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Full text of "The Imperial gazetteer of India"

I Mr' 



qateMAR 3 198L 




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THE 

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 

OF INDIA 



VOL. XIV 

JAISALMER TO KARA 



NEW EDITION 

PUBLISHED UXDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 




OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1908 



HENRY FKOWDE, M.A. 

rUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OE OXFORD 
LONDON, EDINBURGH 
NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Notes on Transliteration 

Voiucl-Souiids 

a has the sound of a in ' woman,* 

a has the sound of a in ' father.' 

e has the vowel-sound in ' grey.' 

i has the sound of /in 'pin.' 

1 has the sound of / in ' poHce.' 

o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 

u has the sound of ii in ' bull' 

u has the sound of // in ' flute.' 

ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 

au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 

Conso}iaiits 

Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, t, ;-, &c., marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to eml)arras3 the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondl)', 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, dh and t/i (except in IJurnia) never have the sound of 
th in ' this ' or ' thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse ' 
and ' boathook.' 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Bnnncse Words 

Burmese and some of ihe languages on the frontier of China have 
the follov.ing special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in ' law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like /in 'jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in * this,' in some cases as in 

' thin.' 
w after a consonant has the force of iiw. Thus, ywa and pive 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written jv/ze/^ Viadipinve. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

General 

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially i)rescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 25., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
I)rogressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee drojjpcd as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES v 

the exchange value of the rupee to i^. 4^., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of \s. 4^. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1S73. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — -| = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 '^^er 1899; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as \\d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in te^ms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 



vi INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an Enghsh reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted — based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at \s. ^d. : r seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 25-. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2^. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the />Ig/ia, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gaseffeer either 
in square miles or in acres. 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 

VOLUME XIV 

Jaisalmer State. — -The most western and the third in size of the 

States of Rajputana, lying between 26° 4' and 28° 23' N. and 69° 30' 

and 72° 42' E., with an area of 16,062 square miles. It is bounded 

on the north bj' Bahawalpur ; on the west by Sind ; on the south and 

east by Jodhpur ; and on the north-east by Blkaner. The country 

is almost entirely a sandy waste, forming part of 

what is known as the Great Indian Desert. In the Physical 

aspects. 

neighbourhood of Jaisalmer town, and within a circuit 

of about 40 miles, the soil is very stony, and numerous low rocky 
ridges and hard undulating plains occur ; but with this exception the 
general aspect is that of an interminable sea of sandhills of all shapes 
and sizes, some rising to a height of 150 ieet. The sandhills in the 
w'est are covered with phog (Calh'gonum) bushes, and those in the 
east with tufts of long grass. Shifting sands, locally termed dhrians, 
are common. Nothing can well bear a more desolate appearance. 
The villages are few and far between, sparsely populated, and consist 
as a rule of a few circular huts or wigwams collected round a well 
of brackish water. A small stream called the Kakni rises near the 
village of Kotri, 17 miles south of the capital, and after flowing first 
in a northerly and next in a westerly direction, forms a lake called 
the Bhuj jhil; in years of heavy rainfall it deviates from its usual 
course, and instead of turning to the west continues north for about 
12 miles till checked by the recently constructed Daiya dam. 

The surface of the country is to a large extent covered by dunes 
of blown sand of the transverse type : that is, with their longer axes 
at right angles to the direction of the prevailing wind. Rocks of 
Jurassic age, such as .sandstones, shales, and limestones, crop out from 
beneath the sand, and a large area of Nummulitic rock occurs to the 
north-west of the capital. 

The fauna is not much varied. Wild hog and leopards are occa- 
sionally seen ; antelopes are found in the east ; while the Indian gazelle, 
the bustard, and several species of sand-grouse are more or less common. 



2 JAISALMER STATE 

The climate is dry and healthy, but the hot season is very prolonged 
and the heat is intense and trying. The temperature is highest in May 
and June, when hot winds prevail with much violence, while the coldest 
period is in January, the thermometer frequently falling below freezing- 
point. The rainfall is precarious and varies in different parts. The 
annual fall at the capital since 1883 has averaged between 6 and 
7. inches. Statistics for other places in the State are available only 
since 1895, and they show that the fall is usually a little greater in the 
east and south, and less as one proceeds west. The year of heaviest 
rainfall was 1883, when more than 15 inches were registered at Jaisal- 
mer, while in 1899 no rain at all fell at Khabha to the south-west 
and Ramgarh to the north-west. 

The chiefs of Jaisalmer are Rajputs of the Jadon clan, and claim 
descent from the deified hero, Krishna. According to the annals 
of the State, the tribe became dispersed at the death 
of Krishna, and many of them, including two of 
his sons, proceeded northwards beyond the Indus and settled there. 
One of their descendants, Gaj, is said to have built a fort called Gajni 
(identified by Tod as the Ghazni of Afghanistan, but believed by 
Cunningham to be in the vicinity of Rawalpindi) ; but being defeated 
and killed in a battle with the king of Khorasan, his followers were 
driven southward into the Punjab, where Salivahan established a new 
capital, which he called after himself, and which has been identified 
with Sialkot. This chief subsequently defeated the Indo-Scythians 
in a decisive battle near Kahror, within 60 miles of Multan. So great 
was the fame of this victory that the conqueror assumed the title 
of Sakari, or ' foe of the Sakas ' (Scythians), and further to commemorate 
the event established the Saka era from the date of the battle (a. d. 78), 
an epoch which is still in general use throughout India. Salivahan's 
grandson, Bhati, was a renowned warrior who conquered many of the 
neighbouring chiefs, and from him the tribe now takes the name of 
Bhati Jadons. Subsequently, the Bhatis were gradually driven south- 
wards till, crossing the Sutlej, they took refuge in the Indian desert 
which has since been their home. Here they came into contact with 
various Rajput clans, such as the Butas and Chunnas (both extinct), 
the Barahas (now Musalmans), the Langahas, and the Sodhas and 
Lodras (both branches of the Paramaras). Their first capital was 
at Tanot, still in Jaisalmer territory, which was founded about the 
middle of the eighth century ; but being ousted from this, Deoraj, 
the first chief to assume the title of Rawal, built Deogarh or Deorawar 
in 853, now called Derawar in Bahawalpur territory, and established 
himself there. Shortly afterwards, the capital was changed to Lodorva, 
an immense city with twelve gates taken from the Lodra Rajputs, the 
ruins of which lie 10 miles west-by-north of Jaisalmer town. Lodorva 



HISTORY 3 

was, however, ill adapted for defence, so Jaisal sought for a stronger 
place and founded the fort and city of Jaisalmer in 1156. He was 
succeeded by several warlike chiefs who were constantly engaged in 
raids and battles, but their passion for freebooting proved disastrous. 
Authentic history begins at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning 
of the fourteenth centuries, when the Bhatis so enraged Ala-ud-dln 
that his army captured and sacked the fort and city of Jaisalmer, which 
for some time remained deserted. Sabal Singh, who began to rule 
about 165 1, was the first of the Bhati chiefs who held his dominions 
as a fief of the Delhi empire. According to the annals of the 
Kishangarh State, he served in Peshawar and Kandahar, and received 
the grant of Jaisalmer through the intercession of his cousin, Raja Rup 
Singh of Kishangarh. Jaisalm'er had now arrived at the height of its 
power ; the territory extended north to the Sutlej, comprised the whole 
of Bahawalpur westward to the Indus, and to the east and south 
included many districts subsequently annexed by the Rathors and 
incorporated in Marwar and Bikaner. But from this time till the 
accession of Maharawal Mulraj in 1762 the fortunes of the State rapidly 
declined, and most of the outlying districts were lost. Owing, however, 
to its isolated situation it escaped the ravages of the Marathas, and 
it was partly for this reason that Jaisalmer was one of the last States 
in Rajputana to be taken under the protection of the British Govern- 
ment. By the treaty dated December 12, 181 8, concluded with 
Mulraj, the succession was guaranteed to his posterity : the chief was 
to be protected from serious invasions and dangers to his State, 
provided he was not the originator of the quarrel, and he was to act 
in subordinate co-operation w ith the British Government. Apart from 
this treaty, the only important events of ISIulraj's rule were the cruel 
atrocities of his minister, Mehta Salim Singh. According to Tod, this 
man, a jNIahajan by caste and a Jain by religion, united ' the subtlety 
of the serpent to the ferocity of the tiger.' He put to death nearly all the 
relatives of the chief. With commercial men and with the industrious 
agriculturists or pastoral communities ' he had so long forfeited all 
claim to credit that his oath was not valued at a single grain of the 
sand of their own desert dominion ' ; and finally he drove out the 
Paliwal Brahmans, famous as enterprising cultivators and landholders, 
who had constructed most of the khan /is or irrigation tanks now to 
be found in the State, and whose solid well-built villages still stand 
deserted, marking an era of prosperity to which it will be difficult for 
the State ever again to attain. Salim Singh, however, was mortally 
wounded by a Rajput in 1824, and, as there was some fear that the 
wound might heal, his wife gave him poison. Mulraj, who had died 
four years before, was succeeded by his grandson Gaj Singh. In 1829 
a Bikaner army invaded Jaisalmer to revenge some injuries committed 



4 JA ISA LATER STATE 

by subjects of the latter ; but the British Government interfered, and 
through the arbitration of the Maharana of Udaipur the dispute was 
settled. In 1844, after the British conquest of Sind, the forts of 
Shahgarh, Garsia, and Ghotaru, which had formerly belonged to 
Jaisalmer, were restored; and in 1846 Gaj Singh died. His widow 
adopted his nephew Ranjlt Singh, who ruled till 1864, when he was 
succeeded by his younger brother, Bairi Sal. On the death of the 
latter in 1891, his widows adopted Syam Singh, son of Thakur Kushal 
Singh of Lathi ; and the choice being confirmed by the Government 
of India, Syam Singh succeeded and took the family name of Salivahan. 
He was born in 1887, and has been a student at the Mayo College 
at Ajmer since 1894. The Maharawal of Jaisalmer is entitled to 
a salute of 15 guns. 

Among places of archaeological interest may be mentioned the 
village and fort of Birsilpur (in the north-east), said to have been 
founded in the second century ; Tanot, the first desert capital of the 
Bhatis, with its fort and temple dating from the eighth century ; 
Lodorva, which has a Jain temple said to be over 1,000 years old ; and 
Sirwa, a village about 24 miles south-by-south-east of Jaisalmer town, 
which possesses a building with thirty-two pillars said to have been 
erected in 820. 

The number of towns and villages in the State is 472, and the 
population at each Census was: (1881) 108,143, (1891) 115,701, and 
(1901) 73,370. The decrease of over 36 per cent, in 
°^" ^ ' the last decade was due to the famine of 1 899-1 900, 
and excessive mortality and emigration resulting therefrom. The only 
town in the State is the capital, Jaisalmer (population, 7,137). The 
State is divided into sixteen districts or hukumats, the areas of which 
vary from about 2,220 to 262 square miles; one district has 100 
villages, while two others have but one each ; and again one district 
has one person per square mile, while the most densely populated has 
but fifteen. Indeed, the density per square mile for the whole State 
is but 4-56. In 1901 Hindus numbered 51,990, or 70 per cent, of 
the total; Musalmans, 18,648, or more than 25 per cent.; Animists, 
1,551 ; and Jains, 1,178. The languages mainly spoken are MarwarT 
and SindT. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the Rajputs, who number 
31,000, or over 42 per cent, of the total, but more than one-third of 
them are Musalmans. Next come the Chamars, who number 8,900, 
Shaikhs 5,600, and Mahajans 5,200. More than 36 per cent, of the 
people are engaged in or dependent on agriculture ; but they lead a 
wandering life, migrating regularly to Sind in the cold season, and 
many are gra/iers and kee]i herds of camels, cattle, sheep, and 
goats. 



AGRTCULTURE 5 

The soil is for the most part light and sandy, and, as the rain 

sinks in and does not flow off the surface, a small rainfall suffices 

for the crops. Save in the few places where water . . , 

• _ . A.fifricultur6 

can be stored, only rains crops such as bajra, 

jowar, mu7ig, moth, and /// are grown, and the system of cultivation 
is rude. Camels are largely used for ploughing; the ploughs are 
light and just scratch the ground; the seed is sown broadcast, and 
after it has sprouted a few showers at long intervals bring it to 
maturity. No agricultural statistics are available ; but a good deal 
of cultivation goes on during the rains, and in favourable seasons 
(which are few and far between) the produce is said to be just suffi- 
cient for the immediate wants of the people. Where the soil is 
harder and the surroundings hilly and rocky, irrigation is carried on 
to a small extent from kharins or shallow depressions into which 
the rain-water flows. U'heat and gram are sown in the beds of 
these tanks, and only very occasionally can the water be conveyed 
by ducts to land outside. Since 1892 about Rs. 65,000 has been 
spent in constructing and repairing k/m?-ins, and there are now 377 
of them. Wells, being on the average 250 feet in depth, cannot be 
used for irrigation. 

The wealth of the rural population consists almost entirely in their 
herds of camels, cattle, sheep, and goats, which thrive in spite of the 
arid nature of the country. The camels are famous for their easy 
paces, speed, and hardiness ; they plough and harrow the ground, 
bring home the harvests, carry food and water, and are both 
ridden and driven. Cattle are bred in considerable numbers, and 
are of a good class ; while the sheep and goats, though small, fatten 
well. 

Salt of fair quality is found in several localities, but is manufactured 
only at Kanod, about 20 miles north-east of the capital. Brine occurs 
10 feet below the surface, and is drawn from pits by the weighted 
pole and bucket. It is then exposed to evaporation in pans, and a 
small-grained white salt is obtained. The out-turn is limited by the 
agreement of 1879 with the British Government to 15,000 maunds 
a year, entirely for local consumption and use. There are several 
quarries of limestone near the capital ; the stone produced is very 
fine, even-grained, and compact, of a buff or light-brown colour, and 
admirably adapted for carving. It takes a fair polish, and was at 
one time used for lithographic blocks. Another variety of yellow 
limestone is found at the village of Habur, 28 miles north-west of 
the capital : large quantities of an iron ore resembling red ochre 
are blended with it. Sandstone quarries are worked at Bhadasar, 
17 miles north-west of Jaisalmer town, and fuller's earth and other 
clays exist in several places. 



6 ' JAISALMER STATE 

The manufactures are confined to blankets of sheep's wool, small 

bags and druggets of goats' and camels' hair, and 

Iradean stone cups and platters. The chief exports are 

communications. , , ^ , ^ , , , ^ ,, , 

wool, ghi, camels, cattle, sheep, and fuller s earth ; 

and the chief imports are grain, cotton, piece-goods, and tobacco. 

The trade is mostly with Sind. 

No railways traverse the State, the nearest station being Barmer 
on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway, some 90 miles south of Jaisalmer 
town ; and, with the exception of about 6 miles of metalled road in 
and near the capital, the communications are mere sandy tracks, 
sometimes marked by milestones. There is but one post office in 
the State, the mails being carried by runners to and from Barmer, 
which also possesses the nearest telegraph office. 

The State is visited by constant scarcities, caused by short rainfall 
or damage done by locusts ; indeed hardly a year passes in which a 
failure of crops does not occur in some part of 
Jaisalmer. Yet the people suffer less than one 
would expect, as emigration is an annual event. Practically the 
only harvest is that sown during the rains ; and as soon as it is 
gathered in September or October, large numbers leave every year 
to find employment in Sind and Bahawalpur. The people are, by 
nature and of necessity, self-reliant ; they are indifferent, if not averse, 
to assistance from the State coffers, and many of them consider it 
so derogatory to be seen earning wages on relief works in their 
own country that they prefer migration. The Darbar, though its 
revenue is small, has during recent years done what it could to 
relieve distress and provide tanks for the storage of watei ; but a 
scanty rainfall means not only no crops or indifferent ones, but also 
difficulty in finding water for man and beast, as well as grass and 
fodder. The result is that, on the first approach of scarcity, the 
people leave in larger numbers than usual with their flocks and 
herds for Sind. Emigration, consequently, has always been, and 
must continue to be, the main form of relief. No detailed accounts 
are available of the famines or scarcities prior to 1891-2. In that 
year, and again in 1895-7 and 190 1-2, scarcities affected from one- 
half to the whole of the State. Relief works were started, but gene- 
rally failed to attract labour, and a certain amount of gratuitous 
relief was given. The direct expenditure varied from Rs. 4,000 in 
1 89 1-2 to Rs. 40,000 in 1895-7 ; and as, under the land revenue 
system, the Darbar takes a share of the produce, its losses under 
this head were considerable. The famine of 1 889-1 900 was a 
severe one. The rainfall was less than an inch and the whole State 
was affected. About 50,000 people emigrated to Sind and Bahawal- 
pur, taking with them 12 [)er cent, of the horned cattle and 



ADMINISTRATION 7 

20 p(.;r cent, of the camels. Assuming that half of these animals 

were brought back, the State lost about 148,000 cattle and over 

7,400 camels. Relief works and poorhouses were open for twelve 

months, and more than 410,000 units were relieved. The total 

expenditure was about Rs. 52,000. 

During the minority of Maharawal Salivahan the administration 

is being conducted by a Diwan and Council of four members, under 

the general superintendence of the Resident, . , . , 

1,7 T,-- .- o . T 1 c .\. • ^ Administration. 

Western Rajputana States. In each 01 the sixteen 

hukTimats there is a hdkini. The lowest courts are those of the 
lidkims; fourteen of them can punish with imprisonment up to 
fifteen days and fine not exceeding Rs. 50, while the remaining two, 
and also the city Jwtival, can pass a sentence of one month's im- 
prisonment. All these officers have certain civil powers. But most 
petty civil suits are decided by a panchayat of three or more mem- 
bers appointed by the parties concerned, the award being final ; or 
if the parties cannot agree, by a body known as a sultani panchayat 
appointed by the hdkiin or kotivCd as the case may be. The Sadr 
Criminal Court, besides hearing appeals against the orders of the 
lower courts, tries cases beyond their powers, and can sentence to 
imprisonment up to one year and fine up to Rs. 300. The Sadr 
Civil Court also hears appeals against the orders of the lower courts 
(including the awards of sultani p>anchayats), and tries suits beyond 
their powers. Decrees for sums exceeding Rs. 5,000 are subject 
to the confirmation of the Resident. Here again' many of the suits 
are decided by arbitrators chosen by the parties. The Dlwan hears 
appeals against the orders of the Sadr Criminal and Civil Courts, 
and tries such original cases as are beyond the powers of the 
former. He can sentence up to two years' imprisonment and 
Rs. 500 fine; sentences exceeding these limits, and all sentences in 
cases of homicide and dacoity, are subject to the confirmation 
of the Resident. The court of the Resident is the highest in the 
State ; besides dealing with such cases as require its confirmation, 
it can call for the proceedings in any case and revise the orders 
passed. 

The normal revenue of the State is nearly one lakh, the chief sources 
being customs, about Rs. 48,000; and land, about Rs. 16,000. The 
ordinary expenditure may be put at about Rs. 88,000, the main items 
being: cost of administrative staff (civil and judicial), Rs. 26,000; 
army and police, Rs. 18,000; palace expenditure (including the 
Maharawal's education), Ks. 12,000; and stables (including elephants, 
camels, &:c.), about Rs. 10,000. The famines and scarcities which 
have been so frequent during the past decade have not only reduced 
the revenue, but have necessitated nmch extraordinary expenditure, 



8 JAISALAIEK STATE 

with the result that at the present time the State owes about 2 lakhs 
to the British Government. 

Jaisalmer has its own coinage, called Akhai shd/ii after jVIaharawal 
Akhai Singh, who established a mint at the capital in 1756. The 
local rupee in 1895 was worth more than 15 British annas, but now 
exchanges for about 11; its value fluctuates almost daily, and has 
been as low as 9 annas. The mint has not been worked since 1899, 
and the Akhai shdhl coins will be converted as soon as possible. 

The land revenue system has undergone no changes for a long 
period, and neither a survey nor any regular settlement has been under- 
taken. The revenue is mostly paid in kind. Where wheat or gram 
is grown, the State takes from one-fifth to one-sixth of the produce ; 
and of the rains crops from one-fifth to one-eleventh. There are four 
different modes of estimating the State share of the out-turn. In the 
first, the crop is valued when standing ; in the second, when cut, but 
before threshing ; in the third, after it has been threshed out ; and in 
the fourth, from the condition of the bare standing stalks. In addition 
to the portion payable to the State, the cultivator has to settle the 
demands of the men told off to watch the crops in the Darbar's interests 
and of certain other officials ; these demands collectively amount to 
about half of what is taken by the State. In places, the land revenue 
is paid in cash at Ks. 2 (local currency) for as much land as can be 
cultivated with a pair of bullocks. Of the 471 villages in Jaisalmer, 
239 are khdlsa, or pay revenue direct to the State, 88 are held by 
Jaglrddn, 24 as charitable grants, 11 under title-deeds, 99 in bhum, 
and 10 for services to the State. Only one of the Jdgl?-ddrs pays 
tribute ; but all serve the Darbar when called on, pay meota or fee on 
succession, and present the chief with a horse on certain occasions. 
Lands given in charity {siisau) enjoy complete immunity from all State 
dues and are practically grants in perpetuity. Those who hold under 
title-deeds {patta) or for service rendered to the State pay nothing, but 
retain their estates at the pleasure of tlie Darbar ; while the bhiiDiids 
have to serve when called on, and pay a fixed sum yearly, as well as 
certain sums on such occasions as the chief's accession, marriage, &c. 

The State troops number 220 of all arms: namely, 39 cavalry, 168 
infantry, and 13 artillerymen. Out of 25 guns, 17 are serviceable. The 
annual expenditure on the army is about Rs. 10,000. The police force 
numbers 152 men, of whom 72 are mounted, chiefly on camels, and 
the annual cost is about Rs. 9,000. There is one jail (at the capital), 
and small lock-ups in the districts. 

In regard to the literacy of its population Jaisalmer stands tenth 
among the twenty States and chicfships of Raji)utana, with 2-9 per cent. 
(5-4 males and o- 1 females) able to read and write. Excluding indi- 
genous schools managed by Jatis (Jain priests), the State now contains 



JAISALMER TOWN y 

three schools. In 1901 the vernacular alone was taught, the atten- 
dance was 69, and the expenditure about Rs. 600. In 1903 English 
classes were started at the capital, and the attendance at the three 
institutions has now risen to 183 and the expenditure to about 
Rs. 1,100. No fees are charged. 

The State possesses a small hospital and a lunatic asylum, both at 
the capital, which cost about Rs. 3,000 a year. A staff of vaccinators is 
employed, who in 1904-5 successfully vaccinated 1,104 persons, or 15 
per 1,000 of the total population. 

[C. K. M. ^^'alter, Gazetteer of Jaisa/incr {I'S']']); Rajputdna Gazetteer, 
\o\. ii (1879, under revision) ; Report on Famine- Relief Operations 
during 1896-7 : A. Adams, The Western Rajputdna States (1899).] 

Jaisalmer Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in 
Rajputana, situated in 26° 55' N. and 70° 55' E., about 90 miles 
north of the Jodhi)ur-Bikaner Railway at Barmer, and approximately 
i,.!oo miles north-west of Calcutta, and 600 north of Bombay. Popu- 
lation (1901), 7,137. i'he town was built by and named after Rawal 
Jaisal in 11 56. It stands at the south end of a low range of hills, 
and is surrounded by a substantially built stone wall, 3 miles in 
circuit, 10 to 15 feet high, 5 feet thick, and strengthened by bastions 
and corner towers. The two main entrances, one on the west and 
the other on the east, are connected by a metalled and paved road, 
fairl}- wide in most parts, which is the principal thoroughfare ; the 
other streets are chiefly narrow passages — narrowest where some of 
the linest houses stand, as the well-to-do were able to encroach when 
rebuilding or improving their residences. A large portion of the 
space within the walls is unoccupied, but the ruins lying about prove 
that the i)lace must have been far more populous in former times. To 
the south, on a hill overlooking the town, stands the fort. This hill is 
about 250 feet above the surrounding country, and 500 yards long by 
250 wide at its greatest diameter. It is entirely covered with buildings 
and defences ; and the base is surrounded by a buttress wall of solid 
blocks of stone about 15 feet high, above which the hill projects and 
supports the ramparts, forming a double line of defence. The bas- 
tions are in the form uf half lowers, surmounted by high turrets and 
joined by short thick walls ; these again support battlements which 
form a complete chain of defence about 30 feet above the hill. The 
lort is approached by one entrance on the town side, which has four 
gates. Within the fort is the Maharawal's palace, an imposing pile 
crowned by a huge umbrella of metal mounted on a stone shaft, a solid 
emblem of dignity of which the Bhati chiefs are justly proud ; but the 
interior is ill-arranged and space is frittered away in numberless small 
apartments. The houses are all substantially built of stone and mortar 
and flat-roofed. Most of them have beautifully carved fronts of the 



lo JAISALMER TOWN 

yellow limestone found locally, which is easily chiselled when first 
quarried, and becomes harder on exposure. The Jain temples in the 
fort are very fine, the carving in them being exquisite ; some of them 
are said to be 1,400 years old. The town possesses a post office, a 
jail with accommodation for 88 prisoners (the daily average strength 
in 1904 being 54), an Anglo-vernacular school and a primary Hindi 
school attended by 160 boys, and a hospital with accommodation for 
6 in-patients. 

Jai Samand.— Lake in Udaipur State, Rajputana. See Dhebar 
Lake. 

Jaito. — Town in the Phul nizdmat of Nabha State, Punjab, situated 
in 30° 26' N. and 74° 56' E., on the Ferozepore-Bhatinda branch of the 
North-Western Railway, 40 miles east of Ferozepore. Population (1901), 
6,815. Jaito possesses a large grain market, and an important cattle 
fair is held here in the month of February. It has a police station, a 
dispensary, and a primary school. 

Jajmau.— Former name of the Cawnpore tahsil, Cawnporc Dis- 
trict, United Provinces. 

Jajpur Subdivision. — North-western subdivision of Cuttack Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 20° 39' and 21° 10' N. and 85° 42' and 
86° 37' E., with an area of 1,1 15 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 560,402, compared with 525,910 in 1891. The west of the sub- 
division lies on the fringe of the Chota Nagpur plateau, and this portion 
is very sparsely populated ; towards the east, which consists of a fertile 
highly cultivated plain, the density increases, the average for the whole 
subdivision being 503 persons per square mile. It contains one town, 
Jajpur (population, 12,111), its head-quarters ; and 1,580 villages. 

Jajpur Town.— Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in Cuttack District, Bengal, situated in 20° 51' N. and 86° 20' E., on 
the right bank of the Baitarani river. Population (1901), 12,111. 
Under the early kings of the Kesari dynasty Jajpur was the capital of 
Orissa, and in the sixteenth century it was the scene of the struggle 
between the Musalmans and Hindus, from which it emerged in ruins. 
It is still a resort for pilgrims, but has comparatively little trade. It 
contains many interesting buildings, among which the most striking are 
the temples of Biroda Devi, of the Boar incarnation of Vishnu, and the 
great sun pillar that stands a mile outside the town. This latter con- 
sists of a huge and beautifully proportioned column of stone raised on 
a solid pedestal ; and if the temple was in proportion, it must have been 
of a remarkable size. All traces of it have, however, disappeared, and 
the column has escaped only owing to its great weight, which prevented 
its would-be destroyers from moving it. Besides these, some ancient 
heroic figures of gods and goddesses arc standing or lying in the com- 
pound of the subdivisional office. They are considered to be fine 



JALALABAD DLSTRLCT ii 

specimens of Hindu art, but all bear traces of Muhammadan vandalism 
in their mutilated features, from which the noses were cut by the rene- 
gade Kala Pahar. Interesting, too, are the grim features of the seven 
' mothers of the earth ' in a dark little gallery by the river bank, but 
there is little beauty in any of these early works. The Muhammadan 
mosque built by Nawab Abu Nasir in the seventeenth century is an 
elegant building, which has lately been restored by the Public Works 
department. Jaipur was constituted a municipality in 1869. The 
income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 5,800, and 
the expenditure Rs. 5,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,600, 
mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 6,700. The town contains the usual public offices; the sub- 
jail has accommodation for twelve prisoners. 

Jajpur. — District and head-quarters thereof in Udaipur State, 
Rajputana. See Jahazpur. 

Jakasna. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Jakhau. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jakhau. — Seaport in the State of Cutch, Bombay, situated in 
23° 14' N. and 68° 45' E., on the south-west coast, 60 miles south-west 
of Bhiij. Population (1901), 5,059. The town stands between 3 and 
4 miles inland, in a plain bare of trees but yielding abundant crops. 
The landing-place is at Godia creek, 5 miles from the sea, dry at low 
water, but with a depth of from 8 to 1 2 feet at high tide. At springs, 
boats of from 20 to 25 tons burden can pass up. There is a stretch of 
backwater from the Indus to the Godia creek, known as Bagda, navi- 
gable by craft of 8 and 10 tons all the year round. Jakhau carries on 
a large trade with Bombay, exporting grain and importing piece-goods, 
groceries, timber, sugar, oil, and dates. The municipal income in 
1903-4 was Rs. 800. 

Jalalabad District.— A large district in Afghanistan. It was 
lormerly a province, and contains the tracts known as Kafiristan, 
Kunar, Laghman, Tagao, Ningrahar, Safed Koh, and Jalalabad. The 
head-quarters are at Jal.\lab.^d Town. The district is bounded on 
the north by Badakhshan ; on the east by Chitral and territory within 
the sphere of British influence ; on the south by Afridl Tirah ; and 
on the west by the Kabul province. The whole country is intersected 
by vast mountain ranges, which include the eastern extremity of the 
Hindu Kush with its numerous spurs and branches. The Safed Koh 
forms its southern boundary, separating the Jalalabad valley from 
Afrldi Tirah. From its highest point, Sikaram (15,600 feet), this range 
falls gently to the west and gradually subsides in long spurs, reaching 
to within a few miles of Kabul and barring the road from Kabul to 
Ghazni. The district is drained by the Kabul basin, which receives, 
besides numerous other streams, the waters of the Panjshir, Tagao, 

^ VOL. XIV. B 

^7 



12 JALALABAD DLSTRICT 

Alishang, Alingar, and Kuuar. The valleys of the first three lead into 
Kafiristan : and the Kunar affords a means of communication with 
Chitral, Badakhshan, and the Pamirs. 

The district is inhabited by various races. The principal Afghan 
tribes are the Shinwaris, Khugianis, Mohmands, and Ghilzais. Tajiks 
are fairly numerous, and there are small communities of Arabs and 
Hindus. Kunar contains people of the same race as the Chitralis ; 
in Tagao and Laghman Safis are found in considerable numbers, 
especially in the former valley. The Safis speak a language of Indo- 
Aryan origin, resembling that of the inhabitants of Kafiristan. There 
can be little doubt that the Safis were originally Kafirs, who have been 
converted to Islam during the last few centuries. Ningrahar, or 
Nangrahar, the old name of the Jalalabad valley, is now applied to the 
southern portion. Bellew {Races of Afghanistan) writes that it is 
supposed by some to signify ' the nine rivers,' though the valley does 
not contain so many, and is explained to be a combination of the 
Persian nnh, ' nine,' and the Arabic nahar, ' river.' It is, however, 
as he points out, a word of much more ancient date and purely 
of Sanskrit derivation— y/aze'a vihdrd, 'the nine monasteries,' the 
valley having been a flourishing seat of Buddhism so late as the fifth 
century. 

The climate of the plains of Jalalabad bears a general resemblance 
to that of Peshawar. For two months in the hot season the heat is 
excessive. Rain usually falls in the months of December, January, 
and February ; snow rarely, if ever, on the plains east of Gandamak. 
During the winter, from November to May, the wind blows steadily 
from the west, often bringing violent dust-storms. The wide stony 
waste of Batikot is dreaded for a pestilential simoom which blows 
over it in the hot season. 

From an archaeological point of view few tracts are more interesting 
than Jalalabad. Although it has been occupied by Muhammadans for 
a thousand years, there still remain abundant traces of an ancient 
Hindu population. The localities where these remains are found in 
great profusion are at Darunta, at the meeting of the Siah Koh range 
with the Kabul river ; in the plain east of Jalalabad town ; and in 
the vicinity of the small village of Hadda, about six miles south of 
Jalalabad. Three kinds of buildings are met with : namely, topes, 
tumuli, and caves, all undoubtedly Buddhist. In some of the topes 
ancient gold coins of the Eastern Roman Empire — j*?//^/ of Theodosius, 
Marcian, and Leo — have been discovered. Sassanian and old Hindu 
coins have also been found there, but no Graeco-Bactrian. 

Jalalabad Town (i). — The only town in the Jalalabad district 
of Afghanistan, situated in 34° 26' N. and 70° 27' E., 79 miles from 
Peshawar, and loi from Kabul ; 1,950 feet above the sea. The town, 



JALALABAD TAHSiL 13 

which was at one tune the favourite winter residence of the Amirs, is 
an irregular (juadrilateral, surrounded by walls extending for 2,100 
yards. It is a squalid place, presenting few features of interest. It is 
divided into four irregular parts by streets which, starting from the 
various gates, meet in the centre. The permanent population is about 
2,000 ; but this number increases tenfold in the winter, when the tribes 
from the neighbouring hills flock into it on account of its warmer 
climate. It is advantageously situated for trade, being on the main 
route between Peshawar and Kabul, while roads lead from it to Ghazni, 
and, through Laghman, to Badakhshan and Yarkand. The trade 
consists chiefly in the export of fruit and timber to Peshawar, Two 
hundred yards from the west gate of the city is a palace belonging to 
the Amir, but now rarely occupied by him. It is a striking building, 
constructed about 1892, in a garden 200 yards square, surrounded by 
high walls. The palace measures about 135 by 144 feet, has large 
underground rooms for use in the hot season, and a wide veranda all 
round, from which a charming view is obtained of the valley and 
adjacent hills. The climate of Jalalabad is similar to that of Peshawar ; 
the heat for two months in the summer is excessive, and the autumn 
is the unhealthy season. 

Jalalabad was founded in 1570 by the emperor Akbar. The modern 
history of the town dates from 1834, when it was seized and sacked by 
Amir Dost Muhammad. It was occupied by the British during the 
Afghan War of 1839-43, when Sir Robert Sale held it, in the face of 
extraordinary ditiflculties, against the Afghan leader, Muhammad Akbar 
Khan, from November, 1841, to April, 1842. The British forces had 
practically no stock of provisions, and the small garrison had t(j make 
constant sallies. Hardly had the town been made defensible, in 
February, 1842, when an earthquake rendered the previous work 
ineffectual. The ' illustrious garrison,' however, held out, and in April 
an attack was made on the enemy which had the effect of raising the 
siege, A week later General Pollock's force gave permanent relief. 
Jalalabad was again occupied by British troops during the Afghan War 
of 1879-80. The British built a fort, called Fort Sale, about a mile 
east of the town. In this were hospitals and quarters, and these 
buildings, which are still kept in repair, are now occupied by Afghan 
troops. 

Jalalabad Tahsil. — South-western tahstl oi Shahjahanpur District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 27° 35' and 27° 53' N, and 79° 20' and 79° 44' E., with 
an area of 324 square miles. Population increased from 158,798. in 
1 89 1 to 175^674 in 1 90 1, the rate of increase being the highest in the 
District. There are 360 villages and one town, Jalalabad (population, 
7,017), the iahs'U head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 

li 2 



14 JALALABAD TAHSLL 

1903-4 was Rs. 2,17,000, and for cesses Rs. 35,000. The density of 
population, 542 persons per square mile, is about the District average. 
Along the south-western border flows the Ganges, and the Ramganga 
crosses the centre of the tahsil. The Ganges khddar is very poor. 
Beyond the khddar a hard clay plain, called bankati, extends up to the 
Ramganga alluvial tract. The bankati area requires constant irrigation, 
which is supplied by danmiing numerous small streams. Near the 
Ramganga the soil is usually richer, but deposits of sand are occasion- 
ally left by the river floods. East of the Ramganga lies a small tract of 
light sandy soil, requiring irrigation. In 1903-4 the area under culti- 
vation was 225 square miles, of which 65 were irrigated. Rivers supply 
more than half the irrigated area. 

Jalalabad Town (2). —Head-quarters of the tahsil oi the same name 
in Shahjahanpur District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 43' N. and 
79° 40' E., at the junction of the roads from Bareilly and Shah- 
jahanpur to Farrukhabad. Population (1901), 7,017. Jalalabad is an 
old Pathan town, said to have been founded by Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah. 
Its importance has decreased owing to its distance from the railway. 
The houses are chiefly built of mud, and none of the mosques and 
temples is of special interest. The Government offices stand on the 
site of an old fort, and the town also contains a dispensary and a branch 
of the American Methodist Mission. The town is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,500. Trade is only 
local. The tahslli school has about 2 1 1 pupils. 

Jalalabad Town (3). — Town in the Kairana tahs'il of Muzaffarnagar 
District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 37' N. and 77° 27' E., 21 miles 
from Muzaffarnagar town. Population (1901), 6,822. It is said to 
have been founded by a Pathan named Jalal Khan in the reign of 
Aurangzeb. A mile away lie the ruins of the celebrated fort Ghausgarh, 
built by the Rohilla leader, NajTb Khan, with a beautiful mosque which 
was built by his son, Zabita Khan. Jalalabad was often sacked by the 
Marathas during the rule of Zabita Khan, and a Maratha still holds a 
small grant close by. During the Mutiny the Pathans of this place 
remained quiet, and one of their leaders did good service as tahslhidr 
of Thana Bhawan after its capture. The town is administered under 
.\.ct XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,300. There are two 
schools, with more than 100 pupils. 

Jalall. — Town in the District and talis'il of AlTgarh, United I'ro- 
vinces, situated in 27^" 52' N. and 78° 16' E., 11 miles south-east of 
Aligarh town. Population (1901), 8,830. The chief inhabitants are 
the Saiyids, Shiahs by sect. They are descendants of one Kamal-ud- 
din, who settled here about a.d. 1295. This Saiyid family subsequently 
expelled the old Pathan landholders, and obtained full proprietary 
rights in the town, which they slill possess. The family has supfjlied 



JALALPUR VILLAGE 15 

many useful subordinate officers to the British Government. The 
town contains a considerable number of imdmhdras, one of which is 
a handsome building. JalalT is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 1,700. There is a primary school with 
60 pupils, and the Muhammadans maintain several schools for reading 
the Koran. The place has little trade. 

Jalalpur Taluka. — Central tdhtka of Surat District, Bombay, lying 
between 20° 45' and 21° o' N. and 72° 47' and 73° 8' E., with an area 
of 188 square miles. The population in 1901 was 81,182, compared 
with 78,649 in 1891, the average density being 432 persons per square 
mile. The taluka contains 91 villages, Jalalpur being the head-quarters. 
Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to over 3-6 lakhs. 
Jalalpur is a level plain of deep alluvial soil, sloping towards the sea, 
where it ends in a salt marsh. Along the coast-line low sandhills appear 
at intervals. With the exception of the salt lands near the coast, the 
country is rich, highly cultivated, and well supplied with water, groves 
of fruit trees, and valuable timber. The villages are large and pros- 
perous. Besides the tract on the coast, there are extensive salt marshes 
along the banks of the Purna and Ambika rivers. The reclaimed land 
has been made to yield a small return of rice, fowdr, bdjra, and rice 
are the staple crops. Miscellaneous crops are pulses, gram, oilseeds, 
sugar-cane, and plantains. The climate is mild and healthy throughout 
the year. 

Jalalpur Town (i).— Town in the District and fahst/ of Gujrat, 
Punjab, situated in 32° 38^ N. and 74° 12' E., 8 miles north-east of Gujrat 
town. Population (1901), 10,640. Lying at the junction of the roads con- 
necting Sialkot, Jhelum, Jammu, and Gujrat, it is a mart of some impor- 
tance ; but its only local industry is the manufacture of shawls, carried 
on by a colony of Kashmiris who settled here after the famine of 1833. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 9,300, and the expenditure Rs. 8,900. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,900, chiefly derived from octroi ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 10,700. The town possesses two Anglo- 
vernacular middle schools, and two dispensaries, one maintained by 
Government and the other by the Scottish Mission. 

Jalalpur Village (2).— Ancient site in the Pind Dadan Khan faJis'// 
of Jhelum District, Punjab, situated in 32° 39' N. and 73° 28' E., on the 
right bank of the Jhelum river. Population (1901), 3,161. The village 
was identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham with the site of the 
ancient Bucephala, built by Alexander the Great in memory of his 
famous charger, which was killed in the battle with Porus at the crossing 
of the Jhelum ; but doubts have been cast on the identification. 
Remains of ancient walls still crown the summit of the hills, which rise 
to a height of 1,000 feet above the village. Coins found among the 



1 6 JALALPUR VILLAGE 

ruins date back to the period of the Graeco-Ractrian kings. Even in 
the time of Akbar, the town covered a site four times as large as that 
which it now occupies ; but since the foundation of Pind Dadan Khan, 
and the shifting of the river channel 2 miles eastward, it has undergone 
a constant decay. Jalalpur is now nothing more than a small agricul- 
tural village, of no importance apart from the interest attaching to its 
antiquarian remains. 

Jalalpur Town (3) (or Jalalpur Pirwala). — Town in the Shujabad tah- 
«/of Multan District, Punjab, situated in 29*^ 32' N. and 71° 14' E., on the 
banks of an old bed of the Beas called the Bhatari. Population (1901), 
5,149. It is called Pirwala after Saiyid Sultan Ahmad Kattal, generally 
known as Pir Kattal, a Muhammadan saint, pilgrim, and missionary, 
and descendant of Saiyid Jalal of Uch, who died here in 163 1. A fine 
domed building, covered with blue glazed tiles, built in 1745, marks 
his tomb ; and at the large fairs held here on every Friday in the month 
of Chait (March-April), evil spirits are exorcised from Muhammadan 
women by day and from Hindu women by night. The municipality 
was created in 1873. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 5,000, and the expenditure Rs. 5,200. The income in 
T 903-4 was Rs. 4,600, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 5,200. The town has a dispensary, and a vernacular middle school 
maintained by the municipality. Its trade has greatly decayed since 
the opening of the railway. 

Jalalpur Town (4). — Town in the Akbarpur tahs'il of Fyzabad Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 26° 19' N. and 82' 45'' E. Population 
(1901), 7,265. The town is picturesquely placed on the high bank of 
the Tons (Eastern), which winds in a deep channel through a fertile 
and well-wooded landscape. An imdmbdra outside the town was built 
in the eighteenth century at a cost of Rs. 4,000 by contribution from 
the weavers, each man contributing a quarter of a pice for each piece 
of cloth woven by him. Jalalpur is administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,500. There is still a flourishing 
manufacture of cotton cloth, but many of the Julahas (Muhammadan 
weavers) go to Bombay, Calcutta, and Cawnpore to work in the mills. 
A school has 235 pupils. 

Jalandhar, — Division, District, tahs'iI, and town in the Punjab. 

See JULLUNDUR. 

Jalangi (or Kharia). — One of the three rivers of Nadia District, 
Bengal, known as the Nadia Rivers, the other two being the Bha- 
(HRATHi and the Matabhanga. The JalangT leaves the Ganges, at 
the point where it enters Nadia District in 24° ii'N. and 88° 43' E., 
and meanders along the north-west of the District for 50 miles, 
separating it from Murshidabad. It then flows to the south past 
Krishnagar, the chief town of the District, whence it turns westward, 



JALA UN DISTRICT 1 7 

and after a total course of 121 miles meets the Bhagirathi at Nadia 
town in 23'' 25' N. and 88° 24' E., the united stream taking the name 
of the HooGHi.Y. The JalangI, which was at one time the principal 
outlet for the Ganges, has, like the other head-waters of the Hooghly, 
a tendency to silt up, and 36 miles of the upper JalangI have in fact 
almost entirely closed. It now derives its main water-supply from the 
Ganges through the old channel of the upper Bhairab, and with it 
forms part of the Nadia Rivers system. Considerable difficulties 
have been experienced in keeping the channel open for navigation. 
The JalangI is navigable during the rainy season by country boats of 
4 tons burden, but in the hot season it is httle more than a string of 
marshes connected by shoals and is fordable at many points. Navi- 
gation is always a matter of great difficulty at this time, and is in 
most years impossible. The principal marts on its banks are Krish- 
nagar, Karlmpur, Chapra, and Swanlpganj ; their trade is chiefly in 
grain, oilseeds, and molasses. 

Jalapahar. — Hill in the head-quarters subdivision of Darjeeling 
District, Bengal, situated in 27° i' N. and 88° 16" E., above the station 
of Darjeeling. Jalapahar, which forms part of Darjeeling cantonment, 
is a convalescent depot garrisoned by a company of the British infantry 
regiment quartered at Lebong. Barracks were built at Jalapahar as 
far back as 1848, but these have been enlarged and now provide 
accommodation for 400 men. The parade ground is 7,520 feet above 
sea-level. 

Jalarpet. — Village in the Tiruppattur taluk of Salem District, 
Madras, situated in 12° 35^ N. and 78° 34' E. Population (1901), 
2,051. It is of importance owing to its railway station, which is the 
junction of the south-west line of the Madras Railway with the Banga- 
lore branch. Of late years it has also been the station at which 
passengers proceeding towards Madras have been examined to make 
sure that they are free from plague. Distance from Madras 132 miles, 
from Bangalore 87 miles. 

Jalaun District. — District in the Allahabad Division of the United 
Provinces, lying between 25° 46' and 26° 27' N. and 78° 56' and 
79°52''E., with an area of 1,480 square miles. Jalaun is the most 
northern of the Districts of British Bundelkhand, and is roughly 
triangular in shape, the boundaries being chiefly formed by the Jumna 
and its tributaries, the Betwa and Pahuj. On the north and north-east 
the Jumna divides it from Etawah and Cawnpore ; on the south-east 
its greatly indented boundary marches with that of the BaonI State ; 
on the south the Betwa separates Jalaun from Jhansi and Hamlrpur, 
and the Samthar State forms part of the boundary ; on the west the 
Pahuj generally runs between Jalaun and the State of Gwalior, except 
where a portion of the Datia State enters the former like a wedge. 



t8 /a la UN nrSTJ^ICT 

Jalaun lies entirely within the level plain of Bundelkhand. Its highest 

portions are on the borders, especially near the Jumna, 

Physical ^yhile the lowlands occupy the central part and are 
aspects. . ^-^ . 

chiefly drained by two separate channels which unite 

as they approach the Jumna, the combined stream being called the 

Non. An important feature of these channels, and still more so of 

the larger rivers, is the intricate reticulation of deep ravines which 

fringe them, including about one-fifth of the total area of the District. 

The course of the Jumna is from north-west to south-east, while the 

Pahiij runs from south to north and the Betwa from west to east. The 

junction of the Pahuj with the Jumna is on the northern frontier. 

Jalaun consists almost entirely of alluvium. Kaiikar or nodular 
limestone is the chief mineral found ; but stone and gravel are 
obtained near Saidnagar. 

The District presents no peculiarities from a botanical point of view. 
It is very sparsely w'ooded, especially in the black-soil tracts in the 
south. Balnd {Acacia arabica) is found everywhere in waste land, 
while khair {Acacia Catechu) grows in the ravines. Plantations of 
babul under the management of the Forest department are being 
undertaken near Kalpi to supply the Cawnpore tanneries. Kans grass 
{Saccharuyn spontaneuin) is a great pest, recurring in cycles. 

Tigers are hardly ever met with, but wild hog, antelope, leopards, 
and hyenas are numerous. The poorer classes residing on the banks 
of the three principal rivers use fish as an article of diet to a con- 
siderable extent. 

The climate is hot and dry, but not unhealthy. The average 
monthly temperature ranges from about 65° in January to 96-5° in 
May. The annual rainfall over the whole District averages 32 inches, 
and there is little difference between the amounts received in diff"erent 
portions. Great variations occur, however, from year to year. In 
1868-9 the fall was only 13 inches, while it was as much as 51 inches 
in 1894-5. 

No details are known of the ancient history of this tract, which was 

not a political entity till the eighteenth century. The town of Kalpi 

was conquered by Kutb-ud-din in 1196. Owing to 
History. .^ . ^^ -^ ,. . ^ . .'=,, 

its importance as guarding a main crossing ot the 

Jumna, it was held by a strong garrison and became a starting-point 

for expeditions into Central India and the Deccan, and later a fortress 

on the route from Agra to Bengal. In the long struggle between the 

kings of Delhi and Jaunpur during the first eighty years of the fifteenth 

century Kalpi was the scene of fierce battles and sieges. The Hindu 

confederacy against Babar met here, and advanced to experience 

a crushing defeat near Fatehpur Sikri in Agra District. During the 

next thirty years Kalpi was taken and retaken several times, and under 



HISTORY T9 

Akbar it became the head-quarters of a sarkCxr. The Bundelas had for 
a short time held Kalpi in the fourteenth century, and towards the end 
of Akbar's reign assumed a threatening attitude. Bir Singh Deo, Raja 
of Orchha, occupied the greater part of Jalaun District and was con- 
firmed in his possessions by Jahangir. He revolted when Shah J^ihan 
came to the throne, and after a long struggle lost all his influence in 
this tract. Another branch of the Bundelas which had gradually 
acquired power in Hamlrpur District now became prominent, and 
Chhatarsal, its great leader, included Jalaun in his dominions. Early 
in the eighteenth century, however, when attacked by the governor of 
Allahabad, he called in the Marathas to aid him. At his death about 
1734 he bequeathed one-third of his possessions, including this Dis- 
trict, to his allies. Under Maratha rule the country was a prey to 
constant anarchy and intestine strife. In the wars which took place at 
the close of the eighteenth century Kalpi was taken by the British in 
1798, but subsequently abandoned. Part of the District was ceded by 
the Peshwa in 1803 for the maintenance of troops, by a treaty modi- 
fying the terms of the Treaty of Bassein a year earlier ; but the fort of 
Kalpi was held by Gobind Rao on behalf of Shamsher Bahadur {see 
Banda District) and was taken after a short siege. A tract near the 
Jumna was assigned to Himmat Bahadur, who had aided the British, 
and in 1806 Gobind Rao submitted and was restored to his possessions. 
Portions of the present District in the Kalpi and Kunch tahsils were 
included in the British District of Bundelkhand. The Jalaun estate 
was seriously misgoverned, and in 1838 the British Government 
assumed its management. It lapsed in 1840, and during the next few 
years additions were made by conquest, by treaties with the Rajas of 
Jhansi and Gwalior, and by lapse. In 1853 the southern portion of 
the present Hamlrpur District, which had been administered by the 
Deputy-Superintendent of Jalaun, was transferred to Hamlrpur, and 
Kunch and Kalpi were attached to Jalaun. In 1854 and 1856 further 
transfers were made to Jhansi District, and Jalaun assumed its present 
form subject to a further transfer to Sindhia in 186 1. 

News of the rising at Cawnpore reached Orai early in June, and 
shortly afterwards intelligence arrived that the Europeans at Jhansi 
had been massacred. Thereupon the men of the 53rd Native Infantry 
deserted; and on June 15 the Jhansi mutineers reached the District 
and murdered all the Europeans on whom they could lay their hands. 
Meanwhile Kesho Rao, chief of Gursarai, assumed supreme authority. 
He kept a few European officers as prisoners for some months, until 
after the defeat of the infamous Nana Sahib and his flight from Cawn- 
pbre ; but those events induced him to change his tone and to treat 
with Colonel Neill for their restoration. After sending them in safety 
10 Cawnpore, the chief established himself for a time at Jalaun ; but 



20 JALA UN DISTRICT 

upon the arrival of Tantia Topi in October the usual anarchic quarrels 
arose. Kesho Rao was deposed ; his son was seized by the rebels ; 
and the mutineers of Jalaun, joining those of Gwalior, set out for 
Cawnpore. Meanwhile the populace everywhere revelled in the licence 
of plunder and murder which the Mutiny had spread through Bundel- 
khand. In May, 1858, after the fall of Jhansi, Sir Hugh Rose's force 
entered the District and routed the rebels at Kunch. There he left 
some troops of the Gursarai chief, whose allegiance had returned with 
the advent of the British forces. A Deputy-Commissioner was put in 
charge of the District at Kunch, and Sir Hugh Rose advanced to attack 
the strong rebel position at Kalpi. On May 23 he drove them from 
that post and shortly afterwards marched in pursuit towards Gwalior. 
Unfortunately he was unable to leave any troops in garrison, except 
a small body to guard the passage at Kalpi ; and accordingly on his 
withdrawal the western portion of the District relapsed once more into 
anarchy. Plundering went on as before ; and in July and August the 
rebels again attacked and pillaged Kunch and Jalaun. The latter 
town was immediately recovered by a detachment from the garrison at 
KalpT ; but it was not till September that the guerrilla leaders were 
defeated, and some further time elapsed before the work of re- 
organization could be effected. 

Jalaun was treated as 'non-regulation' up to 1891, when it was made 
subject to the ordinary laws in force in the United Provinces, some 
of which had already been introduced. 

The District is not rich in antiquities. A few carved pillars and 
stones which may possibly be of the Chandel period have been found 
at Orai. The great battle in which Prithwl Raj of Delhi defeated 
Parmal, the last great Chandel ruler of Bundelkhand, is said to have 
taken place at a village called Akori in the Orai tahs'il. Kalpi, the 
most celebrated historical place in the District, contains a number 
of Muhammadan tombs. 

There are 6 towns and 837 villages in Jalaun. Population shows 
considerable fluctuations, owing to the vicissitudes of season to which 
all Bundelkhand is liable. The numbers at the last 
four enumerations were as follows: (1872) 404,447, 
(1881) 418,142, (1891) 399,361, and (1901) 399,726. There are four 
tahs'ih — Orai, Kalpi, Jalaun, and Kunch — each named from its 
head-quarters. The principal towns are the municipalities of Kunch, 
KalpI, and Orai, the District head-quarters. The table on the next 
page gives the chief statistics of population in 1901, 

Hindus form nearly 94 per cent, of the total population, and Musal- 
mans only 6 per cent. The density of population is considerably 
higher than in the other Bundelkhand Districts, owing to the absence 
of the rocky hills and jungle wastes which characterize the latter. 



AGRTCULTURE 



2T 



Jalaun was tlie only Bundelkhand District in wliich the population did 
not decrease between 1891 and 1901, and this result may .safely be 
ascribed to the Betwa Canal. Practically the whole population speaks 
Western Hindi, the prevailing dialect being Bundeli. 



Ta/isil. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and igoi. 




3 D * 

<u 
0. 

3.445 
2,674 

6,959 
4.451 


CO 

1 


Villages. 


Orai . 
KalpT . 
Jalaun . 
Kiinch . 

District total 


3" 
407 
424 
338 


2 

2 

I 


105 
154 
381 
197 


59.065 

75,692 

160,381 

104,588 


190 
186 
378 
309 


-12.7 

- 3-9 
+ 9-0 

+ 1-7 


1,480 


6 


837 


399.726 


270 


+ 0.8 


17.529 

1 



Agriculture. 



Chamars (leather-workers and cultivators), 68,000, are the most 
numerous Hindu caste. Other large castes are Brahmans, 50,000 ; 
Rajputs, 35,000 ; Kachhis (cultivators), 27,000 ; Korls (weavers), 
20,000; and Ahirs (graziers), 19,000. The Basors (5,000) and Khan- 
gars (6,000) are menial classes peculiar to this part of Bundelkhand. 
Among Musalmans, there are 11,000 Shaikhs and 6,000 Pathans, but 
many of these are descended from converted Hindus. Agriculture sup- 
ports 61 per cent, of the total population, and general labour 10 per 
cent. Rajputs, KurmTs, and Brahmans are the chief land-holders. 

There were 59 native Christians in 1901, but no missions have 
permanent stations in the District. 

The southern portion of Jalaun forms a rich basin of the black soils 
of Bundelkhand (war and kdl>ar), in which excellent wheat can be 
grown in favourable seasons without irrigation. Un- 
fortunately it becomes overgrown, when cultivation is 
relaxed, by the weed called kaiis, which spreads rapidly and finally 
stops the plough. Towards the north the soil is brown or yellow, 
called parxvd; this resembles the loam of the Doab and requires 
irrigation. Near the ravines which border the rivers, the soil is 
denuded of its more valuable constituents and becomes exceedingly 
poor ; but there is valuable grazing near the Jumna and Betwa, and ghl 
is made by the AhIrs who graze large herds of cattle there. Field 
embankments are also made, which prevent erosion and, by holding 
up water, stop the growth of kdn$ and retain moisture. 

The ordinary tenures of the United Provinces are found, zarnlnddri 
Siwd paftlddri 7nahdls being the commonest. A few estates are held on 
the uhd7T. tenure, which implies a reduction of the full revenue demand 
on varying conditions {see Jhansi District). The main agricultural 
statistics for 1 899-1 901 ^ are given on the next page, in square miles. 
^ Later figures are not available owing to settlement operations. 



22 



fALAUN DTSTRICT 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Orai .... 

KalpI 

Jalaun 

Kuncli 

Total 


311 

407 
424 
338 


134 

158 

234 


2 
9 

25 
II 


So 

114 

73 

41 


1,480 


801 


47 


308 



The principal food-crops are gram, y^^ze/Jr, and wheat, which covered 
333) 123, and 103 square miles respectively. Arhar (81 square miles), 
bdjra (69), and barley (15) are less important. Oilseeds (48 square 
miles) and cotton (59) are the chief non-food crops ; but hemp {san) 
and poppy are also grown to a small extent. 

Jalaun, like the rest of Bundelkhand, is liable to great fluctuations in 
agricultural prosperity. If the spring harvest is injured, whether by 
blight or by excess or deficiency of rain, cultivation relaxes, or wheat is 
replaced by inferior staples, and kdns spreads rapidly, throwing land 
out of cultivation. No material improvements have been made in agri- 
cultural methods, though many years ago it was attempted to introduce 
American varieties of cotton near KalpT. Endeavours are now being 
made to encourage rice cultivation, and an experimental farm is under 
consideration. Part of the District has been rendered more secure by 
canal-irrigation, which will be referred to later. Advances under the 
Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts are freely taken, 
especially in bad years. A total of 5 lakhs was advanced during the 
ten years ending 1900, including 3 lakhs in the two famine years 
1895-7 ; and Rs. 16,000 was lent between 1900 and 1904. 

The cattle of Jalaun are inferior to those found south of the Betwa. 
Attempts have been made to introduce better strains, but hitherto 
without success. No horses are bred, and the ponies, sheep, and 
goats are all of an ordinary type. 

Up to 1886 the District had no sources of irrigation except wells; 
and owing to the peculiarities of the black soils, mar and kdbar, and 
the great depth of the spring-level the area irrigated was' small. The 
opening of the Betwa Canal has led to a considerable increase in the 
irrigated area. This work enters the District in the south-west and has 
two branches, which supply almost every part of the District. Though 
the cultivators did not at first take water readily, the famine of 1896-7 
opened their eyes to the value of the canal. In that year the area irri- 
gated, which had been only 12 square miles in 1894-5, rose to 128 
square miles. Water is now freely taken for panva, or loam ; and the 
area of black soil irrigated, especially kdbar, is increasing steadily. 
The area irrigated in 1899-1901 from canals was 38, and from wells 
9 square miles. At present the irrigation is almost entirely confined to 



FAMIXE 23 

the spring crops, as the supply is exhausted by the beginnuig of the 
hot season ; but a second reservoir is being constructed to increase 
the supply. 

Kankar or calcareous limestone and saltpetre are the only mineral 
products. 

Jalaun was formerly noted for the production of cotton cloth ; but 
the competition of machine-made cloth from Cawnpore has materially 
affected the industry, and the cultivation of a/ 
{Morinda citrifolia), from which a \aluable red dye communications, 
was made, has ceased since the introduction of aniline 
colours. Cotton-dyeing and printing still survive on a small scale at 
Saidnagar and Kotra. There are two small cotton-gins at Kalpi and 
a larger one at Ait, while another has recently been completed at 
Kunch. 

The principal exports are gram, oilseeds, cotton, and gh'i. The bark 
of the babul is now being sent in increasing quantities to Cawnpore for 
use in tanning, and a plantation is being made near Kalpi. The gram 
is sent to Southern and Western India, oilseeds to Bombay, cotton to 
Cawnpore and Bombay, and ghl to Bengal. Kunch, Kalpi, Jalaun, 
Rampura, and Madhogarh are the chief trade centres. 

The south of the 1 )istrict is crossed by the Indian Midland section of 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway from Jhansi to Cawnpore, and a 
short branch connects Ait with Kunch. There are 669 miles of roads, 
of which 130 are metalled. The latter are in charge of the Public 
A^'orks department, but the cost of all but 45 miles of metalled roads is 
met from Local funds. Avenues of trees are maintained on 109 miles. 
The main lines are the roads from Cawnpore and Saugor, and from 
Orai to Kunch, Jalaun, and Madhogarh. 

Drought and blight are the two great scourges of Jalaun, and famine 
and scarcity occurred in 1783, in 1833, in 1837, and in 1S48. The 
rains of 1868 failed and the autunm harvest was only 
about one-third of the normal, while the following 
spring harvest, which benefited by an op[)ortune fall in September, 1868, 
gave rather more than half an average crop. There was great distress, 
especially in the remote southern villages, until the monsoon of 1869, 
and relief was given and works were opened. A still worse calamity was 
experienced in the years 1895-7. Previous seasons had injured the 
crops and kans had spread considerably. The rains of 1895 ceased 
prematurely, and relief was necessary early in 1896. By May the 
numbers on relief rose above 40,000, but the approach of the rains 
sent the people back to their villages. The monsoon of 1896, however, 
was even weaker than that of the previous year, and relief operations 
were again required. By April, 1897, there were 127,000 persons in 
receipt of relief, and before the next harvest nearly 35 per cent, of the 



24 



JALAUN DISTRICT 



Administration. 



total population had been relieved. Between October, 1896, and 
the same month in 1897 nearly 12 lakhs was spent by Government. 

The Collector is assisted by three Deputy-Collectors recruited in 
India, and a tahsilddr is stationed at the head- 
quarters of each tahs'il. 

There is one regular Munsif. Jalaun lies in the jurisdiction of the 
Civil Judge and Sub-Judge of Jhansi, and also in the Jhansi Sessions 
division. A Special Judge is at present carrying out inquiries under the 
Bundelkhand Encumbered Estates Act. Crime is on the whole light, 
but outbreaks of dacoities occur not infrequently, and the difficulty 
in breaking up gangs is increased by the proximity of Native States. 

The District includes three large estates, Rampura, Jagamanpur, 
and Gopalpura, for which no detailed statistics are available, the total 
area of the three being about 85 square miles. A fixed revenue of 
Rs. 4,500 is paid for Jagamanpur, and the other two are held revenue 
free. For the first time since its existence in its present form, the 
settlement of the whole of Jalaun District is now being revised simul- 
taneously. Portions of the Kunch and Kalpi fahslls were first settled 
as part of the Bundelkhand District and afterwards of Hamirpur, the 
first regular settlement being made in 1840-1. This was revised in 
the usual manner in 1872, the term being fixed for thirty years. The 
remainder of the District was assessed summarily for short terms from 
1S39 to 1863. The first regular settlement, which should have com- 
menced earlier, but was postponed by the Mutiny, was carried out 
between i860 and 1863, and was confirmed for a period of twenty 
years. It was revised between 1885 and 1887, and the operations are 
noteworthy as being the first in the United Provinces in whicli the 
rules directed that rent-rolls should form the chief basis of assessment. 
At that time the revenue of the portions settled in 1872 was 2-9 lakhs. 
The revenue on the rest of the District was enhanced from 6-3 to 
7-5 lakhs, the demand falling at 47 per cent, of the corrected rental. 
A series of bad seasons followed, and in 1893 reductions were made. 
The famine of 1895-7 necessitated further reductions of revenue, 
and in 1903-4 the demand stood at 9-8 lakhs. The whole District 
has now been brought under the special system of settlement in 
force in Bundelkhand, by which revenue is liable to revision every 
five years. 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have 
been, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880-1. 

9,10 
11,81 


1 890- 1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


10,35 
13,58 


9,39 
12,28 


8,02 
9,01 



JALA UN TAHSIL 25 

There are three uuinicipaHties, and two towns are administered under 
Act XX of 1856. Beyond the hmits of these, local affairs are managed 
by the District board, which had an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 87,000, 
half of which was derived from rates. The expenditure was Rs. 88,000, 
including Rs. 50,000 spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has a force of 3 inspectors, 
S3 subordinate officers, and 360 constables, distributed in 17 police 
stations, besides 100 municipal and town police, and 1,200 rural and 
road police. A special force is maintained along the frontier of the 
Native States as a guard against dacoits. The District jail contained 
a daily average of 157 prisoners in 1903. 

Jalaun takes a high place as regards the literacy of its inhabitants, 
of whom 4-4 (8-4 males and o-i females) could read and write in 1901. 
The total number of public schools rose from 102 with 2,530 pupils in 
1880-1 to 112 with 3,944 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 
140 such institutions with 5,184 pupils, including 271 girls, besides 
58 private schools with 890 pupils. The education imparted is almost 
entirely primary, and only six schools were classed as secondary. No 
schools are managed by Government, but 92 are managed by the 
District and municipal boards. Out of a total expenditure on 
education of Rs. 26,000, Local funds provided Rs. 22,000 and fees 
Rs. 4,000. 

There are 7 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
73 in-patients. About 55,000 cases were treated in 1903, including 
895 in-patients, and 2,600 operations were performed. The total 
expenditure was Rs. 13,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

In 1903-4, 15,000 persons were successfully vaccinated, represent- 
ing a proportion of 37 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is com- 
pulsory only in the municipalities. 

{^District Gazetteer, 1874 (under revision); Settlement Reports by 
P. J. White, Kiinch, 1874; Ka/pt, 1875; remaining portion of District, 
1889.] 

Jalaun Tahsil. — Northern tahsJl of Jalaun District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the pargana of Jalaun and part of Madhogarh, and 
lying between 26° and 26° 27' N. and 79° 3' and 79° 31' E., with 
an area of 424 square miles. Population increased from 147,090 in 
1891 to 160,381 in 1901, the rate of increase being the highest in the 
District. There are 381 villages and two towns, including Jalaun 
(population, 8,573), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3, 16,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The 
density of population, 378 persons per square mile, is the highest in 
the District. The tahsil is bordered on the west by the Pahuj and 
on the north by the Jumna, both of these rivers having a fringe of 
ravines. In the south and east the rich black soil called mar is found \ 



2 6 /A LA UN TAHSiL 

but this tract has suffered recently from bad seasons. North of the 
/)idr is a tract of kabar, or Hghter-coloured soil, which largely depends 
on rain at particular seasons for its cultivation. The north, west, and 
north east of the tahsi/ consists of a loam tract, which is served by the 
Kuthaund branch of the Betwa Canal, and is one of the most stable 
portions of this very precarious District. In 1 900-1 the area under 
cultivation was 275 square miles, of which 25 were irrigated. 

Jalaun Town. — Head-quarters of the hx/isll oi the same name in 
Jalaun District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 8' N. and 79° 21' E., 
im a metalled road 13 miles from Orai, the District head-quarters. 
Population (1901), 8,573. During the eighteenth century Jalaun was 
the capital of a Maratha State, and nearly all the respectable inhabi- 
tants are still Maratha Brahmans, many of whom enjoy pensions and 
rent-free grants. Besides the tahsili offices, the town contains a dis- 
pensary and a iahslli school with 144 pupils. It is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,300. Trade is small, 
but increasing. A fine market was built in 1881, and a number of 
Marwari bankers are settled here. 

Jalesar Tahsil. — South-western tahsil of Etah District, United Pro- 
vinces, conterminous with \}i\it pargana of the same name, lying between 
27° 18' and 27° 35' N. and 78° 11' and 78° 31' E., with an area of 
227 square miles. Population increased from 121,030 in 1891 to 
133,399 in 1 90 1. There are 156 villages and two towns, including 
Jalesar (population, 14,348), the tahsil head-quarters. The de- 
mand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,76,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 45,000 ; but under the new settlement these figures will be raised 
to Rs. 2,88,000 and Rs. 47,000. The density of population, 588 per- 
sons per square mile, is the highest in the District. The tahsil forms 
an almost unbroken plain. The Rind or Arind touches the north-east 
corner ; but the chief river is the Sengar, known in this part of its 
course also as the Lsan. Irrigation is provided by means of the Etawah 
branch of the Upper Ganges Canal. The tahsil is generally fertile, but 
is crossed by a line of sandhills, and is interspersed with patches of 
barren soil or itsar and marshes. The drainage has recently been 
improved. In 1898-9 the area under cultivation was 148 square miles, 
of wliicli 87 were irrigated. The canal serves more than a third of the 
irrigated area, and wells supply most of the remainder. In dry seasons 
the Sengar or lsan is largely used as a source of irrigation. 

Jalesar Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Etah District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 28' N. and 78° 19' E., 
on the road from Muttra to Etah town, 8^ miles from Jalesar Road 
station on the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 14,348. The 
town consists of two parts, the fort and the lower town. The fort is 
said to have been erected by a Rana of Mewar in the fifteenth century \ 



/ALGA ON TALUK A 27 

but nothing remains of the buildings except a mound on which the 
tahsill, mutisifi, police station, and municipal hall now stand. The 
lower town is a collection of narrow streets and lanes, the drainage 
of which was very defective, but the municipality has completed an 
efficient drainage scheme, through the Canal department. The streets 
are well paved and there is a dispensary. Jalesar has been a muni- 
cipality since 1866. During the ten years ending 1901 the income 
and expenditure averaged Rs. 10,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 14,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 11,000); and the expenditure 
was Rs. 13,000. There is not much trade ; but cotton cloth, glass 
bangles, and pewter ornaments are made, and the largest saltpetre 
factory in the District is situated here. The Raja of Awa has opened 
a cotton-gin, which employed 125 hands in 1903. A tahslH school has 
about 130 pupils, and the municipality maintains two schools and aids 
six others with a total attendance of 331. 

Jaleswar (or Jellasore). — Village in the head-quarters subdivision 
of Balasore District, Bengal, situated in 21° 49' N. and 87° 13' E., on 
the left bank of the Subarnarekha, 12 miles from its mouth. It lies 
on the Calcutta high road, and is also a station (Jellasore) on the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway. It was formerly the capital of a Muham- 
madan sarkar comprising the present District of Midnapore. During 
the eighteenth century the East India Company had a factory here. 

Jalgaon Taluk. — Taluk of Buldana District, Berar, lying between 
20° 65' and 21° 13' N. and 76° 23'' and 76° 48' E., with an area of 
410 square miles. The population fell from 97,798 in 1891 to 87,192 
in 1 90 1, the density in the latter year being 212 persons per square 
mile. The tdluk contains 155 villages and one town, Jalgaon (popu- 
lation, 8,487), the head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 3,54,000, and for cesses Rs. 28,000. Jalgaon, which 
is the smallest taluk in Berar in respect of area and, except the Mel- 
ghat, of population also, lies entirely in the fertile valley of the Purna, 
which bounds it on the south. On the north it is bounded by the 
low hills of the western portion of the Gawilgarh range. Until August, 
1905, when it was transferred to Buldana, the tdluk formed part of 
Akola District. 

Jalgaon Town (i). — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Buldana District, Berar, situated in 21° 3' N and 76° 35' E. Popu- 
lation (1901), 8,487. The town is sometimes called Jalgaon-Jamod 
from a village near it, to distinguish it from Jalgaon in Khandesh. 
It is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbai-l as a pargaiia town in the sarkar 
of Narnala. It contains five ginning factories and a cotton market. 

Jalgaon Taluka. — Tdluka of East Khandesh District, Bombay, 
lying between 20^ 47'' and 21° 11' N. and 75° 24' and 75° 45' E., 
with an area of 319 square miles. There are two towns, Jalgaon 

VOL. XIV. c 



28 JALGAON TALUK A 

(population, 16,259), the head-quarters, and Nasirabad (12,176) ; 
and 89 villages. The population in 1901 was 85,151, ' compared 
with 83,982 in 1871. The density, 269 persons to the square mile, 
is much above the District average. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was 2-8 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 18,000. Jalgaon is a rich 
black plain to the north, and hilly or undulating to the south. The 
climate is generally healthy. 

Jalgaon Town (2). — Head-quarters of East Khandesh District, 
Bombay, and of the taluka of the same name, situated in 21° \' N. and 
75° 35' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 261 miles north- 
east of Bombay. Population (1901), 16,259. Situated in the centre of 
a rich cotton-growing District, Jalgaon rose in the nineteenth century to 
the position of an important mercantile town. During the American 
Civil War (1862-5) it was the great cotton mart of Khandesh. It 
suffered severely from the fall in value at the close of the war, but 
its trade has recovered. The chief articles of commerce are cotton, 
linseed, and sesamum. In 1903 there were 6 cotton-presses, 2 large 
cotton-ginning factories, and one cotton-spinning and weaving mill, 
all worked by steam. In the same year the number of looms was 
425 and of spindles 20,948, while the out-turn amounted to 2 million 
pounds of yarn and \\ million pounds of cloth. The town has been 
greatly improved. A new suburb, Pollen-peth, has been built, and a 
market-place laid out. The municipality has made a garden on the site 
of part of the old cotton market. One of the most striking of many 
handsome buildings in the new suburb is a three-storeyed dweHing 
built by the pdtel or headman of Patri. Water is carried through 
iron pipes from the Mehrun lake, 2 miles distant. A metalled road 
connects Jalgaon and Neri, 14 miles distant, 24 miles beyond which 
are the celebrated Ajanta caves. The municipality was created in 
1864. The municipal income during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 37,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 41,000. The town con- 
tains a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, and six schools, 
with 574 pupils, of which one, with 63 pupils, is for girls. A branch 
of the American Alliance Mission has recently been established 
here. 

Jalia Amaraji.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jalia Devani. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jalia Manaji. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jalna Hills. — Range of hills in Hyderabad State, running east- 
ward from Daulatabad in Aurangabad District. Close to the border 
of Berar it is joined by a spur of hills from Jiilna in the south, from 
which the range derives its name. After entering Berar it merges 
into the Sahyadriparvat or Satmala range. The Jalna Hills are about 
2,400 feet high, one of the peaks, Daulatabad, being 3,022 feet 



J A LOR 2Q 

above the level of the sea. The total length of the range is about 
1 20 miles. 

Jalna Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Aurangabad District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 801 square miles. Its population in 1901, in- 
cluding Jaglrs, was 113,400, compared with 129,832 in 1891, the 
decrease being due to the famines of 1897 and 1890- 1900. The 
iil/uk contains two towns, Jalna (population, 20,270), the head- 
quarters, and Kadirabad (11,159), ^ la-rge commercial centre; and 
219 villages, of which 52 2ixe Jdgir. The land revenue in 1901 was 
2'5 lakhs. The country is composed of black cotton soil, and is 
hilly towards the north and east. 

Jalna Town. — Head-quarters of the hl/i/k of the same name in 
Aurangabad District, Hyderabad State, situated in 19° 51' N. and 
75° 54' E., on the right bank of the Kundlika, opposite the town of 
Kadirabad. Population (1901), 20,270, of whom 13,851 were Hindus, 
5,812 Musalmans, and 317 Christians. According to local traditions, 
Jalna was founded in the time of Rama. During Slta's residence it 
was styled Jankapur, but the name was changed to Jalna by a rich 
Musalman weaver. Abul Fazl, Akbar's minister, resided here for a 
time, and Aurangzeb is said to have visited the place occasionally 
during his viceroyalty. The only public buildings of any note are 
a mosque and a handsome stone sarai, erected according to the 
inscriptions on them in 1568, and a Turkish bath. The town also 
contains a number of less important mosques and shrines, besides 
three Hindu temples, the principal one being that of Anandi Swami, 
which is of considerable size. The fort of Jalna, which was built in 
1725, is now in ruins. Its gardens produce large quantities of fruit, 
which is exported to Bombay and elsewhere. The cantonment of 
Jalna, till recently a station of the Hyderabad Contingent, lies to 
the east of the town ; it was built in 1827, but has been abandoned 
since 1903. There are several places of Christian worship, with a 
couple of schools attached. 

Jalor. — Head-quarters of a district of the same name in the State 
of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 25° 21^ N. and 72° 37' E., 75 miles 
south of Jodhpur city. Population (1901), 7,443. It possesses a post 
office, an Anglo-vernacular school, and a hospital with accommodation 
for 8 in-patients. The principal manufactures are cotton cloth, 
camel saddles, and prettily engraved drinking vessels of bell-metal. 
On a hill to the south and entirely commanding the town stands 
the fort, one of the most famous in Rajputana. Built by the Para- 
mara Rajputs, its walls, composed of huge masses of cut stone, remain 
even now in a perfect state of preservation, although the place has 
been many times besieged. The fort is about 800 by 400 yards in 
extent, and accessible only by an ascent of 3 miles up a steep and 

c 2 



30 J A LOR 

slippery stone roadway, passing three distinct lines of defence, all 
of considerable strength. Jalor was held by the Paramaras till to- 
wards the end of the twelfth century, when the Chauhan Rao Kirthi 
Pal (of Nadol) took it and made it his capital. His grandson Udai 
Singh surrendered it to Shams-ud-din Altamsh about 1210, but it 
was immediately restored to him. About 100 years later, Ala-ud- 
dln, after a lengthy siege, captured it from Kanardeo Chauhan, and 
a three-domed mosque^ said to have been built by him, is still in 
good repair and daily use. About 1540 the fort and district passed 
into the possession of Raja Maldeo of Jodhpur. 

Jalpaiguri District.— District in the north-east of the Rajshahi 
Division, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 26° and 27° N. 
and 88° 20' and 89° 53' E., with an area of 2,962 square miles. It is 
bounded on the north by Darjeeling and the State of Bhutan ; on the 
south by Dinajpur, Rangpur, and the State of Cooch Behar ; on the 
west by Dinajpur, Purnea, and Darjeeling ; on the east the Sankos 
river separates it from the Goalpara District of Assam. 

The District comprises two well-defined tracts, which differ alike in 

history and in administration. The older portion, which is known as 

the Regulation tract because it is administered under 

Pnysica ^^ ordinary laws and regulations in force in Bengal 

proper, lies for the most part west of the Tlsta, 

though it comprises also the Patgram tJiana east of that river. It 

originally formed part of Rangpur, which it closely resembles. The 

continuous expanse of level paddy-fields is broken only by the groves 

of bamboos, palms, and fruit-trees which encircle the homesteads of 

the substantial tenant-farmers. In this tract there is but little untilled 

land, with the exception of an extensive and once valuable sal {Shorea 

robustd) forest of 60 square miles, which belongs to the Raikat of 

Baikuntpur. 

East of the Tista, and hemmed in between the States of Cooch 
Behar on the south and Bhutan on the north, lies a strip of submontane 
country 22 miles in width, which was annexed from Bhutan in 1865, 
and is known as the Western Duars. This part of the District is 
flat except in the north-east corner, where the Sinchula Hills rise 
abruptly to a height of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. On an outlying 
spur of this range, 2,000 feet in height, is built the military station of 
BuxA, which commands one of the principal passes into Bhutan. 

The scenery along the foot of the mountains, where the great rivers 
debouch upon the plains, is very grand and beautiful, the blue outline 
of the Bhutan range forming a magnificent background. The principal 
rivers, proceeding from west to east, are the Mahananda, Karatova, 
TisTA, Jaldhaka, Duduya, Mujnai, Torsa, Kaljani, Raidak, and San- 
kos, which all flow down from the hills in a southerly direction and 



JALFAIGURl DISTRICT 31 

ultimately discharge their waters by various channels into the Ganges 
or the Brahmaputra. They are constantly changing their main chan- 
nels, and the country is everywhere seamed by deserted river-beds. 
The Jaldhaka, or Di-chu, drains the eastern slopes of the Rishi La in 
Darjeeling District, of which it forms the eastern boundary. It joins 
the Torsa in Rangpur District, and the combined stream falls into the 
Brahmaputra by two mouths. Though a wide river, the Jaldhaka is 
very shallow and is fordable in every part during the winter months- 
The Duduya and Mujnai, tributaries of the Jaldhaka, are navigable 
throughout the year by boats of 2 tons as far as the AlTpur-Jalpaiguri 
road and Falakata respectively. The Torsa rises in the Chumbi valley 
of Tibet, where it is known as the Amo-chu, and flows through Bhutan ; 
it is navigable by cargo boats during the rains. The Kaljani, which is 
formed by the combined waters of the Alaikuri and Dima, after a course 
of a few miles enters the Cooch Behar State ; it is used to float down 
timber from the forests at the foot of the hills. The Raidak rises near 
the Chumalhari mountain in Tibet. This river and the Sankos, which 
forms the boundary between the Eastern and Western Duars, thus 
separating Eastern Bengal from Assam, flow into the Brahmaputra 
a few miles below Dhubri. Both rivers are navigable by boats of 
3 or 4 tons for a considerable portion of their course, but 5 or 10 miles 
before reaching the hills navigation is impeded by rapids. 

With the exception of the Buxa hills, the District is covered by 
recent alluvial deposits, consisting of coarse gravels at the foot of the 
hills, sandy clay and sand along the course of the rivers, and fine sand 
consolidating into clay in the other parts of the river plain. The Buxa 
hills are composed of a series of beds named after them, which consist 
of variegated slates, quartzites, and dolomites, and are fringed on the 
south by low hills of Upper Tertiary strata. About half a mile west of 
Buxa copper ore occurs in greenish slate with quartzose layers, and 
copper ores are found also 4 miles north of Sam Sing Tea Estate, close 
to the boundary between Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling Districts. Masses 
of calcareous tufa occur along the base of the hills '. 

In the regulation portion of the District and the south of the Duars 
the tree vegetation is sparse and rather stunted except in the Baikunt- 
pur jungle, and the greater portion of the surface is covered with 
grasses, the commonest of these being Imperata anindinacea and 
Atidropogon aciculatus. Among the trees, the most conspicuous is the 
red cotton-tree {Bombax vialabarkum) ; the sissu {^Dalbergia Sissoo), 
mango, jack, pl/a/, and tamarind occur, as planted or sometimes self- 
sown species. The villages are surrounded by thickets or shrubberies 
of semi-spontaneous growth and weedy character. Areca palms are 

' F. K. Mallet, ' Geology of Darjeeling and NN'esterii Duars,' Memoirs, Geological 
Purvey of India, vol. xi, part i. 



32 JALPAIGURI DISTRICT 

common, and bamboos thrive luxuriantly. Along the north of the 
Duars are large upland tracts of forest, part of which has been 
' reserved ' and is described below, declining southwards into plains 
of heavy grass jungle. Many varieties of orchids bloom in the forests ; 
and there is a curious creeper, the pdni lahrd ( Vitis repatida), from 
whose stem water is obtained. 

The District is famous for its big game, which include wild elephants, 
bison, rhinoceros, buffaloes, tigers, leopards, bears, wild hog, swamp 
deer {Cervus diwai/celi), and samhar {Cerviis unicolor). A few elephants 
are caught on behalf of Government. The number of rhinoceros, 
bison, and buffaloes has been rapidly decreasing ; and to prevent their 
extinction, they are now protected in the 'reserved' forests. Good 
mahseer fishing is to be had where the Jaldhaka, Torsa, Raidak, and 
Sankos debouch from the Himalayas. 

The temperature is rarely excessive ; the mean, which is 62° in 
January, rises to 73° in March and 79"^ in April, but it does not reach 
its highest point until July and August, when it is 83°. The highest 
mean maximum is 90° in April, and the highest maximum recorded 
was 103° in 1899. Rainfall is exceptionally heavy, the average varying 
from 122 inches at Jalpaiguri town to 209 inches at Buxa; and the 
normal mean is 129 inches, of which 12-3 inches occur in May, 25-6 
in June, 28-1 in July, 27-4 in August, and 21-4 in September. 

In September, 1902, an exceptionally high flood caused great damage 
in the tract between Jalpaiguri and Mandalghat, bounded on the east 
by the Tista and on the west by the railway embankment, and also in 
tlie Maynaguri tahsll between the Uharla and the Tista ; the roads 
and the railway embankment were breached, hundreds of cattle were 
drowned, and ten lives were lost. In the earthquake of 1897 much 
damage was done to roads by subsidence and the opening of deep 
fissures, and many bridges and buildings were destroyed. 

In prehistoric times the District formed part of the powerful kingdom 
of Pragjyotisha or Kamarupa, as it was subsequently called, which 
extended as far west as the Karatoya. There is a 
legend that a temple was originally erected on the 
site of the present temple at Jalpes by a Raja named Jalpeswar, 
in whose day the Jalpes lingam first appeared. There are extensive 
remains at Bhitargarh, which is said to have formed the capital of 
a Sudra king named Prithu. The Bengal Pal dynasty included this 
District in its dominions ; and so did the Khen Rajas— Nlladhwaj, 
Chakradhwaj, and Nilambar — of whom the first founded the city of 
Kamatai'UR in ("ooch Behar. It subsequently formed part of the 
Koch kingdom founded by Biswa Singh ; and, when that kingdom fell 
lo pieces, the western part was annexed by the Mughals. There 
was u long struggle for the possession of Patgram and Bodn ; but 



HISTORY 33 

at the beginning of the eighteenth century they were nominally ceded 
to the Muhammadans, a cousin of the Cooch Behar Raja continu- 
ing to farm them on his behalf. After the Muhammadan conquest 
it was included in the frontier faujddri (magisterial jurisdiction) of 
Fakirkundi or Rangpur, and passed to the East India Company with 
the cession of the D^vani in 1765. 

The enormous area of the old District of Rangpur and the weakness 
of the administrative staff prevented the Collector from preserving 
order in the more remote parts, which thus became an Alsatia of 
banditti. In the year 1789 the Collector conducted a regular campaign 
against these disturbers of the peace, and with a force of 200 barkandaz 
blockaded them in the great forest of Baikuntpur. They were at last 
compelled to surrender, and within a single year no less than 549 
robbers were brought to trial. 

Meanwhile, the Duars, or lowland passes, had fallen to the Bhotias, 
who found here the cultivable ground that their own bare mountains 
did not afford. They exercised predominant influence over the whole 
tract from the frontier of Sikkim as far east as Darrang, and frequently 
enforced claims of suzerainty over the enfeebled State of Cooch Behar. 
They do not appear to have occupied this tract permanendy, but 
merely to have exacted a heavy tribute, and subjected the inhabitants 
to the cruellest treatment. Cooch Behar was delivered from the 
Bhotia tyranny by the treaty of 1773; but the Bhutan Duars, as they 
were called, remained for nearly a century longer in a state of anarchy. 
They were annexed after the Bhutan War of 1865 ; they were then 
divided into the Eastern and ^^'estern Duars, of which the former have 
since been incorporated with the District of Goalpara. In 1867 the 
Dalingkot subdivision of the Western Duars, which lies high up among 
the mountains, was added to Darjeeling, and the remaining part w^as 
in 1869 united with the Titalya subdivision of Rangpur to form the 
new District of Jalpaiguri. 

The permanently settled portion of Jalpaiguri, which includes the old 
chaklas of Patgram and Boda and the old Raj of Baikuntpur, has no 
history of its own apart from the parent District of Rangpur. Its 
boundaries are perplexingly intermingled with those of the State of 
Cooch Behar, to which, as we have seen, it belonged until compara- 
tively recent times. At the present day by far the wealthiest land- 
owners are the Maharaja of Cooch Behar and the Raikat of Baikuntpur, 
who is descended from a younger branch of the same family. 

In addition to the old fort at Bhitargarh and the temple at Jalpes, 
there are the remains at Boda of a smaller fort about a mile square, 
supposed to be coeval with the fort at Bhitargarh. In the south of the 
District, small forts, temples, and old tanks are numerous. 

The population increased from 417,855 in 1872 to 580,570 in 1881, 



34 



JALPAIGURI DISTRICT 



to 680,736 in 1891, and to 787,380 in 1901. Though the figures for 
1872 cannot be accepted as accurate, there has been 
° ■ a continuous growth of population due entirely to the 
rapid development of the \yestern Duars ; and in 1901 more than one- 
fifth of the population was composed of immigrants from elsewhere. 
Malaria is always prevalent in the tarai, and in eight years of the 
decade ending 1901 Jalpaiguri figured among the six Districts with 
the highest recorded mortality from fever in Bengal. Spleen and 
goitre are common diseases, and the proportion of persons suffering 
from insanity and deaf-mutism is higher than in most parts of Bengal. 
The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : — 



Subdivision. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and igoi. 



&: k- 

27.605 
3.229 

30,834 


IT. 

C 

i 


1 


Jalpaiguri 

All pur 

District total 


1,820 
1,142 


I 
2 


«;88 
178 


668,027 
"9.353 


367 

105 


+ 9.8 
+ 64.7 


2,962 


766 


787,380 


266 


+ 15-7 



The two towns are Jalpaiguri, the head-quarters, and the canton- 
ment at BuxA. Outside these, more than half of the population are 
contained in villages with 2,000 or more inhal)itants, and only 13 per 
cent, in villages with a population of less than 500. The census 
village in this District was, however, merely a territorial unit and did 
not correspond to the residential village. The latter, in fact, can scarcely 
be said to exist ; for the country is divided into small farms each with 
its central homestead, the residence of the farmer ox Jotddr, surrounded 
by the houses of his immediate relatives and perhaps an under-tenant 
or two. In the north-west of the District the conditions of the tea 
industry have given rise to large settlements of labourers, the average 
population of which is over 3,000 souls. The density is very low ; in 
only one ihdna does the population exceed 500 per square mile, and in 
only three more does it exceed 400. The Duars, which were very 
sparsely inhabited when first acquired, carry a smaller population than 
the rest of the District. Towards the west this tract has filled up 
rapidly owing to the extension of tea cultivation ; but in the east the 
population is still very scanty, and in the Alipur fhdna it averages only 
89 persons per square mile, in spite of an increase of 70 per cent, during 
the last ten years. There is a steady movement of the population from 
the west of the District towards the extensive tracts of cultivable land 
east of the Tista, and there is also an enormous immigration of tea- 
garden coolies from Chota Nagpur and the Sanlal Parganas ; Ranch! 
alone supplies 80,000, chiefly Oraons and Mundas, and the Santal Par- 



AGRICULTURE 35 

ganas 11,000. Many of these coolies are settling down permanently, 
either in the gardens or as cultivators and cart-owners, but many return 
home at intervals. In the tea gardens on the higher slopes at the foot 
of the hills, Nepalese replace men from Chota Nagpur, and many of 
these also find a permanent home in the District. Numerous up-country 
coolies are employed on the roads and railways, but most of them return 
home at the end of the cold season. 

A corrupt dialect of Bengali, known as Rangpurl or Rajbansi, is the 
language of the District, being spoken by 77 per cent, of the population ; 
Hindi is the language of 6 per cent, and Kurukh of 7 per cent. ; Mech 
is spoken by over 20,000 persons, and Khas, Mundari, and Santall by 
more than 10,000 each. This great diversity of languages is due to the 
large number of immigrants. Hindus (534,625) form 68 per cent. 
of the population, Muhammadans (228,487) 29 per cent., and Animists 
2 per cent., while the remainder are Christians or Buddhists. 

The proportion of Muhammadans has declined since 1872, when 
they formed 34-6 per cent, of the population. They are chiefly Shaikhs 
and Nasyas, and are, for the most part, converts from the aboriginal 
Koch and Mech races. They still retain many beliefs and superstitions 
derived from their ancestors, and live on good terms side by side with 
the Rajbansis (Koch), to whom more than three-fifths of the Hindu 
population belong; it is, in fact, not unusual to find Muhammadan and 
Rajbansi families dwelling together in the same homestead, although 
in separate houses. The Mechs, a western branch of the great Kachari 
tribe, number about 22,000, found chiefly in the Alipur and Falakata 
thanas in the Duars. These, like their Garo neighbours, arc a nomadic 
people, who live by agriculture in its simplest and most primitive 
form. No less than 89-4 per cent, of the population, or over 700,000 
persons, are supported by agriculture — a very high proportion ; a 
sixth of these derive their livelihood from the tea gardens. Of the 
remainder, industries maintain 4-6, commerce 0-3, and the professions 
0-6 per cent. 

The Baptist Missionary Society has a branch in Jalpaiguri town ; the 
Church Missionary Society carries on work among the Santal colony in 
the Alipur subdivision, the Scandinavian Alliance Mission among the 
Bhotias, and the Free Church of Scotland among the tea-garden coolies. 
The number of native Christians is 2,141. 

The alluvial soil with which the greater part of the District is covered 

is extremely fertile. In the low levels between the Tista and the 

Sankos coarse rice, oilseeds, potatoes, castor, and . . , 

1 1 1 .1 \xT ^ c ^\. n,^- . Agriculture, 

areca palms grow abundantly. West of the lista, a 

superior variety of jute, known as raj^^anja, is grown, and also fine rice 

and wheat. In the basin between the Tista and the Jaldhaka a hard 

black clayey soil is found, which yields excellent pasture and fine 



36 



JALPAIGURI DISTRICT 



crops of tobacco. The ferruginous clay of the uplands in the north of 
the Duars is exceptionally well suited to the tea plant. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forest. 


Jalpaignri 
Allpur 

Total 


1,820 
1,142 


934 

432 


296 


137 
359 


2,962 


1,366 


637 


496 



The staple food-crop of the District is rice, grown on 1,017 square 
miles, or 74 per cent, of the net area cropped ; the winter rice, which is 
the chief crop, covering 54 per cent, of that area. The cultivation of 
the early rice, which is sown broadcast on high lands, begins in March. 
The early varieties, sown in March or April, are reaped in June and 
July ; but the greater part is sown in April and May, and not reaped till 
August or September. The winter rice is sown broadcast in nurseries 
in May and June, transplanted from the middle of July to the middle 
of September, and reaped during December and January. After rice, 
tobacco is most widely grown, occupying 185 square miles, or nearly 
14 per cent, of the cultivated area ; Jalpaiguri is, in fact, after Rangpur, 
the chief tobacco-producing District in Eastern Bengal. 

Tea is cultivated on 121 square miles, or 9 per cent, of the area under 
cultivation. This industry was introduced in 1874, and is carried on 
mainly by European enterprise and with European capital. In 1876 
there were thirteen gardens, with an area of 818 acres, yielding 
29,5201b. of tea. The cultivation was very rapidly extended during 
the last decade of the nineteenth century ; and by 1901 the number of 
gardens had increased to 235, with a planted area of 109 square miles, 
and an out-turn of over 31,000,000 lb. These gardens also possessed 
an unplanted area of 255 square miles. In 1903 the number of gardens 
decreased to 207, but the gross yield in that year amounted to 
nearly 37,000,000 lb. Jalpaiguri has an important advantage over 
the tea Districts of Assam, as labour finds its way thither freely and no 
special law is necessary to enforce labour contracts. The production of 
tea of late years has increased so much more rapidly than its consump- 
tion that there has been a heavy fall in prices, and the industry has 
suffered in consequence. Jute cultivation is extending rapidly, and in 
1903 occupied 103 square miles. Mustard is also widely cultivated, 
and cotton is grown in small quantities by the Garos and Mechs on 
uplands at the foot of the Bhutan hills. 

Tlic area under cultivation is extending rapidly in the AVestern Duars, 
where there is still much cultivable waste : the rates of rent are very 



FORESTS 37 

low, and cultivators are attracted not only from the thanas west of the 
TTsta, but also from Rangpur and Cooch Behar State. Little use has 
been made of the Agriculturists' and Land Improvement Loans Acts ; 
during the decade ending 1901-2 an average of Rs. 2,000 per annum 
was advanced under the former Act. 

The local cattle are small and weakly, and no attempts have been 
made to improve the breed. Pasturage is so abundant that in the 
northern ihdnas of the Western Duars rice straw is left to rot in the 
fields, while large herds of cattle from Bengal and Bhutan are brought 
to graze in the Baikuntpur jungle during the winter months. Fairs are 
held at AlIpur, Jalpes, and Falakata. 

The soil for the most part derives sufficient moisture from the heavy 
rainfall, but low lands are in some places irrigated from the hill streams. 

Jalpaigurl contains extensive forests, which are the property of Go- 
vernment. With the exception of 5 square miles of 'protected' forests in 
the Government estates of Falakata and Maynaguri, 
which are managed by the Deputy-Commissioner, 
these are all ' reserved ' forests under the management of the Forest 
department. The latter in 1903-4 yielded a revenue of Rs. 1,18,000. 
They are divided into the Jalpaigurl and Buxa divisions, the former 
comprising all the forests between the Tista and the Torsa rivers, with 
an area of 183 square miles ; and the latter, those between the Torsa and 
the Sankos, with an area of 308 square miles. The trees are of many 
different kinds, but there are five well-defined types : namely, sal 
{Shorea robusta) ; mixed forest without sal ; mixed chilai/in {Schii/ia 
Wallichii) forest ; khair {Acacia Catechu) and sissTi {Dalbergia Sissoo) 
forest ; and savannahs. Of these the sal is the most important, 
and occurs either nearly pure or mixed with varying proportions of 
Dillenia pentagyna, Carey a arborea, Sterculia vtllosa, Schinia Wallichii, 
Terminalia tomentosa, and T. bellerica, &c. The mixed forests are com- 
posed chiefly of Lagerstroemia parvijlora, Callicarpa arborea, Sterculia 
villosa, Hymen trijuga, and often Terminalia iomentosa and Albizzia. 
The chilauni type of forest is more clear of other subsidiary species than 
ordinary mixed forest, the chilauni being the predominant species and 
growing to a large size. Khair and sissu are found pure in the alluvial 
deposits of most of the large rivers. The savannahs, or large stretches 
of grass land devoid of trees, deserve mention both on account of their 
extent and their bearing on the work of fire protection. The sal forest 
belonging to the Raikat of Baikuntpur is now of little value, owing to 
promiscuous felling. The Rajbansis and Mechs collect what little 
jungle produce there is, principally chiretta, lac, and beeswax. Small 
quantities of long pepper {Piper longum) are also collected by the 
Forest department. 

The only mineral of importance ih limestone, which is kirgel) 



38 JALPAIGURI DISTRICT 

quarried in the shape of calcareous tufa along the base of the Bhutan 

hills, A small copper-mine at Chunabati, 2 miles from Buxa, was 

formerly worked by Nepalese. Coal is found near Bagrakot, and 

a company has been formed to work it. 

Gunny cloth of a very coarse quality is woven in the western part 

of the District. The lower classes also manufacture 

ra e ana ^^^ home use a coarse silk (called endi) from the silk 

communications. ^ .. . ' . . . 

of worms fed on the castor-oil plant, and a striped 

cotton cloth called phota. 

The development of the tea industry and the influx of a large cooly 
population into the Duars, combined with the facilities of railway 
communication, have given a great impetus to trade ; and at the large 
markets which have sprung up in the neighbourhood of the tea gardens, 
the cultivator finds a ready market for his rice, vegetables, and other 
produce. There is also a fair amount of trade with Bhutan, which 
has been stimulated by the establishment of fairs at Falakata and 
Alipur. The chief exports to Bhutan are European piece-goods 
and silk, while timber and oranges are the principal imports. The 
local supply of rice being insufificient, considerable quantities are 
imported from Dinajpur ; cotton piece-goods, machinery, corrugated 
iron, kerosene oil, coal and coke are also imported on a large scale. 
The tea, tobacco, and jute crops are all grown for export. The tea 
and jute are railed to Calcutta ; the tobacco trade is chiefly in the 
hands of Arakanese who export the leaves to Burma, where they are 
made into cheroots. The railways have now monopolized most of 
the trade ; but sal timber is floated down from the forests of the 
"Western Duars and the Baikuntpur jungle to the Brahmaputra en route 
for Sirajganj, Dacca, and elsewhere ; and tobacco, mustard seed, jute, 
cotton, and hides are also exported by water to these markets, the 
chief centre being Baura. The up-stream traffic is practically confined 
to the importation of earthen cooking utensils, coco-nuts, molasses, 
small quantities of ddl {Arabica revalentd), and miscellaneous articles 
from Dacca and Farldpur. Apart from the large tea-garden markets 
and the fair of Jalpes, the principal trading centres are JalpaigurI 
Town, Titalya on the Mahananda where the great north road enters 
the District, Rajnagar, Saldanga, Deblganj on the Karatoya, Baura, 
Jorpokri, Maynaguri, Falakata, Alipur, and Buxa. 

The District is well served by railways. The western portion is 
traversed from south to north by the Eastern Bengal State Railway, 
which has its northern terminus just over the Darjecling border at 
SilTguri. The Bengal-Duars Railway leaves the Parvatlpur-Dhubri 
branch of the Eastern Bengal State Railway at Lalmanir Hat, and 
runs north-west through Patgiam to Barnes Ghat, on the east bank 
of the Tista opposite Jalpaiguri town, where a ferry connects with the 



ADMTNTRTRA TION 39 

Eastern Bengal State Railway ; at Mai Bazar it bifurcates, one branch 
running west through Dam-Dim to Bagrakot, and another east to 
Madari Hat. In the east the Cooch Behar State Railway enters the 
District at Allpur and runs north to JaintI, 

The District contains 877 miles of road, of which 106 miles are 
maintained by the PubUc Works department and the remainder by 
the District board. Of the latter, 24 miles are metalled and 747 miles 
are unmetalled. There are also 10 miles of village tracks. In spite 
of the improvement and increase in the number of roads during recent 
years, there is still a great deficiency in some parts of the Duars east 
of the Jaldhaka river, in which it is extremely difficult to maintain good 
roads owing to the heavy rainfall and the rapid growth of jungle. The 
principal routes are those which connect Jalpaiguri town with SilTgurl, 
with the northern border via Dam-Dim, with a ferry on the Sankos 
river, and with Alipur. The last-mentioned road is in very good order, 
being well raised and bridged, except at the larger rivers, which have 
ferries. The central emigration road, which runs east from Dinajpur 
through Jalpaiguri District as far as Haldlbari station and thence 
through the Cooch Behar State, is an important feeder to the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway. The board also maintains several important 
Provincial roads, including the Ganges-Darjeeling road, which runs for 
16 miles along the north-western border of the District from Titalya 
to SilTgurl, the branch-road from Titalya to Jalpaiguri, and the road 
from Jalpaiguri to Patgram. There are 80 ferries, which, with six 
unimportant exceptions, belong to the District board, and bring in 
an annual revenue of Rs. 18,000; the most important are those over 
the Tista and Jaldhaka rivers. Of late years there has been a con- 
siderable decrease in the number of ferries, owing to the opening 
of the Bengal-Duars Railway and to the bridging of sixteen streams 
which formerly required ferries. 

For general administrative purposes the District is divided into two 

subdivisions, Jalpaiguri and Alipur. The former is immediately 

under the Deputy-Commissioner ; he is assisted by . 

^ ,; / ^ „ - , ^ Administration. 

five Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, of whom two are 

employed exclusively on revenue work. The Allpur subdivision is in 
the charge of a European Deputy-Magistrate-Collector. The Mayna- 
guri, Falakata, and Allpur circles in the settled tracts of the Duars 
are in charge of three Sub-Deputy-Collectors. Two Forest officers 
manage the Jalpaiguri and Buxa divisions, and an extra assistant 
Conservator is attached to the former division. 

Jalpaiguri forms, with Rangpur, the charge of a single District and 
Sessions Judge, and the Sub-Judge of Dinajpur is an additional Sub- 
Judge in this District. The other civil courts are those of two Munsifs 
at Jalpaiguri town and of the subdivisional officer of Ahpur, who is 



4° 



I A L PAIG URI DIS TRTC T 



vested with the powers of a Munsif within his subdivision. The 
Deputy-Commissioner has special additional powers under section 34 
of the Criminal Procedure Code. Subordinate to him are three Deputy- 
Magistrates at head-quarters, the subdivisional officer of Allpur, and 
three benches of honorary magistrates, who sit at Jalpaiguri, Boda, 
and Debiganj. As in other parts of Eastern Bengal, cases due to 
disputes about land are common, and dacoities are not infrequent. 

Patgram, Boda, and the Baikuntpur estate were permanently settled 
in 1793 as part of the province of Rangpur. The Western Duars 
have been settled temporarily from time to time, the last settlement 
having been concluded in 1895. The current demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was 7-53 lakhs, of which Rs. 1,37,000 was payable by 82 
permanently settled estates, Rs. 1,97,000 by 205 temporarily settled 
estates, and the remainder by 5 estates managed direct by Govern- 
ment. In the permanently settled portion of the District rents vary 
from Rs. 1-9 an acre, which is paid for cultivable waste, and Rs. 1-15 
for once-cropped land, up to Rs. 9-2 for the best jute, rice, and home- 
stead lands. In special cases higher rates are charged, Rs. 15 being 
sometimes paid for bamboo land and Rs. 24-4 for betel-leaf gardens 
or areca groves. In the Duars, where Government is the immediate 
landlord, rates rule considerably lower : namely, 3 annas for waste, 
from Rs. 1-2 to Rs. 1-6 for high land, from Rs. 1-6 to Rs. 2 for low 
land, according to the situation with reference to markets and roads, 
and Rs. 3 for homestead land. In the Duars about half the area has 
been let out by the Jotddrs, or tenants holding immediately under 
Government, to chukdniddrs, or sub-tenants, whose holdings have been 
recognized as permanent. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1 900- 1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


3,62 

5,37 


4,23 

7,54 


7,03 
12,43 


7,46 
13,49 



Outside Jalpaiguri municipality and BirxA cantonment, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, in subordination to which 
a local board has recently been constituted at Alipur. In 1903-4 the 
income of the District board was Rs. 1,35,000, of which Rs. 69,000 
was obtained from rates; and the expenditure was Rs. 1,21,000, 
including Rs. 84,000 spent on public works. 

The District contains 11 thdnas or police stations and 10 outposts. 
The force subordinate to the District Superintendent consists of 2 
inspectors, 25 sub-inspectors, 29 head constables, and 287 constables, 
besides a rural police of 1,467 village watchmen, grouped in circles 



jALPAiGURT sufmirisroN 41 

under 78 head watchmen. The District jail at Jalpaigurl town has 
accommodation for 122, and a subsidiary jail at Alipur for 22 prisoners. 

Owing partly to the sparse population and the absence of regular 
village sites, education is very backward, and the proportion of persons 
able to read and write in 1901 was only 39 per cent. (7 males and 
0'4 females). Considerable progress has, however, been made. The 
total number of pupils under instruction increased from 3,582 in 1882 
to 7,623 in 1892-3 and to 12,033 i'"* 1900-1, while 13,013 boys and 
935 girls were at school in 1903-4, being respectively 20-5 and 1-7 per 
cent, of those of school-going age. The number of educational institu- 
tions, public and private, in that year was 563, including 15 secondary 
and 528 primary schools. The expenditure on education was Rs. 67,000, 
of which Rs. 13,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 20,000 from 
District funds, Rs. 750 from municipal funds, and Rs. 22,000 from 
fees. The figures include one small school for aboriginal tribes 
at Buxa. 

In 1903 the District contained 8 dispensaries, of which 4 had 
accommodation for 30 in-patients. At these the cases of 38,000 out- 
patients and 480 in-patients were treated during the year, and 840 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 12,000, of 
which Rs. 4,000 was met from Government contributions, Rs. 3,000 
from Local and Rs. 1,600 from municipal funds, and Rs. 3,000 from 
subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in Jalpaigurl municipality. In 
1903-4 the number of successful vaccinations was 25,000, representing 
32 per 1,000 of the population. There is less opposition to infant 
vaccination than in most parts of East and North Bengal. 

[Martin, Easter?t Ifidia^voX. iii (1838); Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical 
Account of Bengal, vol. x (1876) ; D. Sunder, Report on the Settlement 
of the Western Dudrs (Calcutta, 1895),] 

Jalpaigurl Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivision of Jalpaigurl 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 26° and 27° N. 
and 88° 20' and 89° 7' E., with an area of 1,820 square miles. The 
population was 668,027 ^^ i9oi> compared with 608,289 in 1891. It 
contains one town, Jalp.'MGURI (population, 9,708), its head-quarters, 
and 588 villages, and has a density of 367 persons per square mile, 
or more than three times that of the Alipur subdivision. The general 
aspect of the subdivision is that of an extensive plain, undiversified by 
hills or any large sheet of water, but containing extensive forests. The 
country is level and open, and is watered by several large rivers, 
including the Tista and Jaldhaka. It comprises two totally distinct 
tracts. The Maynagurl and Dam-Dim thanas and the Dhupgari out- 
post, which form part of the Western Duars acquired from Bhutan 
in 1865, are rapidly increasing in population and prosperity on account 



42 JALPAIGURI SUBDIVISION 

of the expansion of the tea industry ; while the population of the 
western thdnas, which are permanently settled and originally formed 
part of Rangpur, is declining. There are interesting ruins at Bhitar- 
GARH and Jalpes. The chief centres of commerce are Jalpaiguri 
town, Titalya, Baura, and Maynaguri. 

Jalpaiguri To"wn. — Head-quarters of Jalpaiguri District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, situated in 26° 32' N. and 88° 43' E., on the right 
bank of the Tista. Population (1901), 9,708. The town, though small, 
is progressive, and is the chief distributing centre in the District. It 
is served by the Eastern Bengal State Railway, while Barnes Ghat on 
the east bank of the Tista, opposite to the town, is a station on the 
Bengal-Duars Railway, and the smaller marts and the tea gardens 
are supplied by its traders, Jalpaiguri was constituted a municipality 
in 1885. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 20,000, and the expenditure Rs, 18,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 30,000, including Rs. 9,000 obtained from a tax on persons 
(or property tax) and Rs. 7,000 from a conservancy rate; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 25,000. Rs. 24,000 has been spent on a drainage 
scheme, for which an estimate of Rs. 30,000 has been sanctioned by 
Government. Jalpaiguri is the head-quarters of the Commissioner of 
the Rajshahi Division, an Inspector of schools, an Executive Engineer, 
and of the Deputy-Conservators of Forests in charge of the Buxa and 
Jalpaiguri divisions ; it is also the head-quarters of a detachment of the 
Northern Bengal Mounted Rifles. The town contains the usual public 
offices. The District jail has accommodation for 122 prisoners, who 
are employed in oil-pressing, twine and rope-weaving, stone-breaking, 
cane-work, and ddl and rice-husking, the products being disposed of 
locally. The chief educational institution is a high school maintained 
by Government, with 270 pupils on its rolls. 

Jalpes. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Jalpaiguri 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26° 31' N. and 
88° 52'' E. Population (1901), 2,088. It contains a temple of Siva, 
which was built on the site of an earlier temple by one of the Cooch 
Behar Rajas about three centuries ago. This, the most conspicuous 
ruin in the District, is a massive red-brick building, surmounted by 
a large dome with an outer diameter of 34 feet, round the base and top 
of which run galleries ; it stands on a mound surrounded by a moat 
near the bank of the river Jarda. A flight of steps leads down to the 
basement, which is sunk some depth in the mound and contains a very 
ancient /i?iga?n. This lingain is in the hymns to Siva called anddi 
(' without beginning '), and is referred to in the Kalika Purana, which 
says that somewhere in the north-west of Kamarupa Mahadeo appeared 
himself in the shape of a vast lingam. An old-established fair is held 
at Jalpes on the occasion of the Sivaratrl festival in February ; it lasts 



JAMALPUR TOWN 43 

for about a fortnight and is attended by the people from all parts of 
the District as well as from Dinajpur, Rangpur, and elsewhere. Bhotias 
come from Darjeeling, Buxa, and Bhutan with ponies, skins, cloth, and 
blankets, and take away cotton and woollen cloths, betel-nut, and 
tobacco. 

[Martin, Eastern India, vol. iii, pp. 441-2.] 

Jamalabad. — A precipitous rock rising to a height of 1,788 feet at 
the end of a spur of the Kudremukh in the Uppinangadi tdhik of 
South Kanara District, Madras, situated in 13° 2' N. and 75° 18' E. 
On his return from Mangalore in 1784, Tipu, struck with the strength 
of the position, built and garrisoned a fortress on the top, calling it 
Jamalabad in honour of his mother Jamal Bai, and made the town at 
the foot the residence of an official. The fort was captured by the 
British in 1799, but shortly afterwards fell into the hands of the 
adherents of a Mysore pretender. The garrison, however, was forced 
to surrender after a three months' blockade in June, 1800. The town, 
formerly known as Narasimhangadi, no longer exists. 

Jamalpur Subdivision. — North-western subdivision of Mymen- 
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24° 43' and 
25° 26' N. and 89° 36' and 90° 18'' E., with an area of 1,289 square 
miles. The subdivision is an alluvial tract, intersected by numerous 
rivers and streams. The population in 1901 was 673,398, compared 
with 579,742 in 1 891. It contains two towns, Jamalpur (population, 
17,965), the head-quarters, and Sherpur (12,535); and 1,747 villages. 
The density is 522 persons per square mile, against 618 for the whole 
District. The ruins of an old mud fort, said to have been built by 
an independent Muhammadan chief, are still in existence at Garb 
Jaripa. 

Jamalpur Town (i). — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
24° 56' N. and 89° 56'' E., on the west bank of the old Brahmaputra. 
Population (1901), 17,965. It is connected with Nasirabad, 35 miles 
distant, by a good road and also by the Dacca-Mymensingh branch of 
the Eastern Bengal State Railway, which has recently been extended 
to the Brahmaputra at Jagannathganj. Jamalpur was constituted 
a municipality in 1869. The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 11,700, and the expenditure Rs. 10,300. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,000, mainly derived from a property 
tax and a conservancy rate; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,000. 
Jamalpur was a military station prior to the Mutiny. The town 
possesses the usual public buildings. The sub-jail, which was once the 
magazine, is a specimen of the solid masonry of an early period ; it has 
accommodation for 27 prisoners. 

Jamalpur Town (3). — Town in the headquarters subdivision of 

VOL. XIV. D 



44 JAMALPUR TOWN 

Monghyr District, Bengal, situated in 25° 19' N. and 86° 30' E., at the 
foot of the Monghyr hills, on the loop-line of the East Indian Railway, 
299 miles from Calcutta. The population at the Census of March, 
1 90 1, was 13,929, compared with 18,089 in 1891 ; but a second 
enumeration eight months later disclosed a population of 16,302. The 
decrease on the first occasion was chiefly due to many persons having 
left the town on account of the plague ; but subsidiary causes were the 
transfer of the audit department of the East Indian Railway to Cal- 
cutta and the introduction of workmen's trains from the neighbouring 
stations, owing to which many of the workmen have settled outside the 
town. Jamalpur is the head-quarters of the locomotive department of 
the East Indian Railway, and contains the largest manufacturing work- 
shops in India. Locomotives are put together, and railway material of 
all descriptions is made in malleable iron, cast-iron, and steel. The 
works cover an area of 99 acres, and employ about 230 Europeans 
and 9,000 native mechanics and labourers. Jamalpur was constituted 
a municipality in 1883. The income and expenditure during the 
decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 20,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 25,000, mainly derived from a tax on houses and lands and 
a conservancy rate ; and the expenditure was Rs. 22,000. There is 
no municipal water-supply, but the workshops obtain a supply from 
reservoirs constructed at the base of the hills. Jamalpur contains an 
Institute, comprising a library, reading and billiard-rooms, an enter- 
tainment hall, and swimming bath ; also a church and aided schools 
for Europeans and natives. 

Jamar. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jambusar Taluka. — Northern tdhika of Broach District, Bombay, 
lying between 21° 54' and 22° 15' N. and 72° 31' and 72° 56' E., with 
an area of 387 square miles. The population in 1901 was 61,846, com- 
pared with 82,396 in 1891. The density, 160 persons per square mile, 
is below the District average. The taluka contains one town, Jambusar 
(population, 10,181), its head-quarters; and 8i villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 5-3 lakhs. The country 
consists of two tracts of level land. Towards the west lies a barren 
plain, and in the east is a well-wooded stretch of light soil. In the 
latter tract are large and sweet springs, but in the former the water- 
supply is defective. The staple crops are jowiir, bdjra, and wheat ; 
while miscellaneous crops include pulses, peas, tobacco, cotton, and 
indigo. 

Jambusar Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Broach District, Bombay, situated in 22° 3' N. and 72° 48' E., 5 miles 
north of the Dhadhar river, and 27 miles from Broach city. Popula- 
tion (1901), 10,181. The town was first occupied by the British in 
1775 ^"d remained in their possession until T783, when it was restored 



JAMES AND MARY SANDS 45 

to the Marathas. Under the Treaty of Poona (181 7) it was finally 
surrendered to the British. To the north of the town is a lake of con- 
siderable size sacred to Nageshwar, the snake-god, with richly wooded 
banks, and in the centre of the water rises a small island about 40 feet 
in diameter, overgrown with mango and other trees. The water-supply 
is chiefly derived from this tank. In the town is a strong fort, erected 
by Mr. Callender when Jambusar was held by the British from 1775 
to 1783. This fort furnishes accommodation for the treasury, the 
civil courts, and other Government offices. The town contains a Sub- 
Judge's court, a dispensary, and 7 schools — 6 (including an English 
school) for boys and one for girls— attended respectively by 553 and 
106 pupils. 

The municipality, established in 1856, had an average income of 
about Rs. 12,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 13,900, including grants of Rs. 2,000 from Government 
for education. In former times, when Tankari, 10 miles south-west of 
Jambusar, was a port of little less consequence than Broach, Jambusar 
itself enjoyed a considerable trade. Indigo was then the chief export. 
With the opening of a railway (1861), the traffic by sea at Tankari fell 
off considerably. On the other hand, Jambusar is only 18 miles distant 
from the Palej station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway ; and, as roads have been made connecting Jambusar with 
both Palej and Broach, a traffic by land has to some extent taken the 
place of the old sea-borne trade. It is in contemplation to connect 
Broach and Jambusar by rail. There are six cotton-ginning factories. 
Tanning, the manufacture of leather, and calico-printing are carried 
on to a small extent, and there are also manufactures of ivory armlets 
and toys. 

