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Full text of "The Imperial gazetteer of India"



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II 






I 



ft** 



THE 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 



VOL. XV 



KARACHI 



TO 



KOTAYAM 



NEW EDITION 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 



MICROFORMED BY 
PRESERVATION 



DATE 



SERVOS 

MAR 2 1987, 




OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1908 



HENRY FROYYDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Notes on Transliteration 

Vowel-Sounds 

a has the sound of a in ' woman.' 
a has the sound of a in ' father.' 
e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 
i has the sound of i in ' pin.' 
I has the sound of i in ' police.' 
o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 
u has the sound of it in ' bull.' 
u has the sound of u in ' flute.' 
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 

Consonants 

Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, t, r, &c, marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
th in ' this ' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in 'woodhouse' 
and ' boathook.' 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Burmese Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in ' law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like/' in 'jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in 'this,' in some cases as in 

'thin.' 
w after a consonant has the force of uw. Thus, ywa and pwe 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written ymva and picwe. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

General 
The names of some places — e. g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2s., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as is. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 



■ INTRODUCTORY NOTES v 

the exchange value of the rupee to is. <\d., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. <\d. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck oflf (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — -| = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1, 00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 after 1899 ; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i\d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer =16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 



vi INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted— based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at is. \d. : 1 seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2S. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the bigha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 



MAP 

KashmIr to face p. 138 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 

VOLUME XV 

Karachi District. — District in Sind, Bombay, lying between 23° 35' 
and 26 22' N. and 66° 42" and 68° 48" E., with an area of 11,970 
square miles. It is bounded on the north by Larkana ; on the east 
by the Indus and Hyderabad I )istrict : on the south by the sea and 
the Kori river; and on the west by the sea and the State of Las 
Bela (Baluchistan), the river Hab forming for a considerable distance 
the line of demarcation. The District, which covers a large tract of 
land stretching from the mouth of the Indus to the 
Baluchi boundary, differs considerably in appearance asoects 

from the general level of Sind by its possession of 
a hilly western region, lying in the mahal of Kohistan and the tali/ka 
of Karachi. Numerous lateral ranges of considerable height here push 
forward into the plain from the Kirthar mountains, and diversify 
the usually monotonous aspect of the arid surface by their spurs and 
offshoots. From this lofty and barren tract, intersected by deep and 
wide valleys, the general aspect of the country, as it runs south-east- 
ward in a vast sloping plain, becomes more and more level, until in 
the extreme south the Indus delta presents a broad expanse of low, 
flat alluvium, stretching away to the horizon in one unbroken sheet, 
varied only by the numerous creeks communicating with the ocean. 
Large forests of babul and other trees fringe the river banks, and impart 
a somewhat fresher appearance to the otherwise dreary landscape. 
Elsewhere, however, the features of the Sind delta stand unrelieved 
in their naked monotony. 

Apart from the Indus and the Hab rivers, there are only a few 
minor torrents in the District. These take their rise in the western 
hills, but consist of dry watercourses for the greater portion of the year, 
filled only on the rare occasions when heavy rains fall on the higher 
ranges in which they have their sources. The Hajamrb and Baghar 
are offshoots of the Indus, the former now constituting the chief 
channel to the sea. At PlR Mangho there are hot springs, situated 



2 KARACHI DISTRICT 

among barren and rocky hills, and famous for their healing qualities, 
as well as for the crocodiles in an adjacent enclosure. Other hot 
sulphur springs are to be found at Lakhi in the Kotri taluka, which 
attract a number of pilgrims every year. 

In Karachi District the highly interesting geological series of Sind 
is most completely developed. It consists of upper and lower Manch- 
har beds of upper and middle miocene age, corresponding with the 
Siwaliks of Baluchistan and of the Himalayas; and the Gaj group con- 
taining highly fossiliferous marine beds, whose age is lower to middle 
Miocene. A second series is the upper Nari or oligocene, consisting 
of alternating fresh-water and marine strata; and this gives way in places 
to the lower Nari or upper eocene, a highly fossiliferous Nummulitic 
limestone, and to the upper limestone and shales of the Nummulitic 
Kirthar group, of middle eocene age, which corresponds with the 
Splntangi and Ghazij of Baluchistan. One also finds a lower limestone 
and shale group, likewise Nummulitic and classed as Kirthar, but not 
known outside of Sind, to which nearly all the Kirthar outcrops in 
Karachi District belong. The upper Ranikot, another highly fossili- 
ferous marine group, containing in its upper beds the oldest Nummulitic 
strata known in India, is approximately on the same horizon as the 
London Clay, and alternates with the lower Ranikot — fluviatile beds 
with lignites and fossil remains of plants. Other features of the series 
are representatives of the Deccan trap basalts ; the Cardita beaumonti 
beds, which are lowermost eocene or uppermost Cretaceous; and lastly 
the hippuritic limestone. All these rocks outcrop, each in turn, in 
a succession of gentle synclinal and anticlinal folds, whose structure 
recalls that of the Jura mountains. There is scarcely another part of 
the world that contains so complete a development of the Tertiary. The 
southern part of the District is covered by the Indus alluvium. 

Among fruit trees, which are not numerous, the mango, ber, apple, date, 
lig, plantain, and pomegranate are noticeable. The timber is almost 
entirely babul ; and the timur or mangrove, found near the salt creeks, 
provides firewood for steamers and fodder for camels. Of maritime 
plants, the chawara and kaudel are common on the coast. The tama- 
risk grows in patches which are peculiarly dense in portions of the 
Shahbandar taluka ; while the casuarina has been planted with some 
success at Karachi. 

The wild animals found in the hilly portions are the leopard, hyena, 
wolf, jackal, fox, ibex, antelope, and gad or wild sheep. Crocodiles are 
found at Magar Talao ; and they are also numerous in the pools of the 
1 tab river, in the Indus, and in some of the large canals and mountain 
torrents. 

The climate of Karachi city and the neighbouring country, which is 
in every direction open to the sea-breeze, possesses a great superiority 



HISTORY 3 

over that prevailing throughout the remainder of Sind. The hill 
country of Kohistan is also cooler in summer and warmer in winter 
than is the case in the plains. In the north, on the other hand, near 
the barren Lakhi range of hills, the heat often becomes insupportable. 
The hot season commences about the middle or end of March, reaches 
its maximum in the month of July, and lasts till the end of August, 
when the temperature once more becomes tolerably cool. The annual 
temperature averages 79 . The rainfall at Karachi is slight and fluctu- 
ating, the annual average hardly exceeding 5 inches. Sometimes one 
or two years pass with scarcely a shower. The average maximum rain- 
fall elsewhere is 9 inches in the Karachi tah/ka, and the minimum 5 
inches at Manjhand. 

Alexander the Great, towards the close of his Indian expedition, 
dispatched Nearchus, doubtless from some point (suggested to be at 
Tatta) in this District, to explore the Persian Gulf. 
The date 713 marks the first Arab invasion of the 
District, which later resulted in the formation of the local Arab princi- 
pality of Mansura, nearly corresponding with modern Sixd. Between 
1 019 and 1026, the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni took place and 
paved the way for the supremacy of the Sumra dynasty, whose founder 
was a titular vassal of the Ghaznivids ; and in 1333 the Samma tribe 
from Cutch settled first at Sehwan in Larkana District and afterwards 
at Tatta. Close under the Makli hills stood Samui, the capital of the 
Samma princes, originally a Hindu or Buddhist race. Converted to 
the faith of Islam about the close of the fourteenth century, they con- 
tinued to retain their practical autonomy, in spite of a nominal allegi- 
ance tendered to Firoz Tughlak of Delhi ; and the town of Tatta, 
where they generally resided, became in after years the chief centre of 
population and commerce for the whole of Sind. 

In 1 52 1 Shah Beg, founder of the Arghun dynasty, completely 
defeated the last Samma prince, and established his own claim to the 
sovereignty of the lower Indus valley ; but, after a continuance of only 
thirty-four years, the Arghun line became extinct in the person of Shah 
Hasan, son of the founder, who died childless in 1554. Mirza Jam 
Beg, the last local ruler of Tatta, was defeated by an army of the 
Mughal emperor Akbar in 1592; and the District, together with the 
rest of Sind, became incorporated with the Multan Subah in the imperial 
organization. The country of Tatta, however, was made over to Jam 
Beg, who entered the Mughal service after his defeat, and compromised 
for his independence by accepting his former territories in jCiglr. 
Continued struggles for the governorship of Tatta led Jahanglr to 
abolish the hereditary viceroyalty, and to appoint instead special lieu- 
tenants holding office during the imperial pleasure. The town of 
Karachi appears to have attained little importance under either the 



4 KARACHI DISTRICT 

native dynasties or the Mughal administration. Its rise into notice 
began with the period of the Talpur Mirs, in succession to the Kalhora 
princes, who had usurped power on the break-up of the Mughal empire. 
They were the first to recognize the value of the harbour for commerce, 
and in 1792 recovered Karachi from the Khan of Kalat : but soon 
afterwards they divided into three branches, each ruling independently 
in a separate part of Sind. The British endeavoured to enter into 
friendly treaties with the Mirs ; but their jealousy and mistrust of the 
motives of the Government prevented any cordial understanding, and 
in 1838 they offered considerable opposition to the march of British 
troops on their way to the first Afghan War. After Shah Shuja was 
placed on the throne, the Mirs were required to pay the arrears of 
tribute due to the Afghan ruler and to permit the establishment of 
a British force in Sind. Failure having been made in payment of the 
stipulated tribute, the Mirs were required to cede certain territory. 
The army, however, resisted this loss of independence, and attacking 
the Hyderabad Residency precipitated the conflict which ended in the 
annexation of Sind to the British dominions. The District passed to 
the British in 1843. Karachi town grew rapidly under the new admin- 
istration, and became the principal port of North-western India. The 
District, as at first constituted, did not embrace the same area as at 
present; in 1861 a portion of the Indus delta, composing the present 
Shahbandar taluka, was added to it from Hyderabad, while in 1901 
three talukas were taken from it to form part of the new District of 
Larkana. 

Among the remains of interest in the District may be mentioned 
those situated in the town of Tatta. The town is of great antiquity, 
and possesses a number of tombs, inscriptions, mosques, and a fort. 
The Jama Masjid is decorated with coloured tile-work of the well- 
known Multan type. The design and shades of colour are very beauti- 
ful. The Dabgar Masjid has a fine central mihrab, carved with delicate 
surface tracery. The old fort at Tatta was commenced about 1699, 
but was never completed. The ruined city of Bhambore is an inter- 
esting archaeological relic. In the delta of the Indus are numerous 
sites of ruined cities, such as Lahori, Kakar, Bukera, Samui, Fathbagh, 
Kat Bambhan, Jun, Than, Badin, and Tur, as well as the remains of 
Daro and Lohan. Among ruined forts once of importance are those 
of Charlo Chakar and Raniji. 

In 1872 the population was 442,177; in 18S1, 495,860; in 1891, 

571,951 ; and in 1901, 607,828. Since the date of the last Census, 

- , . a new District has been created by the transfer of 

Population. . _, . , ,.,.,_ ,.;... TA . 

certain ialukas from Shikarpur and Karachi Districts. 

The population of the present area of Karachi District (446,513) shows 

an increase of 8 per cent, over the population of the same area in 1891. 






POPULATION 5 

The population is distributed, as follows, in nine talukas and the 
Kohistan tract : — 







Number of 




fed 


■s.si- . 


c 




3 

r., p 

<» 









is 


4; _ ~ 

"0.2*28 


5 a « £ 


Taluka 01 




. 


Mahal. 


— C 


tn 

c 




"5 


■SS 


S|js8-S 


■5 [A-rj'u 

~ = rt i 




rt ~ 


js 


rt 




3 3 


>- 3 ?• c 


= s 




u 

u 

< 




H 
2 


> 


0- 


C tr. 


« > O ** 




i- •* 
koln* 


1,485 


62 


57-530 


39 


+ 2 


-•,287 


Kohistan mahal 


i,8o r ) 


• • . 


2 


12,877 


7 


— 20 


141 


Karachi . 


1.678 


1 


14 


136,297 


Si 


+ 10 


9-59° 


Tatta 


1,229 


1 


35 


4**745 


34 


+ 12 


1,425 


Mirpur Sakro . 


i,i37 




74 


27,600 


24 


+ 6 


354 


( ihorabari 
Keti mahal 


! ««i 


1 


5 1 
42 


26,237 
8,499 


}0, 


+ 14 


431 


Mirpur Batoro . 


269 




62 


37,i '6 


'38 


+ 5 


583 


Sujawal . 


267 




65 


33,251 


125 


+ '3 


53° 


Jati . 


2,145 




117 


31-752 


15 


+ '4 


310 


Shahbandar 
District total 


1,388 


5 


104 


33,69 


24 

37 


+ M 


323 


11,970 


628 


44 6 ,5i3 


+ 8 


15-974 



* Including the Manjhand mahal, for which separate statistics are not available. 

There are 5 towns, Karachi, the capital of the province and head- 
quarters of the District, Keti, Kotri, Manjhand, and Tatta ; and 
628 villages. The density of population varies according as the tract 
concerned happens to be desert, barren hill, or cultivable. Of the 
population, 77 per cent, are Musalmans, 21 per cent. Hindus, and 
1 per cent. Christians. Sindi is spoken by 340,837 persons, or 76 per 
cent, of the total. 

The Muhammadans consist mainly of Sindi tribes, of whom half 
(112,000) returned themselves as Sammas and 9,000 as Sumras, sug- 
gesting some connexion with the once-powerful dynasties known by 
those names. The Muhanas or fishermen number 31,000. Of foreign 
tribes, the Baluchis are represented by 28,000, and the Brahuis by 
10,000. There are 17,000 Jats. Among Hindus, the trading caste 
known as Lohana or Euvana is alone of numerical importance, with 
35,000. Brahmans, Rajputs, and Bhatias scarcely number 3,000 each. 
The low castes are represented by 8,000 Dheds. Agriculture supports 
45 per cent, of the population ; industries, commerce, and the profes- 
sions 24, 2, and 2 per cent, respectively. 

Of the 2,707 native Christians in 1901, more than 2,500 were Roman 
Catholics and 129 belonged to the Anglican communion. Karachi is 
the head-quarters of the Church of England Mission, the Church 
of England Zanana Mission, and the Methodist Episcopal Mission. 
The first-named society maintains three boys' schools : the second, 
nine girls' schools and a small orphanage ; the third, four boys' schools 
and four girls' schools, including two poor schools; the fourth, two boys' 



K. I A. I CHI DISTRICT 



schools. The Roman Catholic and Zanana Missions have branches at 
KotrT and Jherruck respectively. 

In the Karachi taluka cultivation exists only on a few isolated spots, 
and depends upon wells, springs, or natural rainfall. Here the chief 
crops are jowar, bajra, barley, and sugar-cane, grown 
chiefly on the Malir plain, distant about 12 miles 
from Karachi city, and easily accessible by rail. In the delta tdlukas 
of Tatta and Shahbandar, where numerous creeks and channels inter- 
sect the alluvial flats, rice forms the staple crop ; but wheat, sugar-cane, 
millets, cotton, and tobacco are also grown. In the barren hills of 
Kohistan, agriculture is but little practised, except within embankments 
erected to impound the scanty rainfall or along watercourses fed by 
small hill streams ; and the nomad population devotes itself almost 
entirely to grazing cattle in the southern plains, where abundance of 
forage springs up spontaneously after the slightest fall of rain. 

The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown below, in 
square miles : — 



Taluka. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 
51 


Waste. 


Forests. 


Kotri 


3,305 


329 


79 


56 


Karachi 


1,678 


63 





84 




Tatta 


1,215 


68 


32 


6j 


51 


Mirpur Sakro 


1,137 


104 


35 


IOO 




Ghorabari . 


566 


102 


47 


240 


II 


Mirpur Batoro . 


269 


ICO 


63 


65 


39 


Sujawal 


267 


82 


53 


69 


47 


Jati . 


M45 


97 


5° 


132 




Shahbandar 

Total 


1,388 


158 


49 


1,05 5 


8 


1 1 ,970* 


1,103 


380 


1,889 


212 



* According to the latest information. 



Of the area cropped, 22 square miles were under wheat, 13 under 
barley, 245 under rice, and 100 under millets {jowar and bajra). Rice 
is the principal crop, except in the Kohistan tract and the tdlukas of 
Karachi and Kotri. Millets take the place of rice in Kotri. Among 
the pulses mung is an important crop. During the decade ending 
1903-4 nearly 9 lakhs was advanced to cultivators under the Land 
Improvement Loans Act and the Agriculturists' Loans Act, out of 
which i-8 lakhs was lent in 1 899-1 900, and 1-3 lakhs in each of the 
years 1900-1 and 1901-2. The money is usually employed on erecting 
embankments (bands) and clearing canals. 

The chief domestic animals are camels, buffaloes, and cattle. The 
buffaloes are commonest in the deltaic swamps, and produce ghl famous 
all over Western India. The Karachi cows are noted as good milkers, 
and many of them are shipped to Bombay for sale. The best of these 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 7 

cattle are bred within a radius of 30 or 40 miles from Karachi city, 
chiefly in the hill tracts. 

Of the total cultivated area of 1,103 square miles, 380 square miles, 
or 34 per cent, were irrigated in 1903-4. The chief sources of irriga- 
tion are: Government canals, 118 square miles; private canals, 206; 
and other sources, 56. Throughout Sind nearly every canal is fed by 
the Indus ; and in 1903-4 nearly 34 per cent, of the total irrigated area 
of the District was supplied by the Pinjari canal, fed by the Shahbandar 
embankment of the Indus. The Baghar, a small canal on the right 
bank, irrigated nearly 43 square miles, the Kotri 24, and the Kokwari 
23 square miles. Of the irrigated land, 87 per cent, is sown for the 
Marl/ or autumn harvest. There are only twenty-seven wells in the 
District used for irrigation. 

Sea-fishing is carried on by the Muhana tribe of Musalmans, who 
reside for the most part in hamlets near Karachi. The principal fish 
caught on the coast are sharks, rays, and skates. . 

The pearl oyster is found at several places, and the 
Mlrs conducted pearl operations on their own account. Under British 
rule, the right has been let for a small sum, but the pearls are very 
inferior in size and quality, so that the industry has greatly declined 
during the last twenty-five years. At present practically no pearl fish- 
ing is carried on. Considerable fisheries also exist in the river Indus, 
chiefly for the fish known as palla, which are annually leased out by 
Government for about Rs. 20,000. 

The forest lands include tracts in the Jherruck forest division, south 
of Kotri, producing timber and fuel, with an area of 212 square miles 
in charge of a divisional forest officer. A portion of the Hyderabad 
forest division, measuring 48 square miles and situated north of Kotri, 
also lies within Karachi District. The forest lands are situated on 
the banks of the Indus, for the most part in the Shahbandar taluka. 
The principal trees are the babTd and tamarisk, the latter being found 
chiefly in the Shahbandar jungles. Forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 52. Good building stone occurs among the arenaceous lime- 
stones of the Gaj group near Karachi. 

Local manufactures are confined to cotton cloth, silk scarves, carpets, 
rugs, and the ordinary metal and earthenware. Besides a few factories 
in Karachi city, there are few industries of importance. 
Tatta is noted for tungfs, used by women as robes or c^munications. 
shawls. Extensive salt deposits of the purest descrip- 
tion occur in the Shahbandar taluka, on the Sirganda creek, a branch of 
the Indus, accessible for small craft of from 50 to 60 tons burden. Salt 
is manufactured from salt water by artificial means at the Maurypur 
works on the sea-coast, a few miles from Karachi. Out of 1 5 factories, 
5 are cotton-gins and presses, employing 356 persons, and the rest 



8 KARACHI DISTRICT 

include 2 metal foundries, 2 hone-mills, an arsenal, a printing press, 
and a railway workshop. 

The traffic centres mainly in the city and port of Karachi. The 
staple exports consist of grain, principally wheat, cotton, wool, hides 
and skins ; and the chief imports are sugar, kerosene, piece-goods, 
liquor, and metals. Karachi District contains three seaports : namely, 
Karachi, Keti, and Sirganda. The average value of the foreign trade, 
which is practically confined to Karachi port, for the five years ending 
1902-3 was: imports, 505 lakhs; exports, 712 lakhs; total, 1217 
lakhs. In 1903-4 the value of the imports was 591 lakhs, and of the 
exports 1345 lakhs; total, 1936 lakhs, or 719 lakhs above the average 
of the previous five years. The average value of the coastwise trade for 
all ports for the five years ending 1902-3 was: imports, 340 lakhs; 
exports, 251 lakhs; total, 591 lakhs. In 1903-4 the coastwise trade 
was returned as follows : imports, 375 lakhs ; exports, 188 lakhs; total, 
563 lakhs, or 28 lakhs below the average of the previous five years, 
which resulted from a decrease in the exports to Bombay of raw cotton, 
wheat, and rapeseed. The coast-borne trade includes reimports and 
re-exports from and to Karachi, which are included in the values of 
the foreign trade given above. 

Besides being the port of call of various steamer lines, chief among 
which is the British India Steam Navigation Company, Karachi is con- 
nected with two important railway systems and a number of trade routes 
from Afghanistan, Kalat, and Central Asia. The North-Western Rail- 
way links the District with the Punjab and the United Provinces, while 
the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway supplies railway communication with the 
Thar and Parkar District and, by a circuitous route, with Bombay. 
A line running for 54 miles from Hyderabad town to Badin, the head- 
quarters of the Badin taluka of Hyderabad, was opened in 1904. This 
line is to form part of the proposed direct railway between Sind and 
Bombay, which will run through Karachi District and pass either 
through Cutch or through the Thar and Parkar District. Three im- 
portant trade routes converge at Karachi, placing it in direct communi- 
cation with the interior of Sind, with Las Bela, and with Kalat. The 
total length of metalled roads in the District outside the municipal 
towns is 7 miles, and of unmetalled roads 1,321 miles. The total cost 
of their maintenance in 1903-4 was Rs. 19,631, of which Rs. 16,700 
was paid from Local funds. Avenues of trees are maintained along 
185 miles. 

The District has three subdivisions, comprising nine talukas and three 
ma/ia/s, in charge of two Assistant Collectors and a Deputy-Collector. 

The nine talukas are each under a vii/khtiarkar, 
Administration. ,. . _ , .,_ .. ., ., , 

corresponding to the niamlatdar 01 the Bombay 

Presidency proper. The three mahah are Keti Bandar, Manjhand, and 






ADMINISTRATION 9 

Kohistan. The city of Karachi forms a separate charge under the 
City Deputy-Collector. 

The functions of the former District and Sessions Judge are now- 
performed by two Additional Judicial Commissioners, who, together with 
the Judicial Commissioner, compose the Chief Court in Sind. Sub- 
ordinate to them are a Judge of the Small Cause Court and a Sub- 
ordinate Judge, sitting at Kotri. The city is under the separate charge 
of a City Magistrate, and there is a Cantonment Magistrate for the 
Karachi and Manora cantonment. Magisterial work in the District 
is, as usual, carried on by the administrative staff. Cattle-lifting is a 
very prevalent form of crime, and, as in other Districts, blood-feuds 
arising from intrigues with women are common among the hill tribes. 

Before the introduction of the present settlement rates into all talukas 
between 1876-7 and 1889-90, there were only two rates of land revenue 
levied in the District : that is to say, garden and ' dry-crop ' rates, the 
former at R. 1 and the latter at 8 annas per acre. The present revenue 
system of Karachi is adapted to the system of cultivation, depending 
almost entirely upon irrigation. The irrigation settlement (j^Sind) is in 
force in all talukas of the District, and is fixed for a term of ten years. 
Kohistan is settled under a special lease system, which expires in 1909, 
but the lease has been extended for another five years. Under this 
system the landholder is allowed to cultivate on payment of a fixed 
annual rent, amounting to about 8 annas per acre. Owing to the pre- 
carious water-supply of this tract, which is entirely dependent upon the 
rainfall, the irrigation settlement has not been introduced into Kohistan. 
The average land revenue rates per acre in the District are : garden 
land, Rs. 3-9 (maximum Rs. 4, minimum Rs. 2-10); rice land, Rs. 2-14 
(maximum Rs. 3-8, minimum Rs. 2-4) ; and ' dry ' land, Rs. 2-0 
(maximum Rs. 2-8, minimum Rs. 1-4). 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 

1 3..0.5 
33-01 


IQOO-I. 


I903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


7,2' 
22,29 


12,02 
69.22 


8,53 
60. oC> 



There are live municipalities in the District : namely, Karachi, 
Kotri, Manjhand, Tatta, and Keti Bandar. Elsewhere, local 
affairs are managed by the District and tdluka boards, the total re- 
ceipts of which in 1903-4 were nearly i| lakhs, the principal source 
of income being the land cess. The expenditure in the same year 
amounted to one lakh, of which Rs. 30,000 was spent upon roads and 
buildings. 



io KARACHI DISTRICT 

The District Superintendent of police has two Assistants and seven 
inspectors. There are nineteen police stations in the District. The 
total number of police in 1904 was 1,142, of whom 23 were chief con- 
stables, 184 head constables, and 935 constables. The District contains 
a District jail (at Karachi), n sub-jails, and 6 lock-ups. The daily 
average number of prisoners in 1904 was 254, of whom 2 were females. 
A new jail with accommodation for 374 prisoners is under construction. 

Of the total population, y^ per cent. (5-6 males and 0-5 females) are 
literate. As in other Sind Districts, education is backward as compared 
with the Presidency proper, and such advance as has been made is 
more observable in Karachi city than in the towns and villages in the 
interior. The least backward talukas are Kotri and Tatta. In 1 880-1 
there were 65 schools, attended by 4,581 pupils. The number of 
pupils rose to 13,856 in 1891 and to 16,602 in 1901. In 1903-4 there 
were 297 educational institutions, public and private, including an Arts 
college at Karachi city, 6 high schools, 8 middle schools, 2 training 
schools, 2 special schools, and 186 primary and elementary. These 
institutions were attended by 13,605 pupils, including 3,028 girls. Of 
the 205 institutions classed as public, 2 were managed by Government, 
69 by the local boards and municipalities, while 134 were aided. The 
great majority of the pupils are in primary schools. Attempts have re- 
cently been made by the Muhammadan community to encourage educa- 
tion, and a society has been formed to promote this object. The total 
expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 2-| lakhs, of which about 
Rs. 50,000 was derived from fees. Of the total, 55 per cent, was 
devoted to primary education. 

The District has 2 hospitals and 13 dispensaries and other institu- 
tions, containing accommodation for 186 in-patients. The existing civil 
hospital at Karachi is being replaced by a more modern building. In 
these institutions, 104,000 cases were treated in 1904, of whom 1,928 
were in-patients, and 3,473 operations were performed. The expendi- 
ture was Rs. 64,000, of which Rs. 30,000 was met from Local and 
municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 12,359, 
representing a proportion of 27 per 1,000, which exceeds the average 
for the Presidency. Vaccination is compulsory only in Karachi city. 

[A. W. Hughes, Gazetteer of the Province of Sind (1876, new edition 
in the press).] 

Karachi Taluka. — South-western taluka of Karachi District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 24 46' and 25 39' N. and 66° 42' and 67 53' 
E., with an area of 1,678 square miles. It contains one city, Karachi 
(population, 116,663), the head-quarters of the District and of the 
taluka ; and 14 villages. The population increased from 124,274 in 1891 
to 136,297 in 1 90 1. The density is 81 persons per square mile. The 



KARACHI CITY n 

land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 32,010. The 

aspect of the taluka, excepting the portion bordering on the sea, is 

hilly, especially towards the north and west where ranges of lofty and 

barren hills run from north to south, with wide valleys between them. 

A small chain of hills runs within the taluka for some miles parallel to 

the Hab river, terminating in the headland of Ras Muar or Cape Monze, 

a landmark for sailors making the port of Karachi. After a heavy 

fall of rain these hills afford abundant pasturage. The taluka contains 

no canals, but is drained by several mountain torrents, the chief of which 

are the Malir and Layari. Salt marshes occur along the sea-coast, and 

abound with mangroves and other trees. Much of the fertile portion 

of the taluka is devoted to raising vegetables and fruit for the Karachi 

market. Agriculture depends chiefly upon wells and springs, the 

principal crops being jowdr, bajra, barley, and sugar-cane, which are 

chiefly grown at Malir. 

Karachi City. — Capital of Sind, Bombay, and head-quarters of the 

District and taluka of the same name, situated in 24 51' N. and 

67 4' E., at the extreme northern end of the Indus delta, near the 

southern base of the Pab mountains and close to the border of 

Baluchistan. It is 993 miles distant from Bombay by rail, the distance 

in nautical miles being 483. Two routes connect the city with Lahore, 

by Sukkur, and by the Kotri-Rohri railway, the distance by each being 

about 800 miles. Population has increased rapidly : 

f / r, \ j Population. 

(1872) 56,753, (1881) 73,560, (1891) 105,199, and 

(1901) 1 16,663, of whom 8,019 resided in the cantonment. Muhamma- 

dans number 60,003, Hindus 48,169, Christians 6,158, and Parsis 1,823. 

The bay of Karachi is formed by the projecting point of Manora 

Head, the extremity of a reef 10 miles in length, which supplies a 

natural barrier against the Arabian Sea. The open- . 

„ , , ° _ , , . . Description, 

ing of the bay between Manora and the opposite 

sanitarium of Clifton has a width of about 3^ miles ; but the mouth is 

blocked by a group of rocky islets, known as the Oyster Rocks, as well 

as by what was formerly the larger island of Kiamari, now part of the 

mainland owing to the action of sand-drifts. The harbour stretches for 

5 miles northward from Manora Head to the narrows of the Layari 

river, and about the same distance from the old town of Karachi on 

the eastern shore to the extreme western point. Only a small portion 

of this extensive area, however, is capable of accommodating large 

vessels. Manora Head, the first object visible to a voyager approaching 

Karachi from the sea, is crowned by a lighthouse, having a fixed light 

148 feet above sea-level, and visible for 20 miles around in clear 

weather. The point was formerly guarded by a fort, said to have been 

first erected in 1797; but this has now yielded place to a modern 

fortification, the port and pilot establishment, the buildings in 

VOL. xv. B 



i 2 KARACHI CITY 

connexion with the harbour improvements, and a portion of the Indo- 
European Telegraph department. Besides a library, billiard-room, and 
European school, Manora possesses an English church, intended for 
the crews of vessels frequenting the harbour. It has recently been 
made a cantonment, and is shortly to be constituted a military 
sanitarium in place of Ghizri, lately abandoned. 

On the opposite side of the mouth, Kiamari forms the landing-place 
for all passengers and goods bound for Karachi, and has three piers. 
A road running along the Napier Mole, three miles long, connects the 
island with the city and mainland, and is traversed by the East India 
Tramway. The North-Western Railway also extends to Kiamari ; but 
instead of following the mole, it takes a more circuitous route, to the 
south, by the edge of a large lagoon, the waters of which are passed 
through the mole by a screw-pile bridge, 1,200 feet in length, erected 
in 1865 at a cost of about 5 lakhs, so as to allow them to flow uninter- 
ruptedly into the harbour as a means of scouring the channel. At the 
northern extremity of this bridge, and running in a westerly direction, 
stands the native jetty, built of stone at an expense of 4A lakhs. At 
the end of the mole, on the mainland side, the custom-house runs right 
across the road, which pierces it by five arches, thus intercepting all 

traffic. 

Two principal thoroughfares lead from the custom-house to the 
Karachi cantonment, known respectively as the Bandar and the 
M c Leod Roads, at the junction of which stands a handsome clock- 
tower, the public memorial to Sir William Merewether. The oldest 
portion of the town is situated along the former route, close to the 
harbour, containing the most thickly populated quarter in Karachi. 
The municipality has widened and paved the streets, and effected other 
improvements which must conduce to the health of the inhabitants, 
who are chiefly Hindu and Muhammadan merchants. The Layari, 
a river merely in name, as it contains water only three or four times 
a year, separates this quarter from the Layari suburb. On the M c Leod 
Road are situated the Chief Court, the Bank of Bombay, the National 
Bank of India, the city railway station, the general post office, the 
telegraph office, the Mansfield import yard, Messrs. Herman & Co.'s 
ironworks, and three important cotton-presses — the M c Leod Road 
presses, owned by the Sind Press Company, capable of turning out 
daily 350 pressed bales of cotton ; the Tyabjl presses, erected in 1865 
at a cost of 2\ lakhs, and turning out 250 bales ; and the Albert 
Presses, leased to the Sind Press Company, and turning out 390 bales. 
This quarter also contains the Edalji Dinsha dispensary, several 
schools, the Sind College, a new Hindu temple, and most of the 
offices belonging to European merchants. The Afghan sarai, intended 
for the use of caravans from Kandahar, and rebuilt by the municipality 



DESCRIPTIOX 13 

in 1873 at a cost of R.S. 20,000, covers an area of about 3 acres. 
Nearer to the cantonment, a number of bungalows stand on the inter- 
vening space, while the civil lines skirt the cantonment itself to the 
eastward. The military quarter, which is situated to the north and 
east of the city proper, consists of three portions : the depot lines, the 
artillery lines, and the European infantry lines. The depot lines are 
the oldest military portion of Karachi, and were originally intended to 
supply accommodation to troops passing up-country from the sea or 
vice versa. Here also is the arsenal. The public garden, distant about 
half a mile from cantonments, covers an area of 40 acres, neatly laid out 
with trees and shrubs, and contains an excellent zoological collection. 

The architecture of Karachi is essentially modern and Anglo-Indian. 
The Anglican Church of the Holy Trinity is situated just outside the 
cantonments. It stands in a large open space, 15 acres in extent, and 
consists of a heavy, ungainly Italian nave, with an ugly tower, the 
upper portion of which has recently been removed as unsafe. 
St. Patrick's Roman Catholic school, formerly a church, is a fine 
stone building, capable of accommodating 40 boarders and 200 day- 
scholars. The European and Indo-European school, known as the 
Karachi Grammar School, founded in 1854, under the auspices of 
Sir Bartle Frere, then Commissioner of Sind, occupies a handsome 
stone structure in the depot lines. The other chief modern institutions 
include a Muhammadan college, the Presbyterian Church of St. Andrew, 
Christ Church and the Anglican Mission schools, the Napier Barracks, the 
Sind Club, the Empress market, the ParsI Virbaiji school, and the post 
office. The Frere Hall, a municipal building, stands near the Sind 
Club. It was opened in a somewhat unfinished state in October, 
1865, up to which date if lakhs had been expended upon its erection. 
This hall, which is a comparatively good specimen of slightly adapted 
Venetian Gothic, contains the Karachi general library. A fine statue 
of the Queen-Empress Victoria, erected by public subscription in the 
grounds of Frere Hall, was unveiled by His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales in March, 1906. Government House, the residence of the 
Commissioner of Sind, is situated in the civil quarter, and consists of 
a central building with two wings, approached by five separate carriage 
drives. Though commodious and comfortable in its interior arrange- 
ments, the exterior can lay no claim to architectural beauty. It was 
originally built by Sir Charles Napier when governor of the province, 
and has now been improved and fitted with an electric light and fan 
installation. 

The climate of Karachi, owing to the prevalence of sea-breezes 
during eight months of the year, is more healthy than any other in 
Sind. The low situation of the city, and the near neighbourhood of 
marsh land, render the atmosphere moist and warm : but the heat 



14 KARACHI CITY 

during the hottest months cannot compare with that experienced in 
the interior. The mean annual temperature, calculated from data for 
twenty-five years ending 1901, may be stated at 65 in January, 85 in 
May, and 75 in November. The hottest weather occurs in April, 
May, and June, though September and October are also often close 
and sultry. The annual rainfall averages about 5 inches. The first 
case of plague occurred early in December of 1896, the locality 
attacked being the old town quarter, and nearly 3,400 persons died 
in the first year. The total mortality from plague until the end of 
March, 1904, was 19,010. 

Karachi came into British possession in 1843. The town may be 
regarded as almost a creation of British rule, its extensive commerce, 

splendid harbour works, and numerous flourishing 
History. . . , . ,, , 

institutions having all sprung up since the introduc- 
tion of settled administration. Before 1725 no town whatever appears 
to have existed on the site ; but a place named Kharak, with a con- 
siderable commerce, is mentioned as lying on the other side of the 
Hab river at the confluence of the river and the sea. The entrance 
to Kharak harbour having become blocked with sand, a migration was 
made to a spot near the present head of Karachi harbour, and at that 
time (1729) called Kalachi Kun ; and in time, under Jam Daria Khan 
Jokia, trade began to centre upon the convenient harbour. Cannon 
brought from Muscat protected the little fort, and the name of Karachi, 
supposed to be a corrupt form of Kalachi, was bestowed upon the rising 
village. The hopeless blocking up of Shahbandar harbour shortly 
afterwards drove much of its former trade and population to Karachi. 

Under the Kalhora princes, the Khan of Kalat obtained a grant of 
the town, which he garrisoned from his own territory. Within the short 
period 1792-5, three Baloch armies appeared before the town; but 
only on the third occasion did the Talpur chief of Hyderabad, who led 
the Baloch troops, gain possession by force of arms. A fort was built 
at Manora, at the mouth of the harbour. The Talpur chiefs made 
considerable efforts to increase the trade of Karachi, so that in 1838 
the town and suburbs had a population of 14,000, half of whom were 
Hindus. The houses were all flat-roofed, and built of mud, very few 
of them having more than one storey : each house had its badgir or 
wind-catcher for the purposes of ventilation. The government under 
tin Mirs was vested in a civil and military official, the Nawab, who 
ruled despotically over the town and neighbourhood. 

Even before the period of British rule, the commerce of Karachi had 
attained to some importance, owing to the value of the river Indus as 

a channel of communication. Nevertheless, the sparse 

population of the country, combined with the short- 
sighted policy of its rulers, prevented it from reaching its proper develop- 



COMMERCE 1 5 

ment. Under the Talpur Mlrs, all imports were subjected to a 4 per 
cent, and all exports to a z\ per cent. duty. In 1809 the customs 
revenue amounted to Rs. 99,000 ; by 1837 it had risen to Rs. 1,74,000. 
In the latter year the whole trade of the port was valued at about 40 
lakhs, the following being the principal items : imports— English 
silk, broadcloth, chintz, &c, Bengal and China raw silk, slaves, dates, 
sugar, ivory, copper, spices, and cotton; exports— opium, gki, indigo, 
wheat, madder, wool, raisins, and salted fish. Slaves came chiefly 
from Muscat, and consisted of negroes or Abyssinians. Opium to the 
extent of 500 camel-loads came from Marwar, and was exported to the 
Portuguese town of Daman. Almost all the goods imported into Sind 
were then consumed within the province, only Rs. 1,50,000 worth being 
sent across the frontier. 

