taluk, Tinne- 
velli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 38' 20" n., long. 77° 57' 
20" E. Population (1881) 7781, occupying 1763 houses. Hindus 
number 6989; Muhammadans, 573; and Christians, 219. The fort 
is occupied by a caste of Siidras called Kottai Vellalars, who have 
peculiar customs. There is also a fine temple; police station; post- 
office. 

Srivaikuntham. — Anicut on the Tambraparni river, Tinnevelli 
District, Madras Presidency. — See Tambraparni River. 

Srivillipatur. — The north-west taluk or Sub-division of Tinnevelli 



SRIVILLIPATUR TOWN—SUB ANSIRI. 83 

District, Madras Presidency. Area, 571 square miles. Population 
(1881) 163,608, namely, males 80,441, and females 83,167; occupying 
36,172 houses, in 4 towns and loi villages. Hindus number 159,540; 
Muhammadans, 21 15 ; Christians, 1952 ; and 'others,' i. The country 
to the west undulates considerably, owing to the numerous streams 
which descend from the mountains. Rather more than half of the 
tciluk, including the villages lying to the west, belongs to the red clay 
loam and sand series ; while the easterly villages have a black cotton 
soil or one of black soil mixed with gravel and saline earth. In 1883 
the taluk contained i civil and 3 criminal courts ; police circles (thdnds), 
6; regular police, 51 men. Land revenue, ;^34,247. 

Srivillipatur (otherwise called A^achiyarkoil). — Chief town of 
Srivillipatur tdluk^ Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Population 
(1881) 18,256, namely, males 9028, and females 9228 ; occupying 
4028 houses, Hindus number 17,422; Muhammadans, 353; Chris- 
tians, 480; and 'others,' i. Temple, with an annual car procession 
attended by about 10,000 people. The centre of the local traffic of 
the tdiuk. Police station ; post-office. 

Sriwardhan. — Town in Janjira State, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
18° 4' N., long. 73° 4' E. ; situated about 12 miles south of Janjira town. 
Appears in the leading European travellers as Ziffardan. Population 
(1881) 7425. In the i6th and 17th century, under Ahmadnagar, and 
afterwards under Bijdpur, Sriwardhan was a port of consequence. It 
has still a considerable trade, which in 1881-82 w^as of the value of 
;£3042 — imports, ^1182; and exports, ;^i86o. The trade consists 
chiefly of areca-nuts of a superior kind, highly valued at Bombay. 
Annual fair attended by about 3000 persons. 

Srughna. — Ruined town and capital of an ancient Hindu kingdom 
in the Kurukshetra tract. — See Sugh. 

Srungavarapukota. — Zaminddri tdluk and town, Vizagapatam 
District, Madras Presidency. — See Srirangavarapukot. 

Subalgarh. — Village and ruined fort in Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, 
North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 29° 44' n., and long. 78° 
15' E., on the Hardwar road, 10 miles north-west of Najibabad. 
Extensive fortifications surround the decayed town, which consists of 
little else but a mass of ruins. 

Subankhali. — Market village in Maimansingh District, Bengal; 
situated on the Jamuna river, 44 miles west of Nasirabad, with which 
it is connected by a tolerably good road. A considerable export and 
import trade in jute is carried on. 

Subansiri. — Great river in the north-east of the Province of Assam, 
which contributes to form the main stream of the Brahmaputra. Its 
source and upper course, like those of the Brahmaputra itself, are 
entirely unknown ; but it is supposed to rise far up among the moun- 



84 SUBARA—SUBARNAREKHA. 

tains of Tibet, and to flow for a long distance in an easterly direction 
before it turns south to break through the northern mountain barrier 
of the Assam valley. It enters the District of Lakhimpur from the 
Miri Hills, and, still flowing south, divides the Sub-division of North 
Lakhimpur into two almost equal portions. Before it reaches the 
Brahmaputra, it forms, together with the channel of the Lohit, the large 
island known as the Majuli char, and finally empties itself into the 
main stream in Sibsagar District. In the hills the bed of the river is 
greatly broken up by rocks and rapids ; but in the plains it is navigable 
by small steamers as far up as Patalipam, i6 miles from the Sub- 
divisional town of North Lakhimpur. Below this place it is nowhere 
fordable, but it is crossed by three ferries. Its principal known 
tributaries beyond the British frontier are the Kamlapani, Siplu, Gaiu, 
and Naobhoga. Within Lakhimpur District it is joined by the Dulung, 
Dirpai, Sauldhua, Sumdiri, Ranganadi, and Dikrang. From time 
immemorial the bed of the Subansiri has yielded gold-dust, washing 
for which affords a scanty living to a class known as Sonwas. In 
former times the banks of this river furnished abundant supplies of 
caoutchouc, but these have now been exhausted by indiscriminate 
destruction of the trees. The Subansiri is liable to sudden floods 
of great violence. In 1882, a tea-garden situated close to the spot 
where the river leaves the hills was almost completely destroyed by 
a flood. Most of the buildings were washed away, and upwards of 40 
lives were lost. 

Subara (or Siobdra or Shiobara). — Petty Bhil (Bheel) State in 
Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. — See Dang States. 

Subargum. — Hill in Ddrjfling District, Bengal ; one of the principal 
peaks in the Singalila range. Situated in lat. 27° 9' 45" n., and long. 
88° 3' 15" E., upon the eastern frontier of the District, bordering upon 
Nepal. Height above the sea, 10,430 feet. 

Subarnarekha (' The Streak of Gold'). — River of Bengal; rises 10 
miles south-west of Ranchi in Lohardaga District, and flows towards 
the north-east, leaving the main plateau in a picturesque waterfall called 
Hundrughagh. From this point it forms the boundary with Hazari- 
bagh District, its course being eastwards to the triple boundary junction 
with Manbhiim District. Hence it bends southwards into Singhbhiim, 
whence it passes into the State of Morbhanj, and afterwards enters 
Midnapur District from the north-west. It traverses the jungle western 
tract of this District till it reaches Balasor, through which it flows 
in a tortuous southern course, with gigantic windings east and west, 
until it finally falls into the Bay of Bengal, in lat. 21° 34' 15" n., and 
long. 87° 23' E., after a course of 317 miles, having drained an area of 
11,300 square miles. The chief tributaries of the Subarnarekha in 
Chutia Nagpur are the Kanchi and Karkari, both joining it from the 



SUBARNAREKHA FORT—SUBEHA. 85 

west. The river is navigable by country craft for about 16 miles from 
its mouth, up to which point it is also tidal. During the rains, rice 
boats of 2 tons burden can make their way into Morbhanj. The banks 
of the Subarnarekha, in the lower part of its course, are high and steep 
on the outer curve of the bends, and flat and sandy on the inner ; the 
bed is studded with islands. The bordering country is cultivated to 
within a few miles of the sea, during the cold-weather months. The 
Subarnarekha is only fordable at places within Balasor District ; it is 
embanked here in its lower reaches. 

Subarnarekha. — Port consisting of a demarcated portion of the 
river of the same name ; situated in lat. 21° 34' 30" n., and long. 87° 
22' E., about 12 miles from the sea by water route, or about 6 miles 
in a direct line. In early times, this seems to have been the most 
important port on the Orissa coast ; and it is especially interesting as 
the site of the first maritime English settlement in Bengal, which was 
founded on the ruins of the earlier Portuguese factory at Pippli. But of 
these colonies no traces now exist, and the river has so often changed 
its course that it is impossible to identify the precise spot of their 
location. In January 1875, Captain Harris, the Conservator of Orissa 
Ports, stated that the entrance to the Subarnarekha from the east had 
closed up, and that the only channel now remaining was to the south- 
west of the shoals in the mouth, which are almost bare at low tide. 
The port is unsafe during the south-west monsoon, as it presents a 
dead lee shore with breakers right across the mouth, the sole obstacle 
to navigation ; but within the bar the Subarnarekha possesses a magnifi- 
cent deep channel. The imports in 1873-75 were ;///; the exports 
were valued at £,2^^^. In 1881-82 the imports were ;^i742 in value, 
entirely for coal, imported on account of the Orissa Canal, then 
under construction ; the exports in that year were valued at only ;£()(>']' 
The port is principally visited by fishing boats, which in fair weather 
issue out in squadrons, and sail down as far as Puri. No regular survey 
of the Subarnarekha river itself, as distinguished from its entrance, has 
yet been made. 

Subathu. — Hill cantonment and sanatorium in Simla District, 
Punjab ; situated in lat. 30° 58' N., and long. 77° 2' e., on a table-land 
at the extremity of the Simla range, overlooking the Ghambar river. 
Lies above the old road from Kalka to Simla, 9 miles from Kasauli 
and 23 from Simla station. Held as a military post since the close of 
the Gurkha war in 1816. Barracks exist for a whole regiment. Small 
fort above the parade-ground, formerly of military importance, now used 
as a store-room. Branch of American Presbyterian Mission maintains 
school, and an asylum for lepers supported by voluntary contributions. 
Elevation above sea-level, 4500 feet. 

Subeha. — Pargand in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; bounded on the 



86 SUBEHA—SUDAMRA DHANDHULPUR. 

north by the river Giimti, on the east by Jagdispur/^r^^^/^^ in Sultanpur, 
on the south by Inhauna pargafid in Rai Bareh, and on the west by 
Haidargarh/^;-^^;/^z. Area, 88 square miles, or 56,467 acres, of which 
30,783 acres are cultivated. Population (1881) 50,144, namely, males 
24,191, and females 25,953. Hindus number 45,361, and Muham- 
madans 4783. Numberof villages, 86 ; houses, 9794. Government land 
revenue, ;i^66ii. This tract was formerly held by the Bhars, who were 
expelled about 900 years ago by the Muhammadans in the time of 
Sayyid Salar Masaiid. Subsequently it was taken possession of by Bais 
Rajputs. Of the 86 villages comprising the pargand, 22 are held 
in tdliikddri (owned by Muhammadans), 3 in zaminddri^ and 61 in 
pattiddri tenure. 

Subeha. — Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; situated in lat. 26° 
38' N., and long. 81° 34' e., 52 miles north-west of Sultanpur, and 
30 miles east of Bara Banki town, near the river Giimti. Several tanks 
and masonry wells, bi-weekly market, manufacture of country cloth, 
school, police, post and registry office, and fort. Population (1881) 
3332, namely, Hindus 1887, and Muhammadans 1445 ; number of 
houses, 652. Subeha is supposed to have been a Bhar town prior 
to the Muhammadan invasion. The principal landed family, that 
of the late Chaudhari Sarfaraz Ahmad, traces descent from one of the 
generals of Sayyid Salar. But little is known of the family till 161 6 a.d., 
when Shaikh Nasir was appointed Chaudhari oi pargand Subeha by the 
Emperor Shah Jahan. His descendants divided ihe parga^id amongst 
themselves, but the office of Chaudhari remained undivided; and in 
1792, Chaudhari Imam Bakhsh commenced to absorb all the separate 
properties into his own estate. Chaudhari Sarfaraz Ahmad continued 
this career of aggrandizement, and obtained also an estate in Rai Bareli 
District. 

Subrahmanya. — Hill in the Western Ghats, Coorg, Southern India. 
— See PusHPAGiRi. Also a fair on the northern frontier of Coorg, below 
Subrahmanya hill, held in December, which attracts a great number 
of people. With the fair is connected a cattle market, and the sale of 
metal vessels and idols. 

Suchin. — State and town in Surat District, Bombay Presidency. — 
See Sachin. 

Sudamanpur. — Village in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ; 
situated 2 miles north of the Ganges. Named after its founder Sudaman 
Singh, a Janwar Rajput, who settled here about 500 years ago. Popula- 
tion (1881) 2178, namely, Hindus 2094, and Muhammadans 84. 

Sudamra Dhandhulpur. — Petty State in the Jhalawar pra?it or 
division of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency; consisting of 27 villages, 
with 6 shareholders or tribute-payers. Area, 135 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1881) 7431. Estimated revenue, ;^2o52; of which ;£^238, 2s. 



SUDASNA—SUGIL 87 

is paid as tribute to the British Government, and £^4, 6s. to the Nawab 
of Junagarh. 

Sudasna. — Native State in the PoHtical Agency of Mahi Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 5661. It is situated in the 
Nani Marwar division of Mahi Kantha, and its western boundary 
marches with that of Palanpur. The principal agricultural products are 
millet, wheat, Indian corn, rice, gram, and sugar-cane. 

The chief traces descent from Umar Singh, a son of Rana Punja of 
Danta, on whose death he obtained Sudasna and afterwards certain 
other villages, and a fourth share of transit dues paid by pilgrims visiting 
the shrine of Amba Bhawani. The present (1883) chief is Thakur 
Parbat Singh, a Barad Rajput of the Pramar clan. He is sixty-four 
years old, and manages his estate in person. He enjoys an estimated 
revenue of ^661 ; and pays a tribute of ;£"io3, 12s. to the Gaekwar of 
Baroda, and £z^, 2s. to the Raja of Edar. The family follow the rule 
of primogeniture in matters of succession, but have no sanad authorizing 
adoption. 

Sudasna. — Chief town of Sudasna State, Mahi Kantha, Bombay 
Presidency ; situated on the bank of the Saraswati. Four and a half 
miles to the north-west is a cave temple of Mokheswar Mahadeo, with 
a ruined monastery of sandstone and brick. Here Hindus of all castes 
offer the water of the Saraswati to Mahadeo, and to a pipal (Ficus 
religiosa) tree. Annual fair. 

Sudharam (Nodkhdli). — Principal town, municipality, and head- 
quarters of Noakhali District, Bengal ; situated on the right bank of the 
Noakhali khdl, a natural watercourse, which gives its name to the 
District. Lat. 22° 48' 15" n., long. 91° 8' 45" e. Population (1881) 
5124, namely, Hindus, 2560; Muhammadans, 2528; and 'others,' 36. 
Municipal revenue (1883-84), ;£"482, of which ;^354 was derived from 
taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. 4jd. per head. Sudharam 
is so called after one Sudharam Mazumdar, a resident landlord, who dug 
the only large tank in the place. The town now lies about 10 miles 
inland, but it was once on the sea-coast. During the rains, the tidal 
bore sometimes rushes up the river even farther than Sudharam. Good 
roads to the Pheni river, to Raipur, and Begamganj. The town contains 
a Roman Catholic chapel, and numerous mosques and tanks. 

Sufed Koh. — Mountain range in Afghanistan. — See Safed Koh. 

Sugh (or Srughna). — Ancient town, now a petty village, in Jagadhri 
tahsil, Ambala District, Punjab ; situated in a bend of the old bed of 
the Jumna, now a part of the Western Jumna Canal, close to Jagadhri 
and Buriya towns. Srughna is mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, the 
Chinese pilgrim of the 7th century, as a town 3|- miles in circuit, the 
capital of a kingdom and seat of considerable learning, both Buddhistic 
and Brahmanical. He describes the kingdom of Srughna as extending 



88 SUHA WAL—SUIGAM. 

to the mountains on the north, and to the Ganges on the east, with the 
Yamuna or Jumna flowing through the midst of it. The capital he 
represents as having been partly in ruins ; but General Cunningham 
thinks that there is evidence in the coins found on the spot to show 
that it was occupied down to the time of the Muhammadan conquest. 
He thus describes the extent and position of the ruins : — 

' The village of Sugh occupies one of the most remarkable positions 
that I have seen during the whole course of my researches. It is situated 
on a projecting triangular spur of high land, and is surrounded on three 
sides by the bed of the old Jumna, which is now the Western Jumna 
Canal. On the north and west faces it is further protected by two deep 
ravines, so that the position is a ready-made stronghold, which is covered 
on all sides, except the west, by natural defences. In shape it is almost 
triangular, with a large projecting fort or citadel at each of the angles. 
The site of the north fort is now occupied by the castle and village of 
Dayalgarh. The village of Amadalpur stands on the site of the south- 
east fort, and that of the south-west is unoccupied. Each of these forts 
is 1500 feet long and 1000 feet broad, and each face of the triangle 
which connects them together is upwards of half-a-mile in length, that 
to the east being 4000 and those to the north-west and south-west 3000 
feet each. The whole circuit of the position is therefore 22,000 feet, or 
upwards of 4 miles, which is considerably more than the 3^- miles of 
Hiuen Tsiang's measurement. But as the north fort is separated from 
the main position by a deep sandy ravine, called the Rohara ndld^ it is 
possible that it may have been unoccupied at the time of the pilgrim's 
visit. This would reduce the circuit of the position to 19,000 feet, or 
upwards of 3I miles, and bring it into accord with the pilgrim's measure- 
ment. The small village of Sugh occupied the west side of the position, 
and the small town of Buriah lies immediately to the north of Dayalgarh.' 
The present village of Sugh contains about 125 houses or huts. 

Suhawal. — State and town in the Baghelkhand Agency, Central 
India. — See Sohawal. 

Suigam. — Native State in the Political Superintendency of Palan- 
pur, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency ; bounded on the north and east by 
AVao State, on the south by Chadchat State, and on the west by the 
Salt Desert or Rann. The State is about 20 miles long by 8 miles 
broad, and covers an area of 220 square miles ; it contained a popu- 
lation in 1881 of 11,521 persons. The country is flat and open ; the 
soil produces poor crops of the common grains. A scanty supply of 
brackish water is found at a depth of 15 feet. The chiefs family is 
of the same origin as that of the Rana of Wao. The territory was 
about 420 years ago granted to Pachanji, the youngest son of Rana 
Sangaji, and, like Wao, is sub-divided amongst a numerous independent 
bhdydd or brotherhood. Like their brethren of Wao, the chiefs of 



S (JIG AM TOWN—SUJANPUR TIRA. 89 

Siiig^m were noted freebooters, and in the early part of the present 
century gave every assistance to the Khosas in their predatory raids. 
But since 1826, when they entered into an agreement with Colonel 
Miles, they have become peaceful cultivators of the soil. The present 
(1883) chief of Suigam is Thakur Bhupat Singh, a Rajput of the 
Chauhan clan; he is sixty-one years of age. He enjoys an estimated 
gross revenue of ^,{^1000. The family follow the rule of primogeniture, 
but have no sa7iad authorizing adoption. School with 67 pupils in 
1882-83. 

Suigam. — Chief town of the Suigam State, Gujarat, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 24° 9' n., long. 71° 21' e. During the establishment 
of British power in north Gujarat, Suigam was a somewhat important 
outpost. The country round suffered much from earthquakes in 181 9, 
the whole tract becoming salt and the wells useless. 

Sujangarh. — Town in Bikaner (Bickaneer) State, Rajputana ; 
situated about 80 miles south-east of Bikaner town. Population 
(1881) 5238, namely, Hindus, 3698; Muhammadans, 784; and 
'others,' 756. 

Sujanpur. — Town in Gurdaspur District, Punjab; situated in lat. 32° 
19' N., and long. 75° 40' e., at the foot of the hills, in the corner of the 
Bari Doab below Nurpur. Distant from Gurdaspur town 23 miles 
north-east, from Pathankot 4 miles north-west. Population (1881) 
6039, namely, 1968 Hindus, 3988 Muhammadans, 79 Sikhs, and 4 
'others;' number of houses, 974. Exports of rice, turmeric, and 
hemp to Amritsar (Umritsur) and Lahore, principally by boats upon 
the Ravi. Municipal revenue (1883-84), ;£'366 ; expenditure, ;^37i ; 
average incidence of taxation, is. 2§d. per head. 

Sujanpur Tira. — Town and municipality in Hamirpur tahsil^ Kangra 
District, Punjab; situated on the bank of the Beas (Bias), in lat. 31° 
50' N., and long. 76° 33' e., 15 miles above Nadaun. Population (1881) 
3431, namely, Hindus, 2913; Muhammadans, 488; Jains, 25; and 
'others,' 5. Number of houses, 706. Municipal income (1883-84), 
;^i68, or an average of iifd. per head. The palace of the ancient 
Katoch dynasty crowns a height overlooking the town. Founded in 
1758 by Abhi Chand, great-grandfather of Sansar Chand {see Kangra 
District). Subsequently enlarged by his son and grandson, the latter 
of whom founded the town of Sujanpur. Sansar Chand completed the 
building, and held his court here. The palace, a residence of regal 
proportions, and highly finished in point of workmanship, bears the 
name of Tira, whence the double title of the place. Picturesque town, 
having a handsome old parade-ground, a grassy plain surrounded by 
noble trees. Local trade centre of considerable importance ; colony 
of workers in gems, and jewellers, introduced by the Katoch princes 
from Gujrat and Delhi. 



90 SUJA WALSUKHETA, 

Sujdwal. — Tdluk in Shahbandar Sub-division, Karachi District, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 267 square miles. Population (1881) 
30,314, namely, males 16,792, and females 13,522; occupying 5403 
houses in 84 villages. Muhammadans number 26,679 5 Hindus, 3292 ; 
Sikhs, 242; aborigines, 99; and Christians, 2. In 1882-83, the area 
assessed for land revenue was 54,786 acres; and the area under actual 
cultivation was 28,667 acres. In 1883 the /i/w>^ contained 2 criminal 
courts ; police circles {thdnds), 5 ; regular police, 34 men. Revenue, 

Sujawal. — Town in Gwalior territory, Malwa, Central India; situated 
44 miles north-west of Bhopal. Population (1881) 7136, namely, Hindus, 
4701; Muhammadans, 1946; and 'others,' 489. 

Sukesar. — Mountain in Shahpur District, Punjab. — See Sakeswar. 

Suket. — One of the Hill States under the Political Superintendence 
of the Government of the Punjab, lying between 31° 13' 45" and 31° 
35' 25" N. lat., and between 76° 49' and 77° 26' e. long., on the north 
side of the Sutlej river, which separates it from the cis-Sutlej Hill 
States. Area, 474 square miles, with i town and 219 villages; number 
of houses, 8658; families, 9517. Population (1881) 52,484, namely, 
males 29,280, and females 23,204. Average density of population, iii 
persons per square mile. Hindus number 51,776; Muhammadans, 
695; and Sikhs, 13. Estimated revenue of the chief, ;!^io,ooo, of 
which ;^iioo is paid as tribute to the British Government. The 
country of Suket was united with that of Mandi until about the year 
1200 A.D. The separation was followed by frequent wars between 
the two States, with varying success. The country eventually fell under 
Sikh supremacy, which was exchanged for that of the British Govern- 
ment by the treaty of Lahore in 1846 ; and in that year full sovereignty 
was conceded to the Rajput Raja, Agar Sen, and his heirs. A sanad 
conferring the right of adoption was granted in 1862. Raja Agar Sen 
died in 1875, and was succeeded by his son Rudra Sen, w^ho was born 
about 1828. Raja Riidra Sen was deposed in 1878 in consequence of 
misgovernment. He was succeeded by his son Dasht Nikandan Sen in 
March 1879, during whose minority the administration was carried on 
by a Native Superintendent, assisted by a Council. The Raja came 
of age in February 1884, and now administers the State in person. 
The Raja of Suket receives a salute of 11 guns. A small force of 40 
cavalry and 365 infantry is maintained. 

Suket. — Mountain range in Kangra District, Punjab. — See Jalori. 

Suketa. — The popular form of Saketa, one of the classical names 
borne by Ajodhya, the ancient capital of Oudh. See Cunningham's 
Ancient Geography of India, pp. 401-5 (ed. 187 1). 

Sukheta. — River of Oudh, rising in lat. 27° 55' N., and long. 80° 7' 
E., and forming the boundary between Shdhjahanpur and Kheri Dis- 



SUKIIPURA—SUKKUR. 9 1 

tricts. It flows in a south-easterly direction for about 20 miles from its 
source, and turning to the south-west, enters Hardoi District, and falls 
into the Garra in lat. 27° 18' n., and long. 80° 2' e. Total length, about 
84 miles. It becomes a torrent in the rains, and cuts off communica- 
tion with Shahjahdnpur. 

Sukhpura. — Village in Bansdih tahsil, Ballia District, North- 
western Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 50' 46" n., and long. 84^08' 
32" E., on the Garwar-Bansdih road, 6 miles from Bansdih town. 
Population (1881) 4218. Sukhpura is the principal village of the 
estate {taluk) of the same name, which, with the exception of a very 
small share, is still in the possession of the heirs of the Naraulia Rajputs, 
with whom the permanent settlement was made. It is a flourishing 
village, possessing two sugar factories and a primary school. There 
are two rival bazars, which are held twice a week. 

Sukhu-chak. — Town in Gurdaspur District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 24' n., 
long. 75° 14' E. Population (1881) 3355, namely, 2029 Hindus, 
1330 Muhammadans, and 5 Sikhs; number of houses, 638. Municipal 
income in 1883-84, ^174; expenditure, ^144; average incidence 
of taxation, is. ojd. per head. 

Sukkur {Sakhar). — Sub-division of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 11 73 square miles. Population (1881) 209,467, 
namely, males 114,743, and females 94,724 ; occupying 32,396 houses, in 
3 towns and 246 villages. Muhammadans number 142,450, of whom 
64,374 only are females; Hindus, 40,748; Sikhs, 24,736; aborigines, 
942 ; Christians, 523 ; Parsis, 58; Brahmos, 8; and Jews, 2. 

Bounded north and west by the Upper Sind Frontier District, east by 
the Indus, and south by Larkhana. Head-quarters at Sukkur Town, 
which is also the head-quarters of Shikarpur District. The country con- 
sists of a level plain, broken only at Sukkur by a low range of limestone 
hills. Highly cultivated in parts, and diversified by lakes and forests. 
The chief canals in the Sub-division are the Sindwa, the Begari, the 
Alibahar, and the Sukkur. Irrigation is also efl"ected by lets or floods. 
Game, abundant ; fisheries, numerous ; minerals, salt, and saltpetre. 
Principal cro^s—jodr (Sorghum vulgare), bdj'ra (Pennisetum typhoi- 
deum), wheat, barley, rice, indigo, cotton, and tobacco. Figs, mul- 
berries, apples, mangoes, dates, etc. are also grown. In 1882-83, ^^^ 
area assessed for land revenue was 146,658 acres, and the area under 
actual cultivation was 121,706 acres. The commerce of the Sub-division 
centres in the two large towns of Shikarpur and Sukkur. Annual 
fairs at Lakhi Thar, Jind Pir, Old Sukkur, Naushahro, and Jhali; the first 
of these is attended by from 20,000 to 25,000 persons. Total length of 
roads, 500 miles. ■ The Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway from Sukkur 
town runs south along the eastern boundary. The Sind-Pishin Railway 
strikes east vt'd Shikarpur from Ruk station on the Sind, Punjab, and 



92 SUKKUR TALUK AND TOWN. 

Delhi Railway. Ferries, 24, of which 9 are across the Indus. Telegraph 
line from Sukkur to Shikarpur, and thence to Jacobabad, Quetta, and 
Karachi. The total revenue of the Sub-division amounted in 1881-82 
to ^£^51,237, of which ^45,968 was derived from imperial and ;£^5269 
from local sources. The land revenue, abkdri or excise, and stamp 
duties furnish the chief items. The tenures obtaining in this Sub- 
division are the maurusi hdri (lit. 'hereditary cultivator') and the 
pattiddri. The extent of land held in j'dgir is 16,000 acres. There 
are 3 municipalities in the Sub-division, viz. Shikarpur, Sukkur, and 
Garhi Yasin ; their aggregate receipts in 1883-84 were ;£22,467. 
The police force numbered (1883) 472 officers and men. Sukkur is the 
seat of the District and Sessions Judge, and Shikarpur of the sub- 
ordinate Judge. Number of Government schools (1883), 36, with 3491 
pupils. Normal and Anglo -vernacular school at Sukkur, and high 
school at Shikarpur; 4 girls' schools; 5 Hindi-Sindi schools, with 1277 
pupils. Two hospitals and two dispensaries in the Sub-division. 

Sukkur {Sakhar). — Tdhik of the Sukkur Sub-division, Shikarpur, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Area, 284 square miles. Population 
(1881) 78,627, namely, males 44,340, and females 34,287; occupying 
12,249 houses, in i town and 72 villages. Muhammadans number 
53,496 ; Hindus, 14,876 ; Sikhs, 9650 ; Christians, 383 ; aborigines, 
169; Parsis, 50; Brahmos, 2; and Jew, i. In 1882-83, the area 
assessed for land revenue was 34,136 acres, and the area under 
actual cultivation 32,363 acres. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil 
and 6 criminal courts; police circles {t/id?ids), 6; regular police, 76 
men. Revenue, ^11,817. 

Sukkur {Sakhar). — Town and head - quarters of Sukkur Sub- 
division and of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated in 
lat. 27° 42' N., and long. 68° 54' 30" e., on the right or western bank of 
the Indus, opposite Rohri. Midway between these two towns lies the 
island fortress of Bukkur, and a little southward the wooded island of 
Sadh Bela. Sukkur is connected by road with Shikarpur, 24 miles 
north-west, and by railway (Sind-Pishin) 7'id Ruk, 28 miles. By the 
Indus, it has communication with Miiltan (Mooltan) and Kotri. The 
Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway runs from Sukkur to Kotri, and so 
to the port of Karachi (Kurrachee). The Indus has not yet (1886) 
been bridged ; although a magnificent cantilever railway bridge is 
under construction at Sukkur, and is now approaching completion. 
A powerful steam-ferry at present keeps open communication with 
Rohri, on the opposite bank of the river, w^hich is in direct connection 
by rail (the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Hne) with Miiltan and the Punjab. 

A range of low limestone hills, utterly devoid of vegetation, slopes 
down to the river; and it is on this rocky site that New Sukkur, 
as distinguished from the old town of the same name about a mile 



k 



SUKKUR TOWN. 93 

distant, is partly situated. Scattered about are the ruins of numerous 
tombs ; and at the western side of the town, overlooking the river, is 
the lofty minaret of Mir Masum Shah, erected, it is supposed, about 
1607 A.D. Sukkur contains the usual public offices, with a civil 
hospital, dispensary, Anglo-vernacular school, subordinate jail, postal 
and telegraph offices, travellers' bungalow, and dharinsdla. It pos- 
sesses, besides, a Freemasons' Lodge. Municipal revenue (1883-84), 
;!<"i4,8i2 ; incidence of taxation, 5s. 2jd. per head. The town is well 
drained and clean. In 1834 the population was estimated at only 4000 ; 
in 1872 it had risen to 13,318; and in 1881 to 27,389, namely, males 
17,151, and females 10,238. Muhammadans number 14,118; Hindus, 
6654; Christians, 383; Parsis, 50; and 'others,' 6184. 

The trade of Sukkur, both local and transit, is considerable, but no 
trustworthy details are available. Statistics of the traffic on the Indus 
appear to have been regularly kept from 1855-56 to 1861-62, by an 
officer of the late Indian Navy. In 1855-56, 600 boats proceeding up 
river with a total tonnage of 7750; and in 1861-62, 1232 with a 
tonnage of 20,232, discharged at Sukkur port. In the same years, 
629 and 1 7 14 boats left Sukkur with cargoes amounting to 8000 and 
16,317 tons respectively. No returns seem to have been made 
between 1861-62 and 1865-66, but from the latter date they were 
carried down to 1867-68, after which they were discontinued alto- 
gether. In 1867-68, 293 boats, with a tonnage of 5171, discharged 
at Sukkur; and 6167, with a tonnage of 96,362, proceeded from 
Sukkur. In 1855-56, the number of vessels proceeding down river 
and discharging at Sukkur was 2210, with a tonnage of 33,125; in 
1861-62, 479, with a tonnage of 7694; and in 1867-68, 1580, with a 
tonnage of 24,739. In 1855-56 and in 1861-62, the number of vessels 
proceeding down stream from Sukkur was 2210 and 940, with a tonnage 
of 33,125 and 18,178 respectively; in 1867-68, the number of vessels 
rose to 6860, with a total tonnage of 114,358. The downward exports 
comprise silk, country cloth, raw cotton, wool, opium, saltpetre, sugar, 
dyes, and brass utensils. The upward exports include piece-goods, 
metals, wines and spirits, and country produce. There is a large local 
trade between Sukkur and Shikarpur. The town possesses no special 
manufacturing industries. 

Old Sukkur seems to be a place of no great antiquity, though it con- 
tains the ruins of numerous tombs and mosques. Among the former 
is the tomb of Shah Khair-ud-din Shah, which is said to have been 
erected about 1758 a.d. New Sukkur owes its existence to the station- 
ing of European troops here in 1839, at the time when Bukkur fort was 
made over to the British ; and it was rapidly converted into a prosperous 
and busy town. In 1845, after a fatal epidemic of fever among the 
garrison, New Sukkur was abandoned as a station for European troops ; 



94 SULAIMAN HILLS—SULEBHA VE. 

but it promises to be of still greater importance than before, as the 
centre of railway communication with Karachi, Miiltan, and Kandahar. 
Little is known of Old Sukkur in the days of Afghan rule ; but it is 
believed to have been ceded to the Khairpur Mirs some time between 
the years 1809 and 1824. In 1833 it was the scene of a conflict 
between Shdh Shuja-ul-Mulk, the dethroned Durani sovereign, and the 
Talpur Mirs, the latter being defeated. In 1842, Old Sukkur, together 
with Karachi (Kurrachee), Tatta, and Rohri, was yielded to the British 
in perpetuity. 

Sulaiman Hills. — Mountain range in Afghanistan and the Punjab, 
forming the historical boundary of India on the west. They stretch from 
lat. 31° 35' 39" to 31° 40' 59" N., and from long. 69° 58' 39" to 70° o' 
45" E., thus bordering the whole Uerajat in Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, 
and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts. The highest peak, the Takht-i- 
Sulaiman, nearly due west of Dera Ismail Khan town, has two summits, 
respectively 11,295 and 11,070 feet above sea-level. Throughout, the 
range presents a comparatively straight line to the British frontier. 
The outer hills consist of several parallel ranges, having a direction due 
north and south. Beyond them rises the main chain, sloping away 
gradually on the Afghan side toward the valley of Kandahar. The 
Sulaimans are generally rocky and precipitous, completely bare of 
trees upon their sides, and wanting in water among the ravines at their 
feet. Numerous passes thread the range, held by independent tribes 
in alliance with the British Government. The Kuram forms almost 
the only river of any importance, taking its rise among their dry 
summits. Length, from north to south, about 350 miles. 

The following description is condensed from Colonel MacGregor's 
account. The Sulaiman range is thrown off to the south from the 
Allah-koh ridge between Kabul and Ghazni, and proceeding southwards 
without a break, forms the system of mountains of Eastern Afghanistan 
and Baluchistan. The whole of the eastern slopes of the range drain 
into the Indus; while to the west, the drainage runs either into the 
Helmand, or is lost in the desert between Persia and Baluchistan. On 
the south, the lower slopes discharge their drainage directly into the sea. 
The principal spurs thrown off from the main range on the west are a range 
dividing Zurmat from Katawaz, and one which leaves the parent ridge 
south of Mount Chapar, and runs nearly west to the Sar-i-Bolan, which 
is thus a continuation of the Sulaiman range. On the eastern or Indian 
side, the main offshoots are — a range dividing the drainage of the Kuram 
from the Khost valley ; a spur dividing Dawar from Khost, which ends 
in British territory in Bannu District ; the Waziri range in its many 
branches ; and the Surkh-koh or Kala-koh, over which runs the Sakhi 
Sarwar Pass. 

Sulebhave. — Town in Bijapur District, Bombay Presidency. 



6" ULEKERE—S UL TAN PUR. 



95 



Population (1881) 5990, namely, Hindus, 5346; Muhammadans, 579; 
and Jains, 65. 

Sulekere (lit. * Courtesan's Ta?tk^' so called from a local legend). — 
Lake in the east of Shimoga District, Mysore State ; artificially formed 
in ancient times by damming up the waters of the Haridra river, a 
tributary of the Tungabhadra. Its margin is about 40 miles in cir- 
cumference ; and, next to the Cumbum (Kambham) tank in Cuddapah 
(Kadapa) District, it is probably the finest reservoir in Southern India. 
It receives the drainage of 20 square miles, and is capable of irrigating 
20,000 acres. In modern times, the work has been greatly neglected ; 
but its embankment is still firm and uninjured, and the sluices have 
recently been repaired. 

Sullivan's Island.— An island in the Mergui Archipelago, attached 
to Mergui District, Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma. Lat. 10° 40' 
to 11° N., and long. 97° 58' to 98° e. Extreme length, 17 miles; 
extreme breadth, 6 miles. A favourite haunt of the Selung tribe. 

Sultanganj. — Considerable village in Bhagalpur District, Bengal ; 
situated close to the banks of the Ganges, near the railway station 
of the same name. Lat. 25° 14' 45" n., long. 86° 47' 6" e. Population 
(1881) 4147, namely, 2061 males and 2086 females. The river-borne 
trade and the railway have largely contributed to its commercial 
importance. Sultanganj is conspicuous for two great rocks of granite, 
one of which, on the river bank, is crowned by a Musalman mosque. 
The second and larger one is occupied by a temple of Ghaibnath 
Siva, and is a place of great hohness in the eyes of Hindus. The 
river here strikes against a cliff of stone, and a spot where this occurs 
is always believed to be the scene of the loves of the river nymph 
and the god Siva. In the rainy season the rock is isolated, and the 
stream rushes past with great violence. During the fair weather, many 
of the Hindus who live in the neighbourhood receive instruction at the 
temple. Few Hindus of any position pass the place without making 
offerings to the idol. 

Sultanpur. — British District in the Rai Bareli Division or Com- 
missionership of Gudh, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the North-Western Provinces; lying between 26° and 
26° 39' N. lat., and between 81° 36' and 82° 44' e. long. Area, 1707 
square miles. Population (1881) 957,912 souls. Bounded on the 
north by Faizabad (Fyzabad), on the east by Jaunpur, on the south by 
Partabgarh, and on the west by Rai Bareli. Extreme length of District, 
80 miles ; greatest breadth, 38 miles. The administrative head-quarters 
are at Sultanpur Town. 

Changes in Jurisdiction. — The District, as at present constituted, 
differs entirely from that which existed prior to 1870. The old District 
comprised the 12 pargands of Inhauna, Jagdispur, Subeha, Rokha Jais, 



96 SULTANPUR. 

Simrauta, Gaura Jamun, Mohanganj, Amethi, Isauli, Tappa Asl, 
Sultanpur, and Chanda, with a total area of 1570 square miles, and a 
population, in 1869, of 930,023 souls. In the redistribution of Oudh 
Districts which took place in 1869-70, four pargands — viz. Inhauna, 
Rokha Jais, Simrauta, and Mohanganj — were separated from Sultanpur 
and attached to Rai Bareh, while Subeha pargand was transferred to 
Bara Banki. On the other hand, the pargands of Isauli, Baraunsa, 
Aldemau, and a part of Surharpur, which formerly belonged to 
Faizabad, were transferred to Sultanpur, altering the total area to 
1707 square miles, and the population to 957,912. 

Physical Aspects. — ^V' ith the exception of a gradual and scarcely per- 
ceptible slope from north-west to south-east, the surface of the country 
is generally level, being broken only by ravines in the neighbourhood 
of the rivers by which its drainage is effected. The scenery is of a 
varied character. Many spots on the Giimti are exceedingly pretty ; 
but, for the most part, the country along both banks of that river 
is a dreary, black, and ravine-cut tract, occasionally relieved by 
mango groves. The centre of the District, along the high-road from 
Lucknow to Jaunpur, consists of highly -cultivated and well-wooded 
villages ; while in the south, in strong contrast to this fertile tract, are 
widespread arid plains, and swampy //^//i- and marshes. 

The principal river is the Giimti, which enters Sultanpur from Bara 
Banki at its north-western corner, and after flowing an exceedingly 
tortuous south-easterly course through the centre of the District, passes 
into Jaunpur District in the North- Western Provinces. During the 
dry months the breadth of the channel is about 200 feet, and its depth 
about 12 or 13 feet, with a current of about 2 miles an hour, and a 
discharge of about 5000 cubic feet per second. During seasons of 
flood, however, its depth occasionally rises to upwards of 48 feet, with 
a current of 4 miles an hour, and a discharge, at Sultanpur town, of 
upwards of 100,000 cubic feet per second. Of minor streams, the 
most important are the Kandu, Pili, Tengha, and Nandhia. The 
Kandu takes its rise in a morass near Raipur village. In the upper or 
western portion of its course it is a shallow streamlet, known as the 
Naiya. Near Jagdispur it becomes a small river, vvith rugged banks, 
and is then called the Kandu, under which name it finally empties 
itself into the Giimti. The Pili 7iadi becomes in the rains a con- 
siderable stream, but at other times consists of a string of discon- 
nected j'hils and swamps, which cover a great portion of the south 
of Chanda pargand. The Tengha, so called from a village of the 
same name in pargand Amethi, discharges itself into the Cham- 
rauri, a tributary of the Sai. The Nandhia ?iadi first appears near the 
village of that name m pargand Tappa Asl, and ultimately unites with 
the Tengha at the point where that stream falls into the Cham- 



SULTANPUR. 97 

rauri. Both the Tengha and the Nandhia are streams of some import- 
ance, as their channels are deep, though narrow, and form the outlet 
for the superfluous water of extensive series oi jhils. One of these 
series, known as _/"//// Lodhai, commences near the village of Bhalgaon, 
and stretches through Goawan to Narayan, a distance of 13 miles. 

There is now no forest - covered tract in Sultdnpur District. But 
sixty years ago a wide expanse of jungle is said to have extended 
from the residence of the Raja of Amethi quite up to the Lucknow 
road ; and the Bhadaiyan jungle, which after the Mutiny occupied 
upwards of a thousand acres, is said to have been the remains of an 
extensive forest, patches of which are still to be found in villages far 
removed from Bhadaiyan. The only tree-covered tracts of spontaneous 
growth at the present day are the stunted dhdk jungles, which are only 
of use for fuel. A substitute for forest timber exists in the large and 
noble groves with which the District is plentifully studded. The trees 
most in favour for groves are the mango, Jamufi, and mahud. The 
mahud is also often found alone, or in clumps of two or three, in open 
spots ; as also are the bel^ kditha^ and nim. Grand old solitary trees of 
immense magnitude, the banian, \}ci^ pdkaj% and the pipal^ planted per- 
haps in the days of Bhar supremacy, form here and there a prominent 
feature in a village landscape ; and the cotton-tree and the dhdk are at 
one season of the year rendered conspicuous for a long distance by 
the brilliancy of their profusion of blossoms. The tamarind and the 
palm, which affect damp and feverish tracts, are comparatively rare in 
Sultanpur District. The babul is common everywhere. The sissu and 
the tun are only found in the civil station, or in avenues along the road- 
sides. The only mineral is kankar limestone. Wild animals are very 
few in number, chiefly wolves, nilgai, wild hog, deer, and antelope. 
Small game, such as the hare, wild goose, partridge, quail, and wild duck, 
are common ; and fish are abundant in the r'lYtx?,, jhils, and large tanks. 

History. — At the time of the invasion of Oudh by Sayyid Salar 
Masaiid, Mahmiid of Ghazni's lieutenant, Sultanpur fared for a time 
better than its neighbours, Jais and Jaunpur. Local traditions are 
unanimous in omitting all mention of Sayyid Salar's name, and in repre- 
senting the Bhars to have remained masters of this part of the country 
until they were expelled by Ala-ud-din Ghori. It afterwards formed 
part of the Jaunpur kingdom, and on the downfall of the Lodi dynasty 
became incorporated with the Delhi Empire. In Akbar's reign, Sultan- 
pur formed a ??iahdl or fiscal division of the subah or Governorship of 
Oudh, with the exception of some tracts in the east and south, which 
were included within the subah of Allahabad. The District continued 
to be thus distributed between these two governorships for about two 
centuries, or until the time of the Nawab Wazirs, when the limits of Oudh 
were extended by considerable transfers from Allahabad. 

VOL. XIII. G 



98 SULTANPUR. 

The only noteworthy incident in the history of the District since the 
British annexation, is the revolt of the troops stationed at Sultanpur 
cantonment during the Mutiny of 1857. Anticipating an outbreak, the 
European ladies and children were despatched to Allahabad on the 
7th June, which they ultimately succeeded in reaching in safety, but 
after a good deal of rough treatment and plundering at the hands of 
the villagers. On the 9th June, the troops, consisting of i regiment 
of Native cavalry and 2 of infantr}', rose in rebellion, and fired on their 
officers, killing Colonel Fisher, the commandant of the station, and 
Captain Gibbings, besides two civilian officers, Mr. A. Block and Mr. 
S. Stroyan. Upon the restoration of order, Sultanpur cantonment was 
strengthened by a detachment of British troops; but in 1861 it was 
entirely abandoned as a military station. 

Population. — The population of Sultanpur District, as at present con- 
stituted, after recent transfers to and from Rai Bareli and Bara Banki, 
was returned in 1869 at 1,040,227. The last enumeration in 1881 
returned the population at 957,912, showung a decrease of 82,315, or 
7*9 per cent., in twelve years, — a decrease due to the famine of 1878, 
and the epidemic fever of 1879 which succeeded it. 

The results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be summarized 
as follows: — Area of District, 1707 square miles, with i town and 
2459 villages; number of houses, 193,052. Total population, 957,912, 
namely, males 475,125, and females 482,787. Average density of 
population, 561 persons per square mile ; villages per square mile, i'44; 
persons per town or village, 389 ; houses per square mile, 113 ; inmates 
per house, 4'9. Classified according to sex and age, the population 
consists of — under 15 years of age, boys 185,290, and girls 162,285; 
total children, 347,575, or 36'3 per cent, of the population : 15 years 
and upwards, males 289,835, and females 320,502 ; total adults, 
610,337, or 637 per cent. 

Religio7i. — Classified according to religion, the population consists 
of — Hindus, 856,302, or 89*3 percent.; Muhammadans, 101,524, 
or io'6 per cent.; Christians, 55; Sikhs, 27; and Jains, 4. Of 
Hindu castes, the most important, as also the most numerous, are 
the Brahmans, who number 151,607, and constitute i6*8 per cent, of 
the inhabitants of the District. Next, in both respects, among the 
higher castes come the different Kshattriya clans or Rajputs, aggregating 
93,071, or 97 per cent, of the population. The other higher castes 
include Bhats, 4202 ; Baniyas, 23,622 ; and Kayasths, 12,996. Among 
low castes, the Chamars are the most numerous, and are returned at 
122,918, or nearly 13 per cent, of the population, followed by the 
Ahirs, 111,615, or ti*6 per cent. The other Hindu castes include the 
following: — Kachhi, 39,095; Kiirmi, 33,190; Pasi, 25,709; Kahar, 
21,297; Mallah, 20,494; Gadaria, 20,095; Kori, 17,790; Teli, 16,563; 



SULTANPUR. 



99 



Nai, 15,637; Kalwar, 14,664; Bhurji, i4,577; Kumbhar, 14,141; 
Dhobi, 13,417; Barhai, 11,810; I.ohar, 11,743; Lonia, 7703; Lodh, 
5333; Tamilli, 4575 ; and Sondr, 3697. Of the Muhammadans, who 
form less than eleven per cent, of the entire population, about one- 
fourth are Sayyids, Shaikiis, Mughals, or Pathans; one-sixth is com- 
posed of converts from the principal Rajput clans, and Gujars, while 
the remainder comprise the lower orders of Musalmdns. 

The principal shrines and fairs in the District are : — Sitakund, on 
the right bank of the Giimti, immediately below the civil station, is 
celebrated as the spot where Sita is said to have bathed before accom- 
panying her husband Rama into his self-imposed exile. In commemo- 
ration of this event, a bathing fair is held twice a year in the months of 
Jaistha and Kartik, attended by 15,000 or 20,000 persons. No trade 
is carried on beyond the sale of sw^eetmeats. Dhopap, in the village of 
Rajapati, on the Giimti, is a sacred, sin-cleansing part of the river. It 
was here that Rama, on his return from the Lanka war, is said to have 
washed away the sin of having killed a Brahman, in the person of 
Ravana, the Demon king of Ceylon. Fairs are held here similar to 
those at Sitakund. 

Urban and Rural Population. — The population of Sultanpur District 
is entirely rural, the only place wath a population exceeding five 
thousand being the town and civil station of Sultanpur (population in 
1 88 1, 9374), which is also the sole municipality. In some parts 
of the District, as in Mohanganj in the west, the villages are large, and 
situated at a distance from each other, the unsettled state of the 
country under native rule having induced the inhabitants to band 
themselves together for mutual protection. Farther east, on the other 
hand, villages are small and hamlets abound ; while in Chanda in the 
extreme south-east, solitary houses are found pretty thickly scattered 
over the pargand. Of the 2459 villages and hamlets, 948 contain less 
than tw^o hundred inhabitants ; 902 between two hundred and five 
hundred; 443 between five hundred and a thousand; 145 between 
one thousand and two thousand; 18 between two thousand and 
three thousand ; and 3 between three thousand and five thousand 
inhabitants. 

As regards occupation, the Census Report divides the male 
population into the following six classes: — (i) Professional and 
official class, 3315 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house 
keepers, etc., 598 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders, 
carriers, etc., 5570 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including 
gardeners, 195,796; (5) manufacturing and industrial class, including 
all artisans, 33,773 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, 
comprising general labourers and male children, 236,073. 

Agriculture. — Out of a total area of 1707 square miles, or 1,092,428 



lOO 



SULTANPVR. 



acres, 893 square miles, or 571,795 acres, are returned as under culti- 
vation, while 268,911 acres are returned as grazing lands or as fit for 
cultivation, and 251,722 acres as uncultivable waste. The main 
feature in the agriculture of the District is the predominance of wheat 
and rice, to the exclusion of other cereals, such as maize, barley, etc. 
The following statement shows the area under the different crops in 
1883-84, including do-fa sli land, bearing two crops. Rice, 190,625 
acres; wheat, 76,051 acres; other food-grains, 379,977 acres; sugar- 
cane, 11,910 acres; opium, 6512 acres; oil-seeds, 1370 acres; indigo, 
831 acres; tobacco, 713 acres; fibres, 576 acres; cotton, 305 acres; 
and vegetables, 3189 acres. Wheat, pulses, and opium form the 
principal rahi or spring crops ; and rice, sugar-cane, tobacco, oil-seeds, 
and indigo, the chief kharif ox autumn crops. 

The average price for different food-grains during the ten years 
ending 1882 is returned as follows : — Common unhusked rice, 35 sers 
per rupee, or 3s. 2d. per cwt. ; common husked rice, 15 sers per rupee, 
or 7s. 6d. per cwt. ; best husked rice, 11 sers per rupee, or los. 2d. per 
cwt. ; wheat, 14 sers per rupee, or 8s. per cwt, ; barley, 30 sers per 
rupee, or 3s. 9d. per cwt. ; jodr, 31 sers per rupee, or 3s. 7d. per cwt. ; 
gram, 21 J sers per rupee, or 5s. 3d. per cwt. Unskilled labour is paid 
for at the rate of a fraction under 3d. per day, and skilled labour 
at from 6d. to 7d. The agricultural stock, etc., of the District in 
1883-84 is returned as follows : — Cows and bullocks, 297,757 ; horses, 
1605 ; ponies, 607; donkeys, 2632 ; sheep and goats, 101,175; pigs, 
44,622 ; carts, 315 ; and ploughs, 96,612. 

In respect to the character of the landed tenures, Sultdnpur is mainly 
a tdlukddri District, owned by Bachgoti and Rajkumar Rajputs in the 
east, by Amethia Rajputs in the centre, and by Kanhpuria Rajputs 
in the west. Out of 2526 villages, 1363 are returned as being held 
under tdlukddri, 304 under zaminddri, 542 \mdiQi pattiddri, and 317 
under bhdydchdra tenure. The total male adult agricultural popula- 
tion in 1 88 1 was returned at 194,612, made up as follows : — Land- 
holders, 26,781 ; estate officer, i; cultivators, 135,631 ; and agricultural 
labourers, 32,199. Average cultivated area to each male agriculturist, 
2-94 acres. The population entirely dependent on the soil, however, 
numbered 680,719, or 71-06 per cent, of the total population of the 
District. Total Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses levied upon land, ;^i25,ioi, or an average of 4s. ^\± per 
cultivated acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, including cesses, 
;£2 10,798, or an average of 7s. 4jd. per cultivated acre. 

Mea7is of Communication, etc. — The principal road by which the Dis- 
trict is intersected is the imperial high-road from Faizabad (Fyzabad) to 
Allahabad. It enters the District from the north, passes through the 
civil station, and, running nearly due south, crosses into Partabgarh 



I 



SULTANFUR. loi 

District It is metalled and bridged throughout. The other main 
lines of road, which, although unmetalled, are bridged where necessary, 
are as follows : — (i) The Lucknow and Jaunpur road, which enters the 
District 2 miles east of Haidargarh, and leaves it 2 miles east of Chanda, 
— total length within Sultanpur, 70 miles, in the course of which it 
passes through Nihalgarh and Sarayan ; it passes the civil station 2 
miles to the south, but is connected with it by three separate lines : 
(2) the Sultanpur and Rai Bareli road : and (3) the Faizabad and Rai 
Bareli road. These roads constitute the local trunk lines, and throw 
out lateral branches in various directions. The branch lines have a 
total length of upwards of 100 miles. Besides the above there are 
numerous village tracks, which are at present only practicable for 
country carts, at once strong and lightly laden. Total length of made 
roads of all classes, 373I miles. The Giimti, although not much used 
for passenger traffic, affords a valuable highway for commerce, being 
navigable here by cargo boats of from 30 to 35 tons burden. The 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway cuts across a corner of the District 
for 6^ miles in the extreme east. 

Trade and Commerce^ Manufactures, etc. — The principal articles of 
trade are grain, cotton, molasses, and native cloth. A considerable 
traffic within the District is also carried on in cattle. Manufactures are 
quite unimportant. Coarse cotton cloth is woven by the Kori and 
Julaha castes. At Bandhua, brass and bell-metal vessels are manu- 
factured, and other rough metal work is carried on. Sugar and indigo 
are made on a very small scale in pargand Chanda. Under native 
rule, the manufacture of salt and saltpetre was largely carried on, but 
it has now been discontinued. All villages of any consequence have 
their own bazars, either permanent or periodical. The latter are often 
nothing more than open-air markets, held on certain fixed days of the 
week ; the former are sometimes large walled enclosures, bisected by a 
road, and lined with shops on either side. These local bazars are 
small but important centres of commerce. Every village may be said 
to be affiliated to one oi them, and each of them in turn is connected 
in its dealings with one or more of the larger emporia. The principal 
bazars are as follows : — (i) Perkinsganj, at the civil station, founded 
shortly after the re-occupation of Oudh by Colonel Perkins, Deputy 
Commissioner. One of the newest, it is also one of the most 
flourishing markets in the District. A large trade is carried on here, 
and goods are brought for sale from a great distance. Its rapid growth 
has been favoured by the convenient nature of its position. It is 
in close proximity to the District court-house, the sadr tahsil, and 
the thdnds ; and is hence much frequented by persons whose business 
takes them to those places. It is also little more than half a mile from 
the right bank of the Giimti, so that if trade be slack here, unsold 



102 SULTANPUR. 

goods can be easily placed in boats and carried by water to Jaunpur. 
(2) Sukul bazar ^ in the village of Mawayya Rahmatgarh, in pargand 
Jagdispur, founded about fifty years ago by some members of a well- 
to-do Sukul (Brahman) family. It shares with Perkinsganj the advan- 
tage of being near the Giirati. (3) Gauriganj, called after the deity of 
that name, and founded by Raja Madhu Singh of Amethi about twenty- 
five years ago. It is situated in the village of Rajarh a few miles east 
of Jais. (4) Bandhua, an old ddzdr on the Lucknow and Jaunpur road, 
close to Hasanpur. (5) Aliganj, in the village of JJnchgion, pargand 
Sultanpur, founded in 1795 by the tdlukddr of Maniarpur. 

Ad7ni?iistration. — The total revenue, imperial and local, of Sultanpur 
District in 1883-84 amounted to ^130,806, of which ^£'1 12,690 was 
derived from the land-tax. The other principal items of revenue are 
stamps, ;£"8897, and excise, ;£'9i52. The expenditure in the same 
year upon officials and police of all kinds was ;£i7, 170. The District 
contains 13 civil and revenue, and 10 magisterial courts. For the 
protection of person and property, there is a regular District and town 
police force of 466 officers and men, besides a village watch of 2902 men. 
The daily average number of prisoners in jail during 1883 was 394. 

In March 1884, Sultanpur District contained in all 10 1 Govern- 
ment and inspected schools, attended by 4233 pupils. Of these, the 
principal is the High School at the civil station, which affords instruc- 
tion in four languages, viz. English, Urdu, Hindi, and Persian, and 
teaches up to the standard of the entrance examination of the Calcutta 
University. Next in importance comes the town school of Jagdispur. 
The Census of 1881 returned 3025 boys and 38 girls as under instruc- 
tion, besides 17,565 males and 298 females able to read and write 
but not under instruction. 

The charitable institutions consist of 4 dispensaries, at Sultanpur, 
Muzaffarkhana, Kadipur, and Amethi, which in 1883 afforded gratuitous 
medical relief to 14,871 persons; and a poorhouse. 

Climate^ etc. — The climate, judged by a tropical or semi-tropical 
standard, is mild, temperate, and healthy. From October to June 
westerly winds prevail ; and during the first four of these months the 
atmosphere is dry, cold, and bracing, more particularly after rain, of 
which there is almost invariably a slight fall after Christmas. Towards 
the end of February the wind increases in force, the temperature 
becomes higher, and by the end of March, if not earlier, the hot winds 
set in. These, however, are much less trying in Sultanpur than in the 
more western Districts of Oudh. They do not begin till some hours 
after daybreak, and seldom continue long after nightfall, while they 
occasionally cease for several days together. In these intervals, which 
become more and more frequent as the hot weather progresses, a north- 
east wind takes their place. About the middle of June the rainy season 



I 



SULTANPUR TAHSIL. 103 

commences, and, with occasional breaks of greater or less duration, con- 
tinues till the end of September or beginning of October. During this 
period the wind scarcely ever shifts from the east. From the middle 
of October the weather gets cool and pleasant. The Report on the 
Meteorology of India for 1881 returns the average annual rainfall of 
Sultanpur for the previous fifteen years at 42-14 inches. The average 
monthly temperature at Sultanpur in May 1882 was returned at 95-6^ 
F., in July 88*6°, and 67-10° in December. 

Medical Aspects. — The chief endemic diseases of Sultanpur are 
fever, and it is estimated that about 10 per cent, of the population 
suffer every year from some form of this disease. Dysentery and 
diarrhoea come next, being most prevalent at the end of the rains and 
the commencement of the cold season. Leprosy is also common, 
as well as other cutaneous disorders. Cholera epidemics occurred 
in 1869, 1870, 187 1, and 1872 ; but from the latter year to 1880, the 
disease did not appear in an epidemic form. Epidemic outbreaks, 
however, occurred in 1880 and in 1882. Small-pox is never wholly 
absent from the District. It is most fatal during the dry hot weather 
until the rains set in, after which the mortality decreases till it reaches 
a minimum, about the middle of the cold season. Vaccinators have 
been employed by Government in recent years, but their efforts have 
as yet been confined to the town of Sultanpur and the surrounding 
villages. Cattle-disease (rinderpest), of a very fatal type, is always more 
or less prevalent in the District. [For further information regarding 
Sultanpur, see the Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh, published by 
authority (Government Press, Allahabad, 1878), vol. iii. pp. 404-474- 
Also the Settlement Report of Sultanpur district, by A. F. Millet, Esq., 
C.S. (Oudh Government Press, Lucknow, 1873); the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh Census Report ior 1881 ; and the several annual 
Adminisration and Departmental Reports of the Oudh Government.] 

Sultanpur. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Sultanpur District, Oudh; 
situated between 26° 3' and 26° 30' n. lat., and between 81° 46' and 
82° 22' E. long. ; bounded on the north by Bikapur tahsil m Faizabad 
(Fyzabad) District, on the east by Kadipur tahsil, on the south by 
Raipur tahsil, and on the west by Muzaffarkhana tahsil Area, 506 
square miles, of which 277 are cultivated. Population (1881) 291,767, 
namely, males 144,482, and females 147,285 ; average density, 576-6 
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus number 
251,317; Muhammadans, 40,376; Jains, 4; and 'others,' 70. Of the 
832 villages, 656 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 127 
between five hundred and a thousand ; 4S between one thousand and 
five thousand; and i upwards of five thousand. Land revenue, 
^35,337. This Sub-division comprises the two pargands of Sultanpur 
and Sultanpur-Baraunsi. In 1885 it contained 2 civil and 2 criminal 



104 SULTANPUR PARC ANA AND TOWN. 

courts, with 2 police circles {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 40 
men; rural police (chaukiddrs), 592. 

Sultanpur. — Pargand of Sultanpur District, Oudh, stretching along 
the south bank of the Giimti. A somewhat dreary and dry expanse 
of country, with no large towns except Sultanpur, and intersected by 
ravines stretching down to the Giimti. Area, 246 square miles, of 
which 125 are cultivated. Population (1881) 153,481, namely, Hindus, 
126,038; Muhammadans, 27,388; and Christians, 55. Number of 
villages, 401, of which 238 are held under tdlukddn and 163 under 
zajuinddri tenure. The most numerous class of the community are 
the Brahmans, who number 24,790; but they only form a small pro- 
portion of the land-holding class. The Chamars come next in point 
of numbers with 14,823, and they also are not a land-holding class. 
The principal landed proprietors are the Bachgoti Rajputs, who own 
94 tdlukddri and 96 za??iinddn villages. The Khanzada Bachgotis, 
who are converts to Muhammadanism, own in tdlukddri and 19 zamin- 
ddri villages. 

Sultanpur. — Town in Sultanpur District, Oudh, and administrative 
head-quarters of the District ; situated on the right bank of the Giimti, 
in lat. 26° 15' 50" N., and long. 82° 7' 10" e. The original town, 
on the opposite or left bank of the river, is said to have been 
founded by Kusa, son of Rdma, and to have been named after him 
Kusapura or Kusabhawanpur. It subsequently fell into the hands of 
the Bhars, who retained it until it was taken from them by the Musal- 
mans in the 12th century a.d. About seven hundred years ago, it is 
said that two brothers, Sayyid Muhammad and Sayyid Ala-ud-din, horse 
dealers by profession, visited Eastern Oudh, and offered some horses 
for sale to the Bhar chieftains of Kusabhawanpur, who seized the horses 
and put the two brothers to death. This came to the ears of Ala-ud-din 
Ghori, who determined to punish such an outrage upon the descendants 
of the prophet. Gathering a mighty host, therefore, he set out for 
Kusabhawanpur, and at length arrived and pitched his tents in Karaundi, 
then a dense jungle near the devoted town, on the opposite side of the 
river. Here he remained encamped for a year without gaining any 
advantage over the besieged ; until, feigning to be weary of the fruitless 
contest, and anxious only to obtain an unmolested retreat, he had some 
hundreds of palanquins richly fitted up, and sent them as a peace- 
offering to the Bhars, pretending that they were filled with presents. 
The cupidity of the Bhars overcame their caution, and they received the 
pretended gifts within their walls. At a given signal, the palanquins 
were thrown open, and there sprang out a crowd of armed warriors, 
who, thus taking their enemies unprepared, speedily put them to the 
sword. Kusabhawanpur w^as reduced to ashes, and a new town called 
Sultanpur, after the title of the victor, rose upon its ruins. 



J 



SULTANFUR TOWN, 105 

Sultanpur is often mentioned by Muhammadan chroniclers ; but 
it does not seem to have been a place of great note, although at one 
time a flourishing little town, with several mahallas or wards. During 
the earlier half of the present century, a military station or cantonment 
was established by the native Government on the opposite bank of the 
river, and from this time the old town began to decline. In 1839 it 
was described as having no manufacture or trade, and with a population 
of only 1500. The place was finally razed to the ground during the 
military operations connected with the re-occupation of the Province 
after the Mutiny, in consequence of the inhabitants having been con- 
cerned in the murder of two British civihans at the time of the outbreak. 
The military cantonment was then occupied by a regiment of Native 
cavalry, and two of Native infantry, who rose in mutiny on the 9th June 
1857, and, after firing on and murdering two of their officers, sacked 
the station, and proceeded to join the main body of the rebels. On 
the re-occupation of the Province, a detachment of European troops 
was stationed here for a time; but in 1861, all the troops, British and 
Native, were withdrawn, and the place ceased to be a military canton- 
ment. 

The present town and civil station occupies the site of the old 
cantonments, and contained a population in 1881 of 9374, namely, 
Hindus, 6156; Muhammadans, 3148; Christians, 55; and 'others,' 
15. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£^86i, of which ;£^50 2 was derived 
from taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. id. per head. The 
tow^n has been much improved of late years ; the unsightliness of the 
bleak ravines leading down to the river is hidden by the foliage of 
acacia trees, and the roads are lined on either side with rows of mango and 
other shade-giving trees. A fine public garden, more than 10 acres in 
extent, has also been laid out. The principal public buildings are the 
court-houses, jail, police station. Government schools, charitable dis- 
pensary, and church. 

Sultanpur. — Town in Kiilu tahsil^ Kangra District, Punjab ; 
situated on the right bank of the Beas (Bias), in lat. 31° 58' n., 
and long. 77° 7' e., at an elevation of 4092 feet above sea-level. 
Population (1881) 3349. Successively the seat of administration 
under the Kiilu Rajas, the Sikhs, and until recently, the British. The 
head-quarters of the Sub-division are now, however, at Nagar, higher up 
the Beas. Sultanpur is perched upon a natural eminence, and was 
once surrounded by a wall, so that it must have formerly been a place 
of some strength. Only two gateways now remain of the ancient forti- 
fications. Large rambling palace, with sloping slate roof and walls of 
hewn stone. North of the town is a suburb inhabited by Lahulis, who 
seek a refuge in Sultanpur from the severity of their own winter. Many 
shops are owned by traders from Kangra, Lahul, and Ladakh. Con- 



io6 SULTANPUR VILLAGE— SUMERFUR. 

siderable transit trade between the plains and Central Asia, via Leh ; 
estimated value in 1862, ;£23,ooo, risen in 1882 to ^80,000. Important 
fair every year in October, when 80 minor divinities come up to pay 
their respects at the shrine of Raghundth Ji, the orthodox superior deity. 
Tahsil, police station, post-office, dispensary, sardi (native rest-house), 
middle school. 

Sultanpur. — Village in Gurgaon District, Punjab. In this and 
neighbouring villages situated on the borders of the Najafgarh//^//, salt 
is manufactured from brine in wells, evaporated by solar heat in 
shallow pans. The total area of the saline region is 1565 acres, the 
number of wells 330, and the number of pans 3799. The quantity 
manufactured at all the wells in 1871-72 was 456,411 maunds, the 
greater portion of which was consumed in Delhi. Sultanpur salt also 
finds a market in the Upper Doab, Rohilkhand, the eastern Punjab, 
and even in Oudh and Mirzapur. The works could turn out, if neces- 
sary, an estimated quantity of 50,000 tons annually. The great draw- 
back has hitherto consisted in the want of efficient transport, now 
afforded by the Rajputana State Railway. The competition of the 
Sambhar Lake salt has, however, affected the trade injuriously, and is 
likely to do so still more every year. The saline tract happens to be 
near the Najafgarh Jhil, but there is no connection between th^Jhil 
and the salt manufactured. 

Sultanpur. — Town in Nakur tahsil, Saharanpur District, North- 
western Provinces ; situated 9 miles north-west of Saharanpur town. 
Population (1881) 3188. Founded by Sultan Bahlol Lodi about 
1450 A.D. Noted for the number and wealth of its Jain or Sarangi 
merchants, who carry on a considerable trade in sugar and salt with 
the Punjab. A small house-tax is levied for police and conservancy 
purposes. 

Sultanpur. — Village in Bansdih tahsil, Ballia District, North- 
western Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 56' 30" n., and long 84° 15' 
28" E., 4 miles north of Bansdih town and i mile south of the Gogra, 
Population (1881) 2394. As in most other villages along the banks 
of the Gogra, Sultanpur contains a considerable area of shifting alluvial 
land {didrd), which is the cause of much litigation. 

Sultanpur. — Town in Kapiirthala State, Punjab. Population 
(1881) 8217, namely, Muhammadans, 5350; Hindus, 2698; Sikhs, 
133; and Jains, 36. 

Sumdirl. — River in the north of Lakhimpur District, Assam, which 
rises far up amid the Daphla Hills, and, flowing south, ultimately 
falls into the Subansiri, a tributary of the Brahmaputra. Among its 
own affluents, within British territory, are the Gariajan, Dhol, and 
Ghagar. 

Sumerpur.— Town in Hamirpur District, North- Western Provinces 



SUMESAR—SUNDARBANS, THE. 107 

standing on the open plain, in lat. 25° 50' n., and long. 80° 12' 5" e., 9 
miles south-east of Hamirpur town. Population (1881) 5222, namely, 
Hindus 4833, and Muhammadans 389. Anciently a place of some 
importance, as proved by the numerous mounds and ruins in the town 
itself and its vicinity. Pottery and coins have been found among the 
remains. Two ruined forts, attributed by tradition to a Nawab of 
Farukhabad, and to Khaman Singh, a Bundela chief in the middle of 
the last century. Police station, tahsili school. 

Sumesar {Sti?neswar). — Hill range in Champaran District, Bengal, 
lying between 27' 20' and 27° 30' n. lat., and between 84° 5' and 84° 
39' E. long. The frontier Une with Nepal runs along the top of these 
hills, from the Kiidi nadi to the source of the Panchnad river. The 
total length of the chain is about 46 miles, the highest point being 2270 
feet high, and the average height 1500 feet. In some places the range 
is almost inaccessible. The character of the surface varies, being 
rocky and barren in some places, while in others it is thickly studded 
with trees or covered with grass. At the eastern extremity, where the 
Kiidi nadi divides the range, is situated the pass leading into Deoghat 
in Nepal, through which the British army successfully marched in 
1 8 14-15. The other principal passes are the Sumesar, Kapan, and 
Harlan Harha. 

Sumla {Salma). — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. — See Samla. 

Sumpter (Sampthar). — Native State in Bundelkhand, Central 
India. — See Samthar. 

Sunam. — Town in Karmgarh tahsil of Patiala State, Punjab. 
Population (1881) 12,223, namely, males 6379, and females 5844. 
Hindus, 5651 ; Muhammadans, 5316; Sikhs, 835 ; and Jains, 421. 

Sunamganj. — Town in Sylhet District, Assam. — See Sonamganj. 

Sunapur. — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. — See 

SONAPUR. 

Sunda. — Town in North Kanara District, Madras Presidency. — See 

SONDA. 

Sundarapandiam (called after a Pandyan king, perhaps the ' Sender 
Bandi' of Marco Polo). — Agricultural village in Srivillipatur tdiuk^ 
Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 36' 30" n., long. 77° 
44' 15" E. Population (1881) 4846, occupying 1148 houses. Hindus 
number 4713 ; Muhammadans, 131 ; and Christians, 2. 

Sundarbans, The. — A vast tract of forest and swamp, forming the 
southernmost portion of the Gangetic Delta, Bengal ; extends along 
the sea-face of the Bay of Bengal, from the estuary of the Hiigli to 
that of the Meghna. Lat. 21° 30' 40" to 22° 37' 30" n., long. 88° 4' 
30" to 91° 14' E. The Sundarbans occupy an area of 7532 square 
miles; their extreme length along the coast is about 165 miles, and 



io8 SUNDARBANS, THE. 

their greatest breadth from north to south about 8i miles. They are 
bounded on the north by the permanently settled lands of the Districts 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Khulna, and Bakarganj ; on the west and 
east by the estuaries of the Hugli and the Meghna respectively ; and 
on the south by the Bay of Bengal. No information exists showing 
the separate population of the Sundarbans, this tract being included in 
the Census Report of 1881 with the adjoining Districts. The Sundar- 
bans are administered by a special Commissioner. 

Physical Aspects. — The country is one vast alluvial plain, where the 
continual process of land-making has not yet ceased. It abounds in 
morasses and swamps, now gradually filling up, and is intersected by 
large rivers and estuaries running from north to south. These are 
connected with each other by an intricate series of branches, and the 
latter in their turn by innumerable smaller channels ; so that the whole 
tract is a tangled network of streams, rivers, and watercourses, enclosing 
a large number of islands of various shapes and sizes. It is bordered 
by a fringe of reclaimed land situated along the northern boundary, 
except in Bakarganj, where some of the clearings extend almost down 
to the sea. These reclaimed tracts are entirely devoted to rice culti- 
vation. There are no ' villages ' in the ordinary acceptation of the 
word ; and the cultivators live far apart in little hamlets. 

The unreclaimed portion of the Sundarbans near the sea con- 
sists of impenetrable jungle and thick underwood traversed by 
gloomy -looking watercourses. This thick jungle forms an admir- 
able protection against the storm-waves which sometimes accompany 
cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. A list of the principal trees of the 
Sundarbans forests wnll be found in The Statistical Account of Bengal^ 
vol. i. pp. 304-309. The commonest of them is the sundri (Heritiera 
littoralis), which abounds throughout the tract, and yields a good hard 
wood, used for building purposes, and for making carriage shafts, 
furniture, and boats. Most of the boats in the Sundarbans, and in 
the Districts of the Twenty -four Parganas, Khulna, Jessor, and 
Bakarganj, are made, wholly or in part, of this tree. A total area 
of 158 1 square miles in the Sundarbans has been demarcated as 
' reserved forests ; ' and a considerable proportion of the remaining area 
has also been placed under the Forest Department as 'protected 
forests.' In 1877-78, the total forest revenue received was ^17,400, 
as against charges amounting to only ^3345. The aggregate amount 
of firewood and timber removed under cognisance of the officials was 
9,103,250 maunds., on which toll was levied at the rate of i dnnd (ijd.) 
per maund iox sundri timber, and i pice (i| farthing) per 7?iaujid for all 
other wood. 

The physical features vary considerably in different portions of the 
Sundarbans, and the whole tract may be divided, according to these 



SUNDARBANS, THE. 109 

variations, into three sections — (i) a western part, including the country 
lying between the Hiigli and the Jamuna and Kalindi rivers; (2) a 
central part, between the Jamuna and the Baleswar ; and (3) the eastern 
portion, extending from the Baleswar to the Meghna. The first and 
the last of these sections lie comparatively high, and the ground slopes 
downwards towards the central tract, which is low and swampy. In the 
western division, the water of the streams is, for the most part, salt ; 
and the cultivated lands are surrounded by high embankments, and 
dotted over with scattered clusters of huts. In the central marshy 
parts there are few habitations, the cultivators often living away from 
their fields ; the water is brackish, and the embankments which surround 
the fields are lower than in the west. In the eastern portion, the lands 
being high, and the river water comparatively fresh, embankments are 
not necessary for the protection of the crops ; the soil, too, is richer 
than in the western and central portions ; and every well-to do peasant 
has a substantial homestead and tank, surrounded by palms and other 
trees. 

It is impossible to give an account of the river system of the Sundar- 
bans which shall be at once concise and intelligible. The reader who 
desires special information regarding any of the estuaries of the Gan- 
getic Delta should consult Horsburgh's Sailing Directions} We must 
content ourselves with giving here the principal arms of the sea : they 
are, proceeding from west to east, the Hiigli, Sattarmukhi, Jamira 
Matla, Bangaduni, Guasuba, Raimangal, Malancha, Bara Panga, 
Marjata or Kaga, Pasar, Bangara, Haringhata or Baleswar, Rabnabad 
channel, and the Meghna river. 

The wild animals found in the Sundarbans are tigers (which cause 
much havoc, often seriously interfering with the work of reclamation), 
leopards, rhinoceros, buffaloes, hogs, wild cats, deer of several species, 
porcupines, otters, monkeys, etc. Fish abound ; and the python, cobra, 
and many other kinds of snake are found. Among the birds of the 
Sundarbans are adjutants, vultures, pelicans, kites, hawks, owls, doves, 
green pigeons, parrots, parroquets, jungle -fowl, kingfishers, jays, 
orioles, snipe, teal, pheasants, plover, partridges, and every description 
of water-fowl. 

History, etc. — The name ' Sundarban ' has been variously explained, 
some deriving it from sundar, beautiful, and ba?i, forest ; others from 
the sundri, which is, as already stated, the commonest tree in the 
jungles. Sundri simply means ' beautiful,' but the word has been con- 
nected by some writers with sindur, ' vermilion,' the wood being of a 
reddish colour. The name may also be a corruption of Samudraban, 
' the forest near the sea,' the same name being given to similar lands in 

' London : 1852. Quoted, so far as the Sundarbans rivers are concerned, in vol. i. 
of 7 he Statistical Account of Bengal, pp. 294-299. 



no SUNDARBANS, THE. 

Chittagong. A much less probable derivation traces the word to 
Chandrawip, the name of an old zaminddri pargatid ; while, according 
to another but altogether unlikely etymology, the tract took its name 
from the Chandabhandas, or Shandabhandas, a tribe of salt-makers. 
The extension of the name to the whole coast is modern. 

It has long been disputed whether the Sundarbans were formerly 
inhabited. Remains of houses and embankments have been found in 
isolated parts of the jungle, showing that at any rate there were 
occasional settlers in those parts. But no evidence has yet been 
obtained to prove that the tract south of the present limit of cultivation 
was, as has often been asserted, at one time studded with towns or 
villages. It seems, on the contrary, probable that the northern limit of 
the Sundarbans has remained for about 400 years where it is at present. 
The question will be found discussed at some length in The Statistical 
Account of Bengal {yo\. i. pp. 320, 321, 380-385). A very remarkable 
depression of the surface appears to have taken place at some not very 
distant period, large stindri trees having been found (not only in the 
Sundarbans, but as far north as Sialdah, a suburb of Calcutta) standing 
as they grew, at depths varying from 10 to 30 feet below the present 
level of the country. Various attempts have been made to account for 
this circumstance, but it has not yet been satisfactorily explained. 

Reclamation of the Simdarbans. — The earliest historical attempt to 
reclaim the Sundarbans was made by Khdn Jahan, a Muhammadan 
chief, who died in 1459 a.d., and whose clearings at Bagherhat in lessor 
remain to this day {see Jessor). The more recent attempts date from 
1782, when Mr. Henckell, the first English judge and magistrate of 
Jessor, inaugurated the system of reclamation at present existing. He 
began by establishing market-places at Kachna, Chandkhali, and 
Henckellganj, on the Une of water communication between Calcutta 
and the eastern Districts. Henckellganj, named after its founder by 
his native agent, appears as Hingulgunge on the Survey maps. All 
these places were at that time in the forest, and Mr. Henckell's first 
step was to make clearings of the jungle ; that done, the lands immedi- 
ately around the clearings were gradually brought under cultivation. 
In 1784, Mr. Henckell submitted a scheme for the reclamation of 
the Sundarbans, which met with the approval of the Board of Revenue. 
The principal proposal was, that grants of jungle land should be made 
on favourable terms to people undertaking to reclaim them ; and 
Mr. Henckell urged the scheme on the grounds that it would yield 
a revenue from lands then utterly unproductive, and that by the 
cultivation a reserve fund of rice would be formed against seasons of 
drought, the crops in the Sundarbans being very little dependent 
upon rainfall. 

In 1787, Mr. Henckell was appointed 'Superintendent for culti- 



SUNDARBANS, THE. iir 

vating the Siindarbans,' and already at that time 7000 acres were 
under cuhivation. In the following year, however, disputes arose 
with the zaviindars who possessed lands adjoining the Sundarbans 
grants ; and as the zajninddrs not only claimed a right to lands culti- 
vated by holders of these grants, but enforced their claims, the 
number of grants began to fall off rapidly. Mr. Henckell expressed a 
conviction that if the boundaries of the lands held by the neighbouring 
zaminddrs were only settled, the number of grants would at once 
increase again ; but the Board of Revenue had grown lukewarm about 
the whole scheme, and in 1790 practically abandoned it. Several of 
the old grants forthwith relapsed into jungle. 

In 1807, however, applications for grants, which had for some time 
previously ceased, began to come in again ; and since that time, 
reclamation steadily progressed, until, in 1872, the Commissioner of 
the Sundarbans estimated the total area under cultivation at 695,733 
acres, or 1087 square miles, of which 493,907 acres, or two-thirds of 
the whole, were reclaimed between 1830 and 1872. The number of 
estates in the latter year was 431, paying a land revenue of ;^4i,757. 
Since 1872, however, there has been a retrogression in the matter of 
land reclamation in the Sundarbans; and ten years later, in 1882, the 
total reclaimed area was returned at 786 square miles, comprising 413 
estates paying a revenue of ^41,684. The cause of this decrease was 
partly owing to injuries caused by the cyclone of 1876 in the Bakarganj 
Sundarbans; and partly to the abandonment of their clearances by 
several lessees, who, after prosecuting their operations for a time, 
allowed the land to revert into forest, when the Government resumed 
possession. New waste land rules were promulgated in 1879, and 
several fresh leases have been taken under them. 

Population. — No separate Census has ever been taken of the popula- 
tion of the Sundarbans, the inhabitants being enumerated in the 
Twenty-four Parganas, Khulna, and Bakarganj Districts. The 
Hindus of the tract belong, almost without exception, to the low 
Siidra castes ; the Muhammadans in the Bakarganj section, and in part 
of Eastern Jessor, are Faraizis, who are a turbulent and litigious 
sect, though not actively fanatical. The bulk of the population has 
come from the Districts in the north, but in the eastern portion (the 
Bakarganj Sundarbans) there is a considerable proportion of immigrant 
Maghs from the Arakan coast. As has already been stated, there are 
no towns or villages in the Sundarbans ; a list of the river-side trading 
marts will be found below. Port Canning, on the Matla river, was 
formerly a municipality; it was started by an English company to 
supply an auxiliary harbour to Calcutta, with which town it is connected 
by rail. The attempt failed ; and, except that it contains a rice-husking 
mill, the place is now quite deserted. 



112 SUNDARBAXS, THE. 

Agriculture. — The principal staple of the Sundarbans is rice, of which 
two crops {dus or autumn, and dmati or winter harvest) are raised in 
the year; the former, however, is only cultivated to a very limited 
extent on high lands in the eastern division. The rice of the eastern 
and western portions of the Sundarbans is said to be of finer quality 
than that grown in the central tract. The cultivators grow a few other 
crops — vegetables, pulses, etc. — for home consumption. Sugar-cane 
and pd7i are cultivated in the Bakarganj Sundarbans ; and successful 
attempts have been made to grow jute. The price of ordinary rice 
varies from 3s. gd. to 5s. 6d. a cwt. Wages are for the most part paid 
in kind. An account of the land tenures of the Sundarbans will be 
found in the article on Jessor. 

Natural Calajtiities. — Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, and the storm- 
waves which sometimes accompany them, are the only natural calamities 
to which the Sundarbans are subject. The inlying tracts are to a great 
extent protected from the effect of these storm-waves by the belt of thick 
jungle near the sea, as well as by the sandhills formed along the coast 
by the heavy silt-laden swell which rolls shoreward during the south- 
west monsoon. 

Trade. — There are several river-side trading villages on the border 
between the Sundarbans and the adjacent Districts ; and as almost all 
the traffic between Calcutta and the East is carried on by boat routes 
through the Sundarbans, the periodical markets held at these places 
are well attended. The principal of them are — Basra and Basantpur, 
on the boundary-line between the Twenty-four Parganas and the 
Sundarbans ; and Chandkhali and Morrellganj, within the Khulna 
Sundarbans. By far the most valuable export of the Sundarbans is 
timber and firewood. According to the registration returns for 1876-77, 
about 57,000 tons of timber, valued at ^480,000, and 157,000 tons of 
firewood, valued at ;^i 10,000, were imported into Calcutta. Returns 
for later years are not available. Other products of the Sundarbans 
which form articles of trade are canes and reeds (of which baskets and 
mats are made), honey, beeswax, and shell lime. Large quantities of 
fish are caught and sent to Calcutta. 

The Sundarbans Waterways are of the first importance, as being the 
chief means of communication between Calcutta and the East. Not 
only the jungle produce of the Sundarbans, but also the rice, jute, and 
oil-seeds of all Eastern and Northern Bengal, the tea of Assam and 
Cachar, as well as the salt for Eastern Bengal, are carried by one or 
other of these routes. Nearly all the innumerable cross channels 
which divide the Sundarbans into a network of islands are navigable ; 
but traffic naturally follows certain defined routes, which are themselves 
liable to change, as old streams silt up and new channels open out 
year by year. The central mart of the Sundarbans is Khulna town, 



J 



\ 



SUNDARBANS, THE. 113 

at the junction of the Atharabanka and the Bhairab rivers, towards 
which all the great boat-routes converge, and which is now connected 
with Calcutta by rail. Khulna is about 51 miles by water due east of 
Calcutta, with which it is connected by the ' Calcutta Canals,' under 
the supervision of the Public Works Department. The two 'Calcutta 
Canals' proper terminate at Samukpata and Bamanghata, 16 and 12 
miles respectively from Calcutta ; but the tow-path is continued as far 
as Khulna itself, so that boats can proceed by tracking at any state of 
the tide. 

From Khulna, routes branch off north, east, and south. The chief 
northern route proceeds up the Atharabanka, the Madhumati, and 
the Gorai, into the Padma or main channel of the Ganges, and 
brings down the produce, not only of Northern Bengal, but also of 
Behar, during the dry season, when the Nadiya rivers are closed. In 
recent years, the silting up of this route has led to its abandonment by 
steamers. The eastern route from Khulna passes down the Bhairab, 
and then by Barisal through Bakarganj District to Dacca. The prin- 
cipal southern route comes out at Morrellganj. In 1876-77, the total 
number of boats registered as passing Khulna was 130,313. 

All these streams are tidal, and the mode of navigation is by using 
the ebb and flow of the tide. Part of every day's journey has to be 
made with the ebb, and part with the flow, so that the speed of the 
voyage depends entirely upon the success with which each tide is 
caught. A whole fleet of boats may be seen at the recognised anchor- 
ages waiting for the tide ; and the District from which they come can 
be readily distinguished by the shape of the bow and stern. Some of 
these anchorages are far from any habitation of men ; but all sorts of 
necessaries (including water) are for sale at a sort of floating bazar. 
Large boats take about five days to get from Morrellganj to Chandkhali, 
and between these two places there is not a single permanent village. 

The steamer-routes through the Sundarbans are not the same as those 
followed by country boats. The steamers, avoiding the open sea, cross 
the Districts of the Twenty-four Parganas and Jessor by a route lying 
far to the south, and hardly catch sight of a human abode until they 
appear at Morrellganj. 

The Calcutta and South-Eastern State Railway^ connecting Calcutta 
with Port Canning on the Matla, may now, since the abandonment of 
that port, be regarded as merely a means of communication with the 
Sundarbans. Its total length is only 28 miles, and the traffic is almost 
entirely confined to the conveyance of firewood and a little rice to 
Calcutta. It was purchased by Government in 1868, by repayment of 
the capital that had been expended by the guaranteed company. In 
1883, a branch line was opened from Sonarpur station on this railway 
to Diamond Harbour on the Hiigli, making a further length of 27^ 

VOL. XIII. H 



114 SUNDARGANJ—SUNTH. 

miles; total length, 55I- miles. In the calendar year 1883, the gross 
receipts were ;£2 9,538, and the gross expenses ;£"i6,2 38 ; net earnings, 
^£"13,300. The total number of passengers carried was 1,096,792, and 
the total quantity of goods 63,570 tons. Since 1883, the Calcutta and 
South-Eastern Railway has been worked in connection with the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway, and separate later statistics regarding it are not 
available. 

For further information regarding the Sundarbans, the reader is 
referred to the articles on the Twenty-four Parganas, Khulna, and 
Bakarganj. 

Sundarganj. — Trading village and produce depot in Rangpur 
District, Bengal. Chief exports — rice, mustard seed, and jute. 

Sundeep. — Island in the Bay of Bengal. — See Sandwip. 

Sundoor. — Hills in Bellary District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Sandur. 

Sundoor. — State in Madras Presidency. — See Sandur. 

Sunkam. — Estate in Bastar Feudatory State, Central Provinces ; 
comprising 98 villages. Area, 400 square miles. Population (1881) 
11,737, namely, males 6077, and females 5660. The estate lies 
between a range of hills and the river Sabari, on the right bank of 
which stands Sunkam, the chief village. The forests foraierly contained 
much excellent teak, now nearly all cut down. 

Sunth. — Native State in the Political Agency of Rewa Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 394 square miles. Population (1881) 
58,822 souls. It is bounded on the north by Kadana of Rewa Kantha, 
and the States of Dungarpur and Banswara of Mewar; on the east by 
the Jhalod Sub-division of the British District of the Panch Mahals ; 
on the south by Sanjeli State under Rewa Kantha, and by the Godhra 
Sub-division of the Panch Mahals ; and on the west by Lunawara 
State. 

Physical Aspects. — To the north the country is fairly flat and open, 
crossed by several small streams on their way north to the Mahi ; to the 
south it is rugged, covered with long craggy lines of hills. The Mahi 
flows through the north-west, and the Panam through the south-west 
corner of the State. Near the centre, the small stream of Chibota 
passes by the village of Sunth, and towards the east the Suki flows past 
the town of Rampur. A line of hills, of no great height, running in a 
curve from the Panam river in the south to the Mahi in the north, 
divides the State into two parts. Besides this principal chain, many 
other hills run in parallel lines from north to south. The only arable 
land is in the valleys, where the soil, well charged with moisture, yields 
without manure two crops a year of ordinary grain. Indian corn is the 
staple; and millet, pulse, gram, wheat, and in a few well-favoured 
spots sugar-cane, are also grown. The forests yield a large supply of 



SUNTH. 1,5 

timber. The climate is generally unhealthy and malarious. Irrigation 
is carried on from tanks and wells. 

Population. — The Census of 1881 returned the total population at 
58,822, namely, males 29,832, and females 28,990; occupying 11,348 
houses in 121 villages. Hindus number 21,920 ; Muhammadans, 1 151 ; 
and 'others,' 35J5i- 

History. — The family of the chief of Sunth, Powar or Parmar by 
caste, claim to belong to the Mahipawat branch of the famous Alalwa 
dynasty, which boasts of Vikram of Ujjain in the ist century a.d., and 
of Bhoj of Dhar in the nth century a.d. The dynasty was driven 
from Ujjain (it is stated in the loth century a.d.) ; and according to 
the Sunth bards, Jhalam Singh, a Powar from Mount Abii, established 
his power at, and gave his name to, the town of Jhalod in the Panch 
Mahals. There is a legend that the Emperor, hearing of the exceeding 
beauty of the daughter of Jhalam Singh, Rana of Jhalod (the fifth in 
succession from Jhilam Singh, the founder of the dynasty at Jhalod), 
demanded her in marriage ; and that on Jhalam Singh declining the 
alliance, he was attacked by the Mughal army, and was defeated and 
killed. His son, Rana Sunth, fled for safety to the Sunth jungles, then 
under the sway of a Bhil chief called Sutta. In the year 1255, Sunth 
defeated Sutta, and took possession of his capital, called Brahmapuri. 
He changed its name to Sunth, and established his own dynasty. 
According to another tradition, the Sunth family is said to have come 
from Dhar in Malwa, when that principality was conquered by the 
Muhammadans. From 1443 the State was tributary to the Ahmadabad 
kings, and, on their decline, received some additions of territory. In 
1819, Sunth was overrun by Sindhia's troops, and would have either 
been annexed or laid waste, had not the British Government interfered. 
Through the medium of Sir John Malcolm, it was arranged that, on 
condition of Sindhia withdrawing his troops, Sunth should pay a tribute 
of ;£6io. The control of the State vested in the British Government 
under this arrangement was in 1825 made over to the Rewa Kantha 
Political Agent. 

The present chief (1884) is Maharana Pratab Singh, a Rajput of the 
Powar clan. While a minor, he was under tuition at the Rajkumar 
College at Rajkot. In 1881 he was duly installed with full powers. 
He is entitled to a salute of 9 guns, and has power to try his own 
subjects for capital offences, without the express permission of the 
Political Agent. He enjoys an estimated gross revenue of ;^9ooo, 
inclusive of transit dues ; and pays a tribute of ^700 to the British 
Government. A military force is maintained of 203 men. During the 
minority of the chief, the affairs of the State were under the charge of 
the Political Agent of Rewa Kantha. The family follows the rule of 
primogeniture in point of succession. 



1 1 6 SUNTH TO WN—SUPUL. 

Sunth. — Chief town of Sunth State, Bombay Presidency; situated 
about 80 miles north-east of Ahmadabad, among the ranges of hills 
which cross the State from north to south. Lat. 23° 36' n., long. 73° 
56' E. Between the palace and the hills, which rise very steeply, a 
space enclosed by a wall with flanking towers serves as a fort, running 
along the crest of the hill for about 150 yards. About the centre of 
the wall a sally-port opens down a steep footpath to the other side of 
the hills. At the foot of the hill cluster a few humble buildings, the 
people being all dependent on the chief. The approach to the palace 
is up a steep causeway, leading to a gateway with two flanking towers. 