Jamesabad (formerly Samaro). — Tdluka of Thar and Parkar Dis- 
trict, Sind, Bombay, lying between 24° 50' and 25° 28' N. and 69° 14' 
and 69° 35' E., with an area of 505 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 24,038, compared with 19,208 in 1891. The density, 48 
persons per square mile, is considerably above the District average. 
The tdhika contains 184 villages, of which Jamesabad is the head- 
quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
3-7 lakhs. The tdluka is chiefly irrigated by the Jamrao canal. Bdjra, 
iainbho, and wheat are the principal crops. 

James and Mary Sands. — A dangerous shoal in the Hooghly 
river, Bengal, situated in 22° 14' N. and 88° 5' E., between the 
confluence of the Damodar and Rupnarayan rivers with the Hooghly. 
The sands are 3 miles long and a third of a mile in width. They 
are so named from the wreck of the ship Royal James and Mary 
which took place on these sands in 1694. The sands occupy the 
centre of the river, leaving channels on either side, known as the 

D 2 



46 JAMES AND MARY SANDS 

Eastern and Western Gut ; they are probably due to the diminution of 
the velocity of the current of the main channel, caused by the water 
of the Rupnarayan entering the Hooghly nearly at right angles. 
Various schemes have been suggested for evading this dangerous 
shoal ; and it has more than once been proposed to dig a short canal 
at the back of Hooghly Point so as to avoid the sands, or to construct 
ship canals from the docks to Diamond Harbour or to Canning on the 
Matla river. The problem was examined in 1865 and again in 1895 
by experts, both of whom suggested the construction of walls to train 
the channel into the Western Gut. Neither proposal has been adopted 
by the Port Commissioners, who are at present considering another 
scheme to improve the existing channels by dredging. 

Jamikunta. — Tdhtk in Karimnagar District, Hyderabad State, with 
an area of 626 square miles, mcXwdrng J dg'irs. The population in 190 1 
was 121,518, compared with 134,309 in 1891, the decrease being due 
to famine and cholera. The fali/k contains 158 villages, of which 

9 Vixejdgtr; and Jamikunta (population, 2,687) is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue in 1901 was 4 lakhs. The tdhtk is hilly towards the 
west, while isolated hills are seen everywhere. There is hardly any 
forest. Rice is largely cultivated, being irrigated from tanks. 

Jamirapat. — A long winding ridge about 2 miles wide in the 
Surguja State, Central Provinces, lying between 23° 22' and 23° 29' N. 
and 83° 33' and 83° 41'' E. It rises to a height of 3,500 feet and forms 
part of the eastern boundary of the State where it borders on Chota 
Nagpur proper. 

Jamka.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jamkhandi State. — State under the Political Agent of Kolhapur 
and the Southern Maratha Country, Bombay, lying between 16° 26' and 
16° 47' N. and 75° 7' and 75° 37** E., with an area of 524 square 
miles'. The State was granted by the Peshwa to a member of the 
Patvardhan family. In 1808 it was divided into two shares, one of 
which, Tasgaon, lapsed to the British Government in 1848, through 
failure of heirs, while the other forms the present Jamkhandi State. 
The population in 1901 was 105,357, the density being 201 persons 
per square mile. Hindus formed 87 per cent., and Muhammadans 

10 per cent, of the total. The State contains 8 towns, the chief 
being Jamkhandi (population, 13,029), and 79 villages. A soft stone 
of superior quality is found near the village of Marigudi. The crops 
include cotton, wheat, the ordinary varieties of pulse, and millet ; and 
the manufactures, coarse cotton cloth and native blankets for home 
consumption. The chief, who is a Brahman by caste, ranks as 
a first-class Sardar of the Southern Maratha Country. He holds a 

* These spherical values exclude ihe outlying tdhika of Kundgol, situated between 
15" 7' and 15° 9' N. and 75° 13' and 75° 23' E. 



JAMKHED 47 

sanad of adoption, and succession follows the rule of primogeniture. 
He has power to try his own subjects for capital offences. He main- 
tains a force of 43 horse and 214 foot soldiers ; and he pays to the 
British Government a tribute of Rs. 20,516. The revenue in 1903-4 
was nearly 5-5 lakhs, of which 4-4 lakhs was derived from the land; 
and the expenditure was about 5 lakhs. A survey was introduced in 
the State in 188 1-2. The State possesses six municipalities, the 
largest being Jamkhandi with an income of Rs. 10,000, and the 
smallest Hunnur with an income of Rs. 600. In 1903-4 there were 
42 schools, including an English school, and the total number of pupils 
was 1,588. The State has a Central jail and 4 subordinate jails, with 
a daily average of 36 prisoners in 1903-4 ; and one hospital and three 
dispensaries, which treated 38,100 patients. In the same year about 
2,300 persons were vaccinated. 

Jamkhandi Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in 
Bombay, situated in i6°3o'N. and 75^22' E., 70 miles north-east of 
Belgaum, and 68 miles east of Kolhapur. Population (1901), 13,029. 
Jamkhandi is a municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of about 
Rs. 10,000. The town has about 500 looms and an extensive trade in 
silk cloths. It contains a high school and a hospital. An annual 
fair is held in honour of the god Uma Rameshwar, lasting for six days 
and attended by 20,000 people. 

Jamkhed. — Tdhika of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, in the south- 
east corner of the District, surrounded by the Nizam's Dominions. 
The largest compact portion lies between i8° 33' and i8°52'N. and 
75° 11'' and 75° 35^ E. The area is 460 square miles, and the tdhika 
contains one town, Kharda (population, 5,930), and 75 villages. The 
head-quarters are at Jamkhed. The population in 1901 was 64,258, 
compared with 76,208 in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. 
The density, 140 persons per square mile, is above the District 
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was one lakh, and 
for cesses Rs. 7,000. Most of the villages are situated in the valley of 
the Sina, and a few on the Balaghat, an elevated and bare table-land, 
which gradually subsides eastward to the general level of the Deccan 
and is watered by a tributary of the Godavari. Several streams rise 
in the small spurs which jut from the Balaghat range, the most notable 
being the Inchana, which falls in a fine cascade, 219 feet high, through 
a ravine to the north-east of Jamkhed village. Whereas the soil of the 
Slna valley is deep and difficult to work, that of the Balaghat is of 
lighter texture and repays cultivation ; while the country lying between 
this range and the boundary of Shevgaon is extremely fertile and well- 
watered, except in the vicinity of the Sina river, where the rainfiiU is 
uncertain. The climate of Jamkhed is healthy, and the annual rainfall 
averages about 26 inches. 



48 JAMKI 

Jamki. —Town in the Daska tahs'il of Sialkot District, Punjab, 
situated in 32° 23' N. and 74° 24' E. Population (1901), 4,216. It 
is said to have been originally called Pindi Jam from its joint founders, 
Pindi, a Khattri, and Jam, a Chima Jat. It is of no commercial 
importance. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,200, and the 
expenditure Rs. 5,100. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,300, chiefly 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 5,700. An Anglo-vernacular 
middle school is maintained by the municipality. 

Jammalamadugu Subdivision. — Subdivision of Cuddapah Dis- 
trict, Madras, consisting of the Jammalamadugu, Proddatur, and 

PULIVENDLA fdll/ks. 

Jammalamadugu Taluk iyjamlmlu-madugu, ' the pool of rushes '). 
— North-western tdhik of Cuddapah District, Madras, lying between 
14° 37' and 15° 5' N. and 78° 4' and 78° 30' E., with an area of 
616 square miles. The population in 1901 was 103,707, compared 
with 101,296 in 1891. The density is 168 persons per square mile, 
the District average being 148. The taluk contains one town, Jam- 
malamadugu (population, 13,852), the head-quarters; and 129 villages. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2,72,000. The annual rainfall averages 22 inches, compared with 
28 in the District as a whole, and is less than in any other taluk. 

Two small hill ranges run from east to west through the southern 
portion of Jammalamadugu, both of which are parts of the Erramalas 
(Errakondas) or ' red hills.' One of them divides the taluk from Puli- 
vendla ; and the other, which lies parallel to it, reaches its highest 
point at the fine gorge where the Penner bends sharply to the north 
and flows by Gandikota to the town of Jammalamadugu. The Penner 
and Chitravati rivers join near Gandlur on the west of the taluk, and 
their united channel drains the greater portion of the country. In the 
precipitous gorge of Gandikota, the river is reduced to an average width 
of 200 yards ; but in the level plain near the chief town it is at least 
three times as broad. Its waters are utilized to some slight extent for 
irrigation channels, but the manner in which the land rises from the 
river banks prevents any great use being made of them. Except the 
Penner basin, the whole of the taluk may be included in the black 
cotton soil tract. The quality of the land varies considerably, being 
excellent in the north and west, but only mediocre in the south. The 
wide plains of black soil are almost entirely divided between the two 
crops of cholam and cotton. Indigo, gram, and oilseeds are also 
raised ; but water is so scarce that rice and ragi may be said to be 
confined to the immediate neighbourhood of the Penner and its 
channels. The taluk has been liable from time to time to inundations. 
In 1851 the village of Chautapallc, at the confluence of the Penner and 



JAMMU TOWN 49 

the Chitravati, was totally destroyed by flood. Enormous freshes came 
down both rivers simultaneously and carried away the whole place, 
drowning about 500 of its inhabitants. On the morning of Septem- 
ber 12, 1902, a sudden deluge of rain swept away two spans of the 
railway bridge near the Mangapatnam railway station, with the result 
that the mail train was precipitated into the gap and seventy-one lives 
were lost. The Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal touches the north-east 
corner of the taluk. 

Jammalamadugu Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and 
taluk of the same name in Cuddapah District, Madras, situated in 
14° 51' N. and 78° 14^ E., on the left bank of the Penner river. 
Population (1901), 13,852. It is a busy centre of trade, with large 
exports of indigo and cotton. Cloths are also manufactured on hand- 
looms. The car-festival of Narapuraswami, held in May, continues for 
ten days and is attended by many people from surrounding villages. 
The place is a station of the London Missionary Society, which 
possesses a fine hospital, and also of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel. 

Jammu Province. — Province in Kashmir State. See Kashmir 
AND Jammu State. 

Jammu Town. — Capital of the Jammu province, Kashmir State, 
and the winter head-quarters of the Maharaja, situated in 32° 44' N. 
and 74° 55'' E., at an elevation of 1,200 feet above sea-level. Popula- 
tion (1901), 36,130. It lies high on the right bank of the river Tawi, 
which flows in a narrow ravine to join the Chenab. The town covers 
a space of about one square mile, densely packed with single-storeyed 
houses of round stones and mud with flat tops. In the upper portion 
are superior houses of brick, and in the Mandi stand the State offices 
and the palaces of the Maharaja and his brother. The general effect 
of Jammu is striking ; and from a distance the whitewashed temples, 
with their gilded pinnacles, suggest a splendour which is dispelled 
on nearer acquaintance. The most conspicuous of the temples is 
Raghunathji, but like all the other buildings in Jammu it is common- 
place. The Dogras have litde taste in architecture, and are essentially 
economical and practical in their ideas of domestic comfort. 

The railway, which runs to Sialkot, a distance of about 27 miles, 
starts from the left bank of the Tawi. The river is spanned by a fine 
suspension bridge, and a good cart-road runs from the bridge as far as 
the Mandi. The other streets are narrow and irregular, and there is 
nothing of striking interest. Of late years the construction of water- 
works, the ojiening of the cart-road to the Mandi, the suspension 
bridge over the Tawi, and the railway extension from Sialkot have 
improved the conditions of life in Jammu ; but there has been no 
marked response either in population or in prosperity. 



50 JAMMU TOWN 

In the palmy days of Raja RanjTt Deo, towards the latter part of 
the eighteenth century, it is stated that the population was 150,000. 
There is nothing in the geographical position of Jammu which makes 
for prosperi'ty. It lies on the edge of the Maharaja's territories, with 
an infertile hinterland. Rightly speaking, it should have been the 
emporium for Kashmir commerce, but the construction of the Kohala- 
Srlnagar cart-road has taken trade away from the Jammu-Banihal route. 
At present there are hopes of the development of coal-mines to the 
north, which might bring prosperity to the Dogra capital ; and the 
railway projected from Jammu to Srinagar would restore much 
business. 

The town of Jammu was a considerable centre of industry in the 
time of the late Maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu, Ranbir Singh ; but 
now it is merely the residence of the ruling family and of the officials 
of the State. The governor (Hakim-i-Ala) of the province with his 
revenue office, the Chief Judge, the Sub-Judge and two magistrates of 
the first class, the WazIr-i-Wazarat of the Jammu district, the Super- 
intendent of police, Jammu province, the chief medical officer, and the 
lieads of various departments all live in Jammu, together with the staff 
of their several offices. A large hall called the Ajaibghar was erected 
by the late Maharaja for the accommodation of the present King- 
Emperor, when he visited Jammu as Prince of Wales in the year 1875. 
The Mandi Mubarak palaces and the palace of Raja Sir Amar Singh, 
situated on the Ramnagar hill, towards the north of the town, are the 
chief attractions. The Central jail has a daily average of 268 prisoners, 
and costs about Rs. 20,000 per annum. The State high school is 
located in a large building, and is doing fairly efficient work. It 
contains about 800 pupils. A college to be named after the Prince of 
Wales is shortly to be opened. A State hospital is maintained, costing 
annually Rs. 14,800. Great improvements have been made in the 
drainage system of the town, which is managed by a municipal com- 
mittee, and more improvements in this respect are under contem- 
plation. 

Jamnagar. — Native State and town in Kathiawar, Bombay. See 
Navanagar. 

Jamner Taluka. — Tdluka of East Khandesh District^, Bombay, 
lying between 20'^ 2>Z' ^"^ 20° 55' N. and 75° 32' and 76° \' E., with 
an area of 527 square miles. It contains two towns, Jamner (popula- 
tion, 6,457), the head-quarters, and Shendurni (6,423); and 155 
villages. The population in 1901 was 91,739, compared with 87,230 
in 1 891. The average density, 174 persons per square mile, is above 
the District average. I'he demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
2-4 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 17,000. Most of the tdluka consists of 
a succession of rises and dips, with streams the banks of which are 



JAMPUR TOWN 51 

fringed with babul groves. In the nurth and south-east low straggling 
hills covered with young teak rise out of the plain. There is a plentiful 
and constant supply of water. On the whole, the climate is healthy, 
but at the close of the rains fever and ague prevail. The chief streams 
are the Vaghur, with its tributaries the Kag and Sur, the Harki and 
Sonij. Most of these streams rise in the Satmala hills. There are 
also 1,950 wells. Generally speaking, the soil is poor. There is black 
loam in the valleys, and on the plateaux a rich brownish mould called 
kali munjal. 

Jamner Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in East Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 20° 49' N. and 
75° 47' E., on the small river Kag, 60 miles east-by-south of Dhulia. 
Population (1901), 6,457. Jamner was a place of consequence in the 
times of the Peshwas, Its prosperity has recently shown signs of 
revival, owing to its rising cotton trade and ginning industry. The 
town has three cotton-ginning and pressing factories, a dispensary, and 
two schools, attended by nearly 200 boys. 

Jamnia. — Bhutiiiat in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Jamnotri. — Temple in the State of Tehri, United Provinces, situ- 
ated in 31° \' N. and 78° 28' E. It stands on the western flank of the 
great peak of Bandarpunch (30,731 feet), at an elevation of about 
10,800 feet above the sea and 4 miles below the glacier from which 
the Jumna issues. The temple is a small wooden structure, containing 
an image of the goddess Jumna. Close by are a number of hot springs 
from which water issues at a temperature of 194-7° F. Many pilgrims 
visit this sacred place every summer. 

Jampur Tahsil. — Tahsll of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, 
lying between 29° 16" and 29° 46' N. and 70^^ 4' and 70° 43' E., with 
an area of 895 square miles. It is bounded by the Indus on the east, 
and by independent territory on the west. The riverain lowlands are 
subject to inundation from the Indus, and are also irrigated by inunda- 
tion canals and wells. The hilly portion of the tahsil includes the Mari 
peak (5,385 feet above the sea). The rest of the tahsil consists of a 
sandy tract, the cultivation of which depends on irrigation from the 
Kaha torrent and on the very precarious rainfall. The population in 
1901 was 97,247, compared with 83,583 in 1891. It contains the 
towns of Jampur (population, 5,928), the head-quarters, and Dajal 
(6,213); ^^'^ 149 villages. Harrand is a place of some historical 
interest. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1-5 
lakhs. 

Jampur Town. — Head-quarters of the Jampur /o/wJ/ of Dera Ghazi 
Khan District, Punjab, situated in 29° 39' N. and 70° 39' E., 32 miles 
south of Dera Ghazi Khan town. Population (1901), 5,928. There is a 
considerable export of indigo to Multan and Sukkur, and a good deal of 



52 JAMPUR TOWN 

lac turnery is carried on. The municipality was created in 1873. The 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 10,100 and Rs. 9,600 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 11,500, chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 12,500. 
The town has an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the 
municipality, and a dispensary. 

Jamrao Canal. — A large and important water channel in the 
Hyderabad and the Thar and Parkar Districts of Sind, Bombay. 
The canal takes off from the Nara river in the north-west corner of the 
Sanghar tdluka and joins the Nara again in the extreme south of the 
Jamesabad tdluka^ the total length of the area irrigated being about 
130 miles with an average breadth of 10 miles. The natural features 
vary. The upper reaches of the canal pass through the sandy jungle- 
clad hills along the Nara river, which give place to an alluvial j)lain, 
covered, where formerly liable to be flooded from the Nara, with thick 
jungle of kandi, babul, and wild caper bushes, and are succeeded by 
the wide open plains sparsely dotted with vegetation which are the 
characteristic feature of the country. The length of the Jamrao Canal 
is 117 miles, and, including all its branches and distributaries, 588 
miles. This canal has one large branch, called the West Branch, 63 
miles in length, and about 408 miles of minor channels. 

The canal was opened on November 24, 1899, and water for irrigation 
on a large scale was admitted in the following June. The cost of the 
w'ork was about 84-6 lakhs and the gross revenue of 1903-4 amounted 
to 6| lakhs, which gives a net revenue of 4-3 lakhs or 5-1 per cent, on 
capital outlay to the end of the year. The area irrigated in 1903-4 was 
451 square miles. Large areas were available for colonization in the 
centre of the tract adjoining the canal to which water had never before 
penetrated, and over which no rights had been previously acquired. 
To these lands, colonists have recently been drawn from the Punjab, 
Cutch, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Kohistan, and the Desert. The area so 
i-Ax allotted to colonists, on the model of the Chenab Colony in the 
Punjab, amounted in 1904 to ri6 square miles. 

Jamrud. — Fort and cantonment just beyond the border of Pesha- 
war District, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 34° 6' N. and 
71° 23' E., at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, 10^ miles west of Pesha- 
war. Population (1901), 1,848. Jamrud was first fortified in 1836 by 
Hari Singh, the Sikh governor of Peshawar. It is now the head-quarters 
of the Khyber Rifles, and is the collecting station for the Khyber tolls, 
and contains a considerable sarai. A large mobilization camping- 
ground has been selected, 3 miles on the Peshawar side of Jamrud, and 
arrangements have been made for supplying water to it from the Bara 
water-works. Jamrud is connected with Peshawar by a branch of the 
North-^Vestern Railway. 



JAM UNA 53 

Jamtara Subdivision. — South-western subdivision of the Santal 
Parganas District, Bengal, lying between 23° 48' and 24° 10' N. and 
86° 30' and 87° 18' E., with an area of 698 square miles. The sub- 
division, which is bounded on the south by the Barakar and is inter- 
sected by the Ajay river, is a rolling country, in places rocky and 
covered with jungle, and resembles in its general features the adjoining 
District of Manbhum. The population in 1901 was 189,799, compared 
with 173,726 in 1891, the density being 272 persons per square mile. 
It contains 1,073 villages, of which Jamtara is the head-quarters; 
but no town. 

Jamtara Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in the Santal Parganas District, Bengal, situated in 23° 58' N. 
and 86° 50' E. Population (1901), 278. 

Jamu. — Province and town in Kashmir State. See Kashmir and 
Jammu and Jammu To\vn. 

Jamui Subdivision. — Southern subdivision of Monghyr District, 
Bengal, lying between 24° 22' and 25° 7' N. and 85° 49' and 86° 37' E., 
with an area of 1,276 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
551,227, compared with 553,917 in 1891. At the time of the Census 
it comprised an area of 1,593 square miles, but the Sheikhpura thdna 
was subsequently transferred to the Monghyr subdivision. The popu- 
lation of the subdivision as now constituted is 374,998. It contains 
499 villages, of which Jamui is its head-quarters. The subdivision, 
which in the south merges in the Chota Nagpur plateau, contains 
large areas of jungle, and supports only 294 persons to the square 
mile, being the least densely populated part of the District. JamuT is 
an important centre of trade. Gidhaur and Khaira are the present 
seats of the two senior branches of the Gidhaur family. 

Jamui Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Monghyr District, Bengal, situated in 24° 55'' N. and 86° 13' E., 
on the left bank of the river Kiul, 4 miles south-west of the Jamui 
station on the East Indian Railway, with which it is connected by a 
metalled road. Population (1901), 4,744. It contains the usual public 
offices, a miinsifi, a sub-jail with accommodation for 51 prisoners, and 
a higher-class English school. Mahiid flowers {Bassia latifolia) and oil, 
ghi, shellac, oilseeds, grain, and gur are exported, and cotton, tobacco, 
piece-goods, and metal vessels are imported. Trade is carried on by 
rail and by pack-bullocks. To the south of the village are the remains 
of an old fort, known as Indpegarh. 

Jamuna (i). — River of Eastern Bengal and Assam, probably repre- 
senting one of the old channels of the TIsta. It rises in Dinajpur Dis- 
trict, not far from the boundary of Rangpur (25° 38' N. and 88° 54' E.), 
and, flowing due south along the border of Bogra, finally falls into the 
Atrai, itself a tributary of the Ganges, near the village of Bhawanipur 



54 JAM UNA 

in Rajshahi District (24° 38' N. and 88° 57' E.), after a total length 
of 89 miles. In the lower part of its course the Jamuna is navigated 
all the year round by country boats of considerable burden, but 
higher up it is navigable only during the rainy season. The chief 
river marts on the banks of the Jamuna are Phulbari and Birampur 
in Dinajpur District, and Hilli in Bogra, just beyond the Dinajpur 
boundary. 

Jamuna (2). — Deltaic distributary of the Ganges in Bengal, or rather 
the name given to a part of the waters of the IchamatI during a section 
of its course. The Jamuna enters the Twenty-four Parganas at BaHani 
from Jessore District ; and after a south-easterly route through the 
Twenty-four Parganas and Nadia Districts winds amid the forests and 
jungles of the Sundarbans, until it empties itself into the Raimangal, 
at a short distance from the point where the estuary debouches in the 
Bay of Bengal, in 21° 47'' N. and 89° 13' E. The Jamuna is a deep 
river and navigable throughout the year by trading boats of the 
largest size, and its breadth varies from 150 to 300 or 400 yards. The 
Bhangar line of the Calcutta and Eastern Canals strikes this river at 
Husainabad. 

Jamuna (3) (or Janai). — Name given to the lower section of the 
Brahmaputra, in Eastern Bengal and Assam, from its entrance 
into Bengal in 25° 24' N. and 89° 41' E., to its confluence with 
the Ganges in 23° 50' N. and 89° 45' E, Its course is almost due 
south, extending approximately for a length of 1 2 1 miles. This channel 
is of comparatively recent formation. When Major Rennell compiled 
his map of Bengal towards the close of the eighteenth century, the 
main stream of the Brahmaputra flowed in a south-easterly direction 
across the District of Mymensingh, past the civil station of Naslrabad, 
to join the Meghna just below Bhairab Bazar. Some thirty years 
later, at the time of Buchanan Hamilton's survey, this channel had 
already ^become of secondary importance ; and at the present time, 
though it still bears the name of Brahmaputra, it has dwindled to 
a mere watercourse, navigable only during the rainy season. The 
Jamuna is now the main stream, and it extends from near Ghora- 
mara in Rangpur District to the river mart of Goalundo in Faridpur, 
situated at the junction with the main stream of the Ganges. Along 
tlie left or east bank stretches the District of INIymensingh, and on 
the right or west bank lie Rangpur, Bogra, and Pabna, all in the 
Rajshahi Division. Although a modern creation, the Jamuna thus 
serves as an important administrative boundary. In the portion of 
its course which fringes Bogra District, it is locally known as the 
Daokoba or * hatchet-cut,' perhaps to distinguish it from the Jamuna 
(i) in that District. It runs through a low-lying country, formed out 
of its own loose alluvial sands, which afford the most ftivourable 



JANG I PUR TOWN 55 

soil for jute cultivation. At some points its channel swells during 
the rainy season to a breadth of four or five miles, broken by frequent 
chars or sandbanks, which form, are washed away, and re-form year 
after year, according to the varying incidence of the current. The 
chief river mart on the Jamuna is Sirajganj in Pabna District. The 
Jamuna is navigable throughout its entire length, at all seasons of 
the year, by native craft of the largest burden, and also by the river 
steamers that ply to Assam. 

Jandiala. — Town in the Phillaur tahsil of Jullundur District, Pun- 
jab, situated in 31° 34' N. and 75° 37' E. Population (1901), 6,620. 
It ceased to be a municipality in 1872. 

Jandiala Guru. — Town in the District and tahs'il of Amritsar, 
Punjab, situated in 31° 34' N. and 75° 2' E., on the North-Western 
Railway, and on the grand trunk road, 11 miles east of Amritsar 
city. Population (1901), 7,750. The proprietary body are Jats, but 
there is a large mercantile community of Bhabras, who by religion 
are Jains. There is a considerable manufacture of blankets and brass 
vessels. The municipality was created in 1867. The income during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 8,200, and the expenditure 
Rs. 8, ICO. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,400, chiefly derived from 
octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 9,800. The town possesses an 
Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the District board, 
and mission hospitals for men and women. 

Jandola {Jandula). — A Bhittanni village on the right-hand bank 
of the Tank Zam stream, on the borders of the Mahsud territory in 
the Southern Waziristan Political Agency, North-West Frontier Pro- 
vince, situated in 32° 20' N. and 70° 9' E. A fortified post close to 
the village is garrisoned by two companies of regulars and 25 cavalry, 
besides the Bhittanni levies. 

Jangaon. — Tdluk in Adilabad District, Hyderabad State, situated 
midway between the Sirpur and Lakhsetipet taluks and consisting of 
villages recently taken from those two taluks. Its head-quarters are 
at Jangaon (population, 2,052). 

Jangipur Subdivision. — Northern subdivision of Murshidabad 
District, Bengal, lying between 24° 19' and 24° 52' N. and 87° 49' 
and 88° 21' E., with an area of 509 square miles. The subdivision 
is divided into two parts by the Bhagirathi, the land to the west of 
that river being high and undulating, and that to the east a fertile 
alluvial tract liable to floods. The population in 1901 was 334,191, 
compared with 317,179 in 1891, the density being 657 persons per 
square mile. It contains one town, Jangipur (population, 10,921), 
its head-quarters ; and 1,093 villages. 

Jangipur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Murshidabad District, Bengal, situated in 24° 28' N. and 



56 JANG I PUR TOWN 

88° 4' E., on the Bhaglrathi. Population (1901), 10,921. The town, 
which is said to have been founded by the emperor Jahanglr, was 
during the early years of British rule an important centre of the silk 
trade and the site of one of the Company's Commercial Residencies. 
There are still extensive filatures in the neighbourhood. Situated 
near the mouth of the Bhaglrathi, it is the chief toll station for boats 
passing along that river. It was constituted a municipality in 1869. 
The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 11,000, and 
the expenditure Rs. 10,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,000, 
including Rs. 4,000 obtained from tolls and ferries, and Rs. 3,000 
derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 13,000. The town with the courts and offices originally stood 
on the left bank of the Bhaglrathi ; but, owing to the shifting of the 
river, the subdivisional offices have been moved to its right bank, 
that portion of the town being known as Raghunathganj. The sub- 
jail has accommodation for 26 prisoners. 

Janjgir. — Eastern tahsil of Bilaspur District, Central Provinces, 
lying between 21° 37' and 22° 50' N. and 82° 19^ and 83° 40' E. 
In 190 1 its area was 1,467 square miles, and the population was 
285,236. On the formation of the new Drug District, the constitu- 
tion of the tahsil was considerably altered. A tract lying south of 
the Mahanadi, containing the Bilaigarh, Katgi, and Bhatgaon zamhi- 
daris, with the Sonakhan estate, and the Sarsewa group of villages, was 
transferred to the Baloda Bazar tahsil of Raipur District, while the 
three northern zamlnddris of Korba, Chhuri, and Uprora were trans- 
ferred from the Bilaspur tahsil to Janjgir. On the transfer of Sam- 
balpur District to Bengal, the Chandarpur-Padampur and Malkhurda 
estates of that District were added to this tahsil. The revised figures 
of area and population for the Janjgir tahsil are 3,039 square miles 
and 418,209 persons. The population of this area in 1891 was 451,024. 
The density is 138 persons per square mile. The tahsil contains 
1,331 villages. The head-quarters are at Janjgir, a village of 2,257 
inhabitants, adjoining Naila station on the railway, 26 miles east of 
Bilaspur town. The tahsil has only four square miles of Government 
forest. It includes the zaminddri estates of Champa, Korba, Chhuri, 
and Uprora, with a total area of 1,748 square miles, of which 746 
arc tree and scrub forest, and a population of 112,680 persons. The 
land revenue demand in 1902-3 on the area now constituting the tahsil 
was approximately 1-42 lakhs. The old area of the tahsil is almost 
wholly an open plain, covered with yellow clay soil and closely cropped 
with rice, while the northern zamltidaris consist principally of densely 
forested hills and plateaux. 

Janji. — River in Sibsagar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. See 
Jhanzi. 



JANJIRA STATE 57 

Janjira State (or Habsdn, ' the African's land '). — State within the 
Political Agency of Kolaba, in the Konkan, Bombay, lying between 
18° and 18° 31' N. and 72° 53' and 73° 17' E. The State is bounded 
on the north by the Kundalika or Roha creek in Kolaba District ; on 
the east by the Roha and Mangaon tdlukas of the same District ; on 
the south by the Bankot creek in Ratnagiri District ; and on the west 
by the Arabian Sea. About the middle of the coast-line, 40 miles long, 
the Rajpuri Gulf divides Janjira into two main portions, northern 
and southern. The area is 324 square miles, excluding Jafarabad 
in Kathiawar, which is also subject to the chief. The name Janjira 
is a corruption of the Arabic Jazlra, ' an island.' 

The surface of the State of Janjira is covered with spurs and hill 
ranges, averaging about 1,000 feet in height, and generally running 
parallel to the arms of the sea that penetrate east- . 

wards into the interior. The sides of the hills are aspects, 

thickly wooded, except where cleared for cultivation. 
Inland from the coast rise ranges of wooded hills. Near the mouths 
of the creeks belts of palm groves from i to 2 miles broad fringe 
the shore. Behind the palm groves lie salt marshes and mangrove 
bushes ; behind these again, the rice lands of the valleys. The 
wealthiest and largest villages, inhabited by skilful gardeners, well- 
to-do fishermen, and palm-tappers, nestle in the palm-belt along the 
coast. Inland, the banks of the creeks are studded with hamlets, 
occupied by husbandmen who cultivate rice. On the hill-sides, in 
glens or on terraces, are the huts and scanty clearings of Kathkaris 
and other hillmen. The slopes of the lower hills are generally rounded 
and passable by a pony. These slopes, except in the rains, are bare ; 
but at most times, and particularly at high tide, the Rajpuri creek 
affords fine views of wooded hill and winding water. In former times 
travel was nearly impossible during the rains ; but since the accession 
of the present Nawab in 1883, roads have been constructed aifording 
considerable facilities for travel even in the rainy season. On the 
coast the sand-bars at the mouth of every inlet but the Rajpuri creek 
prevent ingress. Farther inland, the low rice lands become covered 
with deposited mud, the main streams are flooded too deeply to be 
forded, and overgrown forest tracts render ditificult the passage from 
one hill range to another. None of the streams is more than 5 or 
6 miles in length. The larger watercourses flow westward. During 
the rains they are torrents, but dwindle to mere rills at other 
seasons. The chief creeks and backwaters are, beginning from the 
north : the Mandla-Borlai, Nandgaon, Murud, Rajpuri, Panchaitan 
or Dive-Borlai, and Srivardhan. Most of the creek entrances are 
rocky and dangerous. During the navigable season, September to 
June, they can be entered only by boats of under i^ tons burden. 



58 JANJIRA STATE 

Once over the bar, the creeks are mostly of uniform depth through- 
out their course. The mouth of the Rajpuri creek is 45 miles south 
of Bombay, The creek ends at the old town of Mhasla, 14 miles 
south-east of Janjira town. At springs the tide rises 12 feet in 
the creek. There is no bar. The bottom is muddy. The least 
depth at low tide is 3^ fathoms at the entrance of the creek, and 
\\ fathoms inside the entrance in the mid-channel. Steamers can 
enter, even during the rains, and lie in still water to the south of 
JanjTra island. 

The rock is almost all trap, with, on the higher hill slopes, laterite 
or ironstone in large boulders. The hills are well wooded, teak being 
plentiful in the north. Tigers, leopards, hog, and wild cats are found 
in some parts. Venomous snakes are numerous. 

The climate is moist and relaxing, but not unhealthy. The sea- 
breeze cools the coast and hill-tops. Along the coast, fever and 
dysentery prevail from October to January. The heat on the coast 
ranges from d^ to 85° in January, from 70° to 94° in May, from 79° 
to 85° in July, and from 69° to 84° in November. Inland, where the 
sea-breeze does not penetrate, the thermometer ranges 7*^ or 8° higher. 
The annual rainfall averages 107 inches. 

The origin of the ruling family is thus related. About the year 1489 
an Abyssinian in the service of one of the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmad- 
nagar, disguised as a merchant, obtained permis- 
sion from Ram Patel, the Koll captain, to land 300 
boxes. Each of these boxes contained a soldier, and by this means 
the Abyssinians possessed themselves of Janjira island and the fort of 
Danda Rajpuri. The island afterwards formed part of the dominions 
of the king of Bijapur. In the time of Sivajl the government of the 
Southern Konkan was held by the admiral of the Bijapur fleet, who 
was always an Abyssinian. In consequence of the inability of his 
master to succour him when attacked by SivajT, the Sidi admiral offered 
his services, in 1670, to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The most 
noticeable point in the history of Janjira is its successful resistance 
alone of all the States of Western India to the determined attacks 
of the Marathas, who made its capture a point of honour. After 
repeated attacks by SivajT, its conquest was again attempted in 1682 
by his son Sambhaji, who besieged the island, which he attempted 
to connect with the mainland by means of a mole. The project 
failed, and other attempted modes of attack were defeated with heavy 
loss. In 1733 the combined efforts of the Peshwa and Angria made 
little impression on JanjTra, The British, on succeeding the Marathas 
as masters of the Konkan, refrained from interfering in the internal 
administration of the State. 

The chief is a SunnI Muhammadan, by race a Sidl or Abyssinian, 



AGRICULTURE 59 

with the title of Nawab. He has a sanad guaranteeing succession 
according to Muhammadan law, and pays no tribute. As regards 
succession, the family does not necessarily follow the rule of primo- 
geniture. Till 1868 the State enjoyed singular independence, there being 
no Political Agent, and no interference whatever in its internal affairs. 
About that year the maladministration of the chief, especially in matters 
of police and criminal justice, became flagrant ; those branches of 
administration were in consequence taken out of his hands and vested 
in a Political Agent. The treaty which regulates the dealings of the 
British Government with the State is that of 1870. The Nawab of 
Janjira is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. 

The population (exclusive of Jafarabad) at the last four enumerations 
was: (1872) 71,996, (1881) 76,361, (1891) 81,780, and (1901) 85,414. 
There are two towns, Murud (population, 3,553) and 
SrIvardhan (5,961); and 284' villages. The density opu a ion. 
is 264 persons per square mile. About 82 per cent, are Hindus and 
17 per cent. Musalmans. The castes of numerical importance are 
Agris (9,617), Kolis (7,326), Kunbis (15,670), and Mahars (7,242). 
Brahmans (1,524) and Prabhus (1,771) constitute the higher castes. 
The Musalmans are chiefly Shaikhs (13,552), only 240 having re- 
turned themselves as Sidls in 1901. An interesting though numerically 
unimportant community are the Bani-Israil (566), who are a race of 
Jewish descent, worship one God, and have no images in their houses. 
They practise many Jewish rites. The dress and manner of living of 
the Bani-Israil, who are mostly oil-pressers by trade, are partly Muham- 
madan and partly Hindu. They speak Marathi. Though fond of 
drink, they are steady, enterprising, and prosperous. The Sidis are 
the representatives of Habshi or ^Vbyssinian slaves and soldiers of 
fortune, and are only found in the island of Janjira. Many of them 
are related to the Nawab and inherit State grants and allowances. The 
term Sldl is considered to be a corruption of Saiyid. The crews of 
the Bombay harbour boats, the steamships of the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company, and the smaller coasting steamers, are to a great 
extent recruited from Janjira. 

Except the plots of rich alluvial rice land in the valleys and some 

sandy tracts near the coast, the usual red stony soil of the Konkan 

prevails throughout Janjira. Of the whole area, 

., , ui f u- u Agriculture. 

42 square miles or 13 per cent, are arable, or which 

41 square miles were cultivated in 1903-4. The principal crops 

are rice (38^ square miles), betel-nuts, and coco-nuts. Srivardhan 

betel-nuts are known throughout the Bombay Presidency. In the 

strip of light sand bordering the coast coco-nut palms grow in great 

^ The Census of 1901 showed 234 villages. The present figure is based upon more 
recent information. 

VOL. XIV. E 



6o JAN/IRA STATE 

perfection. For irrigation purposes, water sufficiently fresh is found 
everywhere by digging a few feet into the easily worked earth. It 
is drawn from wells by means of the Persian wheel, and from streams 
by a balance lift called ukti. In 1878 the British system of forest 
preservation was adopted. The forests are now strictly protected, and 
in 1903-4 yielded Rs. 40,700. Quarries of trap and laterite are 
occasionally worked. Small pearls are found in oysters fished up from 
the Rajpuri creek. The oyster is believed to be the Fiacuna placenta. 
Judging from the quantities of shells thrown up along the banks of 
the Rajpuri creek, the beds must be considerable. 

Next to agriculture, which supports 70 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion, sea-fishing is the occupation of most of the people. The manu- 
factures include the weaving of sdrls, coarse cloth, 

communlcTtLs. t""^^^""' ^"^ ^^^ "'^^^"S of coir rope, metal-work, 
furniture, stone-ware, and native shoes of an inferior 
kind. The chief articles of import are grain (Rs. 60,000), cotton 
and woollen stuffs (Rs. 70,000), sugar and molasses (Rs. 56,000), 
salt (Rs. 10,000), ghi and oil (Rs. 77,000); the total value of imports 
being 4-3 lakhs. The export trade amounts to more than 3 lakhs, 
the chief articles being firewood (Rs. 83,000), supplied to Bombay, and 
betel-nuts and coco-nuts (Rs. 63,000). External traffic is carried on 
almost entirely by water. In March, 1874, a regular steam communi- 
cation was established between Bombay and Dasgaon on the Savitri 
river, touching at Janjira and Srivardhan. There are twelve ferries in 
the State. A ferry steamer plies between Bombay and Dharamtar. 
The chief made roads are from Murud to Borlai, 14 miles in length, 
and from Uighi to Srivardhan, 19 miles. A State post formerly 
worked between Alibag and Bankot, but was abolished in 1880 when 
the British post office extended. 

Since 1872, when the crops partially failed, the State has suffered 
. from bad seasons in 1875, 1878, 1879, and 1881. 

In 1 899-1 900 the crops in several villages failed on 
account of the scanty rainfall, and relief works were undertaken. 

The administration of the State is in the hands of the Kdrb/uh'i, 
under the orders of the Nawab and subject to the supervision of 
. . . the Political Agent. There are ten criminal courts 
(excluding three in the Jafarabad dependency), with 
subordinate magisterial powers, and three civil courts in the State, two 
of which exercise appellate powers. The three civil courts are those of 
the Munsif, the Sar Nyayadhish, and the Sadr Court. The Munsif 
disposes of suits up to the value of Rs. 5,000. The Sar Nyayadhish 
hears suits of greater value, exercises Small Cause Court powers up to 
a limit of Rs. 50, and also has appellate powers. The Sadr Court, which 
is presided over by the Nawab himself, exercises the powers of a High 



JANJIRA VILLAGE 6i 

Court. The Kdrbhdri has the powers of a Sessions Judge and District 
Magistrate. 

The revenue of the State exxeeds 5^ lakhs (inclusive of about 
Rs. 65,000 from Jafarabad in Kathiawar), and is chiefly derived from 
land (2^ lakhs), forests (Rs. 41,000), excise (Rs. 70,000), and salt 
and customs (Rs. 50,000). The expenditure is 5 lakhs (inclusive of 
Rs. 41,000 in Jafarabad), of which one lakh is brought to account as 
Darbar expenses and Rs. 50,000 as indm and charities or religious 
grants. Salt is purchased from the British Government, the annual 
sale of which amounts to 9,000 maunds. Opium is also purchased 
from the British Government. The excise system is the same as in 
the Alibag tdluka of Kolaba District. Of the total excise revenue, the 
tree taxes yield Rs. 34,000 and the toddy spirit fee Rs. 20,000. Till 
it was closed in 1834, the Nawab's mint issued silver and copper coins. 
British coinage has now taken the place of the old currency. The 
total number of villages (including towns) is 286, of which 263 are 
unalienated and 23 alienated. The chief district revenue officer is in 
charge of the three fiscal divisions or inahdls of Srivardhan, Murud, 
and Mhasla. The survey settlement was introduced in 1898-g. The 
new rates have enhanced the assessment from i-8i to i-86 lakhs. The 
present rates for rice land vary from Rs. 6-7 to Rs. 9-9 per acre ; for 
garden land from Rs. 6-10 to Rs. 15-11; and for varkas land from 
3 to 4 annas. 

There are two municipalities, besides that at Jafarabad, one at 
Murud and the other at Srivardhan, with an income in 1903-4 of 
Rs. 3,600 and Rs. 3,200 respectively. Local funds yield Rs. 15,000, 
consisting of a cess of one anna on each rupee of land revenue and 
of part of the income from cattle pounds. Exclusive of 13 irregulars 
in Jafarabad, the military force consists of 30 infantry, 14 gunners, and 
188 irregulars, in all 232. The total strength of the permanent police 
is 137, exclusive of 28 in Jafarabad. The daily average number of 
prisoners in the State jail in 1903-4 was 11. There are also 3 lock-ups. 
Janjira proper has (1903-4) 69 schools, including one English school 
with 130 pupils. The number of pupils attending these schools was 
2,862, of whom 428 were girls. A hospital and 4 dispensaries treat 
about 30,000 persons annually. Jafarabad contains 2 dispensaries, 
which treated 6,000 persons in 1903-4. Nearly 3,000 persons, or 
•^(i per 1,000 of the population, are vaccinated annually. 

Janjira Village. — Capital of the State of Janjira, Bombay, situated 
in iS° 18' N. and 73° E., 44 miles south of Bombay Island. Popula- 
tion (190 1), 1,620. The fort of Janjira, on an island at the entrance 
of the Rajpuri creek, lies half a mile from the mainland on the east, 
and a mile from the mainland on the west. Its walls rise abruptly 
from the water to a height of 50 feet, with battlements and loopholes. 

E 2 



62 JAN/IRA VILLAGE 

In the bastions and on the walls are ten guns. In the fort a Muham- 
madan fair is held in November, attended by about 3,000 visitors. 
On Nanwell headland, about 2 miles west of the fort, a lighthouse 
shows a dioptric light of order 4, about 150 feet above sea-level. It 
serves to light the dangerous sunken reef known as the Chor Kassa, 
situated about three-quarters of a mile from the headland. 

Jansath Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil of Muzafifarnagar District, 
United Provinces, lying between 29° 10' and 29° 36' N. and 77° 36' 
and 78" 6' E., with an area of 451 square miles. The population 
increased from 193,533 in 1891 to 216,411 in 1901. The tahsil con- 
tains four towns : namely, Khatauli (population, 8,695), MIranpur 
(7,209), Jansath (6,507), the tahsil head-quarters, and Bhukarheri 
(6,316) ; and 244 villages. In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue 
was Rs. 3,60,000, and for cesses Rs, 47,000. The Ganges bounds the 
tahsil on the east, and the low land on the bank of the river is swampy ; 
but the greater part lies on the upland and is protected by the Upper 
Ganges Main Canal and the Anupshahr branch. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 307 square miles, of which 115 were irrigated. 

Jansath Town. — -Head-quarters of the tahsil oi the same name in 
Muzaffarnagar District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 19' N. and 
77° 51' E., 14 miles from Muzaffarnagar town. Population (1901), 
6,507. The town is famous as the home of the Jansath Saiyids, who 
held the chief power in the Delhi empire during the early part of the 
eighteenth century. Jansath was sacked and destroyed by a Rohilla 
force, under the orders of the Wazir Kamar-ud-din, in 1737, and many 
Saiyids were slain or exiled ; but some of their descendants still live in 
the town. Jansath is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 2,000. It contains a tahslll, an Anglo-vernacular 
school opened by private subscription, and a dispensary. Much has 
been done lately to improve the place by paving the streets and the 
drains. 

Janwada. — Taluk of Bidar District, Hyderabad State. See Kara- 
MUNGi Taluk. 

Jaora State. — A treaty State, situated in the Malwa Agency of 
Central India, with an area of 568 square miles, of which 128 have been 
alienated in land grants. The territories of the State are much split up, 
the main portion lying between 23° 30' and 23° 55' N. and 75° o' and 
75° 30' E. It is bounded by portions of the Indore, Gwalior, and 
Ratlam States of the Agency, the State of Partabgarh in Rajputana, 
and the Thakurat of Piploda. It takes its name from Jaora town, at 
which the head-quarters are situated. The whole State lies on the 
Malwa highlands, and shares in the general conditions common to that 
region. There are only two rivers of importance, the Chambal and 
Sipra, 



JAORA state 63 

Ghafur Khan was an Afghan of the Tajik Khel, from Swat. His 
grandfather, Abdul Majid Khan, originally came to India in hopes of 
making a fortune ; and his two sons Abdul HamTd and Abdur Ras 
entered the service of Ghulam Kadir Khan, notorious for having 
blinded the aged emperor Shah Alam in 1788. On the execution of 
Ghulam Kadir by Sindhia they settled in Rohilkhand. Ghafur Khan 
was the fourth and youngest son of Abdul Hamid. He married a 
daughter of Muhammad Ayaz Khan, who held a high post at the 
Jodhpur court. Ayaz Khan assisted the freebooter Amir Khan in 
settling the dispute between the chiefs of Jaipur and Jodhpur regarding 
the hand of the Udaipur princess Krishna Kunwari ; and the friendship 
thus started led Ayaz to give his younger daughter to Amir Khan, who 
then took Ghafur Khan into his service, and employed him as his con- 
fidential agent and representative at the court of Holkar, when absent 
on distant expeditions. After the battle of Mehidpur (Dec. 21, 1817), 
Holkar was forced to make terms, and signed the Treaty of Mandasor 
{see Indore State), by the twelfth article of which it was agreed that 
Nawab Ghafur Khan should be confirmed in possession of Sanjit, 
Malhargarh, Tal, Jaora, and Barauda, and draw tribute from Piploda. 
The Nawab was at the same time required to furnish a quota of 500 
horse and 500 foot and four guns for the assistance of the British 
Government, an obligation which was later on commuted for a cash 
payment. Amir Khan protested against this clause, on the ground 
that Ghafur Khan was holding the districts as his agent ; but the claim 
was not admitted. 

In 182 1 certain agreements were mediated between the Nawab 
and the Malhargarh Thakurs. The Malhargarh Thakurs claimed to be 
tributary yj^Jr^^r^, but it was held that they were merely guaranteed 
leaseholders, the tenure depending on the due observance of the terms 
of their holding; until 1890 they were a constant source of trouble to 
the Darbar. 

In 1825 Ghafur Khan died, leaving an infant son, Ghaus Muhammad 
Khan (1S25-65). He was placed on the ?nas/iad^ ;/rt5rtn7«a (succession 
dues) of 2 lakhs being paid to Holkar. The management of the State 
was left to the late Nawab's widow, but after two years she was removed 
from the control for mismanagement. In 1842 Ghaus Muhammad Khan 
received administrative powers. In the same year a money payment of 
r-6 lakhs was accepted in lieu of the troops required to be kept up under 
the treaty, and in return for good services during the Mutiny this was 
further reduced to 1-4 lakhs in 1859. Three years later a sanad was 
granted guaranteeing succession in accordance with Muhammadan law. 
Ghaus Muhammad died in 1865, leaving a son of eleven years of age, 
Muhammad Ismail Khan (1865-95), ^^''O "■''^s duly installed, the usual 
tiazardiia of 2 lakhs being paid to Holkar. The Nawab was placed in 



64 JAORA STATE 

charge of the State in 1874, but his administration was not a success. 
He incurred a debt of about 16 lakhs, and, in addition, borrowed 
3 lakhs from Government. Muhammad Ismail died in 1895 and was 
succeeded by his son Iftikhar All Khan, the present chief, then a boy 
of twelve, the management of the State being entrusted to the Nawab's 
uncle, Yar Muhammad Khan, until 1906, when the chief received 
powers of administration. The young chief Avas educated at the Daly 
College at Indore, and in 1902 he joined the Imperial Cadet Corps. 
The present ruler bears the titles of His Highness and Fak/ir-ud-daitla 
Nawab Saulat Jang, the second and last dignities being personal, and is 
entitled to a salute of 13 guns. 

The population of the State was: (1881) 108,834, (1891) 117,650, 
and (1901) 84,202. In the latest year Hindus numbered 62,405, or 
74 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 15,854, or 19 per cent.; Jains, 
3,314, or 4 per cent. ; and Animists, 2,585, or 3 per cent, (mostly BhTls 
and SondhiasV Of the Muhammadan population, 73 per cent, live in 
Jaora town. The density of population is 148 persons per square mile, 
that for all Malwa being only 116. There are two towns, Jaora (popu- 
lation, 23,854), the capital, and Tal (4,954); and 337 villages. The 
population rose in the period ending 1891 by 8 percent., but fell during 
the last decade by 29 per cent., chiefly on account of the famine of 
1 899-1 900. The Rangri or MalwT dialect of RajasthanI is spoken by 
70 per cent. Besides the animistic tribes mentioned, the most numerous 
castes among Hindus are : Rajputs, 7,200; Chamars, 5,500 ; Kunbis, 
5,000; and Balais, 3,700. About 38 per cent, of the population are 
supported by agriculture, and 12 per cent, by general labour. 

The soil of the State is among the richest in Malwa, being mainly of 
the best black cotton variety, bearing excellent crops of poppy. Of the 
total area of 568 square miles, 274, or 48 per cent., are under culti- 
vation, of which 24 square miles are irrigated. Of the uncultivated area, 
94 square miles, or 1 7 per cent, of the total area, are capable of cultiva- 
tion, the rest being waste. Of the cropped axevi,jowdr and cotton each 
occupy 49 square miles, or 16 per cent. ; maize, 37 square miles, or 12 
per cent. ; poppy, 18 square miles, or 6 per cent. ; and wheat, 10 square 
miles, or 3 per cent. 

The chief means of communication are the Nimach-Mhow high road 
and the Jaora-Piploda road, both metalled and kept up by Government ; 
and the Rajputana-Malwa Railway and the Ratlam-Godhra-Baroda 
branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, which joins 
the Rajputana-Malwa at Ratlam, and forms the shortest route to Bombay. 

For administrative purposes the State is divided into seven tahs'ih (or 
districts) — Jaora, Barauda, Barkhera, Malhargarh, Nawabganj, SanjTt, 
and Tal Mandawal — each under a iahsl/dfir, who is collector of revenue 
and magistrate of the district. 



JAORA TOWN 65 

The chief is the final authority in all general administrative and civil 
judicial matters. In criminal cases, however, he is required to submit 
all cases involving the penalty of death for confirmation by the Agent to 
the Governor-General. The judicial system was organized in 1885 on 
the model of British courts, and the punishments laid down in the 
British codes were introduced in place of the primitive pains and 
penalties which were then in force. 

No revenue survey has as yet been made, and crops are appraised on 
the ground before the harvest. The incidence of land revenue demand 
is Rs. 3 per acre of cultivated land, and Rs. 1-8 per acre on the total 
area. Collections are made in cash, in three instalments. 

The total revenue of the State amounts to 8-5 lakhs, of which 58 
lakhs, or 68 per cent., is derived from land ; Rs. 29,000, or 3 per cent., 
from opium ; Rs. 25,000, or 3 per cent., from customs ; and Rs. 14,000 
from tribute. The chief heads of expenditure are : general administra- 
tion, I-2 lakhs; chief's establishment, Rs. 30,000; charges in respect of 
collection of land revenue, Rs. 62,600 ; police, Rs. 35,000 ; military, 
Rs. 34,000; public works, Rs. 31,000; tribute, Rs. 1,37,000. 

A duty of Rs. 7 per maund is levied on raw opium, and of Rs. 2 
on every 10 lb. of the manufactured article. Dues are also levied on 
every chest of 140 lb. : namely, on Jaora-grown opium, Rs. 30; on 
foreign opium, Rs. 13 when it comes from a distance of 50 miles or 
less, and Rs. 9 when it comes from more than 50 miles. About 1,000 
chests pass annually through the Government scales maintained in Jaora 
town, at which the British Government levies an export duty on all 
opium passing through British India to the Chinese market. This 
duty amounts to about 5 lakhs a year. 

Since 1895 the British rupee has been legal tender. 

The State maintains 59 regular cavalry, 124 infantry, and 48 artillery 
with 16 guns, besides 36 irregulars. The police force was organized 
in 1892, and now includes 370 regular police and 332 rural police, 
giving I man to every 226 persons. A Central jail is maintained at 
Jaora town. 

An English school was started in 1866. In 1896 the Barr High 
School, teaching up to the University entrance standard, was opened. 
There are now ten other State schools, as well as several private institu- 
tions, which are supported by grants-in-aid. The cost of education is 
Rs. 5,000 a year. 

Two hospitals are maintained in Jaora town, one for men and one 
for women, and five dispensaries in the districts. 

Jaora Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in Central 
India, situated in 23°38'N. and 75° 8' E., about r,6oo feet above the 
level of the sea, with an area of 2\ square miles. Jaora is on the 
AjmerKhandwa branch of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, 432 miles 



66 JAORA TOWN 

from Bombay. The village of Jaora belonged originally to the Khatki 
Rajputs, but was taken by Ghafur Khan as the site of his chief town. 
It is divided into twenty-six quarters, containing bazars for the sale 
of different articles. The public buildings include two hospitals, one 
for males and one for females, a guesthouse, a high school and two 
smaller educational institutions, a jail, a post and telegraph office, and 
several sarais. Population has increased regularly : (1881) 19,902, 
(1891) 21,844, (1901) 23,854. Hindus form 43 per cent, and 
Musalmans 48 per cent, of the total. The town is watched by a 
police force of 41 constables. 

Japvo. — The highest mountain in Assam (9,890 feet), situated in 
25° 36'' N. and 94° 4' E., in the Assam Range a little to the south of 
Kohlma (Naga Hills District). 

Jasdan State. — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 21° 56' and 22°i7'N. and between 71° 8' and 7i°35'E., 
with an area of 283 square miles. The population in 1901 was 25,727, 
residing in 56 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,23,000, and 
151 square miles were cultivated, of which 19 square miles were irri- 
gated. Jasdan ranks as a third-class State in Kathiawar. Jasdan town 
may derive its name from Swami Chashtana, one of the very earliest 
of the Kshatrapa dynasty. During the rule of the Ghorls of Junagarh, 
a strong fort was built there, and the town was called Ghorlgarh. 
Later on it fell into the hands of the K humans of Kherdi and was 
conquered from Jasa Khuman about 1665 by Vika Khachar, the 
grandson of Lakha Khachar, the founder of the Lakhani branch of 
Khachars. In the time of Vajsur Khachar, who was a powerful chief 
and established a pal or claim to blackmail over the surrounding 
country as far as Dhandhuka and Carabay, it was taken by Bhaunagar. 
Subsequently Jasd&n was seized by the Jam of Navanagar, but he 
restored it to Vajsur Khachar on the occasion of the marriage of Jam 
Jasajl. Vajsur Khachar came to terms with the British and the 
Gaikwar in 1807-8. The State is now ruled by this family with the 
title of chief. They follow the rule of primogeniture. 

Jasdan Town. — Chief town of the State of the same name in 
Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 22° 5' N. and 7i°2o'E., about 4 miles 
north-east of Atkot, and 6 miles north of Kotra Pitha, both of which 
are on the Rajkot-Bhaunagar high road. Population (1901), 4,628. 
Jasdan is a town of great antiquity, and possibly derives its name from 
Swami Chashtana, the second ruler of the Kshatrapa dynasty. During 
the rule of the Ghorls of Junagarh a strong fort was built here, and the 
town was called Ghorigarh. A good road connects it with Vinchia. 
An agricultural bank has recently been opened in Jasdan for the 
benefit of the cultivating classes. 

Jashpur. — Tributary State in the Central Provinces, lying between 



JASHPUR 67 

22° 17' and 23° 15' N. and 83° 30' and 84° 24' E., with an area of 
1,948' square miles. Till 1905 it was included in the Chota Nagpur 
States of Bengal. It is bounded on the north and west by the Surguja 
State ; on the east by the Ranch! District of Bengal ; and on the south 
by Gangpur, Udaipur, and Raigarh. Jashpur consists in almost equal 
proportions of highland and lowland. On the RanchT side the magnifi- 
cent table-land of Uparghat attains an average elevation of 2,200 feet 
above the sea, and is fringed by hills which in places rise 1,000 feet 
higher. On the east the Uparghat blends with the plateau of Chota 
Nagpur proper ; while on the west it springs from the lowland region 
known as the Hetghat in a scarped fortress-like wall, buttressed here 
and there by projecting masses of rock. The Uparghat again is divided 
by a slight depression from the still loftier plateau of Khuria, which 
occupies the north-western corner of the State, forming the watershed 
between the lb and the Kanhar, a tributary of the river Son. This 
plateau consists of trap-rock topped with volcanic laterite, overlying the 
granite and gneiss which form the surface rocks at lower elevations. 
The lowlands of the Hetghat and of Jashpur proper lie in successive 
steps descending towards the south, broken by ranges of low hills, 
isolated bluffs, and bare masses of gneiss and other metamorphic rocks. 
The granite of this low region frequently rises into bare round knolls, 
the most conspicuous of which is called the Burha from its fancied 
resemblance to an old man's bald head. The principal peaks are 
Ranijula (3,527 feet), Kotwar (3,393 feet), and Bharamurio (3,390 
feet). The chief river is the lb, which flows through the State from 
north to south. Several waterfalls are found along its course, the finest 
being formed by the rush of its waters over a square mass of trap-rock, 
where it passes from the high table-land of the Uparghat into the flat 
country of Jashpur proper. Owing to numerous rapids, the river is 
not navigable below these falls. The smaller rivers of Jashpur are 
mere hill streams, all of which are fordable except at brief intervals 
during the rains. In the north these are feeders of the Kanhar, and 
flow towards the valley of the Ganges, while on the south they run into 
the lb and contribute to the river system of Orissa. Gold is obtained 
in small quantities from the banks and bed of the lb river, near the 
Gangpur border, by the Jhora Gonds, who wash the soil ; they make 
over the gold to the Raja and are paid by him in rice. Iron is 
procured in a nodular form in the hilly tracts, and is smelted by 
aboriginal tribes for export. The forests consist largely of sal {Shorea 
robusta), sissFi {Daibergia Sissoo), and ebony {Diospyros melatwxyloji) ; 
but owing to their distance from the railway there is as yet little 
demand for the timber. Those near the Gangpur border have recently, 

' This figure, which differs from the area shown in the Census Report of 1901, was 
supplied by the Surveyor-General. 



68 JASHPUR 

however, been leased to a contractor. Besides timber, the chief 
jungle products are lac, tasar silk, and beeswax, all of which are 
exported, sahai grass {Isc/iaemion angi/stifoh'i/ifi), and a large number 
of edible roots and indigenous drugs. The jungles contain tigers, 
leopards, wolves, bears, buffaloes, bison, and many kinds of deer. 

The State of Jashpur was ceded to the British Government by the 
provisional agreement concluded with Mudhoji Bhonsla in 1818. 
Although noticed in the second article of this agreement as a separate 
State, Jashpur was at first treated in some measure as a fief of Surguja, 
and the tribute, the amount of which was last fixed in 1899 at 
Rs. 1,250, is still paid through that State. The chief, however, is not 
bound to render any feudal service to Surguja. The population 
increased from 113,636 in 1891 to 132,114 in 1901. They dwell in 
566 villages, and the density is 68 persons per square mile. The 
large increase is due chiefly to the inducements held out to immigrants 
to settle in the State, where the area of cultivable waste is very large. 
The people have also benefited by the introduction of sugar-cane and 
wheat cultivation, and roads have been constructed from the capital to 
the borders of Ranchl, Surguja, Udaipur, and Gangpur. The most 
numerous castes and tribes are Oraons (47,000), Rautias (12,000), 
Korwas (10,000), Ahirs or Goalas and Nagesias (9,000 each), and 
Chiks and Kaurs (7,000 each). A rebellion of the Korwas gave con- 
siderable trouble some years ago. Pandrapat and the table-lands of the 
Khuria plateau afford excellent pasturage ; and Ahirs or cowherds from 
Mirzapur and elsewhere bring large herds of cattle to graze, the fees 
paid by them being a considerable source of income to the State. 
Many Ahirs have settled permanently in Khuria. The trade is con- 
fined to food-grains, oilseeds, and jungle products, and is carried on by 
means of pack-bullocks. 

The relations of the chief with the British Government are regulated 
by a sanad granted in 1899, and reissued in 1905 with a few verbal 
changes due to the transfer of the State to the Central Provinces. 
Under this sanad the chief was formally recognized and permitted to 
administer his territory subject to prescribed conditions, and the tribute 
was fixed for a further period of twenty years, at the end of which it is 
liable to revision. The chief is under the general control of the 
Commissioner of Chhattisgarh as regards all important matters of 
administration, including the settlement and collection of land revenue, 
the imposition of taxes, the administration of justice, arrangements 
connected with excise, salt, and opium, and disputes in which other 
States are concerned ; and he cannot levy import and export dues 
or transit duties, unless they are specially authorized by the Chief 
Commissioner. He is permitted to levy rents and certain other 
customary dues from his subjects, and is empowered to pass sentences 



JASO 69 

of imprisonment up to five years and of fine to the extent of Rs. 200 ; 
but sentences of imprisonment for more than two years and of fine 
exceeding Rs. 50 require the confirmation of the Commissioner. 
Heinous offences caUing for heavier punishment are dealt with by the 
Political Agent, ChhattTsgarh Feudatories, who exercises the powers of 
a District Magistrate and Assistant Sessions Judge ; the Commissioner 
occupies the position of a Sessions Court in respect of such cases, while 
the functions of a High Court are vested in the Chief Commissioner. 

The revenue of the State from all sources in 1904-5 was Rs. 
1,26,000, of which Rs. 50,000 was derived from land, Rs. 11,000 
from excise, and Rs. 7,000 from forest. The expenditure in the same 
year was Rs. 1,05,000, including Rs. 22,000 spent on administration, 
Rs. 35,000 on domestic charges, and Rs. 6,000 on public works. 
The State maintains 199 miles of roads. The current revenue demand 
is Rs. 60,000 per annum, collected through lease-holders, called 
ihekaddrs, with whom the villages are settled. The latter fix and 
collect the assessment payable by each cultivator in the village, and 
the amount is not changed during the term of the settlement. The 
thekadars have no rights beyond that period'; but the lease is generally 
renewed with the old thckaddr, and a son generally succeeds his father, 
though no hereditary rights are recognized. The State maintains 
a police force of 12 officers and 35 men, and there is also a body of 
village police who receive a monthly salary. There is a jail with accom- 
modation for 102 prisoners at J.\shpurnagar, where the State also 
maintains a dispensary at which 2,000 patients w^ere treated in 1904-5. 
In the same year 6,000 persons were successfully vaccinated. In 1901 
only 862 persons could read and write ; but some new schools have 
been opened by the State since that time, and in 1904-5 there were 15 
schools with an attendance of 300 pupils. 

Jashpurnagar (or Jagdlspur). — Head-quarters of the Jashpur State, 
Central Provinces, situated in 22*^ 53' N. and 84° 8' E. Population 
(1901), 1,654. It contains the residence of the chief, a dispensary, 
and a jail. 

Jaso [Jassd). — A petty satiad State in the Baghelkhand Political 
Charge of the Central India Agency, lying between 24° 20' and 
24° 34' N. and 80° 28' and 80° 40' E., with an area of about 72 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north, east, and south by the Nagod 
State, and on the west by the Ajaigarh State. The population in 1901 
was 7,209. The jdglrddr is a Bundela Rajput descended from 
Chhatarsal, founder of the Panna State. On the death of Chhatar- 
sal the Jaso and Bandhora jdglrs were assigned to his fourth son 
BhartI Chand, who held under his brother Jagat Raj, the chief of 
Jaitpur. BhartI Chand bequeathed Bandhora to his eldest son Durjan 
Singh and Jaso to his second son Harl Singh. Durjan Singh was sue- 



70 J A SO 

ceeded by his son Mednl Singh, who died childless, and Bilndhora was 
absorbed into Jaso. Early in the nineteenth century \\-\q. jdgir fell to 
All Bahadur of Banda, who assigned it to Gopal Singh, a rebel servant 
of the holder Chet Sing. Gopal Singh, however, espoused the cause of 
Murat Singh, Chet Singh's infant son. On the establishment of the 
British supremacy, Jaso was held to be subordinate to the Ajaigarh 
State, and was included in the Kotra pargana secured to the Ajaigarh 
chief by the sannd granted him in 1807. To this an objection was 
raised ; and on reference to the British Government it was finally 
decided that the suzerainty of Ajaigarh had never been more than 
nominal, and a separate sanad was granted to Murat Singh in 18 16 
confirming him in independent possession of Jaso. Jagat Raj Singh, 
the present chief, succeeded in 1888, but in 1899 withdrew from active 
participation in the management. His son Girwar Singh, who is a 
minor, is being educated at the Daly College at Indore, the State 
being under superintendence. 

Jaso includes 60 villages and has a cultivated area of 29 square 
miles, or 40 per cent, of the total. The total revenue is Rs. 23,000, of 
which Rs. 21,000 is derived from land. 

The capital, Jaso, is picturesquely situated in 24° 30' N. and 
80" 30'' E., on the banks of a fine lake. The name is said to be a con- 
tracted form of Jaseshvari-nagar, and the place was at various times 
known as Mahendrl-nagar, Adharpurl, and Hardi-nagar. A small 
temple, a curious lingani, and several sati stones stand in the town, 
while numerous Jain and Hindu remains lie scattered round it. A 
vernacular school and a hospital are situated here. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. x.xi, p. 99.] 

Jasol. — Head-quarters of a. j'dglr estate of the same name in the 
Mallani district of the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 2 5° 49' N. 
and 72° 13'' E., on the left bank of the Lilni river, 2 miles from Balotra 
station on the Jodhpur-Blkaner Railway. Population (1901), 2,543. 
The village, which is built partly on the slope of a hill, possesses a post 
ofifice, a vernacular school, and a small hospital. The estate consists 
of 72 villages, and is held by a Thakur on payment of a tribute 
of Rs. 2, TOO to the Jodhpur Darbar. About 5 miles to the north-west 
are the ruins of Kher, the old capital of Mallani, while to the south- 
west are the remains of another important town, Nagar. As these 
places decayed, Jasol rose, and now contains the descendants of some 
of the earliest Rathor settlers. 

Jaspur. — Town in the Kashipur tahsll of Naini Tal District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29° 17' N. and 78° 50' E. Population (1901), 
6,480. The town is of modern growth and contains few brick houses. 
It is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 2,000. There is a considerable manufacture of cotton cloth 



J A TING A 71 

by Julahas (Muhammadan weavers), who reside here, and also some 
trade in sutrar and timber. 

Jaswantnagar. — Town in the District and tahsil of Etawah, 
United Provinces, situated in 26° 53' N. and 78° 53' E., on the East 
Indian Raihvay. Population (1901), 5,405. The town is named after 
Jaswant Rai, a Kayasth from Mainpurl, who settled here in 17 15. A 
small Hindu temple west of the town was occupied on May 19, 1857, 
by mutineers of the 3rd Native Cavalry ; during a bold attempt to dis- 
lodge them, the Joint-Magistrate was wounded in the face. The town 
was once a municipality, but is now administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,800. There is a considerable 
trade in yarn, cattle, country produce, and English piece-goods, besides 
an export of ghi and of khdma cloth, which is largely manufactured. 
Ornamental brassware is also made here, articles for religious use by 
Hindus being chiefly produced. The town school has about 115 
pupils, and there is a branch of the American Presbyterian Mission. 

Jaswant Sagar. — A large artificial lake in Jodhpur State. See 

LUNI. 

Jath State. — Native State in the Political Agency of Bijapur, 
Bombay. See Bijapur Agency. 

Jath Town. — Chief town of the State of the same name, in 
Bombay, situated in \f 3' N. and 75° 16' E., 92 miles south-east of 
Satara town, 95 miles north-east of Belgaum, and 150 miles south-east- 
by-south of Poena. Population (1901), 5,404. The town is adminis- 
tered as a municipality, with an income (1903-4) of Rs. 3,040. 

Jati. — Tdluka of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, lying between 
23° 35' to 24° 38' N. and 68° \' to 68° 48' E., with an area of 
2,145 square miles. It contains 117 villages, but no town. The popu- 
lation in 1 90 1 was 31,752, compared with 27,895 in 1891. The 
density is only 15 persons per square mile ; and this is the most thinly 
populated tdluka in the District, owing to its barren and unproductive 
soil and the large tracts of kalar land and salt deposits which it con- 
tains. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to nearly 
a lakh. Mughalbhin is the head-quarters. The southern portion is 
a maze of tidal creeks, and farther inland there is a salt plain, while the 
north-eastern portion is chiefly cultivable waste. Irrigation depends 
upon four canals, which directly tap the Indus. The chief crops are 
rice, bdjra, barley, til and other oilseeds. 

Jatinga. — River of Assam, which rises near Haflang in the North 
CSchar hills, and flowing west and south falls into the Barak. The 
hill section of the Assam-Bengal Railway has been taken up the valley 
of the Jatinga, the line running along the right bank of the river. In 
the plains the Jatinga passes near numerous tea gardens, and during 
the rainy season a small steamer goes up to Balachara near the foot 



72 JATINGA 

of the hills. The river is nowhere bridged, but is crossed by five 
ferries, and is largely used as a trade route. Barkhala Bazar, Bala- 
chara, and Damchara railway station are the most important places on 
its banks. Its total length is 36 miles. 

Jatinga Ramesvara. — Hill, 3,469 feet high, situated in 14° 50' N. 
and 76° 51' E., in the Molakalmuru taluk of Chitaldroog District, 
Mysore. It is one of the places where edicts of Asoka have been 
discovered, and consists of a long ridge, having towards the western 
end an ancient temple of Ramesvara, the present building for which 
was erected in 962. 

Jatoi. — Village in the Allpur tahsll of Muzaffargarh District, Punjab, 
situated in 29° 31' N. and 70° 51'' E., 11 miles north-west of Alipur 
town. Population (1901), 4,748. Local tradition attributes its foun- 
dation to Mir Bajar Khan, in the days of the emperor Babar. The 
Indus washed away the original town at the close of the last century, 
but it was shortly afterwards rebuilt on the present site. Jatoi was for 
some time subordinate to Bahawalpur, but was annexed by Diwan 
Sawan Mai. In the war against Mulraj, the Jatoi people threw off the 
Sikh rule, and rendered good service. 

Jatpol. — A samasthdn or tributary estate in the south of Mahbub- 
nagar District, Hyderabad State, consisting of 89 villages, with an area 
of 191 square miles, and a population (1901) of 31,613. The total 
revenue is 1-9 lakhs, and the tribute paid to the Nizam is Rs. 73,537. 

From inscriptions it appears that in 1243 Annapota Nayadu took 
possession of the estate^ and captured Pangal and other forts. His 
dominions extended on the east as far as Srisil, on the west to Kotta 
and Sugur, now belonging to the ^^'anparti samasi/idn, on the north to 
Devarkonda, and on the south they were bounded by the Kistna river. 
His descendants ruled for several centuries. In the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century Raja Jagannath Rao, having no male issue, adopted 
Lachma Rao, a scion of the Rao family of Pakhal. In 1831 Lachma 
Rao obtained the Jatpol pargaiia from the Nizam on a fixed rental 
of Rs. 70,000. The present Raja, Venkata Lachma Rao, who is 
a younger brother of the Raja of Venkatagiri in the Madras Pre- 
sidency, also succeeded by adoption. He has cleared off debts 
amounting to nearly 2 lakhs, with which the estate was encumbered. 
The Raja resides at Kolhapur (population, 2,204), though until eighty 
years ago Jatpol was the head-quarters. 

Jaugada.— Ruined fort in Ganjam District, Madras, situated in 
19° Zl' N. and 84° 50' E., about 18 miles west of Ganjam town, on 
the north bank of the Rushikulya in the Berhampur tdluk^ among the 
remains of what was once a large city surrounded by a wall. Towards 
the centre of the fort is a huge granite mass, on which are inscribed 
thirteen edicts of the Buddhist emperor Asoka (about 250 B.C.). They 



JAUNPUR DISTRICT 73 

are of special interest as being the only examples of these edicts in the 
Madras Presidency. Old pottery and tiles abound within the fort wall ; 
numbers of copper coins have been found, some of which are assigned 
to the first century a.d. ; and an old temple has been discovered buried 
under debris and earth. 

Jaulna. — Taluk and town in Aurangabad District, Hyderabad State. 
See Jalna. 

Jaunpur District. — North-western District of the Benares Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 25° 24' and 26° 12' N. and 82° 7' 
and 83° 5' E., with an area of 1,551 square miles. In shape it is an 
irregular triangle, with the southern boundary as base, and the eastern 
and western boundaries running up to a blunt apex in the north. 
The boundaries are formed — on the south by Allahabad, Mirzapur, 
and Benares ; on the east by Ghazipur and Azamgarh ; on the north 
by Sultanpur ; and on the west by Sultanpur and Partabgarh. Jaunpur 
District forms part of the Gangetic plain, but is slightly irregular in 
contour, with a series of undulating slopes. This 
apparent diversity of surface is increased by the aspects 

occurrence of lofty mounds often covered with 
groves, which mark the sites of ruined or deserted towns, the relics 
of a forgotten race, or the demolished forts of the modern inhabitants. 
The entire area is very highly cultivated, and the village sites are small 
and scattered about at short intervals. While the country is well 
wooded, the trees are seldom planted together in groves. The District 
is divided into two unequal parts by the sinuous channel of the Gumti, 
a tributary of the Ganges, which flows past the capital city, and cuts off 
one-third of the area to the north-east. It is a considerable river and 
is crossed by a fine old stone bridge at Jaunpur, and by a railway 
bridge two miles lower down. The Gumti is liable to great and 
sudden floods. While its ordinary rise seldom exceeds 15 feet, it rose 
23! feet in fourteen days in September, 187 1, and was 37 feet above its 
dry-season level. There are no streams of importance north of the 
Gumti ; but it receives the Sai from the south, and a smaller affluent, 
called the Pili Nadi. The Barna divides Mirzapur from Jaunpur and 
has a small tributary, called the Basiihi. 

Jaunpur exposes nothing but Gangetic alluvium, in which kankar or 
calcareous limestone and saline efflorescences are the only minerals 
found. 

The flora of the District does not differ from that of the Gangetic 
plain generally. The mango, mahud, shtshain {Daibergia Sissoo), 
various figs, and the babul {Acacia arabica) are the connnonest trees. 
A weed called rasni or baisurai {Fluchea lanceolata), which grows in 
light soil, is of some hindrance to cultivation. 

Owing to the density of the population and the absence of forests or 



74 JAUNPUR DISTRICT 

waste lands, wild animals are scarce, and include only a few wolves 
in the ravines of the Gumtl and Sai, an occasional nilgai, and small 
animals. Geese, duck, and quail are the commonest wild-fowl, and 
fish are found abundantly in the rivers and small y'/zJ/r. 

The climate of Jaunpur is moister, and the temperature more 
equable, than in most Districts of the United Provinces. In January 
the temperature ranges from about 50° to about 75°, and in May and 
June from 80° to 110°. 

The annual rainfall averages 42 inches, the amount being almost the 
same in all parts of the District. While variations occur from year to 
year, extreme failures are very uncommon. 

The earliest traditions connected with the District point to its occu- 
pation by aboriginal Bhars and Soeris. In the later Hindu period it 
contained several places of importance, chief among 
which was Zafarabad, then known as Manaich. 
This place has recently been identified as the fort of Munj, captured 
by Mahmud of Ghazni in 10 19. The rule of the Musalmans was 
not, however, established at that time, and towards the close of the 
eleventh century the District was included in the new Rathor kingdom 
of Kanauj. ^^'hen Muhammad Ghori commenced his victorious 
march against Jai Chand of Kanauj, the latter sent his vast treasures to 
the fort of Asni, which was also probably situated near Zafarabad, and 
after Jai Chand's death in 1194 the Muhammadans penetrated through 
this place to Benares. The magnificent temples of the Rathor kings 
were plundered and overthrown, and although Hindu governors were 
recognized, they paid allegiance to the king of Delhi. In 132 1 Ghiyas- 
ud-din Tughlak appointed his son, Zafar Khan, governor, and thirty- 
eight years later, in 1359, Flroz Shah Tughlak founded the city of 
Jaunpur. A eunuch, named Malik Sarwar, who had held important 
posts at the court of Delhi, was appointed Wazir in 1389 with the title 
of Khwaja-i-Jahan. A few years later, in 1394, the administration of 
all Hindustan, from Kanauj to Bihar, was placed in his charge, so that 
he might reduce the turbulence of the Hindus, and he assumed the 
title of Sultan-ush-Shark, or 'king of the east.' The ambitious eunuch 
had hardly succeeded in his task when he declared his own indepen- 
dence, the revolt being rendered easier by Timur's invasion, which 
destroyed the last semblance of the authority of the kings of Delhi. 
Timur, on his departure from India, granted large jdgirs to Khizr 
Khan, and Khwaja-i-Jahan materially strengthened his position by 
adopting Khizr Khan's nephew, Karanphul, as his son and heir. The 
dynasty thus founded ruled at Jaunpur for nearly a century, and proved 
formidable rivals to the sovereigns of Delhi. Khwaja-i-Jahan died in 
1399, and was succeeded by Karanphul under the title of Mubarak 
Shah. An attempt was made by Ikbal Khan, de facto ruler of Delhi, 



HISTOR V 



75 



to crush the rising power, but without success. Mubarak Shah died in 
140 1 and was succeeded by his brother, Ibrahim Shah, who, hke his 
successors, was a builder of magnificent mosques and a patron of learn- 
ing. In 1407 Ibrahim achieved his desire and took Kanauj, Sambhal, 
and Baran (Bulandshahr), He was approaching Delhi when news 
came that Muzaffar Shah (I) of Gujarat had defeated Hoshang Shah of 
Malwa, and had designs on Jaunpur. Ibrahim therefore withdrew, 
giving up his new acquisitions of Sambhal and Baran. By 1414, Khizr 
Khan acquired the supreme power at Delhi. Ibrahim was thus for 
a time free from danger in that quarter, and set out in 1427 to attack 
Kalpi, but was opposed by Mubarak Shah, who had succeeded Khizr 
Khan in 142 1. He made another unsuccessful attempt in 1432, and 
also invaded Bengal and other adjoining territory. Ibrahim died in 
1440, and was succeeded by his son Mahmiid, who was allowed by the 
king of Mcilwa to attack KalpI in 1444, in order to punish an impious 
governor. Mahmud attempted to retain this fief, but was compelled 
to resign it. He then sacked Chunar and laid waste Orissa, and in 
1452 advanced to Delhi during the absence of Bahlol Lodl, who 
had ascended the throne a year earlier. Bahlol returned and Mahmud 
retired ; but a few years later hostilities again broke out and continued 
till Mahmud's death in 1459. His eldest son, Muhammad Shah, was 
killed after a few months and was succeeded by another son called 
Husain Shah. For some years Husain confined his incursions to 
Orissa, or to Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand ; but at length he too 
undertook to invade Delhi, and lost his kingdom in the venture. The 
first expedition took place in 1473, ^"d during the next few years 
fortune inclined now to one side and now to the other. In 1480, how- 
ever, Husain was twice defeated in the Central Doab, and Jaunpur fell. 
Husain maintained hostilities in various directions, and in 1487 
recovered Jaunpur for a time, but was soon driven out again, and 
Barbak Shah, son of Bahlol, became governor. Bahlol died in 1489 
and was succeeded by his son, Sikandar ; Barbak Shah also claimed 
the throne, and was defeated, but restored to his governorship. Revolts 
continued, and Husain Shah made a final effort about 1496, but was 
repelled and died a few years later. When Ibrahim, last of the Lodls, 
was defeated and killed by Babar at Panipat in 1526, Bahadur Khan, 
the governor of Bihar and Jaunpur, asserted his independence ; but 
after the fall of Agra and Delhi, Babar sent his son Humayun eastward. 
The Mughal rule was not, however, firmly established, and the Pathans 
under Sher Shah and his successors governed the country for a time. 
On the revival of Mughal power, Jaunpur fell before Akbar's general 
^^ 1 559) and remained in the Mughal empire till its break up, al- 
though rebellions took place soon after the capture of the city. At the 
reorganization of the empire in 1575 Allahabad became the capital of 

VOL. XIV. F 



76 JAUNPUR DISTRICT 

the province ' in which Jaunpur was included. Nothing worthy of note 
occurred in connexion with this District until 1722, when it passed to 
the Nawab of Oudh. Some years later it was granted to Mansa Ram, 
founder of the Benares Estate ; and it remained in the possession 
of his family, with the exception of the fort of Jaunpur, though the 
Bangash Nawab of Farrukhabad nominated a governor about 1750, 
after defeating the Nawab of Oudh. The District was ceded to the 
British in 1775, with the rest of the Province of Benares. 

From that time nothing occurred which calls for notice till the date 
of the Mutiny. On June 5, 1857, news of the Benares revolt reached 
Jaunpur. The sepoys of the treasury guard at once mutinied and shot 
their own officers, as well as the Joint-Magistrate. They then marched 
off to Lucknow without molesting the other Europeans, who made good 
their escape to Benares. The District continued in a state of complete 
anarchy till the arrival of the Gurkha force from Azamgarh on Sep- 
tember 8. The civil officials then returned to Jaunpur, and the poHce 
stations were re-established ; but the north and west of the District 
remained in rebellion. In November, owing to the active levies made 
by Mahdl Hasan, who styled himself Nazim of Jaunpur, most of the 
surrounding country was lost again. But in February, 1858, the rebels 
of the north and west were defeated and dispersed ; and in May the 
last smouldering embers of disaffection were stifled by the repulse 
of the insurgent leader, Jurhl Singh, from Machhllshhahr at the hands 
of the people themselves. 

The magnificent buildings of the Shark! kings at Jaunpur, and 
the earlier buildings of Zafarabad, were partly constructed from the 
remains of Hindu temples, none of which has remained intact. A few 
inscriptions exist in them, and a copperplate grant of Gobind Chand, 
king of Kanauj, has been found in the District. 

Jaunpur contains 7 towns and 3,152 villages. Population has varied. 

The numbers at the last four enumerations were as follows : (1872) 

T>^„.,iof;^„ 1,025,961, (1881) 1,209,663, (1891) 1,264,949, and 
Population. , \ mi. ^- r o 

(1901) 1,202,920. The enumeration 01 1872 was 

probably imperfect ; during the last decade the District suffered from a 

succession of bad seasons. There are five tahsils — Jaunpur, Mariahu, 

Machhushahr, Khutahan, and Kirakat — each named from its 

head-quarters except Khutahan, which has its head-quarters at Shah- 

GANj. The only municipality is Jaunpur City, the District capital. The 

table on the next page gives the chief statistics of population in 1901. 

Hindus form nearly 91 per cent, of the total, and Musalmans 9 per 

cent. The density of population is high in all parts of the District. 

About 81 per cent, of the population speak Eastern Hindi and 15 per 

cent. Bihari, the boundary between these languages passing through 

the north-east of the District. 



AGRTCULTURE 



11 



The Hindu castes most largely represented arc Chamars (leather- 
workers and labourers), 182,000; Ahirs (graziers and agriculturists), 
173,000; Brahmans, 146,000; Rajputs, 101,000; Koiris (cultivators), 
49,000 ; and Kurmls (agriculturists), 46,000. The aboriginal Bhars 
still number as many as 25,000. Among Musalmans may be men- 
tioned the Julahas (weavers), 28,000; Shaikhs, 18,000 ; Pathans, 13,000; 
and Behnas (cotton-carders), 11,000. Agriculture supports as many as 
77 per cent, of the total population, and general labour less than 2 per 
cent. Rajputs own more than a third of the land, and Brahmans, 
Saiyids, Shaikhs, and Banias are also large landholders. High castes 
also hold as tenants a rather greater proportion than the low castes. 
The inhabitants of this District supply considerable numbers of emi- 
grants to Assam, the Eastern Districts of Bengal, and the colonies. 



Ta/isTl. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


Population, i 




Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 189 1 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 

1 


> 


Jannpur . 
Mariahu. 
MachhlTshahr. 
Khutahan 
Kirakat . 

District total 


280 
321 

344 
362 
244 


2 
I 

2 

I 
I 

7 


711 

676 
610 

700 

455 


269,131 
243,792 
233,431 
269,438 
187,128 


961 

759 
679 

744 
767 


- 3-4 
-3.8 
-4.6 
-6.1 

- 7-2 


6,868 

5,049 

5,494 
7,542 
7,497 


1,551 


3,152 


1,202,920 


776 


-4.9 


32,450 



Agriculture. 



There were only 62 native Christians in the District in 1901. 
Of these, 47 belonged to the Anglican communion and 8 were 
Methodists. The Church Missionary Society opened a branch at 
Jaunpur city in 1833. There has been a Wesleyan Mission at 
Shahganj since 1879, and a Zanana Mission at Jaunpur since 1890, 

The District being permanently settled, accurate details are not 
available as to the distribution of the various classes of soil. Generally 
speaking, light sandy soil is found near the banks of 
the rivers, especially the Sai and GumtT. The sand 
gradually changes to a very fertile loam which, however, requires con- 
stant irrigation ; and, lastly, clay is found remote from the rivers. The 
largest clay tracts in which the best rice can be grown are found in 
the north and the south-west. The District is very highly cultivated, 
and there are no extensive areas of waste land, except a few F/sar plains 
in the Khutahan tahs'il. The Gumtl and Sai frequently flood the low- 
lying land in their beds ; but the loss is not serious, and the chief 
danger to agriculture is the liability of the spring crops to suffer from 
rust in a wet winter. 

The usual tenures existing in the permanently settled tract of the 

V 2 



78 



JAUNPUR DISTRICT 



United Provinces are found, zamindari mahaJs being the commonest. 
The mahaJs are, however, frequently complex : that is, a single mahdl, 
instead of forming a single village {tiiauza) or part of a fnauza^ includes 
several mauzas or parts of mauzas. There are a few talukdari estates ; 
but the talukddrs are here known as peshkashddrs, and the under- 
proprietors as farotars. Most of these estates were originally grants 
for the maintenance of the Jaunpur garrison. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivatpd. 


Irrifjated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Jaunpur . 
Mariahu . 
Machhlishahr . 
Khutahan . 
Kirakat . 

Total 


280 
321 

344 
362 

244 


192 
212 

205 
228 
161 


125 
116 
106 
129 
95 


29 

39 

6° 
50 
27 


1,551 


998 


571 


195 



The staple food-crops are barley, covering 303 square miles, or 
28 per cent, of the net cultivated area, rice (251), peas and viasur 
(137), and maize (124). The Jaunpur variety of maize is especially 
noted throughout the Provinces. Gram, wheat, arhar, Jo7vdr, and the 
smaller millets are also largely grown. Sugar-cane is an extremely 
valuable crop, and was grown on 53 square miles in 1903-4, while 
hemp {san) covered 14 square miles. Oilseeds, indigo, poppy, and 
tobacco cover smaller areas. 

When the District was first acquired in 1775 there were large areas 
of waste. Mr. Duncan, who carried out the permanent settlement, 
gave special facilities for breaking up waste, and also encouraged the 
growth of sugar-cane and introduced indigo, poppy, and potatoes. 
The result was a speedy increase in the cultivated area. During the 
last sixty years, however, the area under cultivation has increased by 
only 4 per cent., and the chief change recently has been the rise in the 
area double cropped. Indigo is declining rapidly, as in most parts of 
the Provinces ; and the area sown is now only 5 square miles, or less 
than a quarter of what it was twenty years ago. Maize and rice are 
more largely grown than formerly in the autumn, and wheat in the 
spring harvest. In adverse seasons loans under the Agriculturists' 
Loans Act are taken, but advances under the Land Improvement Act 
are very rare. The total of loans from 1891 to 1900 amounted to only 
a lakh, of which Rs. 30,000 was advanced in 1896-7. Very small 
advances have been made since. 

The cattle of the District are inferior, and the best animals are 
imported. A Government bull was once kept, and its services were 
eagerly sought for. The ponies are also of a poor stamp, but are 



FAMINE 79 

largely used as pack animals. Sheep and goats are of the ordinary 
type. 

Out of 571 square miles irrigated in 1903-4, wells supplied 442 
square miles, tanks or jhils 126, and other sources 3. The area 
irrigated from tanks ox j hi Is is probably understated, as every pond is 
used for irrigating the late rice. Water is raised from wells in a leathern 
bucket by bullocks or men, except in the extreme north, where the 
spring-level is so high that a lever can be used. Excellent wells can be 
made without brick linings, which will last from one to ten years. 
The tanks are sometimes artificial, but are all of small size ; the swing- 
basket worked by four or eight persons is usually employed to raise 
water from tanks and jhih. 

Kankdr or calcareous limestone is found in all the upland parts of 
the District, and is used for metalling roads and for making lime. 

Sugar-refining is the most important industry in the District. A little 
coarse cotton cloth is made in many places for local use. The manu- 
facture of indigo still continues, but on a very small 

scale since the introduction of synthetic indieo. ^^ ^ ^°. 

^ ° communications. 

Jaunpur city is celebrated for the manufacture of 
scents, and also produces a little papier-mache work. 

The District being almost entirely devoted to agriculture, its trade 
is confined to raw materials and food-stuffs. Sugar, food-grains, scents, 
and oilseeds form the chief exports ; and salt, piece-goods, metals, and 
spices are imported. Jaunpur city, Shahganj, and Mungra Badshahpur 
are the chief trade centres. 

The loop-line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Benares 
through Fyzabad to Lucknow traverses the District from south to 
north, while the main line of the same railway crosses the south- 
west corner. A branch from Zafarabad to Phaphamau on the Ganges 
is now under construction, which will give access to Allahabad. 
Shahganj is connected with Azamgarh, and Jaunpur city with Ghazipur, 
by branches of the Bengal and North-Western Railway. 

The District is well supplied with roads, the length of which is 586 
miles. Of the total, 186 miles are metalled and are maintained by the 
Public Works department, but the cost of all but 45 miles is met from 
Local funds. An excellent system of metalled roads radiates from 
Jaunpur city to AUalmbad, Fyzabad, Azamgarh, Benares, and Mirzapur. 
Avenues of trees are maintained on 229 miles. 

Jaunpur has usually escaped from famine, owing to the rarity of 
complete failure of the rains. No details are available for the famines 
of 1770 and 1783, but the pressure of high prices was 
felt in 1803-4. The disastrous seasons of 1837-8 
and 1 860-1 hardly affected this District, and even in 1868 the 
threatened famine was averted by heavy rain in September. The 



8o JAUNPUR DISTRICT 

famines of 1873-4 and 1877-8 also pressed very lightly. In 1896-7, 
however, the District suffered severely. Heavy rain had damaged the 
crops in 1894, and in the two following years the rainfall was deficient, 
so that the important late rice crop failed. Relief works were opened 
and advances were given for the construction of wells ; but the first fall 
of rain in June, 1897, ended the famine. 

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil 
. . . Service (when available), and by five Deputy-Col- 
lectors recruited in India. A tahsildar is stationed 
at the head-quarters of each tahsil. 

There are two District Munsifs, a Subordinate Judge, and a District 
Judge for civil work. The Court of Sessions hears the sessions cases 
of Basti District as well as those of Jaunpur. Owing to the pressure 
on the soil, disputes about cultivation, proprietary rights, and irrigation 
are common, and sometimes lead to serious riots ; but the worst kinds 
of crime, such as murder and dacoity, are not very prevalent. P^emale 
infanticide was found by Mr. Duncan to be rife in 1789, and on the 
passing of an Act for its repression in 1870 a large number of persons 
were proclaimed ; but all have since been exempted, and the practice 
is believed to be extinct. 

Though a Judge-Magistrate was placed in charge of an area corre- 
sponding to the present District as early as 1795, the revenue admin- 
istration was not separated from that of Benares till 1818. From its 
acquisition in 1775 the District was in charge of the Raja of Benares 
till 1788, when Mr. Duncan, the Resident, commenced a settlement 
which was made permanent in 1795. Default in the payment of 
revenue, and the turbulence of the population of this part of the huge 
District of Benares, led to the formation of a I3eputy-Collectorate of 
Jaunpur in 181 8, which soon became a separate District. In 1820 
a large tract of what is now Azamgarh District was placed under 
the Collector of Jaunpur, but part of it was removed in 1823 and the 
rest in 1830. There have been a few other smaller changes. The 
revenue demand fixed by Mr. Duncan on the present area amounted 
to ii-i lakhs, rising to 11-3 lakhs. It has since increased to 12-5 lakhs, 
owing to the inclusion of land not previously assessed. The permanent 
settlement included no detailed record-of-rights and was not based on 
a survey; and maps and records were not prepared till between 1839 
and 1 84 1. In 1849 ^^e rent payable by the farotars to the peshkash- 
ddrs was for the first time determined and recorded. The whole of 
the records prepared in 1841 were destroyed in the Mutiny of 1857, 
and when order was restored an attempt was made to prepare them 
afresh. The new record was completed in 1867, but was soon found 
to be incorrect and inadequate. A fresh revision was, therefore, made 
between 1877 and 1886, based on a resurvey. The usual village 



JAUNPUR TAHSIL 8i 

papers are now prepared annually as in the rest of the Provinces. The 
incidence of land revenue is Rs. 1-4 per acre, varying from R. i to 
Rs. 2-2 in different parts of the District. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1 880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 1903-4- 


Land revenue . . 12,40 
Total revenue . . 15,03 


1 2,20 
16,49 


, 1 
1.3,63 ' '2,74 

20.32 ; 19,36 



Jaunpur Citv is the only municipality, but six towns are admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856. The District board manages local 
affairs outside the limits of these, and in 1903-4 had an income 
expenditure of i-i lakhs, chiefly derived from local rates. The 
expenditure included Rs. 60,000 on roads and buildings. 

There are 17 police stations; and the District Superintendent of 
police has a force of 3 inspectors, 83 subordinate officers, and 350 con- 
stables, besides 163 municipal and town police, and 1,954 rural and 
road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 23 c 
prisoners in 1903. 

Jaunpur District takes a low position as regards the literacy of its 
population, of whom 2-7 per cent. (5-4 males and o-i females) could 
read and write in 1901. Musalmans are distinctly more advanced in 
this respect than Hindus, 4-2 per cent, being literate. The number 
of public schools rose from 148 with 5,546 pupils in 1 880-1 to 164 
with 7,320 pupils in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 there were 199 such schools 
with 8,862 pupils, of whom 169 were girls, besides 114 private schools 
with 1,792 pupils. Only 1,623 pupils were in classes beyond the 
primary stage. Two of the public schools were managed by Govern- 
ment, and 138 by the District and municipal boards. Out of a total 
expenditure on education of Rs. 40,000, Local funds contributed 
Rs. 30,000 and fees Rs. 8,000. 

There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
53 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 75,000, 
including 400 in-patients, and 3,000 operations were performed. The 
total expenditure was Rs. 8,000, which was chiefly met from Local 
funds. 

About 37,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, 
representing a proportion of 31 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination 
is compulsory only in the municipality of Jaunpur. 

[District Gazetteer (1884, under revision); P. C. Wheeler, Report on 
Revision of Records iu Jaunpur (1886); A. Fiihrer, The Shanji Archi- 
tecture of Jaunpur (1889).] 

Jaunpur Tahsil.— Head-quarters AjZ/.t// of Jaunpur District, United 



82 JAUNPUR TAHSIL 

Provinces, comprising the pargana of Haveli Jaunpur and tappas 
Saremau, Rari, Zafarabad, Karyat Dost, and Khapraha, and lying 
between 25° 37' and 25° 54' N. and 82^ 24' and 82° 52' E., with an 
area of 280 square miles. Population fell from 278,482 in 1891 to 
269,131 in 1901. There are 711 villages and two towns, including 
Jaunpur City (population, 42,771), the District and tahsil head- 
quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,39,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 43,000. The density of population, 961 persons 
per square mile, is the highest in the District. The sinuous course 
of the Gumtl winds through the centre of the tahsil, while the Sai 
crosses the western portion and then forms the southern boundary. 
There is a considerable area of sandy soil, and ravines furrow the 
ground near the rivers. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 
192 square miles, of which 125 were irrigated, almost entirely from 
wells. 

Jaunpur City. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the 
ame name. United Provinces, situated in 25° 45'' N. and 82° 41' E., 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand and Bengal and North-Western Railways, 
515 miles by rail from Calcutta and 977 miles by rail from Bombay. 
It lies on the banks of the Gumtl river, and at the junction of metalled 
roads from Allahabad, Fyzabad, Azamgarh, Benares, and Mirzapur. 
Population has been almost stationary for the past twenty years. The 
numbers at the last four enumerations were as follows : (1872) 35,003, 
(1881) 42,845, (1891) 42,815, and (1901) 42,771. In 1901 the popu- 
lation included 26,091 Hindus and 16,596 Musalmans. 

The origin of the name Jaunpur, also known as Jawanpur, and occa- 
sionally as Jamanpur, is uncertain. Hindus derive it from Jamadagni, 
a famous rishi, in whose honour a shrine has been raised, while 
Musalmans assert that the city takes its name from Ulugh Khan Juna, 
afterwards Muhammad Shah (11) bin Tughlak of Delhi. Up to the 
fourteenth century the neighbouring town of Zafarabad was of greater 
importance ; but ancient remains show that a town existed also on 
the present site of Jaunpur. A shrine sacred to Karar Bir, the giant 
demon slain by Rama, king of Ajodhya, still stands near the fort ; and 
tradition says that the fort itself is on the site of a temple built by 
Bijai Chand of Kanauj in the twelfth century. In 1359 Firoz Shah 
Tughlak halted at Zafarabad on his way to Bengal, and was struck by 
the suitability of the neighbourhood for the foundation of a new city, 
which was at once commenced. Some years later Jaunpur became 
the head-quarters of a governor, and in 1394 a eunuch named Khwaja-i- 
Jahan received the appointment. He soon declared himself inde- 
pendent ; and for nearly a century, as has been related in the history 
of Jaunpur District, his successors ruled a varying area, which 
sometimes e.\tended from Bihar to Sambhal and Aligarh (Koil), while 



JAUNPUR CITY 83 

they even threatened Delhi. Jaunpur remained the seat of a governor 
till the reorganization of the empire by Akbar, who raised Allahabad 
to the position of a provincial capital. From that date Jaunpur 
declined in political importance, though it retained some of its former 
reputation as a centre of Muhammadan learning, which had gained for 
it the title of the Shiraz of India. On the acquisition of the province 
of Benares in 1775, Jaunpur became British territory, and an Assistant 
was posted here subordinate to the Resident at Benares. A Judge- 
Magistrate was appointed in 1795, and in 1818 Jaunpur became the 
head-quarters of a Sub-Collector and shortly afterwards of a Collector. 

The main portion of the city lies on the left bank of the Gumti, 
while some outlying quarters and the civil station are situated on the 
right bank. The river is crossed here by a magnificent stone bridge 
built by Munim Khan, governor under Akbar. In the city proper are 
situated the splendid monuments of the Jaunpur kings, which form 
the finest specimens of Pathan architecture in Northern India. Very 
little remains of the earlier fort built by Firoz Shah. It was an 
irregular quadrangular building, overlooking the Gumtl and surrounded 
by a stone wall built round an artificial earthen mound. The materials 
were largely obtained from temples. In 1859 the towers and most 
of the buildings in the fort were destroyed. A magnificent gateway, 
added in the sixteenth century, a small mosque built in 1376, and 
a spacious set of Turkish baths constructed by Ibrahim Shah, are alone 
fairly complete. The earliest mosque is that known as the Atala 
Masjid, which was built by Ibrahim Shah, and completed in 1408. 
It consists of a fine courtyard with double-storeyed cloisters on three 
sides, and the mosque itself on the west. The most striking feature 
is the magnificently decorated fagade, 75 feet in height, with a breadth 
of nearly 55 feet at the base, which stands before the dome of the 
mosque and recalls the propylons of Egypt. It consists of a great 
arched gateway surmounted by a pierced screen, and forming a recess 
in a gigantic frame flanked by massive towers. Smaller gateways of 
similar construction stand on either side. The Atala Masjid is said to 
occupy the site of a temple of Atala Devi which Firoz Shah attempted 
to appropriate, but which he was induced to leave on account of the 
threatening attitude of the people. The Dariba Masjid, built by two 
of Ibrahim's nobles, has a domed hall and two wings, marked by a low 
facade of the peculiar Jaunpur type, but with little ornamentation. It 
is said to have been built on the site of a temple of Bijai Chand 
of Kanauj. Only the great piers and beautiful central screen remain 
to show the magnificence of the Jhanjhri mosque, which was built by 
Ibrahim Shah on the site of Jai Chand's temple at Muktaghat, but was 
demolished by Sikandar Lodl. The Lai Darwa/a mosque, erected 
by Bibl Raji, the queen of Mahmud Shah, is smaller than the Atala 



84 JAUNPUR CITY 

Masjid, the propylon being only 49 feet high. The cloisters, which 
are of one story, are in a poor state of preservation. The Jama Masjid, 
or great mosque of Husain Shah, is believed to have been founded 
as early as 1438; but work on it was suspended for many years, and 
it was not completed till 1478. The mosque stands on a raised terrace, 
and its courtyard is surrounded on three sides by cloisters with aisles, 
the upper story of which was pulled down by Sikandar Lodl. There 
is a massive domed entrance gateway in each of these sides, which 
also suffered at the hands of the Lodl king, and the fourth is occupied 
by the mosque proper with its majestic facade 84 feet in height. This 
mosque is being gradually restored. Close to the northern gateway 
stands a small enclosure in which lie the modest tombs of Husain 
Shah and some of his descendants ; the tombs of the earlier rulers 
are situated on a platform in another part of the city. Many smaller 
mosques and tombs are to be seen, but no traces exist of the palaces 
and college which once graced Jaunpur. The modern public buildings 
are few and unimportant ; they include the usual courts and two 
dispensaries, one of which is maintained by the Zanana Bible and 
Medical Mission. 

Jaunpur has been a municipality since 1867. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 39,000 and 
Rs. 37,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 58,000, chiefly 
derived from octroi (Rs. 39,000) and rents and fees (Rs. 11,000); and 
the expenditure was Rs. 57,000, including conservancy (Rs. 14,000), 
administration and collection (Rs. 10,000), and public safety (Rs. 11,000). 
The town is celebrated for the manufacture of perfumes from the 
flowers of the rose, jasmine, and screw-pine, and from the root of the 
khaskhas grass {Andropogon muricata). Papier-mache articles, such 
as cigar-cases, book-covers, &c., are also made. The town was 
formerly noted for its paper manufacture, but this has died out. There 
is some trade in grain, and in the distribution of imported goods ; but 
Jaunpur is not an important commercial centre. Two high schools 
and six of lower grade have a total attendance of 607 pupils. In 
addition to these, Arabic is taught at the Jama Masjid. 

[A. Fiihrer, The Sharqi Architecture of Jaunpur (1889).] 

Jaunsar-Ba^war. — Name oia.parga»a which now forms the whole 
of the Chakrata tahsll in Dehra Dun District, United Provinces* 

Javadi Hills. — A detached group of hills, in Madras, lying between 
12° 18' and 12° 54' N. and 78° 35' and 79° 11' E., and for the most 
part situated in the south-west corner of North Arcot District, though 
spurs run down into South Arcot and Salem. In North Arcot some of 
the peaks attain an elevation of over 3,000 feet. They are there sepa- 
rated from the Eastkkn Ghats by the broad valley of the Palar. 
This narrows in the neighbourhood of Ambur, where the Javadis and 



J AW AD 85 

the Eastern Ghats almost join, but it widens again as it leaves North 
Arcot and passes into Salem. The Javadis are made up of numerous 
small plateaux, which contain in North Arcot no hamlets, or clusters of 
huts, inhabited by a Tamil-speaking hill tribe called Malaiyalis. These 
people number nearly 10,000 ; and though they appear to be ethno- 
logically of the same stock as the Tamils of the low country, their long 
isolation has led to divergencies in their ways, and they possess certain 
peculiar customs of their own. The climate of the hills is malarious at 
certain seasons, but does not merit the utter condemnation generally 
accorded it. Spurs from the main range extend in a north-easterly 
direction as far as the town of Vellore, gradually declining in height 
as they approach the Palar. One detached peak, Kailasagarh, 2,743 
feet in height, is only 6 miles distant from Vellore, and the small bun- 
galow upon its summit forms a pleasant retreat during the hot season. 
The Javadis used to be covered with fine forest, but this has been 
almost entirely destroyed. Much damage was done when the construc- 
tion of the south-west line of the Madras Railway was in progress, 
enormous quantities of timber being at that time felled for sleepers. 
Careful conservation is now helping to remedy the recklessness of 
past years. Game is fairly abundant in these hills. Bison, sdjnbar, 
spotted deer, leopards, and an occasional tiger are found in them. The 
Javadis are one of the only two tracts in the Presidency where the cul- 
tivation of the intoxicating gdnja {Coiinabis saiiva) is permitted under 
licence. A little coffee cultivation has been attempted on the South 
Arcot side, and the produce is sold in the local markets. There are 
relics of Hindu temples, with some inscriptions, at Kovilaniir on the 
way from Patrakad to Komatiyur, and signs of former occupation by 
a civilized nation. 

Javli. — -Northern tdluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between 
17^ 32' and 17'^ 59' N. and 73° 36' and 73° 59' E., with an area, in- 
cluding the petty subdivision {pet/ia) of Malcolmpeth, of 423 square 
miles. It contains one town, Malcolmpeth or Mahabaleshwar (popu- 
lation, 5,299); and 249 villages. The 'population in 1901 was 65,587, 
compared with 70,744 in 1891. The density, 155 persons per square 
mile, is much below the District average. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 91,000, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. Through- 
out the hot season the Western Ghat hill tracts, which form a large part 
of the tdluka, are cool and breezy. Medha, the tdluka head-quarters, 
has an average rainfall of 81 inches annually, while Mahabaleshwar 
receives 292 inches. 

Jawad. — Town in the Mandasor district of Gwalior State, Central 
India, situated in 24° 36' N. and 74° 52' E., 1,410 feet above sea-level. 
Population (1901), 8,005. The town was founded about 500 years ago, 
and belonged originally to the chiefs of Mewar. In the time of Rilna 



86 J A WAD 

Sangram Singh and his successor Jagat Singh, the wall which now 
surrounds the town was erected. In 1818, during the Pindari War, 
Jaswant Rao Bhau, one of Sindhia's officers who then held Jawad, per- 
sisted in supporting the Pindari leaders Chitii and Fazil Khan. The 
place was, therefore, attacked and taken by General Brown in 1819, 
but was subsequently restored to Sindhia. In 1844 it was included in 
the districts assigned for the maintenance of the Gwalior Contingent, 
but was again made over to Sindhia in i860, Jawad is a commercial 
centre of some importance, a considerable trade in grain and cloth 
being carried on. It was formerly noted for its dyeing industry, the 
dye of the dl {Morinda tinctorid) being used. Of late years, however, 
this trade has decayed owing to the introduction of European" dyes. 
The town is still noted for its manufacture of bracelets, which are 
exported in large quantities to Rajputana. The town customs dues 
amount to Rs. 27,000 a year. A State post office, a flourishing school 
with 300 pupils, a police station, a dispensary, and a public works 
inspection bungalow are situated in the town. The Canadian Presby- 
terian Mission has an out-station here. 

Jawadi. — Hill range in North Arcot District, Madras. See J.wadi. 

Jawala Mukhi. — Ancient site in the Dera Gopipur tahsll of Kan- 
gra District, Punjab, situated in 31° 52' N. and 76° 20' E., on the road 
from Kangra town to Nadaun, at the foot of a precipitous range of hills, 
which forms the northern limit of the Beas valley. Population (1901), 
1,021. Once a considerable and opulent town, as its ruins testify, it is 
now chiefly famous for the temple of the goddess Jawala Mukhi, ' she 
of the flaming mouth,' which lies in the Beas valley and is built over 
some natural jets of combustible gas, believed to be a manifestation of 
the goddess Devi. Another legend avers that the flames proceed from 
the mouth of the demon Jalandhara, the Daitya king whom Siva over- 
whelmed with mountains, and who gives his name to the Jullundur 
Doab. The building is modern, with a gilt dome and pinnacles, and 
possesses a beautiful folding door of silver plates, presented by the 
Sikh Raja, Kharak Singh. The interior of the temple consists of a 
square pit about 3 feet deep, with a pathway all round. In the middle 
the rock is slightly hollowed out about the principal fissure, and on 
applying a light the gas bursts into flame. The gas escapes at several 
other points from the crevices of the walls of the pit. It collects very 
slowly, and the attendant Brahmans, when pilgrims are numerous, keep 
up the flames with ^^hl. There is no idol of any kind, the flaming fissure 
being considered as the fiery mouth of the goddess, whose headless 
body is said to be in the temple of Bhawan. The income of the temple, 
which is considerable, belongs to the Bhojki priests. At one time the 
Katoch Rajas appear to have appropriated the whole or the greater part 
of the receipts ; and under Muhammadan rule a poll-tax of one anna 



JAWHAR 87 

was levied upon all pilgrims. The number of these in the course of the 
year is very great ; and at the principal festival in September-October 
as many as 50,000 are said to congregate, many coming from great dis- 
tances. Another festival of scarcely less importance takes place in March. 
Six hot mineral springs, impregnated with common salt and iodide of 
potassium, are found in the neighbourhood. A sarai exQcied by the Raja 
of Patiala is attached to the temple, and there are also eight dharmsalas 
or resthouses for travellers. The temple was slightly damaged by the 
earthquake of April 4, 1905. The municipality was abolished in 1885. 

Jawasia. — Thakuratm. the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Jawhar. — State situated within the geographical limits of Thana 
District, Bombay, between 19° 40' and 20° 4^ N. and 73° 2' and 
73° 23' E., with an area of 310 square miles. Jawhar State consists of 
two unequal patches of territory, the larger in the north-eastern part of 
Thana District, and the smaller in the north-western. The Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway just touches the western boundary 
of the smaller patch. 

Most of Jawhar is a plateau raised about 1,000 feet above the Kon- 
kan plain. Eastward the Western Ghats can be crossed by pack- 
bullocks through the Chinchutara and Gonde passes to the north, and 
through the Dhondmare and Shir passes to the south, of the high hill 
of Vatvad. The westerly route, about 38 miles from Jawhar to Dahanu 
Road on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, crosses the 
Kasatwadi and Deng passes by a metalled road built by the Govern- 
ment in 1872-4. The road has recently been farther extended by the 
State eastwards to Kelghar. Towards the south and west the country 
is in some places level ; but the rest of the territory is elevated, and 
consists of the rocky and forest-covered tract that everywhere lies at the 
western foot of the Ghats. Though its many fertile valleys contain 
numerous streams, their waters are not used for irrigation. The chief 
streams are the Deharji, the Surya, the Pinjali, and the Vagh. Except 
in the southern mahdl of Malvada, the water-supply fails as the hot 
season advances. Between June and October the rainfall is heavy, the 
average for the year being 120 inches. From the close of the rainy 
season till the end of December the air retains a considerable degree of 
moisture. In January and February the dryness and heat increase, 
followed from March to June by a tolerably warm season. The tem- 
perature rises to 106° in May and falls to 66° in January. During the 
greater part of the year the climate is malarious and unhealthy. 

Up to 1294, the period of the first Muhammadan invasion of the 
Deccan, Jawhar was held by a Varli, not a Koll, chief. The first Koll 
chief, Paupera, otherwise known as Jayaba, obtained his footing in 
Jawhar by a device similar to that of Dido, when she asked for and 
received as much land as the hide of a bull would cover. I'he Koli 



88 J A WHAR 

chief cut his hide into strips, and thus enclosed the territory of the 
State. Jayaba was succeeded by his son Nim Shah, on whom the king 
of Delhi conferred the title of Raja. So important was this event in 
the history of Jawhar that June 5, 1343, the day on which the title was 
received, has been made the beginning of a new era, which is still used in 
public documents. The Ahmadabad Sultans, who held the sea-coast of 
Thana, interfered but little with the inland portion of Jawhar : but with 
the Portuguese a continuous struggle was waged, which lasted until the 
decay of the latter, when the Jawhar chief, aided by alliances with the 
Mughal generals, managed to plunder the Portuguese possessions in 
the North Konkan and extend his territory from Bassein to Dahanu. 
Subsequently the Marathas, who attacked the State on several occa- 
sions, deprived the chief of part of his territory and forced him to pay 
tribute. The succession to the chiefship follows the rule of primo- 
geniture ; a sanad granting the right of adoption on failure of natural 
heirs was granted in 1890, Except the nazardna, or succession fee in 
case of adoption, the Raja pays no tribute to Government. 

Since 1872 the population of the State has increased by 27 per cent. 
According to the Census of 1901, the population was 47,538, of 
whom 47,007 were Hindus and 471 Muhammadans, the density being 
153 persons per square mile. The State contains 108 villages, the only 
important one being that from which the State takes its name, situated 
in 19° 56' N. and 73° 16' E., with 3,567 inhabitants. Jawhar village 
is healthy and fairly cool, standing 1,500 feet above sea-level. The 
only place of interest in the State is the ruined fort of Bhopatgarh, 
about 10 miles south-east of Jawhar village. 

The soil, except in the level tracts, is stony and unsuited for the 
better class of crops. Of the total area, 69 square miles are under 
forest and 58 are uncultivable, 171 square miles are cultivable, and 159 
were cropped in 1903-4. Besides timber, the country yields rice to 
a limited extent and the coarser grains abundantly. The State escaped 
the famine that affected the rest of the Presidency in 1899-1902, but it 
suffered rather severely from the depredations of locusts in 1903-4. 
The export trade consists of teak, rice, and ndgli. Good building stone 
is found. 

Jawhar is under the political control of the Collector of Thana. The 
chief decides Sessions cases and hears appeals, and has power to try 
his own subjects for capital offences. The land is held to belong to 
the State, but so long as the owner pays his rent he cannot be ousted. 
The land revenue formerly varied in different parts of the State, but the 
settlement, completed in 1887-8, has fixed rates per acre varying from 
2-| annas to Rs. 5^, The revenue of the State in 1903-4 was about 
I "7 lakhs, of which Rs. 50,000 accrued from land, Rs. 29,000 from 
excise, and Rs. 3,000 from forests. The expenditure amounted to 



JEJURI 89 

over one lakh. The State pays no tribute, and the levy of transit dues 
was abolished in 1881. Control over opium has been ceded to the 
British, to whom also the excise arrangements are farmed. No mili- 
tary force is maintained. The police number 45. The State possesses 
two schools, with an average daily attendance of 132 pupils. The 
State dispensary, opened in 1878, annually treats 3,000 patients. 
About 1,500 persons are annually vaccinated in the State. 

Jaynagar Village. — Village in the Madhubani subdivision of Dar- 
bhanga District, Bengal, situated in 26° 35' N. and 86° 9' E., a few 
miles south of the Nepal frontier, and a little east of the river Kamla. 
Population (1901), 3,551. The village contains a mud fort attributed 
to Ala-ud-din, king of Bengal (1493-15 18), and said to have been con- 
structed to resist the incursions of the hill tribes. Near the fort is an 
encampment made by the British during the Nepal War. 