In 1843-4, the first year of British rule, the trade of Karachi, includ- 
ing Keti and Sirganda, had a total value of about 12 lakhs, due to 
a decline in the opium trade, which had steadily fallen since 1837, when 
its value was estimated at 16 lakhs. The second year of British rule 
saw a rise to 23, the third to 35, and the fifth to 44 lakhs. By 1852-3 
the total value had risen to 81 lakhs. In 1857-8 the exports nearly 
overtook the imports, the two standing respectively at 107 and 108 
lakhs. The American Civil War gave an enormous impetus to the 
trade of Karachi, by the high demand for Indian cotton which it 
created in European markets ; and in 1863-4 the total value of the 
trade amounted to no less than 6 crores : namely, imports 2 and exports 
4 crores. The restoration of peace in America, however, brought about 
a lower price for cotton in Lancashire, and the trade of Karachi gradu- 
ally returned to what was then considered its normal level. The total 
value sank to 4 crores in 1867-8, and 3^ crores in 1873-4; but by 
1882-3 it had risen again to 7 crores, and in 1S92-3 to 11 crores. 

In 1903-4 the trade of Karachi port, exclusive of Government stores 
and treasure, had increased in value to 24-9 crores (of which 5-5 repre- 
sented coasting trade): namely, imports 9-6 crores, and exports 15-2 
crores. The main cause of the growth is due to the annually increas- 
ing exports of wheat and other food-grains, and oilseeds, which are 
brought by rail from irrigated tracts of Sind and the Punjab. The 
following were the chief articles of foreign import, with their values, in 
1903-4: apparel, 14 lakhs; cotton piece-goods, 2 crores; cotton twist 
and yarn, ro lakhs ; manufactures of wool, 20 lakhs ; hardware and 
cutlery, 13 lakhs ; wines and liqueurs, 9 lakhs ; spirits, 11 lakhs : metals, 
wrought and unwrought (chiefly copper, iron, and steel), 43 lakhs ; pro- 
visions, 19 lakhs ; sugar, 102 lakhs : machinery and mill-work, 10 lakhs: 
mineral oil, 22 lakhs; and treasure, 44 lakhs. Total imports from 
foreign ports (including treasure), 5-9 crores. 

From the United Kingdom Karachi imports cotton manufactures, 



r6 KARACHI CITY 

railway materials, liquors, coal and coke, machinery, metals, provisions, 
apparel, drugs, and medicines ; from Bombay, cotton piece-goods and 
twist, treasure, metals, silk, sugar, tea, jute, spices, dyes, woollen manu- 
factures, coco-nuts, manufactured silk, liquors, fruit, and vegetables ; 
from the Persian Gulf, dried fruits, treasure, wool, grain, and horses ; 
from the coast of Makran, wool, provisions, grain, and pulses ; from 
Calcutta, jute, grain, and pulses ; and from Russia, mineral oil. 

The following list shows the value of the exports to foreign ports in 
1903-4: raw cotton, 2f crores ; grain and pulses, 7! crores, of which 
7^ crores represented wheat ; hides and skins, 47 lakhs ; oilseeds, 
chiefly rape and ///, one crore ; raw wool, 52 \ lakhs ; bones, 17 lakhs. 
Total value of exports (including treasure), 13^ crores. 

To the United Kingdom Karachi exports cotton, wool, wheat, seeds, 
skins, and bones ; to France, wheat, cotton, bones, hides, gram, gingelly, 
and rapeseed ; to Germany, wheat, cotton, hides, bones, and seeds ; to 
Japan, cotton ; to Russia, indigo and cotton ; to Bombay, Cutch, and 
Gujarat, cotton, grain, indigo, seeds, skins, fish-maws and shark-fins ; to 
Mauritius, grain and pulses ; to Persia, rice ; to Madras, rice and skins ; 
and to China, raw cotton. 

The inland trade of Karachi includes wheat from the Punjab and the 
United Provinces, cotton from the Punjab, a large quantity of wool, 
dried fruits, and horses from Kandahar and Kalat ; while camels, 
bullocks, and donkeys bring in firewood, grass, ghl, palm-leaves, hides, 
&c, from Las Bela and Kohistan. 

The harbour of Karachi during the period of the Talpur Mirs, and 
for the first few years after British annexation, was capable of accommo- 
dating only small native craft. Steamers and large ships anchored 
outside Manora Point, whence men and stores were conveyed in boats 
up the river, as far as the tide permitted, and then transferred into 
canoes, which carried them through a sea of liquid mud to a spot near 
the site of the existing custom-house. In process of time, however, it 
became apparent that the bar did not interpose so great an obstacle 
as was originally supposed, and that square-rigged vessels of a certain 
draught could cross it with safety. In 1854, under the Commis- 
sionership of Sir Bartle Frere, the Napier Mole road or causeway, 
connecting Karachi with the island of Kiamari, was completed, which 
offered additional inducements to ships for visiting the harbour. 

In 1856 a scheme for improving the harbour by deepening the water 
on the bar was submitted for the opinion of Mr. James Walker, an 
eminent London engineer, who estimated the cost of works to provide 
an ample width of passage, with a depth of 25 feet at neap tides, 
at 29 lakhs. After much debate and intermissions, owing to partial 
failures, the principal part of the works — the Manora breakwater, 1,503 
feet in length — was commenced in 1869, and completed in 1873 at 



COM MERCK 17 

a cost of 7 lakhs. It affords complete shelter to the entrance channel 
(eastern) over the bar during the south-west monsoon, and, combined 
with other works, has already led to the deepening at the entrance to 
20 feet at low- water spring tides. The rise and fall is about 8 feet. 
Further progress was ensured by the creation in 1880 of a Harbour 
Board, for the purpose of levying shipping dues, which eventually was 
transformed into the Port Trust by Act VI of r886. Among the works 
carried out by the board are the Kiamari and East Channel groynes or 
stone banks, which direct and confine into one channel the tidal flow ; 
extensive dredging, boring, and submarine blasting operations ; the 
Merewether Pier, opened in 1882, to accommodate one steamer and 
provide facilities for trooping ; the Erskine wharf, 2,000 feet long, and 
the James wharf, 1,900 feet long, which can together accommodate ten 
large steamers and are linked for cargo purposes with the North- Western 
Railway by a commodious railway yard ; a special pier for oil-steamers, 
to serve the four bulk-oil installations at Kiamari ; and the Mansfield 
import yard, with warehouse accommodation for all goods landed at the 
wharves. In the harbour entrance, within shelter of the breakwater, 
there is a minimum depth of 24^ feet of water, which is maintained and 
will eventually be improved by dredging during the fair season. Further 
developments are under consideration, while the reclamation of a large 
area and the construction of two new steamer berths, with a minimum 
depth of 28 feet, are now being carried out. 

In 1847-8 the number of vessels which entered the harbour was 891, 
all native craft, with a total burden of 30,509 tons. In 1903-4, 384 
vessels (of which 174 were steam-vessels) entered Karachi harbour with 
cargoes from foreign ports: gross tonnage, 301,109 tons. In the same 
year 515 vessels (of which 344 were steam-vessels) cleared with cargoes 
for foreign ports ; gross tonnage, 720,919 tons. From the ports on the 
coasts of India and Burma 1,311 vessels entered Karachi laden with 
cargoes ; tonnage, 567,436 tons. For the ports on the coasts of India 
and Burma 1,177 vessels left Karachi laden with cargoes; tonnage, 
392,463 tons. The affairs of the port are managed by the Karachi Port 
Trust, the income of which in 1903-4 was about 19 lakhs and the 
expenditure 13 lakhs. During the three years ending 1904-5, the 
average income expanded to more than 2 1 lakhs and the expenditure 
to 15^ lakhs. The surplus is devoted to paying off the debt of 66 
lakhs, which has now been reduced to 58^ lakhs. The principal steam- 
ship lines are the Ellerman, Wilson, Strick, Hansa, Austrian Lloyd, 
British India, and Bombay Steam Navigation Company. 

The Karachi municipality was established in 1S52, and had an 
income during the decade ending 1901 of about 12 lakhs. In 1903-4 
the income was 15 lakhs and the expenditure 14 lakhs. The chief 
heads of municipal revenue are: octroi (10 lakhs, excluding refunds of 



i8 KARACHI CITY 

6 lakhs), tax on houses and lands (Rs. 53,000), and rents (Rs. 27,000) ; 
and the chief items of expenditure are administration and collection 
charges (7 lakhs), water-supply and drainage (Rs. 62,000), conservancy 
(Rs. 1,50,000), hospital and dispensary (Rs. 15,000), public works 
(Rs. 1,63,000), and education (Rs. 49,000). The management of the 
cantonment is in the hands of a committee, which had an income and 
expenditure of about Rs. 18,500 in 1903-4. The normal strength of 
the Karachi garrison is 1,300, and of the volunteer forces 800. 

The difficulty of water-supply long formed one of the chief drawbacks 
to Karachi, most of the wells being too brackish for drinking purposes. 
Formerly the supply was mainly derived from wells tapping a subter- 
ranean bed of the Layari. The inhabitants of Kiamari, and the ship- 
ping in the harbour, obtained water from carts, which brought it up 
from ' camp V For the purposes of ice manufacture, water was for- 
merly imported by rail from Kotri. A scheme for constructing an 
underground aqueduct, 18 miles in length, from the Malir river at 
a cost of 5 lakhs was completed in 1882, and Karachi is now in 
possession of a pure water-supply. The capital outlay on this under- 
taking, including pipes for distributing the water to the city, Kiamari, 
and the cantonment, amounted to 1 7 lakhs ; and the annual charges 
are 3 lakhs, of which Rs. 32,600 represents maintenance charges. 

Education is carried on by the Sind College, the Government high 
school, Anglo-vernacular schools, the Government vernacular school, and 
several female and other minor establishments. The 
total number of boys' schools is 48, with a daily 
attendance of 6,239, an d of girls' schools 20, with an attendance of 
1,861. The Dayaram Jethmal Sind Arts College was established in 
1887. It is attended by 120 scholars, some of whom are accommo- 
dated in a hostel attached to it. A law class prepares students for the 
first LL.B. The Narayan Jagannath high school prepares students 
for the matriculation and school final examination. It is managed by 
Government, and Rs. 10,000 is annually contributed from Provincial 
revenues. Among the special schools may be mentioned the Muham- 
madan high school (Madrasat-ul-Islani), the normal class for the training 
of mistresses, and the engineering class. Newspapers or periodicals 
published at Karachi include four English (the Sind Gazette, the Sind 
Times, the P/ioe/iix, and the Karachi Chronicle) and four native (in 
Sindl, Gujarat!, and Persian). 

The city possesses a civil hospital, a Dufferin hospital for females, 

and four dispensaries. These institutions afforded relief in 1904 

to 70,155 persons, of whom 1,543 were in-patients 

treated in the civil hospital. The Dufferin hospital, 

' The portion of Karachi comprising the Sadr bazar, civil lines, &c. is locally 
known a^ 'camp,' a* opposed to the old town proper and Kiamari. 






KARAD TOWN 19 

built by Mr. Edalji Dinsha in 1901, treated 10,017 patients in 1904, 
of whom 206 were in-patients. A sick hospital, now called the military 
hospital, was established in 1869, in connexion with the cantonment, 
and in 1901 the cantonment hospital was opened in the Preedy quarter 
of the city. Adjacent to the barracks is a third hospital, known as the 
followers' hospital, where camp servants are treated. 

[A. F. Baillie, Kurrachee, Past, Present and Ft4ture (1890) ; Official 
Compendium of Military Information regarding Karachi (Bombay, 
1896); Karachi Harbour Works (Bombay, 1867); An Account of the 
Port of Karachi (Karachi, 1892).] 

Karad Taluka.— Taluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between 
1 7 5' and 17 30' N. and 74 and 74' 18' E., with an area of 378 square 
miles. There is one town, Karad (population, 11,499), tne head- 
quarters; and 98 villages, including Kale (5,077). The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 134,947, compared with 154,383 in 1891. The den- 
sity, 357 persons per square mile, is much above the District average. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-9 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 24,000. The taluka is a portion of the valley of the Kistna river, 
which runs 30 miles from north to south between two parallel chains of 
hills. The western chain is broken half-way by the Koyna, which joins 
the Kistna at Karad. The land is generally flat and open, but becomes 
rougher as it rises towards the hills. Gardens and groves and several 
charming river reaches lend a picturesque appearance to the country. 
The soil is extremely fertile. In the cold season the days are 
warm and the nights bitterly cold, and in the hot season Karad is 
one of the hottest parts of the District. The annual rainfall averages 
30 inches. 

Karad Town (Karhdd, originally Karahdkadd). — Head-quarters 
of the taluka of the same name in Satara District, Bombay, 
situated in 17 17' N. and 74 11/ E., at the confluence of the Koyna 
and Kistna, on the Bombay-Madras high road, 31 miles south-south- 
east of Satara town, and about 4 miles south-west of Karad Road on 
the Southern Mahratta Railway. Population (1901), 11,499. The 
town was constituted a municipality in 1885. During the decade 
ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 10,500. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 12,000. It is referred to in ancient writings as Karahakada, 
and has given its name to a subdivision of Brahmans. In the north- 
east is an old mud fort containing the mansion of the Pant Pratinidhi, 
the most noteworthy objects in which are an audience-hall with an orna- 
mental ceiling of teak and iron, built about 1800, and a curious step- 
well. The mosque of Karad is interesting, as it contains nine Arabic 
inscriptions. One of these shows that it was built during the reign of 
the fifth Bijapur king, AH Adil Shah (1557-79), by one Ibrahim Khan. 
About 3 miles to the south-west is a group of 54 Buddhist caves of 



20 KARA I) TOWN 

a very plain and early type. The town contains a Subordinate Judge's 
court, a dispensary, and an English school. 

Karadge. — Village in the Chikodi taluka of Belgaum District, 
Bombay, situated in i6° n' N. and 74 30' E. Population (1901), 
5,138. The village, which is purely agricultural, contains a boys' 
school with 66 pupils. 

Karagola.— Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea 
District, Bengal, situated in 25 24' N. and 87 28' E.. on the left bank 
of the Ganges. Karagola is on the old route from Calcutta to Darjeelin^. 
and is a place of call of the Ganges Dispatch Service, though the 
steamer now touches 2 miles below the village. The fair held here 
was formerly one of the largest in Bengal, but has recently lost 
much of its importance. It takes place at the time of the full moon in 
the month of Magh (about February) ; and a brisk trade is carried on 
in nuts and spices, as well as in tents, carpets, and wooden furniture 
imported from Monghyr. 

Karaia. — Village in the Gwalior Gird district of Gwalior State, 
Central India, situated in 25 54' N. and 78 1/ E. Population (1901), 
4,989. The place is held by a family of Ponwar Thakurs on a quit- 
rent. It is said to have been founded in 1564, but nothing is known 
of its early history. In 1852 it fell to Sindhia, and until 1868 was in 
a prosperous condition. It afterwards, however, became notorious for 
the depredations committed by the Ponwars, their excesses reaching 
such a pitch as to necessitate the forcible depopulation of the place in 
1893. It has since then been slowly recovering its position. 

Karaikkudi. — Town in the Tiruppattur tahs'il of the Sivaganga 
estate, Madura District, Madras, situated in io° 4' X. and 78 47' E. 
The population has rapidly increased, and numbered 11,801 in 
1901, compared with 6,579 m 1891. The town is chiefly noted as 
one of the centres of the Nattukottai Chettis, an enterprising class of 
merchants and money-lenders ; and the many handsome residences 
which these people have constructed within it have added greatly to 
its appearance. 

Karajgaon. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar. See Karasgaon. 

Karajgi.— Eastern taluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, lying between 
r4° 44' and 15° 5' N. and 75 17' and 75 44' E., with an area of 441 
square miles. It contains one town, Hayeri (population, 7,974), the 
head-quarters; and 127 villages. The population in 1901 was 104,342, 
compared with 90,206 in 1891. The density, 237 persons per 
square mile, is slightly below the District average. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was 2.09 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 16,000. 
Except in the south-west, where it is broken by hills, the country is 
flat. It is crossed from east to west by the Varada, a tributary of 
the Tungabhadra. In the north and east the soil is black and in the 



KARAMUNGl 21 

south and west mostly red, with an occasional plot of black. The plain 
of Karajgi is broken at Deogiri, Kanvali, and Kabur by short ranges 
of hills. The annual rainfall averages 30 inches. 

Karakat. — Tahsll in Jaunpur District, United Provinces. See 

K IRAK AT. 

Karamnasa (Kara?n?iashd, ' the destroyer of religious merit ' : the 
Kommenases of Arrian). — River of Northern India, rising near Sarodag 
in the Kaimur Hills (24° 32' N., 83 26' E.), 18 miles west of Rohtas- 
garh in Bengal. It first flows north-west, and near Darihara begins to 
form the boundary between the Districts of Shahabad (Bengal) and 
Mirzapur (United Provinces). It then flows north for about 15 miles 
across Mirzapur, after which it turns north-east and separates Shahabad 
from Benares and Ghazipur, until it falls into the Ganges near Chausa, 
after a total course of about 146 miles. Its tributaries are the DurgautI 
and Dharmauti, two small streams on the right bank. In the hills, the 
bed of the Karamnasa is rocky and its banks abrupt ; but as it de- 
bouches upon the plains, it sinks deeply into a rich clay, very retentive 
of moisture. During the rains small boats can ply as high as the con- 
fluence of the DurgautI. There are two falls, called Deo Dharl and 
Chhanpathar, which attract attention from their height and beauty. 

Two legends account for the ill repute of the river. One tells how 
Raja Trisanka of the Solar race had killed a Brahman and contracted 
an incestuous marriage. He was purged from these sins by a saint who 
collected water from all the sacred streams of the world and washed 
him. The bath took place at the spot where the river issues, and this 
bears for ever the taint of his guilt. The other legend makes Trisanka 
attempt to ascend into heaven by means of long austerities. Half-way 
he was suspended head downwards by the gods, and a poisonous mois- 
ture exudes from his mouth into the river. The real cause of its ill 
fame is probably the fact that the Karamnasa was the boundary of the 
eastern kingdom of Magadha, which is treated with contempt in San- 
skrit literature because its inhabitants were not Aryans. Hindus living 
on its banks, except those of the highest castes, are not defiled by it, 
and carry more scrupulous travellers over it for a consideration. There 
is no regular irrigation from the Karamnasa. 

Karamsad.— Patiddr village in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, 
Bombay, situated in 22 33' N. and 72° 54' E., and one of the thirteen 
kulin villages of the District. Population (1901), 5,105. It contains 
a middle school with 38 pupils. 

Karamungi. — Crown taluk in Bldar District, Hyderabad State. 
The population in 1901, including jdgirs, was 51,808, and the area 
was 362 square miles. In 1891 the population had been 60,341, the 
decrease being due to the famine of 1 899-1 900. The taluk contains 
130 villages, of which 19 are jdgir\ and Janwada (population, 2,105) 



22 KARAMUNGI 

is the head-quarters. Since 1905 the taluk has included the old taluk 
of Aurad, which had an area of 189 square miles, a population of 
19,301, and 65 villages in 1901. The land revenue in 1901 was 1-7 
lakhs. The Manjra river flows through the taluk. The paigah taluk 
of Narayankher (population, 42,972) lies south of this taluk, and con- 
sists of 106 villages. Farther south again is the paigah taluk of Hasan- 
abad (population, 21,563), with 45 villages. 

Karangarh. — Hill, or more properly plateau, in the head-quarters 
subdivision of Bhagalpur District, Bengal, situated in 25 15' N. and 86° 
56' E., near Bhagalpur town, and said to derive its name from Kama, 
a pious Hindu king. The plateau, which is locally known as the kila 
or fort, is believed to be the site of one of the famous pre-Buddhist 
forts in Bengal ; the lines of several bastions and the ditch in the west 
can still be traced. In more modern times it contained the lines of the 
Hill Rangers, a body of troops raised in 1780 from among the hill 
people by Augustus Clevland, Collector of the District, for the paci- 
fication of the lawless jungle tribes. The corps was disbanded in 1863 
on the reorganization of the Native army. The only objects of interest 
are Saiva temples of some celebrity. These consist of four buildings 
{maths), with square bases and the usual pointed pinnacles. One is 
several hundred years old, the others being modern. Numbers of Hin- 
dus, though not usually worshippers of Siva, pay their devotions here 
on the last day of the month of Kartik. The temples contain several 
of the so-called seats of Mahadeo or Siva, one of which is made of 
stone from the Narbada. There are also two monuments erected to 
the memory of Clevland — one by Government, and the other by the 
landholders of the District. The Bidyasagar Memorial Sanskrit to I 
occupies a fine building in the fort compound. 

Karanja. — Peninsula, village, and petty division (petha) in the Pan- 
vel taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 51' N. and 
72 57' E., in the south-east of Bombay harbour, and about 6 miles 
south-east of the Carnac Bandar of Bombay. On a clear day the 
peninsula can be distinguished plainly, and apparently but a mile or 
two distant, from Bombay. It is 8 miles long and 4 broad. The 
peninsula consists of two rocky hills, between which stretch grass 
and rice lands, wooded with mango-trees and palms. The creek to 
the east is broken up into several salt-pans, the officers connected 
with which are stationed at the town of Uran close by. Besides its 
rice crop, which is of considerable value, the two special exports of 
Karanja Island are salt and liquor made from the mahua or from 
the date-palm. The chief industry of the people, however, is fishing. 
The great area of the salt-works, about 3,000 acres, the shining white 
pans, regular boundaries, and heaps of glistening salt, produce a curi- 
ous effect to the eye. The salt pans are not of recent date ; reference 



KARANJIA 23 

is made to them in 1638, and in 1820 they are noted as having pro- 
duced 20,000 tons of salt. During the year 1903-4 the salt export 
was about 2,000,000 maunds, and the revenue therefrom 29 lakhs. 
There are 19 distilleries at Mora on the island of Uran, all owned 
by Parsis. The malum flowers distilled in these are brought through 
Bombay from the Panch Mahals, and the annual revenue is about 35 
lakhs. The water-supply is good, being derived from reservoirs, and 
from many ponds and wells which hold water for several months after 
the rains. 

Karanja has passed under every form of rule and suffered every 
species of vicissitude. Under the Silaharas, in the twelfth century, 
the island was prosperous, with many villages and gardens. It formed 
part of Bassein province, under the Portuguese, from 1530 to 1740; 
was fortified with two strongholds, one at Uran, the other on the top 
of its southern peak; and 100 armed men were maintained as garrison. 
At the present day may still be seen the ruins of Portuguese hermitages 
and churches. In 1535 the island was in charge of the Franciscans. 
In 1613 it was the scene of a great riot. In 1670 it was plundered 
by a Maratha freebooter. In 1737 the Marathas finally occupied the 
place, and held it until 1774, when the English took possession. 

The most noteworthy ruins are on the summit of Dronagiri, the 
southern of the two hill peaks, including the Portuguese fort, guard- 
house, church, rock-temple, and reservoir. On the east face of Khar- 
avli (the north hill peak) is a Buddhist rock-cut chapel ; at Uran town, 
the old Portuguese fort and churches ; in the village of Sheva, a ruined 
church, of which the broken walls of the graveyard are the only trace. 

Karanja. — Town in the Murtazapur taluk of Akola District, Berar, 
situated in 20 29' N. and 77 32' E. Population (1901), 16,535. 
Karanja is a place of some commercial importance. It is said to take 
its name from a Hindu saint, Karinj RishI, who, being afflicted with a 
grievous disease, invoked the aid of the goddess Amba. She created 
for him a tank, still existing opposite the temple of the goddess, in 
which he bathed and became clean. The town is surrounded by an 
old wall, now dilapidated. It is known as Karanja Bibi, owing, it 
is said, to its having once formed part of the dowry of Daulat 
Shah Begam (see Badnera). The municipality was created in 1895. 
The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1900-1 
averaged Rs. 14,000 and Rs. 13,500. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 18,000, mainly derived from taxes and cesses; and the expendi- 
ture was Rs. 15,000, chiefly devoted to conservancy and education 
Karanja is connected with Murtazapur (20 miles) by a metalled road. 

Karanjia. — Village in Mayurbhanj, one of the Orissa Tributary 
States, Bengal, situated in 21 44' N. and 86° 6' E. Population 
(1901), 732. Karanjia is the head-quarters of the Panchplr sub- 



24 KARANJIA 

division of the State, and is connected with Baripada, the capital, 
by a metalled road. 

Karasgaon. — Town in the Ellichpur taluk of Amraoti District, 
Berar. situated in 21 20' X. and 77 39' E. Population (1901), 
7,456. A fort of fine sandstone, now in ruins, was built here by 
Vithal Bhag Deo, a talukdar in the Ellichpur j'dgfr in 1806. 

Karatoya.— Old river of Eastern Bengal and Assam, which rises 
in the Baikuntpur jungle in the extreme north-west of Jalpaigurl 
District in 26 51' N. and 88° 28' E., and meanders through Rangpur, 
until, after a course of 214 miles, it joins the Halhalia, in the south 
of Bogra District, in 24 38' N. and 89° 29" E. The united stream 
is known as the Phuljhur, and it eventually finds its way into the 
Jamuna (3). The Karatoya bore in ancient times, as we learn from 
the Puranas, a high character for sanctity ; and its mermaid goddess, 
whose image has been found among the ruins of Mahasthan, was 
widely worshipped, and this place is even now a favourite place of 
pilgrimage. The river is mentioned in the Jogini Tantra as the 
western boundary of the ancient kingdom of Kamarupa, which it 
separated from Pundra or Paundravardhana, the country of the Pods, 
whose capital was at Mahasthan. It was along its right bank that 
Muhammad-i-Bakhtyar Khilji, the Muhammadan conqueror of Bengal, 
marched upon his ill-fated invasion of Tibet in 1205 ; and in the 
narrative of that expedition the Karatoya is described as being three 
times the width of the Ganges. It was no doubt the great river crossed 
by Hiuen Tsiang on his way to Kamarupa in the seventh century, and 
by Ala-ud-din Husain on his invasion of the same country in 1498. 

The topography of the river is attended with numerous difficulties ; 
changes of name are frequent, and its most recent bed, which ultimately 
joins the Atrai some 30 miles east of Pabna, is known indifferently 
as the BurhT ('old') Tista and the Karto or Karatoya. It appears 
that at the end of the eighteenth century, when the Ganges and the 
Brahmaputra were still 150 miles apart, the Tista united with the 
other Himalayan streams to form one great river. The elevated tract 
of stiff clay known as the Barind, which spreads over a considerable 
part of the modern Districts of Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Malda, and Bogra, 
formed an obstacle which could not be so easily pierced as the more 
recent alluvium round it, and the outlet of the Himalayan streams was 
thus diverted to one side or the other. Sometimes when the trend 
of the rivers was eastwards, they flowed down the channel of the 
Karatoya, which is shown in Van Den Broucke's map of Bengal 
{circa 1660) as flowing into the Ganges, and was, in fact, before the 
destructive floods of 1787, the main stream which brought down to 
the Ganges the great volume of Tista water. South of the Padma 
there is now no trace of any river bearing this name ; and, since the 



KARAULI STATE 25 

main stream of the Tista broke away to the east in 1787, the Karatoya 
has gradually silted up, and it is at the present day a river of minor 
importance, little used for navigation. 

Karaudia. -Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 
Karauli State. — State in the east of Raj pu tana, lying between 
26 3' and 26 49' N. and 76° 34' and 77° 24' E., with an area of 
1,242 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Bharatpur; on 
the north-west and west by Jaipur; on the south and south-east by 
Gwalior; and on the east by Dholpur. Hills and broken ground 
characterize almost the whole territory, which lies 
within a tract locally termed the Dang, a name given ysica 

to the rugged region immediately above the narrow 
valley of the Chambal. The principal hills are on the northern border, 
where several ranges run along, or parallel to, the frontier line, forming 
somewhat formidable barriers. There is little beauty in these hills ; 
but the military advantages they present caused the selection of one 
of their eminences, Tahangarh, 1,309 feet above the sea, as the seat 
of Jadon rule in early times. Along the valley of the Chambal an 
irregular and lofty wall of rock separates the lands on the river bank 
from the uplands, of which the southern part of the State consists. 
From the summits of the passes the view is often picturesque, the 
rocks standing out in striking contrast to the comparatively rich and 
undulating plain below. The highest peaks in the south are Bhairon 
and Utgir, respectively 1,565 and 1,479 f eet above the sea. Farther 
to the north the country falls, the alluvial deposit is deeper, level 
ground becomes more frequent, and hills stand out more markedly, 
while in the neighbourhood of the capital the low ground is cut into 
a labyrinth of ravines. 

The river Chambal forms the southern boundary, separating the 
State from Gwalior. Sometimes deep and slow, sometimes too rocky 
and rapid to admit of the safe passage of a boat, it receives during 
the rains numerous contributions to its volume, but no considerable 
perennial stream flows into it within the boundaries of the State. The 
Banas and Morel rivers belong more properly to Jaipur than to 
Karauli ; for the former merely marks for some 4 miles the boundary 
between these States, while the latter, just before it joins the Banas, 
is for only 6 miles a river of Karauli and for another 3 miles flows 
along its border. The Panchnad, so called from its being formed 
of five streams, all of which rise in Karauli and unite 2 miles north of 
the capital, usually contains water in the hot months, though often 
only a few inches in depth. It winds away to the north and eventually 
joins the Gambhir in Jaipur territory. 

In the western portion of the State a narrow strip of quartzites 
belonging to the Delhi system is exposed along the Jaipur border, 



26 KARAULI STATE 

while Upper Vindhyan sandstones are faulted down against the quartz- 
ites to the south-east, and form a horizontal plateau extending to the 
Chamal river. To the north-west of the fault, some outliers of Lower 
Vindhyan rocks occur, consisting of limestone, siliceous breccias, and 
sandstone, which form two long synclinals extending south-west as 
far as Naraoli. 

In addition to the usual small game, tigers, leopards, bears, nilgai, 
sambar, and other deer are fairly numerous, especially in the wooded 
glens near the Chambal in the south-west. 

The climate is on the whole salubrious. The rainfall at the capital 
averages 29 inches a year, and is generally somewhat heavier in the 
north-east at Machilpur and the south-east at Mandrael. Within 
the last twenty years the year of heaviest rainfall has been 1887 
(45-! inches), while in 1896 only a little over 17 inches fell. 

The Maharaja of Karauli is the head of the Jadon clan of Rajputs, 
who claim descent from Krishna. The Jadons, who have nearly always 
remained in or near the country of Braj round 
Muttra, are said to have at one time held half of 
Alwar and the whole of Bharatpur, Karauli, and Uholpur, besides the 
British Districts of Gurgaon and Muttra, the greater part of Agra west 
of the Jumna, and portions of Gwalior lying along the Chambal. In 
the eleventh century Bijai Pal, said to have been eighty-eighth in 
descent from Krishna, established himself in Bayana, now belonging 
to Bharatpur, and built the fort overlooking that town. His eldest 
son, Tahan Pal, built the well-known fort of Tahangarh, still in Karauli 
territory, about 1058, and shortly afterwards possessed himself of 
almost all the country now comprising the Karauli State, as well as a 
good deal of land to the east as far as Dholpur. In 11 96, in the time 
of Kunwar Pal, Muhammad Ghorl and his general, Kutb-ud-din, 
captured first Bayana and then Tahangarh ; and on the whole of the 
Jadon territory falling into the hands of the invaders, Kunwar Pal fled 
to a village in the Rewah State. One of his descendants, Arjun Pal, 
determined to recover the territory of his ancestors, and about 1327 
he started by capturing the fort of Mandrael, and gradually took 
possession of most of the country formerly held by Tahan Pal. In 
1348 he founded the present capital, Karauli town. 

About a hundred years later Mahmud I of Malwa is said to have 
conquered the country, and to have entrusted the government to his 
son, Fidwi Khan. In the reign of Akbar (1 556-1 605) the State 
became incorporated in the Delhi empire, and Gopal Das, probably 
the most famous of the chiefs of Karauli, appears to have been in 
considerable favour with the emperor. He is mentioned as a com- 
mander of 2,000, and is said to have laid the foundations of the Agra 
fort at Akbar's request. On the decline of the Mughal power the 



HISTORY 27 

State was so far subjugated by the Marathas that they exacted from 
it a tribute of Rs. 25,000, which, after a time, was commuted for 
a grant of Machilpur and its dependencies. By the treaty of November 9, 
1817, with the East India Company, Karauli was relieved of the 
exactions of the Marathas and taken under British protection ; no 
tribute was levied, but the Maharaja was to furnish troops according 
to his means on the requisition of the British Government. In 1825, 
when the Burmese War was proceeding, and Bharatpur was preparing 
for resistance under the usurpation of Durjan Sal, Karauli undoubtedly 
sent troops to the aid of the latter ; but on the fall of that fortress 
in 1826 the Maharaja made humble professions of submission, and it 
was deemed unnecessary to take serious notice of his conduct. 

The next event of any importance was the celebrated Karauli 
adoption case. Narsingh Pal, a minor, became chief in 1850, and died 
in 1852, having adopted a day before his death a distant kinsman, 
named Bharat Pal. It was first proposed to enforce the doctrine of 
' lapse,' but finally the adoption of Bharat Pal was recognized. In the 
meantime a strong party had been formed in favour of Madan Pal, 
a nearer relative, whose claim was supported by the opinions of several 
chiefs in Rajputana. An inquiry was ordered ; and it was ascertained 
that the adoption of Bharat Pal was informal, by reason of the minority 
of Narsingh Pal and the omission of certain necessary ceremonies. 
As Madan Pal was nearer of kin than Bharat Pal and was accepted by 
the Ranis, by nine of the most influential Thakurs, and by the general 
feeling of the country, he was recognized as chief in 1854. During the 
Mutiny of 1857 he evinced a loyal spirit and sent a body of troops 
against the Kotah mutineers ; and for these services he was created 
a G.C.S.I., a debt of 1-2 lakhs due by him to the British Government 
was remitted, a dress of honour conferred, and the salute of the 
Maharajas of Karauli was permanently increased from 15 to 17 guns. 
The usual satiad guaranteeing the privilege of adoption to the rulers 
of this State was granted in 1862, and it is remarkable that the last 
seven chiefs have all succeeded by adoption. 

Maharaja Bhanwar Pal, the present ruler, was born in 1864, was 
installed in 1886, obtained full powers in 1889, and, after receiving 
a K.C.I. E. in 1894, was made a G.C.I.E. in 1897. The nobles are 
all Jadon Rajputs connected with the ruling house, and, though for 
the most part illiterate, are a powerful body in the State, and until 
quite recently frequently defied the authority of the Darbar. The chief 
among them are Hadoti, Amargarh, Inaiti, Raontra, and Barthun, 
and they are called Thekanadars. The Rao of Hadoti is looked 
upon as the heir to the Karauli gaddi, when the ruling chief is without 
sons. 

The only places of archaeological interest are Tahangarh, already 

vol. xv. c 



w° 



28 



KARAULI STATE 



mentioned, and Bahadurpur, 8 miles south of the capital : both are 
now deserted and in ruins. 

The number of towns and villages in the State is 437, and the 
population at each of the three enumerations was: (1881) 148,670, 
(1891) 156,587, and (1901) 156,786. The smallness 
pu a 10n * of the increase during the last decade is ascribed to 
famines in 1897 and 1899. The territory is divided into five tahsils: 
namely, Karauli (or Sadr\ Jirota, Machilpur, Mandrael, and Utgir, the 
head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named, except 
in the case of Jirota and Utgir, the head-quarters of which are at 
Sapotra and Karanpur respectively. The only town in the State is the 
capital, a municipality. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Tahsil. 


Number of 


Population. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


eft 

i 



H 


Villages. 


Karauli 
Jirota . 
Machilpur . 
Mandrael 
Utgir . 

State total 


I 
I 


128 
80 
84 

58 
86 


67,581 
32,646 
24,015 
19,665 
12,879 


+ IO-8 
+ \2 

- 3-8 
-15.0 

— 19-0 


2,546 

54 2 

184 

227 

107 


436 


156,786 


+ CI 


3,6o6 



Nearly 94 per cent, of the total are Hindus, the worship of Vishnu 
under the name of Krishna being the prevalent form of religion, and 
more than 5 per cent, are Muhammadans. The languages mainly 
spoken are dialects of Western Hindi, including DangI and Dangbhang. 

The principal tribe is the Minas, who number 32,000, or more than 
20 per cent, of the population, and are the leading agriculturists of the 
country ; next come the Chamars (23,000), who, besides working in 
leather, assist in agriculture. Brahmans number 20,000, and are 
mostly petty traders, village money-lenders, and cultivators ; while 
the Gujars (16,000), formerly noted cattle-lifters, are now very fair 
agriculturists. 

Agricultural conditions vary in different parts of the State. In the 
highlands of the Dang the soil is clayey, and the slopes of the hills are 
embanked into successive steps or terraces, only 
a few yards broad ; here rice is grown abundantly, 
and after it has been reaped barley or gram is sometimes sown. The 
fields are irrigated from tanks excavated on the tops of the hills. 
The lowlands of this tract are surrounded by hills on two or three 
sides and are called antri. The soil is of two kinds : the first is 
composed of earth and sand washed down the hill-sides by the rain- 



Agriculture. 



AGRICULTURE 29 

fall, and is of very fair quality, while the second is hard and stony 
and is called kci7ik?-lh. The crops grown here are mostly bdjra and 
moth, though the better of these two soils produces fair spring crops 
where irrigation from wells is possible. On the banks of the Chambal 
the soil is generally rich, and the bed of the river is cultivated to the 
water's edge in the cold season. The principal crops here are wheat, 
gram, and barley. Elsewhere, outside the Dang, the soil is for the 
most part light and sandy, but in places is associated with marl. 
Excellent crops of bdjra, moth, and jowar are produced in the autumn ; 
and by means of irrigation, mostly from wells, good crops of wheat, 
barley, and gram in the spring. 