Suntikopa. — Village in Coorg, Southern India ; situated 10 miles 
from Merkara on the Mysore-Merkara road. Population (1881) 412. 
Head-quarters of the Parpattigar of Mudigerinad. Travellers' bungalow, 
post-oflice, and weekly market on Sundays. 

Supa. — Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. 
— See Haliyal. 

Supa. — Village in Haliyal Sub-division, North Kanara District, 
Bombay Presidency ; situated about 16 miles south-west of Haliyal 
town. Population (1881) 347. Round the village several sheltered 
and well-watered valleys yield rice, pepper, areca-nut, sugar-cane, gram, 
sesamum, and ragi (Eleusine corocana). The uncultivated parts are 
clothed with noble forests of teak, palm, and other trees. In 1799, 
Supa was taken by Colonel Wellesley without opposition. Office of the 
petty divisional officer, dispensary, police station, school, travellers' 
bungalow, rest-house, post-office. 

Siipiil. — Sub-division of Bhagalpur District, Bengal, lying between 
25° 44' 30" and 26° 35' 30" N. lat., and between 86° 21' 15" and 87° 
15' E. long. Area, 1275 square miles; number of villages, 1383; 
houses, 90,664. Population (1881) 600,874, namely, males 301,287, 
and females 299,587. Hindus number 540,576; Muhammadans, 
60,232; and Christians, 66. Proportion of males in total population, 
50*1 per cent.; average density of population, 471 persons per square 
mile; villages per square mile, i'o8; persons per village, 435; houses 
per square mile, 72; persons per house, 6*6. This Sub-division com- 
prises the 3 police circles of Siipill, Bangaon, and Partabganj. In 
1884 there was i magisterial and revenue court; a regular police force 
of 65 men ; and a rural watch of 90T. 

Slipiil. — Town (or more properly a collection of three villages, Siipiil, 
Bhelahi, and Karael) in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. Head-quarters of 
the Sub-division of the same name. Lat. 26° 6' 25" n., long. 86" 38' 
11" E. Population (1881) 2506. Almost all the dwellings are built of 
reeds, as, the soil being sandy, earthen walls cannot be raised. The 
bazar, which has grown in importance of late years, contains a few 
masonry buildings. The inhabitants consist of Baniyas, who deal in 



SURADA—SURAXGI. 1 1 7 

rice, cloth, and sweetmeats ; a few weavers, Brahmans, and Kayasths, 
and a considerable number of Musalmdns. The suburban villages are 
wholly agricultural. 

Surada. — Za?ninddri taluk of Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 103 square miles. Population (1881) 20,340, namely, males 
10,253, and females 10,087; occupying 4180 houses in 217 villages. 
Hindus number 20,322; Muhammadans, 9; Christians, 6; and 
' others,' 3. 

Surada. — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency ; situated 
about 25 miles north-west of Aska, and about 23 miles south-west 
of Russellkonda. Population (1881) 3594, namely, Hindus, 345^^ 
Muhammadans, 52 ; and Christians, 86. 

Surajgarha. — Town or collection of villages in Monghyr District, 
Bengal. Lat. 25° 15' 25" n., long. 86° 16' i" e. Population (1872) 
7935, of whom 4245 were males and 3690 females. Not returned 
separately in the Census Report of 1881. 

Surajpur. — Pargand in Ram Saneh^ghat tahsil, Bara Banki District, 
Oudh ; bounded on the north and east by the Kalyani river, on the 
south by the Giimti, and on the west by Siddhaur pargand. Area, 
81,645 acres, of which 37,052 acres are cultivated. Population (1881) 
57,386, namely, males 28,692, and females 28,694. This pargatid 
comprises 107 villages, of which 57 are held under tdlukdd7'i^ 43 under 
zamiftddri, and 7 under pattiddri tenure. Government land revenue, 
^9740. The chief village, founded 600 years ago, gives its name to 
the parga7id. The tract was originally in possession of the Bhars, who 
were ousted by Pathans. During the reign of Akbar, the Pathan 
proprietor, Awar Khan, refused to pay revenue. A force was sent 
against him, under Raja Baram Bali, when he was defeated, and his 
lands made over to the victor, the ancestor of the present tdlukddr. 

Surajpur.— Village in Fatehpur District, North- Western Provinces ; 
situated on the right bank of the Ganges, in lat. 26° 9' n., and long. 80° 
39' E. Several Hindu temples and ghdts or bathing-steps, some in ruins, 
line the water's edge. Bdzdr. 

Suram. — Tahsil of Allahabad District, Nortli-Western Provinces, 
lying along the north bank of the Ganges. — See Soraon. 

Suramangalam. — Suburb of Salem town, Madras Presidency. It 
contains the Salem railway station on the ^Madras Railway (207 miles 
from Madras), which was opened in 1861. 

S}Xra;llgi.—Zaminddri and town in Ganjam District. The town is 
situated 12 miles east of Ichapur. Population (1881) 1994, occupying 
455 houses. Hindus number 1928, and Muhammadans 66. The 
population, etc., of the zamhiddri was not returned separately in the 
Census Report of 188 1. Annual pesMas A or fixed revenue paid by the 
zamhiddr, ;^354. 



ii8 SURAT. 

Surat. — British District in Gujarat, Bombay Presidency, lying 
between 20° 15' and 21° 28' n. lat., and between 72° 38' and 73° 30' 
E. long. ; with an area of 1662 square miles, and a population in t88i 
of 614,198 souls. Surat is bounded on the north by Broach District, 
and the Native State of Baroda ; on the east by the States of Baroda, 
Rajpipla, Bansda, and Dharampur; on the south by Thana (Tanna) 
District and the Portuguese territory of Daman ; and on the west by 
the Arabian Sea. A broad strip of Baroda (Gaekwar's) territory separates 
the north-western from the south-eastern portion of the District The 
administrative head-quarters are at the city of Surat. 

Physical Aspects. — Surat District consists of a wide alluvial plain, 
stretching between the Dang Hills and the coast, from the Kim river 
on the north to the Damanganga on the south, a distance of about 80 
miles. The coast-line runs alonsj the Arabian Sea, where it begins to 
narrow into the Gulf of Cambay. Small hillocks of drifted sand fringe 
the greater part of the shore, in some parts dry and barren, but in others 
watered by springs, enclosed by hedges, and covered with a thick growth 
of creepers and date-palms. Through the openings of the river mouths, 
however, the tide runs up behind the barrier of sandhills, and floods 
either permanently or temporarily a large area (estimated at 100,000 
acres in 1876) of salt marshes. Here cultivation is extremely limited; 
and the people, nearly all of whom are seamen, are supported by the 
sale of dried fish, or engage in the local traffic up the channels of 
navigable creeks. Beyond spreads a central alluvial belt of highly 
cultivated land, with a width of about 60 miles in the north, where the 
important river Tapti, carrying down a deposit of loam, forms a deep 
and fertile delta; but as the coast-line trends towards the south, the 
hills at the same time draw nearer to the coast, and so restrict the 
alluvial country to a breadth of little more than 15 miles on the Daman 
border. 

The deep loam brought down by the Tapti gives a level aspect to 
the northern tract; but farther south, a number of small and rapid 
rivers have cut themselves ravine-like beds, between which lie rougher 
uplands wath a scantier soil and poorer vegetation. In the hollows, 
and often on the open plain, rich deposits of black cotton-soil overlie 
the alluvium. The eastern border of the District consists of less fruitful 
lands, cut up by small torrents, and interspersed with mounds of rising 
ground. Here the huts of an ill-fed and almost unsettled peasantry 
replace the rich villages of skilled cultivators in the central low^land. 
On the border, this wild region passes gradually into the hills and 
forests of the Dangs, an unhealthy jungle which none but the black 
aboriginal tribes can inhabit save at special periods of the year. The 
Dangs have a total forest area of 900 square miles; and the whole forest 
area of Surat District is estimated at 958 square miles, of which about 



SURAT, 119 

90 square miles is directly conserved by the Forest Department. The 
Dangs are leased from Bhil chiefs. 

The average elevation of the District is not much more than 150 feet 
above sea-level. In the north are chains of flat-topped hills which 
reach a height of between 200 and 300 feet ; south of the Tapti a series 
of high lands separate the plains of Surat from the plains of Khandesh. 
Five miles from the ruined fort of Pardi is the hill of Parnera, with an 
estimated elevation of 600 feet. The hills themselves consist of trap in 
many varieties, from basalt to soft amygdaloid, and belong orographi- 
cally to the great trappean plateau of Central and Western India. Here 
cultivation entirely disappears, and the whole country lies under wild 
brushwood. It has been supposed that Surat District and the surround- 
ing region of South-Eastern Gujarat have at no distant geological period 
emerged from a superincumbent ocean. 

Except the Kim and the Tapti in the north, the District has no large 
rivers; but in the south are deep and navigable creeks, which form 
admirable outlets for produce, and supply a secure shelter to the smaller 
coastinsj craft. The chief rivers are the Tapti and the Kim, on the 
former of which stands the city of Surat. The Kim has a course of 70 
miles, after which it falls into the Gulf of Cambay. The Kim rises in 
the Rdjpipla Hills. Its waters are useful neither for navigation nor 
irrigation. The Tapti gives rise to the largest alluvial lowland in the 
District ; but its frequent floods till lately caused great loss of life and 
damage to property. The course of the Tapti through Surat District is 
50 miles in a direct line, but 70 miles including windings. For 32 
miles the river is tidal, and passes through a highly cultivated plain. 
The Wareli is a considerable tributary. There are ferries at Surat city 
and Mandvi. The Tapti enjoys a reputation for sanctity in Western 
India second only to that of the Narbada. It is only navigable as far 
as Surat, 20 miles from its mouth. The District contains no natural 
lakes ; but reservoirs cover a total area of 10,838 acres. With one 
exception, they consist of small ponds, formed by throwing horse-shoe 
embankments across the natural lines of drainage. The reservoir at 
Palan has an area of 153 acres. On an average, in British territory 
each 6 acres is provided with some form of water storage. 

As regards minerals, Surat is well supplied with building stone; 
and good material for road metal can be obtained at from 3s. to 4s. 
per hundred cubic feet. Iron-stone is common, but iron is not worked. 
Metallic sand accumulates at the mouths of rivers, and is used as the 
invariable blotting-paper of the writing classes. 

There are no important forests in Surat, but an area of 46 square miles 
is being conserved at Mandvi. Over the whole District, the toddy- 
yielding date-palm (Phoenix sylvestris) grows more or less freely. 
Groves of mango trees surround many of the village sites : other trees 



I20 SURAT. 

are — the tamarind, the banyan (Ficus bengalensis),//^<7/(Ficus religiosa), 
and the babul (Acacia Arabica). Besides the date-pahn, the brab 
(Borassus flabeUiformis) is also made to yield a Hquor. In 1868, about 
i^ million palm trees were estimated to be yielding toddy juice. Teak 
plantations have been formed at Gandeva and Goima. The Dang 
forests supply teak, blackwood, and other useful varieties, but in 
limited quantities. 

The fauna of Surat District includes a few tigers, stragglers from the 
jungles of Bansda and Dharampur, besides leopards found throughout 
the District, bears, wild hog, wolves, hyaenas, spotted deer, and 
antelope. Otters and grey foxes are met with. Duck, wild geese, 
teal, partridges, quails, and other wild-fowl abound during the cold 
season on the ponds and reservoirs. No fresh-water fisheries, but the 
rivers contain fish of large size. The sea-water fisheries employ a fleet 
of about 325 boats. 

Histo7'y. — Surat was one of the earliest portions of India brought into 
close relations with European countries, and its history merges almost 
entirely into that of its capital, long the greatest maritime city of the 
peninsula. Ptolemy, the Greek geographer (a.d. 150), speaks of the 
trade centre of Pulipula, perhaps Phulpada, the sacred part of Surat 
city. The city appears to be comparatively modern in its origin ; 
though the local Musalman historians assert that at the commencement 
of the 13th century Kutab-ud-din, after defeating Bhim Deo, Rajput king 
of Anhilwara, penetrated as far south as Rander and Surat. The District 
then formed part of the dominions ruled over by a Hindu chief, who fled 
from his fortress at Kanrej, 13 miles east of Surat city, and submitted to 
the Musalman conqueror, so obtaining leave to retain his principality. In 
1347, during the Gujarat rebellion in the reign of Muhammad Tughlak, 
Surat was given up to be plundered by the troops of the Emperor. In 
1373, Firoz Tughlak built a fort at Surat to protect the town against 
the Bhils. 

During the 15th century, no notice of Surat occurs in the chronicles 
of the Musalman kings of Ahmadabad, But tradition generally 
assigns the foundation of the modern city to the beginning of the i6th 
century, when a rich Hindu trader, Gopi by name, settled here, and 
made many improvements. As early as 1514, the Portuguese traveller, 
Barbosa, describes Surat as ' a very important seaport, frequented by 
many ships from Malabar and all other ports.' Two years before, the 
Portuguese had burnt the town, an outrage which they repeated in 
1530 and 1 53 1. Thereupon, the Ahmadabad king gave orders for 
building a stronger fort, completed about 1546. In 1572, Surat fell 
into the hands of the Mirzas, then in rebellion against the Emperor 
Akbar. Early in the succeeding year, Akbar arrived in person before 
the town, which he captured after a vigorous siege. For 160 years, 



SURAT. 121 

the city and District remained under the administration of officers 
appointed by the Mughal court. During the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, 
and Shah Jahan, Surat enjoyed unbroken peace, and rose to be one 
of the first mercantile cities of India. In Akbar's great Revenue 
Survey, the city is mentioned as a first-class port, ruled by two distinct 
officers. 

Since 1573, the Portuguese had remained undisputed masters of 
the Surat seas. But in 1608, an English ship arrived at the mouth 
of the Tapti, bringing letters from James i. to the Emperor Jahangir. 
Mukarab Khan, the Mughal governor, allowed the captain to bring 
his merchandise into the town. Next year, a second English ship 
arrived off Gujarat, but was wrecked on the Surat coast. The 
Portuguese endeavoured to prevent the shipwrecked crew from 
settling in the town, and they accordingly went up to Agra with their 
captain. In 1609, Bahadur, the last Musalman king of Ahmadabad, 
attempted -unsuccessfully to recover Surat from the Mughals. Two 
years later, a small fleet of 3 English ships arrived in the Tapti ; but 
as the Portuguese occupied the coast and entrance, the English 
admiral. Sir H. Middleton, was compelled to anchor outside. Small 
skirmishes took place between the rival traders, until in the end the 
English withdrew. In 1612, however, the Governor of Gujarat con- 
cluded a treaty by which our countrymen were permitted to trade at 
Surat, Cambay, Ahmadabad, and Gogo. After a fierce fight with the 
Portuguese, the English made good their position, established a factory, 
and shortly afterwards obtained a charter from the Emperor. 

Surat thus became the seat of a Presidency of the East India 
Company. The Company's ships usually anchored in a roadstead 
north of the mouth of the Tapti, called in old books ' Swally ' or 
'Svvally Road,' but correctly Suwali. Continued intrigues between 
the Portuguese and the Mughals made the position of the English 
traders long uncertain, till Sir Thomas Roe arrived in 16 15, and 
went on to Ajmere, where Jahangir then held his court. Alter 
three years' residence there. Roe returned to the coast in 161 8, 
bringing important privileges for the English. Meanwhile the Dutch 
had also made a settlement in Surat, and obtained leave to establish a 
factory. 

Early travellers describe the city as populous and wealthy, with 
handsome houses and a great trade. The fifty years between the 
establishment of the English and Dutch and the accession of 
Aurangzeb formed a time of great and increasing prosperity for 
Surat. With the access of wealth, the town improved greatly in 
appearance. During the busy winter months, lodgings could hardly 
be obtained, owing to the influx of people. Caravans came and went 
to Golconda, to Agra, to Delhi, and to Lahore. Ships arrived from 



122 SURAT. 

the Konkan and the Malabar coast; while from the outer world, besides 
the flourishing European trade, merchants came from Arabia, the 
Persian Gulf, Ceylon, and Acheen in Sumatra. Silk and cotton cloth 
formed the chief articles of export. 

European ships did not complete the lading and unlading of their 
cargoes at Surat ; but having disposed of a part of their goods, and 
laid in a stock of indigo for the home market, they took on a supply 
of Gujarat manufactures for the eastern trade, and sailed to Acheen 
and Bantam, where they exchanged the remainder of their European 
and Indian merchandise for spices. The Dutch in particular made 
Surat their principal factory in India, while the French also had a small 
settlement here. 

Under Aurangzeb, the District suffered from frequent Maratha raids, 
which, however, did little to impair its mercantile position. The 
silting up of the head of the Cambay Gulf, the disturbed state of 
Northern Gujarat, and the destruction of Diu by the Maskat Arabs in 
1670, combined to centre the trade of the Province upon Surat. 
Its position as ' the Gate of Mecca ' was further increased in import- 
ance by the religious zeal of Aurangzeb. But the rise of the predatory 
Maratha power put a temporary check on its prosperity. 

The first considerable Maratha raid took place in 1664, when 
Sivaji the Great suddenly appeared before Surat, and pillaged the city 
unopposed for three days. He collected in that short time a booty 
estimated at one million sterling. Encouraged by this success, the 
Maratha leader returned in the year 1669, and once more plundered 
the town. Thenceforward, for several years a Maratha raid was 
almost an annual certainty. The Europeans usually retired to their 
factories on these occasions, and endeavoured, by conciliating the 
Marathas, to save their own interests. Nevertheless, the city probably 
reached its highest pitch of wealth during this troublous period at the 
end of the 17th century. It contained a population estimated at 
200,000 persons, and its buildings, especially two handsome mosques, 
were not unworthy of its commercial greatness. In 1695, it is 
described as ' the prime mart of India, — all nations of the world trading 
there ; no ship trading in the Indian Ocean but what puts into Surat 
to buy, sell, or load.' 

But the importance of Surat to the English East India Company 
declined considerably during the later part of Aurangzeb's reign, partly 
owing to the growing value of Bombay, and pardy to the disorders in 
the city itself. In 1678 the settlement was reduced to an Agency, 
though three years later it once more became a Presidency. In 1684, 
orders were received to transfer the chief seat of the Company's trade 
to Bombay, a transfer actually effected in 1687. During the greater 
part of this period, the Dutch were the most successful traders in 



SURAT. 



123 



Surat. The old Surat manuscript records are now (1886) being edited, 
and will in part be printed by order of the Bombay Government — a 
most valuable work. 

From the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the authority of the Delhi 
court gradually declined, and the Marathas established themselves in 
power up to the very walls of Surat. The governors nominally appointed 
by the Mughals employed themselves chiefly in fighting with the 
Hindu intruders for the country just beyond the gates. At length, 
in 1733, Teg Bakht Khan, governor of the city, declared himself 
independent ; and for twenty-seven years Surat remained under a 
native dynasty. For the first thirteen years of this period, Teg Bakht 
Khan maintained an unbroken control over the city ; but after his 
death in 1746, a time of complete anarchy intervened. The English 
and Dutch took an active part in the struggles for the succession, 
sometimes in concert, and sometimes as partisans of the rival com- 
petitors. In 1759, internal faction had rendered trade so insecure, 
that the authorities at Bombay determined to make an attack upon 
Surat, with the sanction of the Marathas, now practically masters of 
Western India. After a slight resistance, the governor capitulated, 
and the English became supreme in Surat. 

For forty-one years, the government of the new dependency was 
practically carried on by the conquerors, but the governors or Nawabs 
still retained a show of independence until 1800. The earlier years 
of the English rule formed again a flourishing period for Surat, when 
the city increased in size, owing partly to the security of British pro- 
tection and partly to the sudden development of a great export trade 
in raw cotton with China. The population of the city was estimated 
at 800,000 persons : and though this figure is doubtless excessive, 
Surat was probably the most populous town in all India. Towards the 
close of the century, however, the general disorder of all Central and 
Southern India, and the repeated wars in Europe, combined to weaken 
its prosperity. Two local events, the storm of 1782 and the famine of 
1790, also contributed to drive away trade, the greater part of which 
now centred itself in Bombay. 

In 1799, the last nominally independent Nawab died; and an 
arrangement was effected with his brother, by which the government 
became wholly vested in the British, the new Nawab retaining only 
the title and a considerable pension. The political management of 
Surat, up to the 14th May 1800, had first been under an officer styled 
' Chief for the Affairs of the British Nation and Governor of the Mughal 
Castle and Fleet of Surat,' and subsequently under a Lieutenant- 
Governor, of whom the last was Mr. Daniel Seton, whose monument 
is in the cathedral at Bombay. By the proclamation of the Honour- 
able I. Arathoon Duncan, dated 15th May 1800, Surat District was 



124 SURAT. 

placed under a Collector, Mr. E. Galley, and a Judge and Magistrate, 
Mr. Alexander Ramsay, one of whom, generally the Judge, was also in 
political charge of the titular Nawabs and the small chiefs in the neigh- 
bourhood as Agent to the Governor of Bombay. The arrangements of 
1800 put the English in possession of Surat and Rander; subsequent 
cessions under the treaties of Bassein (1802) and Poona (181 7), together 
with the lapse of the Mandvi State in 1839, brought the District into its 
present shape. The title of Nawab became extinct in 1842. 

Since the introduction of British rule, Surat has remained free from 
external attacks and from internal anarchy, the only considerable 
breach of the public peace having been occasioned by the Musalman 
disturbance in 18 10. During the Mutiny of 1857, Surat enjoyed 
unbroken tranquillity, due in great measure to the stedfast loyalty of 
its leading Muhammadan family, that of the late Sayyid Idrus. 

Population. — The Census of 185 1 returned the total number of 
inhabitants at 492,684 persons. The Census of 1872 showed an increase 
in twenty-one years of 1 14,403 persons, or 23*22 per cent. The Census 
of 1 88 1 disclosed a population of 614,198, being an increase of 6405 
persons, or 1*05 per cent, on the figures of 1872. Density of population 
(1881), 369-5 persons per square mile, Surat ranking next to Kaira as 
densest among the Districts of the Presidency. The Census of 1 88 1 gives 
the following details: — Area, 1662 square miles; number of towns 4, 
and villages 778; occupied houses 119,892, and unoccupied houses 
26,816; villages and towns per square mile, 0*46; houses per square 
mile, 88-2; persons per house, 5'i6. Classified according to sex, 
there were 306,015 males and 308,183 females; proportion of males, 
49-8 per cent. Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, 
boys 125,653, and girls 118,355; total children, 244,008, or 397 per 
cent, of the population : 15 years and upwards, males 180,362, and 
females 189,828; total adults, 370,190, or 60*3 per cent. 

In point of religion, the population was thus distributed — Hindus, 
415,031; Muhammadans, 55,547; non-Hindu aborigines, 118,664; 
Parsis, 12,593 ; Jains, 11,670; Christians, 621 ; Jews, 61 ; Buddhists, 4; 
Sikhs, 3; Brahmos, 2 ; and 'others,' 2. 

The Hindus were divided into the following main castes and social 
distinctions: — Brahmans, 40,059; Rajputs, 8659; Dublas, 76,863; 
Kolis (cultivators), 49,452; Kunbis (cultivators), 36,801; Mhars 
(depressed caste), 31,506; Telis (oilmen), 9581 ; Kumbhars (potters), 
9232; Sutars (carpenters), 6538; Darzis (tailors), 5554; Sonars (gold- 
smiths), 5373; Chamars (workers in leather), 3577 ; Napits (barbers), 
3552; Bhandaris (sweetmeat makers), 3028; Lobars (blacksmiths), 
2730; Dhobi's (washermen), 1416; and 'others,' 121,110. 

The Muhammadan population, by race as distinguished from de- 
scendants of converts, consisted of— Shaikhs, 20,768; Pathans, 2264; 



SURAT, 125 

Sayyids, 1759; Sindi's, 114; and 'others,' 30,642. According to sect, 
the Muhammadans were returned— Sunnis, 51,073 ; Shias, 4436; and 
'others,' ^Z. 

Of the 621 Christians, 156 were returned as belonging to the 
Church of England, 296 as Roman CathoHcs, 144 as Presbyterians, 
and 25 as 'others.' Divided according to another classification, there 
were— Europeans, 196 ; Eurasians, 30 ; and Native converts, 395. 

As regards occupation, the Census divided the male population 
into the following six main groups : — (i) Professional class, including 
State officials of every kind and members of the learned professions, 
12,388; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging keepers, 5582; (3) 
commercial class, including all bankers, merchants, and carriers, 9477 ; 
(4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 113,648; (5) 
industrial class, including all manufactures and artisans, 40,323 ; and 
(6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers, 
male children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 124,597. 

Of the 782 towns and villages in Surat District in 1881, 151 con- 
tained less than two hundred inhabitants ; 298 from two to five hundred ; 
202 from five hundred to one thousand ; 99 from one to two thousand ; 
16 from two to three thousand; 13 from three to five thousand; i 
between five and ten thousand ; i between ten and fifteen thousand ; 
and I upwards of fifty thousand. 

The mass of the population, except in the large towns of Surat, 
Bulsar, and Rander, live in villages scattered over the alluvial lowlands. 
The District contained only 3 towns in 1881 with a population exceed- 
ing 5000 souls, namely— Surat (109,844), the head-quarters and chief 
commercial centre; But.sar (13,229), a seaport on the Auranga river ; 
and Rander (9416), a considerable municipality with a large trade in 
cotton, on the Tapti, 2 miles above Surat. Bodhan is the chief place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, with a large temple ; Parnera, near Bulsar, has 
a dismantled fort, long one of the strongest places in the District ; 
Suwali, the seaport of Surat, is a village outside the mouth of the Tapti. 
An important fair takes place yearly at the hamlet of Unai. The 
language in ordinary use is Gujarati. 

Agriculture.— '^wx?!, in spite of the commercial importance of its 
chief town, still remains an essentially rural District. Of an area of 
1649 square miles, 1155 square miles are cultivated, of which 45 square 
miles are non-revenue-paying; the remainder, mo square miles, 
together with 61 square miles, the area cultivable but unoccupied, are 
assessed for revenue, that is, a total of T171 square miles; the area 
uncultivable being 433 square miles. Total amount of Government 
assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, ^252,207 ; average 
incidence of assessment, including local rates and cesses, 6s. loW. 
per acre. Average area of cultivable and uncultivated land per agri- 



126 SURAT. 

cultural worker, 3*5 acres. The cultivated area has largely increased 
of late years. In 1859-60, the total area taken up for tillage was 
431,542 acres; by 1872-73 it had risen to 659,804 acres, showing an 
increase of52'89 percent.; and in 1883-84 to 752,932 acres. The area 
under actual cultivation in 1883-84 was 493,311 acres, of which 65,063 
were twice cropped. Cereals and millets occupied 303,455 acres : 
pulses, 97,574 acres; oil-seeds, 42,734 acres; fibres (cotton), 103,046 
acres ; and miscellaneous crops, 11,565 acres. 

Rice forms the staple crop in Surat District, with an area of 
86,448 acres in 1874-75, and 104,933 acres in 1883-84. It is grown 
chiefly on the black or red soil in the neighbourhood of tanks or 
ponds. Millet {jodr) holds the second place, with an area of 72,521 
acres in 1874-75, and of 104,650 in 1883-84. It is largely grown 
in the northern part of the District. Cotton covered 59,234 acres, 
chiefly in the valley of the Tapti, in 1874-75, and 100,767 acres 
in 1883-84. It is chiefly sown in the north, but the cultivation 
is spreading south. Cotton can only be raised in rotation with 
other crops. Kodra (Paspalum scrobiculatum) and iidgli (Eleusine 
corocana) form the food of the poorest classes : area under these 
two crops, 57,626 acres in 1874-75, and 545I36 in 1883-84. The 
Mauritius sugar-cane was introduced in 1836, and is cultivated to a 
great extent, as it flourishes better in Surat than in any other District 
of Gujarat, and constitutes the favourite crop in garden land. The 
area under sugar-cane in 1883-84 was 6937 acres. Molasses, manu- 
factured by the cultivators, forms a large item of export to Northern 
Gujarat and Kathiawar. Bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum) and tobacco 
occupy small areas: area under tobacco (1883-84), 1016 acres. 

The two usual harvests, kharif and rabi^ prevail in Surat as in the 
rest of Gujarat. The most striking feature in the agriculture of the 
District is the difference between the tillage of the iijli, or fair races, 
and that of the kdla, or dark aboriginal cultivators. The dark races 
use only the rudest processes; grow little save the coarser kinds of 
grain, seldom attempting to raise wheat or millet ; and have no imple- 
ments for weeding or cleaning the fields. After sowing their crops, they 
leave the land, and only return some months later for the harvest. As 
soon as they have gathered in their crops, they barter the surplus grain 
for liquor. The fair cultivators, on the other hand, who own the 
rich alluvial soil of the lowlands, are among the most industrious and 
intelligent in Western India. Nevertheless, many excellent crops for 
which the land is well fitted, such as indigo, tobacco, and wheat, are 
scantily raised, apparently for no better reason than that their cultiva- 
tion has long been unusual. The Bhathela Brahmans rank as the 
highest cultivating class, and with the aid of their hereditary servants 
{lidlis) give much of their time and attention to agriculture. 



SURAT. 



27 



Except at the beginning of the season, and during harvest, the small 
proprietors are generally able, with the help of their families alone, to 
till their fields without hired labour. Among the sugar-cane villages 
in the south, however, large numbers of labourers find employment. 
Small holdings form the rule in Surat ; but as a large number of them 
consist of garden land, they support the proprietors in comparative 
comfort. The largest holding is hardly ever more than 45 acres, 
and the smallest 2 acres. The average holding is 9 acres. The culti- 
vators also earn considerable sums by carting timber and grain from 
the inland villages to the stations on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway and the sea-coast. Almost all the dark races, 
from their indolence and love of drink, are heavily in debt ; but the 
fair races, though often under obligations to the money-lenders, are 
usually in comfortable circumstances. Government has instituted a 
scheme for reclaiming the waste lands overflowed by the tide, on terms 
highly remunerative to the public; and no less than 51,943 acres have 
been taken on lease for this purpose. These measures have on the 
whole met with much success. Irrigation is mainly carried on from 
ponds and reservoirs ; but a proposition for an extended system of 
canals in connection with the river Tapti is now (1884) under con- 
sideration. The canal would start from Kamlapur, 35 miles above 
Surat. In 1883-84, the area actually irrigated was 25,236 acres for 
garden crops, and 17,279 acres for rice cultivation; total, 42,515 
acres. 

Wages have fallen of late years, owing to the general depression 
which followed upon the high prices prevailing during the American 
Civil War. They are still, however, higher than in many other parts 
of India. In 1883-84 the rates were — for skilled labour, is. 3d., and 
for unskilled 4jd. a day. Many of the labouring classes, especially 
among the dark races, remain practically in a position of serfdom, 
attached to hereditary masters. They squat on some open plot of their 
master's ground, and receive as wages nothing but their food and a few 
articles of clothing. Independent field labourers, taking one year with 
another, receive 4^d. per diem. The hire of a cart is from 2s. to 
4s. a day, and of donkeys or ponies, 3d. to 6d. Prices have fallen since 
the American War. Food-grains ruled as follow in 1876 : — Wheat, 24 
lbs. for the rupee ; jodr, 34 lbs. ; rice, 20 lbs. ; pulse, 24 lbs. Prices 
in 1883-84 were as follows :— Wheat, 26 lbs. for a rupee (2s.) ; barley 
and best rice, each 14 lbs. ; common rice, 16 lbs. ; bdjra andy^tzV, each 
30 lbs. ; ddl (split-peas), 24 lbs. ; salt, 26 lbs. The agricultural stock 
of Surat District in 1883-84 was composed of 144,717 bullocks, 101,649 
cows, 78,562 buffaloes, 967 horses and ponies, 84,174 sheep and goats, 
126 donkeys, 50,912 ploughs, and 36,046 carts. 

Natural Calamities. — The great famines of 1623, 1717, 1747, 1790, 



128 SURAi: 

and 1803 affected Surat as they did the remainder of Gujarat. Since 
the establishment of British rule, however, no famine has occurred 
sufficiently intense to cause serious suffering to the people. Grain 
rose to a high price, and remissions of land revenue became neces- 
sary in two or three years, during the earlier part of this century ; 
but since 1839 no remission has been required. Floods on the 
Tapti form the most disastrous calamity to which Surat is liable. See 
Tapti River. The silting up of the river mouth has exerted a 
deteriorating influence upon the discharging power of the channels ; 
and this influence has long been at work. In 18 10 and 1822, the 
waters inundated a large part of the city. In 1835, the whole city lay 
under water, and 500 houses were carried away. In 1837, the river 
rose twice, and broke down a large portion of the city walls. In 1843 
and 1849, similar destructive inundations took place. The Surat munici- 
pality undertook a series of protective works in 1869; and although 
severe floods have since occurred on several occasions, these works 
have sufficed to secure the city against the loss of life and property 
which formerly accompanied every inundation. But the Tapti is still 
a formidable danger to the town and neighbouring District. Since 
the first edition of this work appeared, disastrous floods have occurred 
during more than one rainy season, and almost every year brings a 
similar alarm. 

Conunerce and Trade, etc. — Trade centres chiefly in the towns of 
Surat and Bulsar, as well as in the seaport of Bilimora (Baroda 
territory). The Baniyas are the chief traders. Marwaris (mostly from 
Rajputana) are the rural money-lenders. The total value of the exports 
from the seven seaports which afford an outlet for the produce of the 
District in 1874 amounted to ;^444,642, and that of the imports to 
^£■70,505. These figures include the value of commodities shipped 
and received at Baroda ports. The two principal seaports of Surat 
are Surat city and Bulsar. The value of the exports from these taken 
together was ;^254,i93 ; and of the imports, ;£i87,5o9. The exports 
include grain, pulse, niahud fruit, timber, and bamboos ; the imports 
comprise tobacco, cotton seed, iron, cocoa-nuts, and European goods. 
In 1874, the shipping of Surat port amounted to 1533 vessels, of an 
average burden of 18 tons, and that of Bulsar to 2065 vessels, of the 
same average tonnage. In 1883-84, the shipping of Surat city port 
(entering and clearing with cargo) included 2876 vessels — gross 
tonnage, 57,485 tons; and the shipping of Bulsar, 2658 vessels — gross 
tonnage, 48,133 tons. The sea-borne trade of Surat is now (1885) 
little more than a third of what it was in the beginning of the 
present century. The inland route along the Tapti has still con- 
siderable importance, the number of pack-bullocks being estimated at 
from 20,000 to 40,000, and the total value of trade at ^40,000 per 



SURAT, 129 

annum. The timber trade between the Ddng forests and the southern 
ports and railway stations also maintains its consequence ; revenue 
from this source in 1881, ^^"lyoS. 

Among manufactures, the brocades of Surat had a reputation in 
former times, and were worked with gold and silver flowers on a silk 
ground. Surat city was also famed for its coarse and coloured cottons 
while Broach had a name for muslins. From Surat also came the most 
elegant targets of rhinoceros' hide, which was brought over from 
Arabia, and polished in Surat until it glistened like tortoise-shell. The 
shield was studded with silver nails, and then sold at a price varying 
from ^3 to £,^. Shipbuilding was at one time an important industry, 
to a great extent in the hands of the Parsis. The largest vessels were 
engaged in the China trade, and were from 500 to 1000 tons burthen. 
Many of the ships were built on European lines. They were mostly 
manned by English crews, and flew the English flag. At the present 
time (1885), the spinning and weaving of cotton holds the first place, 
employing almost the entire female population, both rural and urban, 
except amongst the aboriginal tribes. Surat city contains two steam 
factories for spinning and weaving. Silk brocade and embroidery are 
also largely manufactured by handlooms. 

The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway runs through the 
District from north to south for 73 J miles, with 15 stations, of which 
the chief are Surat, Navsari, Amalsar, Bilimora, and Bulsar. The 
District had 64 lines of road in 1882-83, with a total length of 325 
miles. A magnificent iron girder bridge crosses the Tapti at Surat city. 
A steam ferry plies between Surat, Gogo, and Bhaunagar. 

Administration. — In 1827-28, the earliest year for which the accounts 
remain, the total revenue of the District amounted to ;£'282,7i4. In 
1874-75 the revenue had risen to ^475,879. The total taxation 
in the last-named year was ;i^4i9,942, or 13s. lod. per head of the 
population. Of this sum the land-tax contributed ^224,173. In 
1883-84 the total revenue of the District amounted to :/^378,6i8. The 
total taxation in the same year was ;£"3S3, 885, or iis. 6d. per head of 
population. Of this sum the land-tax contributed ^234,013 ; excise, 
;^84,3oo ; stamp duties, ;^i4,9i3 ; and local funds, ^20,659. 

On the assumption of the Government in 1800, a Lieutenant-Governor 
was appointed, besides a Judge and Collector. The last-named is now 
the chief executive officer, and in his political capacity is Agent to the 
Governor of Bombay. The District contains 8 tdliiks or Sub-divisions. 
On British annexation, the girasids or large landowners claimed, as 
the representatives of the original Hindu proprietors, a share of the 
land revenue, and levied their dues at the head of an armed force, 
until in 181 3 the Government undertook to collect the amount by its 
own officers and pay the girasids. The desdis were middlemen by 

VOL. XIII. I 



I30 SURAT. 

whom the land revenue was farmed ; but with a view of decreasing 
their power and influence, accountants were appointed by the British 
to each village in 1814; and afterwards the revenue was collected 
direct from the cultivators, and the practice of farming discontinued. 
No change was made in the old rates until 1833, when, in consequence 
of the fall in prices, the rates were revised and considerably reduced. 
In 1836, committees were appointed to divide the soil into classes and 
to fix equitable rates; and from 1863 to 1873 the survey settlement 
was introduced. These rates hold good until 1895-96, when a 
re-settlement may be effected. Separate agreements are made with 
individual holders, and the rents are fixed according to the intrinsic 
value of the soil, with liability to revision on the expiry of a 30 years' 
lease. 

The District contained, in 1883, 6 civil courts, while 19 officers 
shared criminal jurisdiction. The average distance from any village to 
the nearest civil court is 7 miles. The police of Surat was in a most 
disorderly state on the British annexation, and bands of armed thieves 
committed robberies in the neighbourhood and even in the streets of 
the city. Before many years, however, these open breaches of the 
peace had been effectually repressed. In 1883-84, the total strength 
of the regular pdiice force was 695 men, maintained at a total cost of 
;^ii,97i ; being at the rate of i man to every 2*3 square miles and 
to every 885 of the population ; while the cost was at the rate of jQ'], 4s. 
per square mile, or 4jd. per head of population. The chief obstacle 
to the efficiency of the police consists in the ease with which offenders 
can escape into the Portuguese territory of Daman or into the neigh- 
bouring Native States. In the north, bands of Bhils cross the frontier, 
make depredations on the villagers, and retire with their plunder. To 
guard against these robbers, a system of black-mail still prevails in parts. 
The number of persons brought to trial by the police in 1883-84 was 
1444, of whom 925, or 64 per cent., were convicted ; value of property 
stolen, ;£"2i2 5, of which jQ'j^z ^^'^^ recovered by the police. There is 
one District jail; number of convicts, 232; total cost, ;£'i336, or 
^5, 15s. 4d. per head. 

Education makes steady though not rapid progress. In 1873-74 the 
District contained 253 Government schools, with a total roll of 12,414 
pupils, of whom 8374 attended daily on an average. These figures show 
I school for every 3 villages, and 26*6 pupils to every thousand of the 
population under 20 years of age. The expenditure on education 
amounted to ;£ 1 4, 5 44, of which ^3033 was debited to the imperial 
treasury. In 1855 there were no girls' schools; but in 1873-74 there 
were 25, with an average attendance of 777 pupils. In 1883-84 the 
number of schools was 298; pupils, 20,728. The Census of 1881 
returned 16,250 males and 11 13 females under instruction, besides 



SURAT, , J3t 

45,851 males and 2157 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

For fiscal and administrative purposes the District is sub-divided 
into 8 Sub-divisions. The four municipalities of Surat, Bulsar, Rander, 
and Mandvi had an aggregate revenue in 1874-75 of ;£23,233 ; and in 
1883-84 of ;^28,965. The incidence of municipal taxation varies from 
IS. 9jd. to 2s. i|d. per head. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Surat varies greatly with the 
distance from the sea. In the neighbourhood of the coast, under the 
influence of the sea-breeze, which is carried up the creeks, an equable 
temperature prevails ; but from 8 to 10 miles inland, the breeze ceases 
to blow. The coast possesses a much lighter rainfall than the interior, 
the annual average ranging from 30 inches in Olpad to 72 inches in 
Chikhli. The average at Surat city for the nineteen years ending 1881 
amounted to 41*19 inches. Pardi in the south, and Mandvi in the 
north-east, have a bad reputation for unhealthiness. Of the Pardi 
climate there is a proverb — ' Bagwara is half death ; Mandvi is whole 
death.' The temperature of Surat city for a term of five years ending 
1 88 1 ranged as follows : — Average monthly mean — January, 70-3° F. ; 
February, 73-2° F. ; March, 79-6° F. ; April, 84-6° F. ; May, 857° F. ; 
June, 847° F. ; July, 81-5" F. ; August, 807° F. ; September, 80-9° F. ; 
October, 80-3° F. ; November, 75-3° F. ; and December, 71-1° F. 

The common endemic diseases include fever, ague, dysentery, and 
diarrhoea. The number of deaths assigned to cholera in 1883-84 
was 457; to small-pox, 531; to snake-bites and wild beasts, 56. In 
Mandvi and the Dangs, a severe type of malarious fever prevails. 
For the five years ending 1884, the annual average death-rate was 27-5 
per thousand. The number of deaths registered in 1883-84 was 
19,316, or 31 per thousand, of which 11,756, or 60 per cent., were 
assigned to fever. The number of births registered in the same year 
was 21,610, or 35 per thousand. 

The District contained in 1874-75, besides the civil hospital, 9 chari- 
table dispensaries, all of them established since 1862. They afforded 
relief during that year to 55,300 persons, of whom 938 were in-door 
patients. The civil hospital, established in 1823, has a building erected 
in 1864 at a cost of ^7190, through the liberality of Sir Cowasji Jahangir, 
K. C.S.I. In 1883, the total number of hospitals and dispensaries was 
12; total number of patients relieved — in-door, 1042; out-door, 
S7j547 'y total cost, £2)^2>Zi the diet of each in-door patient on an 
average costing 2d. per day. Number of persons vaccinated (1883-84), 
^7>37°- [For further information regarding Surat District, see vol. xi. 
of the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidejicy^ published under the orders 
of Government (Bombay Government Central Press, 1877). See 
also the Bombay Census Report for i88i ; and the several annual 



132 SURAT CITY, 

Administration and Departmental Reports of the Bombay Government 
from 1880 to 1884.] 

Surat. — Chief city, municipaUty, and administrative head-quarters of 
Surat District, Bombay, and the former seat of a Presidency under the 
East India Company. Lat. 21° 9' 30" N., long. 72° 54' 15" e. Popu- 
lation (1881) 109,844 persons, including 2690 returned as residing 
in the military depot. Situated on the southern bank of the river 
Tapti; distant from the sea 14 miles by water, 10 miles by land. 
Once the chief commercial city of India, and still an important 
mercantile town, though the greater portion of its export and import 
trade has long since centred in Bombay. 

Position and General Aspect— "^mdit lies on a bend of the Tapti, 
where the river suddenly sweeps westward towards its mouth. In the 
centre of its river front rises the castle, a mass of irregular fortifications, 
flanked at each corner by large round towers, and presenting a pictur- 
esque appearance when viewed from the water. Planned and built in 
1540 by Khudawand Khan, a Turkish soldier in the service of the 
Gujarat kings, it remained a military fortress under the Mughal and 
the British rule till 1862, when the troops were withdrawn and the 
buildings utilized as public offices. With the castle as its centre, 
the city stretches in the arc of a circle for about a mile and a quarter 
along the river bank. Southward, the public park with its tall trees 
hides the houses in its rear ; while low meadow lands elsewhere fringe 
the bank, from which the opposite ground rises slightly northward on 
the right shore, toward the ancient town of Rander, now almost a 
suburb of Surat. Two lines of fortification, the inner and the outer, 
once enclosed Surat ; and though the interior wall has long since all 
but disappeared, the moat which marks its former course stih preserves 
distinct the city and the suburbs. Within the city proper, the space is 
on the whole thickly peopled; and the narrow but clean and well- 
watered streets wind between rows of handsome houses, the residences 
of high-caste Hindus and wealthy Parsis. The suburbs, on the other 
hand, lie scattered among wide open spaces, once villa gardens, but 
now cultivated only as fields. The unmetalled lanes, hollowed many 
feet deep, form watercourses in the rainy season, and stand thick in 
dust during the fair weather. The dwellings consist of huts of low- 
caste Hindus or weavers' cottages. West of the city, the military 
cantonment lies along the river bank, with its open parade-ground 
stretching down to the water's edge. 

Population. — During the i8th century, Surat probably ranked as the 
most populous city of India. As late as 1797, its inhabitants were 
estimated at 800,000 persons ; and though this calculation is doubtless 
excessive, the real numbers must have been very high. With the 
transfer of its trade to Bombay, the numbers rapidly fell off. In 181 1, 



SURAT CITY, 135 

an official report returns the population at 250,000 persons, and in 1816 
at 124,406. In 1847, when the fortunes of Surat reached their lowest 
ebb, the number of inhabitants amounted to only 80,000. Thencefor- 
ward the city began to retrieve its position. By 185 1, the total had 
risen to 89,505 ; in 1872, it stood at 107,149; and in 1881, at 109,844. 
Of this number, 76,264, or 69*4 per cent, were Hindus; 21,430, or 
19-5 per cent., Muhammadans ; 6227, or 57 per cent., Parsi's ; 5228, 
or 47 per cent, Jains; 519, or 0*5 per cent. Christians; and 176 
* others.' The Parsis and high-caste Hindus form the wealthy classes ; 
the Musalmans are in depressed circumstances, except the Borahs, 
many of whom are prosperous traders, and whose head, called 'the 
Mulla of the Borahs,' resides here. Fondness for pleasure and ostenta- 
tion characterize all classes and creeds in Surat alike. Caste feasts 
and processions are more common and more costly than elsewhere. 
Fairs, held a few miles away in the country, attract large crowds of gaily 
dressed men and children, in bright bullock-carts. The Parsis join 
largely in these entertainments, besides holding their own old-fashioned 
feasts in their public hall. The Borahs are famous for their hospitality 
and good living. The extravagant habits engendered by former 
commercial prosperity have survived the wealth on which they were 
founded. 

History. — The annals of Surat city, under native rule, have already 
been briefly given in the article on Surat District. During the 
17th and 1 8th centuries, Surat ranked as the chief export and import 
centre of India. After the assumption of the entire government by 
the British in 1800, prosperity, which had deserted the town towards 
the close of the last century, for a time reappeared. But the steady 
transfer of trade to Bombay, combined with the famine of 181 3 in 
northern Gujarat, continued to undermine its commercial importance ; 
and by 1825, the trade had sunk to the export of a little raw cotton to 
the rising capital of the Presidency. In 1837, two calamities occurred 
in close succession, which destroyed the greater part of the city, and 
reduced almost all its inhabitants to a state of poverty. For three days 
in the month of April, a fire raged through the very heart of Surat, 
laying 9373 houses in ruins, and extending over nearly 10 miles of 
thoroughfare, both in the city and the suburbs. No estimate can be 
given of the total loss to property, but the houses alone represented 
an approximate value of ;;r45o,ooo. Towards the close of the rainy 
season in the same year, the Tapti rose to the greatest height ever 
known, flooded almost the whole city, and covered the surrounding 
country for miles like a sea, entailing a further loss of about ;£"2 7,000. 
This second calamity left the people almost helpless. Already, after 
the fire, many of the most intelligent merchants, both Hindu and Parsi, 
no longer bound to home by the ties of an establishment, had deserted 



134 'SURAT CITY. 

Surat for Bombay. In 1838 it remained 'but the shadow of what it 
had been, two-thirds to three-fourths of the city having been annihilated.' 
From 1840 onward, however, affairs began to change for the better. 
Trade improved and increased steadily, till in 1858 its position as the 
centre of railway operations in Gujarat brought a new influx of wealth 
and importance. The high prices which ruled during the American 
War again made Surat a wealthy city. The financial disasters of 
1865-66 in Bombay somewhat affected all Western India, but Surat 
nevertheless preserved the greater part of its wealth. At the present 
day, though the fall of prices has reduced the value of property, the 
well-kept streets, the public buildings, and the large private expenditure 
stamp the city with an unmistakable air of steady order and prosperity. 

Commerce a7id Trade-guilds. — The sea - borne commerce of Surat 
has declined from a total estimated value of ;£"i, 043,2 22 in 1801, 
to ;^32 7,221 in 1883-84, namely, imports ;£i46,695, and exports 
^180,526. The export trade is markedly decreasing. The average value 
of the sea-borne trade for the five years ending 1883-84 was — imports, 
;^i22,i75, and exports, ;^34i,o8i; total, ^£'463,256. The principal 
articles of export are agricultural produce and cotton. Since the open- 
ing of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, however, a great 
and growing land traffic has sprung up, which has done much to revive 
the prosperity of the city. The port of Surat is at Suwali (Swally), 12 
miles west of the city. The station of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railway is outside the city, surrounded by a rising suburb. 

The organization of trade-guilds is highly developed in Surat. 
The chief of these guilds, composed of the leading bankers and 
merchants, is called the mahdjan or banker-guild. Its funds, derived 
from fees on cotton and on bills of exchange, are spent partly on the 
animal hospitals and partly on the temples of the Vallabha Acharya 
sect. The title and office of Nagarseth, or chief merchant of the city, 
hereditary in a Srawak or Jain family, has for long been little more 
than a name. Though including men of different castes and races, 
each class of craftsmen has its trade-guild or panchdyat, with a head- 
man or referee in petty trade disputes. They have also a common 
purse, spending their funds partly in charity and partly in entertain- 
ments. A favourite device for raising money is for the men of the 
craft or trade to agree, on a certain day, to shut all their shops but one. 
The right to keep open this one shop is then put up to auction, and 
the amount bid is credited to the guild fund. 

Chief Buildings. — The English church, built in 1820 and consecrated 
by Bishop Heber on 17th April 1825, stands upon the river bank, 
between the castle and the custom-house, and has seats for about 100 
persons. The Portuguese or Roman Catholic chapel occupies a site 
near the old Dutch factory. The Armenians have also a large church. 



SURAT cm. 135 

The Musalmans have several large mosques, of which four are hand- 
some buildings. The Nav Sayyid Sahib's mosque stands on the bank 
of the Gopi Lake, an old dry tank, once reckoned among the finest 
works in Gujarat. Beside the mosque rise nine tombs, in honour of 
nine warriors, whose graves were miraculously discovered by a local 
Muhammadan saint. The Sayyid Idrus mosque, with a minaret which 
forms one of the most conspicuous buildings in Surat, was built in 
1639 by a rich merchant, in honour of an ancestor of the present 
Shaikh Sayyid Husain Idrus, C.S.I. The Mirzd Sdmi mosque and 
tomb, ornamented with carving and tracery, was built about 1540 by 
Khudawand Khan. The Parsis have two chief fire-temples for their 
two sub-divisions. The principal Hindu shrines perished in the fire 
of 1837, but have since been rebuilt by pious inhabitants. Gosavi 
Maharajas temple, built in 1695, was renewed after the fire at a cost 
of p{^ 1 0,000. Two shrines of Hanuman, the monkey-god, are much 
respected by the people. 

The tombs of early European residents, as also those of the Dutch, 
and the more modern ones of the Mullas of the Borahs, form some of 
the most interesting objects in Surat. Among the first-named are those 
of many of the English ' Chiefs of Surat.' On the left of the entrance 
is the handsome mausoleum of Sir George Oxenden and his brother 
Christopher. It is a large two-storied square building with columns at 
each angle ; in the two eastern on-es are staircases to the upper storey, 
over which is a skeleton dome of masonry in the form of a Maltese 
cross rendered convex. Christopher died i8th April 1659; and Sir 
George, who, in a long Latin epitaph, is styled ' Anglorum in India, 
Persia, Arabia, Prases Insulae Bombayensis Gubernator,' died on 14th 
July 1669, aged 50. The earliest tomb is that of Francis Breton, Presi- 
dent of Surat, died 21st July 1649. And among the many tombs with 
curious inscriptions is one ' to Mary, the wife of Will. Andrew Price, 
chief of the Affairs of Surat, etc.,' who, it is said, ' through the spotted 
veil of the small-pox, rendered a pure and unspotted soul to God,' 13th 
April 1 76 1, cetaf. 23. The tombs have been carefully looked after of 
late years. In the Dutch cemetery, which adjoins the English, there 
are also some curious and handsome tombs. One in particular to Mr. 
Van Reede, Commissary-General of the Dutch E. I. Company over 
the western factories, who died on 15th December 1691, cost the 
Company ;£6oo merely for repairs. 

Two hospitals provide for the indigent poor ; and there is at least 
one such institution for sick or worn-out animals. The clock-tower on 
the Delhi road, 80 feet in height, was erected in 187 1 at the expense 
of Khan Bahadur Barjorji Merwanji Frazer. The High School provides 
accommodation for 500 boys. 

Miuiicipality,—T\i^ municipal revenue in 188 1 amounted to ;^2 5,i8o, 



136 SURAT AGENCY, THE—SURGANA, 

and the expenditure to ;^24,882. The municipal population in 188 1 
was 107,154. The incidence of taxation was at the rate of 2s. ifd. 
per head of population. The municipality has opened a number of 
excellent roads, well lighted, paved, and watered. It has also constructed 
works for the protection of the city from floods, and for lessening the 
risk of fire. Systems of drainage, conservancy, and public markets have 
also been undertaken. No city in the Presidency, except Bombay, 
owes so much to its municipality as Surat. 

Surat Agency, The. — A small group of Native States in Bombay 
Presidency, under the superintendence of the Political Agent, Surat. 
The group consists of the Sidi (Musalman) Principality of Sachin, 
comprising a number of isolated tracts within the British District of 
Surat ; and the estates of the Rajas of Bansda and Dharampur, 
situated in the hilly tracts between the Districts of Khandesh, Nasik, 
Thana (Tanna), and Surat. Area, 1220 square miles. Population 
(1881) 151,132, namely, males 77,633, and females 73,499; occupying 
27,894 houses in i town and 378 villages. Non- Hindu aborigines 
number 113,916 ; Hindus, 31,645 ; Muhammadans, 4727 ; Parsis, 740 ; 
Jains, 95 ; Jews, 7 ; and Christians, 2. The gross revenue of these 
States in 1883-84 was ^61,642. The force maintained in the same 
year was 330 infantry, 40 cavalry, 34 mounted police, 6 elephants, 9 
cannons, and 5 police constables. 

Surgana. — One of the petty Bhi'l States in Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency ; situated in the south-west corner of Kliandesh 
District. Estimated area, 360 square miles. Population (1881) 
14,205. Estimated revenue, ;£i 1,469. 

Like the Dangs, Surgana State is full of spurs of hills and waving 
uplands once covered with dense forest, now partly cleared and 
stripped of most of their valuable timber. The chief forest trees are 
teak, blackwood (Dalbergia Sissoo), khair (Acacia Catechu), and tivas. 
Other forest products include fruit, gums, honey, lac, and tree roots. 
The soil chiefly consists of a loose rich black loam, which, though 
generally of little depth, is very fertile. The richest spots are at the 
bottom of the valleys. The staple of food is iidgli (Eleusine corocana), 
an early crop raised on the slopes of the hills by hand labour. 

The ancestors of the Surgana desftiukh appear to have been Kolis, 
who lived in the fastnesses round Hatgarh. During Muhammadan rule 
a nominal allegiance was claimed from them ; and they were entrusted 
with the charge of preventing the wild Bhils and Kolis of the Dangs 
from passing above the Sahyadri hills, of rendering military service when 
required, and of keeping open the roads that ran through their territory. 
Under Maratba rule, on the des7nukh refusing to pay any revenue, his 
country along with the Dangs was included in rebel land {bandi inulkh). 
But as Surgana lay on one of the high roads between the Deccan and 



SURHARPUR—SURL 137 

Surat, great efforts were made to conciliate the chief. The Surgana 
des7)iukh continued independent until 1818, when the British Govern- 
ment led an expedition, in retaliation for an attack made on a Britis 
party, against the chief, who was seized and hanged, and his cousin 
recognised as the head of the State. This led to disputes about the 
succession, which were not settled till 1842. The chiefship descends 
in the line of one brother, while the descendants of another brother 
have an equal share in the revenues, independent of all control. The 
chief manages the State in person. 

Surharpur. — Pargand in Tanda tahsU, Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, 
Oudh ; situated in the south-east corner of the District, along both 
sides of the river Tons. Area, 92,256 acres, of which 50,043 acres are 
cultivated, 14,334 acres cultivable, and 27,879 acres uncultivable waste. 
A considerable portion of the area consists of saline iisar tracts. 
Population (1881) 92,037, namely, males 47,142, and females 44,895. 
Government land revenue, ;£^98i7, or at the rate of 3s. 6d. per 
cultivable acre. Of the 235 villages comprising the pargatid, 145 are 
held under tdhikdai'l and 90 under zamiiiddri tenure. The principal 
landholders belong to Palwar and Rajkumar Rajput families, who 
own Z6 of the tdlukddri villages, the remaining 59 being owned by 
Muhammadan Sayyids. The chief town, Surharpur, is now a place of 
small importance, with a population in 1881 of only 1475. -"-t contains 
the ruins of an old Bhar fortress. Prior to annexation, the pargand 
contained a colony of 600 Muhammadan weaving families ; but the 
industry has declined under the competition of European piece-goods, 
and there are now but 300 families of weavers, living in the small towns 
of Jalalpur and Nakpur. 

Suri iSooree). — Head-quarters Sub-division of Birbhiim District, 
Bengal. Area, 1087 square miles ; number of villages, 1905 ; houses, 
115,286. Population (1881), males 233,297, and females 250,624; 
total, 483,921. Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 
396,982; Muhammadans, 81,824; Christians, 39; Santals, 5026; and 
other aborigines, 50. Density of population, 445 persons per square 
mile; villages per square mile, 175; persons per village, 254; houses, 
per square mile, 118; persons per house, 4*2. This Sub-division com- 
prises the four police circles {thdtids) of Surf, Dubrajpur, Bolpur, and 
Sakulipur. In 1883 it contained 5 civil and 4 criminal courts, with 
a regular police force of 266 officers and men, and 4815 rural police 
or village watchmen. 

Suri {Sooree). — Chief town, municipality, and administrative head- 
quarters of Birbhiim District, Bengal ; situated about 3 miles south of 
the Mor river, in lat. 23° 54' 23" n., and long. 87° 34' 14" E. Popula- 
tion (1881) 7848, namely, Hindus, 5838; Muhammadans, 1991 ; and 
'others,' 19. Municipal income (1883-84), £s^Z^ of which £^(ii was 



138 SURIR—SURUL. ^ 

derived from taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. 2fd. per 
head. The town is situated upon the summit and extremity of a 
gravel ridge. 

Surir. — Town in Mat tahsil, Muttra (Mathura) District, North- 
western Provinces ; situated i mile east of the Jumna (Jamuna) river, 
in lat. 27° 46' 17" N., and long. 77° 45' 45" e. Population (1881) 
5199, chiefly Thakurs or Rajputs, Baniyas, and Bairagis. Hindus 
4906, and Muhammadans 293. Police station; post-office; weekly 
market. 

Surirpur. — Village in Meerut (IVIerath) District, North -Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 29° i' 45" n., and long. 77° 18' e., 28 miles 
west of Meerut city. Population (1881) 5374, namely, Hindus, 4838; 
Muhammadans, 355; and Jains, 181. The Eastern Jumna Canal 
waters the surrounding lands. 

Surjyagarh. — Lofty hill of striking aspect in the north of the Ahiri 
chiefship, Chanda District, Central Provinces. About the year 1700, 
two chieftains, Sadhu Varya and Miila Varya, rebelled against King 
Ram Shah, and fortified this hill, from which they plundered the 
country round. Ram Shah then granted the tract now known as the 
Ahiri chiefship to his kinsman Kok Sa, who stormed Surjyagarh and 
killed the insurgent leaders. 

Surjyanagar. — Capital of Kashmir State, Northern India. — See 
Srinagar. 

Surma. — The name given to the main branch of the Barak river in 
Sylhet District, Assam. On entering Sylhet District from Cachar, the 
Barak divides into two branches, the Surma and the Kusiyara, the 
former of which is navigable during the rains by steamers and large 
boats as far as Chhatak, and above that point by small boats all the 
year through. The chief places on the Surma branch are Sylhet town, 
Chhatak, and Sonamganj ; at the two latter marts the lime, potatoes, 
and oranges of the Khasi Hills are collected and transmitted to Bengal. 
The name of the Surmd valley is sometimes given to the two Districts 
of Sylhet and Cachar, to mark them off from the Districts of Assam 
Proper in the Brahmaputra valley. 
Sursati {SarsuH). — River in the Punjab. — See Saraswati. 
Slir Singh. — Town in Kasur tahsil, Lahore District, Punjab ; 
situated on the road from Firozpur to Amritsar, 19 miles north-east of 
Khem Karn town. Population (1881) 5104, namely, Muhammadans, 
1992; Sikhs, 1942; and Hindus, 1170. Siir Singh is an unwalled 
collection of houses, mostly built of sun-dried bricks, with a few more 
commodious and better built houses of burnt bricks. Noted for the 
manufacture of a superior kind of chintz. 

Sunil. — Village in Birbhiim District, Bengal ; situated in the south 
of the District, about 5 miles north of the Ajai river. Noteworthy 



SUSANG—SUTL 139 

as the site of an old Commercial Residency, formerly the centre 
of the Company's trade in Birbhiim. During the latter years of the 
last century, from ;£"45,ooo to ^65,000 was annually expended on 
mercantile investment at Surul. The first Commercial Resident, Mr. 
Cheap, who exercised magisterial powers, has left behind him the name 
of ' Cheap, the Magnificent.' He introduced indigo cultivation into 
the District, improved the manufacture of sugar by means of apparatus 
brought from Europe, and established a private firm, which flourished 
until within the last few years. When the Company gave up their 
commercial dealings, the Residency at Surul was abandoned, and the 
village allowed to fall into decay. The ruins crown the top of a small 
hill visible for miles. 

Susang. — Zammddri estate in Maimansingh District, Bengal ; and 
also the name of a pargand in the same District. Area, 451 square 
miles ; land revenue, ^2183. Court at Netrakona. The zambiddrh^x?, 
the tide of Maharaja ; his palace, a large but dilapidated building, is 
situated at Durgapur, a village with a population (1881) of 1126. 

Slisumau.— Town in Unao District, Oudh. Lat. 26° 52' n., long. 
80° 19' E. Population (1881) 1208, namely, Hindus 11 84, and Mu- 
hammadans 24; residing in 304 mud -built houses. Formerly the 
residence of Sayyid Mubarak Ah, whose name it bore — Mubarakpur. 
It afterwards fell into decay ; and on the expulsion of the Sayyids by 
Karan Deo, it was reclaimed by Kanchan Singh of the Janwar clan in 
the time of the Emperor Akbar. Situated on a level tract of ground ; 
appearance pretty ; climate healthy ; water sweet ; soil loam. Scene of 
a batde between Karan Deo and the Sayyids. Market for the sale of 
English cloth, bullocks, and vegetables, attended by about 700 persons. 
Manufactures of shoes, earthenware, and jewellery. Annual value of 
sales, ;^iooo. 

Susunia.— Hill in Bankura District, Bengal ; situated due west of 
Kora. It runs due east and west for 2 miles, its height being 1442 
feet above sea-level. Covered with heavy tree jungle, except on its 
south face, where it has been quarried by the Bardwan Stone Com- 
pany for building-stone. The Company's operations at Susunia were 
recently suspended. 

Sutalia.— Guaranteed Girasia chiefship under the political superin- 
tendence of the Bhopal Agency, Central India. The chief pays, under 
British guarantee, ;^34o to the chief of Rajgarh, within whose State he 
holds a lease of twelve villages. Estimated revenue, ^£'2200. Popula- 
tion (1881) 5108, namely, Hindus, 4661 ; Muhammadans, 157; Jains, 
21 ; and aborigines, 269. 

Suthumba.— Petty State in ]Mahi Kantha, Bombay Presidency.— 
Sec Sathamba. 

Sliti— Town in Murshidabad District, Bengal; situated in the north- 



140 SUTIEJ, 

west of the District, on the Ganges, at the point where it is usually 
recognised that the Bhagirathi branches off. Lat. 24° 35' 30 n., long. 
88° 6' E. This spot has always been the scene of great fluvial changes; 
and the present village of Siiti is only in name identical with that which 
has attained celebrity in history as the scene of a severely contested 
battle, fought in 1763, between Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal, and 
the British army. In 1856, a large portion of Siiti was washed away by 
a flood. 

Sutlej {SatlaJ). — One of the * Five Rivers ' of the Punjab, from which 
the Province derives its name. Rises among the Himalayas in Chinese 
territory, about lat. 30° 8' n., and long. 8i° 53' e. The interest of the 
Sutlej is to some extent absorbed in that of the Indus, with which it 
eventually unites, and which is very fully treated in its alphabetical 
place. The Sutlej, like the Indus, rises on the slopes of the sacred 
Kailas Mountain, the Elysium, or Siva's Paradise, of ancient Sanskrit 
literature, with peaks estimated at 22,000 feet high. It is said to 
issue from the Manasarowar (Manasa-Sarovara) Lake, which plays so 
important a part in Sanskrit cosmogony. According to another 
account, it issues from another and larger lake called Ravana-hrada, or 
Rakas-tal, which lies close to Manasarowar on the west. Mr. Trelawny 
Saunders states that it rises ' in the great lakes named Manasarowar and 
Rakas-tal.' The truth seems to be that these are twin lakes, united 
with each other, and that the Sutlej issues from the Rakas-tal, although 
its effluence from the lake is intermittent. (Colonel H. Yule, adopting 
Captain H. Strachey's account in Jour. Geog. Soc, vol. xxiii., and in 
/our. Beng. Soc.) 

The Manasarowar had, according to the Hindu mythology, the 
honour of being also the source of the Ganges, which, of course, is a 
mere myth. The Sutlej rises near the source, not only of the Indus, but 
also of the Brahmaputra ; and the Kailas mountain is thus ascertained 
by modern investigations to have a real claim to the position which it 
holds in Sanskrit tradition as the Meeting- Place of Waters. The 
Brahmaputra, or rather the Tsan-pu, as it is known in Tibet, flows to the 
east, the Indus to the west, and the Sutlej to the south-west. 

Starting at an elevation of 15,200 feet, the Sutlej first crosses the 
plain of Goge — a vast alluvial tract formed from deposits which 
the river and its mountain-feeders have swept down from the Hima- 
layas. It has scoured a passage across the plain in a channel said 
to be 4000 feet deep, between precipitous banks of alluvial soil. Near 
Shipki, the frontier Chinese outpost, the Sutlej turns sharp to the south, 
and commences its marvellous passage through the Himalayas. It 
pierces the southern chain of these great mountains through a gorge 
with heights of 20,000 feet on either side. At Shipki, its elevation is 
said to be 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. By the time the river 



SUTNA. 141 

has reached Rampur in Bashahr State, it has fallen to about 3000 feet, 
and at Bilaspur to a little over 1000 feet. 

After entering British territory, the details of its course may be 
sketched as follows. For the first 200 miles it runs through a wild 
and almost unpeopled mountain country, receiving the Li or river 
of Spiti near Ddblang. Thenceforth the united stream takes a south- 
westerly direction, through Bashahr and the Simla Hill States, and on 
entering the British District of Hoshiarpur, takes a sudden southward 
bend round the spurs of the Siwalik hills. Debouching upon the plains 
near Rupar, it divides Ambala (Umballa) District from Hoshiarpur, or 
the Jalandhar (Jullundur) Doab from the Sirhind plateau. It next 
flows almost due wxst, between Jalandhar on the north, and Ambala, 
Ludhiana, and Firozpur on the south, till it receives the Beas (Bias) at 
the south-western corner of Kapurthala State (lat. 31° 11' n., long. 75° 
4' E.). The united river thenceforward preserves an almost uniform 
south-westerly direction till its junction with the Indus. Its south- 
eastern shore is bordered by the Districts of Firozpur and Sirsa, and the 
sterile Native State of Bahawalpur ; its north-western by the Bari Doab, 
comprising parts of Lahore, Montgomery, and Miiltan Districts. The 
whole of its course throughout the plains is fringed by a fertile lowland 
valley, confined at either side by high banks, which lead to the com- 
paratively barren table-lands above ; but the lower portion lies through 
a much less fruitful tract, partaking largely of the characteristics which 
mark the desert of Rajputana. A fringe of extremely rich and highly 
cultivated land, however, varying in width from 2 to 10 miles, stretches 
along the right bank of the Sutlej in Miiltan and Montgomery District, 
and in Bahawalpur State. This fringe is artificially widened by nume- 
rous inundation canals, which carry the waters of the Sutlej far inland. 
Near Madwala the Sutlej joins the Trimab, and the whole river then 
bears the name of the Panjnad ; and finally falls into the Indus, after a 
total course of about 900 miles, near Mithankot, at 258 feet above sea- 
level. Like other rivers having their rise in the Himalayas, the Sutlej 
attains its greatest volume in June, July, and August. A railway bridge 
on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Line crosses the Sutlej at Phillour, 
and another carries the Indus Valley State Railway near Bahawalpur. 
Steamers can ascend the river during the floods as far as Firozpur. 

The Sutlej has been identified with the ZapaSpos (various reading 
ZapdSpr]^) of Ptolemy ; the Sydrus, or better reading Hesidrus, of 
Phny. 

Sutna {Satnd). — Town and British cantonment in Rewa State, 
Baghelkhand, Central India; with a station on the East India 
Railway, no miles from Allahabad and 118 miles from Jabalpur. 
Population (1881) 5385, namely, Hindus, 4362 ; Muhammadans, 
948; and 'others,' 75. Sutna is occupied by a detachment of a 



142 SWA— SWATCH OF NO GROUND. 

regiment of Bengal cavalry, and is the head-quarters of the Baghelkhand 
Political Agency. It is a town of considerable importance, and is con- 
nected with Rewa town by a made road 31 miles in length. A metalled 
and bridged road loi miles in length, passing through the towns of 
SoHAWAL, Nagode, Panna, and Chhatarpur, connects Sutna with 
NowGONG. A considerable trade in linseed, wheat, and other cereals 
is carried on. In addition to the cantonment, railway station, and 
Agency buildings, Sutna contains a hospital, dispensary, school, police 
station, and post-office. 

Swa. — River in Taung-ngu District, Tenasserim Division, Lower 
Burma ; rises in the Pegu Yoma Mountains, and after an easterly course 
of 60 miles, falls into the Sittaung, about 24 miles north of Taung-ngu 
town. In the rainy season, boats of from 30 to 35 feet in length can 
ascend as far as Ayo-daung, a village situated 38 miles from the mouth 
of the Swa. All along its course sandstone is found. The country 
which it drains produces teak and other valuable trees ; and large 
quantities of timber are annually floated down for the Taung-ngu market, 
together with raw silk prepared by the inhabitants, who rear silkworms 
extensively. 

Swanipganj. — Town, with considerable river traffic, on the Jalangi 
river, in Nadiya District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 25' n., long. 88° 26' 15" e. 
Chief exports — grain, oil-seeds, and molasses. 

Swat (the Siiastos of the Greek geographers ; Sanskrit, Siirastu). — 
River in Peshawar District, Punjab. Rises beyond the British frontier 
on the eastern slopes of the mountains which divide Panjakora from 
Swat territory ; receives the drainage of the entire Swat valley ; enters 
Peshawar District north of Abazai, and finally joins the Kabul river 
at Nisatha. Below Abazai, the Swat divides into three channels. The 
main stream formerly ran in the Doaba direction, and formed the 
boundary with Hashtnagar ; but of late years it has changed its course, 
and now runs east. All three branches fall into the Kabul above 
Nisatha. Ferries are established at Abazai, Utmanzai, Charsada, Prang, 
and Nisatha, but the river is fordable above Utmanzai in the winter. 
The waters are clear and cold, and till it reaches Charsada the river 
runs over a bed of loose stones. 

The head-works of the Swat river canal (now in partial operation, and 
the distributaries rapidly approaching completion) are situated above 
the Abazai fort on the left bank of the river. Two forts lie between 
Abazai and the head-works of the canal, garrisoned by local levies. 
The whole of the Doaba, and the lowlands of Hashtnagar (Sholgira), 
are irrigated from the Swat river. During the summer months a large 
amount of timber is floated down the stream. In 1882 a great flood 
occurred, in which the water rose 6 feet above the former flood-level. 

Swatch of No Ground. — A great natural depression in the Bay of 



S YAMBAZAR—S YLHE T. ,43 

Bengal, lying off the Gangetic Delta, due south of the rivers Raimangal 
and Malancha ; extends north by east from lat. 20° 30' to 21° 22' n., 
3 leagues in breadth, with its northern extremity about 5 leagues from 
the land, and its western edge about 40 miles eastward of Sagar Sand. 
The interior of this basin has not yet been sounded; but on its 
northern edge the depth of water is about 13 fathoms, decreasing 
towards the land ; the other parts of its circumference deepen regularly 
off. ' Its sides are so steep and well defined,' says Mr. J. Fergusson, in 
a paper on ' Recent Changes in the Delta of the Ganges ' (published in 
\hQ Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society ior August 1863), 'that 
it affords mariners the best possible sea-mark; the lead suddenly 
dropping, especially on its western face, from 5 and 10 to 200 and even 
300 fathoms, with no ground.' Mr. Fergusson does not consider that 
the sinking is due to volcanic agency, but attributes it to the action of 
rotatory tides in the bay. This action is strictly analogous to that of 
the phenomenon known as the ' bore,' which exists to a greater or less 
extent in all funnel-shaped tidal estuaries. Two circular tides, formed 
at the mouth of the Hugh', meet in the bay. The consequence seems 
to be, says Mr. Fergusson, that they must do one of two things — either 
they must throw up a bar between them or they must scoop out a 
depression. The first would be the action of two rivers, the velocity of 
whose currents was diminished or stopped by contact with the ocean ; 
the latter is the probable action of the tides as they actually exist, and 
is sufficient to account for the formation of the depression. 

Sydmbazar. — Town in Hugh' District, Bengal; situated a few 
miles south of the Ajai river, in lat. 23° 35' 10" n., and long. 87° 32' 
5" E. Population (1881)^ 12,462, namely, males 6056, and females 
6406. Hindus number 11,960, and Muhammadans 502. Municipal 
income (1883-84), ;2{^232 ; rate of taxation, 3|d. per head of population 
(14,606) within municipal hmits. Syambazar has an old sardi (native 
inn), dated 1125 a.h. 

Syamnagar. — River-side village in the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, 
and a station on the Eastern Bengal Railway, i8| miles from Calcutta. 
A short distance east of the station are the ruins of an old fort, sur- 
rounded by a moat about 4 miles in circumference, built in the last 
century by a Raja of Bardwan as a refuge from the Marithds ; it now 
belongs to the Tagore family, Calcutta, and is protected by thick date 
plantations. 

Sydapet. — Town in Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Saidapet. 

Sylhet {Srihatta). — British District in the Chief Commissionership 
of Assam, lying between 25° 12' and 23° 58' 42" n. lat., and between 
91* and 92° 37' 40" E. long. Bounded on the north by the Khisi and 
Jaintia Hills District; on the east by Cachar; on the south by the 



144 SYLHET. 

Native State of Hill Tipperah, and the Bengal District of Tipperah ; 
and on the west by the Bengal District of Maimansingh. Sylhet 
District contains an area, according to recent survey, of 5413 square 
miles, and a population, according to the Census of 1881, of 1,969,009 
souls. The administrative head-quarters are at Sylhet Town, on the 
right bank of the Surma river, in 24° 53' 22" n. lat, and 91° 54' 40" 
E. long. 

Physical Aspects. — Sylhet consists of the lower valley of the Barak or 
Surma river — a rich alluvial tract about 70 miles wide, bounded north 
and south by mountains, and opening westwards to the plain of 
Lower Bengal. The greater part of the District is a uniform level, 
only broken by clusters of little hillocks called tilds^ and intersected 
by a network of rivers and drainage channels. During the rainy 
season — from June to October — the torrents that pour down from 
the surrounding hills convert the entire western part of the District 
into a sea of water, amid which the raised village sites appear as 
islands, and the only means of communication is by boat. The banks 
of the rivers, as is the case in all alluvial tracts, are raised by the annual 
flood deposits to a higher level than that of the surrounding country. 
The low strip of land lying beneath is every year subject to a protracted 
inundation, and is usually left to weeds and grass. Farther back, as 
the surface gradually rises, the soil is under continuous rice cultivation. 
The village sites are embowered in groves of bamboos, palms, and 
other trees. The soil of the District is for the most part of blue clay, 
which turns to black on the borders of the swamps or kdors, as they 
are locally termed. 

In the south of the District, eight low ranges of hills run out into 
the plain, being spurs of the Tipperah mountains. The highest is 
about 1000 feet above sea-level. There is also a small detached group, 
the Ita Hills, in the centre of the District. The iilds or hillocks, 
which are scattered all over the valley, rise to a height of nearly 80 feet 
near Sylhet town. For the most part they are overgrown with grass 
jungle, but many have been cleared for the cultivation of tea. 

The river system of Sylhet District is constituted by the Barak 
or Surma, with its many tributaries and offshoots. This river 
enters the District from Cachar, and forthwith bifurcates into two 
branches. The main branch, or the Surma, flows beneath the hills 
bordering the north of the District ; the minor branch, or the Kusiyara, 
runs in a south-westerly direction across the District ; and the two again 
unite on the south-western boundary, to fall into the estuary of the 
Meghna under the name of the Dhaleswari. Both are navigable by 
large boats and support a busy traffic. The river steamers pass 
up the Surma into Cachar, and this river also brings down the 
limestone and other products of the Khasi hills. Two short canals 



SYLIIET, ,45 

or artificial watercourses have been cut in recent years to facilitate 
navigation. 

There are now no embankments in the District to protect the fields 
against flood, those that formerly existed having been suffered to fall 
into decay about fifty years ago. It is argued that the land benefits 
more from the silt deposited during inundations than it used to do 
from any artificial interference with the natural lines of drainage. 
Some progress has been made towards bringing under tillage the swamps 
and low-lying tracts ] and it is considered probable that all these hdors, 
which are entirely under water during the rains, but which dry up in 
the cold weather, are capable of reclamation. Many of them are now 
utilized as pasture-grounds for cattle. The deeper marshes, which 
contain water throughout the year, are used as reed and cane producing 
grounds. Long-stemmed rice is plentifully cultivated in the low-lying 
lands, and flourishes in a depth of 15 feet of water. 

Coal has been discovered in Sylhet, but the coal-field has not 
yet been examined. The northern hills yield an inexhaustible supply 
of limestone, but the principal quarries lie within the Khasi Hills. 

The finest timber is found in the south-east of the District, 
where a tract covering 273 square miles has been declared to be 
a ' Protected Forest.' The most valuable trees are the Jarul (Lager- 
strcemia Flos-Reginae) and the ndgeswar (Mesua ferrea), the felling 
of both of which is prohibited, unless the trees exceed 4 feet in 
girth. There is no sal or sissu anywhere, and only one small clump 
of teak, the property of Government. A large export of timber, 
bamboos, and thatching grass from the southern hills of Cachar is 
carried on by river through Sylhet, as far as Maimansingh and Dacca. 
Other wild products are lac, beeswax, honey, and a perfume called 
agar attar prepared from the resinous sap of \\\q piidkard tree (Aquilaria 
Agallocha), which is exported as far as Arabia and Turkey. 

The wild animals comprise elephants, tigers, buffaloes, and several 
species of deer. The rhinoceros has not been seen of late years. Wild 
elephants are captured in khedds or stockades, chiefly in the south-east 
of the District, for the Government Commissariat Department. Teal and 
wild ducks are found in large numbers in the low-lying, marshy country 
to the west, and in the Jaintia plains to the east; and wild geese, 
jungle-fowl, and pheasants are common. The rivers abound in fish, 
and the drying of fish forms an important industry. Excellent mdhsir 
fishing is to be had in the streams issuing from the northern hills. 

History. — Sylhet, lying in a remote corner of Bengal, was one of 
the last conquests made by the Muhammadans. Even at the present 
day, many special features in the administration mark its character as 
a frontier District. Since September 1874 it has been annexed to the 
Chief Commissionership of Assam j but in the ethnological character of 

VOL. XIII. K 



146 SYLHET, 

its population, as well as in its history, Sylhet, together with the adjoining 
District of Cachar, forms an integral portion of Eastern Bengal. In 
early times this tract of country was divided among many petty States, 
of which three, namely (i) Gor, (2) Laur, and (3) Jaintia, are historical. 
The local tradition of the arrival of Brahmans from Bengal in the time 
of King Adisur would seem to indicate that the inhabitants of these 
three States were of aboriginal descent, and that Hinduism was 
introduced among them at a comparatively late period. The sub- 
sequent conversion of half the population to Islam points in the same 
direction. 

The Muhammadans first invaded the District towards the close 
of the 14th century, when the Afghan King Shams-ud-din was ruling 
over Bengal with his capital at the city of Gaur. The invaders were 
led by a fakir or religious fanatic called Shah Jalal, whose miraculous 
powers are said to have effected more than the swords of his followers 
in overthrowing the local Hindu dynasty then represented by Gaur 
Gobind. The secular leader of the Musalmans was Sikandar Ghazi ; 
but his reputation is quite ecHpsed by that of Shah Jalal, whose tomb 
in Sylhet town is still a frequented place of pilgrimage. The only 
portion of Sylhet conquered at this time was the territory of Gor, which 
was placed under the charge of a Nawab. The chief of Laur retained 
his independence until the reign of the Emperor Akbar, when Bengal 
passed under the rule of the Mughals. The last Hindu Raja of Laur, 
also called Gobind, was summoned by Akbar to Delhi, and there 
became a convert to the faith of Islam. He submitted to undertake 
the defence of the frontier, but did not pay tribute. His grandson 
removed his residence to Baniachang in the first half of the i8th 
century. At about the same period a tribute of forty-eight large boats 
was imposed upon him by Ali Vardi Khan, the Nawab of Murshidabad ; 
and subsequently three-fourths of his estates were assessed. 

When the British obtained possession of the diwdni of Bengal in 
1765, Jaintia was still independent. Sylhet proper was governed by 
officers called aynils^ directly subordinate to the Nawab of Dacca. The 
system of administration was modelled after the necessities of a frontier 
District. The land assessment was light ; and colonies of Muhammadan 
soldiery were posted along the border, who held their villages without 
payment of revenue on a sort of feudal tenure. During the early years 
of British administration, Sylhet was much neglected. The population 
was turbulent, means of communication were difficult, and all the arts 
of civilisation were very backward. Raids on the part of the border 
tribes and insurrections of the Musalman inhabitants demanded the 
continual presence of a body of troops, whose existence is still con- 
tinued in the Regiment of Sylhet Light Infantry, now the 44th Native 
Infantry. The soil is extremely fertile, and in ordinary years yields 



I 



SYLHET, 147 

abundant crops of rice. But in those early days the channels of trade 
were not open. A good harvest so depressed prices in the local 
markets that the cultivators were rendered unable to pay their revenue 
to Government. On the other hand, disastrous floods were of common 
occurrence, and in a few days changed plenty into the extremity of 
famine. A vivid picture of the condition of the country at the end 
of the 18th century is quoted from the Lives of the Lindsays^ as an 
Appendix to the Statistical Account of Sylhet. 

The territory of the Raja of Jaintia was confiscated in 1835, in con- 
sequence of his complicity in the forcible seizure of certain British 
subjects, who were barbarously sacrificed at the shrine of Kali. The 
Raja, Indra Singh, was granted a pension of ^600 a year, and he 
resided peaceably in Sylhet until his death in 1861. The plains por- 
tion of his territory, extending from the foot of the hills to the Surma 
river, was annexed to Sylhet District, while the remainder now consti- 
tutes the Jaintia Hills Sub-division of the Khasi Hills District. Since 
that date, Sylhet has undergone no historical changes, until it was 
annexed in 1874 to the Chief Commissionership of Assam. 

The only troubles of the administration have arisen from the con 
fusion in which the land settlement is involved. The Permanent 
Settlement of 1793 was only partially extended to Sylhet, and included 
about 1,449,804 acres, of which about one-fourth was cultivated, the 
annual Government revenue on which was assessed at 15 15 kahd?is 
of kauris, or approximately ^32,400. But the area dealt with by the 
Permanent Settlement was only about one-half of the whole area of 
the District as it then stood. No actual survey was made of the 
remaining half; and it was soon discovered that the landlords or 
mit'dsddrs in the cultivated tract claimed to exercise rights of property 
over the adjoining jungle. This claim has been persistently opposed 
by the Government, and has given rise to the historical dispute about 
the ildj?i lands, which began in 1802 and was finally terminated by a 
decision of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal in 1869. The ildm 
lands represent the difference between the total area of the District 
and that portion assessed by the Permanent Settlement. These lands 
have been temporarily settled for short periods and on easy terms with 
the occupants. The land settlement in the Jaintia plains is made 
with the cultivators themselves for terms of twenty years. 

Population. — In 1853, the total population of Sylhet District was 
estimated at 1,393,050. The regular Census of 1872, the first enumera- 
tion that has any pretension to accuracy, disclosed a total of 1,719,539 
persons. At the last Census in 1881, the population was returned at 
1,969,009, showing an apparent increase of 249,470, or 14*5 per cent., 
in the nine years since 1872. This increase is to a large extent only 
apparent, being really due to under-enumeration in 1872, which is 



148 SYLHET. 

estimated to have been lo per cent, below the facts. The District 
officer puts the actual increase at about 5 per cent, for the nine years. 

The results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be summarized 
as follows : — Area of the District, as returned for Census purposes, 
5440 square miles (actual area, 5413 square miles), with i town and 
8986 villages ; houses, 387,596. Total population, 1,969,009, namely, 
males 999,785, and females 969,224. Average density of popu- 
lation, 362 persons per square mile; villages per square mile, 1-65; 
persons per town or village, 219; houses per square mile, 717; 
persons per house, 5 "05. Classified according to sex and age, the 
population is composed as follows: — Under 15 years, boys 423^3955 
and girls 394,377 ; total children, 817,772, or 41-5 per cent. : 15 years 
and upwards, males 576,390, and females 574,847 ; total, 1,151,237, or 
58*5 per cent. 

Religion. — Classified according to religion, Muhammadans number 
1,015,531, or 51 -6 per cent, of the population ; Hindus, 949,353, or 48*2 
per cent.; Christians, 379; Brahmos, 38; and non-Hindu aboriginal 
tribes, 3708. 

The Muhammadans, who form a slight majority of the population, 
are stated to take precedence in point of social rank over the Hindus ; 
but with the exception of an occasional convert from the lower Hindu 
castes, the faith of Islam has ceased to make any progress. Nearly the 
whole of the Musalmans of Sylhet are Sunnis by sect. The principal 
mosque is that known as the Shah Jalal Dargah in Sylhet town. There 
is also another mosque of some note at Baniachang. 

Among Hindus, the higher castes are fairly numerous, as also are the 
low castes found in the Gangetic delta ; and generally speaking, as 
compared with the rest of Assam, there is a conspicuous absence of 
the castes predominant in the valley of the Brahmaputra or even in 
Northern Bengal. Brahmans number 45,434 ; but the most numerous 
caste in the District is the Kayasth or clerkly class, who are returned as 
numbering 157,130, follow^ed by the cognate caste of Kalitas, 12,210. 
The other high castes include the following — Ganak, 6505 ; Baidya, 
3702; Rajput, 3658; and Vaisya, 634. Low-caste Hindus include 
the following — Chandal, 129,609; Das or Halvva, 102,065; Nath or 
Jugi, 82,170 ; Patani, 49,600 ; Mali, 40,412 ; Shaha or Sunri, 36,422 ; 
Kaibartta; 35,407; Dom, 27,264; Dhobi, 26,330 ; Napit, 21,063; 
Tell, 18,036; Mai, 16,084 ; Sutradhar, 11,280; Kumbhar, 8504; Goala, 
7319 ; Nat, 7091 ; Dhuli, 6344 ; Kamar, 5802 ; Kahar, 5567 ; Barhai, 
4092; Muchi, 3784; Kapali, 3i8i;Tanti, 3128; Julaha, 2872; and 
Kiirmi, 2001. 

The majority of the Hindus are Vishnuites, amongst whom a new 
sect has recently sprung up locally known as Kisaribhajan, and in Bengal 
as Kartibhaja. Its members acknowledge one God or Great Master 



SYLHET. 149 

(Kartd), and, in Sylhet at least, are said to repudiate all caste distinctions, 
in practice as well as theory. A short notice of this sect will be found 
in article Nadiya District (ante^ vol. x. p. 133), and a detailed account 
of its tenets in The Statistical Account of Betigal, vol. ii. pp. 53-57. 
The most venerated Hindu temples in Sylhet are the following: — (i) 
Riipnath, in the hills above Jaintiapur. This temple is situated just 
beyond the boundaries of the District, within the jurisdiction of the 
Khasi Hills ; but it is greatly resorted to by people from Sylhet 
proper and the Jaintia plains. (2) Phaljur, in the J>arga?id of the 
same name in the Jaintia plains. Human sacrifices were formerly 
offered at this temple, a practice which led to the annexation of the 
Jaintia plains in 1835, and their incorporation with Sylhet District. (3) 
The Jainteswari temple at Jaintiapur. (4) Maha-prabhu, in pargand 
Dhaka-dakshin. (5) Siddheswar, in pargayid Chapghat. (6) Nirmai 
Siva, m pargand Satgaon. (7) Basudeo. These seven are all shrines 
of great antiquity. (8) Bithalang Akhra, a building of recent date, 
which is said to have been the largest and best endowed temple in 
the old Dacca Division. The religious ceremony of nagar-kirtan is 
described as being peculiar to Sylhet District. It consists of a torch- 
light procession in time of cholera outbreaks to propitiate Kali, the 
wife of Siva, the All-Destroyer. A new religious sect has sprung up 
among the Kaibarttas, founded about eighty years ago by a certain 
Ram Krishna Gosain, a member of that caste, who is traditionally said 
to have received his inspiration from a Musalman saint. He estab- 
lished an akhrd, or religious community, in parga?id Bimangal, where 
he now lies buried; and at the present day his disciples refuse to 
touch either cow-dung or the leaves of the tulsi plant, both of which 
things are held in veneration by orthodox Hindus, but abhorred by 
Muhammadans. 

Of the aboriginal tribes, the Kukis have long been notorious for 
their attacks on the peaceable inhabitants of the plains, and have 
till recently proved themselves very troublesome along the Sylhet 
frontier. A few of them now reside within the limits of the District ; 
the Census Report returns their number at 808. In some places 
they go about perfectly naked when at home, and only wear a piece 
of loose cloth when they leave their villages, not so much for the 
sake of decency as to avoid ridicule. The Khasis (2608 in number) 
are an athletic race of mountaineers inhabiting the hills to the north 
of the District. Many of them have adopted Hinduism, and have 
obtained admission among the Siidra castes. The Tipperahs in Sylhet 
number 3982. In some parts of the District they are classed as 
Vaishnavs, or Vishnuite religious mendicants, who abstain from eating 
flesh of any sort. The other Tipperahs of the District also call them- 
selves Hindus but eat flesh of all descriptions, with the exception of 



I50 SYLHET, 

that of the cow. They worship fourteen minor gods, and one Buri 
Debata (Siva). The Hajangs, who come from the Garo Hills, are also 
nominally Hindus, but will eat anything in the shape of meat. Accord- 
ing to the Census Report, they number 585 in Sylhet, and are 
principally to be found in the north-western part of the District 
adjoining Maimansingh. With the exception of the Manipuris (i 3,434 
in number), who are a thriving and industrious race, the social position 
of the hill tribes is very low. Their chief occupation is nomadic 
agriculture. The Tipperahs and Kukis especially follow they/^';>^ system 
of cultivation. A patch of forest land on a hill-side is cleared, the 
timber and brushwood being burnt on the spot. This is cultivated for 
three or four years, after which it is abandoned for another similar 
clearing. 

Of the 379 Christians in Sylhet, 115 were Europeans or Eurasians, 
and 264 natives of India. By sect, 88 belonged to the Church of 
England, 80 were Roman Catholics, 16 were Presbyterians, and 195 
belonged to other or unspecified sects. 