Jaynagar Town. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of the 
District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22^" 11' N. 
and 88° 25' E., 31 miles south of Calcutta and 6^ miles by water 
from Magra Hat station on the Eastern Bengal State Railway. 
Population (1901), 8,810. Jaynagar was constituted a municipality 
in 1869. The average income and expenditure during the decade 
ending 1901-2 were Rs. 6, roo. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,600, 
mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 7,300. 

Jech Doab. — Dodb in the Punjab. See Chaj Doab, 

Jedcherla. — Former tdhik in the north of Mahbubnagar District, 
Hyderabad State, with an area of 946 square miles. The population 
in 1901, including yj^'-J/'i-, was 96,886, compared with 96,106 in 1891. 
The land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 80,000. In 1905 the taluk was 
divided between Mahbubnagar, Pargi, and Kalvakurti. The jdgir 
taluk of Changomal lies to the south, with a population of 12,480 and 
22 villages, and an area of about 106 square miles. It has now been 
transferred to the Pargi taluk. 

Jehlam. — District, tahsll, river, and town in the Punjab. See Jhelum. 

Jejuri. — Town in the Purandhar tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, 
situated in 18° 16' N. and 74° 9' E., on the Southern Mahratta Railway. 
Population (1901), 2,871. It is a place of Hindu pilgrimage. The 
municipality was established in 1868, to take charge of the sanitary 
arrangements during the religious fairs to which the village owes its 
importance. The fairs are in honour of the god Khandoba. A 
pilgrim tax is levied for four months, from about December to April. 
The average income during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 5,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,700. The town contains a dispensary 
and a school, managed by the Poona Native Institution, with 182 boys 
and 9 girls. 



90 JELEP LA 

Jelep La. — Pass in the Chola range of the Himalayas, situated in 
27° 22' N. and 88° 53' E., leading from Sikkim State, Bengal, into the 
Chumbi valley of Tibet. Height, 14,390 feet above sea-level. The 
Jelep pass forms the principal route by which Tibetan trade enters 
British India, and carries about half of the total registered trade be- 
tween India and Tibet. 

Jellalabad. — Province and town in Afghanistan. See Jalalabad. 

Jellasore. — Village in Balasore District, Bengal. See Jaleswar. 

Jesar.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Jessore District ( Yasohard). — District of the Presidency Division, 
Bengal, lying between 22° 47^ and 23°47''N. and 88° 40^ and 89° 50' E., 
with an area of 2,925 square miles. It is bounded on the north and 
west by Nadia District ; on the south by Khulna ; and on the east by 
the Madhumati and Barasia rivers, which separate it from Farldpur. 

Jessore forms the central portion of the delta between the Hooghly 

and the Meghna estuary, and is an alluvial plain intersected by rivers 

and watercourses, which in parts of the south of the 

Physical District spread out into large marshes. The river 

aspects. ^ ° _ 

system was formerly supplied by the Padma, and the 

rivers for the most part flowed across the District from the north- 
west to the south-east. The north-west of the District was gradually 
raised by their periodical inundations till their connexions with the 
Padma silted up ; and the rivers, with the sole exception of the Garai, 
which with its continuation the Madhumati is still an important offshoot 
of that river, ceased to be running streams, their beds degenerating 
into stagnant marshes during the greater part of the year. The Dis- 
trict, entirely a fluvial formation, is thus naturally divided into two 
parts : the thickly populated country to the north, now raised by 
continual deposits beyond the reach of the inundations by which it 
was previously affected, declining towards the south into swampy 
tracts, where the rivers are tidal and the only parts suitable for habi- 
tation are the high lands along their banks. The principal rivers, 
which are connected with one another by numerous cross-channels, are 
the Garai and the Madhumati to the east, and proceeding from 
north to south, the Kumar, Nabaganga, Chitra, Kabadak, Bhairab, 
and Ichamati. The last-mentioned rivers, which were originally 
distributaries of the Padma, have now largely silted up in their upper 
reaches, and are in many cases entirely cut off from their parent 
stream. The Kumar, a branch of the Matabhanga, discharges into 
the Nabaganga at Magura ; it is also connected with the Madhumati 
by the Little Barasia. The Nabaganga, also formerly an offshoot of 
the Matabhanga, no longer gets any flood discharge from that river, 
and boat traffic is impracticable beyond Jhenida, while between Jhenida 
and Magura it is navigable only for about three months in the year. 



J£SSORE DISTRICT 91 

The silting-up process has extended as far south as Binodpur, below 
which it is navigable throughout the jear. The Nabaganga formerly 
joined the Madhumati near Lohagara, but the connexion has silted up 
and its waters now flow down the Bankana ; this river divides into two 
branches at Patna, the eastern branch which flows into the Madhumati 
being known as the Kalia or Gangnl river, while the western branch 
continues to be called the Bankana. The Kabadak, formerly an 
offshoot of the Matabhanga, has silted up in its upper portion, but is 
navigable below Kotchandpur by large boats throughout the year. 
The Bhairab, which leaves the Kabadak on its left bank above 
Tahirpur, has similarly silted up in its upper reaches, the channel 
above Jessore being practically only a line of marshes. The Majud 
khali Khal brings down some of the waters of the Chitra to the 
Bhairab at Simultala, and the Bhairab is also connected with the 
Chitra by the Gobra-Afra Khal. The Ichamati, which flows across 
the south-west corner of the District, is navigable in this part of. its 
course throughout the year. 

The District is covered by recent alluvial deposits, consisting of 
sandy clay and sand along the course of the rivers, and fine silt con- 
solidating into clay in the flatter parts of the river plain, where beds of 
impure peat also occur. Sand is found in large quantities only along 
the banks and chars of the Madhumati. 

The stretches of low-lying land under rice cultivation afford a foot- 
hold for various marsh species, while the numerous ponds and ditches 
are filled with submerged and floating water-plants. Remarkable 
among these for its rarity, and interesting on account of its distribution 
to Europe on the one hand and Australia on the other, is the floating 
Aldrovanda vesiculosa. The edges of sluggish creeks are lined with 
large sedgljs and bulrushes, and the banks of rivers have a hedge-like 
scrub jungle. The sides of embankments and village sites, where not 
occupied by habitations, are densely covered with shrubberies of semi- 
spontaneous species, interspersed with clumps of planted bamboos and 
groves of Areca, Moringa, Mangifera, and Anona. The bal>fd {Acacia 
arabica) also grows in great abundance, and the banyan {Ficus indica), 
plpal {Ficus religiosa), tamarind {Tamarindus indica), and mulberry 
reach a large size. The north and east of the District are dotted with 
numerous groves of date-palms {Phoenix acau/is) ; and many of the 
principal roads are lined with fine avenues of banyans, casuarinas 
{Casuarina viuricafa), and mulberry-trees. Waysides and waste places 
are filled with grasses and weeds, usually of little intrinsic interest but 
often striking because of their distribution ; many of them have been 
inadvertently introduced by human agency, and include European or 
African and American species. There are no forests in the District. 
Leopards were formerly common, and wild hog are still very 

VOL. XIV. G 



92 JESSORE DISTRICT 

numerous in some parts of the District. The latter do great damage 
to growing crops, especially to sugar-cane. 

The mean temperature for the year is 74°. The mean minimum 
rises from 53° in January to 79° in June, at which point it remains 
constant until September; the mean maximum is highest (97°) in 
April. The annual rainfall averages 60 inches, of which 7 fall in 
May, 11-3 in June, 10-4 in July, 10-7 in August, and 7-7 in September. 

The country once formed a portion of the old kingdom of Banga or 
Samatata, but the earliest traditions still current are associated with the 
name of Khanja All, who came to the District four and 
a half centuries ago. He obtained a jdglr from the 
king of Gaur and made extensive clearances in the Sundarbans, where 
he appears to have exercised all the rights of sovereignty till his death 
in 1459. He left numerous mosques and tombs, but most of these are 
in Khulna District. The next traditions are connected with Raja 
Vikramaditya, one of the chief ministers of Daud Khan, the last king 
of Bengal, who obtained a grant in the Sundarbans and established 
a city to which he retired with his family and dependants. The 
vernacular name of the District is a corruption of Yasohara ('glory 
depriving,' as it is said to have robbed Gaur of its pre-eminence), the 
name given by Vikramaditya to his capital city, the site of which was 
at IswARiPUR in Khulna District. Vikramaditya was succeeded by 
his son Pratapaditya, the popular hero of the Sundarbans, who gained 
predominance over the twelve chiefs or Bhuiyas who then held the 
south and east of Bengal ; he was eventually defeated and captured by 
Raja Man Singh, the Hindu leader of Akbar's armies in Bengal from 
1589 to 1606, The name Jessore continued to attach itself to the 
estates which Pratapaditya had possessed. The military governor, 
who had charge of them, and who was located at Mirzangar on the 
Kabadak, was called the Faujdar of Jessore; and when the head- 
quarters of the District were brought to Kasba (where they now are), 
the name Jessore was applied to the town where the courts were 
located. Until 1786 the District was still nearly conterminous with 
Raja Pratapaditya's territories ; but since that date large areas have 
from time to time been shorn away, and at the present day it covers 
barely one-half of its original area. 

After the fall of Raja Pratapaditya those of his parganas which were 
situated within the present area of this District were divided into three 
za??imddris, that in the south being held by the Raja of Jessore, known 
as the Chanchra Raja, and that in the north by the Raja of Naldanga, 
while the third, called the zaminddri of Bhushana, fell into the hands 
of Raja Sita Ram Rai, concerning whom there are numerous legends 
in the north-east of the District. He was a talukddr of a village called 
Hariharnagar on the bank of the Madhumati river, and is said to have 



HISTOR V 93 

been deputed by the Nawab of Dacca to collect his revenues ; but as 
the revenues never went farther than Sita Ram himself, the Nawab sent 
an army against him and at length succeeded in capturing him about 
the year 17 12. The ruins of Sita Ram's palace and the various large 
tanks which he constructed are still to be seen at Muhammadpur. 

The Rajas of Jessore or Chanchra trace their origin to Bhabeswar 
Rai, a soldier in the army of an imperial general, who conferred on him 
several j>arganas taken from Pratapaditya. He died in 1588, and was 
succeeded by his son Mahtab Ram Rai, who assisted Man Singh against 
Pratapaditya, and at the close of the war was allowed to retain the J>ar- 
ganas made over to his father. To him succeeded Kandarpa Rai, 
who added considerably to the estate ; and he in turn was followed by 
Manohar Rai (1649-1705), who is regarded as the principal founder of 
the family. The estate, when he inherited it, was of moderate size ; 
but he acquired one pargana after another, until, at his death, the 
property was by far the largest in the neighbourhood. The estate then 
went to Krishna Ram, who was followed by Sukh Deb Rai (1729-45). 
The latter divided the estate into a three-quarters share and a one- 
quarter share, the former being called the Isafpur and the latter the 
Saidpur estate. The latter was given by Sukh Deb to his brother 
Syam Sundar, who died without issue, leaving it vacant. It was after- 
wards conferred by the East India Company upon a landholder in 
exchange for certain lands near Calcutta. The possessor of the 
property in 1814, Haji Muhammad Mohsin, made over the estate in trust 
for the Hooghly Imambara, which has ever since enjoyed its revenues. 
Isafpur estate was inherited in 1764 by Sri Kanta Rai, who sustained 
such heavy losses about the time of the Permanent Settlement, that 
his family was left destitute and forced to fall back upon the bounty 
of the Government. His grandson, Barada Kanta, who succeeded 
in 1 81 7, being a minor, the property was administered by the Court 
of Wards, and its value greatly increased. In 1823 the Government 
added to his estate the confiscated pargana of Sahos, and subse- 
quently bestowed on Barada Kanta the title of Raja Bahadur in recog- 
nition of services rendered by him during the Mutiny. He died in 
1880, leaving three sons, the eldest of whom succeeded to the title and 
estates. 

The revenue or financial administration (dlwdni) was transferred to 
the East India Company with that of the rest of Bengal in 1765 ; but it 
was not until 1781, when a court was opened at Murali near Jessore 
town, that British administration was completely established in the 
District. The first Judge and Magistrate was Mr. Henckell, who 
founded a market still known as Henckellganj, and was the first to 
urge upon the Government the scheme of Sundarbans reclamation 
{see Sundarbans). Mr. Rocke, who succeeded him in 1789, trans- 

G 2 



94 



fESSORE DISTRICT 



Population. 



ferred the civil station to Jessore, where it still remains. Among the 
Collectors of Jessore was Mr. R. Thackeray, father of the novelist, who 
acted in that capacity for a few months in 1805. The boundaries of 
the District have undergone frequent changes : extensive areas on the 
east and south have been taken away to form the Districts of Faridpur 
and Khulna, while additions have been made from the Twenty -four 
Parganas and Nadia on the west. 

The population of the present area was returned at 1,451,507 m 
1872 and 1,939,375 in 1881, but it fell to 1,888,827 in 1891 and 
1,813,155 in 1901. The apparent increase in 1881 
was probably caused by the inaccuracy of the first 
Census ; the subsequent decline is due to the extremely insanitary 
conditions which prevail. The banks of the rivers are higher than the 
country behind them, and depressions are thus formed between the 
main watercourses. The drainage of these was always difficult, and it 
has now become almost impossible owing to the silting up of the 
mouths of the rivers and drainage channels. Stagnant swamps are 
thus formed, while good drinking-water is scarce, and the homesteads 
are enveloped in dense jungle. It was in this District that cholera 
appeared in a violently epidemic form in 181 7. Here, too, twenty 
years later, originated that terribly fatal kind of fever subsequently 
known as ' Nadia,' and then as ' Burdwan fever,' which decimated the 
population of the country from Jessore westwards as far as the Bishnu- 
pur subdivision of Bankura. The first known outbreak occurred near 
Muhammadpur among a body of some 600 prisoners working on the 
road from Jessore to Dacca. In 1843 the epidemic seemed to dis- 
appear, but it again broke out in 1846. At the present time this 
malignant type of fever is not noticeable \ but a milder form is very 
prevalent, which is relentlessly at work, destroying many and sapping 
the vitality of the survivors and reducing their fecundity. Cholera is 
also prevalent, and small-pox, dysentery, and diarrhoea claim many 
victims. 

The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : — 



Subdivision. 


3 
< 


Number of 


c 


"3 

Q. 




Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and IQOI. 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 


C 

I 

1 
I 

3 


he 
> 


Jessore 
Jhenida . 
\ Magura . 
Naral 
Bangaon . 

District total 


889 
475 

425 
487 

649 


1,488 
S64 

934 
810 

798 


561,242 

304,899 
277,381 
352,281 

317,352 


631 
642 
653 
723 
4S9 


-5.6 

- 2-3 

-8.5 
+ 1. 1 

- 3-9 


37,616 
14,893 
12,538 
24,126 

15,929 


2,925 


4,894 


1,813,155 


620 


- 4.0 


10f,I02 



AGRICULTURE 95 

The three towns are Jessore, the head-quarters, Kotchandpur, and 
Mahespur ; but they are all small (only i per cent, of the population 
being urban), and have all lost ground since 1891, though Kotchandpur 
has a considerable trade. The population is densest in the east, where 
the soil is most fertile and still receives occasional deposits of silt, and 
most scattered in the Bangaon subdivision to the west. The decadence 
already referred to is most marked in the country running west and 
south-west from the Muhammadpur thdna on the eastern boundary, the 
centre of both epidemic cholera and of the ' Burdwan fever.' This un- 
healthy zone stretches eastwards and northwards beyond the Jessore 
boundary, and includes the north-western part of Faridpur and a small 
area in the north-west of Khulna. There is little migration except to 
and from the surrounding Districts. The language of the District 
is Bengali, the dialects spoken being the Eastern or Musalmanl, and 
Central Bengali. Of the population, 61 per cent, are Muhammadans 
and 39 percent. Hindus. 

The majority of the Muhammadans are Shaikhs (984,000), who are 
probably in the main the descendants of converts from the aborigi- 
nal Namasiidras. This is the most numerous Hindu caste (175,000) ; 
but Kayasths (55,000), Muchis (48,000), Kaibarttas (45,000), Brahmans 
(39,000), Malos (27,000), Ahirs and Goalas (26,000), and Sahas (24,000) 
are also well represented. A noted colony of Kulin Brahmans resides 
at LakshmTpasa. Agriculture supports 71 per cent, of the population, 
industries 15 per cent., commerce o-6 per cent., and the professions 
I "9 per cent. 

Christians in 1901 numbered 912, of whom 867 were natives. The 
Baptist Missionary .Society, the London Missionary Society, and a 
Roman Catholic mission are at work in this District ; of these the 
Roman Catholic and Baptist missions have secured most converts. 

The soil is fertile, but the northern part no longer receives the 
annual deposit of silt which used to enrich it. Here aiis or autumn 

rice is the principal staple, but tobacco, sugar-cane, . . . 

^ • 1^ 1 n^u Agriculture, 

and various cold-season crops are also grown. 1 he 

low country in the south is chiefly under rice cultivation, aman or winter 
rice predominating. Date-palms are largely grown for the manufacture 
of sugar. They commence bearing when they are about seven years 
old, and continue to bear for about twenty-five years. The juice is col 
lected from November to February, the yield oi gur being about 15 to 
20 seers per tree. Indigo was formerly extensively cultivated ; but a 
large number of factories were closed in consequence of the disturb- 
ances of 1859-61 (of which some account will be found in the article 
on Nadia DiSTRic'i), and its cultivation has now almost entirely dis- 
appeared. Cultivation has suffered much in the Jhenida subdivision 
from the drying up of the rivers ; in the Magura subdivision the area 



96 



JESSORE DISTRICT 



under dman rice is contrasting owing to deficient floods, but that of 
aiis and jute is extending. Tliere is no artificial irrigation. 

The principal agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Jessore 

Jhenida ..... 
Magura ..... 
Naral ..... 
Bangaon 

Total 


889 

475 
425 
487 
649 


506 

.^09 

268 

389 
389 


24 

15 
16 
18 
14 


2,925 


1,861 


87 

1 



Of the cultivated area it is estimated that 168 square miles are twice 
cropped. Rice is grown on 1,391 square miles. Ama?i rice is sown in 
April and May, and reaped in November or December ; the land for 
this crop is usually ploughed four times before sowing, and except in 
marsh lands the young shoots are transplanted in July. For at^s rice 
the ground is ploughed five or six times and the seed is sown broad- 
cast ; the land on which it is grown generally yields a cold-season 
crop as well. Bo?-o rice land is hardly ploughed at all ; the seed is 
scattered broadcast in the marshes as they dry up, and the shoots 
are transplanted when a month old, and sometimes again a month 
later. Other crops grown are gram (26 square miles), pulses, &c., 
(198 square miles), oilseeds, including mustard, linseed, and ti/ (Sesa- 
nmm ifidiami) (162 square miles), sugar-cane (15 square miles), jute 
(48 square miles), and tobacco (32 square miles). On the occasion of 
the scarcity in the Magura subdivision in 1897-8, Rs. 64,000 was 
advanced under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

The cattle are poor. There are no regular pasture-lands, but cattle 
are grazed on the banks of marshes and in the date-palm orchards. 

Coarse cotton cloths are woven on hand-looms throughout the 
District. Mats and baskets, made by the Muchis and Doms, 
have a large local sale. Cart-wheels are extensively 
made ; those prepared in the Jhenida subdivision are 
largely sold at Baduria in the Twenty-four Parganas. 
Lime for white-washing and for eating with pan is prepared by Baitis 
from shells collected in the marshes by women of the Bagdi caste. 
Gold and silver ornaments and iron and brass-ware are manufactured. 
I^c bracelets are made at I..ohagara by immigrants from the United 
Provinces. The date-palm sugar industry is of local importance, but 
is gradually declining in spite of the imposition of countervailing duties 
on imported sugar; in 1 900-1 there were 117 factories, with an out- 
turn of 235,000 maunds, valued at 15-15 lakhs. 



Trade and 
communications. 



TRADE AND CGMMUNICATIONS 97 

The principal imports are rice and sundri wood {Heritiera littoralis) 
from Backergunge and the Sundarbans ; cotton piece-goods, cotton 
twist, salt, kerosene oil, flour, and potatoes from Calcutta ; and coal 
from Burdwan. The principal exports are paddy, pulses, jute, linseed, 
tamarind, coco-nuts, unrefined sugar, oil-cake, hides, earthen jars, 
cart-wheels, bamboos, bones, betel-nuts, timber, gJil, and fish, chiefly to 
Backergunge and Calcutta. Except in the Jhenida subdivision, where 
there is a large amount of cart traffic, most of the trade is carried by 
boats and is in the hands of Saha and Teli dealers ; but considerable 
quantities of jute and bamboos are sent by rail to Calcutta. Kotchand- 
pur is the largest and Kesabpur the second largest centre of trade ; 
Naldanga, Chaugacha, Magura, Jhenida, Chandkhali, Khajura, and 
Binodpur are important trading villages. 

The central section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway connects 
Calcutta with Jessore, the head-quarters station, whence it runs south- 
east to Khulna. This line is connected with the eastern section of 
the same railway by a branch from Bangaon to Ranaghat. Excluding 
village tracks, the District contains 581 miles of roads, of which 117 
miles are metalled ; the most important are the Provincial road from 
Jessore to Calcutta, and those connecting Jessore with Kesabpur and 
Jhenida, Kallganj with Hansada, and Jhenida with Borai and Magura. 
Road communication is best in the higher land in the head-quarters, 
Jhenida, and Bangaon subdivisions, where the silting up of the water 
communications has rendered them more necessary than elsewhere. 
There are 45 ferries. 

The rivers are in many cases no longer navigable in their upper 
reaches except during the rains, but lower down they are tidal, and 
carry large boats and small steamers throughout the year. Steamer 
services ply on alternate weekdays from Khulna up the Atharabanki 
and Madhumati as far as Muhammadpur ; daily from Khulna by Kalia 
to Lohagara, and by the Majudkhali-Chitra-Ghorakhali Khal and the 
Nabaganga to Binodpur throughout the year and during the rains as 
far as Magura ; and on alternate weekdays from Kapilmuni up the 
Kabadak to Kotchandpur, feeding the railway at Jhingergacha. During 
the rains boats ranging up to 2,000 maunds carry jute to the stations 
on the railway, while some go direct to Calcutta. Large passenger 
boats ply on the Nabaganga and Chitra rivers and on the channels 
connecting them with the railway stations. 

There has been no famine in Jessore in recent times ; but there 
was some scarcity in the Magura subdivision in 1897, when rice 
sold at 7^ seers to the rupee. Advances were made under the 
Agriculturists' Loans Act, but Government relief was only necessary 
on a small scale. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into five subdivi- 



98 /ESSORE DISTRICT 

sions, with head-quarters at Jkssore, Jhf.xida, Macura, Naral, and 
Banoaon. The Magistrate-Collector is assisted at 
head-quarters by a staff of five Deputy-Magistrate- 
Collectors ; the subdivisions of Magura, Naral, and Bangaon are in 
charge of Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, while the subdivisional officer 
of Jhenida is usually a Joint-Magistrate. The subdivisional officers of 
Bangaon, Jhenida, and Naral are occasionally assisted by Sub-Deputy- 
Collectors. 

The civil courts subordinate to the District and Sessions Judge, who 
is also Judge of Khulna, are those of a Sub-Judge and four Munsifs at 
Jessore, three Munsifs at Naral, and two each at Jhenida, Magura, 
and Bangaon. The total number of criminal courts is twenty-three, 
including an Additional Sessions Judge, who is also employed for part 
of the year at Khulna. The District had at one time an unenviable 
reputation for dacoity, but this is no longer the case. Petty riots 
arising out of land disputes are common. 

At the settlement of Todar Mai the greater part of the District was 
included in sarkar Khalifatabad, but a small portion in the north- 
east formed part oi sarkar Muhammadabad or Bhushana. The District 
was subsequently divided chiefly among the great zamindaris of Isaf- 
pur, vSaidpur, and Muhammadshahi. The revenue administration was 
assumed by the British in 1772, but a Collectorate was not estab- 
lished till 1786, prior to which date the land revenue head-quarters 
were at Calcutta. Owing to the continuous changes of fiscal juris- 
diction, comparison of the land revenue with that formerly paid is 
impossible. The present incidence amounts to only R. 0-11-2 per 
cultivated acre. Subdivision of property has gone on rapidly under 
British rule, and there are now 2,444 permanently settled estates, in 
addition to 70 small estates which are temporarily settled, and 85 held 
direct by Government. Sub-infeudation of holdings has also been 
carried on to an enormous extent. The average rate of rent is 
Rs. 2-15-4 per cultivated acre, but the amount varies according to the 
crops for which the land is suitable. The rates for rice land range from 
Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 12 per acre, for jute from Rs. 2-10 to Rs. 2-13, pulses 
and oilseeds from Rs. 3 to Rs. 4-8, sugar-cane from Rs. 3 to Rs. 7-8, 
vegetables from Rs. 3 to Rs. 9, date-palms from Rs. 3-3 to Rs. 9, betel 
and coco-nut palms from Rs. 10 to Rs. 16, and /J// gardens from Rs. 8 
to Rs. 20, while homestead land fetches Rs. 10 to Rs. 15, and garden 
land Rs. 10 to Rs. 20 per acre. Rents are lowest in the less fertile 
Bangaon subdivision, where the maximum rate for rice lands is Rs. 3 
per acre. The average quantity of land held by each ryot is 8 acres. 
The utbandi system {see Nadia District) prevails in some parts 
of the District; korfd ryots, who hold land under a middleman, are 
numerous. 



ADMIXIS TRA TIOK 99 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1.* 


1890-1. 1900-1. 


1903-4- 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


10,84 

18,88 


8,69 8,60 
15,42 16,92 


8,54 
16,89 



* In 1880-1 the District did not include the subdivision of Bangaon, which was 
subsequently transferred to it from Nadia. 

Outside the municipalities of Jkssore, Kotchandpur, and Mahes- 
PUR, local affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate 
local boards in each subdivision. In 1903-4 the income of the District 
board was Rs. 1,70,000, of which Rs. 99,000 was derived from rates; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 1,68,000. Schemes for the reclamation 
of the river Bhairab, a standing source of unhealthiness, and for opening 
the Muchikhali Khal are under contemplation. The Hallifax Canal, 
one mile in length, excavated in 1901, connects the Madhumati and 
Nabaganga rivers in the Naral subdivision. 

The District contains 20 police stations and 10 outposts ; and in 
1903 the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted of 
5 inspectors, 43 sub-inspectors, 36 head constables, and 421 constables 
(including 38 town chaukldars and water police). In addition, there is 
a rural force of 245 daffaddrs and 3,839 chaukldars. The District jail 
at Jessore has accommodation for 370 prisoners, and subsidiary jails 
at each of the subdivisional out-stations for 106. 

The District is less advanced in respect of education than would be 
expected from its proximity to Calcutta, and in 1901 only 5-8 per cent, 
of the population (11 males and 0-5 females) could read and write. 
The number of pupils under instruction was 34,000 in 1892-3 and 
35,000 in 1900-1. In 1903-4, 43,000 boys and 4,000 girls were at 
school, being respectively 31-1 and 2-6 per cent, of the children of 
school-going age. The number of educational institutions, public and 
private, in that year was 1,367, including an Arts college, 85 secondary, 
1,255 primary, and 26 special schools. The expenditure on education 
was 2-1 lakhs, of which Rs. 23,000 was met from Provincial funds, 
Rs. 41,000 from District funds, Rs. 600 from municipal funds, and 
I lakh from fees. The principal educational institutions are the 
Victoria College at Naral and high schools at Kalia, Magura, and 
Jessore town. 

In 1903 the District contained 12 dispensaries, of which 5 had 
accommodation for 30 in-patients. At these the cases of 62,000 out- 
patients and 500 in-patients were treated during the year, and 2,000 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 19,000, of which 
Rs. 1,700 was met by a Government subvention, Rs. 7,000 from Local 
and Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 8,000 from subscriptions. 



loo JESSORE DISTRICT 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. During 1903-4 
the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 54,000, representing 
29-9 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Accoimt of Bengal, vols, i and ii (1875); 
Sir J. Westland, Report on Jessore (Calcutta, 1874).] 

Jessore Subdivision.— Head-quarters subdivision of Jessore Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 22° 47' and 23° 28' N. and 88° 59' and 
89*^ 26' E., with an area of 889 square miles. The subdivision is an 
alluvial tract, containing some large marshes and traversed by streams 
which have now silted up except in the lower reaches. The population 
in 1901 was 561,242, compared with 594,835 in 1891, the density being 
631 persons per square mile. It contains one town, Jessore (popula- 
tion, 8,054), the head-quarters ; and 1,488 villages. The principal marts 
are at Basantia, Jessore town, Jhingergacha, and Kesabpur. 

Jessore Town. — Head-quarters of Jessore District, Bengal, situated 
in 23° 10' N. and 89° 13' E., on the Bhairab river, and on the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway, 74 miles from Calcutta and 35 miles from 
Khulna. Population (1901), 8,054. The name was applied to the 
village of Kasba when it was made the head-quarters of the District. 
The villages of Purana, Kasba, Bagchhar, Sankarpur, and Chanchra lie 
within the municipal limits. The last contains the residence of the 
Rajas of Chanchra or Jessore {see Jessore District), and the remains 
of a rampart and fosse by which it was once surrounded are still visible. 
Jessore was constituted a municipality in 1864. The income during 
the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 19,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 18,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, of which Rs.io,ooo 
was derived from a tax on houses and lands, and Rs. 5,000 from a con- 
servancy rate; the expenditure was Rs. 21,000. The town possesses 
the usual public ofifices, including criminal, revenue, and civil courts, 
the District jail, a church, a dispensary with 16 beds, a public library, 
and a high school. The jail has accommodation for 370 prisoners ; 
the industries carried on are brick-making, surki and khod pounding, 
cane and bamboo work, and the manufacture of coir mats and jute 
string. There are three printing presses, and a weekly newspaper and 
two monthly magazines with a large circulation are published. Part of 
the town is provided with a filtered water-supply, and it is proposed to 
extend this by the construction of large water-works. 

Jetpur (Devli). — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 22° 36' and 22° 49' N. and 70° 35' and 70° 51' E., 
with an area of 94 square miles. The population in 1901 was 11,568, 
residing in 21 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,25,000, 
and the cultivated area 48 square miles. The State ranks as a fourth- 
class State in Kathiawar, but the present chief has the rank of a third- 
class chief Jetpur is now held by twenty tdlukddrs, descended from a 



i 



JETPUR ' TOT 

common ancestor, Naja Desa; and the four most important States are 
shown below. Naja Desa's two sons, Viro and Jeto, founded the 
Virani and Jethani subdivisions of Jetpur ; and A^iro had two sons who 
in their turn subdivided the Virani estate into two parts, Oghad Virani 
and Kanthad Virani. The Jethani estate was similarly again subdivided 
into Vikamshi Jethani and Bhoko Jethani. The four principal States 
now exercising third and fourth-class jurisdiction are : — 



State. 


Class. 


Subdivision. 


Jetpur (Devli) . 
Jetpur (Vadia) . 
Jetpur (Mulu Surag) . 
Jetpur (Naja Kala) . 


3rd class . 

)> 

4th class . 


Bhoko Jethani. 
Kanthad Virani. 
Vikamshi Jethani. 
Oghad Virani. 



Two different accounts are given of the acquisition of Jetpur : namely, 
that of the Tdrlkh-i-Sorafh, which says that the first Nawab of Junagarh, 
Bahadur Khan I, granted Jetpur to Vala Vira ; and a tradition which 
says that Viro Naja of Chital aided the Valas of Bagasra in their feud 
with Vaijo Khasia of Mitiala, and that Vala Samant of Bagasra was 
slain in the battle. In consideration of Viro's aid the Valas of Bagasra 
gave him Jetpur. These Bagasra Valas acquired their share in Jetpur 
from the Khadia Baloch, who received it from the local Muhammadan 
governors of former times. Subsequently Jetpur was conquered from 
Champraj, the great-grandson of Jetha Naja, by Shams Khan, a Musal- 
man sarddr. The taliika remained in an unsettled state for a long 
time, but in course of time Champraj's descendant restored it to its 
former position. 

Jetpur (Vadia). — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay 
situated in about 21° 40' N. and 71° 53' E., with an area of 72 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 10,330, residing in 17 villages. 
The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,30,000, and the cultivated area 
43 square miles. The State ranks as a third-class State in Kathiawar. 
For history see Jetpur (Devli). 

Jetpur (Mulu Surag). — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, 
Bombay, lying between 2\° 36' and 21° 49' N. and 70° 36' and 
70° 50' E., with an area of 25 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 6,728, residing in 16 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 60,000, and the cultivated area 20 square miles. The State 
ranks as a fourth-class State in Kathiawar. For history see Jetpur 
(Devli). 

Jetpur (Naja Kala or Bilkha). — State in the Kathiawar Political 
Agency, Bombay, lying between 21° and 21'^ 23' N. and 70° 35' and 
70° 57' E., with an area of 72 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 10,366, residing in 24 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was 



I02 JETPUK 

Rs. 1,75,000, and the cultivated area 52 square miles. The State ranks 
as a fourth-class State in Kathiawar. For history see Jetpur (Devli). 

Jetpur Town. — Fortified town in the State of the same name, 
Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 21° 45' N. and 70° 48' E., on the 
western bank of the Bhadar river, 40 miles north-east of Porbandar. 
Population (1901), 15,919. Jetpur is a flourishing town on the 
Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar Railway, well equipped with 
public buildings. A fine bridge has been thrown across the Bhadar 
river about a mile north of the town. 

Jeur. — Market town in the District and tdluka of Ahmadnagar, 
Bombay, situated in 19° 18'' N. and 74° 48' E., about 13 miles north- 
east of Ahmadnagar, on the Toka road. Population (190 1), 5,005. 
The town is enclosed by a ruined wall and has a strong gateway with 
a paved entrance. Close by, perched on a high hill, is a group of three 
temples, one of them with an inscription dated 1781. Two miles north 
of Jeur, at the top of a beautiful ravine, down which winds the Nevasa 
road, is the Imampur travellers' bungalow. The bungalow is an old 
mosque and stands in a large grove with excellent shade. 

Jewar. ^Town in the Khurja tahs'il oi Bulandshahr District, United 
Provinces, situated in 28° 7' N. and 77° 34' E., 20 miles west of 
Khurja. Population (1901), 7,718. In the eleventh century Jadon 
Rajputs, invited from Bharatpur by the Brahmans of Jewar, settled in 
the town and expelled the Meos. The well-known Begam Sumru held 
Jewar till her death in 1836, when it lapsed to Government. The town 
lies among the ravines and broken ground on the edge of the high land 
above the Jumna, and is well drained. The market was rebuilt in 1881, 
and is now lined with good brick-built shops. Jewar is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,000. There is 
a small manufacture of cotton rugs and carpets, and a weekly market 
is held. The town contains a prosperous agricultural bank, a middle 
school with 120 pupils, and a small primary school for girls, besides a 
branch of the American Methodist Mission. 

Jeylap. — Pass in the Himalayas. See Jelep La. 

Jeypore. —Political Agency, State, and city in Rajputana. See 
Jaipur. 

Jeypore Estate. — Estate occupying the whole of the northern 
part of Vizagapatam District, Madras. It embraces practically all the 
Agency or hill tracts therein, and consists of the /^/^jj/y of Nowrangapur, 
Jeypore, Koraput, Malkangiri, Bis.samcuttack, and Rayagada, and the 
major portion of Padwa, Pottangi, and Gunupur. The residence of 
the Raja is at Jeypore town. 

The zaml/iddri is divided into two portions, east and west, by the 
Kalahandl State of Bengal. The western portion forms the Govern- 
ment subdivision, of which the head-quarters are at Koraput, while 



JEYPORE ESTATE 103 

the eastern is under the jurisdiction of the Special Assistant-Agent at 
Parvatipuram. Each portion has a separate river system, the western 
being drained by tributaries of the Godavari, and the eastern by the 
Nagavali (or Langulya) and Vamsadhara rivers and their affluents. 

Various forms of under-tenure prevail within the estate. The pro- 
prietor of the subsidiary estate of Bissamcuttack holds his land on 
feudatory tenure ; whole villages are leased out for a nominal rent to 
mustdjirs or muttahdars, who have in many cases the right to sell 
portions or the whole of their village without the sanction of the Raja ; 
while a large portion of the estate is leased out on Jerayoti tenure direct 
to the cultivators. 

Ethnologically we find that the aboriginal tribes have been overlaid 
by immigration. The Khonds and Savaras, who inhabit the wild tracts 
adjoining the Ganjam Maliahs (hills), retain their separate tribal char- 
acteristics and languages, but in other parts the customs and practices 
of the new-comers have, in many cases, been adopted. In Kotapad 
and Singapur, for instance, the earlier peoples have adopted the practice 
of burning their dead. On the other hand, the Meriah human sacrifice 
{see Maliahs), which is supposed to be a purely Khond rite, spread 
among the immigrants and obtained so firm a hold that it had to be 
suppressed by force, a special agency being employed for that purpose 
until as late as 1861. 

The ancestors of the present house of Jeypore were at one time 
retainers of the Gajapati kings of Orissa. In the fifteenth century its 
founder, Mnayaka Deo, whom tradition asserts to be descended from 
the Lunar race of Rajputs, married a daughter of the Gajapati king, 
who bestowed u[)on him the Jeypore principality. About the year 
1652, when the founder of the Vizianagram family came to Chicacole 
in the train of the Golconda Faujdar, Sher Muhammad Khan, the 
present Jeypore family, descended from Vinayaka Deo, was in posses- 
sion not only of the country comprised within the present limits of the 
estate, but of all the hill zamitiddn's at the base of the Ghats. Jeypore 
subsequently became tributary to Vizianagram ; but in 1794 the Madras 
Government granted the Jeypore ruler a separate sanad as a reward 
for his loyalty during their conflict with Vizianagram which ended with 
the battle of Padmanabham. 

In 1803 the peshkash of the estate was fixed at Rs. 16,000. In 
addition, Rs. 13,666 is paid for the pargana of Kotapad, in lieu of 
the tax originally paid thereon to the State of Bastar in the Central 
Provinces. 

In 1848, owing to the insubordination of members of the Raja's 
family, some of the tahstls of the estate were attached by Govern- 
ment. In 1855 troubles again broke out, and finally, in i860, the 
Government was compelled to introduce a system of civil and criminal 



I04 JEYPORE ESTATE 

administration. A Special Assistant- Agent was appointed, and sub- 
ordinate magistrates and a strong police force were posted in the 
zami7iddri. Since then the estate has been free from disturbances, save 
for two unimportant outbreaks among the Savaras in 1865-6. 

The present Raja is Sri Vikrama Deo, on whom the title of Maha- 
raja was conferred as a special distinction in January, 1896. Under 
the existing system of administration continual progress is assured ; 
and the recently constituted Forest department is opening out the im- 
mense timber resources of the estate, which includes the finest forest in 
Vizagapatam District. 

Jeypore Tahsil. — -Agency tahsll in Vizagapatam District, Madras, 
lying above the Ghats, with an area of r,oi6 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 133,831, compared with 140,580 in 1891. They 
live in 1,213 villages. The chief town is Jeypore (population, 6,689), 
the residence of the Raja of the Jeypore Estate, and a centre of 
trade between the Central Provinces and the low country of the District. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses for the whole estate in 
1903-4 was Rs. 26,000. The tahsil is all za?nlnddri land and is for 
the most part open and well cultivated, the Kolab river passing through 
the centre of it. 

Jeysulmere. — State and town in Rajputana. See Jaisalmer. 

Jhabua. — A guaranteed chiefship under the Bhopawar Agency, 
Central India, lying between 22° 28' and 23° 14' N. and 74° 20' and 
75° 19' E., with an area of 1,336 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Kushalgarh State in the Rajputana Agency ; on the south 
by Jobat State ; on the east by All-Rajpur and Dhar ; and on the 
west by the Panch Mahals District of Bombay. The State lies wholly 
in the mountainous region of Malwa known as Rath, which is formed 
by the branch of the Vindhyas that strikes northwards towards Udaipur 
and constitutes the western boundary of the Malwa plateau. A suc- 
cession of forest-clad ridges run generally north and south, traversed 
by numerous streams which flow into the Anas, a tributary of the Mahi. 
The climate throughout most of the State is subject to greater extremes 
than are met with on the more open land of the Malwa plateau. The 
annual rainfall averages about 30 inches. 

The State takes its name from the chief town, founded in the 
sixteenth century by a notorious freebooter, Jhabbu Naik, of the 
Labhana caste. The present ruler is a Rathor Rajput, descended 
from Bir Singh, fifth son of Jodha, the founder of Jodhpur in 
Rajputana. This branch of the family rose to favour at Delhi, and 
acquired Badnawar in Malwa in fief in 1584. Kesho Das, son of 
Bhiman Singh, who then held Badnawar, was attached to the retinue 
of prince Sallm, who, on his accession as the emperor Jahanglr, 
employed him to subdue the turbulent freebooters infesting the south- 



JHABUA 105 

western districts of Malwa. After suppressing these gangs, Kesho Das 
obtained possession of their lands. In 1607 he was invested with the 
insignia of nobihty by the emperor, but died the same year, poisoned 
by his son and heir. From this time onwards the State was subjected 
to much internal disturbance, the confusion being greatly increased 
by the appearance of the Marathas in 1722; and the next year the 
State was formally placed under the management of Holkar during the 
minority of the chief. In 181 7 the revenues were merely nominal, 
owing principally to Maratha oppression, though, singularly enough, 
Holkar left the collection and payment of the chauth or fourth part of 
the revenue which was his due to the Jhabua officials. During the 
settlement of Malwa by Sir John Malcolm the State was guaranteed to 
the family. Raja Gopal Singh (1840-94), though only seventeen years 
of age at the time of the Mutiny, rendered good service in assisting 
the fugitives from Bhopawar, in recognition of which he was presented 
with a khilat of Rs. 12,500 in value. In 1865, however, he permitted 
a prisoner confined under suspicion of theft to be mutilated, for which 
a fine of Rs. 10,000 was imposed and his salute discontinued for one 
year. Till 1870 the States of Indore and Jhabua exercised joint juris- 
diction over the Thandla and Petlawad districts ; but as this arrange- 
ment led to constant disputes, an exchange of territory was effected in 
1 87 1, by which Petlawad was assigned to Indore, Thandla remaining 
with Jhabua, which pays Rs. 4,350 a year to Indore in adjustment of 
revenue. The present chief, Udai Singh, succeeded by adoption in 
1894, and has exercised administrative powers since 1898. The ruler 
bears the title of His Highness and Raja, and receives a salute of 
1 1 guns. 

Population has varied at the last three enumerations : (1881)92,938, 
(1891) 119,787, and (1901) 80,889. The large decrease during the 
last decade is accounted for by the severe losses incurred by the Bhil 
population in the famine of 1899- 1900. The density is 60 persons 
per square mile. Animists, chiefly Bhils, number 58,428, or 72 per 
cent, of the total population, and Hindus 18,156, or 22 per cent. The 
Roman Catholic mission has a station at Thandla, and native Christians 
numbered 73 in 1901. The chief tribes and castes are Bhils, 29,200, 
who form 36 per cent, of the population ; Bhilalas, 14,500, or 18 per 
cent.; Patlias, 8,700, or 10 per cent. ; and Rajputs, 2,000, or 3 percent. 
Agriculture supports 61 per cent, and general labour 8 per cent. The 
State contains 686 villages and 158 bhllpdras (hamlets). 

Land is divided locally into two sections : the Mahidhawa or land 
along the Mahi river, which is cultivable ; and the Ghata or hilly tract, 
of which the greater part of the State is composed, and which is of low 
fertility and incapable of irrigation. Of the total area, only 120 square 
miles, or 9 per cent., are under cultivation, and 4 square miles, or 



io6 JHABUA 

3 per cent., are irrigated. Of the uncultivated area, 363 square miles, 
or 27 per cent, of the total area, are cultivable, and 440 square miles, 
or 33 per cent., are under forest, the remainder being uncultivable 
waste. Maize occupies 64 square miles, or 53 per cent, of the culti- 
vated area; rice, 12 square miles; gram and wheat, 10 square miles 
each : joivar^ 8 square miles ; cotton, 34 square miles ; and poppy, 
2 square miles. 

The mineral resources are probably considerable, but have not as 
yet been fully investigated. At present manganese is worked to a 
small extent in the Rambhapur parga)ia by a Bombay firm, who pay 
a royalty of 4 annas per ton of ore exported. The ore is exported from 
Meghnagar station on the Ratlam-Godhra section of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, to which a light tramway has been 
laid by the contractors. 

The isolated and wild nature of the country makes any general 
development of commerce difficult. The main source of commercial 
profit is opium, which is exported to Ratlam. 

The chief means of communication are through the Meghnagar, 
Bajranggarh, Amargarh, and Bhairongarh stations of the Ratlam- 
Godhra section of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. 
In 1900 a metalled road was commenced by the British Government 
between Jhabua and the Meghnagar station. British post offices 
are maintained at Jhabua, Thandla, Bajranggarh, Ranapur, and 
Meghnagar. 

The State is divided for administrative purposes into four par- 
gafias Jhabua, Rambhapur, Ranapur, and Thandla— each under 
a tahstldar. Besides these pargamis, managed directly by the State, 
eighteen families of nobles, the U/nraos, hold fiefs extending over 
946 square miles, or 7 1 per cent, of the total area, and pay a tribute 
of Rs. 5,000 to the Darbar, and Rs. 7,510 to Holkar. 

The administration is carried on by the chief, assisted by the Diwan 
and the usual departments, of which the medical and forest are super- 
intended by the Agency Surgeon and the Forest officer, respectively. 
The chief exercises judicial powers intermediate between those of 
a District Magistrate and a Sessions Court, all serious cases being 
reported to the Political Agent. In cases of murder among the Bhils, 
the Darbar reports to the Political officer whether the case is one which 
can be dealt with by the local panchdyat (council of elders) or should 
be tried by the Political Agent. Appeals in criminal cases lie to the 
Dlwan and to the chief, with power of reference to the Political Agent. 
In civil matters the chief's decision is final. 

The normal revenue of the State is i-i lakhs, excluding alienated 
lands (1-3 lakhs). Of this, Rs. 53,000 is derived from land, Rs. 13,000 
from customs, Rs. 10,000 from excise, and Rs. 5,000 from tribute. 



JHAJJAR TAHSIL 107 

The chief heads of expenditure are Rs. 60,000 on general adminis- 
tration, Rs. 20,000 on the chief's establishment, Rs. 15,000 on 
collecting the land revenue, and Rs. 3,000 on medical. 

The incidence of the land revenue demand is Rs. 1-4-0 per acre of 
cultivated land and 3 annas per acre on the total area. As in all 
Rajput States, much of the land has been alienated mjdgtr grants to 
members of the chief's family and others. These alienated territories 
comprise 56 per cent, of the total cultivated area, but pa)' only 3 per 
cent, of the total revenue. All rents are taken in cash, and since 1902 
have been paid direct to the taJisllddr. Ordinary rates vary from 
Rs. 3-3-2 to Rs. 9 per acre. A higher rate, amounting sometimes 
to Rs. 24 an acre, is paid for irrigable land growing poppy and sugar- 
cane. In the hilly tract, the rates vary from a few annas to R. i. 

Opium is weighed at Jhabua, Thandla, and Hanumangarh before 
passing out of the State, and a duty of Rs. 5 is levied per chest of 
40 lb. ; when the poppy comes from the land of an Uvirao Rs. 2 to 
Rs. 3 are taken by the State, the balance being received by the Uturao. 

Copper coins were struck in Jhabua up to 1881, but discontinued 
after that date. The British rupee was made legal tender in 1893. 

No regular troops are kept up, such irregulars as exist being used to 
assist the police. Two serviceable guns are used for firing salutes. 
The police were organized in 1901, and number 95 men under a chief 
inspector, besides 425 rural village police. The Central jail is at 
Jhabua town. 

The first school was opened in 1854. There are now 17 public and 
private schools, of which one is the mission school at Thandla, 
established in 1900. There are 283 pupils. In 1901 only 2 per cent, 
of the population (almost all males) were able to read and write. The 
State maintains three dispensaries — at Jhabua, Ranapur, and Thandla. 

The town of Jhabua is situated in 22° 45'' N. and 74° 38' E., on 
the edge of a small lake called the Bahadur-Sagar, 1,171 feet above 
sea-level. Population (1901), 3,354. The palace, which is surrounded 
by a mud wall with masonry bastions, stands on the north bank of the 
lake. The streets are narrow, steep, and winding. Beside the lake is 
the cenotaph of Raja Ratan Singh (1832-40), who was killed by 
lightning when riding on an elephant in the Nilkanth procession, during 
the Dasehra festival. The town is 11 miles from the Meghnagar 
station on the Godhra-Ratlam section of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway. It contains a State guesthouse, a dispensary, 
a British post office, a jail, and a school. 

Jhajjar Tahsil. — Tahsil oi Rohtak District, Punjab, lying between 
28° 2\' and 28° \x' N. and 76° 20' and 76° 56' E., with an area of 466 
square miles. The population in 1901 was 123,227, compared with 
119,453 in 1 89 1, It contains one town, Jhajjar (population, 12,227), 

VOL. XIV. H 



ro8 JHAJJAR TAHSIL 

the head-quarters ; and 189 villages, including Georgegarh, founded by 
George Thomas. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
2-9 lakhs. The tahsil is intersected in all directions by sand ridges 
which often rise to a considerable height. On the east the low-lying 
land used to be regularly flooded by the Sahibi and Indori streams, 
and large swamps then formed in the depressions ; but of recent years the 
volume of these torrents has diminished, and the country rarely remains 
flooded for any considerable period. The north of the tahsil is a con- 
tinuation of the plateau of Rohtak and Sampla, while in the south a few 
low rocky eminences lend variety to the landscape. 

Jhajjar Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Rohtak District, Punjab, situated in 28° 36' N. and 76° 40' E., 21 
miles south of Rohtak town and 35 miles west of Delhi. Population 
(1901), 12,227. The town was destroyed by Muhammad of Ghor and 
refounded by a Jat clan. It was taken from the Nawabs of Farrukh- 
nagar by the Jat chieftain Suraj Mai, and afterwards fell into the hands 
of Walter Reinhardt, husband of Begam Sumru. Jhajjar was assigned 
to George Thomas in- 1794, and on annexation in 1803 was granted to 
Nawab Nijabat Khan. The estate was confiscated in 1857 owing to the 
disloyalty of the ruling chief, Abdur Rahman Khan, who was hanged for 
his share in the Mutiny. Jhajjar became for a short time the head- 
quarters of a District of that name, which was abolished in i860. The 
principal buildings are the old palace of the Nawabs and the new 
palace or Bagh Jahanara. The municipality was created in 1867. The 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 13,500 and Rs. 14,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income 
amounted to Rs. 18,600, chiefly derived from octroi, and the ex- 
penditure to Rs. 13,800. The town is noted for its dyeing industry, 
and for the thin or * paper ' pottery produced. It has a considerable 
manufacture of muslins and woollen goods, and embroidery is also 
largely carried on. The municipality maintains a dispensary and an 
Anglo-vernacular middle school. 

Jhalakati. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Backergunge 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 22° 39' N. and 
90° 13'' E., at the junction of the Nalchiti river and the Jhalakati Khal. 
Population (1901), 5,234. Jhalakati lies on the main steamer route 
between Barisal and Calcutta, and is one of the most important markets 
in Eastern Bengal, the chief exports being rice and betel-nuts, and the 
imports salt, tobacco, oil, and sugar. A very large quantity of timber, 
especially sundri wood (Heritiera litioralis), cut in the Sundarbans, is 
sold here. There is an oil-mill with an annual out-turn estimated at 
Rs. 25,000. Jhalakati was constituted a municipality in 1875. The 
income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 5,200, and 
the expenditure Rs. 5,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,800, 



JH A LAW AN ro9 

mainly derived from a property tax and a conservancy rate ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 8,600. 

Jhalawan. — A highland division of the Kalat State, Baluchistan, 
comprising the country to the south of Kalat as distinguished from 
Sarawan, the country to the north of that place, and lying between 
25° 28' and 29° 21' N. and 65° W and 67° 27' E., with an area of 
21,128 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Sarawan 
country ; on the south by the Las Bela State ; on the east by Kachhi 
and Sind; and on the west by Kharan and Makran. The boundary 
between the Jhalawan country and Sind was settled in 1853-4 and 
demarcated in 186 1-2. Elsewhere it is still undetermined. An 
imaginary line drawn east and west through Baghwana divides the 
country into two natural divisions. To the north the general con- 
ditions are those of the upper highlands, and to the south those of 
the lower highlands of Baluchistan. The country 
has a gradual slope to the south, with valleys of con- Physical 
siderable width lying among lofty mountain ranges. 
Among the more important valleys are Surab with Gidar, Baghwana, 
Zahri, Khuzdar with Firozabad, Wad, Nal, Saruna, Jau, and the valley 
of the Mashkai river. The mountains comprise the southern portion 
of the Central Brahui range, including the Harboi hills and the 
greater part of the Kirthar and Pab ranges. On the west the Garr 
hills and their continuation southward separate the country from 
Kharan and Makran ; in the centre lie a number of more or less de- 
tached mountains, the chief of which are Dobanzil (7,347 feet), Hushtir 
(7,260 feet), Shashan (7,513 feet), and Dra Khel (8,102 feet). The 
rivers include the Hingol, the largest river in Baluchistan, with its 
tributaries the Mashkai and the Arra ; the Mula, the Hab, and a 
portion of the Porali. Among the less important streams may be 
mentioned the Karkh or Karu and the Sain, which debouch into the 
Kachhi plain near Jhal, and the Kolachi or Gaj, which traverses the 
centre of the country. None of these rivers possesses a continuous 
flow of water throughout its course. 

In the north of the country nummulitic limestone is met with. 
Farther south red and white compact limestone (upper Cretaceous) is 
very extensively distributed. Beds containing chert are of frequent 
occurrence. Igneous rocks occur near Nal, and on the east are the 
Kirthar, Nari, and Gaj geological groups. 

Vegetation is scanty except in the Harboi hills, on the north, where 
juniper and wild almond grow in abundance. Elsewhere olive and 
pistachio occur. In the south the little tree growth includes Capparis 
aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, two kinds of Acacia, and Tamarix articulata. 
The northern hill-sides are thickly covered with a scrub jungle of Arte- 
misia and Haloxylon Griffithii. Tulips, irises, and other bulbous plants 

H 2 



no JH ALA WAN 

appear in the spring. The grasses are of the orders Bromits^ Foa, and 
Hordeiitn. Dwarf-pahii (Nafuwrhops Ritchieand) grows in profusion in 
the lower hills. Pomegranates are the commonest trees in the gardens, 
but apricots, mulberries, and dates are also found. 

Sind ibex and mountain sheep are the most common game, but their 
numbers are decreasing. Leopards and black bears are occasionally 
killed. Wild hog are met with in the Mashkai valley. 'Ravine deer' 
are common. A few grey and black partridge are to be found in 
Lower Jhalawan ; chikor are numerous in the higher parts, and slsl 
almost everywhere. 

Upper Jhalawan possesses a climate resembling that of Quetta, 
moderate in summer and cold in winter, with well-marked seasons. 
The lower parts are pleasant in winter, but subject to intense heat in 
summer. At this time fever is very prevalent in places south of the 
Harboi range. Earthquakes frequendy occur in the neighbourhood of 
Wad and Mashkai. The rainfall is scanty, and is received in the upper 
highlands in winter and in the lower parts in spring or summer. 

The country passed in the seventh century from the Rai dynasty of 
Sind to the Arabs, by whom it was known as Turan. Its capital was 
Khuzdar, which place was also the head-quarters of 
the Arab general commanding the Indian frontier. 
Kaikanan, probably the modern Nal, was another place of importance. 
The Ghaznivids and Ghorids next held the country, and were followed 
by the Mongols, the advent of Chingiz Khan being still commemorated 
by the Chingiz Khan rock between Nichara and Pandran. With the 
rise of the Sumra and Samma dynasties in Sind, the Jat aborigines of 
the country appear to have gained the ascendancy, but in the middle of 
the fifteenth century they were ousted by the Mirwaris. Beginning from 
Nighar near Surab, these founders of the Brahui kingdom gradually 
extended their dominion over all the Jhalawan hills. For many years 
the country remained firmly attached to the Khans of Kalat ; but the 
struggles which took place during Mir Khudadad Khan's reign involved 
the Jhalawan tribesmen also and resulted in the strangling of their 
leader, Taj Muhammad, Zarakzai. In 1869 Jam Mir Khan of Las 
Bela, who had caused the people of Jhalawan to rebel under Nur-ud-dm 
Mengal, received a severe defeat in a battle near Khuzdar, when he lost 
seven guns. Owing to its remoteness from Quetta, the Jhalawan country 
did not come so quickly and completely under control after the British 
occupation as the Sarawan country ; and an outbreak which began in 
1893 under the leadership of Gauhar Khan, the Zahri chief, simmered 
till 1895, when it was put down by the Kalat State troops at the fight of 
Garmap, in which both Gauhar Khan and his son lost their lives. 

The country is comparatively rich in archaeological remains. They 
include many gabrbands or embankments of the fire-worshippers ; a 



AGRICULTURE iii 

curious vaulted burial chamber cut in the slope of the hill near Pand- 

ran ; and several tombs which indicate a system of superterrene burial. 

Interesting earthen vessels, and stones bearing Kufic inscriptions, have 

been excavated from the numerous mounds in the country. 

Jhalawan contains no large towns and only 299 permanent villages. 

Khuzdar is the head-quarters station. Most of the people live in 

blanket tents or mat huts. The inhabitants, the _, , ^. 

^ _, . ... , , Population. 

majority of whom are Brahuis with here and there 

a few Baloch, Jats, and Loris, number (190 1) 224,073, or about 11 
persons to the square mile. They include the direct subjects of the 
Khan, such as Kurds, Nigharis, Gazgis, and Nakibs, who cultivate 
lands in the Khan's nidbats ; and tribal units. The principal tribes 
are the Zahri (49,000), the Mengal (69,000), the Muhammad Hasni 
(53,000), and the Bizanjau (14,000). Among minor tribal groups 
may be mentioned the Sajdi, Rodeni, Rekizai, Gurgnari, Sumalari, 
Kambrani, Mirwari, and Kalandarani. The leading chief of the Jhala- 
wan tribes belongs to the Zarakzai clan of the Zahri tribe. A few 
Hindus carry on the trade of the country. Most of the people speak 
Brahul ; a few speak Sindl ; the remainder, especially on the south- 
west, Baluchi. The majority of the people are Sunni Muhammadans, 
but some are Zikris, especially the Sajdis. Agriculture and flock- 
owning are the only occupations. Every year in September a large 
migration of nomads takes place to Kachhi and Sind, where they 
engage in harvesting and return to the highlands in spring. 

Cultivation is confined to the valleys and the flats beside the river 
courses. Most of the cultivated tracts consist of ' dry-crop ' areas, 

dependent on flood-water which is held up by em- . 

, , ^ -,,0 . ._ Agriculture. 

bankments. In comparison with the barawan country, 

irrigation is scarce. It is obtained from springs, from kdrez^ which 

number only thirty-five, and from channels cut from the rivers. Most 

of the springs and kdrez occur in Upper Jhalawan. Tracts irrigated 

by river water include Zahri, part of Gidar, Khuzdar and Zidi, Karkh 

and Chakku, the valleys of the Mula and Kolachi rivers, and Mashkai. 

Well-irrigation is unknown. The soil has a considerable mixture of 

sand, and is but moderately fertile. ' Dry-crop ' areas produce better 

crops than ' wet ' areas, unless the latter are highly manured. 

The spring harvest is the most important, consisting chiefly of wheat. 
On the south-west, however, wheat suffers from the damp caused by 
the sea-breezes, and its place is taken by barley. Rice is grown along 
the banks of the Mula and Kolachi rivers, and, with Jowdr, forms the 
chief autumn harvest. Dates are grown in Mashkai. Cultivation is 
gradually extending, but the people prefer flock-owning to cultivation, 
and progress is slow. Jhalawan is in fact a vast grazing tract. 

The bullocks are hardy but small, and a good many are bred in the 



112 JHALAWAN 

lower tracts. Sheep and goats are found in vast numbers. The 
Khorasani variety of sheep is preferred to the indigenous kind, owing 
to its larger tail. Most of the camels are transport animals, and camel- 
breeding is almost entirely confined to the Pab range. A few horses 
are kept in the north, but they are not so numerous as in the Sarawan 
country. 

Lead-smelting was carried on in former days at Sekran near Khuzdar, 
and Masson mentions the employment of 200 men in 1840, but the 
industry has now been abandoned. Little is known of the other 
minerals of the country. Ferrous sulphate (melanterite), known locally 
as zdgh or khdghal, has been found in the Ledav river and near Zahri. 
A soft ferruginous lithomarge, known as inak, is used as a mordant in 
dyeing. 

The manufacture of coarse woollen rugs in the dan stitch, and of 

felts, ropes, and bags, is general ; good pile carpets are woven for 

private use by the Badlnzai Kalandaranis of Tutak 

^^ ^ ^". and at a few other places. Nichara needlework is 

communications. ^ 

famous locally. There is a large export to Sind of 
matting and materials for mat-making, and many of the people entirely 
depend on this source of livelihood. The chief centres of trade are 
Surab, Khuzdar, Nal, Wad, and Mashkai ; but trading is much hin- 
dered by the levy of transit dues by both the Kalat State and local 
chiefs. Gh'i, wool, live sheep, and materials for mats are the principal 
exports ; coarse cloth, sugar, mustard oil, a.ndjotvdr are imported. 

Railways and metalled roads do not exist. Travellers follow camel- 
tracks, the most important of which are the Kalat-Bela route, known 
as the Kohan-wat, via Khuzdar, Wad, and the Baran Lak ; the Kalat- 
Panjgur route via Surab ; and the Kachhi-Makran route via the Mula 
Pass, Khuzdar, Nal, and Mashkai. ' An unmetalled road is now under 
construction between Kalat and Wad. 

Drought is frequent, owing to the shortness of the rainfall, but the 
proximity of Sind enables the inhabitants to find a ready means of 
. support at such times. During a drought of ex- 

ceptional severity, which began in 1897 and cul- 
minated in" 1901, Brahuis were known in several instances to have 
taken their daughters of marriageable age to Sind, where the high 
bride-prices obtained for them enabled the parents to tide over the 
bad times. Cases have also been known in which servile dependants 
were exchanged for a maund of dates. 

Since 1903 an officer, known as the Native Assistant for the Jhalawan 

country, has been posted to Khuzdar by the Khan of Kalat under the 

.... . supervision of the Political Agent. He is supported 

Admmistration. , ' ^ , . j j j ^.. • . .^ i 1 a 

t)y twenty levies, and decides petty intertribal and 

other cases with the assistance of jirgas. For administrative purposes, 



ADMINISTRA TION 1 1 3 

the country consists of areas subject to the Khan of Kalat and of 
tribal areas. The former include the nidbats of Surab and Khuzdar, 
each of which is in charge of a tiaib. In Surab there is a. jd-nashtn, 
or assistant, stationed at Mashkai ; and in Khuzdar three jd-nashlns, 
stationed at Karkh or Karu, Zidi, and Baghwana. The Khan's in- 
terests in Zahri are supervised by a daroga. His rights at Gazg are 
leased to a farmer with those of Johan in the Sarawan country. In 
former times the Khan's natl)s exercised a general control and com- 
municated the Khan's orders to the tribal chiefs ; but the latter are 
now largely controlled by the Political Agent through the Native 
Assistant in the Jhalawan country. They decide cases occurring 
among their tribesmen according to tribal custom. In civil suits, a 
custom has been established of taking one-fourth of the value of the 
property decreed. 

Land revenue, in the case of the subjects of the Khan, is always 
taken in produce, the rates generally varying from one-fourth to one- 
eighth. Cesses, known as rasum or lazvdzimdt, are also levied, by 
which the State share is largely increased. Transit dues, and fines 
known as bddi hawai, constitute the other sources of revenue in the 
tiiabats. Contrary to the custom in the Sarawan country, the Jhalawan 
chiefs exact 7nalia from their tribesmen, generally in the shape of one 
sheep per household annually. Sheep are also taken on marriages 
and other festivals in a chiefs household, and on the occurrence of 
deaths. These payments are known as bijdr and purs. Some of 
the chiefs also levy octroi and transit dues. The value of the total 
revenue from the Khan's nidbats varies with the agricultural condi- 
tions of the year. In 1903-4 the approximate amounts received were 
as follows: Surab with Mashkai, Rs. 15,500; Khuzdar, Rs. 14,200; 
Zahri, Rs. 1,300; total, Rs. 31,000. 

In 1894, owing to the unsatisfactory state of affairs in Jhalawan, 
the Khan sanctioned payments aggregating about Rs. 40,000 per 
annum to the chiefs of the principal tribes, in return for which they 
were made responsible for the peace of their respective areas. This 
sum included the allowances of the Rind and Magassi chiefs in 
Kachhi. A sum of Rs. 3,600 is also contributed by the British 
Government. At this time tribal levy posts of ten men each were 
also instituted at Zahri and Saruna. A post of ten men has since 
been stationed at Surab, besides the Native Assistant's levies at Khuz- 
dar. The naib of Khuzdar is assisted by forty-five levies for revenue 
and police purposes, and the fiaib of Surab by twenty-five men ; but 
these numbers are increased or reduced as occasion requires. The 
naibs and stronger chiefs generally have stocks in their forts or houses 
in which offenders are placed. 

A few of the chiefs employ Afghan mullds for teaching their sons ; 



H4 JHALA WAN 

otherwise education is unknown. The people are very superstitious, 
and have a firm beUef in the influence of evil spirits, to whom diseases 
are generally attributed. A few resort to the dispensary at Kalat for 
medical treatment. They are well versed in the use, as remedies, of 
the medicinal drugs which the country produces in large quantities. 
The sick are frequently branded ; for fevers the usual remedy is to 
wrap the patient in the fresh skin of a sheep or goat. Inoculation 
by Saiyids is general, except in the case of the Zikris. 

Jhalawar. — Prant or division of Kathiawar, Bombay. It takes its 
name from the Jhala Rajputs, who ow^n the principal estates, and in- 
cludes the States of Dhrangadhra, the chief of which is the recog- 
nized head of the Jhala clan, Limdi, Wadhwan, and other minor States. 
The area is about 3,978 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
305,138, the density being 76 persons per square mile. The revenue 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 23,59,580. 

Jhalawar State. — State in the south-east of Rajputana, with an 
area of about 810 square miles. It consists of two separate tracts. The 
smaller, barely 14 square miles in extent, is known as Kirpapur, and is 
quite unimportant. The main tract lies between 23° 45' and 24° 41' N. 
and 75° 28' and 76° 15' E., and is bounded on the north-east and 
north by Kotah ; on the north-west and west by the Rampura-Bhanpura 
district (of Indore), and the Agar tahsil (of Gwalior) ; on the south- 
west by Sitamau and Jaora ; on the south by Dewas and Agar ; and on 
the east by Pirawa (of Tonk) and Rampura-Bhanpura. In shape it 
resembles the letter S, with a length of about 85 miles 
Physical ^^^ ^ breadth varying from 3 to 17 miles. The 

aspects* . 1 11 r r 1 

country rises gradually from 1,000 feet above sea- 
level in the north to 1,500 feet in the south. A narrow range of low 
and fairly wooded hills runs south-east past the town of Jhalrapatan in 
the north, and the southern half of the State is generally hilly, and inter- 
sected by small streams, but the rest of the country is a rich undulating 
plain. The principal rivers are the Chamral and the Kali Sind, but 
neither ever actually enters the State, the former flowing for 9 miles 
along the south-western, and the latter for about 17 miles along the 
north-eastern boundary. The Chhotl Kali Sind enters the State in 
the south-west, and after flowing for about 20 miles through the centre 
of the Gangdhar tahsil, joins the Chambal. The Au or Ahu river rises 
near the cantonment of Agar and flows north, generally along the 
borders of Jhalawar, till it reaches the Mukandwara range of hills in the 
extreme north of the State, when it turns abruptly to the south-east, and 
about 8 miles lower down joins the Kali Sind near Gagraun. 

The rocks of Jhalawar consist generally of shales, limestone, and 
.sandstone belonging to the Upper Vindhyan group. 

Besides the usual small game, antelope and ' ravine deer ' are found 



JHALAWAR STATE 115 

in the plains. Tigers are occasionally met with in the forests near the 
capital, but leopards and wild hog are fairly common. Sdmbar {Cervus 
unkolor), ch'ital {^Cervus axis), and nilgai {Boselaphus tragocamebis) 
frequent certain localities, but only in limited numbers. 

The climate resembles that of Malwa, and is generally healthy. The 
hot season is less severe than that of Northern and Western Rajputana, 
and though hot winds sometimes blow in April and May, the nights are 
usually cool and refreshing. The annual rainfall for the State averages 
37 inches, of which about 25 are received in July and August, and 10 in 
June and September. The rainfall has varied from about 13^ inches 
at the capital in 1877 to over 68 inches at Gangdhar (in the south-west) 
in 1900. 

The ruling family belongs to the Jhala clan of Rajputs, which has 
given its name to the State. One Rajdhar is said to have founded the 
petty chiefship of Halwad in Kathiawar about 1488; 
and the eighth in succession to him had a son, Bhao 
Singh, who left his own country and proceeded first to Idar, and next to 
Ajmer, where he married the daughter of the Sesodia Thakur of Sawar, 
by whom he had a son, INIadho Singh, and a daughter. Nothing more 
is known of Bhao Singh ; but ^ladho Singh proceeded to Kotah in the 
time of Maharao Bhim Singh, gained the favour of that chief, and 
obtained the estate of Nanta with the post of Faujdar or commander of 
the troops as well as of the fort. About the same time his sister was 
married to Arjun Singh, the eldest son of the Kotah chief; and this 
family connexion, while adding to Madho Singh's authority, procured 
for him the respectful title of vidmd, or maternal uncle, from the 
younger members of the Kotah family. Madho Singh was succeeded 
as Faujdar by his son Madan Singh, and the post became hereditary in 
the family. Himmat Singh followed Madan Singh, and was in turn 
succeeded in 1758 by his famous nephew, Zalim Singh, whom he had 
adopted, and who was at the time only eighteen years of age. Three 
years later Zalim Singh was the means of securing victory for the troops 
of Kotah over the army of Jaipur at Bhatwara ; but he afterwards fell 
into disfavour with his master (Maharao Guman Singh) in consequence 
of some rivalry in love, and, being dismissed from his office, he migrated 
to Udaipur, where he did good service, and received from the Maharana 
the title of Raj Rana. Later on, he retraced his steps to Kotah, where 
he was not only pardoned but reinstated in his old office ; and when 
the Maharao was on his deathbed, he sent for Zalim Singh and com- 
mitted his son, Umed Singh, and the country to his charge. From this 
time (17 71) Zalim Singh was the real ruler of Kotah. He raised it to 
a state of high prosperity, and under his administration, which lasted 
for more than fifty years, the Kotah territory was respected by all 
parties. Through him a treaty was made with the British Government 



ii6 /HA LA WAR STATE 

in 1 817, by which Kotah was taken under protection; and by a supple- 
mentary article, added in 181 8, the entire administration was vested in 
Raj Rana Zalim Singh and his heirs in regular succession and per- 
petuity. Zalim Singh, the Machiavelli of Rajasthan, as Tod calls him, 
died in 1824, and his son, Madho Singh, received undisputed charge of 
the administration. His unfitness for office was a matter of notoriety, 
and he was in turn succeeded by his son, Madan Singh. In 1834 dis- 
putes between the chief of Kotah and his minister were constantly 
occurring, and there was danger of a popular rising for the expulsion of 
the latter. It was therefore resolved, with the consent of the Maharao 
of Kotah, to dismember the State and to create the new principality of 
Jhalawar as a separate provision for the descendants of Zalim Singh. 
Seventeen districts, yielding a revenue of 12 lakhs, were made over to 
Madan Singh and his heirs and successors, being the descendants of 
Raj Rana Zalim Singh, according to the custom of succession obtaining 
in Rajwara ; and by a treaty dated 1838 this new principality was taken 
under the protection of the British Government, and agreed to supply 
troops according to its means, and pay a tribute of Rs. 80,000. The 
Jhalawar State thus dates from 1838 ; and its first chief, Madan Singh, 
on assuming charge, received the title of Maharaj Rana, was entitled to 
a salute of 15 guns, and was placed on the same footing as the other 
chiefs of Rajputana. He died in 1845 and was succeeded by his son, 
Prithwl Singh, who, during the Mutiny of 1857-8, did good service by 
conveying to places of safety several Europeans who had taken refuge 
in his State. He received the usual sanad guaranteeing to him the 
right of adoption in 1862, and on his death in August, 1875, was suc- 
ceeded by his adopted son, Bakht Singh, of the Wadhwan family in 
Kathiawar. The latter, in accordance with family custom, which 
enjoined that only the four names of Zalim Singh, Madho Singh, Madan 
Singh, and Prithwl Singh should be assumed by the rulers of this house, 
took the name of Zalim Singh. As he was a minor, the administration 
was carried on by a Political Superintendent assisted by a Council, and 
he himself joined the Mayo College at Ajmer. He attained his majority 
in 1883 and was invested with governing powers (subject to certain 
restrictions) in 1884 ; but as he failed to administer his State in accor- 
dance with the principles laid down for his guidance, the Government 
of India was compelled to withdraw his powers in 1887, and to restore 
the arrangements which were in force during his minority. In 1892 
Zalim Singh promised amendment, and was entrusted with the charge 
of all the departments except that of land revenue, which was to remain 
under the Council, while in September, 1894, this reservation was with- 
drawn and he obtained full powers. But he failed to govern the State 
properly, and was deposed in 1896; he now lives at Benares, and 
receives an allowance of Rs. 30,000 a year. Zalim Singh had no sons ; 



POPULATION 117 

and there being no direct descendants of his namesake, the great regent, 
the Government of India restored to Kotah part of the territories which 
had been made over in 1S38 to form the principaUty of Jhalawar, and 
formed the remaining districts into a new State for the descendants of 
the family to which the first Raj Rana (Zalim Singh) belonged, and 
for those Sardars and others whose allegiance it was considered un- 
desirable to transfer to Kotah. In 1897 Kunwar Bhawani Singh, son 
of Thakur Chhatarsal of Fatehpur, and a descendant of Madho Singh, 
the first Jhala Faujdar of Kotah, was selected by Government to be the 
chief of the new State. Arrangements were completed by the end of 
1898, and the actual transfer of territory took place on January i, 1899, 
from which date the new State of Jhalawar came into existence. 
Bhawani Singh was installed as ruler, under the title of Raj Rana, with 
a salute of 1 1 guns, and was at the same time invested with full powers 
of administration. The tribute payable to the British Government is 
now Rs. 30,000 a year. His Highness was educated at the Mayo 
College. The principal events of his rule have been the famine of 
1899-1900; the adoption of Imperial postal unity in 1900; the intro- 
duction of British currency and weights in 1901 ; and his visit to Europe 
in 1904. 

The places of archaeological interest are the remains of the old city 
of Chandravati close to Jhalrapatan Town, and the rock-cut stupas 
at the village of Kholvi^ in the Dag tahsll in the south. The latter are 
interesting as being probably the most modern group of Buddhist caves 
in India. 

The number of towns and villages in the State is 410, and the popu- 
lation at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 340,488^ (1891) 

343,601, and (1901) 90.1 75- 1'he decrease since papulation 
1 89 1 was of course due mainly to the remodelling 
of the State in 1899, but to a considerable extent also to the famine 
of 1 899- 1 900 and the severe epidemic of malarial fever which followed. 
Although vital statistics in Native States are not very reliable, it may 
be mentioned that in the entire State in 1900 only 941 births were 
registered, while deaths numbered 13,872. The State is divided into 
five tahsils and possesses two towns, Jhalrapatan and the chhaotn 
or cantonment of the same name, both administered as municipalities. 
The table on the next page gives the chief statistics of population in 1901. 
In 1901 Hindus numbered 78,107, or 86 per cent, of the popu- 
lation, the majority being Vaishnavas ; Musalmans, 8,845, or nearly 
10 per cent., mostly of the Sunni sect; and Jains, 3,129, or 3 per cent. 
The languages mainly spoken are Malwi (or Rangri) and HaraotI, both 
dialects of Rajasthanl. 

' Archaeological Sttii'ey of Norlhern India, vol. ii, pp. 280-8; and J. Fergusson, 
Hislojy of Indian and Eastern Architecliire (1889), pp. 132 and 162. 



ii8 



JHALAWAR STATE 



TahsH, 


2 
d . 

CT" CO 


Number of 


Population. 


Percentage 
of variation 
in popula- 
tion between 
1891 and 
1901. 


Number 
of persons 

able to 

read and 

write. 


c 



> 


Patan . 
Pachpahar , 
Awar . 
Dag . 
Gangdhar , 

State total 


244 
131 

So 
168 

187 


2 


127 

60 

41 

71 
109 


37,016 

9,313 

9,240 

16,167 

18,439 


-38.4 
-48.7 
-41-3 
-38-3 
— 40-1 


1,881 

394 
154 
329 

330 


810 


2 


408 


90,175 


-40.3 


3,088 



Agriculture. 



Among castes and tribes the most numerous are the Sondhias, who 
number 22,000, or 24 per cent, of the total population. They claim 
to be Rajputs, but are probably of mixed descent ; they are described 
as idle, ignorant, immoral, and given to cattle-lifting. Next come the 
Chamars (workers in leather and agriculturists), forming 8 per cent, of 
the total ; Brahmans, some of whom are cultivators, while others are 
engaged in religious or menial services, 7 per cent. ; Mahajans (bankers 
and traders), 6 per cent. ; Balais (cultivators, workers in leather, and 
village chaukiddrs) and Gujars (cattle-breeders and dealers, and agricul- 
turists), each between 4 and 5 per cent. More than 54 per cent, of 
the people live by the land, and many others combine agriculture with 
their special occupations. 

The soils may be divided into three classes : namely, kd/l, a rich 
black loam ; indl, a loam of a lighter colour but almost as fertile ; and 
barli, often of a reddish colour, generally stony and 
sandy, and always shallow. Of these classes, it is 
estimated that the second supplies about one-half and the others about 
one-fourth each of the cultivable area. 

Agricultural statistics are available only for the khdlsa portion of the 
State, the area of which is about 558 square miles. From this must 
be deducted 158 square miles occupied by forests, rivers, towns, 
roads, &:c., leaving 400 square miles available for cultivation. The 
average net area cropped during the last four years has been about 
125 square miles, or 31 per cent, of the khdlsa area available for culti- 
vation. The principal crops and the area (in square miles) ordinarily 
cultivated in each case are : Jowdr, 85 ; maize, 14 ; cotton, 8 ; and 
poppy, gram, and wheat, each about 7. 

Cattle are plentiful and of a good stamp, being largely of the Malwa 
breed. The State used to be noted for its ponies, but excessive mor- 
tality in the recent famine has greatly reduced their numbers. The 
goats and sheep are of the ordinary type, and are largely kept to pro- 
vide wool, meat, milk, and manure. Cattle fairs are held yearly at 
Jhalrapatan town at the end of April and beginning of November. 



ADMINISTRA TION 1 1 9 

The area ordinarily irrigated is about 19 square miles. Irrigation is 
chiefly from wells, of which more than 6,000 are in working order, 
about 1,350 being masonry. Leathern buckets drawn up with a rope 
and pulley by bullocks are always used for lifting the water, except 
when the latter is near the surface and the area to be irrigated is small, 
when a dhenkll, or long pole supported by a prop, with a jar or bucket 
at one end and a weight at the other, is used. 

Forests cover an area of nearly 8 square miles, and are looked after 
by a department called Dungar-Bagar. The principal trees are the 
dhao i^Anogeissus pendiila), dhdk {Butea frondosa), gu?-Jan {Diptero- 
carpus turbinatus), and toidu {Diospyros tome/ilosa), and such fruit 
trees as the bel{Aegle Marmelos), mango, and mahied {Bassia latifolid). 
The forest income in 1903-4 was about Rs. 4,300, and the expenditure 
Rs. 1,800. 

The hills near the capital contain large quantities of excellent sand- 
stone, mostly of a greyish colour, but in places almost white or deep 
red. The stone is much used for building purposes. Iron and copper 
have been found in places, but these minerals are not now worked. 

The manufactures are unimportant, and consist of rough cotton 
fabrics, floorcloths, brass utensils, knives, and sword- 
blades. The chief exports are opium (to Ujjain and communications. 
Indore), oilseeds, and cotton ; while the chief im- 
ports are food-grains (mainly from Haraoti), salt, sugar, cloth, and metals. 

There is at present no railway in the State, but the Nagda-Muttra 
line, now under construction, will pass through three tahslls. The 
total length of metalled roads is 64 miles, and of unmetalled roads 
72 miles. The State adopted Imperial postal unity in 1900, and now 
contains six British post offices, two of which (at Jhalrapatan and the 
chhaoni) are also telegraph offices. 

Owing to its geographical position, the State has generally a very 
good rainfall, and scarcities and famines are uncommon. Indeed, 
during the last hundred years the only famine 
appears to have been that of 1899- 1900. The rain 
practically ceased after July, 1899, with the result that the autumn crop 
failed almost entirely, and there was considerable scarcity of fodder. 
The Darbar started numerous works and poorhouses, at which nearly 
\\ million units were relieved at a cost exceeding 2 lakhs, and, besides 
making liberal advances to agriculturists, granted remissions and sus- 
pensions of land revenue. 

The State is governed by the Raj Rana, with the assistance of 

a Diwan. In charge of each of the five tahslls is . . 

, ,, , • . 1 , -7 7 /J- • 1 Admmistration. 

a tansi/dar, who is assisted by a ?iaw-iansttdar in the 

large Patan tahstl. 

In the administration of justice the courts follow generally the Codes 



I20 JH ALA WAR STATE 

in force in British India. The lowest courts are those of the tahstl- 
dars ; they decide civil suits not exceeding Rs. loo in value, and can 
sentence to one month's imprisonment and fine up to Rs. 30. Over 
them are the Dtwatii Addlat, which tries civil suits not exceeding 
Rs. 5,000 in value, and the Faujddri Addlat, which can pass a sentence 
of two years' imprisonment and fine up to Rs. 300. The next court is 
the Appellate Court ; its powers on the civil side are unlimited, while 
on the criminal side it can pass any sentence allowed by law, but its 
proceedings in capital cases require the confirmation of the Mahakma 
khds, which is presided over by the Raj Rana, and is the final appellate 
authority in the State. 

The normal revenue is at present about 4 lakhs a year, the chief 
sources being land (3 lakhs) and customs (Rs. 60,000). The ordinary 
expenditure is slightly less than the revenue ; and the main items are 
army and police (Rs. 75,000), revenue and judicial staff (Rs. 72,000), 
palace and privy purse (Rs. 45,000), public works and tribute to 
Government (Rs. 30,000 each), and stables (about Rs. 20,000). The 
State is free from debt, 

Jhalawar had formerly a silver and copper coinage of its own, known 
as Madan shdhi (after its first chief), and up to about 1893 ^^^ value 
of the local rupee was always equal to, and sometimes greater than, 
that of the British coin. Subsequently it began to decline in exchange 
value, till, in 1899, 123 Madan shdhi rupees exchanged for 100 British. 
The Raj Rana thereupon decided to abolish the local coinage, and 
introduce British in its stead as the sole legal tender in the State ; and 
this was carried out, with the assistance of Government, between 
March i and August 30, 1901. 

The State may be divided into two main areas : namely, that paying 
revenue to the Darbar and called khdlsa, and that granted revenue-free 
to jdgirddrs and 7nudfiddrs. The former occupies about 558 and the 
latter 252 square miles. The majority of the Jdgtrddrs pay a small 
tribute yearly or every second year to the Darbar, and some have to 
supply horses and men for the service of the State. Mudfi lands are 
those granted for religious or charitable purposes or in lieu of pay, and 
some of the holders have to pay certain dues {sisdla) every other year. 
In the khdlsa area there are two tenures : namely, khdteddri, which is 
the same as ryotwdri; and watanddri, which is somewhat similar to 
zamlnddri. The former prevails in the Patan tahsll; each individual 
holder is responsible directly to the State for the revenue of his holding, 
and possesses certain rights which are heritable, and which can be 
mortgaged but not sold. In the rest of the State, the other tenure 
prevails. The watanddrs are members of the village community, and 
their interests are hereditary and transferable, and not lost by absence. 
They are responsible for payment of the State demand, and arrange 



ADMINISTRATION 121 

among themselves for the cultivation of the village lands and the 
distribution of the revenue. 

Formerly the land revenue was paid in kind; but in 1805 Zalim 
Singh substituted a money-rate per b'lgha for each class of soil, and his 
rates remained nominally in force till the present settlement was made 
in 1884. This settlement was concluded directly with individual holders 
{khdteddrs) in the Patan tahsti, and with the wafanddrs in the rest of 
the State. The rates per acre vary from about Rs. 5 to over Rs. 23 for 
'wet' land, and from about 13 annas to Rs. 6 for 'dry' land, but the 
pcifi or betel-leaf gardens near the capital pay more than Rs. 44 per acre. 

The military force consists of 100 cavalry, 71 gunners, and 420 
infantry, and there are 20 field and 25 other guns classed as serviceable. 
The majority (about 300) of the infantry are employed on police duties 
in the districts. 

The police force proper numbers 366 officers and men, 30 of the 
latter being mounted, distributed over seven police stations. There are 
also 166 vxWdige chaitk'iddrs who hold lands revenue-free for their services. 

Besides the Central jail at the chhaoni, there are lock-ups at the head- 
quarters of each tahsll, in which persons sentenced to imprisonment 
not exceeding one month are confined. 

In regard to the literacy of its population, Jhalawar stands seventh 
among the twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with 3-4 per cent, 
(6-4 males and 0-2 females) able to read and write. There are now 
nine schools in the State, and the daily average attendance during 
1904-5 was 424. The only notable institution is the high school 
(at the chhaoni), in which English, Urdu, Hindi, and Sanskrit are 
taught. The other schools are all primary, and include one for girls 
(attended by twelve pupils) and one specially for Sondhias. No fees 
are charged anywhere, and the yearly expenditure on education is about 
Rs. 6,000. 

In the beginning of 1904 there were four hospitals and two dispen- 
saries, but one of the latter was closed during the year. The hospitals 
have accommodation for 34 in-patients. During 1904 the number of 
cases treated was 38,177 (189 being those of in-patients), and 1,533 
operations were performed. 

Vaccination was commenced about 1 870-1, but is nowhere com- 
pulsory. A staff of two vaccinators is kept up, and in 1904-5 the 
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 2,114, or more than 23 
per 1,000 of the population. The total State expenditure on medical 
institutions and vaccination, including a share of the pay of the Agency 
Surgeon and his establishment, is about Rs. 17,000. 

\_Rdjputdna Gazetteer, vol. ii (1879, under revision); H. B. Abbott, 
Settleffient Report (1885); P. A. Weir and J. Crofts, Medico-topographical 
Account of Jhdlaivdr (1900).] 



122 JHALERA 

Jhalera. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Jhalida. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Manbhum 
District, Bengal, situated in 23° 22' N. and 85° 59' E. Population 
(1901), 4,877. Jhalida was constituted a municipality in 1888. The 
income and expenditure during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 3,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,700, mainly from a tax on 
persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 3,400. Jhalida 
is a centre of the lac and cutlery industries. 

Jhalod. — Town in the petty division {petha) of the same name in 
the Dohad tdliika of the Panch Mahals District, Bombay, situated 
in 23° 6' N. and 74° 9' E. Population (1901), 5,917. The inhabitants 
are mostly Bhils, Ghanchis, and Kunbis. There is an export trade in 
grain, pottery, cotton cloth, and lac bracelets in imitation of the costly 
ivory Ratlam bracelets. Flagstone is also exported in large quantities. 
The town contains a dispensary and six schools, four for boys and two 
for girls, attended by 223 and 88 pupils respectively. 

Jhalrapatan Chhaoni (or cantonment). — Chief town and official 
capital of the State of Jhalawar, Rajputana, situated in 24° 36' N. and 
76° 10' E., on a rising stretch of rocky ground over 1,000 feet above 
the sea, between the fort of Gagraun (in Kotah) and the town of 
Jhalrapatan. The chhaoni, as it is always called locally, was founded 
in 1 791 by Zahm Singh, regent of Kotah, and was at first merely a 
permanent camp, which he made his head-quarters on account of its 
central and strategical position. Houses gradually took the place of 
tents and huts, and in course of time the old camp attained the impor- 
tance of a town. The population in 1901 numbered 14,315, of whom 
9,501, or 66 per cent., were Hindus, and 4,402, or 31 per cent., Musal- 
mans. The Raj Rana's palace is enclosed by a high masonry wall 
forming a square, with large circular bastions at each corner, and two 
semicircular ones in the centre of each side of the square. The princi- 
pal entrance is on the eastern side, and the approach to it is along the 
main street of the bazar running due east and west. About a mile to 
the south-west is a sheet of water, below which are several gardens, 
and in one of these is the summer residence of the chief, surrounded 
by a canal filled with water from the tank. The sanitation, lighting, 
water-supply, and roads of the chhaoni are looked after by a municipal 
committee which was estabfished about 1876-7. The receipts, derived 
mainly from the rent of State houses and shops and the sale of un- 
claimed property, average about Rs. 5,000 yearly, and the expenditure 
is slightly less. Besides the palace, law courts, and public offices, the 
town contains a combined post and telegraph office, a Central jail, 
a couple of schools, and a hospital. The jail has accommodation for 
164 prisoners, and the daily average number in 1904 was 79. The 
prisoners are employed in making carpets, blankets, cotton cloth, shoes, 



JHALRAPATAN TOWN 123 

&c., and in printing, bookbinding, and gardening. The jail costs 
about Rs. 6,200 a year, and the manufactures bring in about Rs. 1,150. 
Of the schools, one is for boys and the other for girls. The former is 
a high school, with a daily average attendance in 1904-5 of 164. The 
hospital has accommodation for 14 in-patients. 

Jhalrapatan Town (locally called Patan). — Head-quarters of the 
Patan tahs'il and the commercial capital of the State of Jhalawar, 
Rajputana, situated in 24° 32' N. and 76° 10' E., at the foot of a low 
range of hills and on the left bank of a stream known as the Chandra- 
bhaga. Population (1901), 7,955. Several modes of deriving the 
name are current. Some say the word means the 'city of bells,' and 
that the old town was so called because it contained 108 temples with 
bells ; others that it is the ' city ' {patan) of ' springs ' {Jhdlra), the latter 
abounding in the rivulet above mentioned ; while others again say 
that the word jhaira refers to the Rajput clan (Jhala), to which the 
founder of the new town belonged. The town possesses a combined 
post and telegraph office, a small lock-up for prisoners sentenced to 
short terms, a vernacular school attended by about 57 boys, and 
a dispensary for out-patients. 

A little to the south of the present town there formerly existed a city 
called Chandravati, said to have been built by Raja Chandra Sena 
of Malwa, who, according to Abul Fazl, was the immediate successor of 
the famous Vikramaditya. General Cunningham visited the site in 
1864-5, and wrote: — 

' Of its antiquity there can be no doubt, as I obtained several 
specimens of old cast copper coins without legends, besides a few of 
the still more ancient square pieces of silver which probably range as 
high as from 500 to 1000 B. c. These coins are, perhaps, sufficient to 
show that the place was occupied long before the time of Chandra 
Sena ; but as none of the existing ruins would appear to be older than 
the sixth or seventh century a. D., it is not improbable that the city 
may have been refounded by Chandra Sena, and named after himself 
Chandravati. I think it nearly certain that it must have been the 
capital of Ptolemy's district of Sandrabatis, and, if so, the tradition 
which assigns its foundation to the beginning of the Christian era 
would seem to be correct.' 

This ancient city is said to have been destroyed, and its temples 
despoiled, in the time of Aurangzeb, and the principal remains are now 
clustered together on the northern bank of the Chandrabhaga stream. 
The largest and the earliest of these is the celebrated litigam temple 
of Sitaleswar Mahadeva, which Mr. Fergusson described as ' the most 
elegant specimen of columnar architecture ' that he had seen in India, 
an opinion fully concurred in by General Cunningham. The date of 
this temple was put by them at about a. d. 600. It was just to the 

VOL. XIV. I 



124 JHALRAPATAN TOWN 

north of these remains that Zalim Singh, the famous minister of Kotah, 
founded the present town in 1796, including within its Hmits the 
temple of Sat SaheH (or ' seven damsels ') and a Jain temple which 
formerly belonged to the old city. To encourage inhabitants, Zalim 
Singh is said to have placed a large stone tablet in the centre of the 
chief bazar, on which was engraved a promise that new settlers would 
be excused the payment of customs dues, and would be fined no more 
than Rs. 1-4-0 for whatever crime convicted. These privileges were 
annulled in 1850, when the Kamdar (minister) of Maharaj Rana 
PrithwT Singh had the tablet removed, and thrown into a tank, whence 
it was dug out about 1876. 

According to Tod, the town was placed under municipal government 
at its foundation in 1796, but the fact is not mentioned on the stone 
tablet above referred to. The present municipal committee was 
formed about 1876, and attends to the lighting and sanitation of the 
place, besides disposing of petty cases relating to easements. The 
income and expenditure are respectively about Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 2,000 
yearly, the difference being provided by the State. The town is well 
and compactly built, and is surrounded on all sides save the west by 
a substantial masonry wall with circular bastions. The streets are 
wide and regular, intersecting each other at right angles, and contain 
many large and handsome buildings. On the west is a lake formed by 
a solid masonry dam, about two-thirds of a mile long, on which stand 
sundry temples and buildings, and the lands in the neighbourhood 
and the well-shaded gardens within and around the town walls are 
irrigated by means of a canal about 2 miles long. 

[J. Tod, Rajasthan, vol. ii ; J. Fergusson, Piduresqtie Illustrations 
of Ancient Architecture in Hindustan and History of Indian and Eas- 
tern Architecture ; and the Archaeological Survey of Northerti India, 
vols, ii and xxiii.J 

Jhalu. — Town in the District and tahsil of Bijnor, United Provinces, 
situated in 29° 20' N. and 78° 14' E., 6 miles south-east of Bijnor 
town. Population (1901), 6,444. Under Akbar it was the head- 
quarters of a fnahdl or pargana. It is administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,000. It contains a primary 
school with 113 pupils, and three aided schools with 62 boys and 
35 girls. 

Jhampodad. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jhang District.— District in the Multan Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 30° 35' and 32° 4' N. and 71° 37' and 73° 31' E., with 
an area of 6,652 square miles. It is bounded on the north-west by 
the District of Shahpur ; on the north-east by Shahpur and Gujran- 
wala ; on the south-east by Montgomery ; on the south by Multan 
and Muzaffargarh ; and on the west by Mianwali. It consists of an 



JHANG DISTRICT 125 

irregular triangle, artificially constituted for administrative purposes 

from portions of three separate tracts. Its eastern half embraces 

a large part of the dorsal ridge in the Rechna Doab ; 

thence it stretches across the Chenab into the Pnysical 

aspects, 
wedge of land between that river and the Jhelum, 

whose waters join the Chenab a few miles below the town of Jhang ; 

while westward again the boundary runs, beyond the joint river, some 

distance into the Thal or desert of the Sind-Sagar Doab. Southward 

the District stretches almost to the confluence of the Chenab with 

the Ravi, but does not actually reach the latter river. Along the 

rivers are strips of fertile lowland, rising with a more or less defined 

bank into the uplands of the Doabs. The Bar or upland plain of 

the Rechna Doab, until recently a desert inhabited only by nomad 

tribes, has been changed into one of the most fertile tracts in India 

by the Chenab Canal. The nomads of the Bar and immigrants 

from other parts of the Province have been settled on the newly 

irrigated land ; and, for the proper administration of the tract, it has 

been found necessary to divide Jhang District into two, the eastern 

and south-eastern portions being formed into a separate District with 

its head-quarters at Lyallpur. The present article, for the most 

part, describes Jhang as it existed before the change. 

North-west of the Chenab, the upland, which runs like a wedge 
between the lowlands of the Chenab and Jhelum, and was once a 
desert like the Bar of the Rechna Doab, is being fertilized by the 
Jhelum Canal. West of the Jhelum river the alluvial plain after 
a few miles rises abruptly into the desert of the Sind-Sagar Thai. 
With the exception of some isolated low hills on either side of the 
Chenab at Kirana and Chiniot, the District is almost flat. 

Jhang consists entirely of alluvium, with the exception of two small 
patches of quartzite which form the Kirana and Chiniot hills. These 
are geologically interesting, as probably belonging to the Alwar quartzite 
of the Delhi system, and thus constituting the most northerly known 
outcrops of rocks of Peninsular type. 

Before the foundation of the Chenab Canal and Colony, the District 
was the Bar tract par excellence ; but the flora of that tract is fast giving 
way to close cultivation, and saltworts are being driven out by irriga- 
tion. The annual weeds, however, are still mainly those of the ^Vest 
Punjab flora. Along the rivers are found the usual coverts {belas) 
of reed-grasses {Saccharioji, &:c.) and the lesser tamarisks {jhau and 
pilchi). The date-palm is grown near the Jhelum, but the produce 
is usually inferior. 

The wolf, hyena, and wild cat are found in decreasing numbers as 
cultivation advances. Wild hog and ' ravine deer ' (Indian gazelle) 
are confined to the wilder parts of the lowlands. 

1 2 



126 JHANG DISTRICT 

The climate of Jhang is that of the South-West Punjab, the rainless 
tract comprising Multan, Montgomery, and Dera Ismail Khan, which 
is said to have the highest mean temperature in India between June 
and August. The dry air makes the District unusually healthy, except 
in the canal tracts, where it is malarious and trying to Europeans. The 
annual rainfall is light, ranging from 8 inches at Shorkot to 1 1 at Chiniot. 
The Districts of Jhang and Montgomery were the scene of Alexan- 
der's operations against the Malli in 325 B.C., and Shorkot has been 
identified by some authorities with one of the towns 
captured by him during the campaign. After his 
withdrawal, the country seems to have come successively under the 
sway of the Mauryas {c. 321-231 B.C.), the Graeco-Bactrians {c. 190 b. c), 
the Indo-Parthians {c. 138 B.C.), and the Kushans or Indo-Scythians 
{c. A.D. 100-250). About A.D. 500 it was conquered by the White 
Huns, whose capital of Sakala should, according to recent authorities, 
be identified with Chiniot or Shahkot, a village in Gujranwala District, 
or with Sialkot. Their power was short-lived, and at the time of Hiuen 
Tsiang's visit (a. d. 630) the District was included in the kingdom of 
Tsehkia, the capital of which was close to Sakala. In the tenth century 
it was subject to the Brahman kings of Ohind and the Punjab, and 
under the Mughals it was included in the Subah of Lahore. 

In modern times the history of Jhang centres in the tribe of the 
Sials, who ruled over a large tract between Shahpur and Multan, with 
little dependence on the imperial court at Delhi, until they finally 
fell before the power of Ranjit Singh. The Sials are Muhammadans 
of Rajput descent, whose ancestor, Rai Shankar of Daranagar, migrated 
early in the thirteenth century from the Gangetic Doab to Jaunpur. 
His son, Sial, in 1243 left his adopted city for the Punjab, then over- 
run by Mongol hordes. Such emigrations appear to have occurred 
frequently at the time, owing to the unsettled state of Northern India. 
During his wanderings in search of a home, Sial fell in with the famous 
Muhammadan saint Baba Farld-ud-din Shakarganj, of Pakpattan, whose 
eloquence converted him to the faith of Islam. He afterwards sojourned 
for a while at Sialkot, where he built a fort, but finally settled down 
and married at Sahiwal, in Shahpur District. It must be confessed, 
however, that his history and that of his descendants bear somewhat 
the character of eponymous myths. Manik, sixth in descent from Sial, 
founded the town of Mankera in 1380; and his great-grandson, Mai 
Khan, built Jhang Sial on the Chenab in 1462. Four years later, 
Mai Khan presented himself at Lahore, in obedience to a summons, 
and obtained the territory of Jhang as an hereditary possession, subject 
to a payment of tribute to the imperial treasury. His family continued 
to rule at Jhang, with the dynastic quarrels and massacres usual in 
Indian annals, till the beginning of the last century. 



POPULATION 127 

Meanwhile tlie Sikh power had arisen in the north, and Karam Singh 
Dulu, a chief of the BhangI confederacy, had conquered Chiniot. In 
1803 Ranjit Singh took the fort there and marched on Jhang, but was 
bought off by Ahmad Khan, the last of the Sial chieftains, on promise 
of a yearly tribute, amounting to Rs. 70,000 and a mare. Three years 
later, however, the Maharaja again invaded Jhang with a large army, 
and took the fort, after a desperate resistance. Ahmad Khan then 
fled to Multan, and the Maharaja farmed the territories of Jhang to 
Sardar Fateh Singh. Shortly afterwards, Ahmad Khan returned with 
a force given him by Muzaffar Khan, Nawab of Multan, and recovered 
a large part of his previous dominions, which Ranjit Singh suffered him 
to retain on payment of the former tribute, as he found himself too 
busy elsewhere to attack Jhang. After his unsuccessful attempt on 
Multan in 1810, the Maharaja took Ahmad Khan a prisoner to Lahore, 
as he suspected him of favouring his enemy, Muzaffar Khan. He 
afterwards bestowed on him a Jagtr, which descended to his son, 
Inayat Khan. On the death of the latter, his brother, Ismail Khan, 
endeavoured to obtain succession to the Jagtr, but failed through 
the opposition of Gulab Singh. In 1847, after the establishment of 
the British Agency at Lahore, the District came under its charge, 
and in 1848 Ismail Khan rendered important services against the 
rebel chiefs, for which he received a small pension. During the 
Mutiny of 1857, the Sial leader again proved his loyalty by raising 
a force of cavalry and serving in person on the British side. 

The presence of numerous mounds, especially in the south of the 
District, testifies to the former existence of a large and settled popu- 
lation. The remains which have received most attention are those 
at Shorkot, consisting of a huge mound of ruins surrounded by a 
wall of large-sized bricks. Most of the pre-Muhammadan coins that 
have been found here are of the Indo-Scythian period. The finest 
building in the District is the Shahi Masjid at Chiniot, built in the 
reign of Shah Jahan. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was : 

(1881) 390,703, (1891) 432,549, and (1901) 1,002,656. It increased 

by no less than it2 per cent, during the last decade, ^ , . 
, . , ^. * , • r 1 r-. -. Population, 

almost entirely owmg to the openmg of the Lhenab 

Canal and the colonization of the canal tract. The District is divided 
into six tahsils : Jhang, Chiniot, Shorkot, Lvallpur, Samundri, 
and Toba Tek Singh. The head-quarters of each are at the place 
from which it is named. The towns are the municipalities of Jhang- 
Maghiana, the head-quarters of the District, Chiniot, and Lvall- 
pur. The table on the next page gives the principal statistics of 
population in 1901. 

Muhammadans form 68 per cent, of the total population, Hindus 



128 



JHANG DISTRICT 



24 per cent., and Sikhs 7 per cent. The density is only i5o-7 persons 
per square mile, which is considerably below the average (209) for 
the British Punjab. The language of the nomad tribes who originally 
inhabited the Bar is called Jangll, a form of Western Punjabi. Every 
variety of Punjabi is represented among the colonists. 





3 . 


Number of 


d 
.2 


V ■ 

s e 


je of 
n in 
n be- 
891 
01. 


rof 

bleto 

nd 












, 


*J 






V ^ a v\ 


Tahsil* 


■fB 


Vi 

B 


OJ 


"3 


■^3 « 

3 a 


cent 
riati 
iilati 
•een 
nd I 


umb 
ons 
ead 
writ 




< 


^ 


> 


04 


0.5. 
« 


^g|£^ 


0. 


Jhang 


1,438 


I 


414 


194,454 


I35-I 


t 


11,362 


Chiniot . 


1,328 


I 


406 


200,676 


151.1 


t 


5,693 


Shorkot . 


927 


... 


177 


95,136 


I02-6 


- 2.9 


5,023 


Lyallpur . 


1,084 


I 


255 


229,421 


2II-6 


t 


6,593 


Samundri . 


1,053 




310 


157,285 


149-3 


t 


3,526 


Toba Tek Singh 
District total 


1,007 


3 


334 


125,684 


124.8 


t 


3,937 


6,652 


1,896 


1,002,656 


150-7 


+ 131-8 


.^6,134 



Note. — The figures for the areas of iahsils are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Censtis Report. 

* The tahsils of Lyallpur, Toba Tek Singh, and Samundri, with their boundaries 
somewhat modified, form the new district of Lyai.lpur, which was constituted on 
December i, 1904. Earlier in the same year, the Kirana Bar was transferred from 
Jhang to Shahpur, and subsequently villages were transferred from Toba Tek Singh to 
Jhang and from Chiniot to Lyallpur. 

t Not available owing to changes in /a^i/V boundaries since i8gi. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the Jats, who number 231,000, 
or 23 per cent, of the total population. Next to them in numerical 
strength come the Rajputs, numbering 90,000, and then the Arains 
with 62,000. Other important agricultural tribes are the Balochs 
(29,000), Khokhars (24,000), and Kambohs (11,000). The Saiyids 
number 10,000. The Aroras (68,000) are the strongest of the com- 
mercial classes, the Khattrls returning 21,000. The Brahmans number 
9,000. Of the artisan classes, the Julahas (weavers, 40,000), Kumhars 
(potters, 32,000), Mochis (shoemakers and leather-workers, 29,000), 
Chamars (shoemakers and leather-workers, 23,000), Tarkhans (carpen- 
ters, 23,000), and Lobars (blacksmiths, 10,000) are the most important; 
and of the menials, the Chuhras and Musallis (sweepers and scavengers, 
105,000), Machhis (fishermen, bakers, and water-carriers, 21,000), Nais 
(barbers, 13,000), and Dhobis (washermen, 10,000). Other castes 
worth mentioning in view of their numerical strength are the Mirasis 
(village minstrels, 16,000) and Fakirs (mendicants, 13,000). About 
49 per cent, of the people are supported by agriculture. 

The Church Missionary Society began work in the District in 1899, 
and has two stations, at Gojra and Toba Tek Singh. A considerable 
number of native Christians are scattered through the villages of the 
colony. At the last Census (190 1) the number of Christians in the 



AGRICULTURE 



i2g 



colony was 8,672. The Church Missionary Society owns two villages : 
Montgomerywala, the larger, where there is a native church, with 
a population of 1,021 ; and Batemanabad, with a population of 337. 
The Roman Catholics hold the villages of Khushpur, founded in 1899 
(population, 1,084), and Francispur, founded in 1904. The American 
Reformed Presbyterians have a mission at Lyallpur established in 
1894, and they were followed by the American United Presbyterians 
in 1896. A few Salvationists are settled at Lyallpur and the neigh- 
bouring villages. 

The soil is an alluvial loam, more or less mixed with sand ; but 
agricultural conditions depend not on distinctions of soil, but on the 
facilities afforded for irrigation, and less than one 
per cent, of the cultivation is unirrigated. At the 
same time the District, while not dependent on the rainfall, benefits 
largely by seasonable rain, which enables cultivation to be extended 
by supplementing the supply available from irrigation, and also secures 
an abundant supply of fodder. 

The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — • 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


J hang 
Chiniot . 
Shorkot . 
Lyallpur . 
Samundri . 
Toba Tek Singh 

Total 


i,4'4 
1,311 

917 
1,024 

962 

934 


401 
474 

214 

700 

649 

556 


340 
400 

157 
697 

649 

5.S6 


891 

745 
638 

257 
265 
324 


6,562 


2,994 


2,799 


3,120 



More than half the area of the District, or 3,531 square miles, is 
the property of Government. Of this area, nearly two-thirds is leased 
to crown tenants in the Chenab Colony, and a large portion of the 
remainder will soon be commanded by the Jhelum Canal and leased 
to tenants. The Thai alone will thus remain uncultivated. Nearly 
all the proprietary villages are held by communities of small peasant 
owners. The area in square miles under each of the principal food- 
grains in 1903-4 was: wheat, 1,333; great millet, 170; and maize, 
143. The principal non-food crop is cotton (354). Oilseeds covered 
188 square miles. 

The construction of the Chenab Canal has entirely revolutionized 
the agricultural conditions of the uplands between the Chenab and 
Ravi, and the Jhelum Canal is doing the same for the Bar north of the 
Jhelum. Thus the District, once one of the most sterile and thinly 
populated, is now one of the first in the Punjab, in both cultivation 



130 /HANG DISTRICT 

and population. The experimental farm at Lyallpur, established in 
1 90 1, is chiefly utilized for the study of Punjab crops, and their 
improvement by cross-fertilization and selection ; but it has hardly 
been in existence long enough to produce any result as regards the 
quality of the crops generally grown in the District. In spite of the 
important part played by wells in the cultivation of the lowlands, loans 
for their construction are not popular. Twelve lakhs were advanced 
under the Land Improvement Loans Act during the five years ending 
1 901 ; but these advances were taken almost entirely by incoming 
colonists, to pay expenses due from them to Government under 
a system which has now been given up. 

Before the introduction of canal-irrigation, the population of the Bar 
was largely pastoral. The breed of catde, however, was never greatly 
esteemed, and the large numbers now required for agricultural pur- 
poses are purchased from outside the District. Cattle fairs are held at 
Jhang and Lyallpur. The District is famous for its horses, and a good 
deal of horse-breeding is carried on. The Remount department keeps nine 
and the District board seven horse stallions, and the District contains 
more than 1,000 branded mares. Ten donkey stallions are kept by the 
Remount department and four by the District board. Important horse 
fairs are held at Lyallpur and Jhang. A large number of camels are 
bred, and many of the colonists are bound by the conditions of their 
grants to furnish camels for transport work when required. Sheep and 
goats are kept in large numbers. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 2,799 square miles were 
irrigated, 453 square miles being supplied from wells, 23 from wells 
and canals, 2,319 from canals, and 4 from streams and tanks. In 
addition, 154 square miles, or 5 per cent, of the cultivated area, are 
subject to inundation from the rivers. The great mainstay of the 
District is the Chenab Canal. The greater part of the country 
irrigated by this canal was originally Government waste, and now 
forms part of the Chenab Colony, which occupies nearly half the total 
area of the District. In the colony canal-irrigation is but little supple- 
mented by wells, and the old wells in the canal tract have mostly fallen 
into disuse. The District contains 15,980 masonry wells, chiefly found 
in the riverain lands, all worked with Persian wheels by cattle, besides 
332 lever wells, water-lifts, and unbricked wells. 

The District is devoid of true forests ; but the Government waste, 
not included in the colony, which is under the control of the Deputy- 
Commissioner, is still extensive. The largest area is the Thai desert, 
in the Sind-Sagar Doab, which covers about 400 square miles. A great 
deal of tree-planting has been done in the colony. 

The only mineral product of any importance is the stone quarried 
from the Chiniot hills. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 131 

The town of Chiniot is famous for its carpentry and wood-carving, 
and ornamental articles of furniture are made of brass inlay and 
marquetry. Good saddlery and locks are made at 
Jhang and Maghiana, and a great deal of cotton comJunica?ions. 
cloth is woven throughout the District. Preparing 
raw cotton for export is a flourishing business ; and the District con- 
tains 10 cotton-ginning factories, 6 cotton-presses, 5 combined ginning 
and pressing factories, a combined ginning factory and flour-mill, 
a combined press and flour-mill, an iron foundry, and a flour-mill. 
The iron foundry and the flour-mill, which are situated at Lyallpur, 
were closed in 1904, but the rest of the mills and factories mentioned 
employed 1,220 hands in that year. They are all situated within the 
Chenab Colony and also within the new Lyallpur District. Three of 
the ginning factories and one of the presses are at Chiniot Road, 
a small town that has sprung up at the railway station nearest Chiniot ; 
and two of the combined ginning and pressing factories and the com- 
bined press and flour-mill are at Toba Tek Singh, while the rest are 
divided between Lyallpur and Gojra. 

The town of Lyallpur is one of the chief centres of the wheat trade . 
in India, and the District exports large quantities of wheat, cotton, oil- 
seeds, and other agricultural produce. Iron, timber, and piece-goods 
are the chief articles of import. 

The Wazirabad-Khanewal branch of the North-Western Railway 
runs through the middle of the District, and carries the heavy 
export of agricultural produce from the Chenab Colony. The 
Southern Jech Doab Railway, which crosses the Chenab 10 miles 
above Jhang, joins the former line in the south of the District. 
It carries the produce of the villages irrigated by the Jhelum 
Canal, and places the town of Jhang in communication with the 
main line. The total length of metalled roads is 15 miles and of 
unmetalled roads 1,795 miles. Of these, 5 miles of metalled and 
58 miles of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works department, 
and the rest are maintained by the District board. The Jhelum is 
crossed by nine ferries, and the Chenab by nineteen above and below 
its confluence with the Jhelum, There is but little traffic on these 
rivers. 

There is no record of famine in Jhang District. Although the 
various droughts which have visited the Punjab in the past must 
have caused great mortality in cattle, famine on a large scale was 
impossible owing to the absence of unirrigated cultivation and the 
sparseness of the population. The construction of the Chenab Canal 
has now not only made the District able to support a large popula- 
tion in perfect security, but has turned it into the principal granary 
of the Province. 



132 JHANG DISTRICT 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by three 
. . . Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioners, of whom 
one is in charge of the District treasury. The Dis- 
trict, as now constituted, is divided into three tahslis, each in charge 
of a tahslldar. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice. Judicial work is under a District Judge, and both 
officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge of the Shahpur Civil 
Division, who is also Sessions Judge. There are three Munsifs, two 
at head-quarters and one at Chiniot, and one honorary magistrate. 
Cattle-theft is the commonest form of serious crime. 

The Sial chiefs of Jhang appear to have taken a fourth of the pro- 
duce in kind as their share. In 1831 Sawan Mai's rule over the 
Multan Province began. His system of combined cash and kind rents 
enhanced by numerous cesses is described in the article on Multan 
District. The Kalowal tract, which lay west of the Chenab, was 
administered by Raja Gulab Singh ; and as he exacted as much as 
he could in the shortest possible time, the development of this part of 
the District was greatly retarded. 

In 1847-8 the first summary settlement was made before annexation. 
The basis was a reduction of 20 per cent, on the realizations of the 
Sikhs. At first the revenue was easily paid, but the sharp fall in prices 
which followed annexation caused great distress, and even desertion of 
the land. The second summary settlement, made in 1853, resulted 
in a reduction of 18 per cent. In Kalowal the first assessment had 
broken down utterly, and was revised in three days by the Com- 
missioner, Mr. Thornton, who reduced the demand from one lakh to 
Rs. 75,000 in 185 1. In 1853 he remitted Rs. 12,000 more, and the 
remaining Rs. 63,000 was easily paid. 

In 1855 the regular settlement was begun. Government land was 
demarcated, a process simplified by the readiness of the people to part 
with their land and its burdens on any terms. The demand was fixed 
at 2 lakhs, while Kalowal (now in the Chiniot tahsl/, but then a part of 
Shahpur District) was assessed at Rs. 33,000. Generally speaking, the 
demand was easily and punctually paid. A revised settlement was 
carried out between 1874 and 1880, fixed assessments being sanctioned 
for the flooded lands of the Chenab and Jhelum, and a fluctuating 
assessment for the Ravi villages, since transferred to Multan District. 
In certain parts of the District each well was assessed at a fixed sum. 
The total demand was 3-5 lakhs, an increase of 26 per cent. The rates 
of last settlement ranged from R. 0-8-0 to Rs. 1-6-4 ^^ ' wet ' land, 
the ' dry ' rate being R. 0-8-0. 

During the currency of this settlement the enormous Government 
waste between the Chenab and Ravi rivers, known as the Sandal Bar, 



ADMINISTRA TION 



-i^ZZ 



almost the whole of which is at present included in Jhang District, has 
come under cultivation by the aid of the Chenab Canal. The present 
revenue rate in this tract is 8 annas per acre matured. The extension 
explains the recent enormous rise in the land revenue demand, which 
was 2 2-3 lakhs in 1903-4, almost the whole of the fluctuating demand 
being realized from the new cultivation in the Sandal Bar. The ad- 
ministration of the Government land was under a separate Colonization 
officer until 1907, but the old proprietary villages of the District came 
again under settlement in 190 1. It was estimated that an increase 
of Rs. 1,12,000 would be taken; but this will probably be largely 
exceeded, owing to extensions of the Chenab Canal and to the intro- 
duction of canal-irrigation on the right bank of the Chenab from the 
Jhelum Canal. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


4.30 
5,26 


4,84 
6,16 


16,47 

22,24 


18,78 
26,35 



The District contains the three municipalities of Jhang-Maghiana, 
Chiniot, and Lyallpur, and the three ' notified areas ' of Ahmadpur, 
Shorkot, and Gojra. Outside these, local affairs are entrusted to the 
District board. The income of the board, derived mainly from a local 
rate, was 3 lakhs in 1903-4, and the expenditure 2-5 lakhs. The 
largest item of expenditure was public works. 

The regular police force consists of 834 of all ranks, including 
149 municipal police, under a Superintendent, who usually has 
3 inspectors under him. The village watchmen number 815. There 
are 11 police stations, 3 outposts, and 10 road-posts. The District jail 
at head-quarters has accommodation for 302 prisoners. 