No very reliable agricultural statistics are available, but the area 
ordinarily cultivated is about 260. square miles, or rather more than 
one-fifth of the total area of the State. The principal crops are bdjra 
and gram, the areas under which are usually about 58 and 57 square 
miles respectively; moth occupies 36 square miles, wheat about 25, 
barley nearly 20, rice 18, and jowdr about 14 square miles. Cotton, 
poppy, and sugar-cane are cultivated to a certain extent, and san-hemp 
is extensively grown in the neighbourhood of the capital. 

Karauli does not excel as a cattle-breeding country ; the animals are 
small though hardy, and attempts to introduce a larger kind have not 
succeeded as they do not thrive on the rock-grown grass. The goats 
alone are really good, and many are exported from the Dang to Agra 
and other places. 

Of the total area cultivated, 61 square miles, or about 2$ per cent., 
are generally irrigated. Well-irrigation is chiefly employed in the 
country surrounding the capital. The total number of wells is said 
to be 2,813, °f which 1,645 are masonry; leathern buckets, drawn up 
with a rope and pulley by bullocks moving down an inclined plane, are 
universally used for lifting the water. Tanks are the principal means 
of irrigation in the rocky and hilly portions; there are said to be 379 
tanks of sorts in the State, but only 81 of them have masonry dams. 
From tanks and streams water is raised by an apparatus termed dhenkli, 
consisting of a wooden pole with a small earthen pot at one end and 
a heavy weight at the other. 

There are no real forests in the State and valuable timber trees are 
scarce. Above the Chambal valley the commonest tree is the dhao 
(Anogeissus pendala), but it is scarcely more than a shrub ; other 
common trees are the dhdk (Butea frondosd), several kinds of acacia, 
the cotton-tree (Bombax malabaria/m), the sal (Shorea robusta), the 
garjan (Dipterocarpus alatus), and the mm [Melia Azadirachta). Near 
the Chambal in the Mandrael tahsll, and again in a grass reserve 20 
miles north-east of the capital, a number of shlsham trees (Da/bergia 
Sissoo) are found together ; but they are, it is believed, not of natural 

c 2 



3o KARAULI STATE 

growth. The so-called forest area comprises about 200 square miles, 
and is managed by a department called the Bagar, whose principal 
duties are to supply grass for the State elephants and cattle, find and 
preserve game for the chief and his followers, and provide a revenue by 
exacting grazing dues. The forest revenue averages about Rs. 6,400 
a year, derived mainly from grazing fees, and to a small extent from 
the sale of grass and firewood, while the annual expenditure is about 
Rs. 3,000. 

Red sandstone abounds throughout the greater portion of the State, 
and in parts, especially near the capital, white sandstone blends with 
it. Other varieties of a bluish and yellow colour are also found, the 
former near Machilpur, and the latter in the south and west. Iron ore 
occurs in the hills north-east of Karauli ; but the mines would not pay 
working expenses, and the iron manufactured in the State is smelted 
from imported material. 

Manufactures are not of importance. There is a little weaving and 

dyeing ; and a few wooden toys, boxes, and bed-legs painted with 

coloured lac, and some pewter and brass ornaments 

. .. are turned out. The tat or s:unny-cloth of Karauli is 
communications. & . } 

well-known in the neighbouring marts, and a good 
deal is exported ; it is made from san-hemp grown near the capital. 

The chief exports are cotton, g/n, opium, zlra (cumin seed), rice 
and other cereals, while the chief imports are piece-goods, sugar, gur 
(molasses), salt, and indigo. The trade is mainly with the neigh- 
bouring States of Jaipur and Gwalior and with Agra District. 

There is no railway in the State, the nearest stations being Hindaun 
Road on the Rajputana-Malwa line, 52 miles north of the capital, and 
Dholpur on the Indian Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, about 65 miles to the east. Apart from a few metalled streets 
in Karauli town, the only metalled road in the State is about 9 miles 
long. It runs north from the capital in the direction of Hindaun Road 
as far as the Jaipur border, and was completed in 1886 at a cost of 
Rs. 37,000. The rest of the roads are mere fair-weather tracks, some 
passable by bullock-carts, and others only by camels and pack-bullocks. 
The Chambal river is crossed by means of small boats maintained by 
the State, and the fare per passenger is usually about a quarter of an 
anna, the transit of merchandise being specially bargained for. There 
are five British post offices in the State (four having been opened 
in January, 1905), and that at the capital is also a telegraph office. 

The State has been fairly free from famines, but has had its share of 

indifferent years. In 1868-9 tne rains crops failed, and there was 

considerable distress ; but the Maharaja did his best 

to mitigate the sufferings of the poor by establishing 

kitchens and poorhouses and starting public works. A sum of 2 lakhs 



ADMIXISTRA TION 3 T 

was borrowed from the British Government ; the price of grain went up 
to 8 seers per rupee, and there was scarcity of fodder, especially in the 
highlands of the Dang, where nine-tenths of the cattle are said to have 
perished. The years 1877-8, 1883-4, 1886-7, and 1896-8 were 
periods of scarcity and high prices. In 1897 locusts did much damage ; 
and in the following year a pest called kata, akin to the locust, almost 
entirely destroyed the autumn crops in parts of the State. In 1899- 
1900 distress was confined to a comparatively small area of 254 square 
miles, and never amounted to famine. Nevertheless, about 268,000 
units were relieved on works ; and the total expenditure, including 
loans (Rs. 23,800) and land revenue remitted (Rs. 46,000) and sus- 
pended (Rs. 28,600), exceeded a lakh. 

The State is governed by the Maharaja, assisted by a Council of five 
members. His Highness is President of the Council and has exercised 
full powers since 1889. Each of the five tahsils is 
under a tahslldar, and over the latter is a Revenue 
Officer or Deputy-Collector. In every village there is a State servant 
called a tahsi/ia, who is subordinate to the patwari of the circle in 
which the village is situated. 

In the administration of justice the Karauli courts follow generally 
the British Indian enactments ; but certain sections have been added to 
the Penal Code, including one declaring the killing of cows and pea- 
fowl to be offences. The lowest courts are those of tahsl/ddrs, who 
can try civil suits the value of which does not exceed Rs. 50, and on 
the criminal side can punish with imprisonment up to one month and 
with fine up to Rs. 20, or both. The court of the Judicial Officer, 
besides hearing appeals against the orders of tahsl/ddrs, can try any 
civil suit, and on the criminal side can sentence up to three years' 
imprisonment and fine up to Rs. 500, or both ; it can also pass a 
sentence of whipping not exceeding 36 stripes. The Council is the 
highest court in the State ; it hears appeals against the orders of the 
Judicial Officer, tries criminal cases beyond his powers, and, when 
presided over by the Maharaja, can pass sentence of death. 

The revenue courts are guided by a simple code of law, introduced 
in 1 88 1-2, and amended by circulars issued from time to time by the 
Council to meet local requirements. Petty suits are decided by 
tahslldar s subject to appeal to the Revenue Officer, who can also take 
up rent and revenue suits of any value or nature. As on the civil and 
criminal side, the highest revenue court is the Council. 

The normal revenue of the State is about 5 lakhs, of which 2-S lakhs 
is derived from land, one lakh from customs, and Rs. 23,000 as tribute 
from jdglrdars. The normal expenditure is about 44 lakhs, the mam 
items being cost of army and police (1-3 lakhs), gifts and charities (Rs. 
70,000), cost of stables (Rs. 33,000), allowance to relatives (Rs. 29,000), 



32 KARA U LI STATE 

and personal expenses of the chief (Rs. 28,000). The State, owing to 
a series of years of scarcity, is in debt to the extent of nearly 5 lakhs, 
which is being paid off by annual instalments of Rs. 55,000. 

The State had till quite recently a silver and copper coinage of its 
own, and it is believed that coins were first struck by Maharaja Manak 
Pal about 1780. The distinctive mint-marks are the jhdr (spray) and 
the katdr (dagger), and since the time of Madan Pal (1854-69) each 
chief has placed on his silver coins the initial letter of his name. The 
Karauli rupee, which in 1870 was worth half an anna more than the 
British, subsequently fell slightly in exchange value, and the Darbar 
resolved to introduce British currency as the sole legal tender in the 
State. The conversion operations have just been completed. 

There are two main kinds of tenure in Karauli : namely, khdlsa, 
under which the State itself possesses all rights and privileges over the 
land ; and muafi, under which the State has, subject to certain con- 
ditions, conferred such rights and privileges on others. Of the 436 
villages in the State, 204 are khdlsa and 232 are muafi. The latter 
tenure is of several kinds. The Thakurs or nobles pay as tribute 
{khandt) a fixed sum, which is nominally one-fourth of the produce of 
the soil, but really much less ; and this tribute is in lieu of constant 
military service, which is not performed in Karauli, though, when 
military emergencies arise or State pageants occur, the Thakurs come 
in with their retainers, who on such occasions are maintained at the 
expense of the Darbar. No tax is ordinarily exacted in addition to 
the tribute, except in cases of disputed succession, when nazardna is 
levied. This tenure is known as bdpoti ; and such estates are not 
permanently resumed except for treason or serious crime, though in the 
past they were frequently sequestrated for a time when the holders gave 
trouble. Another form of muafi tenure is known as panarth or religious 
grant. Under it land is granted in perpetuity free of rent and taxes. 
Other lands are granted on the ordinary jdglr tenure, while lands are 
also set apart to meet zandna expenses. In the khdlsa area the 
cultivating tenures of the peasantry are numerous. In some villages 
a fixed sum is paid, varying according to the kind of crop and the 
nature of the soil, and village expenses may be either included or 
excluded ; in other villages an annual assessment is made by the 
tahsllddr, and the land revenue is paid sometimes in cash and some- 
times in kind ; in other villages again the State merely takes a share, 
varying from one-fifth to one-half, of the actual produce ; and lastly, 
under the thekadari or lambarddri system a village, or a part of one, is 
leased for a term of five or ten years to the headman or some individual 
for a fixed sum payable half-yearly. Land revenue is nowadays mostly 
paid in cash, and the assessment varies from Rs. 15 per acre of wheat, 
sugar-cane, or poppy, to 1 2 annas per acre of moth or HI. There is no 



ADMINISTRATION 33 

complete revenue survey and settlement in Karauli, but one has been 
in progress since 1891. 

No salt is manufactured in the State, nor is any tax of any kind 
levied on this commodity. By the agreement of 1882 the Maharaja 
receives Rs. 5,000 annually from the British Government as compen- 
sation, as well as 50 maunds of Sambhar salt free of cost and duty. 
The liquor consumed is mostly made from the flowers of the mahua 
(Bassi'a latifolid). The right to manufacture and sell country 
liquor is sold annually by auction, and brings in from Rs. 1,600 to 
Rs. 1,800; similarly the right to sell intoxicating drugs, such as gd?ija, 
bhang, &c, yields about Rs. 1,200. The revenue derived from the 
sale of court-fee stamps is about Rs. 6,000. 

The only municipality is described in the article on Karauli Town. 

There is a Public Works department called Kamthdnd, but it is 
not now under professional supervision. A British officer was, however, 
usefully employed in 1885-6. The expenditure during recent years 
has averaged about Rs. 12,000; and the principal works have been 
tne metalled road to the Jaipur border in the direction of Hindaun 
Road (Rs. 37,000), the Neniaki-Gwari tank (about Rs. 23,000), a 
couple of bridges (costing respectively Rs. 17,000 and Rs. 30,000), 
and a building for a school (about Rs. 45,000). 

The military force consists of 2,053 men. The cavalry number 
260, of whom 171 are irregular; the infantry number 1,761 (1,421 
irregular) ; and there are 32 artillerymen. Of the 56 guns, 10 are 
said to be serviceable. 

The State is divided into seven police circles or thdnas, besides the 
kotwdli at the capital. The police force consists of 358 men of all 
ranks, and there is in addition a balai in each village who performs 
duties similar to those of the chaukiddr in British India. The only 
jail is at the capital. 

According to the Census of 1901, about 2-3 per cent, of the people 
were able to read and write : namely, 4 per cent, of the males and 
0-2 per cent, of the females. The State maintains seven schools : 
namely, a high school and a girls' school at the capital, and primary 
schools at Mandrael, Karanpur, Sapotra, Kurgaon, and Machilpur. 
These are attended by nearly 400 pupils. Education is free, the 
annual expenditure being about Rs. 4,000. In addition, several private 
schools are attended by about 200 boys. 

The State possesses five hospitals : namely, two at the capital (one 
exclusively for females), and three in the districts, at Machilpur, 
Mandrael, and Sapotra. They contain accommodation for 36 in- 
patients ; and in 1904 the number of cases treated was 31,909, of 
whom 136 were in-patients, and 2,150 operations were performed. 

Vaccination is nowhere compulsory. Three vaccinators under a 



34 KARAULI STATE 

native Superintendent are employed; and in 1904-5 the number of 
persons successfully vaccinated was 5,865, or more than 37 per 1,000 
of the population. 

[P. W. Powlett, Gazetteer of Karauli (1874, under revision); 
H. E. Drake-Brockman, Gazetteer of Eastern Riijputana States (Ajmer, 
1905) ; Administration Reports of Karauli (annually from 1894-5).] 

Karauli Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in 
Rajputana, situated in 26 30' N. and 77 2' E., equidistant (about 
75 miles) from Muttra, Gwalior, Agra, Alwar, Jaipur, and Tonk. It is 
also the head-quarters of the Sadr tahsil It was founded in 1348 by 
Raja. Arjun Pal, and was originally called Kalyanpuri after the temple 
to Kalyanji built about the same time. It is connected with the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Hindaun Road by a metalled road 52 
miles long. The population in 1901 was 23,482, of whom 76 per cent, 
were Hindus and 22 per cent. Muhammadans. 

Viewed from some points whence the palace is seen to advantage, 
the town has a striking appearance. It is surrounded by a wall of red 
sandstone, and is also protected on the north and east by a network 
of ravines. To the south and west the ground is comparatively level ; 
but advantage has been taken of a conveniently situated watercourse 
to form a moat to the town wall, while an outer wall and ditch, 
defended by bastions, has been carried along the other bank, thus 
forming a double line of defence. These fortifications, though too 
strong for the desultory attacks of the Marathas, would be far less 
formidable to regular troops than were the mud walls of Bharatpur. 
The town wall, in spite of its handsome appearance, is unsubstantially 
built, being composed of ill-cemented stones faced by thin slabs after 
the fashion which prevails throughout the State. The circumference 
of the town is somewhat less than i\ miles, and there are six gates and 
eleven posterns. The streets are rather narrow and irregular, but since 
1884 most of them have been flagged with the local stone, and they 
can easily be cleansed as the natural drainage is excellent. There 
are several costly houses and a few handsome temples ; of the latter 
the most beautiful is perhaps the Pratap Saroman temple, built by 
Maharaja Pratap Pal (1837-50) in the modern Muttra style. The 
palace is about 200 yards from the eastern wall of the town ; it was 
founded by Arjun Pal in the fourteenth century, but little or nothing 
of the original structure can now be traced. In its present state it was 
erected about the middle of the eighteenth century by Raja Gopal 
Singh, who adopted the Delhi style of architecture with which his 
residence in that city had made him familiar. The whole block of 
buildings is surrounded by a lofty bastioned wall in which there are 
two fine gates. 

A municipality was constituted in 18S4, and the committee has 



• KARENNI 35 

successfully looked after the paving and lighting of the streets and the 
general conservancy of the town. Indeed, Karauli is one of the 
cleanest towns in Rajputana. The income of the municipality varies 
from Rs. 7,000 to Rs. 9,000, derived mainly from a small octroi duty 
on cereals ; and the expenditure is somewhat less. The jail has 
accommodation for 77 prisoners, who are employed on cotton cloth 
and carpet-weaving ; attached to the jail is a small printing press, in 
which some of the prisoners occasionally work. 

Besides a few private schools in which only plain ciphering and 
letter-writing are taught, and a girls' school, the town possesses a high 
school teaching up to the matriculation standard of the Allahabad 
University, with an Oriental department affiliated to the Punjab 
University, and a patwari class. This institution costs the State about 
Rs. 3,000 a year and education is free ; the daily average attendance 
in 1904 was 227. Since the high school was established in 1889, 
6 students have passed the matriculation at the Allahabad University 
and 39 have passed various Oriental examinations of the Punjab 
University. There are two hospitals, a general and a female. The 
latter, which was opened as a dispensary for out-patients in 1891, is 
maintained from municipal funds. 

Karchana. — The central of the three trans-Jumna tahsils of Allah- 
abad District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of 
Arail, lying between 25 9' and 25 26' N. and 8i° 44' and 82 5' E., 
with an area of 257 square miles. Population fell from 134,818 in 
1 89 1 to 127,327 in 1 90 1. There are 338 villages and one small town. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,64,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 42,000 ; but the revised settlement has reduced the revenue 
to Rs. 2,39,000. The density of population, 495 persons per square mile, 
is below the District average. The tahsil is bounded on the north-east 
by the Ganges, on the north-west by the Jumna, and on the south and 
east by the Tons. Bordering on the rivers are tracts of high sandy 
soil much cut up by ravines, except towards the Ganges. The central 
portion consists of a fertile loam, which changes in the west to clay, 
where coarse rice is the staple crop. Though situated south of the 
Jumna, the country resembles the Doab, but facilities for irrigation 
are not good. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 174 square 
miles, of which 28 were irrigated. Wells supply about two-thirds of 
the irrigated area, and j/il/s the remainder. 

Karenni. — The country of the Red Karens, Burma, lying on both 
banks of the Salween, between 18 50' and 19 55' N. and 97 io' and 
97 50' E. It is bounded on the north by the Shan States, on the 
south by Salween District, on the east by Siam, and on the west by 
Toungoo District. At Loikaw, a village of 2,042 inhabitants towards 
the north of the tract, an Assistant Superintendent of the Shan States 



36 KARENM 

is posted as Agent of the British Government, with a military police 
guard under an assistant commandant, and control is exercised by him 
and the Superintendent at Taunggyi over the chiefs. The tract is 
divided in a general way into eastern and western Karenni, the former 
consisting of the single State of Gantarawadi (2,500 square miles), the 
latter of the four small States of Kyebogyi (350 square miles), Bawlake 
(200 square miles), Nammekon (50 square miles), and Naungpale 
(30 square miles). The north-western portion is an open, fairly level 
plain, well watered and in some parts swampy. It lies in the basin 
of the Nam Pilu or Balu stream, which drains the Inle Lake, and, after 
flowing past Loikaw, sinks into the ground to the south-east of that 
village before joining the Nam Pawn. The rest of the Karenni 
country is mountainous, with occasional fertile valleys, but for the 
most part arid. It is watered by the Salween and its tributary the 
Nam Pawn, which are separated by a ridge 5,000 feet in height. 

Nothing definite is known of the history of the Karenni States prior 
to the middle of the nineteenth century. During the latter part of 
that century they were the scene of constant hostilities, occasioned by 
incursions from the Shan States and by intestinal disputes. Certain 
features of their history since the annexation of Upper Burma are 
given in the article on the Southern Shan States. Gantarawadi 
was heavily fined for the disturbances which Sawlapaw had occasioned 
in 1888, and Sawlawi undertook to pay a tribute of Rs. 5,000 to the 
British Government. This chief was raised to the dignity of Sawbwa 
in 1 90 1. The other four chiefs were formally recognized as feudatories 
in 1892, and appointed Myozas. Kyebogyi, Bawlake, and Nammekon 
pay a tribute of Rs. 100 each, and Naungpale Rs. 50. The population 
of Karenni was estimated in 1901 at 45,975, distributed as follows 
over the different States : Gantarawadi, 26,333 I Kyebogyi, 9,867 ; 
Bawlake, 5,701; Nammekon, 2,629; anc * Naungpale, 1,265. ^ ne 
inhabitants are said to have decreased considerably of late, owing to 
the diminution of water in the Nam Pilu valley, the most cultivated 
part of the country. More than half are Red Karens, who are at 
a low stage of civilization, and very far from clean in their persons 
and habits. Other people represented are Shans, Taungthus, Bres, 
Padaungs, and White and other Karens. The chief wealth of the 
country is teak timber, rich forests lying on the left bank of the 
Salween, on both banks of the Nam Pawn, and in the north-western 
States. The total revenue of the States in 1893-4 was Rs. 37,000. 

Karens. — A collection of Indo-Chinese tribes, the representatives 
in Burma of one of the smaller immigration waves that entered the 
country from the direction of South-Western China during prehistoric 
times. The arrival of the Karens in the country in all probability pre- 
ceded that of the Tai (Shans), and may possibly have been earlier than 



KARENS 37 

that of the Burmans. It is more probable, however, that they appeared 
after the latter, and in any case there is reason to believe that they were 
later comers than the representatives of the Mon-Anam races. The 
Karens may be divided into three main divisions : the Sgaw, the Pwo, 
and the Bghai. The Sgaw and Pwo are generally looked upon as the 
Karens proper. They are found down the whole of the eastern border 
of Lower Burma, from Toungoo to Mergui, in the delta of the Irra- 
waddy, and in the Pegu Yoma ; in fact it is only in the Arakan Division, 
in Rangoon, and in the Districts of Prome and Thayetmyo that they do 
not form an important section of the community in the Lower province. 
They are most numerous in the Districts of Thaton, Myaungmya, and 
Toungoo. In 1901, 86,434 persons were returned as Sgaw-Karens, and 
174,070 as Pwo-Karens, a total of 457,355 having been shown as Karens 
with no division specified. These last were practically all either Sgaw 
or Pwo, probably more of the former than of the latter. 

The Karens are for the most part hill-dwellers, but a very consider- 
able proportion of them are now permanently settled in the plains. 
The Sgaw plain-dwellers are often known as Burmese Karens, and the 
Pwo as Talaing Karens. In physique there is no great difference 
between the Karens of Lower Burma and their Burman and Talaing 
neighbours ; they are not exceptionally flat-faced, and sharp features 
are frequently met with. Their eyes are not oblique, like those of the 
Chinese. In dress they have to some extent adopted the style of the 
people in whose neighbourhood they live. The typical Karen garment, 
where the national dress is still worn, is the thindaing or smock, a long, 
sleeveless or almost sleeveless garment, which is slipped over the head 
and falls away from the neck, leaving a V-shaped opening in front and 
behind. Where this is worn it forms the sole upper garment of the 
men, boys, and unmarried girls. In the case of married women the 
thindaing is shorter, is often highly decorated, and is worn over a skirt. 
Clan distinctions were, and to a certain extent still are, indicated by 
differences in dress, as for instance in the embroidery on the hem of 
the men's smocks. The typical hill Karen house, like that of the 
Kachin, is far longer and larger than that built by the people of the 
plains. The Karens practise agriculture, their cultivation, when resi- 
dent in the hills, being of the ordinary taungya description. They are 
excellent foresters, and ever since the annexation of Pegu their relations 
with the Forest department have been intimate. The original religion 
of the Karens was spirit-worship, and a considerable number still hold 
by their old faith ; but some have embraced Buddhism and a large 
proportion of them have become Christians. In their spontaneous 
readiness to accept Christianity they are probably unique among the 
more backward races of Asia. The Karens have been enlisted to some 
extent in the Burma military police. At one time a battalion was 



3 8 KARENS 

recruited entirely from the Karens ; but a riot that occurred in its ranks 
in 1899 led to its abolition as a separate unit, and to the distribution of 
the companies of which it was composed over other battalions. The 
two main divisions of the Karens proper have dialects of their own 
which differ very considerably. It is probable that the Sgaw dialect 
will in time supersede the Pwo for educational purposes. The lan- 
guage is tonal, and belongs to the Siamese-Chinese sub-family of the 
Indo-Chinese family. 

Of the Bghai division of the Karen race, the Red Karens of Karenni 
have hitherto been the best known. Other representatives of this 
division are called Padaungs, Bres, Zayeins, Sawngtiing Karens, Loilong 
Karens, White Karens, and the like. The Bghai inhabit the south- 
western corner of the Shan States, between 18 30' and 20 30' N. 
They were found mostly in the 'estimated' areas in 1901, and the 
precise strength of the different tribes is not exactly known. The total 
of Red Karens would appear, however, to be above 29,000, that of the 
Padaungs between 9,000 and 10,000, and that of the Bres about 3,500. 
Most of the Zayeins live in territory that was regularly enumerated ; they 
aggregated 4,440. The Bghai tribes vary considerably in language, cus- 
toms, and dress. The male costume consists as a rule of short trousers 
and a jacket or blanket ; the female costume, of a short kilt with either 
a short smock or, in the case of the Red Karen women, of a single piece 
of cloth, draped over the upper portion of the body. Leg and neck 
ornaments are common among the women, the former being specially 
noticeable in Karenni in the shape of beaded garters, the latter in the 
Padaung country, where the women lengthen their necks artificially by 
means of a succession of brass rings which is added to year by year. 
All the Bghai are spirit-worshippers, and the majority of them are at 
a lower stage of civilization than the Karens of Lower Burma. The 
Bghai dialects, though differing, are probably all variants of a common 
speech. 

Karhal Tahsil. — Central southern tahsil of Mainpun District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Karhal and Barnahal, 
and lying between 26 56' and 27 9' N. and 78 46' and 79 io' E., 
with an area of 218 square miles. Population fell from 100,297 in 
1891 to 98,398 in 1 901. There are 189 villages and one town, Kar- 
hal (population, 6,268), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,75,000, and for cesses Rs. 28,000. 
The density of population, 451 persons per square mile, is the lowest in 
the District, and this is the only tahsil which lost in population between 
1 89 1 and 1 90 1. The Sengar, flowing from north-west to south-east, 
divides the tahsil into two parts. The eastern portion forms part of the 
great central loam tract ; and its fertility is interrupted only by patches 
of barren land called usar, and great swamps from which are formed 



KARIKAL 39 

the Puraha and Ahneya streams, flowing into Etawah. Although the 
west is more sandy it contains no usar; this tract suffered during the 
scarcity of 1896-7. In 1901-2 the area under cultivation was no 
square miles, of which roi were irrigated. The Etawah branch of the 
Lower Ganges Canal serves the tract east of the Sengar, supplying 
about half of the irrigated area ; and wells irrigate most of the re- 
mainder. 

Karhal Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Mainpurl District, United Provinces, situated in 27 N. and 78 57' E., 
on the road from Mainpurl town to Etawah. Population (1901), 6,268. 
The town contains a bazar of poor shops, but has some substantial 
brick-built houses. A Saiyid family, some of the members of which 
are reputed to possess miraculous powers, resides here. The tahslll 
and dispensary are the chief public buildings. Karhal is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,400. Trade 
is local. The tahsih school has about 90 pupils. 

Kariana. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Karikal (Kdraikka/, ' fish pass ' ; the Carical Cariukalla of Barto- 
lomeo). — Erench Settlement and town on the Coromandel coast, lying 
between the taluks of Mayavaram, Nannilam, and Negapatam in the 
Tanjore District of Madras and the Bay of Bengal. The town is 
situated in io° 55' N. and 79 50' E. The Settlement is divided into 
three communes, containing no villages in all, and covering an area 
of 53 square miles, and is governed by an Administrator subordinate 
to the Governor at Pondicherry. The population has been rapidly 
decreasing. In 1883 it was 93,055; in 1891, 70,526; and in 1901, 
56,595 ; but the density is still very high, being 1,068 persons per square 
mile. Kumbakonam is the only taluk in Tanjore District which has 
a higher density. Each of the three communes — namely, Karikal, La 
Grande Aldee, and Nedungadu — possesses a mayor and council. The 
members are all elected by universal suffrage, but in the municipality 
of Karikal half the number of seats is reserved for Europeans or their 
descendants. The country is very fertile, being irrigated by seven 
branches of the Cauvery : namely, the Nandalar, Nattar, Arasalar, 
Tirumalarajanar, Mudikondanar, Vanjiar, and Nular, besides many 
smaller channels. 

The capital of the Settlement is situated on the north bank of the 
Arasalar, about \\ miles from its mouth. It has a brisk trade in rice 
with Ceylon and to a less extent with the Straits Settlements. In 1904 
it had no commerce whatever with France, and very little with other 
French colonies. The total imports amounted to £49,000, of which 
£1,600 came from the French colonies. The total exports were valued 
at £106,000, out of which only £600 went to the French colonies. 
The port is merely an open roadstead, provided with a lighthouse 



4 o KARIKAL 

142 feet high, the light in which has a range of from 8 to 10 miles. 
Indian labourers emigrate from Karikal to the French colonies in large 
numbers. Inland customs are governed by a convention with the 
Madras Government, and all salt consumed in French territory is by 
treaty purchased from the British on payment of an annual indemnity 
of Rs. 20,748. In 1899 Karikal was connected with Peralam on the 
Tanjore District Board Railway. The line is i4§ miles long and is 
owned by the French Government, but worked by the South Indian 
Railway. 

Karikal was promised to the French in 1738, in return for their assis- 
tance, by Sayajl, the exiled Raja of Tanjore. He did not. however, 
keep his promise ; and it was only by the assistance of Chanda Sahib, 
then at war with Sayajl, that a grant of the town was obtained in the 
following year. An additional cession of 81 villages was obtained in 
1749 under a like pressure and with the same assistance, when the 
French and Chanda Sahib were besieging Tanjore. The latter grant 
was confirmed by treaty in 1754. The town and fort were besieged 
by an English force under Major Monson in 1760, and, after a gallant 
defence of ten days, surrendered on April 15. They came into British 
possession again on three subsequent occasions (see French Posses- 
sions), and were finally restored to the French on January 14, 181 7. 

Karimganj Subdivision. — Subdivision in the south-east of Sylhet 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 15' and 25 N. 
and 92 2' and 92 36' E., with an area of 1,048 square miles. It 
contains one town, Karimganj (population, 5,692), the head-quarters ; 
and 924 villages. The northern portion of the subdivision is a level 
plain, but to the south it is much broken by hills. The Saraspur and 
Patharkandi ranges project into the valley from the Lushai-Tippera 
system ; and a third range of low hills, which intervenes between them, 
separates the valleys of the Langai and Singla rivers. The lower hills 
have been largely taken up for tea, but the upper valleys of these two 
rivers are still, to a great extent, covered with jungle. Attempts have 
been made to colonize this tract ; but they have only met with a qualified 
measure of success, as it is very inaccessible, and much of the land is 
not well adapted for cultivation. At the extreme end of this valley are 
located the only forest Reserves in the District, which cover an area of 
103 square miles. The population of Karimganj in 1891 was 384,638, 
and by 1901 had risen to 410,460, an increase of nearly 7 per cent. 
Like the rest of Sylhet, the subdivision is densely peopled ; and, in spite 
of the large tracts of waste land in the south, the density in 1901 was 
392 persons per square mile, which is but little below the figure for the 
District as a whole. The rainfall at Karimganj town is as much as 
160 inches in the year, but in the Langai valley it is about 50 inches 
less. The staple food-crop is sail or transplanted winter rice, and the 



KARIMNAGAR DISTRICT 41 

dense groves of areca palms surrounding the villages are a special 
feature in the landscape. The cultivation of tea is an important indus- 
try ; in 1904 there were 35 gardens with 21,413 acres under plant, 
which gave employment to 51 Europeans and 24,126 natives. Karlm- 
ganj is almost invariably in charge of a European magistrate, and for 
administrative purposes is divided into the two thanas of Karlmganj 
and Jaldhub. The demand on account of land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,24,000. 

Karlmganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 52' N. 
and 92 2 2 r E., on the left bank of the Kusiyara. river. The town is 
favourably situated for trade, as it is a port of call for the river steamers, 
and has a station on the Assam-Bengal Railway. Population (1901), 
5,692. The public buildings include the Magistrate's and Munsifs 
courts, a subsidiary jail with accommodation for 35 persons, a hospital 
with 6 beds, and a high school with an average attendance of 176 boys. 
The Subdivisional Officer is almost invariably a European, and there is 
a branch of the Welsh Presbyterian Mission in the town. Most of the 
offices are located on low hills which command a fine view across the 
dense groves of areca palm, with which the neighbourhood abounds, 
to the hills of North Cachar. There is a considerable export trade to 
Bengal in unhusked rice, mustard, linseed, bamboo mats, and timber. 
The principal imports are cotton piece-goods, grain and pulse, kerosene 
and other oils, salt, sugar, and spices. The majority of the merchants 
are natives of the District, but there are a few Ma.rwa.ris from Rajputana. 

Karlmganj. — Village in the Kishorganj subdivision of Mymensingh 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 28" N. and 90 
52' E., 9 miles east of Kishorganj. Population (1901), 136. It is a 
large bazar and reed and jute mart, and has given its name to a well- 
known variety of jute. 

Karimnagar District. — District in the Warangal Division of the 
Hyderabad State, formerly known as Elgandal. It is bounded on 
the north by Adilabad ; on the east by the Bastar State of the Central 
Provinces ; on the south by Warangal ; and on the west by Medak and 
Nizamabad. In consequence of the changes made in 1905, its area has 
been reduced to 5,369 square miles, including jdgirs. A range of hills 
extends in a north-easterly direction between Gurrapalli and Jagtial, 
terminating at Vemalkurti near the Godavari. A second range, running 
parallel to the former, stretches from Sunigram to Mallangur. A third 
range starts in the south-western corner of the District from the valley 
of the Maner river, runs in a north-easterly direction, and, after inter- 
secting the Sunigram range, passes beyond RamgTr and terminates near 
the Godavari. The principal river is the Godavari, which flows through 
the northern portion, forming the northern and eastern boundary, and 



42 KARIMNAGAR DISTRICT 

partially separating the District from Adilabad in the north and from 
Bastar in the east. The next important river is the Maner, a tributary 
of the Godavari, which traverses the District from west to east as far 
as Karlagunta, and thence flows due north, till it falls into the Godavari 
in the Mahadeopur taluk. The Peddavagu and Chelluvagu are minor 
tributaries of the Godavari. 

The geological formations are the Archaean gneiss, and the Cuddapah, 
Sullavai, and Gondwana series. Gneiss occupies most of the District, 
the remaining formations occurring in the east. 

The flora of the , District includes teak, mango, custard-apple, 
tamarind, ebony, black- wood, satin-wood, tarvar (Cassia auriculata), 
babul (Acacia arabica), ?iallamaddi (Tcrminalia tomentosa), and eppa 
(Hardivickia binatd). 

Karlmnagar is covered with a large extent of jungle and fprest, 
which give cover to tigers, leopards, bears, hyenas, wolves, wild hog, 
and wild dogs, while in the plains sambar, spotted deer, and nilgai are 
met with everywhere. 

With the exception of Mahadeopur and parts of Sirsilla and Jagtial, 
the District is healthy. The temperature at Karlmnagar and Jamikunta 
in May rises to no°, and in the remaining taluks it ranges between 
roo° and 105 . In December it falls to 6o°. The annual rainfall 
averages about 3$ inches. 

The population of the area of the present District in 1901 was 
861,833. It comprises seven taluks: Karlmnagar, Jamikunta, 
Sultanabad, Jagtial, Sirsilla, Mahadeopur, and Parkal. The 
chief towns are Jagtial, Manthani, Koratla, KarImnagar, and 
Vemalwada. About 96 per cent, of the population are Hindus ; 90 
per cent, speak Telugu, and 6 per cent. Urdu. 

The land revenue demand of the District as at present constituted 
is about 22-6 lakhs. 

Karlmnagar Taluk. — Taluk in Karlmnagar District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 1,012 square miles. The population in 1901, 
including jdgirs, was 138,591, compared with 170,676 in 1891, the de- 
crease being due to famine and cholera. The taluk contains one town, 
KarImnagar (population, 5,752), the District and taluk head-quarters; 
and 186 villages, of which 26 are jdglr. The land revenue in 1901 
amounted to 4-3 lakhs. Rice is largely raised with irrigation from 
tanks and wells. The Maner river flows through the taluk from west 
to east. 

Karlmnagar Town. — Head-quarters of the District and taluk of 
Karlmnagar, Hyderabad State, situated in 18 26' N. and 79 8' E., on 
the Maner river, 6 miles east of Elgandal. Population (1901), 5,752. 
Besides the District and taluk offices, it contains the District civil 
court, two dispensaries, one of which provides yundni treatment, a post 



KARKALA 43 

office, local board and municipal offices, several State schools, a mission 
school, a female mission hospital, a District jail, and a tannery. The 
town is noted for its fine filigree work. 

Karjat (i). — Southern taluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, lying 
between i8° 20' and 18 50' N. and 74 43' and 75 13' E., with an area 
of 565 square miles. It contains 81 villages, including Karjat, the head- 
quarters. The population in 1901 was 35,619, compared with 48,828 
in 1 89 1. The decrease, which is greater than in any other taluka, 
is primarily due to emigration to the Nizam's Dominions and other 
regions, consequent upon famine. It is the most thinly populated in 
the District, with a density of only 63 persons per square mile. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 80,000 and for cesses 
Rs. 6,000. A chain of low hills with flat summits traverses the taluka 
from north-west to south-east, dividing it into two equal parts. The 
streams from the eastern slope flow into the Sina river, and from the 
western into the Bhima. The country presents a dismal appearance, 
owing to the large proportion of rocky and unprofitable ground, almost 
destitute of vegetation. There are a few level tracts, some of con- 
siderable extent, where the soil is deep and rich. In the neighbourhood 
of the hills the soil is of the poorest description. The rainfall is 
extremely uncertain, and good harvests are rare. It suffered severely 
in the famines of 1876-7 and 1 899-1 901, when many villages were 
deserted. The cultivators, owing to a succession of bad harvests, are 
nearly all in debt. 

Karjat (2). — North-eastern taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, lying 
between 18 45' and 19 8' N. and 73 n' and 73 33' E., with an 
area of 359 square miles, including the petty subdivision (petha) of 
Khalapur. There are 270 villages, the head-quarters being at Karjat. 
The population in 1901 was 87,415, compared with 85,288 in 1891. 
The density, 243 persons per square mile, is much below the District 
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. r,6r,ooo, 
and for cesses Rs. 10,000. Karjat may be described as a rough hilly 
tract, lying between the Western Ghats and the hills of Matheran. On 
its northern side dales and valleys diversify the surface ; the lowlands 
are divided into rice-fields, while the higher grounds are clothed with 
teak, ain, and black-wood. In the east the woodlands become a forest. 
The Ulhas and other streams which rise in the Western Ghats flow 
through the taluka, but become dry channels in the hot season. The 
rainfall is fairly plentiful, and failure of the rice crop rare. Drinking- 
water is scarce. The rice soil is black, and the upland soil reddish. 
The climate varies greatly with the season. In January and February 
the nights are extremely cold. The rainfall during the ten years 
ending 1903 averaged 130 inches. 