Ii?imigration afid Emigration. — The principal immigration into Sylhet 
District is from Manipur, and to a small extent from Hill Tipperah 
State and the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. The incomers generally Hve in 
separate villages by themselves, and do not amalgamate with the rest 
of the population. The great majority settle permanently in the 
District, but a few return to their original homes with their savings. 
The Manipuris in the town of Sylhet, of whom there is a large settle- 
ment, carry on a considerable trade in cloth manufactured by them- 
selves. Those who are settled in the rural parts cultivate land on 
the skirts of the hills. They have done much towards clearing and 
reclaiming jungle lands ; but as soon as the soil becomes fit for regular 
cultivation, they have, in many instances, been ousted by Bengali's. 
The Khasi immigrants work as labourers and artisans, and also carry 
on a trade in oranges, cotton, honey, beeswax, and other products of 
their native hills. Labourers, but not in any great numbers, are imported 
from the Districts of Lower Bengal to work on the tea plantations. 
Many of them permanently settle in the District when the term of their 
contract has expired. There is no appreciable emigration from Sylhet. 

Of the 8986 villages in the District, 5772 contain less than 
two hundred inhabitants; 2457 between two and five hundred; 582 
between five hundred and a thousand; 164 between one and two 
thousand; 10 between two and three thousand; and i between three 
and five thousand. 

Occupation. — As regards occupation, the Census Report divides the 
male population into the following six classes : — (i) Professional and 
official class, 11,854; (2) domestic servants, etc., 4220 ; (3) commercial 
class, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 24,890 ; (4) agricul- 



SYLHET, 151 

tural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 519,463; (5) manufac- 
turing and industrial class, including all artisans, 25,096; (6) unspeci- 
fied and non-productive class, comprising general labourers and male 
children, 414,262. 

Material Condition of the People. — The general mass- of the people 
of Sylhet may be described as comparatively well off. The peculiar 
character of the Land Settlement, by conferring proprietary rights in 
the soil on the general body of the cultivators, has prevented the rise 
of large zaniinddrs^ and distributed widely the profits derived from the 
export of agricultural produce. Where not ruined by excessive floods, 
the soil is very fertile, and requires little labour in its cultivation. 
Besides inexhaustible supplies of rice, the District also produces jute ; 
and the European demand for these two staple commodities has 
distinctly raised the material condition of the cultivating class in Sylhet, 
as throughout the neighbouring Districts of Eastern Bengal. The 
population generally are described as contented and independent. 

The ordinary dress of a well-to-do shopkeeper consists of a waist- 
cloth {dhuti), a cotton shawl {chddar), a cotton head-dress {pdgri)^ and 
occasionally a coat (J>ird?i) and a pair of shoes. The clothing of a 
common peasant consists simply of a waistcloth and cotton shawl, with 
the addition, in the case of Musalmans, of a closely-fitting cotton skull- 
cap. A well-to-do shopkeeper generally occupies either a semi-brick- 
built house, or a substantial mat dwelling, consisting of from three to 
five rooms. Th€ furniture of such a house is composed of a mat, a 
thick striped cotton carpet {satranj.i), a wooden bedstead {takhtaposh\ 
bedding, a brass lamp, some tin or wooden boxes, brass and bell-metal 
cooking and eating utensils, baskets, earthen pots, etc. The common 
class of cultivators occupy huts built by themselves, with such furniture 
as common mats, poor bedding, a wooden box or two, a few brass 
utensils for cooking and eating, and some baskets, earthen pots, 
etc. The building materials are bricks, lime, clay, timber, bamboo, 
thatching grass, and bamboo mats. Many of the more prosperous 
peasant proprietors dwell in houses of much the same description as 
those of the shopkeeping class. The food of a well-to-do shopkeeper 
consists of rice, salt, oil, fish, pulses, vegetables, spices, tamarinds, and 
milk occasionally. The food of the peasants does not differ from the 
above list, except in quality. Fish and fruit are very plentiful in Sylhet ; 
and both these commodities are largely exported to other Districts. The 
Muhammadans eat meat of all kinds, except pork ; the Hindus will 
only touch pigeons. Pan or betel-leaf, supdri or betel-nut, and tobacco 
form a large item in the monthly expenditure of each family. 

Urban and Rural Population. — Urban life is entirely undeveloped in 
Sylhet. The only place in the District with a population of more than 
5000 is Sylhet Town, which is also the only municipality. Popula- 



152 SYLHET. 

tion (1881) 14,407 ; municipal revenue (1881-82), including ferry tolls, 
^^2052. Sylhet town conducts a large trade by water. The following 
twelve villages, mostly situated on the Surma orKusiara rivers, are also 
important trading marts : — (i) Chhatik, (2) Sonamganj, (3) Ajmeriganj, 
(4) Balaganj, (5) Habiganj, (6) Nabiganj, (7) Bahadiirpur, (8) Karim- 
ganj, (9) Shamsherganj, (10) Gobindganj, (11) IS.Iutiganj, (12) 
Dohalia. 

Agriculture. — The one staple crop cultivated throughout the District 
is rice, which yields four harvests in the year — (i) dus^ sown on high 
lands in March, April, and May, and reaped in July and August ; (2) 
dijia?i^ sown in March and April, and reaped in December and January ; 
(3) sdil^ sown in nurseries in May and June, transplanted in August 
and September, and reaped in November and December; (4) bora^ 
sown in nurseries in October, transplanted in November and Decem- 
ber, and reaped in April and May. The dma7i harvest furnishes by 
far the largest proportion of the food supply. The other crops in- 
clude — mustard, linseed, and /// or sesamum, grown as oil-seeds ; 
chind^ 2l variety of millet, cultivated chiefly in the west of the District 
as a substitute for rice ; several kinds of pulses, jute, sugar-cane ; and 
cotton, grown in patches amid the jungle by the hill tribes. Out of 
the total area of the District, 5381 square miles (excluding river area), 
3078 square miles, or 57 per cent., are thought to be either homestead 
land or under cultivation ; and an additional 656 square miles, or 12 
per cent., is capable of cultivation, leaving 1647 square miles, or 31 
per cent., as uncultivable waste. About two-thirds of the total cultivated 
area is permenently under rice. The out-turn is estimated at from 
II to 17 cwts. of paddy or unhusked rice per acre. It is stated that 
the produce of the rice-fields has steadily diminished in recent years, 
owing to the damage caused by floods. Oxen are almost exclusively 
employed in agriculture, though a few buffaloes are used. The best are 
imported from Manipur. Manure, in the form of cow-dung, is largely 
applied for the cultivation of cold-weather crops. Oil-cake is applied 
only to sugar-cane lands. Irrigation is practised only for the bora rice 
crop, and rice-fields are never allowed to lie fallow for any length of 
time. 

The greater part of the cultivated land is permanently settled, but 
the tenants of Government are for the most part not wealthy land- 
holders like the zaminddrs of Bengal, but peasant proprietors known as 
mirdsddrs. On the whole, the cultivators of Sylhet, owing partly to the 
fertility of the soil, and partly to the moderation of the assessment, 
occupy a position of comparative comfort. One of the chief peculiarities 
of the District is the smallness of the agricultural holdings. Perhaps 
in no other District of Bengal or Assam has the sub-division of landed 
property been carried to a greater extent. Anything above 5 acres is 



SYLIIET. 153 

considered to be a large holding for the support of a cultivator with 
a family; 3^ acres makes a comfortable farm; and anything below 
i^ acres is a very small one, and barely affords subsistence. As 
an instance of the excessive sub-division of property, it may be 
mentioned that out of 78,000 estates on the rent-roll of the District 
in 1870, upwards of 20,000 paid a land-tax of not more than 2s. a 
year. 

Intermediate tenures between the 7nirdsddr and the actual culti- 
vator are very rare. Where rice land is rented out, the rent varies 
from 2S. to I2S. an acre. Occupancy rights are almost unknown. 
Many of the poorer peasants employ themselves in cultivating the lands 
of others, in addition to looking after their own small holdings. In 
such cases, the men are paid in money, and not by a share of the pro- 
duce, as is common in other Districts. Women and children are also 
employed in the fields. Wages of labour have greatly increased of late 
years. An ordinary day-labourernow receives 6d. per diem ; his former 
wages were exactly one-half. An agricultural day-labourer now receives 
4jd. a day, whereas formerly he was only paid i|d. The rates of 
wages for skilled labour have also greatly risen. 

Natural Calamities. — Both blight and flood are more dreaded 
by the cultivators of Sylhet than drought. Within the memory of 
the present generation, the winter of 1869-70 has been the only 
occasion when the local rainfall was so deficient as to affect the 
general harvest. Inundations, indeed, take place every year over a 
considerable tract of country ; but it is thought that the flood water 
does more good than harm, by depositing fresh silt on the exhausted 
fields. There is some local demand for embankments, but their con- 
struction would be a matter of doubtful advantage. During 1866-67, 
the year of the Orissa famine, the price of rice rose to los. 8d. a cwt. 
The people mainly depend upon the avian harvest for their food supply ; 
and if that were to fail, the other rice harvests would be inadequate to 
make up the deficiency. In ordinary years, Sylhet is able to export much 
of its surplus grain to Bengal, Cachar, and the Khasi Hills. In good 
years, the export of paddy or unhusked rice is estimated at 2 J million 
cwts. 

Trade, etc. — Sylhet is celebrated for several special manufactures. 
The Manipuri women settled in the District weave cotton cloths called 
Manipuri khesh, also handkerchiefs and mosquito curtains, of fine 
quality and tastefully embroidered with silk. The Manipuri men are 
the best carpenters in the country. At the village of Lashkarpur there 
is a small colony of Musalmans, who inlay iron weapons with silver and 
brass scroU-w^ork. But the specialities of Sylhet, known throughout 
India, are sitalpdti mats, iron and shell carving, pukdld work or lac 
inlaid with feathers and talc, and pottery. All these industries are 



154 SYLHET. 

pursued with much skill and elegance, and the artisans command large 
prices for their wares. Local trade is conducted chiefly at permanent 
markets, situated on the banks of the large rivers. The external com- 
merce of Sylhet with Bengal is very considerable. The Bengal registra- 
tion returns for 1 880-8 1 show a total export from Sylhet valued at 
;^i,287,43i, against imports valued at ;£89o,967. These figures 
unavoidably include some portion of the trade of other Districts, which 
is merely through traffic, but at the same time they omit the rice, etc. 
of Sylhet exported to those Districts. The chief items on the export 
side are — tea, 13,426,880 lbs., valued at ^1,007,016, evidently including 
much grown in Cachar; lime and limestone, 1,065,429 maunds^ valued 
at ^115,559, almost entirely from the Khasi Hills; rice and paddy, 
165,415 maimds, valued at ;^i6,972; vegetables, ;£34,423; oil-seeds, 
;^i7,68o; fruits and nuts, ;£2479 ; jute, ;^452 ; and mats, ;£"io,357. 
The imports include — European piece-goods, ;^289,498; salt, ;^94,i94; 
sugar, ;£66, 662 ; tobacco, ;^43,654; and spices, ^59,471. The tea 
and most of the cotton goods are carried by the river steamers ; all the 
heavy commodities go in country boats. Almost the only means of 
communication is by water. Until recently, there were no regular roads 
outside the limits of Sylhet town. The aggregate length of the navigable 
rivers is returned at 800 miles. 

Tea Cultivation occupies a subordinate position in Sylhet, as com- 
pared with the neighbouring District of Cachar. The tea-plant was 
first discovered growing wild in 1856, and the oldest garden now 
existing dates from the following year. Ever since the season of 
excessive speculation that reached its crisis in 1865, the business of tea 
cultivation and manufacture in Sylhet has improved steadily and rapidly 
year by year. In 1875, returns furnished by 23 gardens showed a total 
area of 26,612 acres taken up for tea, of which 4446 acres were under 
mature plant; the aggregate out-turn was 470,748 lbs., or an average 
of III lbs. per acre under mature plant. In 1874, the average monthly 
number of labourers employed was 3109, of whom 462 had been 
imported under contract from Bengal. By 1881, the number of 
gardens had increased to 91, with a total area of ^^^2)ZZ ^.cres taken 
up for tea, of which 15,990 acres were under mature plant, yielding 
an aggregate out-turn of 3,354,637 lbs., or an average of 210 lbs. per 
acre. Average number of labourers employed, 21,806. These figures 
show that the number of gardens has quadrupled within a period of 
six years ; while the out-turn of tea has multiplied itself by seven 
times, while the number of labourers employed has also increased 
seven-fold. 

Administration. — The fiscal and executive administration of the 
District is vested in a Deputy Commissioner, who must be a member 
of the covenanted service. The judicial department is entrusted to a 



SYLHET. 155 

Civil and Sessions Judge, whose criminal jurisdiction extends also over 
Cachar. For the ordinary work of administration, Sylhet is divided 
into 4 Sub-divisions, each under an Assistant or Extra-Assistant Com- 
missioner, with the powers of a Magistrate and Collector. These Sub- 
divisions are further divided into 16 thdnds or police circles, as follows : 
— (i) Head-quarters Sub-division, with the 6 tluhids of Sylhet, Balaganj, 
Rajnagar, Nawakhali, Hingajiya, and Kanairghat; (2) Karimganj Sub- 
division, with the 2 thdnds of Karimganj and Jaldhup ; (3) Habiganj 
Sub-division, with the 4 t/idfids of Habiganj, Nabiganj, Madhabpur, 
and Baniachang ; and (4) Sonamganj Sub-division, with the 4 thdnds 
of Sonamganj, Derai, Chhatak, and Dharmapasa. In 1882 the number 
of magisterial and revenue courts was 17, and of civil courts 11 ; there 
were 5 covenanted civil servants stationed in the District, of whom 
some were engaged on settlement work. 

The revenue and civil expenditure of the District have both rapidly 
increased of late years. In 1870-71, the total revenue of the District 
amounted to ^88,120, against an expenditure of ,-/;38,4o6. Within 
eleven years, or by 1881-82, the District revenue had risen to ^164,441, 
and the expenditure to ;£77,i7o. While this increase in the general 
revenue is exhibited, the receipts from the land-tax have remained 
almost stationary, having only increased from ;^48,76i in 1870-71 to 
^51,187 in 1881-82. Of the other chief items of revenue, that from 
stamps has increased from ^16,263 to ^32,773^ ^"^^ excise from 
^8679 to ^17,224. 

The regular District and town police force in 1881 consisted of a total 
strength of 419 officers and men, maintained at an aggregate cost of 
;^9ioo. In addition, a force of 312 officers and men is maintained 
for the defence of the frontier, costing ;^34oo in 1881 ; and a body 
oi chaiikiddrs or rural police, numbering 4376 men, supported by doles 
from the landholders, or by lands held rent-free. In 188 1, the total 
number of criminal cases investigated was 7839, and 5462 persons 
were put upon their trial, of whom 65 per cent, were convicted, being i 
person convicted of an offence of some kind or another to every 554 of 
the population. The jail statistics for that year show a daily average 
of 554 prisoners, being i person always in jail to every 3554 of the 
population. 

Until within recent years, education had not made much progress in 
Sylhet. But the introduction of Sir G. Campbell's reforms in 1872, 
by which the benefit of the grant-in-aid rules was extended to the 
pdthsdlds or village schools, has acted as a great stimulus to primary 
instruction. In the year 1870-71, there were only 15 schools in the 
District, attended by 879 pupils. By the close of 1881-82 these 
numbers had risen to 347 schools and 13,107 pupils, showing i school 
to every 15*5 square miles, and 67 pupils to every thousand of the 



156 SYLHET. 

population. These figures do not include the uninspected indigenous 
schools, which are numerous in Sylhet. The Census Report for 1881 
returned 18,037 boys and 176 girls as under instruction, besides 42,202 
males and 576 females able to read and write but not under instruc- 
tion. The total expenditure on education in 1881-82 amounted to 
;^363o, of which Government contributed ^2112. The principal edu- 
cational institution is the Government English School at Sylhet, which 
is described as the most successful of its class in Assam. In 1881-82 
it was attended by 485 pupils, of whom 95 were Musalmans. To 
promote Muhammadan education, this school receives an annual 
grant of ;^8o from the Mohsin endowment. The Normal School, 
founded in 1873, was attended in 1881-82 by 35 teachers, whose 
expenses are entirely defrayed by Government. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Sylhet is excessively damp and 
trying to Europeans. The rainy season generally lasts from April to 
October, and the remaining months are regarded as constituting the 
cold weather. The rainfall is very heavy, and has the effect of temper- 
ing the heat. The maximum temperature is about 96° F., the minimum 
46°. During the twenty-five years ending 1881, the average annual 
rainfall was 155*68 inches, distributed as follows : — January to May, 
42-33 inches ; June to September, 103*55 inches ; October to December, 
9*8 inches. The earthquake of January 10, 1869, of which the centre 
of disturbance was in Cachar, was severely felt also in Sylhet. The 
church and other buildings in the town were considerably damaged ; and 
in many parts of the District the surface of the ground was rent into 
fissures, and the channels of the larger rivers were sensibly altered. 
Another severe shock was felt in October 1882. 

The chief epidemic disease in Sylhet is malarious fever. Dysentery 
and diarrhoea are also prevalent, as well as many cutaneous disorders ; 
outbreaks of both cholera and small-pox are common. In 1881, out 
of the total number of deaths reported to the police, nearly one-half 
were assigned to cholera. The general returns of vital statistics are as 
yet untrustworthy. The registration system in selected areas during 
1881 showed a death-rate of 23*59 per thousand in the urban area, 
which is coincident with the limits of Sylhet town; and 43*62 per 
thousand in the rural area. Throughout the District, no regard is paid 
to the most ordinary rules of conservancy ; and the sanitary condition 
even of Sylhet town is most deplorable. Drinking water is obtained 
from rivers and tanks, rarely from wells. There are five charitable 
dispensaries in the District assisted by Government contributions, and 
five others supported entirely by local funds. [For further information 
regarding Sylhet, see The Statistical Account of Assam, by W. W. 
Hunter, vol. ii. pp. 259-344 (London, Triibner & Co., 1879); ^ 
Descriptive Account of Assam, by W. Robinson (1841) ; Report on the 



.9 YLHET SUB-DIVISION- S YRIAM. 1 5 7 

ProTuicc of Assam, by Mr. A. J. Moffat Mills (Calcutta, 1854); the 
Assam Ce?isus Report for 1881 ; and the several annual Administration 
and Departmental Reports of the Assam Government] 

Sylhet. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Sylhet District, Assam. 
Population (1881) 760,977, residing in 3047 towns and villages, and 
occupying 156,125 houses. Muhammadans number 413,250; Hindus, 
314,414; and 'others,' 3313. This Sub-division comprises the 6 ihdtids 
or police circles of Sylhet, Balaganj, Rajnagar, Nawakhali, Hingajiya, 
and Kanairghat. In 1884 it contained 4 civil and 4 criminal courts, 
and a regular police force of 96 officers and men. 

Sylhet. — Chief town in the District of the same name, Assam ; 
situated on the right or north bank of the Surma river, in lat. 
24° 53' 22" N., and long. 91° 54' 40" e. Population (1881) 14,407, 
namely, males 8587, and females 5820. Hindus number 7337 ; 
]\ruhammadans, 7001 ; and 'others,' 69. Municipal income (1881-82), 
;;^2052. The houses of the European residents are scattered along the 
river bank for a distance of about 2 miles, and on tilds or hillocks at 
the back of the town. Besides the usual public offices, there is a 
handsome church. The native quarter lies behind, overgrown with 
vegetation, and intersected by open sewers. The river water is com- 
monly used for drinking purposes. The mosque of Shah Jalal, a fakir 
whose miraculous powers contributed greatly to the Musalman conquest 
of the country, attracts pilgrims from great distances. There is a 
small colony of native Christians, converted by a Protestant Mission 
established in 1850. No missionary is now resident. Sylhet town 
is a centre of river trade, and also of some little manufacturing 
industry. The chief exports are rice, cotton, hides, horns, sitalpdti 
mats, leaf-umbrellas, ornaments, etc. ; the imports are cotton goods, 
salt, hardware, sugar, pulses, spices, silk, etc. The principal articles of 
manufacture are sitalpdti mats, ornaments of carved ivory and shell, 
moras or bamboo stools, and petdrds or trunks for clothes made of 
cane. The Muhammadan festival of the 'Z/, at the time of the 
Miiharram, is marked by a fair lasting for two days, when toys, cheap 
ornaments, and sweetmeats are sold. The site of the town is placed 
on the land-roll of the District as a revenue-free estate, called Kasbd 
Sylhet. The claim to exemption, which has never been formally 
recognised by Government, is based upon a sa?iad or grant from a 
Mughal Emperor of Delhi. In 1869, Sylhet was visited by a violent 
shock of earthquake, which did great damage to the church and other 
buildings. 

Synthia. — Town in Birbhiim District, Bengal. Station on the East 
Indian Railway, 119 miles distant from Howrah, and a rapidly rising 
place ; connected with Suri by a good road. 

Syriam (or Thanlyui). — Township in Hanthawadi District, Lower 



158 SYR I AM TOWN. 

Burma. Comprises ten revenue circles. Population (1881) 96,170; 
gross revenue, ;^94,539. Head-quarters at Syriam Town. 

Syriam (or Than-lyin). — Old town in Hanthawadi District, Pegu 
Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 16° 42' 30" N., and long. 96° 
21' 5" E., on the left bank of the Pegu river, and about 3 miles from its 
mouth. Population (1881) 1 284. Burmese traditions allege that Syriam 
was founded in 587 B.C. by Ze-ya-the-na, and that about fifty years later 
it was called Than-lyin, after a usurper who dethroned the son of 
Ze-ya-the-na. Little or nothing is known of the place from that time 
until the beginning of the 17th century. Towards the close of the 
previous century, the King of Arakan, taking advantage of the quarrels 
between the Kings of Taung-ngu, Ava, and Pegu, and the destruction 
of the last-named monarchy by the first, obtained possession of Pegu, 
aided by the Portuguese under Philip de Brito y Nicote, to whom, as 
a reward, was given the town of Than-lyin. In a short time the King 
of Arakan found reason to regret his liberality ; but his endeavours to 
drive out the Portuguese were unsuccessful. In 16 13, Than-lyin was 
besieged and captured by the King of Ava. Nicote was impaled alive, 
and all the Portuguese whose lives were spared were sent as slaves to the 
capital, where a few of their descendants exist to this day. 

In 1 63 1, the Dutch were allowed to establish a factory at Than-lyin, 
which they retained till 1677, according to Valentyn; but Dairy mple 
states that both English and Dutch were expelled some years earlier. 
The date of the foundation of the English factory is not known. In 
1698, however, it was re-established, and Mr. Bowyear placed in charge 
by the authorities at Madras. In 1740, the Peguans or Takings 
expelled the Burmese and captured Than-lyin, without harming the 
EngUsh or other residents. In 1743 the Burmese retook the town, but 
held it for three days only, when the Peguans returned, expelled the 
Burmese, and burnt the English factory to the ground. Nothing now 
remains of the once flourishing Portuguese, Dutch, and English factories, 
except the substantial ruins of an old church situated outside the old 
walls, some tombs, and the foundations of a few masonry bouses. 

A full description of the church (built by Monseigneur Nerini, the 
second Vicar- Apostolic of Ava and Pegu, and a member of the Barnabite 
^Mission) is given in the Life of Monseigneur G. M. Percoto^ Missionary 
to the kingdoms of Ava and Pegu, and Bishop of Massulis. The 
Barnabite Mission was established in 1722, and continued to flourish 
till about 1754. In 1756, the Bishop was murdered by the Burmese 
conqueror Alaung-paya, then besieging Than-lyin, because he was 
suspected of complicity with the Peguans. From that year till 1760, 
the mission remained destitute, and was then removed to Rangoon. 

The Myo-uk or Governor of Than-lyin during the first Burmese war 
of 1824-25 was Maung Sat, whose sister was married to Badun-min, 



TA-DA—TADFATRl 159 

fourth son of Alaung-paya. After the capture of Rangoon by the British 
troops, he collected a considerable force, and commenced fortifying 
Than-lyin, and erecting works to command the entrance to the river. 
On the 4th August 1824, a body of about 600 men was sent to dislodge 
him. The storming party was received with a sharp fire, but the 
Burmese evacuated the place before the escalade. The British did not 
retain possession of the town, and it was occupied in December by a 
portion of the Burmese army which had been investing Rangoon. But 
on the nth of February 1825, Than-lyin was once more occupied by 
the British. Shortly after the signing of the treaty of Yandabii (February 
1826), the Talaings, under Maung Sat, made an attempt to regain their 
ancient kingdom. They were joined by the Karens; and their leader, 
the Myo-uk of Than-lyin, assumed the title of king. The British 
remained strictly neutral. After some fighting in and round Rangoon, 
a force arrived from Ava, and the Peguans retreated to Than-lyin ; 
and finally, in 1827, the leaders escaped to Tenasserim. Since this 
event, nothing of importance has occurred in the town 



T. 

Ta-da. — River in Prome and Tharawadi Districts, Lower Burma. — 
See Taung-nyo. 

Tadiandamol. — Highest peak in the chain of the Western Ghats in 
the territory of Coorg, 5729 feet above the sea. Lat. 12° 13' n., long. 
75° 40' E. Distance from Merkara, 30 miles. The ascent of 5 miles 
from the Nalknad palace is not difficult. The view from the summit is 
magnificent. 

Tadpatri. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Anantapur District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 591 square miles. Population (1881) 98,964, 
namely, males 50,062, and females 48,902 ; occupying 18,771 houses, in 
2 towns and 94 villages. Hindus number 88,946; Muhammadans, 
9831 ; and Christians, 187. The country is exceedingly flat and 
monotonous except on the eastern boundary, where a low, flat-topped 
range of hills separates it from Cuddapah and Karnul Districts. The 
Penner flows through the centre of the tdltik^ and on either side of it 
are rich plains of black cotton soil. There is hardly any red soil. 
Cotton is the principal crop ; but a fine kind of cholum (Sorghum 
vulgare) is also largely grown. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil 
and 2 criminal courts ; police circles {thdnds), 8 ; regular police, 64 men. 
Land revenue, ;^i6,2T5. 

Tadpatri {Tadputry, Tddaparti). — Town in Anantdpur District, 
Madras Presidency, head-quarters of Tadpatri tdluk, and an important 
station on the Madras Railway; situated in lat. 14° 55' 5°" n., and 



i6o TADRI—TAJFUR. 

long. 78° 2' 25" E., on the right bank of the Penner (Ponnaiyar). Popu- 
lation (1881) 8585, occupying 1759 houses. Hindus number 5972; 
Muhammadans, 2559; and Christians, 54. Thriving trade in silk, 
cotton, and indigo. The town was founded by Ramalingam Nayudu, 
one of the Vijayanagar governors, 400 years ago. He also built the 
fine temple dedicated to Rama Iswara. Another temple (dedicated to 
Chintaraya) on the river bank was built by Timma Nayudu. These two 
temples are elaborately decorated with sculptures representing the 
adventures of Krishna, Rama, and other mythological personages. 
Among the bas-reliefs is a figure holding a Grecian bow. The temple 
on the river bank is by far the finer, but was never finished. The 
gopura of the other temple was struck by lightning about thirty years 
ago, and split in two. After the battle of Talikot, the country round 
Tadpatri was subdued by the forces of the Kutab Shahi dynasty, and a 
Muhammadan governor was appointed. Afterwards, the town was 
captured by Morari Rao, and still later by Haidar All. The site of 
Tadpatri lies low, and part of the town is frequently inundated. The 
main street is narrow and straight, with substantially built houses. 

Tadri. Port in North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 

14° 31' 30" N., long. 74° 24' 2". Situated at the mouth of the Agnashino 
river. Anchorage good, and protected by hills from violent winds. The 
salt manufactured at Sanikata, 2 miles inland, finds an outlet here. 
Tadri is also frequented by pilgrims who pass to the shrine at Gokarn, 
situated 3 miles north-west. Average annual value of trade for the five 
years ending 1881-82— imports, £aS^^ ', exports, ;^78o8. In 1881-82, 
the trade was valued at ^14,841— imports, ;£8438; exports, ^6403. 

Taingapatam.— Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency; 
situated on the coast at the mouth of the Taingapatam river. Lat. 8" 
14' N., long. 77° 14' E. The population here and in the neighbourhood 
comprises (according to Thornton) many native Christians of the Syrian 

Church. 

Taj pur. —Sub-division of Darbhangah District, Bengal, lying between 
25° 28' 15" and 26° 2 N. lat., and between 85° 30' and 86° 4' e. 
long. Area, 764 square miles; number of villages, 1173; houses, 
94,119. Population (1881), males 367,310, and females 388,633 ; total, 
755,943. Classified according to religion, there were— Hindus, 695,528; 
Muhammadans, 60,105; Christians, 166; and Kols, 144. Average 
density of population, 989 persons per square mile; villages per 
square mile, 1-54; persons per village, 644; houses per square mile, 
134; persons per house, 8*9. This Sub-division consists of the 3 
police circles \thdnds) of Tajpur, Nagarbasti, and Dalsinghsarai. In 
1 88 1 it contained i civil and 2 criminal courts, a police force of 48 
men, and 897 village watchmen. 

Tajpur. — Head-quarters of the Tajpur Sub-division of Darbhangah 



TAKIIT-I-S ULAIMAN— TAKI. 1 6 1 

District, Bengal ; situated on the Dalsinghsarai road, 24 miles from 
Muzaffarpur, in lat. 25° 51' ^t^' n., and long. 85° 43' e. Population 
(1881) 1384. Dispensary, school, and iminsifs court; inhabitc'd 
chiefly by court officials, 7mikhtars, etc. The river Balan, which flows 
out of the Jamwari, passes the village on the west. 

Takht-i-Sulaim^n {Solojtwn's Seat). — Mountain in Kashmir (Cash- 
mere) State, Northern India, close to the city of Srinagar, on the 
eastern side. Described by Thornton as a mass of eruptive trap, 
situated in lat. 34° 4' n., and long. 74° 53' e. On the summit stands a 
massive Buddhist temple, called by the Hindus Sankar Achdrya ; it 
was built by Jaloka, son of Asoka, about 220 B.c.,but is now converted 
into a mosque. Elevation above sea-level, 6950 feet. 

Takht-i-Sulaiman. — Principal peak of the Sulaiman mountains, on 
the frontier between the Punjab and x\fghanistan. Has two separate 
summits, respectively 11,317 and 11,076 feet above sea-level. Stands 
nearly due west of Dera Ismail Khan. A barren and rugged mountain, 
the sides consisting of precipitous cliffs. The summit of the Takht-i- 
Sulaiman consists of a long, narrow valley, about eight miles long, 
and varying from one to two miles in width, enclosed between 
parallel ridges of rugged and precipitous limestone rock, seamed and 
scarred with deep indentations where the drainage has worked its way 
during the course of ages to the plains below. About two miles from 
the highest peak, the northern summit, called locally the ' Abashta 
chuka,' or juniper point, or sometimes the ' Kaisargarh,' is a level space, 
covering about half a square mile, called Maidan ; this is the water- 
parting. From here the drainage finds its way through precipitous 
gorges both north and south along the line of the enclosed valley. 
The whole mountain is thickly covered with two classes of pine — the 
chilgoza (Pinus Gerardiana, or edible pine) and the Pinus excelsa. At 
Maidan are two dry tanks, said to be full of water immediately after the 
rainy season, and generally to hold a good supply all through the 
subsequent winter. — (Major T. H. Holdich.) 

Takhtpur. ^ — Town in Bilaspur iahsil, Bilaspur District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 22° 8'n., and long. 8i°54'3o"e., ontheMandla 
road, 20 miles west of Bilaspur town. Founded about 1690 by Takht 
Singh, Raja of Ratanpur, to whom are attributed the remains of a brick 
palace, and a temple of Mahadeva. Population (1881) 2133, namely, 
Hindus, 1773; Kabirpanthis, 136; Satnimis, 31 ; Muhammadans, 173 ; 
and non-Hindu aborigines, 20. Good school, well -attended weekly 
market, and police post. 

Taki. — Town and municipality in the Twenty-four Parganas District, 
Bengal; situated in lat. 22° 35' 27" x., and long. 88° 57' 50" e., on the 
Jamuna river, in the Basurhdt Sub-division. Population (1881)5120, 
namely, Hindus, 4313; Muhammadans, 795; and 'others,' 12. 

VOL. XIII. L 



1 62 TAKI—TALAGANG. 

Municipal income (1883-84), ^^228 ; incidence of taxation, lofd. 
per head. Police force, 16 men. A boat-halting station, and the centre 
of a considerable trade in rice. Branch dispensary. 

Taki (Jjff^/.^). —Village in Gujranwala District, Punjab. — See 

ASARUR. 

Takwara.— Town or cluster of villages in Dera Ismail Khan Dis- 
trict, Punjab; situated in lat. 32° 9' n., and long. 70° 40' e., 27 miles 
north-west of Dera Ismail Khan town. Population (1881) 5259. 
Purely agricultural community of Gandapurs and Jats. Supplies pro- 
curable ; water usually derived from hill streams, and always to be 
obtained by digging from 12 to 14 feet in the bed of a ravine. 

Tala.— Town in Jessor District, Bengal. An old police station, but 
at present a police outpost, on the Kabadak. Centre of local trade, and 
large sugar mart. 

Talagang.— 21?/^^// of Jehlam (Jhelum) District, Punjab ; compris- 
ing the whole western portion of the District, and intersected by 
the spurs of the Salt Range. Area, 1247 square miles, with 83 
towns and villages, 11,745 houses, and 21,046 famihes. Total 
population (1881) 94,874, namely, males 49j7i6, and females 45jI58; 
average density of population, 79 persons per square mile. Muham- 
madans number 86,022; Hindus, 7284; Sikhs, 1551; and Christians, 
17. Of the 83 towns and villages, 24 contain less than five hundred 
inhabitants; 24 between five hundred and a thousand; 22 between 
one and two thousand ; 1 1 between two and five thousand ; and 2 
between five and ten thousand. Principal crops— wheat, hdjra, gram, 
^odr, barley, 7710th, and cotton. Revenue of the iahsil, ^11,149. The 
only local administrative officer is a tdlukddr, presiding over i civil and 
I criminal court ; police circles {thd7ids), 2 ; strength of regular police, 
42 men; rural police or village watch {chaiikiddrs), 71. 

Talagang. — Town and municipality in Jehlam (Jhelum) District, 
Punjab, and head-quarters of Talagang tahsil ; situated in lat. 32° 
55' 30" N., and long. 72° 28' e., 80 miles north-west of Jehlam town. 
Population (1881) 6236, namely, Muhammadans, 4174; Hindus, 
1205; Sikhs, 845; and Christians, 12. Number of houses, 684. 
Municipal income (1883-84), ^{^238, or an average of 9d. per head. 
The town was founded by an Awan chieftain, about the year 1625 ; it 
has ever since remained the seat of local administration under the 
Awans, the Sikhs, and the British. It is healthily situated on a dry 
plateau, well drained by ravines. Extensive trade in grain, the staple 
product of the neighbourhood. Manufacture of shoes worked with 
tinsel, worn by the Punjab women, and largely exported to distant 
places. Striped cotton cloth {susi) is also made in considerable quan- 
tities, both for home use and for exportation. Tahsil and police station, 
situated in an old mud fort, the former residence of the Sikh kdrddr. 



TALA GA OX— TALAMBA. 1 63 

Talagang was formerly a small cantonment, which was abolished in 
1882. School, branch dispensary. 

Talagaon. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar. — See Talegaon. 

Taldja. — Walled town in the Native State of Bhaunagar, Kathiawar, 
Bombay. Lat. 21° 21' 15" n., long. 72° 4' 30" e. Situated about 31 
miles south of Bhaunagar town, on the slope of a hill crowned by a 
Jain temple. Population (1881)3109. Taylor, in his Sailing Directory^ 
describes Talaja as ' a small steep hill of conical form, about 400 feet 
above the sea, and rising out of a level plain.' On the top of the hill 
is 'a Hindu temple, with tanks of excellent water; the hill has caves 
excavated in the solid rock, where formerly the pirates of these parts 
dwelt, as recently as the year 1823.' 

Talakadu.— Ancient city in Mysore District, Mysore State, Madras 
Presidency. — See Talkad. 

Tala-Kaveri. — Source of the Kaveri (Cauvery) river, on the Brah- 
magiri hill, one of the peaks of the Western Ghats, in the west of Coorg, 
Southern India. — See Tale-Kaveri. 

Talamba. — Town, municipality, and ruins in Sarai Sidhu tahsil, 
Miiltan (Mooltan) District, Punjab; situated in lat. 30" 31' n., and 
long. 72° 17' E., 2 miles from the modern left bank of the Ravi, and 
51 miles north-east of Miiltan city. Population (1881) 2231, namely, 
Hindus, 1282 ; Muhammadans, 947 ; and Sikhs, 2. Number of 
houses, 369. Municipal income (1883-84), ;^ii4, or an average 
of IS. per head. A place of purely antiquarian interest, the pre- 
sent village being built of bricks taken from an old fortress, i mile 
south. The stronghold once possessed great strength, while its 
antiquity is vouched for by the size of the bricks, described by 
General Cunningham as ' similar to the oldest in the w^alls and 
ruins of Miiltan.' Identified with a town of the Malli, conquered 
by Alexander the Great during his campaign in the Punjab, and also 
as the place where he crossed the Ravi. Said also to have been taken 
by Mahmud of Ghazni. Timiir plundered the town, and massacred 
the inhabitants, but left the citadel untouched. The site was aban- 
doned, according to tradition, in consequence of a change of course 
of the Ravi, which cut off the water-supply about the time of Mahmud 
Langa (1510 to 1525 a.d.). General Cunningham describes the ruins 
as consisting of an open city, protected on the south by a lofty fortress 
1000 feet square. The outer rampart of earth has a thickness of 200 
feet and a height of 20 feet ; and a second rampart of equal elevation 
stands upon its summit. Both were originally faced with large bricks. 
The modern village contains a police station, branch post-office, school, 
and sardi, all located in one building. A quarter of a mile south-west 
of the town is an encamping ground, two good wells, and a supply 
house. 



1 64 TALAPARAMBA- TAL CHER. 

Talaparamba. — Town in Malabar District, IVIadras Presidency. — 
See Tali PAR AM B A. 

Talbehat. — Ancient town in Lalitpur District, North- Western 
Provinces; situated at the base of a hill, in lat. 25° 2' 50" n., and long. 
78° 28' 55" E., 26 miles north of Lalitpur town. Derives its name from 
a large tank or lake {tdl) which supplies water for irrigation to several 
of the neighbouring villages. It is formed by the natural interposition 
of the hill, a rocky range 800 feet in height, whose proper outlets have 
been artificially dammed; and it covers an area of at least a mile 
square. Extensive masonry battlements crown the hill-top, and enclose 
a fort now in ruins. Beneath, the town spreads out an orderly array 
of good brick houses, many flat-roofed, and apparently indicating a 
large population. On a nearer view, however, many of the buildings 
are found to be ruinous and vacant, the people having deserted their 
homes in large numbers, especially during the famine year of 1869, and 
emigrated to neighbouring Native States. Population (1881) 5293, 
namely, Hindus, 4920; Muhammadans, 264; Jains, 107; and Chris- 
tians, 2. Number of houses, 1141. Many trees stand in and out 
amongst the houses, thus increasing the apparent size of the town. 
Around the whole lake, and especially along its northern border, runs 
a green fringe of cultivated fields ; but the remainder of the surrounding 
country, seen from the hill, stretches like a vast undulating jungle, 
interspersed with occasional conical heights. Rice is grown in a swamp 
fed from the lake. Small trade in grain and cotton. Bazar ; hand- 
some well; old fort demolished by Sir Hugh Rose in 1857. A small 
house-tax is raised for police and conservancy purposes. 

Talcher. — One of the petty States of Orissa, Bengal, lying between 
20° 52' 30" and 21° 18' N. lat., and between 84° 57' and 85° 17' 45" e. 
long. Area, 399 square miles. Population (1881) 35,590. Bounded 
on the north by Pal Lahara, on the east by Dhenkanal, and on the 
south and west by Angul estate. The chief feature in this State is a 
coal-field, of which a thorough examination was made in 1875. It was 
then reported that no seam of workable thickness and fairly good 
quality exists ; that a final and thorough exploration could only be 
effected at a considerable expense ; that the local consumption would 
never suffice to support a proper mining establishment; and that, with 
the costly long land carriage, no class of coal equal to Raniganj could 
compete successfully at the Orissa ports with coal sent from Calcutta 
by sea. The project for utilizing the Talcher coal-beds has therefore 
been abandoned for the present. Iron and lime are also found near 
tlie banks of the Brahmani river, which separates Talcher on the east 
from Pal Lahara and Dhenkanal. Small quantities of gold are found 
by washing the sand of the river, but little profit accrues to the workers. 
Population (1881) 35,590, namely, males 18,829, and females 16,761, 



TALDANDA— TALEGA ON DABIIARA. 1 6 5 

residing in 261 villages, and 7693 houses. Hindus number 35,466; 
Muhammadans, 121 ; and Christians, 3. Proportion of males in total 
population, 52*9 per cent. ; average density of population, 89*20 per- 
sons per square mile ; number of villages per square mile, 0-65 ; persons 
per village, 236; houses per square mile, 19*37; persons per house, 
4'6. The only town of any size in the State is Talcher, the residence 
of the Raja, situated on the right bank of the Brahmani, in lat. 20" 57' 
20" N., and long. 85° 16' 11" e., and containing about 500 houses. 
Only one village in the State has a population of from 2000 to 3000 
souls. Talcher is said to have been founded about 500 years ago by 
the son of an Oudh Raja, who forcibly ejected the savage tribe which 
had previously inhabited it. The title of Mahendra Bahadur was 
bestowed upon the late chief as a reward for services rendered during 
the Angul disturbances in 1847. The estimated revenue of the Raja 
is ^5193 ; the tribute to the British Government, ^103- The Raja's 
militia consists of 615, and the police force of 267 men. Fifteen 
schools are scattered through the State. 

Taldanda.— Canal in Cuttack District, Bengal, connecting Cuttack 
city with the main branch of the Mahanadi river within tidal range. 
It is intended both for navigation and for irrigation; total length, 52 
miles. The lower reaches are not yet finished. The canal, when 
completed, will end at Shamagol on the Mahanadi, about 8 miles in a 
direct line from the sea. It starts from the right flank of the Mahanadi 
weir at Jobra, skirts the east side of the city of Cuttack for a mile and 
half, then turns eastward, and runs midway between the Katjuri and 
the Mahanadi for 4 miles ; thence to Birbati, it keeps nearly parallel 
with the latter river, at a distance of from half a mile to one mile. At 
Birbati, a branch canal is thrown out to Machhgaon, at the mouth of 
the Devi. The Taldanda Canal, in its first reach to Birbati, has a 
bottom width of 64 feet, with slopes of 2 to i, and a fall of 6 inches 
in the mile. With a maximum depth of 8 feet of water, the discharge 
is calculated at 1460 cubic feet per second, half of which will be 
carried off by the Machhgaon Canal, leaving 730 feet per second to 
the lower reaches of the parent canal. The Taldanda Canal, with its 
offshoot the Machhgaon, is designed to irrigate 155,000 acres of the 
central delta. 

Talegaon. — Town in Chandur taluk, Amraoti District, Berar. Lat. 
21° 5' N., long. 78° 4' E. Population (1881) 5506, namely, Hindus, 
4639 ; Muhammadans, 864 ; and Jains, 3. The town, which is now 
greatly decayed, contains the ruins of many fine buildings. The tahsili, 
formerly here, has been removed to Chandur, a station on the Nagpur 
branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 

Talegaon Dabhara.— Town in the Mawal Sub-division of Poona 
(Puna) District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 18° 43' 10" N., 



i66 TALEGAON DHAAIDHERA—TALGAON. 

and long. 73° 43' 30" e., 20 miles north-west from Poona city. Popu- 
lation (1881) 4900, namely, Hindus, 4282 \ Muhammadans, 485 ; 
Jains, 126; Christians, 5 ; and Parsis, 2. Talegaon is a town belong- 
ing to the Dabhade family, who rose to great importance during 
the time of the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, in the person of Khanda 
Rao Dabhade, the Peshwa's commander-in-chief in 17 16. In 1779, 
Talegaon was the furthest point reached by the EngHsh army which 
came to restore Raghunath Rao as Peshwa, and made the capitulation 
of Wadgaon, about 3 miles to the west. On the nth January 1779, the 
force of 2600 British troops threw their heavy guns into the large 
Talegaon tank, and burning their stores, left Talegaon at dead of night. 
In 181 7, five days after the battle of Kirki, two brothers of the name 
of Vaughan, one a Major in the Madras Native Infantry, and the other 
of the Marine Service, while on their way from Bombay to Poona, were 
seized and hanged by the road-side. Their graves are 20 yards off the 
road. Talegaon lapsed to Government on the death of the last holder, 
who was a female. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£393i; incidence 
of taxation, is. lofd. per head. Arrangements have been made for 
building a reservoir to the west of the town, which will provide an ample 
supply of pure drinking water. Talegaon is a station on the south-east 
extension of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Post-office, girls' 
school, and dispensary. Brisk oil manufacture. 

Talegddn Dhamdhera. — Town in the Siriir Sub-division of Poona 
District, Bombay; situated in lat. 18° 40' n., and long. 74° 13' e., 20 
miles north-east of Poona city. Population (1881) 3620. The 
Dhamdhera family has long held the foremost place in Talegaon, 
and has given its name to the town to distinguish it from Talegaon 
Dabhara in the ISIawal Sub-division of Poona District {i^ide supra). 
Municipal income (1883-84), £10 \ incidence of taxation, 3jd. per 
head. Weekly market on Mondays. Annual fair in February-March, 
attended by about 3000 people. Post-office and dispensary. 

Tale-kaveri. — Source of the Kaveri (Cauvery) river, on the 
Brahmagiri hill, one of the peaks of the Western Ghats, in the west of 
Coorg, Southern India. Lat. 12° 23' 10" n., long. 75° 34' 10" e. 
Distance from Bhagamundala at the foot of the hill, 4 miles ; and from 
Merkara, 30 miles. Near the source is a temple of great sanctity, 
annually frequented by thousands of pilgrims. The chief bathing 
festival is in Tuld-mdsa (October-November), when, according to local 
legend, the goddess Ganga herself resorts underground to the all- 
purifying stream. On this occasion, every Coorg house is expected to 
send a representative ; and the total attendance is estimated at 15,000. 
The temple is endowed by Government wath ^^232 a year. 

Tdlgaon (or 'Tank Town'). — Town in Sitapur District, Oudh ; 
situated 12 miles east by north of Sitapur town, and 8 miles south of 



TALIKOT—TALKAD. 1 67 

Ldharpur. Derives its name from the numerous jliils or tdls in the 
immediate neighbourhood. Founded by Khdnzddas in the i ith century. 
Population (1881) 1854, chiefly Muhammadans. The principal land- 
holders are Khanzadas (Shaikhs) and Kirmani Sayyids. Site good, 
and well wooded. Annual fair, attended by 10,000 people. Three 
mosques; Government school. Annual value oi bazar sales, ;^25oo. 

Talikot. — Town in Muddebihal Sub-division, Bijapur District, 
Bombay Presidency ; situated 60 miles north-east of Kaladgi town, in 
lat. 10° 28' 20" N., and long. 76° 21' 10" e. Population (1881) 5325, 
namely, Hindus 3965, and Muhammadans 1360. The battle of 
Talikot was fought on the right bank of the Kistna, about 30 miles 
south of Tahkot town, on 25th January 1565, in which the power of 
the Hindu empire of Vijayanagar was destroyed by a confederacy of 
the Musalman kings of the Deccan. The battle was named after 
Talikot, as it was the head-quarters whence the allies marched to 
meet the Vijayanagar army. 

Taliparamba. — Town in Cherakal fdhik, Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in lat. 12° 2' 50" n., and long. 75° 24' 16" e., 15 
miles north-east of Cannanore (Kanniir). Population (1881) 8363 ; 
namely, Hindus, 5900; Muhammadans, 2434; and Christians, 29; 
number of houses, 1294. Sub-magistrate's station. Contains a brass- 
roofed temple. Numerous curious caverns cut of laterite rock in the 
neighbourhood. 

Talkad. — Tdluk in :Mysore District, Mysore State.— 5^^ Narsipur. 

Talkad (or Talkddu^ Talakddu). — Ancient city in Narsipur tdluk, 
Mysore District, Mysore State; situated in lat. 12° 11' n., and long. 77° 
5' E., on the left bank of the Kaveri (Cauvery) river, 28 miles by road 
south-east of Mysore city. Since 1868, no longer the head-quarters of 
\\it tdluk. Population (187 1) 2882, almost all Hindus; not returned 
separately in the Census Report of 188 1. The origin of Talkad is lost 
in antiquity. The name is translated into Sanskrit 2i% Dala-vana. The 
first authentic fact of history is that Hari Varma, a king of the Ganga 
line, fixed his capital here in the year 288 a.d. A king of the same 
dynasty strongly fortified the city in the 6th century. At the close of 
the 9th century, the Gangas succumbed to the Cholas ; but Talkad 
reappears a hundred years later as the capital of the Hoysala Ballala 
line. Subsequently it passed into the hands of a feudatory of the 
Vijayanagar king, from whom it was conquered in 1634 by the Hindu 
Raja of Mysore. The last Rani of Talkad imprecated a curse upon 
the city ' that it should become sand,' and threw herself into the Kaveri. 
At the present day, the buildings of the old city are completely buried 
beneath hills of sand, stretching nearly a mile in length. These sand- 
hills advance at the rate of about 10 feet a year, and are said to cover 
about 30 temples, of which the topmost pagodas of two still project 



1 68 TALL A CHERL-TALSANA. 

above the surface. The temple of Kirti Narayana is occasionally 
opened, with great labour, sufficiently to allow of access for certain 
ceremonies. 

Tallacheri (or Taldsseri). — Municipal town and seaport in Malabar 
District, Madras Presidency. — See Tellicherri. 

Taloda. — Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 1177 square miles. Population (1881) 49,788, namely, males 
25,756, and females 24,032 ; occupying 9834 houses, in i town and 257 
villages. Hindus number 10,901; Muhammadans, 602; and 'others.' 
38,285. This Sub-division embraces the petty States of Chikhli and 
Kathi, and is situated in the extreme north-west of the District. The 
most striking natural feature is the bold outline of the towering Satpuras 
stretching from east to west, with a belt of thick forest, infested by wild 
beasts along their foot. The prevailing soil is rich black loam. Where 
the land is tilled and open, the climate is not unhealthy ; but in the 
villages along the base of the Satpuras and in the west it is extremely 
malarious, and, except during April and May, unsafe for Europeans. 
Fever and spleen diseases are common. In 1863-64, the year of 
settlement, 1257 holdings {khatas) were recorded, with an average 
area of 24*97 acres, and an average assessment of ;^4, 8s. ojd. In 
1878-79, 54,677 acres were under actual cultivation. Cereals and 
millets occupied 44,124 acres; pulses, 6051 .acres; oil-seeds, 3937 
acres; fibres, 104 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 461 acres. 

Taloda. — Chief town and municipality of the Taloda Sub-division, 
Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 21° 34' N., and 
long. 74° 18' 30" E., 62 miles north-west of Dhulia, and 104 miles west 
of the Bhusawal station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 
Population (1881) 5663, namely, Hindus, 4153; Muhammadans, 350 ; 
Jains, 16; Parsis, 2; and 'others,' 1142. Taloda is the chief timber 
market of Khandesh District, and has also a considerable trade in roya 
(Andropogon Schoenanthus) grass, oil, and grain. The best wooden 
carts of Khandesh are manufactured here, costing about ^4 each. 
Municipal income (1883-84), ^^336; incidence of taxation, is. id. per 
head. Post-office, school, and dispensary. 

Talodhi. — Village in Brahmapuri tahsil, Chanda District, Central 
Provinces. Population (i88t) 3136, namely, Hindus, 2715; Muham- 
madans, 187; and non-Hindu aborigines, 234. 

Talsana. — Petty States in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 4 villages, with 2 separate share- 
holders or tribute-payers. Area, 43 square miles. Population (1881) 
3661. Estimated revenue, ;£"2292 ; of which ;£"9i, 6s. is paid as 
tribute to the British Government, and ;^i3, i8s. to the Nawab of 
Junagarh. The village of Talsana, situated about 11 miles south-east 
of Lakhtar Station on the Wadhwan branch of the Bombay, Baroda, 



TAMA R ASSERT— TAMBRATARNT. 1 69 

and Central India Railway, is famous for the shrine of the Pratik 
Nag, one of the few surviving remnants of snake-worship in Kathiawar. 
Tamarasseri. — Pass in Malabar District, Madras Presidency ; lying 
between i T 29' 30" and 11° 30' 45" n. iat, and between 76^ 4' 30" and 
76" 5' 15" E. long., carrying the road over the Western Ghats from 
Calicut to the Wainad and Mysore. This route is now much used for 
the export of coffee ; it was the one taken by Haidar in his descent 
on Calicut in 1773, and again by Tipd Sultan in his invasion of 
Malabar. 

Tambaur. — Pargand in Biswan tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudli ; 
bounded on the north by Kheri District, and on the east, south, and 
west by Kundri, Biswan, and Laharpur /^rgw/^fj-. Area, 190 square 
miles, or 121,333 acres, of which 82,560 acres are cultivated and 
22,861 acres cultivable. The country is a complete network of rivers, 
being bounded on the north by the Dahawar and on the west by the 
Gogra ; while it is intersected by the Chauka and many smaller streams. 
The soil is throughout tardi and gdtijar, that is to say, it is so moist as 
not to require irrigation ; and during the rainy season there is scarcely 
a village but is more or less inundated. In heavy or protracted floods, 
the autumn crops are destroyed. The Chauka and Dahawar rivers 
frequently change their course, and both annually cut away land from 
the villages through which they pass. Notwithstanding these dis- 
advantages, the pargand is on the whole prosperous, and contains a 
large proportion of highly skilled agricultural castes, such as Kurmis 
or Muraos. Population (1881) 69,744, namely, males 36,732, and 
females 33,012. Of the 166 villages comprising t\\Q parga?id, 80 are 
tdlukddri, 43 of which are owned by Gaur Rajputs. The remaining 
villages, 86 in number, are zajjiinddri, of which 40 are also held by 
Gaurs, who thus own one-half the whole number of villages in the 
pargafid. The only manufacture carried on is that of saltpetre. One 
road crosses the pargand from Sitapur to Mallapur. 

Tambaur. — Town in Biswan tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh ; situated 
35 miles north-east of Sitapur town, and 6 miles west of Mallapur, 
between the Dahawar and Chauka rivers. Founded about 700 years 
ago by Tambulis, whence its name. Population (i88i)?3698, residing 
in 581 mud-built houses. Tambaur includes the village of Ahmadabad, 
and now belongs to a Kurmi community. School ; bi-weekly market ; 
remains of a Government fort ; temple to Siva ; masonry tank, now in 
decay ; and a martyr's tomb. 

Tamberacheri (properly Tdmarasseri).—V:xss in Malabar District, 
^ladras Presidency. — See Tamarasseri. 

Tambraparni {Fonaiai\ the SwXrir of the Greeks).— River in Tinne- 
velli District, Madras Presidency, rising in the Western Cihats, in Iat. 
8' 52' N., and long. 77' 51' e. It runs in a south-easterly direction to 



I70 



TAMBRAPARNI. 



Shermadevi, then north-east between TinnevelU and Palamcottah, then 
again south and east to the sea; total length, about 70 miles. With 
the Chittar and its other feeders, it irrigates 65,000 acres of land; and 
the District is largely dependent on this supply of water, the distribution 
of which is regulated by eight anicuts across the bed of the river. The 
valley is closely cultivated, and supports a dense population. The 
river is mentioned in the Brihai Samhitd {circ. 404 a.d.), and refer- 
ence to the port (Kolkai), then at the mouth of the Tambraparni, 
now 5 miles inland, is made by Ptolemy and in the Peripbis. Near 
its source rises another and smaller stream of the same name, some- 
times called the Western Tambraparni, which flows westward into 
Travancore. 

The eighth and last anient is known as Srivaikantham ; and is 
situated 16 miles from the sea. The other seven anicuts above 
Srivaikantham are of old native construction ; and it was principally 
owing to the great success of these works that the Srivaikantham anient 
was projected. At the site of the Srivaikantham anient the drainage 
area of the river is 1739 square miles, and the maximum flood discharge 
1 18,673 cubic feet per second. The average annual discharge is 60,304 
million cubic feet, equivalent to i4"9 inches of discharge from the 
whole catchment basin ; but in 1877, when the freshes of the north-east 
monsoon were extraordinarily heavy, the total annual discharge of the 
river reached the high figure of 121,295 million cubic feet, equivalent 
to 30 inches from the whole catchment basin. Srivaikantham anient 
was begun in 1867. From either flank of the anient, which is 1380 
feet in length between the wings, two main channels, 2 1 miles in length 
and supplied with head sluices, are taken off. They supply a large series 
of tanks which existed before the Srivaikantham anient was built, and 
which before its construction were very inadequately supplied. Besides 
filling these tanks, the main channels irrigate directly a considerable 
area. The height of the anient crest above mean sea-level is 37*40 
feet, while the sills of the head sluices of the main channels are 6 feet 
below the crest of the anient. The highest flood which has yet passed 
over the anient rose to 11} feet over its crest. The system is expected 
to be finally completed in 1885-86. The final estimates of the cost 
amount to ;2£" 1 4 7, 6 80. During 1882-83 the area effectively irrigated 
and the revenue derived therefrom was as follows : — First crop, acres 
19,546, ;^i 1,345 ; second crop, acres 17,647, ;^5829 : total revenue, 
;^i7,i74. The net revenue from the system in 1882-83 was ;£"7302 ; 
while the actual return from the work, after paying all charges, including 
interest charges, was ^£"23 7 7, or i'8i per cent, on the total capital outlay 
of;^i3i,2i4. The ultimate area of irrigation, which it is estimated 
will be reached in 1886-87, the year after the completion of the works, 
is 25,000 acres, all of which will be double cropped. It is anticipated 



TAMLUK SUB-DIVISION AND HEAD-QUARTERS 171 

that the net revenue will be increased to ^11,090, or i\ per cent, on 
the total capital outlay. 

Tamllik. — Sub-division of Midnapur District, Bengal, lying between 
21° 53' 30" and 22° 32' 45" N. lat., and between 87° 39' 45" and 88' 
14' E. long. Area, 620 square miles; number of villages, 1639; 
houses, 83,940. Population (1881) 479,218, namely, males 233,921, 
and females 245,297. Hindus number a^()A^Z^ or 29-6 per cent, 
of the population; Muhammadans, 49,517; Christians, 200; and 
' others,' 38. Proportion of males in total population, 48-9 per cent. ; 
average density of population, 773 persons per square mile ; number of 
villages per square mile, 2-64; persons per village, 292 ; houses per 
square mile, 135; inmates per house, 6. This Sub-division comprises 
the 5 police circles of Tamliik, Pdnchkura, Maslandpur, Sutahata, and 
Nandigaon. In 1884 it contained 4 magisterial and 2 civil and 
revenue courts, a regular police force of 147 men, and a village watch of 
1380 chaukiddrs. 

Tamllik.— Head-quarters of the Sub-division of the same name, 
Midnapur District, Bengal; situated in lat. 22° 18' 2" n., and long. 87° 
58' 10" E., on the Riipnarayan river. Population (1881) 6044, namely, 
males 2952, and females 3092. Hindus number 5226, and Muham- 
madans 818. Municipal income (1883-84), ^606, of which ^280 was 
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, iijd. per head. 

The town contains a police station {thdnd), and is one of the prin- 
cipal seats of commerce in the District. In ancient times Tamliik 
was a famous city, and figures as a kingdom of great antiquity in 
the sacred writings of the Hindus. It first emerges in authentic history 
as a Buddhist maritime port, being the place whence the Chinese 
l)ilgrim Fa-Hian took ship to Ceylon in the early part of the 5th cen- 
tury. Two hundred and fifty years later, another celebrated pilgrim 
from China, Hiuen Tsiang, speaks of Tamliik as still an important 
harbour, with ten Buddhist monasteries, a thousand monks, and a 
pillar by King Asoka, 200 feet high. Even after the overthrow of 
Buddhism by Hinduism, many wealthy merchants and shipowners 
resided here, and carried on an extensive over-sea trade. Indigo, 
mulberry, and silk, the costly products of Bengal and Orissa, form the 
traditional articles of export from ancient Tamliik ; and although the 
sea has since left it, the place long continued an important maritime 
town. 

In 635 A.D., the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang found the city 
washed by the ocean; the earliest Hindu tradition places the sea 8 
miles off, and it is now fully 60 miles distant. The process of land- 
making at the mouth of the Hiigli has gone on slowly but steadily, and 
has left Tamllik an inland village on the banks of the Riipndrdyan river. 
The peasants, in digging wells or tanks, come upon sea-shells at a depth 



1 7 2 TAML UK HEAD-QUARTERS. 

of from lo to 20 feet. Under the rule of the ancient Peacock Dynasty 
of Tamluk, the royal palace and grounds are said to have covered 8 
square miles, fortified by strong walls and deep ditches. No trace of 
the ancient palace is now discernible, except some ruins to the west of 
the palace of the present Kaibartta Raja. The present palace is built 
on the side of the river, surrounded by ditches, and covers the more 
moderate area of about 30 acres. The old city lies under the river-silt, 
even the great temple is now partly underground ; and the remains of 
masonry wells and houses are met with at 18 to 21 feet below the 
surface. A considerable number of old silver and copper coins bearing 
Buddhistic symbols have been recently discovered in the midst of 
debris from the crumbling banks of the Riipnarayan. 

The principal object of interest at Tamluk is a temple sacred to the 
goddess Barga-bhima or Kali, situated on the bank of the Riipnarayan. 
The honour of its construction is ascribed to various persons. Some 
say that it was built by Viswakarma, the engineer of the gods. It is 
generally, however, assigned to the King of the Peacock Dynasty men- 
tioned above, although the present royal family of Tamluk assert that 
the founder of their dynasty, the first Kaibartta Raja, was the builder. 
The skill and ingenuity displayed in the construction of this temple still 
attract admiration. The shrine is surrounded by a curious threefold 
wall. A high foundation was first constructed, consisting of large 
logs of wood placed upon the earth in rows over the whole area to 
be occupied by the temple, and afterwards covered over with bricks 
and stones to a height of 30 feet. Upon this the wall is built. The 
three folds form one compact wall, the outer and inner being made of 
brick, the centre one of stone. The wall rises to a height of 60 feet 
above the lofty foundations, its width at the top of the foundation 
being 9 feet. The whole is covered with a dome-shaped roof. Stones of 
enormous size were used in its construction, which raise the spectator's 
wonder as to how they were lifted into their places. On the top of the 
temple, although dedicated to the wife of Siva, is the sacred disc 
{chakra) of Vishnu, surmounted by the form of a peacock. The 
idol is formed from a single block of stone, with the hands and feet 
attached to it. The goddess is represented standing on the body of 
Siva, and has four hands. 

Outside the temple, but within its enclosure, is a keli-kadamba tree, 
supposed to have the virtue of redeeming wives from barrenness. 
Numbers of women flock hither to pray for offspring, suspending pieces 
of brick to the tree by ropes made of their own hair. The branches 
of the tree are said to be covered with these curious ropes. The dread 
of the anger of the goddess is great. The Marathas, when ravaging 
Lower Bengal, left Tamluk untouched, and made many valuable offer- 
ings to the temple, out of reverence for the s^oddess. Even the river 



TAMRA CIIERI— TANAKALL U. 173 

Riipnardyan is said to still its waters as it flows by, while a short distance 
above and below the shrine the waves are turbulent. The river has on 
several occasions encroached near the temple, and once reached to 
within 5 yards of the walls. Although even the priests deserted the 
edifice from fear that it would be washed away, the stream was only 
allowed to approach within a certain distance ; as often as it passed 
the line, the waters were forced back by the Divine Will, and the temple 
escaped without injury. There is also a Vishnuite temple at Tamluk, 
which, in shape and construction, resembles that of Barga-bhima. 
The legends connected with both temples will be found related in 
^V. W. Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal^ vol. iii. pp. 64, 66, and 
67 ; and in his Orissa, vol. i. pp. 310-312. 

Tamluk, or Tamralipta, as it is called in Sanskrit, although originally 
a centre of Buddhism, continued to be a place of great sanctity when 
that religion was ousted by Brahmanism. Its very name bears witness 
to its ancient unorthodoxy, but even this has been distorted into a 
title of honour. Grammarians derive the word from tamas-lipta — 
literally, 'stained with darkness or sin.' But a legend relates that it 
took its name from the fact that Vishnu, in the form of Kalki, having 
got very hot in destroying the demons, dropped perspiration at this 
fortunate spot, which accordingly became stained with the holy 
sweat of the god, and gave a sanctity and name to the place. A 
Sanskrit text speaks of it as a holy place in the following words : — 
* I will tell you where your sins will be destroyed. There is a 
great place of pilgrimage in the south of India, an ablution in 
which saves a man from his sins.' The earliest kings of Tamluk 
belonged to the Peacock Dynasty, and were Rajputs by caste. 
The last of this line, Nisankha Narayan, died childless ; and at his 
death the throne was usurped by a powerful aboriginal chief named 
Kalu Bhuiya, the founder of the existing line of Kaibartta or Fisher- 
kings of Tamluk. The Kaibarttas are generally considered to be 
descendants of the aboriginal Bhuiyas, who have embraced Hindu- 
ism. The present Raja is the twenty-fifth in descent from Kalu 
Bhuiya. 

Tamracheri {Tdmberacheri, properly Tdmarasseri). — Pass in 
Malabar District, Madras Presidency. — See Tamarasseri. 

Tamranga. — Marsh or ml on the right bank of the Brahmaputra, 
in Goalpara District, Assam ; of considerable depth, and covering an 
area of 7 square miles. 

Tamrapurni. — River in Madras Presidency. — See Tambraparni. 

Tanakallu. — Village in Kadiri tdluk^ Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, 
^ladras Presidency. Lat. 13° 57' 30" n., long. 78° 15' e. ; situated 
about 20 miles south of Kadiri town. Population (1881) 4430, occupy- 
ing 920 houses. Hindus number 4203, and Muhammadans 227. 



174 TANDA SUB-DIVISION AND TOWN. 

Tanda. — Sub-division and town of Haidarabad (Hyderabad) Dis- 
trict, Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Tando Muhammad Khan. 

Tanda. — Tahsilox Sub-division of Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh, 
lying between 26° 9' and 26° 39' n. lat., and between 82° 30' and 83° 9' 
E. long. Bounded on the north by Basti District in the North-Western 
Provinces, on the east and south by Azamgarh District, and on the 
west by Akbarpur tahsil. Area, 489 square miles, of which 274 are 
cultivated. Population (1881) 314,768, namely, males 159,426, and 
females 155,342. Average density, 644 persons per square mile. Classi- 
fied according to religion, Hindus number 269,449; Muhammadans, 
45,316 ; and 'others,' 3. Of 969 towns and villages, 805 contain less 
than five hundred inhabitants; 130 between five hundred and a 
thousand; 32 between one thousand and five thousand; i between 
five thousand and ten thousand ; and i between fifteen thousand and 
twenty thousand. Land revenue, ^32,096. This tahsil comprises 
the 3 pargands of Surharpur, Birhar, and Tanda. 

Tanda. — Pargajtd in Tanda Sub-division, Faizabad District, Oudh. 
Bounded on the north by the Gogra river, which separates it from Basti 
District ; on the east by Birhar pargand ; on the south by Akbarpur 
pargaiid ; and on the west by Amsin/^;'^^«(i. A well-wooded country, 
traversed throughout for a distance of 40 miles by a beautiful avenue of 
fine old mango trees, planted many years ago by a native gentleman, 
with the object of forming a continuous avenue from Tanda town to 
Faizabad. Area, after recent transfers, 124 square miles, of which 73 
are cultivated. Population (1881) 84,890, namely, males 42,633, and 
females 42,257. Number of villages, 215. Cotton-weaving is the 
principal manufacture, but the industry is decaying. In 1862 there 
were 11 25 looms in \.\\q pa}'ga?id, principally in Tanda town ; but owing 
to the competition of Manchester piece-goods, many weavers have 
left, and the number of looms in 1875 was estimated at only 875. 
Where English thread is used, each loom is capable of turning out 
out about ;!{^2i worth of cloth per annum, of which ^-^6, 4s. represents 
the weaver's profits ; where native thread is used, the out-turn is about 
;£"i7, and the profits ^5. During the later years of native rule, 
Tanda annually exported upwards of ;^ 12,000 worth of cloth to 
Nepal ; but its exports thither have now decreased more than one-half. 
Five market villages ; periodical fairs are also held on the occasion of 
Hindu and Muhammadan festivals. 

Tanda. — Town and municipality in Faizabad District, Oudh, and 
head-quarters of Tanda tahsil ^nd pargand ; situated in lat. 26° 2>3 n., and 
long. 82° 42' 10" E., 3 miles south of the Gogra river, on the road from 
Faizabad city to Azamgarh, and 12 miles from Akbarpur station on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. The road from Sultanpur to Gorakhpur 
passes through Tanda. The site of the town was granted by the 



TANDA TOWN—TANDAN. 175 

Emperor Farukh Siyyar to Haiat Khan, the talukddr. Tanda is 
celebrated for its woven cotton goods, such as jdfuddni musHn, which 
are said to rival those of Dacca. They sell at from ^10 to ^15 per 
piece. The total value of the annual export of cloth is about ^15,000. 
Population (1881) 16,594, namely, males 8381, and females 8213. 
Muhammadans number 9007, and Hindus 7587. Number of houses, 
3777. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£"637, of which ;^493 was 
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 5|d. per head of 
the population (19,954) within municipal limits. The town contains 
44 mosques, 34 imd?7ihdras, and 9 Hindu temples. Good Government 
school ; dispensary ; police station. Two annual fairs. 

Tanda. — Town and municipality in Dasuya tahsil^ Hoshiarpur 
District, Punjab; situated in lat. 31° 40' n., and long. 75° 41' e. Popu- 
lation (1881) 3175, namely, Muhammadans, 2045 ; Hindus, 969 ; Jains, 
131 ; and Sikhs, 30. Number of houses, 783. Tanda forms, with the 
neighbouring town of Urmar, a mile to the north, a third-class muni- 
cipality, with an income in 1883-84 of ^^453, or an average of loid. 
per head of the municipal population (10,295). Police station, dis- 
pensary, sardi^ rest-house for civil officers, middle school, and sub- 
ordinate judge's court. 

Tanda Badridan. — Town in Rampur State, North-Western Pro- 
vinces; situated in lat. 28° 58' 30" n., long. 79" o' 20" e., on the 
Moradabad-Kaladungi road, 14 miles from Rampur town. Population 
(1881) 9860, namely, Muhammadans 7020, and Hindus 2840. Tanda 
is the centre of the rice trade of this part of the country. The town 
is inhabited chiefly by Banjaras, who purchase the unhusked rice from 
villages in the Kumaun hills and the Tarai, and carry it to Tanda. 
Here it is husked by the women, and the grain is afterwards taken to 
Moradabad, 14 miles distant, and sent by rail to places where there is a 
demand for it. 

Tandan (or Td?ird). — Ancient town, now a petty village, in 
Maldah District, Bengal. The ancient capital of Bengal after the 
decadence of Gaur. Its history is obscure, and the very site of the 
city has not been accurately determined. It is certain that it was in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Gaur, and south-west of that town, 
beyond the Bhagirathi. Old Tandan has been utterly swept away by 
the changes in the course of the Pagla. Neither the Revenue Surveyor 
nor the modern maps make any mention of the place. The land which 
subsequently re-formed at or near the old site is known by the same 
name, and is recorded in the District records as Tanda or Tanra. 
According to Stewart {History of Bejigal, ed. 1847, p. 95), Sulaiman 
Shdh Karani, the last but one of the Afghan kings of Bengal, moved 
the seat of Government to Tandan in 1564 a.d., eleven years before 
the final depopulation of Gaur. Though never a populous city, Tandan 



176 TANDO—TANDO GHULAM ALL 

was a favourite residence for the Mughal governors of Bengal until the 
middle of the following century. In 1660, the rebel Shuja Shah, 
when hard pressed by Mir Jumla, Aurangzeb's general, retreated from 
Rajmahal to Tandan ; in the vicinity of which town was fought the 
decisive battle in which the former was finally routed. After this date, 
Tandan is not mentioned in history, and it was subsequently deserted 
by the Mughal governors in favour of Rajmahal and Dacca. 

Tando. — Sub-division and town in Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, 
Smd, Bombay Presidency.- — See Tando Muhammad Khan. 

Tando Adam. — Town in Hala Sub-division, Haidarabad District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Adam-jo-Tando. 

Tando Alahyar. — Tdluk and town in Hala Sub-division, Haidar- 
abad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Alahyar-jo-Tando. 

Tando "^kga.— Tdluk of Tando Muhammad Khan Sub-division, 
Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Area, 709 square 
miles. Population (1881) 55,473, namely, males 30,560, and females 
24,913; occupying 22,428 houses in 100 villages. Hindus number 
5591; Muhammadans, 45,413; Sikhs, 852; and 'others,' 3617. 
Imperial revenue in 1880-81, ^10,354; local revenue, ^637 ; total, 
^10,991. In 1883, 53,968 acres were assessed for land revenue, and 
35,038 acres were actually cultivated. In the same year, the idluJz 
contained 2 criminal courts ; police circles l^t/idnds), 5 ; and regular 
police, 27. 

Tando BagO.— Chief town of Tando Bago tdluk, Haidarabad Dis- 
trict Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 24° 47' n., and long. 
69° E., on the left bank of the Shadiwah Canal, 58 miles south- 
east of Haidarabad city, with which it has road communication 
through Tando Muhammad Khan. It is connected also by cross roads 
with Wango Barar, Khairpur, Pangryo, and Badin ; and with Nindo 
Shahr by the postal road. Population (1872) 1452, namely, 484 
Musalmans, 875 Hindus, and 93 'others.' Not separately returned in 
the Census Report of 1881. Mukhtidrkdr's office, and police lines, with 
accommodation for 2 officers and 7 constables. Post-office, cattle- 
pound, and commodious dhartnsdla, the latter maintained at the expense 
of the local funds. Several of the Talpurs of the Bagani family reside 
here, the principal man of note being Mir Wali Muhammad, a lineal 
descendant of Bago Khan Talpur, who founded the town about 140 
years ago. A little trade is done in rice and grain, sugar, cloth, oil, 
tobacco, country liquor and drugs. The manufactures are insignificant. 

Tando Ghulam Ali. — The largest Government town in Tando 
Muhammad Khan Sub-division, Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency ; distant 20 miles east of Tando Muhammad Khan, 36 miles 
south-west of Haidarabad city, and 14 miles west of Digri, the head- 
(|uarters of Dero Mohbat tdluk. The head-quarters of Dero Mohbat 



TANDO LUKMAN-TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN. 177 

tdluk are about to be removed from Digri to Shdhu Uuzdar, a small 
village, about 2 miles south of Tando Ghulam Ali. Population 
(1872) 1412. Not separately returned in the Census Report of iSSi. 
It has road communication with Haidarabad by the postal line, and by 
cross road with Tando Muhammad Khan, Haji Sawan, and Raja 
Khanani. Anglo-vernacular school, supported mainly by the family of 
the Mir, a sdrdar of the first class, who resides here with his family. 
The trade of the town is mainly in grain, dates, sugar, molasses, spices, 
salt, cloth, metals, oil, tobacco, indigo, country liquor, and drugs. 
There are no manufactures of any consequence. The town was 
founded about 18 19, by Mir Ghulam Ali Manikani, the grandfather 
of the present ^lir, who is called after him. 

Tando Lukman.— Town in Khairpur State, Sind, Bombay Presi- 
dency ; situated a short distance north of Khairpur town, on the road to 
Rohri. Population (1872) 1580. Not separately returned in the Census 
Report of 1881. The place is noted not only for its manufacture of 
country liquor, but for carved and coloured woodwork, such as cradles, 
bedposts, small boxes, and other articles. It is said to have been 
founded about 1785, by Lukman Khan Talpur. 

Tando Masti Khan. — Town in Khairpur State, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency; situated about 13 miles south of Khairpur town, and 18 
miles from Ranipur. The main road from Haidarabad (Hyderabad) to 
Rohri runs through the town. Population (1872) 4860, of whom the 
greater number are Muhammadans. Not separately returned in the 
Census Report of 1881. The town was founded about 1803 by Wadero 
Masti Khan. Near it, in a southerly direction, are the ruins of Kotesar, 
supposed to have been once a populous place. On the western side 
are the shrines of Shah Jaro Pi'r Fazl Nango and Shaikh Makai. 

Tando Muhammad Khan (or Tanda, Tajido). — Sub-division of 
Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; lying 
between 24° 14' and 25° 17' x. lat., and between 68' 19' and 69° 22' 
E. long. Area, 3163 square miles. Population (1881) 229,603. 

Physical Aspects. — The general appearance of the Sub-division is that 
of a level plain, the monotony of which is but slightly relieved by belts 
of trees fringing the canal banks. To the east and south are large salt 
tracts, and on the west, skirting the Indus, /w/;/// (Acacia arabica) forests 
of considerable extent. There are about 83 Government canals. Of 
these, the Giini is the largest, being 69 miles in length, and most of the 
canals take oft' from it. It is now almost perenniaL The chief dandhs 
or marshes are the Bareji, the Sarabudi, and the Jhalar. Limestone 
and saltpetre occur in the Sub-division. Venomous snakes abound. 
Hyaenas, wolves, foxes, deer, jackals, and hog are the principal wild 
animals. 

Populaiion. — The total population returned in 1S72 was 189,931 

VOL. XIII. M 



1 78 TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN TOWN. 

persons; and in 1881, 229,603, namely, males 126,654, and females 
102,949 ; occupying 54,295 houses, in i town and 407 villages. Hindus 
number 20,709; Muhammadans, 191,755; Sikhs, 3240; aborigines, 
13,876; and Christians, 23. Of the Hindus, the Baniya caste is the 
most numerous ; of the Muhammadans, Sindis and Baliichis. 

Crops. — The staple crops 2.x^jodr (Sorghum vulgare), bdjra (Penni- 
setum typhoideum), rice, tobacco, cotton, sugar-cane, and hemp, which 
are sown between March and July, and reaped between February and 
November ; also wheat, barley, vegetables, and other garden produce, 
which are sown on land previously saturated either by canal or rain 
water. Irrigation is effected by means of the Persian wheel. The 
highest rate of rent for rice land does not exceed 5 rupees, or los. per 
acre. Bardtii or rain land cultivation is assessed at rates varying from 
2s. to 4s. per acre. The total area of land held in j'dgir, or revenue free, 
amounts to 257,000 acres, and the number ofjdgirddrs is 225. 

Trade and Mainifactiires. — The main exports are agricultural pro- 
duce, camel cloth, ghi., cotton, and salt ; annual value estimated at 
^1000. The imports comprise grain, drugs, metals, oil, silk, skins, 
sugar, tobacco, etc. ; annual value estimated at ;£"3oco. The value 
of the transit trade of the Sub-division is approximately returned at 
^1,000,000. The manufactures are striped cloths, blankets, camel 
saddles, gold and silver ornaments, wooden articles, carpets, silk 
thread, metal goods, and sugar. The manufacture of salt and salt- 
petre has recently been prohibited throughout Sind. Five fairs are 
held in the Sub-division. The aggregate length of roads in 1883 
was 590 miles, of which 131 miles are trunk and postal lines. The 
number of ferries was 15, and of these 2 were on the Indus and 3 on 
the Giini Canal. 

Administration. — The total imperial revenue of Tando Muhammad 
Khan in 1873-74 was ^34,128, and the local revenue ;£"35o4 ; in 
1 88 1, the total imperial revenue was ^41,404, and the local revenue 
^2833. The land-tax furnishes the principal item. The Sub-division 
is administered by an Assistant Collector; and contained in 1883, i 
civil and 9 criminal courts ; police circles {thd?ids), 23 ; regular police, 
125 men. One municipality, viz. Tando Muhammad Khan; muni- 
cipal receipts in 1883-84, ;£"5o6; incidence of taxation, 2s. 8|d. per 
head. Hospital and dispensary at Tando Muhammad Khan. A lock-up. 
The average annual rainfall of the Sub-division is stated not to exceed 
4 inches. Of late years the rainfall has increased; and in 1882 it was 
10*05 inches. The prevailing disease is fever. 

Tando Muhammad Khan.— Chief town and head-quarters of the 
Tando Muhammad Khan Sub-division, Haidarabad (Hyderabad) 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 25° 7' 30" n., and 
long. 67° 33' 30" E., on the right bank of the Giini Canal, 21 miles south 



TANGACIJERl^-TANG ASSERT. 1 79 

of Haidarabad city. Population (1881) 32S1. As the seat of an 
Assistant Collector, the town contains a court-house and the usual 
public buildings. Municipal revenue (1883-84), ^^506 ; incidence of 
taxation, 2s. 8id. per head. Local trade in rice and other grain, silk, 
metals, tobacco, dyes, saddle-cloths, matting, cochineal, country liquor, 
and drugs. Transit trade in rice, jodr (Sorghum vulgare), bdjra 
(Pennisetum typhoideum), and tobacco. The manufactures comprise 
copper and iron ware, earthenware, silk thread, blankets, cotton cloth, 
shoes, country liquor, and articles of wood. Tando Muhammad Khan 
is said to have been founded by Mir Muhammad Khan Talpur Shah- 
wani, who died in 18 13. 

Tangacheri. — Town in the Cochin taluk of Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Tangasseri. 

Tangail. — Town in Maimansingh District, Bengal, and head-quarters 
of Alia Sub-division ; situated on the Lahajanga, a branch of the Jumna. 
The town, with a cluster of neighbouring villages, forms a municipal 
union, and covers an area of 10 square miles. Population (1881) 
18,124, namely, Hindus 10,844, ^^d Muhammadans 7280. Muni- 
cipal income in 1881-82, ^^'■367. Tangail contains two good schools 
supported by private subscriptions, and is a centre of considerable 
trade, especially in European piece-goods. 

Tangan. — River of Northern Bengal. Enters Dinajpur District from 
Jalpaiguri, on its extreme northern boundary ; and after a southerly 
course of about 80 miles, passes into Maldah District, where it empties 
itself into the Mahananda near Muchia, a small mart for rice and grain. 
Its total length is about 120 miles. During the rains, the Tangan is 
navigable throughout its entire course in Dinajpur ; for the remainder 
of the year, it is open to boats of from 7 to 10 tons burden for about 50 
miles. Its chief tributaries are the Lok and the Tulai ; the banks are 
for the most part jungly. The Tangan brings down a large quantity of 
silt, and has of late years suffered considerable changes in its course. 
In 1807, according to Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, this river effected its 
junction with the Mahananda about 7 miles lower down than at present. 
Its old bed is still traceable in a southerly direction by Kendua. It is 
stated that the Tangan has also apparently altered its course in the 
neighbourhood of Raniganj village, where the remains of a stone 
bridge, which evidently spanned the former channel of the river, are 
still to be seen on the high embanked road connecting Raniganj with 
Gaur. The channel of the Tangan is in many places becoming choked 
by the sand and mud brought down from the hills. 

Tangancherri. — Town in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. — 
See Tangasseri. 

Tangasseri. — Town in Cochin tdliik^ Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency ; situated in lat. 8° 54' n., and long. 76° 38' 15" e. Popula- 



1 So TANGL U— TANJORE. 

tion (1881) 1665, occupying 308 houses. Hindus number 4; Muham- 
madans, 2; Christians, 1658; and 'others,' i. Formerly a Dutch 
settlement. Pharoah (1855) says :— 'It was originally a fort built on a 
headland of laterite, jutting into the sea. The length is about 2\ 
furlongs east and west, and the breadth i furlong. Portions of the old 
walls are still visible, as are also the ruins of an old Portuguese tower 
and belfry. . . . The inhabitants are mostly Roman Catholics. . . . 
The customs, port dues, and other revenues derived from this settlement, 
are levied by the State of Travancore, an equivalent in money being 
paid by it for the same.' In civil jurisdiction, the people are subject to 
the District munsifs Court at Anjengo, which again is subordinate to 
the District Court of South Malabar at Calicut. In criminal matters 
there is a resident magistrate, subordinate to the British Joint Magistrate 
at Cochin. 

Tanglu.— One of the principal peaks in the Singalila range, Darjiling 
District, Bengal. Lat. 27' i' n., long. 88° 7' 15" e. Height, 10,084 
feet ; on the summit is some extent of undulating land. The Nepal 
frontier road runs over this hill, and there is a staging bungalow for 
travellers, available on application to the Deputy Commissioner of 
Darjiling. The Chhota or Little Ranjit river takes its rise under this 
mountain. 

Tangra. — Town in Maldah District, Bengal. — See Tandan. 
TangUtur.— Town in Ongole taluk, Nellore District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 15° 20' 30" N., long. 80^ 6' 15 " e. ; situated on the trunk 
road from Madras to Ganjam, about 20 miles south of Ongole town. 
Population (1881) 7215, occupying 1299 houses. Hindus number 6993 ; 
Muhammadans, 146; and Christians, 76. Police station, travellers' 
bungalow. 

Tanjore {Tanjdvur). — British District in the Madras Presidency, 
lying between 9° 49' and 11° 25' n. lat., and between 78° 56' and 79^ 
54' E. long. Area, 3654 square miles. Population, according to the 
Census of 1881, 2,130,383 souls. Tanjore forms a portion of the 
Southern Karnatik. It is bounded on the north by the river Coleroon, 
which separates it from Trichinopoli and South Arcot Districts ; on the 
east and south-east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the south-west by Madura 
District ; and on the west by Madura and Trichinopoli Districts 
and by the State of Pudukota. The administrative head - quarters 
are at Tanjore City, situated on the south bank of the Kaveri 
(Cauvery). 

Physical Aspects. — Tanjore has a just claim to be considered the 
garden of Southern India. The vast delta of the Kaveri occupies the 
flat northern part of the District, which is highly cultivated with rice, 
dotted over with groves of cocoa-nut trees, and densely populated. 
This tract is thoroughly irrigated by an intricate network of channels 



TANJORE. i8i 

connecting the different branches of the delta. The irrigation works 
will be described in a later section of this article. 

Mr. Hickey {The Tajijore Frhicipality, 1874) gives the following 
description of the physical characteristics of the remainder of the 
District : — ' South-west of the town of Tanjore, the country is some- 
what more elevated, especially about Vallam, where the Collector 
generally resides ; but there is nothing that can be called a hill in the 
whole District. Along the coast, a belt of sand-drifts and low jungle 
protects the lands from the sea ; but between Point Calimere and 
Adrampatam, a salt swamp extends over several square miles. No rock 
is common in Tanjore except laterite, which is abundant in the high 
ground near the western frontier, and is again met with in the extreme 
south. Around Vallam occur beautiful specimens of rock-crystal. 
Along the southern coast a narrow and thin bed of sandstone, contain- 
ing shells, was lately found running parallel with and about half a mile 
from the shore, and about 2 yards below the surface. This stone is 
compact enough to be used for building purposes. Extensive beds of 
marine shells, consisting of the large pearl oyster and other existing 
specimens, have been found in many excavations south of Negapatam, 
at the distance of 3 or 4 miles inland, and covered with several feet 
of alluvial soil j and in the south coast also are numerous specimens 
of this kind, of comparatively recent appearance. The delta contains 
some tracts of rich silt, and the immediate margin of the river is 
generally covered with a light loam ; but for the most part the soil is 
naturally poor, and it is irrigation alone which makes the District such 
a scene of fertility. The varieties of soil in the higher ground beyond 
the delta are red loam, black cotton-soil, sandy light earth, and yellow 
clay much impregnated with soda, and miserably sterile.' The coast- 
line of the District extends for a distance of 140 miles ; a heavy surf 
breaks incessantly on the shore, rendering communication with shipping 
very difficult and dangerous. 

History. — The Tanjore country was under the Cholas during the 
whole course of their supremacy, and the history of the District is 
substantially that of the Chola dynasty. At present hardly anything is 
known of the Cholas prior to the end of the loth or the beginning of 
the nth century, when they rose to a position of great eminence. 
They are mentioned by the Greek writers, their capital being in the 
2nd century a.d. at Warrior, near Trichinopoli. The capital was after- 
wards several times changed, being situated successively at Com- 
baconum, Gangaikondasorapuram, and Tanjore. The Muhammadan 
invasion, 1303 to 13 10 a.d., by Malik Kafur dealt a severe blow to 
the Chola sovereignty ; and not many years later it was overshadowed 
by the rising power of Vijayanagar. The period which ensued was a 
stormy one, witnessing a perpetual series of struggles between the 



i82 TANJORE. 

legitimate sovereigns, Wadeyar adventurers from the north, and Muham- 
madan soldiers of fortune. The Vijayanagar sovereignty was not 
acknowledged till the i6th century. It is possible that this change 
was due to the cause to which it is ascribed by local tradition and 
manuscripts, namely, a quarrel between the Chola and Pandyan kings, 
which resulted in the latter sending to Vijayanagar for aid. 

However this may be, it is clear that in the i6th century the Naik 
viceroys of Vijayanagar engrossed all real power in the south ; for little 
is heard of the Cholas after that date. Nagama Naik and his 
son, Vishwanatha Naik, established themselves at Madura as indepen- 
dent chiefs, acknowledging the nominal sovereignty of Vijayanagar. 
Tanjore was established as a separate viceroyalty, and held by four 
successive Naik chiefs. The tragic end of the last still forms a 
popular legend among the villagers. He was attacked by the 
Madura Naik, and besieged in his own fort. When he found 
further defence hopeless, he blew up his palace, rushed with his 
son into the midst of the enemy's troops, and was killed sword in 
hand. This was in 1674. One child was rescued; and he subse- 
quently made an alliance with the Muhammadans, who despatched an 
army headed by the Maratha Venkaji, the brother of Sivaji the Great, 
to reduce Tanjore, and place him in possession of his rights. They 
effected this ; but in two years Venkaji had ousted his own protege, 
proclaimed himself independent, and established a Maratha dynasty, 
which lasted till 1799. 

The British first came into contact with Tanjore by their expedition 
in 1749, wnth a view to the restoration of a deposed Raja. The cession 
of Devikota was promised as the reward of their aid. They failed 
in this attempt, and a second expedition was bought off. Subse- 
quently, the famous Muhammad Ali, Nawab of Arcot, was aided by 
the Madras Government in enforcing a claim for tribute against the 
Tanjore dynasty, and the fort fell into the hands of the invaders on 
the 1 6th September 1773. In 1775 it was restored to the Tanjore 
prince, Tulzuji. Practically, until 1779 the Marathas held the 
l\anjore State, first as tributaries of the Mughal Empire, then of the 
Nawab of the Karnatik Payanghat, then as independent sovereigns, 
and, lastly, under the English East India Company, as assignees of 
the Nawab's tribute. During the latter end of the last century, 
Tanjore was in fact a protected State of the British Empire, paying 
its share of the subsidy for the army, which the latter maintained 
for the defence of the country. It was ceded to the Company in 
absolute sovereignty by Rija Sharabhoji, under treaty dated 25th 
October 1799. 

The territory thus acquired, with the under-mentioned three small 
settlements on the coast not included therein, constitutes the 



TAN/ ORE. 183 

present District of Tanjore. (i) Devikota, a small territory adjoin- 
ing the fort of that name, estimated to yield a revenue of ;^3i5o. 
This had been previously acquired by the Company from Raja 
Pratap Singh by treaty in 1749. (2) The Dutch settlement at 
Negapatam, with the adjoining seaport of Nagore (Nagiir) and the 
territory known as the Nagore dependency. Negapatam was one of 
the early settlements of the Portuguese, from whom it was taken by 
the Dutch in 1660. The Nagore dependency was purchased by the 
latter, in 1773, from Raja Tulzuji; but was immediately afterwards 
taken possession of by the Nawab of the Karnatik Payanghat, with the 
aid of the English, the Nawab reimbursing the Dutch the money they 
had paid for its purchase. It was, however, restored to the Raja in 1776, 
together with the whole of his territory, which had been conquered 
by the Nawab in 1773; and the Raja in 1778 granted it to the 
Enghsh. Negapatam was wrested by the English from the Dutch in 
1 781; and thus, like Devikota, this settlement was already in their 
possession at the time of the cession of the Tanjore principaHty. 
(3) Tranquebar settlement, yielding a revenue of ^2100, which the 
Danes acquired from the Naik Raja of Tanjore in 1620, and which 
they continued to hold, subject to the payment of an annual peshkash 
or tribute of ^311, until 1845 ; when it was purchased from them by 
the English East India Company. 