The percentage of literate persons in 1901 was 3-6 (6-3 males and 
0-3 females), the District standing seventeenth among the twenty-eight 
Districts of the Province in this respect. The proportion is highest in 
the Jhang tahsll. The number of pupils under instruction was 2,243 
in 1880-1, 4,686 in 1890-r, 6,108 in 1900-1, and 8,275 in 1903-4. 
In the last year the District possessed 5 secondary, 98 primary (public) 
schools, and one 'special' school, with 19 advanced and 210 elemen- 
tary (private) schools. The proportion of girls is unusually large, there 
being 611 female scholars in the public, and 535 in the private schools. 
The only high school in the District is at Jhang town. The total 
expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 46,000, the greater part of 
which was met from Local funds and fees. 

Besides the civil hospital and branch dispensary at Jhang-Maghiana, 



134 JHANG DISTRICT 

the District has 12 outlying dispensaries. In 1904 the number of 
cases treated was 132,374, of whom 2,201 were in-patients, and 6,395 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 24,000, the 
greater part of which was contributed by Local and municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
30,073, representing 30 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is 
compulsory only in the municipality of Jhang-Maghiana. 

[D. C. J. Vo\>€is,ox\^ Jhang District Gazetteer (1883-4) ; and L. Leslie 
Jones, Chenab Colony Gazetteer (1905) ; E. B. Steedman, y7;^«^ Settle- 
ment Report (1882).] 

Jhang Tahsil. — Tahs'il of Jhang District, Punjab, lying between 
31° o' and 31° 47' N. and 71" 58'' and 72° 41'' E., with an area, since 
the formation of Lyallpur District in 1904, of 1,421 square miles. The 
Jhelum enters the tahsil on the north-west and the Chenab on the 
north-east, and they meet towards the south. The population in 1901 
was 194,454. It contains the town of Jhang-Maghiana (population, 
24,382), the head-quarters, and 448 villages. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1905-6 amounted to Rs. 2,56,000. The tahsil extends into 
the Chenab Colony on the east ; and a strip of the Sandal Bar, still 
in its pristine state, lies between the rich villages of this part and the 
cultivated lowlands on either side of the Chenab. Beyond these, waste 
alternates with cultivation, due to the farthest extensions of the Jhelum 
Canal, until the Jhelum lowlands are reached, studded with prosperous 
villages, situated among palm groves. The western border lies within 
the sandy desert of the Thai. 

Jhang-Maghiana. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of 
Jhang, Punjab, situated in 31° 18'' N. and 72*^ 20'' E., on the Jech Doab 
extension of the North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 24,382, 
of whom 12,189 are Hindus and 11,684 Muhammadans. The towns of 
Jhang and Maghiana lie two miles apart, connected by metalled roads, 
but form a joint municipality. The Chenab flows at a distance of about 
three miles to the west ; but in the hot season the Kharora branch 
of the river runs close past both towns, and with its fine avenue of 
trees, three miles long, and handsome masonry bathing ghats, adds a 
peculiar beauty to the neighbourhood. The country round is well 
wooded, and fine gardens abound. An inundation canal leaves the 
Kharora branch of the Chenab near Jhang, and, passing round 
Maghiana, empties itself into the same branch after a course of 5 miles. 
Maghiana lies on the edge of the highlands, overlooking the alluvial 
valley of the Chenab, while the older town of Jhang occupies the 
lowlands at its foot. Jhang is said to have been founded in the 
fifteenth century, and to have been destroyed by the river and 
refounded in the reign of Aurangzeb. It was taken by Ranjit Singh 
in 1805. The Government offices and establishments have now been 



J H ANSI DISTRICT 135 

removed to the higher site, and commerce has almost deserted Jhang, 
which is no longer a place of importance. Jhang-Maghiana was con- 
stituted a municipality in 1867. The income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 46,800, and the expenditure Rs. 44,200. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 49,700, mainly derived from octroi; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 50,200. Maghiana has a considerable 
trade in grain and country cloth, and manufactures leather, soap, locks 
and other brass-work. There is a civil hospital at Maghiana, and 
a high school and a dispensary at Jhang. 

Jhanida. — Subdivision and village in Jessore District, Bengal. See 
Jhenida. 

Jhanjharpur. — Village in the MadhubanI subdivision of Dar- 
bhanga District, Bengal, situated in 26° 16' N. and 86° 17'' E., on the 
Bengal North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 5,639. Its brass 
utensils, particularly the panbatta or box for holding betel-leaf and 
the gangajali or water-pot, have a local reputation. 

Jhansi District. — South-western District of the Allahabad Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 24° 11' and 25^ 50' N. and 78° 10' 
and 79° 25^ E., with an area of 3,628 square miles. The District 
consists of two portions, each roughly shaped like a pear, which are 
connected by a narrow strip of country. The northern portion lies east 
and west, and is bounded on the north by the States of Gwalior and 
Samthar and by Jalaun District ; on the east by the Dhasan river, which 
separates it from Hamlrpur and from portions of the smaller Bundel- 
khand States ; on the south by the State of Orchha ; and on the west by 
the States of Datia, Gwalior, and Khaniadhana. The southern boun- 
dary is extremely irregular, incorporating several enclaves of Native terri- 
tory, while British villages are also enclosed in the adjacent States. 
The southern portion, which lies north and south, is bounded on the 
west by the Betwa river, which separates it from Gwalior ; on the south 
by the Saugor District of the Central Provinces ; and on the east by the 
Dhasan and JamnI rivers, which divide it from the Bundelkhand States. 
The District presents a great variety in its physical ^ 

aspects, and includes some of the most beautiful aspects 

scenery in the Provinces. The highest ground is in 
the extreme south, which extends to the two outer scarps of the Vin- 
dhyan plateau, running from the Betwa in a south-easterly direction and 
gradually breaking up into a confused mass of hills, parts of which 
approach a height of 2,000 feet above sea-level. Below the second 
scarp an undulating plain of black soil, interspersed with scattered hills 
and scored by numerous drainage channels, stretches north beyond the 
town of Lalitpur, and gradually becomes more rocky. Low red hills of 
gneiss then appear, with long ridges running from south-west to north- 
east. These continue in the northern portion of the District, especi- 



136 JHANSI DISTRICT 

ally east of the Betwa, but gradually sink into another plain of dark 
soil. The slope of the country is from south-west to north-east, and 
the rivers flow generally in the same direction. The Betwa is the most 
considerable river, and after forming the western boundary of the 
southern portion divides it from the northern half, which it then 
crosses. Its principal tributaries, the JamnI and Dhasan, form the 
eastern boundaries of the southern and northern parts of the District. 
The Pahiij is a small stream west of the Betwa. A striking feature 
of the Dhasan and of the Betwa, especially on the left bank, is the 
labyrinth of wild deep ravines, sometimes stretching 2 or 3 miles away 
from the river. The numerous artificial lakes formed by embanking 
valleys add to the natural beauty of the scenery. The largest are at 
Talbahat, Barwa Sagar, Arjar, Pachwara, and Magarwara. 

The oldest rock is gneiss, which occupies the greater part of the Dis- 
trict. It forms the massive granitic ridges described above, which are 
traversed by gigantic quartz reefs, and often crossed at right angles by 
basic dikes of dolerite or diabase. South of Lalitpur the Upper 
Vindhyan massive sandstones, with a bed of Kaimur conglomerate near 
the base, rest directly on the gneiss, but in places the Bijawar and Lower 
Vindhyan series intervene. The former of these includes sandstones, 
limestones, and slates, some of the beds containing a rich hematitic 
ore, while copper has been found in small quantities. The Lower Vin- 
dhyans consist principally of sandstone and shale. The fringe of the 
great spread of basalt constituting the Malwa trap just reaches the 
extreme south-east of the District, while a few outlying patches are 
found farther north, and the cretaceous sandstones of the Lameta 
group, which often underlie the trap, are met near the basalt ^ 

The flora of the District resembles that of Central India. A con- 
siderable area is ' reserved ' or ' protected ' forest, which will be described 
later; but there is a serious deficiency of timber trees, and the general 
appearance is that of low scrub jungle. Grazing is abundant, except 
in unusually dry years. 

In the more level portion of the District, hog, antelope, and nilgai do 
great damage to the crops. Leopards, chital, sdmbar, hyenas, wolves, 
and occasionally a lynx are found in the northern hills, while farther 
south tigers, bears, wild dogs, and the four-horned antelope are met 
with, and at rare intervals a wild buffalo is seen. Bustard, partridge, 
sand-grouse, quail, and plover are the commonest game-birds, while 
snipe, duck, and geese haunt the marshy places and lakes in the cold 
season. Mahseer and other kinds of fish abound in the larger 
rivers. 

The climate of the District is hot and very dry, as there is little shade 
and the radiation from bare rocks and arid wastes is excessive. It is, 
' H. B. Medlicott, Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. ii, pt. i. 



HISTORY 137 

however, not unhealthy, except in the autumn ; and during the rains 
and short cold season the climate is far from unpleasant. In the 
south, owing to its greater elevation, the temperature is slightly lower 
than in the northern part. 

The annual rainfall averages about 31 inches, ranging from 34 inches 
in the north-west to about 41 in the south-east. In 1868-9 the fall 
amounted to only 15 inches, but in 1894-5 it was nearly 60 inches. 
The seasonable distribution of the rain is, however, of more importance 
than large variations in the total amount. Disastrous hailstorms are 
common in the cold season, and nearly 100 head of cattle were killed 
in a single storm in 1895. 

Jhansi forms part of the tract known as British Bundelkhand, and 
its history is that of the Chandel and Bundela dynasties which once 
ruled that area. The earliest traditions point to the 
occupation of the northern portion by Parihar and 
Kathi Rajputs, and of the south by Gonds. The Chandels of Mahoba 
rose into power east of this District in the ninth century, but extended 
their power over it in the eleventh century, and have left many 
memorials of their rule in temples and ornamental tanks. After the 
defeat of the last great Chandel Raja by Prithwi Raj in 1182, and the 
raids of the Muharnmadans under Kutb-ud-din in 1202-3 and Altamsh 
in 1234, the country relapsed into anarchy. The Khangars, an abo- 
riginal tribe, who are said to have been the servants of the Chandels 
and are now represented by a menial caste, held the tract for some time 
and built the fort of Karar, which stands just outside the British border 
in the Orchha State. The Bundelas rose to power in the thirteenth or 
fourteenth century and expelled the Khangars. One of their chiefs, 
named Rudra Pratap, was recognized by Babar, and his son, BhartI 
Chand, founded the city of Orchha in 1531. The Bundela power 
gradually extended over the whole of this District and the adjacent 
territory, and the authority of the Mughals was directly challenged. In 
the early part of the seventeenth century the Orchha State was ruled by 
Blr Singh Deo, who built the fort at Jhansi. He incurred the heavy 
displeasure of Akbar by the murder of Abul Fazl, the emperor's 
favourite minister and historian, at the instigation of prince Salim, after- 
wards the emperor Jahangir. A force was accordingly sent against him, 
which was defeated in 1602. On the accession of Jahangir in 1605, 
Bir Singh was pardoned and rose to great favour; but when, on the 
death of the 'emperor in 1627, Shah Jahan mounted the throne, Bir 
Singh revolted again. The rebellion was unsuccessful, and Bir Singh 
died shortly after. The south of the District had already fallen into the 
hands of another descendant of Rudra Pratap, who founded the State 
of Chanderl. In the latter half of the seventeenth century a third 
Bundela State was founded east of the District by Champat Rai, whose 



138 JHANSI DISTRICT 

son, Chhatarsal, extended his authority over part of Jhansi. On his 
death, about 1734, the Marathas obtained the greater part of the 
District under his will, and in 1742 forcibly extorted most of the 
remainder from the Raja of Orchha. Jhansi remained under the Pesh- 
was for some thirty years, though in the south the Rajas of Chanderl 
still maintained partial independence. After that period the Maratha 
governors of the north of the District made themselves independent in 
all but name. In 181 7 the Peshwa ceded to the East India Company 
his sovereign rights over the whole of Bundelkhand, and in the same 
year Government recognized the hereditary title of the Maratha 
governor and his descendants to their existing possessions. The title 
of Raja was granted to the Jhansi house in 1832 for services rendered 
in connexion with the siege of Bharatpur. In 1839 the Political Agent 
in Bundelkhand was obliged to assume the administration in the 
interests of civil order, pending the decision of a dispute as to succes- 
sion ; and the management was not restored till 1842, when most of the 
District was entrusted to Raja Gangadhar Rao. The Raja died child- 
less in 1853, when his territories lapsed to the British Government and 
were formed into a District of Jhansi. Meanwhile the Chanderl State, 
which comprised the south of the District and some territory west of 
the Betwa, had also been acquired. A dissolute and inefficient ruler, 
named Mur Pahlad, who had succeeded in 1802, was unable to control 
his vassal Thakurs, who made constant plundering expeditions into the 
neighbouring territory. In rSri their incursions on the villages of 
Gwalior provoked Sindhia to measures of retaliation, and Mur Pahlad 
was deposed, but received a grant of thirty-one villages. In 1829 
another revolt was headed by the former Raja. It was promptly sup- 
pressed, and the State was divided, Mur Pahlad receiving one-third. 
In 1844, after the battle of Maharajpur, Sindhia ceded to the British 
Government all his share of the Chanderl State as a guarantee for the 
maintenance of the Gwalior Contingent. The territory so acquired w-as 
constituted a District called Chanderl, with the stipulation that the 
sovereignty of the Raja and the rights of the inhabitants should be 
respected. 

In 1857 there was considerable discontent in both the Jhansi and 
Chanderl Districts. The widow of Gangadhar Rao was aggrieved, 
because she was not allowed to adopt an heir, and because the slaughter 
of cattle was permitted in Jhansi territory. Mardan Singh, the Raja 
of Banpur, had for some time resented the withholding of certain 
honours. The events of 1857 accordingly found the whole District 
ripe for rebellion. On June 5 a few men of the 12th Native Infantry 
seized a small fort in the cantonment containing the treasure and 
magazine. Many European officers were shot the same day. The 
remainder, who had taken refuge in the main fort, capitulated a few 



POPULATION 139 

days after and were massacred with their famiHes, to the number of 
66 persons, in spite of a promise of protection sworn on the Koran 
and Ganges water. The Rani then attempted to seize the supreme 
authority ; but the usual anarchic quarrels arose between the rebels, 
and the whole country was plundered by the Orchha leaders. The 
Bundelas also rose in the south ; and Lalitpur, the head-quarters of the 
Chanderl District, was abandoned by the British officials, who suffered 
great hardships, but were not murdered. The Raja then asserted 
complete independence and extended his rule into parts of Saugor 
District, but was driven back to Chanderl by Sir Hugh Rose in 
January, 1858. On March 3 the British army forced the passes in 
the south of the District and marched north. Jhansi was reached on 
March 20, and during the siege Tantia Top!, who attempted a diversion, 
was completely defeated. The town was assaulted on April 3, and 
the fort was captured on the 5th. Sir Hugh Rose had been compelled 
to march forward to Jalaun District, leaving only a few troops at Jhansi, 
and disturbances soon broke out again, and increased when news of 
the Gwalior revolution was received. The Maratha chief of Gursarai, 
in the north of the District, held out for the British, and in July the 
Banpur Raja gave himself up. The south and the west of the District, 
however, were not cleared till late in the year. In 1861 the name 
of the Chanderl District was changed to Lalitpur ; and in the same year 
the portions of that District west of the Betwa, together with Jhansi 
town and fort, were ceded to Sindhia. In 1886 Jhansi town and 
fort, with 58 villages, were made over to the British by Sindhia in 
exchange for the Gwalior fort, Morar cantonment, and some other 
villages. The two Districts of Jhansi and Lalitpur were united in 
i8gi; but the area included in the latter forms an administrative 
subdivision. 

The District is exceptionally rich in archaeological remains. Chandel 
memorials in the form of temples and other buildings are found in 
many places, among which may be mentioned Chandpur, Deogarh, 
DuDHAi, Lalitpur, Madanpur, and SIron. At Erachh (Irich) the 
fragments of ancient buildings have been used in the construction 
of a fine mosque, which dates from 141 2. 

Jhansi District contains 9 towns and 1,331 villages. Population had 
been increasing steadily for some time, but received a check in the 
series of bad years between 1891 and 1901. The 
numbers at the last four enumerations were as follows : 
(1872) 530,487, (1881) 624,953, (1891) 683,619, and (1901) 616,759. 
There are six tahslls — Jhansi, Mau, Garautha, Moth, Lalitpur, 
and Mahron! — the head-quarters of each being at a place of the same 
name. The principal towns are the municipalities of Jhansi, the 
administrative head-quarters of the District, Mau-Ranipur, and Lalit- 

VOL. XIV. K 



140 



JHAXST DISTRICT 



PUR. The following table gives the chief statistics of population 
in 1 901 : — 







Number of 




^...; 


^ci. 





Tahsil. 


a 
It 








s 
a. 


•5^ 


centage 
riation 
ulation 
een 189 
nd 1901. 


umber 
onsable 
:ad and 
write. 


c 


u5 




< 





> 


£ 


(£^ 




0. 


Jhansi 


499 


3 


210 


145,371 


291 


— 0.2 


9,769 


Mau • 


439 


I 


164 


100,298 


228 


- 13-3 


3-743 


Garautha . 


466 


... 


153 


66,96^ 


144 


- 24-7 


2,766 


Moth 


279 


2 


136 


55,638 


199 


- 5-^ 


1,631 


Lalitpur . 


1,058 


2 


368 


144,638 


^^7 


- 7-9 


4,C97 


Mahroni . 

District total 


887 


I 


300 


103,851 


i'7 


- II-3 


2,927 


3,628 


9 


1,331 


616,759 


170 


- 9.8 


24,933 



Nearly 93 per cent, of the population are Hindus and only 5 per 
cent. Muhammadans. Jains number 10,760, forming i-y per cent, of 
the total — a higher proportion than in any other District of the United 
Provinces. The density of population is lower than in any part of the 
United Provinces, except the Kumaun Division, and the District suffered 
heavily from famine in 1895-7 and again in 1900. More than 99 per 
cent, of the people speak Western Hindi, chiefly of the Bundeli dialect. 

Chamars (leather-dressers and cultivators), 76,000, are the most 
numerous Hindu caste, followed by Kachhis (cultivators), 58,000; 
Brahmans, 58,000; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 52,000; Lodhas 
(agriculturists), 47,000; and Rajputs, 35,000. Among castes peculiar 
to this part of India may be mentioned the Khangars (9,000), Ba.sors 
(9,000), and Saharias (7,000) ; the two former being menials, and the 
last a jungle tribe. Shaikhs (13,000) are the most important Musal- 
man tribe. About 56 per cent, of the total population are supported 
by agriculture and 8 per cent, by general labour. Rajputs, Brahmans, 
AhIrs, Lodhas, and Kurmis are the chief proprietary castes, the first 
named being largely of the Bundela clan. 

In 1 90 1 there were 777 native Christians, of whom 355 belonged 
to the Anglican communion and 267 were Roman Catholics. The 
Church Missionary Society has had a station at Jhansi since 1858, and 
the American Presbyterian Mission since 1886. 

The characteristic feature of Jhansi, as of all the Bundelkhand 
Districts, is its liability to alternate cycles of agricultural prosperity 
and depression. It contains the usual soils found in 
this tract. Mar and kdbar are dark soils, the former 
being distinguished by its fertility and power of retaining moisture, 
while kdbar is less fertile, becomes too sticky to plough when wet, and 
dries very quickly, spliting into hard blocks. Parwd is a brownish 
or yellowish soil more nearly resembling the loam of the Doab. Mar, 
the commonest variety, covers a large area in the centre of both the 



Agriculture. 



AGRICULTURE 



141 



northern and southern portions of the District, and is also found on 
the terraces of the ^"indhyas, It produces excellent wheat in favourable 
seasons, but is liable to be thrown out of cultivation by the growth 
of katis {Saccharum spontaneum). This is a tall thin grass which 
quickly spreads when tillage is relaxed ; its roots reach a depth of 
6 or 7 feet, and finally prevent the passage of the plough. After 
a period of ten or fifteen years ka?is gradually gives way to other 
grasses, and the land can again be cultivated. In the neck of land 
which connects the two portions of the District, and for some distance 
south of the narrowest point, a red soil called rakar patr't is found, 
which usually produces only an inferior millet. Interspersed among 
these tracts of poor soils little oases are found, generally near village 
sites and in valleys, which are carefully manured and regularly watered 
from wells sunk in the rock. The spring crops are peculiarly liable 
to attacks of rust in damp, cloudy weather. Along the rivers there 
is a little alluvial land, and near the lakes in some parts of the 
District rice can be grown. In the north-west, field embankments 
are commonly made, which hold up water for rice cultivation and 
also serve to stop the spread of kans. 

The greater part of the land is held on the usual tenures found in 
the United Provinces. In the Lalitpur subdivision nearly two-thirds 
of the whole area is included in zamhidari estates, while pattldari 
holdings are commoner in the rest of the District. A peculiar tenure, 
called ubdft, is also found. This originated from grants of land given 
in lieu of a definite annual sum, or hakk. Where the annual value 
of the land granted exceeded the hakk, the excess {uhlrl) was paid 
as revenue. The tenure is thus equivalent to an abatement of the full 
revenue chargeable. Some of the ubdrl tenures, called Imtohx, date 
from the occupation of Chanderl by Sindhia and are not liable to 
resumption ; but the others, which were mainly granted after the 
British occupation, are liable to be resumed for misconduct, on the 
death of an incumbent (though such resumptions are rare), or if any 
part of the ubarl estate is transferred. The main agricultural statistics 
for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Jhansi 


499 


171 


28 


180 


Mail .... 


439 


190 


13 


149 


Garautha . 


466 


194 




147 


Moth 


279 


118 


2 


»05 


Lalitpur . 


1,0 -^8 


244 


38 


463 


MahronI . 

Total 


887 


233 


22 


357 


3,628 


1,150 


103 


1,401 



Note.— Statistics for the Jhansi, Mau, and Moth tahsih are for iQOj-3. 

K 2 



142 JHAh^^T DTSTRICT 

Jowar covered 326 square miles, kodon and other small millets 223, 
and gram 196. Wheat follows in importance with 89 square miles, 
and barley, rice, maize, and hdjra are the remaining food-crops. Oil- 
seeds were grown on 206, and cotton on 46 square miles. 

The methods of cultivation in Bundelkhand are conspicuously poor, 
and the people easily yield to adverse circumstances. There has thus 
been no improvement in agricultural practice since the commencement 
of British rule. Within the last twenty years considerable loss has 
been caused by the introduction of artificial dyes in place of dl 
{Moritida ciirifoJid). The dl plant was grown on the best land, and 
required careful cultivation, which is the best preventive of a spread 
of kdns. The losses incurred by blight in 1893 and 1894 have also 
led to the replacement of wheat by the less valuable gram, but there 
has been a slight recovery. The steps taken to extend irrigation will 
be described later. Advances under the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts are freely taken, especially in bad seasons. 
A total of nearly 3 lakhs was advanced during the ten years ending 
1900, and Rs. 60,000 in the next four years. 

The cattle are smaller and hardier than in the Doab, but the best 
animals are imported from the neighbourhood of the Ken river or from 
Gwalior. Attempts were made to improve the breed about 1870 ; but 
the Nagor and Hissar bulls which were imported were too large and 
too delicate. There is no horse-breeding in the District, and the 
ponies are of a very poor type. Donkeys are extensively used as 
beasts of burden. The sheep are of the ordinary inferior kind ; but 
the goats bred along the banks of the Dhasan are celebrated for their 
size and the quantity of milk which they give. 

In years of well-distributed rainfall, mdr and kdbar require no arti- 
ficial sources of irrigation. Thus in 1903-4 only 103 square miles 
were irrigated in the whole District. Wells supplied 91 square miles, 
tanks 7, and canals 3. The well-irrigation is chiefly found in the red- 
soil tracts of the Jhansi tahsll and the northern part of the Lalitpur 
subdivision. Tanks are very numerous, and the embankments of 
about thirty are maintained by the Public Works department, with 
38 miles of small distributaries. New projects for making tanks are 
being carried out, and these serve a useful purpose by maintaining 
a high water-level, even where they are not used for irrigation directly. 
Much has already been done in repairing old embankments and in 
deepening lakes and improving the irrigation channels. A canal is 
taken from the Betwa at Parichha, where the river is dammed ; but it 
irrigates a very small area in Jhansi, chiefly serving Jalaun. A second 
dam is under construction higher up at Dukwa, which will impound 
a further supply. Water from wells is usually raised by means of the 
Persian wheel. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 143 

Government forests cover 189 square miles, of which 141 are situ- 
ated in the LaHtpur subdivision. There is also a large area of private 
forest. The ' reserved ' forests produce little timber ; but they supply 
the wants of the villages in the neighbourhood, as well as some quantity 
of bamboos for export, and are of value for climatic reasons. Grass is 
especially important ; and minor products, such as honey, lac, gum, 
catechu, and various fruits and roots, are also gathered by the jungle 
tribes. The chief trees include several kinds of acacia, Adina cordi- 
folia, Anogeissits iatifolia, Diospyros nielanoxylon, Greivia vestita, 
various figs, Lagetstroemia pari'tfiora, teak, and Terminalia toinentosa. 
The inahud (Bass/a latifoUd) grows well. During years of famine the 
forests are thrown open to grazing, and also supply roots and berries, 
which are eaten by the jungle tribes. 

The most valuable mineral product is building stone, which is quar- 
ried from the Upper Vindhyan sandstone, and exported. Steatite is 
worked in one place, and iron is smelted after indigenous methods in 
a few small furnaces. The roads are largely metalled with disin- 
tegrated gneiss. 

Coarse cotton cloth, called khdnid, is still woven at a number of 

places ; and at Erachh more ornamental articles, such as chintz and 

large kerchiefs dyed with spots, are turned out. 

Small woollen rugs are made at Jhansi, and some ^^ ^ ^^. 

. ° J ■> ^ communications. 

good silk is woven at the same place. Mau, Jhansi, 
and Maraura are noted for brass work. The railway workshops at 
Jhansi city employed 2,169 bands in 1903, and there are a small cotton- 
gin and an ice factory. 

The most valuable exports of the District are oilseeds, ghl^ and pan. 
Grass, minor forest products, and road metal are also exported, and 
hay was baled in large quantities for the Military Department during 
the Tirah expedition of 1895 and the South .Vfrican ^^'ar. There is no 
surplus of grain, except in very prosperous years. Sugar, salt, kerosene 
oil, and grain are the chief imports. Jhansi city, Mau-Ranipur, Lalit- 
pur, and Chirgaon are the principal trade centres, and Cawnpore and 
Bombay absorb most of the trade. There is, however, a considerable 
amount of local tratific with the adjacent Native States, and also 
some through trade. 

Jhansi city has become an important railway centre. The main line 
of the Indian Midland Railway (now amalgamated with the Great 
Indian Peninsula) enters the south of the District, and divides into 
two branches at Jhansi, one running north-west to Agra and the other 
north-east to Cawnpore. A branch line from Jhansi crosses the south- 
east of the northern division of the District. There are 1,295 miles of 
roads, a greater length than in any other District of the United Pro- 
vinces. Of the total, 340 miles are metalled and are maintained by the 



144 jhAxsi district 

Public Works department, but the cost of i6o miles is charged to Local 
funds. There are avenues of trees along 364 miles. The principal 
routes are : the road from Cawnpore to Saugor through Jhansi and Lalit- 
pur, which traverses the District from end to end ; and the roads from 
Jhansi to Gwalior on the north-west, and to Nowgong on the south-east. 

The District is specially exposed to blights, droughts, floods, hail- 
storms, and their natural consequence, famine, which is generally 
accompanied by disastrous epidemics of fever and 
cholera. No details are known of the famines which 
must have periodically devastated this tract ; but it is commonly said 
that famine may be expected in Bundelkhand every fifth year. The 
first serious famine after the Mutiny occurred in 1868-9, and it was 
probably the worst in the century. The rains of 1868 ceased pre- 
maturely and the autumn harvest was almost a complete failure. Poor- 
houses were opened, and subsequently relief works were started, which 
took the form of roads, bridges, and irrigation embankments in Jhansi 
District, and the excavation of tanks and construction of embankments 
in Lalitpur. The total expenditure on this form of relief was nearly 
3 lakhs, and the number of workers at one time rose above 26,000. 
Epidemics of small-pox and cholera followed ; and the climax came 
when the rains of 1869 broke, and the roads, which were at that time 
unmetalled, became impassable. Excluding several partial losses of 
the harvest, the next great famine took place in 1896-7. Since the 
autumn of 1893 the autumn crops had been poor, and the spring crops 
even poorer, while kans had spread rapidly. The rains of 1895 were 
deficient, and relief works were opened in February, 1896. In May 
42,000 persons were being relieved, and a terrible epidemic of cholera 
added to the loss of life. The works were almost abandoned by the 
middle of July, and up to the end of August prospects were fair. The 
monsoon, however, ceased abruptly, prices rose with alarming rapidity, 
and the relief works had to be reopened. The autumn was also 
marked by a virulent epidemic of fever, which attacked even the well- 
to-do. The distress became most acute in May, 1897, when nearly 
100,000 persons were being relie\ed. Large suspensions and remis- 
sions of revenue were made, and relief works were closed in Sep- 
tember, 1897. In 1899 a short rainfall again caused great distress in 
the red soil area, and the effects were increased by the high prices due 
to famine in Western India. 

The tahslls of Lalitpur and MahronI form the subdivision of Lalit- 
pur, which is in charge of a member of the Indian Civil Service, 

. . . . ^ . assisted by a Deputy-Collector. The ordinary Dis- 
Administration. . ^ „ • r\ ^ ,, t • iv r • . , 

tnct staff consists of the Collector, a Jomt-Magistrate, 

and three Deputy -Collectors recruited in India. The Forest officer is 

ill charge of the whole of the Bundelkhand forest division. 



ADMIXJSTRA TION 1 45 

There are two District Munsifs, and a Sub-Judge for civil work. 
The District and Sessions Judge has jurisdiction over the neighbouring 
District of Jalaun, and a Special Judge is at present engaged in 
inquiries under the Bundelkhand Encumbered Estates Act. The 
District is notorious for outbreaks of dacoity in bad times, and crimes 
of violence are not infrequent ; but generally speaking, crime is light. 

Up to 1 89 1 the present Lalitpur subdivision formed a separate Dis- 
trict, and the fiscal history of the two portions of what is now the 
District of Jhansi is thus distinct. After the lapse of Jhansi in 1853 
the three Districts of Jhansi, Chanderi (or Lalitpur), and Jalaun were 
placed in charge of Deputy-Superintendents, under a Superintendent 
who was subordinate to the Commissioner of the Saugor and Nerbudda 
Territories at Jubbulpore. In 1858 these Districts (including Hamirpur 
up to 1863) were detached from Jubbulpore and administered as 
a Division in the Province of Agra on the non-regulation system. 
Finally, in 1891, the Districts were included in the Allahabad Division 
and were brought under the ordinary laws, many of which had already 
been applied. 

In Jhansi District proper the Maratha revenue system was ryoiivdri, 
and the nominal demand was a rack rent, which could be paid only in 
very favourable seasons. Arrears were not, however, carried over from 
one year to another. The early settlements of those portions of the 
District which were acquired between 1842 and 1844 were of a sum- 
mary nature, and only for short periods. The first regular settlement 
of the whole commenced with a survey in 1854, but was interrupted by 
the Mutiny and not completed till 1S64. Proprietary rights had been 
partly introduced between 1839 and 1842, and the sale of land by 
decree of the civil courts followed in 1862. The settlement, which was 
made by several ofiicers on different principles, resulted in an assess- 
ment of 4-3 lakhs, as compared with a previous demand of 5-6 lakhs, in 
addition to about Rs. 50,000 due on account of ubarts. The demand 
was undoubtedly reasonable ; but the rigid system of collection and 
the freedom of sale of land were new ideas that were not grasped by 
the people. Some landowners had been in debt since the days of 
Maratha rule. After the Mutiny, revenue was collected from many 
from whom it had already been extorted by the Orchha or Jhansi 
rebels. In 1867 the crops failed, and in 1868-9 there was famine and 
great loss of cattle. In 1872 many cattle were again lost from murrain. 
Although the settlement had appeared light, it became necessary to 
re-examine the condition of the District in 1876. After much discus- 
sion the Jhansi Encumbered Estates Act (XVI of 1882) was passed, and 
a Special Judge appointed, who was empowered to examine claims 
and reduce excessive interest. The sale of a whole estate operated as 
a discharge in bankruptcy to extinguish all debt due. Altogether, 1,475 



146 



JHANSI DISTRICT 



applications were tried, and out of a total claim of i6-6 lakhs the 
Judge decreed 7-6 lakhs. More than 90 per cent, of the amount decreed 
v;as paid in full: namely, \2\ per cent, in cash, 46 per cent, by loan 
from Government, and 32 per cent, by sale of land, only 9^ per cent, 
being discharged under the insolvency clause. Many estates were 
cleared by sale of a portion only. A striking feature of the proceedings 
was the rapid rise in the value of land. The next revision of settlement 
was made between 1889 and 1892. This was carried out in the usual 
way by assessing on the actual rent-rolls, corrected where necessary 
by applying the rates ascertained for different classes of soil. The 
total revenue was raised from 4-9 to 5-5 lakhs. 

In the Lalitpur District conditions were different, for zamlnddri 
rights existed, except where the Marathas had extinguished them. The 
early British settlements were of a summary nature, and for short 
periods ; and though nominal!)- based on recorded rentals or customary 
rates, a system of auction to the highest bidder was sometimes followed, 
with disastrous results. The first regular settlement was commenced 
in 1853, but was interrupted by the Mutiny, and was not completed till 
1869. The methods employed were a compromise between the valua- 
tion of villages by applying rates found to be paid for different classes 
of soil, and the valuation of the ' assets ' actually recorded. The result 
was a reduction from i-8 to 1-5 lakhs. This settlement came under 
revision in 1896, and the revenue was raised to t-6 lakhs, though this 
was only to be reached by degrees, and the initial demand was 
i'4 lakhs. 

The revenue demand for the whole District was thus 7 lakhs when 
the famine of 1896-7 broke out. The special legislation of 1882 had 
only had a temporary effect, and the District has now been brought 
under the provisions of the Bundelkhand Encumbered Estates Act. 
The Land Alienation Act has also been applied, and transfers are 
restricted in the case of land held by agricultural tribes. Summary 
reductions of revenue brought down the demand to 6-3 lakhs in 
1902-3, or less than 5 annas per acre, varying from i anna to nearly 
12 annas in different parts. In 1903 a new settlement was commenced 
under the special system, by which the demand will be liable to revision 
every five years. 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have been, 
in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 

6,12 

9.77 


i9"3-4- 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


5,71 
7>30 


6,18 
9>S7 


6,34 
9,01 



There arc three municipalities, and six towns are administered under 



JHANSI TAHSiL 147 

Act XX of 1856. Outside of these, local affairs are administered by 
the District board, which had an income of 1-7 lakhs in 1903-4, chiefly 
derived from a grant from Provincial revenues. The expenditure 
included a lakh devoted to roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has two Assistants, one of 
whom is posted to Lalitpur. The ordinary force, which is distributed 
in 39 police stations, includes 7 inspectors, 185 subordinate officers, 
and 784 men, besides 215 municipal and town police, and 1,528 rural 
and road police. A Superintendent of Railway Police also has his head- 
quarters at Jhansi city. The District jail contained a daily average 
of 267 prisoners in 1903. 

Jhansi takes a high place in regard to the literacy of its inhabitants, 
of whom 4 per cent. (7-7 males and 0-3 females) could read and write 
in 1901. The number of public schools fell from 98 in 1880-1 to 85 
in 1900-1, but the number of pupils increased from 2,537 to 2,962. 
In 1903-4 there were 167 such schools with 5,982 pupils, of whom 146 
were girls, besides 39 private schools with 529 pupils. Two schools 
are managed by Government and 133 by the District and municipal 
boards. All the schools but two are primary. The total expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 41,000, of which Local funds provided 
Rs. 37,000, and fees Rs. 3,000. 

There are 10 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
170 in-patients. About 62,000 cases were treated in 1903, including 
1,383 in-patients, and 3,000 operations were performed. The total 
expenditure was Rs. 15,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

In 1903-4, 23,000 persons were successfully vaccinated, representing 
a proportion of 38 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is com- 
pulsory only in the Jhansi cantonment and in the municipalities. 

{District Gazetteer (1874, under revision) : ^^'. H. L. Impey and 
J. S. Meston, Settk/ne/it Report, excluding Lalitpur (1893); H. J. 
Hoare, Settlement Report, Lalitpur subdivision (1899) ; P. C. Mukherji, 
Antiquities in the Lalitpur District (1899) ; A. AN'. Pirn, Final Settlement 
Report, including Lalitpur (1907).] 

Jhansi Tahsil. — Head-quarters ta/isil of Jhansi District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 25^ 8' and 25° 37' N. and 78° 18' and 78° 53' E., with an 
area of 499 square miles. Population fell from 145,680 in 1891 to 
145,371 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the lowest in the District. 
There are 210 villages and three towns, Jhansi (population, 55,724), 
the District and tahsil head-quarters, and Barwa Sagar (6,355) being 
the largest. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,20,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 21,000. The density of population, 291 persons 
per square mile, is considerably above the District average. This 
tahsil is the best and must stable in a \cry precarious District. The 



148 J H ANSI TAHSlL 

Pahuj forms part of the western boundary ; and the Betwa, after 
flowing along the south-east, crosses Native territory and then traverses 
the northern portion of the tahsil, giving off the Betwa Canal. In the 
north lies a good tract of kdbar or black soil and parwd or loam ; this 
area is thickly populated and closely cultivated, while field embank- 
ments to hold up water are common. About the centre of the tahsil 
the country changes to a broken tract of hilly uplands, and the soil 
is stony and poor, but is manured near the village sites and irrigated 
from wells worked by the Persian wheel. Farther south jungle is 
more common, and the people depend largely on the pasturing of 
cattle. In 1902-3 the area under cultivation was 171 square miles, 
of which 28 were irrigated, chiefly from wells. 

Jhansi City. — Administrative head-quarters of the District and 
tahsil of the same name, with cantonment, in the United Provinces, 
situated in 25° 27' N. and 78° 35' E., on the road from Cawnpore 
to Saugor, and on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway ; 799 miles 
by rail from Calcutta, and 702 from Bombay, Under Native rule the 
population of Jhansi was about 30,000 in 1872 and 33,000 in 18S1. 
After its cession in 1886, population rose to 53,779 in 1891 and 
55,724 in 1901. Hindus numbered 41,029 in 1901 and Musalmans 
11,983, while there were about 2,000 Christians. The population in 
municipal limits was 47,881 and in cantonments 7,843. 

Jhansi city, which is sometimes known as Balwantnagar, owes its 
foundation to Bir Singh Deo, Raja of Orchha, who built a fort here 
in 1 613. A town sprang up and remained in the possession of the 
Bundelas till 1742, when it was seized by the Marathas, who had 
already acquired property in the neighbourhood under the will of 
Chhatarsal. They added to the fort, and the town continued to be 
the seat of a governor. The rapid growth of Jhansi during this period 
was partly due to the forcible removal of people from other places. 
It was subsequently held for a few months by Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab 
of Oudh, and was wrested from him by Anup Giri Gosain of Moth, 
from whom it passed to the Raja of Orchha, and in 1766 was again 
brought under Maratha rule. The British acquired sovereign rights 
from the Peshwa in 1817; and in 1853 the State of Jhansi lapsed 
in default of heirs, when the city became the head-quarters of a 
Superintendent subordinate to the Commissioner of the Saugor and 
Nerbudda Territories. The Mutiny history has been given in that 
of Jhansi District. In 1861 the city, with a large tract adjoining it, 
was ceded to Sindhia ; and the head-quarters of the District, called 
Jhansi Naoabad ('newly-founded'), included only a small village, with 
the civil station and cantonment. Jhansi then became the head- 
quarters of a Sulhxh of the Gwalior State, but in 1886 it was restored 
to the British in exchange for the Gwalior fort and Morar cantonment. 



JHAXZI 1 49 

Jhansi is picturesquely situated round the fort, which crowns a rocky 
hill. It is a walled city, but has lately been opened up by roads, and 
a spacious, handsome market-place, called Hardyganj after a recent 
District officer, has been constructed. An excellent water-supply is 
(obtained from five large wells sunk in the rock towards the close of 
the eighteenth century. Besides the ordinary courts there are few 
public buildings, the finest being a hospital built a few years ago. 
There are many small temples, but none of striking appearance, and 
part of the old palace of the Raja is occupied by the police station 
and a school. Jhansi is the head-quarters of a Superintending and 
of an Executive Engineer in the Irrigation branch, and of an Executive 
Engineer in the Roads and Buildings branch. It is also the chief 
station of the Church Missionary Society and the American Presbyterian 
Mission in the District. 

A municipality was constituted in 1886. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 48,000 and 
Rs. 47,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 73,000, chiefly 
from octroi (Rs. 56,000) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 68,000, including 
conservancy (Rs. 19,000), public safety (Rs. 12,000), administration 
and collection (Rs. 10,000), and roads and buildings (Rs. 4,000). The 
income and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 17,000, and in 1903-4 were Rs. 24,000 and 
Rs. 21,000 respectively. The usual garrison includes British and 
Native infantry. Native cavalry, and artillery. Jhansi is the chief centre 
in the District for the collection and distribution of agricultural products. 
Its trade has improved greatly with the extension of railways, which 
radiate from it in four different directions. There are also small manu- 
factures of brass-ware, fine silk, and coarse rugs. The railway work- 
shops employed over 2,000 hands in 1903, and a small cotton gin and 
ice factory are situated here. A private firm supplies hay pressed 
at Jhansi to the military authorities in many parts of the Eastern 
Command. The municipality maintains three schools and aids twelve 
others, with a total attendance of 994, besides the District school, 
which has about 160 pupils. 

Jhanzi. — River of Assam, which rises near Mokokchung in the 
Naga Hills, and, after a northerly course through Sibsagar District, 
falls into the Brahmaputra. Its total length is 71 miles, and in its 
course through the plains it forms the boundary between the sub- 
divisions of Sibsagar and Jorhat. In the dry season it becomes very 
shallow, but during the rains boats of 4 tons burden can proceed as 
far as the foot of the hills. Mola.sses, tobacco, salt, oil, and other 
articles of commerce are brought up the river in the rains and sold 
or exchanged fur betel-nuts. Tea used formerly to be sent down stream 
to Jhanzimukh, but most of it is now exported by rail. An area of 



ISO JHANZI 

about 30 square miles in the Simaluguri inauza is injured by the floods 
of the river, but there are some compensating advantages, as the sih 
is said to have a fertiUzing effect. The Jhanzi is crossed by a bridge 
on the Assam-Bengal Railway, and by four ferries. 

Jharia. — Coal-field in Manbhum District, Bengal. See Manbhum. 

Jhelum District {Jehlain). — District in the Rawalpindi Division of 
the Punjab, lying between 32° 27' and 2)2)° ^s' ^- and 72° 32' and 
73° 48' E., with an area of 2,813 square miles. Its length from east to 
west is 75 miles, its breadth increasing from 2 miles in the east to 55 
in the west. It is bounded by the Districts of Shahpur and Attock 
on the west, and by Rawalpindi on the north ; while the Jhelum river 
separates it from Kashmir territory on the north-east, and from Gujrat 
and Shahpur on the south-east and south. 

The District falls naturally into three divisions. Of these the north- 
eastern, which includes the Chakwal fahsil and the narrow Pabbi tract 
in the north of the Jhelum tahsil, is a wide and fertile 
Pnysica plateau ranging from 1,300 to 1,900 feet above the 

sea, with a decided slope to the north-west, until at 
the Sohan river it reaches the boundary of the District. This plateau 
is intersected by numerous ravines, which, with the single exception of 
the Bunha torrent on the east, drain into the Sohan. To the south it 
culminates in the Salt Range, which runs in two main ridges from 
east to west, now parallel, now converging, meeting in a confused mass 
of peaks east of Katas and opening out again. Between these ranges 
is a succession of fertile and picturesque valleys, set in oval frames by 
the hills, never more than 5 miles in width and closed in at either end. 
The Salt Range runs at a uniform height of 2,500 feet till it culminates 
in the peak of Chail (3,701 feet). At the eastern end of the Salt 
Range two spurs diverge north-eastwards^, dividing the Jhelum tahsil 
into three parallel tracts. The northernmost of these, the Pabbi, has 
already been described. The central tract, lying between the Nili and 
the Tilla spurs, is called the Khuddar, or ' country of ravines.' The 
whole surface seems to have been crumpled up and distorted by 
converging forces from the north and south. Lastly, south of the Tilla 
range, lies the riverain tract, which extends along the river from Jhelum 
town in the north-east to the Shahpur border. Broken only near 
Jalalpur by a projecting spur of the Salt Range proper, this fertile strip 
has a breadth of about 8 miles along the southern boundary of the 
Jhelum and Pind Dadan Khan tahsils. 

The greater part of the District lies on the sandstones and con- 
glomerates of the Siwalik series (Upper Tertiary), but towards the 
south the southern scarp of the Salt Range presents sections of 
sedimentary beds ranging from Cambrian upwards. The lowest bed 
contains the salt marl and rock-salt. 'I'he former is of unknown age, 



JHELUM DISTRICT 151 

but appears to be overlain by a purple sandstone, followed by shales 
containing Lower Cambrian fossils. These are again overlain by the 
magnesian sandstone and salt pseudomorph zone of the Punjab. 
The latter zone is followed by a boulder-bed and shales, and sand- 
stones of Upper Carboniferous or Permian age, overlain by Lower 
Tertiary sandstone and Nummulitic limestone. In the eastern part 
of the Salt Range, the fossiliferous Productus limestone and ceratite 
beds are apparently absent, and there is a gap in the geological 
sequence between Lower Permian and Tertiary. Coal occurs in the 
Lower Tertiary beds at Dandot and Baghanwala^ 

The flora of the lower elevation is that of the Western Punjab ; in 
the north-east the Outer Himalaya is approached ; while the Salt 
Range has a vegetation of its own which combines rather different 
elements, from the north-west Indian frontier to the hills east of Simla. 
Trees are rare, except where planted or naturalized, l)ut the phulahi 
{Acacia modesfa) is abundant in the hills and ravine country. At 
Khewra the salt outcrops have a special flora, found in similar places 
in Shahpur and across the Indus. 

In the hills hyenas, jackals, and a few wolves and leopards are found. 
The Salt Range is a favourite haunt of the iirid/: 'ravine deer' (Indian 
gazelle) are plentiful in the western hills. Sand-grouse, partridge 
(black and grey), chikor, and slsi are met with, and a great variety 
of wild-fowl haunt the Jhelum. Flocks of flamingo are found on the 
Kallar Kahar lake, and quail are not uncommon. Dhangrot on the 
Jhelum is a well-known place for mahseer fishing. 

The climate is good. In the hills the heat is never extreme, though 
the adjoining submontane tract is one of the hottest in the Punjab. 
The rest of the District has the ordinary climate of the Western Punjab 
plains — excessive heat for half the year, with a long and bracing cold 
season, and the usual feverish seasons. In the winter a bitter north 
wind prevails in the Salt Range and the northern plateau, light snow 
on the hills is not uncommon, and once or twice in a generation 
a heavier fall extends to other parts of the District. Here and there 
guinea-worm, due to bad water, severely affects the population. The 
annual rainfall varies from 16 inches at Pind Dadan Khan to 24 inches 
at Jhelum. Of the fall at Jhelum, 6 inches are received in winter and 
18 inches in the summer months. The local distribution is very 
variable. The tracts at the foot of the Salt Range often remain dry 
while heavy rain is falling in the hills, and rain in the east of the 
Jhelum tahsll sometimes does not extend to the west. 

The early annals of Jhelum present more points of interest than its 

^ See ' Geology of the Salt Range,' Memoirs, Geological Sw-uey of India, vol. xiv ; 
C. S. Middlemiss, ' Geology of the Salt Range,' Records^ Geological Sin-cey of India, 
vol. xxiv, pt. i. 



T 5 2 JHEL UM DISTRICT 

records in modern times. Hindu tradition represents the Salt Range 
as the refuge of the Pandavas during the period of their exile, and 
every salient point in its scenery is connected with 
some legend of the national heroes. The conflict 
between Alexander and Porus probably took place in or near the 
present District, though the exact spot at which the Macedonian king 
effected the passage of the Jhelum (or Hydaspes) has been hotly 
disputed. Sir Alexander Cunningham supposed that the crossing was 
at JalSlpur, which he identified with the city of Bucephala; and that 
the battle with Porus — a Greek corruption of the name Purusha — took 
place at Mong, on the Gujrat side, close to the field of Chilianwala. 
A later writer (Mr. V. A, Smith) holds that the battle-field was ten 
miles north-east of Jhelum town. When the brief light cast upon the 
country by Arrian and Curtius has been withdrawn, we have little 
information with reference to its condition until the Muhammadan 
conquest. In the interval it must have passed through much the same 
vicissitudes as the neighbouring District of Shahpur. 

The Janjuas and Jats, who, along with other tribes, now hold the 
Salt Range and the northern plateau respectively, appear to have been 
the earliest inhabitants. The former are doubtless pure Rajputs, 
while the Jats are perhaps their degenerate descendants. The Gakhars 
seem to represent an early wave of conquest from the west, and they 
still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District ; while the Awans, 
who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently later invaders. 
The Gakhars were the dominant race at the period of the first 
Muhammadan incursions ; and they long continued to retain their 
independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring District 
of Rawalpindi. During the flourishing period of the Mughal dynasty, 
the Gakhar chieftains were among the most prosperous and loyal 
vassals of the house of Babar. But after the collapse of the Delhi 
empire, Jhelum fell, like its neighbours, under the sway of the Sikhs. 
In 1765 Gujar Singh defeated the last independent Gakhar prince, and 
reduced the wild mountaineers of the Salt Range and the Murree Hills 
to subjection. His son succeeded to his dominions until 18 10, when 
he fell before the irresistible power of RanjTt Singh. Under the Lahore 
government the dominant classes of Jhelum suffered much from fiscal 
exactions; and the Janjiia, Gakhar, and Awan families gradually lost 
their landed estates, which passed into the hands of their Jat depen- 
dants. The feudal power declined and slowly died out, so that at the 
present time hardly any of the older chieftains survive, while their 
modern representatives hold no higher post than that of village 
headman. 

In 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories into the 
power of the British. Ranjit Singh, however, had so thoroughly 



POrULATION 



is: 



subjugated the wild mountain tribes wlio inhabited the District that 
httle difficulty was experienced in reducing it to working order. In 
1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and 
made a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to 
disarm them, but decamped on the night following the action, the main 
body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmir authorities, into 
whose territory they had escaped. No further disturbance took place. 
The subsequent history of Jhelum has been purely fiscal and adminis- 
trative. On April i, 1904, the tahsll of Talagang was detached from 
the District and incorporated with the new District of Attock. 

The country is still studded with interesting relics of antiquity, 
among which the most noticeable are the ruined temples of Katas, 
built about the eighth or ninth century a. d., and perhaps of Buddhist 
origin. Other religious ruins exist at Malot and Shivganga ; at Jhelum 
town an old mound has yielded utensils of Greek shape, and the 
remains of an old Kashmiri temple ; while the ancient forts of Rohtas, 
Girjhak, and Kusak, standing on precipitous rocks in the Salt Range, 
are of deep interest for the military historian. Indeed, the position 
of Jhelum on the great north-western highway, by which so many 
conquerors have entered India, from the Greek to the jMughal, has 
necessarily made it a land of fortresses and"" guarded defiles, and has 
turned its people into hereditary warriors. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was : 
(1881) 494,499, (1891) 514,090, and (1901) 501,424, dwelling in 
4 towns and 888 villages. It decreased by 2-4 per 
cent, during the last decade. The District is divided 
into the three tahs'ih of Jhelum, Find Dadan Khan, and Chakw.^l, 
the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. 
The chief towns are the municipalities of Jhelum, the administrative 
head-quarters of the District, and Find Dadan Khan. The following 
table shows the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 



TahsH. 


Area in scjuare 
miles. 


Number of 


Population. 


a; . 


'o ci 1 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 
> 


a; 

> 


Population 
square m 


Percentag 
variatioi 

populatioi 
tween l8 
and igo 


Jhelum. 

Chakwal 

Find Dadan Khan 

District total 


903 
1,004 

875 


I 
2 
I 


4.^3 
248 
207 


170,978 
160,316 
170,130 


189-.^ 
159-7 
194-4 


- 3-4 

- 2.8 

-1.7 


8,695 

6,785 
7,126 


2,813 


4 


888 


501,424 


178-3 


-9.4 


22,606 



Note. — The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns. The total 
District area is that given in the Census Report. 

Muhammadans number 443,360, or 89 per cent, of the total 



T54 fffELUAf DISTRICT 

Hindus, 43,693; and Sikhs, 13,950. The language of the people is 
Western Punjabi. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the Jats, who number 73,000, 
or 14 per cent, of the total population. Next to them numerically are 
the Rajputs (53,000) and Awans (51,000). Other important agricul- 
tural castes are the Maliars (23,000), Mughals (21,000), Gujars (20,000), 
Gakhars (11,000), and Kahiitas (10,000), the latter almost entirely 
confined to this District. Saiyids number 13,000. Of the com- 
mercial and money-lending classes, the most numerous are the Khattrls 
(31,000), Aroras returning only 9,000. Brahmans number 5,000. Of 
the artisan classes, the Julahas (weavers, 23,000), Mochis (shoemakers 
and leather-workers, 19,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 14,000), Kumhars 
(potters, 10,000), Lobars (blacksmiths, 8,000), and Telis (oil-pressers, 
7,000) are the most important. Kashmiris number 12,000. The 
chief menial classes are the Musallis (sweepers, 18,000), Nais (barbers, 
9,000), Machhis (fishermen, bakers, and water-carriers, 6,000), and 
Dhobls (washermen, 5,000). The Lilla Jats (1,000), an agricultural 
tribe found only in this District, also deserve mention. Of the whole 
population, 61 per cent, are supported by agriculture. The leading 
tribes — Gakhars, Awans, Janjuas, and other Rajputs — enlist freely in 
the Indian army. 

The American United Presbyterian Mission has a branch at Jhelum 
town, where work was started in 1873, and the Roman Catholic 
missionaries maintain a school at Dalwal in the Salt Range. In 1901 
the District contained in native Christians. 

The area irrigated by artificial means is a tenth of that cultivated in 
the Pind Dadan Khan tahs'il, but only one per cent, in the Chakwal 
and Jhelum tahslls. Cultivation thus depends on 
the local rainfall, eked out by the drainage from 
higher ground. The country is in parts seamed by torrent beds, and 
the soil varies from the infertile sand brought down by them to a rich 
loam and the stony soil of the hill-sides. In the greater part of the 
unirrigated land a spring crop is followed by an autumn crop ; but 
the best land receiving drainage from higher ground is generally 
reserved for the spring, and in the tract under the hills in Pind Dadan 
Khan the lands for the autumn and spring harvests are kept separate. 

The District is chiefly held by communities of small peasant pro- 
prietors, large estates covering only about 103 square miles. The area 
for which details are available from the revenue records of 1903-4 is 
2,767 square miles, as shown on the next page. 

The chief crops of the spring harvest are wheat, barley, gram, and 
oilseeds, the areas under which in 1903-4 were 477, 26, 34, and 80 
square miles respectively ; and in the autumn har\-est, Jozvdr, bdjra, 
and pulses, which covered 16, 207, and 28 scjuure miles respectively. 



AGRICULTURE 



155 



Between the settlements of 1S64 and 1S81 the cultivated area 
increased by 41 per cent., while the area cultivated at the settlement 
of 1901 showed an increase of 13 per cent, on that of 1881. The 
new cultivation of the last twenty years is, however, greatly inferior 
to the old, and there is but little prospect of further extension. Loans 
for the construction of wells are extremely popular, and Rs. 25,700 
was advanced under the Land Improvement Loans Act in the District 
as now constituted during the live years ending 1904. 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Culti\ated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


Jhelum 

Chakwal 

Find Dadan Khan 

Total 


88S 
1,004 

875 


329 

516 

329 


4 

6 

35 


46 
49 
84 


138 

36 

172 


2,767 


1.174 


45 


179 


346 



The Dhanni breed of horses found in the Dhan or plateau north 
of the Salt Range has long been held in high estimation, being 
mentioned in the Ain-i-Aklmrl , while good horses are found all over 
the District. The Army Remount department maintains 4 horse and 
1 1 donkey stallions, and the District board 2 horse stallions. The 
Dhanni breed of small cattle is also well-known. Camels are largely 
used for carrying burdens, but the breed is poor. Both the fat-tailed 
and ordinary sheep are kept, and the goats are of a fair quality. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 45 square miles, or 3'8 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated by wells and canals. Li addition, 
47 square miles, or 4 per cent, of the cultivated area, are subject to 
inundation from the Jhelum. The wells, which number 4,781, are 
chiefly found along the river and in the level portion of the Jhelum 
tahsil \ they are all worked by cattle with Persian wheels. Canal- 
irrigation is at present confined to two small cuts in the Find Dadan 
Khan ta/isJI, one Government, the other private ; but it is proposed to 
absorb the former in a larger canal commanding about 50,000 acres. 
The cultivation from the hill streams is unimportant, though where 
it exists no land is so profitable. Much of the unirrigated land is 
embanked and catches the drainage from higher ground. 

The District contains 260 square miles of 'reserved' and 97 of 
unclassed forest under the Poorest department, besides 43 st^uare miles 
of unclassed forest and waste land under the Deputy-Commissioner, 
and one mile of military reserved forests. These consist mainly of 
the scattered scrub of p/iulahi, wild olive, i/kha/i/i, and leafless caper, 
which clothe the hills. Some of the forest lands are stretches of 
alluvial grazing-ground, known as belds, along the Jhelum. In 1904-5 
the revenue from the forests under the Forest department was 
Rs. 82,000, and from those under the Deputy-Commissioner Rs. 9,000. 

VOL. XIV. L 



156 JHELUM DISTRICT 

Salt is found in large quantitiehi in the Salt Range. It is excavated 
at Khewra and Nurpur, but outcrops are found in many places ; 
and, in addition to the employes of the Khewra mines, a large pre- 
ventive staff has to be maintained to prevent salt from being mined. 
Coal occurs in many places in the Salt Range. It is mined at Dandot 
by the North- Western Railway, and by a private firm at Baghanwala. 
Gypsum occurs in the marl beds above the salt strata of the Salt 
Range. Stone for road-making or railway ballast is plentiful, and 
good sandstone and limestone for building are frequently met with. 
Clay for pottery is also found. Fragments of copper and earthy iron 
hematites occur, but are quite unimportant. Sulphuret of lead or 
galena is found in small nodules in two or three localities. Quartz 
crystals are found in the gypsum of the Salt Range. Gold is washed 
in the beds of the torrents which flow into the Sohan, but the out-turn 
is insignificant. 

The District possesses no arts or manufactures of any importance. 

Boat-building is carried on at Jhelum and at Find 

Trade and jjadan Khan, and brass vessels and silk lunsls are 
communications. ' •,, r 1 

made at the latter town. \\ ater-niills are frequently 

used for grinding corn. 

Jhelum town is an important timber depot, being the winter head- 
quarters of a Kashmir Forest officer who supervises the collection of 
the timber floated down the river. There is a large export of timber 
by both rail and river and of salt from Khewra, but otherwise the trade 
of the District is unimportant. Brass and copper ware is exported 
from Find Dadan Khan. Stone is also exported, and in good seasons 
there is a considerable export of agricultural produce. The chief 
imports are piece-goods and iron. Jhelum town and Find Dadan 
Khan are the centres of trade, and a considerable boat traffic starts 
from the latter place down the river. The completion of the railway 
system, however, has already ruined the trade of Find Dadan Khan, 
and is fast reducing Jhelum town to the position of a local depot. 

The main line of the North-Western Railway traverses the east 
of the District, passing through Jhelum town, while the Sind-Sagar 
branch runs through the south of the Find Dadan Khan tahs'il with 
a branch to Khewra, whence a light railway brings down coal from 
Dandot. A branch from the main line to Chakwal has been suggested, 
but has not been surveyed. Owing to the rugged nature of the 
country, the roads are not good. The only road used for wheeled 
traffic is the grand trunk road, which traverses the District by the side 
of the main line of rail ; elsewhere pack animals are used. The only 
other route on which there is much traffic is that leading from Find 
Dadan Khan by Khewra to Chakwal. The Jhelum is navigable to 
about 10 miles above Jhelum town. It is crossed by a railway 



ADMLYISTRA TION 1 5 7 

bridge with a track for wheeled traffic at Jhelum, by another with 
a footway onh' in the Find Dadan Khan tahs'il, and by fourteen minor 
ferries. 

The District suffered from the great chdl'isa famine of 1783, and 
there was famine in 1813 and 1834. Locusts did a great deal of 
damage in 1848. In 1860-1, though the scarcity in 
other parts of the Province caused prices to rise, the 
crops here did not fail to any serious extent. In 1896-7 there was 
considerable distress, and test works were started, but were not largely 
attended. The worst famine since annexation was that of 1899-1900. 
It was, however, more a fodder than a grain famine ; and though there 
was acute distress and test works were opened, it was not considered 
necessary to turn them into famine works. The greatest daily number 
relieved in any week was 3,955, and the total expenditure was 
Rs. 39,000. 

The District is divided into the three tahslls of Jhelum, Find 
Dadax Khan, and Chakwal, each under a •ahslldar and a )iaih- 
tahsilddr. The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by 
three Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioners, 
of whom one is in charge of the Find Dadan Khan subdivision and 
another of the District treasury. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice. Civil judicial work is under a District Judge, and 
both officers are subordinate to the Divisional and Sessions Tuda:e of 
the Jhelum Civil Division. There are three Munsifs, one at head- 
quarters and one in each tahsll. The predominant form of crime 
is cattle-theft, while murders are also frequent. 

The Sikh demand for land revenue cannot be shown with anv 
accuracy. They took what they could get, but their average receipts 
during the last four years of their rule would seem to have been 
7 lakhs. After the second Sikh War, when Jhelum passed into British 
possession, a summary settlement was made, yielding slightly less than 
the Sikh assessment. In 1852 a second summary settlement was 
undertaken, to correct the more obvious inequalities of the first. On 
the whole, both of these worked well, though some proprietors refused 
to pay the revenue fixed, and surrendered their proprietary rights. The 
first regular settlement, made in 1855-64, assumed half the net 'assets' 
as the share of Government, and fixed the demand at 6^ lakhs. The 
next settlement (1874-81) raised the revenue by 18 per cent.; but 
this was easily paid, until a succession of bad harvests made large 
suspensions and some remissions necessary. In the present settlement 
(1895-1901) a further increase of 26 per cent, has been taken, but it 
is recognized that frequent suspensions will be needed. The average 
assessment on 'dry' land is Rs. 1-3 (maximum Rs. 2, minimum 

L z 



158 



JHELUM DISTRICT 



6 annas), and on ' wet ' land Rs. 3-2 (maximum Rs, 5, minimum 
Rs. 1-4). The demand on account of land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 for the District as now constituted was 8-8 lakhs. The 
average size of a proprietary holding is 18 acres. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are 
shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1 890- 1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total re\enue 


7,88 
9,70 


6,50 

8,50 


4. '9 
7,47 


9,89 
i5>47 



Note. — Tliese figures are for the District as constituted before the separa- 
tion of the Talagang tahsil'm 1904. 

The District contains two municipalities, Jhelum and Find Dadan 
Khan, and one ' notified area,' Ch.\kwai,. Outside these, local affairs 
are managed by the District board, the income of which is mainly 
derived from a local rate, and amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 93,000. 
The expenditure was Rs. 88,000, the principal item being education. 

The regular police force consists of 450 of all ranks, including 
8 cantonment and 81 municipal police, and the Superintendent usually 
has 4 inspectors under him. Village watchmen number 615. There 
are 14 police stations and 2 road-posts. The District jail at head- 
quarters has accommodation for 295 prisoners. 

The District stands sixth among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the 
proportion of literate persons was 4-5 per cent. (8-5 males and 
0-4 females). The number of pupils under instruction was 3,964 
in 1880-1, 12,026 in 1890-1, 12,386 in i9oo-i,and 14,869 in 1903-4'. 
In 1904-5 the number of pupils in the District as now constituted 
was 12,144. In the- same year the District contained 9 secondary 
and 95 primary (public) schools, and 3 advanced and 212 elementary 
(private) schools, with 454 girls in the public and 392 in the private 
schools. There are two Anglo-vernacular high schools, at Jhelum 
town and Find Dadan Khan. The total expenditure on education in 
1904-5 was Rs. 54,000. 

Besides the civil hospital at Jhelum town, the District contains four 
outlying dispensaries. In 1904 a total of 76,560 out-patients and 
1,451 in-patients were treated, and 2,859 tjperations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, District funds contributing Rs. 6,000 
and municipal funds Rs. 9,000. The American Fresbyterian Mission 
also maintains a hospital at Jhelum. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 14,498, repre- 

' All these figures apply to the Uiatrict as constituted before the separation of the 
Talagany lahsil in 1904. 



JHELUM TOWN 159 

senting 28-9 per 1,000 of the population. The Vaccination Act has 
been extended to the towns of Jhelum and Find Dadan Khan. 

[W. S. Talbot, District Gazetteer (in press) ; Settlement Report 
(1902); and General Code of Tribal Custom in the Jhelutn District 
(1901).] 

Jhelum Tahsil {Jehlani). — Eastern iahsll of Jhelum District, 
Punjab, lying between 32° 39' and 33° 15' N. and 73° 9' and 73° 48' E., 
with an area of 888 square miles. It is bounded on the east and 
south-east by the Jhelum river, which divides it from Kashmir and 
Gujrat District. The population in 1901 was 170,978, compared with 
177,046 in 1 89 1. The head-quarters are at the town of Jhelum 
(population, 14,951). It also contains 433 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-7 lakhs. The tahsil \% traversed 
from south-west to north-east by two spurs of the Salt Range, the more 
easterly of which culminates in the peak of Tilla. Between this 
and the Jhelum river is an almost level alluvial plain of great fertility, 
while between the two spurs the country is seamed with ravines. 
The fort of Rohtas is of historical interest. 

Jhelum Town {Jehlam). — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil 
of Jhelum, I^unjab, situated in 32° 56' N. and 73° 47' E., on the right 
bank of the Jhelum river and on the North-Western Railway ; distant 
by rail 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,403 from Bombay, and 849 from 
Karachi. Population (1901), 14,951. The present town is of modern 
origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander, 
having been on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule 
the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement 
of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. 
It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment, and as the head- 
quarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of 
the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his head-quarters were 
transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule Jhelum has steadily 
advanced in prosperity ; and it is the entrepot for most of the trade of 
the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sagar branch 
of the North-Western Railway, the salt trade no longer passes through 
it. It is an important timber depot, the timber from the Kashmir 
forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good 
deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles 
from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal 
strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry 
regiments. The municipality was founded in 1867. During the ten 
years ending 1902-3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expendi- 
ture Rs. 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in 
the same period averaged Rs. 5,900 and Rs. 6,100, respectively. The 
income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,200, chiefly from 



i6o JHELUM TOJT'X 

octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town possesses two 
Anglo-vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school 
maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil 
hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital. 

Jhelum {Jehlam).- — River in Kashmir and the Punjab, being the 
most westerly of the five rivers from which the Punjab derives its 
name. It was known to the Muhammadan historians as the Bihat, 
Wihat, or Bihatab, corruptions of its Sanskrit name Viiastd (which 
Alexanders historians graecized into Hydaspes, but Ptolemy more 
correctly as Bidaspes), while its modern Kashmiri name is /?///. It 
may be said to have its source in a noble spring of deep-blue water, 
which issues from the bottom of a high scarp of a mountain spur. The 
spring is known as Vernag ; and at Khanabal, 15 miles north, its waters 
join the streams of Adpat, Bring, and Sandran, and form the starting- 
point of navigation. The river is navigable without a single lock from 
Khanabal to Baramiila, 102 miles. In its course to the Wular Lake, 
which may be regarded as a delta of the river, the fall is 165 feet in the 
first 30 miles and 55 feet in the next 24 miles. From the Wular Lake 
to Baramula the fall is very slight. 

The Jhelum river has many tributaries. On its right bank it receives 
the Liddar or Lambodri, which comes down from the everlasting snows 
overhanging the head of the Liddar valley, and from the mountain lake 
of Tarsar. Below Srinagar at Shadipur — the place of the marriage of 
the two rivers — the Sind river joins the Jhelum : and beyond the 
Wular Lake the Pohru stream, which drains the Lolab valley, merges 
in the great river. On the left bank the chief tributaries are the 
Vishav, the Rembiara, the Ramshi, the Dudganga, the Suknag, and 
the Ferozepura. The Dudganga joins the Jhelum at the lov>-er end of 
Srinagar city. 

Below Baramula (5,000 feet) the placid Jhelum leaves the fertile 
banks of the valley, and rushes headlong down a deep gorge between 
lofty mountains of the Kazinag range on the north and an extension of 
the Pir Panjal on the south to Kohala, 2,000 feet. At Muzaffarabad 
the Ki.shanganga river joins the Jhelum on its right bank, while a few 
miles lower down, and on the same side, the Kunhar river, which 
drains the Hazara country, adds no inconsiderable volume of water. 
Between Khanabal and Baramula there are many bridges, but between 
Baramula and Domel, where the Kishanganga river joins the Jhelum, 
the bridges are scarce and primitive. Much of the internal commerce 
of Kashmir depends on the Jhelum. An account of the various 
descriptions of boats used is given in the article on SrTn.\gar. 

Below its junction witli the Kishanganga the Jhelum forms the boun- 
dary between the Kashmir State and the British Districts of Hazara 
and Rawalpindi, flowing in a narrow rocky bed, shut in by mountains 



LOUER JHRL UM CANA L i fir 

on either side. Numerous rapids here render navigation impossible, 
though large quantities of timber are floated down from Kashmir. 
A handsome suspension bridge at Kohala, in Rawalpindi District, 
connects Kashmir with British territory. Below Dangalli, 40 miles east 
of Rawalpindi, the Jhelum becomes navigable. Passing into Jhelum 
District, it skirts the outlying spurs of the Salt Range, receiving the 
waters of the Kahan, and finally debouches upon the plains a little 
above the town of Jhelum, about 250 miles from its source. Below 
the town, inundation of the lowlands begins to be possible, and sandy 
islands stud the wide bed of the stream. The Bunha, in the rains 
a roaring torrent which sometimes spreads over a mile of country, joins 
the Jhelum at Darapur. After a south-westerly course of more than 
TOO miles, during which the river divides the District of Jhelum from 
Gujrat and Shahpur, it enters the latter District entirely, and trends 
thenceforth more directly southward. The width in this portion of its 
course averages 800 yards in flood, dwindling during the winter months 
to less than half that size. Sudden freshes occur after heavy rains, and 
cause frequent inundations over the lowlands, greatly increasing the 
productive power of the soil. The Jhelum next enters the District of 
Jhang, where it preserves the same general characteristics, but with 
a wider valley, bounded by the high uplands known as the Bar. It 
finally joins the Chenab at Trimmu, in 31° ri" N. and 72° 12' E., 
10 miles to the south of Maghiana, after a total course of not less than 
450 miles, of which about 200 lie within British territory. The current 
in the plains has an average rate of 4 miles per hour. The wedge of 
land between the Jhelum and the Chenab is known as the Chaj Doab ; 
while the tract stretching westward to the Indus bears the name of the 
Sind Sagar Doab. 

The principal towns upon the Jhelum are Kashmir or Srinagar, 
Jhelum, Find Dadan Khan, Miani, Bhera, and Khushab. According 
to General Cunningham, the point where Alexander crossed the 
Hydaspes may be identified with Jalalpur in Jhelum District ; while 
nearly opposite, on the Gujrat bank, stands the modern battle-field of 
Chilianwala. Other writers hold that the passage was eflected near 
jhelum town. A bridge of boats crosses the river at Khushab. 
The permanent railway bridge of the North-Western Railway also 
crosses it at the town of Jhelum, and the Sind-Sagar line at Haranpur. 
The Lower Jhelum Canal takes off at Along Rasul in Gujrat 
District. 

Jhelum Canal, Lower. — A perennial irrigation work in the Punjab 
now approaching completion. It takes off from the left bank of the 
jhelum river, and will eventually supply perennial irrigation to the 
whole of the country lying between the Jhelum and the Chenab, 
west of a line joining the town of Miani on the Jhelum with Pindi 



i62 LOWER JHELUM CANAL 

Bhattian on the Chenab. The head of the canal is near the village 
of Mong Rasul in Gujrat District. The river is dammed by a weir 
4,100 feet long, and a regulator across the head of the canal takes the 
form of a bridge of eight spans of 24-! feet each. The main line has 
a bed-width of 140 feet, and will have when running full a depth of 
7.5 feet, and a discharge of 3,800 cubic feet per second, or twice that 
of the Thames at Teddington. The Shahpur branch will take off at 
about the twenty-eighth mile of the main line. This branch has been 
designed to take up the irrigation now performed in Shahpur District 
by the existing Imperial, Provincial, and privately-owned inundation 
canals. After a course of 39 miles, in which it gradually approaches 
the centre of the highlands of the Doab, the canal bifurcates into two 
main branches, watering the northern and southern portions of the 
Doab respectively. The total length of the main line and main 
branches is about 167 miles, and about 960 miles of distributing 
channels will be constructed. The canal will protect an area of 2,400 
square miles, and is expected to irrigate annually about 1,200 square 
miles. Of the 2,400 square miles protected, about 850 are crown 
waste, which it is intended to turn into an immense horse-breeding 
colony for the supply of remounts to the Indian Army. For this 
purpose the greater portion has been leased out to colonists on the 
condition of their keeping an approved brood mare, and other areas 
have been reserved for public and private breeding establishments and 
horse runs. The work of colonization is under an officer of the Indian 
Civil Service, who has his head- quarters at Sargodha in Shahpur Dis- 
trict. The land has been divided into squares of nearly 28 acres each, 
and one brood mare has to be maintained for every 2\ squares. 
A railway has been constructed from Malakwal on the Sind-Sagar line 
to Shorlcot on the Lyallpur-Khanewal line, affording facilities for the 
immigration of colonists and the export of their produce. 

Elaborate precautions have been taken to prevent waterlogging of 
the soil by over-irrigation. The depth at which spring-water is found 
below the surface of the ground has been carefully observed over the 
whole of the commanded area, and the country has been divided into 
three zones according to those depths. Where the spring-level is 
40 feet or more below the surface, 50 per cent, of the gross area 
commanded may be irrigated; where the depth lies between 25 and 
40 feet, 40 per cent, of the area will be irrigated ; and where the water 
is nearer to the surface than 25 feet, only 25 per cent, will be allowed 
perennial irrigation, and powers have been reserved to reduce these 
supplies if they should be found to be in excess of requirements. On 
the Shahpur branch 50 per cent, of the area will be irrigated. 

The canal was opened on October 30, 1901 ; and irrigation is now 
well advanced, except on the Shahpur brancli, the construction of 



JHEIVIDA VILLAGE t6 



o 



which has only just been commenced. It is estimated that this canal 
will cost when finished 187-5 lakhs, and will give a return of 15-8 per 
cent, on the capital spent upon it, and that ten years after completion 
the net revenue will exceed the interest charges by 192 lakhs. 

Jhelum Colony. — Colony on the Jhelum Canal, in the District and 
tahs'il of Shahpur, Punjab. The total area to be irrigated from the 
Jhelum Canal amounts to 2,392 square miles, lying partly in Jhang 
and partly in Shahpur District. Of this, 750 square miles of waste 
land in the Bar or upland of the southern part of Shahpur District 
belong to Government ; and upon it colonists are being settled in 
villages, on the same terms as the colonists in the Chenap. Colony, 
but the majority of grants have been made on the condition that a 
suitable mare is maintained for breeding purposes. Up to the end of 
1904 about 231 square miles had been allotted to grantees. A large 
area has also been allotted for Imperial horse and mule runs and for 
regimental stud farms. The head-quarters of the colony are at Sar- 
GODHA, the head-quarters of the new Sargodha tahsll, which is fast 
rising into an important town. It is connected by the new Jech Doab 
branch of the North- Western Railway with Malakwal on the Sind-Sagar 
line, and with Shahpur by a new metalled road. The railway is also 
being extended to Shorkot in Jhang District. Wells, roads, and 
markets are being built, and a complete system of feeder-roads is 
under construction. 

Jhenida Subdivision.— North-western subdivision of Jessore Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 23° 22' and 23° 47' N. and 88° 57' and 
89° 23'' E., with an area of 475 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 304,899, compared with 311,973 in 1891. It contains one town, 
KoTCHANDPUR (population, 9,065), and 864 villages. The head- 
quarters are at Jhenida. The subdivision is a flat, alluvial plain, the 
surface of which has been raised by the inundations of the Ganges 
distributary system till it is now beyond the reach of ordinar\' floods, 
and no longer receives the deposits of silt which formerly enriched it. 
It contains the most unhealthy portions of the District. The popula- 
tion has consequently receded, and the density is now 642 persons 
to the square mile. The principal marts are at Jhenida and Kot- 
chandpur. 

Jhenida Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Jessore District, Bengal, situated in 23° 33' N. and 89° 11' E., 
on the Nabaganga river, 28 miles north of Jessore town. Population 
(1901), 798. There is a large bazar, with a trade in sugar, rice, and 
pepper. Communication was formerly carried on chiefly by means of 
the river, but this has now to a great extent silted up, and is navigable 
only below the town and for three months in the year. Jhenida is 
connected by road with Chuadanga station on the Eastern Bengal 



ifi4 JFIENIDA VILLAGE 

State Railway. It contains the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has 
accommodation for 1 1 prisoners. 

Jher.— Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Jherria. — Coal-field in Manbhum District, Bengal. See Manbhum. 

Jhingergacha. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Jessore 
District, Bengal, situated in 23° 6' N. and 89° 8' E., on the Kabadak 
river. Population (190 1), 736. Jhingergacha is a station on the East- 
ern Bengal State Railway, and steamers ply between it and Kapilmuni 
in Khulna District. 

Jhinjhana. — Town in the Kairana tahsll of Muzaffarnagar District, 
United Provinces, situated in 29° 31' N. and 77° 13' E., on the left 
bank of the Katha, 30 miles from Muzaffarnagar town. Population 
(1901), 5,094. The town is the home of a family of Shaikhs who have 
resided here from an early date. It contains a dargah of a Muham- 
madan saint built in 1495 and several monuments of the Shaikhs, the 
chief being a mosque and tomb built in 1623, decorated with coloured 
tiles. Jhinjhana is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 1,700. It was formerly very dirty ; and although 
the streets have recently been paved, it is still unhealthy. 

Jhinjhuvada. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jhiri. — River between Manipur State and Cachar District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See JiRi. 

Jhunjhunu. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name and of 
the Shekhawati nizdmat in the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 
28° 8' N. and 75° 23' E., about 90 miles north-by-north-west of Jaipur 
city. Population (1901), 12,279. '^^e place was the head-quarters of 
the Shekhawati Brigade, a force maintained by the Darbar from 1836 
to 1842 to preserve the peace, and now represented by the 13th Raj- 
puts (the Shekhawati Regiment). At the eastern end of the town is 
a suburb still called Forsterganj after the officer who raised and com- 
manded the brigade. To the west is a hill 1,684 feet above sea-level 
and visible for miles round ; it is said to have been seen with the 
naked eye from a distance of 95 miles. The town contains the mauso- 
leum of Kamar-ud-dTn Shah, the patron saint of the Kaimkhanis ; 
a Jain temple said to be 1,000 years old ; a combined post and tele- 
graph office ; 10 schools : and a hospital with accommodation for 4 
in-patients. 

Jhusi. — Town in the Phulpur tahsll oi Allahabad District, United 
Provinces, situated in 25° 26' N. and 81° 54' E., on the Ganges, oppo- 
site its junction with the Jumna. Population (1901), 3,342. JhusI has 
been identified with the Pratisthan or KesT of the Puranic histories, 
which was the residence of Pururavas, first king of the Lunar dynasty 
and son of the moon. It was at one time called Harbongpur after the 
Raja Harbong, of whose vagaries and misrule many fables are told. 



JIND STATE 165 

In the time of Akbar the town was known as Hadiabas. It has 
recently been suggested that JhusI was the Kia-shi-pu-lo visited by 
Hiuen Tsiang. Two great mounds, once the site of forts, are the only 
visible remains ; but gold coins of the Gupta kings, and a copperplate 
of Trilochana Pala, dated in a. D. 1027, have been discovered here'. 
Jhusi is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 500. There is a small school with 30 pupils. 

Jiaganj. — Village in the Lalbagh subdivision of Murshidabad Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 24° 15' N. and 88° 16' E., on the left bank 
of the Bhaglrathi, 3 miles north of Murshidabad city, and opposite 
Azimganj station on the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 8,734. 
Though it has somewhat declined in importance, Jiaganj is still a large 
depot where rice, jute, silk, sugar, and a small quantity of cotton are 
collected for export. A jute-press is at work here. Jiaganj, which is 
included within the Azimganj municipality, is connected with Azimganj 
bv a ferry, and during the rainy season a .steamer plies between it and 
Dhulian. It contains some large houses, the property of Jain mer- 
chants, many of whom dwell here, though the main colony lives in 
.A.zlmganj. 

Jigni. — A petty sanad .State in Central India, under the Bundel- 
khand Agency, with an area of about 22 square miles. Population 
(1901), 3,838. It is surrounded by portions of the Hamlrpur and 
Jhansi Districts of the United Provinces. The holders of the Jog'ir 
are Bundela Rajputs, the founder being Rao Padam Singh, a son of 
the famous Chhatarsal, who acquired in 1 730 the J>aj-ga?ias of Rasin 
and Badaus (now in Hamlrpur District). The jUgir, originally a large 
one, was much reduced during the Maratha invasion, Lachhman .Singh 
managing to obtain only a grant of the two parga?ias of Rath and 
Panwarl from the invaders. When the British supremacy was estab- 
Jished, Prithwi Singh, Lachhman's son, was in possession of fourteen 
villages, but in consequence of his contumacy they were attached. 
In 18 10 the six villages which constitute the present holding were 
restored to him under a sanad. The present /^^r^/f/r is Rao Bhanu 
Pratap Singh, a cousin of the Maharaja of Charkharl, who succeeded 
by adoption in 1892. Number of villages. 6 ; cultivated area, 9 square 
miles: revenue, Rs. 13,000. Jignl, the chief town, is situated in 
25*^ 45' X. and 79° 25' E., on the right bank of the Dhasan river, at 
the confluence of that stream and the Betwa. Population (1901), 1,770. 

Jind State. — One of the Phulkian States, Punjab. The State has 
a total area of 1,332" square miles, and comprises three distinct tracts, 

^ Indian Antiquary , \o\. xviii, p. 34. 

^ These figures do nol agree with the area given in Table III of the article on the 
PrN'jAB, and in the population table on p. 170 of this article, which is the area as 
returned in 1901, the year of the latest Census. They are taken from later returns. 



1 66 JIND STATE 

corresponding to its three tahs'ih of Sangrur, Jind, and Dadri. The 
first, in which lies Sangrur, the present capital of the State, is inter- 
spersed among the territories of the other Phulkian States, Patiala 
and Nabha; the Jind tahsll, lying to the south-east of Sangrur, is 
almost entirely surrounded by the British Districts of Karnal and 
Rohtak ; while on the south of it, and separated from it by Rohtak 
District, lies the tahsil of Dadri. Sangrur lies in the great natural tract 
known as the Jangal ; JInd is in the Bangar and includes a part of 
KuRUKSHETRA, the sacred land of the Hindus ; and Dadri lies partly in 
the Bagar, the desert on the Rajputana border, and partly in Hariana. 
No great river traverses the State ; but the Choya 
Physical torrent passes through Sangrur, and a still smaller 
stream, the Jhambuwali, and the Ghaggar river also 
enter that taJml. In Dadri a few villages are fertilized by the Dohan, 
a seasonal torrent which rises in Jaif)ur State and loses itself in Rohtak 
District. With the exception of some low hills, outliers of the Aravalli 
system, in the Dadri tahsil, the State consists of level plains whose 
monotony is broken only in Sangrur by shifting sandhills. 

The flora corresponds (as regards the older parts of the State) with 
that of Karnal and Rohtak ; in the Dadri iahsll it is identical with the 
adjoining tracts of North-Eastern Rajputana. The fauna is much 
the same as in the Patiala plains. 

Owing to the scattered character of the State, the climate is not 
uniform. The Jind tahs'il is moist and unhealthy ; Dadri is dry, sandy, 
and healthy ; and Sangrur possesses the same characteristics in a less 
degree. The rainfall is heaviest in Sangrur, where it averages 1 7 inches 
a year, while Jind receives about 12 inches. Dadri has the lowest 
rainfall, 10 inches, and is the tract most subject to drought, the two 
other tahslls being now protected against famine by canals. 

The history of Jind as a separate State dates from 1763, in which 
year the confederate Sikhs captured Sirhind town from the governor to 
whom Ahmad Shah Durrani had entrusted it, and 
IS ory. partitioned the old Mughal province. The Raja of 

Jind is descended from Sukh Chain, a grandson of Phul, the ancestor 
of all the Phulkian families, who had previously been a mere rural 
notable. On Sukh Chain's death in 1751 Balanwali, which he had 
founded, fell to Alam Singh his eldest son, Badrukhan to his second 
son Gajpat Singh, and Dyalpura to Bulaki. On Alam Singh's death 
in 1754 Balanwali also passed to Gajpat Singh, who was the most 
adventurous of the three brothers, and in 1755 conquered the imperial 
parganas of Jind and Safldon and overran Panlpat and Karnal, but was 
not strong enough to hold them. In 1766 Gajpat Singh made Jind 
town his capital. Nevertheless he remained a vassal of the Delhi 
empire and continued to pay tribute, obtaining in return in 1772 'an 



HISTORY 167 

imperial /fl/v;/^// which gave him the title of Raja. In 1774, in con- 
sequence of a quarrel with the Raja of Xabha, he attacked Amloh, 
Bhadson, and Sangrur, which were in the Nabha territories : and though 
he was compelled by the Raja of Patiala to relinquish the first two 
places, he succeeded in retaining the last, which has ever since remained 
part of the Jind State. In the next year, the Delhi government made 
an attempt to recover Jind ; but the Phtilkian chiefs combined to resist 
the attack, which was repulsed. Gajpat Singh built a fort at Jind 
in 1775, and soon after this joined the Raja of Patiala in an invasion 
of Rohtak ; but the Mughal power was strong enough to compel them 
to give up most of their conquests, though Jind retained Panjgirain. 
Again, in 1870, the allies marched on Meerut, but were defeated, and 
Gajpat Singh was taken prisoner by the Muhammadan general, his 
release being secured only by payment of a heavy ransom. He died in 
1789, and was succeeded by two sons— Bhag Singh, who inherited the 
title of Raja with the territories of Jind and Safidon : and Bhup Singh, 
who obtained Badrukhan. 

Raja Bhag Singh shrewdly held aloof from the combination against 
the British : and when Sindhia's power in Northern India was ultimately 
broken, Lord Lake rewarded him by confirming his title in the Gohana 
estates which had previously been farmed to him by the Marathas. He 
afterwards accompanied Lord Lake as far as the Beas in his pursuit of 
Jaswant Rao Holkar, and was sent as an envoy to Maharaja P^anjit 
Singh, who was the son of his sister Raj Kaur, to dissuade him from 
assisting the fugitive prince. The mission was successful. Holkar was 
compelled to leave the Punjab, and Bhag Singh received as his reward 
the pargana of Bawana to the south-west of Panlpat. The history of 
Ranjit Singh's interference in the Phiilkian States has been given in the 
article on Patiala. From Ranjit Singh, Raja Bhag Singh received 
territory now included in Ludhiana District, comprising Jandala, 
Raikot, Bassian, and Jagraon. He died in 1819 after ruling thirty-six 
years, and was succeeded by his son Fateh Singh, who died in 1822. 
Troublous times followed, and Sangat Singh, who succeeded his father 
Fateh Singh, was obliged for a period to desert his capital. He died 
childless in 1834 ; and the question of the succession was finally settled 
in 1837, when Sarup Singh of Bazldpur, a second cousin of the deceased 
Raja, was recognized as chief of all the territory that had been held by 
his great-grandfather, Gajpat Singh, through whom he derived his title. 
The territory to which he thus succeeded consisted of Jind proper 
and nine other parganas, containing 322 villages, with a revenue of 
Rs. 2,36,000, while the acquisitions of the chiefs subsequent to Gajpat 
Singh, comprising territory yielding Rs. 1,82,000, w^ere resumed by the 
British Government. 

Before the outbreak of the first Sikh, ^^'ar the Raja of Jind was in 



1 68 JIND STATE 

close alliance with Patiala against Raja Deoindar Singh of Nabha. 
His attitude to the British Government, however, was anything but 
friendly in 1845, until a timely fine recalled him to his allegiance. 
In the first Sikh War his conduct was exemplary, and he furnished 
both troops and supplies, receiving in reward a grant of land of the 
annual value of Rs. 3,000, while the fine of the previous year was 
remitted. Another grant, yielding Rs. 1,000, was shortly afterwards 
added, in consideration of the abolition of the State transit dues. In 
1847 the Raja received a sanad by which the British Government 
engaged never to demand from him or his successors tribute or revenue, 
or commutation in lieu of troops ; the Raja on his part promised to 
aid the British with all his resources in case of war, to maintain the 
military roads, and to suppress safi, slave-dealing, and infanticide in his 
territories. A\'hen the second Sikh ^Var broke out, Raja Sarup Singh 
offered to lead his troops in person to join the army at Lahore. In the 
crisis of 1857 he rendered most valuable assistance. He occupied the 
cantonment of Karnal with 800 men, and held the ferry over the Jumna 
at Baghpat, 20 miles north of Delhi, thus enabling the Meerut force to 
join Sir H. Barnard's column. He was present at the battle of Allpur, 
but at the end of June was compelled to pay a flying visit to Jind, as 
the rebels of Hansi, Rohtak, and Hissar had induced some of his 
villages to revolt. He returned to Delhi on September 9, and his 
contingent took a prominent part in the final assault on the city. He 
was further active throughout in sending supplies to the besieging force, 
and in keeping open the lines of communication and preserving order 
in the districts adjoining his State. After the fall of Delhi he sent 
200 men with General van Cortlandt to Hansi, and no more with 
Colonel R. Lawrence to Jhajjar, while 250 remained to garrison 
Rohtak. These splendid services received a fitting reward in the grant 
of the Dadri territory, covering nearly 600 square miles, forfeited for 
disloyalty by the Nawab of Bahadurgarh. This territory now yields 
a revenue of over 2 lakhs. He also received 13 villages, assessed at 
Rs. 1,38,000, in the Kularan /a/-^a;/c/, close to Sangrur, where the Raja 
now has his capital, and a house at Delhi, valued at Rs. 6,000. His 
salute was raised to 1 1 guns ; and, like the other Phulkian chiefs, 
he received a sanad granting him the right of adoption in case of the 
failure of natural heirs, and legalizing the appointment of a successor 
by the two other Phulkian chiefs, in concert with the Political Agent, 
in the event of the Raja dying without male issue and without having 
adopted a successor. 

Raja Sarup Singh died in 1864. He was succeeded by his son, 
Raghubir Singh, who was in every way worthy of his father. Imme- 
diately after his installation he was called upon to put down a serious 
insurrection in the newly-acquired territory of Dadri. The people 



POPULATION 169 

objected to the new revenue assessment, which had been based upon 
the British system, though the rates were much heavier than those 
prevailing in the neighbouring British Districts. Fifty villages broke 
out in open revolt, but Raja Raghublr Singh lost no time in hurrying 
to the scene of the disturbances with about 2,000 men of all arms. 
The nllage of Charki, where the ringleaders of the rebellion had 
entrenched themselves, was carried by assault, and within six weeks of 
the outbreak the country was again perfectly quiet. The Raja rendered 
prompt assistance to the British Government on the occasion of the 
Kuka outbreak in 1872 : and when the second Afghan War broke out 
in 1878, the British Government accepted his offer of a contingent, 
which rendered useful service on the line of communications. As a 
reward, the honorary title of Raja-i-Rajgan was conferred on the Raja 
of Jlnd in perpetuity. An offer of assistance in the Egyptian campaign 
of 1882 was declined, with a suitable recognition of the Raja"s loyalty. 
Raja Raghublr Singh was indefatigable in his efforts to promote the 
prosperity, material and otherwise, of his people. He rebuilt the town 
of Sangrur, modelling it largely on Jaipur, and made many improve- 
ments at Jind, Dadri, and Safidon. It is largely owing to his efforts 
that Jind is to-day the first of the Phulkian States as regards artistic 
manufactures. He died in 1887, leaving a grandson, Ranbir Singh, to 
succeed him. Raja Ranbir Singh was only eight years old at his 
accession, and a Council of Regency was appointed to carry on the 
administration until he attained majority. Full powers were given him 
in November, 1899, in a darbCir held at Sangrur, 

The southern portion of Kurukshetra lies within the boundaries of 
the State, but the antiquities of the tract have never been properly 
explored. There are several old buildings and tanks, especially in and 
around Safidon, for which an antiquity is claimed coeval with the 
events of the Mahabharata. 

The State contains 7 towns and 439 villages, and its population at 
the last three enumerations was: (1881) 249,862, (1891) 284,560, and 

(1901)282,00^. The decrease of I per cent, during . 

, , , , , r • I • u 1 Population, 

the last decade was due to famme, which caused con- 
siderable emigration from Dadri. It is divided into two nizdviats or 
administrative districts: Sangrur, which comprises the tahsil of that 
name ; and Jind, divided into the two ta/is'i/s of Jind and Dadri. 
Their head-quarters are at Sangrur and Jind respectively. The prin- 
cipal towns are Sangrur, the modem capital, Jind, the former capital, 
Safidon, D.\dri, and Kaliana. The table on the next page shows 
the chief statistics of population in 1901, 

Nearly three-fourths of the population are Hindus, only io-6 per 
cent, being Sikhs, though Jind is one of the principal Sikh States 
in the Punjab. The remainder arc Muhammadans (nearly 14 per 



17© 



JIXD STATE 



cent.), with a few Jains in the Dadri tahsiL The majority of the 
people speak Bangru, or its kindred dialects of Bagri and Ahlrwati, 
Punjabi being spoken only in the Sangrur tahs'il. 



Tahsil. 


Area n square 
miles. 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
s(]uare mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1 89 1 
and igoi. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 


H 

2 
2 
3 

7 


Villages. 


hangrur . 

JInd 

Dadri 

Stale total 


242 
464 
562 


95 
163 
181 


64,681 

124,954 
92,368 


267 
269 
164 


+ 8.6 
+ 0-9 
^8.7 


3,142 
2,679 
2,008 

7,829 


1,268 


439 


282,003 


222 


— O-Q 



Note.— The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns, 
total area of theBtate is tliat given in the Census Report. 



The 



More than 33 per cent, of the population are Jats, the Sidhu tribe, to 
which the ruling family belongs, being strong in Sangrur and the Sheo- 
ran in Dadri. Rajputs and Ahirs also form important castes in Dadri. 
The latter are exclusively Hindus. About 66 per cent, of the population 
are dependent on agriculture. A branch of the Reformed Presbyterian 
oNIission is established at Sangrur ; and 80 Christians, mostly members 
of the railway community at Jind, were enumerated in the State in 1901. 

Dadri tahsil is almost devoid of irrigation, and its conditions there- 
fore differ completely from those of Sangrur and JInd. Of these, 
Sangrur is now commanded by the Sirhind Canal, 
and its agricultural system has in consequence under- 
gone great changes, being now superior to that of Jind. Formerly an 
arid tract with sparse cultivation, its virgin soil has been rendered 
cultivable by the canal. Jind is irrigated from the Hansi branch of the 
older Western Jumna Canal, and its soil suffers both from excess of 
moisture and from exhaustion. Dadri is an arid, sandy tract, exposed 
to violent dust-storms in the hot season, and the sowing of either 
harvest depends entirely on the seasonal rains. 

The State is mostly held by communities of small peasant pro- 
prietors, though large estates cover about 400 square miles. The 
following table gives the main statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Sangrur . 

Jind .... 

Dadri 

Total 


2:;2 
489 
591 


203 
3S6 
238 


71 

77 
14 


35 
38 
39 


1;332 


827 


162 


112 



AGRICULTURE 171 

In Sangrur and Jind the principal harvest is the spring crop, in 
which wheat and barley and gram, mixed with mustard, are grown, 
cotton and sugar-cane (and in Sangrur maize) being cultivated for 
the autumn harvest. In Dadri wheat is rarely sown except on 
lands irrigated from wells, and the main harvest is in the autumn, 
when millet is the staple crop. Pulses are sown with millet, which is 
also grown to some extent in Jind. Gram is the staple crop of the 
spring harvest. 

In the jTnd tahs'il rent is taken either in cash or by division of pro- 
duce. Cash rents vary from Rs. 1-3-3 ^^ ^s. 1-9-3 for unirrigated 
land, while for irrigated land Rs. 4-12-9 is paid on cotton and double 
that amount on sugar-cane. ^Vhere the less valuable irrigated crops 
are grown, rent is paid in kind, the landlord taking one-fourth of 
the produce. In the Dadri tahs'il kind rents are very rare. From 
R. 0-12-9 to Rs. 3 per acre is paid for unirrigated land, and Rs. 4 
to Rs. 5 for land watered from wells. In the Sangrur tahsil rent is 
taken by division of crops. The rates are the same as in the Jind 
tahs'il. The construction of railways has tended to equalize the prices 
of grain in different parts of the State. 

Apart from the extension of canals, the State has since 1891 
advanced Rs. 8,000 for the construction of wells for irrigation and 
drinking purposes, and nearly Rs. 16,000 more has been provided from 
village funds. There is a State bank in each tahsil^ by which advances 
are made at half the ordinary rates of interest. The cultivated area 
increased by 4-5 per cent, between 1881 and 1901, but there is little 
room for further extension. 

Dadri, which lies close to Hariana, is the main cattle-breeding tract, 
the animals resembling the famous Hariana breed. Camels are also 
reared by the Rahbaris in this tahsil^ and used both for ploughing and 
carrying, as well as for riding. A good type of milch buffalo is found 
in Jind. The State maintains three Reserves in which grazing is 
allowed on payment. 

The State owns 7-6 per cent, of the Sirhind Canal. Of the total area 
cultivated in 1903-4, 162 square miles, or more than 13 per cent., were 
classed as irrigated. Of this area, 37 square miles were irrigated from 
wells, 121 from canals, and 4 from streams. There are 2,292 masonry 
wells in use, besides 289 unbricked wells, lever wells, and water-lifts. 
^Vells are virtually confined to Sangrur and Dadri, as the cost of 
making them is prohibitive in the Jind tahs'il. The bucket and rope 
are commonly used, but a few Persian wheels are found in one part of 
the State. In 1903-4, 27 square miles were irrigated from the Sirhind 
Canal and 4 from the Ghaggar river and other streams in Sangrur, 
while in the Jind tahsil the Western Jumna Canal irrigated 60 square 
miles. The Hansi and Butana branches of the Western Jumna Canal 

VOL. xiv. M 



172 JiND STATE 

were managed by the British Government prior to 1888. In that year, 
however, an agreement was made by which the State took over distribu- 
taries irrigating 60,000 acres on payment of Rs. 1,20,000, less the 
cost of maintenance, &c., giving a net amount of about Rs. 1,05,500 
a year payable to Government. The State is also allowed to irrigate 
10,000 acres free of water rate, if there is a sufficient supply of water 
in the canal. The Bhiwani branch, still under British management, 
irrigates about 2,300 acres in this tahsil, for which the State pays 
the water rates fixed for British villages, plus 50 per cent, in lieu of 
owner's rate. 

The only forests are the three Reserves already mentioned. These 
are called blrs and have an area of 2,623 acres. While yielding an 
income of over Rs. 2,000 in normal years, they also form valuable 
fodder reserves for the cattle in time of famine. 

The State contains no mines or minerals, with the exception of stone 
and kankar quarries and saltpetre, the last of which yields a revenue 
of nearly Rs. 15,000. Stone is quarried in the Dadri tahstl, but most 
of it is used locally. 

The only industries of any importance are the manufacture of gold 

and silver ornaments, leathern and wood-work, cotton cloth, and rude 

pottery. The towns of Sangrur and Dadri are noted 

. j^ for their leathern goods, shoes, harness, and well- 
communications. ° ' ' ' _ ,. , 
gear; and m the former good furniture of English 

pattern is made. In the Sangrur tahsil embroidery is done by women 

for local sale and some of it is exported. There is some turnery at 

Dadri. The only factory is a steam cotton-ginning and pressing 

factory at Jind town, which in 1903-4 gave employment to 120 

persons. 

Large quantities of grain are exported through Sangrur, Jind, and 
Dadri. Other exports are cotton, ghi, and oilseeds, while the chief 
imports are refined sugar and cotton cloth. 

The Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal Railway was opened in 1901, the State 
finding four-fifths of the capital for its construction. It connects 
Sangrur, the capital, with Dhuri Junction on the Rajpura-Bhatinda 
branch of the North- Western Railway and with Jakhal Junction on the 
Southern Punjab Railway, and is managed by the North- Western Rail- 
way in return for 55 per cent, of the gross earnings. The Southern 
Punjab Railway has three stations in the Jind tahsil, and the Rajput- 
ana-Malwa Railway two in Dadri. Sangrur is also connected by 
metalled roads with Dhuri and Patiala, and with Jind by a partially 
metalled road. The State contains 42 miles of metalled roads and 
191 miles of unmetalled roads. The postal and telegraphic arrange- 
ments are similar to those in Patiala. 

In common with the rest of the Punjab, the State suffered from the 



A DMINISTRA TION 1 7 3 

famines of 1783, 1803, 1812, 1824, and 1833. That of 1860-T also 

affected the State, especially the Dadri tahsil, and _ 

1 ir , • . 1 J r .L Famine. 

half a year s revenue was remitted, advances tor the 

purchase of cattle and seed being also given. In 1869-70 a fodder 
famine caused great losses of cattle, and a fifth of the revenue was 
remitted in the Jind tahsil, advances being also made in Dadri. In 
1877-8 the scarcity was more severe and was met by loans from the 
State banks. In 1883-4 a fodder famine again caused great loss of 
cattle, and revenue was largely suspended. In 1896 famine reappeared, 
and Rs. 27,500 was allotted for relief works, 7,000 maunds of grain 
were distributed as advances for seed, and Rs. 3,000 spent in charitable 
relief; and though the scarcity was intensified in 1897, the losses were 
not severe. In 1899 the crops failed again before the people had had 
time to recover from the effects of the preceding famine. Two months 
after the opening of relief works in October, 1899, it was resolved to 
concentrate the famine-stricken people on the Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal 
Railway. The highest daily average (1,260) was reached in March, 
1900. Works were not closed until December, 1900, and the total 
expenditure on them exceeded Rs. 40,000. Poorhouses were also 
opened and relief given privately at a cost of nearly Rs. 23,000, exclud- 
ing the expenditure on additional dispensaries and the relief of immi- 
grants. On the conclusion of the famine, Rs. 1,58,000 was advanced 
to the people for the purchase of cattle and seed, bringing up the total 
expenditure incurred by the State to Rs. 2,27,000. 

The Agent to the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab for Jind is the 
Political Agent for the Phulkian States and Bahawalpur, who resides at 

Patiala. The administration of the State is divided . , . . 
,^ r J ^ „. „. ,, Administration, 

between four departments, l^oreign aflan-s and edu- 
cation are controlled by the foreign minister. The Diwan controls 
finance, excise, and revenue ; the Bakhshi Khana under the com- 
mander-in-chief is responsible for the army and the police, and the 
Adalati or minister of justice for civil and criminal justice. The heads 
of these departments sitting together form a State Council known as 
the Sadr Aid, to which each of the ministers individually is sub- 
ordinate. The Council again is controlled by the Raja. The accoun- 
tant-general's office was established in 1899. For administrative 
purposes the State is divided into two nizdmats and three tahsils. 
Each tahsil is further subdivided into police circles, the Sangrur tahsil 
containing three, jTnd and Dadri two each. Each nizdtiuit is adminis- 
tered by a ?idzi/ii, under whom is a tahsilddr in each tahsil. 

In each nizd?nat the ndzim and tahsilddrs exercise judicial powers, 
and in 1899 a subdivisional magistrate was appointed in the Dadri 
tahsil. The ndzim corresponds roughly to a District Magistrate, and 
from his decisions appeals lie to the Sadr Addlat, which is presided 

M 2 



174 JiND STATE 

over by the Adalati. Further appeals lie to the Sadr Aid, which is 
subordinate to the IJlds-i-Khds, or court of the Raja. All these courts 
exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction. The Indian Penal Code 
and Criminal Procedure Code are in force in the State, with certain 
modifications. 

The principal feudatory is the Sardar of Badrukhan, the representa- 
tive of the junior branch of the ruling family. The Jdgir is w^orth 
Rs. 8,843 psr annum, and is subject to the usual incidents of lapse and 
commutation. The Raja of Nabha is a member of this family. 

In the time of Raja Gajpat Singh the State consisted only of the 
four parganas of Jind, Safldon, Sangrur, and Balanwali, with a revenue 
of about 3 lakhs. Before the settlements made by Raja Sarup Singh, 
a fluctuating system of assessment was in vogue, including batai, kan- 
kfit, and cash rates fixed on the nature of crops. The settlements were 
made in different years for each tahs'il. Between 1857 and 1866 
a summary settlement of the Sangrur and Jind tahslls was conducted, 
resulting in a total demand of 3-2 lakhs. Shortly after this a regular 
settlement of the whole State was made, which produced a fixed 
revenue of 5-9 lakhs. In both of these settlements the batai system 
was partly continued. Two regular settlements followed, when cash 
rates were introduced throughout. The assessment of the fourth settle- 
ment was 6-2 lakhs. Revenue rates on unirrigated land vary from 
a minimum of R. 0-4-1 in Dadri to a maximum of Rs. 1-12-10 in 
Sangrur, and on irrigated land from a minimum of R. 0-6-1 in Dadri 
to a maximum of Rs. 2-5-9 in Sangrur. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue (including 
cesses) are shown below, in thousands of rupees :— 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


190Q-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue- 
Total revenue 


7.14 
10,71 


7,15 
12,67 


8,03 
14.93 


7.54 
16,04 



Apart from land revenue, the principal sources of revenue, with the 
amounts derived from each in 1903-4, are as follows: canals (2-5 lakhs), 
railways (1-2 lakhs), and stamps (o-6 lakh). The principal heads of 
expenditure are army (2-7 lakhs), canals (1-2 lakhs), public works 
(0-9 lakh), police (0-5 lakh), and miscellaneous (8-8 lakhs). 

The income derived from excise in 1903-4 was Rs. 29,000, Liquor 
is distilled on premises which belong to the State, under the supervision 
of State officials, and still-head duties are levied of Rs. 2-8-0 per proof 
gallon and Rs. 2 per gallon of 25° under proof. The arrangement re- 
garding the import of Malwa opium is similar to that which obtains 
in the case of Patiala, but the quantity allowed to Jind at the lower 
rate never exceeds 1 9 chests. The duty paid on this opium is refunded 



ADMINISTRA TION 175 

to the State, with the object of securing the co-operation of the officials 
in the suppression of smuggHng. The import of opium from Dadri 
into British territory is prohibited. The contracts for the retail sale 
of opium, drugs, and liquor are auctioned, and wholesale licences 
are granted on payment of a fixed fee. The excise arrangements are 
under the control of a Superintendent, who is subordinate to the 
Dlwan. 

The mint is controlled by the State treasurer, but, as in the case 
of Patiala, coins are struck only on special occasions, and these can 
hardly be said to be current coinage. The Jlnd rupee bears an in- 
scription similar to that on the Patiala rupee, to the effect that it is 
struck under the authority of Ahmad Shah Durrani. (See article on 
Patiala.) The value of the coin is about 12 annas. Gold coins 
are also struck. 

The towns of Sangrur, Jind, SafIdon, and Dadri have been 
constituted municipalities. 

The expenditure on public works in 1903-4 was Rs. 90,854 ; and 
the principal buildings erected by the department since 1900 are the 
RanbTr College, the RanbTr Ganj, the Record Office, and the Female 
Hospital, all at Sangrur. 

The State army consists of a battalion of Imperial Service infantry, 
600 strong, with all necessary transport ; and a local force of 220 
cavalry, 560 infantry, 80 artillery, and 16 serviceable guns. 

The police force had in 1903-4 a total strength of 405 of all ranks, 
and the village watchmen numbered 523. The police force is con- 
trolled by an Inspector-General, under whom there is a Superintendent 
for each of the three fahsl/s, and a deputy-inspector for each of the 
seven police stations. The principal jail is at Sangrur. It has accom- 
modation for 320 prisoners, and is managed by a ddroga under the 
supervision of the Adalatl. The chief jail industries are printing, 
weaving, bookbinding, and the making of dar'is (cotton carpets), paper, 
webbing, and rope. 

In 1 90 1 the proportion of literate persons was 2-8 per cent. (5 males 
and 0-2 females). The number of pupils under instruction was 602 
in 1890-1, 791 in 1900-1, and 730 in 1903-4. In the last year the 
State had 4 secondary and 7 primary and special (public) schools, 
and 15 elementary (private) schools, with 3 girls in the private schools. 
The eleven institutions classed as public were all managed by the 
Educational department of the State. The existing system dates from 
1889, when the old State schools at Sangrur, Jind, Dadri, and Safidon 
were remodelled, so as to bring them into line with the regulations 
of the Punjab Educational department. In 1894 the school at San- 
grur was raised to the status of a high school, and in 1902 the Diamond 
Jubilee College was completed at that town. The expenditure of 



176 JIND STATE 

the State on education was Rs. 9,300 in 1892-3 and Rs. 10,400 in 
1903-4. 

The State contains 3 hospitals and 6 dispensaries, with accom- 
modation for 64 in-patients. In 1903-4 the number of cases treated 
was 29,129, of whom 166 were in-patients, and 867 operations were 
performed. The expenditure was Rs. 17,815. The medical depart- 
ment is in charge of the State Medical officer. 

Vaccination, which is compulsory throughout the State, is carried 
out by a staff of four vaccinators under an inspector. In 1903-4 
the number of vaccinations performed was 4,752, representing 16-9 
per 1,000 of the population. 

Revenue survey maps were prepared for each tahsll at the first 
settlement. They were revised during the second and third settle- 
ments, and during the fourth settlement a fresh survey of Jind and 
Sangrur was made and new maps were prepared. For the Jind iahsil, 
a map on the 4-inch scale was made. The first trigonometrical sur- 
vey was made between 1847 and 1849, and maps were published 
on the I -inch and 2-inch scales. A 4-inch map of the Cis-Sutlej 
States was published in 1863, and a revised edition of it in 1897. The 
i-inch maps prepared in 1847-9 ^^''^ revised in 1886-92. 

[H. A. Rose, Fhidkinti States Gazetteer (in the press) ; L. H. Griffin, 
The Rdjds of the Punjab (second edition, 1873).] 

Jind Nizamat.— South-eastern nizdmat or administrative district 
of Jind State, Punjab, lying between 28° 24' and 29° 28' N. and 
75° 55' ^"d 7^° 4^' E'j wi^h ^'^ ^''s^ o^ 1,080 square miles. It com- 
prises the two fahslls of Jind and Uadri. The population in 1901 
was 217,322, compared with 225,039 in 1891. The nizmnat contains 
five towns, Jind, the head-quarters, SafIdon, Dadri, Kaliana, and 
Braund; and 344 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 4-7 lakhs. 

Jind Tahsil. — Northern iahs'tl of the Jind State and nizatnat, Pun- 
jab, lying between 29° 2' and 29° 28' N. and 76° 15' and 76° 48' E., 
with an area of 489 square miles. It forms a compact triangle, almost 
entirely surrounded by the British Districts of Karnal, Delhi, Rohtak, 
and Hissar, while on the north it is bounded by the Narwana tahstl 
of Patiala. It lies entirely in the natural tract known as the Bangar, 
and includes a part of the Nardak or Kurukshetra, the sacred land 
of the Hindus. The population in 1901 was 124,954, compared 
with 123,898 in 1891. The tahsll contains two towns, Jind (popu- 
lation, 8,047), the head-quarters, and SafIdon (4,832) ; and 163 
villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-3 
lakhs. 

Jind Town. —Head-quarters of the Jind nizdmat and tahslt, Jind 
Slate, Punjab, situated in 29° 20' N. and 76° 19' E., on the Southern 



JIRl 177 

Punjab Railwa)', 60 miles south-east of Sangrur, the modern capital, 
and 25 miles north-west of Rohtak. Population (1901), 8,047. It 
was formerly the capital of the State to which it gave its name, and 
the Rajas of Jlnd are still installed here. It lies in the holy tract 
of Kurukshetra ; and tradition ascribes its foundation to the Panda- 
vas, who built a temple here to Jainti Devi, the ' goddess of victory,' 
round which sprang up the town Jaintapuri, since corrupted into Jlnd. 
Of little importance in the Muhammadan period, it was seized by 
Gajpat Singh, the first Raja of Jind, in 1755. Rahim Dad Khan 
was sent by the Delhi government in 1775 to recover it, but was 
defeated and killed. His tomb is still to be seen at the Safidon 
Gate, and trophies of the victory are preserved in the town. It con- 
tains many ancient temples, and several places of pilgrimage. The 
fort of Fatehgarh, part of which is now used as a jail, was built by 
Raja Gajpat Singh. The municipality has an income of Rs. 7,210, 
chiefly from octroi ; and there is a considerable local trade. 

Jinjiram. — River of Assam, which rises in the Urpad b'll^ Goalpara 
District, and flows through the southern portion of that District till it 
falls into the Brahmaputra, south of Manikarchar, after a course of 
120 miles. The most important places on its banks are Lakhipur, 
South Salmara, and Singimari. Above Salmara the country is under 
water during the rains, and boats of 4 tons burden can proceed as far 
as Lakhipur. In the dry season they cannot get above Singimari. 
The river serves as a trade route for the southern portion of Goalpara 
and the Garo Hills. 

Jintur. — Northern tdluk of Parbhani District, Hyderabad State, with 
an area of 952 square miles. Includingy^z^'Jr^, the population in 1901 
was 87,797, compared with 123,546 in 1891, the decrease being due to 
the famine of 1900. The tdluk contains 297 villages, of which 37 are 
jdglr, and Jintur (population, 3,688) is the head-quarters. The land 
revenue in 1901 was 3-2 lakhs. The tdluk lies between the rivers 
Puma (north) and Dudna (south). The soils are mainly alluvial and 
regar. 

Jiral Kamsoli.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Jirang.— Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
The population in 1901 was 723, and the gross revenue in 1903-4 
Rs. 2,245. The principal products are rice, millet, ginger, caoutchouc, 
and cotton. 

jiri. — River of Assam, which rises on the southern slopes of the 
Barail, and, after a southerly course of 75 miles, falls into the Barak 
or Surma. For nearly the whole of its length it forms the boundary 
between Cachar District and the State of Manipur, and it is crossed at 
Jirighat by a ferry, which is maintained for the use of travellers along 
the Silchar-Manipur road. The greater part of its course lies through 



lyS JIRI 

hilly country, and there is very little cultivated land in the vicinity. 
The only trafific brought down by the river consists of forest produce 
and tea from a garden situated at Jirighat, about 5 miles above its 
confluence with the Barak. 

Jobat. — A guaranteed chiefship in Central India, under the Bho- 
pawar Agency, lying between 22° 21' and 22° 30' N. and 74° 28' and 
74° 50' E., with an area of about 140 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by the Jhabua State ; on the south and west by Ali-Rajpur ; 
and on the east by Gwalior. Jobat lies entirely in the hilly tract of the 
Vindhyas, and is intersected by a succession of short ranges and narrow 
valleys covered with thick jungle. The geological formations met with 
are of unusual interest. In the immediate neighbourhood of the town 
of Jobat, and covering a considerable area round it, is an outcrop of 
a peculiar jaspideous, ferruginous rock, while the greater part of the 
State is occupied by gneissose and schistose rocks. Along the northern 
border the Lametas are represented by the Nimar sandstone and 
Bagh limestones, overlaid by trap. The annual rainfall averages about 
30 inches. 

There is some uncertainty as to the founder of this State ; but the 
best-supported account relates that the territory passed to Kesar Deo, 
great-grandson of Anand Deo, the founder of Ali-Rajpur, in the fifteenth 
century. On the establishment of British supremacy, Rana Sabal Singh 
was in possession, and was succeeded by Rana Ranjit Singh, who 
died in 1874. Ranjit Singh in 1864 agreed to cede all land which 
might at any time be required for railways through his State. He 
was followed by Sarup Singh, who died in 1897, and was succeeded 
by the present chief, IndrajTt Singh, who is still a minor, and is 
being educated at the Daly College at Indore. The title of Rana 
is borne by the rulers of Jobat. 

Population has been : (1881) 9,387, (1891) 15,047, and (1901) 9,443) 
giving a density of 67 persons per square mile. The decrease of 
37 per cent, during the last decade is due mainly to the famine of 
1899-1900. Animists (chiefly BhTls and Bhilalas) number 8,131, or 
86 per cent, of the total. 