Karkala. — Village in the Udipi taluk of South Kanara District, 

VOL. XV. D 



44 KARKALA 

Madras, situated in 13 13' N. and 74° 59' E. Population (1901), 
5,364. It was once a populous Jain town and the seat of the Bhairarasa 
Wodeyars, a powerful Jain family of which no representatives are now 
left. In the neighbourhood are many Jain remains. The most 
remarkable is the monolithic statue of Gomata Raya, erected by the 
ruling prince in a.d. 1431. It stands in an enclosure on the summit 
of a rocky hill south of the town overlooking a picturesque lake, and 
is 41 feet 5 inches high, with the traditional form and lineaments of 
Buddha. Once in sixty years Jains from all parts gather and bathe the 
statue with coco-nut milk. To the north, on the summit of a smaller 
hill, stands a square temple with projecting porticoes facing each of the 
four quarters, its columns, pediments, and friezes being alike richly 
carved and ornamented. Within, facing each entrance, stand groups 
of three life-sized figures in burnished copper, counterparts of the great 
statue above. At Haleangadi, close by, is the finest Jain stambha 
(pillar) in the District. It has a monolithic shaft 7,7, feet high in eight 
segments, each beautifully and variously ornamented, supporting an 
elegant capital and topped by a stone shrine containing a statue. The 
total height is about 50 feet. Karkala is situated on one of the 
principal roads leading to Mysore, in the centre of a fertile tract con- 
taining many fine areca gardens. It has a considerable trade in rice 
and other local produce, and is the head-quarters of a deputy- fa /isi/ddr. 

Karkamb. — Town in the Pandharpur talaka of Sholapur District, 
Bombay, situated in 17 52' N. and 75 18' E., 13 miles north of 
Pandharpur town. Population (1901), 5,571. Karkamb has a large 
weaving and thread-dyeing industry, with about 500 looms, chiefly 
producing cheap cloth for women's robes. About 1,500 persons are 
employed in the weaving industry, which has an output of the annual 
value of if lakhs. The establishments for thread-dyeing number 11. 
The betel-vine is largely grown. Weekly markets are held on Mondays, 
when cattle, grain, and cloth are sold. The town contains two schools, 
one of which is for girls. 

Karli (Karla). — Village in the Maval taluka of Poona District, 
Bombay, situated in 18 45' N. and 73 29' E., on the road between 
Bombay and Poona. Population (1901), 903. Some celebrated caves 
are 2\ miles from the Karli and 5 from the Lonauli station on the 
Poona section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The principal 
cave is thus described by Mr. J. Fergusson in his History of Eastern 
and Indian Architecture : — 

' It is certainly the largest as well as the most complete chaitya cave 
hitherto discovered in India, and was excavated at a time when the 
style was in its greatest purity. In it, all the architectural defects of 
the previous examples are removed ; the pillars of the nave are quite 
perpendicular. The screen is ornamented with sculpture — its first 



KARLI 45 

appearance apparently in such a position — and the style had reached 
a perfection never afterwards surpassed. 

' In the cave there is an inscription on the side of the porch, and 
another on the lion-pillar in front, which are certainly integral, and 
ascribe its excavation to the Maharaja Bhuti or Deva Bhuti, who, 
according to the Puranas, reigned 78 B.C. ; and if this is so, they fix the 
age of this typical example beyond all cavil. 

' The building resembles, to a very great extent, an early Christian 
church in its arrangements, consisting of a nave and side aisles, ter- 
minating in an apse or semi-dome, round which the aisle is carried. 
The general dimensions of the interior are 126 feet from the entrance 
to the back wall, by 45 feet 7 inches in width. The side aisles, however, 
are very much narrower than in Christian churches, the central one 
being 25 feet 7 inches, so that the others are only 10 feet wide, includ- 
ing the thickness of the pillars. As a scale for comparison, it may be 
mentioned that its arrangement and dimensions are very similar to 
those of the choir of Norwich Cathedral, or of the Abbaye aux 
Hommes at Caen, omitting the outer aisles in the latter building. 
The thickness of the piers at Norwich and Caen nearly corresponds 
to the breadth of the aisles in the Indian temple. In height, however, 
Karli is very inferior, being only 42 feet, or perhaps 45 feet from the 
floor to the apex, as nearly as can be ascertained. 

' Fifteen pillars on each side separate the nave from the aisles ; each 
pillar has a tail base, an octagonal shaft, and a richly ornamented 
capital, on which kneel two elephants, each bearing two figures, 
generally a man and a woman, but sometimes two females, all very 
much better executed than such ornaments usually are. The seven 
pillars behind the "altar" are plain octagonal piers, without either base 
or capital, and the four under the entrance gallery differ considerably 
from those at the sides. The sculptures on the capitals supply the 
place usually occupied by frieze and cornice in Grecian architecture ; 
and in other examples plain painted surfaces occupy the same space. 
Above this springs the roof, semicircular in general section but some- 
what stilted at the sides, so as to make its height greater than the 
semi-diameter. It is ornamented even at this day by a series of 
wooden ribs, probably coeval with the excavation, which prove beyond 
the shadow of a doubt that the roof is not a copy of a masonry arch, 
but of some sort of timber construction which we cannot now very 
well understand. 

' Immediately under the semi-dome of the apse, and nearly where the 
altar stands in Christian churches, is placed the ddgoba, in this instance 
a plain dome slightly stilted on a circular drum. As there are no 
ornaments on it now, and no mortices for woodwork, it probably was 
originally plastered and painted, or may have been adorned with hang- 
ings, which some of the sculptured representations would lead us to 
suppose was the usual mode of ornamenting these altars. It is sur- 
mounted by a Tee, and on this still stand the remains of an umbrella 
in wood, very much decayed and distorted by age. 

' Opposite this is the entrance, consisting of three doorways, under 
a gallery exactly corresponding with our rood-loft, one leading to the 
centre and one to each of the side aisles ; and over the gallery the 

d 2 



46 KARLI 

whole end of the hall is open, as in all these chaitya halls, forming 
one great window, through which all the light is admitted. This great 
window is formed in the shape of a horseshoe, and exactly resembles 
those used as ornaments on the facade of this cave, as well as on those 
of Bhaja, Bedsa, and at Nasik. Within the arch is a framework or 
centring of work standing free. This, so far as we can judge, is, like 
the ribs of the interior, coeval with the building ; at all events, if it has 
been renewed, it is an exact copy of the original form, for it is found 
repeated in stone in all the niches of the facade, over the doorways, and 
generally as an ornament everywhere, and with the Buddhist " rail," 
copied from Sanchi, forms the most usual ornament of the style. 

'The outer porch is considerably wider than the body of the building, 
being 52 feet wide, and is closed in front by a screen composed of two 
stout octagonal pillars, without either base or capital, supporting what is 
now a plain mass of rock, but once ornamented by a wooden gallery 
forming the principal ornament of the facade. Above this, a dwarf 
colonnade or attic of four columns between pilasters admitted light to 
the great window ; and this again was surmounted by a wooden cornice 
or ornament of some sort, though we cannot now restore it, since only 
the mortices remain that attached it to the rock. 

' In advance of this screen stands the lion-pillar, in this instance 
a plain shaft with thirty-two flutes, or rather faces, surmounted by 
a capital not unlike that at Kesariya, but at Karli supporting four lions 
instead of one ; they seem almost certainly to have supported a chakra, 
or Buddhist wheel. A similar pillar probably stood on the opposite 
side, but it has either fallen or been taken down to make way for the 
little [Hindu] temple that now occupies its place. 

' The absence of the wooden ornaments of the external porch, as well 
as our ignorance of the mode in which this temple was finished later- 
ally, and the porch joined to the main temple, prevent us from judging 
what the effect of the front would have been if belonging to a free- 
standing building. But the proportions of such parts as remain are so 
good, and the effect of the whole so pleasing, that there can be little 
hesitation in ascribing to such a design a tolerably high rank among 
architectural compositions. 

' Of the interior we can judge perfectly, and it certainly is as solemn 
and grand as any interior can well be, and the mode of lighting the 
most perfect — one undivided volume of light coming through a single 
opening overhead at a very favourable angle and falling directly on the 
"altar" or principal object in the building, leaving the rest in comparative 
obscurity. The effect is considerably heightened by the closely-set 
thick columns that divide the three aisles from one another, as they 
suffice to prevent the boundary walls from ever being seen ; and as there 
are no openings in the walls, the view between the pillars is practically 
unlimited. 

' These peculiarities are found more or less developed in all the other 
caves of the same class in India, varying only with the age and the 
gradual change that took place from the more purely wooden forms of 
these caves to the lithic or stone architecture of the more modern 
ones. This is the principal test by which their relative ages can be 
determined, and it proves incontestably that the Karli cave was 






KARAT A LA TOWN 47 

excavated not very long after stone came to be used as a building 
material in India.' 

Karmad. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Karmala Taluka. — Taluka of Sholapur District, Bombay, lying 
between 17 58' and 18 33' N. and 74 48' and 75 26' E., with an 
area of 772 square miles. It contains one town, Karmala (population, 
7,301), the head-quarters; and 123 villages. The population in 1901 
was 67,558, compared with 93,353 in 1891. The great decrease is due 
to mortality and emigration during the famine of 1899-1901. The 
taluka is one of the most thinly populated in the District, with a density 
of only 88 persons per square mile. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 11,000. Karmala is in the 
north of the District, between the Bhima on the west and the Slna on 
the east. Except the hills near Kem and the dividing ridge, forming 
the watershed between the two rivers, the country is fiat ; towards the 
north it is rough and broken, crossed by many streams. About half 
consists of rich black soil, and the rest is red and gravelly. The 
seasons are uncertain— a really good one, as a rule, not occurring 
oftener than once in three or four years, when, however, the harvest is 
exceedingly abundant. The annual rainfall averages 23 inches. Weekly 
fairs are held at eight towns and villages ; and at Sonari an annual fair 
in April is attended by about 6,000 persons. 

Karmala Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Sholapur District, Bombay, situated in 18 24' N. and 75 12' E., 11 
miles north of the Jeur station on the south-east section of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 7,301. Karmala was 
originally the seat of a branch of the Nimbalkar family. The founder 
began and his son finished a fort, which still exists and is used for the 
taluka offices. This fort, one of the largest in the Deccan, extends over 
a quarter of a square mile, and contains about a hundred houses. 
Karmala grew and became a large trade centre, being a crossing station 
for the traffic from Balaghiit through Barsi to Poona, and between 
Ahmadnagar and Sholapur. Most of this traffic has now passed to the 
railway, but Karmala is still a large mart for cattle, grain, oil, and piece- 
goods. A weekly market is held on Friday, and the town has a small 
weaving industry. The water-supply is derived from wells three-quarters 
of a mile to the south, the water being carried through an earthenware 
conduit to dipping wells in the town. An annual fair is held here, last- 
ing four days. The town possesses a large temple of Amba Bai. The 
municipality, established in 1867, had an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 8,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,100. 
Karmala contains a Subordinate Judge's court, three schools, includ- 
ing one maintained by the American Congregational Mission, and 
a dispensary. 



4§ KARMGARH 

Karmgarh. — A nizamat or administrative district of the Patiala 
State, Punjab, lying between 29 23' and 30 27' N. and 75 40' and 
76 36' E., with an area of 1,834 square miles. It had a population 
in 1901 of 500,635, compared with 500,225 in 1891, dwelling in four 
towns— Patiala, Samana, Sunam, and Sanaur— and 665 villages. 
The head-quarters are at Bhawanigarh or Dhodan, a village in the 
Bhawanigarh tahsil. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 9-5 lakhs. The nizamat consists of a fairly compact area in the 
south-east of the main portion of the State, and is divided into four 
tahslh — Patiala, Bhawanigarh, Sunam, and Narwana — of which the 
first three lie in that order from east to west, partly in the Pawadh and 
partly in the Jangal tract, on the north of the Ghaggar river, while the 
fourth tahsil, Narwana, lies on its south bank in the Bangar. 

Karnal District. — District in the Delhi Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 29 ir/ and 30 15' N. and 76 11' and 77 17' E., with 
an area of 3,153 square miles, including 36 outlying villages scattered 
throughout the eastern part of the State of Patiala. The District is 
bounded on the north by Patiala State and Ambala District ; on the 
east by the Jumna, which separates it from the Districts of Saharan- 
pur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut in the United Provinces ; on the 
south by the Punjab Districts of Delhi and Rohtak ; and on the west 
by the States of Patiala and Jind. It is divided into two parts by the 
low ridge which forms the watershed between the Indian Ocean and 
the Bay of Bengal. To the east of this ridge along the Jumna lies the 
khadar, a strip of low-lying land from 5 to 10 miles 

aspects W1( ^ e ' tnou Sh lt: 1S not so thickly wooded as the rest 

of the District, date-palms abound, and in places 
a thick jungle skirts the river bank. West of the ridge lies the bangar, 
an upland plain watered throughout by the Western Jumna Canal, and 
stretching parallel to the khddar for the whole length of the District. 
These two tracts fill up practically the whole of the southern tahsil of 
Panipat ; but in Karnal and Kaithal, the central tahslh, the bangar 
rises with a perceptible step into the Nardak ', a high and once arid 
country, now traversed by the Sirsa branch of the Western Jumna Canal. 
In the north of the District nearly the whole of Thanesar and the 
northern part of the Kaithal tahsil are intersected by mountain torrents 
which drain the Lower Himalayas, and include large tracts of wild 
country covered with forests of dhak (Rutea/rondnsa). 

The Jumna forms the entire eastern boundary for a distance of 81 
miles. Its bed varies from half a mile to a mile in width, of which the 
stream occupies only a few hundred yards in the cold season. The 
most important of the torrents which traverse the northern portion are 

1 The Nardak is properly another name for Kurukshetra, but it is extended to 
include all the hiyh tract. 



KARXAL DISTRICT 49 

the Ghaggar, with its tributaries the Umla and SaraswatI, the 
Chautang, and the Markanda and Puran, the last an old bed of 
the Ghaggar. Minor drainage channels are the Nai or ' new ' Nadi, 
the Burhi or ' old ' Nadi, and the Rakshi. 

Karnal District offers nothing of geological interest, as it is situated 
entirely on the alluvium. The flora of the upper Gangetic plain is well 
represented in the eastern portion ; in the west there is an approach to 
the desert vegetation ; while the Jumna valley produces a few temperate 
types, e. g. a rose, a kind of scurvy grass {Coch/earid), both of which are 
found again in Lower Bengal, and a crowfoot {Ranunculus pennsylvani- 
cus), which extends to Ludhiana, but is absent from the Himalayas 
Relics of a former Deccan flora, of which a wild cotton is the most 
interesting, survive, especially in the neighbourhood of Thanesar. In- 
digenous trees, except the dhak, are uncommon ; in the Jumna khadar 
a low palm abounds, which is often taken for a wild form of the date- 
pain - !, but is almost certainly a distinct species. 

The Nardak was a favourite hunting-ground of the Mughal emperors, 
and as late as 1827 Archer says that lions were sometimes seen within 
20 miles of Karnal, while tigers were exceedingly common. Xow, how- 
ever, even the leopard is found only rarely, but wolves are still common. 
Antelope, nilgai, 'ravine deer' (Indian gazelle), and hog deer are fairly 
plentiful where there is suitable cover. Small game is abundant. 

Fever is particularly prevalent in the Naili (Nali) tract, flooded by 
the SaraswatI, and in the canal-irrigated portions of the District. Owing 
to the faulty alignment of the canal and the swamping caused thereby, 
fever used to be terribly prevalent, and in consequence the canton- 
ments were removed from Karnal town ; but recent improvements have 
greatly diminished the evil. The climate of Kaithal resembles that of 
the plains of the Punjab proper, but the Jumna tahsils are not subject 
to the same extremes of heat and cold. 

The annual rainfall averages 30 inches at Karnal, 23 at Panlpat, and 
18 at Kaithal, rapidly decreasing as one goes west or south. The 
khadar receives the most plentiful and frequent rain, as many local 
showers follow the bed of the river. Of the rainfall at Karnal, 27-4 
inches fall in the summer months and 2-4 in the winter. 

The early legendary history of the District will be found in the 
account of Kurukshetra or the holy plain of the Hindus, which 
occupies its north-western portion. The number of History 
Indo-Scythian coins found at Polar on the SaraswatI 
would seem to show that about the beginning of the Christian era the 
District was included in the Indo-Scythian empire. In or about a. d. 
400 it was traversed by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian and in 639 by 
Hiuen Tsiang, the latter finding a flourishing kingdom with its capital 
at Thanesar. Though Thanesar was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 



5 o KARNAL DISTRICT 

1 014, the country remained under Hindu rule until the defeat of 
Prithwl Raj at Tirawari in 1192. Thereafter it was more or less firmly 
attached to Delhi till after the invasion of Timur, who marched through 
it on his way to the capital. It then belonged, first to the ruler of 
Samana, and then to the Lodi kings of the Punjab, and during the 
century and a half that separated Akbar from Tlmur was the scene of 
numerous battles, of which the most important were two fought at 
PanIpat. For two centuries Karnal enjoyed peace under the Mughals, 
broken only by the raid of Ibrahim Husain Mirza in 1573, the flight of 
prince Khusru through the District in 1606, and the incursion of Banda 
Bairagi in 1709. During this period a canal was constructed from the 
Tumna and the imperial road put in repair. In 1738 Nadir Shah de- 
feated Muhammad Shah near Karnal, and in 1761 occurred the third 
great battle of Panipat, in which the Marathas were routed by the 
Afghan army. A terrible period of anarchy followed, during which 
the tract formed a sort of no-man's-land between the Sikh and Maratha 
powers, coveted by both but protected by neither, and the prey of every 
freebooter that chanced to come that way. On annexation, in 1803, 
the greater part of the country was held by Sikh chiefs or by con- 
federacies of Sikh horsemen ; and the District was gradually formed 
out of their territories as they escheated. The most important were the 
petty principalities of Kaithal, Thanesar, and Ladwa, of which the first 
two lapsed between 1832 and 1850, while Ladwa was confiscated owing 
to the conduct of its chief during the first Sikh War. In 1849 tne 
District of Thanesar was formed, but in 1862 it was broken up into 
the two Districts of Ambala and Karnal. During the Mutiny there 
was a good deal of disorder, but no serious outbreak occurred. Great 
assistance was given by the Rajas of Patiala and Jind in preserving 
order. The Pehowa thana was transferred from Ambala to the Kaithal 
tahsil of the District in 1888, and the rest of the Pipli fa/isl/ (now 
Thanesar) was added to it in 1897. 

The chief relics of antiquity are to be found at Karnal, Panipat, 
Thanesar, and Pehowa. At the village of Slta Mai in the Nardak is 
a very ancient shrine of Slta, and several of the great sarats built along 
the old imperial road still remain. 

The District contains 7 towns and 1,383 villages. Its population at 
the last three enumerations was: (1881) 820,041, (1891) 861,160, and 
(1901) 883,225. It increased by 2-6 per cent, during 
the last decade, the increase being greatest in the 
Panipat tahsil and least in Karnal. In the Thanesar tahsil the popula- 
tion decreased 0*9 per cent, in the twenty years ending 1901, owing to 
the unhealthiness of the tract ; while Kaithal increased by 20 per cent, 
in the same period, owing to the development of canal-irrigation. The 
District is divided into the four tahslls of Karnal, Panipat, Kaithal, 



POPULATION 



5i 



and Thanesar, the head-quarters of each being at the place from 
which it is named. The chief towns are the municipalities of Karnal 
(the District head-quarters), PanIpat, Kaithal, Shahabad, Thanesar, 
and Ladwa. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 
1901 : — 



Tah si l 


V 
u 

3 . 

a* 'n 
V) V 

C-- 

< 


Nu 


nber of 


Population. 


Populationper 
square, mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 

> 

5 
H 

I 

3 
1 
2 


V 

> 


Karnal 
Thanesar . 
Panipat 
Kaithal 

District total 


836 

559 
462 

i,2S8 


380 
418 
172 

4' 3 


248,544 
173,208 
[96,284 
265,189 


297-3 
309-S 
424.9 
205.9 


+ 2-9 

- 2-4 
+ 6-2 

+ 3-o 


6,117 
4,36l 

6,377 
4-34o 


3,'53 


7 


1,383 


883,225 


280-1 


+ 2-6 


2V95 



Note. — The figures for the areas of /a/islls are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 

Hindus number 623,597, or over 70 per cent, of the total. Monastic 
communities of Bairagis own a good deal of land and exercise con- 
siderable influence in the District. Muhammadans (241,412) form 27 
per cent, of the population. The Saiyids of the District belong to 
the Shiah organization known as the Bara Sadat, which was founded 
by Saiyid Abdul Farsh WasTti, a follower of Mahmud of Ghazni. 
Sikhs number 12,294. Hindi is spoken by 96 per cent, of the popu- 
lation, and Punjabi in the scattered villages surrounded by Patiala 
territory. 

The Jats or Jats are the most numerous tribe, numbering 120,000, or 
14 per cent, of the total. They own 15^ per cent, of the land, and are 
mostly Hindus, only 8,000 being Sikhs and 3,000 Muhammadans. 
Their principal clans are the Ghatwa.1, Deswal, Sindhu, Pawania, Man, 
Katkhar, and Jaglan. The Rajputs (83,000) own 32 per cent, of the 
land ; 67,000 are Muhammadans, known as Ranghars. Their principal 
clans are the Chauhan, Mandhar, Ghorewaha, and Tonwar. The Rors 
(42,000) own 17^ per cent, and are almost all Hindus; they seem 
originally to have held their lands as dependants of the Rajputs. 
Giijars (30,000) are mostly Hindus, though 8,000 are Muhammadans. 
Their reputation is no better here than in other parts of the Division. 
The Tagas (4,000) claim to be a Brahman race, which has abandoned 
the priestly profession and taken to agriculture ; half of them in this 
District are Muhammadans. Of Brahmans (71,000), the Bias or 
GujratI and the Dakaut are important and interesting clans. The 
Saiyids (6,000) trace their descent from settlers left by Mahmud, 
Timur, and other Muhammadan invaders. Of the Shaikhs (19,000), 



52 KARXAL DISTRICT 

besides the few properly so called and the large number of converts 
who have taken that name, there are in many villages one or two 
families of a menial tribe from which the village watchmen are drawn, 
who are said to be the relics of the old policy of the emperors of 
settling one or two Muhammadans in every village. The Malis (26,000) 
have of late years immigrated in considerable numbers into the District, 
especially the irrigable tracts of the Thanesar tahsll, where they have 
purchased estates. Kambohs number 14,000. Of the commercial 
classes, the chief are the Banias (52,000). Among the menial classes 
may be mentioned the Chamars (leather-workers, 79,000), Chuhras 
(scavengers, 45,000), Jhmwars (water-carriers, 44,000), Kumhars (pot- 
ters, 19,000), and Tarkhans (carpenters, 20,000). About 58 per cent, 
of the population are supported by agriculture, 19 are industrial, 
3 commercial, and 2 professional. 

There is a curious division of the non-Rajput tribes into the Dehia 
and Haulania factions, apparently dating from a time when the 
Haulanias under the leadership of the Ghatwal Jats were called in 
by one of the emperors to help to coerce the Mandhar Rajputs, and 
were opposed by the Dehia Jats, who from jealousy of the Ghatwal 
supremacy joined the Mandhars. The leading families of the District 
are those of the Nawab of Kunjpura, the Mandals of Karnal, and the 
Bhais of Arnauli and Siddhuwal. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel carries on mission 
work at Karnal, Kaithal, and Panipat. Its operations include zanana 
teaching, girls' schools, and a hospital and dispensary for women and 
children. There are also Methodist Episcopal missions at Karnal and 
Panipat, and a Presbyterian Mission at Thanesar (founded in 1895) 
and Kaithal, to which the village of Santokh Majra has been leased 
for a Christian colony. In 1901 the District contained 225 native 
Christians. 

The soil of the khddar is light, and water lies close to the surface. 

The Jumna floods are, however, not fertilizing, and the best lands are 

. . those which lie bevond their reach. The eastern 

Acricu.lt urc 

hangar is almost entirely watered by the Western 

Jumna Canal; the soil is a fertile and easily worked loam, and the 

tract forms for the most part a sheet of cultivation. The soil of the 

Kaithal hangar is a strong intractable loam, chiefly irrigated by the new 

Sirsa branch of the Western Jumna Canal, which also supplies most of 

the Kaithal Nardak. The Thanesar tahisll is a rich alluvial tract 

watered by the Markanda and Umla, but in the flooded tracts crops 

are very precarious, owing to the uncertainty of the floods. On the 

SaraswatI two-thirds of the crops belong to the spring harvest, chiefly 

gram : on the Umla coarse rice is often the only crop. 

The District is held almost entirely by small peasant proprietors, 



AGRICULTURE 



53 



large estates covering only about 160 square miles and lands leased 
from Government 4,000 acres. 

The area for which details are available from the revenue record of 
1903-4 is 3,147 square miles, as shown in the following table : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Kurnal 
Thanesar . 
Panlpat 
Kailhal 

Total 


838 

559 
461 

1,289 


450 

335 
288 

724 


164 

37 
192 
20S 


263 

'5 1 

74 
416 


3,M7 


1.797 


601 


904 



The staple products of the spring harvest are wheat and gram, sown 
on 338 and 265 square miles respectively in 1903-4. Barley covered 
only 19 square miles. In the autumn harvest great millet covered 256 
square miles, and rice and spiked millet 97 and 94 square miles 
respectively. Cotton covered 66 square miles, maize 72, and sugar- 
cane 30. 

During the thirteen years ending 1904, the cultivated area rose from 
1,637 square miles to more than 1,797, or D Y IO P er cent., the increase 
being chiefly due to the extension of canal-irrigation. This has been 
accompanied by an extended cultivation of maize, cotton, and sugar- 
cane, as well as of the more valuable spring crops ; and the use of 
manure is said to be increasing. Loans for the construction of wells 
are fairly popular. In the five years ending 1903-4, Rs. 57,000 was 
advanced under the Land Improvement Loans Act, and 2 lakhs for 
the purchase of bullocks and seed. 

Cattle-raising used to play an important part in the economy of the 
Nardak before the construction of the Sirsa canal, and the cattle of 
the District are still noted for their excellence. The local breed of 
horses is of no particular importance. A remount depot, established at 
Karnal in 1889, was abolished in 1902, and its lands are now used 
as a military grass farm. The District board maintains three horse 
and five donkey stallions. Large flocks of goats and sheep are kept in 
parts, the sheep being all of the small black-tailed breed. There is 
a fine breed of pigs at Karnal, dating from the time of the old 
cantonment. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 601 square miles, or ^ P er 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 230 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, 364 square miles from canals, 32 acres from wells 
and canals, and 4,581 acres from streams and tanks. The District 
possessed 10,931 masonry wells, besides 223 unbricked wells, lever 
wells, and water-lifts. In the khadar, although little irrigation is 



54 KARNAL DISTRICT 

necessary, wells worked by Persian wheels are numerous. The new 
main line of the Western Jumna Canal enters the Thanesar tahsll, 
and within this District gives off the Sirsa, Hansi, and New Delhi 
branches, which irrigate the greater portion of the Nardak and bangar, 
except in Thanesar, where the percolation from the main canal and the 
stoppage of the natural drainage keep the land so moist that it suffers 
from excess of water rather than from drought. The total area 
irrigated from the Western Jumna Canal is 2,493 acres. The bangar 
in the Kaithal tahsll is also supplied by the Saraswat! canal (an 
inundation canal made and worked by the District board), and some 
of the Nardak villages are also watered by floods from the Chautang. 
The few wells in these tracts are on the rope-and-bucket system. 
The northern part of the District is irrigated by floods from the hill 
torrents, and for the most part suffers from capricious water-supply, 
being waterlogged one year and parched the next. Except in the more 
favoured tracts, wells are liable to be destroyed by floods and are little 
used. The villages scattered through Patiala territory are irrigated 
from the Sirhind Canal. 

The District contains 17 tracts of unclassed forest, with a total area 
of 24 square miles, in charge of the Deputy-Commissioner ; but these 
are not true forests, being covered only with scrub and small trees. 
About 2-6 square miles of 'reserved' forest are under the Military 
department. 

Sal-ammoniac has from ancient times been manufactured by the 
potters of the Kaithal tahsll. About 84 tons, valued at Rs. 3,400, are 
produced annually, and sold to merchants, who mostly export it. It is 
prepared by burning bricks made of the dirty clay found in certain 
ponds, and subjecting the substance that exudes from them to sub- 
limation in closed vessels. The District has four saltpetre refineries. 
The only other mineral product is kankar, or nodular limestone. 

Karnal town used to have a name for shoe-making, but the industry 
is said to be declining from want of capital. Panlpat is famous for glass- 
blowing, the chief product being silvered globes 

communications. which > vvnen broken up, are used for mirror-covered 
walls, or sewn on phulkaris ; the glass retorts used 
in the manufacture of sal-ammoniac are also made. The town is 
noted for its manufacture of brass vessels, small fancy wares in various 
metals, and silver beads. The District possesses three cotton-ginning 
factories, at Panlpat, Kaithal, and Dhatrat ; a cotton-press at Panlpat ; 
and two combined ginning and pressing factories, at Panlpat and 
Kaithal. The total number of employes in 1904 was 702. Silver- 
work and musical instruments are made at Shahabad. Some good 
lacquered woodwork is also produced. 

The chief exports are wheat, cotton, gram, fine rice, ghl, brass 



FAMINE 55 

vessels, glass, sal-ammoniac, and saltpetre j and the chief imports are 
salt, oil and oilseeds, iron, and piece-goods. Cotton and wheat go 
chiefly to Delhi and Ambala ; glii and hides to Delhi ; oil and oilseeds 
come from the Punjab and the Doab ; timber from Ambala ; iron and 
piece-goods from Delhi j and salt from Bhiwani, Delhi, and Ambala. 
Karnal town and Panlpat on the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway are the 
chief marts, and a good deal of trade goes through Kaithal, which is 
on a branch of the Southern Punjab Railway. The local trade is prin- 
cipally conducted through the village dealers ; but a very considerable 
traffic is carried on by the cultivators themselves, especially by Jats 
from Rohtak, who in the hot season earn a good deal by plying their 
carts for hire. 

The Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway runs through the District side by 
side with the grand trunk road, and Kaithal is the terminus of a branch 
of the Southern Punjab Railway. The new main line and the Delhi 
and Hansi branches of the Western Jumna Canal are navigable, as is 
also the Jumna during the rains. The District has 145 miles of 
metalled roads, and 684 miles of unmetalled roads, of which 129 miles 
of metalled and 67 of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works 
department, the rest being maintained by the District board. Metalled 
roads connect Karnal town and Kaithal, Thanesar and Ladwa, and the 
grand trunk road traverses the District from north to south ; but the 
unmetalled roads are bad, especially in the Nardak, and in the flooded 
tract bordering on the Saraswati and Ghaggar the tracks are often 
impassable for weeks together during the rains. 

Including the chatisa famine of 1783, the District has been visited by 

famine thirteen times in 120 years, one of the most terrible perhaps 

being that of 18*3. Relief works seem first to have _ 

° °° ... Famine, 

been established in the famine of 1861, when 22,237 

persons were relieved in one month. In 1869 the famine was more 

severe in Karnal than in any other part of the Punjab, and hundreds 

of people were reduced to semi-starvation. The expenditure was 1-7 

lakhs, and the highest daily average of persons relieved was 13,934. 

Cattle to the number of 65,000 died. From 1875 to 1877 there was 

not a single good harvest, and, though the scarcity hardly deepened into 

famine, the cattle suffered terribly. There was another grass famine in 

1883-4. In 1896-7 the highest daily average relieved was 12,361, and 

the expenditure barely 2 lakhs. The areas affected were the Nardak 

tracts of Karnal and Kaithal and the Naili tract of Kaithal. In 

1 899-1 900 the Nardak in Karnal and part of that in Kaithal were 

protected by the Nardak irrigation channel, constructed as a relief 

work in 1897 ; the tracts affected were chiefly the Naili and bangar 

tracts of Kaithal and parts of Thanesar. The highest daily average 

relieved was 14,075, and the expenditure was 2-6 lakhs. 



J 



6 KARNAL DISTRICT 



The District is divided into the four tahsils of Karnal, Panipat, 
Thanesar, and Kaithal, each under a tahsildar and a naib-tahsllddr. 

Administration In the laSt ' the sub " /a ^ 7 of Gula is also in charge 
of a naib-tahsildar. The tahsll of Kaithal forms 
a subdivision. The Deputy-Commissioner holds executive charge of 
the District, aided by three Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioners, 
of whom one is subdivisional officer in charge of Kaithal and one in 
charge of the District treasury. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
the criminal justice of the District, and civil judicial work is under 
a District Judge. Both officers are supervised by the Divisional and 
Sessions Judge of the Delhi Civil Division. There is one Munsif, who 
sits at head-quarters. There are also six honorary magistrates. Cattle- 
stealing, the normal crime of the District, is now less prevalent than 
formerly, owing to the increase of cultivation made possible by the 
development of the canals. Formerly heads of families of respectable 
birth would demur to giving a daughter in marriage to a man who had 
not proved his ability to support a family by cattle-lifting. 

The tract which passed to the British in 1803, and formed part of 
the old Panipat District, was summarily assessed in the years 1817-24, 
with the exception of the estates assigned to the Mandal family in 
exchange for the lands they held in the United Provinces. In accord- 
ance with the spirit of the time, the summary settlement was 
oppressive, and the methods of assessment and collection were vexa- 
tious and extortionate ; a revision of assessments was necessitated by 
the famine of 1824, and by degrees a more reasonable system was 
evolved. The regular settlement, made in 1842, was both moderate 
and fairly distributed. In the khadar the assessment on the whole 
worked well ; in the hangar the deterioration of soil caused by the 
canal brought absolute ruin to many villages, and in 1859-60 large 
reductions of revenue were made and principles laid down for annual 
relief to be afforded when necessary. Meanwhile, in the Mandal 
estate, the assignees struggled to realize their revenue in kind from 
a lawless and independent Rajput peasantry till 1847, when their 
oppression and mismanagement necessitated the tract being brought 
under settlement. The assessment was revised in 1852 and again in 
1856. The revised settlement of 1872-80 comprised both these 
tracts; the revenue rate for irrigated land varied from Rs. 1-14 to 
Rs. 2-14, and for unirrigated land from 8 annas to Rs. 1-12 ; pasture 
was rated at 8 pies an acre ; and canal lands were assessed at ' dry ' 
rates varying from Rs. 1-5 to Rs. 1-13. 

The rest of the District, comprising the tahsils of Kaithal, Thanesar, 
and the Indri tract of Karnal, formed part of the territories of the 
Cis-Sutlej chiefs, who were taken under protection by the proclamation 



ADMINISTRA TION 



57 



of 1809. These territories as they escheated were summarily assessed. 
Thanesar and Indri were regularly settled in 1848-56 and Kaithal in 
1853-6. The whole of this portion of the District came under the 
Karnal-Ambala revision in 1882-9. The average assessment on ' dry' 
land is R. 0-14-3 (maximum Rs. 1-6, minimum R. 0-6-6), and on 
'wet' land Rs. 2-14 (maximum Rs. 3-12, minimum Rs. 2). The 
total demand for 1903-4, including cesses, was 12 lakhs. The average 
size of a holding cultivated by the owner is 5-3 acres. The whole 
District came under settlement in 1904, the present assessment 
expiring in 1908. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


190.5-4- 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


6,36 

7.65 


6,95 

8,88 


8,20 
12,68 


8,29 
'3,45 



The District contains six municipalities : Karnal, Panipat, Kai- 
thal, Shahabad, Thanesar, and Ladwa. Outside these, local affairs 
are managed by the District board, whose income amounted to nearly 
\\ lakhs in 1903-4. The expenditure in the same year was 1-2 lakhs, 
education forming the largest item. 

The regular police force consists of 683 of all ranks, including 
147 municipal police, under a Superintendent, assisted by 4 inspectors. 
Village watchmen number 1,540. The District contains 22 police 
stations, 1 outpost, and 5 road-posts. The Sansis, Balochs, and 
Tagas are proclaimed under the Criminal Tribes Act ; and 55 Sansis, 
447 Balochs, and 237 Tagas were registered in 1903 under the Act. 
The District jail at head-quarters has accommodation for 155 prisoners. 

Karnal is the most backward District in the Province in the matter 
of education, and in 1901 the proportion of literate persons was only 
2-4 per cent. (4*3 males and o-i females), as compared with 3-6 for 
the whole Province. The number of pupils under instruction was : 
1,961 in 1880-1, 2,242 in 1890-1, 5,902 in 1900-r, and 5,365 in 
1903-4. In the last year the District contained 9 secondary and 
90 primary (public) schools, besides 12 advanced and 62 elementary 
(private) schools, with 53 girls in the public and 72 in the private 
schools. The only high school is at Karnal. The indigenous Arabic 
school at Panipat, supported by the voluntary contributions of wealthy 
Muhammadans, is attended by about 50 boys, chiefly from the middle- 
class Muhammadan families of the town. The District has three 
primary schools for girls, and the ladies of the Karnal branch of the 
Zanana Mission teach women and children in the town. The total 



58 KARXAL DISTRICT 

expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 47,000, the greater part 
of which was met from Local funds, though Government contributed 
nearly Rs. 1,600, and fees brought in Rs. 10,000. 

Besides the Karnal civil hospital the District has 9 dispensaries, one 
at Karnal and 8 at out-stations, at which 117,370 out-patients and 
1,626 in-patients were treated in 1904, and 6,849 operations performed. 
The income and expenditure amounted to Rs. 21,000, Local and 
municipal funds contributing Rs. 11,000 and Rs. 9,000 respectively. 
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel also maintains a female 
hospital at Karnal. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 20,090) 
representing 23 per 1,000 of population. 

[A. Kensington, Customary laiv of Ambala District (1893) (for the 
Thanesar tahsil) \ J. M. Douie, District Gazetteer (1890), Settlement 
Report of Karnal -Ambala (1891), and Riwaj-i-am of Tahsil Kaithal 
and Pargana Indri, District Karnai '(1892) ; D. C. J. Ibbetson, Settle- 
ment Report of the Pdnlpat Tahsil and Karnal Pargana (1883).] 