Under the treaty of 1799, the East India Company engaged to 
make over to the Raja of Tanjore one-fifth of the net revenue of the 
territory which was transferred to them, with a further sum of i lakh 
of Star pagodas, or ;£^35,ooo. They also permitted him to retain 
possession of the fort of Tanjore, with a small territory within a 
radius of half a mile around it, together with certain villages and 
lands in different parts of the District. Raja Sharabhoji died in 
1832, and was succeeded by his son Sivaji, who died in 1855, without 
legitimate male issue. Upon this, the Raj was declared extinct, and 
the rights and privileges appertaining to it ceased. Liberal provision 
having been made for the support of all relatives and dependants, the 
private property of the Raja was left in the possession of the family. 
Until 1841 there was a Political Resident at Tanjore ; but this office 
was amalgamated in that year with that of the Collector of the Dis- 
trict. The head - quarters of this last -mentioned officer, however, 
remained at Negapatam, the seat of the old Dutch settlement, till 1845 ; 
when, upon Tranquebar coming into the possession of the East India 
Company by purchase, they were removed to that place. After the 
death of the last Raja, when the fort and city of Tanjore became 
British territory, the head-quarters of the Collector, as also the seat of 
the chief court of civil and criminal judicature, then called the Civil 
and Sessions Courts were removed to Tanjore city. 



1 84 TAN/ORE. 

Pop7datio7u — The first Census of the District was taken in 1822. 
Since then, six others have been taken, all based on actual enumera- 
tion. According to the Census of 1871, the population of the Dis- 
trict was 1,973^73 1- The Census of 188 1 returned a total population 
of 2,130,383, dwelling in 12 towns and 3539 villages, and in 374,532 
houses. The total area of the District was taken at 3654 square 
miles. Compared with the Census of 187 1, these figures show an 
increase of 156,652 persons, or 7-94 per cent. The figures for 
1881 yield the following averages: — Persons per 'square mile, 583; 
persons per village or town, 600; persons per house, 57; villages 
or towns per square mile, 0*97 ; houses per square mile, 102. In 
respect of density of population, Tanjore ranks first in Madras. The 
average density of the District is two and a half times that of the 
whole Presidency; and in some of its taluks it is more than five 
times the Presidency average. Combaconum taluk has a population 
of 1 181 persons per square mile. In point of size, Tanjore ranks 
fifteenth, and in population third among the Districts of the Presi- 
dency. Classified according to sex, there were — males 1,026,528, 
and females 1,103,855, or 482 males to 518 females in every thousand. 
Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, boys 402,816, 
and girls 400,225; total children, 803,041, or 377 per cent, of the 
population : 15 years and upwards, males 623,618, and females 703,510 ; 
total adults, 1,327,128, or 62-3 per cent. Of 94 males and 120 females 
the age was not returned 

The religious classification of the people is as follows : — Hindus, 
i?939>42i, or 91-03 per cent, of the population; Muhammadans, 
112,058, or 5-2 per cent. ; Christians, 78,258, or 3*66 per cent. ; Jains, 
625; Buddhists, 2; and 'others,' 19. The Hindus have, between 
1871 and 1881, increased 7-5 per cent; the Muhammadans, 9-1 per 
cent. ; and the Christians, 17*8 per cent. 

The Hindus, distributed according to caste and other social distinc- 
tions, consisted of — Vanniyars (labourers), 609,733 ; Vellalars (agri- 
culturists), 372,409; Pariahs (out-castes), 297,921 ; Brahmans (priests), 
1345584; Shembadavans (fishermen), 123,206; Idaiyars (shepherds), 
70,805; Kammalars (artisans), 60,686; Kaikalars (weavers), 59,252; 
Satanis (mixed castes), 42,955; Shanans (toddy-drawers), 37,864; 
Shetties (traders), 25,381; Ambattans (barbers), 22,991; Vannans 
(washermen), 15,835; Kushavans (potters), 11,677; Kshattriyas, 
5158 ; Kanakkans (writers), 196 ; and 'others,' 48,768. 

The Muhammadan population by race, as distinguished from de- 
scendants of converts, consisted of — Shaikhs, 4351; Pathans, 13 16; 
Sayyids, 1196; Arabs, 575; Labbays, 344; Mughals, 34; and 'others,' 
104,242. According to sect, the J^Iuhammadans were thus returned — 
Sunnis, 99,555 ; Shias, 2255; Wahabis, 5 ; and 'others,' 10,243. 



TAN/ORE. 185 

The Christians, according to sect, consisted of — Roman Catholics, 
67,292; Protestants undistinguished by sect, 5705; Lutherans, 2240; 
Church of England, 990; and other sects, 2031. Adopting another 
jDrinciple of classification, there were — Europeans, 168 ; Eurasians, 677 ; 
native converts, 75,509; and 1904 of nationality not stated. Of the 
native converts — Roman Catholics numbered 65,745 ; Protestants undis- 
tinguished by sect, 5208; Lutherans, 2162; Presbyterians, 91; and 
the remainder converts to other sects. 

The ethnology of Tanjore differs from that of most other Districts 
on the east coast of the peninsula only in the larger proportion of 
Brahmans in the upper grades of the population. The bulk of the 
population, as elsewhere in the south, consists of Dravidian Hindus. 
All traces of the immigration of Aryans from Northern India have 
been lost in the depths of antiquity. Whether the pure Aryan element 
is preserved unalloyed in any of the numerous classes now included 
under the general head 'Hindus' or not, is an open question; 
though there can be no doubt that most of the classes which claim 
Aryan descent contain a large admixture of Dravidian blood. The 
Muhammadan population consists chiefly of Labbays or Sonakars, a 
mixed race sprung from the early colonists from Arabia, to whom the 
coast-line of Tanjore, as commanding a never-failing trade with Ceylon, 
held out special attractions. These colonists have in course of time 
found their way also into the interior, and have everywhere adopted the 
language of the country. The proportion of persons classed as Arabs, 
Pathans, and Mughals in the last Census returns is hardly one-fifth of 
the aggregate Muhammadan population of the District ; and even these 
figures are probably excessive. The Eurasian inhabitants of the District 
are chiefly of Portuguese and Dutch extraction. 

There is a constant flow of labourers from Tanjore to Ceylon ; 
and to some extent also to Burma, the Straits Settlements, the French 
AVest Indies, and Mauritius. The emigrants are almost invariably 
Pariahs and other low-castes. They generally return home with con- 
siderable savings out of the wages they earn in the colonies. During 
the year 1883-84, the number of such emigrants to the Straits Settle- 
ments, Guadaloupe, and Martinique was 2219. 

Tanjore District was the scene of the earliest labours of Protestant 
missionaries in India. In 1706, the German missionaries Ziegenbalg 
and Pliitschau established a Lutheran mission in the Danish Settle- 
ment of Tranquebar, under the patronage of King Frederic iv. of 
Denmark; and in 1841 their estabhshments were taken over by the 
Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission, which subsequently extended 
its operations into the District. The mission at Tanjore was founded 
in 1778 by the Rev. C. F. Schwartz of the Tranquebar Mission, who 
some time previously had transferred his services to the Society for 



1 86 TANJORE. 

Promoting Christian Knowledge. The mission establishments at 
Tan j ore were taken over in 1826 by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, which subsequently founded new stations in several 
parts of the District. The total number of native Protestants belonging 
to the various societies (Church of England, Lutheran, and Wesleyan) 
in the District in 1881, was 8255 ; which is larger than in any other 
District in the Presidency, except Tinnevelli and Madura. 

Roman Catholic missions in Tanjore date from the first half of the 
17th century. Their churches and chapels are scattered over the 
whole District; but their principal seats are Negapatam, Velanganni 
(on the coast, 6 miles south of Negapatam), Tanjore, Vallam, and 
Combaconum. The St. Joseph's College, which was founded in 1846 
by the French Jesuits at Negapatam, was removed to Trichinopoli in 
1883. The total number of native Roman Catholics in the District in 
t88i was 65,745. 

The Census divided the male poptilation into six main groups as 
regards occupation — (i) Professional class, including State officials of 
every kind and members of the learned professions, 43,668; (2) domestic 
servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 5359; (3) com.mercial class, 
including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 25,013; (4) agricultural 
and pastoral class, including gardeners, 437^832 ; (5) industrial class, 
including all manufacturers and artisans, 124,105; and (6) indefinite 
and non-productive class, comprising all male children, general 
labourers, and persons of unspecified occupation, 390,551. 

Urban and Rural Population.— Oi the 3551 towns and villages in 
Tanjore District in 1881, 1007 contained less than two hundred in- 
habitants; 1259 contained between two and five himdred; 818 between 
five hundred and one thousand ; 341 betw^een one and two thousand; 
78 between two and three thousand; 33 between three and five thou- 
sand; 10 between five and ten thousand; i between fifteen and twenty 
thousand ; i between tw^enty and fifty thousand ; and 3 upwards of 
fifty thousand. Fifteen towns contain 5000 inhabitants and upwards. 
Of these, the five following are municipalities : — Tanjore City (1881), 
54,745; Combaconum (Kumbakonam), 50,098; Mayavaram, 23.044; 
Negapatam, 53,855; Mannargudi, 19,409. 

Of all the Districts in the Madras Presidency, Tanjore is the most 
densely populated. Before rice w^as imported into Ceylon from Bengal 
and Burma, Tanjore was the source on which Ceylon depended 
for its supplies of food ; and even now the balance of trade is greatly 
in its favour. There are more than 3000 Hindu temples in the District. 
Many of the larger ones are splendid structures, and possess extensive 
endowments in land; the great temple at Tanjore city, declared by 
Fergusson to be the finest in India, is fully described in the following 
article. During the annual temple festivals, large fairs are held in 



TANJORE. 187 

different parts of the District. The principal Hindu festivals are held 
at Combaconum ; and here, too, is celebrated the famous Mahdjnaghani^ 
a festival occurring once in twelve years, to which crowds flock from all 
parts of the country. The Muhammadan festival called Ka?idin, held 
annually at Nagore, and a Roman Catholic festival (Nativity of the 
Virgin), celebrated every year in September at Velanganni near 
Negapatam, are also worthy of notice. 

Agriculture. — Rice is the staple crop of the District, and is raised 
almost entirely by artificial irrigation. It is grown chiefly in the delta 
of the Kaveri ; and to a much smaller extent in the upland portion of 
the District, under tanks fed by the local rainfall. The rice grown in 
Tanjore consists chiefly of two species, namely, kdr and pishdnam^ 
each including minor varieties. A few coarser sorts are sown broad- 
cast; but this mode of cultivation is carried on only in a few 
places beyond the delta, and there on rain-fed land. In all cases 
of irrigated cultivation, young plants are raised in seed-beds and 
transplanted. The kdr is planted in June, and reaped in October. 
'Y\\^ pishdnam is planted in July and August, and reaped in January 
and February. 

Dry crops are cultivated only to a small extent in Tanjore. They 
are chiefly (t) varagu (Panicum miliaceum), (2) kelvaragu or ragi 
(Eleusine corocana), (3) kambu (Pennisetum typhoideum), and (4) 
kevirii or ddl (Cajanus indicus). Varagu and ddl are grown chiefly 
at the western end of the upland portion of the District. They 
are sown in July, and cut in February. Rcig't and kambti are cultivated 
in small patches both in and beyond the delta. In the delta, these 
crops are raised either on high lands which are not irrigable, or as an 
auxiliary crop on rice-fields. In the latter case, they are sown either 
before or after rice. They are three months in the ground, being 
generally sown in June, and cut in September. 

Green crops are common in Tanjore, and are grown chiefly in back- 
yards of houses and on river margins. The green crops generally 
raised are onions, radishes, sweet potatoes, and the various kinds of 
greens of which those most prized are coriander and fenugreek. The 
only fibres cultivated in the District are two kinds of so-called Indian 
hemp (Crotalaria juncea and Hibiscus cannabinus), which are grown 
to a limited extent on high lands. A very small quantity of cotton 
is also grown. Plantain and betel-vine gardens abound in the delta, 
where sugar-cane and tobacco are also cultivated. Tobacco is gene- 
rally restricted to backyards of houses and margins of rivers. The 
only part where it is grown to any considerable extent is the sandy 
tract at the south-eastern end of the District near Point Calimere, 
where it is a remunerative croj) and a principal article of trade. 
'J'he tobacco consists of broad thick leaves, and is prized for its 



1 88 TANJORE. ' 

strength and pungency. It is used only for chewing, and is chiefly 
exported to the Straits Settlements and Travancore. Cocoa-nut palms 
and mango trees are abundant all over the District, except in the 
south-west, where, owing to the dryness and the laterite soil, few trees 
flourish. 

Of the total area of Tanjore District — in the local records put at 
2,392,117 acres — about 55 per cent., or 1,306,713 acres, are actually 
under the plough; 17 per cent., or 402,958 acres, are cultivable, but 
not cultivated (including land left fallow) ; and 28 per cent., or 682,446 
acres, are uncultivable, or reserved for purposes other than agricultural. 
Of the cultivated area, 1,231,944 acres, or more than 94 per cent., are 
under food-grains; and of these, 914,719 acres are irrigated rice lands. 
In the four deltaic taluks of Combaconum, Mayavaram, Shiyali, and 
Nannilam, the proportion, both of land actually cultivated and of land 
devoted to food-grains, is considerably larger. The area under the 
principal crops in 1883-84 was — cereals and millets, 1,155,640 acres; 
pulses, 36,003 acres; orchard and garden produce, 31,189 acres; drugs 
and narcotics, 1488 acres; condiments and spices, 10,684 acres; 
starches, 4468 acres; sugars, 2840 acres; oil-seeds, 35,578 acres; dyes, 
3484 acres ; and fibres, 4565 acres. 

The prevailing system of revenue administration in Tanjore is rdyat- 
ivdri. The general average of the Government assessment for the 
District is — for irrigated lands, 9s, 9d. per acre ; for unirrigated lands, 
2s. 6d. per acre. The average net profit of the rdyatwdri holder is 
estimated at 19s. 3d. per acre for irrigated lands, and 4s. iid. for 
unirrigated lands. Wages of agricultural labour are invariably paid in 
grain. The ordinary rates are | of a viarakhdl, or 3*87 lbs., of paddy 
(giving about 2\ lbs. of clean rice) per diem for a trained labourer, 
male or female, and \ 7Jiarakhdl for inferior adult labourers ; boys and 
girls receive half these rates. In towns, where wages are paid in money, 
the rates are now generally twice as high as twenty-five years ago, and 
in some cases the increase is still greater. The daily rates of wages in 
1883-84 were — for skilled labour, from lofd. to is. 4id. ; for unskilled 
labour, from 4^d. to 6 Jd. Prices of all ardcles of food have risen during 
this period in about the same ratio. The village sales of paddy, the 
staple produce of the District, on which the original commutation rate 
for the assessment of irrigated land was calculated, show that the 
average price of the Tanjore kalajn, equal to 12 7?iarakhdls or 62 lbs., 
has varied from lojd. in 1850-51 to 2s. lojd. in 1875-76. The 
average prices of produce at the end of 1883-84 per inaund oi 80 lbs. 
were — rice, 4s. 3|d. ; ragi^ 2s. o|d. ; ka?nbii, 2 s. 4:Jd. ; maize, 2 s. 2|-d. ; 
wheat, 7s. 9|d. ; horse-gram, 2s. 9jd. ; ddl (Cajanus indicus), 3s. 6|d. ; 
salt, 5s. 4|-d. ; oil-seeds, 9s. 4jd. Landless labourers constitute about 
one-half of the adult male population of the District, and of these 



TANJORE. 189 

nearly two-thirds are engaged in agriculture. They are chiefly Pallars 
and Pariahs, who are permanently attached to farms. The remainder 
are low-caste Siidras, who have immigrated from time to time from 
the Maravar country, lying between the Kaveri (Cauvery) delta and 
Cape Comorin. They go by the general name of Terkattiyans or 
'southerners.' 

In the delta, the alluvium deposited by the river freshes constitutes, 
as a rule, the only manure. In the upland portion of the District, as 
also in those lands in the delta which are irrigated from the tail-ends 
of channels, and therefore lack this element of fertility, manure is 
required. The mode of manuring generally adopted is by folding 
sheep or cattle, the latter being more generally employed. Vegetable 
mould, cow-dung, ashes and other refuse of cook-rooms, and night- 
soil, are also used. On the whole, the average cost incurred for 
manuring may be put down at from 2s. to 3s. an acre. 

The live-stock returns in 1883-84 were as follows: — Buffaloes, 
126,003; bullocks, 306,575; cows, 208,427; sheep, 647,441; goats, 
265,838; asses, 2381 ; pigs, 13,127 ; horses and ponies, 645; elephants, 
5 ; and camels, 2. Dead stock — ploughs, 179,244; carts, 19,813; and 
boats, 568. 

Irrigation. — The great natural advantages of irrigation which 
Tanjore possesses had been more or less improved artificially many 
centuries before the District became British territory. The Coleroon, 
which forms the northern boundary of Tanjore, is, from its low level, 
utilized but to a small extent. The main branch of the Kaveri 
(Cauvery) enters Tanjore District about 8 miles east of Trichinopoli, 
and spreading out into innumerable small channels, which form 
a vast network extending down to the sea, converts the northern 
portion of the District, commonly known as the Kaveri delta, into 
one huge rice-field. Near the western limit of Tanjore, the two main 
streams come into close contact with each other; and at this point, 
where the bed of the Coleroon is 9 or 10 feet lower, stands (across a 
natural outlet of the Kaveri channel) the ancient native work, a 
masonry dam, known as ' The Grand Anicut,' which prevents the 
waters of the Kaveri branch being wholly drawn off into the Coleroon. 

This work, which has been justly called the 'bulwark of the fertility 
of Tanjore,' is traditionally believed to have been constructed by a king 
of the Chola dynasty in the 3rd century a.d. There are grounds for 
conjecturing that it dates not later than the 12th century. It originally 
consisted of a solid mass of rough stone, 1080 feet in length, 40 to 60 
in breadth, and 15 to 18 in depth, stretching across the whole width 
of the outlet in a serpentine form; and in the year 1830, it was 
])rovided by Capt. Caldwell of the Engineers with under - sluices, 
to allow of the escape of sand. In the early part of this centurv. 



I90 TANJOEE. 

however, it was discovered that the Coleroon branch, from its more 
rapid fall and more direct course to the sea, was drawing off an unduly 
large share of water ; while the Kaveri branch was deteriorating by 
the formation of deposits at its head. This defect was removed by 
the construction across the Coleroon branch, in 1836, of a masonry dam 
known as the ' Upper Anicut,' which has associated the name of Sir 
Arthur Cotton, of the Madras Engineers, with the agricultural prosperity 
of Tanjore. This work was followed by the construction of a 
regulating dam across the Kaveri branch in 1845, to counteract the 
effects of the Coleroon anicut, which, it was found, was throwing into 
the Kaveri branch a body of water far larger than could be allowed 
to enter it with safety to Tanjore. The Coleroon anicut, 750 yards 
long, is divided by two small islands in the bed of the river into three 
parts, of which the northern is 7 feet 4 inches, and the other two 5 
feet 4 inches high. Its thickness throughout is 6 feet, and it is provided 
with sluices for the escape of sand. The Kaveri regulating dam, 650 
yards in length, is divided into three portions, of which the central has 
its crown on a level with the river bed ; while the one on either side 
is raised from 12 to 18 inches above it. By these two works, the 
body of water which enters Tanjore District has been brought under 
complete control. 

Almost simultaneously with the Coleroon dam, there was carried 
out, as supplementary to it, another work on the Coleroon, about 
70 miles lower down, known as the Lower Anicut. The obstruc- 
tion of a large portion of the water which the Coleroon was drawing 
off would, as a necessary consequence, have lowered its surface level, 
thereby depriving of their irrigation the lands which depended on it 
in the District of South Arcot. The primary object, therefore, of the 
Lower Anicut was to ensure irrigation to these lands. But advantage 
was taken at the same time to provide a supply of water from the 
Coleroon for the north-eastern portion of Tanjore, which was either 
beyond the influence, or was indifferently supplied by the tail-ends, of 
the Kaveri channels. Accordingly, the spot where an island divides 
the Coleroon into two branches was selected. A dam, wdth suitable 
vents for the passage of boats as well as the escape of sand, was 
constructed across each branch; and a channel was taken off from each, 
one for South Arcot, under the designation of North Rajan vdyakhdl, 
and the other for Tanjore, called South Rajan vdyakhdl. 

While, however, the main source has been thus brought under 
control, the plan of internal distribution, in connection with this vast 
deltaic system of irrigation, has not yet been perfected. During the 
period of forty years which has elapsed since the system of head- 
works was completed, considerable improvements have doubtless 
been effected in the way of providing regulating dams at the bifurca- 



TANJORE. 19T 

tion of the several main branches of the Kaveri, as well as head- 
sluices for minor channels, and waste weirs for surplus vents; but 
much remains to be done towards a complete utilization of the available 
supply of water, as well as the perfection of drainage arrangements. 

The aggregate area of irrigated land in Tanjore District, excluding 
the zaminddri estates, for which no returns are available, is about 
965,878 acres, of which about 869,658 acres are irrigated from 
river channels, and about 96,220 acres from tanks. Cultivation under 
tanks, which are almost wholly rain-fed, is restricted to the upland 
portion of the District ; there being neither space to spare for reser- 
voirs, nor ordinarily any need for them in the delta, where the river 
channels keep flowing during the whole of the cultivating season. 

The total land revenue of the District in 1882-83, including miscel- 
laneous items ^Vi^jodi or quit-rent on i7idms (lands held on revenue- 
free tenure), was ^437,869, of which ^387,058 was obtained more 
or less directly from irrigation. These figures include every item, and 
also the deductions for the remuneration of village establishments. 

Tanjore is more than ordinarily favoured by nature with regard 
to immunity from the calamities alike of flood and drought. The 
high ridges of sand which skirt its coast-line form an effective protec- 
tion against ordinary storm-waves ; while the level of the country, 
which slopes towards the east, ensures the free drainage of the surplus 
water of the Kaveri as well as of local rainfall, which is rarely very 
heavy. 

Covunerce and Trade. — Tanjore District is amply provided with 
means of communication. It is traversed by two branches of the 
South Indian Railway ; one from Trichinopoli crossing the District 
to Negapatam on the coast, and the other (Madras branch) branching 
off from this line at Tanjore city and running in a north-easterly 
direction. The former carried during the year 1883, 3,606,040 passen- 
gers : and 286,698 tons of goods were forwarded from and received at 
stations within the District. The amount realized from passengers 
and goods was ^184,818. Including the cross Hnes of internal com- 
munication, but excluding the innumerable village tracks, the District 
contains 90 roads aggregating nearly 1233 niiles in length, most of 
which are provided with substantial masonry bridges over the rivers 
by which they are intersected, as well as culverts for smaller channels. 
There is but one navigation canal in use, running 32 miles along the 
coast from Negapatam to Vedaranyam in the south. It is used almost 
exclusively for the carriage of salt, which is produced in abundance at 
Vedaranyam. 

The manufactures for which Tanjore District is celebrated are metal 
wares, silk cloth, carpets, and pith-work. The chief articles of import 
are cotton piece-goods, cotton twist, and metals from Europe; and 



192 TAN/ORE. 

timber and areca-nuts from the Straits Settlements and Ceylon. Rice 
is by far the most important article of export, alike by sea and land. 
By sea, it is exported almost wholly to Ceylon ; inland, to Trichinopoli, 
Madura, and Salem. The total value of the imports by sea in 1883-84 
^vas ;^4i 1,809, i^ which piece-goods accounted for ^67,906, and 
areca-nuts for ;£" 153,976. During the same year, the exports by 
sea amounted in value to ^767,951, the grain and pulse alone being 
valued at ;£407,487. The rate of interest generally charged in small 
transactions, where jewels or other valuable articles are given in pawn 
as security, is from 6 to 1 2 per cent, per annum ; in other cases, it 
varies from 12 to 24 per cent. In large transactions, money is rarely 
lent otherwise than upon the security of land or house property, and 
the rate of interest varies from 6 to 1 2 per cent. ; the maximum is 
demanded, however, only in rare cases. 

Admijiistration. — Tanjore District, as constituted at its last re- 
arrangement in i860, is administered by a Magistrate-Collector, a 
Sub-Collector, 2 Assistant Collectors, and 2 uncovenanted Deputy 
Collectors, with the ordinary medical, fiscal, and constabulary estab- 
lishments. The District is divided into 9 tdhtks, over each of which is 
a tahsilddr, assisted by one or more Deputies ; and these 9 taluks are 
formed into 5 divisions, each under the charge of the Sub-Collector 
or one of the Assistant or Deputy Collectors — the Collector himself 
having no direct executive charge, but exercising a general supervision. 
For judicial purposes, the District is divided into North and South 
Tanjore. The judicial establishment of North Tanjore for civil causes 
consists of 6 munsifs and i Sub-Judge, all subject to the controlling 
authority of the North Tanjore District Judge, who is also Sessions 
Judge on the criminal side, hearing all criminal cases not triable by the 
Magistracy (with or without a jury, according to the nature of the case), 
and all appeals from the highest class of Magistrates. Similarly, in 
South Tanjore, there are 7 mic7isifs and 2 Sub-Judges, subject to the 
South Tanjore District Judge. The total District revenue in 1882-83 
was ^733,837, equal to an average of 6s. io|d. per head on a population 
of 2,130,383. In 1883, the regular police force amounted to 1394 
officers and men, maintained at a cost of ^19,458. These figures 
show I pohceman to every 2*6 square miles of area and every 1528 
inhabitants ; the cost of maintenance was at the rate of ^5, 6s. 6d. 
per square mile, or 2d. per head of population. There are two jails in 
the District, one at Tanjore city, the other at Tranquebar. The former 
had in 1882 a daily average of 130 prisoners; 497 prisoners were 
admitted during the year, of whom 42 were females; the average cost 
per head was ;£7, 3s. ifd. ; and the average earnings of each prisoner 
employed on manufactures was 8s. In the Tranquebar jail, there 
was in the same year a daily average of iii-8 prisoners ; 312 prisoners 



TANJORE. 193 

were admitted during the year, of whom 20 were females ; the average 
cost per head was ^^8, 9s. 3d., and the average earnings of each 
inmate employed on manufactures was 8s. 

There are about 700 chattrams or native charity-houses in the 
District; in some of these, food is distributed gratuitously to all 
travellers. The educational machinery consists of 5 colleges and 1265 
schools of various grades. The five colleges are the Government 
Provincial College at Combaconum, the S. P. G. Collegiate School at 
'J'anjore city, St. Joseph's Jesuit College, the Wesleyan Mission 
College at Negapatam, and Lutheran Mission College at Tranquebar ; 
15 of the schools are of the higher class, and aftiliated to colleges ; 
63 (including 8 girls' schools) are middle-class schools, 11 84 (including 
33 girls' schools) are primary schools, i is a normal school for masters, 
and 2 are special schools. The pupils attending these schools during 
the year ending March 31, 1884, numbered 38,958. The Census 
Report of 1881 returned 57,623 boys and 181 2 girls as under instruc- 
tion, besides 174,313 males and 5379 females able to read and write 
but not under instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — The rainfall, as elsewhere on the Coromandel 
coast, varies considerably from year to year. The south-west monsoon 
sets in in June, and continues more or less till September; but the rain 
falls only at long intervals, and rarely for two hours continuously. 
The total fall during this monsoon averages 15 inches. The north-east 
monsoon sets in in October or November, and continues more or less 
till January. The rains during this part of the year are more con- 
tinuous and, on the whole, more copious, averaging 25 inches. These 
averages are taken for the last ten years. The average annual rainfall 
of the District for the eighteen years ending 1881 taken at Tanjore 
city was 30*02 inches. The District enjoys some rain in nearly 
every month ; but it is heaviest from August to December inclusive, 
and lightest in March. The hottest season of the year is from 
March to May. After this period, the freshes in the rivers, and the 
occasional showers of the south-west monsoon, tend to keep the 
atmosphere to som^e extent cool. The returns xurnished for the first 
edition of this work showed that the mean annual temperature for 
1875 ^^'^s 8i'9° F., varying from a maximum of io3'9° in May to a 
minimum of 64 "2° in January. No later thermometrical returns are 
available. 

Storms and cyclones are of frequent occurrence on the coast ; 
but Palk's Bay, which bounds the District on the south, affords 
protection to the shipping during bad weather. 

None of the diseases can be regarded as endemic. Formerly, 
elephantiasis was commonly met with in the city of Tanjore, whence 
it latterly extended to Combaconum. It existed also at Negapatam 

VOL. XIII. N 



194 TAN/ORE TALUK AND CITY. 

on the coast, but with improved sanitation it has now to a considerable 
extent disappeared. The diseases most common are fevers, small-pox, 
and cholera, all more or less epidemic. Cholera was particularly fatal 
in 1854 and 1875 ; it commences generally about the close of the 
north-east monsoon in January, and continues throughout the following 
hot season. There are 37 dispensaries in the District. Of these, five 
situated in the five municipalities ; four at Tranquebar, Shiyali, Tiruturai- 
pundi, Puttukotai ; and seven connected with chattrams, afford relief to 
both in-door and out-door patients. The remaining 21 are for out- 
patients only. [For further information regarding Tanjore District, 
see the Manual of the District of Tanjore, compiled under the orders 
of Government by T. Venkasami Row (Madras, 1883). See also 
Madras Census Reports of 1871 and 1881 ; and the several annual 
Administration and Departmental Reports of the Madras Government 
up to 1884.] 

Tanjore.— ri////^ or Sub-division of Tanjore District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Area, 672 square miles. Population (1881) 375)OS6, namely, 
males 181,268, and females 193,818; occupying 57,108 houses, in 4 
towns and 407 villages. Hindus number 339,396 ; Christians, 26,701 ; 
Muhammadans, 8752; and 'others,' 237. The South Indian Railway 
enters the taluk on the north and leaves it via Tanjore city on the 
west, with a branch from Tanjore city eastward to Negapatam. In 
1883 the taluk contained 4 civil and 4 criminal courts, including 
District head-quarters courts; police circles {thdnds), 15; regular 
police, 398 men. Land revenue, ^60,858. 

Tanjore {Ta?ijdvur). — City in Tanjore District, Madras Presidency; 
head-quarters of Tanjore District, municipality, and station on the 
South Indian Railway; situated in lat. 10° 47' n., and long. 79° 10' 
24" E. Population (1881) 54,745, namely, males 26,272, and females 
28,473, occupying 9000 houses. Hindus number 47,195 ; Christians, 
4174; Muhammadans, 3152; and 'others,' 224. 

Tanjore was the last capital of the Chola dynasty, and was sub- 
sequently ruled by a Naik governor from Vijayanagar. Between 
1656 and 1675 it fell into the hands of the Marathas, under whose 
rule it became the capital of a compact and prosperous State. In 
1758 it was attacked by the French under Lally, who extorted large 
sums from the reigning Maratha Raja. Colonel Joseph Smith captured 
the fort in 1773; and again, in 1776, it was occupied by an EngUsh 
garrison. Raja Sharabhoji, by a treaty in 1779, ceded the dependent 
territory to the British, retaining only the capital and a small tract of 
country around, which also at last lapsed to the Government in 1855, 
on the death of Raja Sivaji, son of Raja Sharabhoji, without legitimate 
male issue. 

Tanjore is the head-quarters of the Collector, the Judge, and the 



TAKJORE CITY. 195 

other depnrtments of District administration. The municipal income 
from taxation in 1S83-84 was ^3698; incidence of taxation, is. 4jd. 
per head. 

As the capital of one of the greatest of the ancient Hindu dynasties 
of Southern India, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary, 
and religious centres of the south, the city of Tanjore is full of 
interesting associations. Its monuments of Hindu art and early 
civilisation are of the first importance. The great temple is known 
throughout the world. Fergusson, History of Indiayi and Eastern 
Architecture (1876), says: 'The great pagoda was commenced on a 
well-defined and stately plan, which was persevered in till completion. 
It consists of two courts, one a square of about 250 feet, originally 
devoted to minor shrines and residences ; but when the temple was 
fortified by the French in the last century, it was converted into an 
arsenal, and has not been reappropriated to sacred purposes. The 
temple itself stands in a courtyard extremely well proportioned to 
receive it, being about 500 feet long by half that in width, the distance 
between the gateway and the temple being broken by the shrine of the 
bull Nandi, which is sufficiently important for its purpose, but not so 
much so as to interfere with the effect of the great viniana^ which stands 
near the inner end of the court. The perpendicular part of its base 
measures 82 feet square, and is two storeys in height, of simple outline, 
but sufficiently relieved by niches and pilasters. Above this the 
])yramid rises in thirteen storeys to the summit, which is crowned by a 
dome said to consist of a single stone, and reaching a height of 190 feet. 
The porch in front is kept low, and the tower dominates over the 
gopm-as and surrounding objects in a manner that imparts great dignity 
to the whole composition. 

' Besides the great temple and the Nandi porch, there are several 
other smaller shrines in the enclosure, one of which, dedicated to 
Subrahmanya, a son of Siva, is as exquisite a piece of decorative 
architecture as is to be found in the south of India, and though small, 
almost divides our admiration with the temple itself. It is built 
behind an older shrine, which may be coeval with the great temple as 
originally designed. A peculiarity of the temple is that all the sculp- 
tures on the gopiiras belong to the religion of Vishnu, while everything 
in the courtyard is dedicated to the worship of Siva. At first I felt 
inclined to think it had been erected wholly in honour of the first- 
named divinity, but am now more disposed to the belief that it is only 
an instance of the extreme tolerance that prevailed at the age at which 
it was erected, before these religions became antagonistic. Its date is 
unknown. ISIr. Norman, a competent authority, in the text accom- 
panying Tripe's photographs, says it was erected by Kadu Vettiya 
Soran, or Cholan, a king reigning at Conjeveram in the beginning of 



196 TANK. 

the 14th centur}'. The Subrahmanya is certainly one century, probably 
two centuries, more modern. The bull itself is also inferior in design, 
and therefore more modern than those at Halebid, which belong 
probably to the 13th century; and the architecture of the shrine cannot 
be carried back beyond the 15th century. It may even be considerably 
more modern.' 

The fort, which is now almost dismantled, covers a large area. 
Within it is the chief part of the native town, and the palace, which 
is still occupied by the family of the last Raja. There are some fine 
halls in the palace, which also contains the large and valuable library 
that belonged to the Raja, with some unique manuscripts catalogued 
by the late Ur. Burnell of the Madras Civil Service. 

Tan j ore is famous for its artistic manufactures, including silk carpets, 
jewellery, 7'epoiisse work, copper ware, and curious models in pith and 
other materials. The South Indian Railway connects Tanjore city with 
Negapatam (its seaport) on the east, and Trichinopoli on the west. The 
returns furnished for the first edition of this work showed that in the 
year 1875 ^^'^^ Tanjore railway station received or despatched 346,307 
passengers and 23,717 tons of goods, and earned a revenue of ^19,157. 
No later returns are available. 

Tank. — TahsU of Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab ; situated 
between 32° and 32° 25' n. lat, and between 70' 7' and 70^ 41' e. 
long. ; occupying the north-western corner of the District, at the foot 
of the Sulaiman Hills. Tank tahsil was formerly a semi-independent 
State, and until quite recently under the management of a Nawab 
subordinate to the District Ofiicer. It consists of a naturally dry 
and uninviting plain, intersected at right angles to its length by ravines 
sloping in the direction of the Indus. By assiduous cultivation, how- 
ever, it has acquired an aspect of prosperity and greenness which distin- 
guish it strongly from the neighbouring tahsil of Kolachi. Low ranges 
of stony hills here and there project into the plain from the Sulaiman 
system. The country long lay uninhabited, there being little to tempt 
any settlers in so barren a tract ; but it was finally occupied by Pathan 
tribes from the western hills. 

The Nawabs of Tank belong to the Kati Khel section of the Daulat 
Khel clan, the most powerful of the original settlers, who gradually 
expelled all the rest. The last Nawab, Shah Nawaz Khan, who died in 
1882, is said to have been 20th in descent from Daulat Khan, eponym of 
the tribe. His family first assumed the tribal headship in the person 
of Katal Khan, great-grandfather of Shah Nawaz. His son, Sarwar 
Khan, a most remarkable man, devoted himself throughout a long reign 
to the amelioration of his territory and his tribesmen. Under his sway, 
the Daulat Khel changed from a pastoral to a cultivating people ; and 
they slill revere his memory, making his acts and laws the standard of 



TANK. 197 

excellence in government. Sarwar Khan towards the end of his life 
found it necessary to tender his submission to the Sikhs, after their 
occupation of Dera Ismail Khan ; and his tribute was fixed at ^{^300 
per annum. Three years later, Ranji't Singh visited the Derajat in 
person, and raised the tribute to ^6000. Sarwar Khan paid the 
stipulated sum as long as he lived ; but his son and successor, Aladad 
Khdn, permitted it to fall into arrears, and finally fled to the hills, 
where he found a refuge among the Waziri Pathans. Tank was then 
given mjdgir to Nao Nihal Singh ; but Aladad kept up such a constant 
guerilla warflire from the hills that the Sikh grantee at last threw uj) 
his possession in disgust. Malik Fateh Khan Tiwana then for a time 
seized on the State, and after his final defeat by Daulat Rai {see Dera 
Ismail Khan District and Tiwana), it was made over to three 
dependants of the Nawabs of Dera ; Shah Nawaz Khan, the son of 
Aladad (who had died meanwhile), being left a beggar. In 1846, 
however, the exiled chief attached himself to Lieutenant (afterwards 
Sir Herbert) Edwardes, who procured his appointment by the Lahore 
darbdr to the governorship of Tank. 

After the annexation of the Punjab, the British Government con- 
firmed Shah Nawaz Khan in his post as governor ; and he thencefor- 
ward enjoyed a semi-independent position, holding a portion of the 
revenues, and entrusted with the entire internal administration, as well 
as with the protection of the border. The results, however, proved 
unsatisfactory, both as regards the peace of the frontier and the 
conduct of the administration. A scheme was accordingly introduced 
for remodelling the relations of the State. The Nawab's income was 
increased, but he was deprived of all sovereign powers, retaining only 
those of an honorary magistrate. Tank has thus become an ordinary 
tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan District, under the charge of the local 
authorities. 

Area, 568 square miles, with 78 towns and villages, 5384 houses, 
and 8483 families. Total population (1881) 35,516, namely, males 
19,420, and females 16,096. Average density of population, 62*5 
persons per square mile. Muhammadans number 32,976; Hindus, 
2259; Sikhs, 280; and Christian, i. Of the 78 towns and villages, 
58 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 15 between five 
hundred and a thousand ; 8 between one and two thousand ; and 
2 between two and three thousand. Area under principal crops for 
the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 — wheat, 30,158 acres; bdjra, 7048 
acres; barley, 2219 acres; rice, 1401 acres; and cotton, 1947 acres. 
Revenue of the tahsil, ;£'jo7,^. The only local administrative officer 
is a tahsilddr, presiding over i civil and i criminal court ; number of 
police circles {thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular police, 59 men ; rural 
police or village watch {chankiddrs), 68. 



198 TANK TOWX—TANUKU. 

Tank. — Town ill Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab, and head- 
quarters of Tank tahsil ; formerly capital of a senli-independent prin- 
cipality. Situated in lat. 32° 14' n., and long. 70° 25' e., on the left 
bank of a ravine issuing from the Tank Zaru Pass, 40 miles north- 
west of Dera Ismail Khan town. Population (1881) 2364, namely, 
Muhammadans, 1898; Hindus, 383; Sikhs, 82; and Christian, i. 
Number of houses, 466. Formerly a municipality, which was 
abolished in 1879. Founded by Katal Khan, first Nawab of Tank. 
A mud wall surrounds the town, 12 feet in height, and 7 feet thick, 
with numerous towers and 2 or 3 gates, but in bad repair. The fort, now 
in ruins, is an enormous pile of mud about 250 yards square; walls, 
faced with brick, enclose a citadel 40 feet high. Fifteen mosques, court- 
house, Nawab's offices and residence, dispensary, and school-house. 
Water said to be impure, and dangerous for strangers. Considerable 
imports of iron, timber, and ghi^ and exports of grain and cloth 
between the Waziris and the people of Tank, when good terms subsist 
between them. Sir Henry Durand, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, 
lost his life at this town in 1870, being thrown from his elephant by 
the howdah striking against the top of a gateway. He was buried at 
Dera Ismail Khan. 

Tankari. — Port in Broach District, Bombay Presidency, in lat. 21° 
59' 45" N., and long. 72° 42' 30" e. ; situated on the east side of a 
small creek, which for about 5 miles strikes northwards from the right 
bank of the Dhadhar, about 7 miles from the mouth of that river. 
This creek is not navigable, even by small country craft, except at high 
tide; but notwithstanding, Tankari was formerly the port for a con- 
siderable tract of country, receiving the opium of Malvva as well as the 
cotton and grain of Jambusar and Amod. Trade has to a large extent 
left Tankari, since the opening of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railway. The returns furnished for the first edition of this work 
showed that in 1874-75 Tankari still had a total value of exports 
amounting to ^135,790, and of imports ^28,098. No later returns 
are available. 

Tanna. — District and town, Bombay Presidency. — See Thana. 

Tanna. — An old fort on the Hugh' river, opposite Fort Aligarh in 
Garden Reach, a suburb of Calcutta. Taken by Clive on the recapture 
of Calcutta, 30th December 1756. 

Tanuku. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Godavari District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 371 square miles. Population (1881) 188,306, 
namely, males 93,421, and females 94,885; occupying 32,427 houses in 
175 villages, Hindus number 185,009; Muhammadans, 2981; and 
Christians, 316. The tdluk is fiat, productive, and healthy. The 
irrigation has been perfected by means of anient canals. Chief trade 
in grain, rice, and cotton. In 1SS3 the tdluk contained i civil and 



TANUKU HEAD-QUARTERS— TAPPA ASL. 199 

2 criminal courts; i)olice circles {fkdnds), 7; regular police, 59 men. 
Land revenue, ;^64,402. 

Tanuku. — Head-quarters of Tanuku td/uk, Godavari District, 
Madras Presidency; situated about 20 miles south-south-east of Raja- 
mahendri town. Population (1881) 3072, occupying 477 houses. 
Hindus number 2943 ; Muhammadans, 95 ; and Christians, 34. Post- 
office. 

Taniir. — Seaport in Malabar District, Madras Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 10° 58' N., and long. 75° 56' e., at the mouth of a small river fall- 
ing into the Arabian Sea. Also a station on the South-west line of the 
Madras Railway. Thornton gives the following notice of the place : — 
'In the year 1782, the British army, under the command of Colonel 
Humberstone, acting against the forces of Haidar All, took refuge here 
from a storm of five days' continuance, which dispersed the boats, 
spoiled the provisions, and damaged the ammunition of the expedition. 
It was formerly a prosperous place, but is now much decayed. Dis- 
tance from Calicut, south-east, 22 miles; Mangalore, 170; Bombay, 
546.' The average annual value of the trade for the five years ending 
1S83-84 was ;^f 9735— imports, £z^'] ; exports, ^9348- The trade in 
1883-84 was valued at ;^io,865 — imports, ^350; exports, ^10,515. 

Tapasi.— Coal-mine in the Raniganj coal-field, Bardwan District, 
Bengal. The colliery was first opened in 1848; but the shaft then 
worked being destroyed by fire in 1863, another was opened in that 
year. Out-turn of coal in 1866, 206,154 maunds ; thickness of seam, 
24 feet. This mine is now closed. An analysis of Tapasi coal gave 
the following results : — Fixed carbon, 49-20 to 53*75 per cent. ; volatile 
matter, 31 '50 to 35*40 per cent, ; "ash, 8-50 to 1475 P^^ <z^Vil. 

Tappa. — Petty State under the political superintendence of the 
Bhopal Agency in Central India; consisting of 13 villages in the 
(iwalior pargaiid of Sonkach, which were granted in 1822 by Maharaja 
Daolat Rao Sindhia to Thakur Riip Singh, Girasia of Tappa. The State 
continued in Riip Singh's family till 1865, when the chief committed 
suicide, leaving no heir. The adoption of Takht Singh, a distant 
relative of the family, was sanctioned by the Gwalior Darbar in 1866. 
Takht Singh manages the State in person. 

Tappa Asl. — Pargand in Amethi tahsil, Sultanpur District, Gudh. 
Area, 67 square miles, of which 32 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
39,116, namely, 37,487 Hindus and 1629 Muhammadans. Number 
of villages or townships, 97 ; of which 83 belong to the Bachgotis, 
whose original home in Gudh lies a few miles farther south, in Patti 
pargand, and only 7 are owned by Bilkhar Rajputs, the predecessors 
of the Bachgotis as lords of the soil. With the exception of one, all 
the villages are held in zaviinddri tenure. Government land revenue, 
7^4150, or 2s. 4fd. per arable acre. 



2CO TAPPAL—TAPTL 

Tappal. — Town in Khair tahs'il, Aligarh District, North- Western 
Provinces ; situated on the old high bank of the Jumna (which now 
flows 4 miles to the west), in lat. 28° 2' 25" n., and long. 77° 36' 55" e., 
32 miles north-west of Aligarh town. Population (1881) 4712, namely, 
Hindus, 3014; Muhammadans, 1635; Jains, 60; 'others,' 3. A 
decaying town, with no trade ; bazar of a few poor-looking shops ; 
unmetalled sandy roads ; ruinous and neglected buildings. Once a 
place of some note : remains of a large fort, said to be 800 years old ; 
ruins of another fort, formerly belonging to Begam Samru. Residence 
of a tahsilddr in early days of British rule ; since transferred to Khair. 
School, police station, post-office. A small house-tax is raised for police 
and conservancy purposes. 

Tdpti. — One of the great rivers of Western India. It rises in 
Betiil District of the Central Provinces, in lat. 21° 48' n., and long. 
78° 15' E.; but a sacred reservoir in the town of Multai (lat. 21° 46' 26" n., 
long. 78° 18' 5" E.) is generally considered the source of the river. 
After leaving Multai, the stream flows at first through open and partially 
cultivated lands, and then cuts its way between two spurs of the 
Satpura mountains, the Chikalda hills of Berar on the left, and the 
wilder range of Kalibhit on the right. Beyond this gorge, the hills again 
retire. But for the first 150 miles of its course, spurs of the Satpura 
range somewhat closely hem in the valley of the Tapti. Falling 
rapidly from the Satpura uplands, through a deep-cut channel from 100 
to 150 yards wide, the flood-waters of the river soon drain away, leaving 
in the dry season a stream which, passing over a rocky bed, can in 
many places be forded. The banks, though high, are not steep ; and 
except where sharply cut by a turn in the river's course, they slope 
gradually to the level of the stream, and, like the country round, are 
overgrown with forest trees, brushwood, and grass, a shelter to wild 
animals of every kind. 

During the next 180 miles, the Tapti passes through the upland 
plateau of Khandesh. At its eastern extremity, where it is separated 
by only a slight fall from the plain of Berar, the level of Khandesh 
is from 700 to 750 feet above the sea. From this point the plateau 
slopes towards the north-west, until it reaches the high lands that divide 
Khandesh from Surat. In its passage through Khandesh, the Tapti 
receives several tributaries. Of these the chief are, on the left bank, 
the Purna, the Waghar, the Girna, the Bori, the Panjhra, and the 
Siva. On the right bank, the neighbourhood of the Satpura hills 
prevents the formation of any large affluents. But from this side 
come the Suki, the Aner, the Arunawati, the Gomai, and the Walha. 
For the first 160 miles of its course in Khandesh, the Tapti passes 
through a flat and well-cultivated country. During the last 20 miles, as 
it draws near the west of the District, hills on either side send down 



TAPTL 201 

spurs close to its banks ; the land, no longer tilled, is covered with 
thick forests; and the only signs of inhabitants are clusters of three or 
four Bhi'l huts. At the same time the stream, forcing its way amid 
stones and boulders, quickens into rapids, or shoots over barriers of 
rock. 

Here, at the narrow passage known as the Deer's Leap, or Haran- 
phdl, the descent from Khandesh to the plain of Gujardt begins. This 
section of the river's course, consisting partly of still, deep basins 
bordered by high cliffs, and partly of rapids formed by barriers of rock, 
extends through more than 50 miles of a wild, almost uninhabited 
country. 

On leaving the Dang forests, the Tapti enters on its last stage— the 
passage across the Surat plain to the sea. The direction is generally 
westerly, and the distance 50 miles in a direct line, or, including wind- 
ings, 70 miles. These 70 miles of the Tapti's course are naturally 
divided into two parts — above and below the influence of the tidal 
wave. The upper or fresh-water section includes about 40 miles ; and 
the lower or tidal section, little more than 30. Though they gradually 
merge into each other, the character of these two sections is in 
several respects distinct. In the upper part, the river passes through 
the less cultivated tracts in the east of the Surat plain ; and it is only 
when the village of Waghecha is passed, 22 miles west of the point 
where it enters Surat District, that the last spur of the Rajpipla hills is 
left behind. 

During almost the whole of its course of 32 miles as a tidal river, the 
Tapti rolls through the rich, highly cultivated plain that forms the 
central part of the District of Surat. Only for a few miles before it falls 
into the sea are the lands through which it passes barren and liable 
to be submerged by the tide. Below Palri, the course of the river 
runs for about 8 miles towards the south-west ; then near the village 
of Waracha, where the tides daily ebb and flow, it winds westwards 
for about 2 miles. Here, a little above the village of Amroli, the 
limit of ordinary navigation, it strikes for 3 miles sharply to the north- 
west, till, at Wariav, the lowest ford on the river, it bends for 3 miles 
more to the south-west ; then winding again to the south-east, it runs 
for 4 miles in a line almost parallel to its former course to the city of 
Surat, where it again strikes suddenly towards the south-west. So 
sharp is this curve in the river's course, that though by water Surat is 
more than 10 miles from Amroli, by land the distance is but little more 
than 2 miles. Below Surat, the river stretches to the south-west, till, 
about 4 miles from its mouth, it turns to the left, and, gradually widen- 
ing, flows southwards into the sea. During this section of its course, 
the banks have little of the steep and rough character they bear higher 
up the stream. Within the limit of the tide, as the current becomes 



202 TAPTL 

weaker, the land on either side of the river is less heaped up, till, about 
7 miles below Palri, so little is it raised above the level of the stream, that 
for about 2 miles between the villages of Waracha and Phulpara, in times 
of flood, the river, overtopping the left bank, and in a great body of 
water rushing westwards, has on several occasions flooded the city of Surat. 
Farther down the stream, at the more abrupt turnings, as on the right 
bank at Rander, and at Surat about 2 miles farther down on the left 
bank, the outer edge is cut by the force of the current into a high 
steep cliff. But below Rander, the right bank soon drops again, and 
continues low and shelving for 15 miles to the sea. So, too, within a 
few miles of Surat, the left bank, which for a mile or two was raised 
from 20 to 30 feet above the stream, has again sunk so low that at high 
tide the water, overlapping the bank, passes beyond, flooding a large 
extent of land. 

Below the limit of the tide, the bed of the river is covered by a layer 
of mud. This deposit varies in depth from a few inches, where the 
tide runs strong, to as much as 4 feet in the still bends of the river. 
Opposite the city of Surat, at Umra, 2 miles, and at Magdala, 4 miles 
farther to the west, the sand washed down in times of flood has formed 
banks and shoals. Especially is this the case near the mouth of the 
river, where the antagonistic currents of the stream and tide have, 
across almost the entire breadth of the river, thrown up alternate layers 
of sand and clay. 

In its passage through Surat District, the only important tributary 
received by the Tapti is the Wareli. This stream, rising in the western 
spurs of the Rajpipla hills, flows towards the south-west across the 
Mandvi Sub-division, and, after a course of about 15 miles, joins the 
Tapti on its right bank at the village of Piparia, 40 miles from the sea. 
At the Waghecha rapids, about 40 miles from its mouth, the trap 
rock /;/ sitit forms several islands in the bed of the Tapti. These 
islands, though occasionally liable to be flooded, are covered with trees, 
as well as with grass and bushes. Of the banks of sand and clay that 
rise above the ordinary level of the stream, the chief (generally spoken 
of simply as bet, or ' the island '") lies in a bend of the right bank of 
the river about 5 miles below the city of Surat. Near the mouth of the 
river, inside of the bar, are also one or two flat wooded islands. 

In Surat District there are two important ferries across the Tapti. 
From the town of Mandvi, on the right bank of the river, about 60 
miles from its mouth, a boat crosses to the villages on the southern 
bank. The other ferry plies between the city of Surat and the villages 
on the northern bank. The Tapti can be forded at three places within 
Bombay territory. Of these, Karod is the highest up, about 56 miles 
from the sea; the next Bodhan, about 40 : and then Wariav, about 20 
miles from the mouth of the river. 



TAPTL 203 

The following details, showing the state of the channel of the Tdpti 
in 1876, as regards navigation, between the sea and the city of Surat, 
are quoted from the Bo?nbay Gazetteer^ vol. ii. i)p. 12, 13: — 'The 
anchorage ground for large ships in Surat roads has from 42 to 48 feet 
at low water. The Surat roadstead is a safe place of anchorage from 
October to the beginning of April ; it is considered dangerous for ships 
of much draught after the middle of April. In that month, and in the 
early part of May, smart southerly winds frequently blow during the 
springs, particularly in the night with the flood-tide. On the bar, the 
range of the tide varies from 12 to 22 feet at neaps, to 27 feet at highest 
springs. The average rise of the tide at the bar is about 15 feet; but 
higher up, about 4 miles west of Surat, it is only about 10 feet. The 
entrance over the bar is continually changing, new channels being 
opened by the shifting of the sands, and old ones closed up. Formerly, 
the Dumas channel was the deepest, and was generally used by ships. 
The direction of this passage was along the east side of a sandbank 
towards the village of Dumas, on the left bank of the river. This 
channel is now almost filled up, and is only navigable at half-tide. The 
proper entrance can be pointed out only by a native pilot. Although 
the estuary is here not less than 4 miles across, the channel is narrow, 
and at low-water spring-tides, between the sands near the bar, there is 
not depth sufficient for a small boat. 

' The distance of the bar from Surat town is about 1 2 miles in a 
straight line, or 15 miles by the river channel. For nearly two-thirds 
of this distance there is a continued chain of sandbanks, many of them 
dry at half-tide, with very small depths at low water in the channels 
between them. The two chief sandbanks are near Magdala, about 4 
miles, and Umra, about 10 miles from the mouth of the river. Above 
Umra and near the city, the river is more contracted, with deeper 
water. Opposite the fort of Surat, there is at all times of the tide a 
depth of water of not less than 10 feet. Though boats sometimes pass 
up to Rander, 3 miles, and to Amroli, 1 1 miles above Surat, that city 
is at present the ordinary limit of navigation. The shipping which 
visit Surat are native craft of from 18 to 36 tons burthen, and light 
draught steamers, which ply from Surat to Gogo and Bhaunagar on the 
western shore of the Gulf of Cambay. These vessels only ply during 
the fair-weather season. In the months of June, July, and August, 
there is nothing but purely local traffic on the Tapti, and very little else 
in September. Unless when fortunate in wind and tide, sailing vessels 
often take from two to three days to get up as far as Surat. The 
steamships, varying from 100 to 200 tons burthen, and drawing from 5 
to 6 feet, cannot pass up and down the river at less than half-tide.' 

The port of Swally (Suwali), famous in early commerce with India, 
and the scene of our famous sea-fight with the Portuguese, lay at the 



204 



TAPTL 



mouth of the river. It is now deserted. Indeed, its approaches are 
completely silted up. This deteriorating influence is steadily at work 
throughout the Gulf of Cambay, and is specially observable around the 
mouth of the Tapti. How far the silting up of the lower channels 
tends to increase the severity of the floods in the rainy season, by 
decreasing the discharging capacity of the river, and by what method 
the alleged evil can be dealt with, form serious questions which modern 
engineering has not yet determined. 

Before the days of railways, it was at one time thought that the 
Tapti might be made the highway for the carriage of the produce of 
Khandesh and the Central Provinces to the sea. With this object, 
a survey of the river was made in 1852. This survey extended 
over a distance of 232 miles, from the city of Surat to near the east 
of Khandesh, at the confluence of the Waghar. Beyond the eastern 
limit of Khandesh, during the first 150 miles of its course, the bed of 
the Tapti is too broken to permit of its navigation by boats. The 
only use which its waters serve for the purposes of trade is the float- 
ing down of timber in times of flood ; and the channel is so rapid that 
the wood is said frequently to be sucked into secret currents and 
broken to pieces or lost. 

The total length of the course of the Tapti is, including windings, 
about 450 miles. The river has a drainage area of about 30,000 square 
miles, and carries to the sea a volume of water estimated to vary 
from an hourly discharge of 120,000,000 cubic yards during seasons 
of extreme flood, to 25,000 cubic yards towards the close of the dry- 
weather months. 

Though several projects have from time to time been framed with 
the object of utilizing the waters of the Tapti for the purpose of irriga- 
tion, no lands are at present (1886) irrigated from this river. Except 
over a limited portion of the Sahyadri hills, the tract of country drained 
by the Tapti is not subject to any great rainfall. The break of the 
rains in the first week of June is generally marked by a considerable 
increase in the strength of the stream, but a decided fresh is seldom 
seen till the first week of August. Floods bringing down water enough 
to fill the bed of the river up to the top of its banks are unusual, and 
even ordinary freshes last for but a short time. Occasionally, however, 
the floods are very severe ; and from the sharp bend in the course of 
the river at Phulpara, 2 miles east of the city of Surat, the waters, 
rising at times above the level of the left bank, force their way across 
the land, and, deluging the city, have on more than one occasion caused 
much loss of life and property. Some particulars have been collected 
of thirteen floods, ranging over a term of 150 years ; and will be found 
in the Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ii. pp. 18 f/ seg. Of these floods, three 
occurred in the i8th century, in the years 1727, 1776, and 17S2 ; and 



TAPTI LIGHTJIO USE— TAR ABG AN J, 205 

ten in the present century, in 1810, 1822, 1835, 1837, 1843, 1849, 1872, 
1873, and two in 1876. In all these floods the city of Surat suffered 
seriously; but up to 1869, nothing in the way of protective works had 
been undertaken. In that year, however, the Surat municipality de- 
termined to construct such protective works as should keep the waters 
of the river out of the most thickly peopled parts of the city during all 
floods except those of extraordinary severity. A great part of the town 
has thus been saved from much inconvenience and injury. But during 
the past seventeen years (i 869-1 886), more than one disastrous inunda- 
tion has occurred. 

Though it enjoys a less widespread reputation for sanctity than the 
Xarbada, the Tapti receives much local respect. On its banks there 
are, according to i\\Q pu?'d?ia, or religious history of the river, no fewer 
than 108 spots, or tirthas^ of special sanctity. Of these, the chief is 
Bodhan, about 15 miles east of Surat, where a religious gathering is held 
once in every twelve years. Ashvani Kumar and Gupteswar, about 2 
miles up the river from Surat, are also held in esteem. Both spots are 
provided with temples, rest-houses, and flights of steps leading down 
to the water; and here, on several occasions in each year, large numbers 
come together to bathe. Gupteswar is also a favourite place for burning 
the dead. 

Tapti. — Lighthouse in Surat District, pjombay Presidency ; situated 
on the mainland near Vaux's tomb, at the mouth of the Tapti river, 
and opposite the village of Dumas, 13 miles west of Surat. It consists 
of a circular tower of brick, with a spiral stone stair inside. The 
height of the lantern above high water is 91 feet. It shows a single 
white, fixed dioptric light, of order four, which illuminates an area 
of 90 square miles, and is visible from the deck of a ship 15 miles 
distant. 

Ta-pun. — Township of Tharawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower 
Burma; extending from the Pegu Yomas westwards to the Irawadi 
river. Teak abundant. Ta-pun comprises 10 revenue circles, and 
covers an area of 375 square miles. Population (1881) 68,704; gross 
revenue, ;£■! 2,435. 

Ta-pun. — Town in 'i'harawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower 
Burma ; situated in lat. 18° 20' 20" n., and long. 95° 32' 10" e., about 
4 miles east of the Myit-ma-ka river. Contains a court-house for the 
Extra-Assistant Commissioner, a i)olice station, and an inspection 
bungalow. 

Tara {Thara). — State in Palanpur Agency, Bombay Presidency. — 
— See Kankrej. 

Tarabganj. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Gonda District, Oudh. 
Bounded on the north by Gonda and Utraula tahsils ; on the east by 
Basti District in the North-Western Provinces; and on the south-east 



20b TARAGARH—TARAHWAN. 

by the Gogra (Ghagra), separating it from Faizabad and Bara Banki 
Districts. Area, 657 square miles, of which 3 70 J square miles are 
cultivated. Population (1881) 363,012, namely, males 186,630, and 
females 176,382. Hindus number 336,891 ; Muhammadans, 26,085; 
and Christians, 36. Average density, 552 persons per square mile. 
Of 550 villages, 314 contain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 126 
between five hundred and a thousand; 108 between one and five 
thousand ; and 2 between five and ten thousand. The tahsil comprises 
the four pargands, of Nawabganj, Digsar, Mahadewa, and Guwarich. 
Revenue, ^40,541. In 1885, Tarabganj tahsil contained i civil and 
2 criminal courts ; police circles (thd?ids), 4 ; strength of regular police, 
90 men ; rural police or village watch {chaukiddrs), 841. 

Taragarh. — -Hill fortress in Ajmere-Merwara, Rajputana; perched 
on the crest of a height overhanging the city of Ajmere, which it 
commands at every point. Lat. 26° 26' 20" n., long. 74° 40' 15" e. 
Height above sea-level, 2855 feet. Built, according to tradition, by 
the mythical Raja Aja, from whom Ajmere (Ajmer) derives its name. 
The fortress played an important part in the early history of the Pro- 
vince, forming the stronghold of all the successive dynasties which 
occupied the city. It is surrounded on most sides by inaccessible 
precipices, and is elsewhere defended by a wall some 20 feet thick, 
and as many high, built of huge blocks of stone, cut and squared. 
The space within the walls is 80 acres, with an acute salient angle to 
the south. The fort contains several tanks, filled during the rains 
with water, which usually sufifices for the entire year. Dismantled in 
1832, and used since i860 as a sanitarium for the European troops 
stationed at Nasirabad (Nusseerabad). On its summit stands the 
shrine of a Muhammadan martyr, Sayyid Husain, killed in a night attack 
of the Rahtors and Chauhans (Rajputs) in 12 10 a.d. This shrine has 
an endowment of £aZ^ P^r annum, derived from ihe revenues of three 
villages, 

Taragarh. — Hill fort in Nalagarh (Hindiir) State, Punjab ; crowns 
a ridge rising from the left bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), in lat. 31° 10' n., 
and long. 76° 50' e. Thornton states that during the Gurkha war of 
1814-15 the enemy held this post; but in the operations preparatory 
to the investment of Malaun, Lieutenant Lawtie succeeded in bring- 
ing battering guns to bear upon the fort, which the Gurkhas at once 
evacuated. 

Tarahwan (or Tiro/uln). — Tahsil or Sub-division in Banda District, 
North- Western Provinces. — See Karwi. 

Tarahwan. — Ancient but decaying town in Banda District, North- 
western Provinces ; situated near the river Paisuni, a quarter of a 
mile south of Karwi, and 42 miles east of Banda town. Population 
(1S81) 2751. Magnificent but ruined fort, attributed by tradition to 



TARAL 



207 



Raja Basant Rai, a petty ruler who succeeded the Raja of Panna 250 
years ago. Underground passage, now almost entirely blocked uj^, 
said to he a mile in length. Six Hindu temples (two of them ancient) 
and five mosques. There is a large Muhammadan colony, which is 
rare in Bundelkhand ; it was planted by Rahi'm Khan, who obtained 
a grant of Tarahwan, with the title of Nawab, after Basant Rai's time. 
The place is noticeable as having been the residence of Amrit Rao, 
son of the Peshwa Raghubhai. In 1803, the British Government 
guaranteed to him and his son a pension of ^70,000 ; and he selected 
Tarahwan as his home, where he obtained a small jdgir. Amrit Rao 
died in 1824, and was succeeded by his son Benaik Rao. On the 
death of the latter, the pension ceased ; and his adopted children, 
Narayan Rao and Madhu Rao, joined the mutineers in 1857, by which 
act they forfeited their family estates. Narayan Rao died a prisoner 
at Hazaribagh in i860. Madhu Rao obtained a pardon in considera- 
tion of his youth, and was educated as a Government ward at Bareilly, 
a provision of ;£"3ooo being made in his favour. Balwant Rao, nephew 
of Benaik Rao, owns a few villages in Banda and Fatehpur Districts, 
continued to him by a special favour after the Mutiny. Large bazar 
for local trade. Village school. A small house-tax is levied for police 
and conservancy purposes. 

Tarai i^ Moist Laiid'). — British District in the Kumaun Divi- 
sion of the North-Western Provinces, lying between 28° 50' 30" and 
29° 22' 30" N. lat., and between 78° 46' and 79^ 47' e. long. Area, 
938 square miles. Population (1881) 206,993 persons. The Dis- 
trict is bounded on the north by Kumaun District ; on the east by 
Nepal and the newly constituted District of Pilibhit \ on the south by 
the Districts of Bareilly and Moradabad and the Native State of 
Rampur; and on the west by Bijnaur (Bijnor). The chief town of 
the District is Kasipur ; but the administrative head-quarters during 
the smnmer are at Naini Tal, in the neighbouring District of Kumaun, 
where the European officers reside from May to November. 

Physical Aspects. — The District consists of a long, narrow strip of 
country, running for about 90 miles east and west along the foot of 
the hills, with an average breadth of about 12 miles. The northern 
boundary is well defined by the commencement of the series of springs 
which burst from the surface where the waterless forest of the Kumaun 
bhdbhar tract ends. {See Kumaun.) These springs, increasing and 
uniting in their progress, form the numerous streams that intersect 
the Tarai, which has a slope south-south-east of about 1 2 feet per mile. 
The banks of these streams are usually abrupt, and their beds are 
swampy. Their course is marked by patches of forest, diversitied by 
grassy prairies. Of the rivers that rise in the lower hills, the Saniha 
joins the eastern border river, the Scirda. The Deoha is the great 



2oS TARAL 

river of the Tarai proper, and becomes navigable at Pilibhit. The 
Sukhi, as its name impHes, is dry except in the rainy season ; but its 
bed, uniting with that of the Bahgul, helps, on reaching the Tarai, to 
form part of the canal system of the Division. The Kichaha (the 
Gaula of the hills) is subject to heavy floods. Between it and the 
Kusi are the Paha, Bhakra, Bhaur, and Dabka. The Kusi flows 
through pargand Kasipur. The Phika forms the western boundary. 
All these rivers eventually join the Ramganga. The wild animals found 
in the District are elephants, tigers, bears, leopards, hyaenas, wolves, 
hog, and several kinds of deer. 

History, etc. — From the earliest dawn of traditional history in 
Kumaun, the Tarai is said to have formed an integral part of the Hill 
Raj, though exposed to constant incursions from Katehr (Rohilkhand). 
In the time of Akbar (1556-1605 a.d.), it w^as known under the name 
of Naulakhhia or Chaurasi Mai— the former from its nominal revenue 
of 9 lakhs of rupees, the latter from its presumed length of 84 kos. 
The records of 1 744 show a revenue of about 4 lakhs of rupees (say 
;^4o,ooo), which during the Rohilla times dwindled to 2 lakhs. A 
system of blackmail was introduced by the Barwaiks, Mewatis, and 
other nominal policemen and guards, which resulted in the Tarai be- 
coming a safe resort for banditti and escaped criminals. On the 
decadence of the Hill State, torn by intestine feuds and Joshi intrigues, 
Nandram, the Governor of Kasipur, rebelled, and afterwards handed 
over the territory to the Oudh Nawab. His nephew Sib Lai was found 
as the lessee of that potentate when Rohilkhand was ceded to the 
British in 180?. There was a time, undoubtedly, when the Tarai en- 
joyed an apparent prosperity, as shown by mango groves, wells, etc. 
But this time, according to Batten and other authorities, was coincident 
with that of Maratha and Rohilla troubles in the adjacent plains, when 
bad government in the ordinarily habitable parts of the country introduced 
an extraordinary number of ploughs into the borders of the forest, the 
resort to that insalubrious tract ceasing when British rule gave peace 
and prosperity to Rohilkhand. The Government is said to have looked 
with indifference in early days on this uninviting tract. Since 1831, 
when Mr. Boulderson revised the revenue settlements, this reproach 
has become less deserved. The year 1851 saw an able engineer officer. 
Captain W. Jones, in charge of an improved system of embankments 
and irrigation. Under his successors, and since the formation of a 
separate Tarai District in i86T,and its complete subjection to Kumaun 
management in 1870, the history of this tract has been one of moral as 
well as material improvement. 

Population, etc. — The only section of the inhabitants who reside 
continuously in the Tarai are the Tharus and Bhiiksas. These tribes 
claim for themselves a Rajput origin, but their real genealogy is un- 



TARAI. 209 

known, and they are not returned separately in the Census Report 
of 1 88 1. Their abihty to withstand the deadly effects of malaria is 
very remarkable; and they themselves attribute their safety to their 
constant consumption of animal food, supplied by wild hog and deer. 
The population of the Tarai District as at present constituted was 
returned at 185,658 in 1872, and 206,993 i" i^Si, showing an increase 
of 21,335, or 11-5 per cent., in nine years, caused by immigration owing 
to the spread of cultivation, notwithstanding the high death-rate from 
fever and bowel complaints. The results of the Census of 188 1 may be 
summarized as follows : — Area of District, 937*8 square miles; number 
of towns 2, and of villages 563; houses, 33,205. Total population, 
206,993, namely, males 113,315, and females 93,678; average density 
of population, 2207 persons per square mile ; villages per square 
mile, -60 ; persons per town or village, 366 ; houses per square mile, 
35*4 ; inmates per house, 6*2. 

The religious division of the people returns the Hindus as numbering 
131,966; iMuhammadans, 74,982; Christians, 11 ; and Jains, 34. Of 
the higher castes of Hindus, Brahmans number 6897 ; Rajputs, 4295 ; 
Baniyas, 7971; Gosains, 2050; and Kayasths, 2540. The low-caste 
Chamars are, however, the most numerous caste in the District, being 
returned at 18,320, the other principal castes in numerical order being 
— Kiirmis, 9020; Kahars, 8722; Mali's, 6564; Lodhs, 4508 ; Gadarias, 
2572; Lobars, 2471; Ahars, 2393; Bhangis, 2164; Ahirs, 1754; 
Nais, 1549; Barhais, 1458; Jats, 1438; Dhobi's, 1262; and Giijars, 
1056. The Muhammadans, with one solitary exception, are returned 
as belonging to the Sunni sect. 

Two towns contain upwards of five thousand inhabitants, namely, 
Kasipur, 14,667; and Jashpur, 7055. The rural population of 
185,271 are scattered over the country in 563 small villages, of which 
218 contain less than two hundred inhabitants; 241 between two 
hundred and five hundred ; 87 between five hundred and a thousand ; 
15 between one thousand and two thousand; and 2 between two 
thousand and three thousand. 

Agriculture. — The cultivable area amounts to 463 square miles, of 
which 271 were actually under cultivation at the last estimate. The 
mode of husbandry is much more primitive than in the plains country 
to the south ; but the soil being naturally fertile, yields an abundant 
out-turn with very inferior cultivation, and this fact, combined with low 
rents, is the chief attraction to an immigrant. There is still a large 
area of waste land, and no pressure of population on the land is felt. 
x\s may be supposed, rice is the staple produce ; it is sown at three 
seasons, according to the quality of the crop. Other crops comprise 
wheat, barley, yWr, bdjra, maize, gram, peas, mustard, linseed, sugar- 
cane, cotton, tobacco, and melons. Ginger, red-pepper, turmeric, and 
VOL. xiii. o 



2 TO TARAL 

hemp are also cultivated, but to a very small extent. The total male 
adult agricultural population in 1881 was 55,455» consisting of— land- 
holders, 393 ; estate officers, 118; cultivators, 45.235 ; and agricultural 
labourers, 9709. Average cultivated area per each male agriculturist, 
3-27 acres. The population entirely dependent on the soil, however, 
numbered 137,054, or 66-2 per cent, of the total population of the 
District. Total Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses levied on land, ^'18,484, or an average of 2s. id. per cultivated 
acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, ^■43,741, or an average of 
4s. lod. per cultivated acre. 

Natural Calamities.— i:\iQ moist nature of the country ordinarily 
saves this tract from drought; but in 1868, some of the villages where 
irrigation was impracticable suffered from scarcity. 

Manufactures and Trade, etc. — There are no manufactures worthy of 
notice, and the chief trade is the export of grain. Vast herds of cattle 
graze in the District, belonging to Rohilkhand landholders, and also to 
the migratory trading Banjaras. The principal roads in the District 
are— (i) the road running due east and west from the Sarda river to the 
Bijnaur boundary, which connects all the pargands, and is about 90 
miles in length; (2) the Moradabad and Naini Tal line, which runs 
through the Biz^ux pargatid for a distance of 21 miles ; (3) the Bareilly 
and Naini Tal road, 13 miles; and (4) the Moradabad and Ranikhet 
road, passing through Kasipur /^r^awi, and thence to the hill mart of 
Ramnagar. There are numerous cross roads connected with the above- 
named main lines, and the communications are ample for the con- 
venience of the people. The Rohilkhand and Kumaun light railway, 
now open for traffic, runs through the District parallel to the Bareiliy- 
Naini Tal road, with a station at Kichaha. 

Revenue, etc — The civil courts are those of the Superintendent and 
his Assistant, from whom an appeal lies to the Commissioner of 
Kumaun in certain cases; and that of the tahsilddr of Riidrapur. 
The same officers have criminal powers under the Indian Penal Code 
and Code of Criminal Procedure, and the Raja of Kasipur is a Special 
Magistrate for pargand Kasipur. Bazpur, Gadarpur, and Riidrapur 
have each a Special Native Magistrate. The District is divided into 
pargands Kasipur, Bazpur, Gadarpur, Riidrapur, Kilpuri, Nanakmata, 
and Bilhari. The total revenue of the District in 1883 amounted to 
^^24,501, of which ;2^20,039 was derived from the land-tax and 
grazing dues, the other principal items of revenue being — excise, ^1545 ; 
provincial rates, ^752; and stamps, ^366. Total cost of civil 
administration, as shown by the pay of officials and police, £$192. 
Except in pargands Kasipur and Nanakmata, the proprietary right in 
the soil is vested in the State alone. The crime of the District is low, 
consisting principally of cattle thefts committed by wandering clans 



TARAI SUB-DIVISIOX—TARAKESWAR. 211 

of Ahi'rs, Gujars, and Mewatis, but this is now very much on the 
decrease. There are 7 pohce stations in the District, with a regular poUce 
force of 129 officers and men. Twelve Government-inspected schools 
were attended by 506 pupils on the 31st March 1884. This is below 
the truth, as it excludes some private indigenous schools. The Census 
Report of 1881 returned 784 boys and 2 girls as under instruction, 
besides 2450 males and 30 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Climate, f/r.— llie climate of the Tardi is normally bad ; but improve- 
ment is gradually following the drainage of swamps, the cutting down of 
forest, and the spread of cultivation. There is much malarious fever 
of an intermittent type. During the year 1883, the vital statistics of 
the District gave 10,005 registered deaths, of which 8614 were due to 
fever, 788 to bowel complaints, 414 to small-pox, 3 to cholera, and 186 
to other causes, making an average mortality of 48 per thousand. Cattle 
epidemics are frequent and severe, said to be attributed to the climate, 
and to the want of care in protecting their stock on the i^irt both of 
cultivators and graziers. [For further information regarding the Tarai, 
seethe Gazetteer of the North-Western Frovi?ices, Himalayan Districts, 
vol. xii. part iii., by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, C.S. (Allahabad, 1886).] 

Tarai.— Sub-division of Darjiling District, Bengal. Area, 271 square 
miles; number of villages, 737; houses, 12,185. Population (1881) 
63,241, namely, males 35,410, and females 27,831. Hindus, 55,118; 
Muhammadans, 6659; Buddhists, 814; Christians, 23; and 'others,' 
627. Proportion of males in total population, 55-9 per cent. ; average 
density of population, 233 persons per square mile ; persons per 
village, 86 ; houses per square mile, 46 ; inmates per house, 5-2. The 
head-quarters of the Sub-division are at Siliguri, at the foot of the 
Himalayas, the terminus of both the Northern Bengal State Railway and 
the Darjiling-Himalayan Railways. The Tarai Sub-division contains 
43 tea-gardens. 

Tarakeswar.— Village and railway station in Hiigli District, Bengal. 
Lat. 22° 53' N., long. 88' 4' e. Famous for its large shrine dedicated to 
Siva, resorted to by crowds of pilgrims all the year round. This temple 
is richly endowed with money and lands, supplemented by the offerings 
of wealthy devotees. It is under the management of a mahant or priest, 
who enjoys its revenues for life. Two large religious gatherings are 
held annually at Tarakeswar. The first of these, the Sivardtri, takes 
l)lace in February ; and the ceremonies enjoined on this day are con- 
sidered by the followers of Siva to be the most sacred of all their 
observances. The three essential rites of the Sivardtri are, fasting 
during the day, and holding a vigil and worshipping Siva as the 
marvellous and interminable Linga (typifying the exaltation of Siva- 
worship over that of Vishnu and Brahma) during the night. It is 



212 TAR AN TARAN—TARAPUR. 

estimated that 20,000 people annually visit the shrine on the occasion 
of this festival, which occupies only one day. A considerable meld or 
fair held at the same time continues for three days. The second great 
religious festival is the Chaitra Sa7ikrd?iti, falling within April, on the 
last day of the Hindu month of Chaitra, which is also the day of the 
swinging festival. The temple is then visited by persons who come for 
purposes of penance, or to lead a temporary ascetic life in fulfilment of 
vows made to Siva in the crisis of their lives. The swinging festival of 
the present day is a very harmless affair compared with what it used to 
be in olden times, the votaries now being merely suspended by a belt 
instead of by means of hooks pierced through the fleshy muscles on 
both sides of the spine. The fair on this occasion lasts six days, and 
is estimated to be attended by about 15,000 people. Tarakeswar is now 
the terminus of a short line of railway, 22 miles in length, branching 
off from the East Indian main line at Seoraphuli, 14 miles from 
Howrah. The construction of this branch hne has immensely increased 
the popularity of the temple, for the Bengalis love to make their 
l)ilgrimages at their ease. [For fuller details, see Statistical Account 
of Be7igal, vol. iii. pp. 324-328.] 

Taran Taran. — TahsilTm^ town in Amritsar District, Punjab. — See 
Tarn Taran. 

Taraon. — One of the petty States of Bundelkhand, known as the 
Kalinjar Chaubes, under the political superintendence of the Central 
India Agency. Area, 12 square miles. Population (1881) 3163; 
estimated revenue, ^2000. Taraon is one of the five shares into 
which the estates of Ram Kishan Chaube of Kalinjar were divided 
in 181 7. The jagirdar or chief maintains a force of 250 foot- 
soldiers. The present chief, a Brahman by caste, is named Chatarbhuj 
Chaub^. The capital, Taraon Khas, is a small village containing 
(1881) 909 persons. 

Tarapur. — Town in the Native State of Cambay, Bombay Presidency; 
situated about 12 miles north of Cambay town. Population (1881) 
5590, namely, Hindus, 5222; Muhammadans, 303 ; and Jains, 65. 

Tarapur. — Port in J^Iahim Sub-division, Thana (Tanna) District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 50' n., long. 72° 42' 30" e. It is 
situated in a low wooded tract on the south bank of the Tarapur creek, 
60 miles north of Bombay, 15 miles north of Mahim, and by road 7 
miles north-west of Boisar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railw^ay. From the village on the north bank of the creek the 
town is known by the joint name of Tarapur-Chinchni. Population 
(1881) 2939. The annual average value of the trade for the five years 
ending 1881-82 was ^15,577, namely, imports, ^4325; exports, 
^11,252. The trade in 1881-82 amounted to ^15,607 — imports, 
^3352; exports, ^12,255. 



TAR A PUR CUSTOMS DIVISION -TAR IKE RE. 213 

Tarapur.— Customs Division of i^orts of Thana District, Bombay 
Presidency, consisting of Tarapur, Daiianu, Nawapur, Satpati, Mahim, 
Kelva, and Dantivra. The annual average value of the trade for the 
five years ending 1883-84 was ^81,108, namely, im])orts, ^19,506; 
exports, ^61,602. The trade in 1883-84 amounted to ^104,278 — 
imports, /:3o,438 ; exports, ^73,840. 

Tarbela. — Town or cluster of villages and hamlets in Haripur 
ta/isi/, Hazdra District, Punjab ; situated about i mile from the 
Indus, in lat. 34° 7' n., and long. 72" 50' e., 54 miles due west of 
Abbottabad. Population (1881) 5304. Head-quarters of a police 
circle. Inhabited by a purely agricultural community of Utmanzai 
Pathans. The various parts of Tarbela, though closely adjoining, are 
separated from one another by cultivated fields. 

Tarenga. — Village in Bilaspur tahsil, Bilaspur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2650, namely, Hindus, 1861 ; Satnamis, 
362; Kabirpanthis, 82; Muhammadans, 149; and non- Hindu 
aborigines, 196. 

Targaon. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated 16 miles east of 
Unao town, in lat. 26° 31' 50" n., and long. 80° 38' 50" e. Founded 
about 400 years ago by Tara Singh, who, when out hunting, was 
delighted with the appearance of the place, cleared the jungle, and 
built a residence here. Population (1881) 4232, namely, Hindus 
4082, and Muhammadans 150. Two weekly markets. Famous for 
the manufacture of glass bracelets. 

Tari. — Village in Zamaniah ta/isil, Ghazipur District, North-Western 
Provinces ; situated in lat. 25° 34' 6" n., and long. 83° 38' 56" e., 2 miles 
from Ghazipur city, and 9 miles from Zamaniah. Population (1881) 
1 48 1. The terminus of the branch line of railway from Dildarnagar 
to Tari ghcit is situated in this village. 

Tari Baragaon. — Village in Rasrd tahsil, Ballia District, North- 
Western Provinces; situated on the Nagra-Azamgarh road, 10 miles 
from Rasra town. Population (188 1) 3180. The village contains six 
sugar refineries and 20 looms. Primary school. 

Tarikere. — Tdluk in the north-east of Kadiir District, Mysore State. 
Area, 372 square miles, of which 42 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
73,585, namely, males 36,184, and females 37,401. Hindus number 
70,500; Muhammadans, 2982 ; Christians, loi ; and 'others,' 2. The 
surface is diversified by hill and plain, and yields a great variety of 
crops. A portion of the Baba Budan mountains is included, on the 
slopes of which are coffee plantations. At the foot of the hills, iron-ore 
is worked. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil court; police circles 
{thdiids), 6; regular police, 50 men; village watch {chaukiddrs)^ 327. 
Revenue, ^12,520. 

Tarikere (lit. 'The Tank of the Tdri 7)vf' — Borassus flabelliformis). 



214 TARN TAR AN TAHSIL AND TOWN 

— Town in Kadiir District, Mysore, 30 miles south of Chikmagaliir, 
and head-quarters of Tarikere taluk. Lat. 13° 42' 20" n., long. 75° 51' 
E. Population (188 1 ) 5266, namely, Hindus, 4209; Muhammadans, 
1053; and Christians, 4. Tarikere is thought to occupy the site of a 
town called Katur, founded at the end of the 12th century by one of 
the Ballala kings. The present fort was erected, and the name of 
Tarikere conferred, in 1569, by a pdlegdr of Basvapatna, to whose 
family the surrounding country was granted by the Mughals. They 
continued in possession until 1761, when Haidar Ali annexed the 
territory to Mysore, but awarded the chief a maintenance allowance. 
The representative of the line took a leading part in the disturbances of 
1830, which resulted in the assumption of the government of Mysore 
by the British. His son continued at large fomenting disloyalty until 
1834, when he was seized and hanged. 

Tarn Taran. — Southern tahsil of Amritsar (Umritsur) District, Pun- 
jab ; consisting throughout of an unbroken plain, most of which is under 
cultivation. Area, 596 square miles, with 343 towns and villages, 
31,705 houses, and 58,003 families. Total population, 261,676, 
namely, males 143,013, and females 118,663. Average density 
of population, 440 persons per square mile. Muhammadans number 
104,556; Sikhs, 91,957 ; Hindus, 65,156; and Christians, 7. Of the 
343 towns and villages in the tahsil^ 157 contain less than five 
hundred inhabitants ; no between five hundred and a thousand; 54 
between one and two thousand ; 1 1 between two and three thousand ; 
9 between three and five thousand ; and 2 between five and ten 
thousand. Average area under cultivation for the five years 1877-78 
to 1881-82, 511 square miles, or 326,871 acres, the principal crops 
being — wheat, 96,437 acres; gram, 78,115 acres ; y^^fr, 37,444 acres; 
Indian corn, 27,710 acres; barley, 16,108 acres ; moth^ 8661 acres; rice, 
4473 acres; sugar-cane, 14,396 acres; cotton, 5450 acres; and vege- 
tables, 915 1 acres. Revenue of the tahsil, ;£^2 9,389. The local 
administrative staff" consists of a tahsUddr and a munsif, who preside 
over I criminal and 2 civil courts ; number of police circles (thdnds), 4 ; 
strength of regular police, 66 men ; rural police or village watch ichdiiki- 
ddrs), 369. 

Tarn Taran. — Town and municipality in Amritsar (Umritsur) 
District, Punjab, and head-quarters of Tarn Taran tahsil ; situated in 
lat. 31° 28' N., and long. 74^ 58' e., on the Amritsar and Malwa road, 
12 miles south of Amritsar city, near the junction of the Beas (Bias) 
and Sutlej rivers. Population (1881) 3210, namely, Muhammadans, 
1089; Sikhs, 1077; and Hindus, 1044. Number of houses, 62S. 
^lunicipal income (1883-84), ^536, or an average of 3s. 4d. per 
head. The town was founded by Giirii Arjun, son and successor of 
Giird Ram Das (the builder of Amritsar). Arjun constructed in the 



TARDEA. 215 

town a magnificent tank, and erected by its side a Sikh temple. This 
tank has the reputation of possessing miraculous powers on all persons 
afflicted with leprosy who can swim across it, whence the town derives 
its name. Ranjit Singh greatly revered the temple at Tarn Taran, and 
overlaid it with plates of copper gilt, besides richly ornamenting it. On 
the north side of the tank stands a lofty column, erected by Prince Nao 
Nihal Singh. I'arn Taran ranks as the capital of the Manjha, or heart 
of the Bari Doab, a central tract running from Amritsar to below Kasiir 
in Lahore District. This region is historically famous as the stronghold 
of the Sikh people, and still forms the great recruiting ground for the 
native army. Small trade with Amritsar. Manufacture of iron vessels. 
The Sobraon branch of the Bari Doab Canal flows within a short 
distance of the town, and from this the great tank is supplied with 
water through a channel constructed at the expense of the Raja of Jind. 
Court-house, police station, sardi (native inn), dispensary, post-office, 
schoolhouse. Leper asylum outside the town, for the relief of the 
afflicted poor of Amritsar and Lahore Districts. Suburb inhabited by 
a tribe of lepers, who claim descent from Giirii Arjun, who was himself, 
according to tradition, a sufferer from the disease. 

Taroba. — Lake in Chanda District, Central Provinces ; situated in 
lat. 20" 20' N., and long. 79' 22' e., 14 miles east of Segaon, in a basin 
of the Chimiir Hills, at a considerable height above the plain. It is of 
great depth, and though artifically embanked at one point, has the 
appearance of a natural lake. Long ago, a marriage procession of 
Caulis from the west was passing through these hills. They sought for 
water in vain, when a weird old man bade the bride and bridegroom 
dig together for a spring. As they dug, a clear fountain leapt forth, 
and spread into a wide lake, under the depths of which the marriage 
party still dwell. By the lake side a palm-tree grew up, which flourished 
during the day, but every evening sank into the earth. A rash pilgrim 
one morning seated himself on the tree-top, and was borne into the 
skies, where the flames of the sun consumed him. The palm then 
shrivelled into dust, and in its place appeared an image of Taroba, the 
spirit of the lake. Formerly, at the call of pilgrims, vessels for their use 
would rise from the w^aters. At last, however, an evil man, instead of 
restoring the vessels to the lake, bore them away to his home. They 
quickly vanished, and pilgrims now call for them in vain. Still, however, 
the country folk hear faint sounds of drums and trumpets passing round 
the lake ; and old men yet live who, when the waters sank low in a dry 
year, descried dimly in the depths the golden pinnacles of a fairy temple. 
The lake attracts many worshippers, especially in December and 
January, wives yearning for children, and sick men praying for health. 
A Gond performs the sacred rites of the god. The fish grow to a large 
size ; the skeleton of one stranded measured 8 feet in length. 



2i6 TAROCB—TASGAOy. 

Taroch {Tb-hodi). — One of the Simla Hill States, under the poli- 
tical superintendence of the Punjab Government ; lying between 30° 55' 
and 31° 3' N. lat., and between 77° 37' and 77° 51' e. Area, 67 
square miles, with 44 villages, 538 houses, and 549 families; total 
population (1881) 3216, all Hindus, with the exception of 6 Muham- 
madans. Taroch formerly constituted a part of Sirmur (Sarmor) 
State. When it fell under the dominion of the British, Thakur 
Karam Singh was the nominal chief; but, on account of his great age 
and infirmities, his brother Jhobu conducted the administration. In 
18 19 a sa?iad was bestowed on Jhobu, conferring, after his brother's 
death, the State on him and his heirs. This sanad was confirmed in 
1843 by another granted to Thakur Ran jit Singh, in which claims for 
forced labour ipegar) were commuted for a payment of ^28. The 
present (1885) chief, Thakur Kedar Singh, is a minor, and the State is 
administered by a council. The revenue is estimated at ^600. The 
military force is 80 men. 

Taroli. — Village in Chhata tahsil, IMuttra (Mathura) District ; 
situated in lat. 27° 40' 46" n., long. 77° 37' 45" e. Population (1881) 
2380. Merely an agricultural village, with a large temple of Radha- 
Gobind, at which an annual fair is held on the full moon of 
Kartik (October-November) and the two preceding days. Weekly 
market. 

Tasgaon. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 341 square miles. Population (1872) 87,975 ; (1881) 79,704, 
namely, males 40,004, and females 39,700 ; occupying 11,356 houses, in 
2 towns and 47 villages. Hindus number 69,367 ; Muhammadans, 
3955 ; and ' others,' 6382. Tasgaon in the south-east is broken up by 
many patches of Sangli and Miraj States. The whole of the Sub-divi- 
sion is rather low, especially the land near the meeting of the Yerla and 
the Kistna. The northern and eastern portions are rocky and barren, 
cut by ranges of low hills which branch from the Khanapur plateau. 
The west and south-west on and near the great rivers form a continua- 
tion of the rich plain of the eastern Walva, and like it are well wooded 
with mango and babul (Acacia arabica). The only important rivers are 
the Kistna, forming the western boundary ; and the Yerla, which enters 
near the middle of the Sub-division from the north. Near the Kistna 
and Yerla the soil is rich black. Towards the north-east, the soil is 
rocky and barren. In 1882-83, the number of holdings, including 
alienated lands in Government villages, was 6064, with an average area 
of 23-15 acres. In 1881-82, the area under actual cultivation was 
102,301 acres, of which 177 acres were twice cropped. Cereals and 
pulses occupied 77,517 acres; pulses, 16,243 acres; oil-seeds, 3209 
acres; fibres, 3388 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 2121 acres. In 
1882-83 the Sub -division contained i civil and 2 criminal courts; 



TASGAON TOJr.V—TATTA. 217 

police circle {thdna), i ; regular police, 54 men ; village watch {cJiauk'i- 
diirs), 161. Land revenue, ^£^17,519- 

Tasgaon. — Chief town of the Tasgaon Sub-division of Satara Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency ; situated 60 miles south-east of Satara city, 
and 85 miles north of Belgaum, in lat. 17° i' 59" n., and long. 74° 38' 
40" E. Population (1881) 10,206, namely, males 5179, and females 
5027. Hindus number 8931; Muhammadans, 920; Jains, 351; and 
Parsis, 4. The town stands on rising ground on the north bank of a 
stream which flows into the Yerla about 4 miles to the south-west. 
Municipal income (1883-84), ;^469 ; incidence of taxation, io|d. 
per head. Besides the Sub-divisional revenue and police offices, 
Tasgaon has a sub-judge's court, dispensary, travellers' bungalow, and 
four schools, of which one is for girls. Native library. 

Tatiparthi. — Hill pass leading across the Eastern Ghats from 
Vizagapatam District to Jaipur zamitiddri, Madras Presidency. The 
pass is better known as Minamaliir ghat. Connects the town of 
Madgole with Jaipur in the iVgency tract of the District. The village 
of Tatiparthi is at the foot of the pass, and that of Minamaliir at the top. 

Tatta (T/iato). — Taluk of Jerruck Sub-division, Karachi (Kurrachee) 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Area, 1323 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1872) 37,926; (1881) 39,750, namely, males 21,600, and females 
18,150; occupying 7665 houses, in i town and 29 villages. Muham- 
madans number 32,773; Hindus, 6412; Sikhs, 510; Christians, 33 ; 
Jews, 10; aborigines, 7 ; and Parsis, 5. In 1882-83, the area assessed 
for land revenue was 28,192 acres; and area under actual cultivation, 
23,728 acres. In 1883 the. tdhik contained 3 criminal courts; police 
circles (thdnds), 11 ; regular police, 91 men. Revenue, ^£45 18. 