The general fertility of the soil is low, and the BhTls, who form the 
greater part of the population, are indifferent agriculturists. The total 
area is thus distributed : cultivated, 32 square miles, of which only 
62 acres can be irrigated; cultivable but not under cultivation, 30 square 
miles; waste and forest land, 78 square miles. Of the cropped area, 
?/r^ occupies 17 square miles, or 53 per cent. ; maize, 10 square miles; 
andy<?7mr, 7 square miles. 

The forest area, which covers almost the whole of the uncultivable 
portion of the State, has since 1902 been in charge of the Agency 
Forest officer. Asbestos has been found in some quantity, but the 



JODHPUR STATE 179 

quality is poor, and an attempt to work it proved a failure. Trade 
generally has increased, especially the export of grain, which is carried 
to Dohad on the Godhra Ujjain section of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway by a fair-weather road, 40 miles in length. 
A British post office has been opened at Ghora village ; the nearest 
telegraph office is at Bagh in the Amjhera district of Gwalior, 15 miles 
distant. 

The State is divided into five thdtias — Jobat, Guda, Hirapur, Thapli, 
and Juarl — under two thdfiaddrs, who are the revenue collectors. 
Owing to the chief's minority, the State is at present administered by 
the Political Agent, through a Superintendent, all matters of importance 
being dealt with by him. The total revenue is Rs. 21,000, of which 
Rs. 8,300 is derived from land, Rs. 2,700 from forests, and Rs. 4,000 
from excise. The general administration, including the chief's establish- 
ment, costs Rs. 15,000 a year. The incidence of the land revenue 
demand is 9 annas per acre of cultivated land and 2 annas per acre 
of total area. The jail is at Jobat, and a vernacular school is main- 
tained at Ghora. In 1901 only one per cent, of the population (almost 
all males) could read and write. 

Jobat village, containing the residence of the chief, is situated in 
22° 27' N. and 74° 37' E. Population (1901), 208. It is reached 
from the Dohad or Meghnagar stations on the Ratlam-Godhra section 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, the stations being 
40 miles distant by fair-weather road from the village. The adminis- 
trative head-quarters, however, are at Ghora, 2 miles south of Jobat. 
Population (1901), 1,154. The State is often called Ghora-Jobat by 
natives, on account of its two capitals. 

Jodhpur State (also called Marwar). — The largest State in 
Rajputana, having an area of 34,963 square miles, or more than one- 
fourth of the total area of the Agency. It lies between 24° 37' and 
27° 42' N. and 70° 6' and 75° 22' E. It is bounded on the north by 
Blkaner ; on the north-west by Jaisalmer ; on the west by Sind ; on 
the south-west by the Rann of Cutch ; on the south by Palanpur and 
Sirohi ; on the south-east by Udaipur ; on the east by Ajmer-Merwara 
and Kishangarh ; and on the north-east by Jaipur. The country, as 

its name Marwar (= 'region of death') implies, 

Phvsic3.1 
is sterile, sandy, and inhospitable. There are some aspects 

comparatively fertile lands in the north-east, east, 

and south-east in the neighbourhood of the Aravalli Hills ; but, 

generally speaking, it is a dreary waste covered with sandhills, rising 

sometimes to a height of 300 or 400 feet, and the desolation becomes 

more absolute and marked as one proceeds westwards. The northern 

and north-western portion is a mere desert, known as the thal^ in 

which, it has been said, there are more spears than spear-grass heads, 



i8o JODHPUR STATE 

and blades of steel grow better than blades of corn. The country here 
resembles an undulating sea of sand ; an occasional oasis is met with, 
but water is exceedingly scarce and often 200 to 300 feet below the sur- 
face. The Aravalli Hills form the entire eastern boundary of the 
State, the highest peak within Jodhpur limits being in the south-east 
(3,607 feet above the sea). Several small offshoots of the Aravallis 
lie in the south, notably the Sunda hills (Jaswantpura), where a height 
of 3,252 feet is attained, the Chappan-ka-pahar near Siwana (3,199 
feet), and the Roja hills at Jalor (2,408 feet). Scattered over the State 
are numerous isolated hills, varying in height from 1,000 to 2,000 feet. 
The only important river is the Luni. Its chief tributaries are the 
Lllri, the Raipur Luni, the Guhiya, the Bandi, the Sukri, and the 
Jawai on the left bank, and the Jojri on the right. The principal 
lake is the famous salt lake at Sambhar. Two other depressions of 
the same kind exist at Dldwana and Pachbhadra. There are a few 
jhlh or marshes, notably one near Bhatki in the south-west, which 
covers an area of 40 or 50 square miles in the rainy season, and the 
bed of which, when dry, yields good crops of wheat and gram. 

A large part of the State is covered by sand-dunes of the transverse 
type, that is, with their longer axes at right angles to the prevailing 
wind. Isolated hills of solid rock are scattered over the plain. The 
oldest rocks found are schists of the Aravalli system, and upon them 
rests unconformably a great series of ancient subaerial rhyolites with 
subordinate bands of conglomerate, the Mallani series. These cover 
a large area in the west and extend to the capital. Coarse-grained 
granites of two varieties, one containing no mica and the other both 
hornblende and mica, are associated with the rhyolites. Near the 
capital, sandstones of Vindhyan age rest unconformably upon the 
rhyolites. Some beds of conglomerate, showing traces of glacial 
action, have been found at Pokaran and are referred to the Talcher 
period. Sandstones and conglomerates with traces of fossil leaves 
occur at Barmer, and are probably of Jurassic age. The famous 
marble quarries of Makrana are situated in Jodhpur territory, the 
marble being found among the crystalline Aravalli schists. 

The eastern and some of the southern districts are well wooded with 
natural forests, the most important indigenous timber-tree being the 
babul {Acacia arabica), the leaves and pods of which are used as fodder 
in the hot season, while the bark is a valuable tanning and dyeing 
agent. Among other trees may be mentioned the mahud {Bassia 
latifolia), valuable for its timber and flowers; the atiwal {Cassia 
auriculata), the bark of which is largely used in tanning ; the dhdk or 
palas {Butea fro7idosa), the dhao {Anogeissus pendula\ the gTdar {Ficus 
gloniera/n), the siris {Albizzia Lebbek), and the khair {Acacia Catechu). 
Throughout the plains the khcira {Prosnpis spicigera), the rohira {Tecoma 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS i8i 

undulnfa), and the nlm {Melia Azadirachta) are common, and the 
tamarind and the bar {Ficus bejigalensis) are fairly so. The pipal {Ficus 
reiigiosa), a sacred tree, is found in almost every village. The principal 
fruit trees are the pomegranate {Pufiica Grafiatum), the Jodhpur variety 
of which is celebrated for its delicate flavour, and the nwibu or lime- 
tree. In the desert the chief trees are two species of the ber {Zizyphus 
Jujuba and Z. mnnmularia)^ which flourish even in years of scanty 
rainfall, and furnish the main fodder and fruit-supply of this part of the 
country ; and the khej'ra, which is not less important, as its leaves and 
shoots provide the inhabitants with vegetables (besides being eaten by 
camels, goats, and cattle), its pods are consumed as fruits, its wood is 
used for roofs, carts, and agricultural implements or as fuel, and its 
fresh bark is, in years of famine, stripped off" and ground with grain to 
give the meagre meal a more substantial bulk. 

The fauna is varied. Lions are now extinct, the last four having 
been shot near Jaswantpura about 1872, and the wild ass {Equus 
hemiofiiis) is seldom, if ever, seen. Tiger, sdmbar {Cervus unicolor), 
and black bears are found in the Aravallis and the Jaswantpura and 
Jalor hills, but in yearly decreasing numbers, ^^■ild hog are fairly 
numerous in the same localities, but are scarcer than they used to be 
in the low hills adjacent to the capital. Leopards and hyenas are 
generally plentiful, and nilgai {Boselaphus tragocamelus) are found in 
some of the northern and eastern districts. Indian gazelle abound 
in the plains, as also do antelope, save in the actual desert ; but the 
cKital {Cet-vus axis) is seen only on the slopes of the Aravallis in 
the south-east. Wolves are numerous in the west, and wild dogs are 
occasionally met with in the forests. In addition to the usual small 
game, there are several species of sand-grouse (including the imperial), 
and two of bustard, namely, the great Indian {Eipodotis edwardsi) 
and the houbdrd {Houbara macqueeni). 

The climate is dry, even in the monsoon period, and characterized 
by extreme variations of temperature during the cold season. The hot 
months are fairly healthy, but the heat is intense ; scorching winds 
prevail with great violence in April, May, and June, and sand-storms 
are of frequent occurrence. The climate is often pleasant towards the 
end of July and in August and September ; but a second hot season 
is not uncommon in October and the first half of November. In the 
cold season (November 15 to about March 15) the mean daily range 
is sometimes as much as 30°, and malarial and other fevers prevail. 
An observatory was opened at Jodhpur city in October, 1896, and the 
average daily mean temperature for the nine years ending 1905 has 
been nearly 81° (varying from 62-7° in January to 94-2° in May). 
The mean daily range is about 25° (i6-6° in August and 30-5° in 
November). The highest temperature recorded since the observatory 



1 82 JODHPUR STATE 

was established has been 121° on June 10, 1897, and the lowest 28° 
on January 29, 1905, 

The country is situated outside the regular course of both the south- 
west and north-east monsoons, and the rainfall is consequently scanty 
and irregular. Moreover, even in ordinary years, it varies considerably 
in different districts, and is so erratic and fitful that it is a common 
saying among the village folk that ' sometimes only one horn of the 
cow lies within the rainy zone and the other without.' The annual 
rainfall for the whole State averages about 13 inches, nearly all received 
in July, August, and September. The fall varies from less than 
7 inches at Sheo in the west to about 13 inches at the capital, and 
nearly i8-| inches at Jaswantpura (in the south) and Bali in the south- 
east. The heaviest fall recorded in any one year was over 55^ inches 
at Sanchor (in the south-west) in 1893, whereas in 1899 two of the 
western districts (Sheo and Sankra) received but 0-14 inch each. 

The Maharaja of Jodhpur is the head of the Rathor clan of Rajputs, 
and claims descent from Rama, the deified king of Ajodhya. The 
original name of the clan was Rashtra ('protector'), 
and subsequently eulogistic suffixes and prefixes 
were attached, such as Rashtrakuta {knta - ' highest ') or Maharashtra 
{fmi/td — ' great '), &c. The clan is mentioned in some of Asoka's 
edicts as rulers of the Deccan, but their earliest known king is 
Abhimanyu of the fifth or sixth century a.d., from which time onward 
their history is increasingly clear. For nearly four centuries preceding 
^•^- 973 the Rashtrakiitas gave nineteen kings to the Deccan; but in 
the year last mentioned they were driven out by the Chalukyas (Solanki 
Rajputs) and sought shelter in Kanauj, where a branch of their family 
is said to have formed a settlement early in the ninth century. Here, 
after living in comparative obscurity for about twenty-five years, they 
dispossessed their protecting kinsmen and founded a new dynasty 
known by the name of Gaharwar. There were seven kings of this 
dynasty (though the first two are said to have never actually ruled over 
Kanauj), and the last was Jai Chand, who in 1194 was defeated by 
Muhammad GhorT, and, while attempting to escape, was drowned in 
the Ganges. The nearer kinsmen of Jai Chand, unwilling to submit 
to the conqueror, sought in the scrub and desert of Rajputana a second 
line of defence against the advancing wave of Muhammadan conquest. 
SiahjT, the grandson (or, according to some, the nephew) of Jai Chand, 
with about 200 followers, ' the wreck of his vassalage,' accomplished 
the pilgrimage to Dwarka, and is next found conquering Kher 
(in Mallani) and the neighbouring tract from the Gohel Rajputs, and 
planting the standard of the Rathors amidst the sandhills of the Luni 
in 1 212. About the same time a community of Brahmans held the 
city and extensive lands of Pali, and, being greatly harassed by Mers, 



HISTORY 183 

Bhils, and Minas, invoked the aid of Siahji in dispersing them. This 
he readily accomplished ; and, when subsequently invited to settle in 
the place as its protector, celebrated the next Holi festival by putting 
to death the leading men, and in this way adding the district to his 
conquests. The foundation of the State now called Jodhpur thus 
dates from about 1 2 1 2 ; but this was not the first appearance of the 
Rathors in Marwar, for, as the article on Bali shows, five of this clan 
ruled at Hathundi in the south-east in the tenth century. In Siahji's 
time, however, the greater part of the country was held by Parihar, 
Gohel, Chauhan, or Paramara Rajputs. The nine immediate successors 
of Siahji were engaged in perpetual broils with the people among 
whom they had settled, and in 1381 the tenth, Rao Chonda, accom- 
plished what they had been unable to do. He took ^Mandor from the 
Parihar chief, and made his possession secure by marrying the latter's 
daughter. This place was the Rathor capital for the next seventy-eight 
years, and formed a convenient base for adventures farther afield, 
which resulted in the annexation of Nagaur and other places before 
the Rao's death about 1409. His son and successor. Ran Mai, who 
was a brother-in-law of Rana Lakha, appears to have spent most 
of his time at Chitor, where he interfered in Mewar politics and was 
assassinated in an attempt to usurp the throne of the infant Rana 
Kumbha. The next chief was Rao Jodha, who, after annexing Sojat 
in 1455, laid the foundation of Jodhpur city in 1459 and transferred 
thither the seat of government. He had fourteen (or, according to 
some authorities, seventeen) sons, of whom the eldest, Satal, succeeded 
him about 1488, but was killed three years later in a battle with the 
Subahdar of Ajmer, while the sixth was Bika, the founder of the 
Bikaner State. Satal was followed by his brother Suja, remembered 
as the 'cavalier prince,' who in 15 16 met his death in a fight with the 
Pathans at the Pipar fair while rescuing 140 Rathor maidens who were 
being carried off. Rao Ganga (1516-32) sent his clansmen to fight 
under the standard of Mewar against the Mughal emperor, Babar, and 
on the fatal field of Khanua (1527) his grandson Rai Mai and several 
other Rathors of note were slain. 

Rao Maldeo (1532-69) was styled by Firishta 'the most powerful 
prince in Hindustan ' ; he conquered and annexed numerous districts 
and strongholds, and, in his time, Marwar undoubtedly reached its 
zenith of power, territory, and independence. When the emperor 
Humayun was driven from the throne by Sher Shah, he sought in vain 
the protection of Maldeo ; but the latter derived no advantage from 
this inhospitality, for Sher Shah in 1544 led an army of 80,000 men 
against him. In the engagements that ensued the Afghan was very 
nearly beaten, and his position was becoming daily more critical, till 
at last he had recourse to a stratagem which secured for him so narrow 



1 84 JODHPUR STATE 

and barren a victory that he was forced to declare that he had ' nearly 
lost the empire of India for a handful of bajra'' — an allusion to the 
poverty of the soil of Marwar as unfitted to produce richer grain. 
Subsequently Akbar invaded the country and, after an obstinate and 
sanguinary defence, captured the forts of Merta and Nagaur. To 
appease him, Maldeo sent his second son to him with gifts ; but the 
emperor was so dissatisfied with the disdainful bearing of the desert 
chief, who refused personally to attend his court, that he besieged 
Jodhpur, forced the Rao to pay homage in the person of his eldest son, 
Udai Singh, and even presented to the Bikaner chief, a scion of the 
Jodhpur house, a formal grant for the State of Jodhpur together with 
the leadership of the clan. Rao Maldeo died shortly afterwards ; and 
then commenced a civil strife between his two sons, Udai Singh and 
Chandra Sen, ending in favour of the latter, who, though the younger, 
was the choice of both his father and the nobles. He, however, ruled 
for only a few years, and was succeeded (about 1581) by his brother, 
who, by giving his sister, Jodh Bai, in marriage to Akbar, and his 
daughter Man Bai to the prince Salim (Jahanglr), recovered all the 
former possessions of his house, except Ajmer, and obtained several 
rich districts in Malwa and the title of Raja. The next two chiefs, 
Stir Singh (1595-1620) and Gaj Singh (1620-38), served with great 
distinction in several battles in Gujarat and the Deccan. The brilliant 
exploits of the former gained for him the title of Sawai Raja, while 
the latter, besides being viceroy of the Deccan, was styled Dalbhanjan 
(or ' destroyer of the army ') and Dalthambhan (or ' leader of the host '). 
Jaswant Singh (1638-78) was the first ruler of Marwar to receive the 
title of Maharaja. His career was a remarkable one. In 1658 he was 
appointed viceroy of Malwa, and received the command of the army 
dispatched against Aurangzeb and Murad, who were then in rebellion 
against their father. Being over-confident of victory and anxious to 
triumph over two princes in one day, he delayed his attack until they 
had joined forces, and in the end suffered a severe defeat at Fatehabad 
near Ujjain. Aurangzeb subsequently sent assurances of pardon to 
Jaswant Singh, and summoned him to join the army then being 
collected against Shuja. The summons was obeyed, but as soon as the 
battle commenced he wheeled about, cut to pieces Aurangzeb's rear- 
guard, plundered his camp, and marched with the spoils to Jodhpur. 
Later on he served as viceroy of Gujarat and the Deccan, and finally in 
1678, in order to get rid of him, Aurangzeb appointed him to lead an 
army against the Afghans. He died in the same year at Jamrud, and 
was succeeded by his posthumous son, Ajit Singh, during \vhose infancy 
Aurangzeb invaded Marwar, sacked Jodhpur and all the large towns, 
destroyed the temples and commanded the conversion of the Rathor 
race to Islam. This cruel policy cemented into one bond of union all 



HISTORY 185 

who cherished either patriotism or reHgion, and in the wars that ensued 
the emperor gained httle of either honour or advantage. On Aurang- 
zeb's death in 1707 Ajit Singh proceeded to Jodhpur, slaughtered or 
dispersed the imperial garrison, and recovered his capital. In the fol- 
lowing year he became a party to the triple alliance with Udaipur and 
Jaipur to throw off the Muhammadan yoke. One of the conditions of 
this alliance was that the chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the 
privilege of marrying with the Udaipur family, which they had forfeited 
by contracting matrimonial alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the 
understanding that the offspring of Udaipur princesses should suc- 
ceed to the State in preference to all other children. The allies fought 
a successful battle at Sambhar in 1709, and a year or so later forced 
Bahadur Shah to make peace. 

When the Saiyid brothers — 'the Warwicks of the East' — were in 
power, they called upon Ajit Singh to mark his subservience to the 
Delhi court in the customary manner by sending a contingent headed 
by his heir to serve. This he declined to do, so his capital was in- 
vested, his eldest son (Abhai Singh) was taken to Delhi as a hostage, 
and he was compelled, among other things, to give his daughter in mar- 
riage to Farrukhsiyar and himself repair to the imperial court. For 
a few years Ajit Singh was mixed up in all the intrigues that occurred ; 
but on the murder of Farrukhsiyar in 17 19, he refused his sanction to 
the nefarious schemes of the Saiyids, and in 1720 returned to his 
capital, leaving Abhai Singh behind. In 1721 Ajit Singh seized Ajmer, 
where he coined money in his own name, but had to surrender the place 
to Muhammad Shah two years later. In the meantime, Abhai Singh 
had been persuaded that the only mode of arresting the ruin of the 
Jodhpur State and of hastening his own elevation was the murder of his 
father ; and in 1724 he induced his brother, Bakht Singh, to commit this 
foul crime. Abhai Singh ruled for about twenty-six years, and in 1731 
rendered great service to Muhammad Shah by capturing Ahmadabad 
and suppressing the rebellion of Sarbuland Khan. 

On his death in 1750 his son Ram Singh succeeded, but was soon 
ousted by his uncle, Bakht Singh, the parricide, and forced to flee to 
Ujjain, where he found Jai Appa Sindhia and concerted measures for 
the invasion of his country. In the meantime Bakht Singh had met his 
death, by means, it is said, of a poisoned robe given him by his aunt or 
niece, the wife of the Jaipur chief; and his son, Bijai Singh, was ruling 
at Jodhpur. The Marathas assisted Ram Singh to gain a victory over 
his cousin at Merta about 1756 ; but they shortly afterwards abandoned 
him, and wrested from Bijai Singh the fort and district of Ajmer and the 
promise of a fixed triennial tribute. After this, Marwar enjoyed several 
years of peace, until the rapid strides made by the Marathas towards 
universal rapine, if not conquest, compelled the principal Rajput States 



1 86 JODHPUR STATE 

(Mevvar, Jodhpur, and Jaipur) once more to form a union for the 
defence of their poUtical existence. In the battle of Tonga (1787) 
Sindhia was routed, and compelled to abandon not only the field but 
all his conquests (including Ajmer) for a time. He soon returned, how- 
ever; and in 1790 his army under De Boigne defeated the Rajputs in 
the murderous engagements at Patan (in June) and Merta (in Septem- 
ber). In the result, he imposed on Jodhpur a fine of 60 lakhs, and 
recovered Ajmer, which was thus lost for ever to the Rathors. Bijai 
Singh died about 1793, and was succeeded by his grandson, Bhim 
Singh, who ruled for ten years. 

At the commencement of the Maratha War in 1803 Man Singh was 
chief of Jodhpur, and negotiated first with the British and subsequently 
with Holkar. Troubles then came quickly upon Jodhpur, owing to in- 
ternal disputes regarding the succession of Dhonkal Singh, a supposed 
posthumous son of Bhlm Singh, and a disastrous war with Jaipur for 
the hand of the daughter of the Maharana of Udaipur. The freebooter 
Amir Khan espoused first the cause of Jaipur and then that of Jodhpur, 
terrified Man Singh into abdication and pretended insanity, assumed 
the management of the State itself for two years, and ended by plunder- 
ing the treasury and leaving the country with its resources completely 
exhausted. On Amir Khan's withdrawal in 181 7, Chhatar Singh, the 
only son of Man Singh, assumed the regency, and with him the British 
Government commenced negotiations at the outbreak of the Pindari 
War. A treaty was concluded in January, 1 818, by which the State 
was taken under protection and agreed (i) to pay an annual tribute of 
Rs. 1,08,000 (reduced in 1847 to Rs. 98,000, in consideration of the 
cession of the fort and district of Umarkot), and (2) to furnish, when 
required, a contingent of 1,500 horse (an obligation converted in 1835 
to an annual payment of Rs. 1,15,000— see the article on Erinpura). 
Chhatar Singh died shortly after the conclusion of the treaty, whereupon 
his father, Man Singh, threw off the mask of insanity and resumed the 
administration. Within a few months he put to death or imprisoned 
most of the nobles who, during his assumed imbecility, had shown any 
unfriendly feeling towards him ; and many of the others fled from 
his tyranny and appealed for aid to the British, with the result that in 
1824 the Maharaja was obliged to restore the confiscated estates of 
some of them. In 1827 the nobles again rebelled, and putting the pre- 
tender, Dhonkal Singh, at their head, prepared to invade Jodhpur from 
Jaipur territory. Lastly, in 1839, the misgovernment of Man Singh and 
the consequent disaffection and insurrection in the State reached such 
a pitch that the British Government was compelled to interfere. A 
force was marched to Jodhpur, of which it held military occupation for 
five months, when Man Singh executed an engagement to ensure future 
good government. He died in 1843, leaving no son ; and by the choice 



POPULATION 187 

of his widows and the nobles and officials of the State, confirmed by 
Government, Takht Singh, chief of Ahmadnagar, became Maharaja of 
Jodhpur, the claims revived by Dhonkal Singh being set aside. The 
Maharaja did good service during the Mutiny, but the affairs of Marwar 
fell into the utmost confusion owing to his misrule, and the Government 
of India had to interfere in 1868. In 1870 he leased to Government 
the Jodhpur share of the Sambhar Lake, together with the salt marts of 
Nawa and Gudha. Takht Singh died in 1873, when he was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Jaswant Singh. The new administration was dis- 
tinguished by the vigour and success with which dacoities and crimes of 
violence (formerly very numerous) were suppressed, by pushing on the 
construction of railways and irrigation works, improving the customs 
tariff, introducing a regular revenue settlement, &:c. In fact, in every 
department a wise and progressive policy was pursued. No chief could 
have better upheld the character of his house for unswerving loyalty to 
Government, and the two fine regiments of Imperial Service cavalry 
raised by him are among the evidences of this honourable feeling. He 
was created a G. C.S.I, in 1875, and subsequently his salute (ordinarily 
17 guns) was raised first to 19, and next to 21 guns. He died in 1895, 
leaving a strong and sound administration to his only son, Sardar Singh, 
who was born in 1880, and is the present Maharaja. He was invested 
with powers in 1898, the administration during his minority having been 
carried on by his uncle, Maharaj Pratap Singh (now the Maharaja of 
Idar), assisted by a Council. The chief events of His Highness's rule 
have been : the employment of a regiment of his Imperial Service 
Lancers on the north-west frontier in 1897-8 and in China in 1 900-1 ; 
the extension of the railway to the Sind border and thence to Hyder- 
abad ; the great famine of 1899-1900 ; the conversion of the local into 
British currency in 1900 ; and his visit to Europe in 1901. Maharaja 
Sardar Singh was a member of the Imperial Cadet Corps from January, 
1902, to x\ugust, 1903. 

The State is rich in antiquarian remains ; the most interesting are de- 
scribed in the articles on Bali, Bhinm.^l, DTdwana, Jalor, Mandor, 
Nadol, N.\gaur, Pali, Ranapur, and Sadrl 

Excluding the 21 villages situated in the British District of Merwara, 
which, under an arrangement made in 1885, are administered by the 
Government of India, but over which the Jodhpur 
Darbar still retains other rights, there were, in 190 1, 
4,057 towns and villages in the State, the town of Sambhar being under 
the joint jurisdiction of the Jodhpur and Jaipur Darbars. The popu- 
lation at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 1,757,681, (1891) 
2,528,178, and (1901) 1,935,565. The territory in 1901 was divided 
into 24 districts or hukiimats (since reduced to 23), and contained one 
city, Jodhpur (population, 79,109), the capital of the State and a munici- 

VOL. XIV. N 



1 88 



JODHPUR STATE 



pality, and 26 towns. The principal towns are Phalodi (population, 
13,924) and Nagaur (13,377) in the north, Pali (12,673) and Sojat 
(11,107) ill the east, and Kuchawan (10,749) in the north-east. The 
following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 





I 

3 


Number of 


c 










S"s 




, 


'i 


rj 0_0 - 


te-Sdii 


Huhutnat. 


•p 


c 


be 




cent 
riat; 
ulat 
/een 
nd I 


S S <S S 
3 S I' 




a; 

u 

< 



H 

2 


> 


(2 




a; 
c 


Jodhpur 


2.896 


370 


235.461 


- 28.1 


17,372 


5.^1i .JGodw-ar: 
Desuri \ 


837 
706 


I 
I 


160 
160 


96,194 
67,764 


■- 22.8 


3,777 
3,686 


Bilara . 


792 


2 


88 


57.794 


- 32 


4,196 


DIdwana 


1,136 


I 


113 


44,642 


- 17.8 


2,285 


Jaitaran 


959 


2 


116 


67,733 


- 22.7 


2,683 


Jalor . 


1,552 


1 


252 


140,880 


- 17-3 


9,887 


Jaswantpura 


1,360 


1 


198 


83.370 


- 25-3 


5,179 


Mallani 


5.750 


I 


464 


172,330 


— 22-1 


5,018 


Marot . 


498 




109 


54,873 


- 3-4 


1,602 


Merta . 


1,618 


I 


370 


142,854 


- 30-6 


8,040 


Nagaur 


2,608 


4 


420 


167,759 


- 33-5 


9,096 


Nawa * 


302 


2 


12 


24,960 


— 20-9 


1,930 


Pachbhadra 


854 


2 


105 


39.427 


- 25-5 


2,118 


Pali . 


1,024 


I 


So 


43,889 


- 42-9 


2,787 


Parbatsar . 


840 




165 


87,127 


- 17 


2,418 


Phalodi 


2,624 


2 


71 


59,619 


- 17 


.5,130 


Sambhar 


160 


I 


6 


7.438 


- 10.5 


571 


Sanchor 


1,776 




231 


70,401 


- 26.6 


1,668 


Sankra 


1,279 


T 


71 


25,960 


+ 157-7 


1,009 


Sheo . 


2,004 




65 


24,405 


- 19.4 


459 


Shergarh 


i>456 




80 


56,921 


- 19-7 


2,035 


Siwana 


760 


• • • 


112 


53-931 


— 16.7 


2,210 


Sojat . 

State total 


1,172 


I 
27 


212 


109,833 


- 22.5 


9,685 


34.963 


4,030 


1,935,565 


-23-4 


104,841 



* Amalgamated with Sambhar in 1902-3. 

The large decrease in the population since 1891 was due to a series 
of bad seasons culminating in the great famine of 1899-1900, and also 
to heavy mortality from cholera and fever at the end of the decade. 
The enormous increase in the population of the Sankra district is 
ascribed mainly to the immigration of Bhati Rajputs and others from 
Jaisalmer, while the small decreases in the Marot and Sambhar districts 
(both in the north-east) seem to show that the famine was less severely 
felt there. Of the total population, 1,606,046, or nearly 83 per cent., 
are Hindus; 149,419, or nearly 8 per cent., Musalmans ; 137,393, or 
7 per cent., Jains ; and 42,235, or over 2 per cent., Animists. Among 
the Hindus there are some Dadupanthis (a sect de.scribed in the article 
on Naraina in the Jaipur State, which is their head-quarters), but their 
number was not recorded at the last Census. In addition to the two 
subdivisions of the sect mentioned in that article, there is a third which 



POPULATION 189 

is said to be peculiar to Jodhpur and is called Gharbari. Its members 
marry and are consequently not recognized in Jaipur as true Dadti- 
panthis. Another sect of Hindus deserving of notice is that of the 
Bishnois, who number over 37,000, and derive their name from their 
creed of twenty-nine {bis + nau) articles. The Bishnois are all Jats by 
tribe, and are strict vegetarians, teetotallers, and non-smokers ; they 
bury their dead sometimes in a sitting posture and almost always at the 
threshold of the house or in the adjoining cattle-shed, take neither food 
nor water from any other caste, and have their own special priests. The 
language mainly spoken throughout the State is Marvvari, the most 
important of the four main groups of Rajasthani. 

Among castes and tribes the Jats come first, numbering 220,000, or 
over 1 1 per cent, of the total. They are robust and hard-working and 
the best cultivators in the State, famed for their diligence in improving 
the land. Next come the Brahmans (192,000, or nearly 10 per cent.). 
The principal divisions are the Srimalis, the Sanchoras, the Pushkarnas, 
the Nandwana Borahs, the Chenniyats, the Purohits, and the Paliwals. 
They are mostly cultivators, but some are priests or money-lenders or 
in service. The third most numerous caste is that of the Rajputs 
(18 r, 000, or over 9 per cent.). They consider any pursuit other than 
that of arms or government as derogatory to their dignity, and are con- 
sequently indifferent cultivators. The principal Rajput clan is that of 
the ruling family, namely Rathor, comprising more than 100 septs, the 
chief of which are Mertia, Jodha, Udawat, Champawat, Kumpawat, 
Karnot, Jaitawat, and Karamsot. After the Rajputs come the Mahajans 
(171,000, or nearly 9 per cent.). They belong mostly to the Oswal, 
Mahesri, Porwal, SaraogI, and Agarwal subdivisions, and are traders 
and bankers, some having agencies in the remotest parts of India, while 
a few are in State service. The only other caste exceeding 100,000 is 
that of the Bilais, or Bhambis (142,000, or over 7 per cent.). They 
are among the very lowest castes, and are workers in leather, village 
drudges, and to a small extent agriculturists. Those who remove the 
carcases of dead animals from villages or towns are called Dheds. 
Other fairly numerous castes are the Rebaris (67,000), breeders of 
camels, sheep, and goats ; the Malis (55,000), market-gardeners and 
agriculturists; the Chakars or Golas (55,000), the illegitimate offspring 
of Rajputs, on whom they attend as hereditary servants ; and lastly the 
Kumhars (51,000), potters, brick-burners, village menials, and, to a 
small extent, cultivators. Taking the population as a whole, more than 
58 per cent, live by the land and about another 3 per cent, are partially 
agriculturists. Nearly 5 per cent, are engaged in the cotton industry 
or as tailors, &c. ; more than 4 per cent, are stock-breeders and dealers, 
while commerce and general labour employ over 3 per cent. each. 

Christians number 224, of whom in are natives. The United Free 

N 2 



igo JODHPUR STATE 

Church of Scotland Mission has had a branch at Jodhpur city since 
1885. 

As already remarked, Jodhpur is, speaking generally, a sandy tract, 
improving gradually from a mere desert in the west to comparatively 
fertile lands along the eastern border. The chief 
natural soils are mattiydli, bhiliri, retii, and magra 
or /ha?'ra. The first is a clayey loam of three kinds, namely kail 
(black), rati (red), and ///?' (yellowish), and covers about 18 per cent, 
of the cultivated area. It does not need frequent manuring, but being 
stiff requires a good deal of labour ; it produces wheat, gram, and 
cotton, and can be tilled for many years in succession. The second 
is the most prevalent soil (occupying over 58 per cent, of the cultivated 
area) and requires but moderate rains. It has less clay than mattiydli 
and is brown in colour ; it is easily amenable to the plough, requires 
manure, and is generally tilled for three or four years and then left 
fellow for a similar period. The third class of soil {retli) is fine-grained 
and sandy without any clay, and forms about 19 per cent, of the culti- 
vated area. When found in a depression, it is called dehri, and, as it 
retains the drainage of the adjacent high-lying land, yields good crops 
o{ bdjra 3ind jozmr; but when on hillocks or mounds, it is called d/iora, 
and the sand being coarse-grained, it is a very poor soil requiring 
frequent rest. Magra is a hard soil containing a considerable quantity 
of stones and pebbles ; it is found generally near the slopes of hills, 
and occupies about 4 per cent, of the cultivated area. The agricultural 
methods employed are of the simplest description. For the autumn 
crops, ploughing operations begin with the first fall of sufficient rain 
(not less than one inch), and the land is ploughed once, twice, or three 
times, according to the stiffness of the soil. Either a camel or a pair 
of bullocks is yoked to each plough, but sometimes donkeys or buffaloes 
are used. More trouble is taken with the cultivation of the spring 
crops. The land is ploughed from five to seven times, is harrowed and 
levelled, and more attention is paid to weeding. 

In a considerable portion of the State there is practically only one 
harvest, the kharif^ or, as it is called here, sdwnfi ; and the principal 
crops are bdjra, Jowdr, moth, til, maize, and cotton. The cultivation of 
rabi, or undlu crops, such as wheat, barley, gram, and mustard seed, is 
confined to the fertile portion enclosed within the branches of the Luni 
river, to the favoured districts along the eastern frontier, and to such 
other parts as possess wells. Agricultural statistics are available for 
only a portion of the khdlsa area (i.e. land paying revenue direct to the 
State), measuring nearly 4,320 square miles. Of this area, 1,012 square 
miles (or more than 23 per cent.) were cultivated in 1903-4; and the 
following were the areas in square miles under the principal crops : 
bdjra, 430 -jjoivdr, 151 ; wheat, 81 ; ///, 66 ; barley, 23 ; and cotton, 11, 



AGRICULTURE 191 

Of the total cultivated area above mentioned, 150 square miles (or 
nearly 15 per cent.) were irrigated in 1903-4: namely, iii from wells, 
12 from canals and tanks, and 27 from other sources. There are, in 
khalsa territory, 22 tanks, the most important of which are the Jaswant 
Sagar and Sardar Samand, called after the late and the present chief 
respectively. Irrigation is mainly from wells, of which there are 7,355 
in the khalsa area. The water is raised sometimes by means of the 
Persian wheel, and sometimes in leathern buckets. A masonry well 
costs from Rs. 300 to Rs. 1,000, and a kachchd well, which will last 
many years, from Rs. 150 to Rs. 300. Shallow wells are dug yearly 
along the banks of rivers at a cost of Rs. 10 to Rs. 20 each, and the 
water is lifted by a contrivance called chdnch, which consists of a 
horizontal wooden beam balanced on a vertical post with a heavy 
weight at one end and a small leathern bucket or earthen jar at the 
other. 

The main wealth of the desert land consists of the vast herds of 
camels, cattle, and sheep which roam over its sandy wastes and thrive 
admirably in the dry climate. The best riding camels of Marwar breed 
come from Sheo in the west and are known as Rama Thalia ; they are 
said to cover 80 or even 100 miles in a night. Mallani, Phalodi, 
Shergarh, and Sankra also supply good riding camels, the price of 
which ranges from Rs. 150 to Rs. 300. The bullocks of Nagaur are 
famous throughout India; a good pair will sometimes fetch over 
Rs. 300, but the average price is Rs. 150. The districts of Sanchor 
and Mallani are remarkable for their breed of milch cows and horses. 
The latter are noted for their hardiness and ease of pace. The principal 
horse and cattle fairs are held at Parbatsar in September and at Tilwara 
(near Balatra) in March. 

Forests cover an area of about 355 square miles, mostly in the east 
and south-east. They are managed by a department which was organ- 
ized in 1888. There are three zones of vegetation. On the higher 
slopes are found sa/ar [Boswellia thurifera\ gol {Odi/ia JVodier), 
karayia {Sterculia urens), and golia dhao {Anogeissus latifolia). On 
the lower hills and slopes the principal trees are the dhao {A?iog€issus 
pendula) and sdlar ; while hugging the valleys and at the foot of the 
slopes are dhdk [Butea frondosa), ber (Zizyphus Jiijubd), khair {Acacia 
Catechu), dhdman {Gre^via piiosa), &c. The forests are entirely closed 
to camels, sheep, and goats, but cattle are admitted except during the 
rains. Right-holders obtain forest produce free or at reduced rates, 
and in years of scarcity the forests are thrown open to the public for 
grazing, grass-cutting, and the collection of fruits, flowers, &c. The 
forest revenue in 1904-5 was about Rs. 31,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 20,000. 

The principal mineral found in the State is salt. Its manufacture is 



192 JODHPUR STATE 

practically a monopoly of the British Government, and is carried on 
extensively at the Sambhar Lake, and at Didwana and Pachbhadra. 
Marble is mostly obtained from Makrana near the Sambhar Lake, 
but an inferior variety is met with at various points in the Aravalli 
Hills, chiefly at Sonana near Desuri in the south-east. The average 
yearly out-turn is about r,ooo tons, and the royalty paid to the Darbar 
ranges from Rs. 16,000 to Rs. 20,000. Sandstone is plentiful in many 
parts, but varies gready in texture and in colour. It is quarried in 
slabs and blocks, large and small, takes a fine polish, and is very suit- 
able for carving and lattice-work. The yearly out-turn is about 6,000 
tons. Among minerals of minor importance may be mentioned gypsum, 
used as cement throughout the country, and found chiefly near Nagaur; 
and fuller's earth, existing in beds 5 to 8 feet below the surface in the 
Phalodi district and near Barmer, which is largely used as a hair-wash. 

The manufactures are not remarkable from a commercial point of 
view. Weaving is an important branch of the ordinary village industry, 
but nothing beyond coarse cotton and woollen cloths 
communications. ^^ attempted. Parts of the Jodhpur and Godwar dis- 
tricts are locally famous for their dyeing and printing 
of cotton fabrics. Turbans for men and scarves for women, dyed and 
prepared with much labour, together with embroidered silk knotted 
thread for wearing on the turban, are peculiar to the State. Other 
manufactures include brass and iron utensils at Jodhpur and Nagaur, 
ivory-work at Pali and Merta, lacquer-work at Jodhpur, Nagaur, and 
Bagri (in the Sojat district), marble toys, &c., at Makrana, felt rugs in 
the Mallani and Merta districts, saddles and bridles at Sojat, and camel- 
trappings and millstones at Barmer. The Darbar has its own ice and 
aerated water factory, and there are five wool and cotton-presses belong- 
ing to private individuals. 

The chief exports are salt, animals, hides, bones, wool, cotton, oil- 
seeds, marble, sandstone, and millstones ; while the chief imports 
include wheat, barley, maize, gram, rice, sugar, opium, dry fruits, 
metals, oil, tobacco, timber, and piece-goods. It is estimated that 80 
per cent, of the exports and imports are carried by the railway, and 
the rest by camels, carts, and donkeys, chiefly the former. 

The Rajputana-Malwa Railway traverses the south-eastern part of 
the State, and this section was opened for trafific in 1879-80; its length 
in Jodhpur territory is about 114 miles, and there are 16 stations. A 
branch of this railway from Sambhar to Kuchawan Road (in the 
north-east), opened about the same time, has a length of 15 miles with 
two stations (excluding Sambhar). The State has also a railway of its 
own, constructed gradually between i88i and 1900, which forms part 
of the system known as the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. This line runs 
north-west from Marwar Junction, on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, 



FAMINE 193 

to Lilni junction, and thence (i) to the western border of the State in 
the direction of Hyderabad in Sind, and (2) north to Jodhpur city. 
From the latter it runs north-east past Merta Road to Kuchawan Road, 
where it again joins the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, and from Merta 
Road it runs north-west to Bikaner and Bhatinda. The section within 
Jodhpur limits has a length of 455 miles, and the total capital outlay 
to the end of 1904 was nearly 122 lakhs. The mean percentage of 
net earnings on capital outlay from the commencement of operations 
to the end of 1904 has been 7-90, with a minimum of 3-92 and 
a maximum of 11-40. In 1904 the gross working expenses were 
7-3 lakhs and the net receipts 9-6 lakhs, yielding a profit of 7-86 per 
cent, on the capital outlay. 

The total length of metalled roads is about 47 miles and of un- 
metalled roads 108 miles. All are maintained by the State. The 
metalled roads are almost entirely in or near the capital, while the 
principal unmetalled communication is a portion of the old Agra- 
Ahmadabad road. It was constructed between 1869 and 1875, was 
originally metalled, and cost nearly 5 lakhs, to which the British 
Government contributed Rs. 84,000. It runs from near Beawar to 
Erinpura, and, having been superseded by the railway, is now main- 
tained merely as a fair-weather communication. 

The Darbar adopted Imperial postal unity in 1885-6 ; and there 
are now nearly 100 British post offices and five telegraph offices 
in the State, in addition to the telegraph offices at the numerous 
railway stations. 

The country falls within the area of constant drought, and is liable 
to frequent famines or years of scarcity. A local proverb tells one to 
expect ' one lean year in three, one famine year in 
eight'; and it has proved very true, for since 1792 
the State has been visited by seventeen famines. Of those prior 
to 1868, few details are on record, but the year 181 2-1 3 is 
described as having been a most calamitous one. The crops 
failed completely; food-stuffs sold at 3 seers for the rupee, and 
in places could not be purchased at any price; and the mortality 
among human beings was appalling. The famine of 1868-9 was one 
of the severest on record. There was a little rain in June and July, 
1868, but none subsequently in that year; the grain-crops failed and 
forage was so scarce in some places that, while wheat was selling at 
6, the price of grass was %\ seers per rupee. The import duty on 
grain was abolished, and food was distributed at various places by some 
of the Ranis, Thakurs, and wealthy inhabitants ; but the Darbar, 
beyond placing a lakh of rupees at the disposal of the Public Works 
department, did nothing. The highest recorded price of wheat was 
3I seers per rupee at Jodhpur city, but even here and at Pali (the two 



194 JODHPUR STATE 

principal marts) no grain was to be had for days together. Cholera 
broke out in 1869 and was followed by a severe type of fever, and it 
was estimated that from these causes and from starvation the State 
lost one-third of its population. The mortality among cattle was put 
at 85 per cent. The next great famine was in 1877-8. The rainfall 
was only 4-| inches ; the kharif crops yielded one-fourth and the rabi 
one-fifth of the normal out-turn, and there was a severe grass famine. 
Large numbers emigrated to Gujarat and Malwa with their cattle, and 
the Darbar arranged to bring the majority back at the public expense, 
but it was estimated that 20,000 persons and 80,000 head of cattle 
were lost. This bad season is said to have cost the State about 
10 lakhs. The year 1891-2 was one of triple famine (grain, water, and 
fodder), the distress being most acute in the western districts. About 
200,000 persons emigrated with 662,000 cattle, and only 63 per cent, of 
the former and 58 percent, of the latter are said to have returned. The 
Darbar opened numerous relief works and poorhouses ; the railway 
proved a great boon, and there was much private charity. Direct 
expenditure exceeded 5^ lakhs, while remissions and suspensions of 
land revenue amounted respectively to about 2-8 and i-6 lakhs. A 
succession of bad seasons, commencing from 1895-6, culminated in 
the terrible famine of 1 899-1 900. At the capital less than half an 
inch of rain fell in 1899, chiefly in June, while in two of the western 
districts the total fall was only one-seventh of an inch. Emigration 
with cattle began in August, but it was long before the people realized 
that Malwa, where salvation is usually to be found, was equally 
afflicted by drought. Some thousands were brought back by railway 
to relief works in Jodhpur at the expense of the Darbar, and thousands 
more toiled back by road, after losing their cattle and selling all their 
household possessions. Relief works and poorhouses were started on 
an extensive scale in the autumn of 1899 and kept open till September, 
1900. During this period nearly 30 million units were relieved. The 
total cost to the Darbar exceeded 29 lakhs, and in addition nearly 
9| lakhs of land revenue, or about 90 per cent, of the demand, was 
remitted. A virulent type of malarial fever which, as in 1869, immedi- 
ately followed the famine, claimed many victims. There was no 
fodder-crop worthy of the name throughout the State, and for some 
time grass was nearly as dear as grain. The mortality among the cattle 
was estimated at nearly a million and a half. Since then, the State suf- 
fered from scarcity in 1902 in the western districts, and again in 1905. 

For administrative purposes, Jodhpur is divided into twenty three 
districts or hukianats (each under an officer called hakim). In Mallani, 

. , . . , ,. however, there is, in consequence of its peculiar 
Administration. . ' ^ . , , , 

tenure, size, and recent restoration to the Darbar, 

an official termed Superintendent, while the north-eastern districts 



ADMINISTRA TION 1 9 5 

have also a Superintendent to dispose of border cases under the 
extradition agreement entered into with the Jaipur and Bikaner 
Darbars. 

The State is ordinarily governed by the Maharaja, assisted by the 
Mahakma khas (a special department consisting of two members) and 
a consultative Council ; but, during the absence of His Highness, first 
with the Imperial Cadet Corps and next at Pachmarhl in search of 
health, the administration has, since 1902, been carried on by the 
Mahakma khds under the general supervision and control of the 
Resident. 

For the guidance of its judiciary the State has its own codes and 
laws, which follow generally the similar enactments of British India. 
There are now 41 Darbar courts and i\^ jdglrddrs' courts possessing 
various powers. 

The normal revenue of the State is between 55 and 56 lakhs, and 
the expenditure about 36 lakhs. The chief sources of revenue are : 
salt, including treaty payments, royalty, &c., about 16 lakhs; customs, 
10 to II lakhs; land (including irrigation), 8 to 9 lakhs; railway, 
about 8 lakhs (net) ; and tribute hom Jdgirddrs and succession fees, &c., 
about 3^ lakhs. The main items of expenditure are : army (including 
police), about yf lakhs ; civil establishment, 4 lakhs ; public works 
(ordinary), 3 to 4 lakhs ; palace and household, about 3 lakhs ; and 
tribute (including payment for the Erinpura Regiment), nearly 2^ lakhs. 
During the last few years the expenditure has purposely been kept low, 
in order to extricate the State from its indebtedness ; but now that the 
financial outlook is brighter, an increased expenditure under various 
items, such as police, public works, and education, may be expected. 

The State had formerly its own silver coinage, one issue being known 
as Bijai shdhi and another as Ikftsanda. The Iktlsanda rupee was 
worth from 10 to 12 British annas, while the value of the Bijai shdhi 
was generally much the same as, and sometimes greater than, that of 
the British rupee. After 1893 exchange fluctuated greatly till, in 1899, 
i2 2| Bijai shdhi rupees exchanged for 100 British. The Darbar 
thereupon resolved to convert its local coins, and the British silver 
currency has been made the sole legal tender in the State. In 1900 
more than 10,000,000 rupees were recoined at the Calcutta mint. 

Of the 4,030 villages in the State only 690 are khdlsa, or under the 
direct management of the Darbar, and they occupy about one-seventh 
of the entire area of the State. The rest of the land is held by jdgir- 
ddrs, bhumids, and indmddrs, or by Brahmans, Charans, or religious 
and charitable institutions on the sdsan or dohii tenure, or in lieu 
of pay {pasaita), or for maintenance {jivka), &c., &c. The ordinary 
jdgtrddrs pay a yearly military cess, supposed to be 8 per cent, of the 
gross rental value (rekh) of their estates, and have to suppl}- one horse- 



196 JODHPUR STATE 

man for every Rs. i,ooo of rekh. In the smaller estates they supply 
one foot-soldier for every Rs. 500, or one camel soivar for every 
Rs. 750. In some cases \.\\q Jdglrddr, instead of supplying horsemen, 
&c., makes a cash payment according to a scale fixed by the Darbar. 
Jdglrddrs have also to pay hukvmama or fee on succession, namely 
75 per cent, of the annual rental value of their estates ; but, in the case 
of a son or grandson succeeding, no cess is levied or service demanded 
for that year, while if a more distant relative succeeds the service alone 
is excused. The Thakurs of Mallani, holding prior to the Rathor 
conquest, pay a fixed sum (faiejbal) yearly and have no further 
obligations. The bhumids have to perform certain services, such as 
protecting their villages, escorting treasure, and guarding officials when 
on tour, and some pay a quit-rent called bhum-bdh ; provided these 
conditions are satisfied, and they conduct themselves peaceably, their 
lands are not resumed. Indtn is a rent-free grant for services rendered ; 
it lapses on the failure of lineal descendants of the original grantee, 
and is sometimes granted for a single life only. Sdsatn and dohii lands 
are granted in charity on conditions similar to indm, and cannot be 
sold. Jivka is a grant to the younger sons of the chief or of a Thakur. 
After three generations the holder has to pay cess and succession fee, 
and supply militia like the ordinary Jdglrddr, and on failure of lineal 
descendants of the original grantee the land reverts to the family 
of the donor. In the khdlsa area the proprietary right rests with the 
Darbar, which deals directly with the ryots. The latter may be 
bdpiddrs, possessing occupancy rights and paying at favoured rates, 
or gair-bdpiddrs, tenants-at-will. 

Formerly the land revenue was paid almost entirely in kind. The 
most prevalent system was that known as /did or batai, by which the 
produce was collected near the village and duly measured or weighed. 
The share taken by the Darbar varied from one-fifth to one-half in 
the case of ' dry,' and from one-sixth to one-third in the case of ' wet ' 
crops. This mode still prevails in some of the alienated villages, but 
in the khdlsa area a system of cash rents has been in force since 1894. 
The first and only regular settlement was made between 1894 and 1896 
in 566 of the khdlsa villages (originally for a period of ten years). It 
is on the ryotivdri system. The village area is divided into (i) secure, 
i.e. irrigated from wells or tanks, where the yearly out-turn varies but 
slighdy, and remissions of revenue are necessary only in years of dire 
famine ; and (2) insecure, or solely dependent on the rainfall. In the 
former portion the assessment is fixed, and in the latter it fluctuates 
in proportion to the out-turn of the year. The basis of the assessment 
was the old batai collections together with certain cesses, and the 
gross yield was calculated from the results of crop experiments made 
at the time, supplemented by local inquiries. The rates per acre of 



ADMINISTRA TION 1 9 7 

wet' land range from Rs. 2-5-6 to Rs. 10 (average, Rs. 2-10-6), while 
those for 'dry' land range from i^ to i2i annas (average, 4^- annas). 

The State maintains two regiments of Imperial Service Lancers 
(normal strength 605 per regiment), and a local force consisting of 
about 600 cavalry (including camel sowars) and 2,400 infantry. The 
artillery numbers 254 of all ranks, and there are 121 guns of various 
kinds, of which 75 (namely, 45 field and 30 fort) are said to be service- 
able. In addition, the irregular militia supplied by the jdgirddrs 
mustered 2,019 i" 1904-5 '■ namely, 1,785 mounted men and 234 
infantry. The Imperial Service regiments were raised between 1889 
and 1893, and are called the Sardar Risala, after the present chief. 
Their cost in 1904-5, when they were considerably below strength, was 
about 3-2 lakhs. The first regiment formed part of the reserve brigade 
of the Tirah Field Force in 1897-8, and two detachments did well on 
convoy duty ; the same regiment was on active service in China in 
1900-1, was largely represented in the expedition to the Laushan hill 
and Chinausai, and was permitted to bear on its colours and appoint- 
ments the honorary distinction 'China, 1900.' There are no canton- 
ments in the State, but the Darbar contributes a sum of 1-2 lakhs yearly 
towards the cost of the 43rd (Erinpura) Regiment {see Erinpura). 

Police duties have hitherto been performed by the local force above 
mentioned; but since August, 1905, a regular police force under an 
Inspector-General, numbering about 1,500 of all ranks and estimated 
to cost about 2\ lakhs a year, has been formed. In addition, a small 
force is employed on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. 

Besides the Central jail at the capital, there are subsidiary jails at the 
head-quarters of the several districts, in whic"h persons sentenced to 
three months' imprisonment or less are confined, and lock-ups for 
under-trial prisoners at each thdna or police-station. 

In the literacy of its population Jodhpur stands second among the 
twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with 5-4 per cent. (10 males 
and 0-3 females) able to read and write. Excluding numerous indi- 
genous schools, such as Hindu posdls and Musalman niakta/>s, 4 private 
institutions maintained by certain castes but aided by the Darbar, and 
a Mission girls' school, there were, in 1905, t^t, educational institutions 
kept up by the State, one of which was for girls. The number on the 
rolls was nearly 2,300 (more than 50 per cent, being Mahajans and 
Brahmans, and 12 per cent. Musalmans), and the daily average attend- 
ance during 1904-5 was about 1,740. The most notable institutions 
are at the capital : namely, the Arts college, the high school, and the 
Sanskrit school. Save at the small railway school at Merta Road, 
where a monthly fee of 2 or 4 annas per pupil is taken, education is 
free throughout the State, and the expenditure exceeds Rs. 44,000 
a year. 



198 JODHPUR STATE 

There are 24 hospitals and 8 dispensaries in the State, which have 
accommodation for 342 in-patients. In 1904 more than 178,000 cases, 
including nearly 3,000 in-patients, were treated, and about 7,700 opera- 
tions were performed. The State expenditure on medical institutions, 
including allowances to the Residency Surgeon, is approximately 
Rs. 70,000 yearly. 

Vaccination was started about 1866, is compulsory throughout the 
State, and not unpopular. A staff of 2 superintendents and 22 vacci- 
nators is maintained, and in 1904-5 they successfully vaccinated 61,000 
persons, or nearly 32 per 1,000 of the population. 

[C. K. M. Walter, Gazetteer of Mdrwdr and Malldtii {i^Zfj ; Rdjptit- 
dna Gazetteer, vol. ii (1879, under revision); Sukhdeo Parshad, The 
Rdthors, their Origin and Groivth (Allahabad, 1896); Report on Fami?ie 
Relief Operations in Mdrivdr during 1896-7 a7id during 1899-1900; 
Report on the Censtis of Manvdr in 1891, vols, i and ii (189 1-4) ; 
A. Adams, The Western Rdjputdna States (1899); also Administration 
Reports of the Mdrwdr State (annually from 1884-5).] 

Jodhpur City. — Capital of the State of the same name in Rajputana, 
situated in 26° 18' N. and 73° \' E., about 380 miles by rail from Delhi, 
590 from Bombay, and 1,330 from Calcutta. The population of the 
city (including the suburbs) was: (1881) 63,329, (1891) 80,405, and 
(1901) 79,109. In the two years last mentioned between 76 and 77 
per cent, of the inhabitants lived within the city walls. In 1901 Hindus 
numbered 58,292, or more than 73 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 
15,811, or 20 per cent. ; and Jains, 4,571, or 5 per cent. 

Jodhpur takes its name from Rao Jodha, who founded it in 1459. 
The old wall with four gates built by him is now included within the 
limits, and is situated in the south-west of the modern city, which lies 
on sloping ground in the form of a horseshoe around the base of the 
rock on which stands the fort. It is encircled by a strong massive wall, 
built in the first half of the eighteenth century, which is 24,600 feet 
long, 3 to 9 feet thick, and 1 5 to 30 feet high, and has six gates studded 
with sharp iron spikes to protect them against elephant ramming. Of 
these gates, five are called after the towns which they face, namely Jalor, 
Merta, Nagaur, Siwana, and Sojat, while the sixth is named Chand Pol 
because it faces the direction in which the new moon {chdnd) is visible. 
The walls and towers near the Nagaur Gate show marks of cannon-balls 
left by the armies of Jaipur and Bikaner which, with the aid of the great 
freebooter. Amir Khan, marched on Jodhpur about 1807 to support 
the pretender Dhonkal Singh against Maharaja Man Singh. Eventually 
Amir Khan changed over to the side of the latter, and the insurgents 
were forced to retire with considerable loss and ignominy. The fort, 
which is the finest in Rajputana, commands the city and, standing in 
great magnificence on an isolated rock about 400 feet above the sur- 



JODHPUR CITY 199 

rounding plain, attracts the eye from afar. Its wall, 20 to 120 feet 
in height and 12 to 70 feet thick, encloses an oblong space about 
500 yards in length by 250 in breadth at the widest part. Two main 
entrances, the Jai Pol at the north-east corner and the Fateh Pol in the 
south-west, lead up from the city, and between them are several other 
gates and inner walls erected for purposes of defence. The principal 
iDuildings in the fort are a series of apartments forming the palace, the 
most noteworthy being the Moti Mahal, built by Raja Sur Singh in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, the Fateh Mahal, built by Maha- 
raja Ajit Singh about 100 years later to commemorate the retirement 
of the Mughal army from his capital, and the room now used as an 
armoury. These buildings are decorated with beautifully carved panels 
and pierced screens of red stone. The city contains many handsome 
buildings, including ten old palaces, some town residences of the 
Thakurs, and eleven fine temples, the most beautiful architecturally 
being the Kunj Bihari-ka-mandar, built in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. 

Jodhpur is a trading centre, but its industries are unimportant, con- 
sisting of lacquer-work, dyeing of cotton cloths, and the manufacture of 
brass and iron utensils. The main streets are paved ; and a light tram- 
way of 2 feet gauge, laid down in 1896 between the railway station 
and the city, the cars being drawn by bullocks, has proved of great 
convenience to the public, and has considerably reduced the cost of 
carriage of grain and other commodities, A municipal committee 
(established in 1884) attends to the sanitation of the city, and settles 
disputes relating to rights of easement, &c., the annual expenditure of 
about Rs. 20,000 being borne solely by the Darbar. A tramway line, 
worked by buffaloes, runs round the city, passing all but one of the 
public latrines. Twice a day the loaded wagons are collected and 
formed into trains outside the Sojatia Gate, whence they are hauled by 
steam-power a distance of about 5 miles into the open country, where 
the filth is trenched and the refuse burnt. This steam conservancy 
tramway is the first of its kind in Rajputana. The total length of the 
line, including the section worked by buffaloes, and an extension up to 
and round the Maharaja's stables, now exceeds 13 miles. It was com- 
pleted between 1897 and 1899 at a cost of more than i^ lakhs, and the 
working expenses average about Rs. 7,000 a year. Within the city are 
three hospitals and a couple of dispensaries. Of the hospitals, one is 
solely for females and another is maintained by the United Free Church 
of Scotland Mission. In the suburbs there are hospitals attached to 
the jail and the Imperial Service cavalry regiments, and a couple of 
dispensaries, one of which is close to the Residency and is kept up by 
the British Government, while the other is for railway employes. The 
city possesses an Arts college, a high school with lower secondary and 



20O JODHPUR CITY 

primary sections, and a boarding-house for fifty Rajput boys ; also two 
primary schools, a girls' school, and three special institutions where 
Sanskrit, telegraphy, and surveying are taught. These are all maintained 
by the Darbar and are for the most part in the suburbs ; there are, in 
addition, numerous private schools in the city. The principal buildings 
in the suburbs are the late Maharaja's palace at Rai-ka-bagh, the fine new 
palace at Ratanada which is lighted by electricity, the Imperial Service 
cavalry lines, the handsome public offices, the Residency and other 
official buildings, and the jail with accommodation for 862 prisoners. 

Jodiya. — Town and chief port of Navanagar State, Kathiawar, 
Bombay, situated in 22° 40' N. and 70° 26' E., about 24 miles north- 
east of Navanagar town, 46 miles north-west of Rajkot, and 40 miles 
west of Morvi. Population (1901), 7,321. The port was formerly a 
fishing village on the south-eastern shores of the Gulf of Cutch. The 
wharf is about a mile and a half distant from the town, with which it is 
connected by a good made road. A custom-house and a press for 
cotton and wool bales are at the wharf. The water off this part of the 
coast is too shallow for ships of any considerable burden. According 
to a local legend, the Gulf from Jodiya to the opposite coast of Cutch 
could be crossed by a footpath at low water 200 years ago. The north- 
west bastion of the fort, 80 feet above the sea, the palace or darbar 
house, 300 yards south-east of the bastion, and a grove of trees, a mile 
to the south and outside the town, are high and conspicuous marks 
when nearing the port from seaward. The town is surrounded by a 
wall with towers and a small interior fort. It has vernacular boys' 
and girls' schools and a dispensary. 

Jogeshvari.^Cave in the Salsette tdluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19° 13' N. and 72° 59' E., 2\ miles south-east of 
Goregaon station, on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Rail- 
way. It is the third largest of the great Brahmanical caves of India, 
the others being Slta's Bath at EUora and the Great Cave at Elephanta. 
Its length is 240 and breadth 200 feet. This cave-temple, which dates 
from the seventh century, contains rock-cut passages, an immense 
central hall supported by pillars, porticoes, and subsidiary courts. 

[Du Perron (1760), Zend Avesta, vol. i, pp. ccclxxxviii-cccxc ; Hunter 
(1784), Archaeologia, vol. vii, pp. 295-9 ; Salt (1806), Transactions of 
the Bombay Literary Society, vol. i, pp. 44-7 ; Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiv, 
pp. 1 10-2.] 

Jogighopa. — Village in Goalpara District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, situated in 26° 14' N. and 90° 34' K., on the north bank of the 
Brahmaputra at the point where it is joined by the Manas. Popula- 
tion (1901), 734. A steam ferry plies between Jogighopa and Goal- 
para, and the telegraph wires are carried beneath the river at this point 
to the south bank. Prior to the annexation of Assam, Jogighopa was 



JORHAT SUBDIVISION 201 

a frontier outpost of Bengal, and a number of' Europeans resided here, 
who forcibly obtained a monopoly of the Bengal trade and were thus 
enabled to do a lucrative business with the natives who enjoyed similar 
privileges in Assam. Four large tombs remain as evidence of their 
occupation, but the inscriptions have disappeared. Jogighopa derives 
its name from some caves cut out of the rocks near the river bank, 
which at one time used to be occupied by ascetics. The place is now 
of little importance, but contains a tahs'il belonging to the Bijni 
estate. 

Johi. — Taluka of Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, lying between 
26° i and 27° N. and 67° 11' and 67° 47' E., with an area of 
760 square miles. The population in 1901 was 51,218, compared 
with 51,919 in 1891. The taluka contains 87 villages, of which Johi is 
the head-quarters. The density, 67 persons per square mile, is much 
below the District average. In 1903-4 the land revenue and cesses 
amounted to 1-4 lakhs. About a quarter of the taluka is irrigated by 
the Western Nara system and the Manchhar Lake. The remainder 
depends upon the rainfall, and the harvest is therefore precarious. 
The soil has great capabilities, and with seasonable rain three crops of 
jou'dr are obtained from one sowing. Migration to the irrigated tracts 
accompanies years of scanty rainfall. The Kirthar Hills bound the 
taluka on the west. 

Jollarpet. — Village and railway station in Salem District, Madras. 
See Jalarpet. 

Joma-male. — Hill in Coorg. See Soma-male. 

Jora. — Head-quarters of the Tonwarghar district of Gwalior State, 
Central India, situated in 26° 20' N. and 77° 49' E., on the Gwalior 
Light Railway. Population (1901), 2,551. The place is usually called 
Jora-Alapur, to distinguish it from other places of the same name. 
Alapur is a village lying a mile to the north. Jora contains the ruins 
of an old fort built by the Karauli chiefs, the usual district offices, 
a school, a dispensary, a State post office, a sarai, a public works 
inspection bungalow, and a police station. 

Jorhat Subdivision.— Central subdivision of Sibsagar District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 26° 22' and 27° 11' N. and 
93° 57' ^"d 94° 36' E., with an area of 819 square miles. About two- 
fifths of the subdivision lies north of the main channel of the Brahma- 
putra, and is known as the Majuli island, a comparatively sparsely 
peopled tract, liable to damage from flood. The part south of the 
river is one of the most populous portions of the Assam Valley, and in 
places has a density exceeding 600 persons per square mile. The 
swamps fringing the Brahmaputra are inundated in the rains ; but 
farther inland stretches a broad plain, the lower part of which is culti- 
vated with rice, while tea and sugar-cane are grown on the higher land. 



202 JORHAT SUBDIVISION 

The population in 1901 was 219,137, about one-fourth of which was 
enumerated on tea gardens, as compared with 181,152 in 1891, The 
subdivision contains one town, Jorhat (population, 2,899), the head- 
quarters ; and 651 villages. The annual rainfall at Jorhat town 
averages 80 inches, but on the eastern border of the subdivision it is 
a little higher. In 1904 there were altogether 56 tea gardens with 
30,851 acres under plant, which gave employment to 62 Europeans 
and 36,849 natives. The subdivision is particularly well supplied with 
means of communication, as the Assam-Bengal Railway runs along the 
south-east, and at Titabar and Mariani meets a light state railway, 
which passes through Jorhat town to the Brahmaputra. The assess- 
ment for land revenue and local rates in 1903-4 was Rs. 5,79,000. 

Jorhat Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in Sibsagar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26° 45' N. 
and 94° 13' E., on the left bank of the Disai river. The town had 
a population in 1901 of 2,899, and is administered as a Union under 
(Bengal) Act V of 1876, the expenditure in 1903-4 amounting to 
nearly Rs. 8,000. Jorhat was the capital of the Ahom Rajas after 
Gaurinath Singh had been driven from Rangpur near Sibsagar at the 
end of the eighteenth century. It contains a fine tank of excellent 
water, on the banks of which the subdivisional officer's residence and 
office have been located, and the remains of considerable earthworks. 
There is a flourishing bazar, the largest shops in which are owned by 
Marwari merchants, who do a large business with the tea gardens in 
the neighbourhood. The principal articles of import are cotton piece- 
goods, grain, salt and oil, the chief exports being mustard seed, cane, 
and hides. Furniture and haberdashery are sold by Muhammadan 
traders from Bengal. A colony of Telis has been formed in the town, 
who express mustard oil in the ordinary bullock-mills of Upper India ; 
and Jorhat is the chief centre for the manufacture of Assamese 
jewellery, which usually consists of lac covered with gold and enamel 
and set with cheap stones. The public buildings include a small 
jail, a hospital with twenty-four beds, and two high schools which in 
1903-4 had an average attendance of 452 boys. A daily market for 
the .sale of native produce is numerously attended ; and, owing to the 
density of the population and the presence of a large number of 
prosperous gardens in the neighbourhood, Jorhat has become the most 
important centre of trade in the District. A light state railway passes 
through the town, connecting it with the Brahmaputra at Kakilamukh 
and with the Assam-Bengal Railway at Mariani and Titabar. The 
transfer of the head-quarters of the District from Sibsagar to Jorhat 
has recently been sanctioned. 

Joshimath. — Village in Garhwal District, United Provinces, situated 
in 30° 33' N. and 79° 35' E., at an elevation of 6,107 feet above sea- 



JO TIB A' S HILL 20 



^ 



level and about 1,500 feet above the confluence of the Dhaull and 
Bishanganga, the combined stream being known as the Alaknanda. 
Population (1900), 468 in summer and a little larger in winter. It is 
chiefly remarkable as the winter head-quarters of the rdwal or chief 
priest of the temple of Badrinath, who retires here after the snows 
have rendered the higher shrine inaccessible. The village contains 
several ancient temples, some of which have been much damaged by 
earthquakes. A police station is opened here during the pilgrim 
season. 

Jotana. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Jotiba's Hill (also called Vadi Ratnagiri). — Hill in the State of 
Kolhapur, Bombay, situated in 16° 48' N. and 74° 13' E., about 9 
miles north-west of Kolhapur town. It rises about 1,000 feet from the 
plain in a truncated cone, and, though disconnected, forms part of the 
Panhala spur which stretches from the crest of the Western Ghats to 
the Kistna. On the wooded hill-top is a small village with 1,400 in- 
habitants, mostly priests of Jotiba. From very ancient times this hill 
has been considered especially sacred. In the middle of the village is 
a group of temples, three of which are dedicated to Jotiba, under the 
names of Kedarling, Kedareshwar, and Ramling. According to a local 
legend, Amba Bai of Kolhapur, being disturbed by demons, went to 
Kedarnath in the Himalaja hills, practised severe penance, and prayed 
him to destroy the demons. In answer to her prayers Kedareshwar 
came to Jotiba's Hill, bringing Avith him and setting up the present 
Kedar /ingam. The original temple is said to have been built by one 
Navji Saya. In its place Ranoji Sindhia built the present temple 
in 1730. The second temple of Kedareshwar was built by Daulat Rao 
Sindhia in 1808. The third temple of Ramling, including the dome, 
was built about 1780 by one Maljl Nilam Panhalkar. In a small 
domed shrine in front of the temple of Kedareshwar are two sacred 
bulls of black stone. Close to these temples is a shrine sacred to 
Chopdai, which was built by Priti Rao Himmat Bahadur in 1760. 
A few^ yards outside of the village stands a temple of Yamai, built by 
Ranoji Sindhia. In front of this are two sacred cisterns, one of which 
is said to have been built by Jijabai Sahib about 1743; the other, 
called Jamadagnya tirth, was built by Ranoji Sindhia. Most of the 
temples on Jotiba's Hill are made of a fine blue basalt which is found 
on the hills. In many parts the style of architecture, which is strictly 
Hindu, is highly ornamented, several of the sculptured figures being 
covered with brass and silver plates. The chief object of worship is 
Jotiba, who, though called the son of the sage Pangand, is believed 
to have been Pangand himself, reincarnated to help the rulers of the 
Deccan in their fights with the demons. According to tradition, 
Jotiba's destruction of one of the demons named Ratnasur gave the 

VOL. XIV. o 



o 



204 JO TIB A' S HILL 

place the name of Ratnagiri. In honour of the victory over the demon, 
on the full moon of ('haitra (March-April) a yearly fair is held attended 
by 40,000 or 50,000 people, some of whom come from great distances. 
Besides this great fair, small fairs are held every Sunday and full moon 
day and on the 6th of the bright half of Shravan (August), On these 
days the image is carried round the temple in a litter with great pomp. 
Jounpore. — District, tahsll, and city, United Provinces. See 
Jaunpuk. 

Jowai Subdivision. ^Subdivision of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24"" 58' and 26^ 3' N. 
and 91° 59' and 92° 51' E., with an area of 2,086 square miles. Jowai 
originally formed part of the territory of the Jaintia Raja, and was 
acquired from him by the British in 1835. ^he population in 1901 
was 67,921, as compared with 64,521 in 1891, giving a density of 
3 persons per square mile. Most of the inhabitants are Syntengs, a 
tribe of Tibeto-Burman origin akin to the Khasis. I'he subdivision 
contains 640 villages, and is in charge of a European Magistrate, 
whose head-quarters are at Jowai, a prosperous village with some local 
trade. The rainfall is recorded only at Jowai itself, where there is an 
average annual fall of 237 inches; but on the southern face of the hills 
the precipitation is probably even greater. 

Jowai Village. — Headquarters of the Jowai subdivision of the 
Khasi and Jaintia Hills District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated 
in 25° 26' N. and 92^' 12' E., at a height of 4,422 feet above the sea. 
Population (1901), 3,511. Jowai is the head-quarters of the sub- 
divisional officer, who is almost invariably a European, and it possesses 
a considerable trade. The chief exports are raw cotton and rubber : 
the imports are rice, dried fish, cotton goods, and salt. The average 
annual rainfall is 237 inches. 

Jiiba. — Deserted fortress in the Surguja State, Central Provinces, 
situated in 23° 43' N. and 83° 26' E., about 2 miles south-east of 
Manpura village. The fort stands on the rocky shoulder of a hill, and 
commands a deep gorge overgrown with jungle. Hidden among the 
trees are the remains of carved temples, almost covered with accumu- 
lations of vegetable mould. 

Jubbal ( rubal). — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between 
30° 46' and 31° 8' N. and 77° 27' and 77° 50' E., with an area of 
288 square miles. Population (1901), 21,172. Jubbal was originally 
tributary to Sirmur, but after the Gurkha ^^'ar it became independent. 
The Rana misgoverned the State, and in 1832 abdicated in favour of 
the British Government, but soon, however, repented, and in 1840 the 
State was restored to him. His grandson, Padam Chand, ruled the 
State with ability from 1877 till his death in 1898, and was succeeded 
by Gyan Chand, the present Rana, who is a minor. The State is now 



JUBBULPORE DT VISION 



205 



under the management of a British official. The ruling family is by caste 
Rathor Rajput. The State contains 84 villages, including Deorh.v, its 
capital, and has an estimated revenue of nearly Rs. 1,52,000. The 
chief products are grain, tobacco, and opium. 

Jubbulpore Division {Jabalpur). — Northern Division of the Central 
Provinces, lying between 21° 36'' and 24° 27' N. and 78° \' and 
81' 45' E., with an area of 18,950 square miles. The head-quarters of 
the Commissioner are at Jubbllpore City. The Division contains five 
Districts, as shown below : — 



District. 


Area ill square 
miles.* 


Land revenue and 
Population, cesses, 1903-4, 
190I. in thousands 
ot rupees. 


Sanger 

Damoh 

Jubbulpore 

Mandla 

SeonI 

Total 


3,962 
2,816 
3,912 

5,054 
3,206 


469,479 5,52 
285,326 3,89 
680,585 ' 9,67 
318,400 1,97 

327,709 3,13 


18,950 


2.081,499 24,18 



* The District figures of area and population have been adjusted to allow for some 
small transfers of territory- since the Census of 1901. 

Of these, Saugor and Damoh and the Murwara tahiil of Jubbulpore 
lie on the Vindhyan plateau to the north : the southern part of JubbuU 
pore is situated at the head of the narrow valley through which the 
Narbada river flows between the Vindhyan and Satpura ranges ; while 
Seoni and Mandla form part of the Satpura plateau to the .south. The 
Division therefore consists generally of hilly country, lying at a con- 
siderable elevation and enjoying a comparatively temperate climate. 
In 1881 the population of the Division was 2,201,573, which increased 
in 1891 to 2,375,610 or by 8 per cent. The increase was considerably 
below the average for the Province, the decade having been an 
unhealthy one, especially in Saugor and Damoh. In 1901 the popu- 
lation was 2,081,916, a decrease of 12 per cent, on the figures of 1891. 
Since the Census a small transfer of territory has taken place, and the 
adjusted population is 2,081,499. ^"^ Districts of the Division suffered 
severely from famine during the decade. In 1901 Hindus formed 
74 per cent, of the total and Animists 20 per cent. There were 
89,731 Musalmans, 29,918 Jains, and 5,878 Christians, of whom 
2,706 were Europeans and Eurasians. The density of population is 
no persons per square mile, as compared with 112 for all British 
Districts of the Province. The Division contains ri towns and 8,561 
inhabited villages : but Jubbulpore City (90,316) and S.\ugor (42,330) 
are the only towns with a population of more than 20,000. Thirteen 
miles from Jubbulpore, at a gorge overhanging the Narbada river, are 
the well-known M.vrble RocKb. 

o 2 



2o6 JUBBULPORE DISTRICT 

Jubbulpore District.— District in the Jubbulpore Division of the 
Central Provinces, lying between 22° 49' and 24° 8' N. and 79° 2\' and 
80° 58' E., at the head of what may be called the Narbada Valley 
proper, with an area of 3,912 square miles. On the north and east it 
is bounded by the States of Maihar, Panna, and Rewah ; on the west 
by Danioh District : and on the south by Narsinghpur, Seonl, and 
Mandla. The Narbada, entering the District from the Mandla high- 
lands on the south-east, winds circuitously through its southern portion, 

passing within 6 miles of the city of Jubbulpore, and 
asD^c^* finally leaves it on the south-western border. To 

the north of the Narbada extends an open plain, 
bounded on the north-west by offshoots of the Vindhyan, and on 
the south-west by those of the Satpura range. Farther to the north- 
west the surface becomes more uneven, small tracts of level alternating 
with broken and hilly country. The south-western plain, called the 
Haveli, is one of the richest and most fertile areas in the Province. It 
consists of a mass of embanked wheat-fields, and occupies the valley of 
the Hiran and Narbada rivers, extending from the south-western border 
of the District as far north as the town of Sihora, and from the Hiran 
river flowing close beneath the Vindhyan Hills to the railway line, 
including also a tract round Saroli beyond the line. On the western 
bank of the Hiran, the Bhanrer range of the Vindhyan system forms 
the boundary between Jubbulpore and Damoh. To the south-east of 
the Haveli lies a large tract of poor and hilly country, forming the 
northern foot-hills of the Satpura range. North of the Haveli the 
^"indhyan and the Satpura systems approach each other more closely, 
until they finally almost meet in the Murwara tahs'il. The Kaimur 
ridge of the Vindhyas commencing at Katangi runs through the west of 
the Sihora tahs'il, and approaches Murwara, leaving to the north-west 
a stretch of hill country with one or two small plateaux. On the east, 
the Satpuras run down to the railway between Sihora and Sleemanabad, 
and from them a ridge extends northwards till it meets the Vindhyan 
system at Bijeraghogarh in the extreme north of the District. Between 
these ranges lie stretches of comparatively open country, less fertile 
than the Haveli. Lying at the junction of the Vindhyan and Satpura 
ranges, Jubbulpore forms part of the great central watershed of India. 
'Hie southern part of the District is drained by the Narbada and its 
tributaries, the Hiran and Gaur. In the north the Mahanadi, after 
forming for some distance the boundary between Jubbulpore and Rewah, 
crosses the Murwara tahs'il and passes on to join the Son, a tributary of 
the Ganges. The Katni river flowing by Katni-Murwara is an afi^uent 
of the Mahanadi. The Ken river rises in the Kaimur range on the 
west, but flows for only a short distance within the District. 

The valley of the Narbada from Jubbulpore to the western boundary 



HISTOR Y 207 

is an alluvial flat, chiefly composed of a stiff red or brown clay with 
numerous intercalated bands of sand and gravel. Kankar abounds 
throughout the deposit, and pisolitic iron granules are of frequent 
occurrence. The southern and eastern portions of the District are 
generally covered by the Deccan trap. In the north is a continuous 
exposure of sub-metamorphic strata, consisting of fine earthy slate, 
quartzite, limestone, ribboned jasper passing locally into bluish quartzite, 
micaceous hematite and other rocks. In these rocks or in associa- 
tion with them the manganese, lead, and copper ores, and the richest 
iron ores of the District occur. The rocks round Jubbulpore are 
gneiss. 

The plain country is well wooded with mango, tamarind, her {Zizyphus 
Jujitba), guava, mahud {Bassia latifolid), and other fruit-bearing trees. 
Among the ornamental or quasi-religious trees are the banyan, plpal, 
and kacJmdr {Bauhhiia variegafa). The hills are covered with forest, 
which formerly suffered great loss from the annual clearing of patches 
by the hill tribes and from grass fires. The principal timber trees are 
teak, sdj {Terniinaiia tomenfosa), haldu {Adina cordifolia), tendfi or 
ebony {Diospyros tomentosa), and bamboos. Peaches and pineapples 
and excellent potatoes and other vegetables are also grown. 

The usual wild animals and birds are found in Jubbulpore, and there 
is a considerable variety of game. Tigers and leopards are the 
common carnivora ; and the deer and antelope tribe includes sdmhar, 
spotted deer, ' black buck,' and the chifikdra or Indian gazelle. 

The annual rainfall averages 59 inches, and is usually copious, that 
of Murwara in the north being somewhat lighter and also apparently 
more variable. The climate is pleasant and salubrious. The average 
maximum temperature in May does not exceed 106°, and in the cold 
season light frosts are not infrequent. 

The village of Tewar, lying a few miles from Jubbulpore, is the site 
of the old city of Tripura, or Karanbel, the capital of the Kalachuri 
dynasty. The information available about the Kala- 
churi or Chedi dynasty has been pieced together from 
a number of inscriptions found in Jubbulpore District, in Chhattlsgarh, 
and in Benares \ They belonged to the Haihaya Rajputs, and were 
a branch of the Ratanpur family who governed Chhattlsgarh. Their 
rise to power possibly dates from shortly after the commencement of 
the Christian era, and they had an era of their own called the Chedi 
Samvat, which commenced in a. d. 249. For the first five or six 
centuries of their rule there remain only a few isolated facts ; but for 
a period of three hundred years, from the ninth to the twelfth century, 
a complete genealogy has been drawn up. We have the names of 
eighteen kings, and occasional mention of their marriages or wars with 

'. Records 0/ the Archaeological Stirvey, vol. ix, p. 78 seq. 



2o8 jrBBUI.PORR DISTRICT 

the surrounding principalities — the Rathors of Kanauj, the Chandels of 
Mahoba, and the Paramaras of Malwa. Their territory comprised the 
upper valley of the Narbada. Yrom the twelfth century nothing more 
is known of them, and the dynasty probably came to an end, eclipsed 
by the rising power of Rewah or Baghelkhand. At a subsequent 
period, probably about the fifteenth century, Jubbulpore was included 
in the territories of the Gond Garha-Mandla dynasty, and Garha was 
for some time their capital. On the subversion of the Gonds by the 
Marathas in 1781, Jubbulpore formed part of the Saugor territories of 
the Peshwa. It was transferred to the Bhonsla Rajas of Nagpur in 
1798, and became British territory in 1818. 

In 1857 Jubbulpore was garrisoned by the 52nd Native Infantry and 
was the head-quarters of Major Erskine, the Commissioner of the 
Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, then attached to the North-Western 
Provinces. In June, 1857, the demeanour of the native troops became 
suspicious, and the Europeans in the station \vere collected in the 
Residency, which was made defensible. The sepoys, however, re- 
mained quiet ; and in August a movable column of Madras troops 
arrived from Kamptee, and were sent forward to restore order in the 
interior of Jubbulpore and Damoh Districts, which were in a very 
disturbed condition and were being' raided by mutineers from Saugor. 
On September 18 the deposed Gond Raja of Garha-Mandla and his 
son, who had been detected in a conspiracy against the British, were 
blown away from guns, and on that night the whole of the 52nd 
regiment quietly rose and left the station. The Madras troops who 
were then at Damoh were recalled, and on arriving at KatangT found 
the rebels on the farther bank of the Hiran river. The passage was 
forced and the enemy put to flight, and no serious disturbance 
occurred subsequently. The northern pargajia of Bijeraghogarh was 
formerly a Native State. The chief was deposed for participation in 
the Mutiny, and his territory was incorporated in Jubbulpore District 
in 1865. 

The relics of the different races and religions which at one rime or 
another have been dominant in Jubbulpore are fairly numerous, but 
are now for the most part in ruins. Remains of numerous old Hindu 
temples and fragments of carved stone are found in a group of villages 
on the banks of the Ken river, north-west of Murwara. These are 
Rithi, Chhoti-Deorl, Simra, PurenT, and Nandchand. The ruins at 
Bargaon belong to the Jains. Bilehrl, a little to the south, was once 
a place of some note ; but the only remains now existing are a great 
tank called Lachhman Sagar, a smaller tank, and two temples. In the 
centre of the District the villages of Bahurlband, Rupnath, and Tigwan 
contain another group of remains. Bahuriband (' many embank- 
ments ') is believed to have once been the site of a large city, con- 



POPUT.ATTOX 



209 



jecturally identified by Cunningham with the Tholobana of Ptolemy. 

The only piece of antiquity now remaining is a large naked Jain statue, 

with an inscription of the Kalachuri dynasty of Tewar. A small hill at 

Tigwan, two miles from Bahuriband, is covered with blocks of cut 

stone, the ruins of many temples which have been destroyed by the 

railway contractors. At Rupnath there is a famous lingatn of Siva, 

which is placed in a cleft of the rock, where a stream pours over the 

Kaimur range; but the place is more interesting as being the site 

of one of the rock-inscriptions of Asoka. Separate mention is made of 

Garha, now included in the city of Jubbulpore. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was 

as follows: (1881) 687,233,(1891) 748,146, and (1901) 680,585. The 

increase of g per cent, between 1881 and 1891 , . 

,,,,-,,,. , , Population, 

was smaller than that for the Province as a whole. 

During the last decade the loss of population has been 9 per cent., 

being least in the Murwara tahs'il. The District contains three towns, 

Jubbulpore City, Sihora, and Murwara : and 2,298 inhabited 

villages. The principal statistics of population in 1901 are shown 

below : — 



Tahsil. 


13 Number of 

ra 


Population. 


Population per 
sfjuare mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


Area in s(]i 
miles. 

Towns. 


Villages. 


Jubbulpore 
Sihora 
Murwara . 

' District total 


1,519 I 
1,197 1 

1,196 1 


1,076 
706 
516 


.332,488 
186,424 
161,673 


219 - 8.1 
156 —12-5 

'35 - 7-2 


21,097 
7,974 

6,745 


3,912 3 


2,298 


680,585 


174 - 9.0 


35,816 



The figures for religion show that 87^ per cent, of the people are 
Hindus, 5^ per cent. Animists, and 5^ per cent. Muhammadans, while 
there are 6,177 Jains. Nearly the whole population is returned as 
speaking the Baghell dialect of Eastern Hindi : this form of the 
language closely resembles the dialects of Oudh and ChhattLsgarh, and 
is found elsewhere in the Central Provinces only in Mandla. About 
5,000 persons are returned as speaking GondT. 

The principal landholding castes are Brahmans (64,000), Banias 
(17,000), Gonds (79,000), KurmTs (35,000), Rajputs (17,000), and 
Lodhls (41,000). The Brahmans hold no very important estates, but 
numerous small ones, not infrequently assigned to them partly or 
wholly revenue-free from the time of the Gond rulers. Brahmans form 
9 per cent, of the total population, a fact which is partly to be attributed 
to the number of sacred places on the Narbada. Kurmis and Lodhis 
are the principal cultivating castes ; the Lodhis have several fine 



2IO 



JUBBULPORE DISTRICT 



estates, frequently held on quit-rent tenure and locally called Jagirs. 
The Gonds number nearly 79,000, or ii-| per cent, of the population. 
The Bharia Bhumias (22,000) are another primitive tribe. The Bhumia 
proper is the village priest, charged with the worship of the local 
deities, and generally receiving a free grant of land from the proprietor. 
The Bharias, on the other hand, have strong thieving propensities, and 
are sometimes spoken of as a criminal tribe. The identity of the two 
is uncertain. The Kols, who number about 46,000, or nearly 7 per 
cent, of the population, live more in the open country than the Gonds, 
and are employed as farm-servants or on earth-work. Agriculture 
supports about 62 per cent, of the population. 

Christians number 3,688, of whom 2,044 ^.re Europeans and Eura- 
sians. The Church Missionary Society and the Zanana Mission of the 
Church of England, and others belonging to the Wesleyan, American 
Methodist, and Roman Catholic Churches, are working in the District ; 
all of these have their head-quarters at Jubbulpore city. 

The best soil of the District is the black alluvial clay {kdbar) or loam 
{jfwfid) of the upper Narbada valley. The former covers nearly 1 2 and 
the latter 26 per cent, of the cultivated area. Sandy 
rice land formed from crystalline rock covers about 
10 per cent., and mixed black and sandy soil, which sometimes pro- 
duces wheat, nearly 12 per cent. Most of the remaining land is either 
very shallow blackish soil, or the red and stony land of the hills. 
About 25 per cent, of the occupied area is generally uncultivated, long 
resting fallows being required for the shallow stony soil on which light 
rice and the minor millets are grown. The distinctive feature of 
agriculture in Jubbulpore is the practice of growing wheat in large 
embanked fields, in which water is held up during the monsoon season, 
and run off a fortnight or so before the grain is sown. The advantages 
of this system are that there is little or no growth of weeds, most of 
the labour of preparing the land for sowing is saved, and the culti- 
vator is independent of the variable autumn rain, as the fields do not 
dry up. 

With the exception of 1,094 acres settled on the ryotwari system, all 
land is held on the ordinary mdlguzari tenure. The following table 
gives the principal statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, areas being in 
square miles : — 



Agriculture. 



Ta/isil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


Jubbulpore . 

Sihora 

Miinvara 

Total 


i>.5i9 

1,197 
1,196 


799 
.563 
607 


2 
2 

I 


412 
344 
354 


"3 
96 

137 


3,912 


1,969 


5 


1,110 


346 



AGRICULTURE 211 

U'hat waste land remains is situated mainly in the poor and hilly 
tracts, and does not ofter much scope for further extension of cultiva- 
tion. In the open portion or HavelT, every available acre of land has 
been taken up, and there are no proper grazing or even standing 
grounds for cattle. The gross cropped area is about 1,795 square 
miles, of which 156 square miles are double cropped. Wheat occupies 
628 square miles, or 32 per cent, of the cropped area; rice, 193 square 
miles : kodon and kuik'i, 316 square miles ; gram, 184 square miles; and 
the oilseed ///, 154 square miles. As in other Districts, there has been 
considerable deterioration in cropping, wheat, which twelve years ago 
overshadowed all other crops in importance, being supplanted by 
millets and oilseeds of inferior value. The area sown singly with 
wheat is only about a third of what it was, while the practice of mixing 
it with gram has greatly increased in favour. Little cotton is grown in 
Jubbulpore, and that of a very coarse variety. Betel-vine gardens exist 
in a number of places, among the principal being the neighbourhood 
of Jubbulpore city and BilehrT. Fruits and vegetables are also grown 
to supply the local demand. 

Cultivation expanded very largely up to 1892 ; but the famines pro- 
duced a serious decline, and complete recovery had not been attained 
in 1903-4. The area sown with two crops has largely increased since 
1864. 6'ff«-hemp is a profitable minor crop which has lately come into 
favour. During the eleven years ending 1904, Rs. 22,000 was borrowed 
under the Land Improvement Act, mainly for the embankment of 
fields, and 4-65 lakhs under the Agriculturists" Loans Act, a third 
of which was distributed in the famine of 1897. 

The cattle bred in the District are of no special quality. Many 
animals of the Gwalior and Saugor breeds are imported from outside, 
being purchased by the local agriculturists at Garhakota fair. The 
price of cattle is said to have risen largely since the famines of 1897 
and 1900, owing to the numbers killed for the export of hides and 
flesh. The returns show that about 13,000 are slaughtered annually, 
while in 1896-7 the number amounted to 41,000 out of a total of 
490,000 shown in the District returns. Grazing is very scarce in the 
open embanked wheat lands of the Haveli, and most of the cattle are 
sent to the forests for grazing during the rains, when the fields do not 
require ploughing. Buffaloes are bred, and the cows are kept for the 
manufacture of ghi, w'hile the young bulls are either allowed to die 
from neglect or sold in Chhattisgarh. Good cow buffaloes are expen- 
sive, their price being calculated at Rs. 12 or Rs. 13 for each seer of 
milk that they give. Ponies are bred to a small extent, and were also 
formerly imported from Saugor, but very few are purchased there now. 
Those who can afford it keep a pony for riding, as carts cannot travel 
over many portions of the District. Ponies, bullocks, and buffaloes are 



212 JUBBULPORR DISTRICT 

also largely >ised for park-oarriage. floats and sheep are kept for food 
and for the manufacture oi ghl. 

The maximum area irrigated is about 6,000 acres, of which 2,500 
are under rice, and the remainder devoted to garden crops, sugar-cane, 
and a little wheat and barley. There are about 2,500 wells and 134 
tanks. The embanked wheat-fields, which cover about 310 square 
miles, are, however, practically irrigated, and the crops grown in them 
are very seldom affected by deficiency of rainfall. 

The total area of Government forests is 346 square miles, or 9 per 
cent, of the District area. The forests are scattered in small patches 
all over the hilly tract east of the railway along the length of the 
District, while to the west lies one important block in the Murvvara 
tahsll, and a few smaller ones. The .w/-tree {Shorea robusta) occupies 
a portion of the Murwara forests. The remainder are of the type 
familiar on the dry hills of Central India — low scrub jungle, usually 
open and composed of a large variety of species, few of which, however, 
yield timber or attain large dimensions. Teak is found in places mixed 
with other species. Among the more important minor products may 
be mentioned the mahua flower, myrabolams, and honey. The forest 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 42,000. 

Iron ores, some of which are very rich, occur in several parts of the 
District, particularly in the Sihora iaiml. The iron is smelted in small 
furnaces bv Agarias, and sold at Rs. 2-8 a maund. 
Owing to the imperfect methods of refinmg, however, 
50 per cent, is lost in working it up. The iron is of excellent quality, as 
it is smelted with charcoal, but it is believed that the deposits are not 
sufficiently large to repay the expenditure of capital on ironworks. 
Steel is made with manganese by similar methods at Johli in Sihora, 
and used locally for agricultural implements. Manganese ores occur 
at Gosalpur, Sihora, Khitola, and other villages, and mining leases 
have been taken out. Copper ores and argentiferous galena with traces 
of gold occur at Sleemanabad, and a mining lease has been obtained 
by a barrister of Jubbulpore. The limestone deposits of Murwara are 
worked by a number of capitalists, European and native. The aggre- 
gate sales of lime in 1904 were 50,000 tons, valued at nearly 5 lakhs. 
About 2,500 labourers are employed, principally K.ols and Gonds. 
The largest manufacturers of lime also own a fuller's earth quarry, the 
produce of which is sold to paper-mills. Agate pebbles are abundant 
in the detritus formed by the Deccan trap, and are worked up into 
various articles of ornament by the local lapidaries. The true or Sulai- 
mani onyx is said to be sent to Cambay from Jubbulpore. There are 
a number of sandstone quarries in or near Murwara, from which 
excellent stone is obtained and exported in the shape of posts and 
slabs. Chips of limestone marble are exported for the facing of walls. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIOXS 213 

Cotton hand-weaving was formerly an important industry, but has 
been reduced by the competition of the mills. The principal centres 
are Garha and Majholi. The coloured saris generally 
worn by women are still woven by hand. The best communkTtfons. 
cloths and carpets are dyed after being woven, al or 
Indian madder being used for these heavy cloths, as the foreign dyes 
change colour and are partly fugitive. Bijeraghogarh in Murwara and 
Ramkhiria and Indrana in Sihora are the principal dyeing centres. 
Brass and copper vessels are made at Jubbulpore, by both hammering 
and casting, and cups and ornaments at Panagar. Glass bangles and 
the round glass flasks in which Ganges water is carried are produced 
at KatangT. At Tewar near the Marble Rocks various kinds of vessels 
of white sandstone, marble images, agate studs, and other small 
ornaments are made by the caste of Larhias or stone-cutters. 

The Gokuldas Spinning and Weaving Mills, with 28S looms and 
15,264 spindles, produced 10,200 cwt. of yarn and 4,798 cwt. of cloth 
in 1904. The mills are being enlarged by the addition of 300 looms. 
Only the coarser counts of yarn are woven, and the produce is sold 
locally. Large pottery works, started in 1892, turn out roofing and 
flooring tiles, bricks, and stoneware pipes, which are sold in the local 
market and also exported. The raw material is obtained from the large 
deposits of white clay formed from the limestone rocks, and the value 
of the produce in 1904 was 2 lakhs. A brewery, which was opened 
in 1897, sends beer to all parts of India. In connexion with the 
brewery, there is an ice factory which supplies the local demand. All 
these factories and also a gun-carriage factory and an oil- and flour-mill 
are situated at Jubbulpore. In Murwara eight small flour-mills have 
been started, being worked by water power and owned by natives ; and 
there are also paint- and oil-mills, worked by water power, in which 
chocolate-coloured paint is produced from yellow ochre and red oxide 
of iron. There are six printing presses in the city of Jubbulpore. 

Wheat and oilseeds are the principal exports. Hemp {san) is sent 
to both Calcutta and Bombay for export to England. Considerable 
quantities of ghl and forest produce are dispatched from Jubbulpore. 
but most of this comes from SeonT and Mandla. Hides and horns, 
bones, and dried beef are also largely exported. Other exports are the 
manufactured and mineral products already mentioned. Salt comes 
principally from the Sambhar Lake and also from Bombay and Gujarat, 
sugar from the Mauritius, and gur (unrefined sugar) from Bihar. Kero- 
sene oil is now universally used for lighting, vegetable oil being quite 
unable to compete with it. Cotton cloth is imported from Ahmadabad 
and also from the Berar and Nagpur mills, as the local mills cannot 
weave cloth of any fineness. There is a considerable trade in aniline 
dyes, and synthetic indigo has begun to find a market within the last 



2 14 JUBBULPORE DISTRICT 

few years. Transparent glass bangles are now brought in large numbers 
from Germany. A European firm, dealing in oilseeds, wheat, and 
myrabolams, has most of the export trade. The rest of the traffic is 
managed by Bhatias from Bombay and Cutchi Muhammadans. Mar- 
waris act only as local brokers, and do not export grain by rail. The 
leading weekly markets are at Panagar, Barela, Shahpura, Patan, 
Katangi, Bilheri, Silondi, and Umaria. Numerous religious fairs are 
held at the different sacred places on the Narbada and elsewhere, but 
trade is important only at those of Bheraghat and Kumbhi. 

The main line of railway from Bombay to Calcutta runs through the 
centre of the District with a length of 93 miles, and nine stations are 
situated within its limits, including the three towns of Jubbulpore, 
Sihora, and Murwara. At Jubbulpore the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway meets the East Indian. From Katni junction the Blna-Katnl 
connexion of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway branches off to 
Damoh and Saugor in the west, and a branch of the Bengal-Nagpur 
Railway leads east to Bilaspur. The Satpura extension of the Bengal- 
Nagpur Railway, which connects Jubbulpore with Gondia station, 
situated about 80 miles from Nagpur towards Calcutta, has recently 
been completed. 

From Jubbulpore a number of metalled roads lead to outlying Dis- 
tricts which, before the opening of the recently constructed railway 
lines, were important trade and military routes. These are the Jubbul- 
pore-Damoh {^t, miles), the Jubbulpore-SeonI (86 miles), and the 
Jubbulpore-Mandla (58 miles) roads. Other roads lead from Jub- 
bulpore to Patan, Deori, and Dindori in Mandla, of which the 
two latter are partly metalled, while the Patan road is unmetalled. 
From the south-west of the District trade goes to Shahpura station. 
The principal roads from Sihora are towards Patan and Majholi, and 
are unmetalled. A considerable amount of trade comes to Katni from 
the Native States to the north, chiefly by roads from Bijeraghogarh, 
from Rewah through Barhi, and from Damoh. The communications 
in the south of the District are excellent, but those in the north are not 
so advanced, apart from the railways. The total length of metalled 
roads is 108 miles and of unmetalled roads 301 miles, and the expen- 
diture on maintenance in 1903-4 was Rs. 67,000. More than 200 miles 
of the more important roads are managed by the Public AVorks depart- 
ment, and the remainder by the District council. There are avenues 
of trees on 74 miles. 

Failures of crops occurred in Jubbulpore District from excessive 

winter rain in 1818-9 and from deficiency of rainfall in 1833-4, 

. causing considerable distress. In 1868-9, the year 

of the Bundelkhand famine, the Murwara iahsll was 

severely affected, and a large decrease of population was shown at the 



ADMINISTRA TION 2 1 5 

following Census. The District then continued prosperous until 
1893-4, when for three years in succession the spring crops were spoilt 
by excessive winter rain. The poorer classes were distressed in 1896, 
and some relief was necessary, while in the following year Jubbulpore 
was very severely affected. Nearly 100,000 persons, or 13 per cent, of 
the population, Avere in receipt of relief in March, 1897, and the total 
expenditure was 19 lakhs. After two favourable seasons followed the 
famine of 1899-1900. The failure of crops in this was, if anything, 
more extensive than in 1897; but the people were in a better condition 
to meet it, and owing to the generous administration of relief the effect 
of the famine was far less marked. The numbers on relief reached 
65,000, or nearly 9 per cent, of the population, in July, 1900, and the 
total expenditure was 9 lakhs. A number of tanks were constructed or 
repaired by Government agency and some field embankments were 
made, besides various improvements in communications. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by four Assistant and Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners. For administrative purposes the District is 

divided into three tahstls, each of which has a tahsll- . . 

, ,,- ,,., - J nr - Administration. 

dar, with naib-tahslldars at Sihora and Murwara. 

Jubbulpore is the head-quarters of an Executive Engineer, who is in 

charge of Jubbulpore, INIandla, and SeonI Districts, of an Executive 

Engineer for irrigation, and of a Forest ofificer. 

'l"he civil judicial staff consists of a District and three Subordinate 
Judges, a Small Cause Court Judge for Jubbulpore city, and a IMunsif 
for the Jubbulpore tahs'il. The Divisional and Sessions Judge of the 
Jubbulpore Division has jurisdiction in the District. Crime is light, 
but the District is sometimes visited by professional coiners or dacoits 
from the neighbouring Native States. 

Neither the Gond nor the Maratha government had any fixed prin- 
ciples for the realization of revenue, nor were any rights in land 
recognized. The policy of the Marathas was directed merely to the 
extortion of as much money as possible. Rents were commonly 
collected from the ryots direct, and when farming was practised short 
leases only were granted on very high rents, which sometimes amounted 
to more than the village 'assets.' For some years after the cession 
in 1 8 18 short-term settlements were made, the demand being fixed on 
the first occasion at 4-18 lakhs, subsequently rising in 1825 to 6-41 lakhs. 
This assessment proved, however, too heavy, and in 1835 a twenty 
years' settlement was made and the revenue fixed at 4-76 lakhs. Under 
it the District prospered greatly. Revision was postponed for some 
years owing to the Mutiny; but in 1863 a thirty years' settlement was 
concluded, at which the revenue was raised to 5-69 lakhs, including 
Rs. 60,000 assessed on the subsequently included estate of Bije- 
raghogarh. During the currency of this settlement, which almost coin- 



2i6 JUBBULPORE DISTRICT 

rided with the opening of the railway, Jubbulpore enjoyed a period oF 
great agricultural prosperity. Cultivation increased by 35 per cent, and 
the price of wheat by 239 per cent., while that of other grains doubled. 
The income of the landholders rose by 61 per cent., mainly owing to 
large enhancements of the rental. The latest settlement, commenced 
in 1888 and completed in 1894, raised the revenue to 10 lakhs, an 
increase of 65 per cent. The new assessment was not excessive, and 
would have been easily payable ; but the successive disastrous seasons, 
of which mention has been made, necessitated substantial reductions 
in the demand, and the revenue in 1903-4 had been reduced to 
Rs. 8,77,000. The average rental incidence per cultivated acre at 
settlement was Rs. 1-3-8 (maximum Rs. 3-12-1, minimum R. 0-3-1), 
and the revenue incidence was R. o-ii-ii (maximum Rs. i-i 5-3, 
minimum R. 0-1-7). 

The total receipts from land revenue and from all sources have been, 
in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880-1. 


1 890- 1. 


IQOO-I. 1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


.^,73 
11,41 


5,7« 
12,76 


y,.6 8,67 
14.87 1 15.03 



Local affairs outside municipal areas are entrusted to a District 
council, under which are three local boards, each having jurisdiction 
over one tahs'il. The local boards have no independent income, but 
perform inspection duty and supervise minor improvements. The 
income of the District council in 1903-4 was Rs. 87,000. The expen- 
diture was Rs. 84,000, mainly on public works (Rs. 29,000) and educa- 
tion (Rs. 24,000). Jubbulpore Citv, Sihora, and Murwara arc 
municipalities. 

The police force consists of 751 officers and men, including a special 
reserve of 55 men, 8 railway police, and 10 mounted constables, under 
a District Superintendent. There are 1,721 village watchmen for 
2,298 inhabited villages. The District has a Central jail, with accom- 
modation for 1,463 prisoners, including 150 female prisoners. The 
daily average number of male prisoners in 1904 was 777, and of female 
prisoners 32. Cloth for pillow and mattress cases, net money-bags, 
wire netting, and Scotch and Kidderminster carpets are made in the 
Central jail. 

In respect of education Jubbulpore stands second among the 
Districts of the Province, 5-3 per cent, of the population (10 males 
and 0-6 females) being able to read and write. Statistics of 
the number of pupils under instruction are as follows: (1880-1) 
8,300, (1890-1) 9,805, (1900-1) 12,070, (1903-4) 14,141, including 
1,811 girls. The educational institutions comprise an Arts college in 



JUBBULPORE CITY 217 

Jubbulpore city, which also contains law and engineering classes ; 
3 high schools; 3 training schools for teachers; 6 English and 15 
vernacular middle schools ; 164 primary schools ; and 2 special schools. 
The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,40,000, of 
which Ks. 16,000 was realized from fees. The percentage of children 
under instruction to those of school-going age is 14. Jubbulpore city 
also contains a Reformatory, to which youthful offenders from the 
whole Province are sent and taught different handicrafts. It had 
125 mmates in 1904. 

The District has 14 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation 
for 131 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 106,386, 
of whom 1,585 were in-patients, and 3,422 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 20,000, chieflly from Provincial funds. A 
lunatic asylum at Jubbulpore contains 178 patients. 

Vaccination is compulsory in the municipalities of Jubbulpore city 
(including the cantonment), Sihora, and Murwara. The proportion of 
successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was t,t, per 1,000 of the population. 

[Khan Bahadur Aulad Husain, Settlement Report (1895). A District 
(iazetteer is being compiled.] 

Jubbulpore Tahsil. — Southern tahsil of Jubbulpore District, 
Central Provinces, lying between 22° 49' and 23° 32' N. and 
79'^ 21' and 80° 36' E., with an area of 1,519 square miles. The 
population decreased from 361,889 in 1891 to 332,488 in 190 1. 
The density is 219 persons per square mile, which is considerably 
above the District average. The tahsil contains one town, Jubbulpore 
City (population, 90,316), the head-quarters of the District and tahsil; 
and 1,076 inhabited villages. Excluding 113 square miles of Govern- 
ment forest, 63 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultiva- 
tion. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 799 square miles. The 
demand for land revenue in the same year was Rs. 4,54,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 51,000. The /(?/««/ contains part of the highly fertile wheat- 
growing tract known as the Jubbulpore Havell on the west, some good 
but uneven land lying east of the railway, and some hill and forest 
country to the east towards Kundam and Baghraji and also on the 
southern border. 

Jubbulpore City. — Head-quarters of the Division, District, and 
tahsil of the same name, Central Provinces, situated in 23° 10' N. and 
79° 57' E., 6x6 miles from Bombay by the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, and 784 miles from Calcutta by the East Indian, the two 
lines meeting here. A branch narrow-gauge railway has recently 
been opened to Gondia, 117 miles distant, on the Bengal-Nagpur 
system. The city stands in a rocky basin surrounded by low hills, 
about 6 miles from the Narbada river. The gorge of the Narbada at 
Bheraglial, where the river passes through the well-known Marble 



2i8 JUBBULPOKE CITY 

Rocks, is 13 miles distant. Tubbuli)ore is well laid out, with broad 
and regular streets, and numerous tanks and gardens have been 
constructed in the environs. Its elevation is 1,306 feet above sea-level. 
The climate is comparatively cool, and Jubbulpore is generally consi- 
dered the most desirable of the plain stations in the Central Provinces, 
of which it ranks as the second city. It is steadily increasing in 
importance, the population at the last four enumerations having been : 
(1872) 55,188, (1881) 75,075, (1891) 84,481, and (1901) 90oi6. Of 
the total in 1901, 63,997 were Hindus, 21,036 Muhammadans, and 
3,432 Christians, of whom 2,000 were Europeans and Eurasians. 
Four miles to the west of the city, and included in the municipality, 
is Garha, once the capital of the Gond dynasty of Garha-Mandla, 
whose ancient keep, known as the Madan Mahal, still crowns a low 
granite range with the old town lying beneath it. This was constructed 
about 1 100 by Madan Singh, and is now in ruins. It is a small 
building of no architectural pretensions, and its only interest lies in 
its picturesque position, perched upon the top of the hill on a huge 
boulder of rock. In the sixteenth century the capital was removed to 
Mandla, and the importance of Garha declined. Of the history of 
Jubbulpore itself nothing is known until it was selected by the Ma- 
rathas as their head-quarters on the annexation of Mandla in 1781. 
In an old inscription now in the Nagpur INIuseum the name is given 
as Javalipatna. Jubbulpore subsequently became the head-quarters of 
the Commissioner of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, which were 
merged in the Central Provinces in 1861. 

A municipality was constituted in 1864. The municipal receipts 
and expenditure during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 2,62,000 
and Rs. 2,57,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,54,000, 
the main sources being octroi (Rs. 1,65,000) and water rate (Rs. 29,000) ; 
and the total expenditure was Rs. 2,38,000, including refunds (Rs. 
56,000), conservancy (Rs. 34,000), repayment of loans (Rs. 28,000), 
general administration and collection of taxes (Rs, 21,000), and water- 
supply (Rs. 13,000). Previous to the construction of the existing 
water-works, the town de])ended for its supply on a number of unreli- 
able wells, and it was not uncommon for water to be retailed in the 
hot season at one or two annas a pot. The water- works were opened 
in 1883, and extended to the cantonment and the civil station in 1894. 
They consist of a reservoir constructed on the Khandari stream, about 
seven miles from the city. The masonry embankment is 1,680 feet 
long and 66 feet high, and the catchment area of the reservoir is 5^ 
square miles. Water is conveyed to the city in pipes by gravitation. 
The total cost of the works was 9-4 lakhs, including the extension. 
The effect of the constant intake of water in a city whose .situation 
does not provide good natural drainage has, however, been to render 



JUBBULPORE CITY 219 

the ground somewhat sodden, and a drainage scheme to counteract 
this tendency is under consideration. 

Jubbulpore includes a cantonment with a population of 13,157. The 
receipts and expenditure of the cantonment fund during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged about Rs. 25,000, and in 1903-4 they amounted 
to Rs. 32,000. The ordinary garrison has hitherto consisted of one 
battalion of British and one of Native infantry, a squadron of Native 
cavalry, and two field batteries ; but it is proposed to increase it. 
There are also two companies of Railway Voluiiteers, and one of the 
Nagpur Volunteer Rifles. Jubbulpore is the head-quarters of a general 
officer, and the garrison is included in the Mhow division. A central 
gun-carriage factory for India was opened in 1905. A Government 
grass farm, combined with a military dairy, has also been established. 

Jubbulpore is an important commercial and industrial town. It 
receives the grain and other produce of the greater part of Jubbulpore 
District, and of portions of Seoni and Mandla. The factories include 
spinning and weaving mills, pottery works, a brewer}' and ice factory, 
oil- and flour-mill.s, the workshops of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, and four hydraulic presses for i-ff/z-hemp. The local handi- 
crafts are cloth-weaving, brass-working, stone-cutting, and the manu- 
facture of images from marble, and of studs, buttons, and other orna- 
ments from agate pebbles. Till lately a considerable tent-making 
industry was carried on, at first by the Thags, who were kept in con- 
finement here, and their descendants, and afterwards at a Reformatory 
school ; but this has now ceased. There are six printing presses, w'ith 
English, Hindi, and Urdu type : and an English weekly and a Hindi 
newspaper are published. 

Jubbulpore is the head-quarters not only of the ordinary District 
staff, but of the Commissioner and Divisional Judge of the Jubbulpore 
Division, a Conservator of Forests, a Superintending and an Irrigation 
Engineer, the Superintendent of Telegraphs for the Central Provinces, 
and an Inspector of Schools. One of the three Central jails and one 
of the two lunatic asylums in the Province are located here. The 
industries carried on in the Central jail include the weaving of cloth 
for pillow and mattress cases, and of net money-bags, the manufacture 
of wire netting for local use, and of thick bedding cloth and Scotch 
and Kidderminster carpets for sale. Fifty-five looms were employed 
in making carpets in 1903-4. The Church Missionary Society, the 
Zanana Mission, and the Roman Catholic, Wesleyan, and American 
Methodist Churches have mission stations in Jubbulpore, and support 
several orphanages and schools. A Government Arts college affiliated 
to the Allahabad University, with law and engineering classes attached 
to it, had 114 students in 1903-4. There are also three high schools, 
one maintained by the Church Missionary Society with 79 pupils, 

VOL, XIV. p 



220 JUBBULrORE CITY 

one by a Muhanimadan society with 8 pupils, and one by a Hindu 
society with 87 pupils, training institutions for male and female 
teachers, and 53 other schools. Schools for European boys and 
girls are maintained by the Church Missionary Society and the Roman 
Catholic Mission, with the assistance of Government grants. There 
is also a Reformatory, to which youthful offenders from the whole 
Province are sent and taught different handicrafts. It contains 
125 inmates, and is the successor of the old school for the children 
of Thags arrested in the Central Provinces. Jubbulpore contains 
a general hospital, the Lady Elgin Hospital for women, three dis- 
pensaries, and a veterinary dispensary. 

Jubo. — Town in the State of Khairpur, Sind, Bombay, situated in 
26° 22" N. and 69° 34' E. Population (1901), 6,924. The inhabitants 
deal chiefly in goats and sheep ; and rough carpets of goat's hair are 
also manufactured. Jubo contains the ruins of a fort built by the 
late Mir. 

Jukal. — ' Crown ' ^.v^i-tdluk of the Atraf-i-balda District, Hyderabad 
State, lying to the south-west of Nizamabad District, with an area of 
87 square miles. Its population in 1901 was 15,789, compared with 
10,883 ''^ 189 1. The sub-/a/?^>^ contains 22 villages, and Jukal (3,350) 
is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 66,000. The 
soil is mostly regat- or black cotton soil. 

Jullundur Division {/diandhar). — A Division of the Punjab, 
stretching from the borders of Tibet on the north-east across the 
valleys of the Upper Beas and Sutlej to the borders of the Bikaner 
desert on the south-west. It lies between 29° 55'' and 32° 59' N. and 
73° 52' and 78° 42' E. The Commissioner's head-quarters are at the 
town of Jullundur. The Division comprises all varieties of scene and 
soil, from the tumbled masses of the Outer Himalayas, in Kulu and 
Kangra, to the fertile plains of Jullundur or the arid tracts of Feroze- 
pore. The population increased from 3,787,945 in 1881 to 4,217,670 
in 1891, and to 4,306,662 in 1901. The area is 19,410 square miles, 
and the density of population 222 persons per square mile, as com- 
pared with 209 for the Province as a whole. In 1901 Hindus formed 
52 per cent, of the population (2,242,490), while other religions 
included 1,457,193 Muhammadans, 591,437 Sikhs, 5,562 Jains, 
4,176 Buddhists, 33 Parsis, and 5,766 Christians (of whom 1,919 
were natives). The Division contains five Districts, as shown 
in the table on the next page. 

Of these, Kangra lies entirely in the hills, sloping away to the sub- 
montane District of Hoshiarpur. The rest lie in the plains. The 
Division contains 6,415 villages and 37 towns, of which the following 
had in 1901 a population exceeding 20,000: Jullundur (67,735), 
Ferozkporf. (49,341), and Ludhiana (48,649). Besides the adminis- 



JULLUNDUR DISTRLCT 



22T 



District. 


Area in 
square miles. 


Population, 
1901. 


Land revenue ' 
and cesses, 

. i903-4, , 

in thousands 

of rupees. 


Kangra .... 

Hoshiarpur 

Jullundur 

Ludhiana 

Ferozepore 

Total 


9,978 
2,244 
1,431 
1,455 
4,302 


768,124 

989,782 

9' 7,587 
673,097 

958,072 


10,73 
16,41 

17,75 
12,42 

14,27 


19,410 


4,306,662 


71,58 



trative charge of these British Districts, the Commissioner has poHtical 
control over five Native States, which are shown below, with their area 
and population : — 



State. 


Area in 
square milv--s. 


Population, 

IQOt. 


Kapurthala 

Mandi .... 

Maler Kotla 

Suket .... 

Farldkot .... 

Total 


630 
1,200 
167 
420 
642 


314,35' 

174,045 

77,506 

54,676 

124,912 


3,059 


745,490 



The total population of these Native States increased from 620,203 
in 1881 to 709,811 in 1891, and 745,490 in 1901, of whom 52^ per 
cent, were Hindus (392,148), while other religions included 245,403 
Muhammadans, 105,304 Sikhs, 1,993 Jains, 573 Buddhists, 4 Parsis, 
and 65 Christians. The density of the population is 244 persons per 
square mile. The States contain 1,053 villages and 12 towns, of which 
Maler Kotla (21,122) alone exceeds 20,000 inhabitants. 

Ludhiana, Ferozepore, and Jullundur are the only towns of com- 
mercial importance, while Kangra and Jawala Mukhi are famous for 
their religious associations. The Division practically corresponds to 
the ancient Hindu kingdom of Trigartta. Kangra fort has been many 
times besieged, while more recent battle-fields are those of Mudki, 
Ferozeshah, Aliwal, and Sobraon in the first Sikh War (1845). 