Karnal Tahsil. — Central tahsil of Karnal District, Punjab, lying 
between 29 26' and 30 o' N. and 76 40' and 77 13' E., on the west 
bank of the Jumna, with an area of 838 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 248,544, compared with 241,369 in 1891. It contains 
the town of Karnal (population, 23,559), tne head-quarters; and 
380 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
3-2 lakhs. On the east lie the Jumna lowlands, fertile but unhealthy, 
and varying in width from 5 to 10 miles. The western boundary of 
this tract is the old high bank of the Jumna, and from the crest of this 
bank the country slopes imperceptibly away into the Nardak. The 
upland portion of the tahsil is irrigated by the Western Jumna Canal ; 
but in the Nardak the people have not entirely abandoned their pas- 
toral traditions, and still retain ample grazing -grounds for their cattle. 

Karnal Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of Karnal, 
Punjab, situated in 29 41' N. and 76 59' E., on the old bank of the 
Jumna, about 7 miles from the present course of that river, and on 
the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway ; distant 1,030 miles by rail from 
Calcutta, 1,056 from Bombay, and 895 from Karachi. Population 
(1901), 23,559. Its name is derived from Kama, the rival of Arjuna 
in the epic of the Mahabharata, by whom it is said to have been 
founded. It would seem to have been a place of little impor- 
tance in early historical times, as no mention of it occurs until 
towards the end of the Pathan period. Karnal was plundered 
in 1573 by Ibrahim Husain -Mirza in his revolt against Akbar, 
and its neighbourhood laid waste by Banda Bairagi in 1709. In 
1739 it was the scene of the defeat of Muhammad Shah by Nadir 
Shah. After the fall of Sirhind in 1 763 the town was seized by Gajpat 



KARNALI 59 

Singh, Raja of Jlnd, but in 1775 it was recovered by Najaf Khan, 
governor of Delhi. It again fell into the hands of Gajpat Singh, but 
his son Bhag Singh lost it to the Marathas in 1787, and it was sub- 
sequently made over by them to George Thomas. It then came into 
the hands of Gurdit Singh of Ladwa, from whom the British took it in 
1805. A cantonment was formed at Karnal, which was abandoned 
in 1 84 1 owing to the unheal thiness of the station. The place is still 
unhealthy, though drainage and sanitation have done much to improve 
its condition. There is a fine marble tomb, built by the emperor 
Ghiyas-ud-dln to the memory of the saint Bu-All Kalandar. The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has a mission at Karnal. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income and expenditure 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 32,500 and Rs. 32,100 
respectively. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 33,800, mainly derived 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 33,500. The chief manu- 
factures are country cloth for local consumption, and shoes. The 
principal educational institution is the Anglo-vernacular high school, 
managed by the Educational department. There is a civil hospital, 
with a branch in the town. The Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel also maintains a female hospital and dispensary. 

Karnala (or Funnel Hill). — Fort and hill in the Panvel talukd of 
Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 53 / N. and 73 7' E., a few 
miles north-west of the Vegavati river, and 8 miles south of Panvel : 
elevation 1,560 feet above sea-level. Population (190 1), 1,327. Karnala 
commands the high road between the Bor pass and the Panvel and 
Apta rivers. The hill has an upper and lower fort. In the centre of 
the upper fort is the ' funnel,' an almost inaccessible basalt pillar about 
125 feet high, locally known as the Pandu's tower. From the south- 
west of the hill can be seen the island-studded harbour of Bombay. 

The fort was often taken and retaken during the turbulent period 
of Indian history. Under the Muhammadans, Karnala was garrisoned 
to overawe the North Konkan. Troops from Ahmadnagar took it in 
1540. The Portuguese captured it soon after, but gave it up on 
receiving a ransom of Rs. 17,500 a year. SivajT, the Maratha leader, 
seized it in 1670, driving out the Mughals. On the death of SivajT, 
Karnala was recaptured by Aurangzeb's generals, and was held by the 
Mughals till at least 1735. Shortly afterwards it must have again 
come into the hands of the Marathas, for in 1740 the Peshwas power 
was established over the whole of the Deccan. In 181S the fort was 
captured, and passed into British possession, together with the whole 
remaining territory held by the Peshwa. It is now in ruins. 

Karnali. — River of Nepal and the United Provinces. See 
Kauriala. 

Karnali. — Village in the Baroda prant, llaroda State, situated in 

VOL. XV. E 



6o KARXALI 

2i° 59' N. and 73 28' E., on the right bank of the Narbada at its 
junction with the Orsarig river. Population (1901), 1,126. Thousands 
of pilgrims repair annually to this holy place in order to perform their 
ablutions in the Narbada. 

Karnaphuli. — River of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It rises in 
a lofty range of hills beyond the border of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, 
in 22 53' N. and 92 27' E., and, after following a generally south- 
westerly course of 121 miles, falls into the Bay of Bengal in 22 iV N. 
and 91 47' E., 12 miles below the town and port of Chittagong, which 
is situated on its right bank. As far up as Chittagong it is navigable 
by sea-going vessels, and by shallow-draught steamers as high as 
Rangamati, the head-quarters of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Large 
native boats go up as high as Kasalang, while small craft ply 14 miles 
farther up to the Barkal rapids. In the Hill Tracts it is known as the 
Kynsa Khyoung. The chief tributaries are the Kasalang, Chingri, 
Kaptai, and Rankhiang rivers in the Hill Tracts, and the Halda in 
Chittagong District ; the latter empties itself into the main river from 
the north, and is navigable by native boats for 24 miles throughout the 
year. Besides those already mentioned, the principal river-side villages 
are Chandraghona and Rangonia. The Karnaphuli is largely used for 
floating cotton and forest produce from the Hill Tracts to Chittagong. 
The approaches to the mouth are lit by lighthouses at Kutubdia and 
Norman's Point, and the channels are buoyed by the Port Com- 
missioners of Chittagong. 

Karnaprayag. — One of the five sacred confluences of the Alak- 
nanda, where this river is joined by the Pindar (see Pindari) in 
Garhwal District, United Provinces. The village is situated at a height 
of 2,300 feet above the sea, in 30 i6 / N. and 79 15' E. Population 
(1901), 243. It contains a number of temples and also a dispensary, 
and during the summer a police station. 

Kama Suvarna. — Ancient kingdom in Bengal, which lay west of 
the Bhaglrathi river, and comprised the modern Districts of Burdwan, 
Bankura, Western Murshidabad, and Hooghly. The best-known king 
was Sasanka or Narendra, the last of the Guptas, who was a fanatical 
worshipper of Siva. He invaded Magadha, and cut down the sacred 
bodhi tree, early in the seventh century. The capital of this kingdom 
was probably at Rangamati in Murshidabad District. 

Karnatak. — Tract in Peninsular India. See Carnatic. 

Karnul. — District, subdivision, and town in Madras. See Kurnool. 

Karol. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Karond. — Native State in Bengal. See Kalahandi. 

Karor. — Former name of the parga?ia and tahsll, now called 
Bareilly. See Bareilly Tahsil. 

Karor. — Town in Multan District, Punjab. See Kahror. 



KARUNGULI 61 

Karor Lai Isa (Kahror). — Town in the Leiah talistt of Mianwali 
District, Punjab, situated in 31 13' N. and 70 57" E., on the high 
bank of the Indus east of that river. Population (1901), 3,243. 
Founded by Makhdum Lai Isa, Kureshi, a descendant of Bah3wal 
Hakk, the saint of Multan, in the fifteenth century, the town still 
preserves the massive tomb of its founder, and a large fair is held 
yearly in his honour. It is first mentioned in history as included in 
the government of Multan under Sultan Husain in 1469. The muni- 
cipality was created in 1887. The income during the ten years ending 
1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,600, and the expenditure Rs. 3,900. The in- 
come in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,400, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 3,600. The town contains a dispensary, a muni- 
cipal board school (primary), a private Anglo-vernacular middle school, 
and two municipal girls' schools. 

Karsiang.— Subdivision and town in Darjeeling District, Bengal. 
See Kurseong. 

Kartarpur. — Town in the District and tahs'il of Jullundur, Punjab, 
situated in 31 26' N. and 75 30' E., on the North-Western Railway 
and grand trunk road, 9 miles from Jullundur town. Population (1901), 
10,840. Founded by Arjun, the fifth Sikh Guru, it is a place of great 
sanctity, as the seat of the line of Gurus descended from him, and as 
possessing his original Adi Granth or scripture. It was burnt by Ahmad 
Shah in 1756. Kartarpur is a flourishing grain mart, with a market 
outside octroi limits. Chairs, boxes, tables, and native flutes are made ; 
also cotton twill (susi). The cantonment established here after the first 
Sikh War was abolished in 1854. The municipality was created in 
1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 7,500, and the expenditure Rs. 6,900. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 7,300, mainly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 10,600. 
The town has an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the 
municipality, and a Government dispensary. 

Karunguli. — Village in the Madurantakam taluk of Chingleput Dis- 
trict, Madras, situated in 12 32' N. and 79 54' E., on the South Indian 
Railway and on the southern trunk road, 48 miles from Madras city. 
Population (1901), 4,065. It was the head-quarters of the District from 
1795 to 1825, and subsequently continued for some years to be the head- 
quarters of a taluk. Karunguli fort was occupied as a strategic point 
during the wars between the English and the French, being regarded 
as an outpost of Chingleput, from which it is 15 miles distant to the 
south-west. These two places, with Wandiwash and Uttaramerur, formed 
a sort of quadrilateral on the line of attack between the seats of the 
two Governments of Madras and Pondicherry. As early as 1755 it was 
a point of dispute. In 1757 it was evacuated by the English in the face 
of advancing French troops. The following year the English attempted 

K 2 



62 KARUNGUL1 

to recover it by surprise, but were repulsed with loss, a failure which 
was repeated in 1759. But some months later Colonel Coote, after 
a few days' bombardment, captured the fort. This was the first de- 
cisive action in the successful campaign of 1759-60, which led to the 
victory at YVandiwash. The circumference of the fort is 1,500 yards, 
enclosing the remains of what were apparently huge granaries for the 
storage of grain, the tribute to the Muhammadan government out of 
the produce of the neighbourhood. The Karunguli tank, which is fed 
from the overflow of the Madurantakam tank, usually receives a plenti- 
ful supply of water. A travellers' bungalow stands in the village, a 
handsome old building in a grove of fine mango-trees. 

Karur Taluk. — South-eastern taluk of Coimbatore District, Madras, 
lying between io° 38' and n° 6' N. and 77 45' and 78 14' E., with 
an area of 612 square miles. It is an open and undulating plain, 
with no hills or forests of note, bounded on the north by the Cauvery 
river and traversed by the Amaravati. It is poorly wooded and suffers 
from an unusually trying hot season. It has one town, the municipality 
of Karur (population, 12,769), the head-quarters; and 95 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 220,843, compared with 211,794 in 1891, 
the increase having been slower than elsewhere in the District. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,49,000. 
The soil is mostly of an inferior red or grey variety, and is generally 
lightly assessed. The area irrigated by channels is larger than in any 
taluk except Satyamangalam. These lead from the Amaravati and the 
Cauvery, and this is the first taluk in the Presidency in which the water 
of the latter is used to any considerable extent. The rainfall (averaging 
26 inches annually) is fairly plentiful and regular, and the crops are 
generally good. Cambu is by far the most common cereal. 

Karur Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in io° 58' N. and 78 6' E., on 
the South Indian Railway, 48 miles from Trichinopoly, and on the 
Amaravati river not far from its junction with the Cauvery. Population 
(1901), 12,769. The town is called Tiruvanilai or Pasupati ('the place 
of the sacred cow') in vernacular writings. The name Karur means 
' embryo town,' and is said to have been given because Brahma began 
his work of creation here. For the same reason it is often called 
Brahmapurl in legendary records. It was apparently a place of some 
importance as far back as the early centuries of the Christian era, for 
coins of the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius were found 
near by in 1806. Situated near the point where the territories of the 
rival Chera, Chola, and Pandya dynasties met, it probably played a 
part in their ancient struggles. On the dissolution of the Vijayanagar 
empire in 1565, Karur fell under the Naiks of Madura; but it was 
frequently attacked and occupied by the Mysore armies, and towards 



KARVAX 63 

the end of the seventeenth century it was finally annexed to the latter 
kingdom and became its most important frontier post. In 1639 the 
Jesuits established a mission here. In later years the place constantly 
changed hands. In 1736 Chanda Sahib besieged it unsuccessfully. 
In 1760 it was captured by the British, in revenge for the assistance 
given by Haidar to the French. Orme describes the siege in detail. 
Karur was held by them till 1768, when it was retaken by Haidar, 
whose possession was confirmed by treaty in the following year. In 
1783 Colonel Lang took and held the fort for a few months. There 
is a monument on the south bank of the river to the British troops who 
fell in this siege. It was a third time captured in 1790 by General 
Medows, and restored at the peace of 1792. It was garrisoned by the 
Company as a military station until 1801, and portions of the old fort 
still remain. 

Karur was formerly the head-quarters of the Sub-Collector. Besides 
the tahsi/dar, a District Munsif and a stationary sub-magistrate are now 
stationed here. Being on the railway and at the junction of several 
roads, it possesses a considerable trade. Its chief drawback is its 
crowded site, which is surrounded entirely by rice-fields and the river. 
The only industry worth mention is the manufacture of brassware on 
a small scale. There are, however, two tanneries in the neighbourhood. 
The principal temple is a considerable edifice of some antiquity, 
containing numerous inscriptions on stone. 

Karur was constituted a municipality in 1874. During the ten years 
ending 1903 the annual income and expenditure averaged about 
Rs. 20,000. In 1903-4 the receipts and expenditure were Rs. 29,000 
and 28,000 respectively, the former being chiefly derived from school 
fees, the house and land taxes, and tolls. It is a station of the 
Wesleyan Mission, which maintains two industrial schools here, one 
for boys and the other for girls. A drainage scheme estimated to cost 
Rs. 95,850 has been framed for this municipality ; but its execution 
has been postponed pending the introduction of a proper water-supply, 
plans for which are still under preparation. 

Karvan. — Village in the Baroda prant, Baroda State, situated in 
22 5' N. and 73 15' E., with a station on the Dabhoi-Mivagam State 
Railway. In olden times it was probably very important as a place 
of pilgrimage. The local tradition is that the sage Vishvanritra, in 
consequence of a dispute with Vasishta, desired to create another 
Benares in this village. He therefore fashioned a thousand tingams 
and then wrestled to bring the Ganges here, till Vishnu was weary 
of his importunities. The god was forced to make himself visible to 
the saint, who then ceased from vexing him, and in return Vishnu 
promised that the village should be as holy as Benares. Many temples, 
some old, some in ruins, are to be seen at this sacred spot. 



64 KARVETNAGAR ZAMINDARI 

Karvetnagar Zamindari. — Ancient zamindari in the north-east 
of North Arcot District, Madras, lying between 13 2' and 13 35' N. 
and 79 14'' and 79 49' E. Area, 943 square miles ; number of 
villages, 667; population (1901), 341,240. It is held on permanent 
tenure under a sanad (grant) issued by the British Government in 1802. 
The whole of the zamindari is hilly except the south-east ; penetrating 
the hills run numerous picturesque ravines or konas, which are well 
wooded and fairly stocked with game. One of the most charming 
of these is the Sadasiva ko/ia, about 10 miles north-east of the Puttur 
station on the Madras Railway. Here a perennial stream flows east- 
wards by a succession of cascades, by the sides of which tree-ferns and 
other species of water-loving plants grow in profusion. The principal 
streams which drain the zamindari are named after the towns of 
Narayanavanam, Nagari, and Tiruttani, by which they flow. They 
are dry except during the rains, but have excellent underground 
springs, the water of which is tapped by means of channels and 
irrigates considerable areas on both banks. The soil of the estate 
is fertile ; but much of it is covered with hill and jungle, and three- 
fourths of the area is uncultivable, only about 130,000 acres being 
under the plough. Indigo is still largely cultivated, but of late years 
the market for the dye has been depressed owing to the competition 
of its new chemical rival. From the forests of the zamindari much 
fuel is exported to Madras by rail. The total peshkash (or permanent 
revenue paid to Government) is 1-7 lakhs, and the cesses in 1903-4 
were an additional Rs. 50,000. The gross income of the whole 
estate averages between 6 and 7 lakhs, but it is heavily encumbered. 
Some of the villages have been sold in satisfaction of decrees of the 
Civil Courts and now form separate properties ; and the estate is so 
involved in debt that it was taken under the management of the Court 
of Wards for a time. It has now been handed back to the proprietor. 
Karvetnagar, 7 miles from Puttur railway station, is the chief town and 
the residence of the zaminddr, who has the hereditary title of Raja. 
Puttur, Narayanavanam, Nagari, and Tiruttani are other important 
places. 

Karwar Taluka. — North-westernmost tdluka of North Kanara 
District, Bombay, lying between 14 44' and 15 4' N. and 74 4' and 
74 32' E., with an area of 281 square miles. It contains one town, 
Karwar (population, 16,847), the tdluka and District head-quarters; 
and 54 villages. The population in 1901 was 58,460, compared with 
53,278 in 1891. The density, 208 persons per square mile, is much 
above the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was 1-09 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 7,000. The KalinadI flows from 
east to west through the centre, and as it enters the sea throws up 
a bar of sand impassable to any but small craft. Along both banks 



KARWAR TOWN 65 

of the river broad belts uf rice land, broken by groves of palms and 
other fruit trees, stretch east to near the Western Ghats. The soil 
on the plains is sandy, and near the hills is much mixed with granite. 
On the banks of the Kalinadi, and along the seashore, are large tracts 
covered with a black alluvial deposit, charged with salt and liable to 
be flooded at high tides. To bring such land under tillage, a strong 
and costly wall must be built to keep out the sea. A heavy rainfall 
is required to sweeten the land, and then, without much manure and 
with due care, rich crops can be raised. Throughout the taluka the 
houses are not gathered into villages, but are scattered along narrow 
lanes, standing in shady coco-palm gardens, some tiled and some 
thatched, each with its well, bathing-place, and cattle-shed. The annual 
rainfall is heavy, amounting at Karwar town to nearly no inches. 

Karwar Town (Kadvdd). — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name and of North Kanara District, Bombay, situated in 14 49' N. 
and 74 8' E., 50 miles south-east of Goa and 295 miles south-east 
of Bombay. Population (1901), 16,847, including suburbs. The 
municipality, established in 1864, had an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 12,000. 

Old Karwar, on the banks of the Kalinadi, 3 miles to the east of 
the new town, was once an important place of commerce. It is first 
mentioned in 15 10 as Caribal, on the opposite side of the river to 
Cintacora or Chitakul. During the first half of the seventeenth century 
the Karwar revenue superintendent, or desai, was one of the chief 
officers of the Bijapur kingdom, of which it formed a part. In 1638 
the fame of the pepper of Sonda induced Sir William Courten's 
Company to open a factory at Karwar. In 1660 the factory was 
prosperous, exporting the finest muslins in Western India j the weaving 
country was inland to the east, at Hubli and other centres, where as 
many as 50,000 weavers were employed. Besides the great export of 
muslin, Karwar provided pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and coarse blue 
cotton cloth (diaigan). In 1665 SivajT, the founder of the Maratha 
power, exacted a contribution of Rs. 1,120 from the English. In 1673 
the faujddr, or military governor of Karwar, laid siege to the factory. 
In 1674 Sivaji burnt Karwar town; but the English were treated civilly, 
and no harm was done to the factory. In 1676 the factory suffered 
from the exactions of local chiefs, and the establishment was withdrawn 
in 1679. It was restored in 1682 on a larger scale than before. In 
1684 the English were nearly driven out of Karwar, the crew of a small 
vessel having stolen and killed a cow. In 1685 the Portuguese stirred 
the desais of Karwar and Sonda to revolt. During the last ten years of 
the seventeenth century the Dutch made every attempt to depress the 
English pepper trade; and in 1697 the Marathas laid Karwar waste. 



66 KARWAR TOWX 

In i 715 the old fort of Karwar was pulled down, and Sadashivgarh was 
built by the Sonda chief. The new fort seriously interfered with the 
safety of the English factory ; and owing to the hostility of the Sonda 
chief, the factory was removed in 1720. The English, in spite of their 
efforts to regain the favour of the Sonda chiefs, were unable to obtain 
leave to reopen their factory at Karwar till 1750. The Portuguese 
in 1752 sent a fleet and took possession of Sadashivgarh. As the 
Portuguese claimed the monopoly of the Karwar trade, and were in 
a position to enforce their claim, the English agent was withdrawn. 
In 1 80 1 Old Karwar was in ruins. Very few traces of it remain. 

The new town dates from after the transfer of North Kanara District 
to the Bombay Presidency, before which it was a mere fishing village. 
The present town and neighbouring offices and residences are in the 
lands of six villages, and within the municipal limits of the town are 
nine villages. A proposal was strenuously urged in Bombay to connect 
Karwar by a railway with the interior, so as to provide a seaport for the 
southern cotton Districts. Between 1867 and 1874 the hope that 
a railway from Karwar to Hubli would be sanctioned raised the value 
of building sites at Karwar, and led to the construction of many ware- 
houses and dwellings. The scheme was finally abandoned in favour 
of the line through Portuguese territory to Marmagao. The trade of 
Karwar has markedly decreased since the opening of this railway. 

Karwar is the only safe harbour between Bombay and Cochin during 
all seasons of the year. In the bay is a cluster of islets called the 
Oyster Rocks, on the largest of which, Devgad island, a lighthouse 
has been built. There are two smaller islands in the bay (138 and 
t 20 feet above the level of the sea), which afford good shelter to native 
craft and small vessels during the strong north-west winds that prevail 
from February to April. From the Karwar port-office, on a white 
flagstaff, 60 feet from the ground and 65 feet above high water, is 
displayed a red fixed ship's light, visible three miles ; with the light 
bearing east-south-east a vessel can anchor in 3 to 5 fathoms. About 
5 miles south-west and 2 miles from the mainland, the island of 
Anjidiv rises steep from the sea, dotted with trees and the houses 
of its small Portuguese settlement. Coasting steamers belonging to 
the Bombay Steam Navigation Company call twice a week at Karwar 
throughout the fair-weather season. These steamers generally make 
the trip between Karwar and Bombay in thirty-six hours. The value 
of the trade at Karwar port during the year 1903-4 is returned as 
follows : imports 3-34 lakhs and exports Rs. 82,000. Karwar bay is 
remarkable for its beautiful scenery. It possesses a fine grove of 
casuarinas, beneath which the sea breaks picturesquely on the long 
stretch of white sand, from the mouth of the KallnadI to the sheltered 
inlet of Baitkal cove. Besides the chief revenue and judicial offices, 



KARWI TOWN 67 

the town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a jail, a hospital, a high 
school with 237 pupils, 2 middle schools, and 8 other schools. 

Karwl Subdivision. — Subdivision of Banda District, United Pro- 
vinces, consisting of the Kamasin, KarwI, and Mau tahsils. 

Karwi Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil of Banda District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of Tarahuwan, lying between 
24° 53' and 25 19/ N. and 8o° 45' and 8i° 16' E., with an area of 567 
square miles. Population fell from 87,687 in 1891 to 78,410 in 1901. 
There are 189 villages and two towns, including Karwi, the tahsil 
head-quarters (population, 7,743). The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 77,000, and for cesses Rs. 15,000. The density of 
population, 138 persons per square mile, is the lowest in the District. 
Roughly speaking, about half the tahsll lies in the plain, while the 
other half is situated on a plateau between the crest of the first range 
of the Vindhyas and the scarp beyond which extends to the still higher 
plateau of Rewah. The latter portion presents beautiful scenery and is 
clothed with forest. Near the west the PaisunI river forms part of the 
border and then strikes across the tahsil. In 1903-4 the area under 
cultivation was 126 square miles, of which only 3 were irrigated. 

Karwi Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the 
same name, in Banda District, United Provinces, situated in 25 12' X. 
and 8o° 54' E., near the PaisunI river and on a branch of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 7,743. Karwi was 
a British cantonment from 1805 to 18 16 : and in 1829 it became the 
principal residence of a Maratha chieftain who lived in almost regal 
state, and built several beautiful temples and large wells. Numerous 
traders from the Deccan were thus attracted to Karwi. During the 
Mutiny, Narayan Rao, after the murder at Banda of the Joint-Magis- 
trate of Karwi, assumed the government, and retained his independence 
for eight months amid the subsequent anarchy. The accumulations of 
his family constituted the great treasure afterwards famous as 'the 
Kirwee and Banda Prize Money.' The Bara, a large building which 
formed the palace of Narayan Rao's family, was confiscated, with most 
of the other property, and now serves as a tahsili, police station, and 
school. The other public buildings are a jail and dispensary. A Joint- 
Magistrate and an Assistant District Superintendent of police are 
stationed at Karwi, which also contains branches of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel and the American Methodist Mission. 
The town is administered, together with the adjacent village of 
Tarahuwan, under Act XX of 1856. Karwi declined for a time after 
the Mutiny; but the railway, opened in 1899, has caused it to become 
the most important trade centre in the District. Cotton, grain, ghi, 
and other produce are largely exported. A cotton-gin, opened in 1900, 
employed 1S0 hands in 1903, and there is a small manufacture o! 



68 KARWI TOWN 

embroidered plush. There are three schools, with 170 boys and 
25 girls. 

Kasalpura. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay. 

Kasaragod Taluk. — Southernmost taluk of South Kanara Dis- 
trict, Madras, lying between 12° 7' and 12 57' N. and 74 52' and 75? 
26' E., with an area of 762 square miles. It contains 114 villages. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2.42,000. The population in 1901 was 231,280, compared with 
210,323 in 1 89 1, showing an increase of 10 per cent. Much of the 
surface consists of a bare treeless plateau ; but the valleys are deep, 
well-watered, and very fertile, and, especially in the northern half of the 
taluk, admirably adapted for areca cultivation. The chief products are 
rice, coco-nuts, and areca-nuts. In the coast villages in the south a 
considerable amount of tobacco is raised by the Mappilla cultivators. 
In eighteen survey villages adjoining Coorg and Malabar the shifting 
system of cultivation known as kumri is still carried on, the crop being 
usually a mixed one of hill rice, pulse, and cotton. The jungle on 
selected spaces on the hill slopes is cut down, usually in December, 
and burned when dry three or four months later. The seed is sown 
in the ashes, sometimes without ploughing, when the rains come, and 
in good years fine crops are secured with little further trouble. .V 
catch-crop is sometimes raised the following season ; and the spot 
is then abandoned for a period of from seven to ten years till there 
is sufficient fresh growth, when the process is repeated. 

Kasarghat. — Pass in Thana District, Bombay. See Thalghat. 

Kasauli. — Hill station and cantonment in the Punjab, situated in 
3°° 53' N. and 76 58' E., entirely surrounded by Native States, but 
attached for administrative purposes to the Kharar tahsll of Ambala 
District. It stands on the summit of the long ridge overlooking Kalka, 
at an elevation of 6,335 feet above the sea, and nearly 4,000 feet above 
Kalka, from which it is distant about 9 miles. Population (1901), 2,192. 
Kasauli was founded in 1842 as a military station, and now serves as 
a convalescent depot. It has during the summer months a considerable 
civil population, for whose accommodation hotels have been built. 
Owing, however, to its nearness to the plains, it is the least attractive 
in climate of the Punjab hill stations. The management of the station 
is in the hands of a Cantonment Magistrate assisted by a cantonment 
committee ; the Cantonment Magistrate proceeds on tour for ten days 
in each month of the hot season, and is relieved of the charge of the 
treasury by the Assistant Commissioner in charge of the Rupar sub- 
division. The Deputy-Commissioner of Ambala also resides at Kasauli 
during part of the hot season. There is an Anglo-vernacular middle 
school. The Lawrence Military Asylum at Sanawar is 3 miles away, 
in a portion of territory attached to Simla District. The income and 



KASGAXJ TAHSlL 69 

expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 13,000. 

The Pasteur Institute at Kasauli was established in 1901 for the 
treatment of persons bitten by rabid animals, and now treats patients 
from all parts of Northern India. In 1906 a central Research Institute 
was founded, which will provide means for the scientific study of the 
etiology and nature of disease in India, in addition to the preparation 
of curative sera for the diseases of man and the training of scientific 
workers. The institution is in charge of a Director, with a staff of 
assistants. Kasauli is also the head-quarters of the Punjab Nursing 
Association, and contains a dispensary. There is a brewery in the 
neighbourhood. 

Kasba. — Old name of J essore Town, Bengal. 

Kasba. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea District, 
Bengal, situated in 25° 51/ N. and 87 32' E., on the road from Purnea 
town to Araria, about 9 miles from the former. Population (1901), 
7,600. Kasba, which lies on the Eastern Bengal State Railway, is the 
chief centre of the rice trade in Purnea District, the paddy being col- 
lected from the north of the District and the submontane portions of 
Darjeeling for export to Calcutta. It has also become a large centre 
of the jute trade, the annual sales amounting to over 1 o lakhs ; and 
a European firm has an agency there. 

Kasegaon. — Village in the Valva taluka of Satara District, Bombay, 
situated in 17 8' N. and 74 14' E., close to the Satara-Kolhapur road, 
1 1 miles south of Karad and 4 miles north of Peth. Population (1901), 
5,482. This is one of the most thriving places in the taluka. It is 
inhabited by well-to-do merchants, who traffic with the coast in local 
produce, chiefly tobacco, pepper, and sugar-cane. The inhabitants 
have an unenviable character for crime and litigiousness— mischief 
to crops, cattle poisoning, and arson having been very frequent for 
many years. 

Kasganj Tahsil.— Northern tahsil of Etah District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the parganas of Ulai, Bilram, Pachlana, Soron, 
Sidhpura, Sahawar-Karsana, and Faizpur-Badaria, and lying between 
27 33' and 28 2' N. and 78 29' and 7S 59' E., with an area of 492 
square miles. Population increased from 191,625 in 1891 to 265.216 
in 1 90 1. There are 468 villages and six towns, the largest of which are 
Kasganj (population, 19,686), the tahsil head-quarters, Soron (12,175), 
and Sahawar (5,079). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 2,91,000, and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The new settlement will raise 
the demand for revenue to Rs. 3,26,000,, and for cesses to Rs. 53.000. 
The density of population, 539 persons per square mile, is above the 
District average. Population increased by nearly 2S per cent, between 
1891 and 1900, a higher rate of increase than in any other tahsil in the 



7 o KASGANJ TAHSlL 

United Provinces. The tahsll is bounded on the north-east by the 
Ganges and on the south-west by the Kali Nadl. It thus lies entirely 
in the tarai and in the central dodb, which are the most precarious 
tracts in the District. Heavy rain in 1884-6 led to extensive water- 
logging, and the land which fell out of cultivation was overgrown with 
kans (Saccharum spontaneum). Extensive reductions of revenue were 
made, and, to prevent further deterioration, the drainage was improved. 
The Biirhiganga, which lies below the old high bank on the southern 
edge of the tarai, has been deepened and straightened. In 1898-9 the 
area under cultivation was 347 square miles, of which 108 were irrigated. 
The tarai is so moist that irrigation is not usually required, and the 
upland area is served by the Lower Ganges Canal and its Fatehgarh 
branch. Wells supply about half the irrigated area. 

Kasganj Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Etah District, United Provinces, situated in 27 48' N. and 78 39' E., 
on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, and also on the road from Muttra 
to Bareilly. A short branch railway connects Kasganj with Soron near 
the Ganges, and an extension to Bareilly is under construction. This 
is the chief trade centre of the District, and population is increasing : 
(1891) 16,050, (1901) 19,686. The town is said to have been founded 
by Yakut Khan, a eunuch in the service of Muhammad Khan, Nawab 
of Farrukhabad. It afterwards came into the hands of Colonel James 
Gardner, who was in the employ of the Marathas, and later in British 
service. He raised a regiment, now known as Gardner's Horse, and 
acquired a large property which was dissipated by his descendants. 
Part of the property fell into the hands of Dilsukh Rai, once an agent 
to the Gardner family, and one of his descendants has built a magnifi- 
cent residence near the town. Kasganj stands on an elevated site, its 
drainage flowing towards the Kali Nadl, which runs about a mile south- 
east of the town. A new drainage scheme has recently been completed. 
The town contains two fine bazars crossing each other at right angles. 
At the junction a fine octagonal building, consisting of shops, forms 
a suitable centre to the town. The chief public buildings are the town 
hall, dispensary, tahsill, and munsifi. There are also branches of the 
Church Missionary Society and the American Methodist Mission. 
Close to the railway station is a considerable colony of railway employes. 
The town was constituted a municipality in 1868. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 15,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 16,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 23,000. Kasganj is 
becoming an important centre for the collection and distribution of 
country produce, especially grain, sugar, and cotton. Sugar-refining 
is a growing industry, and there were two cotton-gins and a cotton- 
press which employed 788 hands in 1903, while another ginning 



KASHMIR AND JAMMV 71 

factory was opened in 1904. The town school has about 190 pupils, 
and 16 other schools aided by the municipality have 420 pupils. 

Kashipur Tahsil. — South-western tahsll and subdivision of NainI 
Tal District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the 
same name, lying between 29 7' and 29 22' N. and 78 43' and 79° 4' 
E., with an area of 189 square miles. Population fell from 73,168 in 
1891 to 55,632 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the highest in the 
District. There are 147 villages and two towns : Kashipur (popula- 
tion, 12,023), the fa hsil head-quarters, and Jaspur (6,480). The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 90,000, and for cesses Rs. 11,000. 
The density of population, 294 persons per square mile, is also the 
highest in the District. The tahsll resembles the adjoining parts of 
Rohilkhand. It lies entirely in the plains, and is not so damp as the 
Tarai. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 69 square miles, of 
which 10 were irrigated, almost entirely from canals. 

Kashipur Town. — Head-quarters of the Kashipur tahs'u of 
NainI Tal District, United Provinces, situated in 29 13' N. and 78° 58' 
E., on a road from Moradabad : a railway from the same place has been 
projected. Population (1901), 12,023. Near the town are extensive 
ruins of forts and temples, which were identified by General Cunning- 
ham with the capital of the kingdom of Govisana, visited by the Chinese 
pilgrim in the seventh century. There are several tanks in the neigh- 
bourhood, one of which is called after Drona, the tutor of the Pandava 
brothers. A brick inscribed in characters of the third or fourth century 
a. D. was recently found here. The modern town is named after its 
founder, KashI Nath, the governor of the pargana in the sixteenth or 
seventeenth century. In the latter half of the eighteenth century Nand 
Ram, the governor, became practically independent of the Chand Raja 
of Almora ; and his nephew, Shib Lai, was in possession at the date of 
the cession to the British in 1801. Kashipur contains a fair-sized bazar 
with brick-built houses ; but outside of this the houses are chiefly of 
mud. The largest building is the residence of the Raja, who is 
descended from an illegitimate branch of the Chand Rajas of Almora. 
Besides the usual courts there is a dispensary. Kashipur has been 
a municipality since 1872. During the ten years ending 1901 the in- 
come and expenditure averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 14,000, chiefly from tolls (Rs. 5,000) and a tax on circumstances 
and property (Rs. 3,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 12,000. There 
is a flourishing trade in cloth, metal vessels, and hill produce. The 
municipality supports a school with 75 pupils. 

Kashkar.— Capital of Chitral State, North-West Frontier Province. 
See Chitral. 

Kashmir and Jammu. — The territories of the Maharaja of 
Kashmir and Jammu may be roughly described in the words of the 



72 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

treaty of March 16, 1S46, as 'situated to the eastward of the river 
Indus and westward of the river Ravi.' This country, known to the 
English as Kashmir and to the Indians as Jammu, covers an area of 
80,900 square miles, extending from 32 17' to 36 58' N. and from 
73 26' to 8o° 30' E. It may be likened to a house with many storeys. 

The door is at Jammu, and the house faces south, 
aspects looking out on the Punjab Districts of Jhelum, 

Gujrat, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. There is just a 
fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth 
of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is 
known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. Then 
comes the first storey, to reach which a range of mountains, 8,000 feet 
high, must be climbed. This is a temperate country with forests of 
oak, rhododendron, and chestnut, and higher up of deodar and pine, 
a country of beautiful uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, 
drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the 
Himalayan range known as the Pir Panjal lead to the second storey, 
on which rests the exquisite valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum 
river. Up steeper flights of the Himalayas we pass to Astor and 
Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by 
the river Indus. In the back premises, far away to the north-west, 
lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus, the whole area shadowed by 
a wall of giant mountains which run east from the Kilik or Mintaka 
passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese 
dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 feet), along the Muztagh range past 
K 2 (Godwin Austen, 28,265 feet\ Gasherbrum and Masherbrum 
(28,100 and 25,660 feet respectively) to the Karakoram range which 
merges in the Kuenlun mountains. "Westward of the northern angle 
above Hunza-Nagar the mighty maze of mountains and glaciers trends 
a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral, 
and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory. 

At the Karakoram pass (18,317 feet) the wall zigzags, and to the 
north-east of the State is a high corner bastion of mountain plains at 
an elevation of over 17,000 feet, with salt lakes dotted about. Little 
is known of that bastion ; and the administration of Jammu and 
Kashmir has but scanty information about the eastern wall of the 
property, which is formed of mountains of an elevation of about 
20,000 feet, and crosses lakes, like Pangkong, lying at a height of 
nearly 14,000 feet. The southern boundary repeats the same 
features — grand mountains running to peaks of over 20,000 feet ; but 
farther west, where the wall dips down more rapidly to the south, the 
elevation is easier, and we come to Bhadarwah (5,427 feet) and to 
the still easier heights of Basoli (2,170 feet) on the Ravi river. From 
Madhopur, the head-works of the Bari Doab Canal, the Ravi river 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 73 

ceases to be the boundary, and a line crossing the Ujh river and the 
watershed of the low Dogra hills runs fairly straight to Jammu. A 
similar line, marked by a double row of trees, runs west from Jammu 
to the Jhelum river. From the south-west corner of the territories the 
Jhelum river forms an almost straight boundary on the west as far as 
its junction with the Kunhar river, 14 miles north of Kohala. At that 
point the western boundary leaves the river and clings to the moun- 
tains, running in a fairly regular line to the grand snow scarp of Nanga 
Parbat (26,182 feet). Thence it runs almost due north to the crossing 
of the Indus at Ramghat under the Hattu Pir, then north-west, sweep- 
ing in Punial, Yasin, Ghizar, and Koh, the Mehtarjaos or chiefs of 
which claim the Tangir and Darel country, and linking on to the Hindu 
Kush and Muztagh ranges which look north to Chinese territory and 
south to Hunza-Nagar and Gilgit. 