ToXtdi, (Thato ; known among the inhabitants as Nagar Thato). — 
Chief town of Tatta taluk in Jerruck Sub-division, Karachi Dis- 
trict, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated in lat. 24° 44' n., and long. 
68° E., about 7 miles west of the right bank of the Indus; distant 
about 50 miles east from Karachi (Kurrachee), 32 miles south-south- 
west from Jerruck, and 24 miles north-east from Mirpur Sakro. Popu- 
lation (1881) 8830, namely, Muhammadans, 4475 ; Hindus, 4081 ; 
Christians, 7; and 'others,' 267. The town is built on a slight 
eminence in an alluvial valley at the foot of the Makli Hills. It would 
appear to have been at one time insulated by the waters of the Indus ; 
and to this day, after the subsidence of the annual inundation, numerous 
stagnant pools are left which infect the air, producing a bad form of 
fever which has made Tatta notoriously unhealthy at particular seasons 
of the year. It was mainly from this cause, combined with the unwhole- 
some water of the place, that the British troops stationed here in 1839 
suffered such serious mortality. Tatta is most easily and speedily 
reached from Karachi by the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway as far 



2i8 TATTA. 

as Jangshahi, whence a metalled road, 13 miles long, leads directly to 
the town itself. Head-quarters of a viukhtidrkdr and tappdddr^ and a 
police thdiid. Tatta is a municipality with an income in 1883-84 ot 
^{^1169; incidence of taxation, 2s. 2^-d. per head. It has a Govern- 
ment ^Anglo-vernacular school, a boys' and a girls' vernacular school, 
besides several private schools, a post-office, dispensary, and subordinate 
jail. The civil and criminal court-house is situate on the Makli Hills, 
close to the town, where also is the Deputy Collector's bungalow, 
formerly one of the tombs. 

The population of Tatta has fallen off very much during the past 
century. Hamilton, who visited the town in 1699, calls it a large 
and rich city, about 3 miles long and ij broad. He states that 80,000 
persons had, a short time previous to his visit, died of the plague, and 
that one-half of the city was in consequence uninhabited. It is also 
related by Pottinger, that when the Persian king Nadir Shah entered 
Tatta at the head of his army in 1742, there were 40,000 weavers, 20,000 
other artisans, and 60,000 dealers of various kinds. In 1840, the 
number of inhabitants was variously estimated at from 10,000 to 
40,000 ; but the late Captain J. Wood (of the Indian navy), who had 
good opportunities of judging in this respect, estimated in 1837 the 
number of tradesmen and artificers at 9825 and the entire population 
at not more than 10,000. The present trade of Tatta is not a tithe 
of what it once was. It consists mostly of silk and cotton manu- 
factures and grain. Lungis (scarves or shawls), a thick, rich, and 
variegated fabric of cotton and silk, are still made, but not to the same 
extent as formerly. Coarse cotton fabrics, both plain and coloured, 
are also woven to some extent, but they have been greatly super- 
seded by the cheaper Manchester goods. In 1758, a factory was estab- 
lished at Tatta during the reign of Ghulam Shah Kalhora by the East 
India Company, but it was withdrawn in 1775. Again, in 1799, 
another commercial mission was attempted under the same auspices, 
but this, like the former, terminated unsatisfactorily. The house 
belonging to the factory at Tatta was, up to 1839, in good repair, and 
in that year it was occupied by a portion of the British garrison. In 
1837, the total silk and cotton manufactures of Tatta were valued at 
^£■41,400, and the imports of British goods at ^3000. At present, the 
entire value of the local import trade, comprising upwards of twenty 
different articles, appears to average between 4 and 5 Idkhs of rupees 
(say ;£4o,ooo to ^50,000), the largest items being grain, ghi, sugar, 
and raw silk. The exports are but iQVf in number, consisting only of 
silk manufactures, grain, cotton cloth, and hides. As regards the 
transit trade, a portion of the grain received from Haidarabad tdluk 
and the Shahbandar and Sehwan Sub-divisions finds its way through 
this town to Karachi and the neighbouring hill country. 



TATTAMANGALAM—TA UNG-BEK-MYO. 219 

Among the ancient remains of Tatta may be mentioned the Jama 
Masjid and fort. The town itself is undoubtedly of great antiquity, 
and it has by some been supposed to be the Patala of the ancients. 
Outram assigns its foundation to the year 1445, but other writers state 
that it was not founded before 1522. The general opinion is that 
the former date is the more correct, and that the town owes its rise to 
a prince of the Samma dynasty, Jam Nizam-ud-din (commonly called 
Jam Ninda), whose tomb is to this day pointed out among others on 
the Makli Hills. In 1555, Tatta is said by Postans to have been 
pillaged and burnt by Portuguese mercenaries. In 1591 it was agani 
destroyed during the invasion of Sind by Akbar. The Jama Masjid, 
by far the finest building in Tatta, is supposed to have been com- 
menced in 1644 by order of the ]Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan, as a 
memorial of his regard for the inhabitants, he having been permitted to 
pay his devotions in the former chief mosque during his flight from his 
father Jahangir. The building is rectangular in shape, 315 feet long by 
190 feet wide, and covers a space of 6316 square yards. The interior 
is beautifully painted in encaustic, the delicacy and harmony of the 
colouring being remarkable ; there are also some very elegant specimens 
of perforated stonework in different parts of the mosque. It is said to 
have cost, in all, 9 lakhs of rupees ; and it would, in all probability, like 
the tombs on the Makli Hills, have long since fallen into decay, had not 
the inhabitants of Tatta, by subscriptions raised amongst themselves, 
assisted by a money grant from the British Government, put the building 
into substantial repair. The fort of Tatta was commenced about 1699, 
during the reign of Aurangzeb, by Nawab Hafiz-ulla, but it was never 
completed. The foundation has now been almost entirely removed to 
provide material for building purposes. 

Tattamangalam.— Town in the Chittiir District of Cochin State, 
:\Iadras Presidency. Lat. 10° 41' n., long. 76° 46' e. Population 
(1871) 8894, inhabiting T784 houses; not separately returned in the 
Census Report of 1881. Mutisif s noMX'i. 

Taung - bek - myo. — Southern township of Sandoway District, 
Arakan Division, Lower Burma; occupying the whole tract between 
the Arakan Yomas and the Bay of Bengal, from the Sa-wa river south- 
wards to the Gwa (Khwa). It has an area of mo square miles, and 
is divided into 6 revenue circles. Population (1881) 12,112. The 
country is very mountainous, and drained by many small streams, with 
a general easterly or westerly course. The Gwa, the principal river, 
forms a good harbour, but the entrance is impracticable for large 
vessels, owing to a bar. The chief products of the township are rice, 
tobacco, sesamum, sugar-cane, dhani (Nipa fruticans), plantains, cotton, 
pepper, madder, mulberry, cocoa-nuts, and vegetables. The exports 
are sesamum seed and oil, silk, madder, cotton, sugar, torches, nga-pi 



2 2 o TA UNG- G UP— TA UNG-NG U. 

or fish-paste, dried and salt fish, turtle eggs, and cattle. The imports 
comprise cotton, woollen, and silk piece-goods and twist, and lacquered 
ware. Communication is carried on inland by means of the beds of 
mountain streams, which are very dangerous during the monsoons. 
The gross revenue of the township amounted in 1874-75 to ;£2677 ; 
in 1881-82, after the transfer of two circles to Sandoway Myoma town- 
ship of Sandoway District, it was £^\^'^\. 

Taung-gup. — Village in Sandoway District, Arakan Division, Lower 
Burma, and head - quarters of the Taung-gup or northern township ; 
situated in lat. 18° 49' 50" n., and long. 94° 19' 50" e., about 6 miles 
from the mouth of the Taung-gup river. Contains a court-house, 
police station, and telegraph office. Population (1881) 2570. An 
important road across the Yoma mountains, from Taung-gup into Pegu, 
was made shortly after annexation. 

Taung-gup. — River in Sandoway District, iVrakan Division, Lower 
Burma; rising in the western slopes 'of the Arakan Hills, and passing 
the village of Taung-gup, falls into the sea a little south of Ramri. 
Two large low islands divide its mouth into three channels. 

Taung-laung-SU. — Village in the Henzada township, Henzada 
District, Irawadi Division, Lower Burma. Population (1878) 3081. 
Not separately returned in the Census Report of 1881. 

Taung-ngU. — British District in the Tenasserim Division of Lower 
Burma, lying between lat. 17° 37'and 19° 28' n., and between long. 95°53' 
and 96° 53' E. Area, 6354 square miles. Population (1881) 128,848 
souls. Bounded on the north by Upper Burma, from which it is 
separated by a line of masonry pillars, marking the frontier fixed by 
Lord Dalhousie in 1853; on the east by a mountain range known as 
the 'Great Watershed;' on the south by Shwe-gyin District; and 
on the west by the Pegu Yomas. Head - quarters at Taung-ngu 
Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The District is crossed by three mountain ranges, 
— the Pegu Yomas, and the Paung-laung and Nat-taung or ' Great 
Watershed ' chains, — all with a general north and south direction, and 
covered for the most part with dense forest. The average elevation of 
the Yomas is here between 800 and 1200 feet. The hills between the 
' Great Watershed ' and the Sittaung river on the east average between 
2000 and 3000 feet in height, and are clothed in parts with pines ; 
still farther east are the Nat-taung Mountains, with one peak 8000 
feet above sea-level. These ranges send out numerous spurs. They 
are of granite, and exhibit on the east an almost perfectly crystalline 
structure. The rest of Taung-ngu forms the upper portion of the 
valley of the Sittaung river, which on the east has an average breadth 
of 5, and on the west of 20 miles. Near the frontier this tract is very 
rugged, and cultivation can only be effected in patches on the slopes 



TAUNG-NGU. 221 

of the hills. The soil is a tenacious sandy alluvium, and towards 
the north large masses of fossil wood occur. In the vicinity of Taung- 
ngu town are plains, which increase in breadth south of the town. The 
Sittaung (Sitoung) is the only large river in the District. Its chief 
tributaries are the Swa, Ka-baung, Pyu, Thauk-ye-gat, and Yauk-thwa- 
wa, all navigable for some distance of their course. 

The geology of the District is described in Mr. Theobald's Records of 
the Geological Survey of hidia, vol. x. part 2, pp. 73 ^/ seq. Limestone 
appears in places east of the Sittaung river, and north-east of Taung- 
ngu town a light grey marble is quarried. The principal timber trees 
are in (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus), pyin-7tia (Lagerstroemia Flos- 
Regin^e), pyiti-gado (Xylia dolabriformis), ka-nyin (Dipterocarpus 
alatus), thin-ga7i (Hopea odorata), pa-doiik (Pterocarpus indicus), teak 
(Tectona grandis), ska (Acacia Catechu), and varieties of Dalbergia, 
Acacia, etc. 

History. — According to the palm-leaf histories, A-thaw-ka (Asoka), 
in 321 B.C., sent for the chiefs of Taung-ngu, and giving them various 
relics of Gautama, directed them to transport them to Taung-ngu and 
to erect pagodas over them. From this time till the close of the 12th 
century a.d. the history of Taung-ngu is blank. In 1191, Xa-ra-pa-di- 
si-thu. King of Pagan, whose name appears in Tavoyan, Talaing, 
Burman, and Taung-ngu histories, and who is everywhere described as 
a religious monarch who did much to establish Buddhism in Burma 
and the adjacent countries, came down the Irawadi, and sailing out to 
sea, entered the Sittaung, and ascended as far as Taung-ngu in search, 
it is said, of the pagodas built some 1500 years before by A-thaw-ka. 
The pagodas were found, and were cleaned and repaired. Na-ra-pa-di- 
si-thu appointed a governor, which seems to show that at this period 
Taung-ngu was subject to Pagan. A successor of this governor removed 
the seat of government to a spot on the banks of the Swa, about 20 
miles north of the present town of Taung-ngu. 

The country increased in prosperity until 1256, when Wa-ri-yu, 
the King of Martaban, marched northwards and invaded Taung-ngu, 
and, having taken Tha-won-lek-ya prisoner, sent him to Byu, a village 
about 14 miles south of Shwe-gyin. His sons, in 1279, built a town 
on a hill, which they called Taung-ngu, from taung, a hill, and figu^ a 
projecting spur. At about the same time that these two princes 
founded Taung-ngu, a man called Karen-ba established a settlement 
on the eastern bank of the Sittaung, which was called Karen-myo or 
Karen city. The brothers having heard of this, and finding that the 
site which they had selected was too small, entered into communication 
with Karen-ba, and the three agreed to found a new town, which they 
did in 1299, and called it Da-nya-wa-di. Tha-won-gyi was declared 
king, Tha-won-ngay heir-apparent, and Karen-ba prime minister. The 



222 TAUNG-NGU. 

Pagan kingdom had begun to decline in 1250, and the reigning 
sovereign had been unable to come to Tha-won-lek-ya's aid when he 
was attacked by Wa-ri-yu, and for many years the whole country was 
torn by internal dissensions. Taung-ngu thus remained without inter- 
ference from the north or from the south, and Tha-won-gyi was enabled 
to consolidate his kingdom. He was murdered in 131 7, after a 
reign of eighteen years, by his brother Tha-won-ngay, who ascended 
the throne, and died in 1324, after a reign of seven years. 

Karen-ba then usurped the kingdom, and died in 1342, after a reign 
of eighteen years, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Lek-ya-ze-ya- 
thin-gyaw, whose younger brother Tauk-lek-ya wrested the government 
from him in 1344, and was in his turn deposed two years later 
by one Thin-pan-ka. The latter died in 1363, and was succeeded 
by his son Pyaw-kyi-gyi, who at the time of his father's death was 
staying with the King of Pegu. Pyaw-kyi-gyi entered into an alliance 
with the Talaing king, then at enmity with the rulers of Ava and Prome, 
the latter of whom, like so many other petty princes, had declared 
himself independent ; and having thus incurred their displeasure, he 
was invited to Prome and there treacherously murdered. His son 
Pyaw-kyi-ngay and his nephew Saw-ka-det, who had accompanied 
him, escaped, and for three months were engaged in wresting the throne 
of Taung-ngu from the regent, w^ho, on hearing of the king's death, had 
seized it. Pyaw-kyi-ngay was proclaimed king in 1370 ; and in 1374 he 
was succeeded by Saw-ka-det, who, hated by his people, was murdered 
in 1378 by a Pun-gyi, or priest, who seized the sceptre. Whilst on 
his way to visit the King of Ava, his Shan subjects rebelled and seized 
Taung-ngu ; he returned at once, and succeeded in recapturing the 
royal city, when he put all the Shans to death. He was succeeded in 
T392 by his son Saw-u, who after a year was deposed by the King 
of Ava, and one Ta-ra-pya appointed in his stead. A successor declared 
war against Ava, and conquered several of the States tributary to that 
kingdom. Some years later, he made an alliance with the King of 
Pegu, the great Ra-za-di-rit, to whom he gave his daughter in marriage : 
and in 141 7, the two sovereigns attacked Prome. The army of the 
King of Taung-ngu, consisting of 20,000 infantry, 1000 cavalry, and 
200 elephants, under the command of Thamaing Pa-yun, crossed the 
Yomas, while that of the King of Pegu, composed of 5000 men in 700 
boats, commanded by Ba-nya Pa-thein, ascended the Irawadi. Prome 
was taken, and with it much booty, including the royal white elephant. 

From this time until the beginning of the i6th century, the inter- 
ference in the affairs of the kingdom, both by the King of Ava and by 
the King of Pegu, was continual ; and the kings of Taung-ngu were little 
else than governors appointed sometimes by one power, sometimes by 
the other. About 1485, the capital w\is transferred to the site of the 



i 



TAUNG-NGU. 223 

present city of Taung-ngu, and the independence of the Taung-ngu 
kingdom was secured by the capture of Ava in 1526. In 1538, a 
descendant of the founder of the modern Taung-ngu overran the whole 
kingdom of Pegu, and was proclaimed king of that country. This 
prince built the golden palace in Taung-ngu, the ruins of which are still 
to be seen, and erected the Shwe San-daw Pagoda. He died in 
1606, and was succeeded by his son, Nat-shin-naung-thi-ri-maha- 
dhamma-raza, the last independent King of Taung-ngu. Pegu had 
been utterly despoiled, and as the power of that kingdom sank, that 
of their hereditary rivals and fierce foes, the Burmese, rose. Philij) 
de Brito y Nicote had seized the country in the name of the King of 
Portugal, and entered into an alliance with Maha-thi-ha-thu-ra-dhamma- 
raza, but he quarrelled with Nat-shin-naung-thi-ri-maha-dhamma-raza, 
and captured Taung-ngu. Pegu was eventually conquered by the King 
of Burma in 161 2, and Taung-ngu never regained its independence. 

Population. — In 1855-56, the population of Taung-ngu District was 
returned at 34,957; by 1872 the numbers had risen to Zd.idd; by 
1878 to 89,228. The last Census of 1881 showed a total of 128,848, 
residing in i town and 835 villages. Number of occupied houses, 
27,708 ; unoccupied, 2150. Average number of persons per village or 
town, 154; persons per occupied house, 4'65. The total area, taken 
at 6354 square miles, gave the following averages : — Persons per square 
mile, 20-3; villages or towns per square mile, 0-13; occupied houses 
per square mile, 4*3. Classified according to sex, there were — males 
68,484, and females 60,364 ; proportion of males, 557 per cent. 
Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, boys 26,591, 
and girls 24,389; total children, 50,980, or 39-6 per cent, of the popu- 
lation : above 15 years, males 41,893, and females 35,975 ; total adults, 
77,868, or 6o'4 per cent. The Census of 1881 returned the boat 
population of Lower Burma — people who in the dry season travel about 
the numerous creeks and rivers, live in their boats, and are engaged in 
trades of various kinds. In Taung-ngu District, the boat population 
numbered 709, or o-6 per cent, of the total, namely, males 661, and 
females 48, living in 215 boats. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Buddhists, 
93,997; Christians, 18,191; Nat-worshippers, or non-Buddhist indi- 
genous races, whose sole religion consists in a kind of worship of spirits 
or ' demons,' supposed to reside in natural objects and to interfere with 
mankind, 12,612; Hindus, 2086; and IMuhammadans, 1962. 

The indigenous and Indian races who inhabited Taung-ngu Dis- 
trict, according to the ' language table ' of the Census Report were — 
Burmese and Arakanese, 83,487; Karens, 27,630; Shans, 12,169; 
Hindustanis, 1603; Tamils, 904; Telugus, 807; Taungthus, 726; 
Talaings, 291; Karennis, 244; Chinese, 137; Bengalis, 74; Malay- 



2 24 TAUNG-NGU. 

alams, 19 ; Uriyas, 12 ; and ' others/ 23. The Yabalngs and Shans are 
more numerous in Taung-ngu than in any other part of Lower Burma. 
The Yabaings are found almost entirely on the slopes of the Pegu 
Yomas ; their main employment is the cultivation of the mulberry- 
tree and the rearing of silkworms, an occupation seldom or never 
adopted by the Burmese. Nothing is known of their history or tradi- 
tions ; their nominal religion is Buddhism. They are almost indis- 
tinguishable from the Burmese in feature ; and if they ever had a 
language of their own, it is now extinct, or become a mere dialect of 
Burmese. The Census of 1881 returned only 436 as speaking the 
Yabaing language in the whole Province. 

The Christians according to race were— Europeans and Americans, 
629; Eurasians, 114; and native converts, 17,448. According to sect, 
there were — members of the Church of England, 1546; Roman 
Catholics, 5005; Baptists, 11,510; and of 'other' Churches, 130. Of 
the total native converts, 11,476 were Baptists, 4904 Roman Catholics, 
982 members of the Church of England, and 86 of 'other' Churches. 

The Census of 188 1 distributed the population into six main groups : — 
(i) Professional class, including State officials of every kind, and 
members of the learned professions — males 3036, and females 131 ; 
(2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers — males 581, and 
females 150; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc. — males 2249, and females 1217 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners — males 25,519, and females 20,585 ; 
(5) industrial class, including manufacturers and artisans — males 7490, 
and females 7995 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, compris- 
ing labourers, children, and persons of unspecified occupation — males 
29,609, and females 30,286. 

Of the 836 towns and villages in Taung-ngu District, 663 in 1881 
contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 154 from two to five 
hundred; 18 from five hundred to one thousand ; and i from fifteen 
to twenty thousand. The only town in the District is Taung-ngu, the 
civil and military head-quarters; population (1881) 17,199. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supported (1881) 75,838 persons, or 58-86 
per cent, of the population. In 1881, of the total area of the District 
(6354 square miles), only 75 square miles were returned as under culti- 
vation; the area cultivable was 3226 square miles; and uncultivable, 
3053 square miles. Total amount of Government assessment, including 
local rates and cesses on land, in the same year, ^5461; average 
incidence of assessment, including local rates and cesses, 2s. 3fd. per 
acre of cultivated land paying revenue. 

Of rice, some thirty varieties are grown. In the plains, the seed 
is either sown broadcast in inundated fields, or is reared in nurseries 
and transplanted in June. Tobacco and cotton thrive well. Sesamum 



TAUNG-NGU. 225 

is grown in the iaungyas or hill gardens. In the experimental garden 
near Taung-ngu town, tea, coffee, cocoa, black pepper, nutmeg, cinchona, 
and potatoes have all been tried. All these grow fairly well ; in time, 
jjerhaps, some of them may become staple products of the District ; 
but as yet (1884) none have been commercially successful, except 
potatoes, which are now being grown for the local market by Karens 
on the Taung-ngu hills. Mr. Petley, of the same region, is the only 
European planter in Burma who has persisted for several years together. 
His coffee, his tea, and his cinchona for the first time covered the cost 
of production in 1884. In 1883-84, the total area under cultivation 
in the District was 58,279 acres. Rice occupied 51,422 acres; oil- 
seeds, 54 acres; sugar-cane, 234 acres; tobacco, 43 acres; vegetables, 
954 acres; cocoa-nut, 4 acres; areca-nut, 35 acres; plantains, 560 
acres; mixed fruit-trees, 941; and tmmgyas (hill -gardens), 4032 
acres. The average produce per acre was — rice, 900 lbs.; oil-seeds, 
560 lbs. ; sugar, 2800 lbs. ; tobacco, 280 lbs. ; })lantains, 1400 lbs. ; 
tea, 13 lbs. The average rent per acre of land suited for — rice, 
2S. i|d. ; oil-seeds, sugar, or tobacco, 3s. ; plantains, 2s. lo^d. The 
agricultural live stock consisted of — cows and bullocks, 10^22 1 ; buffaloes, 
15,144; horses and ponies, 426; sheep and goats, 1263; pigs, 13,123; 
elephants, no : dead stock — ploughs, 6941 ; carts, 4879 ; boats, 687. 

Prices have risen, and the wealth of the people has increased con- 
siderably, during the last thirty or forty years. Rice has risen by about 
25 per cent. Fish, the principal article of food after rice, costs 
(1883-84) IS. per ser of 21 lbs. In 1883-84, the prices of produce 
per maiuid of 80 lbs. were — rice, 7s. i|d. ; tobacco, ;Q\^ 14s. 6d. ; 
waggery, 9s. 2jd. ; linseed, 14s. 4jd. A plough bullock costs ^5, a 
sheep or goat j£i. The daily wages of a skilled artisan are 4s. ; of 
unskilled workmen, is. 

Commerce^ etc. — The exports from Taung-ngu District comprise 
areca-nuts, nga-pi or fish-paste, tobacco, silk, cotton and woollen piece- 
goods, raw silk, and salt. The main imports are timber, lacquered 
ware, pickled tea, sesamum, silk and cotton piece-goods, jaggery and 
molasses, cutch, garlic, cattle,. and ponies. The bulk of the export 
trade finds an exit by the Sittaung river. An increasing traffic is 
carried on overland with the Shan States. The value of this trade in 
1872-73 was ;£'i79,742 ; in 1882-83, ;^i99,243. The principal manu- 
factures are silk, saltpetre, and gunpowder. The Yabaings and Karens 
rear silkworms, and supply the market with raw silk. 

The rivers form the chief means of communication during the rainy 
season. The ' Royal road ' from Pegu to Taung-ngu, which had become 
a mere cart-track, has been utilized for the Sittaung Valley State Rail- 
way, nearly 60 miles of which lie within this District. A road from 
Taung-ngu to Thayet-myo is in course of construction. 

VOL. XIII. p 



2 2 6 TA UNG-NG U TO WNSHIP AND TO WN. 

AdmmtstratwJt. — Shortly before the annexation of Pegu, the revenue 
of Taung-ngu District amounted to ;£3oo6. In 1855-56, the total 
revenue was £9A^S- ^'^ 1863, customs were abolished, and this at 
first affected the returns, but in 1873 the total income of Taung-ngu 
was ^18,836. In 1883-84 the gross revenue was returned at ;£i4,738, 
of which £,S^9S ^^'^s derived from the land. The District is ad- 
ministered by a Deputy Commissioner and Assistants, presiding over 
10 civil and 11 criminal courts. Police force (1883), 440 officers and 
men. Jail at Taung-ngu town, with a daily average of 218 prisoners in 
1883. Education is mainly in the hands of the Buddhist monks. 
Several schools in Taung-ngu town. Total number of schools, public, 
private, and indigenous, in 1883-84, 434, attended by 5735 pupils. 
The Census of 1881 returned 9958 males and 1675 females as under 
instruction, besides 23,263 males and 1161 females able to read and 
write but not under instruction. One municipality in the District, viz. 
Taung-ngu, with a municipal revenue in 1883-84 of ;^8475. 

Medical Aspects. — The average monthly mean temperature for the 
five years ending 1881 was — January, 70*9° F. ; February, 73'i° ; 
March, 8c-8° ; April, 84-9°; May, 83°; June, 78-5°; July, 787°; 
August, 78-2°; September, 79*9°; October, 80*3° ; November, 77*9° ; 
and December, 73*4' F. : annual mean, 77*5° F. The average annual 
rainfall for twelve years ending 1881 was 7577 inches: the rain- 
fall in 18^3 was 79*88 inches. The vital statistics of 1883 show a 
total of 1682 recorded deaths, being at the rate of 13 per thousand. 
The hospital and dispensary at Taung-ngu town relieved 747 in-door 
and 10,131 out-door patients; of these, 2375 were fever cases. [For 
further information regarding Taung-ngu District, see T/ie British 
Biir?na Gazetteer^ compiled by authority (Rangoon Government Press, 
1879), vol. ii. pp. 806-830. Also see the British Burma Cefisiis Report 
for 1881 ; and the several annual Administration and Departmental 
Reports of British Burma from 1880 to 1884.] 

Taung-ngTl. — Township in Taung-ngu District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma. The whole of the western portion is intersected by 
spurs of the Yoma range. Population (t88i) 41,819: gross revenue, 

i^5993- 

Taung" - ng"!!. — Chief town of Taung-ngu District, Tenasserim 
Division, Lower Burma, and the northern terminus of the Sittaung 
Valley State Railway : situated on the right bank of the Sittaung river, 
170 miles from Rangoon by land, and 295 miles by water, and 37 miles 
in a direct line from the frontier of Upper Burma. Lat. 18° 55' 30" x., 
long. 96° 31' 10" E. 

Taung - ngu town is regularly laid out. It contains a good 
l)dzdr^ court-houses, jail, hospital and dispensary, Roman Catholic 
chapel, Anglican church, Baptist and Karen normal schools, and 



TAVI-TAVOY. 22 J 

several police stations. Tlie cantonment is ordinarily occupied by a 
wing of a European regiment, a regiment of Madras Native infantry, 
and a battery of artillery. On the west, inside the old wall, is a sheet 
of water about i^, mile in length and half a mile in breadth; and 
surrounding the town is the old fosse, 170 feet broad, which during 
the rainy season always contains water. The site of the town is slightly 
higher than the surrounding country, which is open and cultivated in 
parts. During the rainy season, when the water is retained in the rice- 
fields, it becomes an extensive marsh. I>arge suburbs, chiefly to the 
east and south, are included within the munici})al limits. The first 
town founded on the present site was Dwa-ya-wa-di, now known as 
Myo-gyi, a suburb of the existing town, which was built towards the 
end of the 15th century by a usurper named Min-gyi-nyo, who subse- 
quently, in 1510, founded Taung - ngu, or, as it was then called, 
Ke-tu-ma-ti. Inside the walls he built a palace, the ruins of which are 
still in existence, and converted loathsome swamps into four ornamental 
lakes. During the second Anglo-Burmese war (1852-53), the town 
surrendered to the British, who took possession without firing a shot. 

Population (1881) 17,199, namely, males 9985, and females 7214. 
Buddhists, 12,316; Hindus, 1775; Muhammadans, 1671 ; Christians, 
1432 ; and 'others," 5. In 1883-84, the municipal revenue was ^'8475. 
A fairly good road extends northwards towards the frontier, and 
another southwards to Tan-ta-bin village on the bank of the Sittaung ; 
a third to Thayet-myo is in course of construction. 

Tavi. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, Bombay ; 
consisting of i village, with 2 shareholders or tribute-payers. Area, 1 2 
square miles. Population (1881) 777. Estimated revenue, ^271 ; of 
which ;£"3i is paid as tribute to the British Government, and ^2, los. 
to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Tavli. — Town in Baroda State, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. 
Population (1872) 5952. Not separately returned in the Census Report 
of 1881. 

Tavoy. — British District in the Tenasserim Division of Lower 
Buima, lying between 13° 16' and 15° 10' n. lat., and between 97^ 48' 
and 98° 44' E. long. Area, 7150 square miles. Population (188 1) 
84,988 souls. Bounded north by Amherst District, east by the Yoma 
Mountains, south by Mergui District, and west by the Bay of Bengal. 
The administrative head-quarters are at Tavoy Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The general aspect of Tavoy District is that of a 
narrow tract, enclosed by mountains on three sides, and open on the 
west towards the sea. The main range of the Yomas, with a general 
north-north-west and south-south-east direction, rises in places to a 
height of 5000 feet, and, throwing off numerous densely wooded spurs, 
forms an almost impassable natural barrier between British territory 



2 28 TAVOV. 

and Siam. It is crossed by three routes. The northern is by the 
Tan-daung at the source of the Siamese stream May-nam-naw-ey, in 
lat. 14° 26' 53" N., and long. 98° 32' e., from Tavoy to Kan-bu-ri via 
Met-ta. The southern is by the Amya Pass, 60 miles lower down, 
which derives its name from a village on the Tenasserim river. Twelve 
days are occupied in travelling by this route from Tavoy to Bangkok ; 
the first takes 16 J days. Thirty-eight miles south of Amya is another 
road into Siam through the Mai-bhiira Pass ; but this is very difficult, 
and is only used by Karens. Bounding the Tenasserim valley on the 
west, and constituting the watershed between the Tavoy and Tenasserim 
rivers, is another range thrown off by the main chain, in about lat. 14' 
42' N., which extends down through the District into Mergui to the 
great westerly bend of the Tenasserim river. The highest peak in this 
range is Nwa-la-bo, the ascent of which has been made several times. 
The chief rivers of the District are the Tavoy and the Tenasserim. 
The latter is formed by the junction of two streams, which unite near 
Met-ta, flow eastwards, then south into Mergui District. 

The District of Tavoy has never been carefully surveyed as regards 
its geological formation. The mountain ranges appear to be granite ; 
and some of the low hills consist of alluvium, composed chiefly of 
gravel with small boulders of sandstone, conglomerate, and quartz. 
The intervening valleys have occasional patches of clay slate, more or 
less altered by igneous action. The plain country in the lower course 
of the Tavoy river consists of stiff, and sometimes highly ferruginous, 
clay. It is certain that Tavoy District formerly yielded tin and lead, 
and there is reason to believe that the tribute to the Government of 
Ava was mainly paid in these metals; but since the British occupation, 
lead has not been worked, and tin is only collected in small quantities. 
Gold is washed at the head-waters of many streams, and copper is said 
to exist in two or three locahties at the mouth of the Taung-byauk 
river. There is a small hill of magnetic iron-ore about 3 miles north- 
west of Tavoy, specimens of which have been analyzed, and reported to 
contain more than 66 per cent, of pure metal. The mineral springs are 
of two kinds, viz. sulphurous and saline ; the first are situated near the 
bifurcation of the Tenasserim river, and the others east and south of 
Tavoy. The thermometer in the hottest sulphurous spring has been 
found to stand at 119° F., and in the hottest saline one at 144°. 
The principal saline spring at Pai is in a sandy basin in the midst of 
granite rocks, on the margin of a cold-water stream, where it bubbles 
up from three or four vents ; in one the thermometer has been found to 
rise to within 14° of boiling point. 

The chief timber trees of Tavoy District are — thin-gaji (Hopea 
odorata), which sometimes attains a height of 250 feet, and furnishes a 
strong wood used extensively in the construction of boats ; pytn-gado 



TAFOV. 



229 



(Xylia dolabriformis) ; a/ia/i (Fagrasa fragrans), which hardens by sub- 
mersion, and is valuable for bridges and piles ; py'ui-ina (Lagerstroemia 
Flos-Regince) ; in-gyin (Shorea siamensis) ; and padouk (Pterocarpus 
indicus), the wood of which resembles mahogany, but is heavier ; it is 
much prized, and is largely used for gun-carriages in India. Numerous 
gums and medicinal plants are also found in Tavoy. The wild animals 
include the elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, bear, ant-eater, hog, and 
orang-outang. Fish abound in great variety. 

History. — Tavoy District has at various times formed a portion of 
the dominions of the kings of Siam, Pegu, and Ava, but its history is 
involved in great obscurity. The first settlers were probably Siamese ; 
but at a very early date a colony of Arakanese established themselves, who 
have left their mark on the language. The earliest written accounts of 
the country state that the Burmese king, Na-ra-pad-di-tsi-thu, who came 
hither rather as a preacher of religion than as a conqueror, founded 
Kyek-lut in Kwe-daung Bay, not far from the mouth of the Tavoy 
in 1200 A.D. Na-ra-pad-di-tsi-thu also built the pagoda on Tavoy 
Point, which is perhaps the first that placed Buddhism on a permanent 
basis in this region. Anxious to connect their religion with the 
great Asoka, Buddhist writers assert that that monarch ordered the 
construction of a pagoda in what is now Tavoy town. Many years 
afterwards, the country was subject to Siam, and still later to the 
sovereigns of Pegu, from w^hom it passed to the kings of Burma ; but it 
continually suffered from Siamese invasions. About 1752, the ruler of 
Tavoy set up for an independent prince, and made overtures to the East 
India Company ; but the terms proposed were too exorbitant from a 
pecuniary point of view. Soon afterwards (1757), Tavoy again became 
a Province of Siam; but in 1759 it surrendered to Alaung-paya or 
Alompra, the great Burmese conqueror. 

From 1760 until the signing of the treaty of Yandabu in February 
1826, the country was torn by internal rebellions and attacks from the 
Siamese. During the first Anglo-Burmese war in 1824, an expedition 
was despatched against the District, which ended in Tavoy being 
handed over to the British. In 1829, revolt broke out, headed by 
Maung Da, the former governor ; but this was speedily suppressed, 
and since then the District of Tavoy has remained in undisturbed 
possession of the British. For some years, a body of troops was 
stationed in Tavoy town, but the District is now guarded solely by 
police. 

The most famous pagoda in the District is the Shin Mut-ti, a few 
miles south of Tavoy town, containing an image, near which are a stone 
and a banian tree, all three supposed to have been miraculously floated 
across the sea from India. The temple is 58 feet high, and 300 feet 
in circumference at the base. On Tavoy Point, on the right bank of 



2 30 TAVOY. 

the river, is the Shin-maw, only 9 feet high, founded in 1204 a.d., and 
said to contain a tooth of Gautama. North of Tavoy is the Shin-da- 
Aveh, of very early date, and built on the spot upon which a holy relic 
of Buddha alighted after flying through the air when released by its 
possessor. In addition to these, there are 10 pagodas in the town and 
suburbs of Tavoy, and 19 others in the District, all of more or less 
sanctity, and some supposed to be of great antiquity. 

Fopu/atio n .—Ow'mg to the mountainous and wooded nature of the 
country, and the incessant warfare to which it has been subjected, 
Tavoy has always been sparsely inhabited. It is doubtful who were 
the first settlers; but tradition points to a colony of Arakanese near 
Tavoy, and is supported by some dialectic peculiarities in the language 
of the present inhabitants. From the annual official returns, it appears 
that in 1855-56 the population numbered 52,867 persons, who by 
1864-65 had increased to 62,427. In 1872, when the first regular 
Census was taken in the District, the population was returned at 71,827 
persons, and by the last regular Census of 1881, at 84,988, disclosing 
an increase of 13,161 on the figures of 1872, or i8"3 per cent. The 
people dwelt in i town and 290 villages, containing 15,464 occupied 
and 733 unoccupied houses; area of the District, 7150 square miles. 
Towns and villages per square mile, 0*04 ; houses per square mile, 2*26; 
persons per square mile, 1 1 '89 ; persons per town or village, 292; persons 
per occupied house, 5*5. Classified according to sex, there were — 
males 41,785, and females 43,203 ; proportion of males, 49*2 per cent. 
Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, boys 17,641, 
and girls 17,025 ; total children, 34,666, or 40*8 per cent, of the popu- 
lation : 15 years and upwards, males 24,144, and females 26,178 ; total 
adults, 50,322, or 59*2 per cent. The Census of 1881 returned the 
boat population of Lower Burma — people who in the dry season travel 
about the numerous creeks and rivers, live in their boats, and are 
engaged in trade of various kinds. In Tavoy District, the boat popula- 
tion numbered 490, namely, males 463, and females 27, living in 60 
boats. The majority of the inhabitants occupy the valley of the Tavoy 
river, where most of the cultivable land in the District is found. 

Distributed as regards religion, by far the largest portion of the 
population are Buddhists, 82,187, or 967 per cent.; Christians, 1368; 
Muhammadans, 828; Nat-worshippers, or non- Buddhist indigenous 
races, whose religion consists in a kind of worship of spirits or 
' demons,' supposed to reside in natural objects and to interfere with 
mankind, 355 ; and Hindus, 250. 

The Muhammadan population, according to sect, was thus returned 
— Sunnis, 703; Shias, 84; Wahabis, 18; and 'others,' 23. 

The Christians by sect were — Baptists, 1203; members of the 
Church of England, 94; Roman Catholics, 68; and unspecified, 3. 



TAVOV. 231 

According to race — Europeans and Americans, 11; Eurasians, 73; 
Natives, 1284. Of the native converts, 1199 were Baptists, 77 members 
of the Church of England, and 8 Roman Cathohcs. 

Taking language as a test of race, Burmese numbered 75,181 ; Karens, 
8553; Chinese, 301 ; Talaings, 275; Hindustanis, 260; Tamils, 107; 
Tavoyese, 78; Shans, 70; Bengalis, 49; Telugus, 47; Malays, 26; 
English, 19; Taungthus, 10; Arakanese, 4; Karennis, 4; Uriyas, 3; 
French, i. 

The Census of 1881 distributed the population into the following six 
main groups:— (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions— males 1408, and females 
86; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging keepers — males 73, and 
females 108 ; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc. — males 1048, and females 607; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners — males 15,466, and females 9431 ; 
(5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans — males 
2878, and females 11,625 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, 
comprising all children, general labourers, and persons of unspecified 
occupation — males 20,912, and females 21,346. 

In 1 881, of the 291 towns and villages in Tavoy District, 164 con- 
tained less than two hundred inhabitants ; 87 between two and five 
hundred; 36 between five hundred and one thousand; 2 between one 
and two thousand ; i between two and three thousand ; and i between 
ten and fifteen thousand. Tavoy Town, the head-quarters of the 
District, is situated on the left bank of the river of the same name. Its 
population in 1881 was 13,372. 

Agriculture. — The area under cultivation in Tavoy is barely one- 
sixtieth of its whole extent, and the cultivable but uncultivated area 
amounts to 3541 square miles. It is to its mineral and forest wealth 
that Tavoy must trust for its development, for, owing to the absence of 
roads, and to the existence of better soil in the neighbouring and more 
accessible District of Amherst, it offers few^ attractions to immigrants. 
In the experimental garden near Tavoy, tea, coffee, cocoa, black pepper, 
nutmeg, cinchona, and potatoes have been tried. All these grow fairly 
well ; in time, perhaps, some of them may become staple products of 
the District ; but as yet none of them have been commercially successful. 
Agriculture supported (1881) 59,997 persons, or 70-59 per cent, of the 
population. In 1881, of the total area of the District (7150 square 
miles), 117 square miles were cultivated; the area cultivable was 3541 
square miles, and uncultivable 3492 square miles. Total amount of 
Government assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, m the 
same year, was ;£ii,479; average incidence of assessment, including 
local rates and cesses, 3s. id. per cultivated acre; average area of 
cultivated land per head of agricultural population, 1-25 acres. 



232 TAVOY. 

Since Tavoy was ceded to the British in 1824, the area under cultiva- 
tion has steadily increased. In 1855-56, the cultivated area (exclusive 
of taungya or hill-gardens) was 37,360 acres. In 1868, the area under 
rice was 42,700 acres, which by 1877 had increased to 48,067 acres; 
and in 1883-84, to 54,788 acres. In 1883-84, the total area under 
cultivation was 81,819 acres. Rice occupied 54,788 acres; oil-seeds, 
120 acres; sugar-cane, no acres; cotton, 15 acres; fibres, 340 acres; 
tobacco, 12 acres; vegetables, 213 acres; areca-nut, 2078 acres; dha7ii, 
4059 acres; plantains, 625 acres; durians, 2647 acres; mixed fruit- 
trees, 6298 acres; taungyas (hill-gardens), 9190 acres; land under 
miscellaneous cultivation not assessed, 1324 acres. In the same year 
the average produce per acre was returned at— rice, iioo lbs. ; cotton, 
547 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 584 lbs. ; fibres, 182 lbs. ; sugar, 730 lbs. ; tobacco, 
128 lbs. The agricultural live stock consisted of— cows and bullocks, 
9591 ; buffaloes, 27,684; horses and ponies, 30; sheep and goats, 510 ; 
pigs, 1200; and elephants, 109 : the dead stock— ploughs, 4280 ; carts, 
693 ; and boats, 2143. 

The river banks within range of tidal overflow are cultivated with the 
dha?ii palm (Nita fruticans). The leaves of this plant are used for thatch- 
ing purposes ; the extracted juice is drunk or converted into molasses ; 
the flower is made into a preserve, and the fruit eaten. The areca-nut is 
extensively grown for home consumption. In fruit-trees the District is 
particularly rich ; the mango, tamarind, jack, mangosteen, durian, guava, 
pine-apple, plantain, orange, shaddock, pomegranate, etc., abound. 

The average size of a holding in Tavoy is 5-48 acres, for which a 
single pair of buffaloes and one plough are sufficient. The average 
rent of rice land is 8s. per acre. In 1883-84, the price of produce per 
viaund of 80 lbs. was returned at — rice, 7s. 6d. ; cotton, 9s. 6d. ; jaggery 
sugar, 8s. 9d.; salt, 2s. 6d.; cocoa-nut oil, £\, i6s.; gingelly oil, £\, i6s. 
A plough bullock costs ^3, los., and a buff'alo ^3. In the same 
year, the daily wages of a skilled artisan were returned at 3s. ; of an 
unskilled workman, is. As a general rule, the land is worked by the 
proprietors, and there are but few labourers employed. These are 
usually paid in grain to the value of about 14s. a month, in addition to 
receiving board and lodging. Tenancies are, as a rule, created by verbal 
agreement. 

Commerce, ^/f.— With its only port, Tavoy, difficult of access, and 
with no means of internal communication, the trade of the District 
has always been small, and is almost entirely confined to Siam and the 
Straits. There is no inland trade. The principal imports are raw 
cotton and piece-goods, raw silk, tea, crockery, wines and spirits, metals, 
and provisions. Chief exports — rice, timber, crude sugar, and earthen- 
ware pots. In 1883-84, the number of vessels that entered Tavoy 
with cargo was 318, with a tonnage of 37,460; in the same year, 385 



TAFOV. 233 

vessels, with a tonnage of 32,756, cleared with cargo from the port. 
The average annual value of the sea-borne trade for the five years 
ending 1883-84 was— imports, ^54,i79; and exports, £3^,^)0^. In 
1883-84, the trade was valued at— imports, ^65,548 ; and exports, 
;^47,989. A small coasting traffic is carried on with Maulmain and 
Rangoon in d/iam leaves, jagger)' sugar, earthenware vessels, fruits, English 
silk and cotton goods, grain, and vegetables. The chief manufactures 
are salt and earthen pots. The salt is made partly by evaporation and 
partly by boiUng, and is consumed entirely in the District. The pots 
are made in and near Tavoy town of clay brought from the neighbour- 
hood of Myo-haung, which sells on the spot for is. 6d., and at Tavoy 
for 5s., per boat-load of 3650 lbs. This quantity, mixed with about 
one-third part sand, will suffice for 200 pots, which take about fifteen 
days to complete, and sell at an average rate of ;^i, i6s. per 100. 

Adtnmistration. — The imperial and provincial revenue realized in 
1853-54, the first year for which returns are available, was £9911 \ in 
1863-64, it rose to ^16,759 ; in 1873-74, to ;^2i,545 ; and in 1881-82, 
to ;£"4i,3oo. In 1881, the local revenue of the District amounted 
to ^2991. In 1SS3-84, the gross revenue was returned at only 
^18,650, of which ^11,134 was derived from the land. Tavoy 
District was formerly administered by a Deputy Commissioner and 6 
gainig-gyups, together with a sit-ke or native judge for the town, ihugyis 
for the circles, and gaungs for hamlets. The ' districts ' of the gaung- 
gyiips have now been amalgamated into 4 townships, with an extra- 
Assistant Commissioner in charge of each. Up to 1861-62, the police 
force consisted of the thugyi, gaung, kye-dan-gyi, and 2 peons which 
were allowed to each gaung-gyup ; whilst in Tavoy town there were 5 
gaungs, 6 jamaddrs, and 43 peons. The regular police force in 1883 
numbered 198 officers and men, costing ^4576- 

Owing to the labours of the Buddhist monks and of the American 
Baptist missionaries, a knowledge of reading and writing is fairly 
diffused throughout the District. By the Census of 1881, it was 
ascertained that of the total population, 3652 males and 522 females 
were under instruction, besides 10,925 males and 459 females able to 
read and write but not under instruction. In 1883-84, there were 
altogether 1 2 7 schools in Tavoy District, attended by 4274 pupils. There 
is a hospital and dispensary in Tavoy town. The prison was formerly 
occupied by convicts from India ; but on the establishment of a 
penal settlement in the Andaman Islands, it was converted into a 
local jail. In 1883, the daily average number of prisoners was 80. 
Tavoy town is the only municipality, with a revenue in 1881-82 of 

;£i389. 

Climate, ^/r.— The climate of Tavoy District on the whole is pleasant, 

the intense heat in February and March being moderated by sea-breezes. 



234 TA VO Y TO JPIV AND RIVER. 

The average annual rainfall at Tavoy town for the twenty-four years 
ending 1881 was 195-57 inches. In 1883, the rainfall was 195-44 inches. 
In 1883, the temperature in the shade was— in May, maximum 100° F., 
and minimum 78° F. ; July, maximum 96°, minimum 74°; December, 
maximum 93°, minimum 54°. The vital statistics for 1883 show a total 
of 1020 recorded deaths, being at the rate of 12 per thousand. The 
hospital and dispensary relieved 283 in-door and 6467 out -door 
patients; of these, 849 were fever cases, and 1707 worms. [For 
further information regarding Tavoy District, see The British Bur??ta 
Gazetteer, compiled by authority (Rangoon Government Press, 1879), 
vol. ii. pp. 682-703. Also see the British Burma Census Report for 
1881 ; and the several annual Administration and Departmental Reports 
of British Burma from 1880 to 1884.] 

Tavoy. — Chief town and head-quarters of Tavoy District, Tenas- 
serim Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 14° 5' n., and long. 98' 
13' E., on the Tavoy river, about 30 miles from its mouth. Population 
(1881) 13,372, namely, males 6028, and females 7344. Buddhists 
number 12,549; Muhammadans, 550; Hindus, 159; and Christians, 
114. 

The town of Tavoy lies low, and its north-western and southern portions 
are flooded at high tide, and swampy during the rains. It is laid out 
in straight streets, and the houses are for the most part built of timber 
or bamboo, and thatched with dhajii or palm leaves. To the east and 
west, ranges of hills run nearly due north and south, and the surrounding 
land is under rice cuhivation. Tavoy contains court-houses, a custom- 
house, and the usual public offices. Its trade is of little importance, and 
is carried on chiefly with ports in Lower Burma and Siam, and with the 
Straits Settlements. The average annual value of the sea-borne trade for 
the five years ending 1883-84 was— imports, ;^54,i79; and exports, 
^38,903. In 1883-84, the trade was valued at— imports, ^65,548 ; 
and exports, ^'47,989. The principal exports are rice, dhani leaves, 
jaggery sugar, earthen pots, wood-oil, timber, and fruits ; imports — 
piece-goods, long cloth, turkey red cloth, silk and cotton velvets, iron, 
crockery, tobacco, and dried vegetables. The total municipal revenue 
of Tavoy in 1881-82 was ^1389. The town was founded in 1751; 
and ruins of several earlier cities exist in various parts of the District, 
notably at Old Tavoy, or ]\Iyo-haung, a few miles to the north of the 
modern town. In 1752, the ruler of the country made ineffectual 
overtures to the East India Company to establish a factory at his capital. 
During the first Burmese war, Tavoy was surrendered to the British ; 
and for some years it was garrisoned by a detachment from Maulmain, 
which has since been withdrawn. 

Tavoy. — River in the Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma ; formed 
by the union of several torrents, which rise in the Ma-lweh spur and 



TA VO V ISLAXD—TEGUR. 235 

in the western slopes of the main range in the extreme north of Tavoy 
District. The united stream takes a southerly course of about 120 
miles through a narrow valley nowhere exceeding 12 miles in width, 
and flowing past the town of Tavoy, falls into the sea at Tavoy Point, 
about 30 miles lower down. From its source to near Nyaung-dun-leli, 
the Tavoy is unnavigable ; from this village as far south as Yun-leh, about 
32 miles above Tavoy town, at which place the rapids cease, and the 
tide is felt, the river is practicable for boats drawing not more than 3 
or 4 feet. Three miles above Tavoy town, the character of the river 
changes, and below Than-lyin-seip or Goodridge plains it flows through 
an alluvial tract in a wide channel studded with islands. The mouth 
of the Tavoy is, properly speaking, an estuary, being about 15 miles 
wide, and navigable by vessels of any burden. Ships can find safe 
anchorage at all times within Cap Island, a rock about 20 miles from 
Goodridge plains. Fresh water can be almost always obtained along 
the western shore as far as the most northern rocky islet, Kathay-ma- 
kyun, in which is a fine spring known as ' English Well,' and called by 
the natives In-ga-ni-dwin. 

Tavoy Island.— An island off the coast of Tenasserim, Lower 
Burma, a little to the south of the mouth of the Tavoy river. It 
extends from lat. 12° 55' to 13° 13' n., and from long. 98° 17' to 98' 
23' E., and is about 18 miles long by 2 broad. On the east, there is an 
excellent harbour called Port Owen. The caves in the hills of the 
island are tenanted by the edible-nest-building swallow, and the 
right of taking the nests is leased out by Government. These nests 
are much prized by the Chinese, who boil them down into a nutritious 
soup; and nearly all that are collected are exported to China and 
the Straits. 

Tawa. — River of the Central Provinces ; debouching from the Sat- 
pura Hills, in Hoshangabad District, through a picturesque gorge, 16 
miles south-east of Hoshangabad town, and draining a large area in 
the hills to the south. In the rains, its floods are sudden and violent ; 
at other times, its bed exposes many fine sections, showing the geo- 
logical structure of the hills. Flowing west across the valley, it expands 
into a wide sandy channel, and joins the Narbada (Nerbudda) in lat. 
22° 48' N., and long. 77° 49' e., 4 miles above Hoshangabad town. The 
confluence is marked by an old temple, near which a religious fair is 
held every year in November-December. 

Taxila. — Ancient ruins in Rawal Pindi District, Punjab.— ^^v Deri 
Shahan. 

Teesta.— River of Northern Bengal.— 6"^^ Tista. 

Tegur. — Village in Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
about 15 miles north-west of Dharwar town. Population (1881) 
1 791. Iron-ore is smelted in the village, but the scarcity of fuel 



236 TEHRI—TELIAGARHL 

prevents operations being conducted on a large scale. Travellers' 
bungalow; weekly market. 

Tehri.— State in Bundelkhand, Central India.— 6"^^ Orchha. 

Tehri {Tiri or Tikamgarh). — (Z2.^\\.7A of Tehri or Orchha State, 
Bundelkhand, Central India ; situated in lat. 24° 44 30" n., and long. 
78° 52' 50" E., near the south-west corner of the State, 40 miles from 
Orchha, the former capital. Population (1881) 18,344, namely, males 
9439, and females 8905. Hindus number 13,414; Muhammadans, 
3836 j and ' others,' 1094. A miserable, ill-built town, with no respect- 
able houses, except the Raja's palace. A few handsome temples, 
erected as tombs or cenotaphs. Large fort of Tikamgarh, within the 
town. 

Tehri Garhwal.— Native State under the Political Superintendence 
of the Government of the North-Western Provinces. — See Garhwal. 

Tekalkota (7>^.^z//^^^^).— Village in Bellary taluk, Bellary District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 31' n., long. 76° 56' e. Population (188 1) 
2257, occupying 472 houses. Hindus number 1959, and Muhamma- 
dans 298. Formerly, according to Pharoah, the chief town of a idluk 
given by the Vijayanagar sovereign to the Nair pdlegdr of Bellary, 
but now included in Bellary taluk. It fell into the hands of the 
Muhammadan conquerors of the Deccan in the i6th century, was taken 
by Haidar All when he overran the Balaghat, and ceded by the Nizam 
to the British in 1800. Distance north from Bellary city, 28 miles. 
There is a watch-tower on one of the hills, and the ruins of an old 
stone fort built by the pdlegd?-; also a fort in better condition, con- 
structed by order of Haidar Ali ; and an old temple to Iswara or Siva, 
containing an inscription on stone, in the Hala Kanarese character. 

Tekkali. — Zamuiddii in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Raghunathapuram. 

Tekkali. — Zamhiddri tdluk of Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 238 square miles. Population (1881) 105,296, namely, males 
51,532, and females 53,764; occupying 19,692 houses, in 1 town and 
338 villages. Hindus number 105,067 ; Muhammadans, 203; Chris- 
tians, 23 ; and ' others,' 3. 

Telgaon-Kamthi. — Village in Katol tahsil, Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2345, namely, Hindus, 2278; Muham- 
madans, 36; Jains, 18; and non-Hindu aborigines, 13. 

Teliagarhi. — Pass in the Santal Parganas, Bengal, lying between 
the Rajmahal Hills on the south, and the Ganges on the north. 
Formerly of great strategic importance, as commanding the military 
approaches to Bengal Proper. The ruins of a large stone fort still 
exist, through which the East Indian Railway passes. It seems 
never to have been completed, and was constructed in the last 
century by the Teli zam'uiddr, who was forcibly converted by the 



TELJNGA- TELLICHERRL 237 

Muhammadans. Hence the name of the fort and \.\\q pargajid in whicli 
it is situated. 

Telinga (or Telingdnd). — Ancient name of one of the principal 
kingdoms of Southern India. — See Andhra. 

Tellicherri {Tallacheri ox Talasseri). — Municipal town and seaport 
in Kotayam taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 44' 
53" N., long. 75° 31' 38" E. Population (1881) 26,410, namely, males 
12,939, and females 13,471, occupying 3426 houses. Hindus number 
15,488; Muhammadans, 9149; Christians, 1765; and 'others,' 8. 

Tellicherri is a Sub - divisional station, and contains the North 
Malabar District court, jail, custom-house, churches, and many Govern- 
ment and mercantile offices. It is a healthy and picturesque town, built 
upon a group of wooded hills running down to the sea, and protected 
by a natural breakwater of rock. The town, including the suburbs, 
occupies about 5 square miles, and was at one time defended by a 
strong mud wall. The citadel or castle, still in excellent preservation, 
stands to the north of the town, and is now used as a District jail. It 
is built of laterite, in the form of a square, with flanking bastions on the 
south-east and north-west corners. The south-east bastion has also 
a cavalier above it. On the north is another bastion, situated on 
a cliff overhanging the sea, and separated from the main work by a 
space of about 150 yards. The immediate precincts of the citadel wxre 
further protected by a strong w^all, of which portions still remain, loop- 
holed for musketry and with flanking towers at intervals. The native 
town lies to the south ; the principal street {bazar) runs parallel to the 
coast, and is a mile in length. 

The exports, consisting chiefly of coffee, cardamoms, and sandal- 
wood, were valued in 1883-84 at ^^697, 738 ; the imports, at ^324,523 : 
total, ;^i,o2 2,26i. The average annual value of the trade for the 
five years ending 1883-84 was ;£8 7 4, 5 2 7— exports, ^651,305; and 
imports, ^223,222. A white dioptric light marks the harbour. Muni- 
cipal revenue from taxation in 1883-84, ^2021 ; incidence of taxation, 
IS. 6Jd. per head of population (26,410) within municipal limits. The 
average annual rainfall for the eighteen years ending 1881 was 124-34 
inches. 

The East India Company established a factory at Tellicherri in 1683, 
to secure the pepper and cardamom trade ; and on several occasions, 
between 1708 and 1761, the Company obtained from the Kolattiri or 
Chirakkal Raja, and other local chiefs, not only grants of land in and 
near Tellicherri, but some important privileges, such as the right to 
collect customs, administer justice, etc. within these grants. Haidar's 
invasion of Malabar narrowed the Company's operations for a time ; 
and in 1766, the factory was reduced to a residency. From 1780 to 
1782, the town withstood a siege by Haidar's general Sardar Khdn ; on 



8 TENASSERIM. 



the arrival of relief from Bombay, under Major Abingdon, the enemy- 
were severely handled in a sortie, and the siege was raised. In the 
subsequent wars with Mysore, Tellicherri was the base of operations 
for the ascent of the Ghats from the west coast. After the peace, 
the town became the seat of the Superintendent of North Malabar, 
and of the Provincial Court of Circuit. 

Tenasserim {Ta-7ie?ig-tha-ri). — Division of the Province of Lower 
Burma ; comprising the 7 Districts of Amherst, Tavoy, Mergui, 
Shvve-gyin, Taung-ngu, the Salwin Hill Tracts, and Maulmein 
Town, all of which see separately. These Districts formed the tract 
south of Pegu conquered from Burma in 1826, and were for many years 
generally known under their official name of the ' Tenasserim Provinces.' 

The Division lies between 9° 58' and 19° 28' n. lat., and between 95° 
50' and 98° 35' E. long. Area, 46,730 square miles. Population (1881) 
825,741; occupying 151.409 houses, in 5 towns and 3112 villages. 
Number of unoccupied houses, 8640 ; average number of persons per 
village or town, 265; persons per occupied house, 5 "45; persons per 
square mile, lyOj ; villages or towns per square mile, 0-07 ; occupied 
houses per square mile, 3-2. Classified according to sex, there were— 
males 437,900, and females 387,841. According to age, there were re- 
turned—under 15 years, boys 178,812, and girls 167,234; total children, 
346,046, or 41 "9 per cent, of the population : 15 years and upwards, 
males 259,088, and females 220,607 ; total adults, 479,695, or 58-1 per 
cent. The religious division showed the following results : — Buddhists, 
698,304, or 84-5 per cent, of the population ; Nat-worshippers, or non- 
Buddhist indigenous races, whose sole religion consists in a kind of 
worship of spirits or ' demons,' supposed to reside in natural objects 
and to interfere with mankind, 51,160, or 6-2 per cent.; Christians, 
28,315, or 3*4 per cent.; Muhammadans, 24,786, or 2-9 per cent.; 
Hindus, 23,145, or 2-8 i)er cent.; Jews, 24; Jains, 5; and Parsis, 2. 
The indigenous and Indian races, as derived from the language 
table, include — Burmese, 372,014; Karens, 218,316; Talaings, 
111,178; Shans, 37,041; Taungthus, 34,433; Hindustanis, 15,029; 
Tamils, 12,404; Telugus, 9421; Chinese, 4361; Bengalis, 2900; 
Karennis, 2152; Tavoyese, 1261 ; Uriyas, 202; Yabaings, 109; and 
'others,' 212. The Christians according to race were — Europeans and 
Americans, 1120; Eurasians, 1348; and Natives, 25,847. According 
to sect, there were — followers of the Church of England, 2515 ; Roman 
Catholics, 6791; Baptists, 18,680; and of other sects, 329. Of the 
native converts, 11 73 were of the Church of England, 6015 Roman 
Catholics, 18,540 Baptists, and 119 'others.' The boat population 
numbered 9386, living in 2 119 boats. As regards occupation, the male 
population was distributed into the following six main groups : — 
(i) Professional class, including State officials of every kind and mem- 



I 



TENASSERIM TOWNSHIP AND TOWN 239 

bers of the learned professions, 12,182 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and 
lodging-house keepers, 2283; (3) commercial class, including bankers, 
merchants, carriers, etc., 18,695 \ (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 
including gardeners, 155,279; (5) industrial class, including all manu- 
facturers and artisans, 32,211; and (6) indefinite and non-productive 
class, comprising labourers, male children, and persons of unspecified 
occupation, 217,250. 

The population entirely dependent on the soil was 564,448, or 68-36 
per cent, of the Divisional population. Total cultivated area, 1033 square 
miles, or an average of i'i7 acres per head of the agricultural popula- 
tion. The total area of cultivable land is 21,168 square miles. Amount 
of Government land revenue, including local rates and cesses paid on 
land, ;£io6,94i, or an average of 3s. 4d. per cultivated acre. The 
chief crops in 1883-84 were — rice, 493,041 acres; oil-seeds, 898 
acres; sugar-cane, 4510 acres; cotton, 606 acres; fibres, 340 acres; 
tobacco, 191 acres; vegetables, 2524 acres; cocoa-nuts, 190 acres; 
areca-nuts, 9925 acres; dhani, 14,397 acres; plantains, 3904 acres; 
betel-leaf, 840 acres ; mixed fruit-trees, 33,792 acres ; melons, 37 acres ; 
chillies, 5 acres. Tau?igya or nomadic tillage occupied 52,861 acres. 
Land under miscellaneous cultivation, not assessed, 1973 acres. 

Total number of civil and revenue courts, t,2> \ criminal courts, 50. 
Strength of regular police, 2319 men. Total length of navigable rivers, 
1 8 18 miles ; of made roads, 1006 ; of the Sittaung Valley State Railway, 
about 100 miles. Total number of schools under public management, 
missionary, indigenous, and private (1883-84), 1307 ; scholars, 34o92- 
The Census Report of 1881 returned 36,919 boys and 6359 girls as 
under instruction, besides 114,270 males and 10,725 females able to 
read and write but not under instruction. The principal towns are — 
Maulmein (53,107), Taung-ngu (17,199), Tavoy (13,372), Mergui 
(8633), Shwe-gyin (7519). Gross revenue (1883-84), ^175,293. 

Tenasserim. — Township in Mergui District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma. A mountainous and forest-clad tract, with little culti- 
vated land. It comprises 4 revenue circles; head- quarters at Tenas- 
serim To\vN. Population (1881) 7024; gross revenue, ;^i382. 

Tenasserim. — Town in Mergui District, and head-quarters of Tenas- 
serim township, Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 
12° 5' 40" N., and long. 99° 2 55" e., on a neck of land at the confluence 
of the Great and Little Tenasserim rivers, 33 miles from the mouth of 
the Tenasserim, and 40 miles south-east of Mergui town. The town is 
built on a rock of red sandstone, along the slopes of an irregular hill 
about 200 feet high, surrounded by mountainous and forest-clad country. 

Once a large and important city, Tenasserim has, owing to con- 
quest by the Burmese and repeated attacks by the Siamese, dwindled 
down into a village of only 577 inhabitants in 1881. It was founded 



2 40 TENASSERIM RIVER. 

by the Siamese in 1373 a.d. ; and a stone pillar, existing to this 
day, is traditionally asserted to have been erected as a memorial of 
the event. The pillar bears no inscription, but a Burmese legend 
relates that a woman was buried alive under it as an offering to the 
gods for the future prosperity of the town. Tenasserim was surrounded 
by a mud wall faced with brick, which enclosed an area of 4 square 
miles. This defence was pulled down many years ago, and the bricks 
used in building a jail at Mergui. The accounts given by old travellers 
of the wealth, population, and trade of Tenasserim seem incredible, as 
there are no traces of ancient greatness, and a few miles below the 
town a reef of rocks runs right across the river, over which a moderately 
sized ship's cutter can hardly pass in April, and at no season a vessel 
drawing more than 6 feet. It is, however, recorded by General Mac- 
leod, a competent authority, that in 1825 the Bombay cruiser Thetis 
sailed up as high as Tenasserim. In 1759, the town was taken by the 
Burmese conqueror Alaung-paya ; and some years later, the inhabitants 
were put to the sword by the Governor. From that time till the 
British conquest, Tenasserim has been subject to perpetual inroads of 
the Siamese, and is now an insignificant hamlet. The temperature 
is very variable, and these sudden changes render the climate un- 
healthy. 

Tenasserim. — River of Mergui District, Tenasserim Division, Lower 
Burma; formed by the junction of two streams of the same name, 
known as the ' Great ' and ' Little ' Tenasserim. The Ban rises in the 
northern slopes of the hills dividing Mergui from Tavoy, and flows 
northward for 68 miles ; at Met-ta it joins another stream, which has its 
sources in the extreme north of Tavoy District. The united river, 
under the name of the Great Tenasserim, proceeds southwards for 230 
miles between the Yoma Range and the Myin-mo-lek-kat Mountains. 
Farther on, it receives the waters of the Little Tenasserim, the two 
continuing to the sea as the Tenasserim. The Little Tenasserim is 
formed by the union, about 32 miles above Tenasserim, of the Thein- 
kwon and Nga-won. The Thein-kwon rises in the main range in 
about lat. 11° 38' n., and flows through very mountainous country in 
a general west-north-west direction, with one large bend to the south- 
west, for about 50 miles to near Sa-khai village. The Nga-won rises 
also in the main range in about lat. 11° 14' n., and runs for 50 miles in 
a much straighter course than the Thein-kwon, but through very 
similar country. The combined stream, under the name of the Little 
Tenasserim, runs north-north-west for about 40 miles to the Great 
Tenasserim, on reaching which it has attained a breadth of 118 yards. 
There are several mouths to the Tenasserim, the two principal ones 
being separated from each other by Mergui Island. Large boats can 
ascend as high as Tenasserim town. The banks of the river are at places 



TEND UKHERA—TENKASI. 241 

almost perpendicular ; and where its course lies through low lands, its 
bed is thickly studded with picturesque islands. The channel is in 
some parts so narrow as to occasion rapids, which can only be passed 
with difficulty at certain seasons. The tide is felt 10 miles above 
Tenasserim town. 

Tendukhera. — Town and municipality in G^darwira iahsU, Nar- 
singhpur District, Central Provinces; situated in lat. 23° 10' n., and 
long. 78° 58' E., 27 miles north-west of Narsinghpur town, and 22 from 
the Gidarward railway station. Population (188 1) 2977, namely, Hindus, 
2606; Jains, 128; Muhammadans, 95; Kabirpanthis, 55; and non- 
Hindu aborigines, 93. Municipal income, £,^'i. The iron-mines, 
2 miles south-west of the town, formerly leased by the Nerbudda Coal 
and Iron Company, yield ore of excellent quality. From the employ- 
ment of charcoal in smelting, the town is free from smoke, and only the 
ceaseless clink of hammers distinguishes it from the agricultural villages 
near. 

Tenkarai. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Tinnevelli District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 553 square miles. Population (1881) 283,110, 
namely, males 135,971, and females 147,139; occupying 63,874 houses, 
in 8 towns and 139 villages. Hindus number 198,928; Muhamma- 
dans, 27,736; Christians, 56,432; and 'others,' 14. Cotton, chola7n 
(Sorghum vulgare), gram, rice, chillies, and cocoa-nuts are the chief 
products. Irrigation is provided by the Maradur and Srivaikuntham ani- 
cuts. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil and 2 criminal courts; police 
circles {f hands), 12 ; regular police, 90 men. Land revenue, ^51,216. 

Tenkarai. — Head-quarters of Tenkarai td/uk, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 35' n., long. 78° 7' 30" e. Situated on the 
south bank of the Tambraparni river, about 20 miles south-west of 
Tuticorin, and about the same distance south-east of Tinnevelli town. 
Population (1881) 5956, occupying 1439 houses. Hindus number 
5799; Muhammadans, 16; and Christians, 141. 

Tenkarai (or Periakulam). — Head-quarters of Periakulam idhtk, 
Madura District, Madras Presidency. — See Periakulam. 

Tenkaraikottai {Ti?igrikotta). — Village in Salem District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 12° i' n., long. 78° 28' e. Population (1881) 284, 
living in 56 houses. A mud fort, commanding one of the entrances to 
the Biramahdl, gave this village some importance in the Mysore wars. 
In 1768 it changed hands two or three times. 

Tenkd<si. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Tinnevelli District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 361 square miles. Population (1881) 140,405, 
namely, males 68,605, and females 71,800; occupying 32,054 houses, in 
4 towns and 96 villages. Hindus number 122,726; Muhammadans, 
12,633; Christians, 5045; and 'others,' i. The river Chittar and its 
affluents are crossed by numerous anicuts feeding irrigation channels 

VOL. xin. Q 



242 TENKASI—TERl. 

and many tanks. In 1883 ^^ tdhik contained 2 criminal courts ; police 
circles {fhdnds), 7 ; regular police, 52 men. Land revenue, ^22,810, 

Tenkasi. — Head-quarters of Tenkasi taluk, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 8^ 57' 20" n., and long. 77" 21' 
20" E., 25 miles north-west of Tinnevelli town, on the Tinnevelli- 
Quilon road. Population (1881) 11,987, namely, males 5735, and 
females 6252, occupying 2726 houses. Hindus number 8352 ; Muhani- 
madans, 3602 ; and Christians, t^t^. Tenkasi was once fortified, but the 
fortifications were destroyed during the Poligar (Palegar) war. The 
place derives its name (the Southern Benares) from its great sanctity. 
It possesses a fine and much revered temple on the main road to 
Travancore, and is a busy centre of trade. 

Tennali. — Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
10° 56' 15" N., long. 77° 53' E. ; distributed through 67 hamlets, occupy- 
ing an area of 34J square miles, and divided into 4 sections. Situated 
on the road from Trichinopoli to Coimbatore, 18 miles west of Kariir. 
Population (1881) 6658, occupying 1528 houses. Market. 

Tennasserim. — Division, township, town, and river in Lower Burma. 
— See Tenasserim- 

Tepagarh. — Hill range in Chanda District, Central Provinces ; 
forming the highest part of a wild mountain region 2000 feet above sea- 
level, covered with dense forest, and crowned by the old fortress of 
Tepagarh. Lat. 20° 29' 20" n., long. 80° 34' 20" e. Its massive ram- 
parts of undressed stone, flanked by bastions, and entered through 
a winding gateway, have a circuit of over 2 miles. Here is a large 
tank, with a stone embankment and steps along the water face. This 
reservoir never fails. It is of fabulous depth, and forms the source 
of the Tepagarhi, which issues from its western bank, and in the rains 
becomes a roaring torrent. South of the tank rises an inner fort, with 
lines like those of the outer work. It contains the ruined palace of the 
Gond chiefs of Tepagarh. The greatest of the line was a prince named 
Param Raja, who held the whole Wairagarh country. Invaded by a 
large force from Chhatisgarh, he defeated them after a long fight, but 
in the pursuit he dropped a slipper. A laggard bore it to his Rani ; 
and she, deeming that her husband had fallen, drove her chariot into 
the tank and so died. When the victorious Raja heard this, he too 
drove into the tank ; and since then, Tepagarh has been desolate. 

Terdal. — Town in Sangli, one of the Southern Mardtha States, 
Bombay Presidency; situated on the right bank of the Kistna river, in 
lat. 16° 29' 45" N., and long. 75° 5' 30" e. Population (1881) 5764, 
namely, Hindus, 3703; Jains, 1292; and Muhammadans, 769. 
Formerly Terdal was a walled town, but the battlements are now in 
ruins. Jain temple built in 1187 a.d. Two schools and a dispensary. 

Teri. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Kohat District, Punjab, occupying 



TERI TOWN—TERWARA. 243 

the whole southern portion of the District. Area, 16 16 square miles, 
with 83 villages and 242 outlying hamlets. Population (1881) 79,987, 
namely, males 42,641, and females 37,346. Average density, 50 
persons per square mile. Muhammadans number 77,662; Hindus, 
2271 ; Sikhs, 11 ; and 'others,' 43. Inhabited by the Khatak tribe of 
Pathcins, whose chieftain, Sir Khwaja Muhammad Khdn, K.C.S.L, Nawab 
of Teri, holds the whole Sub-division \r\jdgir at a quit-rent of ^2000 
in perpetuity. Of this sum ;^2oo has been remitted during the life- 
time of the Nawab, for services rendered during the late Afghan war. 
The country, though hilly, is fairly well cultivated. The Khataks are 
a fine race, who make excellent soldiers ; and though naturally wild 
and impatient of control, they have settled down under British rule 
into peaceable agriculturists and carriers. 

Teri. — Town in Kohat District, Punjab, and head-quarters of the 
Teri Sub-division ; situated in lat. 33° 19' n., and long. 71° 7' e., on the 
left bank of the Teri Toi river, 34 miles from Kohat town. Population 
(1881)4071, namely, Muhammadans 3770, and Hindus 301. Residence 
of the Nawab of l^tx\jdgirddr of the Sub-division. Crowns a high 
mound overlooking the river, and contains iioo houses, 11 mosques, 
and a few shops, all of which rise in tiers along the sides of the 
mound. The bdzdr occupies the centre of the town, which also con- 
tains numerous guest-houses, a dispensary, police station, and school. 

Teri. — Native State in Bundelkhand, Central India. — Sec Orchha. 

Teri Toi. — River in Kohat District, Punjab ; formed by the 
junction of two streams, which rise on the eastern border of Upper 
Miranzai, and unite about 10 miles due west of Teri town. Thence 
the river flows eastward through a very narrow valley, hemmed in by 
hills which descend to its banks, until it joins the Indus, in lat. 33' 17' 
N., long. 71° 44' E., 12 miles above Mokhad. The surrounding hills 
belong to the salt-bearing range of Kohat, and contain the mines of 
Malgin, Jatta, and Narri. 

Terwara. — Native State in the Superintendency of Palanpur, 
Bombay Presidency ; bounded on all sides by States under the Palan- 
pur Superintendency — Diodar on the north, Kankrej on the east, 
Radhanpur on the south, and Bhabhar on the west. Area, 125 square 
miles. Population (1881) 8846. The country is flat and open, and 
the soil sandy and occasionally black. Only one harvest is reaped in 
the year, and that of common grains. Water is found from 30 to 75 
feet below the surface ; towards the north it is brackish. From April 
to June the heat is excessive, and fever prevails. This territory 
formerly belonged to the Nawab of Radhanpur, having been wrested 
from the Waghela Rajputs by Nawdb Kamal-ud-din Khan, about 17 15. 
The family now in possession of Terwara originally came from Sind. 
From the first they appear to have attached themselves to the Nawab 



244 TERWARA TOWN— THA-B AUNG. 

of Rddhanpur, serving as horsemen. The State was confirmed to 
Baliich Khan, the father of the present chief, in 1822 ; the Nawab of 
R^dhanpur having failed to attend to disprove the claim before the 
Political Superintendent of Palanpur. The present (1882-83) chief, 
Thakur Nathu Khdn, a Baliich Muhammadan, is fifty-three years of 
age. He enjoys an estimated gross revenue of ;£i2oo. School with 
14 pupils. 

Terwdra. — Principal town of Terwara State, in Palanpur Superin- 
tendency, Bombay Presidency ; and the residence of the chief. Lat. 
24' 3' 30" N., long. 71° 43' 30" E. 

Teveram. — Town in Periakulam tdluk^ Madura District, Madras 
Presidency; situated about 25 miles south-west of Periakulam. Lat. 
9° 54' N., and long. 77° 20' e. Population (1881) 9807, occupying 
1472 houses. Hindus number 9482; Christians, 251; and Muham- 
madans, 74. 

Tezpur. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Darrang 
District, Assam ; situated in lat. 26° 37' 15" n., and long. 92° 53' 5" e., 
on the north or right bank of the Brahmaputra, near the confluence of 
the Bhoroli. Population (1881) 2910. The town is built on a plain, 
between two low ranges of hills, 278 feet above sea-level. Of recent 
years, the character of the houses and the sanitary condition of the town 
have been greatly improved. The houses of the European residents 
are built upon the hills. In the native quarter, many masonry build- 
ings have recently been erected with roofs of tile or corrugated iron, 
superseding the old thatched wooden huts. There are the usual civil 
offices, including a jail, an English school, and a charitable dispensary. 
Around the court-house are now lying many carved stones and pillars, 
which show that Tezpur was in former times the site of an important 
city. According to local tradition, it was the scene of the mythical 
battle between Ban Raja and the god Krishna, described in the Prern 
Sdgar. In the neighbourhood are many ruins of Hindu temples — 
massive granite stones and fine sculptures — now buried in dense jungle 
and forgotten by the present inhabitants. All these temples appear to 
have been dedicated to Siva, and to have been overthrown by the 
iconoclastic hand of Muhammadan invaders ; or by earthquakes, to 
which the locality is liable. Tezpur is an important seat of trade, 
where the river steamers touch to take on board tea, and to leave 
stores of various kinds to be distributed among the neighbouring tea- 
gardens. 

Tha-baung. — Township in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower Burma ; extending across the Arakan mountains to the sea-coast 
on the west. The whole of the central, and the greater part of the 
western, portion is mountainous and forest-clad. Chief streams — the 
Nga-wun and Bo-daw. The township comprises 14 revenue circles, of 



THA-B YE-HLA—THAKURD WAR A. 245 

which Kwin-hia and Kin-lat are the most fertile. Population (1881) 
33'853 ; gross revenue, ^9798. Head-quarters at Tha-baung village; 
population (1881) 506. 

Tha-bye-hla. — Village in the Kyun-pyaw township of Bassein 
District, Iravvadi Division, Lower Burma ; situated on the western bank 
of the river Da-ga. Population (1877) 2304. Not separately returned 
in the Census Report of 1881. 

Tha-ga-ra. — Township of Taung-ngu District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma. In the west, the country is crossed by numerous 
mountain spurs, and clothed with dense forests of teak, pyin-tna 
(Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginas), sha (Acacia Catechu), in (Dipterocarpus 
tuberculatus), etc. On the east, a narrow strip of level plain, partly 
cultivated with rice, is intersected by numerous fair-weather cart-tracks. 
This township comprises 7 revenue circles. Head-quarters at Pie-tu. 
Population (1881) 18,939; gross revenue, ^1830. 

Tha-htun. — Township and town in Amherst District, Tenasserim 
Division, Lower Burma. — See Tha-tun. 

Thdkeswari. — Temple upon an isolated hill in Goalpara District, 
Assam. — See Tukreswari. 

Tha-khwot-peng ( Tha-kut-pin or Bassein). — Tidal creek in 
Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. — See Tha-kut-pin. 

TMkurani. — One of the principal mountain peaks in Orissa ; 
situated in the State of Keunjhar, in lat. 22° 6' 5" N., and long. 85° 28' 
30" E. Height, 3003 feet above sea-level. 

TMkurdwdra. — Northern tahsil of Moradabad District, North- 
western Provinces ; consisting of a submontane tract, lying just below 
the forest-covered tardi, and conterminous with Thakurdward pargand. 
It is cut up by numerous small streams, which come down from the 
northern hills to feed the Rimganga. Of these, the Lapkana, Kurka 
(into which the Lapkana falls), and the Dhela are the most important. 
The Kurka joins the Ramganga west of Dilari, and the Dhela about 
2 miles north of Moradabad city. The country between the rivers is 
well cultivated, and shows little waste land. In the south and west of 
the tahsil are rich villages, chiefly round Dilari as a centre, w^here the 
soil is exceedingly fertile, and the rents proportionately high. The 
eastern tracts between the Dhela and the Kurka contain many good 
villages. But in the north the land is generally inferior ; and the tract 
between the Kurka and Lapkana, known as Bajar patti, is the worst, 
having an inferior soil, in which wells will not stand. Much of this is 
waste and covered with scrubby thorn jungle. The staple crop is rice, 
and sugar of superior quality is produced in the more favoured 
villages. 

The population of Thdkurdwara tahsil in 1881 was returned at 
109,596, namely, males 58,559, and females 51,037 ; average density, 461 



246 THAKURDWARA TOWN—THA-KUT-PIN. 

persons per square mile. Hindus numbered 7 1,288, and Muhammadans 
38,308. Of 262 villages, 199 contained less than five hundred in- 
habitants ; 48 between five hundred and a thousand ; 14 between one 
thousand and five thousand ; and i between five thousand and ten 
thousand. Total area (1881-82), 238 square miles, of which 219 
square miles are assessed for Government revenue. Of the assessed 
area, 148 square miles were returned as under cultivation, 47 square 
miles as cultivable, and 24 square miles as barren. Government 
land revenue, ;!^i8,459, or including local rates and cesses levied 
on land, ^^20,828. Rental paid by cultivators, including cesses, 
;^33,i72. The principal landholders are Chauhan Rdjputs, and 
the prevailing tenure is zaminddri. In 1881 the tahsil contained i 
criminal court, the civil jurisdiction being comprehended under that of 
Moradabdd tahsil. Two police circles (t hands) ; regular police, 27 
men; village watch or rural police {cha^ikiddrs), 254. 

Thdkurdwara. — Town in Moradabad District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of Thakurdwira tahsil ; situated in lat. 20° 
11' 40" N., long. 78° 54' E., 27 miles north of Moradabad town. 
Population (1881) 65 11, namely, Muhammadans 3856, and Hindus 
2655. Number of houses, 699, Founded by Mahendra Singh, in 
the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719-48), and plundered by the Pin- 
dari freebooter Amir Khan in 1805. Besides the Sub-divisional build- 
ings, the town contains a police station, Anglo-vernacular school, 
distillery, sardi or native inn, 7 mosques, and 4 temples. Manufacture 
of cotton cloth. A small house-tax is raised for police and conservancy 
purposes. 

Th^kurpukur. — Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
Bengal, south of Barsid. Chapel and school belonging to the Church 
Missionary Society. The Diamond Harbour Canal extends from 
Thakurpukur to Kholakhali, a distance of 23 miles. 

Thakurtold. — Zaminddri estate on the north - west border of 
Raipur District, Central Provinces ; comprising formerly 24, but now 
(1881) 58 villages, some villages above the ghdts having been trans- 
ferred from Sdletekri, when the entire charge of the ghdts was made 
over to Thakurtold. The chiefship now extends to the Banjar river. 
Below the ghdts, the country is hilly ; above them, flat and well watered. 
It has fine forests of bije-sdl, hardu, din, and dhaura ; and the cultivated 
area produces cotton, kodo, and rice. Area, 376 square miles. Popu- 
lation (188 1) 6569, living in 2328 houses. The zami?iddr is a Gond. 
Thakurtola village is situated in lat. 21° 39' n., and long. 81° e. 

Tha-kut-pin (or Bassein). — Tidal creek in Hanthawadi District, 
Pegu Division, Lower Burma. It forms a channel between the Rangoon 
and the China Bakir or To rivers, the entrance on the side of the 
former being about 10 miles from its mouth. Thence the Tha-kut-pin 



THAL—THALGHAT. 24^ 

follows a south-south-west course, and enters the To about 2\ miles 
from the sea. The direct distance from its mouth is 19 miles; the 
actual length, 25 miles. During the rainy season the creek has a steady 
current downwards, but for the rest of the year it is affected by the 
tide. Its depth is about two fathoms at low water ; but the entrance 
from the Rangoon river is so obstructed by shoals that steamers have 
to wait for about half-flood before they can pass up. In the dry season, 
the Tha-kut-pin is the only practicable creek between Rangoon and the 
Irawadi for steamers and large boats. The banks are steep, muddy, 
and covered with low forest. 

Thai. — Port in Alibagh Sub-division, Kolaba District, Bombay 
Presidency; situated in lat. 18° 40' 20" n., and long. 72° 55' 55" e., 
on the coast, 3 miles north of Alibdgh. Population (1881) 3575 ; 
number of houses, 653. Thai is a great fishing station. During the fair 
weather a passage boat plies irregularly between Bombay and Thai. 
About 2\ miles west is situated the wooded island of Khanderi 
(Kenery), with its southern point crowned by a lighthouse, showing a 
fixed white dioptric light, visible for 20 miles. Height of centre of 
lantern above high water, 161 feet. Average annual value of the trade 
during the five years ending 1881-82 — imports, ^£^5030 ; and exportS; 
;£6597. 

Tha-le-dan. — River in the Pa-daung township of Prome District, 
Pegu Division, Lower Burma. It falls into the Irawadi (Irrawaddy) 
at the village of Tha-le-dan, from which it takes its name, and is 
formed by the junction of two streams — the North and the South 
Tha-le-dan. The first of these rises in the Arakan range, and flows 
with a winding course through the hills, receiving the waters of several 
mountain torrents ; and about 4 or 5 miles from the Irawadi, it enters 
a comparatively level and cultivated tract. It is navigable during the 
rains for a short distance, and traverses a country rich in teak and 
other forest timber; its drainage basin is about 210 square miles. The 
South Tha-le-dan, which is impracticable for boats, also rises in the 
Arakan mountains, considerably to the south of the source of the 
North Tha-le-dan, and flow^s in a north-easterly direction to join that 
river. Timber is floated down it to Ma-taung village, and thence by 
the joint stream to the Irawadi. 

Thalghdt {Kdsdraghdt). — Pass in the Sahyadri Hills, on the boundary 
of Thdna (Tanna) and Nasik Districts, Bombay Presidency ; situated in 
lat. 19° 43' N., and long. 73° 30' e., 65 miles north-east by north of 
Bombay city. The Thalghat Pass is, for purposes of trade, one of 
the most important in the range of the Sahyddri Hills. It is traversed 
by two lines of communication, road and rail. The road is the main 
line between Bombay and Agra. It still conveys a large trafiic coast- 
wards in grain, and Deccanwards in salt and sundries. The railway is 



248 THAMMAPATTI—THAN. 

the north-eastern branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Hne. The 
summit of the railway incline is 191 2 feet above the level of the sea ; 
the maximum gradient is i in 37 ; and the extreme curvature, 17 chains 
radius. 

Thammapatti {Thummapatty). — Town in Atiir taluk, Salem Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 11° 34' 40" n,, and long. 78' 
19' 45" E., at the foot of the Kollamalai Hills, on the river Swathanati. 
Population (188 1 ) 3431, namely, Hindus, 3115; Muhammadans, 236; 
and Christians, 80 ; occupying 702 houses. Iron-smelting industry. 

Thdn. — Village in Lakhtar State, in the Jhalawar Sub-division of 
Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ; situated to the north of the main 
road from Wadhwin to Rajkot, 22 miles west-south-west of Mali. 
Population (1881) 1641. The village is surrounded by a fort. Post- 
office. Than is interesting for its traditions rather than for the few 
antiquarian remains now existing. The following description of 
the place is condensed from an account supplied to Mr. Burgess 
by Major J. W. Watson for the Archaological Survey of Western 
India : — 

Than is one of the most ancient places in India, and the whole of 
the neighbourhood is holy ground. Than itself derives its name from 
the Sanskrit sthdn^ ' a place,' as though it were t/ie place, hallowed 
above all others by the residence of devout sages, by the magnificence 
of its city, and by its propinquity to famous shrines, such as that of 
Trineteswara, now called Tarnetar, the famous temple of the Sun at 
Kandola, and those of the Snake-brethren Vasuki and Banduk, now 
known as Wasangi and Bandia Beli respectively. 

Than is situated in the part of Surashtra [Kathiawar] known as 
the Deva Panchdl — so called, it is said, from having been the native 
country of Draupadi, the wife of the five Pandava brethren, from which 
circumstance she was called Panchali; and because it is peculiarly 
sacred, it is called the Deva Panchal. Nor is Than famous in local 
tradition only. One of the chapters of the Skanda Purdna is devoted 
to Trineteswara and the neighbourhood, and this chapter is vulgarly 
called the Than Purdna or Tarnetar Mdhdtniya. Here we learn that 
the first temple to the Sun was built by Raja Mandhdta in the Satya 
Yug. The city is said then to have covered many square miles, and 
to have contained a population of 36,000 Brahmans, 52,000 Vaisyas, 
72,000 Kshattriyas, and 90,000 Siidras — in all, 250,000 souls. 

In 1690 A.D., Kdrtalab Khan, viceroy of Gujarat, stormed the town, 
and levelled the old temple. The present temple is built on the 
former site. Than was visited also by Krishna and his consort Lakshmi, 
who bathed in the two tanks near the town, whence one has been 
called Pritam, a contraction from Priyatam, ' the beloved,' after Krishna 
— so named as being the beloved of the Gopis ; and the other Karaala, 



THANA, 249 

after Lakshmf, who from her beauty was supposed to resemble the 
kamala or lotus-blossom. The central fortress was called Kandola, 
and here was the celebrated temple of the Sun. Immediately opposite 
to Kandola is another hill, with a fort called in more recent times Son- 
garh ; and another large suburb was named Mandva. Within a few 
miles was the shrine of the three-eyed god Trineteswara, one of the 
appellations of Siva ; and close to this, the celebrated kund, by bathing 
in which pool all sins were washed away. This kiaid was called, 
therefore, the Papnasham or 'sin-expelling,' as the forest in which 
it was situated was called the Papapnod - nuvana or the Forest 
of the Sin-destroyer. Close to Than are the Mdndhav Hills, dis- 
tinguished by this name from the rest of the Tanga range, of which 
they form a part ; and the remains of Mindhavgarh, such as they are, 
may be seen close to the shrine of Bindid Beli, the modern name of 
Banduk, one of the famed Snake-brethren. An account of the 
remains at present existing, and of the legendary history of the snake- 
shrines, will be found in Mr. Burgess' Archceo logical Survey of Western 
India. 

Thdna {Tanna). — British District in the Bombay Presidency, lying 
between 18° 47' and 20° 23' n. lat., and between 72° 39' and 73° 52' e. 
long. Area, 4243 square miles. Population (1881) 908,548 souls. 
Thana District is bounded on the north by the Portuguese territory of 
Daman and by Surat District ; on the east by the Districts of Nasik, 
Ahmadnagar, and Poona ; on the south by Kolaba District ; and on 
the west by the Arabian Sea. 

Physical Aspects. — Thana consists of a distinct strip of low land 
intersected by hilly tracts, rising to elevations varying from 100 to 
2500 feet. Towards the east and north-east, the country is elevated, 
covered with trees, and but scantily cultivated. Near the coast,'^the 
land is low, and where free from inundation, fertile. North of the 
Vaitarani river, whose broad waters open a scene of exquisite loveli- 
ness, the shores are flat, with long sandy spits running into muddy 
shallows, while the hills also recede ; so that, a little north of the great 
marsh of Dihdnu, the general aspect resembles Gujarat rather than 
the Konkan, while the language also begins to change from Marathi to 
Gujarat!. Along the whole line of coast the soil is fertile, and the 
villages are exceedingly populous. In the north-east, the hills are 
covered with wood, and the valleys but partially cultivated. The villages 
are seldom more than scattered hamlets of huts ; and the population 
consists mainly of uncivilised aboriginal tribes, many of whom still 
wander from place to place as they find land or water to suit their fancy. 
Inland, the District is well watered and well wooded. Except in 
the north-east, where much of it rises in large plateaux, the country 
is a series of flat low-lying rice tracts broken by well-marked ranges of 



250 THANA. 

hills. Salt marshes are an important feature of this part of the District ; 
and in them the reclamation of land for cultivation is going on steadily, 
though slowly. The Vaitarani, rising in the Trimbak hills in Ndsik 
District opposite the source of the Godavari, navigable to a distance 
of about 20 miles from its mouth, is the only considerable river. 
The sacredness of its source, so near the spring of the Godavari, 
the importance of its valley, one of the earliest trade routes between 
the sea and the North Deccan, and the beauty of the lower reaches 
of the river, brought to the banks of the Vaitarani some of the first 
of the Aryan settlers. It is mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata as one of 
the four holy streams. Though deep and rapid in the rains, the 
other rivers are of little consequence ; shallow in the cold weather, 
and in the hot season almost dry. Except the Bassein creek, which 
separates the island of Salsette from the mainland, and is navigable 
throughout its whole length, most of the inlets of the sea, though at 
their mouths broad and deep, become within 10 miles of the coast 
shallow watercourses. 