Jullundur District {/dlafidhar). — District in the Jullundur Divi- 
sion, Punjab, lying between 30° 56' and 31° 37' N. and 75° 5' and 
76° 16' E., with an area of 1,431 square miles. It occupies the 
southern part of the dodb (called the Blst Jullundur Doab), or 
country between the Beas and Sutlej. The latter river forms its 
southern border, separating it from Ludhiana and Ferozepore, and in 
shape the District is an irregular triangle with its base on that river. 
The State of Kapurthala separates it on the west from the Beas and 
its confluence with the Sutlej. Along its north-east border lies the 

p 2 



22 2 JULLUXDUR DISTRICT 

District of Hoshiarpur ; and in the centre of this portion, between the 
Tullundur and Nawashahr tahslh, is a detached tract of Kapurthala 
territory which forms the Phagwara tahstl of that State. The valley of 
the Sutlej is marked by a high, well-defined bank. 
Physical North of this lies a plateau whose highest point, at 
Rahon near the eastern corner of the District, is 
i,oi2 feet above sea-level. Thence it slopes gradually westwards 
towards the Beas. No hill or rock breaks the level of this plateau, 
which lies entirely within the zone of rich cultivable soil that skirts the 
foot of the Himalayas, and was regarded by the Sikhs as the garden of 
the Punjab. At places a few acres are covered with sand ; but, except 
in these rare spots, one vast sheet of luxuriant and diverse vegetation 
spreads over the plain from end to end. South of the high bank of the 
Sutlej lies the Bet or khada?; a strip of alluvial soil annually fertilized 
by deposits of silt from that river, although the opening of the Sirhind 
Canal has greatly reduced its flow, and it now runs almost dry for eight 
months in the year. The only important stream is the East or White 
Bein, which, rising east of Rahon and running along the Hoshiarpur 
border, traverses the Phagwara tahsll of Kapurthala State, and thence 
meanders westwards across the District till it falls into the Sutlej near 
its junction with the Beas. In its earlier course it receives several 
torrents from the Siwalik Hills in Hoshiarpur. These bring down de- 
posits of sand, which are doing considerable damage to the cultivated 
lands on its eastern bank. 

The District is situated entirely in the alluvium, and contains 
nothing of geological interest. Cultivation has advanced to such a 
point that there is little in the way of natural vegetation beyond the 
weeds that come up with the crops throughout North-west India. 
Trees are almost always planted ; and, owing to the proximity of the 
Himalayas, several kinds succeed very well, among them the mango 
and her {Zizyphus Jiijitbd). The river banks are in places fringed with 
a dense growth of high grasses, as in Ferozepore and adjoining 
Districts. 

AVolves are seen but very rarely, and towards Kapurthala antelope, 
nilgai, and hares are found. Field-rats abound, and do no small 
amount of damage to the crops. 

The climate is, for the plains, temperate. In the hot season, with the 
exception of June and July, the heat is not excessive ; in the cold 
season frosts are light, and confined to January and February. 'J'he 
average mean temperature of January is 56°, and of June 93°. The 
mortality varies very much with the rainfall, owing to the prevalence of 
malaria in rainy years. Plague made its first appearance in the Punjab 
in the village of Khatkar Kalan in this District in 1897. 

Owing to the nearness of the hills, the rainfall is fairly constant. 



. HISTORY 223 

The annual average varies from 24 inches at Phillaur to 27 at JuUun- 

dur, 22 inches falUng in the summer months and only 5 in the winter. 

During the ten years ending 1903 the heaviest fall was 60 inches at 

Nawashahr in 1900-1, and the lightest 11 inches, in 1899-1900, at 

JuUundur. There were disastrous floods in 1875 and 1878, owing to 

the railway embankment giving insufificient passage to the floods caused 

by the unusually heavy rains. 

Early legends attribute the name of the doab to the Daitya king 

lalandhara, who was overwhelmed by Siva under a pile of mountains. 

His mouth, the legend says, was at Tawala Mukhi, 

, , . • . , Ti - History. 

his feet at Multan, where m ancient times the Beas 

and Sutlej met, and his back under the upper part of the JuUundur 
Doab, including the present District. The earliest mention of Jul- 
lundur occurs in the accounts of the Buddhist council held at Kuvana, 
near that city, early in the Christian era, under the auspices of Kan- 
ishka. When visited in the seventh century by Hiuen Tsiang, it was 
the capital of the Rajput kingdom of Trigartta, which also included the 
modern Districts of Hoshiarpur and Kangra and the States of Chamba, 
Mandi, and Suket. Towards the end of the ninth century the Raja- 
taranginl records the defeat of Prithwi Chandra, Raja of Trigartta, by 
Sankara Chandra of Kashmir. The town was taken by Ibrahim Shah 
Ghori about 1088 ; and from that time the country appears to have 
remained under Muhammadan rule, the JuUundur Doab being gener- 
ally attached to the province of Lahore. During the Saiyid dynasty 
(1414-51), however, the authority of Delhi was but weakly maintained ; 
and the doab became the scene of numerous insurrectionary move- 
ments, and especially of the long campaign of the Khokhar chief 
Jasrath against the ruling power. Near JuUundur the Mughal forces 
concentrated in 1555, when Humayun returned to do battle for his 
kingdom, and the neighbourhood was the scene of Bairam's defeat by 
the imperial forces in 1560. Adlna Beg, the last and most famous 
of the governors of JuUundur, played an important part during the 
downfall of Muhammadan power in the Punjab, holding the balance 
between the Delhi emperor, the Sikhs, and Ahmad Shah Durrani. 
Both Nurmahal and Kartarpur were sacked by Ahmad Shah, and to 
avenge the desecration of the latter place the Sikhs burnt JuUundur 
in 1757. 

The Sikh revolt against the Mughal power early found strong support 
in the District, and a number of petty chieftains rapidly established 
themselves by force of arms as independent rulers throughout the doab. 
In 1766 the town of JuUundur fell into the hands of the FaizuUahpuria 
misl, or confederacy, then led by Khushhal Singh. His son and 
successor, Budh Singh, built a masonry fort in the town, while several 
other leaders fortified themselves in its suburbs. Phillaur was seized 



2 24 JULLUNDUR DISTRICT 

by Budh Singh, who made it the capital of a considerable State ; and 
the Muhammadan Rajputs of Nakodar (on whom the town had been 
conferred in jagir during the reign of Jahanglr) were early ousted by 
Sardar Tara Singh, Ghaiba, who built a fort, and made himself master 
of the surrounding territory. But meanwhile Ranjit Singh was consoli- 
dating his power in the south ; Phillaur fell into his hands in 1807, 
and he converted the sarai into a fort to command the passage of the 
Sutlej ; and in 181 1 Dlwan Mohkam Chand was dispatched to annex 
the FaizuUahpuria dominions in the JuUundur Doab. Budh Singh fled 
across the Sutlej ; and though his troops offered some resistance to 
the invader, the Maharaja successfully established his authority in the 
autumn of that year. Thenceforth JuUundur was the capital of the 
Sikh possessions in the doab till British annexation. Nakodar was 
seized in 1816, the petty Sardars were gradually ousted from their 
estates, and the whole country brought under the direct management 
of the Sikh governors. Here, as elsewhere, their fiscal administration 
proved very oppressive, especially under Shaikh Ghulam Muhi-ud-din, 
the last official appointed from the court of Lahore, a tyrannical ruler, 
who exacted irregular taxes. He made over the tract to his son, Imam- 
ud-din, but neither resided regularly in the doab, their charge being 
entrusted to lieutenants, the best known of whom were Sandhe Khan 
in Hoshiarpur and Karim Bakhsh in JuUundur. 

At the close of the first Sikh War the British annexed the whole of 
the JuUundur Doab, and it became the Commissionership of the Trans- 
Sutlej States. For two years the administration was directly under the 
Supreme Government; but in 1848 the Commissioner became sub- 
ordinate to the Resident at Lahore, and in the succeeding year, when 
events forced on the annexation of the Punjab, the administration of 
the dodh was assimilated to the general system. The Commissioner's 
head-quarters were fixed at JuUundur, and the three Districts of Jul- 
lundur, Hoshiarpur, and Kangra were created. The fort at Phillaur 
was occupied as an artillery magazine, and cantonments formed there 
and at Nakodar, which continued to be occupied till 1857 and 1854 
respectively. 

In 1857 the native troops stationed at JuUundur and PhiUaur muti- 
nied and marched off to join the rebel forces at Delhi ; the authorities 
were, however, not altogether unprepared, and though the mutineers 
succeeded in escaping unmolested, they were prevented from doing 
serious damage. Raja Randhlr Singh of Kapurthala rendered invalu- 
able assistance at this time, both in supplying troops and, by the 
exercise of his personal influence, in helping to preserve the peace of 
the doab. 

The tombs at Nakodar and Nur Jahan's sarai at Nurmahal arc 
the chief remains of antiquarian interest. 



POPULATION 



225 



The population of the District at the la.st four enumeration.s was : 
(1868) 794,418, (1881) 789,555, (1891) 907,583, and (1901) 917,587, 
dwelling in 10 towns and 1,216 villages. It increased 
by r-r per cent, during the last decade, the increase 
being greatest in the Jullundur tahs'il and least in Phillaur. The 
density of population is the highest in the Province. The District 
is divided into the four tahsils of Jullundur, Nawashahr, Phillaur, 
and Nakodar, the head-quarters of each being at the place from 
which it is named. I'he chief towns are Jullundur, the head-quarters 
of the District, and the municipalities of Kartarpur, Alawalpur, 
Phill.aur, Nurmahal, Rahon, Naw.ashahr, Banga, and Nakodar. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 
1 901 : — 





Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


' _5 

.B 

"3 

305,976 
196,339 

192,860 
222,412 


Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and IQOI. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


Tahsil. 


i 


> 


JitUundur . 
Nawashahr 
I'hillaur . 
Nakodar . 

District total 


391 
299 

298 

371 


3 
3 
3 

1 

10 


409 
274 

222 
311 


782.4 
656.7 
647.2 

599-5 


+ 3-6 
-4-5 

+ 1-7 

+ ^-5 


14,209 

7,820 
6,285 

4,789 
33,103 


1,431 


1,216 


917,587 


641-2 


-1- i-i 



Note. — The figures for the areas of iahsils are taken from the revenue returns. The 
total District area is tliat given in the Census Rcj>ort. 

Muhammadans number 421,011, or more than 45 per cent, of the 
total ; Hindus, 368,051, or 40 per cent. ; and Sikhs, 125,817, or nearly 
14 per cent. Punjabi is spoken throughout the District. 

By far the most numerous caste are the Jats or Jats, who number 
185,000, or 20 per cent, of the total, and own half the villages. .Vbout 
185 clans are enumerated in the District. Some of these claim a 
Rajput origin ; others have no traditions of being anything but Jats. 
Taken as a whole, they are an honest, industrious, sturdy, and vigorous 
folk, addicted to no form of serious crime, except female infanticide. 
The Muhammadan Jats are inferior to the Hindu and Sikh. The 
Arains (143,000) come next, comprising one-seventh of the total. 
They are entirely Muhammadans, and are a peaceable people without 
the sturdy spirit of the Jats, but quite as efficient cultivators. The 
Rajputs (50,000) come third. More than four-fifths are Muhammadans, 
but they nearly all preserve Hindu customs. They formerly held 
a more important position in the District than they do now, and 
carefully maintain the traditions of their former greatness ; and, 
despising work as beneath their dignity, they are very inferior as 
agriculturists to the Jats. The Khokhars are entirely Muhammadan 



226 



JULLVNDUR DISTRICT 



they are often considered Rajputs, but the claim is not generally 
accepted, and they do not intermarry with Rajputs. The Awans 
(12,000) also are all Muhammadans. They claim to have come from 
Arabia, but their observance of Hindu usages marks them as converts 
to Islam. Other agricultural tribes worthy of mention are Sainis 
(16,000), who are clever market-gardeners ; Kambohs (6,000), mainly 
Sikhs ; and Gujars (20,000), who are found everywhere. The Khattris 
(26,000) are the most important of the commercial tribes, the Banias 
numbering only 6,000. Of menial tribes the most important are the 
Chamars (leather- workers, 96,000), Chuhras (scavengers, 41,000), 
Kumhars (potters, 15,000), Lobars (blacksmiths, 15,000), Mochis 
(cobblers, 20,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 32,000, many of whom 
are landowners), Jhlnwars (watermen, 29,000), Julahas (weavers, 
16,000), Nais (barbers, 15,000), Chbimbas and Dhobis (washermen, 
12,000), and Telis (oil-pressers, -14,000). Brahmans number 32,000. 
Half the population is agricultural and one-fourth industrial. 

The Jullundur Mission is one of the stations belonging to the 
American Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. It was established 
in 1847. In 1901 the District contained 276 native Christians. 

Lying as Jullundur does close to the Outer Himalayas, an absolute 
failure of the rains is almost unknown ; and apart from the protection 
afforded by the numerous wells, the soil is sufficiently 
charged with moisture to resist anything but absolute 
drought. More than 40 per cent, of the cultivated area is a good 
alluvial loam; patches of clay soil, amounting in all to 13 per cent, 
of the cultivated area, are found all over the District, while 24 per cent, 
is sandy soil, of which half is found in the Jullundur tahslJ. A small 
proportion is uncultivable, being covered by sandhills. 

The District is held almost entirely by communities of peasant 
proprietors, large estates covering only about 37 square miles. 

The area for w4iich details are available from the revenue records 
of 1903-4 is 1,357 square miles, as shown below: — 



Agriculture. 



TahsU. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Culti\able 
waste. 


Jullundur . 
Nawashahr . 
Phillaur 
Nakodar 

Total 


391 
304 
291 

371 


337 

217 
244 

295 


104 
146 
III 
IlS 


23 
43 
19 
25 


1,357 


1 ,09.^ 


479 


no 



The chief crop of the spring harvest is wheat, which occupied 
430 square miles in 1903-4; gram covered 177 square miles; and 
barley only 16 square miles. Maize is the staple product of the 



AGRICULTURE 227 

autumn harvest, occupying 149 square miles, while pulses covered 121. 
Sugar-cane, which occupied 49 square miles, is commercially of the 
greatest importance to the cultivator, as he looks to this crop to pay 
the whole or the greater part of the revenue. Very little great millet 
is grown (14 square miles), and practically no spiked millet ; cotton 
covered 28 square miles, and rice 3,188 acres. 

The cultivated area increased by only Soo acres during the ten years 
ending 1901, and hardly any further increase can be anticipated. 
There has, however, been a considerable development of well-sinking, 
more than 8,000 wells having been constructed since the settlement 
of 1880-5. Practically no cultivable land is now left untilled ; and 
the pressure on the soil, which in 1901 was, excluding the urban 
population, 718 persons per cultivated square mile, can only be met 
by emigration. The District has already sent numbers of its sons 
to the Chenab Colony, to the Janu-ao Canal in Sind, to Australia and 
East Africa ; and many are in civil or military employment in other 
parts of India. The remittances of these emigrants add enormously 
to the natural resources of the District, and the greater portion of the 
Government revenue collected in it is required by the post offices 
to enable them to cash money orders issued on them. Loans under 
the Land Improvement Loans Act for the construction of wells are 
popular and faithfully applied ; during the five years ending 1904 more 
than Rs. 54,000 was advanced for this purpose. Nothing has been 
done in the way of improving the quality of the crops grown. 

Jullundur is not well adapted for breeding cattle, and it is estimated 
that for ploughing and working the wells no less than 10,000 bullocks 
per annum have to be imported. These are generally obtained at the 
Amritsar, Sirsa, and Hissar fairs, and from Patiala and Ferozepore. 
Although some places in the Jullundur Doab are mentioned in the 
Ain-i-Akban as famous for a breed of horses, the i)onies are not now 
specially valuable. One horse and four donkey stallions are ke[)t by 
the District board. There are very few camels, and sheep and goats 
are not important. The country is so fully cultivated that little ground 
for grazing is left, except along the Sutlej and in places near the Bein. 
Large numbers of cattle are driven from a distance to these favoured 
spots, and considerable sums are levied in grazing fees by the owners 
of the land. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 479 square miles, or 44 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 477 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, and 1,455 'icres from streams and tanks. In 
addition, 56 square miles, or 5 per cent., were subject to inundation 
from the Sutlej. Wells are the mainstay (;f the District ; and there 
are 28,609 niasonry \vells worked by cattle, chiefly on the rope-and- 
bucket system, besides 464 unbricked wells, water-lifts, and lever wells. 



228 JULLUNDUR DISTRICT 

The Persian wheel is found where the soil is sandy and water near 
the surface. 

The District contains two small plantations 'reserved' under the 
Forest Act, consisting chiefly of shisham and k'lkar, and covering 
262 acres, with a military Reserve of 885 acres. It is on the whole 
well wooded, almost every one of the wells which it contains being 
surrounded by a small coppice ; but, as already noticed, waste land 
is very scarce. Phillaur is the winter head-quarters of the Bashahr 
Forest division, and a great wood mart, to which quantities of timber 
are floated down the Sutlej and stored. Much also is brought for sale 
here from the Beas and the Sirhind Canal. 

Kankar is plentiful, the best beds being within a radius of ten miles 
from Jullundur town. Saltpetre is manufactured from saline earth. 

A great deal of cotton-weaving is carried on, the principal products 

being the coarse cotton cloth which supplies most of the dress of the 

people, and coloured stripes and checks. Large 

Trade and quantities of very coarse cotton fabrics (khaddar) are 
communications. ^ , ^, .-' , r, 1 1 • ..■ j f>-u 

exported to Shikarpur and Sukkur ui Smd. Kanon 

had once a great reputation for a superior cotton longcloth, but the 
industry is almost extinct. Silk-weaving is carried on at Jullundur town, 
and in 1899 employed 250 looms, the estimated out-turn being valued 
at 2 lakhs. The gold and silver manufactures are flourishing, but 
in no way remarkable, and the out-turn is insufficient for local require- 
ments. Besides ornaments, silver wire and gold and silver lace are 
made. The District has some reputation for carpenter's work, and 
chairs are made at Kartarpur for the wholesale trade. Brass vessels 
are manufactured in many parts, the output being valued at Rs. 27,000, 
of which half is exported. The thin pottery known as ' paper pottery " 
is made in the District, and glazed and coloured tile-work of unusual 
excellence is turned out at Jullundur by one man. There are two 
flour-mills at Jullundur town, and attached to one of them is a small 
iron and brass foundry. The number of factory employes in 1904 
was 73. 

The traffic of the District is mainly in agricultural produce. In 
ordinary years grain is imported from Ludhiana, Ferozepore, and the 
Sikh States for export to the hills ; other articles of import are piece- 
goods from Delhi, Bombay, and Calcutta, iron from Ferozepore, Amrit- 
sar, and Karachi, brass and copper vessels from Jagadhri, Amritsar, 
and Delhi, rice from Kangra, and salt from the Mayo Mines. Sugar 
and molasses are largely manufactured to supply the markets of Bikaner, 
Lahore, the Punjab, and Sind. Wheat, cotton cloth, and silk goods are 
the other principal exports. 

The District is traversed by the main line of the North-Western 
Railway, and branch lines are contemplated from Jullundur town to 



ADMINISTRATION ^29 

Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur. It is exceptionally well provided with 

roads, the total length of metalled roads being 158 miles and of 

unmetalled roads 337 miles. The most important of the former are 

the grand trunk road, which traverses the District parallel with the 

railway, and the road from JuUundur to Hoshiarpur ; these, with some 

minor roads, 62 miles in length in all, are under the Public Works 

department, the rest being under the District board. The Sutlej is 

navigable only in the rains ; there are twelve ferries. 

JuUundur, thanks to the excellence of its soil and the nearness of the 

hills, is but little liable to drought. None of the famines that have 

visited the Puniab since annexation has affected the 

, -^ . , , . , , 1 . Famine. 

District at all seriously, and it was classed by the 

Irrigation Commission of 1903 as secure from famine. The area of 

crops matured in the famine year 1 899-1 900 amounted to 76 per cent. 

of the normal. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by three 

or four Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners. It is divided into 

four tahsJls, each under a tahsilddr assisted by a uaib- . ^ . . ^ . 

' . . , -^ . Administration. 

iahsi/dar: JuUundur comprises its northern portion, 

and Nawashahr, Phillaur, and Nakodar, which lie in that order from 

east to west, the southern. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice. Civil judicial work is in charge of a District Judge, 
and both these officers are subordinate to the Divisional and Sessions 
Tudge of the JuUundur CivU Division, which consists of the District of 
JuUundur alone. There are six Munsifs, three at head-quarters and 
one at each outlying tahsi/. There are also a Cantonment Magistrate 
at JuUundur and eight honorary magistrates. The common forms of 
crime are burglary and theft. 

In the revenue system of Akbar the present District formed part of 
the Duaba Bist Jalandhar, one of the sarkdrs of the' Lahore Suhah. 
The later Mughal emperors soon dropped the cash assessments of Raja 
Todar Mai as unprofitably just, and leased clusters of villages to the 
highest bidder. Under the Sikh confederacies even this remnant of 
system disappeared, and the ruler took whatever he could get. Ranjit 
Singh followed the same principle with a greater show of method, giving 
large grants of land in jdgir on service tenure, and either leasing the 
rest to farmers or entrusting the collection of the revenue to kdrddrs, 
who paid him as little as they dared. \Mien in 1846 ihe dodb came 
into British possession, a summary settlement was made by John 
Lawrence. The assessment, which amounted to 13I; lakhs, worked 
well, and the total demand of the regular settlement (1846-51) was 
only Rs. 20,000 less. The assessment was again mainly guess-work, 
the demand of the summarv settlement being varied only where circum- 



2 3© JULLUNDUR DISTRICT 

stances suggested an increase or demanded some relief. A revision 
carried out between 1880 and 1885 resulted in a demand of 15 lakhs. 
This has been paid very easily ever since, and the District is prosperous 
and contented. The rates average Rs. 4-10-0 (maximum Rs. 5-8-O) 
minimum Rs. 3-12-0) on 'wet' land, and Rs. 1-8-0 (maximum 
Rs. 2-4-0, minimum 12 annas) on 'dry' land. The demand, includ- 
ing cesses, for 1903-4 was 17-8 lakhs. The average size of a proprietary 
holding is r-8 acres. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


12,24 
17,03 


13,82 14,22 14,05 
19,74 20,42 20,25 j 

' 1 1 



The District contains nine municipalities : Jullundur, Kartarpur, 
Alawalpur, Phillaur, Nurmahal, Rahon, Nawashahr, Banga, and 
Nakodar. Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District 
board, which in 1903-4 had an income of Rs. 1,55,000. The expen- 
diture was Rs. 1,48,600, pubHc works and education being the prin- 
cipal items. 

The regular police force consists of 453 of all ranks, including 56 
cantonment and 78 municipal police. The Superintendent usually has 
three inspectors under him. The village watchmen number 1,305. 
There are twelve police stations, two road-posts, and two outposts. 
The fort at Phillaur was made over in 1891 to the Police Training 
School and central bureau of the Criminal Identification department. 
The District jail at head-quarters contains accommodation for 318 
prisoners. The chief industries carried on in the jail are the manu- 
facture of paper and lithographic printing. 

The District stands nineteenth among the twenty-eight Districts of 
the Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 
the proportion of literate persons was 3-6 per cent. (6-4 males and 
0-3 females). The number of pupils under instruction was 7,624 in 
1880-1, 15,102 in 1890-1, 13,191 in 1900-1, and 13,874 in 1903-4. 
The District possessed in 1903-4 a training school, 6 Anglo-vernacular 
high schools, 4 Anglo-vernacular and 7 vernacular middle schools, and 
3 English and 124 vernacular primary schools for boys, and 23 verna- 
cular primary schools for girls. In addition, there were 7 advanced and 
262 elementary (private) schools. The number of girls in the public 
schools was 699, and in the private schools 941. The most important 
schools are at Jullundur town. The total expenditure on education 
in T903 -4 was i-i lakhs, the greater part of which was met by Local 
and Provincial funds. 



JULLUNDUR TOWX 231 

Besides the Jullundur civil liospital, the District has ten outlying- 
dispensaries. At these institutions 154,504' out-patients and 4,247 in- 
patients were treated in 1904, and 12,883 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 20,000, contributed in nearly equal shares by 
District and municipal funds. There is a leper asylum at Dakhni. 

The number, of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 21,801, repre- 
senting 24 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory in 
the town of Jullundur. 

[H. A. Rose, Dist7-ict Gazetteer (in press) ; ^\'. E. Purser, Settlement 
Report (1892).] 

Jullundur Tahsil (Az/rt'/z^/zfl-r).— Northern tahsil of Jullundur Dis. 
trict, Punjab, lying between 31° 12' and 31° 37' N. and 75° 26' and 
75° 49' E., with an area of 391 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 305,976, compared with 295,301 in 1891. The head-quarters are 
at the town of Jullundur (population, 67,735); ^"^ it also contains 
the towns of Kartarpur (10,840) and Alawalpur (4,423), with 
409 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
4-8 lakhs. The greater part of the tahs'il consists of an upland plateau, 
with a light soil and frequent sand-hillocks, but along the north-eastern 
border is a belt of extremely fertile land averaging about 6 miles in width. 

Jullundur Town {Jalandhar). — Head-quarters of the Division and 
District of Jullundur, Punjab, situated in 31'' 20' N. and 75° 35' E., on 
the North- Western Railway and grand trunk road. It is distant by rail 
from Calcutta 1,180 miles, from Bombay 1,247 miles, and from Karachi 
916 miles. Population (1901), including cantonments, 67,735, ^'f whom 
24,715 were Hindus, 40,081 Muhammadans, 901 Sikhs, and 1,543 
Christians. Jullundur was, when visited by Hiuen Tsiang, a large city, 
2 miles in circuit, the capital of a Rajput kingdom. It was taken by 
Ibrahim Shah of Ghor about 1088. Under the Mughals Jullundur 
was the capital of a sarkdr; it was burnt by the Sikhs in 1757, and 
captured by the Faizullahpuria confederacy in 1766. RanjTt Singh 
annexed it in 181 1, and in 1846 Jullundur became the head-quarters 
of the territory acquired by the British after the first Sikh War. The 
town is surrounded by several suburbs known as hastis, the most 
important of which are Basti Danishmandan (population, 2,770) and 
Basti Shaikh Darwesh (7,109). founded by Ansari Shaikhs from Kani- 
guram in the seventeenth century. The town contains two flour-mills, 
to one of which is attached a small iron and brass foundr)'. The 
number of hands employed in 1904 was 73. Silk is also manufactured, 
and good carpenter's work is turned out. The municipality was created 
in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 70,600, and the expenditure Rs. 68,800. In 1903-4 the income 
amounted to Rs. 84,300, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure to 
Rs. 86,900, the main items being public health (Rs. 32,300) and 



232 JULLUNDUR TOWX 



administration (Rs. 28,600). The chief educational institutions are 
four Anglo-vernacular high schools, maintained by the municipality, 
the Presbyterian Mission, and the two rival branches of the Arya 
Samaj. There is also a civil hospital. 

The cantonment, established in 1846, lies 4 miles to the south-east 
of the town. Population (1901), 13,280. The garrison usually consists 
of two batteries of field artillery, one battalion of British infantry, 
one regiment of Native cavalry, and a battalion of Native infantry, with 
a regimental depot. The income and expenditure from cantonment 
funds during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 40,000 and 
Rs. 41,000 respectively. There is an aided Anglo-vernacular high school. 

Jumkha.^Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Jummoo. — ^Province and town in Kashmir State. See Kashmir 
AND Jammu and Jammu Town. 

Jumna ( Yamuna ; the Diamouna of Ptolemy, Jotnanes of Pliny, and 
Jobares of Arrian). — A great river of Northern India. Rising in the 
Tehrl State (31° i' N., 78° 27' E.), eight miles west of the lofty moun- 
tain Bandarpunch (20,731 feet), it flows past the sacred shrine of 
Jamnotrl, and winds through the Outer Himalayas for 80 miles, 
receiving a few small streams. At the point where it passes into the 
Dun, the valley between the Himalayas and the Siwaliks, it receives 
the Tons, which is there the larger stream. Its course now runs south- 
west for 22 miles, dividing the Kiarda Dun (Punjab) from Dehra Dun 
(United Provinces) ; two large affluents, the Giri from Sirmur on the 
west and the Asan from Dehra on the east, join it here. The Jumna 
pierces the Siwaliks 95 miles from its source, at Khara, and divides 
Ambala and Karnal Districts in the Punjab from Saharanpur and 
Muzaffarnagar in the United Provinces. It is a large river at Faizabad, 
where it gives off the Western and Eastern Jumna Canals. Near 
Bidhaull in Muzaffarnagar it turns due south, and runs in that direction 
for 80 miles, dividing Meerut District from the Punjab, till it reaches 
Delhi. Ten miles below Delhi it gives off the Agra Canal from its 
western bank at Okhla. It then turns south-east for 27 miles to 
Dankaur, when it again resumes a southerly course. In this portion it 
receives on the east the Kotha Nadi and the Hindan, and on the west 
the Sabi Nadi. Below Delhi the river forms the boundary between 
Gurgaon District in the Punjab and Bulandshahr and Aligarh Districts 
in the United Provinces. It then enters Muttra and, crossing it, turns 
east till the borders of Agra are reached. Throughout its course in 
this District, where it receives the Banganga, and also in Etawah, it 
winds in a remarkable manner, its bed lying between high banks which 
are furrowed by steep ravines. Just before Jalaun District is reached 
the great river Chambal from Rajputana joins it ; and the Jumna then 
divides the three Districts of Cawnpore, Fatehpur, and Allahabad from 



EASTERN JUMNA CANAL 233 

Jalaun, Hamirpur, and Banda. In Cawnpore District the Sengar, and 
in Fatehpur the Non and Rind, flow into it ; close to Hamirpur it 
receives the Betwa, and in Banda District the Ken. It finally falls 
into the Ganges below Allahabad, 860 miles from its source. 

The Jumna, after issuing from the hills, has a longer course in the 
United Provinces than the Ganges ; but it is not so large or important 
a river, and does not carry as much water as is required by the canals 
taken from it. The supply is therefore increased from the Ganges by 
means of the cut into the Hindan ; and the Irrigation Commission 
(1901) recently proposed to make more water from the Ganges available 
by increasing the supply of the Lower Ganges Canal through a cut from 
the Sarda. The Jumna supplies drinking-water to the cities of Agra 
and Allahabad, which possesses, when fresh, special virtue in destroying 
the enteric microbe. It is crossed by railway bridges near Sarsawa in 
Saharanpur, at Delhi, Muttra, Agra, KalpI (2,626 feet in width), and 
Allahabad (3,230 feet). The breadth of water-surface in the dry season 
varies from 2,600 feet at Okhla and 1,500 feet at KalpT to 2,200 feet at 
Allahabad. The discharge in flood at Okhla is about 41,000 cubic 
feet per second, but this dwindles away to less than 200 in the dry 
season. The Jumna drains a total area of about 118,000 square miles. 

The traffic on the Jumna was formerly of some importance, and 
large sums were spent in clearing away reefs of kankar (nodular lime- 
stone) and conglomerate in Etawah District. Before the opening of 
the East Indian Railway, much cotton grown in Bundelkhand was sent 
down the river from Kalpi. At present timber is carried down the 
upper portion, and stone and grain in the lower courses. The 
principal towns on or near its bank are : Delhi in the Punjab ; and 
Baghpat, Mat, Brindaban, Muttra, Mahaban, Agra, Firozabad, Batesar, 
Etawah, KalpI, Hamirpur, and Allahabad in the United Provinces. 

Jumna Canal, Eastern. — An important irrigation work in the 
Upper Do.\B of the United Provinces, taking off from the left or east- 
ern bank of the Jumna. The canal is drawn from a branch of the 
river which divides soon after piercing the Siwaliks. The bed at this 
point has a rapid slope over boulders and shingle, and the supply is 
easily maintained by spurs. For some miles the canal itself flows 
over a similar bed. The main channel is 129 miles long, and there 
are 729 miles of distributaries and 447 of drains. Immediately after 
the British occupation of the Doab, recurring famines pointed to the 
urgent necessity for irrigation, and surveys commenced in 1809, but 
work was not begun till 1823. Funds were limited, and the canal was 
first opened in January, 1830. Sir Proby Cautley's experience on this 
canal was of great assistance in carrying out the magnificent works of 
the more important Upper Ganges Canal. The line followed kept 
closely to that of an old canal of the seventeenth century. It has been 



234 EASTERX /r.}fXA CAXAL 

much improved since it was opened, by providing falls (which also supply 
power for flour-mills) to lessen the slope, and by straightening the channel. 

The capital cost at the end of 1 830-1 amounted to little more than 
4 lakhs, which had increased to 46 lakhs by the end of 1903-4. The 
canal serves a rich tract in the Districts of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, 
and Meerut, lying between the Hindan and Jumna, and falls into the 
latter river a little below Delhi. It commands an area of 906,000 acres, 
and in 1903—4 irrigated 305,000 acres. The gross revenue has 
exceeded working expenses in every year except during the Mutiny ; 
and the net profits are usually high, amounting to 9-9 lakhs or 22 per 
cent, on the capital outlay in 1903-4, while the gross profits were 
14-5 lakhs. Since 1837-8 the canal has not been used for navigation. 

Jumna Canal, Western. — An important perennial irrigation work 
in the Punjab, taking off from the west bank of the Jumna, and 
irrigating Ambala, Karnal, Hissar, Rohtak, and Delhi Districts, and 
parts of the Native States of Patiala and Jind. It is by far the oldest 
of the great canals in the Province, and originated in 1356, when Firoz 
Shah III utilized the torrent-bed now known as the Chautang to conduct 
water to the royal gardens at Hissar and Hansi. This was little more 
than a monsoon supply-channel, and after about a hundred years water 
ceased to flow- farther than the lands of Kaithal. In 1568 the emperor 
Akbar re-excavated the work of Firoz Shah, and brought a supply from 
the Jumna and the Somb into the Chautang, and so on to Hansi and 
Hissar. This was undoubtedly a perennial canal, as is testified by the 
ancient bridges at Karnal and Safldon, and the complete set of water- 
courses with which the canal was provided, besides the original saiiad or 
working-plan of the canal which is still in existence and promises a supply 
of water all the year round. A yet more ambitious scheme was under- 
taken in 1626 by All Mardan Khan, the engineer of the emperor Shah 
Jahan. The river supply in the western branch of the Jumna was dammed 
up annually about 14 miles below the present head-works of the canal, 
and the water led along the drainage line at the foot of the high land 
through Panlpat and Sonepat to Delhi. Drainages and escapes were 
fairly well provided for ; and the Pulchaddar aqueduct, which took the 
canal across the Najafgarh jh'il drain near Delhi, was, for the time, 
a great engineering feat, and was retained, with slight modifications, 
when the branch was reopened in 1819. The net revenue from the 
canal was reckoned equal to the maintenance of 12,000 horse. With 
the decay of the Delhi empire the upkeep of the canal was no longer 
attended to : water ceased to reach Hansi and Hissar in 1707, the flow 
on Firoz Shah's line at Safldon stopped in 1720, and the Delhi branch 
ceased to flow in 1753-60. The Delhi branch was reopened in 1819, 
and the Hansi branch in 1825. The alignment of the canal was, 
however, by no means satisfactory ; and as early as 1846 it was noticed 



WESTERN JUMNA CANAL 235 

that the concentrated irrigation, the defective drainage, and the high 
banks which cut off the flow of the natural drainage of the country, all 
contributed to rapid deterioration of the soil and decline in health of 
the people. Saline efflorescence was rapidly spreading, and the inhabi- 
tants of the waterlogged area were affected with chronic disorders of 
the liver and spleen. Between 1870 and 1882 various remodelling 
schemes were sanctioned, with the object of securing increased control 
over the supply and its distribution, greater facilities for navigation, 
and improved drainage ; and these have resulted in the complete 
disappearance of the swamps and accumulations of water, and a most 
marked improvement in the health of the people. The Sirsa branch 
was sanctioned in 1888, and this and subsequent minor extensions 
have largely increased the irrigating capacity of the canal. No less 
than 200,000 acres were rendered secure in 1896-7 by the Sirsa branch 
alone. 

The head of the canal is at Tajewala in Ambala District, in 30° 1 7' N. 
and 77° 37'' E., about \\ miles from the point where the river emerges 
from the lower hills. The river is here crossed by a weir 1,700 feet in 
length, flanked at each end by a scouring sluice and head regulator for 
the Eastern Jumna Canal on the left bank and for the Western Jumna 
Canal on the right, the full capacities authorized being respectively 
1,300 and 6,380 cubic feet per second. The Western Jumna Canal 
has thus a maximum discharge more than three times that of the 
average flow of the Thames at Teddington. For the first 14 miles of 
its course the canal runs almost entirely in the old west branch of the 
Jumna river. It then effects a junction with the Somb river, a masonry 
dam across which holds up the combined streams and forces them into 
the canal head at Dadupur, which is provided with a regulator and 
a rapid a short distance below. After a farther course of about 38 
miles, chiefly in natural channels, there is at Indri a regulator with 
a lock and escape head, where the canal divides into the Sirsa branch 
and the new main line. The Sirsa branch has a capacity of 2,000 
cubic feet per second, and runs for 115 miles, watering the arid tract 
of country between Indri and Sirsa. Some 31 miles farther on, the 
main line bifurcates into the Hansi and new Delhi branches. The 
Hansi branch has a length of 47 miles and a discharge of nearly 2,000 
cubic feet per second, and gives off" the Butana branch with a capacity 
of 700 cubic feet per second. The new Delhi branch has a capacity of 
1,750 cubic feet per second and a length of 74 miles to the point where 
it meets the Okhla navigation canal at Delhi. The total length of main 
canal and branches is 343 miles, of distributaries (major and minor) 
1,797 miles, of drainage cuts 657 miles, of escapes 76 miles, and of mill 
channels 9 miles. The total area commanded by the canal is 4,000 
square miles, of which 3,300 square miles are cultivable. The average 

VOL. XIV. Q 



236 WESTERN JUMNA CANAL 

area of crops irrigated during the twenty years ending 1894-5 was 529 
square miles, which rose in the four years ending 1903-4 to an average 
of 944 square miles ; and the work is estimated to irrigate altogether 
1,259 square miles. The capital outlay to the end of March, 1904 
(excluding a contribution of \\\ lakhs from the Patiala State), was 
172-7 lakhs. The gross revenue for the three years ending March, 
1904, averaged 23 lakhs, and the net revenue, after paying all interest 
charges and working expenses, 7-6 lakhs, or 4-4 per cent, on the capital 
outlay. The main line and the new Delhi branch are navigable from 
the head-works to Delhi. The Hansi branch is navigable to where it 
meets the Southern Punjab Railway at Hansi. The expenditure on 
the provision for navigation is estimated at 16 lakhs; and, although 
near Delhi there is a certain amount of boat traffic, and timber is 
largely rafted down the canal, this large expenditure has proved hitherto 
a financial loss, and the combination of navigation with irrigation 
a failure. There are flour-mills at several of the falls ; but the flour 
and the other mills at Delhi, which at one time were worked advanta- 
geously, are now closed, the water being too valuable to be used for 
this purpose. 

Junagarh State. — Native State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, 
Bombay, lying between 20° 44' and 21° 53'' N. and 70° and 72° E., 
with an area of 3,284 square miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Barda and Halar, on the east by Gohelwar, and on the west and south 
by the Arabian Sea. The only elevation rising above the general level 
of the plains is the Girnar group of hills, the highest peak of which, 
Gorakhnath, is about 3,666 feet above sea-level. All the hills are 
volcanic and consist of trap and basalt, but the summit of the Girnar 
is composed of syenite. The principal rivers are the Bhadar and the 
Saraswatl. The Bhadar is the largest river in the State, and much 
irrigation is carried on along its banks and those of its tributaries. 
The Saraswatl, or sacred river of Prabhas Patan, is famous in the 
sacred annals of the Hindus. There is also a densely wooded tract 
called the Gir, hilly in some parts, but in others so low as to be liable 
to floods during the rainy season. The climate is fairly healthy ; but, 
except on the Girnar hill, the heat is excessive from the beginning 
of April to the middle of July. The annual rainfall averages 40 to 
50 inches. 

Until 1472, when it was conquered by Sultan Mahmud Begara 
of Ahmadabad, Junagarh was a Rajput State, ruled by chiefs of the 
Chudasama tribe. During the reign of the emperor Akbar it became 
a dependency of Delhi, under the immediate authority of the Mughal 
viceroy of Gujarat. About 1735, when the representative of the 
Mughals had lost his authority in Gujarat, Sher Khan Babi, a soldier 
of fortune, expelled the Mughal governor, and established his own 



JUXAGAKH STATE 237 

rule. Sher Khan's son Salabat Khan appointed his heir chief of 
Junagarh, assigning to his younger sons the lands of Eantwa. The 
ruler of Junagarh first entered into engagements with the British 
Government in 1807. The chief bears the title of Nawab, and is 
entitled to a salute of 11 guns. The present chief is tenth in succes- 
sion from Sher Khan Babi, the founder of the family. He holds 
a sanad guaranteeing any succession according to Muhammadan law, 
and the succession follows the rule of primogeniture. He was created 
a K. C.S.I, in 1899. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 380,921, 
(1881) 387,499, (1891) 484,190, and (1701) 395,428, dwelling in 
7 towns and 811 villages. The decrease in the last decade (19 per 
cent.) was due to the famine of 1899- 1900. Distributed according 
to religion, the population includes 301,773 Hindus, 85,684 Muham- 
madans, and 7,842 Jains. The capital is Junagarh Town, Places 
of interest include the sacred mountain of Girnar, crowned with Jain 
temples ; the port of Ver.\val ; and the ruined temple of Somnath. 

The soil is generally black, with scattered tracts of the lighter kind. 
Irrigation is mainly from wells worked with the Persian wheel and the 
leathern bag. In 1903—4 the area of cultivated land was 859 square 
miles, of which 108 square miles were irrigated. Four stallions are 
maintained for horse breeding. Agricultural products comprise cotton, 
shipped in considerable quantities from the port of Veraval to Bombay, 
wheat, the ordinary varieties of pulse and millet, oilseeds, and sugar- 
cane, of both the indigenous and Mauritius varieties. The Gir district 
contains about 1,200 square miles of good forest. The principal trees 
are teak, black- wood, jambu, and babul ^ all of which are used for 
building purposes locally and are a source of revenue to the State. 
The forest, however, is not able to meet all the demands for building 
timber of the whole peninsula, as large quantities are imported by sea 
from the Malabar coast. Stone of good quality is obtainable for 
building. 

The coast-line is well supplied with fair-weather harbours, suited 
for native craft, the chief being Veraval, Nawabandar, Sutrapara, and 
Mangrol. These ports supply grain, timber, and other necessaries 
to the greater part of Sorath. The State has its own postal arrange- 
ments. The Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar Railway passes 
through the territory. The main roads are from Junagarh town 
towards Jetpur and Dhoraji, and from Junagarh to Veraval. The 
ordinary country tracks serve in the fair season for the passage of 
carts, pack-bullocks, and horses. Oil and coarse cotton cloth are the 
principal manufactures. 

Junagarh ranks as a first-class State in Kathiawar. The chief has 
power of life and death over his own people, the trial of British subjects 

Q 2 



238 JUNAGARH STATE 

for capital offences requiring the previous permission of the Agent 
to the Governor. Though himself paying a tribute of Rs. 65,604 
to the Gaikwar of Baroda and to the British Government, the Nawab 
of Junagarh receives contributions called zofialbi, amounting to 
Rs. 92,421, from a large number of chiefs in Kathiawar. This levy, 
which is collected and paid to the Nawab by British officers of the 
Kathiawar Agency, is a relic of the days of Muhammadan supremacy. 
The gross revenue in 1903-4 was about 26^ lakhs, chiefly derived from 
land (19 lakhs). Jiinagarh has a mint issuing coin which is current 
only in the State. The British rupee is also current. Revenue survey 
operations are in progress in the State, the total area surveyed up to 
1904 being 2,612 square miles. The chief has entered into engage- 
ments to prohibit sati, and to exempt from duty vessels entering his 
ports through stress of weather. Of the eighteen municipalities, the 
largest is Junagarh, with an income of about Rs. 18,000. The State 
maintains a military force of 161 men ; of these 99 are Imperial Service 
Lancers, and the remaining 62 are also mounted men. The total 
strength of the police is 1,760 men, of whom 144 are mounted. There 
are 9 jails, with a daily average of 51 prisoners in 1903-4. Besides one 
Arts College attended by 181 students, the State contains one high 
school, and 124 other schools, with 8,800 pupils. The State maintains 
21 medical institutions, including one hospital, which afforded relief 
to 121,000 persons in 1903-4. There is also a leper asylum con- 
taining 61 inmates. In the same year nearly 10,000 persons were 
vaccinated. 

Junagarh Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in 
Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 21° 31' N. and 70° 36' E., 60 miles 
south-west of Rajkot. Population (1901), 34,251, including 17,248 
Hindus, 15,911 Musalmans, and 1,029 Jains. Junagarh, situated 
under the Girnar and Datar hills, is one of the most picturesque towns 
in India, while in antiquity and historical interest it yields to none. 
The Uparkot or old citadel contains interesting Buddhist caves, and 
the whole of the ditch and neighbourhood is honeycombed with caves 
or their remains. The most interesting of these, called Khaprakodia, 
have the appearance of having been once a monastery two or three 
storeys in height. Dr. Burgess, in his Antiquities of Cutch and 
Kathiawar, has fully described these caves. The ditch is cut entirely 
out of the rock and forms a strong defence. In the Uparkot are two 
vdvs or wells said to have been built by slave girls of Chudasama rulers 
in olden times ; a mosque built by Sultan Mahmud Begara ; near 
the mosque is a cannon 17 feet long, 7^ feet in circumference at 
the breech, and 9! inches in diameter at the muzzle; another large 
cannon in the southern portion of the fort is 13 feet long and has 
a muzzle 14 inches in diameter. From the times of the Anhilvada 



JUNNAR TOWN 239 

kings the Upaikot has been many times besieged, and often taken, 
(jn which occasions the Raja was wont to flee to the fort on Girnar, 
which from its inaccessibiUty was almost impregnable. Of late years 
several public buildings have been erected, and the town has been 
much improved by fine houses built by the nobles of the court. 
Among the public buildings may be mentioned a fine hospital, the 
Baha-ud-din Arts College, a library and museum, the Reay Gate with 
a clock-tower, and a fine high school. A collection of shops called 
the Mahabat Circle is in front of the Nawab's palace. Uparkot is 
the ancient J unagarh ; the present town is more correctly called 
jNIustafabad, and Avas built by ]\Iahmud Begara of Gujarat. 

Junapadar. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Jungle Mahals. — A vague term applied in the eighteenth century 
to the British possessions and semi-independent chiefdoms in Bengal, 
lying between the regular Districts of Blrbhum, Burdwan, and Bankura, 
and the hill country of Chota Nagpur. As the administration became 
more precise, inconvenience arose from the vagueness of the juris- 
diction ; and by Regulation XVIII of 1805 the Jungle jNIahals were 
constituted into a distinctly defined District, consisting of 15 parganas 
or iiiahdls from Birbhum District, 3 from Burdwan (including the 
greater part of Bishnupur), and 5 from Midnapore (including Manbhum 
and Barabhum). The separate District of the Jungle Mahals was 
abolished by Regulation XIII of 1833, and the territory redistributed 
among the adjoining Districts. The tract is now comprised within 
BlrbhCun, the Santal Parganas, Bankura, Midnapore, and the eastern 
Districts of the Chota Nagpur Division, especially Manbhum. 

Junnar Taluka. — Tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, lying between 
18° 59' and 19° 24' N. and 73° 38' and 74° 19' E., with an area of 591 
square miles. It contains one town, Junnar (population, 9,675), the 
head-quarters, and 158 villages, including Otur (6,392). The population 
in 1901 was 117,753, compared with 115,762 in 1891. The density, 199 
persons per square mile, is above the District average. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 14,000. 
The chief range is that of Harischandragarh. Junnar consists chiefly 
of the two valleys of the Mina and the Kukdi. A small portion in 
the west is composed of high hills and rugged valleys. In the east 
the soil is either black, of variable depth, or a poor gravel. Bajra 
is the staple crop. The climate is dry and healthy, and free from hot 
winds. The annual rainfall averages 30 inches. 

Junnar Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in Poona District, Bombay, situated in 19° 12' N. and 73° 53' E., 
56 miles north of Poona city, and about 16 miles east of the crest 
of the Western Ghats. Population (1901), 9,675. The fort of Junnar, 
often noticed in Maratha annals, was built by Malik-ut-Tujar in 1436. 



240 JUNNAR TOWN 

In May, 1657, Sivajf surprised and plundered the town, carrying off 
about 10 lakhs in specie, besides other valuable spoil. About i^ miles 
south-west of the town is the hill fort of Shivner, granted in 1599 
to the grandfather of Sivaji ; the latter is said to have been born here 
in 1627. During the turbulent times of Maratha warfare Shivner was 
often taken and retaken, and once, in 1670, the forces of SivajT himself 
were beaten back by its Mughal garrison. Besides fine gates and solid 
fortifications, it is celebrated for its deep springs. They rise in pools 
of great depth, supposed to be coeval with the series of Buddhist caves 
which pierce the lower portion of the scarp. The chief buildings 
of interest in Junnar are the Jama Masjid, five hundred years old, 
a mosque dating from the time of Shah Jahan, the Afiz Bagh, and two 
fine darg'ihs. The hills surrounding the plain of Junnar are honey- 
combed with Buddhist caves, many of them of striking interest. Chief 
of these is a circular cave situated in a hill beyond Shivner. Some 
bear traces of fine carving, and there are a few inscriptions dating back 
to the first century of the Christian era. Junnar is supposed to have 
been a town of great importance in the days of the Western Kshatrapas. 
i^See Bombay Presidency, History.) The municipality, which Avas 
established in 1861, had an average income during the decade ending 
1901 of Rs. 8,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 13,000, chiefly 
derived from octroi and a tax on houses and lands. Though fallen 
in size and importance since the time of Muhammadan rule, and by 
the subsequent transfer of the seat of government to Poona under 
the Marathas, Junnar is still a place of considerable note. It is the 
chief market of the northern part of the District, and a depot for the 
grain and merchandise passing to the Konkan by the Nana ghat. It 
has a high school and nine other schools, attended by 824 boys and 
152 girls, a dispensary, and a Subordinate Judge's court. It was 
formerly celebrated for the manufacture of paper, but the low rates 
at which the European article is now sold have almost driven native 
paper out of the market. A branch of the Church Missionary Society 
is stationed here. 

Jutogh. — Hill cantonment in Simla District, Punjab, situated in 
31° 7' N. and 77° 7' E., about a mile from the western extremity of the 
station of Simla. The land was acquired from Patiala in 1843. During 
the summer months one battery of British mountain artillery and two 
companies of the regiment quartered at Sabathu are stationed here. 
Population (March, 1901), 375. 

Kabbaldurga. — Fortified conical hill in the Malavalli idliik of 
Mysore District, Mysore, situated in 12° 30' N. and 77" 18' E., 3.507 
feet high. The sides are very precipitou.s, and the summit is accessible 
only on one side, where some notches are cut in the solid rock. It 
was a penal settlement for state pri.soners under the Hindu and Musal- 



KABUL PROVINCE 241 

man dynasties. The poisonous water and noxious climate, aided by 
unwholesome food, soon ended the lives of the victims confined in it. 
The unfortunate Chania Raja and his wife were sent here by the 
Dalavayi Devaraj in 1734, and Morari Rao, the Maratha chief of Gooty, 
by Haidar All, who gave the place the name of Jafarabad. In 1864 
the guns were destroyed and the guards removed. 

Kabbani (also called Kapini or Kapila). — An important tributary 
of the Cauvery. It rises on the Western Ghats in North Wynaad, and 
enters Mysore at the south-west corner of Mysore District. Running 
north-east with a very winding course through the Heggadadevankote 
taluk to near Belatur, it there turns east, and receiving the Nugu and 
(at Nanjangud) the Gundal, both from the south, joins the Cauvery at 
Tirumakiidal Narsipur, the confluence being esteemed a spot of great 
sanctity. The Kabbani is a fine perennial river, 150 to 200 yards wide, 
and has a total course of about 150 miles, of which 120 are in Mysore. 
The Rampur channel, 32 miles long, drawn from it, irrigates nearly 
1,400 acres. 

Kabirwala.— Northernmost tahsil of Multan District, Punjab, lying 
between 30° 5' and 30° 45' N. and 71° 35' and 72° 36' E., with an area 
of 1,603 square miles. The population in 1901 was 130,507, compared 
with 113,412 in 1891. It contains the town of Talamba (population, 
2,526) and 320 villages, including Kabirwala, the head-quarters. The 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 5-2 lakhs. The Ravi 
runs through the northern portion of the tahstl to its junction with the 
Chenab in the north-west corner. The north and west portions are 
irrigated by the Sidhnai Canal, while the south consists of uncultivated 
Bar jungle. 

Kabul Province. — The central and most important province of 
Afghanistan, bounded on the north by Afghan-Turkistan, on the east 
by the district of Jalalabad, and on the south and west by the pro- 
vinces of Kandahar and Herat. The general elevation is probably not 
less than 7,000 feet, while a considerable portion of the province con- 
sists of a region of lofty mountains. It is crossed in the north by the 
Hindu Kush. The Band-i-Baba and the Paghman form a great water- 
shed in its centre, dividing the upper reaches of the Kabul, Helmand, 
and Hari Rild rivers. The lofty highlands of the Hazarajat form its 
south-western districts, and in the south and south-east are the uplands 
of Ghazni. 

The northern districts of the province are Kohistan, Panjshir, Bamian, 
Saighan, and Nijrao. These are peopled by Kohistanis and Tajiks, 
while in Bamian Hazaras are also numerous. Its western and south- 
western districts are those of the Hazarajat, including the country 
of the Besiid, the Deh Zangi, and the Deh Kundi tribes of Hazaras. 
In the south and south-east lie Ghazni, Gardesh, Khost, and Logar. 



242 KABUL PROVINCE 

The predominant inhabitants of these districts are Ghilzais and other 
Afghan tribes, but Hazaras and Tajiks are also to be found. 

The winters are extremely rigorous ; but the spring, summer, and 
autumn are, with the exception of July and August, quite European in 
character. 

There are numerous evidences of Persian, Greek, Hindu, Buddhist, 
and Muhammadan antiquities in the Province. The Surkh Minar, 
near Kabul city, is no doubt a copy of the capitals of Persepolitan 
pillars, while Greek influence is evident in the Buddhist monasteries 
and stupas found along the Kabul valley. The valley is also rich in 
Graeco-Bactrian coins. In the Koh-i-Daman, north of Kabul, are the 
sites of several ancient cities, the greatest of which, called Beghram, 
has furnished thousands of coins, and has been supposed to represent 
Alexander's Nicaea. Investigations at Jalalabad during the late Afghan 
campaign resulted in the recovery of many interesting sculptures in 
stone, slate, and plaster. Among the most remarkable relics of a 
bygone age are the colossal figures carved in the cliff at Bamian, north 
of the Koh-i-Baba, and the adjoining caves. The largest of these 
figures is i8o feet high. Authorities differ as to their origin, but it 
seems most probable that they are Buddhist. The surrounding caves 
answer to the requirements of a Buddhist monastery, and close to the 
foot of the cliff is a mound resembling a Buddhist stnpa, the exploration 
of which may some day put the question at rest. 

For history, trade, and industries see Afghanistan and Kabul City. 

Kabul City. — Capital of Afghanistan, situated in 34° 30' N. and 
69° 13' E., on the right bank of the Kabul river, a short distance above 
its junction with the Logar, 181 miles from Peshawar; 5,780 feet above 
the sea. North of the city, on the left bank of the river, stand the 
suburbs of Deh-i-Murad Khani, Andarabai, and Deh-i-Afghan ; and 
beyond those is the military cantonment of Sherpur, backed by the 
Bemaru hill. To the south-east are the Sher Uarwaza heights, to the 
south the Bala Hissar, and to the east the Siah Sang ridge. On 
the west the Kabul river flows through the gorge formed by the Asmai 
and Sher Darwaza hills. The number of inhabitants is probably 
nearly 150,000, of whom 100,000 are Kabulis, 3,000 Durranis, 12,000 
Tajiks, 6,500 Kizilbashis, and 4,000 Hindus. The city is 3I miles 
in circumference and is no longer walled, although traces of a wall 
remain. 

Kabul, though by far the richest city in the Amir's dominions, con- 
tains no external or internal evidences of grandeur. The older houses 
are built of burnt bricks ; the more modern ones of sun-dried bricks and 
mud. Originally there were seven great gates ; now only one remains, 
the Darwaza-i-Lahauri, on the eastern face. The city is divided into 
quarters {miihallas) and streets {kfichds). The principal streets are the 



KABUL CITY 243 

Shor Bazar and the Char Chatta : they are badly paved, undrained, and 
exceedingly dirty. The Shor Bazar extends from the Bala Hissar to 
the Ziarat-i-Baba Khudi, a distance of about three-quarters of a mile. 
The Char Chatta consists of four covered arcades at the western end of 
the street leading from the Darwaza-i-Lahauri. It was destroyed by 
Pollock in 1842, but restored by Amir Dost Muhammad in 1850. 
Here are shops tenanted by silk-mercers, jewellers, furriers, cap- and 
shoemakers, fruiterers, and money-changers, all doing a thriving busi- 
ness. The Kizilbashis live in the separate walled quarter of Chandaul, 
by the mouth of the Deh Mozang gorge. A row of fine new shops, 
called Bazar-i-Nao, has recently been built on the north side of the 
river, near the Darwaza-i-Ark. 

The climate of Kabul is, on the whole, healthy. The great lake ot 
AVazirabad beyond the Sherpur cantonment has been drained and is 
now dry ; but the marshes between the Bala Hissar and Beni Hissar 
give rise to malaria and fevers. The city itself, wedged in between two 
hills, with its confined streets, want of drainage, and absence of all 
sanitary arrangements, would seem to labour under strong disadvan- 
tages. Nevertheless, there are compensations in an excellent water- 
supply, a fine atmosphere, and delightful environs ; and the death-rate 
is probably lower than in most Afghan towns. Provisions are abundant 
and cheap. In ordinary years, barley sells at 22^ seers per British 
rupee (about 34 lb. for a shilling), wheat at 18 seers, and flour at 
16 seers. 

Kabul is believed to be the Ortospamim or Ortospatia of Alexander's 
march. It was attacked by the Arabs as early as the thirty-fifth year 
of the Hijra, but it was long before the Muhammadans effected any 
lasting settlement. Kabul first became a capital when Babar made 
himself master of it in 1504, and here he reigned for twenty years 
before his invasion of Hindustan. It passed on the death of Babar to 
his younger son, Kamran, who, after several attacks on his brother 
Humayun, was defeated and blinded by him (1553). Humayun left 
it to his infant son, Mirza Hakim, on whose death, in 1585, it passed 
to the latter's elder brother, Akbar. From this time up to its capture 
by Nadir Shah (1738), it was held by the Mughal emperors of India. 
Yxom. Nadir Shah it passed to Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose son, Tlmiir, 
made it the capital of his kingdom. It continued to be the capital 
during the Sadozai dynasty, and is so still under the now reigning 
Barakzais. 

The city played an important part in the first Afghan War. In 
August, 1839, Shah Shuja entered Kabul as king, escorted by a British 
army. Throughout that year and the next, the British troops remained 
without molestation, but in November, 1841, the citizens and Afghan 
soldiery broke out in rebellion and murdered Sir Alexander Burnes- 



2 44 KABUL CITY 

In December Sir AMlliam Macnaghten, our special Envoy, was treacher- 
ously shot by Akbar Khan, a son of Dost Muhammad, at an interview 
which had been convened to arrange for the withdrawal of the garrison. 
On January 6, 1842, the British forces marched out under a solemn 
guarantee of protection — 4,500 fighting men, with 12,000 followers. 
Their fate is well-known : of all that number, only a single man, 
Dr. Brydon, reached Jalalabad, and ninety-two prisoners were sub- 
sequently recovered. Shah Shuja was assassinated in April, four 
months after the withdrawal of the Ikitish troops. In September, 
1842, General Pollock, with the army of retribution, arrived at Kabul, 
and took possession of the citadel without opposition. Previous to his 
departure a month later, the great bazar was destroyed by gunpowder, 
as a retribution for the murder of Sir William Macnaghten. 

Kabul was again occupied by British troops in 1879, when an 
avenging force under General (now Lord) Roberts was sent to exact 
punishment for the massacre of the British Resident, Sir Louis Cava- 
gnari, and his party, which took place in September of that year. The 
city remained in British occupation for nearly a year. During the 
winter the tribesmen rose in large numbers, and, after heavy fighting 
for several days, the British troops were compelled to concentrate in 
the Sherpur cantonment, which remained closely invested by at least 
50,000 men. A determined attack was beaten off on December 23, 
1879 5 ^"d> O'"^ the following day, an additional brigade having arrived 
and joined General Roberts, the city again passed into his hands, 
the tribesmen melting away as suddenly as they had appeared. In 
August, 1880, the British forces evacuated Kabul and returned to 
India, on the recognition of Abdur Rahman Khan as Amir. 

Kabul does not possess many edifices of antiquarian interest. The 
four principal mosques at the present time are the Masjid-i-Safed, built 
by Timur Shah Sadozai ; the Masjid-i-Bala Chaok, by Babar ; the 
Masjid-i-Pul-i-Khishti, by Shah Shuja ; and the large Jama Masjid, by 
the late Amir. Outside the city are the tombs of Babar and Timur 
Shah. The surroundings of Babar's tomb have been converted into 
a garden, beautifully laid out and encircled by a mud wall 30 feet high. 
It contains a prettily built summer-house. At Indaki, three miles 
away, overlooking the Chahardeh valley, is another charming summer 
residence and garden ; and on the slopes of a hill between Shah 
Mardan and ^VazIrabad is yet another, known as the Bagh-i-Bala. All 
these country residences and several others were built in the reign of 
the late Amir, and are not the least among the many improvements 
which he effected. 

The old residence of the Amirs used to be in the Bala Hissar, 
but Abdur Rahman Khan constructed a new fortified palace for him- 
self, described below. The lower Bala Hissar has been completely 



KABUL CITY 245 

dismantled ; the old Residency, the scene of the deplorable outbreak 
where the gallant Cavagnari, all his British officers, and most of his 
escort met their death in September, 1879, has almost entirely dis- 
appeared; and in 1893 the only building inside was Sher All Khan's 
palace, a mere shell, on the eastern wall. In the upper Bala Hissar, 
just beyond the Residency site, and under the wall of the citadel, an 
arsenal and extensive storehouses for grain have been constructed. 

The new fortified palace (or Ark as it is locally called) is situated in 
extensive grounds, not less than three-quarters of a mile by half a mile, 
between Alamganj and Sherpur. It occupied five years in building^ 
and cost about 20 lakhs of rupees. A considerable portion of the 
grounds is laid out in fruit and flower gardens. There are two gate- 
ways, one facing Alamganj and the other looking east towards Siah 
Sang. The fortified Ark is surrounded by a moat. It is a massive 
structure about 350 yards square ; the width of the ditch is not less 
than 60 feet at the top. 

The works of improvement carried out at Kabul by Abdur Rahman 
Khan were by no means limited to the construction of palaces and 
summer gardens for his personal gratification. He showed a remark- 
able interest in the development of numerous branches of industry ; 
and the extensive workshops established by him, under European 
supervision, are a lasting monument to his name. When one remem- 
bers that on Abdur Rahman's accession, and indeed for nearly ten 
years later, steam power was unknown throughout Afghanistan, what 
was accomplished during the second decade of his reign is indeed 
surprising. On the left bank of the Kabul river, and right in the Deh 
Mozang gorge, there are now workshops whose out-turn, all circum- 
stances considered, comes uj) to European standards. The raison 
d'^ctre of these shops is the manufacture of war material, but other 
handicrafts are also practised. One large shop, for instance, is entirely 
occupied by men engaged in leather work — boots, saddles, and equip- 
ment for the army ; another is occupied by steam saw-mills and car- 
penters ; a soap factory turns out 1 2 tons of soap in a week ; candles 
are manufactured ; a mint worked by steam coins 40,000 Kabuli rupees 
a day : and constant labour is found for skilled workers in silver and 
brass. In 1893 five steam engines were used in the shops ; others are 
believed to have been imported since. The initiation of this great 
undertaking was due to the late Amir, with Sir Salter Pyne as his 
principal lieutenant. At one time, in 1892, no less than fourteen 
Europeans were at Kabul in the Amir's employ, among them a doctor, 
a geologist, a mining engineer, a gardener, a veterinary surgeon, 
a tailor, a lapidary, a tanner, and a currier. In 1904 there were only 
two Europeans at Kabul— a gunsmith and an electrical engineer. 
About 1,500 men are employed in the shops, the majority being 



246 KABUL CITY 

Kabulis who have learnt their work from Eiighsh mechanical engineers 
and Punjabi artisans, and are now thoroughly efficient. 

There is no occasion to describe in detail the fortifications of Kabul. 
Those left by the British forces on their withdrawal in August, 1880, 
are kept in repair ; and the cantonment of Sherpur, which afforded 
accommodation for most of the British force, is now occupied by the 
Afghan garrison. 

There are five bridges across the river at Kabul, one of which 
(now broken) was built by the emperor Babar, and another by Shah 
Jahan. 

Besides the large trade in local products necessary to meet the 
requirements of the city population, Kabul is credited in the trade 
statistics for 1903-4 with imports from India to the value of 50 lakhs 
of rupees, and with exports aggregating nearly 29 lakhs : that is to 
say, with more than half the entire trade between Afghanistan and 
British India. The principal imports are British and Indian cotton 
twist and yarn, piece-goods, manufactured leather, hardware, indigo, 
sugar, tea, and spices. The principal exports are fresh and dried 
fruits, asafoetida and other drugs, and furs. 

Kabul has attained an enviable reputation for its practically 
unlimited supply of fruit. Throughout the Kabul valley orchards 
extend for miles, and hardly a country house is without its large walled 
garden. The grape here grows to great perfection, the vines never 
having suffered from the phylloxera of Southern Europe. All the 
known European fruits, such as the apple, pear, quince, plum, apricot, 
peach, cherry, mulberry, are found in abundance ; and a variety of 
melon, known as the sarda, which is said to grow only in the Kabul 
district, is exported to every part of India. 

Kabul River. — River of North- Western India, which rises in 
Afghanistan near the Unai Pass, about 40 miles west of Kabul city, in 
34" 21' N. and 68° 20' E. In its upper course it is joined by many 
small tributaries from the southern slopes of the Laghman range. It is 
at first an inconsiderable stream, being fordable as far as Kabul city. 
At a short distance beyond this it receives the Logar from the south, 
and thenceforward becomes a rapid river with a considerable volume of 
water. About 40 miles below Kabul city it receives from the north 
the Panjshir ; 15 miles fiirther on the Tagao ; 20 miles below, the 
united streams of the Alingar and Alishang ; and a few miles above 
Jalalabad, the Surkhab from the south. Just below Jalalabad it is 
joined by the Kunar from the north. After these accessions, the 
Kabul becomes a large river, nowhere fordable. Flowing with great 
force, it hugs the north side of the Jalalabad valley until it enters the 
Mohmand Hills, when it presses towards the north base of the Khybcr 
range, and is confined between hills until it enters British territory 



KABUL RIVER CANAL 247 

near Michni Fort. Here it divides into two branches, tlie Adezai 
on the north and the Naguman on the south. 

The Adezai, or Hajizai, is at present the main stream. It divides 
the tahsUs of Peshawar and Charsadda for 20 miles, and, after a further 
course of 10 miles through the latter tahsll, rejoins the Naguman 
at Nisatta, after receiving the waters of the Swat. The Naguman, 
formerly the main stream, throws off the Budhni, a small branch which 
supplies the Jui Shaikh canal, and after receiving the drainage of the 
Kh3'ber Hills, turns north and joins the Shah Alam, itself a chord of 
the Naguman. That stream has a course of 20 miles before it reaches 
Nisatta, and below that place the joint stream is known as the Landai 
or ' short ' river. The Landai flows between low banks for its first 
1 2 miles, but below Naushahra it has cut a deep channel and its lower 
reaches are rocky. After a course of 36 miles it falls into the Indus 
at Attock. Thus the total course of the Kabul river is about 
316 miles. 

From its source to Jalalabad, the river is of no value except for irri- 
gation, which it also affords in the Frontier Province {see Kabul River 
Canal); from Jalalabad to Dobandi, it affords safe, and generally 
rapid, descent down stream by means of rafts of inflated skins. This 
mode of travelling is frequently resorted to, as it saves ten marches 
which may be traversed in twelve hours when the river is in flood. 
The boatmen of Lalpura, Jalalabad, and Kunar are a peculiar race, 
keeping much to themselves, and are known under the generic title of 
7uldl>i. From Dobandi (or Nisatta) to Attock, the Kabul is navigable 
for boats of 40 or 50 tons. 

Between Kabul city and Jalalabad, the river is fordable in places ; 
but after it has been svs^elled by the waters of the Logar, the fords are 
not always practicable ; both at Sarobi (opposite Naglu) and at Jalal- 
abad there are alternative fords and ferries. The precarious nature of 
the Jalalabad ford was illustrated by a catastrophe which occurred in 
March, 1879, when an officer and forty-six non-commissioned officers 
and men of the loth Hussars were drowned while attempting a passage 
in the dark. The principal ferries between Dobandi and Attock are 
from Nisatta to Khalil Bandah, and from New to Old Naushahra. The 
railway from Naushahra to Dargai crosses the river, and there is 
a bridge of boats at the same site, while another has recently been 
constructed at Lalpura below Jalalabad. Permanent bridges cross the 
river in Kabul city. 

Kabul River Canal. — A perennial irrigation work in the Peshawar 
District of the North-West Frontier Province. It is a revival of an old 
Mughal canal, and takes off from the right bank of the Kabul river at 
the village of Warsak on the border of British territory, about 3 miles 
up-stream from Michni Fort. The main line is 20 feet in width at the 



248 KABUL RIVER CANAL 

off-take, and can carry more than 300 cubic feet a second. It crosses 
the watershed of the country, passing over thirty-six drainage channels 
of greater or less size, and running close to Peshawar terminates at the 
fortieth mile near Naushahra. The distributaries include four branches, 
with a total length of 19 miles, the largest being the Kuror branch, 
9I miles long. A small private canal is situated near the canal head. 
The tract commanded is a long narrow strip of irregular width, 
bounded on the south and west by the canal itself, and on the north 
and east, for the upper two-thirds of its length, by the low-lying ground 
irrigated by old proprietary canals, of which the Jui Shaikh is the most 
important ; while for the lower third of its length the Kabul river is the 
boundary. 

The area now commanded exceeds 30,000 acres. It is at present 
considerably interspersed with that irrigated by the Jui Shaikh and other 
private canals, as well as by the Bara river works ; but there seems 
every prospect of the greater portion of all this area ultimately coming 
under the canal. Irrigation is chiefly for the autumn harvest, and the 
area of crops actually irrigated during the three years ending 1902 
averaged 30,173 acres; in 1903-4 it was 27,800 acres. The canal was 
opened in 1893, the Kuror branch being added subsequently. The 
capital cost up to March, 1904, was Rs. 6,45,000, and the net income 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 90,800, giving a return of nearly 24 per cent. On 
October i, 1903, the revenue management of this canal was taken over 
by the Irrigation department. An extension called the Hazar Khani 
branch is now under construction. 

Kachch. — State in Bombay. See Cutch. 

Kachhi. — Division of the Kalat State, Baluchistan, lying between 
27° 53' and 29° 35' N. and 67° 11' and 68° 28' E. It consists of 
a flat triangular plain, 5,310 square miles in area, with its base on the 
Upper Sind Frontier District of Sind, and is enclosed by the Marri and 
Bugti hills on the east, and by the Kirthar and Central Brahui ranges 
of the Jhalawan country on the west. On the north-east side of its 
apex lies the British tahsil of Sibi. The only hills, other than the skirts 
of the surrounding mountains, consist of the low 
ysical range called Bannh, separating Dadhar on the north 
from the Bolan lands on the south. The principal 
rivers are the Nari, the Bolan, the Sukleji, and the Mula. Among 
the hill-torrents are the Dhoriri, formed by the junction of the Sain and 
Karu from the Jhalawan country, the Lahri, and the Chhatr. On 
entering Kachhi, all these rivers are dissipated into numberless natural 
channels, spreading over the great alluvial stretches of which the 
country is composed. 

The geological structure of the country is uniform, consisting of a 
level bed of clay burnt by the rays of the sun and probably of great 



KACHHI 249 

depth. The outskirts of the surrounding hills are of the Siwalik forma- 
tion. Except along the foot of the hills, the general aspect of the 
country is desolate and bare. The flora is thorny and scant, consist- 
ing of a stunted scrub. Among the trees occur Prosopis spicigcra, 
Salvadom okoides, Capparis aphylla, and two kinds of Tamarix. 
Common plants are Calotropis procera and many saltworts, such as 
Haloxylon salicor7nfum. Wild animals are scarce ; a few ' ravine deer ' 
(gazelle) and other small deer occur, and flocks of sand-grouse visit the 
cultivated areas in winter. 

Situated in close proximity to Sind, Kachhi is one of the hottest 
areas in India. Scorching winds blow in the summer, and at times 
the deadly simoom {Ink) prevails. Mosquitoes are so numerous that, at 
Gajan, a special portion of the crop has been assigned to a saint for his 
protection against them. From November to February the climatic 
conditions are pleasant, the air being crisp and cool. The annual 
rainfall averages about three inches, and usually occurs in July and 
August. 

The history of Kaclihi is intimately connected with that of Sind. In 
the seventh century Rai Chach took its capital Kandabll, probably 
Gandava. To the Arabs the country was known as 
Nudha or Budha, and Kandabll was despoiled by 
them on several occasions. It afterwards passed into the hands of the 
Sumras and Sammas of Sind. The fifteenth century saw the arrival of 
the Baloch and the conflicts between their two leaders, Mir Chakar, 
the Rind, and Gwahram Lashari. The Arghuns next took possession, 
and from them the country passed to the Mughals, and on the decline 
of the latter to the Kalhoras. In 1740 Nadir Shah handed it over to 
the Brahuis in compensation for the death of Mir Abdullah, the 
Ahmadzai Khan of Kalat, at the hands of the Kalhoras in the fierce 
battle of Jandrihar near Sanni. From 1839 to 1842, during the first 
Afghan War, Kachhi was held and administered by the British on their 
lines of communication, and was the scene of much raiding and of two 
fights with the insurgent Brahuis in 1840. After the war General John 
Jacob's cavalry was employed in checking the raiding propensities of 
the Kachhi tribesmen, especially the Jakranis, who were subsequently 
removed to Sind. In the time of Mir Khudadad Khan of Kalat it 
was long a scene of anarchy and raiding, and at Bhag in 1893 this 
ruler committed the crime in consequence of which he subsequently 
abdicated. 

Buddhist remains have been discovered at Chhalgari and Tambu, 
and many of the mounds scattered through the country would probably 
repay excavation. 

The number of villages is 606. The population (1901) is 82,909, 
the majority being Jats. Among important Baloch tribes are the 



250 KACHHI 

Rinds, Magassis, and Lasharis ; and among minor tribes, Buledis, 
Dombkis, Kaheris, and Umranis. Roughly speaking the Magassis and 

^ , ^. Rinds occupy the west, and the Dombkis, Kaheris, 

Population. ^ ^^ _•■. . , ^ r ■, 

and Umranis the east ; the Jats are found every- 
where as cultivators. A few Brahuis, such as the Raisanis and Garrani 
Bangulzais, have permanently settled in the north of the country, and 
in the cold season it is visited by many other Brahuis from the high- 
lands. The occupation of nearly all the people is agriculture. Hindu 
traders are found in all important villages ; the lower castes include 
potters, sweepers, blacksmiths, and weavers. The most common 
language is Sindl, but Western Punjabi and Baluchi are also spoken. 
Except the Hindu traders, all the people are Sunni Musalmans. A 
sect called Taib (' penitents ') has made some progress since 1 890. 

It is usual to speak of Kachhi as a desert, but this is a mistake. 
The soil is extremely fertile wherever it can be irrigated. Its quality 
depends on the admixture of sand. The best is 
a light loam mixed with a moderate proportion of 
sand {fnati). Except a fringe of ' wet-crop ' area on the west, most of 
the land entirely depends for cultivation on floods brought down by the 
rivers from the surrounding hills, the water of which is raised to the 
surface by a system of large dams constructed in the beds of the rivers 
by the co-operation of the cultivators. A description of this interesting 
system is given in the paragraphs on Agriculture in the article on 
Baluchistan. The floods generally occur in July and August, but 
occasionally also in spring. Three crops are harvested during the 
year : sanwanri, sarav, and arhdri. The first is the principal crop, and 
is sown in July and August and reaped in the autumn. It consists of 
^'owdr, with a little iniing, moth, and bdjra. The second, or spring crop, 
comprises wheat, barley, mustard, and rape ; the third, Jowdr for 
fodder, cotton, and water-melons, Kachhi jotvdr is renowned for its 
excellence, and is usually cultivated on a soil known as khauri. Indigo 
is grown in Dadhar. The cultivation of the sa7-av crop is uncertain, 
depending on late floods in August. Dadhar, Sanni, Shoran, Gajan, 
Kunara, part of Gandava, and Jhal are the only places where irrigation 
from permanent sources exists. 

Bullocks from Nari in Kachhi are famous for their shape and 
strength, and many are purchased by dealers from the Punjab. Camels 
are bred in some numbers. The breed of horses is excellent. Branded 
mares number 604, and one stallion was located in the country in 
April, 1904. The best breeders are the Magassis, Dombkis, and 
Rinds. The indigenous sheep do not possess fat tails, but many of 
the fat-tailed variety, known as Khorasani, are brought from the high- 
lands in winter. Of goats, the barhari breed is most prized. 

No 'reserved' forests exist, but protective measures are adopted by 



ADMINISTRATION ' 251 

the tribal chiefs. The western side of the country contains some well- 
wooded tracts. A sulphur mine at Sanni was worked in pre-British 
days by the Amirs of Afghanistan. Ferrous sulphate {zdgh) is found 
in the mountains near Kotra and Sanni. Earth-salt is manufactured 
by the lixiviation of salt-bearing earth at Gajan and Shoran. Saltpetre 
is produced in small quantities, and the manufacture of carbonate of 
soda {khar) from the numerous saltworts is increasing. 

The principal industry is the weaving of coarse cotton cloth. Double 
coloured cotton sheets {khes) of good quality are 
produced here and there, while at Lahri and a few communications 
other places a fine kind of embroidered leather-work 
is manufactured. Country rifles, swords, and saddles are made at Bhag 
and Dadhar. 

Most of the trading class come from Shikarpur in Bind. The centres 
of trade are Dadhar, Lahri, Haji, Bhag, Shoran, Gajan, Kotra, Gandava, 
and Jhal. Piece-goods, rice, sugar, and country carts are imported 
from Sind ; dates, ghi, wool, and medicinal drugs from the highlands 
for re-export. Exports to the highlands include cotton cloth, mustard 
oil, salt, and silk; the articles supplied to Sind consist chiefly of 
carbonate of soda, grain, and oilseeds. The North-Western Railway 
passes through the centre of Kachhi. No metalled roads have been 
made, but the country is easily traversed in all directions except after 
heavy floods. 

The principal routes run from Jacobabad to Sibi via Lahri on the 
east; through Shori and Bhag in the centre; and via Gandava and 
Shoran to Dadhar on the west. The route through the Mula Pass 
from the Jhalawan country debouches at Gandava. 

The insignificant rainfall, the dependence of the country on flood- 
irrigation, and the absence of proper means of distributing the flood- 
water render Kachhi extremely liable to scarcity and _ 

. . • ... Famine, 

even to famine. Under existing conditions enormous 

quantities of water run to waste in the Nari in ordinary years, and the 
introduction of a good irrigation and distribution scheme would doubt- 
less afford a large measure of protection. The proximity of Sind and 
the free migratory habits of the population have hitherto prevented 
the necessity of actual famine relief. Advances amounting to about 
Rs. 29,000 were made to the Khan of Kalat's cultivators in 1900, when 
the drought, which had begun in 1897, culminated. They were 
recovered at the succeeding harvests. 

For purposes of administration, Kachhi is divided into two parts : 
areas subject to the jurisdiction of the Khan of Kalat, and areas under 

tribal chiefs. Within the areas subject to the Khan. . 

., , . , r 1 1 • I Administration, 

however, tribal units are to be found which occup)- 

a position of practical independence. The political control of the 

VOL. XIV. R 



^52 



KACHHI 



country east of the railway, i. e. the whole of the Lahri nidbat, is vested 
in the Political Agent of Sibi District, and of the remainder in the 
Political Agent, Kalat. The area under the Kalat State is divided into 
■five nidbats : Dadhar ; Bhag ; Lahri, which includes the area occupied 
by the Dombki, Kaheri, and Umrani tribes ; Gandava ; and Naslrabad. 
The head-quarters station of each nidbat is located at a village of the 
same name, except Naslrabad, of which the head-quarters are situated 
at Mirpur Bibiwari. Dadhar, Bhag combined with Lahri, and Gandava 
with Naslrabad each forms the charge of a mustaufi, who is generally 
assisted by local officials known as naib and jd-nashin. Dadhar, how- 
ever, possesses neither a naib nor a jd-nashifi, and Gandava has no 
jd-nashln. The principal areas subject to tribal control are Jhal, 
inhabited by the Magassis ; and Shoran, held by the Rinds. In Lahri, 
the Dombkis, Kaheris, and Umranis have acquired a large measure 
of independence. In the nidbats, criminal, civil, and revenue cases are 
decided by the local officials ; in tribal areas, petty cases are dealt with 
by the chief, and important or intertribal cases are referred to Jirgas 
or local kdzls, who exercise much influence, under the orders of the 
Political Agents. In the numerous jdgirs within the Khan's nidbats, 
jurisdiction in all petty matters is exercised by the jdglrddrs. The 
most common offences are cattle-lifting and theft. Cattle are frequently 
stolen from Sind and sent to the Jhalawan country. Much use is made 
of trackers in the detection of such crimes, and some of these men are 
very skilful. They are paid by results. 

The land revenue system presents an interesting survival of ancient 
native methods. The Khan collects revenue in his nidbats, and else- 
where it is taken by tribal chiefs and Jdgirddrs. It consists everywhere 
of a fixed share of the gross produce, varying from one-third to one- 
tenth, but generally one-third or one-fifth. The additional cesses 
(rasFim), however, raise the amount paid to one-half. Irrigated lands 
sometimes pay a fixed cash assessment {kalang). Large Jdgirs, origi- 
nally granted for feudal service, are held by the Sarawan tribesmen in 
Bala Nari and the Bolan lands, and by the Jhalawan tribes round 
Gandava and at Chhatr-Phuleji. The Dombki headman holds one in 
Lahri. Generally the proprietary right in all areas is held by the local 
cultivating class, but in the Baloch areas of Jhal and Shoran it has 
been transferred in many cases to the chiefs. 

Besides the land revenue, contracts are given in the nidbats for 
octroi, excise, and the collection of other minor taxes, the proceeds 
being included in the total revenue. The amount of land revenue 
proper varies with the extent and time of the floods in the rivers. 
Thus, in 1902 the Khan's aggregate revenue from all his nidbats 
amounted to about i lakh, and in 1903 to more than 2| lakhs ; but in 
the latter year a new system of administration had been introduced. 



KACHINS 253 

The details of the latter sum are as follows: Dadhar, Rs. 49,200; 
Bhag, Rs, 32,500 ; Lahri, Rs. 58,100 ; Gaiidava, Rs. 55,400 ; Nasirabad, 
Rs. 56,600. 

Tribal levies, paid by the British Government and numbering 50, 
are stationed at Dandor in Bala Nari, Lahri, Phuleji, and along the 
railway. Detachments, consisting of 85 of the Khan's infantry and 
1 2 artillerymen, are located at Dadhar, Nasirabad, and Bhag ; but 
their numbers vary from time to time. The number of the Khan's 
irregular levies is generally 91. A tribal thdna of five men is 
posted at Gandava. Security is provided by the enlistment of kotwiris, 
who are paid either by the inhabitants or from the Khan's revenues. 
Tribal chiefs maintain retainers and dependants, who are employed on 
revenue duties and in securing the general peace. The same system 
is followed in the Khan's nidbats by the local naids, who distribute 
their friends and followers throughout the country at the expense of 
the cultivators. The Rind and Magassi chiefs receive allowances from 
the Khan of Kalat of Rs. 300 a month each. A jail is now in course 
of erection at Dadhar ; criminals have hitherto generally been kept in 
the stocks. The country has no schools or dispensaries. Inoculation 
takes the place of vaccination, being performed by Saiyids, Pirs, Shehs 
(the local name for Shaikhs), and Ababakis from the highlands. 

Kachhi Baroda. — Thakurdt in Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Kachins. — A community of Tibeto-Burman origin, inhabiting the 
north and north-east of Upper Burma and the Shan States. After 
the Shans and the Chins, the Kachins, known also as Chingpaws or 
Theinbaws, are the most numerous non-Burman people in the Upper 
Province. In 1901, 64,405 persons were returned as Kachins, but 
this includes only the population dealt with in the regularly enumerated 
areas. In what were known as the ' estimated ' areas no race data were 
collected; but it is certain that at least three-eighths of the 127,011 
persons inhabiting these areas were Kachins, and it will be safe to put 
the total of the race at nearly 120,000. About one-half of the popula- 
tion of Myitk-j'ina District is Kachin ; and Kachins form a substantial 
portion of the inhabitants of Bhamo, Katha, and the Ruby Mines, and 
of the Northern Shan States. Of the same primaeval stock as the 
Burmans and the Tibetans, the Kachins seem to have remained for 
centuries in possession of the uplands about and to the north of the 
head-waters of the western branch of the Irrawaddy, and it is only 
within the last few decades that they have encroached on their neigh- 
bours in the south. Of recent years, however, observers have had an 
opportunity of witnessing in the Kachins what in all probability will be 
the last of those immigration waves from the north that have played so 
important a part in the history of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. The 
Kachin tribes have penetrated westwards into Assam, where they are 

R 2 



2 54 KACHINS 

known as Singphos, and as far down the valley of the Irrawaddy as 
Katha District ; but here they appear for the time being to have been 
brought to a halt by contact with a comparatively dense population. 
Though checked in one direction, the southward movement still 
continues. The line of least resistance has now shifted to the east : 
the borders of the Northern Shan States, till recently inhabited only by 
Shans and Palaungs, have been gradually overrun; and in the direction 
of China the Kachins have worked their way as far south as the trans- 
Salween State of Kengtung. The next few years will probably see 
a further extension of the race in a southerly direction. The Kachins 
have given considerable trouble on the frontier in the past, and more 
than one punitive expedition has had to be sent against them. 

Strictly speaking, Chingpaw is the name given only to the southern 
section of the Kachin race, the communities farther north being known 
generally as Khakus. The social system of the Kachins is tribal, but 
nothing approaching to tribal federation is known. The live principal 
tribes are the Marips, the Lepais, the Lahtawngs, the 'Nkhums, and 
the Marans. Subdivisions, clans, and families abound. About one 
hundred family names have been recorded, and persons bearing the 
same family name do not intermarry. The Kachins are practically all 
spirit-worshippers, and their nats are extremely numerous and, for the 
most part, malignant. The Kachin places himself en rappori with 
the spirit world through the offices of a medium {mi-twe) or a pro- 
fessional priest (tumsa). Divination is frequently resorted to by this 
very superstitious race. The dead are disposed of by burial. Tmingya 
(shifting cultivation) is the usual form of agriculture practised in the 
Kachin country, rice being the main crop. The Kachin house is 
ordinarily far larger than a Burmese or Shan dwelling, and has many 
points of resemblance to the lengthy structure seen in some Palaung 
villages. Slavery still exists among the Kachins, but only to the 
modified extent in which it survives among the Chins of the Chin 
Hills. The Kachin physical type varies considerably. Though the 
physiognomy is Mongolian and often of a character far from attractive 
to Europeans, aquiline noses are not unknown and regular features 
are occasionally met with. The figure is short but wiry. There is 
nothing very distinctive about the dress of the Kachin men. They 
wear as a rule a dark jacket, a waistcloth (frequently of a plaid pattern) 
or Shan trousers according to their habitat, and a turban varying from 
locality to locality. The women ordinarily wear a jacket, sometimes 
long with long sleeves, sometimes short and practically sleeveless, as 
well as a skirt and turban, which, in the case of Chingpaw women, 
is often of considerable size. Wherever the means of the wearer allow 
it, silver torques are worn by the Chingpaw women. The Kachins 
speak a language belonging to the same linguistic sub-family as 



KADI PRAXT 255 

Burmese, and resembling the latter closely in grammatical structure. 
It has various dialects, but they do not differ materially from one 
another. The Marus, the Szis, and the Lashis, hill tribes of the 
north-eastern frontier, have been looked upon as Kachins, whom they 
resemble somewhat in manners and dress. It appears, however, 
probable from their language that these tribes are more nearly con- 
nected with the Burmans than with the Kachins. Their original home 
was probably to the east of that of the Kachins. 

Kachola. — An estate in the north-east of the State of Udaipur, 
Rajputana, held by the Raja Dhiraj of Shahpura as a grant from the 
Maharana, on payment of a tribute of about Rs. 2,400 and the per- 
formance of service. The nature of the service to be performed has 
long been in dispute ; but it has recently been decided that the Raja 
Dhiraj is to send his usual quota of troops for three months every year 
to Udaipur, and is himself to attend for one month at the same place 
every alternate year, generally at the Dasahra festival. The estate 
consists of 90 villages with (1901) 12,515 inhabitants, the majority of 
whom are Jats, Gujars, Rajputs, and Brahmans. The head-quarters 
are at the small town of Kachola, situated in 25° 24' N. and 75° 8' E., 
3 miles east of the Banas river, about 100 miles north-east of Udaipur 
city and 20 miles south-east of the town of Shahpura. 

Kachua. — Village in the Bagherhat subdivision of Khulna District, 
Bengal, situated in 22° 39' N. and 89° 53' E., at the junction of the 
Bhairab and Madhumati rivers. Population (1901), 247. Kachua 
is one of three market-places established by Mr. Henckell in the 
Sundarbans in 1782-3; the other two, Uhandkhali and Henckellganj, 
are now of no importance, but Kachua still has a large bazar. The 
principal export is rice ; large quantities of kachu, a kind of yam, are 
also grown, from which the village possibly derives its name. 

Kadaiyanallur. — Town in the Tenkasi taluk, Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, situated in 9° 4' N. and 77° 20' E. The population in 1901 
was 13,939, weavers forming a' large proportion. Local affairs are 
managed by a Union panchdyat. 

Kadana. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Kadapa. — District, subdivision, tdliik, and town in Madras. See 

CUDDAPAH. 

Kadaura. — Chief town of the BaonT State, Central India, situated 
in 26° N. and 79° 50' E., 15 miles from KalpT station on the Jhansi- 
Cawnpore section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. It became 
the head-quarters about 1820, before which date the chiefs lived at 
KalpT. Population (1901), 3,004. 

Kadi Prant. — A prdnt or district in Baroda State, situated in 
Northern Gujarat, between 23° and 24''9'N. and 71° 15'and 7i°5q'E., 
with an area of 3,015 square miles. It is the largest and most pro- 



256 KADI PR A NT 

ductive of the {owx prants into which the Gaikwar's territory is divided. 
It is bounded on the north by the States of Palanpur and Radhanpur ; 
on the west by Radhanpur State and Ahmadabad District ; on the 
south by Ahmadabad and Kaira ; and on the east by the Mahl Kantha 
States. Most of the prant Hes west of the SabarmatI, and consists 
of a dreary looking plain, with few trees except near village sites. 
Some scattered portions east of the river are well wooded^ and contain 
a few small but picturesque hillocks. The chief rivers are the 
SabarmatI, the SaraswatT, and the Banas. 

The greater part of the area is under cultivation, the fields being 
often surrounded by hedges composed of species like Capparis grandis, 
C. sepiaria, Jatropha Curcas, Euphorbia antiquorum, with various 
Legi/minosae, Me7tispermaceae, Asclepiadeae, and Convolvulaceae among 
the climbers. On waste ground such species as Calofropis gigantea, 
Jatropha gossypifolia, Fagonia arahica, Echinops echinatus, and Tephrosia 
purpurea are found. Field-weeds include Cehia coromandeliana, Sphaer- 
anthes iudinis, Launaea nudicau/is, Coldetiia procumbens, and Blumea 
eriantha. Damp ground and stream beds contain Aeluropus vil/osus, 
Herpestis Motifiieria, Mollugo hirfa, Cyperus laevigaius, Sa'rpus subu- 
latus, Hydrilla verticiUata, and Potainogeto7i pectiiiatus. The planted or 
semi-spontaneous species near habitations include the mango, tamarind, 
teak, custard-apple, pomegranate, bael, and various species of Eicus, 
such as banyan and pipal. 

Kadi is considered to be the healthiest part of the State, the tdlukas 
of Dehgam, Vijapur, Visnagar, and Patau being favourably known for 
the comparative absence of malaria. 

The population was estimated at 850,325 in 1872. At the three 
following enumerations it was: (1881) 988,487, (1891) 1,098,742, 
and (1901) 834,714. The pra?it suffered severely in the famine of 
1 899-1 900. It is divided into ten tdlukas or mahd/s, and two petas 
or suh-mahd/s, statistics of which in 1901 are given in the table on the 
next page. 

The chief towns are Patan, Visnagar, Sidhpur, Vadnagar, Kadi, 
Unjha, Mehsana (the head-quarters), Vijapur, Chanasma, Kheralu, 
Ladol, Kalol, Vat, am, and Umta. About 98 per cent, of the popu- 
lation speak Gujaratl. In 1901 only 8 native Christians were enume- 
rated in the prdr/t, but the American Methodist Episcopal Mission 
claims 250 adherents in eight villages, and provides five day .schools. 

About 90 per cent, of the total area is composed of light sandy soil, 
which is very productive if manured and irrigated. Black soil is found 
in patches. Irrigation is chiefly supplied by wells, including large 
temporary wells which are used for a single .season. The principal 
crops are hdjra, J07vdr, wheat, banti, dangar, barley, van', kadra, cheiina, 
kuri, bdvto, chasatio, kdfig, math, mag, udid, guvdr, tuver, chola, chana. 



KADI PRINT 



= 57 



val, hi It hi, sarsav, erandi, poppy, A//, kasimibo, tobacco, sugar-cane, 
cotton, bhendi, chillies, sakaria, and other garden products. Poppy 
is of great importance and covered 12,262 acres in 1904-5, yielding 
on an average 1 2 lb. of crude opium per acre. 



Taluka. 



Kadi 

Kalol . 
Vijapur . 
Mehsana . 
Visnagar . 
Vadavli . 
Patau 
Sidhpur . 
Kheralu . 
Harij 
Dehgam . 
Atarsumba 



Total 





Number of 






err 


en 

c 


en 







1^ 


< 
331 


r- 


> 


1 


]i8 


267 


I 


88 i 


346 


2 


107! 


19.=^ 


I 


83 


172 


2 


.'^4 


332 


2 


"3 


409 


2 


140 i 


254 


2 


78 


246 


3 


88 


154 




43 


239 


I 


95 


70 


I 
18 


56 


3>oi5 


1,063 



3 
o 



o 6 
'5 lu 



c 
p.. 



71=784 

80,532 

117,286 

75.254 
70,989 

67,302 
104,136 

90,161 

76,4'33 
'2,505 
49,461 

i8,S7i 



217 
302 

3.39 
386 

47' 
203 

255 
355 
311 
81 
207 
270 



Un Sx o 
ci 0.2 ~ f^ 

O u 3 ?i c 

ft- ^ c. 



-25.8 
-17. 1 
-24-9 

- I0.2 

-2:,.7 

-33-7 
-23.5 
-16.1 

-22.5 



^5/' 



-28.6 

- 37-9 



■-— '^ »! 

t rt r: i; 

= £ rt > 

2; £ - 



4,342 
5,038 
5,301 
4314 
5.319 
2,839 
7,605 

5,584 
4,408 

34''' 
2,865 
1,276 



834,744 277 -24.0 49,237 



The spinning of cotton thread and silk and cotton-weaving are the 
chief industries. There may also be mentioned : embroidery on a 
small scale ; the manufacture of ornaments in gold, silver, and ivory, 
and of betel-nut cutters, knives, brass and copper utensils, toys, and 
pottery. The number of ginning factories is six, one being connected 
with a weaving-mill. The chief centres of trade are Patan, Kadi, 
Mehsana, Visnagar, Vadnagar, and Sidhpur, the first being the most 
important. All these towns are connected by railway lines, by which 
the prdnt is exceptionally well served. In addition to the main line 
of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, which passes from south to north, 
State lines diverge from Mehsana to Kheralu, Patan, and \'iramgam, 
and from Kalol to Kadi and Vijapur. The Ahmadabad-Parantlj line 
also serves some places. Other lines are projected from Manund 
Road to Chanasma, from Visnagar to Vijapur, and from Kheralu to 
Dabhoda. 

The land revenue rose from 32-2 lakhs in 1881 to 35-8 lakhs in 
1 89 1, and was 35-5 lakhs in 190T ; but in 1904-5, while the demand 
was 22 lakhs, the collections amounted to only 11-2 lakhs. A settle- 
ment for fifteen years was made between 1891 and 1900, and parts 
of the prdnt are now being resettled. The prdnt contains 36 meMvdst 
villages, which were formerly assessed on the cultivated area only, but 
a settlement has now been made on the ordinary lines at greatly 
reduced rates. The average assessment varies in different tCihikas from 



25S KADI PR A NT 

Rs. 1-3-0 to Rs. 2-8-0 per btgha (f acre) for 'dry' land, and from 
Rs. 1-9-0 to Rs. 2-1 i-o for 'wet' land. 

The prCint contains twelve municipalities, three of which are admin- 
istered by boards reconstituted in 1905 on a partly elective basis. 
These latter — Patan, Sidhpur, and Visnagar — have a total income of 
Rs. 21,500 from customs, excise, and tolls, besides grants of Rs. 7,000 ; 
and the remaining nine receive grants of Rs. 20,500. A District board 
and local boards were constituted in 1905. 

The administration is carried on by the Subah, while the court of 
the prant Judge is at Visnagar, Education is well provided for, as 
the profit has one high school (at Patan), 6 Anglo-vernacular schools, 
and 369 vernacular schools, the total number of pupils in 1904-5 being 
25,316. Two civil hospitals and eleven dispensaries treated 86,329 
patients in 1904-5, of whom 359 were in-patients. 

Kadi Taluka. — South-western tdluka of the Kadi pnlnt, Baroda 
State, with an area of 331 square miles. The population fell from 
96,782 in 1891 to 71,784 in 1901. The tdluka contains one town, 
Kadi (population, 13,070), the head-quarters of the tdli/k, and of the 
prant uniA 1904 ; and 118 villages. The general aspect of the tdluka 
is very unprepossessing, as it consists for the most part of an uninter- 
rupted plain bare of all trees. Round the town of Kadi, however, and 
in its neighbourhood there are trees in fair abundance, a gentle undu- 
lating country, and numerous tanks. The soil for the most part is 
light and sandy. In 1904-5 the land revenue was Rs. 2,58,000. 

Kadi Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name, 
Baroda State, situated in 23° 18' N. and 72° 2' E,, on the Gaikwar's 
State line from Kalol on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population 
(1901), 13,070. It is a place of some importance in the State, owing to 
its connexion with Malhar Rao, who held it as jdgirddr and rebelled 
against the Gaikwar Govind Rao. Till 1904 it was the head-quarters 
(jf the Kadi/rJ«/. The town seen from a distance presents rather a 
picturesque appearance, the domes of the fort gleaming from the thick 
wood which surrounds it. To the north lies a broad sheet of water 
fringed with trees, and on the edge which touches the houses the domed 
gate or Gumit Darwaza is effectively placed. The fort itself stands on 
a slight elevation ; and its brick walls and numerous buttresses, though 
they enclose no great area, are of enormous thickness and in a good 
state of preservation. The chief buildings inside the fort are the Rang 
and Supra Mahals, while behind it is the palace or sarkdrvdda, which 
was formerly occupied by the Subalfs and other oftices. In addition, 
the town possesses a civil hospital, courts, jail, Anglo-vernacular and 
vernacular schools, and various dhannsdlas and temples. Its narrow 
streets contain gaudily painted houses, lavishly decorated with wood- 
carving, but the choking dust and the crumbled api)earance of tlie 



KADIRI TALUK 259 

generality of the habitations give Kadi a mournful look. The State 
makes an annual grant of Rs. 2,700 to the municipality. Several fairs 
are held during the year, but the trade of the town is not very great. 
The chief industries are weaving, calico-printing, and the manufacture 
of brass and copper utensils. The cantonment is at present garrisoned 
by a detachment of State troops. 

Kadipur. — Eastern tahsil of Sultanpur District, United Provinces, 
comprising \\\Q. parganas of Aldemau and Chanda, and lying between 
25° 59' and 26° 23' N. and 82° 6' and 82° 41' E., with an area of 442 
square miles. Population fell from 274,458 in 1891 to 265,450 in 1901, 
the rate of decrease being the highest in the District. There are 741 
villages, but no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 3,69,000, and for cesses Rs. 59,000. The density of population, 
601 persons per square mile, is below the District average. The tahsil 
is crossed by the GumtT, and contains a large area of low-lying, badly 
drained ground. It thus suffers considerably in wet years, such as 
1894. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 263 square miles, of 
which 151 were irrigated. AN'ells and tanks or jhils are of almost 
equal importance as a source of supply in ordinary years. 

Kadirabad.— ^^'alled town in the Jalna taluk of Aurangabad District, 
Hyderabad State, situated in 19° 51' N. and 75° 55' E., on the left bank 
of the Kundlika, opposite the town of Jalna. Population (1901), 
11,159. It is an important centre of the grain and cotton trade, and 
contains a weekly bazar for grain and cattle. There are three ginning 
and two pressing mills, employing 470 hands. Post and customs offices 
are located here. 

Kadiri Taluk.— Western taluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, lying 
between 13° 47' and 14° 31' N. and 77° 51'and 78° 28' E., with an area 
of 1,158 square miles. It is very irregular in shape, its extreme length 
being 45 miles, and its maximum breadth 35 miles. The population in 
1901 was 145,503, compared with 134,915 in 1891, the increase during 
the decade being greater than in any other taluk of the District. The 
density was 126 persons per square mile, compared with the District 
average of 148. It contains one town, Kadiri (population, 10,493), 
the head-quarters ; and 139 villages. The demand for land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,07,000. The taluk is very stony 
and barren, and is cut up by detached rocky hills which are usually 
destitute of vegetation. During the hot season the ryots entirely depend 
for water on wells, the rivers and almost all the tanks being quite dry. 
These wells are constructed at great cost and with considerable labour, 
the ground below the thin surface soil being often solid rock. The 
Maduleru, one of the feeders of the Chitravati, rises in the taluk, and 
the Papaghni passes through its southern and south-eastern portions ; 
but they are of little use for irrigation. The soil is very poor, being 



26o KADIRI TALUK 

chiefly coarse red earth mixed with disintegrated granite, which is often 
impregnated with soda and other salts. Black cotton soil is, however, 
met with in patches here and there. The chief products are horse-gram, 
cho/atn, sugar-cane, and cotton. A good deal of jaggery (coarse sugar) 
is produced. Hematite occurs in small quantities and used to be 
smelted by the primitive native processes. 

Kadiri Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name in 
Cuddapah District, Madras, situated in 14° 6' N. and 78° 10' E. 
Population (1901), 10,493. ^'^ large temple here (one of the most 
famous in the District) is dedicated to Narasimha, to whose festival 
many pilgrims resort in the early part of the year. It is said that an 
image of Narasimha was found in an ant-hill under a chendra tree, but 
the same story is told of other places. The name of this tree in 
Sanskrit is khadri ; and tradition states that when the jungle was cleared 
by Ranga Nayudu, a local chieftain of Patnam, and the temple was 
built, this name was given to the town which arose round the shrine. 
It was for a long time the practice to let loose a tiger or leopard at the 
festival here in January and shoot at it, but one year a bystander was 
shot instead, and the custom was prohibited by the Collector. Two 
days after the car-procession, Paraiyans and other low-caste people — 
contrary to all precedent — are allowed to enter the temple. They bathe 
in the river close by and pass into the building in great crowds, carrying 
small bundles containing coin and jewels wrapped up in cloths, which 
they present to the god. These bundles are received by a person 
employed by contractors who farm the privilege. 

Kadiri shows signs of having at one time been a Musalman town. 
Though the existing buildings bear no trace of Muhammadan archi- 
tecture, for two miles round there is a large number of tombs and 
mosques, mostly decayed but some still well preserved. The place was 
formerly the seat of a local chieftain. When Munro took over the 
country he sent for the chief to settle with him the amount of revenue 
he was to pay. The man refused to come, so a detachment was sent 
against him. They surprised the fortified temple in which he had taken 
post, but he escaped in the confusion. His possessions were, however, 
confiscated. Since the town became a station on the South Indian 
Railway, it has increased in importance as a trade centre. A brisk 
business in grain is transacted. There is a branch of the London 
Missionary Society. 

Kadod. — Place of Hindu pilgrimage in the Broach tahika of Broach 
District, Bombay, situated in 21° 44' N. and 73° 8' E., on the right 
bank of the Narbada, about half-way between the city of Broach and 
Suklatlrtha. The site of the fair is a very small hamlet with only twelve 
houses and a population (1901) of 53. The ceremonies, which occur 
once in every nineteen years when Vaishakh (April-May) happens to be 



KADUR DISTRICT 261 

the intercalary month, are in honour of Mahadeo, under the name of 
Koteshwar or Kotilingeshwar, and last for a whole month. Mr. Williams 
in his Memoir on Broach mentions that one of the periodical gatherings 
took place in 181 2. In that year the total number of visitors was 
estimated at 200,000, and the most perfect order and good conduct are 
said to have been maintained by the crowd. In 1869 people began to 
collect on April 13, and all was not over till May 11; the greatest 
attendance at any one time was estimated at 100,000, and the total 
throughout the whole month at 500,000. The last fair was held in 
1 888, when the bed of the river was crowded with H?igams, which the 
people in many cases carried away to their homes. During the time of 
the fair the pilgrims live in sheds and temporary huts. The Narbada 
flows close by the site of the fair ; but as the gathering takes place in 
the hot season, and below the limit of the tide, fresh water is hard to 
obtain. There is a temple at Kadod consisting of one chamber about 
II feet square, and entered by a door 5 feet 2 inches high and 3 
feet 3 inches w'ide. 

Kadoli. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Kadur District. — District in the west of the State of Mysore, lying 
between 12^ 55' and 13° 54' N. and 75° 5' and 76° 22' E., with an area 
of 2,813 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Shimoga Dis- 
trict ; on the east by Chitaldroog and Tumkur Districts ; on the south 
by Hassan District ; and on the west by the South Kanara District of 
Madras. 

The main part of the District is composed of the most mountainous 
region within the limits of Mysore. Bordered on the west by the 
mighty Ghat range, rising at this part into some of the 
loftiest peaks between the Himalayas and the Nilgiris ; asnec't^s^ 

supporting on its centre the stupendous barrier of the 
Baba Budan chain, of even superior elevation ; between these towering 
masses covered with a complete network of lofty hills whose altitude 
at certain points, as in the grand Merti peak of Kalasa, renders them 
conspicuous landmarks even in this region of heights, while ranges of 
more modest pretensions extend throughout the north and east — this 
District, with a slight exception eastwards, may truly be described as 
pre-eminently the Malnad or ' highland country.' Nor are these moun- 
tain tracts wanting in those charms of wood and water which tend to 
soften the harsher features of so rugged a landscape. For though the 
summits rear themselves bareheaded into space, the slopes are thickly 
clad with primaeval forest, through which the shining streams thread 
their often headlong way, fertilizing the narrow valleys and open glades, 
till their waters descend to the level of the larger rivers, flowing in steep 
and sunken channels, whence issue dense mists that cover the face 
of the country, only lifting as the heat of the morning sun increases 



262 KADUR DISTRICT 

in power. In these vast solitudes the habitations of man are few and 
far between. A single homestead, hidden amid the luxuriance of 
tropical vegetation, is often the only sign of human presence for many 
miles around. Roads there used to be none. All the valuable produce 
of the country was, and to a great extent still is, transported on the 
backs of catde, the rallying sounds from the belled leaders of the drove 
resounding far and wide. The eastern or Maidan taluks partake of the 
general features of that description of country in the other Districts, 
the transition from Malnad to Maidan being very abrupt and striking 
on approaching Lakvalli from the west. 

The congeries of mountains, so far as they can be reduced to 
a system, seem to range themselves into a central ridge running north 
and south, with a great loop or circle on either hand ; while at the 
south-western angle the Western Ghats make a bend inwards to the 
east, marking the initial point of the line which divides the northern 
from the southern waters of Mysore. The main ridge spoken of above 
commences at Ballalrayandurga, and passing east of Mertigudda and 
Koppadurga, separates the basin of the Bhadra from that of the Tunga, 
and runs up towards Mandagadde, connecting with the central range 
of Shimoga District. On the west of this ridge is the valley in which 
Sringeri stands, enclosed with a girdle of mountains ; while to the east 
of it, beyond the right bank of the Bhadra, is the Jagar valley, com- 
pletely environed with the Baba Budan Mountains. The highest 
point in the District, and in Mysore, is Mulainagiri in the Baba Budans, 
which rises to 6,317 feet above the sea. In the same group, Baba- 
Budan-giri is 6,214 feet, and Kalhattigiri 6,155. The loftiest peak in 
the Western Ghats is the Kudremukh or 'horse-face' mountain, so 
called on account of its appearance from the sea, to which it presents 
a landmark well-known to navigators on the west coast. Its height 
is 6,215 feet. Of other conspicuous points, the grand Ballalrayandurga 
is 4,940 feet, Gangamula in the Varahaparvata 4,781, Woddingudda 
5,006, Lakkeparvata 4,662. The superb hill of Kalasa, called the 
Mertigudda, situated in the heart of the mountain region to the west, 
is 5,451 feet. Kanchinkaldurga is 4,081 feet, and Sakunagiri 4,653. 

The principal rivers are the tw^in streams, the Tunga and Bhadra. 
They both rise at Gangamula in the Varahaparvata in the Western 
Ghats. The Tunga flows north-east past Sringeri, and then turns north- 
by-west to Shimoga District. The Bhadra runs east past Kalasa, and 
then with a north-easterly course across the western opening of the 
Baba Budan horseshoe, receives the Somavahini from the Jagar valley 
on the east, and passes on to Shimoga District. On the east of the 
Baba Budans the Gaurihalla and Avati are twin streams, rising near 
Mulainagiri. The first expands into the Ayyankere Lake near Sak- 
karepatna, and taking the name of Veda runs north-east to Kadur. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 263 

The other, the northern stream, forms the large Madaga tank : and the 
two, uniting near Kadur town, continue under the name of Vedavati 
into Chitaldroog District. 

The Shimoga schistose band extends to the southern boundary of 
the District, and spreads from near Kadur town to the edge of the 
Western Ghats, where it forms much of the high Ghat country cuhni- 
nating in the Kudremukh. From this point the western boundary is 
probably continuous up to Anantapur (Shimoga District). At Kudre- 
mukh the schistose beds are nearly horizontal, with a slight dip to the 
north ; the scarp on the southern side of the mountain, descending 
to South Kanara, displays a series of Dharwar rocks about 5,000 feet in 
thickness, composed largely of trap flows, with some beds of micaceous 
and other schists, and resting unconformably on the denuded surface 
of the Archaean rocks below. On the eastern side of the band, near 
Ajjampur, the rocks dip generally to the east. To the south and west 
of Tarikere large masses of chloritic schists occur; and underlying these 
to the south is a great thickness of trap flows, forming part of the 
Santaveri and Baba Budan mountains. The trap flows are disposed in 
a very flat anticlinal curve, and to the west are seen to be overlaid by 
a great thickness of dark schists, with haematite bands and quartzites 
overlying these again. In the country around Ajjampur and Tarikere 
masses of conglomerate are developed, consisting chiefly of large 
boulders and pebbles of granite in a quartz-felspar-chlorite matrix ; these 
pass through various gradations into grits, quartzites, and chloritic schists. 

At the extreme heights of Mulainagiri and Kudremukh the moun- 
tains are clothed with grass and herbs, but are generally bare of trees. 
The plants of the west of Mysore and of Coorg are nearly all found 
in this alpine District, in addition to such as Lysimachia delfoides, 
Anemone riviilaris, Ranunculus diffusus, Cinnamonuon IVightii, with 
other genera and species far too numerous to mention. 

At Chikmugalur, the head-quarters, the mean annual temperature is 
between 72° and 73°, the daily range being about 20°. The tempera- 
ture of the Malnad often falls much lower, the cold in the early morning 
at Christmas time being very sharp. Malarious jungle fevers are always 
prevalent at certain seasons, and neither Europeans nor natives are 
exempt from attacks. The average annual rainfall at Chikmugalur is 
variously stated at from 36 to 42 inches. But the country lying within 
the Western Ghats has a far heavier fall. The annual average at 
Koppa is given as 122 inches, and at Mudgere as 103. At Hariharpur 
166 inches fell in 1874; at Mudgere 194 inches in 18S2 ; and at 
certain coffee estates in that taluk 145 and 156 inches have been 
received in a year. The fall is heaviest in June, July, and August, 
there being 43 inches in July alone. 

The west was from an early period subject to the Kadambas, and the 



264 KAD17R DISTRICT 

remainder of the District to the Gangas. About the eighth century 
the Santara kingdom was established at Pomburchcha 
or Humcha in Shimoga District. The Santaras ex- 
tended their rule southwards as far as Kalasa in this District, and at 
a later period made their capital at Sisila or Sisugali at the foot of the 
Ghats in IMudgere. ■ Eventually their capital was at Karkala in. South 
Kanara. At one time they acknowledged the supremacy of the 
Chalukyas, and were stanch Jains. But under Vijayanagar rule 
they became Lingayats, and were known as the Bhairarasa Wodeyars. 
Meanwhile, the Hoysalas arose at the beginning of the eleventh 
century, their original seat being Sosevur, now Angadi in the Mudgere 
taluk. They were supreme throughout Mysore and beyond from the 
twelfth to the fourteenth century, when they were overthrown by Musal- 
man invasions from the north of India. The Vijayanagar empire was 
founded in 1336, and its success at first was greatly due to the aid 
given by the head of the Sringeri math, originally established by the 
reformer Sankaracharya in the eighth century. In consequence of this 
aid the capital of the new empire was called Vidyanagara, after Vidya- 
ranya or Madhava, its first minister, who was also the head of the math. 
^'idyanagara in course of time passed into the form Vijayanagara. 
After the fall of Vijayanagar, the Keladi chiefs of Bednur assumed 
independence, and restored the possessions of the Sringeri math. In 
the seventeenth century Sivappa Naik of Bednur overran many parts of 
the District. But he was opposed by Mysore; and in 1694 a treaty 
was signed between the two powers, by which the latter gained nearly 
the whole of the District, and Haidar All's conquest of Bednur in 1763 
completed its inclusion in Mysore. In the east, Tarikere was the seat 
of a line of feudatory chiefs driven out of Basavapatna in Shimoga 
District by the Bijapur invasions of the seventeenth century. AVhen, 
in 1830, a rebellion broke out in the Nagar country, owing to the 
misrule of the Raja, the Tarikere chief was one of the first to escape 
from Mysore and join the rebels. The result was the extinction of this 
line of chiefs. The opening out of the inaccessible Malnad country in 
the west by roads at the end of last century has secured the peace of 
that wild part. 

The most important archaeological feature is the Amritesvara 
temple near Tarikere, erected in the twelfth century, under the Hoy- 
salas. Some interesting Jain temples are represented by the ruins 
at Sosevur or Angadi, the place of origin of the Hoysalas, which 
contain fine specimens of carving. The Vidyasankara temple at 
Sringeri is an effective building, in the Dravidian style of Vijayana- 
gar. The inscriptions of the District have been translated and pub- 
lished. 

The population at each Census in the last thirty years was: (1871) 



AGRICULTURE 



26: 



310,176, (1S81) 293,822, (1S91) 332,025, and (1901) 362,75 
decrease in 1881 was due to the famine of 1876-8 



The 



Population. 



Jains. 



The 



By religion, in 1901 there were 326,960 Hindus, 18, 144 
Musalmans, 12,205 Animists, 3,888 Christians, and 1,554 _ 
density of population is 129 persons per square mile, that for the State 
being 185. The number of towns is 10, and of villages 1,352. 
The following are the principal statistics of population in 1901 : — 





a; 

3 


Number of 


C 


u 






- — 


Think. 






C3 


pulatic 


ulation 
uare m 


centag 
riation 
ulation 
een 1 8 
nil IQO 






< 



3 


> 


^ 


D.C- 


l>|-' 


c 


Kadur 


571 


3'7 


80,904 


142 


4 I2.0 


4,068 


Chikimigalur . 


638 


I 


235 


90,681 


142 


+ 6-6 


5,882 


Mudgere . 


435 


I 


137 


46,212 


107 


+ 11.7 


2,284 


Koppa . 


657 


2 


16S 


54,827 


83 


+ 1.4 


3,445 


Sringeriy^f^'v;- . 


44 


1 


259 


10,656 


244 


+ 16-5 


1,216 


Tarikere . 