It is said of the first Maharaja Gulab Singh, the builder of the edifice 
just described, that when he surveyed his new purchase, the valley of 
Kashmir, he grumbled and remarked that one-third of the country was 
mountains, one-third water, and the remainder alienated to privileged 
persons. Speaking of the whole of his dominions, he might without 
exaggeration have described them as nothing but mountains. There 
are valleys, and occasional oases in the deep canons of the mighty 
rivers ; but mountain is the predominating feature and has strongly 
affected the history, habits, and agriculture of the people. Journeying 
along the haphazard paths which skirt the river banks, till the sheer 
cliff bars the way and the track is forced thousands of feet over the 
mountain-top, one feels like a child wandering in the narrow and 
tortuous alleys which surround some old cathedral in England. 

It is impossible within the limit of this article to deal in detail with 
the nooks and corners where men live their hard lives and raise their 
poor crops in the face of extraordinary difficulties. There are interest- 
ing tracts like Padar on the southern border, surrounded by perpetual 
snow, where the edible pine and the deodar flourish, and where the 
sunshine is scanty and the snow lies long. It was in Padar that were 
found the valuable sapphires, pronounced by experts the finest in the 
world. Farther east across the glaciers lies the inaccessible country of 
Zaskar, said to be rich in copper, where the people and cattle live 
indoors for six months out of the year, where trees are scarce and food 
is scarcer. Zaskar has a fine breed of ponies. Farther east is the 
lofty Rupshu, the lowest point of which is 13,500 feet ; and even at 
this great height barley ripens, though it often fails in the higher places 
owing to early snowfall. In Rupshu live the nomad Champas, who 
are able to work in an air of extraordinary rarity, and complain bitterly 
of the heat of Leh (11,500 feet). 

Everywhere on the mass of mountains are places worthy of mention. 



74 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

but the reader will gain a better idea of the country if he follows one 
or more of the better-known routes. A typical route will be that along 
which the troops sometimes march from Jammu, the winter capital, past 
the Summer Palace at Srlnagar in Kashmir to the distant outpost at 
Gilgit. The traveller will leave the railway terminus on the south bank 
of the Tawi, the picturesque river on which Jammu is built. From 
Jammu (1,200 feet) the road rises gently to Dansal (1,840 feet), passing 
through a stony country of low hills covered with acacias, then over 
steeper hills of grey sandstone where vegetation is very scarce, over 
the Laru Lari pass (8,200 feet), dropping down again to 5,150 feet and 
lower still to Ramban (2,535 feet), where the Chenab river is crossed, 
then steadily up till the Banihal pass (9,230 feet) is gained and the 
valley of Kashmir lies below. 

So far the country has been broken, and the track devious, with 
interminable ridges, and for the most part, if we except the vale of the 
Bichlari, the pine woods of Chineni, and the slopes between Ramban 
and Deogol (Banihal), a mere series of flat uninteresting valleys, 
unrelieved by forests. It is a pleasure to pass from the scenery of the 
outer hills into the green fertile valley of Kashmir— the emerald set in 
pearls. The valley is surrounded by mountain ranges which rise to 
a height of 18,000 feet on the north-east, and until the end of May 
and sometimes by the beginning of October there is a continuous ring 
of snow around the oval plain. Leaving the Banihal pass — and no 
experienced traveller cares to linger on that uncertain home of the 
winds — the track rapidly descends to Vernag (6,000 feet), where a 
noble spring of deep-blue water issues from the base of a high scarp. 
This spring may be regarded as the source of Kashmir's great river 
and waterway, commonly known as the Jhelum, the Hydaspes of the 
ancients, the Vitasta in Sanskrit, and spoken of by the Kashmiris as 
the Veth. Fifteen miles north the rive/ becomes navigable; and the 
traveller, after a march of no miles, embarks at Khanabal in a flat-bot- 
tomed boat and drops gently down to Srlnagar, the capital of Kashmir. 

Looking at a map of Kashmir, one sees a white footprint set in 
a mass of black mountains. This is the celebrated valley, perched 
securely among the Himalayas at an average height of 6,000 feet above 
the sea. It is approximately 84 miles in length and 20 to 25 miles in 
breadth. North, east, and west, range after range of mountains guard 
the valley from the outer world, while in the south it is cut off from 
the Punjab by rocky barriers, 50 to 75 miles in width. The mountain 
snows feed the river and the streams, and it is calculated that the 
Jhelum in its course through the valley has a catchment area of nearly 
4,000 square miles. The mountains which surround Kashmir are 
infinitely varied in form and colour. To the north lies a veritable 
sea of mountains broken into white-crested waves, hastening away in 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 75 

wild confusion to the great promontory of Nanga Parbat (26,182 feet). 
To the east stands Haramukh (16,903 feet), the grim mountain which 
guards the valley of the Sind. Farther south is Mahadeo, very sacred 
to the Hindus, which seems almost to look down upon Srlnagar ; and 
south again are the lofty range of Gwash Brari (17,800 feet), and Ihe 
peak of Amarnath (17,321 feet), the mountain of the pilgrims and very 
beautiful in the evening sun. On the south-west is the Panjal range 
with peaks of 15,000 feet, over which the old imperial road of the 
Mughals passes; farther north the great rolling downs of the Tosh 
Maidan (14,000 feet), over which men travel to the Punch country ; 
and in the north-west corner rises the Kajinag (12,125 feet), the home 
of the markhor. 

On the west, and wherever the mountain-sides are sheltered from 
the hot breezes of the Punjab plains, which blow across the intervening 
mountains, there are grand forests of pines and firs. Down the tree- 
clad slopes dash mountain streams white with foam, passing in their 
course through pools of the purest cobalt. "When the great dark 
forests cease and the brighter woodland begins, the banks of the 
streams are ablaze with clematis, honeysuckle, jasmine, and wild roses 
which remind one of azaleas. The green smooth turf of the woodland 
glades is like a well-kept lawn, dotted with clumps of hawthorn and 
other beautiful trees and bushes. It would be difficult to describe the 
colours that are seen on the Kashmir mountains. In early morning 
they are often a delicate semi-transparent violet relieved against a 
saffron sky, and with light vapours clinging round their crests. The 
rising sun deepens the shadows, and produces sharp outlines and 
strong passages of purple and indigo in the deep ravines. Later on 
it is nearly all blue and lavender, with white snow peaks and ridges 
under a vertical sun ; and as the afternoon wears on these become 
richer violet and pale bronze, gradually changing to rose and pink with 
yellow or orange snow, till the last rays of the sun have gone, leaving 
the mountains dyed a ruddy crimson, with the snows showing a pale 
creamy green by contrast. Looking downward from the mountains 
the valley in the sunshine has the hues of the opal ; the pale reds of 
the karezvas, the vivid light greens of the young rice, and the darker 
shades of the groves of trees relieved by sunlight sheets, gleams of 
water, and soft blue haze give a combination of tints reminding one 
irresistibly of the changing hues of that gem. It is impossible in the 
scope of this article to do justice to the beauty and grandeur of the 
mountains of Kashmir, or to enumerate the lovely glades and forests, 
visited by so few. Much has been written of the magnificent scenery 
of the Sind and Liddar valleys, and of the gentler charms of the Lolab, 
but the equal beauties of the western side of Kashmir have hardly been 
described. Few countries can offer anything grander than the deep-green 

vol. xv. F 



7 6 KASHMIR AND jAMMU 

mountain tarn, Konsanag, in the Panjal range, the waters of which 
make a wild entrance into the valley over the splendid cataract of Arabal, 
while the rolling grass mountain called Tosh Maidan, the springy downs 
of Raiyar looking over the Suknag river as it twines, foaming down from 
the mountains, the long winding park known as Yusumarg, and lower 
down still the little hills which remind one of Surrey, and Nilnag with 
its pretty lake screened by the dense forests, are worthy to be seen. 

As one descends the mountains and leaves the woodland glades, cul- 
tivation commences immediately, and right up to the fringe of the 
forests maize is grown and walnut-trees abound. A little lower down, 
at an elevation of about 7,000 feet, rice of a hardy and stunted growth 
is found, and the shady plane-tree appears. Lower still superior rices 
are grown, and the watercourses are edged with willows. The side 
valleys which lead off from the vale of Kashmir, though possessing dis- 
tinctive charms of their own, have certain features in common. At the 
mouth of the valley lies the wide delta of fertile soil on which the rice 
with its varying colours, the plane-trees, mulberries, and willows grow 
luxuriantly ; a little higher up the land is terraced and rice still grows, 
and the slopes are ablaze with the wild indigo, till at ajbout 6,000 feet 
the plane-tree gives place to the walnut, and rice to millets. On the left 
bank of the mountain river endless forests stretch from the bottom of 
the valley to the peaks ; and on the right bank, wherever a nook or 
corner is sheltered from the sun and the hot breezes of India, the pines 
and firs establish themselves. Farther up the valley, the river, already 
a roaring torrent, becomes a veritable waterfall dashing down between 
lofty cliffs, whose bases are fringed with maples and horse-chestnuts, 
white and pink, and millets are replaced by buckwheat and Tibetan 
barley. Soon after this the useful birch-tree appears, and then come 
grass and glaciers, the country of the shepherds. 

Where the mountains cease to be steep, fan-like projections with flat 
arid tops and bare of trees run out towards the valley. These are 
known as karewas. Sometimes they stand up isolated in the middle of 
the valley, but, whether isolated or attached to the mountains, the 
kareivas present the same sterile appearance and offer the same abrupt 
walls to the valley. The karewas are pierced by mountain torrents and 
seamed with ravines. Bearing in mind that Kashmir was once a lake, 
which dried up when nature afforded an outlet at Baramula, it is easy to 
recognize in the karewas the shelving shores of a great inland sea, and 
to realize that the inhabitants of the old cities, the traces of which can 
be seen on high bluffs and on the slope of the mountains, had no other 
choice of sites, since in those days the present fertile valley was buried 
beneath a waste of water. 

Kashmir abounds in mountain tarns, lovely lakes, and swampy 
lagoons. Of the lakes the Wular, the Dal, and the Manasbal are the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 77 

most beautiful. It is also rich in springs, many of which are thermal. 
They are useful auxiliaries to the mountain streams in irrigation, and 
are sometimes the sole sources of water, as in the case of Achabal, 
Yernag, and Kokarnag on the south, and Arpal on the east. Islamabad 
or Anantnag, ' the place of the countless springs,' sends out numerous 
streams. One of these springs, the Maliknag, is sulphurous, and its water 
is highly prized for garden cultivation. The Kashmiris are good judges 
of water. They regard Kokarnag as the best source of drinking-water, 
while Chashma Shahi above the Dal Lake stands high in order of merit. 
It is time now for the traveller who has been resting in Srinagar to 
set out on the great northern road which leads to Gilgit. He will have 
admired the quaint, insanitary city lying along the banks of the Jhelum, 
with a length of 3 miles and an average breadth of 1^ miles on either 
side of the river. The houses vary in size from the large and spacious 
brick palaces of the Pandit aristocrat and his 500 retainers, warmed in 
the winter by hammams, to the doll house of three storeys, where the 
poor shawl-weaver lives his cramped life, and shivers in the frosty 
weather behind lattice windows covered with paper. In the spring and 
summer the earthen roofs of the houses, resting on layers of birch-bark, 
are bright with green herbage and flowers. The canals with their 
curious stone bridges and shady waterway, and the great river with an 
average width of eighty yards, spanned by wooden bridges, crowded 
with boats of every description, and lined by bathing boxes, are well 
worth studying. The wooden bridges are cheap, effective, and pictur- 
esque, and their construction is ingenious, for in design they appear to 
have anticipated the modern cantilever principle. Old boats filled with 
stones were sunk at the sites chosen for pier foundations. Piles were 
then driven and more boats were sunk. When a height above the low- 
water level was reached, wooden trestles of deodar were constructed by 
placing rough-hewn logs at right angles. As the structure approached 
the requisite elevation to admit of chakwdris (house-boats) passing be- 
neath, deodar logs were cantilevered. This reduced the span, and huge 
trees were made to serve as girders to support the roadway. The foun- 
dations of loose stones and piles have been protected on the upstream 
side by planking, and a rough but effective cut-water made. The secret 
of the stability of these old bridges may, perhaps, be attributed to the 
skeleton piers offering little or no resistance to the large volume of water 
brought down at flood-time. It is true that the heavy floods of 1893 
swept away six out of the seven city bridges, and that the cumbrous 
piers tend to narrow the waterway, but it should be remembered that 
the old bridges had weathered many a serious flood. Not long ago two 
of the bridges, the Habba Kadal and the Zaina Kadal, had rows of 
shops on them reminding one of Old London Bridge ; but these have 
now been cleared away. 

F 2 



78 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

The distance by road from Srinagar to Gilgit is 228 miles, and the 
traveller can reach Bandipura at the head of the Wular Lake by boat or 
by land. The Gilgit road, which cost the Kashmir State, in the first 
instance, 15 lakhs, is a remarkable achievement, and was one of the 
greatest boons ever conferred on the Kashmiri subjects of the Maharaja. 
Previous to its construction supplies for the Gilgit garrison were carried 
by impressed labourers, many of whom perished on the passes, or 
returned crippled and maimed by frost-bite on the snow or accident on 
the goat paths that did duty for roads. The journey to Gilgit before 
1890 has been aptly compared with the journey to Siberia. Now, sup- 
plies are carried on ponies and the name Gilgit is no longer a terror to 
the people of Kashmir. 

From Bandipura a steep ascent leads to the Raj Diangan pass (11,800 
feet), a most dreaded place in the winter months, when the cold winds 
mean death to man and beast. Thence through a beautifully wooded 
and watered country, past the lovely valley of Gurais, down which the 
Kishanganga flows, the traveller has no difficulties till he reaches the 
Burzil pass (13,500 feet), below which the summer road to Skardu 
across the dreary wastes of the Deosai plains branches off to the north- 
east. This is a very easy pass in summer, but is very dangerous in a 
snowstorm or high wind. 

Descending from the Burzil the whole scene changes. The forests 
and vegetation of Kashmir are left behind, the trees are few and of a 
strange appearance, and the very flowers look foreign. It is a bleak and 
rugged country, and when Astor (7,853 feet) is left the sense of desola- 
tion increases. Nothing can be more dreary than the steep descent 
from Doian down the side of the arid Hattu Plr into the sterile waste of 
the Indus valley. It is cool at Doian (8,720 feet); it is stifling at Ram- 
ghat (3,800 feet), where one passes over the Astor river by a suspension 
bridge. The old construction was a veritable bridge of sighs to the 
Kashmir convicts who were forced across the river and left to their fate 
—starvation or capture by the slave-hunters from Chilas. A little 
cultivation at Bunji relieves the eye ; but there is nothing to cheer the 
traveller until the Indus has been crossed by a fine bridge, and 30 miles 
farther the pleasant oasis of Gilgit is reached. 

The Indus valley is a barren dewless country. The very river with 
its black water looks hot, and the great mountains are destitute of 
vegetation. The only thing of beauty is the view of the snowy ranges, 
and Nanga Parbat in the rising sun seen from the crossing of the Indus 
river to Gilgit sweeps into oblivion the dreadful desert of sands and 
rock. Gilgit (4,890 feet) itself is fertile and well watered. The moun- 
tains fall back from the river, and leave room for cultivation on the 
alluvial land bordering the right bank of the Gilgit river, a rare feature 
in the northern parts of the Maharaja s dominion. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 79 

Another route giving a general idea of the country runs from west to 
east, from Kohala on the Jhelum to Leh, about 5 miles beyond the 
Indus. A good road from Rawalpindi brings the traveller to Kohala, 
where he crosses the Jhelum by a bridge, and enters the territories of 
Jammu and Kashmir. The cart-road passes from Kohala to SrTnagar, 
a distance of 132 miles, by easy gradients. As far as Baramula the 
road is close to the river, but for the most part at a great height above 
it, and the scenery is beautiful. At Muzaffarabad the Kishanganga 
river joins the Jhelum, and here the road from Abbottabad and Garhi 
Hablb-ullah connects with the Kashmir route. The road runs along 
the left bank of the Jhelum, through careful terraced cultivation, above 
which are pine forests and pastures. It carries a very heavy traffic, but 
owing to the formation of the country it is liable to constant breaches, 
and is expensive to keep in repair. 

From Uri a road runs south to the country of the Raja of Punch, the 
chief feudatory of the Maharaja, crossing the Haji pass (8,500 feet). 
At Baramula the road enters the valley of Kashmir, and runs through 
a continuous avenue of poplars to SrTnagar. In bygone days this route, 
known as the Jhelum valley road — now the chief means of communica- 
tion with India — was little used. The Bambas and Khakhas, who still 
hold the country, were a restless and warlike people ; and the numerous 
forts that command the narrow valley suggest that the neighbourhood 
was unsafe for the ordinary traveller. The construction of the road 
from Kohala to Baramula cost the State nearly 22 lakhs. 

From Srinagar to Leh is 243 miles. The first part of the journey 
runs up the Sind valley, perhaps the most exquisite scenery in Kashmir. 
Fitful efforts are made from time to time to improve this important 
route, but it still remains a mere fair-weather track. The Sind river 
thunders down the valley, and the steep mountains rise on either side, 
the northern slopes covered with pine forest, the southern bare and 
treeless. At Gagangir the track climbs along the river torrent to 
Sonamarg (8,650 feet), the last and highest village in the Sind valley, 
if we except the small hamlet of Nilagrar some 2 miles higher up. 
Sonamarg is a beautiful mountain meadow surrounded by glaciers and 
forests. It is a miserable place in the winter time, but it is of great 
importance to encourage a resident population. The chief staples of 
cultivation are grim, or Tibetan barley, and buckwheat. It is good to 
turn loose the baggage ponies to graze on the meadow grasses ; for in 
a few more marches one passes into a region like the country beyond 
the Burzil on the road to Gilgit, a land devoid of forests and pastures, 
'a desert of bare crags and granite dust, a cloudless region always burn- 
ing or freezing under the clear blue sky.' The Zoji La (11,300 feet) is 
the lowest depression in the great Western Himalayas which run from 
the Indus valley on the Chilas frontier. Over this high range the rains 



8o KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

from the south hardly penetrate, and the cultivation, scanty and diffi- 
cult, depends entirely on artificial canals. The ascent to the Zoji La 
from Kashmir is very steep, the descent to the elevated table-land of 
Tibet almost imperceptible. For five marches the route follows the 
course of the Dras river, through a desolate country of piled up rocks 
and loose gravel. At Chanagund the road to Skardu crosses the Dras 
river by a cantilever bridge, 4 miles above the junction of the Dras and 
Suru rivers, and about 8 miles farther on the Indus receives their 
waters. But the steep cliffs of the Indus offer no path to the traveller, 
and the track leaves the Dras river, and turns in a southerly direction 
to Kargil, a delightful oasis. Then the road abandons the valleys and 
ascends the bare mountains. The dreary scenery is compensated by 
the cloudless pale blue sky and the dry bracing air so characteristic of 
Ladakh. Through gorges and defiles the valley of Shergol is reached, 
the first Buddhist village on the road. Thenceforward the country is 
Buddhist, and the road runs up and down over the Namika La ( 1 3,000 feet) 
and over the Fotu La (13,400 feet), the highest point on the Leh road. 
Along the road near the villages are Buddhist monasteries, mam's (walls 
of praying stones) and chortens, where the ashes of the dead mixed with 
clay and moulded into a little idol are placed, and at Lamayaru there 
is a wilderness of monuments. Later, the Indus is crossed by a long 
cantilever bridge ; and the road runs along the right bank through the 
fertile oasis of Khalsi, then through the usual desert with an occasional 
patch of vegetation to Leh (11,500 feet), the capital of Western Tibet 
and of Western Buddhism, and the trade terminus for caravans from 
India and from Central Asia. It is a long and difficult road from Leh 
to Yarkand, 482 miles, over the Khardung La, the Sasser La, and the 
Karakoram pass of between 17,000 and 19,000 feet altitude, where the 
useful yak (Bos grunniens) relieves the ponies of their loads when fresh 
snow has fallen, or serves unladen to consolidate a path for the ponies. 
A brief description may be given of one more of the many routes 
that follow the rivers and climb the mountains — the route from Leh 
through Baltistan to Astor on the Gilgit road. At Khalsi, where the 
Srlnagar-Leh road crosses the Indus, the track keeps to the right bank 
of the Indus, and passing down the deep gorge of the river comes to 
a point where the stupendous cliffs and the roaring torrent prevent 
farther progress. There the traveller strikes away from the Indus and 
ascends the mountains to the Chorbat pass (16,700 feet), covered with 
snow even in July. From the pass, across the valley of the Shyok river, 
the great Karakoram range, some 50 miles away, comes into view. An 
abrupt descent carries the traveller from winter into hot summer ; and 
by a difficult track which in places is carried along the face of the cliff 
by frail scaffolding (pari), following the course of the Shyok river, 
smoothly flowing between white sands of granite, and passing many 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 81 

pleasant oases, one conies to the grateful garden of Khapallu, a paradise 
to the simple Baltis. Crossing the united waters of the Shyok and the 
Indus on a small skin raft, the traveller arrives at Skardu (7,250 feet), 
the old capital of Baltistan. Here the mountains on either side of the 
Indus recede, and the sandy basin, about 5 miles in breadth, is partially 
irrigated by water from the pretty mountain lake of Satpura and care- 
fully cultivated. Looking across the Indus to the north, the Shigar 
valley, the garden of Baltistan, with its wealth of fruit trees is seen. 
There the cultivator adds to his resources by washing gold from the 
sands of the river. From Skardu the direct route to Gilgit follows the 
Indus, which is crossed at Rondu by a rope bridge so long as to be 
most trying to the nerves, but a fair-weather track over the Banak pass 
lands the traveller on the Gilgit road at Astor. 

It is difficult to give a general idea of a country so diversified as 
Kashmir and Jammu. As will be seen in the section on History, a 
strange destiny has brought people of distinct races, languages, and 
religions, and countries of widely different physical characteristics, 
under the rule of the Maharaja. 

The Kashmir territory may be divided physically into two areas : the 
north-eastern, comprising the area drained by the Indus with its tribu- 
taries; and the south-western, including the country drained by the 
Jhelum with its tributary the Kishanganga, and by the Chenab. The 
dividing line or watershed is formed by the great central mountain range 
which runs from Nanga Parbat, overhanging the Indus on the north- 
west, in a south-easterly direction for about 240 miles till it enters 
British territory in Lahul. 

The south-western area may, following the nomenclature of Mr. Drew, 
in its turn be geographically divided into three sections : the region of 
the outer hills, the middle mountains, and the Kashmir Valley. 

Approaching Kashmir from the plains of the Punjab, the boundary 
is not at the foot of the hills, but embraces a strip of the great plains 
from 5 to 15 miles wide, reaching from the Ravi to the Jhelum. As is 
generally the case along the foot of the Western Himalayas, this tract 
of flat country is somewhat arid and considerably cut up by ravines 
which carry off the flood-water of the monsoon. A fair amount of cul- 
tivation is found on the plateaux between these ravines, though, being 
entirely dependent on the rainfall, the yield is somewhat precarious. 
The height of this tract may be taken at from 1,100 to 1,200 feet above 

sea-level. 

Passing over the plain a region of broken ground and low hills is 
reached, running mainly in ridges parallel to the general line of the 
Himalayan chain. These vary in height from 2,000 to 4.000 feet, and 
are largely composed of sandstone, being in fact a continuation of the 
Siwalik geological formation. Lying between these parallel ridges are 



82 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

a series of valleys or duns, fairly well populated, in the east by Dogras 
and in the west by Chibs. These hills are sparsely covered with low 
scrub bushes, the chlr (Pinus longifolid) gradually predominating as the 
inner hills are reached. Beyond these lower hills rise the spurs of a 
more mountainous district. 

The scope of this region, as defined by Mr. Drew, has been some- 
what extended, and includes the range which forms the southern 
boundary of the Kashmir Valley, known as the Panjal range, and its 
continuation eastwards beyond the Chenab. This tract is about 
1 80 miles long and varies in width from 25 to 35 miles. The portion 
lying between the Jhelum and Chenab is formed by the mass of moun- 
tainous spurs running down from the high Panjal range which forms its 
northern limit. The Panjal itself, extending from Muzaffarabad on the 
Jhelum to near Kishtwar on the Chenab, is a massive mountain range, 
the highest central portion to which the name is truly applied having 
a length of 80 miles, with peaks rising to 14,000 and 15,000 feet. 
From the southern side a series of spurs branch out, which break up 
the ground into an intricate mountain mass cut into by ravines or 
divided by narrow valleys. 

The elevation of these middle mountains is sufficient to give 
a thoroughly temperate character to the vegetation. Forests of Hima- 
layan oak, pine, spruce, silver fir, and deodar occupy a great part of the 
mountain slopes ; the rest, the more sunny parts, where forest trees do 
not flourish, is, except where rocks jut out, well covered with herbage, 
with plants and flowers that resemble those of Central or Southern 
Europe. East of the Chenab river rises a somewhat similar mass 
of hills, forming the district of Bhadarwah, with peaks varying from 
9,000 to 14,000 feet in height. These culminate in the high range 
which forms the Chamba and Ravi watershed in Chamba territory. 

The third section of the south-western area bears a unique char- 
acter in the Himalayas, consisting of an open valley of considerable 
extent completely surrounded by mountains. The boundaries are 
formed on the north-east by the great central range which separates 
the Jhelum and Indus drainage, and on the south by the Panjal range 
already described. The eastern boundary is formed by a high spur 
of the main range, which branching off at about 75 30' E. runs nearly 
due south, its peaks maintaining an elevation of from 12,000 to 14,000 
feet. This minor range forms the watershed between the Jhelum 
and Chenab, separating the Kashmir from the YVardwan valley. It 
eventually joins and blends with the Panjal range about 16 miles west 
of Kishtwar. On the north and west, the bounding ranges of the 
valley are more difficult to describe. A few miles west of the spot 
from which the eastern boundary spur branches near the Zoji La, 
another minor range is given off. This runs nearly due west for about 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 83 

100 miles at an elevation of from 12,000 to 13,000 feet, with a width 
of from 15 to 20 miles. It forms the watershed between the Jhelum 
on the south and its important tributary the Kishanganga on the north. 
After reaching 74 15' E. the ridge gradually curves round to the south, 
until it reaches the Jhelum abreast of the western end of the Panjal 
range. The valley thus enclosed has a length, measured from ridge 
to ridge, of about 115 miles with a width varying from 45 to 70 miles, 
and is drained throughout by the Jhelum with its various tributaries. 
The fiat portion is much restricted, owing to the spurs given off by 
the great central range, which run down into the plain, forming the 
well-known Sind and Liddar valleys. On the southern side the spurs 
from the Panjal range project 10 to 16 miles into the plain. 

The north-eastern section is comprised between the great central 
chain on the south and the Karakoram range and its continuation on 
the north. It is drained by the Indus and its great tributaries, the 
Shyok, the Zaskar, the Suru, and the Gilgit rivers. The chief charac- 
teristic of this region, more especially of the eastern portion, is the 
great altitude of the valleys and plains. The junction of the Gilgit 
and Indus rivers is 4,300 feet above sea-level. Proceeding upstream, 
80 miles farther east at the confluence of the Shyok and Indus, the 
level of the latter is 7,700 feet; opposite Leh, 130 miles farther up 
the river, its height is 10,600 feet, while near the Kashmir-Tibet 
boundary in the Kokzhung district the river runs at the great height 
of 13,800 feet above sea-level. 

Between the various streams which drain the country rise ranges 
of mountains, those in the central portions attaining an elevation of 
16,000 to 20,000 feet, while the mighty flanking masses of the Kara- 
koram culminate in the great peak Godwin Austen (28,265 feet). The 
difference of the level in the valleys between the eastern and western 
tracts has its natural effect on the scenery. In the east, as in the 
Rupshu district of Ladakh, the lowest ground is 13,500 feet above 
the sea, while the mountains run very evenly to a height of 20, coo or 
21,000 feet. The result is a series of long open valleys, bounded by 
comparatively low hills having very little of the characteristics of what 
is generally termed a mountainous country. To the west as the valleys 
deepen, while the bordering mountains keep at much the same eleva- 
tion, the character of the country changes, and assumes the more 
familiar Himalayan character of massive ridges and spurs falling steeply 
into the deep valleys between. 

The central chain commences in the west at the great mountain 
mass rising directly above the Indus, of which the culminating peak 
is Nanga Parbat. From this point it runs in a south-easterly direction, 
forming the watershed between the Indus and the Kishanganga. It 
quickly falls to an altitude of 14,000 to 15,000 feet, at which it con- 



84 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

tinues for 50 or 60 miles. It is crossed by several passes, the best 
known of which are the Burzil on the road from Kashmir to Gilgit, 
and the Zoji La of 1 1,300 feet, over which runs the road from Srlnagar 
to Dras and Leh. From the Zoji La the mountains rapidly rise in 
elevation, the peaks attaining an altitude of 18,000 to 20,000 feet, 
culminating in the Nun Kun peaks which rise to a height of over 
23,000 feet. Owing to their altitude these mountains are under per- 
petual snow, and glaciers form in every valley. The range keeps this 
character throughout Kashmir territory for a distance of 150 miles to 
the Bara Lacha (pass), where it passes into Spiti. 

The Karakoram range is of a far more complicated character. 
Broadly speaking, it is a continuation of the Hindu Kush, and forms 
the watershed between the Central Asian drainage and the streams 
flowing into the Indian Ocean. From its main ridge lofty spurs extend 
into Kashmir, separating the various tributaries of the Indus, the result 
being a stupendous mountain mass 220 miles long, with a width on the 
south side of the watershed of 30 to 60 miles, with peaks averaging 
from 21,000 to 23,000 feet, culminating on the west in the well-known 
Rakaposhi mountain, north of Gilgit, over 25,500 feet high, and in the 
mighty group of peaks round the head of the Baltoro glacier dominated 
by the second highest mountain in the world, Godwin Austen, whose 
summit is 28,265 feet above the sea. The head of every valley is the 
birthplace of a glacier. Many of these are of immense size, such as 
the Baltoro, the Biafo, and Hispar glaciers, the two latter forming an 
unbroken stretch of ice over 50 miles long. This great mountain 
barrier is broken through at one point by the Hunza stream, a tributary 
of the Gilgit river, the watershed at the head of which has the com- 
paratively low elevation of about 15,500 feet. The next well-known 
pass lies 150 miles to the east, where the road from Leh to Yarkand 
leads over the Karakoram pass at an altitude of about 18,300 feet. 

A description of this mountainous region would be incomplete with- 
out a reference to the vast elevated plains of Lingzhithang, which lie 
at the extreme north-eastern limit of Kashmir territory. These plains 
are geographically allied to the great Tibetan plateau. The ground- 
level is from 16,000 to 17,000 feet above the sea, and such rain as falls 
drains into a series of salt lakes. Of vegetation there is little or none, 
the country being a desolate expanse of earth and rock. The northern 
border of this plateau is formed by the Kuenlun mountains, the 
northern face of which slopes down into the plains of Khotan. 

An account of the geology will be found in the memoir by Mr. R. 
Lydekker, The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories and 
the British District of Khagan. Mr. Lydekker differs from Mr. Drew, 
also an expert in geology, who held that some of the gravels at 
Baramula were of glacial origin, indicating the existence of glaciers in 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 



85 



the valley at a level of 5,000 feet ; but he has no doubts as to their 
existence on the Pir Panjal range and in the neighbourhood of the 
various margs or mountain meadows which surround the valley. The 
question of the glaciation and the evidences of relative changes of level 
within a geologically recent period is fully discussed for the Sind valley 
by Mr. R. D. Oldham in Records, Geological Survey of India, vol. xxxii, 
part ii. 

There is abundant evidence that igneous or volcanic agencies were 
actively at work, as is proved by the outpouring of vast quantities 
of volcanic rocks ; but these are not known to have been erupted 
since the eocene period. Subterraneous thermal action is, however, 
indicated by the prevalence of numerous hot springs. The burning 
fields at Soiyam, of which an account is given by Sir VV. Lawrence, 
Valley of Kashmir, pp. 42-3, point to the same conclusion, and the 
frequency of earthquakes suggests subterranean instability in this area. 

The following table of geological systems in descending order is 
given by Mr. Lydekker for the whole State: — 



Alluvial system : 

Low-level alluvia, &c. ...... 

High-level alluvia, glacial, lacustrine, and kareiva series 

Tertiary system : 

Siwalik series 



Outei 
Inner 



Sirmiir series 



t Murree group 
■j Sabathu group 
( Indus Tertiaries 



oup ) 



Zaskar system : 
Chikkim series 
Supra-Kuling series 
Ruling series 

Panjal system : 

Not generally subdivided 

Metamorphic system : 

Metamorphosed Panjals, &c. 
Central gneiss 



European 
equivalents. 



Prehistoric. 
Pleistocene. 



Pliocene. 

Miocene. 
Eocene. 



Cretaceou-. 
Jura and Trias. 
Carboniferous. 



Silurian. 
Cambrian. 

Palaeozoic and 
Archaean. 



Under the first of these systems, Mr. Lydekker has discussed the 
interesting question, whether Kashmir was once covered by a great 
lake. In this discussion the karewas already described play an impor- 
tant part, and the only explanation of the upper karewas is that 
Kashmir was formerly occupied by a vast lake of which the existing 
lakes are remnants. Mr. Drew estimated that at one period this lake 



S6 KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

must have reached a level of nearly 2,000 feet above the present 
height of the valley, hut this estimate is considered far too high by 
Mr. T.ydckker. No very satisfactory conclusions can be drawn at 
present as to the barrier which dammed the old lake, or as to the 
relative period of its existence. 

A full account of the flora of Kashmir is given by Lawrence, Valley 
of Kashmir, chap. iv. The valley has an enormous variety of plants, 
and the Kashmiri finds a use for most of them. Among condiments 
the most important is the zlra siydh (Carum sp.), or carraway. Under 
drugs, Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, and Artemisia or teiwan may 
be mentioned. Asafoetida is found in the Astor tahs'il. Numerous 
plants yield dyes and tans, of which Datisca cannabina, Rubia 
cordifolia, and Geranium nepalense are the most familiar. Kashmir 
is rich in fibres, and the people make great use of them. The two 
best are the Abutilon Avicennae and the Cannabis sativa. Burza 
{Betula uti/is), the paper birch, is a most important tree to the natives. 
The bark is employed for various purposes, such as roofs of houses, 
writing paper, and packing paper. Many of the ancient manuscripts 
are written on birch bark. The Kashmiri neglects nothing which can 
be eaten as fodder. The willow, the Indian chestnut, the cotoneaster, 
the hawthorn, and the poplar are always lopped to provide fodder for 
cattle and sheep in the winter. 

Excellent grasses abound, and the swamps yield most nutritious 
reeds and other plants. There is an abundance of food-plants, too 
numerous to be enumerated here. Euryale ferox, Xymphaea stei/ata, 
N. alba, Nelumbium speciosum, the exquisite pink water-lily, Acorus 
Calamus, and Typha sp., the reed mace, all contribute to the Kashmiri's 
sustenance. Wild fruits are in profusion, and many fungi are eaten by 
the people. The mushroom is common, and the morel (More/iella sp.) 
abounds in the mountains and forms an important export to India. 
There are plants that are useful for hair-washes, and the herbs with 
medicinal properties are almost innumerable. Macrotomia Benthami 
is one of these peculiarly esteemed by the Kashmiris as a remedy for 
heart-affections. Among the scents may be noted Gogal dhup {Jurinea 
macrocephala), which is largely exported to India, where it is used by 
Hindus. The most important of the aromatic plants is the Saussurea 
Lappa. This grows at high elevations from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. 
The root has a scent like orris with a blend of violet. It is largely 
exported to China, where it is used as incense in the joss houses. 
It has many valuable properties, and is a source of considerable 
revenue to the State. There is a great variety of trees, but the oak, 
the holly, and the Himalayan rhododendron are unknown. Among 
the long list of trees may be noticed the deodar, the blue pine, the 
spruce, the silver fir, the yew, the walnut, and the Indian horse-chestnut. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 87 

In the valley itself the exquisite plane-tree, the mulberry, the apricot, 
and the willow are perhaps the most familiar. 

Kashmir offers great attraction to the sportsman, and for its size the 
valley and the surrounding mountains possess a large and varied animal 
kingdom. A full account of the animals and birds will be found in 
The Valley of Kashmir, chap. v. Since that book was written game 
preservation has made great strides, and has prevented the extinction 
of the bdrasingha {Cervus duvaiueli) and the hangal or Kashmir stag 
(C. cashmirianus). Among the Cervidae, the musk deer [Moschus 
moschiferus) is common and its pod is valuable. Of the family Ursidae, 
the black bear, or bomba hdpat (Ursus torquatus), is very common, 
being a great pest to the crops and a danger to the people. The 
brown bear, or lal hdpat {Ursus arctus or isabellinits), is still far from 
rare. It is partly herbivorous and partly carnivorous. Of the family 
Bovidae, the markhor ( Capra falconeri) and the ibex ( C. sibirica ) are 
still to be met with. The Kashmir markhor has from one to two com- 
plete turns in the spirals of its horns. The tahr or jagla (Hemitragus) 
is found on the Pir Panjal. and the serow or ramu {Nemorhaedus 
bubalinus) is fairly common. The goral (Cemas goral) also occurs. 