There are no natural lakes ; but the Vehar reservoir, about 1 5 miles 
from Bombay, between Kurla and Thana, constructed as a storage lake 
for the supply of water to Bombay city, covers an area of about 1400 
acres. It is formed by three dams, two of which had to be built to 
keep the water from flowing over ridges on the margin of the basin 
which were lower than the top of the main dam. The quantity of the 
water supplied by the reservoir is about 8,000,000 gallons a day, or a 
little more than ten gallons per head for the population of Bombay. 
Within the watershed of the lake, tillage or the practice of any craft 
is forbidden, and the wildness of the surrounding country keeps the 
water free from the risk of contamination. For many years the water 
was excellent, but of late the growth of weeds has somewhat injured its 
quality. There are at present no means of emptying the lake, clear- 
ing it out, or filtering it, but the Bombay municipality has under con- 
sideration various schemes for improving the w^ater. The cost of the 
Vehar reservoir, and of laying the pipes into Bombay, was ^{^373,650. 
As apprehension was felt that the quantity of water drawn from the 
gathering ground of Vehar (2550 acres) might prove too small for the 
wants of Bombay, the neighbouring Tiilsi lake was excavated at a cost of 
^45,000, and its water kept ready to be drained into Vehar. In 1877 
a new scheme was undertaken for bringing an independent main from 
Tiilsi to the top of Malabar hill in Bombay, which was carried out 
at a cost of ;£3 30,000. This source of supply gives an additional 
daily allowance of six gallons per head for the whole population of the 
city, and provides for the higher parts of Bombay which are not reached 
by the Vehar main. Along the coast, the water-supply is abundant ; 
and, though brackish, the water is not unwholesome. In the inland 



\ 



THAN A. 251 

parts, water can be had for the digging ; but the people are so poor that 
wells are few, and the supply of water scanty. 

Ranges of hills are found all over the District. Among the mo*st 
considerable are those running through Salsette from north to south, 
the Matherdn range, the Damin range, in which is Tungdr, and the 
range running from north to south between the Vaitarani and the 
Bassein creek. Besides, there are several more or less isolated hills, 
many of them in former times forts of strength and celebrity. The 
two most striking in appearance are Mdhuli and Malangarh. 

Except in alluvial valleys, the geological formation consists almost 
entirely of the Deccan trap and its associate rocks. Limestone and 
various stones for building purposes are also found. Palm-trees grow in 
abundance near the coast, and stunted date-trees are seen everywhere. 

The forests of Thana, which supply Bombay with a large quantity of 
firewood, yielded a revenue of ^^6465 in 1870-71, and ^16,072 in 
1879-80. Next to those of Kanara and Khandesh, they are the 
largest and most valuable in the Bombay Presidency. The Govern- 
ment reserves stretch over 1664 square miles, or about 40 per cent, of 
the total area of the District. Of the whole forest area, 625 square 
miles have been provisionally gazetted as reserved, and 1039 square 
miles as protected forest. The timber trade is chiefly in the hands of 
Christians of Bassein, Musalmans, and Pdrsis. 

Sea-fishery is very productive, so that the fishing castes are able to 
cure and export to a large extent. The chief traders make a profit of 
about 6J per cent., and the retail dealers about twice as much. Large 
transactions take place between the fishing and agricultural classes, the 
former taking salted and dried fish inland and exchanging them for grain. 

History. — The territory comprised in the District of Thana formed 
part of the dominions of the Peshwa, annexed by the Bombay Govern- 
ment in 1 81 8, on the overthrow of Baji Rao. (For further information 
on the history of the District, see Bombay Presidency.) 

Population. — Since the beginning of British rule the people have 
been four times numbered, in 1846, 1851, 1872, and 1881. In 1846, 
the population amounted to 554,937. The 1851 Census showed an 
increase in population of 6-89 per cent.; that is, a total of 593,192. 
The 1872 Census disclosed a population of 847,424, or an increase of 
42-85 per cent. That of 188 1 returned a total of 908,548, or a further 
increase of 61,124, or 7-21 per cent. ; occupying 154,403 houses in 10 
towns and 2091 villages. Number of unoccupied houses, 20,025. Average 
number of persons per village or town, 433 ; persons per occupied house, 
5-88; persons per square mile, 214-12 ; villages or towns per square mile, 
0-49 ; occupied houses per square mile, 36-4. Classified according to 
sex, there were— males 468,236, and females 440,312 ; proportion of 
males, 51-5 per cent. Classified according to age, there were— under 



252 THAN A. 

15 years, boys 193,344, and girls 180,269; total children, 373,613, or 
41*1 per cent, of the population: 15 years and upward, males 274,892, 
and females 260,043 ; total adults, 534,935, or 58*9 per cent. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Hindus, 
806,805, or ^S"^ P^r Qtvil. ; Muhammadans, 42,391, or 4*6 per cent. ; 
Christians, 39,545, or 4*4 per cent. ; non-Hindu aboriginal tribes, 
13,078, or 1*4 per cent. ; Parsis, 3315; Jains, 2517 ; Jews, 892; and 
' others,' 5. 

The Hindus were divided into the following main castes : — Kunbis 
(cultivators), 221,335; Agarias (husbandmen), 117,732; Kolis (culti- 
vators), 89,467 ; Mhars (inferior caste), 52,745 ; Brdhmans (priestly 
caste), 24,295 ; Bhandaris (palm-juice drawers), 13,224; Dublas (field 
labourers), 10,882; Mali's (gardeners), 7700; Chamars (workers in 
leather), 7429; Sonirs (goldsmiths), 6775; Sutdrs (carpenters), 6744 ; 
Kumbhars (potters), 5126 ; Ndpits (barbers), 3877 ; Banj^rds (carriers), 
3861; Lobars (blacksmiths), 3122; Rdjputs (warrior caste), 2772; 
Dhangars (shepherds), 2503 ; Darjis (tailors), 2376 ; Teh's (oilmen), 
1928; Dhobi's (washermen), 1222; and 'others,' 221,690. 

The Muhammadan population consists of — Shaikhs, 38,211; 
Pathans, 1389 ; Sayyids, 968 ; and ' others,' 1823. According to sect, 
the Muhammadans included Sunni's 41,772, and Shias 619. 

Christians sub-divided into sect — Roman Catholics, 39,291 : Epis- 
copalians, 153; Baptists, 62; Presbyterians, 23; Protestants (undis- 
tinguished by sect), 8 ; Wesleyans, 7 ; and Methodist, i. According 
to race — Europeans, 182 ; Eurasians, 28 ; and Natives, 39,335 (including 
39,191 Roman Catholics). 

The Christians of Salsette and Bassein, numbering about 37,000, 
deserve special notice. They are the descendants of the converts of 
St. Francis Xavier and his successors in the i6th century. As the 
original converts were not obliged to give up caste distinctions, their 
descendants have retained many of them, and a Thana Christian can 
still tell to what caste his family belonged before conversion. Indeed, 
Christians of the Bhandari, Kunbi, and Koli castes commonly call them- 
selves Christian Bhandaris, Kunbis, or Kolis, as the case may be ; and 
Christians belonging to different castes do not, as a rule, intermarry, 
though the restriction in this respect is not so rigid as among Hindus. 
All of them have Portuguese names ; and they show their attachment 
to their faith by contributing very largely to their churches, and to 
the support of their priests. All Christian villages on the coast, and a 
good number inland, have their churches ; and where a congregation is 
not large enough to keep a resident priest, one priest serves two or three 
churches. At many of the Salsette churches annual fairs or festivals 
are held, to which the Christians flock in great numbers. Numerous 
Hindus and Parsis also attend, as some of the shrines have a reputation 



I 



1 



THANA. 253 

for working cures, which is not confined to Christians, and which 
obtains for them many heathen offerings. The upper classes dress as 
Europeans, the lowergenerally with jacket and short drawers of coloured 
cotton, and a red cloth cap ; the women of the lower classes, when they 
appear at church, wear a voluminous white shawl or mantle. Their 
houses are generally tiled, and often two-storied, and frequently washed 
in colours outside. Many of these Christians are employed as clerks 
and shopmen in Bombay ; but they pride themselves on differing from 
their brethren of Goa in refusing to enter household service. They 
live by cultivation, fishing, toddy-drawing, and every other employment 
open to similar classes of Hindus. A few members of the best families 
enter the priesthood. In Salsette very many, and in Bassein a few, 
of the State grants to village head-men are held by Christians. 

A remarkable trait in the character of the Thana people is the very 
deep and almost universal reverence which they pay to semi-aboriginal 
or non-Brahmanical spirits or deities. Almost all classes, Parsis, Jews, 
Muhammadans, and Christians, in spite of the displeasure of their 
priests, persist in fearing and making offerings to these local deos. 

Except a few who proceed to Bombay during the dry season chiefly 
as labourers and cartmen, the people seldom leave their homes in 
search of work. Their labour seems not to be in much demand out- 
side the District, probably because their fever-stricken constitutions 
prevent them competing with the able-bodied labouring classes of Poona, 
Satdra, and Ratndgiri. Much of this want of strength is due to the 
weakening climate, malarious forests, the strain and exposure in 
planting rice, and the immoderate use of spirituous drinks. Of outside 
labourers who come to Thdna for work, the most important class 
are Deccan Kunbis and Mhdrs, who are known in the District as 
Ghatis or highlanders. They generally arrive in the beginning of the 
fair season, trooping in hundreds down the Bhor and other passes. 
Upwards of a thousand find employment as grass-cutters in Salsette, 
Kalyan, and Mahim. 

In 1 88 1, there were in Thana District the following ten towns with a 
population exceeding 5000: — Bandra, population 14,987; Thana, the 
District capital, 14,456 ; Bhiwandi, 13,837 ; Kalyan, 12,910 ; Bassein, 
10,357; Panwel, 10,351; Uran, 10,149; KuRLA, 9715; Mahim, 
7122 ; Agashi, 6823. These figures disclose a total urban population 
of 110,707, or I2'2 per cent, of the District population. Excepting 
Panwel, Uran, and Agd.shi, the remaining seven above-mentioned 
towns were in 1883-84 municipalities ; their municipal income aggre- 
gated ;£"7893 ; the incidence of taxation varied from 7^d. to 2s. 3jd. 

Of the 2101 towns and villages in 1881, 745 contained less than two 
hundred inhabitants ; 889 between two and five hundred ; 332 between 
five hundred and one thousand ; 98 between one and two thousand ; 18 



254 THAN A. 

between two and three thousand ; 9 between three and five thousand ; 
4 between five and ten thousand ; and 6 between ten and fifteen 
thousand. 

As regards occupation, the male population was distributed by the 
Census into the following six main groups:— (i) Professional class, 
including State officials of every kind and members of the learned 
professions, 8310; (2) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc., 9757; (3) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house 
keepers, 9912 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 
204,839 ; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 
35,114; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising male 
children, general labourers, and persons of unspecified occupation, 
200,304. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supported (1881) 610,705 persons, or 67-22 
per cent, of the population ; only 369,438 were agricultural workers. 
Total amount of Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses on land, ;£? 7,909, or an average of 3s. id. per cultivated acre. 
Average area of cultivable and cultivated land per agricultural worker, 
3-4 acres. The survey returns give Thana, excluding Jawhar, an area 
of 2,722,088 acres. Of these, 189,682 acres, or 6-96 per cent., are 
alienated, paying to Government only a quit-rent; 1,034,137 acres, or 
3 7 '99 per cent., are cultivated or cultivable ; 1,030,168 acres, or 37*84 
per cent., forest; 73,801 acres, or 271 per cent., salt-pans and salt 
marshes; 94,412 acres, or 3-46 per cent, hills and uplands; and 
299,888 acres, or iroi per cent, village sites and roads. 

The chief irrigation is flooding of the rice lands, during the rains, by 
the small streams that drain the neighbouring uplands. Some dry weather 
irrigation is carried on from rivers and unbuilt wells. Two influences, sea 
encroachment and land reclamations, have for centuries been changing 
the lands along the coast Of the encroachments, the most remarkable 
are at Dahanu, where the sea has advanced about 1500 feet ; and at the 
mouth of the Vaitarani, where, since 1724, four villages have been sub- 
merged. Of the land reclamations, most have been made in small plots, 
which, after yielding crops of salt rice for some years, gradually become 
freed from their saltness, and merge into the area of sweet rice land. 
Most of the embankments built to keep back the sea are believed to 
be the work of the Portuguese, having been constructed partly by 
the Government, and partly by the European settlers to whom the 
Government granted large estates. In this, as in other respects, the 
Portuguese did much to improve the coast districts. From the beginning 
of British rule, salt wastes have been granted for reclamation on specially 
favourable terms. Of a total estimated area of about 93,000 acres of 
salt waste and salt marsh, about 16,500 acres have been reclaimed, and 
about 76,000 acres remain available for reclamation. 



THANA. 255 

In 1883-84, the area under actual cultivation was 509,792 acres, of 
which 7172 acres were twice cropped. Cereals and millets occupied 
438,998 acres; pulses, 45,9^4 acres ; garden produce, 3227 acres; 
condiments and spices, 1190 acres ; sugar, 1695 acres, all under sugar- 
cane ; oil-seeds, 2 1,578 acres, of which i4,373 were under /// (Sesamum 
indicum) ; and fibres, 4312 acres. Rice, by far the most important 
grain crop, occupied 325,724 acres, or 63-9 per cent, of the total area 
under cultivation ; it is the chief article of export. Sugar-cane is 
cultivated in some places. Salt-pans occupied 4772 acres. In 1878-79, 
the total number of holdings in Government villages, including alienated 
lands, was 90,709, with an average area of 1 1^ acres. In 1883-84, the 
agricultural live stock consisted of— bullocks, 131,565 ; cows, 114,097 ; 
buffaloes, 68,293 ; horses and ponies, 1172 ; sheep and goats, 32,383 : 
dead stock— ploughs, 77,355 ; and carts, 25,816. In the same year, 
the price of produce per vtaund oi'^o lbs. was — wheat, 7s. 8jd.; rice (best), 
9s. 9fd. ; rice (common), 8s. 3jd. ; bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), 
5s. 4id.; jodr (Sorghum vulgare), 4s. 2^d. ; gram, 6s. id. ; salt, 5s. 7fd. ; 
ddl (spUt-peas), 7s. loid. ; ghi, £1, 1 2s. 34d. The daily wages of skilled 
artisans varied from 9d. to 2s. ; of unskilled workmen, from 3d. to 7^d. 
The hire of carts ranges from is. 6d. to 3s. per day; pack-bullocks, 
from 6d. to is. 3d. ; asses, 6d. ; horses and ponies, from is. to 2s. 

Beside the regular survey tenure, common to the Bombay Presidency, 
several peculiar tenures of land exist in Thdna. A considerable 
number of villages, chiefly in the Salsette Sub-division, are held on the 
khoti tenure. The khots, who are leaseholders of a certain number of 
villages, obtained their land from the British Government at an early 
period of its rule. Another kind of leasehold tenure, known as isdfat, 
is found in most parts of the District. An isdfat village is a farm or 
lease formerly resumable at pleasure, though not, of course, so under 
the British Government, and held always on the condition of paying the 
full assessment, according to the rates of the District. Other lands, 
lying either on the coast or along the larger creeks, are held on the 
i-/^//^/r/ tenure. Shilotri lands are those which have been reclaimed from 
the sea and embanked, and of which the permanence is dependent on 
the embankments being kept up. These reclamations are known as 
khdrs. The tenure is of two sorts. First, shilotri proper, under which 
the khdr belongs to the person by whom it was reclaimed. The shilo- 
tiddrs are considered to have a proprietary right; they let out these 
lands at will, and according to old custom, levy a niaund of rice per 
bighd, in addition to the assessment for the repair of the outer embank- 
ments. The second class of shilotri lands are those in which Govern- 
ment either reclaimed the klidrs in the first instance, or subsequently 
became possessed of them by lapse. Except that they pay an extra 

rate, which is spent in repairing the embankments, the cultivators of 



256 THAN A. 

these kJidrs hold their land on the same conditions as the regular 
survey tenants. 

Commu7ii cations. — Along the sea-coast, and up the creeks, sailing 
vessels and canoes form a ready means of communication. In three 
directions the District is crossed by railways. To the north, the line 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway skirts the coast 
for a total distance of 95 miles. East and west, the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway runs for 24 miles, and then dividing, runs north-east 
44 miles and south-east 49 miles. In the north and east of the District 
there are no made roads. But Salsette is well supplied with roads ; and 
two main lines run eastward, the Agra road across the Thai Pass to 
Nasik, and the Poona road by way of the Bhor Pass. Since the estab- 
lishment of local funds, many new lines of roads have been made ; and 
in 1882-83 there were 228 miles of good made roads in the District. 

During the present century three causeways have been made between 
the islands in the neighbourhood of the city of Bombay. The first 
joined Sion in Bombay with Kurla in Salsette, the second joined Mdhim 
in Bombay with B^ndra in Salsette, and the third joined Kurla in 
Salsette with Chembur in Trombay. The Sion causeway was begun 
in 1798 and finished in 1805, at a cost of ;£"5037. In 1826 its breadth 
was doubled, and it was otherwise improved at a further outlay of 
^4000. The Sion causeway is 935 yards long and 24 feet wide. In 
1841, Lady Jamsetji Jijibhai offered ^^4500 towards making a causeway 
between Mahim and Bandra. The work was begun in 1843, ^^<^ before 
it was finished Lady Jamsetji increased her first gift to ;£^i 5,580. The 
causeway was completed at a total cost of ;£"2o,384, and was opened in 
1845. It is 3600 feet long and 30 feet wide, and in the centre has a 
bridge of 4 arches, each 29 feet wide. The Chembur causeway was 
built about 1846. It is 3105 feet long, and from 22 to 24 feet wide. 

Commerce and Trade. — The chief articles of export are rice, salt, 
wood, lime, and dried fish. Cloth, grain, tobacco, cocoa-nuts, sugar, and 
molasses form the chief articles of import. The average annual value 
of the sea-borne trade at the thirty-three ports of the District for the 
five years ending 1883-84 was — imports, ;^476,972 ; and exports, 
;£i, 408,763. In 1883-84, the value of the trade was — imports, 
^496,769 ; and exports, ;£^i, 566,386. A comparison of the local railway 
traffic returns, during the eight years ending 1880, shows a rise in the 
number of passengers from 1,960,727 in 1873 to 3,105,165 in 1880; 
and in goods from 77,405 tons in 1873 to 140,946 tons in 1880. In 
1880, 1,619,774 passengers and 95,513 tons of goods were carried 
along the Great Indian Peninsula Railway; and 1,485,391 passengers 
and 45,433 tons of goods along the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
line. On the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, between 1873 and 1880, 
the figures show an increase in passengers from 1,094,737 to 1,619,774; 



THANA. 



257 



and in goods from 57,330 to 95,513 tons. For the road traffic, no 
details are available. In spite of railway competition, it is said that a 
considerable through traffic is still kept up along the Agra and Poona 
roads. 

Next to agriculture, the making of salt is the most important industry 
of the District. There are 200 salt-works, with an estimated area of 
8100 acres, and an out-turn in 1880-81 of 171,000 tons of salt, worth 
about ;£'33, 000, or, including duty, about ^956,000, and yielding a 
revenue of ;£78o,goo. The number of people employed in making 
and trading in salt is estimated at about 20,000. Thana salt is made 
by the solar evaporation of sea-water. Besides the ordinary brass work 
and pottery, the chief industries of the District are handloom-weaving 
by Portuguese or native Christians, and of silk and cotton by Musalmdns 
in Thana and Bhiwandi, and spinning and weaving of cotton in the 
steam factories at Kurla (Coorla), 8 miles east of Bombay city. Of 
other industries, there are a dyeing factory at Wasind, distilleries and 
chemical factories at Chembur and Uran, and a toddy factory at 
Dharavi. The money-lenders are chiefly Baniyas of the class known as 
Marwaris, Brahmans, and village head-men. Rates of interest vary 
from 12 to 25 per cent, per annum. 

AdDiinistration. — The total revenue raised in 1883-84 under all heads, 
imperial, local, and municipal, amounted to ;£"32i,9i4, or an incidence 
per head of 7s. ojd. on a population of 908,548. The land-tax forms 
the principal source of revenue, yielding ;^i33,2i2. The other prin- 
cipal items are stamps, excise, forest, and local funds. The District local 
funds created since 1863 for works of public utility and rural education 
yielded a total of ;^i5,i47. There are 7 municipalities, containing an 
aggregate population of 83,384 persons. Their receipts amounted in 
1883-84 to ;£7893, and the incidence of taxation varied from 7jd. to 
2S. 3^d. per head. The administration of the District in revenue matters 
is entrusted to a Collector and 5 Assistants (of whom 3 are covenanted 
civilians), and in judicial matters to a Judge. For the settlement of civil 
disputes there are 8 courts ; average distance of villages from the nearest 
court, 13 miles. Thirty-three officers share the administration of criminal 
justice. The total strength of the regular police consisted of 745 
oflficers and men, giving i policeman to every 1220 persons of the popu- 
lation and to every 5*3 square miles of the area. The total cost was 
;^i2,2io, equal to jQ2^ 17s. 2jd. per square mile of area and 3d. per 
head of population. The number of persons convicted of any offence, 
great or small, was 940, being i person to every 966 of the population. 
There is one jail in the District. Education has widely spread of late 
years. In 1855-56 there were only 16 schools, attended by 12 13 
pupils. In 1883-84 there were 172 schools, attended by 10,820 pupils, 
or an average of i school for every 12 villages. The Census of 1881 

VOL. XIII. R 



258 THANA TOWN. 

returned 10,991 males and 571 females under instruction, besides 24,409 
males and 597 females able to read and write but not under instruction. 
There is one library, and two vernacular newspapers were published in 
1883-84. 

Medical Aspects. — The average annual rainfall during the thirteen 
years ending with 1881 was 97*59 inches. Mean annual temperature, 
75 -8° F. The prevailing disease is fever, the climate being exceed- 
ingly moist for fully half the year. Thirteen dispensaries afforded 
medical relief in 1881 to 566 in-door and 93,195 out-door patients; 
and 9782 persons were vaccinated. Vital statistics showed a reported 
death-rate of 26-82 per thousand in 1883. [For further information 
regarding Thdna District, see the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 
published under Government orders, and compiled by Mr. J. M. 
Campbell, C.S., vol. xiii., parts i. and ii. (Government Central Press, 
1882). Also see the Bomhay Census Report for 1881 ; and the several 
annual Administration and Departmental Reports of the Bombay 
Presidency.] 

Thana {Tanna). — Chief town of Thana District, Bombay Presi- 
dency, head-quarters of Salsette Sub-division, and a station on the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway, 21 miles north-east of Bombay city; lies in 
lat. 19° 11' 30" N., and long 73° i' 30" e. Thana is prettily situated 
on the west shore of the Salsette creek, in wooded country. The fort, 
the Portuguese cathedral, a few carved and inscribed stones, and several 
reservoirs are now the only signs that Thana was once an important 
city. At the close of the 13th century, the fortunes of Thana seem 
to have been at their highest. It was the capital of a great king- 
dom, both in size and wealth, with an independent ruler. In 13 18, 
Thana was conquered by Mubarik Khilji, and a Muhammadan governor 
was placed in charge. In 1529, terrified by the defeat of the Cambay 
fleet and the burning of the Bassein coast, ' the lord of the great city of 
Thana ' became tributary to the Portuguese. This submission did not 
save him in the war that followed (1530-33)- The city was thrice 
pillaged, twice by the Portuguese and once by the Gujaratis. It was 
then, under the treaty of December 1533, made over to the Portuguese. 
Under Portuguese rule, Thana entered on a fresh term of prosperity. 
In 1739, with the loss of Bassein, the Portuguese power in Thana 
came to an end. In 1 771, the English, urged by the news that a fleet 
had left Portugal to recover Salsette and Bassein, determined to gain 
possession of Thana. Negotiations for its cession failing, a force was 
despatched to take it by force. On the 28th December 1774, the fort 
was stormed, and the greater part of the garrison put to the sword. 

Population (1881) 14,456, namely, males 7856, and females 6600. 
Hindus number 11,458; Muhammadans, 1398; Christians, 1094; 
Pirsls, 260; Jains, 81; and 'others,' 165. The returns of sea-borne 



THANA TOWN— THANES WAR. 259 

trade for the five years ending 1878-79 show average imports worth 
;^32,266, and exports ^^22,825. The railway station traffic returns 
show an increase in passengers from 312,309 in 1873 to 460,642 in 
1880; and in goods from 2644 to 16,343 tons. Thana is a municipal 
town with an income in 1883-84 of ;^i492 ; incidence of taxation, 
IS. 9^d. per head. This town being about an hour's journey from 
Bombay, many Government officials, as also persons of various other 
callings, are enabled to choose Thana as their place of residence, 
attending to their duties at Bombay during the day. Civil hospital, 
post-office, civil court. Government treasury, and large depot jail in 
the fort built by the Portuguese. 

Thana. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated 5 miles north- 
west of Unao town. Founded by Than Singh and Puran Singh, 
Chauhan Thakurs of Mainpuri in Akbar's time. Fort constructed by 
Than Singh ; school ; one small daily and two large weekly markets. 
Population (1881) 2406, namely, 210 Muhammadans, 157 Brahmans, 
54 Pasis, and 1985 other castes. Three masonry and 388 mud-walled 
houses ; mosque. 

Thana Bhawan. — Ancient but decaying town in Muzaffarnagar 
District, North- Western Provinces ; situated in lat. 29° 35' n., and long. 
77° 27' 40" E., on a raised site, near the lowlands of the Krishna Nadi ; 
distant from Muzaffarnagar town 18 miles north-west. Population 
(1881) 7628, namely, 4099 Hindus, 3502 Muhammadans, and 27 Jains. 
Formerly a large town, but the population has steadily decreased since 
the opening of new lines of commerce. Many ruined houses and 
decayed Musalman families. Known under Akbar as Thana Bhim, but 
derives its present name from a temple to Bhawani Devi, still much 
frequented by Hindu pilgrims. Centre of disaffection during the 
Mutiny of 1857, when the Shaikhzadas, headed by their Kazi, Mahbiib 
All Khan, and his nephew, Inayat Ali, broke into open rebellion. 
Amongst other daring feats, they captured the Shamli tahsil^ and 
massacred the 113 men who defended it (14th September 1857). On 
the restoration of order, the Shaikhzadas received due punishment, 
and the wall of the town and eight gates were levelled to the ground. 
First-class police station ; branch post-office. A small house-tax is 
levied for police and conservancy purposes. 

Thandiani. — Small hill sanitarium in Abbottdbdd tahsil^ Hazara 
District, Punjab. Lat. 34° 15' n., long. 73° 18' e. Established for 
the convenience of officers stationed at the neighbouring post of Abbott- 
^bad. Contains some European houses and a small bazar ^ which are 
only occupied during the summer months. Rest-house. 

Thaneswar. — Sacred town and place of Hindu pilgrimage in Am- 
bdla (Umballa) District, Punjab ; situated on the bank of the river 
Saraswati (Sarsuti), in lat. 29° 58' 30" n., and long. 76° 52' e. ; 25 



2 6o THANESWAR, 

miles south of Ambala, and in the centre of the holy tract known 
as the Kurukshetra. The name was originally Sthaneswara, and is 
derived by General Cunningham either from the sthdna or abode of 
Iswara (or Mahadeo), or from the junction of his names as sthdnu and 
Iswara, or from sthdnu and sar^ a lake. One of the oldest and most 
famous towns in India, connected with the legends of the Mahdbhdrata 
and the exploits of the Pandava brethren. Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrim in the 7th century a.d., mentions Thaneswar as the 
capital of a separate kingdom, 1167 miles in circuit. Sacked by 
Mahmiid of Ghazni in ion. On the rise of the Sikh power, 
Thaneswar fell into the hands of Mith Singh, who left his terri- 
tories to his nephews. On the extinction of the family in 1850, the 
town lapsed to the British Government, and became for a while the 
head-quarters of a District. Since the removal of the civil station, 
however, Thaneswar has rapidly declined in prosperity, and is fast 
falling into decay. 

The annual religious gatherings, however, still attract large numbers of 
pilgrims, and a continuous stream of pilgrims pours towards the shrines 
of Thaneswar and the Kurukshetra. The sanitary arrangements intro- 
duced by the British authorities to prevent the spread of disease have, 
however, largely interfered with the popularity of the festivals ; and the 
attendance at the great festival, which in former years was said to be half 
a miUion persons, has dwindled down to less than 50,000. The sacred 
lake, a pool of the Saraswati (Sarsuti), forms an oblong sheet of water, 
3546 feet in length and 1900 feet in breadth. During eclipses of 
the moon, the waters of all other tanks are believed to visit this tank 
at Thaneswar; so that he who then bathes in the assembled water 
obtains the concentrated merit of all possible ablutions. The tank is 
now much silted up, and the monastery beside it is quite a modern 
building. Indeed, there are no Hindu buildings in the town, all the 
old temples having been destroyed by Mahmiid of Ghazni, or, as 
alleged by the villagers, by Aurangzeb. The country for many miles 
around is holy ground, and popular estimate sets down the number of 
sacred sites connected with the Kauravas and Pandavas at 360. The 
modern town of Thaneswar crowns the summit of an ancient mound, 
near w^hich rises an old and ruined fort, 1200 feet square at the top; 
while a suburb covers the summit of a second mound to the west. 

Population (1881) 6005, namely, Hindus, 4129; Muhammadans, 
1758; Sikhs, 106; and Jains, 12. Number of houses, 1300. Muni- 
cipal income (1883-84), ^44°) or an average of is. sjd. per head. 
Trade has greatly declined since the construction of the Grand Trunk 
Road, which leaves Thaneswar several miles to the west, though it lay 
on the route of the old Mughal road, and then formed a;n entrepot of 
local traffic. The town has a dilapidated look, and is reported to be 



THAN LAKHTAR—THAR AND PARKAR. 261 

gradually falling into ruin. The principal inhabitants are now Hindu 
priests, who live upon the contributions of the pilgrims. 

Thdn Lakhtar. — Native State in the Jhalawar division of Kathia- 
war, Bombay Presidency. — See Lakhtar. 

Than-lyin. — Township and town of Hanthawadi District, Pegu 
Division, Lower Burma. — See Syriam. 

Thara {Tara). — State in the Palanpur Agency, Bombay Presidency. 
■ — See Kankrej. 

Tharad. — Chief town of the State of Tharad and Morwara, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 24° 23' 10" n., long. 71° 37' e. 

Tharad and Morwara. — Native State in the Political Superinten- 
dency of Palanpur Agency, Bombay Presidency. It extends from 
north to south about 35 miles, and from east to west about 25 miles. 
The State is situated in Northern Gujarat, on the frontier of Rajputana ; 
and is bounded on the north by the Marvvar district of Sachor, on the 
east by Palanpur State, on the south by Bhabhar and Terwara States, 
and on the west by Wao State. The area is estimated at 940 square 
miles; and the population was returned (1881) at 65,494, occupying 
154 villages. The country is flat and bare. Except a few fields of 
black loam found near the villages, the soil is barren and sandy. Only 
the common grains are grown ; and as water is not found nearer the 
surface than from 75 to 120 feet, there is no irrigation. From April to 
June the heat is excessive. The prevailing disease is fever. The high 
road from Pali in Marwar via Sirohi to the ports of Dholera and Mandvi 
passes through the State. In 1819, harassed by the inroads of Khosas 
and other plunderers, the Tharad chief sought the help of the British 
Government. The present (1882-83) chief of Tharad and Morwara is 
named Thakur Khengarsingh, a Rajput of the Waghela clan. He 
lives at Tharad, and administers his estate in person. He enjoys an 
estimated gross revenue of ;£^85oo ; and maintains a retinue of 50 horse 
and 30 foot. In matters of succession, the rule of primogeniture 
obtains. There is i school, with 42 pupils. 

Thar and Parkar. — British District in the east of Sind, Bombay 
Presidency, lying between 24° 13' and 26° 15' n. lat., and between 68" 51' 
and 71° 8' e. long. Area, 12,729 square miles. Population, according 
to the Census of 1881, 203,344 souls. It is bounded on the north by 
Khairpur State ; on the east by the States of Jaisalmer, Malani, Jodhpur, 
and Palanpur ; on the south by the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh) ; and on 
the west by Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District. The administrative 
head-quarters of the District are at Umarkot. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Thar and Parkar may be divided 
into two portions — the one called the ' Pat,' or plain of the Eastern 
Nara, including the Umarkot Sub-division ; and the other the ' Thar,' 
or desert. The former, in its western part, rises from 50 to 100 feet 



262 THAR AND PARKAR. 

above the level of the Sind plain, and some of the sandhills in it may be 
I GO feet higher, but they are not so elevated as in the Thar. Formerly 
this part of the District exhibited a dry and arid appearance, owing to 
the insufficient supply of water in the Nara ; but since the construction 
of the Rohri supply channel, and the consequent additional flow of 
water brought down by it, the valley of the Nira is now covered 
with jungle and marsh. Through this part of the District flow the 
Eastern Nara and the Mithrau Canals — the former a natural channel, 
greatly improved of late years, with its branches, the Chor and Thar 
Canals ; the latter an artificial stream running to the westward of the 
Nara, but in some degree parallel to it for a distance of about 80 miles. 
The Thar, or desert portion of the District, consists of a tract of 
sandhills, which present the appearance of waves, running north-east 
and south-west ; these hills become higher towards the west, and are 
composed of a fine but slightly coherent sand. There are no canals or 
rivers of any kind in the Thar. To the south-east, again, of the Thar 
is the Parkar tract, which differs from the former in possessing hill 
ranges of hard rock, the highest being not more than 350 feet above 
the surrounding level. There are sandhills also in this portion 
of the District ; but towards the east they become less elevated, and 
merge at last into a large open plain of stiff clay, through which, in 
places, limestone occasionally crops out. The peninsula of Parkar, 
which in its extreme south-eastern direction juts out into the Rann 
of Cutch (Kachchh), is flat and level, except in the immediate 
vicinity of the town of Nagar Parkar, where there is an extensive 
area of elevated land known as the Karunjhar Hills, composed mostly 
of syenite rock. 

In many parts of the District, beds of rivers long dried up are found 
intersecting the arid tract of the Thar ; and these would seem to show 
that the waters of the Indus, or of some of its branches, once flowed 
through it, fertilizing what is now a wilderness, and finding their way to 
the sea either by one of the eastern mouths, or through the Rann, or 
great salt marsh of Cutch. Quantities of bricks and pottery have also 
been found in various places scattered over the surface. 

The water system of the District, which is confined solely to that 
part watered by the Nara, there being no canals or rivers in Thar and 
Parkar proper, comprises, in the first place, the Eastern Nara, already 
described as being a natural channel, and most probably at some remote 
period the outlet to the sea of the waters of some great river like the 
Indus, together with its branches the Thar, Chor, and Umarkot Canals. 
Secondly, the Mithrau Canal, commenced in 1858-59, in order to 
irrigate the western or more elevated portions of this District, which the 
Nara is unable to reach. It is upwards of 80 miles in length (or with 
its branches, 123 miles), having its head in the Makhi dandh. 



THAR AND PARKAR. 263 

The Eastern Nara draws its water mainly from the floods in Bahawal- 
pur State. It has its first well-marked and continuous head at Khari, 
a short distance from the town of Rohri ; and, after passing through 
Khairpur State, it enters the Nara valley near the village of Mithrau, 
from the large Makhi dandh previously mentioned. Hence it skirts the 
sandhills as far as Sayyid Ghulam Nabi-ka-Got, after which it continues 
its course to the southward, passing near Nabisar and Nawakot. 

Before the construction, in 1859, of the Rohri supply channel, which 
now throws a regular body of water into the Nira, the quantity in this 
latter stream was mainly dependent upon the strength of the floods or 
lets from Bahawalpur State. Years would sometimes elapse without 
any water at all finding its way into the Nara, while high floods 
would, on the other hand, be experienced for a series of seasons. 
The people on the lower part of the Nara believed, and, indeed, 
maintain to this day, that the supply was cut off by an artificial bandh 
or dam constructed by Fateh Muhammad Ghori, a Jdgirddr, in the 
year 1838; and Captain Rathborne, Collector of Haidarabad (Hyder- 
abad), in 1843 made an official report to the same effect. But no one 
could find the bandh, and Captain (now Colonel) Fife, R.E., in 1850 
proved that no such bandh ever existed. 

After the opening of the supply channel at Rohri, much of the flood 
water was expended in filling up the numerous depressions called 
dandhs or koldbs, which line the eastern bank of the Nara like a fringe 
throughout the greater part of its course. They are very deep, and 
extend some miles into the desert. To prevent this supply from being 
lost, strong embankments were thrown across the feeding channels 
leading to the dandhs, and the water was thus forced into the plain. It 
was, however, in a few years found that this annual flooding caused 
great damage by converting the country into a jungly swamp ; and, to 
correct this, excavations were made in the bed of the Nara itself, so as 
to facilitate the flow of the water southwards. 

A series of embankments on the right bank were also erected to 
arrest the overflow of the water, regular cultivation being made to 
depend on distributing channels, instead of on flood water, which latter 
plan, though offering great facilities for raising crops, was, at the same 
time, both precarious and wasteful. These remedies are still in 
progress. In the S^nghar taluk two canals, the Dimwah and the 
Heranwah, branch off from the Nara ; the former has its head in the 
Makhi dandh. 

In the Thar portion of the District is a salt lake called the Mokhai, 
from which large quantities of salt are obtained ; but the cost of carriage 
and scarcity of forage have hitherto prevented its exportation to the 
Sind markets. The present system is to levy a duty on salt of 4s. 
per maund of 82 lbs. For the Thar and Parkar District, salt is supplied 



264 THAR AND PARKAR. 

to the public from the deposits of Saran near Dipla and Diliyar near 
Khipra. All other sources of supply are closed. In the Parkar tract 
between the Thar and the Rann, the soil is composed of the debris of 
syenite rocks, of which the Karunjhar Hills are composed. 

The principal wild animals found in the District are the hog, pharho 
or hog-deer, chinkdra, wolf, jackal, fox, jungle-cat, hare, mongoose, 
otter, etc. Among birds are goravas (bustard), tilur, geese, wild- 
fowl of many varieties, such as the mallard, widgeon, whistling teal, 
snipe, coot, water-hen, adjutant, pehcan, flamingo, and various kinds 
of wading birds. Other birds found are the grey and black partridge, 
sand-grouse of several varieties, plover and quail, the eagle, vulture, 
kite, several kinds of hawks, crows, owls, etc. Snakes are very common, 
especially in the hot season. The wild hog, black partridge, and water- 
fowl are only met with in the Nara tract. The gicrkhar or wild ass 
frequents the Parkar, and the hyaena and lynx the Thar. The ■ desert 
ponies are hardy and well made. Camels and horned cattle are bred 
extensively in the desert ; large herds of the latter are annually driven 
to Gujarat for sale. The fisheries of the District are confined entirely 
to the Nara and the dandhs fed by it, the fish most commonly caught 
being \\\e Jerki shigdra, da?nbhro, inai-ko, popri, gafidan, goj (tQls)^ chitoi'i^ 
haili, 7?iakar, patJio, and kuro. The yearly revenue derived by Govern- 
ment from the Nara fisheries averages about ;£^4oo. The number of 
canals in Thar and Parkar District is 13 ; total length, 254 miles. 

History, — Very little is known of the early history of the District. It 
is not many years since the desert portion and Parkar were under the 
exclusive administration of the Political Agent in Cutch (Kachchh). 
The Soda Rajputs, the upper class of the District, who are said to be 
descended from Parmar Soda, are supposed to have come into this part 
of Sind from Ujjain about 1226 a.d., when they quickly displaced the 
rulers of the country. Other authorities, however, state that they did 
not conquer the country from the Siimras, the dominant race, before 
the beginning of the i6th century. The Sodas, in their turn, succumbed 
to the Kalhoras about 1750 a.d., since which period the District has 
been subject more or less to Sind. On the fall of the Kalhora dynasty, 
it came under the domination of the Talpurs, who built a series of forts 
in order to overawe the warlike population. In the Mitti and Islamkot 
tracts, the Talpurs are said by Raikes to have exacted two-fifths of the 
produce of the land ; but no regular revenue system was introduced till 
the years 1830 and 1835, when disturbances at once took place. The 
Mirs sent a large force to reduce the people to submission ; and several 
chiefs were taken prisoners, and not released until they had paid heavy 
fines. The Thar and Parkar District was for a long time the head- 
quarters of banditti who made plundering excursions into Cutch and 
other neighbouring Districts 



THAR AND PARKAR. 265 

On the conquest of Sind by the British in 1843, the inhabitants of 
this District evinced a desire to be placed under Cutch ; and with this 
view the divisions of BaHari, Dipla, Mitti, Islimkot, Singula, Virawah, 
Pitapur, Bojasar, and Parkar were in 1844 made over to that State. 
Umarkot, Gadra, and other tracts on the Ndra became a portion of 
the Haidardbid Collectorate, or rather formed part of the Deputy 
Collectorate of Mirpur. All emoluments from revenue-free lands en- 
joyed hy pdfels or head-men, as well as cesses on Hindu marriages, were 
abolished, and the chiefs were further forbidden to bear arms. In 
consequence, it would seem, of these prohibitions, the District was in 
1846 represented to be in open rebellion. But quiet was soon after- 
wards restored ; and the Soda Rajputs, who appear to have been the 
prime movers in this disturbance, were called upon by Government to 
state their grievances, of which the following is a brief outline. 

They contended for their right of levying a tax of 26|- rupees 
{£2, 13s.) on every marriage among the Krar Baniyas, and also a fee of 
I rupee's worth of cloth for enforcing debts due to that caste. They 
complained that the fields they formerly enjoyed revenue free were 
either reduced in number or taken away altogether from them, and they 
maintained that in times of scarcity they were entitled to exemption 
from all payment of duties on opium and grain. They asserted their 
right as Sodas to receive food when travelling from Baniyas without any 
payment, and that this caste was also bound to supply them with 
bedsteads and coverlets. They further desired, as formerly, to be 
permitted to receive a portion of the Umarkot customs. The Govern- 
ment, in reply to this list of grievances, allowed the Sodas, as com- 
pensation for the fees derived by them from the Krar Baniyas, the 
annual interest at 5 per cent, on the sum of 14,000 rupees (^^1400), and 
permitted several of the tribe to hold a certain number of fields revenue 
free, provided they undertook to cultivate them. They were also 
granted a share in the Umarkot customs, but the rest of their demands 
were not complied with. 

In 1850, the Umarkot and Nara divisions were leased out to Soda 
zarninddrs on alight settlement; and at the end of 1854, the Com- 
missioner of Sind, Mr. (the late Sir Bartle) Frere, introduced in the 
Thar a fixed assessment on a ten years' lease. Before that time, the 
Government share was fixed annually after an inspection of the fields 
and an estimate of the crop. In 1856, the desert portion of the 
District, together with Parkar, which had been administered by the 
Assistant Political Agent in Cutch since 1844, w^as incorporated in 
the Province of Sind. In 1859, a rebellion broke out in the District, 
necessitating the despatch of a military force under Colonel Evans 
from Haidarabad to quell it. This officer in the month of May of 
that year occupied the town of Nagar Pdrkar, and captured the Rand., 



2 66 THAR AND PARKAR. 

driving back in the following month a large body of Kolis, who had 
ventured to attack the place. The Rana and his minister were in 
1868 tried for sedition, and convicted, the former being sentenced 
to 14 years' and the latter to 10 years' transportation. From that 
period down to the present time, Thar and Parkar has enjoyed peace 
and quietness. 

Population.— T\v^ population of Thar and Parkar District, according 
to the Census of 1872, was 180,761 persons; and according to that of 
1881, 203,344, or an increase of 12-49 per cent, occupying 36,412 
houses in 73 villages. Number of unoccupied houses, looi. Average 
number of persons per village, 2786 ; persons per occupied house, 5-5. 
The total area, taken at 12,729 square miles, gave the following aver- 
ages :— Persons per square mile, 15-9 ; villages per square mile, 0-005 ; 
occupied houses per square mile, 2-8. Classified according to sex, 
there were— males 112,400, and females 90,944; proportion of males, 
55-2 per cent. Classified according to age, there were— under 15 
years, boys 49,017, and girls 38,845; total children, 87,862, or 43-2 
per cent, of the population : 15 years and upwards, males 63,383, and 
females 52,099; total adults, 115,482, or 56-8 per cent. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Muhammadans, 
109,194, or 537 per cent, of the population; non-Hindu aboriginal 
tribes, 48,440, or 23-8 per cent.; Hindus, 43J55» or 21-5 per cent.; 
Jains, 1038; Sikhs, 898; Christians, 14; Jews, 4; and Brahmo, i. 

The Muhammadan population consisted of — Sindis, 80,212; 
Baluchis, 22,629; Sayyids, 1671; Shaikhs, 206; Pathans, 135; and 
* others,' 4341. According to sect, the Muhammadans were returned 
— Sunnis, 105,753; Shias, 3248; and Wahabis, 93. 

The Hindus were divided into the following main castes : — Lohanas 
(merchants, shopkeepers, agriculturists, etc.), 11,114; Rajputs, 9290; 
Brahmans, 3255 ; and 'others,' 20,096. 

Of the Christians, 7 were Episcopalians and 7 Roman Catholics. 
According to race, 7 were Europeans and 7 Natives. 

Bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum) is the staple food of the people, 
and milk is a common article of diet. The Soda tribe, formerly the 
dominant race in Thar and Parkar, are of Rajput origin, and warlike 
in character. The Khosas are robust, martial men, inured to 
fatigue and hard fare. They are brave and enterprising, but slothful 
and improvident. Chief among the nomadic tribes in the District are 
the Udejas, who came originally from Sind ; they are a fine, athletic 
race, and well behaved, and have for some time past turned their 
attention to agricultural pursuits. The Bhils rank very low in the 
social scale, and are much addicted to theft. Taken, however, as a 
whole, the inhabitants of Thar and Parkar are a peaceable people, 
neither so htigious nor so quarrelsome as their Sind neighbours. 



THAR AND PARKA R. 267 

They place great reliance on panchdyats, or village arbitration com- 
mittees. 

The language spoken in the District is a mixture of Sindi and 
Kachi ; formerly, when Thar and Parkar was under the administration 
of the Political Agent at Cutch, all written correspondence was 
carried on in the Gujardti language. 

There were in 1883-84 three municipalities in the District, namely, 
Umarkot, Mitti, and Nagar Parkar. Total population within 
municipal hmits (1881), 7195; aggregate municipal income (1883-84), 
;^io4o ; the incidence of taxation varies from is. 5d. to 3s. per head. 

Of the 73 villages of Thar and Parkar District in 1881, 10 contained 
less than 200 inhabitants; i between two and five hundred; 12 be- 
tween five hundred and a thousand ; 16 between one and two thousand ; 
13 between two and three thousand; 11 between three and five 
thousand ; 8 between five and ten thousand ; i between ten and fifteen 
thousand ; and i between twenty and fifty thousand. 

As regards occupation, the male population were distributed by the 
Census into the following six main groups: — (i) Professional class, 
including State officials of every kind and members of the learned 
professions, 937 ; (2) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc., 679 ; (3) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house 
keepers, 863 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 
44,887 ; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 
11,507; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising male 
children, general labourers, and persons of unspecified occupation, 53,527. 

Afjtiquiites, etc. — The remains of several old temples are to be seen in 
the Parkar portion of the District. One of these is a Jain temple, 14 
miles north-west of Virawah, which contains an idol of great sanctity 
and repute known under the name of Gorcha. Near the same town, 
also, are the remains of an ancient city called Para Nagar, covering 6 
square miles in area. It is reported to have been founded by Dharma 
Singh, but at what period is not known, and to have been very wealthy 
and populous ; its final decay is said to have taken place some time 
during the i6th century. The ruins of five or six Jain temples still 
exist, displaying some excellent sculpture and beautifiilly executed 
designs. Another ruined city is Rata-kot, situated on the Nara, south 
of the town of Khipra, and distant about 20 miles from the village of 
Ranahu. It is supposed to have been in a ruinous condition for the 
past 500 years, and to have been originally founded about nine centuries 
ago by a Mughal named Rata. There are several forts in different 
parts of the District, such as those of Islamkot, Mitti and Singala ; but 
they are, comparatively speaking, of modern erection, having been built 
for the most part under the Talpur dynasty. They are now fast falling 
into decay, and the materials are used for building purposes. 



268 



THAR AND PARKAR. 



A fair is held yearly at the town of Pithora, near Akri, in the month 
of September, in honour of Pithora, a spiritual guide among the Meng- 
war community, and is attended by about 9000 people, principally of 
that tribe. Several other small fairs are held in various parts of the 
District. 

Agriculture. — There are throughout Thar and Parkar District three 
seasons in which agricultural operations are carried on, namely, kharif, 
rabi^ and addwah ; but the times of sowing and reaping differ some- 
what in the Nara tracts from those in the Thar or desert portion of 
the District. These differences can be best exhibited in a tabular form, 
and the two following tables are accordingly given, which show also 
the various crops produced in each season : — 

Nara Tracts. 



Seasons. 


Time when 


Description of Crop. 


Sown. 


Reaped. 


1. A7iar/f . 

2. J^ai/ . . 

3. Addzvah . 


June to middle 
of August. 

Middle of Sep- 
tember and 
October. 

February. 


Middle of Octo- 
ber to middle 
of December. 

January and 
February. 

April and May. 


Rice, jodr (Sorghum vul- 
gare), bdjra (Pennisetum 
typhoideum), /// (Sesa- 
mum indicum), cotton, 
tobacco, hemp, etc. 

Wheat, barley, siri, jdmbho 
(Eruca sativa), and kiwiba. 

Cotton, jodr, mting (Phase- 
olus Mungo), and melons. 



Thar and Parkar. 



Seasons. 


Time when 


Description of Crop. 


Sown. 


Reaped. 


1. Kkarif . 

2. Rabl . . 

3. Addwah . 


June and July. 

October and 
November. 

January. 


October and 
November. 

March and 
April. 

May and June. 


RiCQ, Jodr, bdjra, HI, mting, 

and tobacco. 
Wheat, barley, jdmbho, 

sirsu (Brassica campestris 

proper), and kiirar. 
Cotton, jodr, mung, and 

water-melons. 



The prevailing soil is a light loam called by the miiwes gasar — a 
medium between stiff clay and fine sand. Salt-pans were, until 1878, 
w^orked to a small extent near Bakar. In January 1878, the Bakar salt 
works were closed. Soda, or khdra chdniah, is obtained from the 



THAR AND PARKAR. 269 

dandhs and exported ; and chiroii, a sulphate of lime or gypsum, is 
found near Ghuldm Nabi-jo-got. In the Umarkot plains there is a 
very large extent of pat or salt waste, especially on the north-west side, 
bordering on Khipra and Hala. All along the Ndra are dandhs for 
about 56 miles, from which much salt is produced, mostly used for 
the curing of fish. The manufacture or removal of salt, however, is 
strictly prohibited throughout the District. The only licit sources of 
supply are the deposits at Saran and Dilayar. In the Dipla and Mitti 
taluks^ extensive salt lakes contain almost unlimited supplies of this 
commodity. The chief vegetable products of Thar and Parkar are rice, 
jodr^ bdjra, cotton, oil-seeds, 7Jiihig (Phaseolus Mungo), ///, tobacco, 
etc. ; pulses, fruits, and vegetables are also grown. Wild products 
include ele^Dhant grass (Typha elephantina), from which pa?tkahs or 
hand-fans are made ; pabban or lotus plant ; and various grasses from 
which ropes and mats are manufactured. 

Agriculture supported (1881) 129,287 persons, or 63*58 per cent, 
of the population ; only 45,895 were agricultural workers. Of the 
total area of the District, 12,729 square miles, 489 square miles were 
cultivated in 1881, of which 26 square miles were non-revenue-paying ; 
the remainder, 463 square miles, together with 608 square miles, the 
area cultivable but unoccupied, were assessed for revenue, that is, a 
total of 107 1 square miles ; the uncultivable area being 11,632 square 
miles. Total amount of Government assessment, including local rates 
and cesses on land, ;^26,6i9; average incidence of assessment, in- 
cluding local rates and cesses, is. 8|d. per cultivated acre. Average 
area of cultivable and cultivated land per agricultural worker, 15-3 
acres. In 1883-84, 349,458 acres were under actual cultivation. 
Cereals and millets occupied 317,293 acres, of which 253,772 acres 
were under bdjra ; oil-seeds occupied 14,153 acres; fibres, 3475 acres, 
nearly all under cotton; and miscellaneous crops, 14,537 acres. The 
agricultural live stock consisted of— bullocks, 29,960; cows, 68,300; 
buffaloes, 8358; horses and ponies, 7631; donkeys, 37,181; sheep 
and goats, 98,700; camels, 15,275: dead stock — ploughs with two 
bullocks, 18,336; with two camels, 7500; and with two donkeys, 
950 ; and carts, 348. The prices of produce per viaund of 80 lbs. 
were — wheat, 6s. 4jd. ; rice (common), 6s. 2d. ; bdjra, 4s. 9d. ; gram, 
los. lod. ; salt, 5s. 7d. ; mmig, 6s. 2|d. The daily wages of skilled 
labour varied from is. to 2s. 6d. ; of unskilled labour, from 3|d. to 9d. 

Mea7is of Communication. — Travelling in the Thar or desert portion 
of the District is very tedious and difficult, owing to the sandhills which 
have constantly to be crossed. Umarkot, the chief town, has com- 
munication with Haidarabad (Hyderabad) by a good road, which is 
bridged throughout, except where it crosses the Eastern Kara between 
Garhar and Saseb-ke-thal. The Government telegraph line connecting 



2 70 THAR AND PARKAR. 

Haidarabad with Disa (Deesa) runs through Thar and Parkar via 
Umarkot, where there is an office. The postal line from Haidarabad 
to Bombay via Ahmadabad also passes through the District. There 
are 9 ferries, all on the Nara. 

Com7nerce, etc. — The exports from Thar and Parkar consist principally 
of grain, wool, ghi, camels, horned cattle, hides, fish, salt, chdniha, and 
pa?i or pa7ia, a kind of reed from which pankahs are made. The grain, 
chiefly rice and wheat, oil-seeds, cattle, goats, and sheep are sent to 
Gujarat, Palanpur, and Jodhpur ; hides and wool to Haidarabad ; ghi 
to Cutch (Kachchh) and Gujarat ; and salt, fish, chdfiiha, and pa7i to 
Haidarabad and Karachi (Kurrachee). The chief imports are cotton, 
metals, dried fruits, dyes, piece-goods, silk, sugar-candy, and tobacco. 
The manufactures consist of woollen blankets and bags, camel saddles 
and covers, and coarse cotton cloths. 

AdministratioTt. — The chief revenue and judicial authority in Thar 
and Parkar is vested in a Deputy Commissioner, who in his judicial 
capacity exercises the powers of a Magistrate of a District, together 
with the higher powers referred to in section 34 of the Criminal Pro- 
cedure Code, 1882, and has, besides, the civil jurisdiction of a judge. 
Under him is a Deputy Collector, who in his judicial capacity exercises 
the powers of a first-class Magistrate, and tries civil cases up to 500 
rupees in value ; there are also 7 mukhtidrkdrs, each having the powers 
of either a first or second class Magistrate, and empowered to decide 
civil cases up to 200 rupees in value within their respective jurisdic- 
tions. Civil courts are situated at Umarkot, Chachra, Mitti, Nagar 
Parkar, Dipla, Khipra, and Sanghar. The total imperial revenue of 
Thar and Parkar District in 1881-82 was £z^^2>9^^ and the local 
revenue, ;^i628. The land-tax yielded ;3/;25,i22, and the next 
largest items are excise, and the ghi and licence tax, which yielded 
^£3728. 

The police force numbered 568 men, of whom 372 were mounted 
on horses and camels, 192 were rural and 4 municipal police. There 
is thus I policeman to every 358 of the population. The crime 
most rife in this District, as in Sind generally, is catde-lifting. The 
number of such cases in 1881 was 188; other thefts numbered 
108 ; murders, i ; hurts, assaults, and use of criminal force, 3 ; 
receiving stolen property, 15; housebreaking, 35; highway robberies, 
3; other criminal offences, 212. The number of civil suits in the 
same year (1881) was 454 — value, ^3188; of these, 161 were suits 
for money. The only jails in the District are the permanent subor- 
dinate ones at Nagar Parkar, Khipra, Sanghar, Mitti, Dipla, and 
Chachra. 

In 1883-84 there were 71 schools, with 1441 pupils. The Census of 
1881 returned 11 23 males and 41 females as under instruction, besides 



I 



THARA WADI. 



271 



4442 males and 62 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Climate. — The climate of Thar and Parkar is somewhat similar to 
that of Cutch (Kachchh), and is subject to great variations of tempera- 
ture, being excessively hot in the summer and very cold in the winter, 
the cold increasing as the sandhills are approached. From the be- 
ginning of November to the end of February the weather is pleasant 
and bracing, after which the hot winds set in, accompanied with heavy 
dust-storms. The glare and heat during the summer months are intense. 
The mean annual temperature (1869-74) at Umarkot is 79' F., at Nagar 
Parkar 85°, and at Mitti 77° F. The rainfall is not equable throughout 
[he extensive area of the District, being heavier in Parkar than in either 
the Nara or Umarkot taluks. The average yearly fall in the towns of 
Umarkot and Nagar Parkar, during nineteen years ending i88t, was 
found to be 11*04 and 16 "13 inches respectively. Taken as a whole, 
the rainfall is heavier than in other parts of Sind. The prevalent 
diseases are fevers and rheumatism ; small-pox has at times committed 
great havoc. Cholera visited this District in a severe form in 1869, 
causing serious mortality. The desert portion of Thar and Parkar is, 
however, exceptionally free from epidemic disease. There are 4 dis- 
pensaries — at Umarkot, Mitti, Nagar Parkar, and Khipra. [For further 
information regarding Thar and Parkar District, see the Gazetteer of 
the Province of Sind^ by Mr. A. W. Hughes (London, George Bell 
& Co., 1876, second edition). Also see the Bombay Census Report of 
1881 ; and the several Administration and Departmental Reports of the 
Bombay Government from 1880 to 1884.] 

Tharawadi {Tharrawaddy). — British District in the Pegu Division 
of Lower Burma, formed in April 1878, and consisting of that portion 
of the old Henzada District east of the Irawadi river. Area, 2014 
squaremiles. Population (1881) 278,155 souls. Bounded on the north 
by Prome District; on the east by the Pegu Yoma range, which 
separates it from Shwe-gyin District; on the south by Hanthawadi 
District ; and on the west by the Irawadi river, separating it from Hen- 
zada District. Administrative head-quarters at Tharawadi, a village 
68 miles north of Rangoon, and a station on the Irawadi State Railway. 

Physical Aspects. — The principal feature of the District is the Pegu 
Yoma range, the watershed between the rivers Irawadi and Sittaung. 
The principal summits of the range, Baw-bwe-sa-kan and Kyauk-pyu- 
daung, are equal in height, each having an altitude of about 2000 
feet above sea-level. The curiosity in the range is a table mountain 
called Kyauk-ta-da (' rock bridge ') ; it is so called from its shape as a 
bridge over a chasm ; it lies between north and south, and has a length 
of about 560 feet. Its surface being granite, no trees grow on it. 
Besides the Pegu Yoma range there are many small elevations. The 



2 72 THARAWADL 

prevailing soils are light alluvial, suitable for cultivation. The Irawadi 
for 46 miles forms the western boundary of the District ; while the 
Myitma river, navigable for boats, runs from the south to north 
through the District, length about 53 miles. The greatest portion of 
the marsh area lies along the west border, at an average distance of 
about 5 J miles from the Irawadi Valley State Railway line, and extends 
to the feft bank of the Irawadi river. There are several fisheries in 
these marshes, which do not dry up in summer. Reserved forests and 
fuel reserves are situated between the Yoma range and the railway line, 
covering an area of 817 square miles. The chief forest trees are 
teak, tJmigan (Hopea odorata), iron-wood, pyin-ma (Lagerstrcemia Flos- 
Reginae), in (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus), bamboo, and several canes. 
The wild animals generally found on the Yoma range are elephants, 
rhinoceros, bison, etc.; besides which there are various kinds of 
feathered game. 

History. — See Henzada District. 

Population.— ThQ Census of 188 1 returned 278,155 persons, occupy- 
ing 49,846 houses in 1385 villages. Number of unoccupied houses, 
2522. Average number of persons per village, 201 ; persons per occu 
pied house, 5*58; persons per square mile, 138-11 ; villages per square 
mile, 0*69 ; occupied houses per square mile, 25. Classified according 
to sex, there were — males 143,413, and females 1345742 ; proportion of 
males, 51-5 per cent Classified according to age, there were — under 
15 years, boys 62,610, and girls 59,649 ; total children, 122,259, or 43-9 
per cent, of the population : 15 years and upwards, males 80,803, and 
females 75,093 ; total adults, 155,896, or 56-1 per cent. The boat popula- 
tion was 1099, namely, males 899, and females 200, Hving in 204 boats. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Buddhists, 
270,552, or 97-3 per cent, of the population; Christians, 2363; Nat- 
worshippers or non-Buddhist indigenous races, whose sole religion 
consists in a kind of worship of spirits or 'demons,' supposed to reside 
in natural objects and to interfere with mankind, 2145 ; Hindus, 1985 ; 
and Muhammadans, mo. 

The indigenous and Indian races who inhabited Tharawadi Dis- 
trict, according to the language table of the Census Report of 1881, 
were— Burmese, 255,330; Karens, 17,437; Hindustanis, 1864; Shans, 
1608; Telugus, 509; Chinese, 298; Yabaings, 278; Uriyas, 250; 
Tamils, 134 ; Chins, 113; Bengalis, 102 ; Takings, 79 ; and ' others,' 52. 

The Christians according to race were — Europeans and Americans, 
62; Eurasians, 127; and Natives, 2174. According to sect, there 
^vere — Baptists, 2027 ; members of the Church of England, 198 ; Roman 
Catholics, 130; and 'others,' 8. Of the native converts, 2019 were 
Baptists, loi Roman Cathohcs, 51 members of the Church of England, 
and 3 unspecified. 



THARAWADL 273 

Of the 1385 villages in Tharawadi District, 876 in 1881 contained 
less than 200 inhabitants ; 429 between two and five hundred ; 75 
between five hundred and one thousand ; and 5 between one and two 
thousand. 

The Census of 1881 distributed the population into the following six 
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions — males 2926, and females 
220; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers — males 290, 
and females 91 ; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc. — males 5670, and females 3769 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners — males 49,358, and females 41,288; 
(5) industrial class, including manufacturers and artisans — males 9221, 
and females 6900; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, compris- 
ing labourers, children, and persons of unspecified occupation — males 
75,948, and females 82,474. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supported (1881) 211,516 persons, or 76*04 
per cent, of the population. In 1881, of the total area of the District, 
2014 square miles, 288 square miles were cultivated and assessed for 
revenue ; the area cultivable being 1085 square miles ; and uncultivable, 
641 square miles. The total amount of Government assessment, includ- 
ing local rates and cesses paid on land, in the same year, was ;^34,376 ; 
the average incidence of assessment, including local rates and cesses, 
3s. 8Jd. per acre of cultivated land paying revenue. Average area of 
cultivated land per head of agricultural population, 0*87 acre. 

The principal crops grown in Tharawadi District are rice, oil-seeds, 
tobacco, and vegetables. In 1883-84, the total area actually cultivated 
was 266,323 acres. Rice occupied 236,676 acres ; oil-seeds, 3056 acres; 
tobacco, 2537 acres; vegetables, 1256 acres; plantains, 213 acres; 
mixed fruit-trees, 8131 acres; taungya hill gardens, 2170 acres; 
'others,' 5784 acres; and land under miscellaneous cultivation, not 
assessed, 6500 acres. The average rent per acre of land suited for — 
rice, 9s. 6d. ; oil-seeds, 3s. 6d.; cotton, 3s.; tobacco, 3s. ijd. ; mixed 
products, 3s. 5id.; pulse, 3s. The average produce of land per acre 
was — rice, 960 lbs.; cotton, 420 lbs.; oil-seeds, 350 lbs.; tobacco, 
548 lbs.; mixed products, 913 lbs.; peas, 525 lbs. The agricultural 
live stock consisted of — cows and bullocks, 71,674; buffaloes, 38,067; 
horses and ponies, 539; sheep and goats, 507; pigs, 5037; elephants, 
128: dead stock — ploughs, 27,173; carts, 32,458; and boats, 986. 
The price of produce per maund of 80 lbs. was — rice, los.; cotton, 
1 8s. 3d.; tobacco, i6s. ; oil-seeds, 12s. A plough bullock cost from 
£1 to ;£8 ; a buffalo, from ^£"4, los. to ^ic. The daily wages of 
skilled labour ranged from 2s. to 4s.; of unskilled workmen, from 

IS. to 2S. 

Administration. — In 1883-84, the total revenue of Tharawadi Dis- 

VOL. XIII. s 



274 THARIA-GHAT—THATIA. 

trict was ;£"75,322, of which the land-tax contributed £,A^,'^Z2, 
For the settlement of civil suits and for revenue purposes there are 
8 courts. Eight officers share the administration of criminal justice. 
Average distance of villages from the nearest court, 8 miles. The 
total strength of the regular police in 1883-84 consisted of 255 officers 
and men, giving i policeman to every 1090 persons and to 7 '8 
square miles of the area. The total cost was ;£'78i2, equal to 
;£'3, 17 s. 6fd. per square mile of area and 6fd. per head of popula- 
tion. Total number of schools, public, private, and indigenous, 
in 1883-84, 193, attended by 7919 pupils. The Census of 1881 
returned 21,592 males and 3 141 females as under instruction, besides 
57,714 males and 1350 females able to read and write but not under 
instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — In 1883, the rainfall was 106-27 inches. The 
vital statistics of 1883 show a total of 2499 recorded deaths. The 
dispensary at Tharawadi relieved, in the same year, 373 in-door and 
2031 out-door patients; of these, 299 were fever cases. [For further 
information regarding Tharawadi District, see the British Burma 
Census Report of 1881, and the several annual Administration and 
Departmental Reports of British Burma from 1880 to 1884.] 

Thdria-ghat. — Village at the southern foot of the Kh^si Hills, 
Assam, on the main road from Cherra Piinji to Sylhet ; pohce outpost 
and dak bungalow. 

Tharrawaddy {Tharawadi). — District of Lower Burma. — See 
Tharawadi. 

Tharu Shah. — Town in Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presi- 
sidency ; situated 7 miles north-west from Naushahro, on the Naulakhi 
Canal, which is here navigable by large boats. Lat. 26° 57' n., long. 
68° 8' E. Population (1881) 2236. Municipal revenue (1883-84), 
jQi20', incidence of taxation, lod. per head. Head-quarters of a 
tappaddr. Market, travellers' rest-house, and school. Manufacture of 
coarse country cloth ; cotton twist and goat's hair cloth are also made. 
Grain is largely exported to Sukkur by boat. 

Thathayangarpet. — Town in Namkal tdluk^ Salem District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (i 881) 4591, namely, Hindus 4518, and 
Muhammadans 73, occupying 780 houses. Thathayangarpet includes 
the neighbouring village of Pillathurai. The streets are well built ; and 
a sanitary estabHshment is maintained from local funds. Manufacture 
of white cloth similar to that of Namkal. 

Thatia. — Town in Tirwa tahsil., Farukhabad District, North- 
western Provinces; situated at the meeting of several unmetalled 
roads, 7 miles distant from Tirwa town, and 36 miles from Fatehgarh. 
Population (1881) 4312. Although Thatia has much decayed of late 
years in trade and population, it contains a thriving bazar., at which 



THATIA TIRWA—THAUK-YE-GAT. 275 

markets are held every Tuesday and Friday. A large cattle market 
outside the town is frequented by breeders from the surrounding 
country, and the place is famed for its tanneries. It was formerly 
noted also for its cotton printing and trade in cloth and salt. Police 
station, post-office, school, and sardi. A high mound just outside the 
town to the south marks the fort formerly occupied by a Baghel 
Rdjput family, owning estates in Tdlgram pargand. On the cession of 
the country to the British in 1801, the chief resented the change of 
rulers, and rebelled ; his fort was stormed and besieged, and his title 
and estates confiscated. The fort, however, continued the home of the 
family till 1857, when the representative of the family joined the rebels. 
On the restoration of order, the chief was transported to the Andamans, 
and the fort blown up. 

Thatia Tirwa. — Tahsil of Farukhabad District, North-Western 
Provinces. — See Tirwa. 

^\\.ZX0.— Taluk and town in Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. — See Tatta. 

Tha-tun. — Township in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma. Running northwards is a range of hills, a continuation 
of the Martaban Mountains, which attains its greatest altitude near 
Tha-tun town. East of this line of hills, a narrow strip of forest-clad 
and but slightly cultivated country is closed in on the east by the 
Kyauk-sa-rit river, and lower down by the Bin-laing, which is formed 
by the junction of the Kyauk-sa-rit and Dun-tha-mi. Westward to the 
Bi-lin stretch extensive plains, partially under rice, but liable to 
inundation, and therefore to a great extent uncultivable. These floods 
are due partly to the spill of the Bi-lin; but an embankment now 
affords some protection to the surrounding plain. More defences, 
however, are needed, and the outlet channels require improving. The 
Tha-tun river flows almost parallel to the hills, at no great distance 
from their western side. This township is divided into 5 revenue 
circles. Population (1881) 31,312 ; gross revenue, £^']Z^. 

Tha-tun.— Town in Amherst District, and head-quarters of the 
township of the same name, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. 
Population (1881) 3218. Now of little importance, but one of the 
earliest places mentioned in Talaing history. Some centuries before 
Christ, it was the capital of an independent kingdom. According 
to native historians, the city was founded in the i7»n century B.C., 
but its history is involved in obscurity. It was subsequently super- 
seded by Pegu, which was captured by A-naw-ra-ta, King of Burma, in 
the loth century. The taking of Tha-tun is described at length m the 
Burmese chronicles. The town contains several pagodas, but most of 
these are mutilated or in ruins. 

Thauk-ye-gat. — River in Taung-ngu District, Tenasserim Division, 



276 THA UNG- YIN—THA YET-MYO. 

Lower Burma. It rises in lat. 19° 28' n., in the maze of mountains to 
the east of the Sittaung. After flowing southwards for some miles, 
the Thauk-ye-gat turns west, leaving the hills about 20 miles west of 
Taung-ngu, and joins the Sittaung 5 miles south of that town. It 
drains an area of about 1000 square miles. Its former name was 
Mya-chaung, or ' emerald stream,' from its greenish colour. It is fed 
by mountain streams, and its waters are always clear, cool, and 
refreshing. Between its upper course and the Sittaung river is en 
closed a mountainous tract nearly 20 miles wide, rising to an eleva- 
tion of 4000 feet Teak was formerly found in great quantities in 
the basin of the Thauk-ye-gat ; but now it has only been preserved 
on the slopes that are too steep for taiingya or hill-garden cultivation. 
For commercial purposes, however, the value of the timber is limited, 
owing to the rocky nature of the bed of the Thauk-ye-gat, which 
renders its transportation to the Sittaung difficult. 

Thaung-yin. — River in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma; forming part of its northern boundary, and separating 
it from Siamese territory. It rises in lat. 16° 27' 46" n., and long. 98° 
50' 50" E., and, after a north-north-west course of 197 miles, falls into 
the Salwin. Its breadth varies from 100 to 1000 feet. Between Mya- 
wa-di — an old and once fortified town, but now a mere village — and its 
mouth, there are 47 rapids and falls, down which the w^ater rushes with 
great velocity, rendering navigation impossible. The Thaung-yin is of 
importance as the outlet for the timber brought down from the rich 
teak forests covering the mountains amongst which it flows. But the 
working of these forests is tedious and expensive, on account of the 
distance over which the timber has to be floated before it reaches the 
Salwin, the time required for the operation being four months. 

Thayet-myo {Thayet). — British District in the Pegu Division of 
Lower Burma. Area, 2397 square miles. Population (1881) 169,560 
souls. Bounded on the north by Upper Burma ; on the east by Taung- 
ngu District ; on the south by Prome ; and on the west by Sandoway. 
Lying immediately south of Upper Burma, Thayet - myo District 
touches the frontier line of Lower Burma, demarcated in 1853 by 
Lord Dalhousie, after the annexation of the delta of the Irawadi 
(Irrawaddy). The Governor-General directed that the frontier should 
run as nearly as possible due east and west from Mye-deh, where the 
British had their most advanced post. The northern boundary of 
Thayet-myo, from the Arakan to the Pegu Yoma range, is almost 93 
miles in length. The most northerly point is marked by a pillar, 
situated in lat. 19° 29' 3" N., which bears inscriptions in Burmese and 
English. The administrative head - quarters of the District are at 
Thayet-myo Town. 

Physkal Aspects. — The District of Thayet-myo differs considerably 



THAYET-MYO. 277 

from the rest of Pegu, inasmuch as it contains no wide open plains, or 
tracts of virgin soil, such as may be seen lower down the valley of the 
Irawadi. On the east and west are the Pegu and Arakan Yoma ranges 
respectively ; and the face of the country, where it does not rise into 
mountains, is everywhere broken by low ranges of hills, many of which 
are barren and destitute of all vegetation. In the intervening valleys 
the husbandman reaps a precarious harvest, with much greater trouble 
and expense than have to be undergone farther south. The Arakan 
Yomas in this District do not exceed 5000 feet in height, their most 
elevated points being Kyi-daung on the northern frontier line, Nat-u- 
daung and Shwe-daung-maung-nit-ma, a double peak. The furious 
storms which sweep along the higher slopes of these mountains keep 
them bare of large timber ; but from a few hundred feet below the 
summit, their sides are covered with bamboos and fine trees. Major 
Allan, when laying down the frontier line of the District, ascended the 
Kyi-daung peak, and described the Arakan Yomas as being very 
picturesque, and watered by numerous streams. Four passes cross 
this range into Sandoway : but these can only be used by persons on 
foot, and in the dry season. The most southern leads from Kaing-gyi- 
myaung in the Ka-ma township up the ravine of the Ma-de stream to 
the village of Meh-za-li in Arakan, a distance of between 30 and 40 
miles. Another route leads northwards from Ywa-thit to the police post 
of ]Min-deh on the La-mu river, a distance of 30 miles. The third and 
fourth routes lie close together, and are known by the same name, 
Ma-i. They lead from the villages of Yin-ywa and Kaing-gyi to Lin-di 
in Sandoway. The Eastern or Pegu Yoma range in Thayet-myo 
District nowhere attains a height of more than 2000 feet above sea-level. 
Its slopes are clothed with dense forest, and in the valleys and ravines 
water is found all the year round. These mountains are traversible at 
almost all points in the dry season by foot-passengers, and by unladen 
cattle and elephants. 

The principal river of the District is the Irawadi, which traverses 
Thayet-myo from north to south, entering it at the frontier of Lower 
Burma, and passing into Prome District near Prome town. Its maximum 
breadth here is about 3 miles ; its banks are everywhere high, and no- 
where in Thayet-myo liable to floods. The dry-weather channel varies 
during the course of years, but the changes generally are slow. In 
1855, w^hen the military station of Thayet-myo was formed, the river at 
all seasons ran immediately under its site ; now, in 1879, during the dry 
weather a sandbank half a mile or more wide has formed between the 
high bank on which the station is situated and the water's edge. Other 
instances of changes in the course of the Irawadi may be found in the 
only two islands of any size w^hich occur in the District — Ye-baw opposite 
the town of Thayet-myo, and Nyaung-bin-seip between the village ot 



2 78 THAYET-MYO. 

that name and Ka-ma. In the dry season, on the river falling, the 
former is connected with the left bank, the latter with the right. Eighty 
years ago, the river, when full, flowed on the other sides of those islands. 
The navigable channel varies considerably, owing to the shiftings of the 
sands ; yet there are but few places, even when the river is at its lowest 
in January, February, and March, in which a fathom of water cannot be 
found. The shallowest spot is near the mouth of the But-leh, where 
sometimes only 4 or 5 feet of water are found for a few days in the 
year. 

The drainage from the two boundary watersheds finds its way into the 
Irawadi by three main streams on the west, and by two on the east : 
the Pun, the Ma-tun, and the Ma-de ; and the Kye-ni and the But-leh, 
respectively. The Pun rises in Upper Burma, and, entering Lower 
Burma near the village of Myin-byin, joins the Irawadi after a few miles, 
just above Thayet-myo town. With a strong current and sudden rises 
and falls in the rains, during the dry weather it becomes a tiny stream 
running often beneath banks of sand. The Ma-tun or Min-dun rises 
north of Lower Burma between two lofty peaks of the Arakan Mountains, 
and, flowing in a south-easterly direction, traverses the frontier line 
before it descends from the higher range, and falls into the Irawadi just 
above Ka-ma, after a course of 150 miles ; navigable by the largest boats 
during the rains. Large quantities of the produce of its fertile valley 
are brought down on bamboo rafts, and logs of teak timber are floated 
down singly to be rafted in the Irawadi. It has three main affluents — 
the Mu, the Hlwa, and the Pa-ni. The Pa-ni rises in Upper Burma, 
and entering Lower Burma near the village of Kwe-dauk, has thence a 
direct course of about 30 miles, till it joins the Ma-tun a few miles above 
its mouth, at Tham-ba-ya ; navigable during the rains, but little used 
owing to the rapidity of its current and its sudden rises and falls. Of 
the two eastern tributaries of the Irawadi in this District, the Kye-ni 
rises in the Yoraa range in Upper Burma, and after flowing for some 
distance nearly due west, turns south, and falls into the Irawadi just 
below Mye-deh. The But-leh brings down a large volume of water in 
the rains, but is unnavigable owing to its sudden freshets and the swift- 
ness of its current. Near its mouth it is spanned by a wooden bridge 
450 feet long, across which is carried the Rangoon and Mye-deh road. 

Several salt and hot springs occur in Thayet-myo District. Nine 
and a half miles north -north -west from Ka-ma is situated the spot 
where the curious manifestation known as the ' Spirit Fire ' takes place. 
This is caused by the ignition by some unknown means of the gas 
which is stored up in subterranean cracks. Petroleum is found near 
Pa-dauk-bin, 7 miles north-north-west from Thayet-myo ; also at Ban- 
byin, about 9 miles from the same town. Extensive hme quarries exist 
in the Tun-daung range, a few miles south of Thayet-myo. [For further 



THA YET-MYO. 



279 



details regarding the geology of the District, see the records of Mr. W. 
Theobald (of the Geological Survey of India), No. 4 for 1869, No. i for 
1870, and No. 2 for 187 1.] The chief forest trees are teak (Tectona 
grandis), in (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus), sha (Acacia Catechu), pyin- 
gado (Xylia dolabriformis), tauk-kya?i (Terminalia Arjuna), kiit-ko 
(Albizzia Lebbek), gyo (Schleichera Xx\]Mg2^^yin-daik (Dalbergia cultrata), 
etc. Timber-cutting on the Government reserves of teak is forbidden ; 
pa-douk (Pterocarpus indicus) can only be felled by persons with trade- 
permits, who pay duty. 

The principal animals found in Thayet-myo are leopards, wild cats, 
barking deer, elephants, rhinoceros, tigers, black bears, and wild hog. 
Silver pheasants and partridges are abundant throughout the District. 

History. — Thayet-myo is but rarely mentioned in Burmese annals. In 
the semi -mythical period of Burmese history, the country of which 
Thayet-myo forms a part appears to have been inhabited by the Pyus, 
one of the three tribes from which the present Burmese race has sprung, 
the other two being the Kanran or Kanyan and the Thek. The Pyu and 
the Thek are sometimes spoken of as one tribe. In later years, when 
missionaries from India had converted the people to Buddhism, and 
classical Pali names were taken generally from the countries mentioned 
in the sacred books, the lower portion of Thayet-myo District belonged 
in all probability to Tharekhettra (the modern Prome) ; whilst the upper 
tract was included in Thunaparanta (Sa-gu, Sa-lin), on the right bank of 
the Irawadi, and in Tam-pa-di-pa (Pagan, Ava) on the left bank. The 
dominions of the first Burmese monarchy, the capital of which was at 
Ta-gaung, never extended so far south as Thayet-myo ; but when the 
Prome dynasty was founded by Dut-ta-baung, about 444 B.C., this 
District was comprised within his territories. On the fall of the Prome 
kingdom, about the end of the ist century of the Christian era, Tha- 
mun-da-reit, the fugitive Governor of Prome, escaped and remained 
a few years at Min-dun, where he built a city on the site of the present 
town, and ruled for seven years. Tha-mun-da-reit then appointed his 
uncle as governor, and, going north, founded a kingdom at Pagan. 
Here he was succeeded by a scion of the old Ta-gaung race, whose 
dynasty flourished for more than 1 100 years. During this time, Thayet- 
myo District formed an integral portion of the kingdom of Pagan. The 
last king of Tha-mun-da-reit's line appointed his son Min-shin-saw as 
governor of Thayet-myo. Several internal revolts occurred subsequently ; 
the District was captured by Shan chieftains, and its history during this 
period is highly untrustworthy. In the course of years, Thayet-myo was 
parcelled out amongst various governors, and so remained until the 
annexation of Pegu by the British in 1852-53, when it was formed into 
a Sub-division of Prome District. In 1870, Thayet-myo was erected 
into a separate jurisdiction, and placed under a Deputy Commissioner. 



2 8o THAYET-MYO. 

Population. — In 1855, the number of inhabitants in Thayet-myo 
District was estimated at 42,482, exclusive of cantonments and river 
population. In August 1872, a regular Census was taken for the first 
time. The number of inhabitants was ascertained to be 156,816, 
inclusive of cantonments and floating population. The last Census of 
1 88 1 returned 169,560, showing an increase of 12,744, or 8'i per 
cent, on the figures of 1872. The people dwelt in 2 towns and 870 
villages, containing 34,080 occupied and 4790 unoccupied houses. 
Area of the District, 2397 square miles. Towns and villages per square 
mile, o*37 ; houses per square mile, 16 "21; persons per square mile, 
7074 ; persons per town and village, 194 ; persons per occupied house, 
4'97. Classified according to sex, there were — males 87,308, and 
females 82,252; proportion of males, 51-5, Classified according to 
age, there were — under 15 years, boys 34,556, and girls 33,139; total 
children, 67,695, or 39-9 per cent, of the population: 15 years and 
upwards, males 52,752, and females 49,113; total adults, 101,865, or 
60 "I per cent. The boat population numbered 1790, namely, males 
1406, and females 384, living in 389 boats. 

The great bulk of the population are of pure Burmese origin. Actual 
poverty is almost unknown among them, but wealth is equally rare. The 
Kyins or Chins, a hill tribe, number 16,416. Thayet-myo has increased 
steadily in population under British rule, and it possesses a larger 
proportion of inhabitants to its cultivated or cultivable area than any 
other District in the Province. This is probably due to its healthy 
climate. 

The religious division showed the following results :— Buddhists, 
148,629, or 87-6 per cent, of the population; Nat-worshippers or non- 
Buddhist indigenous tribes, whose sole religion consists in a kind of 
worship of spirits or ' demons,' supposed to reside in natural objects 
and to interfere with mankind, 14,100, or 8*3 per cent.; Hindus, 2620; 
Christians, 2349; Muhammadans, 1861 ; and Jew, i. 

The indigenous and Indian races who inhabited Thayet-myo District, 
according to the language table of the Census of 1881, were — 
Burmese, 145,948; Chins or Kyins, 16,416; Telugus, 2896; Tamils, 
1915; Hindustanis, 1476; Shans, 645; Karens, 440; Bengalis, 279; 
Chinese, 146; and 'others,' 89. 

The Christians according to race were — Europeans and Americans, 
1657; Eurasians, 114; and Natives, 578. According to sect there 
were — members of the Church of England, 1336; Roman Catholics, 
875 ; Presbyterians, 61 ; Baptists, 31 ; Wesleyans, 44; and 'others,' 2. 
Of the native converts, 498 were Roman Catholics, 57 members of the 
Church of England, 19 Baptists, and 4 'others.' 

The Chins or Kyins are a race of mountaineers, scattered over all the 
hilly country between Eastern Bengal, the western provinces of China, 



THAYET-MYO. 281 

and the borders of Annam and Cambodia, but inhabiting more 
especially the chain of hills which stretches southwards from the North- 
Eastern Himalayas to Cape Negrais. In the north they are said to be 
wild and fierce, and those on the western slopes of the Arakan moun- 
tains are described as the least civilised of the wild tribes living in the 
hill tracts. In British territory they are quiet and harmless. They have 
developed no form of government higher than the patriarchal, and have 
no written language. Their sole pursuits are hunting and agriculture 
of the nomadic sort called taungya; but under British rule they are 
gradually taking to ordinary rice cultivation, and, with the acquisition 
of fields in the plains, lose much of their propensity for roving. A 
Chin rarely takes to violent crime ; but when he does, he becomes and 
remains a most dangerous character, — vindictive, wantonly and brutally 
cruel and merciless, exhibiting great boldness in attack, and great skill 
in evading capture. 

Symes, who visited Ava at the end of the last century, described the 
Chins as ' children of nature, delighting in their wild and native freedom, 
for the most part insuperably averse to hold communication with the 
people of the plains.' Colonel Yule represents them as of Indo-Chinese 
race, and related to the Kuki's, Nagas, etc. Sir Arthur Phayre appears 
to consider that their own tradition of their origin — that they are of the 
same lineage as the Arakanese and Burmese, the stragglers from armies 
or moving hordes left in the mountains — is correct. Dr. Mason, how- 
ever, would class them with the Karens. 

If a Chin is able to speak a little Burmese, and is asked as to his 
religion, he will probably answer that, following the custom of his 
ancestors, he worships the most excellent lord Gautama ; but in saying 
this, he is only repeating the formula which he has often heard from his 
Burmese neighbours. The Chins acknowledge one God, a spirit, the 
creator and ruler of the universe, who is so good that they have nothing 
to fear from him, and so need not worship him. But they worship, 
with propitiatory offerings of khau7ig (fermented drink) and sacrificial 
meats, the demons or ndts who are looked upon as the authors of all 
evil, and of whom there is an innumerable body. This khaung or 
fermented drink is an essential in Chin ndt oblations, and indeed of 
Chin life generally, the excessive drinking of which converts their feasts 
into scenes of disgusting drunkenness. 

Chin girls are given in marriage by their brothers, not by their 
parents. When a girl is born she is especially assigned to one of her 
brothers, or, if she has none, to one of her father's sister's sons, whose 
consent has to be obtained by any one who aspires to her hand ; and 
who, after her marriage, must be treated with the greatest respect by 
her husband. If the husband visits the brother, he must take with him 
a present of khaung; and should the brother visit him, he must present 



2 82 THAYET-MYO. 

to him khaimg and pork, or, if his circumstances are such that he 
cannot do this, he must make profound apologies. 

A death is made an occasion of much feasting. Bullocks, buffaloes, 
pigs, and fowls are slaughtered, according to the means of the family, 
to entertain the guests, and to propitiate the ancestral spirits, so that 
the deceased may safely reach the happy land, Nga-thein. The corpse, 
with a fowl tied to one of its big toes, is carried in a stretcher to the 
burning-place, and, together with the fowl, is burned. The bones of 
the deceased, plucked from the embers, are washed in khaung, rubbed 
with turmeric, and placed in a pot, where they remain for a year or 
more, till they can be taken to the family burying-ground, where they 
are finally deposited. 

It has hitherto been the custom with Chin young women, soon after 
they arrive at years of puberty, to tattoo the whole of their faces with 
vertical and closely adjoining narrow black lines, which gives them a 
most extraordinary appearance. The origin of the custom is not known. 
According to some, it is to prevent the young men of other tribes from 
falling in love with them. According to others, it is in order to prevent 
the Burmans from depriving the Chins, as they once did, of their 
most comely virgins. And according to others, to be able to trace 
their women when carried away by other tribes. The custom was 
lately universal, but in British territory it is slowly dying out. 

The Chins in appearance resemble the Burmans much more than 
any of their cognate tribes. A Chin man, when he abandons his 
natural dress, which is nothing but a narrow strip of cloth, and adopts 
the Burman waist-cloth, is indistinguishable from a Burman save by the 
absence of tattooing on the legs. Now that the custom of so marking 
the limbs is by no means universally followed among the Burmese, this 
distinguishing mark is not a safe one. The women are naturally pretty, 
and seem far less willing than the men to adopt the Burmese costume, 
generally wearing a dark blouse ornamented with red and white thread. 

The Census of 1881 returned the total number of Chins in Lower 
Burma as upwards of 55,015 within the Province, namely, in Thayet- 
myo District, 16,416; Kyauk-pyu, 11,617; Prome, 10,662, chiefly in 
the Padaung township; Akyab, 5707; Sandoway, 5045; Henzada, 
3652; and in Northern Arakan, Rangoon town, Hanthawadi, Thara- 
wadi, Thon-gwa, Taung-ngu, and Bassein Districts, 1916. 

The chief towns in the District are — Thayet-myo, the head-quarters 
station, population (1881) 16,097; Allan -myo, population 5825; 
Ywa-taung, population 2804; Ka-ma, population 1796; and Min-dun, 
population 12 10. 

Of the 872 towns and villages within Thayet-myo District, 634 in 
1 88 1 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 211 between two 
and five hundred; 21 between five hundred and one thousand; 3 



THAYET-MYO. 283 

between one and two thousand ; i between three and five thousand ; 
I between five and ten thousand; and i between fifteen and twenty 
thousand. 

The Census of 188 1 distributed the population into the following six 
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions — males 4379, and females 
120 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers— males 928, 
and females 160; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, 
carriers, etc. — males 2752, and females 600; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners — males 29,996, and females 25,736 ; 
(5) industrial class, including manufacturers and artisans — males 7584, 
and females 7270 ; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, compris- 
ing labourers, children, and persons of unspecified occupation — males 
41,669, and females 48,366. 

Agriaclture. — Agriculture supported (1881) 129,223, or 76*21 per 
cent, of the population. In 1881, of the total area of the District, 
176 square miles were cultivated and assessed for revenue; the area 
cultivable was 1066 square miles; and uncultivable, 1155 square miles. 
The amount of Government assessment, including local rates and cesses 
paid on land, in the same year, was ;^i 1,274 ; the average incidence of 
assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, is. ii|d. per acre 
of cultivated land paying revenue. Average area of cultivated land 
per head of agricultural population, 0*87 acre. 

The principal crops raised in Thayet-myo District are rice, oil-seeds, 
cotton, tobacco, and onions. In 1883-84, the total area actually culti- 
vated was 122,492 acres. Rice occupied 71,124 acres; oil-seeds, 
15,848 acres; cotton, 2347 acres; tobacco, 4076 acres; plantains, 1963 
acres; thetke, 316 acres; mixed fruit-trees, 2518 acres; chillies, i486 
acres; onions, 2199 acres; mulberry, 120 acres; custard apple, 41 
acres; taungya or hill gardens, 13,387 acres ; and mixed products, 7067 
acres. The average produce of land per acre was— rice, 945 lbs.; 
cotton, 100 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 460 lbs.; tobacco, 900 lbs.; chiUies, 1090 
lbs.; mixed products, 1800 lbs.; vegetables, 950 lbs.; onions, 7200 
lbs.; plantains, i960 lbs.; mixed fruits, 1390 lbs. The average rent 
per acre of land suited for — rice, 2s. 8d.; oil-seeds, 3s. 4jd.; cotton, 3s.; 
tobacco, 2S. 6d. ; dhani, 2s. 3d. ; mixed fruit-trees, mixed products, 
and vegetables, each 3s. ; plantains, chillies, and mulberry, each 2s. 3d. 
The agricultural live stock consisted of — cows and bullocks, 95,832 ; 
horses and ponies, 620; buffaloes, 18,739; donkeys, 140; sheep and 
goats, 1387 ; pigs, 10,258 ; elephants, 39 : dead stock— ploughs, 25,837; 
carts, 17,701 ; and boats, 894. 

A bushel of good unhusked rice, if well cleaned, will give 31 lbs. of 
rice. During the exceptionally good harvest of 1872, 100 bushels of 
unhusked rice sold at 50 rupees, or ;^5, on the river bank, near the 



284 THAYET-MYO. 

frontier ; at 40 rupees, or ;^4, lower down the river ; and at 60 rupees, 
or £,^1 at Min-dun. The taungya or hill-garden system of cultivation is 
very prevalent in Thayet-myo District. The usual crops thus grown are 
rice and cotton, or sesamum and cotton and vegetables. The average 
size of a tau7igya is 2 acres, and the value of the produce varies from £^^ 
to ^10. On some of the better lands, the growth of jungle is so rapid 
that taungya can be formed on the same spot every fourth year ; but, as 
a rule, taungya land is worked only every seventh year. 