District total 


468 


10 


236 


79>472 


170 


+ 12-5 


4,392 


2,813 


1.352 


362,752 


129 


+ 9-1 


21,287 



Note.— In 1902-:! a transfer of 25 square miks was made from the Kadur taluk 
to Cliitaldroog District. 

As regards castes, Lingayats number 70,000 ; the outcaste Holeyas 
and Madigas, 56,000 and 13,000 ; ^^'okkaligas or cultivators, 50,000. 
Of Brahmans there are 18,000. Two-thirds of the Musalmans are 
Shaikhs, 12,000. Of nomads, Lambanis number 8,600; Korarnas, 
2,000; and Iruligas, 1,200. By occupation, 70-3 per cent, are engaged 
in agriculture and pasture, 12-3 per cent, in unskilled labour not 
agricultural, and 6-9 per cent, in the preparation and supply of material 
substances. 

There are 3,888 Christians in the District, of whom 3,606 are 
natives. The Roman Catholics and ^^'esleyans have stations at Chik- 
mugalur and visit other parts. 

Along the south of the Baba Budan mountains is a rich tract of 
black cotton soil, whose fertility, enhanced by the command of an 
unfailing supply of water from the hill streams, is said 
formerly to have given to the plain of Chikmugalur 
the name of Honjavanige Slme, or 'land flowing with gold.' The 
higher tracts of this region are generally gravelly. Black cotton soil 
prevails also in the neighbourhood of Ajjampur, together with red and 
gravelly soils. The western parts of Tarikere contain sandy and 
gravelly soils. About Yegate the earth seems poor and has a white 
chalky appearance. Farther south the soil is adapted to the cultivation 
of the coco-nut without irrigation, as in the adjoining parts of Tumkur 
and Chitaldroog Districts. The soil of the Malnad bears a general 



Agriculture. 



2 66 



KADUR DISTRICT 



resemblance to that of the same region extending through the neigh- 
bouring Districts north and south. 

The following table gives statistics of cultivation for 1903-4 : — 



Taluk. 


Area in square miles, sliown in tlie revenue accounts. 


Total. Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Kadur 

Chikmugalur 
Mudgere . 
Koppa 
Tarikere . 

Total 


536 

609 
426 

65 s 

460 


202 

144 

So 

82 

178 


17 
42 
35 


I 

85 

4 

118 

57 


85 
22 

9 

18 
25 

159 


2,689 


686 


163 


265 



In addition to the ordinary cereals, pulses, and oilseeds, the following 
crops call for special notice. The areca gardens, which occupy the 
moist and sheltered valleys throughout the west, produce the best 
description of nut in the country, that of Kalasa and its neighbourhood 
being in especially high repute. The coffee cultivation of Southern 
India had its origin in this District. It was first introduced by Baba 
Eudan in the seventeenth century on his return from a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, when he planted a few berries he had brought with him near 
his hut on the hills that bear his name. But it was not till 1820 that 
the cultivation extended beyond his garden, and not till twenty years 
later that European enterprise was first attracted to it. The original 
{)lants then put in by Mr. Cannon to the south of Baba-Budan-giri are 
still flourishing. Land was soon after taken up for coffee in South 
Manjarabad, and since i860 European planters have settled in almost 
a continuous chain of estates throughout the Malnad. The coffee zone 
in this District is estimated to cover about 1,000 square miles. The 
cardamom grows wild in the same parts, but owing to the extension of 
coffee estates it is no longer plentiful except in the Kalasa and Melban. 
gadi niaganis. Its systematic cultivation has been taken up in some 
parts with success. Experiments made with cinchona, tea, cotton, 
and mulberry have not been successful. The area occupied by the 
various crops in 1903-4 was : ragi., 172 square miles ; rice, 153 ; coffee, 
123; gram, 42; other food-grains, 67; garden produce, 26; oil- 
seeds, 22. 

During the twelve years ending 1904 there was advanced for land 
improvements Rs. 14,500, and for irrigation wells Rs. 7,300. 

The area irrigated from channels is 12 square miles, from tanks 54, 
and from other sources 97. The number of tanks is 4,394, of which 
103 are classed as ' major.' 

The west of the District contains some of the best forests in the 



ADMIXISTRA TION 2 6 7 

State. The Lakvalli teak forests have for many years supplied Western 
Mysore and the Bellary country with that timber. Throughout the 
Jagar \alley and most of the Koppa and Mudgere taluks, a continuous 
stretch of valuable forest densely clothes the hill-sides, giving shelter to 
much coffee cultivation. The State forests cover an area of 1.^4 square 
miles, 'reserved' lands 124, and plantations 144. The forest receipts 
in 1903-4 were Rs. 2,98,000, chiefly from sandal-wood. 

Gold-mining was begun near Ajjampur by the Kadur-Mysore Com- 
pany, but owing to the poor prospects has been suspended. Iron ore 
is obtained largely and smelted along the hills east of the Baba Budan 
range, and round Ubrani. Corundum is found in abundance near 
Kadur and throughout the east. 

The principal articles manufactured are oils and oil-cake, cotton 

piece-goods, woollen blankets, and glass bangles. Jaggery is also made, 

and there is some production of iron. A certain 

amount of catechu or terra iaponica is prepared. Trade and 
„, , , \ r communications. 

1 here are reported to be 300 looms for cotton, 400 

fur wool, 87 oil-mills, and 201 jaggery and sugar-mills. 

The most important exports are coffee, pepper, cardamoms, rice and 
other food-grains, and oilseeds. It is only a quarter of a century since 
the Malnad began to be opened up by a network of roads, and only 
since 1889 that the railway has run through a small part of the District. 
These agencies must certainly effect considerable changes in trade 
and the transport of commodities. The principal traffic between 
the Malnad and Maidan taluks was formerly through five kanaves or 
passes : namely, Talagudde, I'alamakki, Birnahalli, Gantevinayakan, 
and Sitalmallapan. 

The Southern Mahratta Railway from Bangalore to Poona runs 
through the east of the District, with a branch from Birur north-west 
to Shimoga, the total length of line being 62 miles. Provincial roads 
have a length of 259 miles, and District fund roads of 403 miles. 

There has been no general famine in the District since that of 
1876-8, but the areca gardens have suffered occasionally in periods 
of drought. 

The District is divided into five taluks : Chikmugalur, Kadur, 
Koppa (including Sringeri Jdglr), Mudgere, and Tarikere. The 

following subdivisions were formed in 1Q03, and . . 

, J J * ■ ^. • • v., -1 Admmistration. 

placed under Assistant Commissioners : Chikmu- 
galur and Mudgere ; Kadur, Tarikere, and Koppa, with head-quarters 
at Chikmugalur. 

The District court at Shimoga has jurisdiction over the whole of this 
District, and the Subordinate Judge's court over a part. There is a 
Subordinate Judge's court at Chikmugalur for the remaining part, and 
a Munsif's court at Yadehalli. 

VOL. XIV. s 



:68 



KADUR DISTRICT 



The land revenue and total revenue are shown below, in thousands 
of rupees : — 





1S80-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 1903-4- 1 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


6,92 
9, '3 


7>73 

I -',27 


8,42 
14.46 


8,11 



The revenue survey and settlement were introduced into the east of 
the District in 1877-8, and into the west in 1880-1. The incidence 
of land revenue per acre of cultivated area in 1903-4 was Rs. 1-12-10. 
The average assessment per acre on 'dry ' land is R. 0-13-1 (maximum 
scale Rs. 2-10-0, minimum scale R. 0-0-6) ; on * wet ' land, Rs. 3-4-0 
(maximum scale Rs. 8-8-0, minimum scale R. o-i-o) ; on garden land, 
Rs. 7-4-2 (maximum scale Rs. 18, minimum scale Rs. 1-8-0). 

There were eight municipalities in 1903-4 — Chikmugalur, Tari- 
KERE, BiRUR, Kadur, Vedehalli, Mudgere, Koppa, and Sringeri — with 
a total income of Rs. 57,000 and an expenditure of Rs. 66,000. There 
were also two village Unions, Ajjampur and Sakkarepatna, whose in- 
come and expenditure were Rs. 2,000 and Rs. 7,000. The District and 
taluk boards had an income of Rs. 50,000 in 1903-4, chiefly derived 
from a share of the Local fund cess, and spent Rs. 49,000, including 
Rs. 33,000 on roads and buildings. 

The strength of the police force in 1903-4 was one superior officer, 
60 subordinate officers, and 381 constables. There were 7 lock-ups, 
containing a daily average of 16 prisoners. 

In 1901 the percentage of literate persons was 5-9 (10-5 males, 
©•6 females). The number of schools increased from 201 with 5,130 
pupils in 1890-1 to 292 with 7,324 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there 
were 207 schools (95 public and 112 private) with 4,936 pupils, of 
whom 692 were girls. 

Besides the civil hospital at Chikmugalur, there are 14 dispensaries, 
in which 111,882 patients were treated in 1904, of whom 700 were in- 
patients, the number of beds available being 36 for men and 22 for 
women. The total expenditure was Rs. 33,000. 

The number of persons vaccinated in 1904 was 4,723, or 13 per 
1,000 of the population. 

Kadur Taluk, — Eastern taluk of Kadur District, Mysore, lying 
between 13° 19' and 13° 50' N. and 75° 51' and 76° 22' E., with an 
area of 571 square miles. The population in 1901 was 80,904, com- 
pared with 72,217 in 1891. The taluk contains three towns, BiRUR 
(population, 5,701), Kadur (3,881), the head-quarters, and Sakkare- 
patna (1,884); and 317 villages. An area of 25 square miles was 
transferred to Chitaldroog District in 1902-3. The land revenue 
demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,75,000. On the west lies the complicated 



KAFIRISTAN 269 

mass of hills (Sakunagiri, 4,653 feet) east of the Baba Budans, and on 
the east the Garudangiri (3,680 feet) group. The Vedavati river runs 
through the middle in a north-easterly direction. It is formed by the 
junction of the ^^eda and Avati, which rise in the Baba Budans, the 
former supplying the Ayyankere, and the latter the Madagakere, 
the two largest tanks in this part of the countr)-. Numerous channels 
are taken off from dams across these streams, forming an irrigated tract 
of great fertility. The annual rainfall averages 22 inches. Most of 
the taluk is a slightly undulating plain. The waste lands are covered 
with wild date or babul trees, and a considerable area is reserved for 
grazing, supporting a large number of cattle and sheep. Superior 
tobacco is grown in the south and west. Coco-nuts are grown without 
irrigation in low sandy soils. Iron ore is obtained from Hogaribetta 
in the north-west. 

Kadus. — An Upper Burmese tribe inhabiting the central portion 
of the watershed that separates the Irrawaddy from the Chindwin river. 
In 1 901 the tribe numbered 34,629, nearly all of whom were inhabi- 
tants of Katha 1 )istrict. The origin of the Kadus is doubtful ; but, 
judging by their language and habitat, it seems probable that they are 
descendants of hill tribes who have intermarried with the surrounding 
Shan and Burman population and have by some means acquired a 
tribal identity of their own. Their speech is a mixture of Burmese, 
Shan, and Kachin, but is now gradually dropping out of use, and will 
doubtless soon become obsolete. In dress the Kadus used to differ 
somewhat from their neighbours ; but only the elder women now 
adhere to the tribal costume, which consists of a wholly black or dark- 
blue jacket, petticoat, and head-cloth. Burmese dress has become 
almost universal. The practice of staining the teeth of the women 
appears to have been followed in the past, but the custom is dying out. 
The Kadus are Buddhists. They have two main subdivisions, known 
as the Apwa (male) and the Ama (female), but the distinction has 
been obliterated by intermarriage. They are believed to be connected 
with the Saks or Thets, an almost extinct tribe of Arakan. It is 
possible that they are allied to the Taman.s, a probably hybrid tribe 
of the Upper Chindwin District. 

Kafiristan (literally, ' the country of the infidels '). — A mountainous 
region in Afghanistan, lying due north of Jalalabad, in which district 
it is now included. Its approximate area is about 5,000 square miles. 
Its boundaries are the Hindu Kush on the north ; the eastern water- 
shed of the Bashgal on the east ; the Kunar valley and the Kabul 
country on the south ; and on the west the ranges above the Nijrao 
and Panjshir valleys. Kafiristan consists of an irregular series of main 
valleys, for the most part deep, narrow, and tortuous, into which a 
number of ravines and glen.s pour their torrents. The hills separating 

b 2 



2 70 KAFIR I STAN 

the main valleys one from the other are of considerable altitude, rugged, 
and difficult. As a consequence, during the winter, Kafiristan consists 
practically of a number of separate communities with no means of 
communication with one another. The country appears to be divided 
into three main drainage systems— those of the Kao or Alingar ; of 
the Pech or Kamah, named after the important pass of that name ; and 
of the Bashgal. All these streams ultimately find their way into the 
Kabul river. 

In Kafiristan every kind of mountain scenery is to be met with. At 
the lower elevations the hill-sides are covered Avith wild olives and 
evergreen oaks. Fruit trees abound — the walnut, mulberry, apricot, 
apple, and vine— while splendid horse chestnuts and other trees offer 
pleasant shade in the hot season. As one ascends, the fruit trees 
disappear, being replaced by dense pine and cedar forests. These 
in their turn cease — the hills above 9,000 feet are almost bare — but 
the willow, birch, and juniper cedar are found. Above 13,000 feet 
no vegetation exists, except rough grasses and mosses. The rivers 
teem with fish, which, however, no Kafir will eat. The chief wild 
animals are the mdrkhor, the urid/, leopards, and bears. 

AMth the exception of a short visit to the upper part of the Bashgal 

valley by Colonel Lockhart's mission in September, 1885, and of Sir 

George Robertson's two visits in 1889 and 1 890-1, the country has 

not been penetrated by any Europeans in modern times. The people 

of the country, styled Kafirs ('infidels') by their orthodox Afghan 

neighbours, were known to the emperor Babar as the Siahposh 

('wearers of black raiment'). They comprise several more or less 

inimical tribes, differing from one another in language, dress, manners, 

and customs ; and even their primitive pagan religion afforded no bond 

of common union. This was a somewhat low form of idolatry, with 

an admixture of ancestor cult and traces of fire-worship. Their total 

number probably does not exceed 60,000. Until recent years these 

mysterious people were popularly supposed to be a fair race, noted for 

their beauty, and of Graeco-Bactrian origin. As a matter of fact the}- 

are by no means fair, their colour being that of the average native 

of the Punjab ,; their usual type of feature is good ; but their beauty, 

like many other ideas concerning them, is a myth. Sir George 

Robertson considers that the present dominant races of Kafiristan 

are mainly descended from the old Indian population of Eastern 

Afghanistan, who refused to embrace Islam in the tenth century, and 

fled for refuge from the victorious Moslems to the hills. Dr. Grierson, 

however, holds that the Kafir dialects (which Dr. Trumpp considered 

to be a ' pure Prakrit ') belong to the non-Sanskritic languages of the 

Indo-Aryan family, and that 'the speakers of these appear to have 

arrived at their present seats from the north, and not to be colonists 



KAFTRKOT 271 

from the south, where that form of Tndo-Aryan language which we 
call Sanskrit became developed '.' 

Whatever their origin, the Kafirs, except in the case of the outlying 
Safis [see Jalalabad), succeeded in resisting all attempts at conversion 
until the reign of the late Amir, when Afghan troops overran the 
country, and brought about its complete subjection. With the 
exception of the Ramgulis, who held out for a considerable period, 
the Kafirs, who were ill-armed, made but a feeble resistance, and have 
accepted the Muhammadan religion with little demur. A very small 
garrison of Afghan troops now suffices to keep the country in order. 

There is a small slave population, who are perhaps the remnant 
of more ancient people subjugated by the lately dominant tribe. The 
affairs of a tribe are nominally arranged by a consultation of headmen 
who are known z.% jast; but, as a matter of fact, in ordinary times, 
public business falls into the hands of a few elders. Disobedience 
to the jast is punished by burning down the offender's house and 
destroying his property. Theft is punishable by a fine of seven or 
eight times the value of the stolen property, but the full penalty is 
seldom exacted. The punishment for adultery is a fine in cows varying 
from three to six. It is in consequence not uncommon for women 
to endeavour to entangle men in order to get cows for their husbands. 
Murder and manslaughter are punished alike. The offender must at 
once leave his village and become a chile or outcast. His house is 
burnt by the dead man's family or clan and his property plundered ; 
he must nevermore return to his village except by stealth ; and when- 
ever he encounters a member of the dead man's family he must at 
once conceal himself. This stigma applies not only to the criminal 
himself, but to his direct descendants and to his children-in-law. There 
are several villages in Kafiristan which are places of refuge, where 
slayers of their fellow-tribesmen reside permanently. 

Kafir women are practically slaves, being to all intents and purposes 
bought and sold as household commodities. The young women are 
mostly immoral. There is little or no ceremony about a Kafir 
marriage. If a man becomes enamoured of a girl, he sends a friend 
to her father to ask her price. If a price is agreed upon, the man 
immediately proceeds to the girl's house, where a goat is sacrificed, 
and then they are considered to be married, though the bride remains 
with her parents until the full price has been paid. The dead are 
disposed of in a peculiar manner. They are not buried, or burnt, but 
are deposited in large boxes, placed on the hill-side or in some more 
or less secluded spot. 

Kafirkot. — Ruins in Dera Ismail Khan District, North-West Frontier 
Province, situated in 32° 30" N. and 71° 2\' E. The site is also known 
' Report oil the dtisus of India, 1901, chap. vii. 



272 KAFTKKOT 

as Til Kafirknt or Raja Sir-kot, and lies a few miles south of the point 
where the Kurram river joins the Indus, upon a spur of the Khisor hills. 
The remains consist of extensive lines of bastioned walls built of solid 
masonry, enclosing an area filled with the debris of ancient dwellings. 
The remains of four small Hindu temples are relatively well preserved, 
and their outer faces are decorated with elaborate carvings of stone. For 
some details see A. Cunningham, Archaeological SioTey Reports, vol. xiv, 
pp. 26, 254, and Dr. Stein's Archaeological Survey Report of the Noi-th- 
West Fro?itier Province and Baluchistan (1903-5). A similar ruin of 
the same name exists at Bilot, about 30 miles due south. 

Kagal State. — Native State feudatory to the Kolhapur State, within 
the Political Agency of Kolhapur and the Southern Maratha Country, 
Bombay, lying between 16° 30' and 16° 35' N. and 74^ 20' and 74° 25' E. 
See Kolhapur State. 

Kagal Town. — Chief town of the feudatory /a^^Jr of the same name 
in Kolhapur State, Bombay, situated in 16" 34' N. and 74° 20' E., lo 
miles south-east of Kolhapur city. It lies in the valley of the Dudh- 
ganga about a mile south of the river, surrounded by rich garden 
land and shaded by fine old mango-trees. Population (1901), 7,688. 
There are ruins of mosques and temples. The old fort was destroyed 
by Jaswant Rao Sindhia of Kolhapur in 1780, and a new fort was built 
about 18 1 3 by Hindu Rao Ghatge. Of the public buildings lately 
raised at a cost of about one lakh, the most important are three large 
resthouses, three temples, one of which contains the karbhdrVs office, 
and water-works from which pipes supply the town reservoirs with water. 
Every year in Kartik (October-November) a fair is held in honour of 
Gaibi Pir, at which the chief spends about Rs. 2,000. The fair is 
attended by 10,000 j^eople from Kolhapur and the neighbouring 
villages. 

Kagan {Khdgdn). — Mountain valley in Hazara District, North-^^'est 
Frontier Province, penetrating far into the heart of the Himalayan 
system, and surrounded by Kashmir territory on every side except the 
south. The valley has an area of 800 square miles, and is 60 miles in 
length, with an average breadth of 15 miles. Lofty ranges shut it in on 
either hand, their summits rising to a height of 17,000 feet. Transverse 
spurs intersect the valley, which is inhabited by a sparse population. 
Kagan comprises twenty-two rakhs or forest and grazing Reserves, with 
a total area of 90 square miles, while the area of 'reserved' and 
unreserved forest is 457 square miles. The rights of cutting grass and 
grazing cattle are leased out annually. The Forest department only 
fells timber, which is launched into the river Kunhar, caught at different 
timber depots, and rafted to Jhelum. The river Kunhar forces its way 
through a narrow central gorge to join the Jhelum after draining the 
entire valley. The Kagan valley forms the northernmost extension of 



KAIMGANJ TAHSTL 273 

British India, and stretches far up into the mountain region. Its open 
mouth turns towards the main body of Hazara District. The inhabitants 
consist almost entirely of Muhammadan Swatis and Gujars. Kagan 
village is situated in 34° 46' N. and 75° 34' E. 

Kahalgaon. — Town in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. See Col- 
gong. 

Kahl-ur. — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. See Bilaspur. 

Kahnaur. — Town in the District and tahs'il of Rohtak, Punjab, 
situated in 28° 45' N. and 76° 32' E., 11 miles south of Rohtak town 
and 15 miles north-west of Jhajjar. Population (1901), 5,024. 

Kahror. — Town in the Eodhran tahstl of Multan District, Punjab, 
situated in 29° 37' N. and 71° 56' E., on an old bed of the Beas known 
as the Bhatari nullah, about 8 miles from the present right bank of the 
Sutlej. Population (1901), 5,552. Being built on undulating ground, 
it is more picturesque than most Punjab towns. The town is said to 
have been founded by Kailun, chief of Jaisalmer, at the end of the 
fourteenth century ; its identification with the Karur where Vikramaditya 
is said to have defeated the White Huns is extremely doubtfvil. The 
most remarkable building in the town is the shrine of W\ Sarwar, a 
Saiyid of Delhi, who came to Kahror in 1204. The municipality was 
created in 1867. The income and expenditure during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 4,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 4,300, chiefly from octroi : and the expenditure was Rs. 4,100. The 
town has a vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, 
and a dispensary. It is the trade centre for the Sutlej tahsils of the 
District, dealing especially in wool, piece-goods, and wheat, and has 
a local reputation for the manufacture of coverlets of hand-printed 
cotton. 

Kahuta. — Eastern tahsil of Rawalpindi District, Punjab, lying in 
the Lower Himalayas, between 33° 18' and 33° 48' N. and 73° 15' and 
73° 39' K., with an area of 457 square miles. Its eastern border rests 
upon the Jhelum river. The whole of the tahsil except the south- 
west corner lies in the hills, which in the north reach an elevation 
of over 6,000 feet. The population in 1901 was 94,729, compared 
with 92,372 in 1891. It contains 231 villages, of which Kahuta is the 
head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-410 
1-2 lakhs. 

Kaij.— Former taluk of BhTr District, Hyderabad State. See Amba 
Taluk. 

Kail.— Ancient port in Tinnevelly District, Madras. See Kaval. 

Kailang. — Village in Kangra District, Punjab. See Kvelaxg. 

Kailwara. — Town in Udaipur State, Rajputana. See Kelw.^ra. 

Kaimganj Tahsil. — North-western tahs'il of Farrukhabad District, 
United Provinces, co\\\^x\-i\x\'g\\\^ J^arganas of Kampil and Shamsabad 



2 74 K A IMG AN/ TAHSIL 

West, and lying along the southern bank of the Ganges, between 
27° 21' and 27° 43' N. and 79° 8' and 79° 37' E., with an area of 
363 square miles. Population increased from 143,557 in 1S91 to 
168,606 in 1901. There are 397 villages and two towns: Kaimganj 
(population, 10,369), the /ij/zj'J/ head-quarters, and Shamsabad (8,375). 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,10,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 36,000. The density of population, 464 persons per square 
mile, is below the District average. The tahsll contains a larger tract 
of lowland than any other in the District except Allgarh ; but the 
greater part of it is situated in the uplands. The Bagar river winds 
through the southern portion, and on either bank stretches a wide 
expanse of sandy land, which extends on the north to near Kampil. 
North and west of this is a belt of fine yellowish loam, tilled by 
Kurmis, and famous for its sugar-cane, and near the towns of Kampil, 
Kaimganj, and Shamsabad for its tobacco, which acquires a special 
flavour from the brackish water of the wells. The area under cultiva- 
tion in 1903-4 was 226 square miles, of which 72 were irrigated. The 
Fatehgarh branch of the Lower Ganges Canal supplies irrigation 
through the centre of the uplands, and the area irrigated from canals is 
slightly larger than that supplied by wells. There are several con- 
siderable swamps, from which water is also taken ; but a good deal has 
been done to improve the drainage. 

Kaimganj Town. — Head-quarters of the iahsil of the same name 
in Farrukhabad District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 30' N. and 
79° 21' E., on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, and also at the ter- 
minus of a metalled road from Farrukhabad city. Population (1901), 
10,369. It was founded in 1713 by Muhammad Khan, first Nawab of 
Farrukhabad, who named it after his son, Kaim Khan. It is the centre 
of a group of villages inhabited by a colony of Pathans who settled here 
early in the seventeenth century. The best known of these villages is 
Mau Rashidabad, now a great tobacco field, about a mile north of 
Kaimganj. The Pathans of this neighbourhood are still noted for the 
number of men they supply to the native army. In 1857 the tahslll 
was ineffectually besieged for a time by a band of fugitive insurgents 
from Kalpl. The town consists chiefly of a wide metalled bazar, about 
a mile long, from which branch many narrow unmetalled lanes. It 
contains a fahsla, munsijl, and dispensary. Kaimganj is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,000. There is 
a considerable trade in tobacco, which is largely grown in the neigh- 
bourhood. The old manufacture of swords and matchlocks has 
dwindled down to a trade in ordinary knives and betel-nut cutters. 
The town school has 193 pupils, and three primary schools 63. 

Kaimur Hills. — The eastern portion of the Vindhyan range, com- 
mencing near KatangI in Jubbulpore District of the Central Provinces 



KAIRA DISTRICT 275 

(23° 26' N. and 79° 48' E.). It runs a little north of east for more 
than 300 miles to Sasaram in Bihar (24° 57' N. and 84° 2' E). The 
range, after traversing the north of Jubbulpore District and the south- 
east of Maihar State, turns to the east and runs through Rewah 
territory, separating the valleys of the Son and Tons rivers, and con- 
tinues into Mirzapur District of the United Provinces and Shahabad of 
Bengal. Its maximum width is 50 miles. In the Central Provinces 
the appearance of the range is very distinctive. The rock formation is 
metamorphic and the strata have been upheaved into an almost vertical 
position, giving the range the appearance of a sharp ridge. In places 
the range almost disappears, being marked only by a low rocky chain, 
and in this portion it never rises more than a few hundred feet above 
the plain. The range enters Central India at Jukehi in Maihar State 
(23° 29'' N. and 80° 27' E.), and runs for 150 miles in a north-easterly 
direction, forming the northern wall of the Son valley and overhanging 
the river in a long bold scarp of sandstone rock, from which near 
Govindgarh a branch turns off to the north-west. The range here 
attains an elevation of a little over 2,000 feet. In Mirzapur the height 
of the range decreases in the centre, to rise again to over 2,000 feet at 
the rock of Bijaigarh with its ancient fort. Interesting relics of pre- 
historic man have been found in the caves and rock-shelters of the hills 
here, in the form of rude drawings and stone implements. In Shahabad 
District the summit of the hills consists of a series of saucer-shaped 
valleys, each a few miles in diameter, containing a deposit of rich 
vegetable mould in the centre and producing the finest crops. The 
general height of the plateau is here 1,500 feet above sea-level. The 
sides are precipitous, but there are several passes, some of which are 
practicable for beasts of burden. The ruined fort of Rohtas is situated 
on these hills. The rocks throughout consist principally of sandstones 
and shales. 

Kain. — River in Bundelkhand. See Ken. 

Kaintira. — Village in Athmallik, one of the Orissa Tributary States, 
Bengal, situated in 20° 43' N. and 84° 32' E., on the north bank of the 
Mahanadl. Population (1901), 1,567. Kaintira is the principal village 
in the State and contains the residence of the chief. 

Kaira District {Kheda). — District in the Northern Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 22° 14' and 23° 7' N. and 72° 30' 
and 73° 23' E., with an area of 1,595 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by Ahmadabad District, Mahl Kantha, and the small State 
of Balasinor in the Rewa Kantha Agency ; on the west by Ahmadabad 
District and the State of Cambay ; on the south and east by the 
river Mahi and the Gaikwar's territory (Baroda). The breadth of the 
District varies from 25 to 40 miles. 

Excepting a small corner of hilly ground near its northern boundary, 



3 76 KATRA DISTRICT 

and in tlie south-east and south, where tlie land along the Mahi is 

furrowed into deep ravines, Kaira forms one unbroken plain sloping 

gently towards the south-west. The north and north- 

Phy^ica g^g^. pqj-j-Jqi-is ^re dotted with patches of rich rice 

aspects. * . ^ 

land, broken by untilled tracts of low brushwood. 

The centre of the District, called the charotar, or ' goodly ' land, is very 

fertile and highly cultivated ; the luxuriant fields are surrounded by 

high-grow'ing hedges, and the whole country is clothed with clusters of 

large shapely trees. Westward, this belt of rich vegetation passes into 

a bare though well-cultivated tract of rice land, growing more barren 

and open to the south till it reaches the maritime belt, whitened by 

a salt-like crust, on the Gulf of Cambay. 

The Mahi, the largest river of Kaira, and the third in importance of 
the Gujarat rivers, flows for nearly too miles along the east, south-east, 
and south boundary of the District. This loo miles may be divided 
into three sections : first a stretch of 40 miles over a rough and rocky 
bed, then 10 miles of a still stream with a sandy bed, and lastly 
45 miles of a tidal river. The fords in the District are at Kavi, 
Dehvan, Gajna, Khanpur, and Ometa. At Verakhandi, the limit of the 
flow of the tide, the bed is in the dry season 500 yards wide, the stream 
120 yards, and the average depth i^- feet. A small ' bore ' rises in the 
estuary at springs and dashes itself on the Dehvan. The Sap.armati, 
the fourth largest river in Gujarat, flows for 14 miles along the western 
boundary, and is much used for irrigation. The Shedhi, the chief 
drainage line of the plain between the Mahi and the Sabarmatl, being 
charged with soda, is not adapted for irrigation. The Khari, one of 
five smaller streams, waters a large area by means of canals and sluices, 
but fails at the end of the rice season, that is to say about November. 

The District has not yet been geologically surveyed in any detail. 
The Kaira plain is, with the exception of the few sandy hills and rocks 
in Kapadvanj and Thasra, a deep bed of alluvium, most of it the debris 
of the gneiss and metamorphic limestones of the Aravalli Hills. In the 
raised tract along the banks of the Mahi, water is found only at a depth 
of from 80 to no feet. Away from the river, wells have their springs 
from 40 to 60 feet deep, rising through strata of earth mixed with lime- 
stone nodules, alternating with sand overlying layers of limestone. From 
this limestone, when tapped, water rises to within 25 feet of the surface. 
The age of these strata is not known. They may be Tertiary or 
Cretaceous. Formerly, in parts of the District, water was to be found 
at a higher level. Many old wells are said to have been made useless 
by the earthquake of 1819, which lowered all the springs from 5 to 
10 cubits. In some cases deeper sinking has overcome the evil ; in 
others, a fine stratum of quicksand makes farther cutting dangerous. 
The hot springs of Lasundra, 10 miles south-east of Kapadvanj, rise to 



HISTORY 277 

the surface in ten or twelve cisterns, the hottest reaching a temperature 
of 115°. Like those at Tuva in Godhra, 20 miles to the south-east, 
and at Anaval, 150 miles south, the Lasundra springs are slightly 
sulphurous, and thought to be useful in skin diseases. 

The District has no forests or forest lands, the trees either standing 
singly or in small groves. In the north the mahua {Bassia Intifolid), 
and in the south the mango and the limhdo or mm {JSIclia Azadirac/ifa), 
are the commonest kinds, while the custard-apple, sifaphal {A7ifl?in 
squamosa)^ is abundant all over the District. The rayan {Mlmiiso/>s 
hexa/idra), the kanaj ( Ulmus ititegrifolia), the karanj or kaniji {Fotiga- 
viia glabra), and the adiiso {Ailanthus excelsd), also occur freely 
distributed. Mangoes are sent in considerable quantities to Baroda, 
Ahmadabad, and Kathiawar. During the hot season the fleshy corolla 
of the mahitd flower is eaten by the poorer classes and by cattle, and 
from it is distilled a favourite liquor. Mixed with whey, the berries of 
the rdyau form, during the hot season, the staple food of a large section 
of the KolT population. 

Tigers and leopards, which liaunted the bed of the Mahl till a few- 
years ago, are now rarely heard of, owing to the spread of tillage and 
their pursuit by European sportsmen. Hyenas, jackals, foxes, wild 
hog, antelope, gazelle, and hares are common. Of game-birds, snipe, 
quail, and many species of duck abound ; while geese, bustard, par- 
tridge, and florican may occasionally be shot. Poisonous snakes are 
common. Mahseer and other fresh-water fish are caught in the waters 
of the larger rivers. 

To Europeans the climate is trying. From November to March the 
air is pleasant and bracing. By the people of the District the charoiar 
or central portion is considered healthy. The rainfall varies but slightly 
in different parts of the District. The annual fall is 38 inches in the 
Nadiad, Borsad, and Anand fd/i/kas, while it averages about 34 inches 
over the whole District. The average temperature is 82°, the maxi- 
mum being 116° and the minimum 43°. 

Kaira District is made up partly of lands acquired from the Peshwa 

in 1802 by the Treaty of Bassein, partly of territory transferred by the 

Gaikwar of Baroda in 1803 and 181 7. Rajputs 

1 • ty • r r ^ ^ ^- History. 

reigned m Kaira from 746 to 1290, and, exceptmg 

perhaps Thasra and Kapadvanj, the District formed part of the directly 

managed portions of Anhilvada. At the end of the fourteenth 

century Kaira passed to the Muhammadan kings of Ahmadabad, and 

in 1573 was transferred to the Mughals. In 1720 the Marathas 

appeared, and from that time to the fall of Ahmadabad in 1752 the 

District was the scene of perpetual struggles between the Marathas 

and the Muhammadan viceroys. The Marathas were victorious, and 

in 1753 the District was shared between the Peshwa and the Gaikwar. 



2 78 KAIRA DISTRICT 

Part of Kaira came into British possession in 1803, and the rest in 
1 81 7. Under the terms of the Treaty of Bassein (December 31, 1802), 
the Napad group of villages was handed over by the Peshwa. In 1803 
the Gaikwar ceded Nadiad, Matar, and Mahudha, as well as the fort 
and town of Kaira, for the maintenance of troops supplied by the 
British Government. Again, by treaty dated November 6, 1817, the 
Gaikwar ceded Mehmadabad, Allna, Thasra, Antroli, and half of 
the town and district of Petlad to provide for the payment of addi- 
tional troops. At the same time, Kapadvanj and Bhalaj were received 
in exchange for the district of Bijapur in Northern Gujarat. 

The territories acquired in 1803, together with Dholka, Dhandhuka, 
Ranpur, and Gogha, which now form part of Ahmadabad District, 
remained in charge of the Resident at Baroda from the date of their 
cession till May, 1805. During this time a European Assistant and 
native officers administered, according to local usage, the police and 
justice of the country. In 1805 a Collector was appointed, with juris- 
diction over the ceded tracts, both those to the north of the Mahl 
and those to the west of the Gulf of C'ambay. In the same year the 
town of Kaira was selected as a large military station. The increase in 
the British possessions consequent on the treaty of November, 181 7, 
necessitated fresh administrative arrangements. The territory north of 
the Mahl was, from January i, 18 18, divided into the two Districts of 
Kaira and Ahmadabad. In 1830 Kapadvanj was included in Ahmad- 
abad, and Kaira became a sub-collectorate under the Collector of 
Ahmadabad. In 1833 Ahmadabad and Kaira were again separated. 
Since then, more than once, villages have been transferred from one 
District to the other, and the original irregular groups and collections 
of villages have been gradually consolidated into seven talukas. 

Throughout the District are Hindu and Musalman buildings of 
interest. The ranza of Mubarak Saiyid (died a. h. 966) at Sojale is 
one of the finest of the latter. Kapadvanj contains some buildings of 
great antiquity : a beautiful arch described by Forbes in his Ras Mala, 
a kund or basin of consecrated water, a mosque, and a well ; and an 
underground temple of Mahadeo which has recently been explored for 
the first time. It is also remarkable for a fine Jain temple recently built. 

In 1846 the population of Kaira District was returned at 566,513. 
By 1872 it had risen to 782,938. In i88r the population was 
Po ulation ^°5'°°5 ^ i^i 1891, 871,794; and in 1901, 716,332. 
The decrease of 18 per cent, during the last decade 
was due to the famine and cholera of 1899-1900. The District is 
divided into 7 talukas, with area and population (1901) as given in the 
table on the next page. 

The number of towns in the District in 1901 was rr, and of vil- 
lages 598. The chief towns are N.\diad, Kapadvanj, Kaira (the 



POPULATION 



279 



head-quarters), Anand, and Mehmadabad. Owing to the large fertile 
areas which the District comprises, it is the most thickly populated in 
the Presidency. The most populous tdlukas are Nadiad, Borsad, and 
Anand. (iujarati is the vernacular. Classified according to religion, 
Hindus in 1901 numbered 614,146, or 85 per cent, of the total : Mu- 
hammadans, 68,187, or 9 per cent. ; Christians, 25,210 ; Jains, 8,469 : 
and Parsis, 209. 



Taluka. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1 89 1 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 

f2 

I 
2 

I 
I 
2 

3 

1 

II 


a 
> 


Ka jadvanj 
Mehmadabad . 
Thasra . 
Matar 
Nadiad . 
Anand . 
Borsad . 


279 
171 

257 
216 
224 
244 
204 


87 
66 
96 
Si 

9' 

85 
92 


75,258 

75,926 

73,980 

61,522 

148,452 

i43..^05 

137,889 


270 

444 

288 
285 
663 
587 
673 


-26 
-18 
-22 
— 22 

-13 
-16 

-J5 

-18 


5,591 

7,007 

6,154 

4,884 
16,099 

18,336 
12,631 


District total 


1,595 


598 


716,332 


449 


70,702 



The following castes are of importance : Brahmans, 38,000 ; Vanis, 
22,000; Rajputs, 21,000; Chamars, 13,000: Kunbis (agriculturists), 
127,000; Kolis (agriculturists), 252,000: Dhers or Mahars, 21,000. 
The Muhammadans include 16,000 Pathans and 10,000 Bohras. 

The Lewa and Kadva Kunbis are the best farmers in the District, 
and a sober, .peaceable, and industrious race. The Kunbis of certain 
villages are held in honour as descended from the leading men among 
the original settlers in Gujarat. The Rajputs, with the exception of a 
few who, with the title of Thakur, still retain landed estates, have sunk 
into the mass of ordinary peasant proprietors. The Kolis number 
252,000, or 35 per cent, of the total population. Idle and turbulent 
under native rule, they are now quiet, hard-working, and prosperous. 
Among Hindu low castes, the Dhers are distinguished for industry and 
good behaviour. They formerly lived in comfort b}- weaving coarse 
cotton cloth, but the competition of the Bombay and local mills is now 
shutting them out of the market. Of the Mu.salman population, about 
one-third, under the name of Saiyids, Shaikhs, Pathans, and Mughals, 
represent the foreign conquerors of Gujarat. The remainder, called 
Momnas, Bohras, Tais, and Ghanchis, are the descendants of Hindus 
converted to Islam under the Ahmadabad kings, INIusalmans of the 
first class, employed chiefly as cultivators or in Government service as 
police or messengers, are for the most part poor. Musalmans of the 
second class are artisans, chiefly weavers and oil-pressers, and are hard- 
working and well-to-do. Most of the population is dependent on 



28o KAIRA DISTRICT 

agriculture, which supports 67 i)er cent, of the total. General labour 
supports 4 per cent., and the remainder are distributed between 
commerce and trade, personal service, &c. Over 15,000 are engaged 
in cotton-weaving. 

At the Census of 1901 the native Christian population of the District 
was returned at 25,131, showing an increase of no less than tenfold 
since 1891. This may to some extent be the result of conversions to 
Christianity during the famine ; but it is noteworthy that the Salva- 
tion Army has been active in Kaira for some years, and that a large 
number of the Christians are Salvationists, mainly converted from the 
lower classes. Besides the Salvation Army, the following missions arc 
at work in the District : the Irish Presbyterian, with stations at Borsad 
and Anand, which maintains 2 Angio-vernacular and 46 vernacular 
schools, 4 orphanages, and a hospital at Anand, and has settled 14 
colonies of converts on waste land procured from Government ; the 
Methodist Episcopal at Nadiad, which maintains 165 schools, an in- 
dustrial school, an orphanage, and a dispensary, and which under- 
took extensive relief operations in the famine of 1900; the Christian 
Alliance in the Matar tdluka, which maintains 9 schools and an 
orphanage and industrial .school at Kaira; and the Roman Catholic 
at Anand, which maintains 19 schools, an industrial school, and an 
orphanage and dispensary. The Salvation Army maintains 112 schools 
and a well-equipped hospital at Anand, which is very popular among all 
classes. Khasivadi, ' the beautiful garden,' in Borsad town was the first 
to .show a leaning towards Christianity, two families having been con- 
verted there in 1847. There is an English church at Kaira known as 
St. George's Church, established about 1825. 

The soil belongs to four classes : light, medium, black, and alluvial, 

with subordinate varieties. The light soil is the most common, 

varying in quality from the loose-grained yellow sand 

Agriculture. ^^ ^^^ ^^j^^ ^^_^^^ ^^^ SabarmatT and the MahT, to a 

rich lighter mould common in the central tali/kas, and found to per- 
fection in the south-west corner of Matar. The medium soil is fairly 
well distributed over the whole District. The black soil of Kaira is 
poor and generally contains either soda or limestone. Alluvial soil 
or bhdtha is found near the Vatrak river and is a rich garden mould. 

The greater part of the land of the District is ryohuari (1,075 square 
miles, or 88 per cent, of the total area), about 7 per cent, being held 
on iidhad or quit-rent tenure. The main statistics of cultivation in 
1903-4 are shown in the table on the next page, in square miles. 

The chief crops, with the area under each in square miles (1903-4), 
are: bajra (313), kodra (162), rice {\\^)Jo%vdr (91), and wheat (18). 

Cotton is grown in small patches (10 square miles). The finest 
tobacco in \\'cstern India is grown in Kaira, occupying 24 sc^uare 



AGRICULTURE 



281 



miles, mostly in the Nadiad, Borsad, and Anand tdlukas ; but the cul- 
tivators, though skilful in rearing the plant, know nothing of its prepara- 
tion for the European market. Two varieties of tobacco are grown, 
the talabdi or local plant and the khandeshi or plant introduced from 
Khandesh. An irrigated field yields twice as large a crop as a dry 
one. About the beginning of July, as soon as the first rain has fallen, 
the seed is sown on a well-prepared plot of ground, and after about 
a month and a half the seedlings are ready for transplantation. The 
field is scored in squares by a heavy, long-toothed rake, and at each 
point of intersection a seedling is set. The plant takes about five and 
a half months to ripen. As soon as it is ready, it is carefully examined, 
and divided into two classes, kdlio and Jardo ; the kd/io is cut down, 
stalk and all, and laid out to dry ; the Jardo is left a little longer, and 
then the leaves are stripped off the stem. A moth caterpillar is the 
chief enemy of the plant. Tobacco-growing is a costly process, and 
can be undertaken only by substantial cultivators. It has been calcu- 
lated that the cost of growing an acre of plant is Rs. 270, and the profit 
Rs. no. Cotton is grown only from the local plant, and occupies 
every seventh furrow in fields sown with ordinary grain crops. 



Taluka. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrig^ated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Kapadvanj . 

Mehmadabad 

Thasra 

M atar 

Nadiad 

Anand 

lioisad 

Total 


279 

^57 
216 
224 
244 
204 


182 
131 
141 
141 
191 
196 
149 


2 

5 
1 
2 

T 



10 

4i 
12 


45 
i3i 

52 1 

34 
6 

^\ 

i 


i.595* 


1,131 


37 


153 



■ The area tor which statislics are not available is 129 square miles. 

Several attempts have been made to improve the Kaira ccHton, but 
without success. Indigo was once one of the chief exports from 
Gujarat, but by 1827 it had almost ceased to be produced. A later 
attempt to encourage the growth in Kaira was attended with failure- 
A Government silk garden was started in 1837, but was closed in 1847. 
The Nadiad Agricultural Association's small experimental farm has 
been removed to Kamta, and has [)ractically been handed over to the 
department of Agriculture, which has enlarged its scope and is pro- 
viding new buildings. Numerous experiments in the cultivation of 
tobacco and other staple crops of the District have been made. It has 
been ascertained in the course of these experiments that a better yield 
of tobacco is obtained by growing it continuously instead of in rotation, 
that deep tillage increases the out-turn, and that Sumatra tobacco 



282 KAIRA DISTRICT 

cannot be grown. The desi or local tobacco stands first in quality and 
quantity, and the Belgaum varieties second. In the ten years ending 
1903-4, a total of 19-8 lakhs was advanced to cultivators under 
the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, of which 7-7 
lakhs was lent in 1 899-1 900, and 8-8 lakhs in 1 900-1. 

Cattle are imported from Kathiawar and Kankrej in Northern Guja- 
rat. Some of the largest used to be bred in the District at Bhalaj, 
and many villages of the Nadiad taJuka are famous for their bullocks. 
Ponies are bred in the District, but they are not suitable for cavalry 
remounts. Two Government pony stallions are maintained by the 
Civil Veterinary department. 

Of the total cultivated area of 1,131 square miles, 37 square miles, 
or 3 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. The chief sources of irriga- 
tion are 11 minor works, 10,886 wells, and 1,391, tanks. The wells 
most commonly in use are deep, shallow wells being found only in 
the Matar tdluka. The water is drawn up by bullocks in four leathern 
bags working simultaneously. The ponds are used for irrigating rice 
lands. After the close of the cold season few of them hold any large 
supply of water. The Khari sluice system irrigated nearly 8,800 acres 
in 1903-4. In 1902 large reservoirs were constructed at Goblaj, 
Tranja, Nagrama, and Vangroli by famine labour. 

Iron ore was at one time worked in the neighbourhood of Kapad- 
vanj. In the bed of the Majam river, about 15 miles from Kapadvanj, 
are found varieties of agate and moss-stone. The bed of the Mahi 
contains masses and boulders of trap ; while on its upper course, on 
the Balasinor frontier, rock is plentiful, including trap, with occasional 
limestone, quartz, and granite. 

The opening of steam factories at Ahmadabad and at Nadiad has 

greatly reduced the demand for hand-spun cotton, once a staple. The 

water of the District is thought to be especially 

Trade and ^^ ^ dyeing purposes. Soap and glass are 

communications. ^ , • » ■ • n 

manufactured at Kapadvanj. A steam spmnmg-mill, 

established at Nadiad in 1876 at a cost of about 5 lakhs, has 14,568 
spindles, which turn out over a million pounds of yarn, and employ 
584 persons. Considerable quantities of coarse cloth for home con- 
sumption are woven in hand-looms by the lower castes of Hindus. 
In the larger towns calico printing is carried (ni by classes known as 
Bhavsars and Chhii)as. 

The chief exports are prints, grain, tobacco, butter, oil, and mahml 
flowers ; the chief imports are piece-goods, grocery, molasses, and dye- 
stuffs. Kaira is particularly noted for its ghl or clarified butter, the 
export of which is valued at 8 lakhs. The ghl when made is forced 
into large leathern bottles holding from 60 to 200 lb. 

In 1884 there was only one made road in the District. There are 



FAMINE 283 

now 166 miles of metalled and 19 of unmetalled roads. Of the 
former, t^t^ miles of Provincial roads and 123 miles of local board 
roads are maintained by the Public ^^'orks department. All the water- 
courses are bridged except the large rivers, and avenues of trees are 
maintained along 49 miles. New roads were constructed by famine 
labour in 1900 from Mehmadabad to Dakor and from Borsad to Agas 
railway station. The whole of the District is connected with Ahmad- 
abad city by metalled roads. The main line of the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway passes through the District from north to 
south for 38 miles, and a branch line from Anand runs through the 
Panch Mahals to Godhra, where it connects with the Godhra-Ratlam 
Railway, traversing the District for 34 miles. In 1890 another branch 
line was opened from Anand to Petlad in Baroda territory, and thence 
in 190 1 to Cambay town, thus bringing Kaira into close connexion 
with the sea. This line traverses the District for 6 miles. Ferries 
ply across the MahT. 

A severe famine took place in 179 1-2, when rain fell only once; 
in 1813-4 there were only two showers of rain throughout the year; 

in 1825 the later rains failed, and remissions of land „ 

. .1 r 1,11 1 Famine. 

revenue to the amount of over \\ lakhs were granted. 

On the other hand, the period 1814-22 was marked by heavy floods 

and rainfall that caused much damage to the country. In 1834 locusts 

ate up the crops, and remissions amounting to nearly 2 lakhs were 

sanctioned. In 1837, 1868, and 1871 disastrous storms swept over 

the District. During the forty years 1836-76, though the rainfall had 

at times been scanty and the crops failed, no season of famine or 

even of general scarcity occurred in Kaira. Owing to the scanty 

rainfall in 1877 (19-13 inches), there was a partial failure of crops, 

and the poorer people, especially in the Kapadvanj and Thasra 

tdliikas in the north-east, suffered some distress, which, however, did 

not leave behind serious results. In 1899 the monsoon failed and the 

District was visited by severe famine. In April of the following year 

nearly 85,000 persons, exclusive of 8,000 dependants, were on relief 

works, and 15,000 more received gratuitous relief. The number 

increased to 143,000 by July of the same year, excluding 13,000 

dependants and 38,000 on gratuitous relief. The latter reached 

a maximum of 113,000 in August. It is calculated that there was, 

during the three years 1900-2, an increase of 112,464 deaths over the 

yearly average. The loss of cattle in the year 1899- 1900 amounted 

to 233,000. The cost of relief measures in the District, including the 

Panch Mahals, was over 88 lakhs. Remissions of land revenue to the 

amount of 35 lakhs were granted in these two Districts. The loans 

granted to agriculturists in Kaira alone amounted to 19 lakhs. 

The District is divided into two subdivisions, in charge of an 

VOL. XIV. T 



284 KAIRA DISTRICT 

Assistant Collector and a Deputy-Collector respectively, and is com- 

, . . posed of the seven tdlukas of Anand, Borsad, 
Administration. \.^ ,^- ,, _ _ _ 

Kapadvanj, Matar, Mehmadabad, Nadiad, and 

Thasra. The Collector is ex-officio Political Agent for Cambay State 

and Additional Political Agent for Rewa Kantha. 

For judicial purposes the District is included in the jurisdiction of 
the Judge of Ahmadabad. There are 5 Subordinate Judges for civil 
work, and 23 officers, including a bench of magistrates, to administer 
criminal justice. The common offences are murder in Borsad and 
Anand, and house-breaking, burglary, cattle-stealing, and thefts else- 
where. 

In 1803, when Kaira was ceded to the British, the District afforded 
examples of various forms of land revenue administration. In the 
centre were three kinds of villages : rasti or peaceable, mehwas or 
refractory, and an intermediate class of rdsii-me/muls villages. The 
refractory villages were occupied by the turbulent descendants of the 
Rajput and Koli warriors. Here Koli thdkurs or chiefs administered 
despotically their little clusters of huts. Revenue was demanded but 
seldom paid. The peaceable villages were mostly grants from Govern- 
ment to those who had done some public service. The most important 
Muhammadan grants were called mdliki, and were held rent-free. 
Internal administration was the concern of the village community. 
There were four forms of village government, the commonest being 
that by which the village headman engaged annually for the payment 
of a certain sum to Government. The profits of a good year, under 
this the most simple and general system, went to the headman ; on the 
other hand, the headman had to bear any loss from failure of crop or 
short tillage. Above the headman or pdtel were the revenue-farmers 
{kamdvisddr), who fixed the village contributions ; and below the head- 
men were the cultivators and coparceners of the village. A class quite 
apart, called manotiddrs, or money-lenders, arose as sureties for the 
payment of the revenue. This short statement furnishes an outline of 
the Maratha revenue system. It had the merit of simplicity and was 
calculated to ensure the recovery of revenue. At the same time it is 
clear that it was productive of abuses and suffering to the cultivating 
classes. When the District was taken over by the British in 1803, the 
system was continued with but small modification until 1862. In that 
year the revenue survey system, which deals directly with individual 
cultivators, was introduced. The result of the survey assessment was 
to increase the land revenue demand from iii to 13^ lakhs, or by 
II per cent. In 1894 a resettlement was undertaken and completed 
in 1896, which further enhanced the total revenue by 17 per cent. 
The average rates of assessment are : ' dry ' land, Rs. 3-7 (maximum 
Rs. 6-12, minimum Rs. 1-8) : rice land, Rs. 5-1 1 (maximum Rs. 6-12, 



ADMINISTRA TION 



285 



minimum Rs. 1-8) ; garden land, Rs. 9-9 (maximum Rs. 7, minimum 
Rs. 5). 

Collections of land revenue and total revenue have been as follows 
in recent years, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1890-1. 


1901-2. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


19,69 19,52 

21,65 j 20,06 


10,34 
10,69 


iS,3i 

20,73 



Of the Government villages, 88 are held on the narvadari tenure. 
The peculiarity of this tenure is that it involves joint responsibility for 
the payment of the Government revenue. In 7iarvddari villages the 
patiddrs or sharers belong to the Kunbi caste, and on account of 
being narvdddrs hold a high position among their fellows, being the 
descendants of the old proprietary cultivators. This tenure has been 
preserved by Act V of 1862 of the Bombay Government, but the land 
tax is levied at survey rates on the whole arable land. The villages on 
the banks of the river Mahl held on the mehivdsi tenure pay their 
revenue in a lump sum. A clan of Musalman yeomen, known as the 
Maliks, have for nearly 400 years held 27 villages on a special tenure. 

The District contains 10 municipalities : namely, Kaira, Kapadvanj, 
Mehmadabad, Nadiad, Dakor, Borsad, Anand, Umreth, Od, and 
Mahudha. The District board was established in 1863, and there are 

7 tdluka boards. The total expenditure of all these boards in 1903-4 
was 2\ lakhs, of which half a lakh was spent on roads and buildings. 
The chief source of income is the land cess. 

The District Superintendent of police has the assistance of 2 inspec- 
tors and 10 chief constables. There are 12 police stations. The force 
in 1904 numbered 555 men, working under 133 head constables. Six 
mounted police under one daffaddr were also maintained. There are 

8 subsidiary jails in the District, with accommodation for 187 prisoners. 
The daily average prison population in 1904 was 36, of whom 2 were 
females. 

The District stands fourth among the Districts of the Presidency in 
the literacy of its population, of whom 9-9 per cent. (17-9 males and 
0'9 females) were able to read and write in 1901. In 1855-6 there 
were only 7 schools attended by 1,036 pupils ; by 1876-7 the number 
of schools had risen to 189 and the number of pupils to 14,720. In 
1 88 1 there were 205 schools with 16,107 pupils, who increased to 
27,261 by 1891, and numbered 27,911 in 1901. In 1903-4 the 
District contained 365 schools, of which 84 were private, attended by 
17,474 pupils, including 2,581 girls. Besides one high school, there 
were 14 middle and 266 primary schools. Of the 281 public institu- 
tions, one is managed by the Educational department, and 246 by 



2 86 KAIRA DISTRICT 

local or municipal boards, while 30 are aided and 4 unaided. The 
total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,85,000, of which 
Rs. 23,000 was derived from fees. Of the total, 79 per cent, was 
devoted to primary schools. 

In 1904 the District had one hospital and 8 dispensaries, with 
accommodation for 94 in-patients. The number of patients treated in 
1904 was 110,069, including 1,122 in-patients; and 3,675 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 21,000, of which Rs. 15,000 
was met from Local and municipal funds. The Irish Presbyterian and 
Salvation Army Missions have each opened a dispensary at Anand, to 
which hospitals are shortly to be added. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
17,000, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000, which is slightly 
below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. iii, Kaira and Panch 
Mahals (1879).] 

Kaira Town {Kheda). — Head-quarters of Kaira District, Bombay, 
situated in 22^45' N. and 72° 41' E., 7 miles south-west of Mehmad- 
abad station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, and 
20 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. Population (1901), 10,392. Kaira 
is a very ancient place, having a legendary connexion with the Maha- 
bharata, and is proved by the evidence of copperplate grants to have 
existed as early as the fifth century a. d. Early in the eighteenth 
century it passed to the Babi family, with whom it remained till 1753, 
when it was taken by the Marathas under DamajT Gaikwar. It was 
finally handed over to the British by Anand Rao Gaikwar in 1803. 
Its frontier position rendered Kaira important ; and a force of infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery was stationed there until the transfer, in 1S30, 
of the frontier station to Deesa. The climate is said to have improved 
of late years. Earthquake shocks were felt in i860 and 1864. The 
courthouse is a handsome building with Greek pillars. Near it is a 
part of the old jail, in 18 14 the scene of a riot in which the prisoners 
rose, and which was only suppressed with a loss of 19 killed and 12 
wounded. The municipality was established in 1857, and its income 
during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 18,000, chiefly from a house and land tax. Besides 
the Government revenue offices, the town contains a Sub-Judge's court, 
a civil hospital, and 6 schools (5 for boys and one for girls), attended 
by 543 male and 82 female pupils. The boys' schools include an 
English school with 92 pupils. 

Kairana Tahsil. — North-western tahsll of Muzaffarnagar District, 
United Provinces, lying between 29° 19' and 29° 42' N. and 77° 2' and 
77°3o'E., with an area of 464 square miles. It comprises five par- 
ganas — Kairana, Jhinjhana, Shamli, Thana Bhawan, and Bidaull— and 



KAITHAL TAHSIL 2S7 

was formerly known as Shamli. Population increased from 200,157 in 
1891 to 224,679 in 1901. The /^z/wJ/ contains five towns: namely, 
Kairana (population, 19,304), the head-quarters, Than a Bhawan 
(8,861), Shamli (7,478), Jalalabad (6,822), and Jhinjhaxa (5,094) ; 
and 256 villages. In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue was 
Rs. 3,86,000, and for cesses Rs. 50,000. The river Jumna forms the 
western boundary, and the adjoining tract lies low and is intersected 
by jhtls and watercourses. The eastern half of the tahsil is, however, 
part of the upland tract and is irrigated by the Eastern Jumna Canal. 
In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 291 square miles, of which 
131 were irrigated. 

Kairana To'wn.' — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Muzaffarnagar District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 24' N. and 
77^^ 12' E. It is the terminus of a metalled road from Muzaffarnagar 
town. The population is increasing slowly and was 19,304 in 1901. 
Mukarrab Khan, physician to Jahangir and Shah Jahan, received the 
town and surrounding country as a grant. He built a dargdh and 
laid out a beautiful garden with a large tank, and the town also con- 
tains several mosques dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Kairana is built partly on the low-lying Jumna khadar and 
partly on the rising slope to the upland plain, and has a clean, well- 
paved bazar. The town was constituted a municipality in 1874. 
During the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 12,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, chiefly derived 
from octroi (Rs. 12,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 18,000. Orna- 
mental curtains are made here by pasting small pieces of looking- 
glass on coloured cloth. There is a considerable amount of traffic in 
grain with both the Punjab and the railway, and a small calico-i)rinting 
industry. Besides the tahsilt, there are a munsifi, a dispensary, and two 
schools. 

Kaisarganj. — South-western tahsil of Bahraich District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Fakhrpur and Hisampur, and 
lying between 27° 4' and 27° 46' N. and 81° 16' and 81° 46' E., with 
an area of 679 square miles. Population increased from 332,193 in 
1 89 1 to 348,172 in 1 90 1. There are 647 villages, but no town. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,29,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 75,000. The density of population, 513 persons per square mile, 
is considerably above the District average. The tahsil lies in the 
wide valley of the Gogra, and is scored by many old channels, the chief 
of which are the Sarju or Suheli and the Tirhl. The whole area is 
fertile, except where the Gogra has deposited sand, and irrigation is 
rarely needed. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 443 square 
miles, of which only 13 were irrigated. 

Kaithal Tahsil. —Western lalis'il aw^ subdivision of Rarnal Di.^trict, 



2 88 KAITHAL TAHSIL 

Punjab, lying between 29° 22' and 30° 12' N. and 76° 11' and 
76° 47' E., with an area of 1,289 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 265,189, compared with 257,493 in 1891. It contains the 
towns of Kaithal (population, 14,408), the head-quarters, and Pundri 
(5,834); and 413 villages, including Pehowa, a place of religious 
importance. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 
2-7 lakhs. The tahsil consists chiefly of the petty principality cf 
Kaithal, which escheated in 1843. North of the Ghaggar, the country 
is undulating and the soil contains a considerable proportion of sand. 
The tract between the Ghaggar and the southern limits of the Saraswati 
depression consists of vast prairies, flooded during the rains and inter- 
spersed with numerous trees and patches of cultivation. This tract, 
known as the Naili (Nali), is notoriously unhealthy, but the pasture it 
affords is invaluable in dry years. The southern half of the taJml is 
a level plain, now irrigated by the Western Jumna Canal. On the east 
is the Nardak. The people have not yet entirely abandoned their 
pastoral traditions, and large tracts are still used for grazing alone. 
Farther west, cultivation becomes more general, and in the extreme 
south-west the soil contains a large proportion of sand. 

Kaithal Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the 
same name in Karnal District, Punjab, situated in 29° 48' N. and 
76° 24' E., 38 miles west of Karnal town, and the terminus of the 
Kaithal branch of the Southern Punjab Railway. Population (1901), 
14,408. Kaithal is picturesquely situated on an extensive tank, which 
partly surrounds it, with numerous bathing-places and flights of steps. 
It lies in Kurukshetra, and is said to have been founded by the hero 
Yudhishthira. It bore in Sanskrit the name of Kapisthala, or the 
' abode of monkeys,' and possesses an asthan or temple of Anjni, mother 
of Hanuman, the monkey god. During the time of the earlier Muham- 
madan emperors it was a place of some importance, and Timur, who 
says its inhabitants were fire-worshippers, halted here before he attacked 
Delhi in 1398. The tombs of several saints, the oldest of which is that 
of the Shaikh Salah-ud-din of Balkh (a. d. 1246), show that it was a 
centre of Muhammadan religious life. The town was renovated, and 
a fort built, under Akbar. In 1767 it fell into the hands of the Sikh 
chief, Bhai Desu Singh, whose descendants, the Bhais of Kaithal, 
ranked among the most powerful of the Cis-Sutlej chiefs. Their terri- 
tories lapsed to the British Government in 1843, when Kaithal became 
the head-quarters of a District; but in 1849 this was absorbed into 
Thanesar District, which was in turn included in that of Karnal in 
1862. The now somewhat dilapidated fort or palace of the Bhais 
stands out prominently on the bank of the tank. The municipality 
was created in 1867. The income and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 19,900 and Rs. 20,400 respectively. 



KAKRALA 289 

In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 15,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 17,400. It maintains a dispensary and an 
Anglo-vernacular middle school. Saltpetre is refined at Kaithal, and it 
has a considerable manufacture of lacquered wood, besides two cotton 
factories, one for ginning and the other for ginning and pressing. The 
number of employes in the factories in 1904 was 103. 

Kakar. — Tdluka of Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, lying between 
26° 53' and 27° 14' N. and 67° 12' and 67° 57' E., with an area of 445 
square miles. The population in 1901 was 49,252, compared with 
47,888 in 1891. The taliika contains 73 villages, of which Khairpur 
Nathan Shah is the head-quarters. The density, 1 1 1 persons per 
square mile, is slightly below the District average. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-1 lakhs. The tdluka depends 
for irrigation on the Western Nara Canal, but suffers from its position 
at the lower end of the canal, the waters of which are largely exhausted 
by the northern tdbikas. The western portion depends upon rain and 
a few hill-torrents for cultivation. Jotvdr is the principal crop. 

Kakora. — Village in the District and tahstl of Budaun, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 53' N. and 79° 3' E., near the bank of the 
Ganges, 12 miles south-west of Budaun town. Population (1901), 
2,941. The place is noted for a religious and trading fair held at the 
full moon of Kartik (October-November), which is attended by as 
many as 100,000 to 200,000 persons, who come from all parts of Rohil- 
khand, as well as from Delhi, Muttra, and Cawnpore. The principal 
object is bathing, but a good deal of trade is carried on in cloth, metal 
goods, leather, and cattle. The actual site of the fair varies within 
a few miles according to the movements of the river. 

Kakori. — Town in the District and fahstl of Lucknow, United 
Provinces, situated in 26° 52' N. and 80° 48' E., near a station on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (190 1), 8,933. Kakori 
is said to have been originally inhabited by Bhars and was sub- 
sequently included in Baiswara. It was granted to INIuhammadans 
by Husain Shah of Jaunpur. Several tombs of noted saints are 
situated in the town and its environs. Some of the Shaikh families 
residing here are of antiquity and position, and their members include 
many of the Lucknow pleaders, who have adorned the town with well- 
built houses, while others are engaged in Government service. Kakori 
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 1,300. There are two schools with about no pupils. 

Kakrala. — Town in the Dataganj iahsil of Budaun District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 53' N. and 79° 12' E., 12 miles south of 
Budaun town. Population (1901), 5,954. The name is said to have 
been derived from kankar or nodular limestone, which is largely found 
in the neighbourhood. In April, 1858, General Penny defeated near 



290 KAKRALA 

Kakrala a party of GhazTs or fanatical Musalmans, who were lying in 
ambush for him. This victory put an end to the rebel government 
which had ruled at Budaun for eleven months. The town contains 
a sarai, and a branch of the American Methodist Mission. It is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 1,000. The primary school has 75 pupils. 

Kalabagh. — Small cantonment in Hazara District, North-West 
Frontier Province, situated in 34° 6' N. and 73° 25'' E., on the road 
between Abbottabad and Murree. During the summer months it is 
occupied by one of the British mountain batteries which are stationed 
at Rawalpindi in the winter. 

Kalabagh Estate. — Estate in the District and fahstl of Mianwali, 
Punjab, with an area of 107 square miles. It is held by Muhammad 
Khan Malik Yar, the Awan Malik of Kalabagh. Over 300 years ago 
the Awan Maliks settled at Dhankot, a natural fastness on the Indus 
above Kalabagh. They forced the Bhangi Khel Khattaks of the hills 
on the north to pay tribute, and at the close of the eig,hteenth century 
were recognized as chiefs of the Kalabagh territory by Timur Shah 
Durrani. The Sikhs annexed the estate in 1822, but Malik Allah Yar 
Khan retained it as their feudatory. He assisted Lieutenant (after- 
wards Sir Herbert) Edwardes to construct the Dalipnagar fort at Bannu, 
and his son Muzaffar Khan was taken prisoner there by the Sikhs in 
the second Sikh War. During the Mutiny he raised 100 men and was 
entrusted with the charge of one of the gates of Peshawar city, receiv- 
ing the title of Khan Bahadur as a reward. The present Malik, Yar 
Muhammad Khan, succeeded in 1885. He holds a Jdg'ir worth 
Rs. 6,000, and his income is about Rs. 22,000 a year, of which 
Rs. 1,000 is derived from the manufacture of alum. 

Kalabagh Town.^ — Town in the Isa Khel fahsl/ of Mianwali 
District, Punjab, situated in 32° 58' N. and 71° 33' E. Population 
{1901), 5,824. The town is picturesquely situated at the foot of the 
Salt Range, on the right bank of the Indus, at the point where the 
river debouches from the hills, 105 miles below Attock. 'I'he houses 
nestle against the side of a precipitous hill of solid rock-salt, piled one 
upon another in successive tiers, the roof of each tier forming the street 
which passes in front of the row immediately above. Long before the 
British annexation of the Punjab, Kalabagh was famous for its salt; 
and some of the wonders told of it by travellers as long ago as 1808 
may still be seen in its houses built of and on rock-salt, its roads cut 
out of the solid salt rock, and its immense exposures of salt, sometimes 
closely resembling alabaster. The Kalabagh hills are a continuation 
of the cis-Indus portion of the Salt Range, but are remarkable for the 
quantity of salt exposed, and the purity, closeness of grain, and hard- 
ness of a great proportion of it. Unlike the operations elsewhere in 



KALABGUR 291 

the Salt Range, which, are purely mining, the salt is here quarried 
at the surface. There are twelve quarries, some situated on the right 
bank of the Indus, and some on the right bank of the Lun Nullah, 
which runs into the Indus on its right bank, at the base of a hill 
known as the Saudagar hill. Enormous quantities of salt lie exposed 
here, underlying Tertiary strata, in workable seams of from 4 to 20 feet 
thick, alternating with seams of impure salt and marl. The deposits 
rise to a height of about 200 feet above the bed of the Gor gorge, 
the seams striking south to north and dipping to the west at an angle 
of about 70°. The salt is slightly better in quality than that of the 
Mayo and Warcha Mines, and is in high favour with traders ; but it 
is handicapped in competition with those salts, because the Indus lies 
between it and the Mari station of the Kundian-Campbellpore Railway. 
The quarries lie from half a mile to a mile from the sale depot at 
Kukranwala Vandah on the right bank of the Indus, where the miners 
deliver the salt at the rate of Rs. 4-2 per 100 maunds. The whole 
of the operations connected with the salt up to the time that it is 
deposited in store in the depot are in the hands of the miners. At 
the depot the salt is weighed out to purchasers and cleared under the 
supervision of the inspector in charge. The total quantity issued in 
1903-4 amounted to 191,750 maunds, of which 150,062 maunds were 
removed by rail and 32,161 by river. Alum also occurs in the 
neighbouring hills, and forms a considerable but decreasing item of 
local trade, the out-turn in 1904 being about 3,500 maunds, which 
sold for Rs. 3 per maund (82-|lb.). The town possesses a manufacture 
of striped cloth {siisl\ and of iron instruments and vessels from metal 
imported from the Kanigoram hill. 

The m.unicipality was created in 1875. The income and expenditure 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,100 and Rs. 6,600. 
In 1903 4 the income was Rs. 5,600, chiefly derived from octroi; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 6,700. The town contains a dispensary and 
a municipal primary school. An Awan family, which resides in Kala- 
bagh, has a certain supremacy over the whole of the tribesmen, the 
representative of the family bearing the title of Malik. 

Kalabgiir.— 71//?<'/5 in Medak District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 432 square miles. The population in 1901, \\\c\\x^vc\^ jdgirs, 
was 78,052, compared with 96,100 in 1891, the decrease being due 
to emigration and transfer of villages. The taluk contains one town, 
Sadaseopet (population, 6,672); and Sangareddipet (4,809) is the 
head-quarters of the District and talt(k. There are also 144 other 
villages, of which 60 are jdgir. The land revenue in 1901 was 2-4 
lakhs. Kalabgur is well supplied with tanks, and rice and sugar-cane 
are largely cultivated. The Nizam's State Railway passes through its 
southern portion, and the river Manjra flows through the north. 



292 KALA-CHITTA 

Kala-Chitta. — Mountain range in the Pindi Gheb tahsll oi Attock 
District, Punjab, having the general form of a wedge or triangle, whose 
base rests upon the left bank of the Indus, near the township of 
Nara, while its apex stretches to the Margala pass, about 50 miles 
to the eastward. The broadest portion has a depth of about r 2 miles. 
The range is formed of two portions differing much in appearance. 
The south-western part, stretching for 35 miles from the Indus 
through the Pindi Gheb tahsll^ known as the Kala Pahar or ' black 
mountain,' is generally formed of very dark sandstone, often quite 
purple in hue, and sometimes blackened by exposure to the weather. 
Mixed with this are grey sandstone and red clay. The Chitta or 
' white ' hill runs the whole length of the northern side of the range. 
It is formed of white Nummulitic limestone, but dark limestone also 
crops up in its midst ; it is by far the more valuable part of the range, 
the limestone being used for burning, and the forest produce being far 
better than in the Kala. Bushes of acacia and wild olive are scattered 
over its rugged sides, but on the main portion a coarse grass forms 
the only vegetation. 

Kaladan. — River of Burma, which rises in the Chin Hills in the 
Yahow country, and is there known as the Boinu. Its course at first 
is southwards, then northwards. Bending westwards, it passes through 
a portion of the Lushai Hills, and then turning south again, enters 
Northern Arakan at its northern end, and flows down the western side 
of the District, past Paletwa, the head-quarters, which lies on its 
western bank. Farther south it enters Akyab District and, continuing 
in a southerly direction, empties itself after a course of nearly 300 miles 
into the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, where its estuary is 6 miles in breadth. 
It is a picturesque river, navigable for steam traffic as high as Paletwa, 
nearly 100 miles from the sea. Its principal tributaries are the Dalet, 
Palet, Mi, and Pi. 

Kaladgi. —Village in the Bagalkot taluka of Bijapur District, 
Bombay, situated in 16° 12' N. and 75° 30' E., on the right bank 
of the Ghatprabha river, 15 miles west of Bagalkot on the Southern 
Mahratta Railway. Population (1901), 4,946. Kaladgi was formerly 
the chief station of the District and a cantonment. The municipality, 
established in 1866, was abolished after the removal of the head- 
quarters in 1885. 

Kalahandi. — Feudatory State in Bengal, lying between 19° 3' 
and 20° 28' N. and 82° 32' and 83° 47' E., and formerly known as 
Karond. It is bounded on the north by the Patna State, on the north- 
west by Raipur District, and on the east, south-east, and south-west 
by the Jeypore zamlnddri of Vizagapatam District. The area of the 
State is 3,745 square miles; and its head-quarters are at Bhawani Patna, 
a village of 4,400 inhabitants, 140 miles from Sambalpur and 130 from 



KALAHANDI 293 

Chicacole station on the East Coast Railway. From the north-east 
to the south-west of the State runs an almost continuous range of hills, 
a part of the Eastern Ghats, with several peaks approaching 4,000 feet 
in elevation. To the north of this range lies a stretch of comparatively 
open country interspersed with low hills. The uplands are generally 
well wooded, except in tracts where the forest has been burnt off for 
cultivation. The Indravati river rises in the south of the State and 
passes into Bastar after a short course through the hills. The open 
country is drained by the Tel river and its affluent the Hatti. 

The ruling family are Nagvansi Rajputs, and are said to be con- 
nected with the Satrangarh Rajas of Chota Nagpur. The State appears 
to have existed from a remote period without being subject to any 
definite suzerainty. The payment of tribute and acknowledgement of 
their supremacy were, however, imposed by the Marathas. In 1878 the 
chief, Udit Pratap Deo, obtained an hereditary salute of 9 guns. In 1881, 
on the death of Udit Pratap Deo, discontent broke out among the 
primitive Khond tribe, who form a large proportion of the population. 
The late Raja had encouraged the immigration of members of the 
Kolta caste, who are excellent agriculturists and keenly acquisitive 
of land ; and many of the Khond headmen and tenants had been 
ousted by them. The smouldering grievances of the Khonds had been 
suppressed by Udit Pratap, but they now found expression in acts 
of plunder. A British officer was dispatched to KalahandT to inquire 
into their complaints, and a settlement was arrived at, which it was 
thought would prove satisfactory. These hopes, however, were illusory ; 
and in May, 1882, the Khonds rose and slaughtered more than 
80 Koltas, while 300 more were besieged in the village of Norla, the 
Khonds appearing with portions of the scalps and hair of the murdered 
victims hanging to their bows. On the arrival of a body of police, 
which had been summoned from Vizagapatam, they dispersed, and the 
outbreak was soon afterwards suppressed, seven of the ringleaders 
being arrested, tried, and hanged. A settlement was made of the 
grievances of the Khonds, and the tranquillity of the State has not 
again been disturbed. The next chief, Raghu Kishor Deo, was installed 
in 1894 on attaining his majority, but was murdered in 1897 by a 
servant. He left an infant son of two years of age, Brij Mohan Deo, 
who is now being educated at Bhawani Patna. During his minority 
the management of the State is in charge of a Political Agent 
subordinate to the Commissioner of Orissa. 

The population in 190 1 was 350,529, having increased by 7 per 
cent, during the previous decade. The number of inhabited villages 
is 2,198, and the density of population 94 persons per square mile. 
About 81 per cent, of the population speak Oriya and 15 per cent. 
Khondi, the language of the Khond tribe. Khonds number 103,000, 



2 94 KALAHANDI 

or 29 per cent, of the total ; and next to them the most numerous 
castes are Gahras or AhTrs, Doms, a menial caste of sweepers, and 
Gonds. There is a very slight sprinkling of Telugu castes. 

Along the base of the hills is found a light alluvial soil, fertile and 
easily tilled, and yielding good crops of almost any grain. The open 
country is covered by black cotton soil mixed with limestone nodules 
and with the yellow clay or gravel formed from metamorphic rock. 
The hilly country on the south and east, amounting to 62 per cent, 
of the whole State, has not been surveyed. Of the remaining land, 
632 square miles, or 45 per cent, of the available area, are occupied 
for cultivation, and 437 were cultivated in 1904. The staple crops 
are rice, covering 285 square miles; til, 68; and kodon and kutki, 
22. The State contains 1,464 tanks, from which 289 square miles 
can be irrigated. The numerous streams flowing from the hills 
also afford natural irrigation to land lying on their banks, and soil in 
this position gives two crops in the year. Oranges and plantains are 
grown on irrigated land. The prevailing forest tree in the north of the 
State is sal {Shorea robiistd), teak being rare and local. \\"\l\\ the sal 
are associated the other common trees of Peninsular India. Farther to 
the south between the Tel and Indravati, where a range of hills inter- 
venes, the sal disappears and saj ( Termi/ialia tome/iiosa) is the com- 
monest tree. Owing to the distance of the forests from the railway, 
exports of timber are inconsiderable. No minerals are worked, but 
graphite occurs in veins and pockets in the metamorphic rocks. The 
State contains 48 miles of gravelled and 116 of embanked roads. The 
principal routes are those from Bhawani Patna to Raipur, and to 
Sambalpur through Bolangir in Patna, and from Junagarh to Rajim 
through Deobhog. Exports are sent principally to Raipur and the 
Madras Presidency, while imports are received from Raipur, Sambal- 
pur, and ^Madras. 

The total revenue in 1904 was Rs. 1,11,000, the principal items being 
land revenue and cesses, Rs. 59,000 ; forests, Rs. 14,000 : and excise, 
Rs. 24,000. The unsurveyed territory on the south and east is com- 
prised in six minor zamlnddri estates, and a hilly tract called Dongurla, 
mainly occupied by Khonds who practise shifting cultivation. The 
revenue paid by the zaviinddrs is Rs. 3,500. Two of the zam'mdari 
families are related to the chief. The remaining area has been cadas- 
trally surveyed and a setdement effected. The taxation of land is 
about 8 annas per cultivated acre. About Rs. 30,000 of the gross land 
revenue has been assigned in revenue-free grants. The total expenditure 
in 1904 was Rs. 1,36,000, the principal items being tribute, Rs. 12,000; 
allowances to the ruling family, Rs. 20,000 ; general administration, 
Rs. 14,000 ; and police, Rs. 18,000. The tribute is liable to revision. 
In twelve years since 1893 the State has expended 3-23 lakhs on public 



KALAHASTI TAHSIL 295 

works under the supervision of the Engineer of the Chhattlsgarh 
States division. The works carried out include, besides the roads men- 
tioned, the construction of a palace, public offices, a hospital, police 
station, school, and sarai at Bhawani Patna. The educational institu- 
tions comprise 48 schools with 3,876 pupils, including one English 
and two vernacular middle schools and a girls' school. The total 
expenditure on education in 1904 was Rs. 7,000. At the Census of 
1901, 6,129 persons were returned as able to read and write, the 
proportion being 1-7 per cent. (3-3 males and o-i females). Dispen- 
saries have been established at Bhawani Patna, Junagarh, Kashlpur, 
and Thuamal, and a separate dispensary for females at Bhawani Patna. 
About 63,000 persons were treated in these institutions in 1904. 

Kalahasti Zamindari. — One of the largest zamnddri estates in 
Madras, situated partly in North Arcot District, partly in Kellore, and 
partly in Chingleput. Number of villages, 406 in North Arcot, 201 in 
Nellore, and 206 in Chingleput ; area, 638 square miles in Nortli 
Arcot, 576 in Nellore, and 250 in Chingleput; total population (1901), 
223,327. The capital is K.4Lahasti Town, where the zamlnddt- 
resides, The history of the family, which belongs to the Velama caste, 
is obscure. The original owner of the estate probably received it from 
a king of the Vijayanagar dynasty in the fifteenth century, on condition 
of maintaining order. The estate at one time spread as far as the site of 
Fort St. George, and the Company obtained the land on which Madras 
now stands from the proprietor in 1639. The settlement is tradition- 
ally said to have been named Chennappapatnam in honour of the 
zam'indar's father. The estate came under British control in 1792, 
and a formal grant to the family was made in 1801. The zaviinddr 
afterwards received the hereditary title of Raja. The gross income 
amounts to over 5 lakhs. The peshkash (or permanent revenue paid 
to Government) for the whole of it is 1-7 lakhs, and the demand for 
land cess amounts to Rs. 35,000. Owing to the estate being heavily 
encumbered, it was recently taken under the management of the Court 
of Wards, but it has now been handed back to the proprietor. The 
estate is in a great measure covered by scrub jungle, especially the 
portion in North Arcot District. Much firewood is sent to Madras 
city from these forests; and leopards, bears, and small game are fairly 
numerous in them. A large number of the jungle tribes of Irulas 
and Yanadis subsist by gathering honey, roots, and bark for sale in 
the neighbouring villages. The soil is not very rich, but about 
140,000 acres are under cultivation. 

Kalahasti Tahsil. — Zam'inddri tahsll in the Kalahasti zamin- 
dari in the north-east of North Arcot District, Madras, lying between 
13° 14' and 13° 55' N. and 79" 27' and 79° 59' E. Area, 638 square 
miles; population in 1901, 94,132, compared with 81,860 in 1891. 



296 KALAHASTI TAHSIL 

The /a//jJ/ contains 324 villages and one town, Kai.ahasti (population, 
11,992), the head-quarters. Demand for peshkash and land cess in 
1903-4, Rs. 78,000. 

Kalahasti Town. — Head-quarters of the iahsll oi the same name 
in North Arcot District, Madras, situated in 13'^ 45' N. and 79°42'E., 
with a station on the South Indian Railway, on the right bank 
of the Swarnamukhi at the extremity of the Nagari hills. Popu- 
lation (1901), 11,992. It is the residence of the Raja of Kalahasti, 
and the head-quarters of the ^t'^wX.y-tahs'ilddr and sub-magistrate. 
A large number of the inhabitants are in the employ of the zamhiddr, 
whose residence, an imposing-looking building, faces the eastern street 
of the old town. The approach to the town from the river is through 
the last gap in the Nagari hills, which are here considered so holy that 
the quarrying of stone or gravel is forbidden. Kalahasti is a thriving 
town, carrying on a brisk trade in grain, bangles, and many other 
articles. A good deal of cotton stuff is woven in the suburbs, and the 
hand-printed and hand-painted cotton fabrics enjoy a high reputation. 
Some of the latter gained a bronze medal at the Delhi Darbar Exhibi- 
tion of 1903. The town is famous for its Siva temple, wherein a festi- 
val takes place annually during February and March. 

Kalait. — Village in the Narwana tahs'i/, Karmgarh fiizdmaf, Patiala 
State, Punjab, situated in 21° 49' N. and 76° 19' E., 13 miles south- 
west of Kaithal on the Narwana-Kaithal branch of the Southern 
Punjab Railway. Population (1901), 3,490. The place is famous for 
four ancient temples ascribed to Raja Salbahan, and for a tank, called 
Kapal Manl's tiraih, which is held sacred by Hindus. The temples, 
which are adorned with sculptures, are supposed to date from the 
eleventh century. 

Kalale. — Village in the Nanjangud tdhik of Mysore District, Mysore, 
situated in 12° 4" N. and 76° 40' E., 3 miles south-west of Nanjangud. 
Population (1901), 2,500. The place is historically interesting as the 
ancestral domain of the Dalavayis of Mysore. It is said to have been 
founded in 1504 by a connexion of the Vijayanagar family. After the 
Mysore Rajas acquired Seringapatam in 16 10, they formed an alliance 
with the Kalale family, by which the latter furnished the Dalavayi, or 
hereditary minister and general of the State, while Mysore furnished 
the Kartar ('Curtur' in old English documents) or ruler. Latterly the 
Dalavayis rendered the Rajas subservient to their interests, but were in 
their turn displaced by Haidar All. The municipality formed in 1899 
was converted into a Union in 1904. The receipts and expenditure 
during the two years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 1,990 and Rs. 650. In 
1903-4 they were Rs. 870 and Rs. 2,800. 

Kalam. — Crown idluk in the north of Osmanabad District, Hyder- 
abad State. The population in 1901 was 38,030, and the area 



KALANAUR 297 

303 square miles ; but in 1905 the W'asi tCxbtk was incorporated in 
it. The total area is now 65 S square miles, of which the population 
in 1901 was 87,701, compared with 120,081 in 1891, the decrease 
being due to the famine of 1900. The river Manjra separates the 
taluk from Bhir District on the north, and the soil is chiefly regar, with 
some alluvium. It contains 151 villages and yields a land revenue 
of 3-7 lakhs. The j'dglr taluks of Bhum and A\'alwad lie to the west 
with 31 and 13 villages, and populations (1901) of 11,416 and 6,997 
respectively. Their areas are about 143 and 61 square miles. 

Kalam. — Village in the District and taluk of Yeotmal, Berar, situ- 
ated in 20° 27' N. and 78° 22' E. Population (1901), 3,595. Kalam 
was formerly an important fortress; and in 1425 the Bahmani king, 
Ahmad Shah Wall, captured it from the ' infidels,' probably Gonds of 
Chanda or Kherla, into whose hands it had fallen. Kalam and Mahur 
were the most important fortresses in the south-eastern corner of Berar 
at that time. In the Ain-i-Akbari Kalam is mentioned as the head- 
quarters of a sarkdr or revenue district. It has a remarkable under- 
ground temple dedicated to Chintaman. 

Kalamnuri. — North-eastern taluk of Parbhani District, Hyderabad 
.State, with an area of 538 square miles. Including ya^Jry, the popula- 
tion in 1901 was 58,835, compared with 84,685 in 1891, the decrease 
being due to the famine of 1900. The taluk had till recently 186 vil- 
lages, of which II were jdgir ; and Kalamnuri (population, 4,267) is 
the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 1-9 lakhs. In 1905 
a few villages were added from Nander District. The Penganga flows 
on the north-eastern border, separating the taluk from the Basim 
District of Berar. 

Kalanaur (i). — Town in the District and tahsJl of Gurdaspur, Pun- 
jab, situated in 32°o'N. and 75° 10' E., 15 miles west of Gurdaspur town. 
Population (1901), 5,251. It was the chief place in the neighbourhood 
from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, and was twice attacked by 
Jasrath Khokhar, once after his un.successful assault on Lahore in 
1422, and again in 1428, when Malik Sikandar marched to relieve the 
place and defeated Jasrath on the Beas. It was here that Akbar 
received the news of his father's death. He promptly had himself 
installed on a takht or throne, still to be seen outside the town. Akbar 
had to retake Kalanaur from Sikandar Shah Sur in the following year, 
and resided here for several months. It was plundered by Banda, the 
Sikh leader, early in the eighteenth century. The municipality was 
created in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 5,100, and the expenditure Rs. 5,000. The income and 
expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. 5,400, the receipts being chiefly from 
octroi. The municipality maintains a vernacular middle school and 
a dispensary. 



298 KALANAUR 

Kalanaur (2). — Town in the District and tahsil of Rohtak, Punjab, 
situated in 28° 50' N. and 76° 24'' E., 12 miles west of Rohtak town on 
the road to Bhiwani. Population (1901), 7,640. It was founded by 
Kalian Singh and Bhawan Singh, two Ponwar Rajputs, sons-in-law of 
Anang Pal, the king of Delhi, and named after the former. Kalanaur 
remained in the possession of their descendants, who, though dispos- 
sessed for a time by the Balochs of Farrukhnagar, were reinstated by 
the Delhi court. The town is famous for its leather-work, especially 
saddlery. It has a vernacular middle school. 

Kalang, — An offshoot of the Brahmaputra in Assam, which leaves 
the main stream about 10 miles east of Silghat, and, after a tortuous 
course of about 73 miles through Nowgong District, rejoins it on the 
confines of Kamrup. In the upper part of its course the Kalang 
receives the rivers which flow from the western watershed of the Mikir 
Hills, while the Kapili, with its affluents the Jamuna and Doiang, 
the Barpani, and the Umiam bring to it the drainage of North 
Cachar and of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. The Digru, another con- 
siderable river, joins it near its western mouth. Through the greater 
portion of its length the banks of the Kalang are lined with villages, 
the most important of which are Kaliabar, Samaguri, Puranigudam, 
Nowgong, the District head-quarters, and Raha ; but at its western end 
the country through which it passes lies too low for cultivation, and the 
banks of the river are covered with dense jungle grass. A sandbank at 
its eastern end is a serious obstacle to traffic during the dry season, but 
in the rains a steamer of low draught plies between Nowgong and 
Silghat, and carries away the tea collected at various centres. Country 
boats come up from Gauhati at all seasons of the year for the transport 
of mustard, which is grown in large quantities in this portion of the 
Province. In the dry season the Kalang is fordable at Nowgong and 
Raha, but after its junction with the Kapili there is always a consider- 
able depth of water in the channel. Ferries have been established 
across the river at Kuwarital, Nowgong, Raha, and Jagi. 

Kalanga. — Hill in Dehra Dun District, United Provinces, situated 
in 30° 20' N. and 78° 5'' E. A fort was hastily thrown up here by the 
(lurkhas on the outbreak of the war of 1814. It is perched on a low 
spur of the Himalayas, 3-| miles north-east of Dehra, and was attacked 
in 181 5 by General Gillespie, who fell while leading the storming 
party ; for a time it was desperately defended, but the enemy evacuated 
it after a second assault, and the British demolished it shortly after. 
A plain white stone monument commemorates those who fell at the 
taking of the fort. On the slope of the hill is a village called Nalapani, 
near which is a celebrated spring that forms part of the water-suppl\- 
of Dehra. 

Kalasa. — Village in the Mudgere taluk of Kadur District, Mysore, 



KALAT STATE 299 

situated in 13° 14' N. and 75° 22" E., on the Bhadra river, 24 miles 
north-west of Mudgere town. The village lies in a valley, surrounded 
by lofty hills, to the south of Mertiparvat, also known as the Kalasa 
hill. There is a large temple of Kalasesvara, containing thirteenth- 
century copper grants by Jain queens, and surrounded by fifteenth and 
sixteenth-century stone inscriptions of the Ehairarasa Wodeyar rulers of 
Karkala under Vijayanagar. It was probably a Jain temple originall)'. 
Mounds covering ruins of a large town lie on all sides. The original 
Santara kingdom of Pomburchcha extended into the kingdom of 
Kalasa above the Ghats and Karkala below the Ghats. Kalasa is 
called a 'three thousand' kingdom. In the seventeenth century it was 
absorbed into the Keladi territory. In a sacred bathing-place on the 
river, called Ambatirtha, is a large square boulder, placed horizontally 
on another, and bearing an inscription that it was brought and placed 
there with one hand by Madhvacharya. This was the founder of the 
Madhva sect of Brahmans, who lived from 1238 to 131 7. The areca- 
nuts produced in the neighbourhood are reckoned the best in Mysore. 

Kalastri.^Zrtw/V/</(T/7 tahstl, estate, and town in North Arcot 
District, Madras. See Kalahasti. 

Kalat State. — Native State in Baluchistan, lying between 25° I'and 
30° 8' N. and 61° 37' and 69° 22^ E., with a total area of 71,593 square 
miles. It occupies the whole of the centre and south-west of the 
Province, with the exception of the indentation caused by the little 
State of Las Bela. It is bounded on the west by Persia ; on the east 
by the Bolan Pass, the Marri and Bugti hills, and Sind ; on the north 
by the Chagai and Quetta-Pishin Districts ; and on the south by Las 
Bela and the Arabian Sea. With the exception of the plains of Kharan, 
Kachhi, and Dasht in Makran, the country is wholly . 

mountainous, the ranges being intersected here and aspects, 

there by long narrow valleys. The principal moun- 
tains are the Central Brahui, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central 
Makran, and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation 
from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet. The drainage of the country is alniost 
all carried off to the southward by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, 
HiNGOL, and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards 
is the Rakhshan. The coast-line stretches for about 160 miles, from 
near Kalmat to Gwetter Bay, and the chief port is Pasm. Round 
G\v.\DAR the country is in the possession of the Sultan of Maskal. 

The geological groups in the State include Liassic ; Jurassic (lower 
and upper Cretaceous strata); volcanic rocks of the Deccan trap; 
Kirthar (middle eocene) ; lower Nari (upper eocene) ; and Siwalik beds 
(middle and upper miocene), besides extensive sub-recent and recent 
deposits. The State also includes a portion of the Indus alluvial 
plain. 

VOL. XIV. U 



300 KALAT STATE 

The botany of the north differs entirely from that of the south. In 
the former the hill slopes occasionally bear juniper, olive, and pis- 
tachio ; poplars, willows, and fruit trees grow in the valleys ; herba- 
ceous and bulbous plants are frequent on the hill-sides; and in the 
valleys southernwood {Artemisia) and many Astragali occur. In the 
latter the vegetation consists of a thorny unpleasant scrub, such plants 
as Capparis aphvlla, Prosopis spicigera, Calotropis procera, AcantJwdium 
spication, and Acacia being common. The dwarf-palm {Nannorhops 
Ritchieana) affords a means of livelihood to many of the inhabitants. 

Sind ibex and mountain sheep occur, but are decreasing in numbers. 
' Ravine deer ' (gazelle) are common. Bears and leopards are seen 
occasionally. The wild ass is found in the western desert. &sl and 
chikor are abundant in the higher hills. 

The climatic conditions vary greatly. Along the coast conditions 
are intermediate betsveen those of India and the Persian Gulf. Farther 
inland great heat is experienced during summer, and the cold season 
is short. Kachhi is one of the hottest parts of India. Round Kalat, 
on the other hand, the seasons are as well marked as in Europe ; the 
temperature in summer is moderate, while in winter severe cold is 
experienced and snow falls. All the northern parts depend on the 
winter snow and rain for cultivation ; in the south most of the rain 
falls in the summer ; everywhere it is irregular, scanty, and local. 

The history of the State has been given in the historical portion of 
the article on Baluchistan. After being held successively by Sind, 
by the Arabs, Ghaznivids, Ghorids, and Mongols, 
and again returning to Sind in the days of the 
Sumras and Sammas, it fell under the Mughal emperors of Delhi. 
The Ahmadzai power rose in the fifteenth century and reached its 
zenith in the eighteenth, but it was always subject to the suzerainty of 
Delhi or Kandahar. After the first Afghan War Kalat came under the 
control of the British — a control which was defined and extended 
by the treaties of 1854 and 1876. 

The most interesting archaeological remains in the country are 
the Kausi and Khusravi karez in Makran, and the ubiquitous stone 
dams known as gabrbands or 'embankments of the fire-worshippers.' 
Mounds containing pottery are frequent, and Buddliist remains have 
been found in Kachhi. 

Kalat Town is the capital of the State. Other towns of importance 
are Bhag, Gandava, Mastung, Pasni, and Gwadar. Permanent villages 
. number 1,348, or one to 53 square miles ; the majority 

of the population live in mat huts or in blanket 
tents. The State is divided into five main divisions : Kachhi, Sarawan, 
Jhalawan, Makran, and Kharan, the latter being quasi-independent. 
The population, which numbers (1903) 470,336, consists chiefly of 



POPULATION 301 

Brahuis and Baloch, but also includes Jats, who are cultivators 
in Kachhi ; Darzadas and Nakibs, the cultivating class of Makran ; 
Loris, who are artisans ; Meds and Koras, who are fishermen and sea- 
men ; and servile dependants. The traders consist of Hindus and 
a few Khojas on the coast. The majority of the people are Sunni 
Muhammadans, but, in the west, many belong to the sect called Zikri. 
Except in Makran and Kharan, the people are organized into tribes, 
each of which acknowledges the leadership of a chief. Besides these 
tribesmen, who form the Brahui confederacy with the Khan of Kalat 
at its head, a distinct body is found in the Khan's own ulus or follow- 
ing, consisting of the cultivators in those portions of the country from 
which the Khan collects revenue direct. They are chiefly Dehwars 
and Jats. Agriculture, flock-owning combined with harvesting, and 
fishing constitute the means of livelihood of most of the popula- 
tion. Brahui, BaluchT, Dehwarl, and Sindi are the languages chiefly 
spoken. 

The soil is sandy in most places ; here and there alluvial deposits 
occur and a bright red clay, which gives place in Makran to the white 
clay known as milk. Permanent irrigation is possible only in a few 
favoured tracts ; elsewhere, the country depends almost entirely on 
flood cultivation from embankments. In irrigated tracts the supply of 
water is obtained from karez, springs, and rivers. The staple food- 
grains consist of wheat daidjoivdr. In Makran the date is largely con- 
sumed. Rice, barley, melons, millets, tobacco, lucerne, potatoes, and 
beans are also cultivated. The commonest tree in the orchards is 
the pomegranate ; and apricots, almonds, mulberries, vines, and 
apples are also grown. Experiments in sericulture are being made 
at Mastung. 

An excellent breed of cattle comes from Nari in Kachhi. The 
Sarawan country and Kachhi produce the best horses in Baluchistan. 
The State possessed 783 branded mares in 1904, Large donkeys are 
bred near Kalat town, and those in Makran are noted for their speed. 
Sheep and goats are very numerous. The sheep's wool, of which large 
quantities are exported, is coarse and comes into the market in a 
deplorable condition of dirt. The goats are generally black. Camels 
are bred in large numbers in Kachhi, the Pab hills, and Kharan, and 
animals for transport are available almost everywhere. All households 
keep fowls. The better classes breed good greyhounds for coursing. 
The fishing industry on the Makran coast is important and capable of 
development. Air-bladders, shark-fins, and salted fish are exported in 
large quantities. 

Very little money circulates in the country, both rents and wages 
being usually paid in kind, and most of the tribesmen's dealings are 
carried on by barter, Owing to the inh()s[)itable nature of the country, 

u 2 



30 2 KALAT STATE 

the people are very poor. The standard of h'ving has risen shghtly of 
recent years, and the people are now better clothed than formerly. 
A Brahui will never beg in his own country. With the Makranis 
mendicancy, which is known as pindag, is extremely common. 

No arrangements for forest ' reservation ' exist in the State ; here and 
there, however, tribal groups preserve special grounds for grass and 
pasturage. Among minor forest products may be mentioned cumin 
seed, asafoetida, medicinal drugs, the fruit of the pistachio, bdellium, 
and gum-arabic. Few minerals have been discovered, and coal alone, 
which occurs in the Sor range in the Sarawan country, is systematically 
worked. Traces of coal have been found elsewhere in the Sarawan 
country. Ferrous sulphate is obtainable in the Jhalawan country, 
and lead was at one time worked at Sekran in the same area. Good 
earth-salt, known as hamun or kap, is obtainable from the swamps, and 
is also manufactured by lixiviation. 

Coarse cotton cloth is woven in Kachhi and articles of floss silk are 

made in Makran. All Brahui women are expert with the needle, and 

the local embroidery is both fine and artistic. Rugs, 

Trade and nose-bags, &c., woven by nomads in the dan stitch, 
communications. . ° , ,„, ^ , .' ., 

are ui general use. I he art of making pile-carpets is 

known here and there. Durable overcoats {shai) are made by the 

women from dark sheep's wool. Leather is embroidered in Kachhi, 

Kalat, and Mastung. Matting, bags, ropes, and other articles are 

manufactured from the dwarf-palm. 

Commerce is hampered by the levy of transit dues and octroi, both 
by the State and by tribal chiefs, and by the expense of camel- 
transport. The chief centres of trade are Kalat, Mastung, Gandava, 
Bhag, Turbat, Gwadar, Pasni, and Nal. The exports consist of wool, 
gh'i, raw cotton, dates, salted fish, matting, medicinal drugs, and cattle, 
in return for which grain, piece-goods, metals, and silk are im- 
ported. From the north the traffic goes to Quetta ; from the centre 
to Kachhi and Sind ; and from the south and west by sea and land 
to Karachi. 

The North- Western Railway traverses the east and north-east of the 
State. The only cart-road is that from Quetta to Kalat town. All other 
communications consist of tracks for pack-animals, the most important 
of which are those connecting Kalat with Panjgur, Kalat with Bela 
via Wad, and Kachhi with Makran via the Mula Pass. A track is 
now in course of construction from Pasni on the coast to Panjgur. 
A postal service to Kalat is maintained by the British Government, and 
letters are carried thence once a week to Khuzdar. The British India 
Company's mail steamers touch at Pasni and Gwadar on alternate 
weeks, and mails are carried from Pasni to Turbat, the head-quarters of 
Makran. The Indo-European Telegraph wire traverses the coast, with 



I 



ADMINISTRATION 303 

offices at Pasni and Gwadar ; a telegraph line runs from Quetta to 
Kalat, and a line has been sanctioned from Karachi to Panjgur. 

The State experiences constant scarcity and occasional famine. A 
drought lasting for ten years between 1830 and 1840 is mentioned by 
Masson. The population is, however, sparse and 
exceedingly hardy, and they have ready access to 
Sind, where good wages are obtainable. In the Census of 1901 as 
many as 47,345 Brahuis were enumerated there. Advances amounting 
to about Rs. 29,000 were made by the State in 1900, when the scarcity 
which had begun in 1897 reached its culminating point. Such 
advances are recovered from the cultivator's grain heap at the ensuing 
harvests. 

The control exercised by the British Government over the Brahui 

confederacy, and the administrative arrangements in areas subject to 

the direct authority of the Khan of Kalat, are 

J -u J • .L .1 Ti - T- . Administration. 

described m the article on Baluchistan. Except 

Kharan and Makran, each main division of the State comprises both 
tribal areas and areas subject solely to the Khan. Collateral authority 
is, therefore, exercised by the Khan in his niabats and by tribal chiefs 
in their country. The intervention of the Political Agent is confined, 
as far as possible, to deciding inter-tribal cases or cases between the 
tribesmen and the Khan's subjects in which a right of arbitration rests 
with the British Government. In Makran the Khan's nazim exercises 
authority everywhere ; in Kharan the chief is now subject to no inter- 
ference from the Khan, but looks to the Political Agent in Kalat. The 
Quetta, Nushki, and Nasirabad tahsils have been leased in perpetuity 
by the State to the British Government, and the right to levy transit 
dues in the Bolan Pass has been commuted for an annual subsidy of 
Rs. 30,000. The head-quarters of the Political Agent were fixed at 
Mastung in 1904. 

The revenue of the State is derived from three principal sources : 
subsidies and rents paid by the British Government, interest on invest- 
ments, and land revenue. The subsidies include Rs. 1,00,000 paid 
under the treaty of 1876 and Rs. 30,000 for the Bolan Pass, while the 
quit-rents for the leased areas mentioned above amount to Rs. 1,51,500. 
Since 1893 ^ surplus of 41-5 lakhs has been invested in Government 
securities, yielding in interest 1-5 lakhs per annum. From this source 
are defrayed the cost of maintenance of the former Khan, Mir Khud- 
adad, the subsidies paid to the Jhalawan chiefs, the pay of Brahui 
thdjias, and the expenses of the administration of Makran. 'Hie total 
income of the State may be estimated at between 7^ and 8f lakhs of 
rupees, the variations being due to fluctuations in the land revenue. 
The expenditure amounts to about 3^ or 4 laklis. A sum of Rs. 53,000 
is expended annually in the State by the British Government, in the 



304 KALAT STATE 

shape of telegraph subsidies, payments to chiefs for controlling their 
tribesmen, and the maintenance of levies. To this will now be added 
the charges, amomiting to about i-2 lakhs per annum, for the Makran 
Levy Corps. 

Land revenue is collected in kind, the rates varying from one-third 
to one-eighth of the produce. Cesses are also taken, the amount of 
which differs in almost every village, but which raise the share taken 
by the State to nearly one-half. Here and there are to be found cash 
assessments {zar-i-kalang or zar-i-shah). The cultivators also perform 
certain services for the Khan, such as the escort of his horses and the 
repairs to the walls of his forts. Transit dues {muhari) are levied on 
caravans passing through the nidhats, and octroi {sung) on their enter- 
ing and leaving trading centres. Contracts are given for the sale of 
liquor, meat, &c. The total land revenue varies with the agricultural 
conditions of the year. In 1903-4, on the introduction of a new 
system of administration, it rose to 4-5 lakhs. Large areas are held 
by tribesmen and tribal chiefs, in which the Khan is entitled to no 
revenue. In others, half the revenue has been alienated by the Khan 
{adh-ambdri). Many of these jdgirs were originally held on the con- 
dition of feudal service. In Makran the Gichkis, Nausherwanis, Bizan- 
jaus, and MTrwaris are the principal holders, while in Kachhi s\\Q.jagiys 
are held by Brahuis and Baloch. In such areas the tribal chiefs claim 
complete independence in all revenue, civil, and criminal matters. In 
adh-ambdri areas the Khan retains jurisdiction. 

The army is an irregular force, without organization or discipline, 
consisting of 300 infantry, 300 cavalry, and 90 artillery with 29 
old-fashioned guns, of which none are serviceable. The infantry is 
divided into two regiments, and the cavalry into three. The total cost 
amounts to about Rs. 82,000 per annum. Most of the troops are at 
Kalat ; detachments are stationed at Mastung and Khuzdar, and in 
Kachhi. Sepoys are paid Rs. 6 a month ; non-commissioned ofificers, 
Rs. 7 to Rs. 12 ; while risdiddrs and commandants receive from Rs. 20 
to Rs. 50. The cavalry soldiers are mounted on horses found by the 
State, A force of 160 men is also maintained in Makran, at an annual 
cost of about Rs. 32,000. Between 1894 and 189S a body of 205 
infantry and 65 camelmen under a British officer, known as the Kalat 
State Troops, was maintained, but has been disbanded. 

At the most important places in the Khan's nidbats levies, known as 
amla^ are stationed. These men are used for all kinds of duties, both 
revenue and criminal. They number 222, of whom 118 are mounted 
on their own horses and 64 are supplied with horses, when required, by 
the Khan. The remainder are unmounted. They are paid in kind, 
and get Rs. 1 8 per annum in cash. The total cash payments made to 
them amount to about Rs. 4,000. For dealing with cases in which 



KALAT TO WN 



305 



Brahuis are concerned, thdnas, manned by Brahui tribesmen, are located 
in different parts of the country. They number eleven, with 100 men. 
In tribal areas and JagJrs the peace is maintained by the chiefs, 
subsidies amounting to about Rs. 50,000 being paid by the Khan for 
this purpose in addition to the amounts paid by the British Govern- 
ment. A force of ten police is attached to the Political Adviser to the 
Khan for escort duty. One jail is maintained, with accommodation 
for 100 prisoners, and there are lock-ups at the Brahui thdnas. 
Offenders are often kept in the stocks, and are fed by their relations. 

Education has hitherto been entirely neglected, but a large school is 
about to be opened at Mastung. A few boys are taught in mosque 
schools, and Hindu children receive education from their parents. 
Two dispensaries are maintained, one by the British Government and 
the other by the State. They relieved 8,919 patients in 1903 and cost 
Rs. 5,300. Inoculation is practised everywhere, principally by the 
Saiyids and Shaikhs, but the people have no objection to vaccniation. 
The whole country has been surveyed on the -^-inch scale up to 66° E. ; 
the results of a reconnaissance survey westward have been published 
on the f-inch scale. 

\Baluchistdn Blue Books, Nos. i, 2, and 3 (1887); H. Pottinger, 
Travels in Beloochistan and Sifide (181 6); C. Masson, Narrative of 
a Journey to Kaldt (1843) ; Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan, and 
the Funjal) (1842) ; G. P. Tate, Aa/J^ (Calcutta, 1896).] 

Kalat Town. — Capital of the Kalat State in Baluchistan, situated 
in 29° 2' N. and 66° 35' E., 88^ miles from Quetta on the south of 
the Saravvan division. It is known to the natives as Kalat-i-Baloch 
and Kalat-i-.Sewa ; the former to distinguish it from Kalat-i-Ghilzai in 
Afghanistan, and the latter after its legendary founder. The popula- 
tion (1901) does not exceed 2,000 persons. The inhabitants are 
chiefly the Khan's troops, numbering 491, and his retainers, with 
a few Hindu traders. The town occupies a spur of the Shah-i-Mardan 
hill on the west of the Kalat valley. A wall surrounds it, with bastions 
at intervals. Its three approaches on the north, south, and east are 
known respectively as the Mastungi, Gilkand, and Dildar gates. Three 
suburbs lie close by. Commanding the town is the niiri or citadel, 
an imposing structure in which the Khan resides. Kalat fell into 
the hands of the Mirwaris about the fifteenth century, since which 
time the place has remained the capital of the xVhmadzai Khans. 
In 1758 it withstood three assaults by Ahmad Shah Durrani, and in 
1839 was taken by the British under General \\'illshire. A year 
later it surrendered to the Sarawan insurgents. Below the citadel 
lies a Hindu temple of KalT, probably of pre-Muhammadan date. 
The marble image of the goddess, holding the emblem of plenty, 
stands in front of two lights which are perpetually burning. The 



3o6 KALAT TOWN 

trade of the town is chiefly retail business. Taxes on trade are col- 
lected by a system of contracts. Police functions are carried out 
by an ofificial known as m'lr s/iab, assisted by watchmen {kotwals). 

Kalataik. — Ancient site in Thaton District, Lower Burma. See 
Taikkala. 

Kalat-i-Ghilzai. — Fort in the Kandahar province of Afghanistan, 
situated in 30° 7' N. and 66° 55' E., on the road from Kandahar to 
Ghazni ; 5,543 feet above the sea. It stands on the right bank of 
the Tarnak river, 87 miles from Kandahar and 229 from Kabul. The 
fort was occupied in 1842 by a sepoy garrison under Captain Craigie, 
which gallantly repulsed a determined Afghan attack in greatly superior 
numbers. In memory of this feat of arms, the 12th Pioneers still bear 
the name of ' The Kelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment,' and carry a special colour 
with the motto ' Invicta.' The fort was again held by a detachment 
of British troops in 1879-80. In the winter months the cold is very 
great ; during spring and summer the climate is pleasant. The fort 
gives its name to one of the districts of the Kandahar province. 

Kalburga. — Town in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State. 6"^^ Gul- 

BARGA. 

Kale Subdivision. — South-western subdivision of the Upper Chind- 
win District, Upper Burma, containing the Masein, Kalfava, and 
Kale townships. 

Kale. — South-western township of the Upper Chindvvin District, 
Upper Burma, lying along the eastern slopes of the Chin Hills, be- 
tween 22° 40' and 23° 41'' N. and 93° 58' and 94° 16' E., with an area 
of 816 square miles. The population in 1901 was 10,691, distributed 
in 94 villages, Kalemyo (population, 881), on the Myittha stream, 
about 20 miles from its mouth, being the head-quarters. The town- 
ship, which possesses a pestilential climate, consists of the valleys of 
the Myittha and its tributary the Neyinzaya chaung, which flows past 
the village of Yazagyo in a southerly direction to meet it. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 34 square miles, and the land revenue and 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 34,000. The township was formed after 
the Census of 1901. 

Kale. — Village in the Karad tdliika of Satara District, Bombay, 
situated in 17'' 14' N. and 74° 13' E., 31 miles south-by-east of Satara 
town. Population (1901), 5,077. Near it lie the Agashiv caves, the 
oldest Buddhist caves in the District. 

Kalewa Township. — Southern township of the Upper Chindwin 
District, Upper Burma, lying on either side of the Chindwin river, 
between 23° \' and 23" 17' N. and 94° 14' and 94° 30' E., with an 
area of 184 square miles, nearly the whole being a mass of low hills. 
The population in 1901 was 3,535, distributed in 36 villages. The 
head-quarters are at Kalewa (population, 1,036), situated at the junction 



KALIMPOXG 307 

of the Myittha and Chindwin rivers, about 40 miles below Kindat. 
The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 11 square miles, and the land 
revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 10,000. The township was 
formed after the Census of 1901. 

Kalghatgi. — ^^'estern taliika of Dharwar District, Bombay, lying be- 
tween 15^ 2' and 15° 22' N. and 74° 56' and 75° 8' E., with an area of 
275 square miles. There are 99 villages, but no town. The head-quar- 
ters are at Kalghatgi. The population in 1901 was 53,657, compared 
with 55,258 in 1 89 1. The density, 195 persons per square mile, is much 
below the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was 1-3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 9,000. Most of the country is broken 
by wooded hills. The east and south are open and rolling, with bushy 
uplands. The north and west are wilder. The supply of water is on 
the whole plentiful. The rainfall in the west is heavier than in the 
rest of the idluka — the average at Kalghatgi village being 36 inches 
a year. 

Kali. — River of Nepal and the United Provinces, better known 
as the Sarda. 

Kaliakheri. — Head-quarters of the Nizamat-i-Janub or southern 
district of Bhopal State, Central India, situated in 23° 2' N. and 
77° 40' E., 6 miles by metalled road from Hirania station on the 
Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 1,333. ^'^ contains a school and British and State post 
offices. 

Kaliana (or Chal-Kalyana). — Town in the Dadri tahsll of Jind 
State, Punjab, situated in 28° 2,7! N. and 76° 16' E., 5 miles east of 
Dadri town. Population (1901), 2,714. It was the capital of Kalyan 
of the Chal tribe, a Raja who in 1325 rebelled against Alaf Khan, son 
of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak, king of Delhi, and was defeated and slain 
by Saiyid Hidayatullah Khan, who also fell and whose tomb still 
exists. 

Kaliandroog. — Taluk and town in Anantapur District, Madras, 
See Kalyandrug. 

Kali BdiOvl.—Bhrimidi in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Kaliganj.— A'illage in the Satkhira subdivision of Khulna District, 
Bengal, situated in 22" 27' N. and 89"^ 2' E., on the Kanksiali river. 
Population (1901), 47. Kaliganj lies on the boat-route between 
Calcutta and the eastern Districts, and has a large bazar and con- 
siderable local trade. It is also noted for its manufacture of earthen- 
ware, horn, and cutlery. 

Kalimpong (or Dalingkot).— A hilly tract in Darjeeling District, 
Bengal, lying between 26° 51' and 27° 12' N. and 88° 28' and 88° 53' E., 
with an area of 41 2 square miles. It is situated east of the Tista, west of 
the Ni-chu and I)i-chu (Jaldhaka), and south of the State of Sikkim, 



3o8 KALIMPONG 

and was acquired from Bhutan after the campaign of 1864-5. Of the 
total area^ 213 square miles are occupied by 'reserved ' forests and 10 
square miles by four tea gardens, while 1 79 square miles are reserved 
for native cultivation ; five-sixths of the inhabitants are settled on the 
khds mahals or state lands. The country is cut up by ridges of varying 
height and steepness, separated by narrow valleys, the principal of 
which run back far into the mountains. These ridges debouch into 
the plains at elevations ranging from 300 feet to 1,000 feet above sea- 
level, rising in the interior to 10,500 feet at Rishi La. Over a large 
portion of the tract the ' reserved ' forests cover the tops of the ridges 
and the bottoms of the valleys, while the cultivated area occupies the 
intervening space. The land above 5,000 feet is mostly, and that 
above 6,000 feet almost entirely, under ' reserved ' forest, which also 
covers most of the area below 2,000 feet. The chief crop grown is 
maize, which occupies 38,000 acres, or more than three-quarters of the 
net cropped area. A new settlement of the land revenue was com- 
pleted in 1903 ; the demand is Rs. 10,000 per annum, and Rs. 1,300 is 
realized from cesses. A poll tax was originally levied, which was 
gradually replaced by block rates, and these have in their turn given 
way to a differential classification and assessment of the lands within 
each block. 

The land has been classified for revenue purposes as cardamom, 
held rent free for the first three years, during which there is practically 
no out-turn, after which it is assessed at Rs. 10 per acre \ terraced rice 
lands, paying from 8 annas to Rs. 1-4 per acre ; unterraced cultivation, 
including fallows of less than three years' standing, paying 6 annas to 
15 annas per acre; and fallows of three years' standing and over, pay- 
ing from 2 to 3 annas per acre. Some lands in each of the last three 
classes are assessed at a slightly lower rate for the first few years of the 
settlement. The estate has been divided into 48 blocks, excluding 
Kalimpong bazar, each under a headman or mandal, who is responsible 
for the collection of rents, the repair of roads, and certain other duties, 
in return for which he receives a percentage on the collections and 
certain other privileges. The total rental of the khds viahdls for 
1903-4 was Rs. 31,000, and they are exempt from the payment of 
cesses. The chief village in the estate is Kalimpong ; and there are 
large bazars at Pedong on the Tibetan trade 'route, and at Sombari at 
the end of the Chel valley, where the produce of the hill cultivators is 
sold to the cultivators of the Duars. The forests and the colliery at 
Daling have been referred to in the article on Darjeeling Distkict. 
A new tract has been opened for cinchona cultivation at Munsang. 
Oranges are grown and exported to the Duars and the tarai. 

[C. A. '^€i\ Settlement Report {QdXo.wXX.'di, 1905).] 