There is a considerable variety of birds. The blue heron (Ardea 
cinerea) is very common, and fine heronries exist at several pla< 
The heron's feathers are much valued, and the right to collect the 
feathers is farmed out. Among game-birds may be noticed the snow 
partridge (Zerwa lerwa), the Himalayan snow cock {Tetraogallus 
himalayensis), the chikor partridge (Caccabis chukar), the large grey 
quail (Cotur/iix), the monal pheasant (Lophophorus refulge/is), the Simla 
horned pheasant (Tragopan melanocephalum), and the Kashmir Pucras 
pheasant (Pucrasin biddulphi). The large sand-grouse {Pterocles aren- 
arius) is occasionally seen. Pigeons, turtle-doves, rails, grebes, gulls, 
plovers, snipe, cranes, are common, and storks are sometimes seen. 
Geese are found in vast flocks on the ^ 'ular Lake in the winter, and 
there are at least thirteen kinds of duck. The goosander and smew 
are also found on the \\ ular Lake. There are six species of eagles, 
four of falcons, and four of owls. Kingfishers, hoopoes, bee eaters, 
night-jars, swifts, cuckoos, woodpeckers, parrots, crows in great variety, 
choughs, starlings, orioles, finches (12 species), buntings, larks, wag- 
tails, creepers, tits, shrikes, warblers (14 species), thrushes (20 species), 
dippers, wrens, babbling thrushes, bulbuls, fly-catchers, and swallows 
are all familiar birds. 

Among the reptiles there are two poisonous snakes, the gunas and 
the pohur, the bite of which is often fatal. 

Fish forms an important item in the food of the Kashmiris. Yigne 
noticed only six different kinds, but Lawrence enumerated thirteen. 

As the elevation varies from 1,200 feet at Jammu and 3,000 in the 



SS KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Indus valley at Bunji and Chilas to 25,000 and 26,000 feet on the 
highest mountain peaks, the State presents an extraordinary variety of 
climatic conditions. The local variations of temperature depend chiefly 
upon situation (i. e. whether in a valley or on the crest of a mountain 
range), elevation, and the amount of the winter snowfall and the period 
and depth of the snow accumulation. The effect of position in a valley 
or a mountain crest is shown by comparing the temperatures of Murree 
and Srinagar. The Murree observatory is about 1,200 feet higher than 
the Srinagar observatory. The mean maximum day temperature in 
January at Murree is 7 higher than at Srinagar, and the mean minimum 
night temperature 9 higher. On the other hand, in the hottest month 
(June) the maximum day temperature is i° lower at Murree than at 
Srinagar, while the minimum night temperatures are almost identical. 
The diurnal range is 2° less in January, 7 less in June, and 14 less in 
October at Murree than at Srinagar. The slow movement of the air 
from the higher elevations into valleys more or less completely shut in 
by mountains tends to depress temperature at valley stations both by 
day and night considerably below that at similar elevations on the crest 
of the Outer Himalayas, and to increase the diurnal range most largely 
in the dry clear months of October and November, when the sinking 
down of the air from the adjacent mountains has its greatest effect, and 
is supplemented by rapid radiation from the ground. The effect of 
snow accumulation in valleys in reducing temperature is very marked. 
At Dras and Sonamarg, where the accumulation is usually large, the 
solar heat on clear fine days in winter is utilized in melting the snow 
and hence exercises no influence on the air temperature. At Leh, 
where the ground is only occasionally concealed under a thin covering 
of snow, the sun even in winter usually warms the ground surface 
directly and thence the air. The cooling influence of snow accumula- 
tion at Dras and Sonamarg is largely increased by the rapid radiation 
from the surface. The mean daily temperature is lowest in January 
and highest in June or July. At Srinagar the mean temperature of 
January is 33-1°. The mean temperature of the hottest month (July) 
at Srinagar is 74-6°. The mean temperature in January and August 
ranges from 25-3° to 75 at Skardu, from 3-4° to 64-5° at Dras, from 
17-7° to 6j.8° at Leh, and from 36-6° to 85 (in July) at Gilgit. The 
most noteworthy features of the annual variation are the very rapid 
increase in March or April at the end of the winter, and an equally 
rapid decrease in October, when the skies clear after the south-west 
monsoon. The diurnal range is least at Gilgit (19-8°) and Srinagar 
(22-4°) on the mean of the year, and greatest at Dras (31-4°) and 
Leh (26- 3 c ). 

The precipitation is received during two periods, the cold season 
from December to April, and the south-west monsoon period from June 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 89 

to September. The rainfall in October and November is small in 
amount, and November is usually the driest month of the year. The 
cold-season precipitation from December to March is chiefly due to 
storms which advance from Persia and Baluchistan across Northern 
India. These disturbances occasionally give very stormy weather in 
Kashmir, with violent winds on the higher elevations and much snow. 
The fall is large on the Pir Panjal range, being heaviest in January or 
February. In the valley and the mountain ranges to the north and 
east this is the chief precipitation of the year, and is very heavy on the 
first line of permanent snow, but decreases rapidly eastwards to the 
Karakoram range. The largest amount is received at Srinagar, Dras, 
and Anantnag in January. In the Karakoram region and the Tibetan 
plateau the winter fall is much later than on the outer ranges of the 
Himalayas, namely from March to May, and the maximum is received 
in April. The average depth of the snowfall at Srinagar in an ordinary 
winter is about 8 feet. The snowfall at Sonamarg in 1902 measured 
13 feet and in 1903 about 30 feet. In April and May thunderstorms 
are of occasional occurrence in the valley and surrounding hills, giving 
light to moderate showers of rain. This hot-season rainfall is of con- 
siderable importance for cultivation in the valley. From June to 
November heavy rain falls on the Pir Panjal range, and in Jammu 
chiefly in the months of July, August, and September. The rainfall at 
Jammu and Punch is comparable with that of the submontane Districts 
of the Punjab. It is more moderate in amount in the valley, which 
receives a total of 9-4 inches, as compared with 35-7 inches at Punch 
and 26-8 inches at Domel. The precipitation is very light to the east 
of the first line of the snows bordering the valley on the east, and is 
about 2 inches in total amount at Gilgit, Skardu, Kargil, and Leh. 
Thus the south-west monsoon is the predominant feature in Jammu 
and Kishtwar, while in Ladakh, Gilgit, and the higher ranges the cold- 
season precipitation is more important. Tables I and II on p. 144 
show the average temperature and rainfall at Srinagar and Leh for 
a series of years ending with 1905. 

Earthquakes are not uncommon, and eleven accompanied by loss of 
life have been recorded since the fifteenth century. In 1885 shocks 
were felt from the end of May till the middle of August, and about 
3,500 people were killed ; fissures opened in the earth, and landslips 
occurred. Hoods are also frequently mentioned in the histories of 
the country, the greatest following the obstruction of the Jhelura by 
the fall of a mountain in a.d. 879. The great flood of [841 in the 
Indus caused much loss of life and damage to property. In 1893 ver > 
serious floods took place in the Jhelum owing to continuous rain for 
52 hours, and much damage was done to Srinagar. An inundation of 
a yet more serious character occurred in 1903. 



90 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

The early history of Kashmir lias been preserved in the celebrated 

Rajatarangini, by the poet Kalhana, who began to write in 1148. He 

_. . gives a connected account of the history of the valley, 

History. °, . , , , f , , ■" 

which may be accepted as a trustworthy record from 

the middle of the ninth century onwards. Kalhana's work was con- 
tinued by Jonaraja, who brought the history through the troubled times 
of the last Hindu dynasties, and the first Muhammadan rulers, to the 
time of the great Zain-ul-abidln, who ascended the throne in 1420. 
Another Sanskrit chronicler, Srivara, carries on the narrative to the 
accession of Fateh Shah in i486 ; and the last of the chronicles, the 
Rajavalipataka, brings the record down to 1586, when the valley was 
conquered by Akbar. 

The current legend in Kashmir relates that the valley was once 
covered by the waters of a mighty lake, on which the goddess Parvati 
sailed in a pleasure-boat from Haramukh mountain in the north to the 
Konsanag lake in the south. In her honour the lake was known as 
the Satisar, or ' lake of the virtuous woman.' The country-side was 
harassed by a demon popularly known as Jaldeo, a corruption of 
Jalodbhava. Kasyapa, the grandson of Brahma, came to the rescue, 
but for some time the amphibious demon eluded him, hiding under the 
water. Vishnu then intervened and struck the mountains at Baramula 
with his trident. The waters of the lake rushed out, but the demon 
took refuge in the low ground near where Srlnagar now stands, and 
baffled pursuit. Then Parvati cast a mountain on him, and so de- 
stroyed the wicked Jaldeo. The mountain is known as Hara Parbat, 
and from ancient times the goddess has been worshipped on its slopes. 
When the demons had been routed, men visited the valley in the 
summer ; and as the climate became milder they remained for the 
winter. Little kingdoms sprang up and the little kings quarrelled 
among themselves, with the usual result that a bigger king was called 
in to rule the country. 

The Rajataranginl opens with the name of the glorious king of 
Kashmir, Gonanda, ' worshipped by the region which Kailasa lights up, 
and which the tossing Ganga clothes with a soft garment.' Nothing is 
known of the founder of the dynasty, though the genealogists of Jammu 
trace a direct descent from Gonanda to the present ruler. Mention is 
made of the pious Asoka and of his town, Srlnagar, with its ninety-six 
lakhs of houses resplendent with wealth. This town probably stood in 
the neighbourhood of the Takht-i-Sulaiman. Next come the three 
kings, Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka, to be identified with Huvishka, 
Vcisudeva, and Kanishka, the Kushan rulers of Northern India at 
the beginning of the Christian era. According to the chronicles, in 
the days of these kings Kashmir was in the possession of the Buddhists, 
and Buddhist tradition asserts that the third great council held by 



HISTORY QI 

Kanishka took place in Kashmir. The Buddhist creed and the Brah- 
manical cult seem to have existed peaceably side by side ; but five 
hundred years later Hiuen Tsiang found the mass of the people Hindu, 
and the monasteries few and partly deserted. There is good reason 
to believe that the Kashmiris were, from the earliest period, chiefly 
Saivas. 

About a.d. 528, Mihirakula, the king 'cruel as death,' ruled over 
Kashmir. He was the leader of the White Huns or Ephthalites. The 
people still point to a ridge on the Plr Panjal range, Hastlvanj, where 
the king, to amuse himself, drove one hundred elephants over the 
precipice, enjoying their cries of agony. King Gopaditya was a 
pleasing contrast to the cruel king, and did much to raise the Brah- 
mans, and to advance their interests. 

Pravarasena II reigned in the sixth century and, returning from his 
victorious campaigns abroad, built a magnificent city on the site of the 
'present capital of Kashmir. The city was known as Pravarapura, and 
is mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang at the time of his visit (a.d. 631) as the 
'new city.' The site chosen has many advantages, strategic and com- 
mercial, but it is liable to floods. Many subsequent rulers endeavoured 
to move the site of the capital, but their efforts failed. Among these 
was the celebrated Lalitaditya, who ruled in the middle of the eighth 
century, and received an investiture from the emperor of China. A 
great and victorious soldier, he subdued the kings of India and invaded 
Central Asia. After twelve years of successful campaigning he returned 
to Kashmir, enriched with spoil and accompanied by artisans from 
various countries, and built a magnificent city, Paraspur (Parihasapura). 
To give this new town pre-eminence, he burnt down Pravarapura. 
Lalitaditya also built the splendid temple of Martand. Before leaving 
for further conquests in Central Asia, from which he never returned, 
the. king gave his subjects some excellent advice. He warns them 
against internal feuds, and says that if the forts are kept in repair and 
provisioned they need fear no foe. In a country shut in by mountains, 
discipline must be strict, and the cultivators must not be left with grain 
more than sufficient for a year's requirements. Cultivators should not 
be allowed to have more ploughs or cattle than are absolutely neces- 
sary, or they will trespass on their neighbours' fields. They should 
be repressed, and their style of living must be lower than that of the 
city people, or the latter will suffer. These words spoken some 1,200 
years ago have never been forgotten ; and rulers of various races and 
religions have followed Lalitaditya's policy, and sternly subordinated 
the interests of the cultivators to the comfort of the city. 

Sankara Varman (883-902) was another great conqueror; and it is 
stated that, though Kashmir had fallen off in population, he was able 
to lead out an army of 900,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 100,000 horse. 

vol. xv. G 



9 2 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Sankara Yarman was avaricious and profligate. He plundered Paraspur 
in order to raise the fame of his own town, now known as Pattan. 

There were signs of decay, and the last of the strong Hindu rulers 
was queen Didda (950-1003). Then followed the Lohara dynasty. 
Central authority was weakened, the country was a prey to civil war 
and violence, and the Damaras, skilled in burning, plundering, and 
fighting, harassed the valley. The last of this line was Jaya Simha, 
or Simha Deva (n 28); and in his reign the Tartar, Khan Dalcha, 
invaded Kashmir, and after great slaughter set fire to Srinagar. He 
subsequently perished in the passes on his retreat from Kashmir, over- 
taken by snow. Ram Chand, the commander-in-chief of the Kashmir 
army, had meanwhile kept up some semblance of authority in the 
valley, and had routed the Gaddis from Kishtwar. With Ram Chand 
were two soldiers of fortune, Rainchan Shah from Tibet and Shah 
Mirza from Swat. 

Rainchan Shah quarrelled with Ram Chand, and with the assistance 
of the Ladakhis attacked and killed him. He married Kuta Rani, 
the daughter of Ram Chand, and embracing Islam became the first 
Muhammadan king of Kashmir, but died after a short reign of two 
and a half years. At this juncture Udayanadeva appeared, who was 
the brother of Raja Simha Deva and had fled to Kishtwar. He 
married the widow, Kuta Rani, and reigned for fifteen years. On his 
death Kuta Rani assumed power for a short time, and committed 
suicide rather than marry Shah Mirza, who now declared himself king. 
He was the first of the line known as Salatln-i- Kashmir, and took the 
name of Shams-ud-dln. In 1394 Sultan Sikandar, known for his fierce 
zeal as JButshikan or ' iconoclast,' was king of Kashmir. He was 
a gloomy fanatic, and destroyed nearly all the grand buildings and 
temples of his Hindu predecessors. To the people he offered death, 
conversion, or exile. Many fled ; many were converted to Islam ; 
many were killed, and it is said that Sikandar burnt seven maunds 
of sacred threads worn by the murdered Brahmans. By the end of 
his reign all Hindu inhabitants of the valley, except the Brahmans, 
had probably adopted Islam. 

In 1420 Zain-ul-abidln succeeded. He was wise, virtuous, and 
frugal, and very tolerant to the Brahmans. He remitted the poll-tax 
on Hindus, encouraged the Brahmans to learn Persian, repaired some 
of the Hindu temples, and revived Hindu learning. Hitherto in 
Kashmir Sanskrit had been written in Sarada, an older sister of the 
Devanagarl character. The introduction of Persian, as the official 
language, divided the Brahmans into three subdivisions : the Karkuns, 
who entered official life ; the Bachabatts, who discharged the function 
of the priesthood ; and the Pandits, who devoted themselves to 
Sanskrit learning. Towards the end of this good and useful reign the 



HISTORY 93 

Chakks sprang into mischievous prominence. Zain-ul-abidin drove 
them cut of the valley, but in the time of his weak successors they 
returned and eventually seized the government of Kashmir. Turbulent 
and brave, the Chakks were not fitted for administration. Yakub 
Khan, the last of the line, offered a stubborn resistance to Akbar, and 
with the help of the Bambas and Khakhas routed the Mughal on his 
first attempt on the valley (1582). But later, not without difficulty 
and some reverses, Kashmir was finally conquered (1586) ] . 

Akbar visited the valley three times. He built a strong fort on the 
slopes of the Hara Parbat, paying high wages, and dispensing with 
forced labour. His revenue minister, Todar Mai, made a very summary 
record of the fiscal conditions of the valley. Jahanglr was greatly 
attached to Kashmir. He laid out lovely pleasure-gardens ; around 
the Dal Lake were 777 gardens, yielding a revenue of 1 lakh from roses 
and bed musk. Much depended on the character of the governors. 
All Mardan Khan, the best of these, built a splendid series of sarais 
on the Plr Panjal route to India, and grappled with a famine with 
energy and success. Aurangzeb visited the valley only once ; but in 
that brief time he showed his zeal against the unbelievers, and his name 
is still execrated by the Brahmans. Then followed the disorder of 
decay, and in 1751 the Subah of Kashmir was practically independent 
of Delhi. 

From the following year the unfortunate Kashmiris experienced the 
cruel oppression of Afghan rule, the short but evil period of the 
Durranis. Governors from Kabul plundered and tortured the people 
indiscriminately, but reserved their worst cruelties for the Brahmans, 
the Shiahs, and the Bambas of the Jhelum valley. In their agony the 
people of Kashmir turned with hope to the rising power of Ranjit 
Singh of Lahore. In 18 14 a Sikh army advanced by the Plr Panjal, 
Ranjit Singh watching the operations from Punch. This expedition 
miscarried; but in 1819 Misr Diwan Chand, Ranjit Singh's great 
general, accompanied by Gulab Singh of Jammu, overcame Muhammad 
Azim Khan, and entered Shupiyan. In comparison with the Afghans, 
the Sikhs came as a relief to the unfortunate Kashmiris, but their rule 
was harsh and oppressive. 

Sher Singh, the reputed son of Ranjit Singh, was a weak governor, 
and his name is remembered in connexion with the terrible famine 
which visited the valley. The best of the Sikh governors was Colonel 
Mian Singh (1833), wno is still spoken of with gratitude, and did his 
best to repair the ravages of the famine. He was murdered by 

1 Kashmir had been attacked from the side of Ladakh by Mirza Haidar (the author 
of the Tarikh-i-Rashldl) in 1532, and again invaded from the south in 1540, and 
ruled by him (nominally on behalf of the emperor Humayun) until his death eleven 
years later. 

G 2 



94 KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

mutinous soldiers, and was succeeded by Shaikh Ghulam Muhl-ud-din 
in 1842. During his government the Bambas, under Sher Ahmad, 
inflicted great losses on the Sikhs. In 1845 Imam-ud-dfn succeeded 
his father as governor. 

The history of the State, as at present constituted, is practically the 
history of one man, a Dogra Rajput, Gulab Singh of Jammu. Lying 
off the high roads of India, and away from the fertile plains of the 
Punjab, the barren hills of the Dogras had not attracted the notice 
of the Mughal invaders of India. Here lived a number of petty Rajas, 
and it appears that from very early times the little kingdom of Jammu 
was locally of some importance. Towards the end of the eighteenth 
century the power of the Jammu ruler had extended east as far as the 
Ravi, and west to the Chenab ; but the power waned and waxed 
according to the fortunes of petty and chronic warfare. To the east, 
at Basoli and Kishtwar, were independent Rajput chiefs, while to the 
north-west were the Muhammadan rulers of Bhimbar and Rajaori, 
descendants of Hindu Rajputs. These two states lay on the Mughal 
route to Kashmir, and so came under the influence of Delhi. Up the 
Jhelum valley, the country was held by small independent Muham- 
madan chiefs, whose title of Raja suggests their Hindu origin. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century Raja Ranjlt Deo was 
the ruler of Jammu. He was a man of some mark, and his capital 
flourished; but at his death about 1780, his three sons quarrelled. 
The Sikhs were invoked, and Jammu was plundered. From RanjTt 
Deo's death to 1846, the Dogra country became tributary to the Sikh 
power. Gulab Singh, Dhyan Singh, and Suchet Singh were the great- 
grandsons of Surat Singh, youngest brother of Ranjlt Deo. They were 
soldiers of fortune, and as young men sought service at the court of 
RanjTt Singh of Lahore. They rapidly distinguished themselves ; and 
Gulab Singh, for his service in capturing the Raja of Rajaori, who 
was fighting the Sikhs, was created Raja of Jammu in 1820. Dhyan 
Singh obtained the principality of Punch, a hilly country between the 
Jhelum and the Plr Panjal range, north of Rajaori ; while Suchet Singh 
received Ramnagar, west-by-north of Jammu. 

Ranjlt Singh had found that the control of the Dogra country was 
a difficult task, and his policy of enlisting the services of able Dogras 
was at once obvious and prudent. The country was disturbed, each 
man plundered his neighbour, and Gulab Singh's energies were taxed 
to the utmost in restoring order. He was a man of extraordinary 
power, and very quickly asserted his authority. His methods were 
often cruel and unscrupulous, but allowances must be made. He 
believed in object-lessons, and his penal system was at any rate 
successful in ridding the country of crime. He kept a sharp eye on 
his officials, and a close hand on his revenues. Rapidly absorbing the 



HISTORY 9? 

power and possessions of the feudal chiefs around him, after ten years 
of laborious and consistent effort he and his two brother- became 
masters of nearly all the country between Kashmir and the Punjab, 
save Rajaori. Bhadarwah fell easily into the hands of Gulab Singh 
after a slight resistance. In Kishtwar, the minister, Wazlr Lakhpat, 
quarrelled with the Raja and sought the assistance of Gulab Singh, 
who at once moved up with a force, and the Raja surrendered his 
country without fighting. 

His easy successes in Kishtwar, which commanded two of the roads 
into Ladakh, probably suggested die ambitious idea of the conquest 
of that unknown land. The difficulties of access offered by mountains 
and glaciers were enormous: but the brave Dogras under Gulab 
Singh's officer, Zorawar Singh, never hesitated, and in two campaigns 
the whole of Ladakh passed into the hands of the Jammu State. It is 
interesting to notice that the Dogras did not pillage the rich monastery 
of Himis, which saved itself by allowing the army in ignorance of 
its locality to pass the gorge leading to the Himis valley, and then 
sending a deputation with an offer of free rations while in ladakh 
territory. The agreement made was respected by both parties. 

A few years later, in 1S40. Zorawar Singh invaded Baltistan, captured 
the Raja of Skardu, who had sided with the Ladakhis, and annexed 
his country. The following year ( 184 1) Zorawar Singh while invading 
Tibet was overtaken by winter, and, being attacked when his troops 
were disabled by cold, perished with nearly all his army. Whether 
it was policy or whether it was accident, by 1840 Gulab Singh had 
encircled Kashmir. 

In the winter of 1S45 war broke out between the British and the 
Sikhs. Gulab Singh contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of 
Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the 
trusted adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. 
By the first the State of I^ahore handed over to the British, as equiva- 
lent for one crore of indemnity, the hill countries between the rivers 
Beas and the Indus ; by the second the British made over to Gulab 
Singh for 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the 
east of the Indus and west of the Ravi. Kashmir did not, however, 
come into the Maharaja's hands without fighting. Imam-ud-din, the 
Sikh governor, aided by the restless Bambas from the Jhelum valley, 
routed Gulab Singh's troops on the outskirts of Srlnagar, killing Wazlr 
Lakhpat. Owing, however, to the mediation of Sir Henry Lawren 
Imam-ud-din desisted from opposition and Kashmir passed without 
further disturbances to the new ruler. At Astur and Gilgit the I >oura 
troops relieved the Sikhs, Nathu Shah, the Sikh commander, taking 
service under Gulab Singh. Not long afterwards the Hunza Raja 
attacked Gilgit territory. Xathu Shah retorted by lead _ .1 force to 



96 KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

attack the Hunza valley ; he and his force were destroyed, and Gilgit 
fort fell into the hands of the Hunza Raja, along with Punial, Yasln, 
and Darel. The Maharaja sent two columns, one from Astor and one 
from Baltistan, and after some fighting Gilgit fort was recovered. In 
1852, partly by strategy, partly by treachery, the Dogra troops were 
annihilated by the bloodthirsty Gaur Rahman of Yasln, and for eight 
years the Indus formed the boundary of the Maharaja's territories. 

Gulab Singh died in 1857 : and when his successor, Ranbir Singh, 
had recovered from the strain caused by the Mutiny, in which he had 
loyally sided with the British, he determined to recover Gilgit, and to 
rehabilitate the reputation of the Dogras on the frontier. In i860 
a force under Devi Singh crossed the Indus, and advanced on Gaur 
Rahman's strong fort at Gilgit. Gaur Rahman had died just before 
the arrival of the Dogras. The fort was taken ; and since then the 
Maharajas of Jammu and Kashmir have held it, to their heavy cost 
and somewhat doubtful advantage. 

Ranbir Singh was a model Hindu : devoted to his religion and to 
Sanskrit learning, but tolerant of other creeds. He was in many ways 
an enlightened man, but he lacked his father's strong will and deter- 
mination, and his control over the State officials was weak. The latter 
part of his life was darkened by the dreadful famine in Kashmir, 
1877-9; an( l in September, 1885, he was succeeded by his eldest son, 
the present Maharaja Pratap Singh, G. C.S.I. He bears the hereditary 
title of Maharaja, and receives a salute of 19 guns, increased to 21 in 
his own territory. 

Through all these vicissitudes of government and changes in religion 
the Kashmiri has remained unaltered. Mughal, Afghan, Sikh, and 
Dogra have left no impression on the national character ; and at heart 
the people of the valley are Hindus, as they were before the time of 
Sikandar Shah. The isolation from the outer world accounts for this 
stable unchanging nationality, and passages in the Rajataranginl show 
that the main features of the national character were the same in the 
early period of Hindu rule as they are now. 

The valley of Kashmir is holy land, and everywhere one finds 
remains of ancient temples and buildings called by the present inhabi- 
tants, though without historical foundation, Pandavlari, ' the houses of 
the Pandavas.' These ancient buildings, though more or less injured by 
iconoclasts, vandal builders, earthquakes, and, as Cunningham thinks, 
by gunpowder, are composed of a blue limestone capable of taking the 
highest polish, and of great solidity. They defy weather and time, 
while the later works of the Mughals, the mosques of Aurangzeb and 
the pleasure-places of Sallm and Nur Mahal, are crumbling away and 
possess little or none of their pristine beauty. 

The Hindu buildings of Kashmir have been described bv Sir 



HISTORY 9 7 

Alexander Cunningham and Mr. F. S. Growse 1 . They exhihit traces 
of the influence of Grecian art, and are distinguished by the graceful 
elegance of their outlines, by the massive boldness of their parts, and 
by the happy propriety of their decorations. Characteristic features 
are the lofty pyramidal roofs, trefoiled doorways covered by pyramidal 
pediments, and the great width of the space between columns. 

Among the numerous temples two may be noticed — Martand and 
Payech — the first for its grandeur, and the second for its excellent 
preservation. Martand, the Temple of the Sun, stands on a sloping 
karewa, about 3 miles east of Islamabad, overlooking the finest view 
in Kashmir. The great structure was built by Lalitaditya in the eighth 
century. Kalasa came here at the approach of death and expired at 
the feet of the sacred image (1089). In the time of Kalhana the 
chronicler, the great quadrangular courtyard was used as a fortification, 
and the sacred image is said to have been destroyed by Sikandar, the 
iconoclast. 

The building consists of one lofty central edifice, with a small 
detached wing on each side of the entrance, the whole standing in a 
large quadrangle surrounded by a colonnade of eighty-four pillars with 
intervening trefoil-headed recesses. The length of the outer side of 
the wall, which is blank, is about 90 yards ; that of the front is about 
56 yards. The central building is 63 feet in length by 36 feet in 
width, and, alone of all the temples of Kashmir, possesses, in addition 
to the cella or sanctuary, a choir and nave, termed in Sanskrit the 
antarala and arddho.maiuiapa ; the nave is 18 feet square. The 
sanctuary alone is left entirely bare, the two other compartments being 
lined with rich panellings and sculptured niches. As the main build- 
ing is at present entirely uncovered, the original form of the roof can 
be determined only by a reference to other temples and to the general 
form and character of the various parts of the Martand temple itself. 
It has been conjectured that the roof was pyramidal, and that the 
entrance chamber and wings were similarly covered. There would 
thus have been four distinct pyramids, of which that over the inner 
chamber must have been the loftiest, the height of its pinnacle above 
the ground being about 75 feet. 

The interior must have been as imposing as the exterior, ^n 
ascending the flight of steps, now covered by ruins, the votary entered 
a highly decorated chamber, with a doorway on each side covered by 
a pediment, with a trefoil-headed niche containing a bust of the Hindu 
triad, and on the flanks of the main entrance, as well as on those oi 
the side doorways, were pointed and trefoil niches, each of which held 
a statue of a Hindu deity. The interior decorations of the roof can 
only be determined conjecturally, as there do not appear to be any 

1 Calcutta Review. No. CVIL 



98 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

ornamented stones that could with certainty be assigned to it. Baron 
Hugel doubts whether Martand ever had a roof ; but as the walls of the 
temple are still standing, the numerous heaps of large stones that are 
scattered about on all sides suggest the idea that these belonged to 
the roof. Fergusson, however, thought that the roof was of wood. 

Payech lies about 19 miles from Srinagar under the Naunagri 
karewa, about 6 miles from the left bank of the Jhelum river. On the 
south side of the village, situated in a small green space near the bank 
of the stream surrounded by a few walnut and willow trees, stands an 
ancient temple, which in intrinsic beauty and elegance of outline is 
superior to all the existing remains in Kashmir of similar dimensions. 
Its excellent preservation may probably be explained by its retired 
situation at the foot of the high table-land, which separates it by an 
interval of 5 or 6 miles from the bank of the Jhelum, and by the mar- 
vellous solidity of its construction. The cella, which is 8 feet square, 
and has an open doorway on each of the four sides, is composed of only 
ten stones, the four corners being each a single stone, the sculptured 
tympanums over the doorways four others, while two more compose 
the pyramid roof, the lower of these being an enormous mass, 8 feet 
square by 4 feet in height. It has been ascribed by Sir Alexander 
Cunningham, on grounds which, in the absence of any positive 
authority either way, may be taken as adequate, to Narendraditya, 
who reigned from 483 to 490. Fergusson; however, considered that 
the temple belongs to the thirteenth century. The sculptures over 
the doorways are coarsely executed in comparison with the artistic 
finish of the purely architectural details, and are much defaced, but 
apparently represent Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, and the goddess Durga. 
The building is said to be dedicated to Vishnu as Surya or the Sun- 
god. Inside the cupola is rayed, so as to represent the sun ; and at 
each corner of the square the space intervening between the angle and 
the line of the circle is filled up with a. jinn or attendant, who seems 
to be sporting at the edge of its rays. The roof has been partly 
displaced, which is said to have been the result of an attempt made to 
take it down and remove it to the city. The interior is still occupied 
by a large stone lingcm. 

Table III at the end of this article (p. 145) shows the distribution of 

population in 1901. An estimate of the number of inhabitants was 

_. , . made in 187s, but the first regular Census was taken 

Population. _ J°\ , & . . 

in 1891. In that year the population was 2,543,952, 

and it rose to 2,905,578 in 1901, or by 14 per cent. To a considerable 

extent the increase was due to improved enumeration, as for example 

in Gilgit, where the number recorded rose from 16,769 to 60,885. The 

increase amounted to 22 per cent, in the Kashmir province, compared 

with only 6 per cent, in Jammu. The density of population in the 



POPULATION 99 

whole State is 36 persons per square mile. Details of the area of sub- 
divisions are not available, but the density per square mile of land 
under cultivation varies from 64 in Muzaffarabad district to 1,295 m 
Gilgit, where cultivable land is scarce. There are only two towns of 
any size, Jammu (36,130) and Srinagar (122,618) ; but the State con- 
tains 8,946 villages. Nearly half the total population live in villages 
with a population of less than 500 each. Formerly, considerable num- 
bers of Kashmiris emigrated to the Punjab, but the census results in 
that Province show that only 83,240 persons born in Kashmir were 
enumerated there in 1901, compared with 111,775 in l8Sl - Statistics 
of age are, as usual, unreliable, and need not be referred to in detail. 
In the whole State there are 884 females to 1,000 males, the pro- 
portion being highest in the frontier tracts (933) and lowest in Kashmir 
province (876). These results point to defective enumeration of 
females. Marriage is comparatively late, and less than 1 per cent, 
of the males under fifteen years, and about 2 per cent, of the females 
of the same age, are married. Taking the whole population, n per 
cent, of males and 39 per cent, of females are married. Polyandry 
is prevalent in Ladakh. About 34 per cent, of the population speak 
Kashmiri, and 15 per cent. Dogri, while Punjabi is the tongue of 
nearly 30 per cent. A great variety of languages are used, in various 
parts of the State, by comparatively small numbers. Agriculture sup- 
ports 54 per cent, of the total, and weaving and allied arts 2 per cent. 

The total population includes 2,154,695 Muhammadans, 689,073 
Hindus, 25,828 Sikhs, and 35,047 Buddhists. The Hindus are found 
chiefly in the Jammu province, where they form rather less than half 
the total. In the Kashmir province they represent only 524 in every 
10,000 of population, and in the frontier wazarats of Ladakh and 
Gilgit only 97 out of every 10,000 persons. 

Among the Hindus of the Jammu province, who number 626,177, 
the most important castes are the Brahmans (iS6,ooo), the Rajputs 
(167,000), the Khattris (48,000), and the Thakkars (93,000). Each 
caste is subdivided into many sub-castes ; but fur practical purposes 
the Dogra Rajputs do not regard the finer divisions of the ethnologist, 
but draw a broad distinction between the Mian Rajputs who engage in 
neither trade nor agriculture, and the other Rajputs who have con- 
descended to work for their living. The Mians will marry the daughters 
of the latter class, but will not give their own daughters in marriage 
to them. They have territorial names, such as Jamwal and Jasrotia, 
signifying that the family is connected with Jammu and Jasrota. They 
mostly hold land on pepper-corn rents, cultivated by others, who take 
a share of the crops. The Mian Rajput gladly serves as a soldier, In- 
choice in the cavalry, and if there is not room for him in the Maharaja's 
forces, he will enlist in the Indian army. In the Hun/a Nagar campaign 



ioo KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

and at Chitral the Dogra Rajput worthily maintained his ancient repu- 
tation. As a soldier he is admirable, but as a landowner evil days are 
in store for him. The agriculture of the Dogra country is uncertain, 
and not over-profitable ; and in the course of years the proud, gallant, 
and thriftless Rajput will be ousted by the sturdy Thakkars and Jats 
(Musalman, 123,000; Hindu, 25,000). The Rajputs are a handsome 
race, wiry and active. They observe caste rules very strictly. Female 
infanticide was the common rule in the memory of men still middle- 
aged, and the sail of Raja Suchet Singh's ladies is still remembered by 
the old men. The Khattrls are an important people, keen and clever. 
They are the financiers and officials of the State, and some of the best 
servants of the Maharaja have been Dogra Khattrls. 

The origin of the word ' Dogra ' is commonly stated by the people 
themselves to have arisen from the fact that the cradle of the Dogra 
race lies between the two holy lakes, Saroin Sar and Man Sar, not far 
from Jammu. Drigartdesh, or the 'country of the two hollows,' was 
corrupted into Dugar, and Dugra became Dogra. From Jammu 
stretching east along the plains of the Punjab the country is Dogra ; 
and all who live in that tract, whether they be Hindus, Musalmans, 
or Sikhs, whether high-born Rajputs or low-born menials, are known 
as Dogras, and have certain national characteristics and a common 
tongue, which differentiate them from any of the other peoples of India. 
Some authorities doubt this derivation, and say that Dogra is a cor- 
ruption of the Rajasthani word for ' hills ' {dungar), and that when 
the Rajputs forced their way up north they gave this name to the 
hilly country. 

The Dogras hold the tract of lowland country along the British 
border, and the outer ranges of hills from the Manawar or Malikani 
Tawi on the west to the Ravi river on the south-east, which is bounded 
towards the higher mountains by a line drawn along the hills to the 
south of the Budil ilaka through Batoti and thence to the Ravi river 
north-east of Basoli. From the Manawar Tawi to the Jhelum is the 
country known as Chibhal, the home of the Chibs. The Chibs are 
mostly Musalman, but there are Hindu Chibs as well. Both trace 
their origin to a Rajput chief, named Jassu. Dharam Chand, a 
descendant of Jassu, was versed in medicine, and was summoned 
to Delhi to attend Jahangir. The fee in case of success was the 
emperor's daughter. Dharam Chand was successful ; he married 
the Mughal princess, and was known henceforth as Shadi Khan. 
But he longed for his country and left his bride, and the next year 
the Mughals invaded his country and slew Shadi Khan. 

The Hindu Chibs are descended from Shadi Khan by his Hindu 
wife, while the Muhammadan Chibs are the progeny of his family 
subsequent to their acceptance of Islam. Both Hindu and Musal- 



POPULATION i or 

man Chibs repair annually to the tomb of Shadi Khan at a place in 
the Kali Dhar hills in the Naoshera tahsil. Like the Dogra Rajputs, 
the Chibs look upon service as the sole career for a man, but both 
Hindus and Musalmans till the soil. They are a fighting people, and 
the spirit of adventure takes them out of their own country. They 
follow the caste rules of the Hindu Rajputs, but are perhaps stronger 
and more muscular than the Dogras to the east. Besides the Chibs, 
there are Musalman Rajputs to the west of the Chenab — the 
Jarals, the Bhaos (unfavourably known in Akhnur), the Gakhars, 
and many others. It should be noticed that the Hindu Chibs give 
their daughters in marriage to the ruling family of Jammu and 
Kashmir. 

Drew, in his book. Jam nut a nd Kashmir Territories, suggests that the 
Bambas and Khakhas of the Jhelum valley might be classed under the 
head Chibhali. Very little is known as to when these people migrated 
into Muzaffarabad and Uri districts, or whence they came ; but it is 
generally admitted that they had a foreign origin. It is probable that 
the Khakhas have occupied the country on the left bank of the Jhelum 
for 300 years or more, and that the Bambas, who live on the right bank 
of the river, came in yet earlier. The Khakhas, who enjoy the proud 
title of Raja, are, like the Chibs, Musalman Rajputs, and trace their 
descent to Raja Mai Rathor. They regard themselves as belonging to 
the Janjuah tribe. The Bambas, who are styled Sultans, deprecate 
a Hindu origin. They claim to belong to the Kureshi tribe, and say 
that the name Bamba is a corruption of Bani-Hashim, and that they 
are descended from All, the son-in-law of Muhammad. The Khakhas 
and Bambas have a privileged status in the Jhelum valley, and their 
power has varied according to the weakness or strength of the central 
authority. Under the Afghans, the Khakhas and Bambas paid little 
to their overlord, and were practically independent. The Sikhs tight- 
ened their hold over the Jhelum valley, but the Khakhas and Bambas 
retained certain privileges. 

Numerically the Gujars are of some importance, both in Jammu, 
where they number 151,700, and in Kashmir, where they are returned 
at 125,650. Some of them have settled down to agriculture; but the 
great majority are herdsmen, and in the summer months move up to 
the splendid grazing-grounds above the forests with their buffaloes and 
goats. They are Musalmans by religion, and many of the Gujar tribes 
speak a dialect of their own known as Parimu. They are a fine tall 
race of men, with rather stupid faces and large prominent teeth. They 
sacrifice every consideration for their buffaloes, and even in their culti- 
vation, chiefly maize, their first thought is for these animals. They are 
ignorant, inoffensive, and simple, and their good faith is proverbial. 
Kashmir and its mountains have especial attractions for the Gujars ; 



io2 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

but as forest conservancy extends, these born enemies of the forest will 
find Kashmir less attractive. 