The cotton of Thayet-myo is perhaps the best in Burma. Formerly, 
the produce of the District was bought up by Chinese merchants, who 
established factories for cleaning it on the banks of the Irawadi ; thence 
it was exported by boat to Amarapilra and Ba-maw, and from the latter 
place on the backs of mules into China. Its price at Amarapiira used 
to be sometimes as much as 2 J dnnds, or 3|d. per lb. Since the 
annexation of Pegu the course of trade has changed, and all the cotton 
of the District goes down the Irawadi to Rangoon. The merits of 
Thayet-myo cotton appear to be that it is exceedingly strong, its colour 
is good, and its seeds are abundantly enveloped in wool. It is grown 
entirely in taungya clearings, and is generally sown together with rice or 
sesamum. 

At Allan-myo and Ywa-taung there are extensive factories, where all 
the cotton brought to market is cleaned and roughly baled before being 
exported to Rangoon. The cotton - cleaning machine consists of a 
framew^ork of four posts, a bamboo pedal, a fly-wheel and two cylinders 
placed close to one another, the upper one being of thin iron, and the 
lower somewhat larger and of wood. The bamboo pedal is attached by 
a string to the fly-wheel, and the wooden cylinder has a handle at 
the end opposite to the fly-wheel. The operator, standing in front of 
the apparatus, with one foot works the pedal, which communicates a 
rapid motion to the fly-wheel, and thence to the iron cylinder ; with one 
hand he turns the handle of the wooden cylinder, and with the other 
he feeds the machine, inserting small quantities of cotton between the 
two cylinders, which catch it up ; and whilst the wool passes through 
between the cylinders, the seed, which is too large to pass, is separated 
from the wool and left behind. With this apparatus one operator will 
clean about 12 viss (43 lbs.) of raw cotton in a day, turning out about 
4 J viss (16 lbs.) of cleaned cotton. There are about 4000 of these 
machines at work in the District. A calculation based on the number 
of machines, the number of days which they work in the year, and the 
amount which each machine will clean in a day, makes the estimated 
amount of raw cotton cleaned in a year 728,000 visSf or 1153 tons. 
Taking the average ratio of cleaned to uncleaned cotton to be 100 to 
265, the amount of cleaned cotton turned out in a year would amount 
to 274,717 viss (435 tons). The average price of raw cotton at the 



THAYET-MYO. 285 

river-side marts during the last few years has been Rs. 20 {£,2) per 
100 viss^ and of cleaned cotton, Rs. 60 (^6) per 100 viss ; cart-hire 
from the interior costs about Rs. 5 (los.) for every 30 miles, an ordi- 
nary cart carrying about 150 viss at a time. 

Thayet-myo is also the largest tobacco-growing District in Burma. 
The plant is grown chiefly on sandbanks in the Irawadi which are 
submerged during the rains, and in the beds of the smaller streams. 
Some foreign varieties have been successfully introduced. Considerable 
care is shown in the cultivation of the plant ; but the native method of 
drying the leaf in the sun diminishes the value of the produce. The 
largest out-turn per acre is about 400 viss (1460 lbs.). 

The two Districts of Prome and Thayet-myo supply the greater portion 
of the cutch manufactured in British Burma. The mulberry-tree is 
extensively cultivated for the rearing of silkworms. The price of raw 
silk varies from ;^i, los. to j[^2 per viss (3'65 lbs.). 

The average size of a holding in Thayet-myo District is about 3 
acres. A 200 bushel plot is considered to be the ordinary amount of 
land which one man and a pair of bullocks can cultivate. The usual 
price of unhusked rice before 1852-53 was from ^2 to ^£2^ los. per 
100 bushels; latterly it has been from ^5 to ;£"6, and even more. 
In 1883-84, the price of produce per mauiid of 80 lbs. was — rice, 
5s. 8jd. ; wheat, 6s. njd. ; cotton, 6s. 8d. ; salt, 4s. 2M. ; tobacco, 
los. j oil-seeds, los. ; cutch, 15s.; cocoa-nut oil, jQi^ 7s.: wood-oil, 
IDS. ; earth-oil, 12s. A plough bullock costs jT^^ ; and a buffalo, ^6. 
Wages ruled in 1883-84 as follows: — Skilled labourers, 2s. per diem ; 
unskilled, is. 

Commerce, etc. — The principal exports of Thayet-myo District are betel- 
nuts, cotton twist and yarn, crockery, nga-pi or dried fish-paste, piece- 
goods, rice, salt, and raw silk. The imports comprise raw cotton, silk 
goods, indigo, grain, hides, molasses, gums, lac, oil-seeds, petroleum, 
ponies, jade, and precious stones. On the annexation of Pegu, a 
frontier custom-house was established at Mye-deh. The exports on 
which dues were levied, and the rates of such dues, were — rice, 5s. per 
ton; rice in the husk, half that rate; salt, 14s. 2d. per ton ; betel-nut 
and all preparations of fish, 10 per cent, ad valorem. Dues at the rate 
of 10 per cent, ad valorem were levied on imports of all kinds, with the 
exception of coin, precious stones, cotton, grain and pulse, and living 
animals, which were free, and teak timber and spirits, for which special 
rates were provided by Act xxx. of 1854. Dues were levied at these 
rates until June 1863. In 1855-56, the total value of the import trade 
was ;^i49,497 ; in 1862-63, ^^ rose to ;^"386,6oo. In 1855-56, the 
value of the exports from Thayet-myo was ;£"365,2 26 ; in 1862-63, ^^ ^^s 
;^"836,245. This source of revenue was abandoned by the treaty made 
with the King of Burma on the loth of November 1862, which provided 



286 THAYET-MYO. 

for an optional abolition of inland customs on both sides of the frontier, 
and likewise granted the boon of freedom from sea-customs duties to 
goods landed in Rangoon for transport to Upper Burma. In 1867, the 
duty on imports was reduced from ;£"i to los. per cent, ad valorem ; and 
export duties, hitherto levied at 12s. per cent., were reduced to los. per 
cent, ad valorem. Later in the same year, October 1867, the Burmese 
Government bound itself by treaty to levy no more than the above 
reduced rates for a period of ten years, the British Government agreeing 
not to re-impose the frontier customs duties as long as the Burmese 
Government should collect only the 5 per cent, ad valoref?i duties. 
Although duties have ceased to be levied on the British side, an estab- 
lishment is still maintained to register the value of goods carried by 
boats and steamers. In 1866-67, the value of the trade so registered 
was ;£"i, 117,469. In 1882-83, the total value of the river-borne trade 
of Thayet-myo District was ^2,907,611. 

Ad?ni?iistratton. — The ordinary amount of revenue realized in Thayet- 
myo District under Burmese rule was about ;^5ooo; and the largest 
sum on record was ^^10,234, exclusive of the local income. It was 
raised in different ways in different tracts. In Mye-deh, the owners of 
cattle were divided into three classes, according to the number of beasts 
they possessed ; fishermen were taxed ; and landing, market, and 
brokerage fees were levied. In Thayet-myo the tax was sometimes 
levied on cattle-owners, sometimes at so much per house, sometimes on 
land, and was paid in kind. At one period the revenue was remitted, 
and Thayet-myo was required to furnish, equip, and pay a contingent of 
500 soldiers. In 1870-71, the year in which Thayet-myo was formed 
into a separate jurisdiction, the revenue was ;^26,989; in 1881-82, 
;^34,62 2. The local revenue in these years amounted to ;^23oi and 
;£788i respectively. In 1881-82, the incidence of taxation per head 
of population was 4s. id. Revenue in 1883-84, ;^39,i84, of which 
the land-tax contributed ;£'i 2,053. The District is administered by a 
Deputy Commissioner and Assistants. The police force numbers S70 
men of all ranks. Jail in Thayet-myo town, with a daily average of 
275 prisoners in 1883. Total number of schools, public, private, and 
indigenous, in 1883-84, 233, attended by 7782 pupils. The Census 
of 1 88 1 returned 9031 males and 533 females as under instruction, 
besides 35,472 males and 773 females able to read and write but not 
under instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — The chief characteristic of the climate of Thayet- 
myo District is its comparative dryness. The average annual rainfall 
of Thayet-myo town for the twelve years ending 1881 was 47*47 inches. 
The average monthly temperature for the four years ending 1881 was — 
January, 68-8° F. ; February, 73-5°; March, 817°; April, 87-9°; May, 
^5*9°; June, 80*2°; July, 807°; August, 80*5°; September, 80-9°; 



THAYET-MYO TOWNSHIP AND TOWN 287 

October, 80-5°; November, 77'i° ; and December, 71-9" F. The 
annual average was 79-1° F. The vital statistics of 1883 show a total 
of 2905 recorded deaths. The hospital and dispensary at Thayet-myo 
town relieved 411 in-door and 5384 out-door patients; of these 781 
were fever cases. Cattle disease is very prevalent. [For further infor- 
mation regarding Thayet-myo District, see the British Burtna Gazetteer, 
compiled by authority (Rangoon Government Press, 1879), vol. ii. 
pp. 728-767. Also see the British Burma Census Report for 188 1 ; 
and the several annual Administration and Departmental Reports of 
British Burma from 1880 to 1884.] 

Thayet-myo. — Township in Thayet-myo District, Pegu Division, 
Lower Burma. Lat. 19° 5' to 19° 29' 3" n., and long. 94° 45' to 95'' 
16' 30" E. Area, 192 square miles. Population (1881) 37,193 ; revenue 
(1881-82), ^3984. 

Thayet-myo. — The chief town and administrative head-quarters 
of Thayet-myo District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma ; situated in lat. 
19° 18' 43" N., and long. 95° 15' 40" e., on the right bank of the Irawadi, 
about II miles south of the frontier line of the Province. In the rains, 
the aspect of the place is fresh and green ; but during the dry season, 
when the river has retreated to its dry-weather channel, leaving an 
extensive sandbank, it presents a dreary appearance. On the annexa- 
tion of Pegu (1853), Thayet-myo contained only 200 or 300 houses. 
The total population in 1881 was returned at 16,097, namely, males 
9874, and females 6223. Buddhists number 9940; Hindus, 241 1 ; 
Christians, 2130; Muhammadans, 1614; and 'others,' 2. This rapid 
increase is mainly due to the fact that Thayet-myo is the frontier 
military station. The cantonment was founded in 1854, and there is 
some difference of opinion as to whether the selection w^as a wise one. 
Though healthy, Thayet-myo is enclosed on the west and south by 
ranges of hills shutting out the cool south-westerly breezes, which blow 
during the hottest period of the year ; whilst, on the other hand, the 
two hills near the old fort of Mye-deh, and the new town of Allan-myo 
on the opposite side of the Irawadi, are comparatively cool. A 
sanitarium has been formed on these hills for the troops. From a 
military point of view, Mye-deh seems a better site than Thayet-myo, 
as communication with Rangoon is difficult from the latter town. 

The usual military force consists of two field batteries of artillery, a 
wing of a European regiment, and a Native infantry corps, all on the 
Madras estabhshment. To the north of the cantonments is a small 
fort containing the arsenal and commissariat stores, which has lately 
been improved and strengthened. In 187 1, the death-rate amongst the 
European troops was 11 per thousand ; and amongst the Native troops, 
6 per thousand. In 1872, it fell to 5 '6 and 2-8 per thousand respec- 
tively. The most common diseases are paroxysmal fevers, dysentery, 



288 THEOG—THON-G WA. 

and rheumatism. The water-supply is hard, and to some degree 
unpalatable. Thayet-myo contains the usual head-quarters buildings. 

The name 'Thayet-myo' signifies 'Mango city;' but this is said to 
be a corruption of ' That-yet-myo ' or ' City of Slaughter,' so called, as 
tradition alleges, from one of its early rulers, who killed his sons in order 
that they might not rebel against him when they grew to manhood. 
The town of Thayet-myo is said to have been founded in 1306 a.d. 
by a son of the last King of Pagan, but it has only of late years risen 
into importance. 

Theog. — A small thukrdi or lordship in the Simla Hills, Punjab, 
tributary to the Native State of Keunthal ; containing eight pargands. 
The village of Theog is a well-known halting-place, with a dak bungalow 
on the winding mountain road from Simla to Kotgarh, 18 miles east of 
Simla. There is a small fort, which, according to Thornton, was 
garrisoned by the Gurkhas during their occupation of the country. It 
is situated in lat. 31° 6' n., and long. 77° 26' e., at an elevation of 8018 
feet above sea-level. 

Thi-kwin. — Township in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, Lower 
Burma. Covered for the most part with forest, but also possessing 
cultivated rice tracts. It comprises 10 revenue circles. Population 
(i88i) 71,621 ; gross revenue, ;£"2o,7o3. Lat. 16° 35' to 17° 4' n., 
long. 94° 47' to 95° 15' E. 

Thon-gwa {Thu?ikhwa, Thone-gwd). — British District in the Irawadi 
Division of Lower Burma, lying between 17° 37' and 19° 28' n. lat, 
and between 95° 53' and 96° 53' e. long. Area, 5413 square miles. 
Population (1881) 284,063 souls. Bounded north by Henzada, east 
by Rangoon, south by the Bay of Bengal, and west by Bassein District. 
The head-quarters of the District are at Ma-u-bin Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The whole face of the country is flat, and inter- 
sected by a network of muddy tidal creeks, and almost equally muddy 
streams, all of which communicate, directly or indirectly, with the 
Irawadi. This latter river enters Thon-gwa in the extreme north, 
and traverses the District from north to south, falling into the Bay of 
Bengal west of the Kyun-taw. The other principal rivers are the To 
or China Bakir, the Pya-pun, and the Da-la or Kyun-tun. Some of 
the creeks are navigable by river steamers all the year round, and all 
are more or less fringed with forest. Owing to the continuous deposit 
of silt, the land along the margins of the watercourses is raised, and 
the District is thus divided into a congeries of basin-like islands. The 
coast-line is generally marked by sandy patches or mangrove swamps. 
Geologically, Thon-gwa is composed of 'older alluvial clay,' which 
mainly differs from that of the Gangetic basin in being less rich in lime. 
Under certain conditions of exposure, this formation assumes a lateritic 
appearance superficially. The chief timber-trees found in the District 



THON-GWA. 289 

are yin-daik (Dalbcrgia cultrata), pyin-ina (Lagerstrcemia Flos-Regina^), 
and ka-7iyin (Di})terocarpus alatus). There are no State forest or 
reserves in 'I'hon-gwa. 

History. — The District of Thon-gwa was formed in 1S75, and its 
history previous to that date is identical with that of Henzada, to 
which administrative division Thon-gwa originally belonged. During 
the first Anglo-Burmese war, no resistance was offered to the British 
except at Donahyu, In 1825 the troops advanced from Rangoon, the 
land column under the Commander-in-Chief (Sir Archibald Campbell) 
moving up the valley of the Hlaing, and the water column under 
Brigadier Cotton making its way to the Irawadi. Sir A. Campbell's 
march was unopposed ; and Tharawadi Min, the native prince, retired 
as the British advanced. Ban-du-la, who had commanded Burmese 
armies in Manipur and Arakan, threw himself into Donabyu, which 
he strongly fortified. After being reinforced, the Commander-in-Chief 
established himself in Henzada, and a little later set out for Donabyu, 
where he arrived on the 25th of March. Batteries were at once 
erected, and on the ist of April opened fire. Ban-du-la had been 
killed the day before by the accidental bursting of a shell. The 
Burmese speedily retreated, and their stockades were captured by our 
forces. 

During the second Anglo-Burmese war, Donabyu was undefended ; 
but after the occupation of Prome, Myat Tun, an ^x.-thugyi of a small 
circle, succeeded in collecting a body of men, and defied the British, 
with Donabyu as his head-quarters. Early in January 1853, the town 
was again attacked, and the enemy were driven out, but our forces 
were obliged to retire on penetrating into the interior. Captain Loch, 
C.B., R.N., was despatched against Myat Tun ; and in the engagement 
which ensued he was mortally wounded, being among the first to fall. 
Captain Fytche at this period was occupied in clearing Bassein 
District of marauding parties, remnants of the Burmese army. Sir 
John Cheape, who was commanding in Prome, now descended the 
river, and proceeded to Donabyu. After a severe encounter, the 
enemy were dispersed, and their works captured. Myat Tun himself 
escaped ; but from this time the country gradually settled down, and 
has since remained in undisturbed possession of the British. 

Population. — The population of Thon-gwa District was returned 
in 1872 at 86,166 persons. By 1877 the total had risen to 210,975 ; 
and by the last Census of 1881 to 284,063, residing in 2 towns and 
976 villages, and in 49,396 houses. Number of unoccupied houses, 
5460; average number of persons per village or town, 291; persons 
per occupied house, 575. Area, 5413 square miles. Persons 
l)er square mile, 52-48; villages or towns per square mile, o'lS ; 
occupied houses per square mile, 9T. Classified according to sex, 

VOL. XIII. T 



290 THON-G]VA. 

there were — males 150,131, and females r33,932; proportion of males, 
52*8 per cent. Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, 
boys 61,826, and girls 57,988; total children, 119,814, or 42-1 per 
cent. : 15 years and upwards, males 88,305, and females 75,944; total 
adults, 164,249, or 57*9 per cent. The boat population was returned 
at 14,805, namely, males 11,056, and females 3749, living in 3132 boats. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Buddhists, 
274,237, or 96*5 per cent, of the population; Christians, 6894; 
Muhammadans, 1650; Hindus, 723; Nat-worshippers or non- 
Euddhist indigenous races, whose sole religion consists in a kind of 
worship of spirits or ' demons,' supposed to reside in natural objects, 
558 ; and Parsi, i. 

The indigenous and Indian races who inhabited Thon-gwa District, 
according to the 'language table' of the Census Report of 1881, 
were — Burmese, 181,763; Karens, 90,009; Talaings, 8575; Hindu- 
stanis, 1485; Shans, 789; Chinese, 529; Telugus, 217; Karennis, 
193; Bengalis, 187; Tamils, 162; and 'others,' iii 

The Christians according to race were — Europeans and Americans, 
18; Eurasians, 43; and Natives, 6833. According to sect there were 
— -Baptists, 5594; Roman Catholics, 1125; members of the Church 
of England, 167 ; and 'others,' 8. Of the native converts, 5585 were 
Baptists, 1 103 Roman Catholics, 140 members of the Church of 
England, and 5 'others.' 

The largest town in Thon-gwa District is Yaung-dun, with 12,673 
inhabitants in 188 1 ; Ma-u-bin, the head-quarters station, is little more 
than a village ; Donabyu, on the right bank of the Irawadi, population 
3273; Pan-ta-naw, population 6174. 

Of the 97.8 towns and villages in Thon-gwa District, 450 contained 
in 1 88 1 less than two hundred inhabitants; 408 between two and five 
hundred; 100 between five hundred and one thousand; 13 between 
one and two thousand ; 4 between two and three thousand ; i between 
three and five thousand ; i between five and ten thousand ; and i 
between fifteen and twenty thousand. 

The Census of 1881 distributed the population into the following six 
main groups : — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions — males 2233, and females 
202 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers — males 184, 
and females 104; (3) commercial class, including all bankers, mer- 
chants, carriers, etc. — males 11,452, and females 5401 ; (4) agricultural 
and pastoral class, including gardeners — males 53,288, and females 
35,378;. (5) industrial class, including manufacturers and artisans — males 
15,529, and females 13,498; and (6) indefinite and non-productive 
class, comprising labourers, children, and persons of unspecified occu- 
ation — males 67,445, and females 79,349. 



THON-GWA. 291 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supported (1881) 170,843 persons, or 
60-14 per cent, of the population. In 1881, of the total area of the 
District (5413 square miles), 356 square miles were cultivated, of which 
4 square miles were non-revenue-paying ; the area cultivable, but not 
cultivated, was 2165 square miles; uncultivable, 2892 square miles. 
The total amount of Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses paid on land, in the same year, was ^62,308 ; the average 
incidence of assessment, including local rates and cesses, was 5s. 6id. 
per acre of cultivated land paying revenue. The average area of cul- 
tivated land per agricultural labourer was 1*33 acres. 

The principal crops grown in Thon-gwa District are rice, plan- 
tains, chillies, and sugar-cane. In 1883-84, the total area actually cul- 
tivated was 296,755 acres. Rice occupied 266,901 acres; oil-seeds, 
285 acres; sugar-cane, 349 acres; d/ia?ii, 453 acres; plantains, 1050 
acres; betel-leaf, 99 acres; mixed fruit-trees, 20,507 acres; chillies, 
1730 acres; and miscellaneous, 5401 acres. I'his is the only District 
in Lower Burma where no tauugya or hill-garden cultivation is carried 
on. The soil is much less fertile than in the neighbouring Districts 
of Bassein, Henzada, and Hanthawadi. Average rent per acre of 
land suited for — rice, 3s. 9d. ; oil-seeds, 4s. 3|d. ; sugar-cane, 4s. 6d. ; 
tobacco, 4s. 3d. ; dha?ii, 4s. 9d. ; mixed fruit-trees, 4s. 3|d. ; mixed 
products, 5s. old. ; betel-leaf, 4s. 3|d. ; plantains, 4s. 3d. ; chillies, 
4s. 3f d. ; onions, 4s. 6d. The average produce of land per acre was 
— rice, 1200 lbs.; oil-seeds, 11 20 lbs.; sugar, 2800 lbs.; tobacco, 
1050 lbs. ; mixed products, 1050 lbs. ; onions, 3500 lbs. ; betel-leaf, 
1750 lbs. The agricultural live stock consisted of — cows and bullocks, 
22,004; buffaloes, 32,044; horses and ponies, 107; sheej) and goats, 
8S4 ; pigs, 7696: dead stock — ploughs, 14,745; carts, 9249; and 
boats, 9500. The price of produce per viauud of 80 lbs. was — rice, 
8s. 6d. ; salt, 2s. 7jd. ; tobacco, i6s. ; oil-seeds, 6s. 4ki. : chillies, 
i2s. 6d. ; onions, 6s. lo^d. A plough bullock cost ^7, los. ; 
a buffalo, ^9. The daily wages of skilled labour ranged from is. to 
2S. ; of unskilled workmen, from is. to is. 6d. 

Administration.- — The total revenue realized in Thon - t^wa in 

o 

1875-76, the first year after its erection into a separate adminstra- 
tion, was ;£i 02,430. In 1883-84 the revenue had risen to ;£"i 94,005. 
The District of Thon-gwa consists of the 3 Sub-divisions of Ma-u-bin, 
Pan-ta-naw, and Yaung-dun, each of which is again divided into 2 town- 
ships, viz. Thon-gwa and Pya-pun, Yaung-dun and Donabyu, Pan-ta-naw 
and Shwe-laung. For the settlement of civil disputes and for revenue 
purposes there are 10 courts. Ten officers share the administration 
of criminal justice. Average distance of villages from nearest court, 
15 miles. The total strength of the regular police in 1883-84 con- 
sisted of 337 officers and men, giving i policeman to every 842 



292 THON-GWA TOWXSHIF-THUL, 

persons of the population and to every i6'o6 square miles of the area. 
The total cost was ;^8686, equal to jQ\, 12s. id. per square mile of 
area and yjd. per head of population. The total number of schools, 
public, private, and indigenous, in 1883-84 was 432, attended by 
11,338 pupils. The Census of 1881 returned 19,915 males and 4556 
females as under instruction, besides 65,964 males and 2271 females 
able to read and write but not under instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — In 1883 the rainfall was 94*64 inches. The vital 
statistics for 1883 show a total of 3480 recorded deaths. The dispen- 
saries in the towns of Ma-u-bin, Yaung-dun, and Pan-ta-naw relieved 
797 in-door and 9293 out-door patients; of these 12 15 were fever cases. 
[For further information regarding Thon-gwa District, see the British 
Biir7na Gazetteer^ compiled by authority (Rangoon Government Press, 
1879), vol. ii. pp. 787-793. Also see th^ British Burma Census Report 
for 1881 ; and the several Administration and Departmental Reports 
for British Burma from 1880 to 1884.] 

Thon-gwa. — Township in Thon-gwa District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower Burma. The country is generally low, and well cultivated. 
Chief product, rice. The township comprises 4 revenue circles. Popu- 
lation (1881) 38,807; gross revenue, £i(),^2']. 

Thoonkhwa. — District and township in Lower Burma. — See 
Thon-gwa. 

Thouk-re-gat (or Thauk-ye-gat). — River in Taung-ngu District, 
Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma. — See Thauk-ye-gat. 

Thoung-gyeng (or Thaung-yin). — River in Amherst District, 
Tenasserim Division, Lower Burma. — See Thaung-yin. 

Thovalai. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Travancore State, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 121 square miles, containing 158 ka?'as or col- 
lections of villages. Population (1881) 30,260, namely, males 14,830, 
and females 15,430^ occupying 8588 houses. Density of population, 
250 persons per square mile. Hindus number 26,342; Christians, 
2615 ; and Muhammadans, 1303. Of the Christians, 1569 were Pro- 
testants, and 1046 Roman Catholics. 

Thul. — Tdluk of the Upper Sind Frontier District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 821 square miles. Population (1872) 34,807; 
(i88t) 43^025, namely, males 23,240, and females 19,785; occupying 
7694 houses in 58 villages. Muhammadans number 38,637 ; Hindus, 
2938; Sikhs, 1249; and non-Hindu aborigines, 201. In 1882-83, the 
area assessed for land revenue was 70,533 acres; and the area under 
actual cultivation, 68,486 acres. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil 
and 2 criminal courts ; police circles (thdnds), 2 ; regular police, 50 men. 
Revenue, ;^ 13,081. 

ThuL— Head-quarters town of Thul td/uk, Upper Sind Frontier Dis- 
trict, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated 23 miles from Jacobabc4d. Lat. 



THULENDI— TIGAR. 293 

28' 15' N., long. 68° 49' E. Station of a viukhiiarkdr and tappaddr. 
Police station, jail, lock-up, vernacular school, and cattle pound. 
Population (1S72) 1043, namely, 636 Hindus and 407 Muhammadans. 
Not returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. 

Thulendi. — Town in Digbijaiganj tahsil^ Rai Bareli District, Oudh ; 
situated 18 miles south of Bhilwal, 18 miles south-west of Haidar- 
garh, and 32 miles south-east of Lucknow. Population (1881) 2605, 
namely, Hindus 1682, and Muhammadans 923. Founded by Thiila, 
a Bhar chief, more than 800 years ago. Situated on an elevated plain, 
and surrounded by groves. Climate, healthy ; soil, clay. The Jaunpur 
king, Sultan Ibrahim, in the 15th century, built a mud-walled fort, 
which was made the residence of the revenue officer ; but Raja Niwaz 
Singh, a Brahman, transferred the seat of government to Bachhrawan. Of 
architectural works there are — the fort built by Ibrahim, two masonry 
mosques, the palace of Raja Niwaz Singh, and two mud-built tanks. 
Government vernacular school ; five Hindu temples ; martyr's tomb ; 
bi-weekly market ; annual fair, attended by 4000 people. 

Thummapatty. — Town in Salem District, AEadras Presidency. 
— See Thammapatti. 

Thun-khwa (77z6^;/-^ie'^).— District and township in Lower Burma. 
— See Thon-gwa. 

^ii.g^r {Tiydgar Drug). — Village and old fort in South Arcot Dis- 
trict, Madras; situated in lat. 11° 44' 20" n., and long. 79° 7' 15" e., 
30 miles south of Trinomalai. Population (187 1) 419, inhabiting 54 
houses. Like the fortress of Trinomalai, Tiagar formed one of the 
bulwarks of the District against invasion from above the Ghats, and was 
the scene of much hard fighting in the Karnatik wars. Between 1757 
and 1780 it was regularly invested five times, and blockaded once ; and 
although never carried by assault, it repeatedly changed hands between 
English, French, and Mysoreans. Commanding the pass fi-om Atiir in 
Salem, it was an object to Haidar Ali, and its cession was included 
in the terms of his treaty with the French in 1760. It formed the 
rendezvous of his troops before joining Lally at Pondicherri ; and here 
they again collected when retreating before Coote. In 1790, Captain 
Flint, the defender of Wandiwash, beat off Tipii in two assaults on 
the town. The roads from Arcot to Trichinopoli and from Salem to 
Cuddalore intersect at Tiagar. 

Tigar. — Tdluk of Mehar Sub-division, Shikarpur District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 301 square miles. Population (1881) 
31,965, namely, males 17,002, and females 14,963, occupying 4185 
houses in 48 villages. Muhammadans number 27,369; Sikhs, 3147; 
Hindus, 1405; Christians, 31; and non-Hindu aborigines, 13. In 
1882-83 the area assessed for land revenue was 34,510 acres; under 
actual cultivation, 32,894 acres. In 1883 the tdluk contained 2 criminal 



2 94 TIGARIA—TIJARA. 

courts; police circles {thdjids)^ 4 ; regular police, 24 men. Revenue, 

Tigaria. — Native State of Orissa, Bengal, lying between 20° 25' 
and 20° 32' 20" N. lat., and between 85° 27' 45" and 85° 35' 30" e. 
long. Area, 46 square miles. Population (i88t) 19,850. Bounded 
on the north by Dhenkanal, on the east by Athgarh State, on the south 
by the Mahanadi river, and on the west by Baramba State. 

Although the smallest in size, Tigaria is, with the single exception of 
Banki, the most densely peopled of the Orissa Tributary States, being 
well cultivated, except among the hills and jungles at its northern end. 
It produces coarse rice and the usual other grains, oil-seeds, sugar- 
cane, tobacco, cotton, etc., for the transport of which the Mahanadi 
affords ample facilities throughout its whole southern section. Bi- 
weekly markets are held at two villages. The population of 19,850 
persons inhabits 95 villages and 3659 houses. Hindus number 19,575, 
or 98*5 per cent, of the population; and ]\Iuhammadans 275, or 1*5 
per cent. Proportion of males in total population, 49*6 per cent. ; 
density of population, 431 persons per square mile; average number of 
villages per square mile, 2*07; persons per village, 209; houses per 
square mile, 79 ; persons per house, 5-4. The State contains only one 
village with a population of from 2000 to 3000. Tigaria, the residence 
of the Raja, situated in lat. 20° 28' 15" n., and long. 84° 33' 31" e. 

This little principality was founded about 400 years ago by Sur 
Tung Singh, a pilgrim to Puri from Northern India, who halted here 
on his way back, drove out the aborigines, seized the country, and 
founded the present family. It is said to derive its name from the fact 
of its having originally consisted of three divisions defended by forts 
{trigarh, or in Uriya, gara). Extensive portions of Tigaria were 
annexed by neighbouring chiefs in the time of Maratha rule. The 
revenue of the Raja is estimated at ^800 ; tribute, ^88. The militia 
consists of 393, and the police force of 77 men. Tigaria State contains 
12 schools. 

Tijara. — Town and tahs'il in the Native State of Alwar, in Raj- 
putana. The town of Tijara lies 30 miles north-east of Alwar city ; 
situated in lat. 27° 55' 50" n., and long. 76° 50' 30" e. Population 
(1881) 7723, namely, Hindus 4799, and Muhammadans 2924. A 
metalled road connects the town with Khairtal, a station on the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway. The proprietors, according to Major 
Powlett {Gazetteer of Alwar ^ London, 1878, p. 129), are Meos, Mallis, 
and Khanzadas. It has a municipal committee, dispensary, school, 
and large bazar. Next to agriculture, the principal industries are 
weaving and papermaking. Tijara was the old capital of Mew at, and 
a place of importance up to recent times. It was founded by Tej Pal, 
and was subsequently the head-quarters of the powerful Khanzadas of 



TIKAMGARH- TIL A IN. 



295 



Mewat. Throughout the period of Musahnan rule in India, the Tijara 
Hills were the strongholds of the turbulent Mewatis ; and the town 
itself frequendy changed hands, being occupied successively by 
Khanzadas, Mughals, Jats, Pathans, Marathas, Meos, and Narukas, a 
branch of the Kachhwaha Rajputs. Area of the tahsi/^ 257 square 
miles; revenue, ;2{^i 5,900. 

Tikamgarh. — Fort in Orchha State, Bundelkhand, Central India. — 
See Tehri. 

Tikari. — Town and municipality in the head-quarters Sub-division 
of Gaya District, Bengal ; situated on the Miirhar river, about 1 5 
miles north-west of Gaya city. Lat. 24' 56' 38" n., long. 84° 52' 53" e. 
Population (1881) 12,187, namely, males 5848, and females 6339. 
Hindus number 9312, and Muhammadans 2875. Municipal income 
(1883-84), ;2^207 ; average incidence of taxation, 4d. per head. Local 
police force, 38 men. The chief interest of this town centres round 
the fort of the Rajas of Tikari, who rose into importance after the 
dismemberment of the Mughal Government in the i8th century. The 
late chief received the title of Maharaja in 1873. The rental of the 
estate is estimated at ^46,826 ; and the Government revenue is 
^19,250. [For details regarding the Tikari family, see Statistical 
Account of Bengal^ vol. xii. pp. 51-53.] 

Tikota. — Town in Kurundwar State, Southern ^laratha Country, 
Bombay Presidency. Fat. 16° 15' 40" n., long. 75° t^-^ 50" e. ; situated 
about 12 miles west of Bijapur. Population (1881) 5897, namely, 
Hindus, 5053; Muhammadans, 798 ; and Jains, 46. Under the Muham- 
madans this place appears to have been of some importance, as it con- 
tains the remains of a large sardi (native inn) said to have been built 
by a former minister of the Bijapur Government. 

Tikri. — Town in Meerut (Merath) District, North-Western Provinces ; 
situated in lat. 29" 14' n., and long. 77° 23' e., 27 miles north-west of 
Meerut city. Population (1881) 6274, namely, Hindus, 4956; Mu- 
hammadans, 753 ; and Jains, 565. Flourishing agricultural community 
of Jats. 

Tikri. — Village in Soraon tahs'il, Allahabad District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated in lat. 25' 34' n., and long. 81° 59' 28" e., 4 miles 
south-south-east of Soraon town, and Z\ miles north of Allahabad city. 
Population (1881) 2224. Noted for its temple to Mahadeo, in whose 
honour a religious fair is held every February. A small house-tax is 
raised for police and conservancy purposes. 

Tilain. — Hill range in Cachar District, Assam, running north from 
the Lushai Hills on the southern frontier. The height varies from 100 
to 500 feet. These hills are crossed by the Silchar and Sylhet road, 4 
miles west of Silchar, and might everywhere be rendered accessible for 
wheeled traffic. The name Tilain is said by some to be a corruption 



2^6 TILHAR—TILJUGA. 

of Tin Shaind, or three gorges, which exist close to one another In these 
hills. 

Tilhar. — North-western tahsU of Shahjahanpur District, North- 
Western Provinces; consisting of a portion of the Rohilkhand plain. 
Area, 416 square miles, of which 284 square miles are cultivated. 
Population (1881) 213,549, namely, males 115,647, and females 97,902. 
Classified according to rehgion, Hindus number 185,914 ; Muham- 
madans, 27,596; and 'others,' 39. Of 549 towns and villages, 448 
contain less than two hundred inhabitants; 71 between five hundred 
and a thousand; 25 between one and two thousand; 2 between two 
and five thousand ; 2 between five and ten thousand ; and i between 
fifteen and twenty thousand. Government land revenue, ^33,030, or 
including local rates and cesses levied on land, ;£36,973. Rental paid 
by cultivators, ^{^6139. In 1885, Tilhar tahs'il contained i civil and 2 
criminal courts ; regular police force, 64 men. 

Tilhar. — Town and municipality in Shahjahanpur District, North- 
western Provinces, and head-quarters of the tahs'il of the same 
name ; situated in lat. 27° 37' 50" n., and long. 79° 46' 31" e., 12 miles 
west of Shahjahanpur city, on the metalled road from Shahjahanpur to 
Bareilly, and a station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Popula- 
tion in t88i (including a number of neighbouring villages, forming a 
single municipality), 15,351, namely, males 7975, and females 7376. 
Hindus number 7787 ; Muhammadans, 7555; Jains, 6; and 'others,' 
3. Number of houses, 2687. Municipal income (1883-84), ^944, 
of which £:,^ZZ ^^'^s derived from taxation ; average incidence of 
taxation, 9|d. per head. The town is surrounded by a batUemented 
brick wall now in ruins, with gateways on the west and east. A new 
market-place capable of accommodating a large trade was constructed 
in 1881 by the municipality ; but comparatively little business is carried 
on, except in unrefined sugar {gitr)^ which is largely made in the 
neighbourhood and exported. Many improvements have lately been 
carried out in the town. During the Mutiny the leading Muham- 
madans joined the rebels. Their estates were confiscated, the leaders 
transported, and the town now contains but few well-to-do Musalman 
residents. 

Tiljliga. — River of North Behar ; rises in the hills of the sub-Tanii 
of Nepal, and flows into Bhagalpur, separating that District on the west 
from Nepal and Tirhiit. At the village of Tilkeswar it bends south-east 
across the great Monghyr pargaiid of Pharkiya ; and again entering 
Bhagalpur near Balhar with a due easterly course, falls into the Kusi at 
Saura Gadi. At Rawal, 15 miles from Nepal, it sends off a number of 
channels, which irrigate and drain the country through which the)- 
pass. Its chief affluents are the Balan, Dimra, Bati, and Katna, 
the latter river being formed by the united streams of the Talaba, 



TILOTHU—TINNE VELLI. 297 

Parwan, Dhiisan, and Loran. The Tiljiigd is navigable by boats of 
70 tons burthen as far as Tilkeswar, and beyond for eight months of the 
year by boats of a quarter of that tonnage up to Dighi'a, within 10 miles 
of the Nepal frontier. This river constitutes the main water com- 
munication in the north-west of Bhagalpur. 

Tilothu.— Village and police outpost in Shahabad District, Bengal ; 
situated 5 miles east of the gorge by which the Tutrahi, a branch 
of the Kudra river, leaves the hills. This spot is sacred to the goddess 
Totala. The gorge itself is half a mile long, terminating in a sheer 
horse-shoe precipice from 180 to 250 feet high, down which the 
river falls. The rock at first recedes at an angle of 100° for about 
one-third of the height ; but above that it overhangs, forming a re- 
entering angle. The object of interest is an image, bearing the date 
Samvat 1389, or 1332 a.d., which is said to have been placed here by 
the Cherus about eighteen centuries ago. It represents a many-armed 
female killing a man springing from the neck of a buffalo. A fair is 
held here every year on the last day of Kdrtik, which is attended by 
about 100,000 persons, many from distant places. 

Timarni.— Large village in Harda tahsii, Hoshangabad District, 
Central Provinces. Population (1881) 4176, namely, Hindus, 3821 ; 
Muhammadans, 304; Jains, 50; and Christian, i. 

Timeri. — Town in Arcot taluk, North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in lat. 12° 49' 45" n., and long. 79° 21' 20" e., 6 
miles south-west of Arcot. Population (1871) 3678; (1881) 3663, 
namely, Hindus, 3332 ; Muhammadans, 328 ; Christian, i ; and 'others,' 
2; occupying 349 houses. Timeri was captured by Clive in 1751, 
after the successful defence of Arcot, and was held by the British till 
1758, when it surrendered to D'Estainge. Major Munro recovered the 
town in 1760. 

Tingrikotta.— Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency.— 5rc 
Ten k arai kotta. 

Tinnevelli {Tirunelveli). — British District in the Presidency of 
Madras, lying between 8° 9' and 9° 56' n. lat, and between 77° 16' 
and 78° 27' E. long. Area, 5381 square miles. Population (r88i) 
1,699,747 souls. Tinnevelh occupies the extreme south-eastern corner 
of the Indian peninsula. Madura District bounds it on the north 
and north-east ; on the south-east and south the Gulf of IManaar, and 
on the west the Southern Ghats, form natural boundaries. The Ghats 
divide it from the Native State of Travancore. The coast-line extends 
from Vembar nearly to Cape Comorin (the most southern point of 
India), 95 miles. The greatest length of the District is, from north to 
south, 122 miles; and the greatest breadth, from east to west, 74 miles. 
Physical Aspects. — Roughly speaking, Tinnevelli is a large plain (of an 
average elevation of 200 feet) sloping to the east, as may be inferred 



298 TINNEVELLL 

from the general direction of its rivers. It is, in fact, made up of their 
drainage basins. Along the western boundary, the mountains rise from 
the plain to a height of above 4000 feet; but they send out no spurs 
into the District, nor are there any isolated hills, and the face of the 
country is but slightly undulating. The total area of the mountams 
and elevated tracts is 626 square miles, of which the Southern Ghats 
occupy 582 square miles. The elevation of the land at the foot of the 
Ghats is about 800 feet. The area of the forests is 286 square miles ; 
the greater portion of which is fully stocked with evergreen forests, 
and has been specially reserved. There are 34 rivers, all of which 
run their entire course within the District. The chief are — (i) The 
Tambraparni (length 80 miles), which rises in the Southern Ghats, 
and as it leaves the hills forms a beautiful waterfall at Papanasam. 
Its course is on the whole east-south-east, and its name comes from the 
red or copper colour which it gets from the soil through which it passes. 
Its principal tributary is the Chittar or Chitranadi ('little river'), which 
rises above Kuttalam (Courtallum). The Tambraparni passes between 
the towns of Tinnevelli and Palamcotta, which are two and a half miles 
apart. (2) The Vaipar. Satiir is the chief town on its banks. 

In the north, the scenery is unattractive. There are few trees, 
and the soil is nearly all what is called black cotton-soil. To the 
south, red sandy soil prevails, in which little save the palmyra palm 
will grow. In fact, Tinnevelli is the palmyra district, as it is the 
district of the Shanans, who live by the palmyra. But along the banks 
of the rivers, rice-fields and a variety of trees and crops render the 
country more pleasing. The coast has but i^w villages, and is low and 
level. There are many shoals near the shore, and rocks and reefs 
in the north-east. Along the coast are salt marshes, divided by sand 
dunes from the sea, with which they have no communication. In 
the rainy season, these marshes spread over a wide expanse of 
country. After heavy rain in iSio, four of them became united, 
and much damage was done to cultivation by the stagnant salt 
water. The District has not yet been surveyed geologically. The hills 
which divide it from Travancore are chiefly granite and gneiss, and 
along the coast stretches the broad belt of alluvium common to the 
whole east coast of India. ' There are several veins of calc spar cross- 
ing the District from west to east, and the beds of all the rivers are 
more or less encrusted with a deposit of lime. In the black cotton- 
soil, nodular limestone is very abundant, and below it a bed of gneiss in 
a partially disintegrated state occurs.' — (Pharoah's Gazetteer of Southerii 
India, 1855, p. 436.) 

History. — Tinnevelli as a District has no independent history. Its 
annals are mixed up with those of Madura and Travancore, and there 
is no great family or town about which its story clusters. Nevertheless 



TINNE VELLI. 



299 



it is interesting as the seat of the earliest Dravidian civilisation ; and 
its coast and pearl-fishery were well known to the Greeks. ^ Accord- 
ing to Tamil tradition, Ch^ra, Chdla, and Pandiya were three royal 
brothers, who at first lived and ruled in common at Kolkai, on the 
Tambraparni. Eventually a separation took place ; Pandiya remained 
at home ; Chera and Chdla founded kingdoms of their own in the 
north and west.' — (Caldwell's Dravidiaji Grammar, 1875, I^t- P- i^-) 
* The earliest Dravidian civilisation was that of the Tamilians of 
the Pandya kingdom, and the first place where they erected a city 
and established a State was Kolkai, on the Tambraparni river. This 
civilisation was probably indigenous in its origin, but it seems to have 
been indebted for its rapid development to the influence of a succes- 
sion of small colonies of x\ryans, chiefly Brahmans from Upper India. 
. . . The leader of the first or most influential Brahmanical colony 
is said to have been (the famous rishi) Agastya. . . . He is believed 
to be still alive, and to reside somewhere on the fine conical mountain 
commonly called "Agastya's Hill," from which the Tambraparni takes 
its rise. . . . The age of Agastya was certainly prior to the era of the 
Greek traders.' — (Caldwell's Dravidian Grammar, Int. p. 118.) 
Agastya is, according to the Brahmans, the founder of the Tamil 
language. The first capital of the Pandyas was Kolkai, above named ; 
the second, and more celebrated, was Madura. Kolkai is the Ko'Axot 
Ifx-n-opiov of Ptolemy (130 A.D.), and of the author of the Periplus (80 
A.D.), both of whom speak of it as the head-quarters of the pearl-fishery, 
and belonging to the Pandyan king. ' This place is now about 3 miles 
inland. . . . After the sea had retired from Kolkai, in consequence of 
the silt deposited by the river, a new emporium arose on the coast, 
which was much celebrated during the Middle Ages. This was Kayal, 
. . . the Gael of Marco Polo. . . . Kayal in turn became too far from 
the sea for the convenience of trade, and Tuticorin (Tiittrukudi) was 
raised instead, by the Portuguese, from the position of a fishing village 
to that of the most important port on the Southern Coromandel coast.' 
— (Caldwell's Dravidian Grammar, Int. p. 102.) A flourishing direct 
trade was carried on from Kayal with China and Arabia, by Arabs and 
others. ' When the Portuguese arrived at Gael, . . . they found the 
King of Zuilon . . . residing there. The prince referred to would 
now be called King of Travancore ; and it is clear, from inscriptions, 
. . . that the kingdom of Travancore somtimes included a portion of 
Tinnevelli.' — (Caldwell's Z^r*??:'/^/^/^ Grammar, Int. p. 11.) 

The Pahdyans remained in possession of the District from the 
earliest historical times till about the year 1064 a.d., when they were 
conquered by Rajendra Chola, who assumed the name of Sundara 
Pandyan. Little further is known till the Muhammadan inroad, 13 to 
or 131 1, which was followed by a Pandyan restoration. Virtually 



3 CO TINNEVELLL 

there would seem to have ensued an almost complete state of anarchy 
for 250 years ; Muhammadan adventurers, Kanarese or Telugu Nayaks, 
and the Pandyan legitimists contending for the sovereignty. About 
the year 1559, the Nayaks, who were generals of the Vijayanagar 
State, finally established the strong Nayak dynasty of Madura, which, 
after the fall of the Vijayanagar kingdom in 1565, became practically 
an independent family of sovereigns, acknowledging however the 
expatriated princes of the Vijayanagar family as their chiefs. The 
power of the Portuguese along the coast lasted till the 17 th century, 
when they were expelled by the Dutch, who set up a factory at Tuti- 
corin. On the decay of the Pandyan kingdom, Tinnevelli fell under 
the Nayakkans of Madura. About 1744, Tinnevelli became nominally 
subject to the Nawab of Arcot ; but it was really divided between a 
number of independent chiefs ij>dlaiyakkdrar^ corruptly poligar or 
fdlegdr), who had forts in the hills or dense jungle with which the 
District was covered. Some collectors of revenue contrived to elude 
the immediate control of the Muhammadans, and gradually established 
themselves as independent. The other pdlegdrs were the representa- 
tives of the feudal chieftains of the old Madura kingdom. All were 
made to pay tribute according to the power of the Nawab's government 
to enforce it. All exercised criminal and civil jurisdiction, and were 
continually at war with their neighbours, or in revolt against the State. 
Tinnevelli used to be farmed out by the Nawab at a low rent; but 
even this generally ruined the renters, partly because of the resistance 
o( the pd/egdrs, and partly because of the mismanagement and tyranny 
of the renters themselves. The pdlegdrs maintained about 30,000 
peons, a rabble of ill-armed and ill-drilled soldiers, which secured their 
independence. 

Up to 1781, the history of the District is a confused tale of anarchy 
and bloodshed. In 1756, Muhammad Vusaf Khan was sent to settle 
the two countries of Madura and Tinnevelli. He gave Tinnevelli in 
farm to a Hindu at ;£■! 10,000 a year, and invested him with civil and 
criminal jurisdiction. Muhammad Yusaf Khan was recalled from the 
south in 1758, and the country immediately relapsed into its previous 
state of anarchy. He returned in 1759, and undertook himself the 
farm of Madura and Tinnevelli. He ruled till 1763 ; but as he could 
not or would not pay his tribute, an army was sent against him, and 
he was captured at Madura, and hanged. In 1781, the Nawab of Arcot 
assigned the revenues of the District to the East India Company, 
whose officers then undertook the internal administration of affairs. 
In 1782, the strongholds of Chokkanapatti and Panjalamkurichchi were 
reduced by Colonel Fullarton, who also subdued some refractory 
pdlegdrs. However, to the end of the century, some of the pdlegdrs 
exercised civil and criminal jurisdiction in their territories. They 



TINNEVELLL 



30 T 



rebelled in 1799, ^vhen the war with Ti])u had withdrawn our troops 
from the south. They were therefore disarmed, and their forts were 
destroyed; but another rising took place in 1801. This was put 
down ; and in the same year the whole Karnatik, including Tinnevelli, 
was finally ceded to the English. Since that time there has been no 
historical event worth notice. 

Populatio)i. — According to the Census of 187 r, the population num- 
bered 1,693,959 persons. The Census of 1881 returned the population 
at 1,699,747, occupying 366,597 houses in 39 towns and 1458 villages. 
Increase of population in ten years, 5788, or 0*34 per cent. Tinne- 
velli felt the pressure of the famJne of 1876-78 seriously, and in 
some of its fdluks the distress was acute. The effect on the population 
is to represent it as practically stationary between 187 1 and 1881. 
This was certainly not the case, for until 1876 Tinnevelli was a pros- 
perous District. In 1881, six idluks out of nine in the District show 
a decrease, as compared with 187 1 ; and the total increase is con- 
fined to females, and is probably due entirely to better enumeration. 
On the other hand, some of the taluk decreases are caused by altera- 
tion of area. In Ottipidaram, Srivilliputur, and Satur, the famine 
pressure was severe ; and the loss in the last-named taluk would have 
appeared greater but for an accession of territory subsequent to the 
famine. The loss in Tinnevelli and Sankaranai-narkoil taluks and the 
large gain in Tenkarai and Tenkasi taluks are only apparent, being due 
to rectification of boundaries. 

The number of unoccupied houses was 66,749 ; average number of 
])ersons per village or town, 1135; persons per occupied house, 47. 
The total area, taken at 5381 square miles, gave the following averages : 
— Persons per square mile, 315; villages or towns per square mile, 
0*278; occupied houses per square mile, 68. Classified according to 
sex, there were — males 825,887, and females 873,860; the proportion 
of the sexes being 486 males to 514 females in every 1000. Classified 
according to age, there were — under 15 years, boys 328,762, and girls 
325,572 ; total children, 654,334, or 38*5 per cent, of the population : 
15 years and upwards, males 497,042, and females 548,195; total 
adults, 1,045,237, or 61-5 per cent. Of Z^y males and 93 females, the 
age was not stated. 

The religious division showed the following results : — Hindus, 
1,468,977, or 86-42 per cent, of the population; Christians, 140,946, 
or 8*29 per cent.; Muhammadans, 89,767, or 5-28 per cent.; and 
'others,' 57. Since 1871 the Hindus have lost 2-5 per cent.; the 
Christians have gained 37"4i per cent.; and the Muhammadans, 5-92 
per cent. The religious division is more significant in Tinnevelli than 
in any other District. The work of conversion to Christianity has been 
on a scale sufficient to make a definite mark. 



302 TINNEVELLL 

Distributed according to caste, the Hindus include — Vanniyans 
(labourers and cultivators), 362,325. o^ 24-67 per cent. ; Vellalars 
(agriculturists), 331, 394, or 22-56 per cent. ; Shanans (toddy-drawers), 
232,457, or 15-83 per cent. ; Pariahs (outcastes proper), 123,925, or 8-43 
per cent. ; Idaiyars (shepherds), 90,112, or 6-13 per cent. ; Kammalars 
(artisans), 67,938, or 4*63 per cent. ; Brahmans (priestly caste), 59,102, 
or 4-03 per cent.; Kaikalars (weavers), 43^5^, o^ 2-98 per cent.; 
Satanis (mixed and depressed castes), 24,397, or r66 per cent. ; Am- 
battans (barbers), 20,789, or 1-42 per cent.; Vannans (washermen), 
20,654, or 1-41 per cent. ; Shettis (traders), 15,197, or 1-03 per cent. ; 
Kushavans (potters), 10,724, or 0*74 per cent. ; Kshattriyas (warrior 
caste), 5814, or 0-39 per cent.; Shembadavans (fishermen), 5573, or 
0-38 per cent; Kanakkans (writers), 1008, or o-o6 per cent.; and 
other outcastes and castes that follow no specified occupation, 27,018. 

The most interesting castes are the Shanans and the Paravars. The 
latter are all Catholics. The Shanans are a low caste, living solely by 
the cultivation of the palmyra palm. They claim (perhaps with justice) 
to be the original lords of the soil. Christian missions have been 
especially successful among them. Devil-worship is common, especially 
among the Shanans. Tinnevelli has been less influenced by pure 
Hinduism than other Districts. Some Brahmans have even taken up 
the local devil-worship. At Srivaikuntham is a curious sub-division of 
Vellalar caste, the Kottai Vellalars (' Fort Vellalars '), who live in a mud 
inclosure or fort so called, out of which their women are not allowed to 
«ro. The three most celebrated Hindu shrines are at Tiruchendiir on the 
sea-coast, at Papanasam on the Tambraparni, and at Kuttalam (Court- 
allum) on its tributary the Chittar. At both the latter places there are 
beautiful waterfalls at the foot of the hills. Kuttalam is also known as 
Tenkasi, i.e. the Southern Benares. The scenery is very picturesque. 

The Christians as sub-divided into sects were— Protestants (undis- 
tinguished by sect), 59,4^6 ; Roman Catholics, 57,129 ; members of the 
Church of England, 21,684; Baptists, 121; Congregationalists, 92; 
Lutherans, 66 ; Presbyterians, 53 ; Episcopalians, 6 ; and of 2309 the 
sect was not stated. According to race— Europeans and Americans, 
125 ; Eurasians, 566 ; Natives, 138,716 ; and of 1539 the race was not 
stated. Of the native converts, 79,624 were members of the different 
Protestant sects ; 56,91 1 Roman Catholics ; and of 2 181 the sect was not 
stated. The history of the Catholic Church in Tinnevelli practically 
dates from the i6th century, though there are some traces of more 
ancient missions. It was on the Tinnevelli coast that St. Francis 
Xavier, in 1542, after a short stay at Goa, began his work as apostle of 
the Indies. The Paravars, then as now a fishing caste, had received 
Portuguese protection against the Muhammadans, who oppressed them ; 
and many of them had become Christians. St. Xavier completed 



TINNEVELLL 303 

the work, and since then all the Paravars have called themselves his 
children. They are spread along the coasts of Tinnevelli, Madura, and 
Ceylon. Tuticorin is their chief town. \\'e read of the martyrdom, in 
1549, at Punnaikayal, of Father Antonio Criminale, the proto-martyr of 
the Society of Jesus. Many of the letters of St. Francis Xavier were 
written from Tuticorin and other places in the neighbourhood. For 
some time the missions were confined to the coast. The famous Jesuit 
mission of Madura was founded by Father Robert de Nobilis (an 
Italian) in 1607, and soon extended itself into Tinnevelli. The letters 
of the Jesuits from 1609 to 17S0 are almost the only materials for the 
history of Madura and Tinnevelli during much of this time. John de 
Britto (martyred in Madura, 1693) laboured at times in Tinnevelli, and 
Father Beschi (the great Tamil scholar, died about 1746) lived some 
time at Kayatar. 

Christianity prospered in Tinnevelli, in spite of all difficulties ; but 
its progress was arrested by events in Europe. In 1759, Portugal 
suppressed the Society of Jesus in its dominions, and imprisoned all its 
members. The Jesuits in the Eastern missions were on various 
pretexts brought within reach of Portuguese officials. They were 
summoned to Goa and other places, and there seized and imprisoned. 
Those who remained in the missions were deprived of all aid, communi- 
cation with Europe was rendered difficult, and the supply of priests 
cut off. The general suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773, the 
French Revolution in 1789, and other European troubles, still further 
injured the missions. Till 1837, Tinnevelli had only a few priests from 
Goa, and in the absence of priests the number of Catholics declined. 
In 1837, Tinnevelli with other Districts was entrusted to French 
Jesuits, and since that time the mission has made steady progress. 
In 1851, there were 23,351 Cathohcs ; in 1871, 52,780; and in 1881, 
57,129. Everything had to be created,— churches, schools, etc. At 
first, owing to their small number, the priests were overworked ; bad 
food, exposure, and other sufferings due to extreme poverty, caused 
the death of many, especially from cholera. In 1846, the Vicariate- 
Apostolic of Madura (of which Tinnevelli forms a part) was erected. 
At present (1884) there are in the District 18 priests of the Society of 
Jesus (it Europeans and 7 natives), under the jurisdiction of the Vicar- 
Apostolic, and 2 secular priests, under the jurisdiction of the Arch- 
bishop of Goa. There are about 59 churches and 96 chapels, 48 boys' 
schools and 6 girls' schools, with 2070 boys and 412 girls. There are 
three native nunneries, one at Tuticorin, one at Palamcotta, and one 
at Adeikalapuram. Two boys' and one female orphanage. 

Protestant missionaries first visited Tinnevelli towards the end of the 
last century. The Lutheran Schwartz seems to have been here in 1770, 
and a few years later one of his converts built a small church at 



304 TINNEVELLL 

Palamcotta. In 17S5 he had 100 converts at that place. The District 
was visited periodically from Tanjore (200 miles) by native Lutheran 
ministers. In 1792 there were several distinct congregations. Jaenicke 
worked with success from 1792 to 1800, and after him Gericke baptized 
many persons. The East India Company's chaplain at Palamcotta 
(J. Hough) in 1816 infused new life into the mission. At that time it 
numbered 3000 souls, and for ten years it had not been visited by a 
European missionary. Two Lutheran ministers (Rhenius, a man of 
great ability, and Schmid) were sent out by the Church Missionary 
Society in 1820; and under them converts increased to it, 186 in 
1835. In 1826, the missions in Tinnevelli of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge were handed over to the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel ; and since that time the latter Society and the 
Church Missionary Society have divided the District between them. 
At least two-thirds of their converts are Shanans. In 1851, the number 
of Protestants was 35,552 ; in 1871, it was 49,796 ; and in 1881, 81,508. 
In 1877, two missionaries, one from each Society, were consecrated 
Bishop's Assistants to the Bishop of Madras : Dr. E. Sargent, of the 
Church Missionary Society and Dr. R. Caldwell, the distinguished 
Orientalist. During the late (1876-78) famine the number of converts 
greatly increased. The following are the latest (1884) statistics of the 
two Societies : — European and Eurasian missionaries, 5 ; native clergy- 
men, 66; schoolmasters and other paid agents, 691; schools, 481; 
school-boys, 11,464; school-girls, 2815, according to the Census of 
1 88 1. The small number of Europeans employed is very noticeable. 
The progress as regards self-ruling and self-supporting churches becomes 
more and more encouraging year by year. Some of the native clergy- 
men are already maintained by their flocks, and a system of church 
councils has been organized. 

The Muhammadan population, by race as distinguished from descend- 
ants of converts, consisted of — Arabs, 566 ; Pathans, 311 ; Shaikhs, 209 ; 
Sayyids, 74; ^^lughals, 17; Labbays, 11; Mappillas, 3; and 'others,' 
88,576. According to sect, the Muhammadans were returned — Sunni's, 
86,835; Shias, 1 130; Wahabis, 48; and 'others,' 1754. The greater 
part of the Muhammadans in Tinnevelli are descended from the ancient 
Arab traders and their converts. They are found along the whole coast 
of the Tamil country, and are called by the English ' Labbays,' but call 
themselves Sonagars. Here, as elsewhere, they are chiefly employed in 
Ashing and seafaring pursuits. 

Madura and Tinnevelli are the Districts which supply Ceylon with 
labourers for the coffee plantations, etc. Ordinarily, three-fourths of 
these return to India after a year or two. The rest remain permanently 
in Ceylon. During the famine of 1877, a very large number went to 
Ceylon, and the demand for labour fell off. Hence in 1878-79 there 



TINNEVELLL 



305 



were 40,435 immigrants, and only 34,083 emigrants from Tinnevelli. 
And in iSSithe figures were — immigrants 19,816, and emigrants 33,137. 

Tinnevelli has a larger number (39) of towns with over 5000 inhabitants 
than any other Madras District save Malabar; and the tendency to 
form large towns is a peculiarity of the District. The most important 
are Tinnevelli, Palamcotta, Tuticorin, and Srivillipatur. The 
District contains many ancient and magnificent buildings, — e.g. the 
temple in Tinnevelli town (which see), a rock temple at Kalugu-mala' 
(with some of the oldest Tamil inscriptions known), also several Jain 
images (a colossal one now at Tuticorin), etc. But the most interesting 
antiquities are the large sepulchral earthen urns of prehistoric races, 
which have been found at several places. These contain bones, pottery 
of all sorts, beads and bronze ornaments, iron weapons and imple- 
ments, etc. The skulls and bones are often found in almost i>erfect 
preservation, placed in the urn in a sitting or bent posture, or, when the 
urns are small, still more forcibly fitted to its size. The District, as a 
seat of Dravidian civilisation, possesses more antiquarian interest than 
any other part of the iMadras Presidency.. 

As regards occupation, the Census of 1881 divided the male pcpala- 
tion into the following six main groups : — (i) Professional class, including 
State officials of every kind and members of the learned professions, 
18,716; (2) domestic servants, inn and, lodging-house keepers, 3741; 

(3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 18,004; 

(4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 346,608; (5) 
industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 128,721 ; and 
(6) indefinite and nonq^roductive class, comprising laboureis, male 
children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 310,097. About 5175 
per cent, of the population were returned as workers, on whom the 
remaining 48*25 per cent, depended. Of the male population, 64*48 
per cent., and of the female, 39^63 per cent., were workers. 

Of the 39 towns and 1458 villages in Tinnevelli District in t88i, 257 
contained less than two hundred inhabitants ; 365 between two and five 
hundred; 389 between five hundred and one thousand; 267 between 
one and two thousand; 109 between two and three thousand; 67 between 
three and five thousand ; 30 between five and ten thousand ; 9 between 
ten and fifteen thousand ; 3 between fifteen and twenty thousand ; and 
I between twenty and fifty thousand. 

The principal language is Tamil. It is spoken by 1,440,111 persons. 
The only other languages which are spoken by any considerable number 
of persons are— Telugu, 234,249; Kanarese, 12,490; Gujarati, 1566; 
Hindustani, 7583; and Patniil, 1820. 

Agriculture, etc. — Agriculture supported in iSSi, 540,088 persons, or 
32 per cent, of the population. The area cultivated in the same year 
^vas — Government nzj^/zc':?;-/ lands, 1491 square miles; /V/J//^ or grants 

VOL. xiii. u 



3o6 TINNEVELLL 

held rent-free, or at a low quit-rent, 240 square miles ; zamUiddri lands, 
Y^^y'mg peshkash or fixed revenue, 864 square miles. The amount of 
rent, including local rates and cesses paid by cultivators, amounted in 
1 88 1 to ^388,958 ; the average rent, including local rates and cesses, 
was 5s. i|d. per acre of cultivated land. Tinnevelli is a fertile District, 
and ordinarily enjoys good seasons. Out of a total of 5381 square miles 
in 1884, 1403 were uncultivable waste, 11 78 uncultivated but cultivable, 
and 2800 actually under cultivation. In 1883-84 the total area 
of Government rdyahvdri lands was 1,895,734 acres; and of indm 
lands, 270,095 acres. Of the Government rdyatwdri lands, 1,021,367 
acres were cultivated (of which 142,647 acres yielded two crops); of 
the indtn lands, 171,663 acres were cultivated (of which 11,660 acres 
yielded two crops). Total cultivated area, 1,193,030 (of which 154,307 
yielded two crops). The cultivable, but not cultivated, area was re- 
turned at 576,434 acres. Total area assessed in that year, 1,763,017 
acres; total assessment, ^308,810. 

In 1883-84, in Government rdyatwdri and indm lands, 825,624 
acres were under cereals and millets — chiefly rice, grown along the well- 
cultivated and highly productive river valleys, 292,042 acres ; spiked 
millet or kainbu (Pennisetum typhoideum), 215,979 acres; cJiina 
(Panicum miUiare), 111,833 acres; great millet or cholam (Sorghum 
vulgare), 92,134 acres. Pulses, 172,484 acres. Garden produce, 
49,167 acres — chiefly babul {Kc£iC\?i arabica), 34,220 acres; plantains, 
7223 acres, being more than in any other Madras District except 
Tanjore. Drugs and narcotics, 6044 acres — chiefly tobacco, 2432 
acres ; coffee (lately introduced on the slopes of the hills), 2103 acres, of 
which 423 acres were under immature plants, besides 605 acres taken 
up for planting but not yet planted — the approximate yield in that year 
was 128,158 lbs., or an average of 76 lbs. per acre under mature plants. 
Condiments and spices, 9695 acres — chiefly chillies, 4327 acres; 
coriander seeds, 1764 acres; onions, 1084 acres; betel leaf (Piper 
Betle), 2029 acres. Starches, 1044 acres. Sugars, 294 acres, all under 
sugar-cane. Oil-seeds, 65,782 acres — chiefly gingelly, 53,657 acres, 
only exceeded in the Madras Presidency by Godavari District ; castor- 
oil seed, 12,025 acres. Dyes, 965 acres, of which 858 acres were 
under indigo. And fibres, 216,238 acres, of which 215,932 acres were 
under cotton (grown in the drier parts). Tinnevelli is one of the four 
great cotton Districts of Madras. The palmyra palm flourishes in the 
almost rainless tracts of red sandy soil to the south. The Shanans 
live by making coarse sugar (jaggery) from its juice. 

In 1883-84, the agricultural live stock consisted of — buffaloes, 89,003 ; 
bullocks and cows, 335,559 ; horses and ponies, 715 ; donkeys, 10,418 ; 
goats, 198,686; sheep, 644,544; pigs, 7441; and elephants, 7: dead 
stock — ploughs, 79,124; carts, 21,091; and boats, 211. 



TINNEVELLI. 307 

There were 202,451 acres of irrigated land, producing a revenue of 
about ^165,000. The Srivaikuntham anicut system is important. 
The anicut crosses the Tambraparni river {(/.v.) about 16 miles from 
its mouth, and is the lowest weir on the river. There are about 2157 
tanks, and about 131 anicuts (some very large and very ancient) across 
rivers, etc. Of the total population, 61 -6 per cent, were settled on 
Government or rdyahvdri lands (2964 square miles), 29-9 on perma- 
nently settled estates of zaminddrs, etc. (1446 square miles); and 
8-5 on vid?n villages, i.e. permanently alienated as civil or religious 
endowments (424 square miles). There are 19 zauiinddrs and 4^ 
viittdddrs. The chief is the zaminddr of Ettiyapuram, who pays a 
f.eshkash of ^{^883 5 a year. Some of these zam'uiddrs represent the 
ancient pdkgdrs. 

In 1883-84, the price of produce per inaiind of 80 lbs. was — rice, 
5s. i-|"d.; ragi (Eleusine corocana), 2s. yd. ; cholam, 2s. yjd. ; kambu, 
2S. 9jd. ; varagii (Panicum miliaceum), is. sjd. ; wheat, 8s. 9|d. ; 
horse-gram (Dolichos uniflorus), 2s. 3|d. ; black gram(Phaseolus radiatus), 
4s. 7d. ; salt, 4s. 8|d. ; sugar, los. 8d.; gingelly, 8s. 8-id. ; oil-seeds, 4s. 
loid. ; cleaned cotton, £1, 15s. lod. ; indigo, £12. The w^ages per 
day of skilled labour were— in towns io|d., in villages 8|d. ; of unskilled 
labour— in towns 4W., in villages 3id. The hire per day of a draught 
bullock was— in towns 6ld., and in villages 5|d. each ; donkeys per 
score— in towns 3s., and in villages 2s. yfd. ; and ponies each— in 
towns 6id., and in villages y-^d. 

Natural Calamities, ^'/^. — During the drought of 1877, Tinnevelli 
suffered comparatively little. The greatest number of persons in 
receipt of relief in any week was 24,117, in September. In 1878, the 
south-west monsoon was again unfavourable, and the north-east monsoon 
excessive. Much damage was done by two unparalleled floods on the 
Tambraparni, which laid waste much country ; and in many villages 
what escaped the excessive rain was quite destroyed by locusts. The 
native Christians suffered least during the famine, and the Musalmans 
much less than the Hindus. 

Commerce. — Tuticorin is, of the four sanctioned ports in the District, 
the only one of importance. The exports are cotton, coffee, jaggery, 
chillies, etc. Sheep, horses, cows, and poultry are also sent to Ceylon. 
TinneveUi possesses about 7-5 per cent, of the total value of the Madras 
Presidency trade. The annual average value of the sea-borne trade of 
the District for the five years ending 1883-84 was— imports, ^411,988; 
and exports, ^1,143,854; the exports have been steadily increasing 
during these five years. In 1883-84, the value of trade was— imports, 
^£460,87 1 ; and exports, ^i,439>559- About half the imports were from, 
and nearly all the exports were to, foreign countries. In 1883-84, the 
vessels that entered with cargo from foreign ports numbered 548, tonnage 



3o8 TINNEVELLL 

60,159; ^^d from cocist ports, 825, tonnage 202,505. There is also 
a considerable inland trade with Travancore. 

The coast is interesting on account of the pearl and shank (shell) 
fisheries, both of which are Government monopolies. The pearl-fishery 
is very ancient (see above, History). It is mentioned by Pliny (a.d. 130), 
by Muhammad Ben ]\Iansur in the 12th, and by Marco Polo in the 13th 
century. The Indian coast of the Gulf of Manar (from Cape Comorin 
to Pambam) was called ' the coast of the fishery,' i.e. pearl-fishery, a 
name which it retained in the letters of the Jesuits up to 1780. The 
Venetian traveller Caesar Frederic (1563-81) describes the fishery in a 
way which applies to the present day. Then, as now, the divers were 
all Catholics (Paravars). At one time the Dutch obtained from the 
King of Madura a monopoly of the pearl and shank fisheries on the 
Tinnevelli coast, and derived a large revenue from licences to fish. The 
colour of the pearls of the Gulf of Manar is not good. This is perhaps 
due to the practice of letting the oyster putrefy before it is opened. 
The English first engaged in the pearl-fishery in 1796, since which time 
a total sum of nearly ^"120,000 has been realized, at a cost of not more 
than ;£^6oo a year. In 1822, the pearl-fishery produced a revenue of 
^13,000; in 1830, ^10,000. Between 1830 and 1861 there were no 
fisheries, as the beds seemed exhausted. This has been ascribed to 
currents produced by the deepening of the Pambam channel. In i86i 
and 1862 the fisheries realized ^37,858. Since then, all hope of profit- 
able fisheries has been abandoned. A small steamer and a yacht are 
kept as a guard establishment. 

The shank or conch shells are found all along the coast, and from 
time immemorial have been sent to Bengal and elsewhere. Formerly 
the fishery was under Government management, afterwards it was leased 
for a term cf years. From 1861 to 1876, licences w^ere granted, which 
yielded from ;^48o to ^600 a year. Since 1876 the fishery has again 
been taken under Government management. In 1S82-83, the profit 
was ;^2 204. The divers were paid £^2., los. for a thousand shells, 
and the price got by Government was ^n, 12s.. for each thousand 
of good shells. 

The aggregate length of imperial and local roads in Tinnevelli District 
is 1 169 miles. The principal road is that which connects Madura, 
Palamcotta, and Travancore. It enters the District near Virudupatti, 
and leaves it near the ' Arambiili lines,' a total length of 107 miles. 
There are also some important roads connecting the cotton districts 
with Tuticorin. There are no navigable canals in the District. The 
total length of railways is 95 miles, all part of the South Indian Rail- 
way, the main line of which enters the District 5 miles north of Virudu- 
patti, and runs to Tuticorin (77 miles), with a branch line to Tinne- 
velli town (18 miles). There are 11 railway stations. The railway is 



TJNNEVELLL 309 

of much importance, as it connects the port of Tuticorin with the 
cotton districts, I\[adura, etc. It was opened in December 1875, on 
the occasion of the visit of the Prince of Wales. During the famine of 
1877-78, much rice was brought by sea to Tuticorin, and thence con- 
veyed into Madura District. Besides the raihvay telegraph offices at 
every station, Government telegraph offices are open at Tuticorin and 
Palamcotta. The Bank of Madras has a branch at Tuticorin. Since 
1859 there has been a Government District printing press, where the 
District Gazette is printed in Enghsh and Tamil (the prevailing language 
of the District). In 1883-84 there were 8 private presses, one of them 
belonging to the Church Missionary Society. 

Administration, etc.—\\\ the last century, Tinnevelli was supposed to 
yield ^110,000 a year to the Nawab of Arcot. 'So Uttle was known 
of the District and its resources at the end of the last century, that, 
according to Colonel Fullarton, the Supreme Government of Bengal 
actually despatched Mr. Deighton to negotiate its transfer to the 
Dutch, in return for the temporary services of a thousand mercenaries. 
Before the negotiations could be entered on, war had broken out 
between the Dutch and English, and thus one of our most valuable 
Districts was saved' {Madras Census Report, 187 1, vol. i. p. 309)- ^^^^ 
1850, the total revenue was ^261,580 (land, ^202,460). Between 
1873-74 and 1S75-76 (ordinary years), the land revenue averaged 
^294,123. In 1876-77 (famine year), the total revenue was p{;4i6,i54 
(land, ^242,363). In 1877^78 (also affected by famine), the total 
revenue was ^427,040 (land, ^236,545). In 1883-84, the total 
revenue was ^483,679 'yi.e. 5s. 8Jd. a head, the average for the Madras 
Presidency being 4s. iiid.). Land revenue yielded ^290,670 (3s. 5d. 
a head, the Presidency average being 3s. i|d.) ; excise, ^11,898; 
assessed taxes, ^1077; sea customs, ^1856; salt, ;£i45'7oo (there 
are 7 salt factories) ; stamps, ;^32,478. The total cost of all official 
and police was ^66,5 15. The rdyatwdri system was finally estabUshed 
in 1820, since which time there has been a periodical revision of ratci;, 
as elsewhere in the Madras Presidency where this system prevails. 
The present settlement expires in 1906-07. The zam'inddris were 
permanently settled under a regulation of 1802, and a special commis-' 
sion (1858-70) regulated the question of indni or rent-free lands. 

For revenue purposes, the District is divided into 9 tdliiks, in 4 
groups:— (i) Under the Assistant or Temporary Deputy Collector, at 
Palamcotta {tdluk, Tinnevelli) ; (2) Under the Sub-Collector, Tuticorin 
{taluks, Otapidaram and Tenkarai); (3) Under the Head Assistant 
Collector, Shermadevi {tdluks, Nanguneri, Ambasamudram, and Ten- 
kasi) ; (4) Under the General Deputy Collector, Srivilliputtiir {taluks, 
SriviUiputtiir, Satiir, and Sankaranainarkoil). All the above officials 
have criminal jurisdiction in their groups, and have under them 17 



3IO TINNEVELLL 

sub-magistrates, 9 of whom are the tahsilddrs in charge of taluks. The 
District and Sessions Judge has civil and criminal powers, with his 
Court at Palamcotta. Subordinate to him are 5 District 7?mnsifs, with 
civil powers. The heads of villages deal with petty crime, and try civil 
suits for sums up to ^2. The police staff consists (1883-84) of i 
superintendent and i assistant superintendent, 21 subordinates, and 908 
constables. The total cost was ^13,447. The District jail at Palam- 
cotta had in 1883-84 a daily average of 185 prisoners. There are also 
16 subsidiary jails, which had a daily average of 40 prisoners. Palam- 
cotta, which was formerly garrisoned by a native infantry regiment, has 
ceased to be a military station since 1881. 

In 1883-84, the total number of schools connected with the Educa- 
tional Department was i486, with 45,373 pupils, i.e. i pupil to every 37 
of the population. This proportion is only exceeded by Madras alone. 
There are more girls at school than in any other District. The number 
of girls' schools (1883-84) was 139, with 4256 pupils, besides one normal 
school for mistresses, with 81 attending it. According to the Census of 
1881, the following could read and write : — Of Hindus, io-6 per cent. ; 
of Muhammadans, 127; of native Christians, 197; of others, 4*4: total, 
11-4 per cent. Thus the native Christians stand high in the list of the 
instructed. There are no Government schools. All the schools are 
private (belonging to missions or otherwise) : many are aided from pro- 
vincial, municipal, or local funds ; others are not aided, though under 
Government inspection. The Census of 1881 returned 46,515 males 
and 5085 females as under instruction, besides 135,271 males and S014 
females able to read and write but not under instruction. 

There are 3 municipalities — Tinnevelli, Palamcotta, and Tuticorin. 
In 1883-84, the total income was ;2^44i9; incidence of taxation 
varied from ii-id. to is. 4d. For the administration of local funds, the 
District was formerly divided into 2 circles — Tinnevelli (6 taluks) and 
Shermadevi(3 tdhiks)^ but recently these circles have been amalgamated 
into one. 

Clwiate ; Medical Aspects^ etc. — 'Tinnevelli, lying immediately under 
the Southern Ghats, receives very little of the rainfall of the south- 
west monsoon, though parts of it are watered by streams which rise 
in the hills. The rainfall on the hills dividing Tinnevelli from Travan- 
core is probably 200 inches a year' {Madras Ce?isus Report, 187 1, 
vol. i.). Throughout the District, the average rainfall is only 2479 
inches. At Tinnevelli town the average annual rainfall for 20 years 
ending 1881 was 287 inches; and at Tuticorin for 18 years ending 
1881, i9"i3 inches. The climate in the north is very similar to that 
of Madura, ' but there is a considerable difference towards the centre, 
and along the fertile banks of the Tambraparni. The northern monsoon 
seldom reaches these quarters before the end of November, and 



I 



TINNE VEL LI TAL UK AND TO WN. 3 1 1 

generally is not so heavy as in the Central Karnaiik. In common 
seasons, the rains are over about the end of December. . . . This 
District has one peculiarity of climate, which is that a fall of rain is 
always expected late in January, sufficient to raise the rivers and 
replenish the tanks ' (Pharoah's Gazetteer of Southern India, p. 439). 

The mean temperature of Tinnevelli town is 85° F. During 
December and January, the temperature falls below 70° at night. The 
hottest month is April. Kuttalam (Courtallum) is the sanitarium of 
the District. Tinnevelli is not reckoned unhealthy. In 1883-84, the 
percentage of deaths recorded from cholera was 227. The fever 
mortality averages only 3*5 per thousand. The total registered deaths 
in 1883-84 showed a death-rate of 27-4 per thousand. In 18S3-84 
there were 23 dispensaries, 4 of which treat each from 100 to 250 
in-patients, and 16 from 4000 to 13,000 out-patients a year. In 
1883-84, the Government vaccinators vaccinated 38,011 persons. The 
objection which the Labbays formerly had to vaccination on religious 
grounds is now vanishing. [For further information regarding Tinne- 
velli District, see Manual of the Tumevelli District in the Presidency 
of Madras, compiled by Mr. A. J. Stuart, C.S. (Madras Government 
Press, 1879). -"^^so see Political and General History of the District 
of Tinnevelli i?i the Presidency of Aladras, by the Right Rev. R. Cald- 
well, D.D., LL.D. (Madras Government Press, 1881); also Records oj 
the Early History of the Tinnevelli Mission of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knoivledge and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, by the Right Rev. R. Caldwell, D.D., LL.D. ; the 
Madras Census Report of 1881, and the several Administration and 
Departmental Reports of the Madras Presidency from 1880 to 1884.] 

Tinnevelli. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Tinnevelli District, Madras 
Presidency ; situated in the centre of the District, and watered by 
the Tambraparni and Chittar rivers. Excellent irrigation by means of 
anicuts. Two rice crops are raised annually. x\verage assessment 
per acre of ' wet ' or irrigated land, f[^\, 5s. ; of ' dry ' land, lod. Rain- 
fall varies from 9 to 41 inches. The Tinnevelli branch of the South 
Indian Railway enters the tdluk by a bridge across the Chittar to reach 
the Tinnevelli station, situated half-way between the towns of Tinnevelli 
and Palamcotta. Area, 327 square miles. Population (1881) 171,378, 
namely, males 83,173, and females 88,205 \ occupying 36,113 houses in 
4 towns and T19 villages. Hindus number 144,983; Muhammadans, 
18,213 ; and Christians, 8182. In 1883 the tdluk contained 3 civil and 
4 criminal courts, including the District head-quarters courts ; police 
circles {thdnas), 14 ; regular police, 307 men. Land revenue, ;^3o,34o. 

Tinnevelli {Tirunelveli). — Chief town of Tinnevelli District, Madras ; 
i-^ mile from the left bank of the Tambraparni, and the terminus of 
Tinnevelli branch of the South Indian Railway. Lat. 8' 43' 47" n., 



312 TIPAI—TIPPERAH. 

long. 77° 43' 49" E. Population (1881) 23,221, namely, males 10,963, 
and females 12,258, occupying 5369 houses. Hindus number 21,258; 
Muhammadans, 1538 ; and Christians, 425. Tinnevelli is the largest 
town in the District to which it gives its nam.e ; but the administra- 
tive head-quarters are on the other side of the river at Palamcotta, 
2\ miles distant. When the District was subject to the Nayakans of 
Madura, their Governor, who was a very high official, lived in great 
state at TinnevelH. About i56o,Viswanatha, the founder of the Nayakan 
dynasty of Madura, rebuilt the town, and erected many temples, etc. 
Fergusson {Hist, of hidian Archit., p. 366) cites the great Siva temple 
as giving a good general idea of the arrangement of large Dravidian 
temples, and as ' having the advantage of having been built on one plan 
at one time, without subsequent alteration or change.' It is a double 
temple. The whole inclosure measures 580 by 756 feet. Like some 
other large temples, it contains a thousand-pillared portico. In 1877, 
the municipal dispensary treated 719 in-patients and 5291 out-patients. 
The ' Hindu Anglo-vernacular school,' now the Hindu college, is the 
most important institution in the District. Tinnevelli is notable as an 
active centre of Protestant missions in South India. Municipal revenue 
from taxation (1883-84), ^1615 ; average incidence of taxation, is. 
per head of population within municipal limits. 

Tipdi (called by the Manipuris Tuuhii, and supposed to be a corru]> 
tion of the Lushai name Tniba?-). — River of Southern Assam, which 
runs a winding course through the Lushai Hills, and joins the Barak in 
the extreme south-east corner of Cachar District. At the junction is 
situated the village of Tipai-mukh (lat. 24° 14' n., long. 93° 3' 3" e.), 
where a bazar has been established for trade with the Lushais, at which 
cotton, pari cloth, caoutchouc, ivory, wax, and other jungle products are 
bartered for salt, rice, hardware, cloth, beads, tobacco, etc. 

Tipperah (a corruption of Tripurd). — British District in the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, lying between 23° 2 and 24° 16' 
15" N. lat., and between 90" 36' and 91° 25' e. long. Area, 2491 square 
miles. Population (1881) 1,519,338 souls. Tipperah forms one of the 
Districts of the Chittagong Division. It is bounded on the north by 
the Bengal District of Maimansingh and the Assam District of Sylhet ; 
on the east by the State of Hill Tipperah ; on the south by Noakhali 
District ; and on the west by the river Meghna, which separates it from 
the Districts of Maimansingh, Dacca, and Bakarganj. The line of 
contact between Tipperah District and the State of Hill Tipperah, 
besides being the District boundary, is also the imperial frontier line of 
British India in this direction. The administrative head-quarters are 
at CoMiLLAH (Kumilla). 

Physical Aspects. — Tipperah presents a continuous flat and open 
surface, with the exception of the isolated Lalmai range. The greater 



TIPPERAIL 3 1 3 

part of the District is covered with well-cultivated fields, intersected in 
all directions by rivers and kJidls or creeks, which are partially affected 
by the tide. Nearly all communication and transport are effected by 
means of boats, except during the few months of the hot weather when 
the village footi)aths can be made use of. With the extension of main 
and village roads by the Road Cess Committee, there is now a corre- 
sponding increase in cart and foot traffic all the year round. Near the 
eastern boundary, the country becomes more undulating. A series ot 
low forest-clad hills rise to an average height of 40 feet above the plains. 
Near the large rivers towards the west, the country is under water during 
the rainy season. The villages are usually built amid plantations of 
mangoes, plantains, bamboos, and palms. The Lalmai Hills, already 
referred to, form the only range in the District. They are situated 
about 5 miles west of Comillah (Kumilla), and extend north and south 
for a distance of 10 miles. The average elevation of this range, which 
is densely wooded, is 40 feet above the plains and 90 feet above sea- 
level ; they nowhere exceed 100 feet in height. On the top of Maina- 
mati Hill, north of the Lalmai range, the Raja of Hill Tipperah has 
built a small house for the use of the European residents of Comillah. 
This is the highest point of the range, and the most picturesque spot 
in the District. 

The Meghna, which flows along the entire western boundary of 
the District, is the only river navigable throughout the year by trading 
boats of 4 tons burthen ; but the Gumti, Dakatia, and Titas are 
navigable for craft of that size for a considerable portion of their 
course. The Mahuri, Bijaigang, and Burigang are all navigable by 
boats of 4 tons during at least six months of the year. The banks of 
nearly all the rivers are low and abrupt, and the beds sandy. The 
Meghna, in parts of its course, expands into sheets of water, resem- 
bling inland seas. Alluvion and diluvion, with changes in the course 
of the river, constantly take place, and small islands and sandbanks are 
formed and washed away every year. The Meghna is affected by the 
tide up to the extreme north of Tipperah District, and has a bore at 
certain seasons. 

Numerous marshes occur, covering an estimated aggregate of 92 
square miles, many of which are utilized as pasture-grounds in the cold 
season. The fine sitalpatl reed (Phrynium dichotornum), used for 
sleeping-mats, grows luxuriantly in the marshes, and the sold (/Eschy- 
nomene paludosa) grows spontaneously and in large quantities in 
swampy lands. Many of the islands and sandbanks in the Meghna 
produce abundance of reeds for thatching and for constructing light 
fences. The Lalmai Hills are thickly wooded ; there are also dense 
jungles towards the south-west of the District, but these yield no 
revenue to Government. The large game include tigers, leopards, wild 



314 TIPPER AH. 

hog, jackals, and buffaloes ; the small game consists of hares, geese, 
(lucks, plovers, pigeons, pheasants, jungle-fowl, partridge, quail, snipe, 
and florican. With the increase of cultivation, and a liberal construc- 
tion of the Arms Act, all kinds of game are yearly becoming more 
scarce. 

History. — When, in 1765, the District of Tipperah came under the 
control of the East India Company, more than one-fifth of the present 
area was under the immediate rule of the Raja of Hill Tipperah, who 
merely paid a tribute of ivory and elephants. In earlier times, it is 
certain that the conquests of the Rajas of Hill Tipperah carried the 
bounds of their kingdom far beyond the present limits of Tipperah 
District. It is, however, almost impossible to ascertain with accuracy 
any details of the early history of the British District, as the only written 
records are the Rdjmdld, or ' Chronicles of Tipperah,' and references 
in Muhammadan writings, which relate almost exclusively to Hill 
Tipperah State. It seems clear, however, that as early as the 13th 
century Tipperah had reached some degree of material prosperity ; 
for when Muhammad Tughral invaded the country in 1279, he 
carried off 160 elephants and a large amount of booty. Again, 
about 1345, Ilias Khwaja invaded Tipperah, and plundered it; but 
despite these and other invasions, the kingdom of Tipperah remained 
independent up to the time of Shuja-ud-din Khan, who reduced it 
to subjection about 1733. The jNIuhammadans, however, did not 
occupy the whole of the kingdom, but appear to have contented 
themselves with the lowlands, which alone came on the rent-roll of 
Bengal, and lay within the jurisdiction of the Nawab ; while the hilly 
tracts to the east remained in the possession of the Tipperah Raja. 
In 1765, when Bengal was ceded to the British, Tipperah and 
Xoakhali Districts were included in Jalalpur, one of the 25 ihtiuidms 
into which Shuja Khan had divided the Province. Until 1769, the 
administration of Jalalpur was entrusted to 2 native officers, but from 
that year until 1772 it was under 3 English 'Supervisors.' In 1772 
a Collector was appointed, and since then the administration has 
been in the hands of English officers. In 1781, Tipperah and 
Noakhali were constituted a single revenue charge; and in 1822 the 
Districts were separated. Since then, great changes have been made 
in the boundaries of the District. 

The only event which has occurred to break the peaceful monotony 
of British rule, was a serious raid in i860 by the Kukis or Lushais. 
On the 3Tst January of that year, they suddenly entered the District at 
Chhagalnaiya, burnt and plundered 15 villages, murdered 185 British 
subjects, and carried off about 100 captives. Troops and police were 
at once hurried to the spot, but the Kukis had remained only a day or 
two in the plains, retreating to the hills and jungles by the way they 



TIPPER AH. 3 1 5 

came. The perpetrators of this attack were followers of Rattan Puiya, 
whose clan was known to live fiir up between the sources of the Pheni 
and the Karnaphuli rivers. In i86i, a large body of military police, 
under Captain Raban, marched against Rattan Puiyd's village ; but no 
sooner had they appeared in sight, than the Kukis themselves set fire 
to the place, and fled into the jungles, where pursuit was impossible. 
Since this raid, no attack has been made on Tipperah District by the 
Kuki's, although the neighbouring Districts of Cachar and the Chitta- 
gong Hill Tracts {qq.v.) have suffered from occasional inroads down 
to i88o. 

Population. — The population of Tipperah District, on its present 
area of 2491 square miles, was returned by the first regular Census in 
1872 at 1,408,653. The last enumeration in 1881 disclosed a total 
l)opulation of 1,519,338, showing an increase of 110,685, or 7*85 per 
cent., in nine years. The general results arrived at by the Census 
of 1881 may be summarized as follows: — Area of District, 2491 
square miles; towns 2, and villages 6449; number of houses, 184,356, 
namely, occupied 179,374, and unoccupied 4982. Total population, 
i»5i9j338j namely, males 770,893, and females 748,445. Average 
density of population, 610 persons per square mile; villages per square 
mile, 2*59; persons per village, 235; houses per square mile, 74; 
persons per house, 8*47. Classified according to sex and age, the 
population consists of — under 15 years of age, boys 328,719, and girls 
316,018; total children, 644,737, or 42*4 per cent, of the District 
population: 15 years and upwards, males 442,174, and females 
432,427 ; total adults, 874,601, or 57*6 per cent. 

Religio7i. — As in all other Districts of Eastern Bengal, Muhammadans 
form the large majority of the inhabitants. They number 1,007,740, or 
66*3 per cent, of the total population; and the Hindus, 511,025, or 
33'6 per cent. The remainder is made up of 374 Buddhists and 199 
Christians. 

In the above classification, the aboriginal Tipperahs and other tribes 
are classed as Hindus. So much, indeed, have the Tipperahs been 
influenced by the people among whom they dwell, that not only do 
they themselves claim to be Hindus of good caste, but are recognised 
by the Hindus themselves as members of the same religion. They do 
not, however, mix w-ith the Bengalis, but live apart in separate villages 
by themselves. A large number of them dwell in the Lalmai hills, 
where they are able to carry on undisturbed their own nomadic system 
oi jum cultivation (for an account of which, see the article on Chitta- 
(JONG Hill Tracts, ajite, vol. iii. pp. 450-451). Their villages are 
under the control of head-men, who settle all disputes. Many of the 
Tipperahs are said to have taken refuge in British territory, in conse- 
quence of raids made by Kukis on their villages in Hill Tipperah State. 



3i6 TIPPER AIL 

A full description of this interesting tribe is given by Captain (now 
Colonel) Lewin, in his Hi// Tracts of Chittagong, and quoted in the 
Statistical Accoujit of Bengal^ vol. vi. pp. 482-488. 

The Muhammadans form 66 "3 per cent, of the population, and are 
distributed all over the District as landholders, cultivators, tailors, and 
boatmen. None of them are artisans, and only a few Afghan settlers 
engage in trade. The Muhammadan cultivators are said to cHng closer 
to the land than their Hindu brethren. They do not follow any occupa- 
tion to supplement the produce of their fields ; neither do they engage 
in fishing or boating, or hire themselves out like the Hindus during 
the season when their labour in the field is not required. The great 
bulk of the Muhammadans are of Hindu descent, and numbers of the 
lower classes are largely imbued with Hindu prejudices, probably the 
remnants of the faith they once held. Muhammadan women do not 
work in the fields. 

Among the general body of Hindus, who comprise 33*6 per cent, ot 
the population, Brahmans number 31,502; Rajputs, 1162; Kayasths, 
69'373^ ^i^d Baniyas, 5210. The principal lower castes include the 
following : — Chandals, 83,023, the most numerous caste in the District; 
Jugi's, 55,848; Kaibarttas, 50,290; Sunn's, 32,990; Napits, 22,255; 
Dhobis, 16,555; Jaliyas, 12,516; Barhais, 11,544; Goalas, 11,099; 
Kumbhars, 9706; Siidras, 9212; Malis, 8933; Lobars, 7482; Tehs, 
6540; Kapalis, 5924; Barui's, 4804; Mais, 4774; Chamars, 4353; 
and Kochs, 2495. Caste-rejecting Hindus number 6435, including 
6164 Vaishnavs. 