Kalimpong Village.— Village in the head-quarters subdivision of 



EAST KALI NADI 309 

iJarjeeling District^ Bengal, situated in 27° 4' N. and 88 28' E., 
3>933 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 1,069. The village, 
which has given its name to the tract of hilly country formerly known 
as Dalingkot, is the established market for Tibetan wool and other 
exports, and contains a large bazar. The wool, which is brought in 
via the Jelep La from Tibet, is dispatched by carts along the I'Tsta 
valley road to Siliguri on the Eastern Bengal State Railway. Since 
1 89 1 a fair has been held annually in November at Kalimpong, at 
which agricultural produce and stock are exhibited and prizes are given 
both in cash and in the form of English poultry and selected seed ; 
this is the most successful agricultural show in Bengal, and is supported 
by subscriptions supplemented by a Government grant. More than 
100 Tibetan mules are annually purchased here by Government for 
transport purposes at an average price of Rs. 150. A branch of the 
Church of Scotland Mission, established at Kalimpong, possesses 
a church, an Anglo-Hind! middle school with 4 masters and 55 pupils, 
and a hospital with 28 beds in connexion with the Government 
dispensary. The St. Andrew's Colonial Homes were instituted in 1900, 
under the auspices of the Church of Scotland, for the education of 
poor European and Eurasian children. The object of these homes 
is to give the children, in a healthy District and favourable environ- 
ment, such a course of training as will fit them for emigration to the 
Colonies, or make them more robust for work in India. The scheme 
is managed by an independent committee, and the system adopted is 
that of cottage homes, each cottage holding 25 to 30 children. Origin- 
ally 100 acres of land were granted by Government and an agricultural 
expert was appointed to superintend the outdoor work. The board 
of management have since obtained permission to acquire a tract of 
about 330 acres more and to hold it in the position of a ryot ; of this, 
about 200 acres have already been acquired. The first cottage was 
opened in 1901, and three other cottages and a central school have 
since been added. 

Kali Nadi, East (properly Kalindi, corrupted into Kali Nadi or 
' black river ' by Persian writers). — River of the United Provinces, 
flowing through the Districts of Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bulandshahr, 
AlTgarh, Etah, and Farrukhabad. It rises under the name of Nagan in 
Muzaffarnagar (29° 19' N., 77° 48' E.), but in this District as well as 
in Meerut its bed is ill-defined and often dry. In Bulandshahr it 
becomes a perennial stream, running through a valley marked by high 
banks, and takes the name of Kali Nadi. Its course then changes 
from south to south-east till it joins the Ganges not far above Kanauj, 
310 miles from its source. The valley of the river in Bulandshahr, and 
in Etah, Mainpuri, and Farrukhabad, has suffered from the inability of 
the channel to carry off excessive rainfall, the effects in Bulandshahr 



3IO EAST KALI NAD I 

being augmented by the use of the river as a canal escape. Of late 
years, however, the Irrigation department has carried out a number of 
works to improve the flow, and deterioration has stopped. In 1885 
a flood swept away the Nadrai aqueduct in Etah, which carries the 
Lower Changes Canal over the river, and a series of wet seasons caused 
the land in the valley to deteriorate so much that large reductions of 
assessment were made. This tract has now recovered to a great extent. 

Kali Nadi, West. — A tributary of the Hindan, about 70 miles 
long, rising in the Saharanpur District of the United Provinces (30° N., 
77° 45'' E.), 16 miles from the Siwaliks, and flowing south-west and 
south through Saharanpur and Muzaffarnagar, between the Hindan and 
the Ganges Canal. Its junction with the Hindan is at the point where 
the latter river enters Meerut. 

Kalinga. — One of the ancient kingdoms on the east coast of India. 
Its limits have been variously fixed, but it appears to have included the 
country lying between the Eastern Ghats and the sea from the Goda- 
vari river as far north as Orissa. Its people and its reigning house are 
alluded to in the oldest extant chronicles of India and Ceylon, and 
were also known to the classical writers of Greece and Rome and to 
the inhabitants of the Far East. They appear to have been adven- 
turous traders by sea to different countries. The earliest Buddhist 
legends speak of the Kalinga monarchs as being even then the rulers of 
a civilized country, but little definite is known of them, A number 
of kings belonging to the Eastern Gangas of Kalinga are named in 
copperplate grants, which are dated in an era whose starting-point has 
yet to be settled. The earliest of these kings is believed to belong to 
the seventh century. Later records of the same family state that the 
Gangas of Kalinga were the cousins of the Western Gangas of Mysore. 
At the beginning of the eleventh century the Cholas overran Kalinga, 
which was then in the possession of the Eastern Chalukyas, and set up 
a pillar of victory on the Mahendragiri hill. The Gangas appear to 
have held Kalinga until a comparatively late period, though defeated 
by the Gajapatis in the fifteenth century. Inscriptions recently de- 
ciphered seem to show that their capital, for which very various sites 
have been at different times assigned, was at Mukhalingam in 
Ganjam District. 

Kalingapatam. — Historic village in Ganjam District, Madras. See 
Cai-ingapatam. 

Kalinjar. — Town and hill-fort in the Girwan tahsll of Banda Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 25° \' N. and 80° 29' E., 35 miles 
south of Banda town. Population (1901), 3,015. The fort occupies 
a hill which rises abruptly, and is separated from the nearest eminence 
by a valley about seven miles across. Elevation, 1,203 feet above the 
sea. The crown of the hill is a plateau. Vast polyhedral masses of 



KALINJAR 311 

syenite form the base and afford a comparatively accessible slope, hut 
the horizontal strata of sandstone which cap the whole present so bold 
an escarpment as to be practically impossible of ascent. 

Kalinjar is one of the very ancient forts of Bundelkhand, and separate 
names for it are recorded in each of the three prehistoric periods of 
Hindu chronology. It is said to have been called Ratnakuta in the 
Satya-yi/ga, Mahagiri (* the great hill ') in the T7-eta, and Pingalu (the 
' brown-yellow ' hill) in the Dwdpara-yuga. Other accounts transpose 
or vary these names. But its present appellation, Kalinjar, is itself 
of great antiquity. It occurs, as will be mentioned hereafter, in the 
Mahabharata ; it is conjectured to appear in Ptolemy under the name 
of Tamasis ; and it is mentioned in the Siva Purana as one of the nine 
utkah, from which will burst forth the waters that are finally to destroy 
the world. The modern name is sometimes rendered Kalanjar^ from 
the local worship of Siva under his title of Kalanjara, or ' He who 
causes time to grow old.' It was a very ancient seat of Saivite rites, 
and according to local traditions was strongly fortified by Chandra Brim 
or Varmma, the legendary founder of the Chandel dynasty. 

As in many other cases, Kalinjar was a high place sanctified by 
superstition, and fortified partly by nature and partly by art. The 
Mahabharata mentions it as already a famous city, and states that 
whoever bathes in the Lake of the Gods, the local place for pilgrimage, 
is as meritorious as he who bestows in charity one thousand cows. 
The hill must have been covered with Hindu temples before the 
erection of the fort, for the dates of the inscriptions on the sacred 
sites are earlier than those on the gates of the fortress ; and the ram- 
parts consist largely of ornamental pillars, cornices, and other fragments 
of carved work, which evidently belonged to earlier edifices. Firishta 
speaks of it as having been founded by Kedar Nath, a reputed con- 
temporary of the Prophet, in the seventh century a.d. The Musalman 
historians make mention of the king of Kalinjar as an ally of Jaipal, 
Raja of Lahore, in his unsuccessful invasion of Ghazni, a.d. 978. 
A Raja of Kalinjar was also present at the battle of Peshawar, fought 
by Anand Pal in 1008, when endeavouring to check the victorious 
advance of Mahmud of Ghazni in his fourth expedition. In 102 1 
Ganda or Nanda, the Chandel Raja of Kalinjar, defeated the king 
of Kanauj ; and in 1023 Mahmud of Ghazni besieged the fort, but 
came to terms with the Raja. The Chandel clan of Rajputs removed 
the seat of their government from Mahoba to Kalinjar after their defeat 
by Prithwi Raj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi, about 1182. In 1203 
Kutb-ud-din, the viceroy of Muhammad GhorT, took Kalinjar, and 
' converted the temples into mosques and abodes ^of goodness,' while 
' the very name of idolatry was annihilated.' But the Musalmans 
do not seem to have long retained possession of their new conquest ; 



312 KALINJAR 

for in 1234, and again in 1251, we hear of fresh Muhammadan 
attacks on Kalinjar, which fell into the hands of Malik Nusrat-ud-dln 
with a great booty. In 1247 Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud brought 
the surrounding country under his sway ; but even after this date, 
Chandel inscriptions erected in the fort show that it remained in the 
hands of its ancient masters almost up to the close of the thirteenth 
century. 

Kalinjar next reappears in history in 1530, when the Mughal prince, 
Huniayun, son of Babar, laid siege to the fort, which he continued 
intermittently to attack during ten years. In 1545 the Afghan, Sher 
Shah, marched against the stronghold ; during the siege a live shell 
rebounded from the walls into the battery where the Sultan stood, 
and set fire to a quantity of gunpowder, Sher Shah was brought 
out horribly burnt, and died the following day. Before his death, 
however, he ordered an assault, which was executed with instant suc- 
cess, and his son, Jalal Khan, was crowned in the captured citadel 
and assumed the name of Islam Shah. In 1569 Majnun Khan 
attacked the fort, which was finally surrendered to him for Akbar, 
who constituted it the head-quarters of a sarkar. Under Akbar, 
Kalinjar formed a jdgir of the imperial favourite, Raja Birbal. Later 
it fell into the hands of the Bundelas {see Banda District) ; and 
on the death of their national hero, Chhatarsal, it passed into the 
possession of Hardeo Sah of Panna. His descendants continued 
to hold it for several generations, when they gave way to the family 
of Kaim Ji, one of their own dependants. 

During the period of Maratha supremacy, All Bahadur laid siege 
to the fort for two years, but without success. After the British 
occupation Daryau Singh, the representative of Kaim Ji, was con- 
firmed in possession of the fort and territory. But on his proving 
contumacious in 181 2, a force under Colonel Martindell attacked 
Kalinjar ; and although he failed to take the place by storm, Daryau 
Singh surrendered eight days later, receiving an equal portion of ter- 
ritory in the plains. During the Mutiny, a small British garrison 
retained possession of the fort throughout the whole rebellion, aided 
by the Raja of Panna. In 1866 the fortifications were dismantled. 

The summit of the rock is between 4 and 5 miles in circuit, and is 
fortified by a rampart rising from the very edge. Access is obtained 
by a sloping pathway and flight of steps passing through seven gate- 
ways, several of which bear inscriptions. Numerous rock-cut tanks 
and a few remains of temples are to be seen on the plateau, and re- 
ligious carvings and inscriptions are scattered about, some of which 
have yielded valuable historical results. One temple, dedicated to 
Nllkanth, is still in good repair. There are also many caves, some 
of which contain inscriptions. 



KALKA 313 

The town is locally known as TarahtT, and is situated at the foot 
of the hill. It is now of small importance ; but the ruins of fine 
residences and many old remains prove it to have been once rich 
and important. Tarahti contains a dispensary, and was till recently 
administered under Act XX of 1856, but its importance is decreasing. 
There is a village school. 

\^ Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xvii, pp. 171 and 313; 
Cunningham, Archaeological Sm-vey Reports, vol. xxi, p. 20.] 

Kalinjara. — Village in the State of Banswara, Rajputana, situated 
in 23° 21' N. and 74° 19' E., on the right bank of the Haran stream, 
a tributary of the Anas, 17 miles south-west of the capital. It was 
formerly a place of considerable trade carried on by Jain merchants, 
who were driven away by Maratha freebooters. It is now the head- 
quarters of the southern of the two districts into which the State 
has been recently divided, and possesses a small Hindi school attended 
by about 20 boys. The place is remarkable as containing the ruins 
of a fine Jain temple, described by Heber as being built on a very 
complicated and extensive plan. It is covered with numerous domes 
and pyramids and divided into a great number of apartments, roofed 
with stone, crowded with images, and profusely embellished with 
rich and elaborate carvings. 

[Bishop Heber, Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces 
of India, vol. ii (1828).] 

Kali Sind. — Tributary of the Chambal, draining part of Central 
India and Rajputana. It rises in the Vindhyas in 22° 36'' N. and 
76° 25' E., at the village of Barjhirl, and flows for about 180 miles 
through the Gwalior, Dewas, Narsinghgarh, and Indore States in 
Central India, after which it traverses Kotah and Jhalawar in Rajput- 
ana, piercing the Mukandwara hills near Gagraun, and falls into the 
Chambal, 225 miles from its source, near the village of Pipara in 
Kotah State (25° 32' N. and 76° 19" E.). Its principal tributaries 
are the Lakundar in Central India, and the Parwan, Ujar, and Ahu 
in Rajputana. Though a perennial stream, the volume of water is 
small except in the rains, and several roads cross the river by cause- 
ways. The Ujjain-Bhopal Railway, however, passes over a bridge 
near the Kali Sind station. Water for irrigation is raised from its 
bed in the upper part of its course, but lower down the banks be- 
come too steep. The river is frequently referred to in .Sanskrit 
literature, and is mentioned by Abul Fazl as one of the principal 
rivers of Malwa. Sarangpur and Gagraun are the principal places 
on its banks. It is probable that Kali (' black ') Sind derives its 
name from the prevalence of black basalt in its bed. 

Kalka. — Town attached for administrative purposes to the Kharar 
tahsil of Ambala District, Punjab, situated in 30° 50' N. and'76° 57' E., 



314 KALKA 

at the foot of the outlying range of the Himalayas at an elevation of 
2,400 feet, and entirely surrounded by Patiala territory. It is the 
junction of the Delhi-Uniballa-Kalka and Kalka-Simla Railways. Popu- 
lation (1901), 7,045. Kalka was acquired from Patiala in 1843 as 
a depot for Simla ; it is also an important market for hill produce, 
such as ginger and turmeric. There is a considerable manufacture 
of millstones, and a railway workshop is situated here, which em- 
ployed 200 hands in 1904. It is administered as a 'notified area.' 

Kallakurchi. — Western tdhik of South Arcot District, Madras, 
lying between 11° 34' and 12° 4' N. and 78° 38' and 79° 13' E., 
with an area of 873 square miles. The Kalrayans, one of the 
only two hill-ranges in the District, skirt its western border, and 
south of them the Atur pass leads into Salem District. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 269,377, having risen from 239,405 in 1891. There 
are no towns; but it contains 367 villages, of which Kallakurchi, the 
head-quarters, is situated on the trunk road from Cuddalore to Salem. 
It is the second largest taluk in the District, and the second most 
sparsely peopled. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 4,92,000. In the hills in the west rise several small 
streams, which are utilized for irrigation by means of rough stone dams. 
The hill villages, which number 96, are divided into three palaiyams 
or estates. The poligdrs or chiefs obtain their revenue chiefly by 
leasing out the forests and by a poll-tax on their tenants, who are 
all Malaiyalis by caste. There is no irrigated cultivation on the hills ; 
the principal ' dry crops ' grown are rdgi, camlni, tinai {Setaria ita/ica, 
a poor kind of millet), and varagu. Bamboos and timber of various 
kinds are taken down to the plains, and sold for house-building and 
other purposes. 

Kallianpur. — Village in the Udipi taluk of South Kanara District, 
Madras, situated in 13° 24'' N. and 74° 44" E. It is conjectured to 
have been the Kalliana mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes as the 
seat of a bishop in the sixth century. It is also the reputed birthplace 
of Madhvacharya, the Vaishnavite reformer, who was born about 
A.D. 1 199. The Portuguese established a factory here in 1678. 

Kallidaikurichi. — Town in the Ambasamudram taluk of Tinne- 
velly District, Madras, situated in 8° 41' N. and 77° 27'E., on the 
Tambraparni river. It is a Union, with a population (1901) of 14,913. 
It contains a large number of Brahmans, several of whom are engaged 
in a flourishing cloth trade with Travancore, while others are also 
bankers. The fields around the town are well watered and very 
valuable. 

Kallikota and Atagada. —Two permanently settled estates in 
Ganjam Di.strict, Madras, lying between 19° 28'' and 19° 52' N. and 
84° 43' and 85° 12' E,, on the northern boundary of the Presidency. 



KALMESHWAR 3 1 5 

While the former is impartible, the latter is partible, and was acquired 
in 1854 by the zaminddr of Kallikota by purchase at a sale for arrears 
of revenue. The joint area of the two is 507 square miles and their 
population (1901) 169,693. lihe pes hkash and cesses payable by them 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,11,000. The chief village, Kallikota, is 
beautifully situated in a basin surrounded by hills. 

The Kallikota family was founded by Ramabhuya, who was made 
a zaminddr by the Gajapati king of Orissa, Purushottama. At a later 
period he obtained the title of Mardaraja Deo for his services in 
keeping the Marathas out of the country. In 1769 the estate was in 
a disturbed condition and was occupied by British troops, and from 
1771 to 1775 troops were again employed in maintaining order. 

The soil is fertile and well irrigated, and yields good crops. The 
prevailing tenure is vuistdjiri, under which the villages are rented out 
to middlemen who collect the assessment. The rent payable by the 
tenant to the landlord is generally half the gross produce. 

The present Raja succeeded in 1887 as a minor, and the estates 
were managed for the next five years by the Court of \Vards. During 
this period Rs. 93,000 was spent on repairs to irrigation works, 
Rs. 1,34,000 of debt was cleared off, and the property was handed over 
to its owner in 1893 in a flourishing condition, with an income which 
had been increased from Rs. 2,41,000 to Rs. 3,17,000, and with a cash 
balance of Rs. 2,11,000. Within the next ten years the Raja had 
dissipated this balance, incurred further debts, and mortgaged the 
two estates to his creditors. 

Kallur Taluka (formerly called Madhra). — Southern tdhikoiWaxaw- 
gal District, Hyderabad State, north of the Kistna District of Madras, 
with an area of 966 square miles. The population in 1901, including 
Jaglrs, was 103,829, compared with 92,738 in 1891. The tdiuk con- 
tains 184 villages, of which 25 urcjdgif, and Kallur (population, 2,741) 
is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 2-5 lakhs. I'he 
Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway passes through the tdluk from 
north-west to south-east. Rice is largely cultivated near tanks. The 
diamond mines of Partyal are situated in this tdluk. 

Kallur Town. — Town in the Raichur tdluk of Raichur District, 
Hyderabad Slate, situated in 16° 9' N. and 77° 13' E., 10 miles w^est 
of Raichur town. It has three temples built of stone, all in good 
preservation, and two mosques. Population (1901), 6,456. 

Kalmeshwar. — Town in the District and ta/isil of Nagpur, Central 
Provinces, situated in 2 1° 14' N. and 78° 56' E., 13 miles west of Nagpur 
city by road. Kalmeshwar is supposed to have been founded by 
nomad Ahirs or herdsmen, and the name is derived from that t)f their 
god Kalma. Population (1901), 5,340. The town stands on black 
soil, lying low, with bad natural drainage. On a small eminence in its 

VOL. XIV. X 



3 1 6 KALMESHWA R 

centre is an old fortress, said to have been built by a Hindu family 
from Delhi in the time of Bakht Buland. Kalmeshwar was consti- 
tuted a municipality in 1867. The municipal income during the 
decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 4,400. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 5,000, mainly derived from a house tax and market dues. A 
weekly cattle market is held, and there is some trade in grain and 
oilseeds. Cotton cloth is woven by hand. There is an English 
middle school. 

Kalna Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Burdwan Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 23° 7' and 23° 36' N. and 88^ o' and 
88° 25' E., with an area of 399 square miles. This subdivision, like 
the adjoining subdivision of Katwa, is flat and alluvial, and the eastern 
portion along the bank of the Bhaglrathi is low-lying and marshy. 
The population in 1901 was 233,269, compared with 231,512 in 1891, 
the density being 585 persons per square mile. It contains one 
town, Kalna (population, 8,121), its head-quarters; and 698 villages. 
Nadanghat possesses a large river trade in rice. 

Kalna Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in Burdwan District, Bengal, situated in 23° 13' N. and 88° 22' E., on 
the right bank of the Bhagirathi. Population (1901), 8,121. Kalna 
was a place of great importance in Muhammadan times, and the ruins 
of a large fort which commanded the river are still to be seen. It was 
formerly the port which supplied the District, and steamers still visit it 
throughout the year ; but it has suffered owing to the competition with 
the East Indian Railway, and its population has declined. A con- 
spicuous feature of the town is a group of 109 Siva lingain temples, 
which were built in 1809. Kalna was constituted a municipality in 
1869. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 13,000, and the expenditure Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 16,000, of which Rs. 4,000 was derived from a tax on persons 
(or property tax) and Rs. 4,000 from a tax on vehicles, &c. ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 14,000. The town contains the usual public 
offices ; the subsidiary jail has accommodation for 20 prisoners. 

Kalni. — River in Assam. See Surma. 

Kalol Taluka (i). — Southern tCihika of the Kadi prdnt, Baroda 
State, with an area of 267 square miles. The population fell from 97,089 
in 1891 to 80,532 in 1901. It contains one town, Kalol (population, 
6,465), the head-quarters ; and 88 villages. The tdhika presents the 
appearance of a fairl)' wooded and well -cultivated plain. The Sabar- 
mati river just touches its western boundary. The surface soil is 
gordt, or of a light sandy nature. In 1904-5 the land revenue 
was Rs. 2,15,000. 

Kalol Town. — Head-quarters of the idluka of the same name, 
Kadi //-a///, Baroda State, situated in 23° 15' N. and 72° 2i-' ^': on the 



KALFI TAHSIL 317 

Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Gaikwar's State lines run from here to 
Vijapur on one side, and to Kadi on the other. Population (1901), 
6,465. Kalol contains Munsif's and magistrate's courts, a dispensary, 
a vernacular school, and local offices. An annual grant of Rs. 1,300 is 
made to the municipality. The town is the centre of a considerable 
trade in grain. 

Kalol Taluka (2). —Southern tdluka of the western portion of 
Ranch Mahals District, Bombay, including the petty subdivision {petka) 
of Halol, lying between 22° 15' and 22° 44' N. and 73° 22' and 
73° 44' E., with an area of 414 square miles. It contains one town, 
Kalol (population, 4,446), the head-quarters; and 252 villages. Popu- 
lation in 1901 was 73,796, compared with 87,851 in 1891, the decrease 
being due to famine. The density, 178 persons per square mile, 
slightly exceeds the District average. Kalol forms a rich well-wooded 
plain ; its fields fenced with hedges and rows of brab palms ; its vil- 
lages compact and comfortable. Three rivers cross the tdluka : from 
east to west the Mesri in the north, the Goma in the centre, and the 
Karad in the south. These rivers become torrents in the rains, and 
trickling streams in the cold season. Light or gorddu soil lies all over 
this part of the country ; the black cotton soil is not met with. The 
petty division of Halol is a well-wooded and tilled plain surrounding 
the hill fort of Pavagarh. To the east and south, low isolated hills 
stand out from a rich black-soil plain, most of it waste. Within 4 or 
5 miles of the hills the climate is unhealthy and the water often 
deleterious. Three rivers, the Karad, Visvamitri, and Devnadi, cross 
Halol from east to west. A\'ater lies near the surface. Cultivation is 
rude, and the peasantry inert. The annual rainfall averages 37 inches. 
Land revenue (including Halol) and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
more than i-i lakhs. 

Kalpi Tahsil. — Eastern tahs'il of Jalaun District, United Provinces, 
conterminous with the J>arga/m of the same name, lying between 25° 53' 
and 26° 22' N. and 79° 25' and 79° 52' E., with an area of 407 S(|uare 
miles. Population fell from 78,754 in 1891 to 75,692 in 1901. There are 
154 villages and one town, Kalpi (population, 10,139), the /"rt/^^J/ head- 
quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,55,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 25,000. The density of population, 186 persons per 
square mile, is the lowest in the District. The tahsil is bounded on 
the north-east by the Jumna and on the south by the Ketwa, while 
several small drainage channels enter it from the west and unite to 
form a stream called the Non. In the south-west the soil is inferior 
mdr^ and this tract has recently suffered from bad seasons and is over- 
grown with kdns {Saccharuin spontaneuin). Near the Jumna the soil 
becomes lighter, and on the banks of the vast system of ravines which 
fringe that river and the smaller streams denudation has reduced the 

X 2 



3i8 KALPi TAHSIL 

fertility of the land. In 1 899-1900 the area under cultivation was 
158 square miles, of which only 9 were irrigated. 

Kalpi Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Jalaun District, United Provinces, situated in 26'' 8' N. and 79° 45' E., 
on the Jumna, on the road from Cawnpore and Saugor, and on the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 10,139. 

According to tradition KalpT was founded in the fourth century by 
one Basdeo. It fell into the hands of Kutb-ud-din in 11 96, and at 
once became an important fortress of the Musalmans. In the fifteenth 
century Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur made two unsuccessful attempts to 
seize Kalpi, and in 1435 Hoshang Shah of Malwa captured the place. 
A few years later Ibrahim's successor, Mahmud, was allowed to occupy 
the town on the plea of chastising the governor. He plundered it, 
and then refused to restore it to the king of Malwa, but afterwards 
came to terms. In the struggle between the Jaunpur kingdom and 
the rulers of Delhi, which ended with the extinction of the former, 
a great battle took place near Kalpi in 1477, and Husain Shah of 
Jaunpur fled to Kanauj, where he was again defeated. When the 
victory at Panipat in 1526 laid open the plains of Hindustan to Babar, 
the Rana of Chitor and the Afghans combined to stop his advance, 
and occupied Kalpi, but were met near the site of Fatehpur Sikri, as 
they marched on Agra, and defeated. Kalpi was taken in 1527 by 
Humayun after his conquest of Jaunpur and Bihar, and held till 1540, 
when the Mughals were defeated by Sher Shah at Kanauj. It was 
again the scene of fierce contests in the struggles which sapped the 
Afghan strength before the return to power of the Mughals. Under 
Akbar Kalpi became the head-quarters of a sarkdr, which included the 
adjacent parts of the present Districts of Etawah, Cawnpore, and 
Hamirpur, besides Jalaun and portions of the State of Gwalior. ^\'hen 
the Marathas acquired part of Bundelkhand early in the eighteenth 
century, Kalpi became the head-quarters of their governor. In 1798 
the town was captured by the British, but was subsequently abandoned. 
It again fell into their power, after a few hours' resistance, in 1803, and 
was granted to Himmat Bahadur. He died in the following year and 
the grant lapsed, when the town was made over to Gobind Rao of 
Jalaun, who exchanged it in 1806. After the large District of Bundel- 
khand was divided into two portions, Kalpi was for a time tlie head- 
quarters of the northern division, afterwards called HamIrpur District. 
During the Mutiny a great victory was won near here, in May, 1858, 
by Sir Hugh Rose over a force of 12,000 rebels under the Rani of 
Jhansi, the Rao Sahib, and the Nawab of Banda, which did much to 
quell the rebeUion in Bundelkhand. 

The town is situated among the ravines of the Jumna, and after 
a long period of decay is again reviving in importance. The western 



KALRA 319 

outskirt contains a number of old tombs, notably that called the 
ChaurasI Gumbaz (or ' eighty-four domes ') ; but ravines now separate 
these relics of the past from the dwellings of the living. Old KalpI 
stands near the river on an elevated site, and is a good specimen of 
the older type of North Indian town, with darkened plaster walls and 
flat roofs interspersed with trees, and here and there a temple spire 
or a Muhammadan dome. The newer portion of the town stretches 
south-east, and is lower and farther from the river. On the most 
prominent edge of the steep bank stand the ruins of a fort, but only 
a single building has survived. This is a masonry room with walls 
9 feet thick, said to have been the treasury of the Maratha governor. 
A fine flight of steps leads from the fort to a bathing ghat on the river. 
A few years ago a lofty tower was built by a local pleader, which is 
adorned with representations of the battles of the Ramayana. It is 
noteworthy that less prominence is given to Rama than to Ravana his 
adversary, who is represented as a gigantic many-armed figure, of 
dignified aspect, about 80 feet in height. The chief public buildings 
are the tahsiH and dispensary. 

Kalpi has been a municipality since 1868. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 11,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 9,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 14,000. For many years 
Kalpi was a great trade centre. Cotton and grain were brought from 
the south, and sent away to Cawnpore or down the Jumna to Mirzapur 
and Calcutta, while the manufactures of sugar-candy and paper were 
celebrated. The buildings of the East India Company's cotton factory, 
which was one of the principal stations for providing the annual 
investment, are still standing. As railways spread and trade routes 
altered, Kalpi declined, but its commerce is now again increasing. 
Grain is sent to Southern and Western India, gJii to Bengal, and cotton 
to Cawnpore or Bombay. Two small cotton-gins have recently been 
opened, and the Forest department is starting plantations of babul 
for the supply of bark to the Cawnpore tanneries. The tahsili school 
has III pupils, and there are three municipal schools with 170, and 
a girls' school with 19. 

Kalra.— Estate in the District and tahsil of Shahpur, Punjab, with 
an area of 13 square miles. For services in the Mutiny a member 
of the Tivvana family of Mitha Tiwana, named Malik Sahib Khan, 
Khan Bahadur, C.S.I., obtained a grant of 8,700 acres (jf waste land 
in the Shahpur tahsil. To irrigate this he constructed a canal, and 
the estate is now a most valuable one. His son, Malik Umar Hayat, 
succeeded in 1879. The Malik also owns estates in Shahpur, Jhelum, 
and Lyallpur Districts, aggregating nearly 13,000 acres, and the 
whole i)roperty yields an income of about 2 lakhs. Recently the 



320 KALRA 

Malik obtained a horse-breeding grant of 2,270 acres in the Jhelum 
Colony. 

Kalrayan Hills. — These hills are situated partly in the Atur and 
Uttangari taluks of Salem District and parti)' in South Arcot District, 
Madras, lying between 11° 38' and 12° 4' N. and 78° 28' and 78° 49' E. 
They stand east of the Tenandamalai, being separated from it by the 
Kottapatti valley, and are perhaps the largest in superficial extent 
of the hill ranges in Salem District. Different portions of the range 
have local names, but the principal divisions are the Periya ('big') 
Kalrayans, which attain an elevation of 4,300 feet, and the Chinna 
(' little ') Kalrayans, reaching to little above 3,000 feet. The temple 
of Kari Raman in the Periya Kalrayans is held in great reverence 
by the Malaiyalis who inhabit these hills. The range is parcelled out 
into five j5girs or estates, the owners of which govern their tenants in 
a primitive and patriarchal fashion. The fever on the range is so 
dreaded that few dwellers on the plains ever go up it, and consequently 
the people have retained many curious customs which differ from those 
of the low country. They are exclusively of the caste known as 
Malaiyalis ; but there is no doubt that they are not a distinct race, but 
merely Tamils who at some remote period took refuge in these hills 
from the troublous times through which the plains were passing. 

Kalsi. — Town in the Chakrata tahsil of Dehra Dun District, United 
Provinces, situated in 30° 32' N. and 77° 51' E., close to the confluence 
of the Jumna and the Tons, on the military road from Saharanpur to 
Chakrata, 52 miles from the former and 25 miles from the latter. 
Three miles away the road crosses the Jumna by an iron girder-bridge. 
Population (1901), 760. The place has declined owing to the transfer 
of the tahsil head-quarters to Chakrata. KalsT is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, the annual income and expenditure amounting to 
Rs. 300 or Rs. 400. It is chiefly remarkable for a large quartz boulder 
in the neighbourhood on which are sculptured the celebrated edicts 
of Asoka ; one of these gives the names of contemporary kings in 
"Western Asia, Greece, and Egypt \ 

Kalsia. — Native State in the Punjab, under the political control 
of the Commissioner, Delhi Division. It comprises twenty detached 
pieces of territory in Ambala and Ferozepore Districts, lying mainly 
between 30° 12' and 30° 25' N. and 77° 21' and 77° 35' E. The 
present Sardar of the State, RanjTt Singh, is a descendant of Sardar 
Ciurbakhsh Singh, a Jat of Kalsia near Lahore, who joined the Kroria 
7msl or confederacy of the Sikhs. His son Jodh Singh, a man of 
ability and prowess, effected considerable conquests on both sides of 
the Sutlej, but eventually the family lost all those north of the river. 
When the Cis-Sutlej States came under British protection, Sardar Jodh 
' Coyfus Inscriptiomitii Tndicaruni. vol. i, j)ji. 12 and 117. 



KALVAN 321 

Singh, after some hesitation, tbllowed the general examplt-. The Slate 
has an area of 168 square miles, and a population (1901) of 67,i3i. 
It is divided into two tahsi/s, Chhachhrauli and Easi, with the isolated 
^Mh-tahsil of Chirak, in Ferozepore District. It contains two towns, 
Chhachhrauli (population, 5,520) and Basi (4,641) ; and 181 villages. 
In 1903-4 the revenue amounted to 1-9 lakhs, of which 1-2 lakhs was 
land revenue. The State was regularly settled in 1891. It had suffered 
considerably from over-assessment, and its people had been im- 
poverished. The excise administration is leased to the British 
Government for Rs. 6,000 per annum. 

Kalsubai. — Hill in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, situated in 
19° 36' N. and 73° 42' E., 5,427 feet high, and the most elevated 
point in the Deccan. Its summit is crowned by a temple, 10 miles 
south-east of Igatpuri, a station on the north-east branch of the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway. A priest of Devi Kalsu daily 
climbs to the temple from Indor, a village at the foot of the hill, to 
offer a sacrifice of fowls. The shrine is visited by large numbers 
of KolTs. 

Kalugumalci {kalugu, 'an eagle,' and inalai, 'a hill'). — Village 
in the Ettaiyapuram zamhidari and the Ottappidaram ta/nk of Tin- 
nevelly District, Madras, situated in 9° 8' N. and 77° 42' E., 28 miles 
north of Tinnevelly town and 12 miles from Sankaranayinarkovil. 
Population (1901), 4,827. It contains a celebrated rock-cut temple 
dedicated to the god Subrahmanya, and many Jain sculptures and 
inscriptions. The temple is similar in style to the Seven Pagodas 
in Chingleput District, and is thought to have been built in the tenth 
or eleventh century. An annual festival and cattle fair in February 
attract a large number of people from the southern Districts and even 
from Mysore. 

Kalukhera. — Thakurat in the Mai.wa Agenxv, Central India. 

Kalvakurti. — Eastern taluk of Mahbubnagar District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 583 square miles. The population in 1901, 
including Jdglrs, was 54,384, compared with 52,132 in 1891. The 
taluk in 1 90 1 contained lor villages, of which 31 are jagir, and Kal- 
vakurti (population, 2,230) is the head-quarters. The land revenue 
was Rs. 85,000. In 1905 this taluk received some additions from the 
adjoining taluk of Jedcherla, and now contains 99 khalsa villages. 

Kalvan. — North-western taluka of Nasik District, Bombay, lying 
betv.'een 20° 21' and 20"^ 42' N. and 73° 40' and 74" 20' E., with an 
area of 494 square miles. There are 188 villages, but no town. The 
population in 1901 was 53,616, compared with 60,417 in 1S91. The 
density, 109 persons per square mile, is much below the District 
average. The head-quarters are at Kalvan. The demand for kind 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 91,000, and for cesses Rs. 6,000. Thq 



32 2 KALVAN 

west is covered with steep bare hills ; towards the east the country, 
though flatter and more fertile, is divided by a spur running south-east 
from the Western Ghats ; in the south rises the high and rugged Sapta- 
shring range, with its lower slopes fringed with teak. The annual 
rainfall averages 25 inches. 

Kalyan Taluka. — Southern tCihika of Thana District, Bombay, 
lying between 19° 4' and 19° 24' N. and 73° i" and 73° 24' E., with 
an area of 276 square miles. It contains one town, Kalyan (popu- 
lation, 10,749), the head-quarters; and 224 villages. The population 
in 1901 was 77,087, compared with 80,171 in 1891. The density is 
279 persons per square mile, or rather more than the District average. 
Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-2 lakhs. The 
tdluka is triangular in form, and in its western part a rich open plain. 
In the south and east, ranges of hills running parallel with the boun- 
dary line throw out spurs into the heart of the plain. The transport 
of produce is facilitated by the tidal creek of the Ulhas river and by 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The river Kalu is navigable 
by boats of 10 tons for 9 miles above Kalyan town. There are dis- 
agreeable east winds in April and May ; but although fever is pre- 
valent in the cold season, the climate is on the whole temperate 
and healthy. 

Kalyan Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Thana District, Bombay, situated in 19° 14' N. and 73° 10' E., at the 
junction of the north-east and south-east lines of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, 33 miles north-east of Bombay. Population (1901), 
16,749. Kalyan has been a municipality since 1855. The munici- 
pal income during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 19,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 19,579. It has a considerable rice-husking 
trade, carried on by Muhammadans and some Marathas. This industry 
gives occupation to about 750 persons, half of whom are women. There 
is also a trade in tobacco, dried fish, bricks, tiles, and myrabolams. 
The streets and lanes in the town are metalled, and kept in clean con- 
dition. A ferry plies across the Ulhas river to Kone on the opposite 
bank. The town has a vegetable market built by the municipality. It 
is supplied with water from the Shenala lake about a quarter of a mile 
to the east. 

The name of Kalyan appears in ancient inscriptions, which have 
been attributed to the first, second, fifth, or sixth century a.d. 
According to the Periplus, Kalyan rose to importance about the end 
of the second century. Cosmas Indicopleustes, in the sixth century, 
mentions it as one of the five chief marts of Western India, the seat of 
a powerful king, with a trade in brass, black-wood logs, and articles 
of clothing. Early in the fourteenth century the Muhammadans found 
Kalyan the capital of a district, and gave it the name of Islamabad. 



KALYANDRUG TOWN 323 

It was taken by the Portuguese in T536. They did not garrison the 
town, but, returning in 1570, burnt the suburbs and carried off much 
booty. From this time it seems to have formed part of the Ahmad- 
nagar kingdom. In 1648 Sivaji's general, AbajT Sondeo, surprised 
Kalyan and took the governor prisoner. The Muhammadans re- 
covered the town in 1660, but again lost it in 1662. In 1674 Sivaji 
granted the English leave to establish a factory. The Marathas in 1780 
having cut off their supplies, Kalyan was seized by the British, and 
has since remained in their possession. Objects of interest are the 
Shenali tank, said to have been built in 1505 ; the tomb of Motabar 
Khan, minister of Shah Jahan, who was sent in disgrace to Kalyan 
when Aurangzeb usurped his father's throne ; and seven mosques, of 
which the graceful Kali Masjid is the most noteworthy. The town 
contains a Sub-Judge's court, a dispensary, an English school with 
87 pupils, 7 vernacular schools for boys with 358 pupils, and one for 
girls with 96. There are also a library, a small printing press, and 
a rice-husking mill. 

Kalyandrug Taluk.— Westernmost taluk of Anantapur District, 
Madras, lying between 14° 14' and 14° 44' N. and 76° 51' and 
77" 23' E., with an area of 817 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 76,977, compared with 72,730 in 1891. Originally part of the 
Dharmavaram idluk, it was separated at the end of 1893. ^^ con- 
tains 70 villages and one town, Kaly.\ndrug (population, 8,815), the 
head-quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 1,30,000. No less than 88 per cent, of the 'dry' 
land pays an assessment of four annas or less per acre. The taluk is 
rocky and barren, the soil stony and very poor, and the rainfall less 
than 21 inches per annum. Consequently it is bare and uninviting, 
and the density of population is less than 100 per square mile, being 
lower than in any taluk in the Presidency except those which are 
covered with hill and forest. The northern portion has a little black 
cotton soil and is slightly richer. 

Kalyandrug Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name 
in Anantapur District, Madras, situated in 14° 33' N. and 77° 6' E. 
Population (1901), 8,815. It was formerly a place of some importance, 
containing a District Munsifs court, but now, being off the railway and 
in the centre of a very barren tract, it is in a decaying state. It lies in 
a hollow surrounded by hills, two of which are 2,400 feet high. The 
ruins of an old fort and the buildings connected therewith still stand, 
but are of no antiquarian interest. On the higher of the two hills 
above referred to, and in the neighbouring village of Mudigallu, are 
some hundreds of prehistoric kistvaens. On the hill are also three 
curious circular mounds of earth, about 3 feet in height and some 
10 or II yards in diameter. All round them are planted, upright in 



324 KALYANDRUG TOWN 

the earth, slabs of stone of irregular shape, which stand from 4 to 5 
feet above the ground. 

Kalyani.— A jagir town in Bidar District, Hyderabad State, situ- 
ated in 17° 53' N. and 76° 57' E., 36 miles west of Bidar town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 11,191. About the middle of the eleventh century 
Someshwar I made Kalyani the capital of the Chalukyan kingdom. 
A hundred years later the power was usurped by Bijjala Kalachuri, 
the commander-in-chief, and before the close of the twelfth century 
the Chalukya power was at an end. While Kalyani remained a great 
capital, it was noted as the residence of Vijnaneshwar, the author of 
the treatise on law known as the Mitdkshara, and of Basava who 
founded the Lingayat sect. Further particulars about Basava and 
the Lingayats will be found in the article on Mysore State. The 
Kalachuris were succeeded by the Yadavas of Deogiri (Daulatabad) ; 
and after the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty, Kalyani passed 
into their possession in the fourteenth century, and subsequently into 
that of Bijapur. The Mughals sacked it in 1653. In 1656 Aurangzeb 
invested the fortress, which surrendered after an heroic defence. 
During the contests which followed the decline of Chalukyan power, 
and the struggles between various Muhammadan rulers, the magnificent 
temples which once adorned the place were demolished or converted 
into mosques. 

Kama. — South-western township of Thayetmyo District, Burma, 
lying between 18° 52" and 19° iS' N. and 94° 39' and 95° 13' E., and 
extending from the Irrawaddy in the east to the Arakan Yoma on the 
west. The area of the township, which is intersected by low hills, is 
575 square miles, and it contains 201 villages. The population in 
1 89 1 was 41,383, and in 1901, in consequence of emigration to the 
delta, it had fallen to 39,570 (including 2,500 Chins). The head- 
quarters are at Kama (population, 1,779), ^ village situated on low hills 
on the right or western bank of the Irrawaddy. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 50 square miles, paying Rs. 53,000 land revenue. 

Kama. — Tahsil and head-quarters thereof in Bharatpur State, 
Rajputana. See Kaman. 

Kamadhia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Kamaing. — North-western township of Myitkyina District, Upper 
Burma, lying between 25° 30' and 26° N. and 96° and 97*' E., with an 
area of 2,650 square miles. The population in 1901 was only 9,687, 
half of whom were Kachins, a fourth Shans, and one-sixth Burmans. 
It contains T26 villages, of which all but five are in the Kachin Hill 
Tracts. Kamaing (population, 1,079), ^vhere there is a strong military 
police post, is the head-quarters. In 1 903-4 the area cultivated was 
600 acres, apart from taiaigyas ; but the greater part of the township 
is forest. The land revenue and thaihameda amounted to Rs. 5,000. 



KAMAN 325 

Kamakhya. — A temple, sacred to Satl, which stands on the beauti- 
ful Nilachal hill overhanging the Brahmaputra, about 2 miles west of 
Gauhati, in KamrOp District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, in 26° 10' N, 
and 91° 45' E. According to tradition, the temple was originally built 
by Naraka, a prince who is said to have flourished at the time of the 
Mahabharata, and to have constructed a stone-paved causeway up the 
hill, which is still in existence. It was rebuilt by Nar Narayan about 
A.D. 1565, and on the occasion of its consecration 140 human heads 
were offered to the goddess, but only a small portion of Nar Narayan's 
temple now remains. Satl's organs of generation are said to have 
fallen on the place now covered by the temple, and this fact renders 
the spot an object of pilgrimage to devout Hindus from every part of 
India. Six other temples stand on the hill, and from the summit 
a magnificent view is obtained over the river and the surrounding 
country. A grant of revenue-free land, nearly 8,000 acres in extent, 
made to the goddess by the native rulers of Assam, has been confirmed 
by the British Government. The most important festivals are the 
Pous Bia, about Christmas time, when Kamakhya is married to 
Kameswar, and the Basanti and Durga pujds, which are celebrated, 
the former in the spring, the latter in the autumn. 

Kamalia (Kot Kamalia). — Town in the District and tahsil of Mont- 
gomery, Punjab, situated in 30° 43' N. and 72° 40' E., 27 miles west of 
Montgomery town, and 14 from ChTchawatni station on the North- 
western Railway. Population (1901), 6,976. It is identified by 
Cunningham as one of the towns of the Malli taken by Alexander. 
The modern town was founded by a Kharral chief named Khan 
Kamal in the fourteenth century. In 1857 the insurgent tribes held 
the place for a week, and completely sacked it. The municipality was 
created in 1868. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs, 9,300, and the expenditure Rs. 8,700. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 8,800, derived mainly from octroi, and the expenditure 
Rs. 10,200. Since British annexation a brisk trade in the produce 
of the Ravi lowlands has sprung up, and the importance of Kamalia 
has been immensely increased by the opening of the North-Western 
Railway. The town is now a place of considerable commerce, dealing 
in wheat, grain, and pulses from the surrounding villages and J hang ; 
gur and sugar from JuUundur and Amritsar ; piece-goods from Karachi, 
Amritsar, and Delhi. The exports are chiefly cotton, gJu, and wool. 
Excellent cotton prints and carpets arc manufactured. The town con- 
tains an Anglo-vernacular middle school, a private high school, and 
a dispensary. 

Kamalpur. — Petty State in Kathi.\war, Bombay. 

Kamalpur. — 77/<7/^?mF/ in the Bhopal Agexcv, Central India. 

Kaman. — Head-quarters of a tahs'il of the same name in the State 



326 KAMAN 

of Bharatpur, Rajputana, situated in 27° 39' N. and 77° 16' E., about 
36 miles north-by-north-west of Bharatpur city. Population (1901), 
12,083. The town contains a vernacular school attended by 140 boys, 
and a dispensary. The old name of the place is said to have been Ka- 
damba-vana (contracted to Kamavana), from the number of kadainb 
trees {Aiithocephalus Cadamba) found here ; another account traces its 
name to a mythical Raja Kamsen. Kaman is one of the twelve holy 
places of the Braj Mandal {see Muttra District), and its shrine of 
GopTnath is regularly visited by pilgrims. In the middle of the town 
is an old fort, in which are many fragments of Hindu sculpture, and 
a mosque called Chaurasi Khamba (' 84 pillars '). None of these 
pillars is without ornament, and some are very highly decorated. On 
one of them is a Sanskrit inscription of the Surasenas ; it bears no 
date, but is believed to belong to the eighth century, and records the 
building of a temple to Vishnu. 

[I/idian Antiquary, vol. x ; Archaeological Survey of N'ortheni India, 

vol. XX.] 

Kamareddipet. — Tdli/k in Nizamabad District, Hyderabad State. 
In 1901 the area was 413 square miles, and the population, including 
Jdglrs, was 64,933, compared with 63,366 in 1891. The fdlitk had 
96 villages, of which 25 were j'dglr, Kamareddipet (population, 2,503) 
being the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 2-2 lakhs. 
In 1905 the ^d/uk was enlarged by the transfer of villages from the 
Medak and Ramayampet taluks of Medak District, and Sirsilla in 
KarTmnagar (formerly Elgandal). It is hilly in some parts. 

Kamarhati. — Town in the Barrackpore subdivision of the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22° 40' N. and 88° 
23' E., on the east bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 
13,216. Within this municipality is the greater part of the village of 
Dakhineswar, with its group of temples called Rani Rasmanl's Nabar- 
atna. These consist of two beautiful central temples, dedicated to 
Kali and Krishna, faced by twelve minor temples in honour of Siva. 
Kamarhati was formerly included within the Baranagar municipality, 
but in 1899 a separate municipality was constituted. The income 
during the five years since the formation of the separate municipality 
has averaged Rs. 16,000, and the expenditure Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 17,700, of which Rs. 7,000 was obtained from 
a tax on houses and lands and Rs. 8,000 from a conservancy rate ; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 16,600. 

Kamasin. — Tahs'il of Banda District, United Provinces, con- 
terminous with the pargana of the same name, lying along the Jumna 
between 25° 17' and 25° 38' N. and 80° 47' and 8r° 12' E., with an 
area of 358 square miles. Population fell from 83,297 in 1891 to 
7^>773 ''"i 1901. There are 169 villages, but no town. The demand 



K AM BAR TOWN 327 

for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,18,000, and for cesses Rs. 20,000. 
The density of population, 220 persons per square mile, is slightly 
above the District average. Besides the Jumna, the Baghain and 
Paisuni drain the tahsil, flowing from south-west to north-east to join 
the great river. Some of the best cotton produced in the District 
is grown in Kamasin. In 1903-4 less than half a square mile was 
irrigated, out of 205 square miles under cultivation. The Ken Canal, 
when completed, will ser\e a small area in the west of this iahsil. 

Kamatapur. — Ruined city in Cooch Behar State, Bengal, situated 
in 26° 23' N. and 89° 21' E. The city is reputed to have been 
founded by Raja Niladhwaj, the first of the Khen kings. Its ruins 
indicate that it must have been a very extensive place. Dr. Buchanan 
Hamilton in 1809 found that it occupied an area 19 miles in circum- 
ference, 5 of which were defended by the Dharla, and the rest by 
a rampart and ditch. The city consisted of several enclosures, one 
within tlie other, the centre one being occupied by the king's palace. 
Kamatapur was abandoned and fell into decay after the overthrow 
of Raja Nilambar by Ala-ud-din Husain, king of Bengal, towards the 
close of the fifteenth century. Kamatapur figures conspicuously as 
Comotay in some of the earlier maps of India. 

[Sir ^\^ ^^^ Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal (1876), vol. x, 
pp. 362-70.] 

Kambam. — laluk and town in Kurnool District, Madras. See 

CUMliUM. 

Kambar Taluka. — Tdliika of Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 27° 19' and 27° 52' N. and 67° 14' and 68° 10' E., 
with an area of 627 square miles, of which about one-fifth is jagir 
land belonging to Ghaibi Khan Chandia. The population in 1901 
was 88,527, compared with 79,019 in 1891. The tdli/ka contains 
one town, Kambar (population, 4,807), the head-quarters ; and 92 
villages. The density, 141 persons per square mile, slightly exceeds 
the District average. The land revenue and cesses in 1903 amounted 
to 3-6 lakhs. The taluka depends upon the Ghar canal and its 
branches for cultivation. Rice of excellent quality is the principal 
crop ; but owing to excessive irrigation the country is malarious. The 
same circumstance renders it one of the finest shooting grounds for 
wild fowl in Northern India. 

Kambar Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Earkana District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 27° 36' N. and 68° 3' E., 
about 12 miles by road west by north from Earkana town, and a 
station on the North-VVestern Railway. Population (1901), 4,807. 
The municipality, established in 1862, had an average income during 
the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 12,300, derived mostly from town dues, 
cattle-pound fees, and fisherijs. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 17,000. 



328 K AM BAR TOWN 

The town was plundered by the Baluchis in 1848, and ahnost destroyed 
by fire in the following year. It contains a dispensary, an Anglo- 
vernacular and a vernacular school, attended respectively by 46 and 
93 pupils. 

Kameri.— Village in the Valva tdliika of Satara District, Bombay, 
situated in 17° N. and 74° 19' E. Population (1901), 5,052. The 
village, which lies on the main road to Kolhapur, had formerly a 
large Muhammadan population. Old tombs and ruined mosques 
may still be seen, while within its limits is a tank designed to supply 
water to Islampur. 

Kamilpur. — Cantonment and head-quarters of Attock District, 
Punjab. See Campbellpore. 

Kamlagarh.— Ancient fortress in Mandi State, Punjab, situated 
in 31° 48' N. and 76° 43' E., near the south bank of the Beas. It 
consists of a line of detached bastions, castles, and towers, about 
3 miles in length, constructed partly of masonry and partly of the 
n.atural sandstone rock. The principal stronghold crowns an isolated 
peak, whose precipitous sides tower 1,500 feet above the Beas, with 
double that elevation above sea-level. Kamlagarh played an important 
part in the earlier history of Mandi, and even Sansar Chand, Raja 
of Kangra, attacked the fortifications unsuccessfully. Their possession 
tempted the Mandi Raja to revolt against the Sikhs; but General 
Ventura, the Sikh commander, succeeded in carrying them in 1840, 
in spile of the popular belief in their impregnability. 

Kampil.— Village in the Kaimganj tahsil of Farrukhabad District, 
United Provinces, situated in 27° 35' N. and 79° 14' E., 28 miles 
north-west of Fatehgarh. Population (1901), 2,366. Kampil is 
mentioned in the Mahabharata as the capital of South Panchala, 
under king Drupada. Here his daughter, Draupadi, married the five 
Pandava brethren. The villagers still show the mound where the 
Raja's castle stood, and the place, a few miles away, where the 
S'wayamvam, or ceremony at which Draupadi chose her husband, took 
place. At the end of the thirteenth century, Kampil appears as a nest 
of highway robbers, against whom the emperor Ghiyas-ud-din Balban 
marched a force in person, and built here a fort. The town and its 
vicinity constantly gave trouble in later years, but the Rathor inhabi- 
tants were gradually suppressed. West of the town stretches a long 
series of ruins in which ancient coins are found. There are a fine 
Jain temple and a primary school with abotit 60 pupils. 

Kampli. — Town in the Hospet fdluk of Bellary District, Madras, 
situated in 15° 25' N. and 76° 36' E., on the bank of the Tungabhadra. 
Population (1901), 9,803. Until 1851 it was the head-quarters of the 
Hospet (then called the Kampli) taluk, but it is now declining in 
importance. The town has an ancient history, having been a Chalukyan 



K AMP TEE 329 

capital in the eleventh century ; and its fort, which stands on the river 
bank at the end of a most picturesque reach, must have been of some 
strength. It is now being deserted in favour of the more healthy 
suburb known as the petta, which is farther from the river and raised 
above the irrigated land, and consequently less malarious. The only 
industry is the weaving of silk fabrics. It is doubtful whether even this 
is what it was a dozen years ago. The weavers are unprogressive, and 
most of them have fallen into the hands of the local capitalists, who 
advance materials and take the stuffs they weave, paying them only 
for their labour. The town is surrounded by irrigated land watered 
from channels from the Tungabhadra, and a good deal of coarse 
sugar is still made ; but this does not command its former price, 
having been largely ousted by the superior article refined by European 
processes. 

Kamptee {Kdmthi). — Town with cantonment in Nagpur District, 
Central Provinces, situated in 21'' 13' N. and 79° 12' E., on the Bengal- 
Nagpur Railway, 10 miles from Nagpur city and 529 from Bombay. 
It stands on the right bank of the Kanhan river, and the cantonment 
extends in a long narrow line beside the river, with the native town 
to the south-east. The population at the four enumerations was as 
follows : (1872) 48,831 ; (1881) 50,987 ; (1891) 53,159 ; (1901) 38,888. 
The population in 1901 included 26,379 Hindus, 9,852 Muhammadans, 
and 1,851 Christians, of whom 1,036 were Europeans and Eurasians. 
Kamptee is the fourth town in the Province in respect of population. 
The ordinary garrison consists of a battalion of British infantry, one 
of Native infantry, and a field battery. Kamptee was until recently 
the head-quarters of the general commanding the Nagpur district ; 
but this appointment has now been abolished, and the garrison is 
at present commanded from Ahmadnagar. The cantonment was 
established in 182 1, and was made the head-quarters of the Subsi- 
diary force maintained by the British under treaty with the Nagi)ur 
Raja. The whole town is included in the cantonment. The receipts 
and expenditure of the cantonment fund during the last decade 
averaged i-i lakhs. In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 1,06,000 and 
the charges Rs. 1,18,000. During Maratha rule traders flocked to 
Kamptee on account of the comparative immunity from taxation which 
they enjoyed within the cantonment, and a large commercial town 
thus grew up alongside it. Owing to its favourable situation on the 
roads leading to Nagpur from the Satpura plateau, Kamptee for a long 
period monopolized the txade from this area ; and it is only within 
comparatively recent years that the advantages possessed by Nagpur, 
as the larger town and capital of the Province, have enabled it gradu- 
ally to attract to itself the commercial business of Kamptee. To this 
transfer of trade are to be attributed the stationary or declining figures 



330 KAMPTEE 

of population during the last thirty years, and the construction of the 
Satpura railway may tend to accelerate the process. The town con- 
tains three cotton-ginning and two pressing factories with a total capital 
of 2-4 lakhs, three of vrhich were opened in 1891 and 1892 and the 
others since 1900. Muhammadan hand-weavers produce the cheaper 
kinds of cloth. Weekly cattle and timber markets are held, and the 
town contains one printing press. The Cantonment Magistrate, who 
has also the powers of a Small Cause Court Judge, has jurisdiction 
over the cantonment. The educational institutions comprise a Govern- 
ment high school, one English middle, two vernacular middle, and 
eleven primary schools. The Convent of St. Joseph maintains a board- 
ing and day school for European children, teaching in some cases 
up to the matriculation standard, orphanages for native children, 
and a dispensary. Medical relief is afforded to the civil population 
at the Cantonment General Hospital and a branch dispensary in the 
town. 

Kamrup. — District of Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 
25° 43' and 26° 53' N. and 90° 39' and 92° 11' E., with an area of 
3,858 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Bhutan : on the 
east by Darrang and Nowgong ; on the south by the Khasi Hills ; 
and on the west by Goalpara. The Brahmaputra flows through the 

District, and divides it into two unequal portions, 
Physical about two-thirds of the total area being on the right 

or northern bank. South of the Brahmaputra the 
country is much broken by the outlying spurs of the Khasi Hills 
which project into the valley, and low ranges of hills appear even 
on the north bank of the river. The scenery is thus pleasingly 
diversified, and the Gauhati reach, enclosed in a circle of forest-clad 
hills, is extremely beautiful. The centre of the District is a broad 
plain, the greater part of which is covered with rice-fields, with dotted 
groves of bamboos concealing the villages of the Assamese ; but farther 
north the land becomes too high for rice cultivation, and grassy up- 
lands stretch to the foot of the outlying ranges of hills. The principal 
tributaries of the Brahmaputra are : on the north bank, the Barnadi, 
which once formed the boundary between Darrang and Kamrup ; the 
Baralia ; the Chaulkhoa, which empties itself into the Manas ; and the 
Manas, a large river which formerly marked the boimdary of Goalpara 
District. These rivers take their rise in the Himalayas, and the swift- 
ness of their current frequently causes them to cut away their banks 
and change their courses. At the foot of the northern hills there is 
a tract of gravel and sand, in which many of the minor streams vanish, 
to appear again some distance farther off. On the south bank the only 
rivers of any importance are the DiGRU, the KuLsi, and the Singra. 
All over the District are found numerous swamps, or blls, in many 



K AMR UP 331 

of which the water lies even during the dry season. The most exten- 
sive are the Dipar Ml, about 8 miles west of Gauhati, the Bildara l>ll 
in the Palasbari tahsll, and the Asuchi Ml in the Hajo tahs'il. 

The plain is of alluvial formation, composed of sand and clay in 
varying proportions. South of the Brahmaputra low ranges of gneissic 
rock project from the Khasi Hills, and outliers are found on the north 
bank of the river. 

The base of the southern hills is forest-clad ; but to the north the 
country is covered with short grass, and is destitute of trees. High 
reeds and jungle grass spring up in great luxuriance on all low-lying 
land, and the forest is rendered beautiful by great ferns and the 
graceful foliage of the creeping cane. 

Elephants and bison are still found in the low hills, and rhinoceros 
and buffalo in the marshes ; tigers, leopards, bears, hog, and several 
species of deer are not uncommon. In 1904, 12 men and 2,709 
animals were killed by wild beasts, though rewards were paid for 
the destruction of 201 tigers and leopards. The principal kinds of 
small game are hares, partridges, wild duck and geese, florican, and 
snipe. 

The climate of the District does not differ materially from that of 
the rest of the Assam Valley ; between November and the middle 
of March it is cold and pleasant, but during the rest of the year warm 
and damp. The tarai at the foot of the Khasi Hills is particularly 
unhealthy. The prevailing direction of the wind is from the north- 
east, and during the cold season fogs gather daily in the early morning 
over the valley of the Brahmaputra. 

The annual rainfall at Gauhati averages only 67 inches, but near 
the hills 80 or 85 inches are received. The rainfall, though invariably 
abundant, is sometimes unfavourably distributed, and the rice crop 
suffers from the premature cessation of the monsoon. The greatest 
natural calamity from which the District has suffered was the earth- 
quake of June 12, 1897. The Government offices and nearly all 
masonry buildings in Gauhati were wrecked, and roads and bridges 
were destroyed. The drainage of the District was obstructed, the 
levels appear to have been altered, and large tracts of fertile land 
were rendered unfit for cultivation. After the earthquake the floods 
of the Brahmaputra were of exceptional severity, and agriculture 
received a serious check. 

The District originally formed part of the ancient Hindu kingdom 
of Kamarupa, which, according to the Jogini Tantra, included the 
whole of the Brahmaputra Valley, with Rangpur 
and Cooch Behar. One of the earliest kings, Bhaga- 
datta, whose capital was situated at Pragjyotishapura, the modern 
Gauhati, is said to have fought on the losing side in the great war 

VOL. XIV. Y 



332 KAMRUP 

of the Mahabharata; but the history of the country up to a recent 
date is involved in great obscurity. In the sixteenth century Kamrup 
formed part of the territory of the Koch dynasty. The king, Nar 
Narayan, waged successful war against the Ahoms and the Rajas of 
Cachar, Jaintia, Sylhet, and Tippera ; but the kingdom was divided, 
and the territory east of the Sankosh, which includes the present 
Kamrup, was allotted to Nar Narayan's nephew, Raghu Rai, while 
his son Lakshm! Narayan retained as much of the kingdom as lay 
west of that river. Disputes soon broke out between the two branches 
of the family, and the Muhammadans were called in on one side, 
the Ahoms on the other. The struggle between these powers con- 
tinued for some years, but the Muhammadans at last succeeded in 
inflicting a decisive defeat upon their opponents, and occupied Gauhati 
in 1637. This was not, however, the first occasion on which the 
Muhammadans had invaded Assam. At the beginning of the thir- 
teenth century expeditions had been dispatched up the valley of the 
Brahmaputra ; but the raiders, though for a time successful, were 
unable to retain their hold upon the country. Two of their leaders 
in the sixteenth century are still well remembered : Turbak, the rem- 
nants of whose army were finally converted into the degraded Muham- 
madan caste known as Morias ; and Kala Pahar, who is said to have 
partially destroyed the sacred temples at Kamakhya and Hajo. The 
last and greatest invasion was that of Mir Jumla in 1660-2. This 
general, though at first successful, was subsequently overcome by the 
difficulties of the climate and the country, and was compelled to retreat 
with the loss of all his guns. The Muhammadan frontier was then 
fixed at Goalpara, and Kamrup was absorbed into the Ahom kingdom, 
Gauhati becoming first the head-quarters of the viceroy of Lower Assam, 
and at the end of the eighteenth century of the Raja himself. By this 
time the power of the Ahom king had been completely undermined, 
and Captain Welsh was sent into the valley in 1792 to put a stop to 
the anarchy then prevailing. He was recalled two years later ; and 
Assam again became a scene of internecine struggles, which culminated 
in the occupation of the Burmese, who ravaged the Province with fire 
and sword. In 1826, after the first Burmese War, Kamrup, with the 
rest of the valley of the Brahmaputra, was ceded to the British. The 
Duars at the foot of the Himalayas remained, however, in possession 
of the Bhotias till 1841. In that year they were annexed and compen- 
sation paid to the hillmen for their loss of territory. On the outbreak 
of the Bhutan ^^'ar in 1864, Dewangiri was occupied by British troops, 
but they subsequently retired from the post with undue precipitation. 
The village was recaptured in xA.pril, 1865, and since that date has 
formed a part of British territory. The head-quarters of the Assam 
Division were originally fixed at Gauhati: but in 1874, when Assam 



POPULA TIOX 



333 



was separated from Bengal, Shillong was chosen as the seat of govern- 
ment, 

Gauhati contains numerous tanks and temples, and is surrounded 
by extensive earthworks, which bear witness to the importance of 
the kingdom of which it formed the capital. The remains of a large 
number of Hindu temples are scattered over the District, the most 
important being those at Kamakhya just below Gauhati, and at Hajo, 
about 15 miles by road north-west of that place. 

The population of the District at the last four enumerations was : 
(1872)561,681, (1881) 644,960, (1891)634,249, and 1901 (589,187). 
The decrease in the last two decades is due to the 
ravages of a peculiarly malignant form of fever known 
as kald azdr, and to general unhealthiness ; but it is believed that since 
1899 the population has been again increasing. The District is divided 
into two subdivisions, Gauhati and Barpeta, with head-quarters at 
the towns of the same name, and contains 1,716 villages. The follow- 
ing table gives the area, number of towns and villages, and population, 
according to the Census of 1901 : — 



Population. 



Subdivision. 


Is 

< 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1 891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 

f2 


i 

> 


Barpeta 
Gauhati 

District total 


1,27^ 

2,584 


I 

I 


600 
1,116 


"5,935 

473,252 


183 


-14-5 

- 5-0 


4.520 
16,228 


3,858 


2 


1,716 


589,187 


153 


- 7-1 


20,748 . 



Hindus formed 69 per cent, of the population, and Muhammadans 
9 per cent., while 21 per cent, were animistic tribesmen. How little 
the District has been affected by outside influences can be judged from 
the fact that 83 per cent, of the population in 1901 spoke Assamese 
and r i per cent. Bodo or plains Kachari ; while only 3 per cent, of the 
population enumerated there had been born outside its boundaries. 
Kamrup is further peculiar in that the women exceeded the men in 
numbers. 

The principal Hindu caste is the Kalita (115,600), a respectable 
caste supposed to be the descendants of Aryans who had immigrated 
to Assam before the functional division of caste was introduced into 
Bengal. The Koch, into whose ranks converted Kacharis are received, 
are also numerous (93,800), and so are the Kevvats (41,600). The 
Shahas (14,100) are by tradition liquor-sellers, but have taken to 
agriculture, and have succeeded in obtaining a respectable position 
in Assamese society. The District contains many shrines, and Brah- 

V 2 



33-^ KAMRUP 

mans (23,100) are found in much larger numbers than in the rest of 
the Assam Valley. The principal aboriginal tribes are the Kacharis 
(92,100), and the Rabhas, who are closely akin to them (16,300), 
the Mikirs (10,600), the Garos, and the Lalungs, All of these tribes 
are members of the great Bodo race, which is supposed to have entered 
the valley from North-Western China many centuries ago. Agriculture 
supports 81 per cent, of the population, a lower proportion than in the 
other plains Districts of the Province. The number of priests, fisher- 
men, and beggars is, however, unusually high, the strength of the 
last-named class giving some indication of the misfortunes which 
Kamrup has recently experienced. There is a branch of the American 
Baptist Mission at Gauhati, and the great majority of the native 
Christians (1,379) in 1901 are members of the sect. 

Broadly speaking, the District on either side of the Brahmaputra 
is divided into three belts of land with different characteristics. The 

. . first is the chapari, or tract bordering on the river, 

Agriculture . . . . . 

which IS subject to deep uiundation during the rains, 

but dries rapidly at the approach of the cold season. The soil is 
usually a light loam, on which rank jungle springs up with great 
rapidity, but which yields, when cultivated, excellent crops of mustard 
and summer rice, though the latter is liable to be destroyed by an 
early rise of the river. Permanent villages are never found here, and 
the land is generally abandoned after it has been cultivated for two or 
three years. This riverain tract merges gradually into a broad plain, 
in which transplanted winter rice {sdli) is the staple crop ; in the 
intermediate stage, where the water lies too deep to admit of trans- 
plantation, bao, a long-stemmed variety of winter rice, is sown broad- 
cast. Lastly, the high land under the hills is well drained and free 
from risk either of flood or drought, as it can be irrigated from the hill 
streams. Here the staple crop is sdli, or transplanted dhi {khm-ma), 
which is reaped in November and yields a much larger out-turn than 
the same rice when sown broadcast. The soil of the District varies 
from pure sand to a stiff clay which is useless for any kind of crop. 
The most fertile variety is a deep soft loam, which is found in the 
lowest part of the rice basins. The crops depend, however, more on 
the water-supply than upon the intrinsic fertility of the soil, and in the 
central and submontane tract the supply of water is generally adequate. 
The chief danger to which agriculture is exposed is from floods, which 
have been especially severe since the drainage channels silted up at 
the time of the earthquake of 1897. Steps have, however, been taken 
by both Government and the villagers to re-excavate these channels. 

The main agricultural statistics of the District are shown in the 
table on the next page, in square miles. 

The staple food- crop is rice, which in 1903-4 covered 718 square 



AGRICULTURE 



335 



miles, or 76 per cent, of the total cropped area. Rather more than 
half of the rice crop was sdli^ 31 per cent, was ahu, and 20 per cent. 
bao. Other important crops are mustard (95 square miles), pulse (35), 
and sugar-cane. Mustard and pulse are usually grown along the banks 
of the Brahmaputra, on land afterwards occupied by summer rice. 



Subdivision. 


Area shown in revenue accounts. 


Forest area. 


Settled. 


Unsettled. 


Cultivated. 


Barpeta . 
Ganhati . 

Total 


199 

825 


I>075 

1,759 


I.S9 

639 


149 


1,024 


2.834 


798 


149 



When Gauhati was the head-quarters of the Commissioner of Assam, 
a considerable number of tea gardens were opened in the neighbour- 
hood of the town. In many cases, however, the sites were badly 
chosen, and the tea was planted on steep and rocky hill-sides, where 
the rain washed all the fertility from the soil. The seed employed was 
inferior, the rainfall insufficient, and a large proportion of the gardens 
proved to be unable to compete with the more prosperous estates 
of Upper Assam. The result was that the area under tea fell from 
6,302 acres in 1882 to 3,659 in 1904. In the latter year 19 gardens 
yielded 735,000 lb. of manufactured tea, and gave employment to 
7 Europeans and 2,416 natives, most of whom had been brought from 
other parts of India. 

The cultivation of jute on a commercial scale has recently been 
introduced, but the industry is still in its infancy ; and, apart from this, 
nothing has been done to develop the staples of the District, or to 
break up the large area of unsettled waste land. On the contrary, the 
area settled at full rates decreased by 12 per cent, between 1891 and 
1 90 1, owing to the decline in population and the injury done by 
the earthquake. Since 1901 there has, however, been a satisfactory 
extension of cultivation. Agricultural loans were first made in 1902, 
and during the next three years about Rs. 49,000 was advanced. 

The Assamese are utterly indifferent to all the laws of breeding and 
to the comfort of their animals, and the native cattle are in consequence 
poor undeveloped creatures. The indigenous buffaloes are, however, 
larger and stronger than those of Bengal. The ponies brought down 
from the hills by the Bhotias are sturdy little animals, and the Bhutan 
cattle also are a fine breed, but cannot be (obtained in large numbers. 

The only irrigation works in the District are the small channels dug 
by the Kachari villagers in the submontane tracts, to bring the water 
of the hill streams to their fields. Some channels, though only a few 
feet wide, are several miles long, and are ca[jable uf irrigating 3,000 or 



336 KAMRUP 

4,000 acres. They are constructed by the combined labour of the 
villagers without any intervention on the part of Government. Embank- 
ments for flood protection and drainage channels are, however, more 
necessary than irrigation works. 

There were 30 forest Reserves in Kamrup in 1903-4, with a total 
area of 149 square miles. The principal Reserves are those at Pantan 
and Barduar (59 square miles), which are situated on the banks of the 
Kulsi river about 30 miles west of Gauhati ; and many of the other 
forests are small patches, only one or two square miles in area. By far 
the most important timber tree in Kamrup is sal {Shorea robustd) ; but 
tita sapa {Alichelia Chatnpaca), ajhar {Lagerstroemia Flos Reginae), sain 
{Artocarpus Chap/asha), and gunserai ( Cifuiamomuvi glanduliferum) are 
also found. The area of ' unclassed ' forests was 2,294 square miles, 
and, though only a small portion is actually covered with timber, the 
out-turn from these forests is larger than from the Reserves. There 
is a small plantation of teak and rubber-trees on the Kulsi near the 
Barduar forest. 

No minerals are worked in Kamrup, but deposits of Hme are said 
to exist at the foot of the Bhutan hills. 

Manufactures, apart from tea, are unimportant. In each house 

there is a rough loom, on which the women of the family w-eave silk 

and cotton cloths. The silk cloths, which are usually 

. ^'^. made from the thread of the eri worm {Attacus ricini). 

commiinications. ^ . . , ' 

are often sold ; the cotton cloth is reserved for home 

use. Gold filigree-work is made at Barpeta ; but, though there are a 
number of jewellers in the District, articles are made only to order. 
Brass and bell-metal utensils, iron hoes and choppers, and rough 
pottery are also manufactured, though not in large quantities. Canoes 
are hollowed out of the trunks of large trees, the people of Barpeta 
being specially proficient in the art. Mustard oil is prepared in the 
ordinary country mill ; and at Gauhati there are two steam-mills, 
where flour is ground, cotton ginned, and oil expressed. 

The general trade of the District is almost entirely in the hands of 
Marwaris from Rajputana ; but there are a certain number of Muham- 
madan shopkeepers, and at Barpeta the .\.ssamese, whose wits have 
been unusually sharpened by their contest with nature in that inhos- 
pitable spot, are as keen traders as the Marwaris themselves. The 
principal exports are mustard seed, tea, cotton, lac, timber, and silk 
cloths. The articles received in exchange are rice, cotton yarn and 
piece-goods, grain and pulse, kerosene and other oils, hardware, and 
salt. The chief centres of trade are Gauhati, Barpeta, Soalkuchi, 
Palasbari, Rangia, Naldari, Barama, and Tamulpur, while there 
are permanent shops at all the iahs'il head-quarters. Most of the 
internal trade is, however, transacted at the markets, of which a large 



ADMINISTRA TION 337 

number are held in different parts of the District. In the interior, 
as well as at Gauhati, the principal shopkeepers are Marwaris, who sell 
piece-goods, salt, grain, and oil, and not infrequently opium, and buy 
silk cloths, rice, and mustard seed, fo'r which they often make advances 
before the crop is cut. The bulk of the trade is with Bengal, and 
is carried by steamer, though when the rivers rise in the rains country 
boats penetrate into the interior. The only foreign trade is with 
Bhutan, whose subjects come down through the Dewangiri, Suban- 
KHATA, and Kakilabari Duars to fairs held at Darranga and Subankhata, 
and starting from these centres travel about the country. The principal 
imports from Bhutan are rubber, ponies, and blankets ; the exports 
are cotton and silk cloths. 

The Assam-Bengal Railway runs for t,i i^ii'es through the District 
to the Nowgong boundary, connecting Gauhati with Dibrugarh, and 
with Chittagong via the North Cachar hills. Through railway com- 
munication to Calcutta will be provided by a line now under construc- 
tion, which will run from a point just opposite Gauhati to Golakganj 
on the Dhubri extension of the Eastern Bengal State Railway. A daily 
service of passenger steamers and large cargo boats, owned by the 
India General Steam Navigation Company and the Rivers Steam 
Navigation Company, ply on the Brahmaputra, calling at Gauhati, 
Soalkuchi, Palasbari, and Kholabanda. During the rains country 
boats come from Bengal, and proceed up the various rivers into the 
interior. Two trunk roads pass through the District, along the north 
and south banks of the river. In 1903-4 there were 16 miles of 
metalled and 160 miles of unmetalled roads maintained from Provincial 
funds, and 371 miles of unmetalled roads under the local boards. 
Generally speaking, Kamrup is well supplied with means of com- 
munication. A steam ferry crosses the Brahmaputra at Gauhati. 

As in other parts of Assam, famine is unknown in Kamrup ; but in 
1 90 1 the rice crop was the poorest that had been reaped for many 
years, and there was local scarcity which necessitated some assistance 
from Government. 

For general administrative purposes, the District is divided into two 
subdivisions : Gauhati, under the immediate charge of the Deputy- 
Commissioner : and Barpeta, usually entrusted to . 

.' , . i ^. . rr Administration, 

a native magistrate. Ihe sanctioned District stall 

includes five Assistant INIagistrates, a Forest officer, and an Engineer 
who is also in charge of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, and whose head- 
quarters are at Shillong. 

The Deputy-Commissioner has the powers of a Sub-Judge, and 
certain of the Assistant Magistrates exercise jurisdiction as Munsifs. 
Appeals, both civil and criminal, lie to the District and Sessions Judge 
of the Assam Valley, whose head-quarters are at Gauhati, while the 



338 



K AMR UP 



High Court at Calcutta is the chief appellate authority. The Assamese 
are a quiet and peaceful people, and there is not much serious crime. 

The land revenue system does not differ materially from that in force 
in Assam proper, described in the article on Assam. The settlement 
is ryotwdri, being made direct with the actual cultivators of the soil, 
and is liable to periodical revision. The District contains a large area 
of waste land, much of which is fit for permanent cultivation ; and the 
settled area in 1903-4 was only 27 per cent, of the total area, including 
rivers, swamps, and hills. Mustard and summer rice are seldom grown 
on the same land for more than three years in succession, and the 
villagers are allowed to resign their holdings and take up new plots 
of land on giving notice to the revenue authorities. In 1903-4, 31,000 
acres were resigned and 47,000 acres of new land taken up. Fresh 
leases are issued every year for this shifting cultivation, and a large 
staff of mandals is maintained to measure new land, test applications 
for relinquishment, and keep the record up to date. Kamrup, like the 
rest of Assam proper, was last settled in 1893, and the average assess- 
ment per settled acre assessed at full rates in 1903-4 was Rs. 2-7-2 
(maximum Rs. 4-2-0, minimum Rs. i-ii-o). The District is now 
being resettled after a detailed examination, in which the different 
classes of land have been more carefully discriminated. In recent 
years the people have suffered severely from exceptional unhealthiness 
and from the earthquake of 1897, which altered the levels of the 
country, causing obstructions to drainage and deposits of sand. An 
abatement of Rs. 60,000 has been made in the land revenue of the 
tracts most seriously affected. A special feature of the District is the 
large number of estates held revenue free {Idkhirdj) or at half-rates 
{nisfkhirdj). These cover respectively an area of 53 and 229 square 
miles, and represent grants made by the Ahom Rajas, usually to priests 
or temples. 

The following table shows collections of land revenue and total 
revenue in recent years, in thousands of rupees : — 





i88o-i. 


1890-1. 


1 900- 1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


9,12 
13.25* 


9,62 
14,90 


ir,92 
17,38 


12,30 

18,56 



* Exclusive of forest receipts. 

Outside the municipalities of Gauhati and Barpeta, the local affairs 
of each subdivision are managed by a board, presided over by the 
Deputy-Commissioner and the Subdivisional Officer respectively. The 
expenditure of these boards in 1903-4 amounted to about Rs. 1,43,000, 
nearly two-fifths of which was devoted to public works. 

For the purposes of the prevention and detection of crime, the District 



KAMTA-RAJA ULA 339 

is divided into 1 7 investigating centres, and the civil police force con- 
sisted in 1904 of 46 officers and 282 men. There are no rural police, 
their duties being discharged by the village headmen. During the 
winter 2 officers and 31 men of the Garo Hills military police battalion 
are stationed in Kamrup, to hold the two outposts of Subankhata and 
Darranga. A District jail is maintained at Gauhati, and a magis- 
trate's lock-up at Barpeta. 

As regards education, Kamrup is fairly representative of Assam. 
The number of pupils under instruction in i88o-r, 1890-1, 1900-1, 
and 1903-4 was 6,261, 10,437, 12,346, and 12,951 respectively. 
Education has made considerable progress during the past thirty 
years, and nearly three scholars were under instruction in 1903-4 
for every one in 1874-5. At the Census of 1901, 3-5 per cent, of the 
population (6-8 males and 0-2 females) were returned as literate. 
There were 285 primary, 15 secondary, and 5 special schools in 
1903-4. The number of female scholars was 431. The enormous 
majority of the pupils under instruction are only in primary classes, 
and the number of girls who have advanced beyond that stage is 
extremely small. Of the male population of school-going age, 25 per 
cent, were in the primary stage of instruction, and of the female popu- 
lation of the same age less than one per cent. Among Muhammadans 
the percentage of the scholars of each sex to the male and female 
population of school-going age was 27 and i respectively. An Arts 
college is maintained by Government at Gauhati. The total expendi- 
ture on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,17,000, of which Rs. 21,000 was 
derived from fees. About 29 per cent, of the direct expenditure was 
devoted to primary schools. 

The District possesses 2 hospitals and 8 dispensaries, with accommo- 
dation for 33 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 
64,000, of whom 600 were in-patients, and 1,100 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 16,000, the greater part of which 
was met from Local and municipal funds. 

In 1903-4, 39 per 1,000 of the population were successfully vacci- 
nated, which was considerably below the proportion for the Province as 
a whole. Vaccination is compulsory only in Gauhati town. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, A Statistical Account of Assam, vol. i (1879); 
E. A. Gait, ' The Koch Kings of Kamarupa,' Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, vol. Ixii, p. 4 ; H. C. Barnes, Assessment Reports, Bajali, 
Bijfii, Barbhag, Baska, Patidarang, Ramdia, and South Bank groups 
(1905) ; B. C. Allen, District Gazetteer of Kamrup (1905).] 

Kamta-Rajaula. — One of the Chaube Jagirs in Central India, 
under the Political Agent in Baghelkhand, with an area of 13 square 
miles, and a population (1901) of 1,232. The chief is a Kayasth by 
caste, the first grantee, Rao Gopal Lai, having been the family vakil 



340 KAMTA-RAJAULA 

of the Chaube family of Kalinjar. The grant was made in 1812, when 
the Chaube family received their shares. A sanad of adoption was 
granted in 1862. The present holder is Rao Ram Prasad, who 
succeeded in 1892. 1:\\q. jdglr cojisists'of 3 villages. Of the total 
area, 899 acres are cultivated, 126 being irrigable. The revenue is 
Rs. 2,500 a year. The chief place is Rajaula, situated in 25° 11' N. 
and 80° 51' E., 8 miles south of Karwl station on the Jhansi-Manik- 
pur section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population 
(1901), 211. 

Kamthi. — Town and cantonment in Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces. See Kamptee. 

Kamudi. — Town in the Mudukulattur tahs'il of the Ramnad estate, 
ISIadura District, Madras, situated in 9° 24' N. and 78° 23' E. The 
population (1901) is 6,854, of whom 1,000 are Musalmans. It contains 
a large Siva temple, which has been the subject of a famous law-suit, 
the Shanans, a caste of toddy-drawers and merchants, claiming the 
right to enter within its precincts and the majority of the rest of 
the Hindus opposing their claim. The town participated in the riots 
which were caused in 1899 by this and other pretensions of the 
Shanans, and a small force of punitive police is now quartered on it. 
Brass and bell-metal vessels are manufactured here. 

Kanaigiri.— 7a///^ and town in Nellore District, Madras. See 
Kanigiri. 

Kanara, North. — District in the Southern Division of Bombay, 
lying between 13° 53' and 15° 32' N. and 74° 4' and 75° 5' E., with an 
area of 3,945 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Belgauni 
District ; on the east by Dharwar District and the State of Mysore ; on 
the south by South Kanara in Madras; on the west for about 76 miles 
by the Arabian Sea ; and on the north-west by the territory of Goa. 
The District is not to be confounded with the District of South Kanara 
in Madras. North Kanara is the most southerly of the coast Districts 
of the Bombay Presidency. 

The Western Ghats, varying in height from 2,500 to 3,000 feet, 
run through the District from north to south, dividing it into 
two parts : namely, the uplands or Balaghat (area. 
Physical 2, 639 square miles), and the lowlands or Payan- 

aspec s. ^^_^ (area, 1,306 square miles). The coast-line is 

broken only by the Karwar headland in the north, and by the estuaries 
of four rivers and the mouths of many smaller streams, through which 
the salt water finds an entrance into numerous lagoons winding several 
miles inland. The shore, though generally sandy, is in some parts 
rocky. Fringing its margin, and behind the banks of the brushwood- 
bordered lagoons, rise groves of coco-nut palms ; and inland from this 
line of palms stretches a narrow strip of level rice land. The whole 



NORTH KANAKA 341 

breadth of the lowlands, never more than 15 miles, is in some places 
not more than 5 miles. From this narrow belt rise a few smooth flat- 
topped hills, from 200 to 300 feet high ; and at places it is crossed by 
lofty, rugged, densely-wooded spurs, which, starting from the main 
range of the Western Ghats, maintain almost to the coast a height of 
not less than r,ooo feet. Among these hills lie well-tilled valleys 
of garden and rice land. The plateau of the Balaghat is irregular, 
varying from 1,500 to 2,000 feet in height. In some parts the country 
rises into well-wooded knolls, in others it is studded by small, isolated, 
steep hills. Except on the bank of streams and in the more open 
glades, the whole is one broad waste of woodland and forest. The 
open spaces are dotted over with hamlets or parcelled out into rice 
clearings. 

Both on the coast, where the green curtain of the forest forms 
a pleasing background to the long stretches of white sand, on which 
the rollers break beneath tall palms or dense patches of casuarina, 
and above the ghats in the vistas of giant hills covered with evergreen 
jungle, the scenery is of rare beauty. Owing to the absence of railway 
communication the greater part of the District is seldom visited, except 
by officials or sportsmen ; but the traveller who strays into these 
unfrequented paths will find surroundings that compare favourably 
in picturesqueness with any of nature's handiwork. 

Stretching across the watershed of the Western Ghats, North Kanara 
contains two sets of rivers — one flowing west to the Arabian Sea, the 
other east towards the Bay of Bengal. Of the eastern streams, the 
"\'arada, a tributary of the Tungabhadra, alone calls for mention. Of 
those that flow westwards, four are of some importance — the KalTnadi 
in the north, the Gangavali and Tadri in the centre, and the SharavatI 
in the south. The last of these, plunging over a cliff 825 feet in 
height, about 35 miles east of Honavar, forms the famous Gersopp.\ 
Falls. Along the coast the quality of the water is good, and the 
supply throughout the year abundant. 

The prevailing rocks are granite and trap, the former largely pre- 
dominating. At the base of the granite hills a laterite formation is 
common. Along the coast from Karwar to Honavar the surface rock 
is almost entirely hard laterite, a stone admirably adapted for building 
purposes. 

The humid climate and the high and equable temperature of North 
Kanara account for the predominance of heavy forest and the mois- 
ture-loving types of tropical vegetation. Teak prevails in loose lighter- 
coloured soils. Bamboos of several valuable kinds grow over the 
whole of the District. The chief liquor-yielding tree is the coco-nut, 
which is luxuriant in Karwar, Kumta, Ankola, and Honavar. Liquor 
is also manufactured from the baini {Caryo/a ureas), which grows 



342 NORTH KANAKA 

profusely in the Ghat forests. A detailed list of important trees, shrubs, 
and common herbs is given in Sir James Campbell's Bombay Gazetteer, 
vol XV, part i. 

Kanara is almost the only part of the Bombay Presidency abounding 
in wild animals. Within the last thirty years elephants have been shot 
in the District, but they are now extinct. Tigers are numerous, though 
they have decreased considerably in recent years. Leopards are found 
in large numbers, and occasionally the black variety. In the western 
portion of the •dhovo.-ghdt division, bison are common. Black bear, 
sdmbar, the ribbed-face and mouse deer are frequently met with ; and at 
times the game are much harried by packs of wild dogs who pursue 
the deer relentlessly till they succumb from exhaustion. In the 
smaller forests chital {Cervus axis) di^Q not uncommon. The absence 
of legal restriction on the number of deer shot has, however, led to 
such a reduction in their numbers that rules are now being brought 
into force to save them from extinction. Twenty years ago a herd 
of eighty chital was not unknown; it would be difficult nowadays 
to meet with eight together, x^mong game-birds are the peafowl, 
jungle-fowl, spur-fowl, partridge, snipe, quail, duck, widgeon, teal, the 
green and the imperial pigeon. Red squirrels are frequently seen. 
Snakes are numerous, including the hamadryad or king cobra, and the 
python. 

The climate of different parts of Kanara varies greatly in salubrity. 
The coast portion, though moist, is healthy; but the forest tracts, 
especially the upland forests, are always malarious and at intervals are 
visited by especially fatal outbreaks. The most unhealthy time in the 
forests is the first two months of the rains and the four cold-season 
months. The valleys of the KalinadI and of its feeders are tracts 
where fever has a specially bad name. In December, January, and 
February the uplands at night and early morning are often wrapped in 
mist. From May 20 the south-west wind freshens and blows all da)-, 
and throughout the hot season the greater portion of the District is 
rendered agreeable by the prevalence of cool breezes. The tempera- 
ture falls to 59° in November and rises to 91° in May. In March and 
April severe thunderstorms serve to cool the atmosphere. The highest 
annual rainfall is in Bhatkal, 156 inches, while Mundgod records 
only 46. Of the two divisions of the District, the lowland or coast 
tract has a heavier rainfall than the upland. The annual rainfall at 
Karwar averages 119 inches. 

In the low-lying lands near the coast heavy rainfall and a stormy 
sea sometimes cause floods which damage the crops. In 1831 and 
again in 1848, owing to the tempestuous weather, the Honavar 
coast lands were flooded with salt water and the crops destroyed. 

In the third century B.C. Asoka sent missionaries to Banavasi in 



HISTOR V 343 

Kanara. From numerous inscriptions the country appears to have 
been controlled successively by the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Rattas, 
the Western Chalukyas, and the Yadavas. It was 
for long a stronghold of the Jain religion. In 
the sixteenth century, when the Portuguese established themselves 
upon the coast, Kanara was subject to the Vijayanagar kings. It is 
said to have been extremely rich and prosperous, and for a long 
period firmly withstood the efforts of the Muhammadan Sultans of 
the Deccan to extend their conquests to the south. Eventually, after 
the crushing defeat at Talikota (1565) and the sack of the capital 
city of Vijayanagar, the local chiefs of Kanara assumed indepen- 
dence. The Musalmans then attacked the Portuguese settlements 
on the coast, but were unable to subdue them. The power of 
Bijapur, however, was generally established over Kanara, and con- 
tinued until the Marathas obtained an ascendancy about 1675 ; but 
with the advance of Aurangzeb the country passed under the 
Mughals after the fall of Bijapur in 1686, and the chiefs of Sonda 
and Bednur tendered their submission and tributes. Some time 
subsequent to 1700 the Marathas again held Kanara. In 1763 
Haidar All captured Bednur and obtained an immense booty. Sonda 
and the sea-coast were also subdued by him, and this brought Haidar 
into collision with the Marathas ; but he was able to maintain his 
conquests, and even to extend them as far north as the Kistna. War 
breaking out with the British, Tipu lost Honavar in 1783. After the 
defeat and death of Tipii at Seringapatam, Sonda was annexed by 
the British in 1799. It included the Kanara country above the gM/s, 
which had been so desolated by war and pillage that there was 
little to govern except trees and wild beasts. This, with the coast 
tract taken from Haidar, was attached to the Madras Presidency in 
1799, and placed in charge of Munro. It continued to form part 
of Madras until 1861. In that year, owing to its relations with Bom- 
bay and to the fact that the forests supplied the Bombay dock- 
yard with timber for ship-building, North Kanara was transferred to 
the Presidency of Bombay. 

The chief buildings of interest in the District are the Jain temples of 
Banavasi, Gersoppa, and Bhatkal. The temple at Banavasi, which is 
attributed to the legendary Jakhanacharya, is of considerable dimen- 
sions. It is ornamented with sculptured figures and designs, and has 
a short Dravidian spire. A loose slab in the courtyard bears an 
inscription of the second century a.d. At Nagarbastikere near the 
modern Gersoppa several Jain temples mark the site of the old town. 
They are much dam.aged by time, but the images representing the 
twenty-third and twenty-fourth Tlrthankars are still intact. They are 
finely modelled in black basalt. At Bhatkal fourteen Jain i>asns are 



344 



XORTH KANAKA 



still preserved, dating from the reign of ( "hannabhaira Devi in the 
fifteenth century. At the same place are three stone tombs of Euro- 
pean merchants who were buried in the year 1637. The numerous 
Hindu temples at Gokarn are ascribed to the fifteenth century. That 
of Mahabaleshwar is the most imposing. Many Kanarese inscriptions 
have been found at Bhatkal, Gersoppa, and Banavasi. At Ulvi in 
Supa there are a few Lingayat caves and the well of the Lingayat 
saint Basava. 

The Census of 1872 showed a total population of 398,498, and in 
the next nine years the population increased to 421,932. By 1891 
it had further increased to 446,453. The Census of 
1 90 1 recorded a population of 454,490, or 115 per- 
sons per square mile, residing in 8 towns and 1,281 villages. The tdhika 
distribution was : — 



Population. 



Taluka. 



Haliyal 



Karwar 
Yellapur 



Supa petha 



Ankola . 
Sirsi 
Kumta . 
Siddapur 
Honavar 



Mundgod petha 



Bhatkal petha 
District total 



e 

d 


Number of 


a, 
u 

< 






w5 




t 
> 


\ i>o57 


( I 
1 I 


105 
132 


281 


I 


54 


760 


!::: 


119 

77 


375 




90 


490 


I 


244 


224 


2 


III 


332 


... 


197 


j 426 


W 


93 
59 


3,945 


8 


1,281 



c 
o 

Oh 



35,122 
21,008 
58,460 
22,814 

16,739 
39,665 

53,232 
66,040 

41,342 
62,402 

37,666 



454,490 



la 



Si.o « o- 



53 

208 

52 

106 
109 

295 
125 

235 



"5 



U ^ i- 

j- nj a, 
<U > O 



: "i 



+ 13 

- 35 
+ 10 

— 2 
+ .06 

+ 7 

— I 

+ 5 

- 3 

+ 5 
+ 10 



UJ3 C 

u ca rt . 



yi t~> 



1,498 

959 
6,254 

1,590 

S45 
2,357 
6,341 

7,700 

3,428 

5,227 
1,877 



38,076 



The chief towns are the municipalities of Karwar, the head-quarters 
of the District, Kumta, Bhatkal, Honavar, and Sirsi. Owing to 
the large areas of forest the country above the ghats is very sparsely 
populated, a^d in parts the population is decreasing. Much of the 
labour required to cultivate the upland tracts is therefore drawn 
from outside, the chief sources being Goa, Savantvadi State, and the 
Coondapoor tdhik of South Kanara. The language of the District 
is Kanarese, which is spoken by 57 per cent, of the total population. 
On the coast north of Gokarn and in the Supa petha, Konkani replaces 
Kanarese as the common tongue. 

Among the Brahmans of Kanara (72,000) the most important are 
the Haviks (41,000), who are chiefly engaged in cultivation, being the 
owners of the areca-nut gardens of Sirsi and Siddapur tdhikas. They 
are reputed to have come originally from Southern India, and to have 
intermarried with the local cultivating caste of Gaudas. The second 



POPULATION ■ 345 

Brahman caste of importance is the (laud Saraswat (25,000), also 
known as Shenvi, with the two kindred sub-castes of Bardeskar and 
Kudaldeskar. The Gaud Saraswats, who are very fair, claim a northern 
origin, and certainly came from Goa in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. They commonly eat fish, on which account other Brahmans 
usually deny them the full status of their caste. Closely allied to the 
Gaud Saraswats, and probably in former times one caste with them, are 
the Saraswats (2,000), also known as Kushasthali or Shenvipaiki, many 
of whom have lately come from South Kanara. Between Saraswats and 
Gaud Saraswats there is chronic enmity. The establishments of the 
Government offices in the District are largely recruited from the former. 
Apart from the Brahman castes, the special interest of the North 
Kanara population centres in the primitive classes, such as the Hal- 
vakki Vakkals (4,000), Gamvakkals (12,000), Halepaiks (52,000), 
Mukris (5,000), Kumarpaiks (9,000), and Harakantras (6,000), who 
have much in common with the population of Malabar and South 
Kanara, and but little affinity with the rest of the Bombay Presidency. 
Among these primitive people there exists to the present day an organ- 
ization by bdlis or exogamous divisions strongly suggestive of totems. 
Thus, in the caste of a bali named after the sdmbar deer, the members 
may not harm the animal, and do not intermarry. Descent is traced 
through females. With the gradual Brahmanizing of these castes, such 
as the recent promotion of the Kumarpaiks to Kshattriya rank, it is to 
be expected that this organization by balls may in time disappear. It 
has survived long enough, however, to throw valuable light on the 
nature and origin of the Maratha devaks in the Deccan. The Marathas 
in North Kanara number 48,000, and are all cultivators, apparently 
a relic of the former INIaratha dominion. Locally they are collectively 
described as Arer or Aryans. It is to be noted that the Gangavali 
river is popularly considered the extreme southern limit of the Aryan 
race and languages in India. South of this river the dark complexion, 
coarse features, Dravidian speech, and primitive customs of the people 
seem to lend much support to the popular view. Muhammadans 
(29,000) are distributed as follows: Pathans, 3,000; Saiyids, 2,000; 
Shaikhs, 19,000. Besides the regular Muhammadan population (de- 
scendants of local converts to Islam), generally in poor circumstances, 
employed chiefly in agriculture and by Government as messengers and 
police, there are, in Kanara, two special bodies of foreign Muham- 
madan settlers. Of these, the more important and well-to-do are the 
Navayats or seamen, representatives of the colonies of Arab mer- 
chants, of whom a remnant still exists along the whole coast-line of 
the Bombay Presidency, from Gogha southwards. The other foreign 
Musalman community is the Sidls, descendants of African slaves for- 
merly owned by the Portuguese. Although they have intermarried 



346 NORTH KANAKA 

for several generations with the low-caste population of the District, 
the Sidls have not lost their original peculiarities. They still possess 
the woolly hair and black skin of the pure negro. Some of them 
have been converted to Christianity, and some have become absorbed 
in the lower Hindu castes. They are for the most part very poor, 
and, settled in remote forests, live on the produce of little patches of 
rude cultivation. 

The Christians in the District, who are almost all Roman Catholics, 
belong to two classes, the first of which consists of a few families from 
Goa, of Portuguese extraction, though much mixed by intermarriage 
with the natives of the country ; the second are descendants of local 
converts to Christianity. Christians of the higher class are clerks, the 
rest principally artisans and labourers. The total number of native 
Christians in 1901 was 16,126, of whom 15,116 were Roman Catholics. 
The chief centres of Roman Catholic Christians are Honavar, Kumta, 
and Karwar. During their time of power and friendship with the 
Vijayanagar kings (1510-70), the Portuguese were probably allowed 
to make converts. But, as far as the record of treaties remains, it was 
during the early part of the eighteenth century, after the Mughals had 
withdrawn and when the Sonda chief in the north and the Bednur 
chiefs in the south were their close allies, that the Portuguese were 
most successful in spreading Christianity along the Kanara coast. 
When in 1784 Tipu succeeded in driving the British out of Kanara, 
he determined, on both political and religious grounds, to convert the 
native Christians of Kanara to Islam. After taking a secret census he 
dispatched troops who arrested 60,000, or, according to other accounts, 
30,000 out of the 80,000 Christians found. The churches were dis- 
mantled and every trace of the Christian religion disappeared. Except 
infirm women and children, the prisoners were marched under a strong 
military escort to Seringapatam, then the capital of Mysore. The men 
were circumcised, the unmarried girls carried away as concubines, and 
many of the married women were badly treated. The change of 
climate from the coast to the Mysore uplands, harsh treatment, and the 
unhealthiness of some of the places to which they were sent, so broke 
the health of the converts that within a year 10,000 are said to have 
perished. A few Protestants are found in the towns of Karwar and 
Honavar. The only mission in the District is the Basel German 
Mission, with its head-quarters at Honavar. It was established in 
1845 and supports five schools. 

The cultivated portions of the lowlands are either sandy plains lying 
along the shore and the banks of rivers, or narrow well-watered valleys, 
which are for the most part planted with rice, coco- 
nut groves, and areca-nut gardens. In the uplands 
the soil is generally a stiff clay, retentive of moisture. Owing to the 



AGRICULTURE 



347 



want of inhabitants, and also to the malarious climate, many fertile and 
well-irrigated valleys lie waste and covered with forest ; and difificulty 
is experienced in finding a sufficiency of labour for the lands already 
under cultivation. 

The District is entirely ryotivdri. The chief statistics of cultivation 
in 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles : — 



Taluka. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forest. 


Hali3'al 
Karwar 
Yellapur . 
Ankola 
Sirsi . 
Kumta 
Siddapur . 
Honavar . 

Total 


1,056 
281 
760 

375 
491 

224 

332 
426 


107 
50 
71 
42 

85 
55 
46 

72 


5 
3 
2 

4 

4 

12 


22 

14 
III 

J5 

13 

16 

6 

22 


914 
215 
563 
312 
3S0 
148 
264 
325 


*3>945 


528 


30 


219 


3,121 



* These areas are based on the latest information. 

Rice, of which there are many varieties, is the staple crop, the area 
in 1903-4 being 297 square miles. Jotvdr, chiefly grown in the Haliyal 
taluka, occupied one square mile. Rdgi, occupying 8 square miles, 
is grown in the hills for the food of the poorer classes. Pulses occupied 
ID square miles, the chief being mug, kiilith, and iidid, mostly grown 
in the coast tdlukas. Sugar-cane and safflower are also grown to a 
considerable extent ; and coco-nuts, areca-nuts, the lesser cardamoms 
{Eleifaria Cardamomuin), and pepper are produced in gardens in large 
quantities for home consumption and for export. The cultivation 
of coffee has been tried but proved unprofitable. Rice and garden 
lands are irrigated, the water being obtained from perennial streams. 
Near villages, especially on the coast, there are groves and avenues 
of Alexandrian laurel, which attains a large size. East Indian arrow- 
root grows wild and is also cultivated in some parts. The coco- 
nut palm is common along the coast, and is the chief liquor-yield- 
ing tree in the District. The palms, grown solely for their nuts, are 
calculated to yield, on good coast garden land, a net yearly profit 
of about Rs. 50 per acre. The areca-nut gardens, which are situated 
in the upland valleys, are surrounded by strong fences, within which 
are planted rows of coco-nut, jack, and mango trees. The pan or 
betel-leaf vine {Riper Betle) is extensively grown ; also the areca palm. 
The upland gardens further contain pepj)er, cardamoms, ginger, 
plantains ; and sometimes pummelo, orange, lime, and iron-wood trees 
{ndg-chdmpa) are found in these higher tracts. Of vegetables, the 
bhendi is largely grown on the coast ; and the egg-plant, the watcr- 
meUni, and various pumpkin gourds and cucumbers arc common. 

VOL. XIV. I 



348 NORTH KANAKA 

Formerly, in the more open parts of the forest, nomadic cultivation 
by brushwood burning {kiimri) was carried on, principally by tribes 
of Maratha extraction. The chief difficulty experienced in regard to 
cultivation in North Kanara since the practice of kuinri was stopped 
is that known as the betta and soppu question. Befta is forest land 
assigned to the adjacent garden cultivation for the provision of soppu 
or leaf manure, which is indispensable in the cultivation of betel, 
pepper, and cardamoms. The improvident use of betta assignments, 
leading to the destruction of the forest on the land, results in a constant 
demand for further assignments, which cannot be continuously met 
unless the forest is to be entirely sacrificed to cultivation. Efforts are 
being made to come to a final settlement with each garden holder, by 
the allotment of an area of betta that is adequate for his requirements 
if treated with proper care. The salt marshes on the coast are offered 
for reclamation on very favourable terms. The cultivators have little 
recourse to advances under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' 
Loans Acts. During the decade ending 1903-4 only 1-5 lakhs was 
advanced, of which Rs. 27,000 was lent in 1899-1900 and Rs. 67,000 
during the last three years of the period. 

The cattle are inferior everywhere, especially below the Ghats. 
Karvvar, Kumta, Ankola, and Honavar contain few domestic animals 
of local breed. In Karwar, Kumta, and Honavar the Goanese and 
other Christians rear pigs. Fowls are kept by all classes except 
Brahmans. 

Of the total area of cultivated land, 30 square miles or 6 per cent, 
were irrigated in 1903-4. Canals and wells supply about 2 square 
miles each, tanks 4 square miles, and other sources 22 square miles. 
The Mavinkop tank supplies 579 acres in the Haliyal tdliika. The 
other special irrigation works are insignificant. In 1903-4 there were 
18,205 wells and 5,534 tanks used for irrigation. Rice and garden 
crops are watered by runnels brought from streams or rivers. . Near 
the coast in the dry season, dams of earth, stones, and tree branches 
are thrown across streams and the lands near are watered, the dam 
being removed at the close of the dry season or left to be swept away 
by the floods. Some places are watered by canals from ponds. Where 
the level of the water is below the field, if not very deep, it is raised 
in a basket hung on ropes and swung through the water by two men. 
If water has to be raised from a greater depth, the lever and bucket lift 
is worked by either one or two men ; and, if the depth is still greater, 
it is drawn by the leathern bag worked by a pair of bullocks. ^Vhen 
brouglit to the surface, the water is generally carried to the crop along 
the hollowed trunk of a palm-tree. The cost of constructing wells 
varies from Rs. 200 in sandy soil to Rs. 700 in the loam. 

The forests of North Kanara are very extensive. Of the total area, 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 349 

3,262 ^ square miles are under forest, of which 548 square miles are 
'protected.' The Forest department has charge of 
the whole area. The forests are divided into three 
sections : the table-land above the Ghats, the main range, and the 
western spurs. The first of these contains splendid forests of teak, 
black-wood, and other trees 80 to 150 feet high, with fine clean stems 
60 to 90 feet high and 5 to 12 feet in girth. The central belt has 
some of the finest forest of the District, including the magnificent teak 
tracts along the Kalinadi, Bedti, and Gangavali rivers. Bamboos of 
several valuable kinds grow over the whole of the District. The more 
important trees in the Kanara forests are khair, hedu, siras, dhaura, 
kdjii, moha, phanas, ufidi, s/su, ahniis^ jdmbul, nandrttk, bhirand, ua/i, 
mango, sandal-wood, tamarind, teak, and kirda. 

The forest revenue in 1903-4 exceeded 9 lakhs, mainly derived from 
the value of the timber sold from the depots. The cultivators are 
allowed to gather dry wood for fuel and leaves for manure, and to cut 
bamboos and brushwood for their huts and cattle-sheds. They are 
also supplied, free of charge, with such timber as they require for their 
own use. In former years most of the produce of the Kanara forests 
w'ent westwards to the sea-coast, finding its chief markets in Bombay 
and Gujarat. Of late years the sea trade has fallen off, and the bulk 
of the timber is now taken eastward to the open country in and beyond 
Dharwar. 

Iron ore is found in different places in the main range and spurs 
of the Western Ghats, and in the island of Basavrajdrug about half 
a mile off the coast of Haldipur and about 2 miles from the town of 
Honavar. The building stone in general use below the Ghats is iron- 
clay or laterite, and sometimes granite or granitic schist and clay-slate. 
Above the Ghats it is nearly always granite. In the same tract lime 
is usually made from limestone pebbles dug out of the banks of 
streams. On the coast, lime is prepared by burning cockle and oyster 
shells, which are abundant in most of the creeks and rivers, especially 
in the Kalinadi. 

In Kumta and Banavasi there are skilled carvers of sandal-wood. 

A few hundred persons are employed in cutch- 

boiling. In the Ankola tdluka are i^i salt-works, Trade and 

^ , 7 , , • • 1 1 , communications. 

01 which 107 were working in 1903-4 and produced 

39,000 maunds of salt. With these exceptions North Kanara has 
no industries worthy of notice. 

The ports of Bhatkal and Honavar were known in the early centuries 
of the Christian era, and rose to importance in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries as centres of the trade in horses from the Persian 
Gulf. At the present day the chief ports are Karwar, Kumta, Ankola, 

' This figure is taken from tlie Forest Administr.ilion Report for 1903-4. 

Z 2 



350 NORTH KANAKA 

Honavar, and Bhatkal, with a total trade in 1903-4 of 61 lakhs: 
namely, imports 20 lakhs, and exports 41 lakhs. The principal 
articles of export are rice, timber, coco-nuts, and spices ; imports are 
piece-goods, metals, sugar, and spirits. Cotton from Dharwar, formerly 
exported in large quantities from Kiimta, now goes by rail direct to 
the port of shipment for Europe. 

The Southern Mahratta Railway crosses the north-west angle of the 
District. North Kanara is traversed from north to south by two main 
roads, one above the Ghats and one along the coast, and by four main 
roads at right angles to them which climb the Ghats and link up the 
principal coast towns with Belgaum, Dharwar, and Mysore State. These 
roads run from Kadra to Belgaum via Supa, from Karwar to Dharwar 
via Yellapur, from Kumta to Dharwar via Sirsi, and from Honavar to 
Mysore territory via the Falls. In 1904 the District possessed 340 miles 
of metalled and 885 of unmetalled roads. All these, except 24 miles 
of metalled and 585 of unmetalled roads in charge of the local 
authorities, are maintained by the Public Works department. Avenues 
of trees are planted along 166 miles. There is steamer communication 
with Bombay during the fair season only, the steamers of the Bom- 
bay Steam Navigation Company calling at Karwar, Gokarn, Kumta, 
Honavar, and Bhatkal twice a week on their way to and from 
Mangalore. 

North Kanara, with an assured rainfall, is practically exempt from 
famine. Bad seasons have been known, but the records point to the 
. fact that local scarcity has only occurred owing to 

an influx of immigrants from the Deccan and Ratna- 
giri, or to the depredations of dacoits causing hindrance to the arrival 
of supplies. The District suffered from these causes in 1806, when 
men were forced to feed on roots and rice husks, and about 3,000 
persons are said to have died of want. In the famine of 1877 relief 
was necessary on a small scale. 

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil 

Service and a Deputy-Collector. The District comprises the eight 

, ^ . . . tdlukas of Ankola, Honavar, Karwar, Kumta, 
Administration, c-- ^ tt - ja-- -n 

SiDDAPUR, Sirsi, Halival, and vellapur. Ihe 

mahals or pethas are Supa attached to Haliyal, Mundgod to \'ellapur, 
and Bhatkal to Honavar tdhika. There are three Forest officers. 

There is a District and Sessions Judge at Karwar and four Sub- 
ordinate Judges. The District Judge acts as a court of appeal from 
the Subordinate Judges, of whom one decides all original suits with- 
out limit in value. Three of the Subordinate Judges exercise the 
powers of a Small Cause Court. There are twenty-five officers to 
administer criminal justice in the District. Crime is not of a serious 
nature below the Ghats, save an occasional case of forgery ; while 



ADMINISTRA TION 3 5 r 

above the (ihats the most common offences are murder and dacoity, 
usually committed by persons coming from Dharwar District. 

The ancient Hindu revenue system involved theoretically the lev^ 
of a sixth part of the gross produce of the land as the share of the 
State ; but in practice much more than a sixth was taken under 
various pretexts, either in kind or commuted into money. Probably 
in late years as much as one-third was exacted ; but when Haidar 
All and Tipu held Kanara, the District was rack-rented to such 
a ruinous extent that population was diminished by a third, and only 
half the nominal revenue could be collected. When the District was 
taken over by the British, it was at first proposed to introduce a per- 
manent settlement ; but, in consideration of its desolate condition, 
large reductions of revenue were made as a temporary measure, and 
a permanent settlement postponed. Before many years the opinion 
was expressed that the Government demand was far too high and 
unequal in its incidence, and operated against the spread of cultiva- 
tion ; and after an unsuccessful attempt to fix the revenue upon an 
average of past receipts, a survey was begun in 1822. This was rather 
a rough inspection than an accurate survey, but it showed that the 
area under cultivation was larger than had been supposed. By fixing 
the assessments at about a third of the produce, the general rate of 
taxation was lowered : but the revenue was increased and paid with- 
out difficulty. Some progress was made with the survey on this 
principle, when it was discovered that, as the rate was the same on 
all lands, good or bad, the worst lands were being abandoned ; and 
it was then decided to classify the lands according to their quality. 
In 1848 a minute was recorded by the Collector, demonstrating that 
it was not possible to assess the District satisfactorily without positive 
information as to the extent and capabilities of the land and the 
amount of Government as distinct from private lands, and pointing 
out that private owners were on all sides extending their boundaries 
at the expense of Government. Still it was considered that the ex- 
pense of a survey could not be afforded, and nothing was done until 
the District was transferred from Madras to Bombay. On its transfer, 
a survey was introduced, the greatest difficulty being experienced in 
identifying boundaries of villages and fields. Between 1864 and 1867 
a survey settlement was made in 199 villages above the Ghats, the 
whole District being completed by 189 1. As the settlement spread 
towards the coast, the landholders showed signs of opposition; for it 
was found that the old assessments were far short of even a moderate 
rent, and that the revenue would be doubled. They refused to pay 
the new rates, and appealed to the civil courts for redress, carrying 
their suits to the High Court, which finally upheld the right of Govern- 
ment to revise the assessments in Kanara, and since then opposition 



352 NORTH KANAKA 

has died out. The survey increased the land revenue by 13 per cent, 
in Honavar, by 36 per cent, in Ankola and Kumta, by 63 per cent, 
in Yellapur, and by 115 per cent, in Karwar. The revision survey 
of three talukas was completed between 1 895-1 900, the assessment 
and area remaining unaffected. The total assessment on Government 
occupied land is now 10 lakhs. The average assessment per acre 
is : on ' dry ' land 7 annas, on rice land Rs. 2-5, and on garden land 

Rs. 11-15. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1 1880-1. 


1890-1. 


IQOO-I. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


7,60 
13,60 


2,96 
16,07 


io,iS 13,58 
16,67 24,63 



There are six municipalities in the District— Karwar, Kumta, Sirsi, 
Haliy.al, Honavar, and Bhatkai.— besides two temporary muni- 
cipalities at GoKARN and Ulvi. Outside the limits of these, local 
affairs are managed by the District board and eight tdluka boards. 
The total income of these bodies in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,18,000, the 
principal source being the land cess. The expenditure was Rs. 1,38,000, 
including Rs. 58,000 expended on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by 2 inspectors. 
There are 14 police stations in the District; and the total strength 
of the police force is 646, including 12 chief constables, 138 head 
constables, and 496 constables. The District jail at Karwar has 
accommodation for 252 prisoners. In addition, there are 10 subsi- 
diary jails and one lock-up in the District, with accommodation for 
180 prisoners. The daily average number of prisoners in 1904 
was 189, of whom one was a female. 

Compared with other Districts of the Presidency, Kanara stands 
fifth in point of literacy. In 1901, 8-4 per cent, of the population 
(15 males and i-i females) could read and write. Education has 
spread widely of late years. In 1865-6 there were only 16 schools, 
attended by 929 pupils. By 1 880-1 the number of pupils had in- 
creased to 6,511, and by 1890-1 to 12,214. In 1903-4 there were 
208 public and 26 private institutions, attended by 9,689 male and 
2,062 female pupils. The public institutions include one high school, 
10 middle, and 197 primary schools. Of these one is maintained 
by Government, 147 are managed by local boards, and 37 by munici- 
palities, 19 are aided and 4 unaided. The total expenditure in 1903-4 
was Rs. 82,500, of which Rs. 16,000 was derived from fees, and 
Rs. 17,000 from Local funds. Of the total, 66 per cent, was devoted 
to primary education. 



SOUTH KANAKA 353 

There is a hospital at Karwar, and 12 dispensaries, including a 
railway medical institution, are situated in the District, with accom- 
modation for 85 in-patients. In these institutions 50,500 patients 
were treated in 1904, of whom 749 were in-patients, and 941 opera- 
tions were performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 22,800, of 
which Rs. 10,060 was met from municipal and Local funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 11,850, 
representing a proportion of 26 per 1,000, which slightly exceeds the 
average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, vol. xv 
(1883) ; Sekdmis from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. 
CLXIII (1883).] 

Kanara, South. — The more northerly of the two Districts on the 
west coast of the Madras Presidency, lying between 12° -]' and 13° 59' 
N. and 74° 34' and 75° 45' E., with an area of 4,021 square miles. 

The vernacular name Kannada (' the black country ') really refers 
to the black soil of the Kanarese-speaking country in the Southern 
Deccan. Though a historical misnomer as applied to the western 
seaboard, it yet marks its long subjection to the Kanarese princes 
who held sway over the Western Ghats. The District is bounded 
on the north by the Bombay Presidency; on the east by Mysore 
and Coorg ; on the south by Coorg and Malabar ; and on the west 
by the Arabian Sea. The scarp or watershed of 

— • Phvsicsl 

the Western Ghats forms a natural frontier on the 
east. Approaching m the extreme north withni 6 
miles of the sea, the main line of this range soon swerves abruptly 
eastward round the Kollur valley. Through this passes a road leading 
to the Honnar Magane, a small tract above the Ghats belonging to 
South Kanara, but separated from it by Mysore territory. South of 
the valley rises the prominent sugar-loaf peak of Kodachadri, 4,411 
feet ; and thence, a precipitous cliff-like barrier with an average eleva- 
tion of over 2,000 feet, the Ghats run south-east to the Kudremukh, 
the highest peak in the District, 6,215 ^^^t above sea-level. From 
this point they sweep east and south round the Uppinangadi tdhik 
to join the broken ranges of the Coorg and Malabar liills on the 
southern boundary of the District. South of the Kudremukh their 
character entirely changes. To the north few passes or prominent 
heights break the clearly defined watershed. On the south, deep 
valleys pierce the main line, flanked by massive heights such as Bal- 
lalrayandurga (4,940 feet) and Subrahmanva hill (5,626), while a pro- 
fusion of forest-clad spurs and parallel ranges makes the