Toivn and Rural Population. — Tipperah contains only two towns 
with upwards of five thousand inhabitants, namely, Comillah, the head- 
quarters station, population (188 i) 13,872; and Brahmanbaria, 17,438; 
total urban population, 31,310. These are the only two municipalities, 
with an aggregate municipal revenue in 1883-84 of ^,{^2136, of which 
^£"1841 was derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, is. 2d. 
per head. The rural population, numbering 1,479,161, is scattered 
throughout 6449 villages, classified as follows: — 4163 with less than 
two hundred inhabitants; 1638 between two hundred and five hun- 
dred; 492 between five hundred and a thousand; 131 between one 
and two thousand ; 20 between two and three thousand ; and 5 between 
three and five thousand. 

The Material Condition of the People throughout the District is very 
prosperous. Nearly every man is in some way connected with the 
land; and owing to the extreme fertility of the soil, the out-turn far 
exceeds the local consumption. The general prosperity of the people 
is shown in their houses, in their food and clothing, as well as in their 
general unwillingness to work as day-labourers, even when they are 
doing nothing, and have the ofter of high wages. The requirements 



TIPPER AIL 317 

of the cultivator arc not great, and he can as a rule obtain from his 
field all that he requires ; he is thus enabled to spend a large portion 
of his time in idleness. Until recently, the cultivators themselves 
stained almost the whole benefit derived from the increased trade of 
the District ; and labourers now receive more than twice, and in many 
cases three times, the wages given twenty years ago. It is only during 
the past few years that landlords have begun to enhance their rents, 
and claim from the cultivator a share in his increased prosperity. But 
in another way the landed proprietor has benefited from the first, by 
the increased demand for rice for exportation. He has been enabled 
to bring more land under cultivation, and reduce year by year the large 
margin of waste land which even ten years ago was found in the prin- 
cipal estates in the District. To Tipperah, a famine in any other part 
of Bengal forms a source of prosperity ; each man keeps for himself 
and his family all the food that he requires, and he is enabled to sell 
his surplus rice at an enhanced rate for exportation. The only people 
in the District who suffer are those who hold no land, but live on a 
fixed income in money. The one drawback to the increasing pros- 
l)erity of the people is their love of litigation. 

As regards occupation, the Census Report divides the male popula- 
tion into the following six main classes : — (i) Official and professional 
class, 18,742; (2) domestic servants, etc., 13,971; (3) commercial 
class, including all merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 24,906 ; (4) agri- 
cultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 345,554; (5) manufac- 
turing and industrial class, including all artisans, 54,362 ; and (6) 
indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers and 
male children, 313,358. 

Agriculture. — The staple crop of the District is rice, of which two 
harvests are reaped in the year. The dus or early crop is sown in 
March and April on the higher homestead lands, and on alluvial 
patches in the beds of rivers, and reaped in July and August. The 
dman or cold-weather crop is sown in April and May, or as soon as the 
rains set in, and reaped in November, December, and January. (Jf 
these two harvests, 27 principal varieties are named. The green crops 
of the District include /// (Sesamum), mustard, and chillies. The 
latter are grown to a great extent, the Calcutta market being largely 
supplied with chillies from Tipperah. Peas, gram, and several other 
pulses are cultivated. The fibres of the District are jute, flax, and 
hemp ; and the miscellaneous crops include betel-leaf and betel-nut, 
sugar-cane, tobacco, coriander, safflower, turmeric, and ginger. Jute 
cultivation ranks next in importance to rice in Tipperah, and has 
much extended of late years. The seed is sown in April, and the 
crop is cut in August. It is all sent to Dacca and Xarainganj, 
and thence to Calcutta. Betel-nut palms are extensively cultivated 



3iS TIPPER AH. 

— in the south-western parts of the District even to the exclusion 
of rice. 

According to the latest available estimate, the total area under 
cultivation is 1,301,760 acres, of which 1,150,000 are devoted to rice 
and 78,000 to jute, leaving 73,760 acres for all other crops. Taking 
the average out-turn of rice as it cwts. per acre, and making deduc- 
tions on account of wastage and for seed grain, it is calculated that the 
total amount of rice available for food produced in the District is 
about 600,000 tons. Rates of rent have for several years been steadily 
rising. In 1858, the average rent for rice land was 4s. 6d. per acre ; 
in 1872, it varied from 2s. loM. to 15s. ijd. The enhancement is 
attributed to the general rise of prices. In 1859, the price of the best 
cleaned rice was 2s. 8d. per cwt. ; in 1870, it was 5s. 5d. Common 
rice in 1859 sold at is. 8d., and paddy at is. per cwt.; w^hile in 1871, 
the prices were 4s. id. for common rice, and 2s. for paddy. From 
1880 to 1883 prices were low, and the markets glutted, owing to 
bumper harvests, and the zam'uiddrs experienced a difficulty in realizing 
their rents. In 1883-84, however, prices ranged high, on account of 
a short crop in other parts of Bengal, and common rice sold as high as 
5s. 6d. per cwt. Wages have more than doubled since 1850. In 
1883, unskilled and agricultural day-labourers earned from 6d. to 7jd, 
a day; blacksmiths and carpenters, is.; and bricklayers, io|d. 

As a class, the peasantry are now rarely in debt ; and a late Collector 
reported in 1874-75, that he did not think there was another District 
in Bengal where the cultivators were so little in the hands of the 
viahdjans or money-lenders. A farm of from 17 to 20 acres is regarded 
as a large-sized holding for a Tipperah peasant; and one of 10 acres 
makes a fair-sized holding, sufficient for the comfortable maintenance 
of a peasant with a small family. Anything less than 5 acres is looked 
upon as a small holding, and even this is not sufficient to enable a 
cultivator to live as well as he could upon a money wage of i6s. a 
month. About 4 or 5 acres can be cultivated by a single pair of 
bullocks. There is no large class of landless day-labourers in the 
District. Nearly every man either owns, holds, or has a share in, a 
piece of land sufficient to prevent his being compelled to labour for 
daily wages. Still, there are a few people who neither possess nor 
rent lands, and who subsist by working as unskilled day-labourers. 
They earn from Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 (los. to 12s.) per month, without food; 
or from Rs. 2 to Rs. 4 (4s. to 8s.) per month, if supplied with food. 
The rate of wages depends on their capabihties, and also on the 
number of meals they get a day. Sometimes landowners, instead of 
letting out all their land, reserve a portion as a home-farm to supply 
their own necessaries. This they get cultivated, on the terms that the 
hargddar (the man with whom the agreement is made) shall himself 



TIP PER A If. 319 

cultivate the land, and the owner supply the seed and ploughs; the 
landowner and bargdddr then share the crop equally between them. 
Women and children do not generally work in the fields, but children 
are employed in tending cattle. 

Natural Cahunities. — Tipperah is not specially subject to natural 
calamities of any kind. The crops have occasionally suffered from 
flood or drought, but not to such an extent as to affect the general 
harvest. Floods are due partly to heavy local rainfall, and partly 
to the Meghna overflowing its banks. As a protection against the 
latter cause, embankments have been constructed along the river 
Gumti ; but for these the civil station of Comillah, and the country to 
the south of the river, would be annually flooded. The highest prices 
reached in Tipperah during the Orissa famine of 1866 were — for rice, 
13s. 8d., and for paddy, los. lod. a cwt. These rates, however, were 
paid by outsiders ; and most of the people continued to eat their rice 
at the price it cost them to produce it, whilst they received a handsome 
sum for their surplus stock. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The trade of Tipperah is principally 
carried on by means of fixed markets, the chief trading villages being 
situated on the Meghna, Giimti, Titas, Dakatid, and their tributaries. 
The principal export of the District is rice, of which it is estimated that 
on an average 147,000 tons are sent away annually. The bulk of it 
goes to Narainganj or Dacca ; the remainder to Faridpur, Pabna, and 
one or two other Districts. The exports next in importance to rice 
are jute (of which 3676 tons leave the District annually) and betel- 
nuts. Other exports are saftiower, sugar-cane, cocoa-nuts, bullocks, 
goats, tamarind, fish-oil, dried fish, hides, mats, chillies, linseed, 
bamboos, sweet-potatoes, timber, earthen pots, and mustard seed. 
Kingfishers' skins are sent to Chittagong for exportation to Burma 
and China. The chief imports are sugar, timber, cotton goods, cocoa- 
nut and kerosine oil, bamboos, thatching-grass, spices, salt, tobacco, etc. 
The value of the exports considerably exceeds that of the imports. 
The local manufactures are insignificant, consisting chiefly of weaving, 
pottery, gold, silver, brass and iron work, and mat and basket weaving. 
Indigo was cultivated and manufactured in the District for a few years ; 
but owing to the determined opposition of the peasantry, the industry 
was not remunerative, and was abandoned in 1872. Road communica- 
tion in Tipperah is still very deficient, but has been much improved of 
late years, and cart traffic is gradually increasing along with the con- 
struction of roads and bridges. It is, however, often necessary, in 
order to reach places not situated on the few lines of road, to travel by 
elephant or boat. According to the statistics of the Board of Revenue 
for 1868-69, there were 565 miles of rivers and canals navigable 
throughout the year, and an additional 177 miles navigable during six 



320 TIP PER AH. 

months or more. A survey has been made for a line of railway from 
Daiidkandi on the Meghna, to Comillah, the head-quarters of the 
District, with branches north and south to Assam and Chittagong 
respectively. 

Administration. — In 182S-29, a few years after the separation of 
Tipperah from Noakhali, the net revenue amounted to ^88,811, and 
the expenditure to ^13,177. By 1850-51, the revenue had increased 
to ;^99,2 76, and the expenditure to ^13,249. Since that date, both 
revenue and expenditure have greatly increased. In 1860-61, the 
revenue was ^105,302; in 1870-71, ^'121,936; and in 1883-84, 
^169,248; the civil expenditure being returned at ^^33,034 in 
1S60-61, ^16,783 in 1870-71, and £2-^,^2>'l in 1883-84. The 
land revenue was ^102,306 in 1883-84; the other principal items of 
revenue being — stamps, ^-^44,872 ; and excise, ^8252. The District 
administration is carried on by 18 civil judges and 7 magistrates. In 
1883-84, the number of estates was returned at 2047, ^^^d of pro- 
prietors at 1 2,258 ; average amount paid by each estate, ^50, and by each 
proprietor, ^8, 6s. 9d. In 1883, the regular and municipal police force 
numbered 320 men of all ranks, maintained at a total cost of ^6264. 
There was also a rural police or village watch of 2556 men, costing in 
money or lands an estimated sum of ^11,130. The total machinery, 
therefore, for the protection of person and property consisted in that 
year of 2876 officers and men, giving i policeman to every it 
square mile of the area or to every 528 of the population The 
estimated total cost was ^17,394, equal to an average of ;£6, 19s. 9d. 
per square mile of area and 2^d. j>er head of population. The District 
jail is at Comillah, and there is also a lock-up at Brahmanbaria. 
Average daily number of prisoners in 18S3-S4, 150, of whom 4 were 
females. 

In 1856-57, there was only 1 Government school in Tipperah, with 
127 pupils. In 1870-71, the number of Government and aided schools 
was 25, attended by 953 pupils; and since that year, owing to the 
grant-in-aid system introduced by Sir George Campbell, when Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, education has increased very rapidly. In 1877-78, 
there were 499 Government aided and inspected schools in the District, 
attended by 13,697 pupils. By 1883-84, practically the whole of the 
village primary schools had been brought under the Government 
Education Department. In that year, upwards of 3523 schools were 
inspected, attended by over 71,000 pupils. The zild school at 
Tipperah was attended by 407 pupils. There are also two middle-class 
girls' schools. The Census Report of 1881 returned 35,349 males 
and 2198 females as under instruction, besides 62,792 males and 
2707 females as able to read and write but not under instruction. 

The District of Tipperah is divided for administrative and 



I 



TIPPER AH S UB-DIVISION. 3 2 1 

police purposes into 3 Sub-divisions and 1 1 police circles {thdnds), as 
follows: — (i) Head-quarters or Comillah Sub-division, with the 6 thdtids 
of Comillah, Moradnagar, Daiidkandi, Chandina, Jagannathdighi, and 
Lakshim ; (2) Brahmanbaria Sub-division, with the 3 thdnds of Brah- 
manbaria, Kasba, and Nal)inagar ; and (3) Chandi)ur Sub-division, 
with the 2 thdnds of Chandpur and Hajiganj. The number of fiscal 
divisions {pargands) is 117. 

Medical Aspects.— T\\q climate of Tipperah is comparatively mild 
and healthy. The cold weather is very pleasant, for, although the 
mornings are foggy, and heavy dews fall at night, the sky is clear 
during the day-time, and a mild north-west wind generally prevails. 
During the hot season, too, a sea-breeze usually blows from the south- 
east. The average annual rainfall at Comillah during the twenty years 
ending 1881 was 9277 inches; of which 21*45 inches fell between 
January and May, 64*33 inches between June and September, and 
6-99 inches between October and December. The average rainfall in 
the Brahmanbaria Sub-division is about 20 inches less. No thermo- 
metrical returns are available. The chief endemic diseases are fever 
(remittent and intermittent), rheumatism, bowel complaints, and affec- 
tions of the skin. Cholera in a more or less epidemic form appears 
every year, sometimes causing serious mortality. Sanitation in the 
towns and villages has hitherto been much neglected, and the swampy 
and malarious nature of the country has doubtless much to do with the 
prevalence of fever and rheumatism. The District has 4 charitable 
dispensaries. [For further information regarding Tipperah, see The 
Statistical Account of Bengal, by W. W. Hunter (London, Triibner & Co., 
1876), vol. vi. pp. 355 to 454 ; Report on the District of Tipperah, by 
Mr. J. F. Browne, C.S. (1866) ; Geographical and Statistical Report of 
the District of Tipperah, by Mr. R. B. Smart, Revenue Surveyor (1866) ; 
the Bengal Census Report for 1881 ; and the several annual Adminis- 
tration and Departmental Reports of the Bengal Government.] 

Tipperah. — Head - quarters Sub - division of Tipperah District, 
Bengal Area, 1142 square miles, with 3733 towns and villages, and 
83,716 houses. Total population (1881) 703,540, namely, malei; 
357,961, and females 345,579. Muhammadans number 509,534, or 
72*4 per cent.; Hindus, 193,523, or 27*5 per cent.; Buddhists, 322; 
and Christians, 161. Average density, 616 persons per square mile; 
villages per square mile, 3*27; persons per village, 74*9; persons per 
house, 8 "4. This Sub-division consists of the 6 police circles {thdnds) 
of Comillah (Kumilla), Moradnagar, Daiidkandi, Laksham, Jagannath- 
dighi, and Chandina. In 1884 it contained (including District head- 
quarters) 10 civil and 5 criminal courts, a regular police force number- 
ing 193 officers and men, and a village watch or rural police of 1163 
chaukiddrs. 

VOL. XIII. X 



32 2 TIP PER AH ST A TE— TIE OR A. 

Tipperah. — Native State in Bengal. — See Hill Tipperah. 

Tiptur. — Village in Tiimkiir District, Mysore State, Southern India ; 
situated in lat. 13° 15' n., and long. 76° 31' e., 46 miles by road east 
of Tiimkiir town. Head-quarters of the Honavalli taluk. Population 
(1881) 2169. Seat of a large weekly fair, held from Saturday morning 
to noon of Sunday, and attended by 10,000 persons, including mer- 
chants from the adjoining Districts of Madras and Bombay. The 
value of the commodities exchanged is estimated at ^£"3000 a week. 

Tirhoch.— One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. — See Taroch. 

Tirhlit {Tir/wot). — Formerly a District of Bengal, now divided into 
the two distinct Districts of Darbhangah and Muzaffarpur, each of 
which see separately. 

Tiri. — Capital of Tehri or Orchha State, Bundelkhand, Central 
India. — S£e Tehrl 

Tirkanambi (prop. Trikada77iba-pura, 'The city of the consort of 
the three-eyed Siva '). — Village in Mysore District, Mysore State, 
Southern India. Lat. 11° 49' n., long. 76° 51' e. Population (1871) 
1964. Not returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. The 
site of an ancient city. Its original name is said to have been Kudu- 
galliir, so called from having been founded on the threefold boundary 
between the kingdoms of Kongu, Kerala, and Kadamba. The early 
history is obscure. The fort was destroyed by the Marathas in 1747. 
Remains of five lines of fortification are still to be seen, and the site of 
the palace is also pointed out Twelve temples still exist, constructed 
of huge blocks of stone carefully fitted together. Their origin is lost in 
antiquity, but several of them contain inscriptions more than three 
centuries old, conferring grants of land. In the neighbourhood are 
many old tanks, now disused. 

Tirkheri Malpuri. — Estate or zaminddri in Tirora iahsil^ Bhandara 
District, Central Provinces; comprising 13 villages, the largest of which 
is Tirkheri. Area, 35 square miles, of which only 6 square miles are 
cultivated. Population (1881) 3868, living in 839 houses. Tirkheri 
lies to the east, and Malpuri to the west of the Kamtha pai-gand. The 
estate contains much forest, but little good timber. 

Tirohan {or Tarahwan). — Tahsil or Sub-division of Banda District, 
North-Western Provinces. — See Karwl 

Tirora. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Bhandara District, Central Pro- 
vinces. Area, 1889 square miles, 791 towns and villages, and 76,016 
houses. Total population (1881) 411,298, namely, males 205,449, 
and females 205,849. Average density, 217 persons per square mile. 
Of the total area, 757 square miles are comprised in the nine estates 
ox zajfiinddris of Kamptha, Amgaon, Warad, Bijli, Palkhera, Nansari, 
Purara, Dangurli, and Tirkheri Malpuri, paying only a light peshkash 
or quit-rent. Even within the Government {khdlsd) portion of the 



TIRORA VILLAGE^TIRUCHENGOD. 323 

Sub-division, 239 miles pay neither revenue nor quit-rent, leaving only 
893 square miles assessed for Government revenue. Of these, 435 
square miles are returned as cultivated, 255 as cultivable, and 203 
square miles as uncultivable waste. Total adult male and female 
agricultural population in Government {khdlsa) villages, 94,340 ; the 
average area of cultivated and cultivable land being 4 acres to each. 
Total amount of Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses levied on land, ;!^ 18,429, or an average of is. 3|d. per cultivated 
acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, ^30,369, or an average of 
2s. 2jd. per cultivated acre. In 1884, Tirora tahsil contained 2 civil 
and I criminal court, with 3 police circles {thdnds), and 8 out-stations 
{chaukis) ; strength of regular police, 121 men; rural police or village 
watch, 471. 

Tirora. — Village in Bhandara District, Central Provinces, and head 
quarters of Tirora ta/isil. Population (1881) 2781, namely, Hindus, 
2476 ; ^luhammadans, 200 ; Kabirpanthis, 82 : Jains, 2 ; and non- 
Hindu aborigines, 21. 

Tirthahalli. — Village and municipality in Shimoga District, 
^Mysore State, Southern India; situated in lat. 13° 41' n., and 
long. 75° 17' E., on the left bank of the Tunga river, 30 miles south- 
west of Shimoga town. Head-quarters of the Kavaledurga tdiiik. 
Population (1881) 1590, of whom 1301 are Hindus, 175 Muhammadans, 
109 Christians, and 5 Jains. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ;;^ioi ; 
rate of taxation, is. ^\d. per head. Derives its name from the number 
of tirthas or sacred bathing-places in the Tunga. One of the hollows 
scooped out by the rushing water is ascribed to the axe of Parasu- 
raraa ; and at the Rdmesivara festival, held for three days in the 
month Margashira or Agrahayan, thousands of persons bathe in this 
hole. The occasion is utilized for purposes of trade, and goods to 
the value of ;£3o,ooo are estimated to change hands at this time. 
The chief articles of import are cocoa-nuts and cocoa-nut oil, pulses, 
piece-goods, and cattle. There are two maths or religious establish- 
ments in the village, and several others in the neighbourhood, which 
lay claim to a fabulous antiquity, and are frequented by the members 
of various special castes. 

Tiruchendlir {Trichendoor). — Town in Tenkarai tdluk, Tinnevelli 
District, Madras Presidency; situated on the coast, in lat. 8^ 29' 50" n., 
and long. 78° 10' 30" e., 18 miles south of Tuticorin. Population 
(1S81) 7582, namely, Hindus, 6386; Christians, 984; and Muham- 
madans, 212. Number of houses, 1506. Tiruchendlir contains a 
wealthy and much frequented temple (with an interesting inscription), 
built out into the sea. Annual cattle fair. 

Tiruchengod. — Tdhck or Sub-division of Salem District, ^Madras 
Presidency; situated between lat. 11° 15' and ii"" 43' n., and between 



324 TIRUCHENGOD TOWN—TIRUMANGALAM. 

long. 77° 43' and 78° 15' e. It averages about 25 miles in length and 
the same in breadth. Area, 637 square miles. Population (18S1) 
191,328, namely, males 94,456, and females 96,872 ; occupying 42,277 
houses, in 2 towns and 290 villages. Hindus number 188,455 '^ 
Muhammadans, 1656; and Christians, 121 7. The taluk is one bleak 
glaring plain, with only a few hills and no important ranges ; excepting 
the hilly portions, it averages from 540 to about 900 feet above sea- 
level. In 1882-83 the tdhiJz contained 2 criminal courts ; police circles 
{thdjids), II ; and regular police, 92 men. Land revenue, ^31,643. 

Tiruchengod {TirushenJwdu^ Trichengode). — Chief town of the 
Tiruchengod tdbik, Salem District, Madras Presidency ; situated in 
lat. 11° 22' 45" N., and long. 77" 56' 20" e., 7 miles from Sankaridriig, 
at the foot of a huge rock, some 1200 feet above the plain, and 1903 
feet above sea-level, on the summit of which is a temple of some repute. 
Population (1881) 5889, namely, Hindus, 5610; Muhammadans, 273; 
and Christians. 6 ; occupying 1079 houses. There is an important 
temple in the town. The chief trade is Aveaving. The making of 
sandal-wood balls forms an important item in the local industries. 

Tirukovilur (or Tirukoiiur). — The central tdhik or Sub-division of 
South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Area, 580 square miles. 
Population (1881) 206,489, namely, males 103,961, and females 
102,528, occupying 26,002 houses in 343 villages. Hindus number 
195,089; Christians, 7065; Muhammadans, 4095; and 'others,' 240. 
In 1883 the tdliik contained i civil and 3 criminal courts; police circles 
{thdnds), 4; regular police, 47 men. Land revenue, ^36,505. 

Tirukovilur. — Town in South Arcot District, Madras Presidency, 
and head-quarters of Tirukovilur td/uk. Lat. 11° 57' 55" n., long. 
79° 14' 40" E. ; situated on the south bank of the Ponniar river, about 
40 miles west of Pondicherri. Population (1881) 4676, namely, Hindus, 
4231 ; Muhammadans, 416 ; Christians, 11 ; and 'others,' 18. Number 
of houses, 727. Deputy Collector's station; post-office. 

Tiruma-Klidalu (the present name of Narsipur idluk). — Tdluk or 
Sub-division of ^lysore District, Mysore State, Southern India. — See 
Narsipur. 

Tirumale. — Village in Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern 
India. Population (1871) 2109; not returned separately in the Census 
Report of 1 88 1. A large festival or parishe, held for ten days from the 
full moon in Chaitra (April), in honour of the god Ranganath-swami, is 
attended by 10,000 persons. 

Tirumanai Muttar (' The River of the Pearl A'ecklace'). — River in 
Salem District, Madras Presidency. Rising in the Shevaroy Hills, it 
flows past the town of Salem, south through Tiruchengod and Namakal 
idhiks^ into the Kaveri (Cauvery). A valuable source of irrigation. 

Tirumangalam. — Tdluk of Madura District, Madras Presidency. 



TIRUMANGALAM TOWN—TIRUPATL 325 

x\rea, 625 square miles. Population (18S1) 203,693, namely, males 
99,662, and females 104,031 ; occupying 33,517 houses in 259 villages. 
Hindus number 199,120; Muhammadans, 2866; Christians, 1705; 
and 'others,' 2. In 1883 the taluk contained 2 criminal courts; police 
circles {thdnds), 11 ; regular police, 83 men. Land revenue, ^34,123. 

Tirumangalam. — Town in JNIadura District, Madras Presidency, 
and head-quarters of the Tirumangalam taluk. Lat. 9° 49' 20" n., 
long. 78° 1' 10" E. Population (1881) 5480, namely, Hindus, 4946; 
Muhammadans, 511 : and Christians, 23. An early Vellalar colony, 
dating from 1566. 

Tirumurtikovil. — Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; situated in lat. 10° 27' n., and long. 77° 12' e. : containing a 
venerated shrine of the Hindu triad, an old mantapani (hall of 1000 
pillars), with interesting ruins and rock sculptures. Pilgrims visit the 
shrine on Sundays all the year round. Large annual festival. The 
sacred rock is a large boulder which has fallen apparently from the 
adjacent hill. In front has been erected a sort of canopy of bamboo 
and tinsel. On the slab of rock which forms the river-bed are innumer- 
able engravings of the sacred feet, cut in fulfilment of vows. 

Tiriinageswaram. — Town in Combaconum tdluky Tanjore District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 5275, namely, Hindus, 4688; 
Muhammadans, 555 ; and Christians, 32. One of the principal seats 
of weaving industry in the District. 

Timpasiir. — Town in Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Tripasur. 

Tirupati (the '■ Tripetty' of Orme). — Town in Chandragiri tdluk^ 
North Arcot District, Madras Presidency ; situated in lat. 13° 38' n., and 
long. 79°. 27' 50" E., 84 miles from Madras city. Population of Lower 
Tirupati (1881) 13,232, namely, males 6309, and females 6923, occupying 
2599 houses. Hindus number 12,645 ; Muhammadans, 544 ; and Chris- 
tians, 43. Population of Upper Tirupati (1881) 1517, all Hindus. 

Tirupati is celebrated for its hill pagoda, in some respects the most 
sacred in Southern India. The chief temple is 6 miles distant, situated 
in Tirumala (or ' holy liiir), known to the Europeans as Upper Tirupati, 
but the annexes and outer entrances of the ascent begin alpout a mile 
from the town. The deity worshipped is one of the incarnations of 
Vishnu, and so holy is the shrine that no Christian or Musalman was 
until lately allowed to pass the outer walls. In an inquiry into a murder 
case, however, in 1870, an English magistrate entered the precincts. 
From all parts of India, thousands of pilgrims flock to Tirupati with rich 
offerings to the idol. 

Up to 1843 the pagoda was under the management of the British 
Government, who derived a considerable revenue from the offerings of 
the pilgrims. Now, however, the whole is given over to the 7naha?U or 



326 TIRUPATUR TALUK AND TOWN. 

Brahman abbot. During the first six years of British rule, the average 
net revenue from Tirupati was upwards of 2 lakhs (;^20,ooo). The 
amount has been steadily decreasing; the niahant states that the 
receipts of late years have averaged ;^2i,i73, ^"^ the expenditure 
;^i4,69i, leaving a net balance of ^6482. The annual festival held here 
is very large, and to it (in 1772) is attributed the first recorded cholera 
epidemic in India. There are several smaller temples, at which the 
pilgrims also pay their devotions. But the great temple is great only 
in its traditions. Those who have seen it describe it as mean in its 
proportions and very much neglected. The town of Lower Tirupati is 
situated in the valley, about 5 miles broad, between the Tirupati Hills 
and those of the Karwaitnagar zaimnddri. Along this valley flows the 
Subarnamilkhi river, which passes about a mile to the south of the 
town. Lower Tirupati is a flourishing and busy place, crowded at all 
times with pilgrims. The Tirupati station on the north-west line of 
the Madras Railway is situated in a neighbouring village to the east 
about 6 miles distant, with a yearly traffic of 120,000 passengers to 
and from Tirupati. 

The hill on which the great pagoda stands is about 2500 feet above 
sea-level. It has seven peaks, and that crowned by the pagoda is 
named Sri-venkataramanachellam. The temple is said to have been 
built at the commencement of the Kaliyug or present Hindu era (b.c. 
3 too), when it was prophesied that worship would continue for only 
5000 years, and that the end would be foreshadowed by a gradual 
decrease in the receipts from votaries. Only fourteen years remain to 
complete this period. Tirupati has been the scene of several struggles 
in the last century for possession of the very considerable revenue then 
derived from the ofl"erings made at the shrine. 

Tirupatlir. — r<i/z/^ or Sub-division of Salem District, Madras 
Presidency; situated between lat. 12° 11' and 12° 24' n., and between 
long. 78° 30' and 78° 50' e. Its extreme length from north to south 
is about 31 miles, and from east to west about 40 miles. Area, 741 
square miles. Population (1881) 169,977, namely, males 82,070, and 
females 87,907 ; occupying 31,408 houses, in 2 towns and 409 villages. 
Hindus number 150,557; Muhammadans, 17,666; Christians, 1742; 
and 'others,' 12. The famine of 1876-78 severely visited the tdbik ; 
the grass supply wholly failed ; a cow could be bought for 6d. In 
1882-83, the area under actual cultivation in the Government villages 
was 63,231 acres, paying ^10,345. Irrigation is carried on from small 
rivers, tanks, minor reservoirs, and wells; irrigated area, 6393 acres, 
assessed at ^3713. In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil and 3 
criminal courts; police circles (thdnds), 8; regular police, 98 men. 
Land revenue, ^16,838. 

Tirupatlir (7>/>///;').— Chief town of Tirupatiir fd/uk, Salem Dis- 



TIR UPUR— TIR UVADI. 



327 



trict, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12' 29' 40" n., long. 78' 36' 30" e. 
Population (1881) 14,278, namely, males 6697, and females 7581, 
occupying 2213 houses. Hindus number 8686 ; Muhammadans, 5488 ; 
and Christians, 104. Tirupatiir is the head-quarters of the Head 
Assistant Collector of the District, and contains the usual Govern- 
ment offices, hospital, 2 Christian missions, telegraph office, and station 
on the south-west line of the Madras Railway. It is one of the most im- 
portant towns in the District, and the centre of a network of roads. A 
brisk trade in grain and hides is carried on here. The railway returns 
for 1875, ^^ latest year for which figures are available, show 76,000 
passengers, 17,692 tons of goods, and an income of ^14,500. The 
tank is one of the largest in the District. Tirupatiir Avas captured by 
the British, and retaken by Haidar Ah in 1767. 

Tirupur {AveuasM Road). — Town in Palladam td/uk, Coimbatore 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 37' n., long. 77° 40' 30" e. ; 
situated about 28 miles north-east of Coimbatore town. Population 
(i88t) 3681, namely, Hindus, 3003; Muhammadans, 658; and Chris- 
tians, 20. Number of houses, 713. Station on the south-west line of 
the Madras Railway. 

Tirushavaperiir. — Town in Cochin State, Madras Presidency. — 
See Trichur. 

Tirusirappalli. — District and town in Madras Presidency. — See 
Trichinopoli. 

Tirutani {Triiam). — Town in Karwaitnagar zaminddri^ North 
Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 13° 10' 20" n., long. 79° 38' 
40" E. ; situated 50 miles north-west of Madras city. Population (1881) 
2699, namely, Hindus, 2625; Muhammadans, 64; and Christians, 10. 
Number of houses, 351. Tirutani contains a temple much frequented 
by pilgrims, and there is a festival once a month. Station on the north- 
west line of the Madras Railway; the railway returns show 106,000 
passengers per annum. 

Tiruturaipiindi. — South-eastern taluk or Sub-division of Tanjore 
District, Madras Presidency. Area, 466 square miles. Population 
(1881) 168,103, namely, males 82,744, and females 85,359; occupying 
33,775 houses in 238 villages. Hindus number 158,063; Muham- 
madans, 7256; Christians, 2715 ; and 'others,' 69. \\\ 1883 the tdhik 
contained i civil and 2 criminal courts; police circles {fhd?ids)^ 10; 
regular police, 116 men. Land revenue, ;£t,2,'&i']. 

Tiruvadamarudlir. — Town in Tanjore District, ALadras Presidency. 
— See Madhyarjunam. 

Tiruvadi (Irivadi). — Sacred town in Tanjore fd/uk, Tanjore Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency ; situated on the river Kaveri (Cauvery), 7 
miles north of Tanjore city, in lat. 10° 52' 45" n., and long. 79° 8' e. 
Population (188 1) 8473, namely, Hindus, 8232; Christians, 185; and 



328 TIRUVADI TOWN—TIRUVANNAMALAI. 

Muhammadans, 56 ; occupying 1400 houses. Sivaji halted here in his 
first descent on Tanjore. 

Tiruvadi (Tj-ivadi). — Town in Cuddalore tdiuk, South Arcot Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency. — See Settipattadai. 

Tiruvakarai {Trivakari). — Ruined town in Villupuram id/iik, 
South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° i' 30" n., long. 
79° 43' E. Population (1881) 571, namely, Hindus 562, and Chris- 
tians 9. Number of houses, 80. Though now containing only a few 
huts, there are indications in the pagoda, tank, and deserted streets 
that a large town once existed on this site. A number of petrified 
trees have been discovered on a mound in the neighbourhood. 

Tiruvallir. — Tdhik of Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 507 square miles. Population (1881) 143,324, 
namely, males 72,231, and females 71,093; occupying 21,830 houses, 
in I town and 300 villages. Hindus number 140,505 ; Muhammadans, 
2159; Christians, 659; and 'others,' i. The taluk, i\\Q best wooded 
in the District, is flat and uninteresting. The soil is generally either 
sandy or red ferruginous loam. In 1883 the taluk contained i civil 
and 2 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds\ 7; regular police, 57 
men. Land revenue, ;£"2 7,778. 

Tiruvalur. — Town in Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras 
Presidency, head-quarters of Tiruvalur tdhik, and a station on the 
south-west line, Madras Railway; situated in lat. 13° 8' 30" n., and 
long. 79° 57' 20" E., 26 miles west of Madras city. Population (1881) 
4921, namely, Hindus, 4465; Muhammadans, 445; and Christians, 
II. Number of houses, 765. Tiruvalur has a poHce station. District 
munsifs court, post and telegraph offices ; it is an important religious 
centre, and contains a large but unfinished Vaishnav pagoda. The 
public offices occupy a building of unusually handsome style. 

Tiruvanantapuram. — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presi- 
dency. — See Trivandrum. 

Tiruvankod (Tu-iivida?ikodu or Trava?ico7'e). — Town in the Eraniel 
tdljik of Travancore State, Madras Presidency. ].at. 8'' 13' n., long. 
77° 18' E. Population (1871) 2351, inhabiting 464 houses ; not re- 
turned separately in the Census Report of 1881. Only noticeable as 
being the town from which the State takes its name, and the former 
seat of government. 

Tiruvannamalai (or Trinomalai). — North-western tdluk of South 
Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Area, 944 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1881) 153,222, namely, males 76,670, and females 76,552 ; 
occupying 19,787 houses, in i town and 390 villages. Hindus number 
144,453; Muhammadans, 4396; Christians, 3827 ; and 'others,' 546. 
In 1883 the tdluk contained 2 criminal courts ; police circles [thdfids), 
15; regular police, in men. Land revenue, ;2{^22,356. 



TIRUVANNAMALAI TOWN—TIRWA. 329 

Tiruvannamalai {Trinomalai). — Town in South Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency, and head-quarters of Tiruvannamalai taluk. Lat. 
12° 13' 56" N., long. 79° 6' 43" E. Population (1881) 9592, namely, 
Hindus, 8398; Muhammadans, 1147; Christians, 31; and 'others,' 
16. Number of houses, 141 7. Tiruvannamalai is the first town on the 
road from the Baramahal through the Chengama Pass, and roads 
diverge north, south, and to the coast. It is thus an entrepot of 
trade between South Arcot and the country above the ghats, and its 
fortified hill (2668 feet above sea-level) was always an important mili- 
tary post. Between 1753 and 1791 it was besieged on ten separate 
occasions, and was six times taken, thrice by assault. From 1760 it 
was a British post, on which Colonel Smith fell back in 1767, as he 
retired through the Chengama Pass before Haidar Ali and the Nizam. 
Here he held out till reinforced, when he signally defeated the allies. 
The last time it was taken was in 1791 by Tipii. There is a fine and 
richly endowed temple, the annual festival at which, in November, is the 
most largely attended in the District. 

Tiruvariir. — Town in Negapatam td/iik, Tanjore District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in lat. 10° 46' 37" n., and long. 79° 40' 34" e., 
16 miles south of Negapatam. Population (1881) 9 181, namely, 
Hindus, 7897; Muhammadans, 1213; Christians, 54; and 'others,' 
17; occupying 1535 houses. 

Tiruvatiyiir. — Town in Saidapet taluk, Chengalpat (Chingleput) 
District, Madras Presidency ; situated on the coast about 6 miles north 
of Madras city. Population (1881) 6074, namely, Hindus, 5808; 
Muhammadans, 164 ; and Christians, 102. Number of houses, 984. 

Tiruvattlir. — Town in Arcot taluk, North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 12° 38' 30" n., long. 79° 36' e. ; situated about 24 
miles south-east of Arcot town. Population (1881) 1353, all Hindus, 
occupying 189 houses. Tiruvattlir contains a highly venerated 
temple. 

Tiruvella. — Tdluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Area, 
125 square miles. Population (1875) 97,820; (1881) 103,007, namely, 
males 52,719, and females 50,288 ; occupying 21,273 houses in 1^0 karas 
or villages. Density of population, 824 persons per square mile. Hindus 
number 69,155; Christians, 32,491; and Muhammadans, 1361. Of 
the Christians, 31,280 were Syrians, 889 Protestants, and 322 Roman 
Catholics. 

Tiruvengudam. — Town in Sankaranainirkoil td/uk, Tinnevelli 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 15' 50" n., long. 77° 44' e. 
Population (1881) of a group of four villages, 8117, namely, Hindus 
8036, and Christians 81. Number of houses, 1632. 

Tirwa. — Southern tahsil of Farukhabad District, North-Western 
Provinces, consisting of a portion of the Central Doab uplands. It 



330 TIRVVA TOWN—TISTA. 

comprises the ioMX pargands of Sakatpur, Sarakwa, Saurikh, and Tirwa- 
Thatia, and lies between the Isan river on the north and the Pandu 
on the south, the Ganges Canal running down the centre of the water- 
shed between the two rivers. Total area, 388 square miles, of which 
198 square miles, or 126,750 acres, are returned as under cultivation, 
the principal crops being joar, bdjra, rice, cotton, and indigo for the 
autumn, and barley, wheat, gram, and poppy for the spring harvest. 
A network of unmetalled roads traverses the tahsil in every direction. 
Population (1881) 171,546, namely, males 94,541, and females 77,005 ; 
average density, 442 persons per square mile. Classified according to 
religion, Hindus number 161,154; Muhammadans, 10,310; Jains, 74; 
and 'others,' 8. Of the 261 towns and villages in the tahsil, 153 con- 
tain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 60 between five hundred and 
a thousand; 43 between one and three thousand; 4 between three and 
five thousand; and i between five and ten thousand. In 1884, Tirwa 
tahsil contained i criminal court ; pohce circles {thdnds\ 3 ; regular 
police, 38 men; village watch or rural police {chaukidars), 326. 

Tirwa. — Town in Farukhabad District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Tirwa tahsil ; situated 25 miles south-south-east 
of Fatehgarh towm. Tirwa consists of two villages about three-quarters 
of a mile distant, but practically parts of the same town, Tirwa proper 
being the agricultural, and Ganj Tirwa the business and official 
quarter. Total population (1881) 6220, namely, Hindus, 4913 ; 
Muhammadans, 1242; and Jains, 65. The village contains the fort 
of the Rajput Raja and owner of the estate, together with a handsome 
carved stone temple and tank constructed by a former Raja. Ganj 
Tirwa is a busy and thriving place, and contains the Sub-divisional 
courts and offices, police station, post-office, and Anglo-vernacular 
school. A small house -tax is levied for police and conservancy 
purposes. 

Tista {Teesta, Trisrotd). — A large river of Northern Bengal. It 
rises in the Chatamu Lake, Tibet, but is said to have another source 
below Kanchanjanga in Independent Sikkim. After passing through 
and draining Independent Sikkim, the Tista touches the British District 
of Darjiling on its northern frontier, marking the boundary between 
Darjiling and Sikkim for some distance, till it receives the waters of 
the Great Ranji't, in lat. 27° 6' n., long. 88° 29' e., when it turns to 
the south, and, after flowing through the hill portion of Darjiling 
District, passes through Jalpaiguri and Rangpur, and finally falls into 
the Brahmaputra below Bagwa in the District of Rangpur. 

The Tista is not navigable by trading boats in its course through the 
hills, although canoes, roughly cut from the sdl timber on its banks, have 
been taken down the river from a point some 8 miles above the plains. 
The Tista debouches on the plains through a gorge known as the Sivak 



TISTA. 331 

(iola Pass. At this point the river has a width of 700 or 800 yards, 
and becomes navigable for boats of 50 inanuds or 2 tons burthen ; 
but for some distance navigation is very difficult and precarious, owing 
to the rapids and the numerous rocks and large stones in the bed of 
the river. After a short course through the tardi, the Ti'sta passes 
into Jalpaiguri District, which it enters at its north-western corner. 
It flows in a south-easterly direction, and forms the boundary of the 
Western Dwars, dividing them from the permanently settled portion of 
the District, which, previous to 1869, belonged to Rangpur. After 
passing through Jalpaiguri it enters the State of Kuch-Behar at Bak- 
shiganj, and after traversing a very small portion of the State, leaves 
it at Jhai Sinheswar. Entering Rangpur about 6 miles north of the 
village of Baruni, it flows across that District from north-west to south- 
east, till it falls into the Brahmaputra a few miles to the south-west of 
Chilmari police station in Bhawaniganj Sub-division ; its length within 
Rangpur District is estimated at about no miles. It has here a fine 
channel, from 600 to 800 yards wide, containing a large volume of 
water at all times of the year, and a rapid current. Although reported 
capable of floating large trading boats of 100 maunds, or between 3 
and 4 tons burthen, at all seasons, navigation becomes difficult in the 
cold Aveather, on account of the shoals and quicksands which form at 
its junction with the Brahmaputra. Several islands and sandbanks 
are formed by the current, but these are fewer in number and of much 
smaller size than those in the Brahmaputra. The bed of the river is 
of sand. The lower part of the Tista, from Kapasia to Nalganj-hat, is 
also called the Pagla river. 

The Tfsta is noted for frequent and violent changes in its course ; 
and many old channels are found, such as the Chhota Tista, Bura 
Ti'sta, and Mara Tista, each of which at one time must have formed 
the main channel of the river, but which are now deserted, and only 
navigable in the rainy season. At the time of Major Rennell's Survey 
(1764-72), the main stream of the Tista flowed south instead of south- 
east as at present, joining the Atrai in Dinajpur, and finally fell into 
the Padma or Ganges. In the destructive floods of 1194 b.s., or 1787 
A.D., w^hich form an epoch in the history of Rangpur, the stream 
suddenly forsook its channel, and turned its w^aters into a small branch 
marking one of its own ancient beds. Running south-east into the 
Brahmaputra, it forced its way through the fields and over the country 
in every direction, and filled the Ghaghat, Manas, and other rivers to 
overflowing. It is impossible to say when the Tista had previously 
deserted its ancient course, to which it reverted in 1787. Since the 
great change of that year, the river has made for itself another channel. 
A late Collector, Mr. Glazier, states : ' In the early part of this cen- 
tury, it [the Tista] forsook a westward bend of about 40 miles in the 



33^ TISTA. 

upper part of its course, taking a less circuitous bend in the opposite 
direction. It has since adhered to the course then formed, but with 
alarming encroachments on its sandy banks in several places. A large 
mart, Goramara, on the western bank, has been pushed gradually 
backward, until hardly a vestige remains of the village from which it 
takes its name.' The i^\w merchants that remain are now one by one 
deserting it for a new mart which has sprung up near the Domar 
station of the Northern Bengal State Railway. The confusion in the 
nomenclature of the rivers in the west of Rangpur District is mainly 
caused by these frequent changes in the course of the Tista. 

In Darjiling District, the principal tributaries of the Tista are, 
on its left bank, the Rang-chu, which falls into it on the northern 
boundary, and the Roli, which flows through the north-eastern part 
of the District ; and on its right bank, the Great Ranjit, which 
after flowing through Independent Sikkim joins the Tista on the 
northern boundary of Darjiling, the Rangjo, the Rayeng, and the 
Sivak. The banks of the Tista are here precipitous; its bed is rocky 
in the hills and sandy in the plains. The summits of its banks are 
clothed with forests of sal and other trees. It is not fordable within 
Darjiling District at any time of the year. Its waters are usually of a 
sea-green colour ; but after rain, owing probably to the admixture of 
calcareous detritus, they occasionally assume a milky hue. A ride 
along the banks of the Tista through the Darjiling Hills, from Sivak 
at the base of the mountains, upwards to the confluence of the 
river with the Great Ranjit on the northern boundary of the District, 
well repays a lover of the picturesque. The thickly wooded banks at 
once aft'ord shelter from the heat, and form a scenery which charms 
the eye ; while the stream itself, now gurgling in its rocky bed, and 
anon forming still deep pools, with the background of hill stretching 
beyond hill, make up a picture of natural scenery rarely witnessed in 
India. In Jalpaiguri, the principal tributaries, all on the left or east 
bank of the river, are the Lesu or Lish, the Ghish, the Saldanga, and 
the Dhalla. In Rangpur District, the Tista receives numerous small 
tributary streams from the north-west, and also throws off many off- 
shoots of more or less importance. The largest of these is the 
Ghaghat. The Manas is another branch of the Tista, which rejoins 
the parent stream after a winding course of about 25 miles. 

Reference has been made to the floods of 1787, which resulted 
in a calamitous famine. The following account is extracted from the 
Collector's Report : — 

' The Tista, at all times an erratic river, had for long rolled its main 
stream through the western part of Rangpur and through Dinajpur, till 
it mingled its waters with the Atrai and other streams, and finally made 
its way into the Padma or Ganges. At the same time, it threw off a 



TISTA. 333 

small branch in the northern part of Rangpur, which found its wav 
by a circuitous course i)ast Uli'pur to the main stream of the Brahma- 
putra, a little farther north than the place where the waters of the 
Ghaghat found an exit into the same river. Suddenly the main brancli 
of the Tistd, swelled by the incessant rains, swept down from the hills 
such vast masses of sand as to form a bar in its course, and, bursting its 
banks, the Tista forced its way into the Ghaghat. The channel of this 
latter stream was utterly inadequate to carry off such a vast accession to 
its waters ; the water of the Tista, accordingly, spread itself over the 
whole District, causing immense destruction to life and property, until 
it succeeded in cutting for itself a new and capacious channel, through 
which the river now^ flows. This great inundation occurred on the 2 7t]i 
August ; and on the 2nd September, the Collector reported to the Board 
of Revenue that " multitudes of men, women, children, and cattle have 
])erished in the floods ; and in many places whole villages have been so 
completely swept away, as not to leave the smallest trace whereby to 
determine that the ground has been occupied." These calamities 
culminated in a famine. The coarsest rice, which had before been 
extraordinarily cheap, rose rapidly in price to from 23 to 20 sers per 
rupee (from 4s. 9d. to 5s. 5d. per cwt.), and was difficult to procure 
even at this rate. The Collector endeavoured to alleviate the distress 
by stopping all exportation of grain, and caused large quantities of rice 
to be transported from the large grain marts into the interior of the 
District, where it was most wanted ; but this embargo was taken off by 
order of the Board of Revenue early in October. Collections of 
revenue were suspended for a period of two months ; and provision 
was made for feeding the starving poor who were daily flocking into 
the town. 

'The waters at last subsided, leaving the kliaiif crop, which at first 
had given promise of an excellent harvest, considerably injured, but not 
wholly destroyed, as had been anticipated. Six weeks of fine weather 
and the most careful attention to the young crop raised the expectation 
that the harvest might yet be a fair one. But the calamities of the 
season were not yet over, and a cyclone next swept over the stricken 
country. Early on the morning of the 2nd November, just as the rice 
was getting into ear, the wind began to blow with great violence from 
the north-east, attended by heavy rain, and continued to increase in 
force until the afternoon, when it suddenly changed to the east, 
and came on to blow a furious hurricane, which lasted for about ten 
hours. Hundreds of trees were blown down or torn up by the roots ; 
the bungalows of the Europeans were almost all unroofed, and scarcely 
a thatched house was left standing. Upwards of six thousand poor 
were at this time in receipt of daily rations of rice at the civil station, 
and of these, forty died in the course of the night near the Collector's 



334 TISUA—TITAGARH. 

house. The mortality in the town of Rangpur was much greater. It 
was estimated that in the course of this disastrous year Rangpur District 
lost one-sixth of its inhabitants. In parga7id Panga, half the population 
were gone.' 

This flood resulted in numerous important changes in the course of 
the Tista. These changes have left in the west of Rangpur District a 
maze of old watercourses and stagnant marshes, so as to render it 
nearly impossible to trace the course of the former rivers. In many 
parts of its course, the Karatoya is still known as the Bura or Old Tista ; 
and its broad sandy channel in many places indicates the route followed 
by the Tista, before the great changes caused by the inundation in 1787. 
Major Rennell's Atlas of 1770 shows the old course of the river, and at 
page 352 of his Memoir of a Map of Hindustan he states : ' The Tista 
is a large river which runs almost parallel to the Ganges for nearly 
150 miles. During the dry season, the waters of the Tista run into 
those of the Ganges by two distinct channels situated about 20 miles 
from each other, and a third channel at the same time discharges itself 
into the Meghna ; but during the season of the floods, the Ganges drives 
back the Tista, whose outlet is then confined to the channel that com- 
municates with the Meghna.' 

The Tista is navigable throughout the lower part of its course by 
steamers of light draught during the greater part of the year ; but 
owing to the shoals and quicksands which form at its junction with the 
Brahmaputra, the navigation at that point is dangerous in the cold 
weather. 

The Sanskrit names for the Tista are Trishna and Trisrota; the 
forming implying 'thirst,' the latter, 'three springs.' The Kali Pu7'd?ia 
gives the following account of its origin : — ' The goddess Parvati, wife 
of Siva, was fighting with a demon (Asur), whose crime was that he 
would only worship her husband and not herself. The monster be- 
coming thirsty during the combat, prayed to his patron deity for drink ; 
and in consequence, Siva caused the river Tista to flow from the breast 
of the goddess in three streams, and thus it has ever since continued to 
flow.' 

Tisua. — Village and battle-field in Bareilly (Bareli) District, North- 
western Provinces; situated in lat. 28° 8' n,, and long. 79° ;i^^' 25" e., 
20 miles south-east of Bareilly city, on the Fatehgarh road. In 1774, 
the British troops under Colonel Champion, supporting the Nawab 
Wazir of Oudh, gained a decisive victory over the Rohillas at this spot. 
Police station ; sa?'di ; bi-weekly market. 

Titagarh. — Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
Bengal, and a station on the Eastern Bengal Railway, i3|- miles from 
Calcutta; situated in lat. 22° 44' n., and long. 88° 26' e., between 
Khardah and Barrackpur. It contains several country residences of 



TITAL YA— TO DA NAD. 335 

PvUropean gentlemen. Although now an unimportant place, Titdgarh 
was seventy years ago a scene of keen commercial activity. It had a 
dockyard, from which the largest merchant vessel ever built on the 
Hugh' was launched — the Countess of Sutherland^ of 1455 tons. No 
vestige of the dockyard remains at the present day. 

Tit^lya. — Town in Jalpaiguri District, Bengal. Lat. 26' 29' 35" n., 
long. 88° 22' 50" E. Scene of an important fair, founded by Dr. 
Campbell, the first Superintendent of Darjiling, for the purpose of pro- 
moting trade between the inhabitants of the hill tracts and of the 
plains ; also one of the principal seats of permanent commerce in the 
District. The fair is held in February or March, at the time of the 
Dot-jatra festival, and lasts for fifteen days. 

Titas.— River in Tipperah District, Bengal, which rises in and flows 
through the northern part of the District, till it debouches into the 
Meghna at Char Lalpur, after a course of 92 miles. A small canal from 
Brahmanbaria to Gokarno, between 2 and 3 miles in length, cuts off a 
bend in the river, and shortens the journey between the two places by 
about 30 miles. At present it is only navigable during the rains, and 
then only for small boats. A project for deepening the canal, and 
making it navigable all the year round for boats of 500 viaunds or 
about 20 tons burthen, is under consideration. The principal town on 
the Titas is Brahmanbaria, situated on its north bank. 

To. — A tidal creek or mouth of the Irawadi, known in the charts as 
the China Bakir, Lower Burma. It leaves the Kyun-tun or Dala river 
at the village of Kyun-karin, and after running in a south-easterly direc- 
tion for about 70 miles, falls into the Gulf of Martaban, between the 
Rangoon and Than-teip rivers. It varies in width from 500 yards to 
I mile, and in depth from 2 J to 9 fathoms at low \vater. The banks 
are for the most part low and muddy, and a great portion of the adja- 
cent country is inundated during the rains. For about 16 miles from 
its mouth, the water is salt during floods. In the dry weather, at 
spring-tides, a bore is formed which runs up the Tha-kut-pin or Bassein 
creek. From the mouth of the latter northwards, the To is navigable 
throughout, but below this it is rendered impracticable by a bar. 
From the Tha-kut-pin upwards, the To forms the dry-season route for 
steamers and large boats from Rangoon to the Irawadi. 

Tochi. — River in Bannu District, Punjab. — See Gambila. 

Todanad. — Sub-division in the Nilgiri Hills District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; consisting of the petty divisions of Todanad, Budinattam, Sam- 
banattam, and Si'giir. Area, 375 square miles. Population (1881) 
14,489, namely, males 7918, and females 6571 ; occupying 3090 houses, 
in I village, or more properly, a collection of houses scattered over a 
large area. The principal tract occupied by the interesting hill tribe 
of Todas, who have attracted so much attention from English visitors. 



33^ TOD A TODI— TOLLY'S NALA. 

See especially the late :\lr. J. W. Breek's Primitive Tribes of the 
Nilgiris, and Bishop Caldwell's Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian 
La7iguages. According to the Census of 1881, the Todas number in all 
only 689 souls. 

Toda Todi. — Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency; consisting of 3 villages, with 2 shareholders or 
tribute-payers. Area, i square mile. Population (1881) 612. Estimated 
revenue, ^350; of which ^14, 15s. is paid as tribute to the Gaekwar 
of Baroda, and ^3 to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Todgarh. — Town in Merwara District, Ajmere-Merwara Division, 
Rajputana. The fort was built by Captain Todd in 1821. The town 
lies about 2855 feet above sea-level, and is approached by a fair road 
from Beawar. Post-office, dispensary, and a small but flourishing 
bazar. 

Todupulai. — Tdluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Area, 
612 square miles. Population (1875) 23,353 ; (1S81) 24,321, namely, 
males 12,335, ^"d females 11.986; occupying 8588 houses, in 88 karas 
or villages. Hindus number 15,371; Christians, 6272; and Muham- 
madans, 2678. Of the Christians, 4294 are Syrians, and 1978 Roman 
Catholics. Density of population, 397 persons per square mile. 

Tohana. — Town and municipality in Barwala tahsil, Hissar District, 
Punjab; situated 40 miles north of Hissar town. Population (1881) 
4155, namely, Muhammadans, 2166, mostly Pathans ; Hindus, 1848; 
Jains, 81 ; Sikhs, 60. Number of houses, 696. Municipal income 
(1883-84), ^104, or an average of 6d. per head. Once a city of some 
size and importance, founded, according to tradition, in the 6th century 
A.D., by Anang Pal, Tuar Raja of Delhi. Ruined during the Chauhan 
supremacy, it recovered its prosperity in the early Musalman period ; 
but having suffered many vicissitudes of plunder and famine,, it has now 
sunk into an inferior position. Numerous remains in the neighbour- 
hood testify to its former importance. No trade. Head-quarters of a 
police circle. 

Tolly's Nala. — Canal in the Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal, 
extending from Kidderpur (lat. 22° 33' n., long. 88° 22' e.), about a 
mile south of Calcutta, to Tardaha (lat. 22^ 27' 15" n., long. 88° t^^ e.). 
It is 18 miles in length, and connects the Hiigli with the Bidyadhari. 
This was originally a private venture, under a grant of land for a 
certain period, which was made to Major Tolly in 1776, and subsequent 
years. As at first excavated, it was of insignificant dimensions ; but with 
the increase of its importance, the channel was several times widened, 
until it has now become a much frequented passage (forming part of 
the Inner Sundarbans route), and is a source of considerable revenue 
to Government. The original course of the Hiigli was identical with 
the present Tolly's Nala as far as Garia, 8 miles south of Calcutta. 



TONDIARPE T— TONK. 337 

Tondiarpet. — Suburb of Madras city. 

Tonk. — Native State in Rajputana, under the political superintend- 
ence of the Haraoti and Tonk Agency of Rdjputdna. It comprises the 
6 divisions of Tonk, Aligarh - Rampura, Nimbhera, Pirawa, Chappa, 
and Sironj, separated from each other by distances varying from 20 to 
250 miles, and covering a total area of 2509 square miles. The popu- 
lation of the State, according to the Census of 188 1, was returned at 
338,029, namely, males 176,869, and females 161,160; occupying 
73,482 houses, in 5 towns and 11 87 villages. Density of population, 
1347 persons per square mile. Number of towns and villages per 
square mile, 0-47 ; houses per square mile, 29*3 ; persons per house, 
4*6. Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 293,757 ; 
Muhammadans, 38,561 ; Jains, 5693 ; and Christians, 18. The Hindus 
were sub-divided into — Brahmans, 20,168; Rajputs, 16,825; Chamars, 
34,029; Mahijans, 19,501; Giijars, 16,568; Minas, 15,798; Jats, 
14,553; Ahirs, 10,501; Balais, 8418; Sondhias, 7714; Bhils, 7373; 
Dhakurs, 7102; and Kayasths, 1500. The Muhammadans included — 
Pathans, 15,583; Shaikhs, 10,549; Sayyids, 2696; Mughals, 910; and 
' others,' 8823. 

The ruling family are Pathans of the Boner tribe. In the reign of 
the Emperor Muhammad Shah Ghdzi, one Tala Khan left his home 
in the Boner country, and took service in Rohilkhand with Ali Muham- 
mad Khan, a Rohilla of distinction. His son, Haiat Khan, became 
possessed of some landed property in Moraddbad ; and to him in 1768 
was born Amir Khan, the founder of Tonk. Beginning life as a petty 
mercenary leader. Amir Khan rose in 1798 to be the commander of a 
large independent army in the service of Jaswant Rao Holkar, and 
was employed in the campaigns against Sindhia, the Peshwa, and the 
British, and in assisting to levy the contributions exacted from Rajputana 
and Malvva. In 1806, Holkar granted to him the State of Tonk, and 
he had previously received the division of Sironj. In that year. Amir 
Khan transferred himself and his army to the Raja of Jaipur, then at 
war with the Raja of Jodhpur ; and after crushing the latter, changed 
sides and reduced the former. Having indiscriminately plundered both 
countries, he, in 1809, proceeded at the head of 40,000 horsemen 
(being joined en route by 25,000 Pindaris) against the Rdja of Nagpur. 
He was, however, warned off by the British Government, and returning 
to Rajputana, his bands plundered the country. Eventually, in 181 7, 
the Marquis of Hastings, with the view of putting down the Pindaris 
and restoring peace to Rdjputana and Central India, offered Amir 
Khan the sovereignty of all the tracts bestowed on him by Holkar, on 
condition of his disbanding his army, which consisted of 52 battalions 
of disciplined infantry, 150 guns, and a numerous bodv of Pathan 
cavalry. Finding resistance would be useless, Amir Kh^n acquiesced. 

VOL. XIII. Y 



338 TONK TOWN— TONS. 

His artillery, with the exception of 40 guns, was purchased, and some 
of his troops enlisted in the British service. The remainder were 
liberally dealt with prior to disbandment, and Rampura fort and the 
division of Aligarh-Rampura w^re presented to the Nawab by the 
British Government as a free gift. 

Amir Khan died in 1834, and was succeeded by his son Wazir 
Muhammad Khan, who died in 1864. He was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad Ali Khan. In consequence of abetting a treacherous 
attack on the relatives and followers of one of the chief feudatories of 
the State, the Thakiir of Ldwa, Muhammad Ali Khan was deposed by 
the British Government in 1867, ^^^ his son Muhammad Ibrahim Ali 
Khan, the present Nawab of Tonk, was placed on the mastiad. The 
Nawab holds a sa7iad guaranteeing the succession of his family accord- 
ing to the Muhammadan law, in event of the failure of natural heirs ; 
and he receives a salute of 1 7 guns. The State pays no tribute to the 
British Government. Revenue in 1883-84, ^128,526. The military 
force consists of 8 field and 45 other guns, 175 artillerymen, 536 cavalry, 
and 2886 infantry, with a small body of police. 

Tonk. — Chief town of the State of Tonk in Raj pu tana, on the road 
and almost midway between Jaipur and Biindi. Lat. 26" 10' 42" n., 
long. 75° 50' 6" E. Elevation, 1462 feet above sea-level. The town is 
situated about a mile to the south of the right bank of the Banas river, 
which is here crossed by a ford, the water being usually about 2 feet 
deep. The town is of considerable size, is surrounded by a wall, and 
has a mud fort. Population (r88i) 40,726, namely, males 20,447, ^"d 
females 20,279. Hindus number 20,389; Muhammadans, 19,024; and 
' others,' 13 13. 

Tonniir (or Tondanur). — Village in Mysore District, Mysore State, 
Southern India ; situated in lat. 12° 33' n., and long. 76° 42' e., 10 miles 
north-west of Seringapatam. Population (187 1) 566 ; not returned sepa- 
rately in Census Report of 1881. Historically interesting as having 
been the last refuge of the Hoysala Ballala kings after their expulsion 
from Dorasamudra by the Muhammadans in 13 10. Here also is the 
splendid tank called Moti Talao, and a Musalman tomb bearing date 
760 Hijra, or 1358 a.d. 

Tons. — River in Garhwal State and Dehra Diin District, North- 
western Provinces. It rises on the northern side of Jamnotri, close to 
the source of the Jumna (Jamuna), and first issues as a stream 31 feet 
wide and knee-deep, from a snow-bed 12,784 feet above sea-level, in lat. 
31° 5' N., and long. 78' 40' e. It takes a westerly course for 30 miles 
in a series of cascades, and receives the waters of the Rupin, where 
the stream is a rapid torrent, 120 feet wide. Nineteen miles lower 
down, it is joined by the Pabar, itself a large stream, though somewhat 
inferior in size to the Tons ; and thenceforward the united stream forms 



TONS, SOUTH-WESTERN— TOSHAM. y^^ 

the boundary between that part of Dehra Diin District known as 
Jaunsar Bawar, and the Native States of Jubbal and Sirmur in the 
Punjab. Its course in this portion runs almost due south, through 
a succession of rugged Hmestone ravines, till, after having received 
the waters of another considerable stream, the vShalwi, it joins the 
Jumna in lat. 30^^ 30' n., and long. 77° 53' e., at an elevation of 1686 
feet above sea-level. Total length, about 100 miles ; fall per mile, no 
feet. The volume of the Tons at the confluence is greater than that 
of the Jumna, so that it may be properly regarded as the principal 
head-water of the united stream. 

Tons, South-Westem.— River in the North-Western Provinces. 
Rises in the Native State of Maihar, at a considerable elevation, and 
flows through a ravine of the Katra range, with a cascade over 200 feet 
in height. Thence it flows in a north-easterly direction, and 50 miles 
below the fall, passes through the T^ra hills into the plains. Twenty 
miles farther down, it joins the Ganges on its right bank, in Allah- 
abad District, after a total length of 165 miles. The road from 
Jabalpur to Allahdbad runs along its left bank for a distance of 26 
miles from its source, and then crosses the stream at the town of 
Maihar, by an indifferent ferry. The road from Allahabad to Mirzapur 
also crosses the Tons, about a mile above its mouth. A bridge of 7 
spans carries the East Indian Railway across the river, with a length of 
1206 feet and a height of 75 feet. Navigation is confined to the lower 
reaches in the summer months. Floods rise as high as 25 feet in a it-s^^ 
hours; highest recorded rise, 65 feet. 

Toondla. — Village in Agra District, North-Western Provinces, and 
station on the East Indian Railway. — See Tundla. 

Tori Fatehpur,— Petty Native State in Bundelkhand, under the 
political superintendence of the Bundelkhand and Central India Agency. 
It is one of those States known as the Hashtbhdyd (8 brothers) yii^/Vy, 
which arose from a division made by Rai Singh, a descendant of the 
Rajas of Orchha, of his State of Baragaon among his eight sons. The 
State of Tori Fatehpur is almost entirely surrounded by the British 
District of Jhansi. Area, about 36 square miles. Population (1881) 
10,631, namely, Hindus, 10,012; Muhammadans, 485; and Jains, 
134. Estimated revenue, about ;£"32oo. The chief, Rao Prithwi Singh, 
is a Bundela Rajput, born about 1848, and adopted by the late chief, 
Har Prasad, who died in 1858. 

Torsha. — River of Bengal. — See Dharla. 

TosMm. — Town in Bhiwani tahsil, Hissar District, Punjab ; situated 
in lat. 28° 54' N., and long, 75' 56' e., 23 miles south-west of Hissar 
town, in the heart of the sandy hills of Chak Bagar. Population (1881) 
2226. A bare rocky elevation, the highest in the District, rises abruptly 
above the town and desert plain to a height of 800 feet. A tank cut 



340 TO UNG-BHEK-MYO— TRANQ UEBAR. 

in the rock, half-way up the hill, forms the scene of a yearly fair, and 
is frequented by pilgrims, some of them from considerable distances. 
Ancient inscriptions, scored on the surrounding rocks, have only 
recently been deciphered. \See General Cunningham's Archceologkal 
Survey Reports for 1872-73, vol. v. pp. 137-140.] The town is im- 
portant at the present day as the head-quarters of a police station. 

Toung-bhek-myo (or Tau7ig-bek-myo). — Southern township of 
Sandoway District, Arakan Division, Lower Burma. — See Tauno- 

BEK-MYO. 

Toung-gnii. — District, township, and town in Lower Burma. — See 
Taung-ngu. 

Toung-gup (or Taung-gup). — Village in Sandoway District, Lower 
Burma, and head-quarters of the Taung-gup or northern township. — See 
Taung-gup. 

Toung-gup (or Taung-gup). — River in Sandoway District, Arakan 
Division, Lower Burma. — See Taung-gup. 

Toung-loung-tSli (or Taung-laung-su). —ViWdige in the Henzada 
township, Henzada District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. Population 
(1878) 3081. 

Toung-ngU (or Taung-ngu). — District, township, and town, Tenas- 
serim Division, Lower Burma. — See Taung-ngu. 

Touse, Kasba. — Town in Udipi taluk, South Kanara District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 5582, namely, Hindus, 3885; 
Christians, 1069; and Muhammadans, 628; occupying 1044 houses. 

Tranquebar ( Taranga?nbddi). — Seaport town in Mayavaram taluk, 
Tanjore District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 11° i' 37" n., and 
long. 79° 53' 44" E., about 22 miles north of Negapatam. Population 
(1881) with the native suburb of Poraiydr, 6189, namely, Hindus, 4916 : 
Muhammadans, 820; and Christians, 453 ; occupying 1255 houses. 

Tranquebar is now within the jurisdiction of the Sub-Collector of Tan- 
jore, and a Sub-Registrar is stationed here. In 161 2, a Danish East 
India Company was formed at Copenhagen, and in 1616, the first 
Danish ship arrived in India. The captain, Rodant Crape, to effect a 
landing, is said to have wrecked his ship off Tranquebar, at the expense, 
however, of his crew, who were all murdered. He then contrived 
to make his way to the Rajd of Tanjore, and obtained Tranquebar 
for the Danish Company, with land around 5 miles long and 3 miles 
broad. A fort was built; and in 1624, Tranquebar became the 
property of the King of Denmark, to whom the Company owed 
money. For supplying arms to the Nawab of Arcot, Haidar Ali, in 
1780, exacted a fine of ^£14,000 from the Danes. Tranquebar was 
taken by the English in 1807, with other Danish settlements in India, 
but restored in 18 14. It was finally purchased by the English from Den- 
mark in 1845, ^t the same time as Serampur, for a sum of ;£"2o,ooo. 



TRA VANCORE. 



341 



In Danish times, Tranquebar was a busy port, and contained a 
number of Danish families, many of which left the place when it 
became an English possession. Under English rule, the revenue 
increased rapidly ; and as the port affords better anchorage than 
Negapatam (Nagapattanam), it soon drew away the trade of the latter 
place. However, the construction of the South Indian Railway, which 
was completed from Negapatam to Tanjore in i86i, and to Trichino- 
poli in 1862, restored the trade to Negapatam ; and Tranquebar is now 
half ruined. The export trade has disappeared, and the average annual 
value of imports for the five years ending 1883-84, was ;£^3i7o; in 
1883-84 the imports were valued at only ^^550. From 1845 to i860, 
Tranquebar was the head-quarters of the District Collector, now trans- 
ferred to Tanjore; and from i860 to 1874, it contained the District 
and Sessions Court, afterwards removed to Negapatam. In 1878, the 
North Tanjore District Court, which had been in abeyance for two 
years, was re-established at Tranquebar, which is now also the station of 
a District w?/7z^{/" and sub-magistrate (deputy tahsilddr). The reduction 
of the number of officials has diminished the importance of the 
place. 

Tranquebar is interesting as the first settlement of Protestant mission- 
aries in India ; and as a mission station, it still retains its importance. 
The mission was founded by Ziegenbalg and Pliitschau (Lutherans) in 
1706, and during the i8th century it gradually spread its influence over 
great part of the Tamil country. The best known of Ziegenbalg's 
successors was Schwartz {pb. 1798). In 1847, the mission passed 
from the Danes to the Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission. Their 
printing press at Tranquebar turns out very good work. The place is 
healthy. 

The fort, a curious old place, is on the shore, separated from the 
cultivated land by a broad sandy tract. It is a square, of which the 
shore forms one side, on which the sea is gradually encroaching, and 
has already swept away the first church built by Ziegenbalg. All the 
European houses are within the small inclosure of the fort adjoining 
each other, and the absence of ' compounds ' gives the place an appear- 
ance unusual in an Indian station. The bulk of the native population 
live outside the fort. The walls are well preserved, and the former 
citadel (the Danneborg) is now used as a jail. The fort also contains two 
Protestant churches, and a quaint little Roman Catholic church, under 
the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Goa. The principal Catholic 
church is outside the fort, and belongs to the Vicariate-Apostolic of 
Pondicherri. Protestants number about 2000, and Catholics about 
T 200, in and near Tranquebar. Six per cent, of the inhabitants are 
' Lubbies or Labbays ' (Tamil Musalmans). 

Travancore {Tinivd?ikod or Timviddnkodu, the southern portion 



342 TRAVANCORE. 

of the ancient division of Kerala). — Native State in the Madras Presi- 
dency ; situated between lat. 8° 4' and 10° 22' n., and between long. 
76° 12' and 77° 38' E. It is bounded on the north by the Native State 
of Cochin ; on the east by the British Districts of Madura and Tin- 
nevelh ; on the south and west by the Indian Ocean. The extreme 
length of Travancore from north to south is 174 miles, its extreme 
breadth 75 miles. Area, 6730 square miles. Population (1881) 2,401,158 
souls. The State is in subsidiary alliance with the British Government, 
to which it pays a tribute of ^80,000 a year. It is divided for admini- 
strative purposes into 31 taluks. Trivandrum is the chief town, and 
the residence of the Mahardjd. 

Physical Aspects. — The following description is condensed from an 
account supplied by the Hon. A. Seshia Sastri, C.S.I., Diwan of 
Travancore : — Travancore is one of the most picturesque portions of 
Southern India. The mountains which separate it on the east from 
the British Districts on the Coromandel coast, and which at some 
points rise to an elevation of 8000 feet above the sea, are clothed with 
magnificent primeval forest ; while the belt of flat country, to an 
average distance of about 10 miles inland from the sea, is covered with 
an almost unbroken mass of cocoa-nut and areca-nut palms, which, in 
a great measure, constitute the wealth of the country. The whole 
surface is undulating, and presents a series of hills and valleys, 
traversed from east to west by many rivers, the floods of which, 
arrested by the peculiar action of the Indian Ocean on the coast, spread 
themselves out into numerous lakes or lagoons, connected here and 
there by artificial canals, and forming an inland line of smooth water 
communication which extends nearly the whole length of the coast, 
and is of the utmost value when the sea itself is closed for navigation 
during the monsoon. Nanjinad, with its numerous villages, palmyra 
groves, and extensive swamps of waving rice, resembles in some respects 
the neighbouring District of Tinnevelli, except that, unlike Tinnevelli, 
it is nowhere sterile. Northward, this fertile plain is succeeded by the 
wooded and rugged surface of the typical Malaydlam country. The 
rich and variegated tract along the coast is finely contrasted with the 
mountainous wilds farther inland. The hill scenery has peculiar beauties, 
among which are the wild, rocky, and precipitous acclivities and fantastic 
forms of the mountains in the southern parts. Farther north, the moun- 
tain chain becomes less bold, a few rugged cliffs and conical summits 
alone breaking the sameness of its outline. The high range opens out 
into clusters of hills, and the valleys are studded with temples and 
churches. Indeed, the numerous houses and gardens, scattered thickly 
over the country, give it an appearance entirely different from that of 
the eastern coast. Mannirgudi, Kolachel, Vilinjum, Pantarai, Anjengo, 
Quilon, K^yankulam, Porakad, and Alleppi are seaport towns, of which 



TRA VANCORE, 343 

Alleppi, Quilon, and Kolachel are by far the most important, the 
others being frequented only by small native craft. 

The hill region is so extensive, and so marked a feature of the State, 
that it merits special notice. The mountains are of every variety of 
elevation, climate, and vegetation. Some tracts are even now considered 
inaccessible, and very little has been accurately surveyed. Certain 
portions have been made over to European and native capitalists, 
by whom the natural fertility of the soil is being turned to the best 
account ; and every year, the area cultivated and the export of coffee 
increases. Some of the loftier mountains are entirely detached, except 
near their bases, from the neighbouring heights ; they often have a 
precipitous descent towards the west, and are connected on that 
side with a succession of low hills, which diminish in altitude as 
they approach the coast. From Quilon southward, these secondary 
ranges soften down into undulating slopes, intersected by glens and 
valleys, which grow wider as the elevation of the hills decreases, and 
are cultivated invariably with rice, and are very productive. Among 
the mountains a few rough elevated table-lands are found ; but the 
alternation of hill and valley is in most cases too rapid to allow of 
any large extent of level surface. 

The above remarks refer to the country west of the Periyar river, 
between which and Dindigul rises a confused mass of hills. These 
have, however, similar characteristics; their summits, either broken 
into projecting cliffs, or thickly covered with trees, fall generally with 
precipitous abruptness, and present a variety of wild and magnificent 
forest scenery. These solitudes inclose some elevated plains (about 
one-twelfth of the whole area), which afford pasturage for cattle, and 
enjoy a good climate for a portion of the year. To the north, the 
mountains rise to an elevation of 8000 feet, with plateaux over 7000 
feet. The more important of these is part of the group known as the 
Anaimalais. The southernmost peak of note is the sacred Agastesh- 
wara Malai, the source of the Tambraparni river. The plateaux, by 
reason of their good cHmate, rich soil, abundant timber and water- 
supply, are likely to become better known as the demand for coffee 
land increases. One plateau alone (Erevimalai or Hamilton's valley) 
is 6 miles long by 3 wide, and contains about 10,000 acres of excellent 
tea and coffee land. Similar smaller valleys are found in this group 
(called Mel Malai, or the Kannandevan hills, by Ward). At the head 
of the Travancore hills stands Anaimudi (8837 feet), the highest peak 
south of the Himalayas, and near it are several other peaks of 8000 
feet. South of this group is the lower region of the Cardamom hills, 
so called from their special product. South of these, again, are large 
tracts of unsurveyed forest, which, with the exception of the Ashembu 
coffee plantations, and one or two narrow strips near the main passes, 



344 TRA VANCORE. 

continue to the Achinkoil river. Even south of this, although the hills 
become lower and narrower, the country is thinly inhabited almost to 
Cape Comorin. 

Numerous rivers run down from the ghdts^ which flow by tortuous 
courses, with high banks and rocky beds, into the backwater ; most 
of these are navigable only near the sea. The chief river of Travan- 
core is the Periyar, rising in the high ranges, which after a course of 
• 142 miles enters the backwater at Kodangaliir; 60 miles of this river 
are navigable. The Pambai, and its tributary the Achinkoil, and the 
Kallada, are the next in importance. The Western Tambraparni, or as 
it is locally called, the Kulitorai river, rising in the mountains to the 
north of Mahendragiri, a sister river of the larger Tambraparni, which 
flows east into Tinnevelli, flows westward, like all other Travancore 
rivers. Numerous small streams cross the narrow plain between the 
mountains and the sea. But no large irrigation works exist on them, 
the bounteous rainfall making these unnecessary, except in the extreme 
south. Here on the Paralai and Kodai there are anicuts constructed 
by Pandyan kings. 

A succession of lagoons or backwaters, connected by navigable 
canals, extends along the coast, forming a most important means of 
communication. Its extreme length is nearly 200 miles, namely, from 
Chaughat to Trivandrum; but between the latter place and Quilon, 
there rises a high promontory of land about 6 miles in breath, the 
highest portions of which in two places have recently been tunnelled 
through to a length of over 3000 feet, and the remaining portion cut 
into a canal, thus making the line of water communication complete. 
The total area of these lakes is 227J square miles, of which 157I- are 
in Travancore, 53 J in Cochin, and i6| m British territory. The 
largest lake is Vembanad (east of Alleppi), but except during the 
monsoon, it is very shallow. A strip of land from 7 miles to about 
half a mile wide separates these backwaters from the sea. There are, 
however, several outlets ; those at Chetwai, Kodangaliir, Cochin, 
Kayankulam, Iveka, and Paravur, are the principal ones by which the 
rivers enter the sea. Every kind of merchandise, and the whole pro- 
duce of the country, are carried on these waters. The boats are of 
various sizes, and in most instances are formed of a single tree, the 
trunk of which is hollowed out. The ordinary size is about 20 feet by 
2\ feet; the boats for carrying rice to a distance are larger, and have a 
deck or roof. T^ambagum (Shorea Tumbuggaia), angeli (Artocarpus 
hirsuta), and cotton trees are generally selected for boat-building, being 
durable and sufficiently large. 

The lower hills contain much teak, pun (Sterculia foetida), jack 
(Artocarpus integrifolia), black-wood (Dalbergia latifolia), ebony, palmyra 
(Borassus flabelliformis), and other valuable trees. Gamboge, gall-nuts, 



TRA VANCORE. 345 

honey, wax, ivory, cardamoms, and pepper are among the numerous 
forest products. The finest teak is found on the Cardamom hills, but 
except near the Periyar and other large streams, it cannot be brought 
down from the higher ranges to the coast. Pasture is plentiful on the 
lower slopes ; and some of the hillmen herd cattle. Their cultivation 
is confined to a little destructive kuindri ox jam. Of the higher ranges, 
Mr. J. Munro says : 'The best wooded blocks of land are found near 
Devikulam, Annakadnai, and near Munar up to Parvatiyammalai ; the 
slope of Anaimudi at the source of the Pambai is also well wooded, but 
here the axe of the Muduvan has done much damage. The destruction 
of these forests has been partially stopped within the last few years ; 
but in a large and rarely visited tract, it is not easy to entirely prohibit 
the old custom of clearing forests for the sake of a single crop. Much 
of the Nilgiri vegetation is found on these hills, and the rhododendron 
grows everywhere at an elevation of over 5000 feet. The trees, though 
principally of soft growth, are of large scantling, considering the high 
elevation. At the lower elevation of 5000 feet, the harder woods, 
such as white cedar, are found, but are not abundant. Some of 
the kiuiieras, which have only had one crop taken off, seem recovering 
their original character of forest ; but this is seldom the case. The 
Brazil cherry is found especially on the sites of old clearings ; but I 
have not seen the Alpine strawberry, so common on the Nilgiris.' 

There are no important mines. Iron is abundant. Alum, sulphur, 
lignite, and plumbago exist, but are not worked. 

The mountains and vast forests of Travancore afford some of the best 
sport to be got anywhere in India, especially for those who care only 
for ' large game.' Elephants, whose ivory is a source of State revenue, 
are very numerous. Tigers, leopards (including the black variety), 
bears, bison, sdmbhar or ' elk,' nilgai, and various kinds of deer 
abound. 

History. — No authentic history of Travancore in early times is 
extant; but tradition states that the whole Malayalam coast was 
reclaimed from the sea by Parasurd^ma, and colonized by certain 
Brahmans, known as Nambiiris, whose rule, after lasting for a con- 
siderable time, terminated in 68 b.c. The Brahmans then elected 
Kshattriya chiefs to rule for periods of twelve years. This system 
of electing a new ruler every twelve years lasted for four centuries. 
The last and greatest of these rulers, Cheraman Perumal (Deputy of 
the Chera kings), at his death divided his dominions among his vassals, 
the eldest of whom received the southern portion, of which Tiruvan- 
kodu (now a small village) was the capital. Upwards of three centuries 
are occupied by the reigns of the first twenty-three chiefs of this 
principality, who were continually at war with neighbouring chieftains. 
The 24th Prince was Eruma Varma Perumal (1684-17 17 a.d.). His 



346 TRA VANCORE. 

reign, and the reigns of his two immediate successors, were character- 
ized by internal strife and oppression. Vanchi Martanda Perumal, 
who reigned from 1729 till 1746, conquered Ellayeddatiinad in 1742, 
and Kayankulam in 1745. Next came Vanchi Bala Perumal, who 
further extended his dominions ; he had a considerable army, dis- 
ciplined after the European model, and commanded by Portuguese, 
Dutch, and Italian officers. 

During the war with Tipii of Mysore, from 1786 to 1792, Travancore 
was the stedfast ally of the British. Tipu's invasion of Malabar alarmed 
the Raja, and led to the agreement of 1788, by which the latter secured 
a subsidiary force of two battalions of the Company's army, at a cost of 
1755 pagodas (about ^£650) a month each, to be paid in cash or in 
pepper. This force had scarcely reached the island of Vypin, before 
Tipu, claiming the forts of Aykotta and Kodangaliir, which had recently 
been purchased by the Raja of Travancore from the Dutch, invaded 
Travancore (1789), but was defeated with a loss of 2000 men. In the 
following year, Tipii renewed his attack, and was again repulsed. In 
1795, the Company entered into a second treaty with Travancore, the 
principal provisions of which were the restoration to the Raja of the 
three Districts ceded by Tipu in 1792 to the Company, and the pay- 
ment in return of an annual subsidy equal to the expense of three 
battalions of sepoys wnth European artillery. The Raja in turn bound 
himself not to enter into any engagements with European nations 
without the consent of the Company, nor to give them settlements in 
the country; also to assist the English, if necessary, with troops, the 
Company bearing the cost of such troops. 

Raja Bala Rama Varma, with whom this treaty was concluded, died 
soon after, and was succeeded by his nephew, of the same name. With 
the latter the treaty of 1805 was concluded, by which the Raja, reheved 
from furnishing troops, was required to pay for a native regiment, in 
addition to a subsidy fixed in 1795 (in all, ^80,000 a year), and 
further, to share the expense of a larger force when necessary; to 
pay at all times the utmost attention to the advice of the Enghsh 
Government ; to hold no communication with any foreign State ; and 
to admit no European foreigner into his service, or allow him to 
remain in his territory without the sanction of the Company. In 1809, 
the Raja had allowed the subsidy to fall into arrears, and he further 
refused to dismiss the useless and expensive estabhshment called the 
' Kamatik Brigade.' The Diwan being the cause of this, the English 
demanded his dismissal, whereupon 30,000 Nairs rose in rebellion 
and surrounded the subsidiary force ; they were, however, subdued, 
the ' Kamatik Brigade ' was disbanded, and the expenses incurred by 
Government were paid by the Rajd. From this time Travancore has 
enjoyed unbroken peace. 



TRA VANCORE. 347 

Raja Rdma Varma died in 181 1, and was succeeded by Lakshmi 
Rani, who confided the administration of the State to Colonel Munro, 
the British Resident. Lakshmi Rani died in 1814, and her sister 
Parvati Rdni was Regent till Rama Varmd, Lakshmi Rani's eldest son, 
came of age. He reigned for seventeen years, and was succeeded by 
his younger brother, Martdnda Varmd, in 1846. His successor, Vanchi 
Bala Rdma Varma, one of the sons of the only daughter of Lakshmi 
Rani, ruled from i860 till his death in 1880. The present Mahdrajd. is 
his brother, Rdma Varma (born 1837). In 1862, the Governor-General 
granted the Mahardja a sa?2ad authorizing the adoption of nieces to 
perpetuate the dynasty. According to Malabar custom, the succession 
devolves on the eldest male member of the royal family in the female 
line. 

Popidatio7i. — By an enumeration made in 18 16, the population was 
then shown to be 906,587; in 1836, it was 1,280,668; and in 1854, 
1,262,647. A careful Census was taken in 1875, the returns of which 
placed the population at 2,311,379. Although these figures naturally 
suggest that the earlier enumerations were defective, it is believed that 
the population of Travancore is increasing. The population, according 
to the results of the last Census in 1881, is 2,401,158, occupying 
492,976 houses in 3719 towns and villages. The area of the State, 
taken at 6730 square miles, gives the following results: — Persons per 
square mile, 357 ; houses per square mile, 73; towns and villages per 
square mile, 0*55 ; persons per house, 4-9. Classified according to sex, 
there w^ere — males 1,197,134, and females 1,204,024; the proportion 
of females to males being about 100-58 to 100. There is a consider- 
able and increasing influx of coolies from Tinnevelli and Madura to 
the coffee-gardens of Travancore. 

The religious division gives the following results : — Hindus, 1,755,610, 
or 73'i2 per cent, of the population; Christians, 498,542, or 2076 per 
cent.; Muhammadans, 146,909, or 6-12 per cent.; and Jews, 97. 

The Hindus are thus sub -divided according to caste — Niirs, 
464,239, or 26-44 per cent, of the Hindu population ; Shanans (toddy- 
drawers), 128,600; Kammdlars (artisans), 92,578; Parayens, 66,454; 
Vellalars (agriculturists), 45,563; Brahmans (priestly caste), 37,138; 
Vanniyans (labourers and cultivators), 22,526; Shettis (traders), 
21,852; Ambattans (barbers), 14,578; Vannans (washermen), 11,152; 
Paravens, 7959; Sdle, 6756 ; Kushavans (potters), 6209; Idaiyars 
(shepherds), 5823; Maravans (predatory caste), 5556; Rajputs, 2440; 
Vadukens or Naidus, 2069; and 'other' castes, 814,118. 

The Muhammadan population includes — Sunnis, 130,738; Shias, 
15,220; Wahabis, 936; Faraizis, 15. The Muhammadans are chiefly 
descended from Hindu converts of Arab missionaries, and their lan- 
guage is Malayalam. 



348 TRA VANCORE. 

The total Christian population numbers 498,542, of whom 287,409 
are ' Syrians,' either Roman Catholics of the Syrian rite or Nestorians ; 
Roman Catholics of the Latin rite number 153,815 ; the remainder, 
namely, 57,318, being Protestants. The large Christian population is 
a distinctive feature of the country. The Syrian Christians date from 
the earhest centuries of our era ; the Roman Catholics of the Latin 
rite are the result of the European missions of the Jesuits and Car- 
melites during the last 300 years. 

Of the population, 80*69 P^i" cent, speak Malayalam, 18-31 per cent. 
Tamil. About 60 per cent, of the adult male population is agricul- 
tural, for the most part fairly well off. Of Shanins and other similar 
despised castes, there are about half a million. As might be expected 
in a purely Hindu State like Travancore, these castes have a very low 
status, and labour under many social disabilities. 

The chief towns of Travancore are — Trivandrum, the capital, with 
a population (1881) of 41,173; Alleppi, the commercial centre and 
chief seaport, population 25,754; Nagarkoil, 16,534; Quilon, the 
military head-quarters, population 13,588; Kottayam, 11,293; ^^^^ 
Shenkotta, 7882. Other important towns include Paravur, a rising 
port, Kotar, and Sharetalai. 

Of the 3719 towns and villages in Travancore State, 1030 in 
1 88 1 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 998 between 
two and five hundred ; 965 between five hundred and one thou- 
sand; 589 between one and two thousand; 97 between two and 
three thousand; 28 between three and five thousand; 6 between five 
and ten thousand ; 3 between ten and fifteen thousand ; i between 
fifteen and twenty thousand; and 2 between twenty and thirty 
thousand. 

Travancore shares with Malabar the Mai-umakkatdyam law, and its 
many peculiar customs, social and religious. Immigrants from other 
Districts, as Tamils, Telugus, or Marathas, who have made Travancore 
their adopted country, retain their own customs and manners ; but the 
Malayali customs are well defined. Among the Nambiiris, the eldest 
son alone marries and inherits ; the other children have no claim to 
the family estate or a share of its produce. In contrast to the custom 
prevailing on the east coast, they allow their girls to remain unmarried 
to any age, and even to die unmarried. Among the Nairs, the girls are 
all married formally when children ; but when they grow up they may 
choose men either of their own or the Brahman caste, and live with 
them, and the titular husband has no claim. The succession among 
the Nairs, as in Malabar, follows the line of sisters, and children by the 
sisters. A man without a sister or sister's daughter is without a legal 
heir, and must adopt a sister to perpetuate the family. The succession 
to the throne of Travancore is governed by the same law, though the 



TRA VANCORE. 349 

Mahirdja claims to be a Kshattriya. The children of a Nair are 
therefore heirs to their maternal uncle, performing the religious rites 
at his decease, and succeeding to his estate. Nambiiris and Nairs 
are very cleanly, and bathe several times daily. The Brahmans, of 
course, burn their dead. The Nairs bury or burn their dead accord- 
ing to the custom and means of each family. The burning or burial 
in all cases takes place in some corner of their own gardens. The 
tuft of hair, which among the people on the east coast is worn on the 
back of the head, is here worn on the crown, and allowed to hang 
forward. 

Agriadiure^ Land Tenures^ etc. — Rice and the cocoa-nut palm are 
the chief sources of agricultural wealth. Next comes pepper, the vine 
of which grows round the stems of the jack and other trees. The 
areca-nut palm is also very valuable ; while the jack-tree is the mainstay 
of the poor, its fruit being used largely as food, and its timber for 
house-building. Within the last few years, the cultivation of tapioca 
has so extended that it has also become a staple article of food. The 
rice produced is not of the finer varieties, except in Nanganad, and is 
not sufficient to meet local consumption. In the hills, the cardamom 
grows spontaneously in the deep shade of the forest ; it resembles 
somewhat the turmeric or ginger plant, but grows to a height of 6 to 
10 feet, and throws out at the roots the long shoots which bear the 
cardamom pods. The owners of the gardens, early in the season, 
come up from the low country east of the ghdts, cut the brushwood 
and burn the creepers, and otherwise clear the soil for the growth of 
the plants as soon as the rains fall. They come back to gather the 
cardamoms when they ripen, about October or November. The whole 
crop is delivered to the officers appointed by the State, the value of the 
rdyafs share being paid in money, according to the prices realized. It 
is an uncertain crop, being greatly dependent on the rains. Within 
the last twenty-five years coffee was introduced by General Cullen. 
About 50,000 acres have been taken up ; and at the latest report 
(1883) 7033 had been planted, of which about 6268 were bearing. 
Approximate yield in 1883, 435,411 lbs., or 87 lbs. per acre of mature 
plants. The favourite soil for coffee is generally from 2000 to 3000 
feet above sea-level. This industry is now unfortunately on the de- 
cline. Cinchona has been tried and abandoned. Tea cultivation is 
being attempted, as yet without much success ; the difficulty lies in the 
treatment of the leaf, which grows well enough. 

Buffaloes and bullocks are used for ploughing, but the latter do 
not thrive, and indeed the domestic and agricultural animals of 
Travancore are inferior and ill-trained. Fowls, ducks, and turkeys 
are plentiful and cheap. 

The original land tenure of Travancore was identical with that of 



350 TRAVANCORE. 

Malabar — janavi, or hereditary right in fee simple, subject to no 
State demand. According to tradition, the Nambiiri Brahmans, by 
whom Kerala was colonized after its reclamation from the sea by 
Parasurama, received a free gift of all the land. This tenure survives 
at the present day in Travancore only in respect of lands still h