Another pastoral semi-nomad people are the Gaddis (5,927) of 
Kishtwar. They graze large flocks of sheep and goats, moving up the 
mountains as the summer draws on, and returning to the low country 
when the first snow falls. Their homes are in the high pastures, but 
they are for most part of the year roving, though in some places there 
are regular settled villages of Gaddis. They are Hindus. They wear 
duffel clothes and a very peculiar hat of stiff cloth. All speak well of 
the Gaddis, and they are a popular people, welcome everywhere. 

In the Kashmir province, out of a total population of i,i57,394> 
Muhammadans number 1,083,766, Hindus 60,682, and Sikhs 12,637. 
The Census, however, was taken in the winter, when many of the 
resident population were away working in the Punjab. 

The Kashmiri is unchanged, in spite of the splendid Mughal, the 
brutal Afghan, and the bully Sikh. Warriors and statesmen came and 
went ; but there was no egress, and no wish on the part of the Kash- 
miris in normal times to leave their home. The outside world was far, 
and from all accounts inferior to the pleasant valley, and at each of the 
gates of the valley were soldiers who demanded fees. So the Kashmiris 
lived their self-centred life, conceited, clever, and conservative. 

Islam came in on a strong wave, on which rode a fanatical king and 
a missionary saint, and history records that the Kashmiris became 
Musalmans. But close observers of the country see that the so-called 
Musalmans are still Hindus at heart. Their shrines are on the exact 
spots where the old Hindu sthans stood, and these receive an attention 
which is not vouchsafed to the squalid mosques and the mean mullas. 
The Kashmiris do not flock to Mecca, and religious men from Arabia have 
spoken in strong terms of the apathy of these tepid Musalmans. There 
are many shrines, shrines of the Rishis, the Babas, and the Makhdum 
Sahib Plrzadas, known as the Wami or 'national,' as distinguished from 
the Saiyids and Saiyid Plrzadas who are foreigners. And as in religion, 
so in social evolution, there has been little change up to recent times 
in the people of Kashmir. Peculiarities noticed in the Rajatarangini 
still mark the national character. Witchcraft and sorcery are rampant 
now as they were in the times of the Hindu kings. 

The Musalmans of Kashmir may be divided into four divisions : 
Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far 
the most numerous, arc the descendants of Hindus, but have retained 
none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names 
known as kram ; but a man of the Tantre kram may marry a girl of the 
same kram, or a maiden of some other kram, provided she be one 
of the agricultural families. The only line drawn is that a man of the 
Shaikh kram may not marry a Saiyid girl, nor must he demean himself 



POPULATIOX T03 

by an alliance with the daughter of a market-gardener or a menial. 
Some hold that the krams known as Pandit, Kol, Bat, Aitu, Rishi, 
Mantu, and Ganai are descended from the Brahmans, and that the 
Magres, Tantres, Dars, Dangars, Rainas, Rathors, Thakurs, and Naiks 
are sprung from a Kshattriya origin. The Lon kram is assigned a 
Vaisya descent, and the Damars are connected with Sudras. There 
may be some foundation for these theories ; but the krams are now 
mixed, and confusion is increasing owing to the fashion of the lower 
castes who arrogate the krams of the respectable families. Thus the 
Dums, the gardeners, and the butchers have begun to call themselves 
Ganais, much to the annoyance of the true Ganais. And the boatmen, 
a most disreputable community, have appropriated the kram name of 
Dar. The social system is very plastic, and prosperity and a very little 
wealth soon obliterate a humble origin. 

The Saiyids may be divided into those who follow the profession of 
religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. In 
appearance, manners, and language there is nothing to distinguish them 
from other Kashmiri Musalmans. Their kram name is Mir. While 
a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix ; if he has taken to 
agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name. , The Saiyid Makar fraternity 
are fraudulent fakirs who pretend to be Saiyids and wander about 
Kashmir and India, cheating the public. Many have now taken to 
trade. They intermarry among themselves. 

The Mughals are not numerous. Their kram names are Mir (a cor- 
ruption of Mirza), Beg, Bandi, Bach, and Ashaye. 

The Pathans are more numerous than the Mughals, and are found 
chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from 
time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is 
that of the Kuki-Khel Afrldis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old 
customs and speak Pashtu. They wear a picturesque dress, and carry 
swords and shields. They pride themselves on their bravery, and in 
the absence of the nobler foe engage the bear on foot with the sword 
or spear him from their plucky little ponies. The Afrldis and the 
Machipurias who belong to the Yusufzai tribe are liable to military 
service, in return for which they hold certain villages free of revenue. 
The Pathans chiefly came in under the Durranis, but many were 
brought by Maharaja Gulab Singh for service on the frontier. They 
are rapidly adopting Kashmiri habits. 

Several villages are held by fakirs or professional beggars. They 
work as agriculturists in the summer, and beg in the winter. They are 
proud of their profession and are liked by the people. They intermarry 
with other beggar families or Bechamvols. These various tribes are scat- 
tered broadcast over the valley and possess no marked distinctive features. 

The dividing line in society is between the zamitiddrs or agricultural 



io4 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

families and the taifadars, that is, the market-gardeners, herdsmen, 
shepherds, boatmen, minstrels, leather-workers, and the menial servants 
of the villagers. No zatnlndar would intermarry with a taifadar. For 
the most part it is difficult to trace any difference in physiognomy 
between the two classes, though there is often a difference in dress. 
But the Dum, the Galawan, and the Batal or Watal are easy to dis- 
tinguish from other tribes. They have a darker skin, and the Dum 
has the restless, furtive eye so characteristic of the thief. 

The Dums are a very important people in Kashmir, for they are the 
watchmen of the villages and formerly used to look after the State 
share of the crops. As a private citizen the Dum is not an admirable 
person, and he loses no opportunity of annoying the villagers, by whom 
he is feared and disliked. But as officials they are trustworthy, and 
have never been known to steal the State treasure which passes through 
their hands. The Dums claim descent from a Hindu king, who from 
fear of his numerous sons scattered them over the valley, but some say 
that they are descendants of the Chakks, mentioned under History. 

The Galawans or horse-keepers are also credited with a descent 
from the Chakks, and their violent restless character may be hereditary. 
Originally they earned their lining by grazing ponies, but found it more 
lucrative to steal them. At last they became an established criminal 
tribe, and during Sikh rule were a terror to the country. Khaira 
Galawan, the hero of many a legend, was killed by the Sikh governor 
Mian Singh. Gulab Singh hunted down the tribe, and their end was 
transportation to Bunji. 

The Batals or Watals have been called the gipsies of Kashmir, and 
are a peculiar people with a patois of their own. They may be divided 
into two classes. Those who abstain from eating carrion and are 
admitted to the mosque and to the Musalman religion form the first 
class ; those who eat the flesh of dead animals and are excluded from 
the mosque form the second. They are wanderers, and though they 
sometimes settle in wattled huts on the outskirts of a village, they soon 
move on. Their chief occupation is the manufacture of leather. The 
first class make boots and sandals ; the second class make winnowing 
trays of leather and straw, and do scavenger's work. They also rear 
poultry and rob hen-roosts. Their women are of fine stature and hand- 
some, and they often drift into the city, where they become singers and 
dancers. Once a year the Batals from all parts of the valley flock to 
Lala Bab's shrine near the Dal Lake, and many matters affecting the 
tribe are then settled. 

The Bhands or minstrels are a peculiar people. They combine the 
profession of singing and acting with that of begging ; and they travel 
great distances, often visiting the Punjab, where they perform to 
Kashmiri audiences. They are excellent actors, clever at improvi- 



POPULATION io 5 



sation and fearless as to its results. They are a very pleasant people, 
and their mirth and good humour form an agreeable contrast to 
the chronic gloom of the Kashmiri peasant. 

The Hanz or boatmen claim a Vaisya origin, and even now when 
blaming one of the crew for his bad paddling the captain will say : 
' You are a Sudra.' They always claim Noah as their ancestor ; but 
some accounts point to a gipsy origin. The father of the family is an 
autocrat, and his discipline on board is often of a violent character. 
There are many sections of the tribe. First rank the half-amphibious 
paddlers of the Dal Lake (Demb Hanz), who are really vegetable 
gardeners, and the boatmen of the Wular Lake, who gather the singhara 
nut (Gari Hanz). Next in status come the men of the large barges 
known as bahats and war, in which cargoes of 800 maunds of grain or 
wood are carried. Then the Dunga Hanz, who paddle the passenger 
boats, not a respectable class, for they prostitute their females ; next 
the Gad Hanz, who net fish, and are said to surpass even the Dunga 
Hanz in their power of invective ; and last the Hak Hanz, who collect 
drift-wood in the rivers. The Hanz or Hanjis are a hardy muscular 
people, but are quarrelsome and mendacious. Half the stories to the 
discredit of Kashmir and its inhabitants are due to the fertile imagina- 
tion of the Hanji, who after the manner of the Irish car-driver tells 
travellers quaint scandals of the valley and its rulers. The Hanji 
ashore is a great rascal, and European travellers would be wise to leave 
him in his boat. The chief kram names of the Hanjis are Dangar, 
Dar, and Mai. 

The menial servants (Nangar) of the villages are carpenters, black- 
smiths, potters, weavers, butchers, washermen, barbers, tailors, bakers, 
goldsmiths, carriers, oil-pressers, dyers, milkmen, cotton-cleaners, and 
snuff-makers. Many of the Nangars have taken to agriculture, and 
most of them are extremely independent of their so-called masters. 
The only class of menials who apparently cannot take to agriculture 
are the weavers. Their soft hands and weak knees make field-work 
an impossibility. 

The Hindus are with few exceptions Brahmans, and are commonly 
known as Pandits. They fall into three classes : astrologers (Jyotis/ii), 
priests (Guru or Bachabatf), writers and clerks {Karkun). The priest 
class do not intermarry with the others, but the Jyotishl and Karkun 
classes intermarry. 

The astrologers are learned in the shdstras and expound them, and 
they draw up the calendars in which prophecies are made as to the 
events of the coming year. The priests perform the rites and cere- 
monies of the Hindu religion. But the vast majority of the brahmans 
belong to the Karkun class. Formerly they obtained employment 
from the State, but recently they have taken to business, and some 



io6 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

work as cooks, bakers, confectioners, and tailors. The only occupa- 
tions forbidden to a Pandit are those of the cobbler, potter, corn-frier, 
porter, boatman, carpenter, mason, and fruit-seller. Many Pandits 
have taken to agriculture ; but the city Brahmans look down on any 
profession save that of writing, and they would never think of marrying 
a daughter to a Pandit cultivator. They have no real aptitude for 
business, or they might have found great openings in trade at Srlnagar 
under the new regime. They cling to the city, and if they obtain 
employment outside they leave their wives and families behind them. 
They are a handsome race of men, with fine well-cut features, small 
hands and feet, and graceful figures. Their women are fair and good- 
looking, more refined than the Musalmans. The children are extremely 
pretty. 

The Pandits are broken up into numerous gotras ; but though the 
Pandit repeats the name of his gotra seven times as he performs his 
ablutions, the outside world knows him only by his kram. Marriage 
within the gotra is forbidden, and the Kashmiri Pandits do not inter- 
marry with the Brahmans of India. Among the leading krams may be 
mentioned the following : Tiku, Razdan, Kak, Munshi, Mathu, Kachru 
Pandit, Sapru, Bhan, Zitshu, Raina, Dar, Fotadar, Madan, Thusu, 
Wangnu, Mujju, Hokhu, and Dulu. The descendants of the Brahmans, 
said to be only eleven families, who survived the persecutions of 
Sikandar Shah and remained in the valley, are known as Malmas. The 
others, descended from returned fugitives, are called Banamas. 

There are a few Khattrls, known as Bohras in Srlnagar, engaged in 
trade and shop-keeping. They enjoy no caste fellowship with the 
Pandits, though in old days instances are known of a Khattrl being 
admitted to caste by the Brahmans. 

The Sikhs of Kashmir were probably Punjabi Brahmans who 
embraced Sikhism when the valley passed into the hands of Ranjit 
Singh, but the Sikhs of Trahal declare that their ancestors came to 
Kashmir in the time of Afghan rule. They are not in a flourishing 
condition. They look to service as their chief means of livelihood, 
and are not good cultivators. They are ignorant and troublesome, 
and quarrel with the Musalman Kashmiris and very often among 
themselves. 

In 1901 the State contained 202 native Christians, but, although 
converts are so few, important work has been done by various missions. 
Chief among these is the Church Missionary Society at Srinagar, 
established in 1865, which maintains an excellent hospital. Owing to 
its example, the first State dispensary and school were opened. Other 
missions have been founded by the Moravians and the Roman Catholics 
at Leh. 

The beautiful turf and greensward of Kashmir are so suggestive 






AGRICULTURE 107 

of splendid playgrounds that one naturally expects to find some 
national game in the valley, and the legendary feast of roses conjures 
up a vision of a happy laughing people who were skilled in the battle 
of flowers long before modern Europe dreamed of such carnivals. But 
in reality there is no game and no pastime in Kashmir proper. 
Baltistan, Gilgit, and Astor are the homes of polo, and Ladakh has 
its devil-dance ; but Kashmir has nothing distinctive save its actors, 
the Bhands or Bhagats, already referred to. Sometimes we find in the 
villages a wandering minstrel (Shair), who sings to the accompaniment 
of a guitar, or recites verses, often extempore, full of local allusions 
and usually full of flattery, if an official or person of influence be 
present. Like most Orientals, the Kashmiris regard amusement as 
passive rather than active. They are glad to look on at a race or 
a game, but it is extremely difficult to induce them, athletic and 
powerful as they are, to take a part in any sport. They are not 
altogether to blame. In former days pastime was at a discount, and 
small mercy would have been shown to the serf who suggested that 
life should not be all labour. Even in the pampered city of Srinagar 
the effervescence of youth was checked by Gulab Singh, who sternly 
repressed the old ward fights with slings and stones. The professional 
shikaris are often keen sportsmen ; and the boatmen of Kashmir will, 
when challenged, paddle till they drop rather than be beaten by 
a rival crew. 

As already explained, the Jammu province consists of a fringe of 
level land bordering on the Punjab Districts of Jhelum, Sialkot, and 
Gurdaspur, gradually rising by a succession of ranges . . . 
of hills to the high uplands bounded by the moun- 
tains of the Himalayan range, beyond which lie Kashmir, Baltistan, and 
Ladakh. The variations of climate are great, and the staples cultivated 
naturally vary to some extent with the climate. Thus the lower tracts 
yield all the usual crops of the Punjab, while in the higher tracts 
saffron, buckwheat, and mountain barley are grown. In the warmer 
parts the mango and shisham are found in large quantities ; but these 
give place to apple and pear-trees, to the picturesque deodar and shady 
Oriental plane (chinar) in the colder parts. 

The province may be roughly divided into three main divisions. 
The plains and kandi hills consist of the tahslls of Kathua, Jasmirgarh, 
Samba, Ranblrsinghpura, Jammu, Akhnur, Manawar, and Mirpur. In 
the hot moist tracts, such as those irrigated from the Ravi and Ujh 
in the Jasrota district to the south-west, malaria is so rampant that 
the resident population is too small for the cultivation of the soil, 
which is chiefly tilled by udarach cultivators — men from the low 
hills who descend to the plain for short periods to sow, tend, and reap 
crops, and return again to their healthier homes. 

VOL. XV. H 



ioS KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

North of this lie the thirsty lowlands, sheltered by the hills from the 
cooler inland breezes, seamed with many channels (kad/is), which carry 
off the drainage of the uplands and become roaring torrents for a few 
hours after heavy rainfall, but at other times are broad stretches of 
burning sand. This tract depends for a full harvest on timely and 
well-distributed rainfall. 

The parched kandi hills are composed of a red loam, thickly strewn 
with round stones and covered with stunted growth of garna sanatan 
and bahaikar bushes, broad-leaved species of trees, acacias, and in 
parts bamboos. The tor {Euphorbia) is used to hedge the fields and 
cobble-paved paths, and to keep the ?ulgai from damaging the crops. 
The soil is thirsty and dries quickly, as the land slopes and drainage 
is rapid. Frequent rainfall is necessary to ripen the crops, chiefly 
wheat, barley, and sarshaf (rape) in the spring, and millet and maize 
(on manured land) in the autumn ; but rain washes away the soft earth 
and leaves the surface of the soil a mass of stones. 

Where the kandi hills end, and before the first limestone ridge is 
crossed, there is a narrow belt of cool land lying in the valleys traversed 
by the clear streams which carry the drainage of the middle hills on 
the lower side. When the depth of soil is sufficient, excellent crops 
are raised and much of the land is irrigated ; but on the slopes where 
the depth of earth is small, and the limestone crops up to the surface 
{prat), cultivation is precarious. Too much rain causes the soil to 
become waterlogged, as percolation is stopped by the rock bed ; and 
during a continued spell of hot weather the rock surface becomes so 
heated as to burn the roots of the crops, which wither. 

In this portion of the province wells are few, owing to their cost. 
Except in the lowland bordering on the streams deep boring is neces- 
sary, and it is common to find that the water is from 70 to 100 feet 
below the surface. The cultivators are not as a rule sufficiently well-to- 
do to undertake the expenditure necessary to sink such wells, and risk 
the failure of finding water. Since the introduction of the regular 
settlement, the Darbar has done much to encourage the sinking of 
wells by the grant of advances on easy terms. 

In this tract, however, are found the only considerable areas pro- 
tected by irrigation. The natural difficulties to be overcome are great, 
as the lie of the land makes projects costly and difficult to execute. 
The lines of irrigation have to cross the drainage of the country, and 
it is not easy to secure the channels against damage from the kadhs 
when in flood. Owing to this difficulty, the more ambitious projects 
of former days — the Kashmir canal taking off from the Ravi above the 
Madhopur weir, the Shahi Nahr taking off from the left bank of 
the Chenab opposite Akhnur, and the Katobandi or Dalpat Nahr 
taking off from the Chenab on the right bank — failed to render 






AGRICULTURE ro 9 

permanent help to the country. Something has recently been done 
to remedy the apathy displayed in the past. Two old irrigation works 
taking off from the Tawi in the Jammu tahsil — the Jogi Darwaza canal 
irrigating the land immediately below Jammu city, and the Satwari 
canal irrigating the villages round Satwari cantonment — have been 
realigned and put in order ; and the Dalpat canal, taking off from 
the right bank of the Chenab and irrigating a large portion of the 
Akhnur tahsil immediately north of the Bhajwath Andar, has been 
reconstructed. 

Under agreement with the Government of the Punjab the right of 
the State to take water from the Ravi, above the Madhopur weir, for 
the irrigation of spring crops in the Kathua tahsil has been surrendered 
in consideration of an annual payment of Rs. 5,000. The restoration 
of the old Kashmir canal, which takes off above the weir, is thus not 
financially attractive. Probably the low-lying portion of the Mirpur 
tahsil, known as the Khari ilaka, could be irrigated from the Jhelum ; 
but this source of irrigation has not been tapped. 

There are many drawbacks to agriculture. The administration in 
the past was bad and shortsighted. There are practically no roads, 
and in the kandi tract even drinking-water is obtained with difficulty. 
Much damage is done by nilgai, hog, and monkeys, the first-named 
animal, though an antelope, being regarded as sacred like the cow. 
Cattle turned loose, either as likely to die and of no further use, or 
devoted to the deity, have become quite wild and do much damage to 
crops. 

Above the first limestone range lies a country of wide valleys and 
high hills, consisting of Basoli, Ramnagar, Udhampur, Naoshera, and 
part of Riasi. This has a more temperate climate than the tract just 
described. The supply of water from perennial streams is constant, but 
the stream beds are deep and irrigation is not easily effected. Being 
nearer the Himalayan range, rainfall is usually heavy and fairly 
regular, so that the people do not trouble themselves much about irri- 
gation, except where this can be contrived at little expense. The crops 
are much the same as in the plains, but bdjra gives way to maize, and 
sugar-cane and turmeric disappear. The seasons are shorter. The 
areas of prdti land, where the limestone bed penetrates or approaches 
the surface of the soil, are considerable. Communications are back- 
ward and prices generally rule low. Trade is carried on by Telis, who 
keep droves of pack-bullocks or ponies. Grazing is good and the tract 
is frequented by Gujars, goatherds, and shepherds. A considerable 
export of ghi takes place. Wild hog and monkeys do damage, but no 
antelope are found. Autumnal fevers are very rare. 

The higher uplands, including Bhadrawar, Kishtwar, Ramban, part 
of Riasi, and Rampur Rajaori, have a really cold climate, and in the 

H 2 



no KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

winter snow falls. The cultivators are a different class from those in 
the plains and lower hills, and Kashmiri settlers are found. Here the 
mango-tree gives place to the apple ; and the pear, the Oriental plane 
(chinar), and the deodar are found. The climate approximates to that 
of the valley of Kashmir, and cultivation is on much the same lines. 
The specialities are saffron in Kishtwar, and poppy in Dodar, Kishtwar, 
and Bhadrawar. This tract is healthy, and only in the more shut-in 
valleys do fevers trouble the people. Irrigation is general and the 
rainfall heavy. Grazing lands are plentiful and Gujars numerous. 
Early snowfall and cold winds from the mountains affect the crops in 
the parts adjoining the Himalayan range, and prevent these coming to 
maturity in certain years. Bears, hog, and monkeys do some damage. 

Owing to its system of rivers, Kashmir proper possesses a large area 
of alluvial soil, which may be divided into two classes : the new alluvium, 
found in the bays and deltas of the mountain rivers ; and the old allu- 
vium, lying above the banks of the Jhelum and extending as far as the 
karewas. The first is of great fertility, and every year is renewed and 
enriched by silt from the mountain streams. Up to the present, in 
spite of the lax system of forest conservancy, the silt of the mountain 
streams is rich and of dark colour : but the Sind river brings down an 
increasing amount of sandy deposit, which is partly due to the reckless 
felling of trees in its valley. 

The Kashmiris, so far, have considered no crop worthy of attention 
save rice ; by irrigation and manuring an artificial mould has been ob- 
tained for the rice-fields, and it is rare to hear anything said about the 
original soil. But they recognize four classes which require peculiar 
treatment when under rice cultivation. These are known as grutu, 
bahil, sekil, and dazanlad. Grutu soil contains a large proportion of 
clay. It holds water, and in years of scanty rainfall is the safest land 
for rice. But if the rains be heavy, the soil cakes and the out-turn of 
rice is poor. Bahil is a rich loam of great natural strength ; and there 
is always a danger that by over-manuring the soil will be too strong, 
and the plant will run to blade. Sekil is a light loam with a sandy 
subsoil ; and if there be sufficient irrigation and good rains, the out-turn 
of rice is always large. Dazanlad soil is chiefly found in low-lying 
ground near the swamps, but it sometimes occurs in the higher villages. 
Special precautions are taken to run off irrigation water when the rice 
plant shows signs of a too rapid growth ; and if these are taken in time, 
the out-turn in dazanlad land is sometimes very heavy. A peculiarity 
of this soil is that the irrigation water turns red in colour. Near 
the banks of the Jhelum, and in the vicinity of the Wular Lake, 
is found a rich, peaty soil (nambal), which in years of fair rainfall 
yields enormous crops of rapeseed and maize. This will not pro- 
duce rice and requires no manure. It is, however, the custom to 



AGRICULTURE 



1 1 r 



bum standing weeds and the stubble of the last year's crop before 
ploughing. 

The curious plateaux known as karewas, which form so striking a 
feature in the scenery, are for the most part of grutu soil, with varieties 
distinguished by colour. The most fertile is the dark blackish soil 
known as surhzamhi, the red grutu is the next best, while yellow soil 
is considered the worst of all. Other classes are recognized, and there 
are many local names. 

The Kashmiris are fortunate in possessing ample manure for their 
fields, and are not compelled, like the natives of India, to use the 
greater part of the cattle-dung for fuel. The rule is that all dung, 
whether of sheep, cattle, or horses, dropped in the winter, when the 
animals are in the houses, is reserved for agriculture, while the summer 
dung is dried, and after being mixed with chinar leaves and willow twigs 
is kept for fuel. But the ashes are carefully stored and the fires are 
chiefly fed with wood, the dung aiding and regulating combustion. 
The dung-heaps which one sees in early spring show that the Kashmiri 
wastes nothing that is useful in agriculture ; but he has other resources. 
When the flocks commence to move towards the mountains, the sheep 
are folded on the fields, and the Kashmiri considers turf clods to be 
a far more effectual renovator of rice-fields than farmyard manure. 
These are cut from the sides of watercourses and are rich in silt ; and 
a dressing of clods will strengthen a field for three years, whereas farm- 
yard manure must be applied every year. The strongest farmyard 
manure is that of poultry, and this is reserved for onions. The next 
best is the manure of sheep, which is always kept for the rice nurseries. 
Next comes cattle-dung, and last of all horse-dung. The value of night- 
soil is thoroughly understood. Near Srlnagar and the larger villages 
the garden cultivation is excellent, and the only manure used is pou- 
drette, or night-soil mixed with the dust of the city alleys and pulverized 
by the action of the sun. 

Agriculture in the valley practically depends on irrigation. Thanks 
to the formation of the country, this is easy and in ordinary years abun- 
dant. If normal snows fall in the winter and the great mountains are 
well covered, the water-supply for the rice will be sufficient. The snows 
melt into various mountain streams, which rush down to the Jhelum. 
From both sides of the river the country rises to the mountains in bold 
terraces, and the water passes quickly from one village to another in 
years of good snowfall. At convenient points on the mountain streams 
temporary weirs or projecting spurs are constructed ; and the water is 
taken off in main channels, which pass into a network of small ducts 
and eventually empty themselves into the Jhelum, or into the large 
swamps which lie along its banks. Lower down, where the streams 
flow gently, dams are erected. All villages which depend for their 



it2 KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

irrigation on a certain weir are obliged to assist in its construction 
and repair. The weir consists of wooden stakes and stones, with 
grasses and willow branches twisted in between the stakes, the best 
grass for this purpose being the fikaL The channel often has to be 
taken over ravines and around the edges of the karewa cliffs, and 
irrigation then becomes very difficult. In former days, when the State 
took a share of the crop, it was to the interest of the Darbar to look 
after irrigation and to assist in repairs. But since 1880, when an 
attempt was made to introduce a fixed assessment, the villagers have 
had to attend to repairs themselves, and where the channel passes 
through difficult ground the irrigation has become very uncertain. If 
a ravine has to be crossed, a flat-bottomed boat, similar to those in 
ordinary use, is erected on high trestles, and the water flows over in a 
quaint-looking aqueduct. When a kareiva has to be passed or skirted, 
a tunnel will sometimes be made ; but as a rule the channel is cut along 
the face of the cliff, and great loss is caused by the frequent breaches. 
In old days over every main channel there was a mlrab — one of the 
villagers — whose duty was to see to repairs and to call out labour. 
The mirdbs had not received pay for years, and the channels had fallen 
into great disorder ; but the office has now been revived. The system 
of distribution is rough and simple ; but it has the advantage that quar- 
rels between villages rarely arise, and disputes between cultivators of 
the same village are unknown. Besides the irrigation derived from the 
mountain streams, an important auxiliary supply is obtained from nume- 
rous springs. Some of these afford excellent irrigation, but they have 
two drawbacks. Spring water is always cold, and it does not carry with 
it the fertilizing silt brought down by the mountain streams, but bears 
a scum which is considered bad for rice. The Jhelum in its long, 
gentle course through the valley gives no irrigation at present, but as 
the population increases water will probably be lifted by the Persian 
wheel. The only lift-irrigation at present takes the form of the simple 
and inexpensive pot and lever {d/iefikll), and in Srlnagar and the small 
towns some splendid garden cultivation depends wholly on this system. 
On some of the karewas the spring-level is not very deep; and when all 
the land commanded by flow-irrigation has been taken up, it is hoped 
that wells may be sunk. The bucket and rope will be found more 
suitable than the Persian wheel, as the spring-level is more than 18 feet 
in depth. In the north-west of the valley there are a few tanks, and 
tank-irrigation might be introduced into many parts. 

The agricultural implements are few and simple. The plough is of 
necessity light, as the cattle are small, and is made of various woods, 
the mulberry, the ash, and the apple being perhaps the most suitable 
materials. The ploughshare is tipped with iron. For clod-breaking 
a wooden mallet is used and the work is done in gangs. Sometimes 






AGRICULTURE rr . 

a log of wood is drawn over the furrows by bullocks, the driver standing 
on the log. But as a rule, frost, snow, water, and the process known as 
khushaba are considered a sufficient agency for the disintegration of 
clods. The spade is made of wood, has a narrow face, and is tipped 
with iron. It is chiefly employed by the cultivator for digging out turf 
clods and for arranging his fields for irrigation. For maize and cotton, 
a small hand hoe is used to extract weeds and to loosen the soil. The 
pestle and mortar for husking rice and pounding maize must also be 
mentioned. The mortar is made of a hollowed-out bole of wood. The 
pestle is of light, hard wood, and the best and hardest of woods for the 
purpose is the hawthorn. 

Agricultural operations are carefully timed so as to fall within 
a certain period before or after the naitroz, the spring day of the 
Musalmans, and the mezan, or commencement of autumn. If the 
period is exceeded there will be a certain failure in the crop, which 
is calculated in a most precise manner. The circumstance which 
interferes with punctuality in ploughing and sowing is the absence 
of irrigation water at the right time ; and in the spring there is great 
excitement among the villages if water is stopped by some natural 
cause, such as the late melting of snow, or by other reasons, such as 
the greediness of some privileged person who defies the local official 
and takes more than his just share of water. Up to recent times, 
the cultivator was often seized for forced labour and could not plough 
or sow at the proper time. And though there is no doubt that rice 
ought to be sown within forty days after the nauroz, sowing often 
continues up to the middle of June. 

In March the rice-fields, which have remained undisturbed since the 
last crop was cut, are hard and stiff. The soil has perhaps been worked 
by the frosts and snow ; but if, as is sometimes the case, no snow has 
fallen, it will be difficult work for the plough-bullocks, thin and poor 
after the long winter, to break up the soil. If rain does not fall, a special 
watering must be given and ploughing then commences. In certain 
villages the soil is so damp that ploughing has to be done perforce 
while the soil is wet, and the out-turn is always poorer than from fields 
where the soil is ploughed in a dry condition. All the litter of the 
village and the farmyard manure is carried out to the fields by women 
and ploughed in, or is heaped in a place through which the irrigation 
duct passes and so reaches the fields as liquid manure. Sometimes 
manure is placed in heaps on the fields, and when the field is covered 
with water it is scattered about by hand. Later on in April, as the 
weather opens, turf clods are cut from the banks of streams and irri- 
gation channels, and flung broadcast over the wet fields. When four 
ploughings have been given and the clods have been crumbled with 
mallets, the soil is watered and sowing can commence in April. The 



ii 4 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

rice seed, which has been carefully selected at threshing-time and has 
been stored away in grass bags, is again examined and tested by win- 
nowing. It is then put back into the grass bags and immersed in 
water until germination commences. Sometimes the seed is placed 
in earthen vessels through which water is passed. Rice is grown up 
to an altitude of 7,000 feet ; and in the higher villages it is convenient 
to sow earlier than in the lower villages, as the cold season comes on 
quicker and it is essential to harvest the crop before snow falls. In 
certain lower villages also, where it is the custom to sow rice earlier 
than ordinary, the out-turn is always heavy. The ploughing for maize 
and the autumn millets is not so careful as for rice, and two or three 
ploughings are considered ample. A watering is sometimes given to 
maize-fields to start the seed, but no manure is put in. Cotton alone 
receives manure in the form of ashes mixed with the seed. All Kash- 
miris recognize that the greater the number of ploughings the greater 
will be the out-turn of the crop, but holdings are large and the cattle 
are small and weak. 

In June and July barley and wheat are cut and threshed. The ears 
are trodden out by cattle or sometimes beaten by sticks, and when 
there is no wind a blanket is flapped to winnow the grain. Anything 
is good enough for the spring crops, which are regarded by the Kash- 
miris as a kind of lottery in which they generally lose their stakes. At 
the same time comes the real labour of rice weeding, the khushaba, 
a word for which there is no English equivalent. It involves putting 
the rice plants in their right places, and pressing the soft mud gently 
around the green seedling. No novice can do the work, as only an 
expert can detect the counterfeit grasses which pretend to be rice, and 
khushaba must be learnt young. The operation is best performed by 
hand, but it may be done by the feet (/at), or, in a fashion, by cattle 
splashing up and down the wet fields of mud (gupan nind). Sometimes 
when the rice is two feet high the whole crop is ploughed up (se/e). 
When rice has bloomed and the grain has begun to form, the water is 
run off the fields, and a short time before harvest a final watering is 
given which swells the ears. Often, while the rice is standing, rapeseed 
is cast into the water. No ploughing is given, and a crop of rape is 
thus easily obtained. Before the harvest of the autumn crops com- 
mences, about the first half of September, rain may fall and it is very 
beneficial. It improves the rice crop, and it also enables the cultivator 
to plough and sow for the spring crops. Such rain is known as kambar 
ha, and there is great rejoicing when these timely showers occur. Before 
September, if rain has fallen, a large area of land will be ploughed up 
and sown with rapeseed; and both this and the early sowings for barley 
and wheat are of importance, as they come at a time when the culti- 
vator and his cattle have some leisure, for then the khushaba is over 



AGRICULTURE T r 5 

and harvest has not commenced. There are no carts in the valley, 
save in the flat plain around the Wular Lake, where a primitive trolly 
is used ; and as the Kashmiris will not use plough-bullocks for carriage, 
the sheaves of rice and of other crops are slowly and laboriously carried 
by men to the threshing-floor. When the ricks are thoroughly dry, 
threshing commences. Seizing a bundle of rice plants in his two 
hands, the cultivator beats them over a log of wood and detaches the 
ears from the stalk. The straw is carefully stored, as it is considered 
the best fodder and the best thatching straw of all. 

When the weather is favourable, from October to December, the 
cultivator is busy ploughing 'dry' land for wheat and barley; but 
by the end of December ploughing must cease, and the Kashmiris 
occupy themselves with threshing and husking the rice and other crops 
and with domestic work, such as the tending of sheep and cattle and 
the weaving of blankets. It is difficult in mid-winter to tempt a Kash- 
miri out of his reeking house. The ploughings for wheat and barley 
are very few and very slovenly. For wheat three at the most, for 
barley two, are considered sufficient. No labour is spent in weeding 
or manuring, and the standing crops of wheat and barley would shock 
a Punjabi farmer. The fields are choked with weeds, and it is wonder- 
ful that there should be any crop at all. Two years of barley or wheat 
would ruin any land, and the Kashmiris have the sense to follow a 
spring crop by an autumn crop. Some day more attention may be 
paid to their barley and wheat, but two facts prevent either of these 
crops being largely produced in the valley. The rainfall is scanty and 
very uncertain, and if irrigation were attempted the water in the spring- 
time would prove too cold for plant growth. 

The principal crops are rice, maize, cotton, saffron, tobacco, hops, 
millets, amaranth, buckwheat, pulses, and sesamum in the autumn ; 
and wheat, barley, poppy, rape, flax, peas, and beans in the spring. 

The most important staple is rice, and the cultivator devotes all his 
energy to this crop. The soil is porous, and water must be kept 
running over the fields from sowing time almost to harvest ; for if once 
the land becomes hard and caked, the stalks are pinched and the plant 
suffers, while the work of khushaba is rendered impossible. It is 
dangerous to leave the fields dry for more than seven days, and the 
cultivator should always be present to watch the water. The growth 
of weeds is very rapid ; and once they get ahead of the rice, it is 
extremely difficult to repair the injury caused and to eradicate the 
grasses, which none but an expert can distinguish from the rice. There 
are two systems of cultivation. Under the first the rice is sown broad- 
cast ; under the second it is first sown in a nursery and then planted 
out. The broadcast system gives the best out-turn per acre, but the 
labour entailed is far heavier than that required in the nursery system. 



n6 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Two khushabas are sufficient for the latter, while four khushabas are 
essential in broadcast sowings. Provided the soil is good and irrigation 
is fairly abundant, the cultivator will choose the broadcast system, but 
in certain circumstances he will adopt the nursery method. If water 
comes late, rice can be kept alive in the nursery plots, and the young 
seedling need not be planted out till forty days after sowing. 

Just as there are two methods of sowing the rice, so there are two 
methods of preparing the soil. The one is known as tao, the other 
as kenalu. An old proverb says that for rice cultivation the land 
should be absolutely wet or absolutely dry. In tao cultivation the soil 
is ploughed dry ; and when the clods are perfectly free from moisture 
and do not lose weight when placed over the fireplace at night, irriga- 
tion is given and the seed is sown. In kenalu cultivation the soil is 
ploughed wet ; and when three ploughings are made and the soil 
is half water and half mud, the out-turn of kenalu is sometimes equal 
to that of tao. But as a rule the tao system gives the better results and 
kenalu involves the heavier labour. 

The rices are infinite in variety. In one tahsll fifty-three varieties 
have been counted. They may be roughly divided into two classes, 
the white and the red. As a food the white rice is the more esteemed, 
and the best of the white rices are basmati and kanyun. These germi- 
nate very quickly and ripen more rapidly than any other. But they 
are very delicate plants and cannot stand exposure to cold winds. 
They give a small crop and require very careful husking. The white 
rice, though esteemed as a food, is from a cultivator's point of view 
less popular than the red rice, which is more hardy, gives a larger 
out-turn, can be grown at higher elevations, and is less liable to 
damage from wild animals. 

For a good rice harvest the following conditions are necessary : 
heavy snows on the mountains in the winter to fill the streams in the 
summer ; good rains in March and the beginning of April ; clear, 
bright, warm days and cool nights in May, June, July, and August, 
with an occasional shower and fine cold weather in September. All 
Kashmiris assert that sirdana, or full grains, depend on cold dew 
penetrating the outer husk and swelling and hardening the forming 
grain. 

Next in importance comes maize. The best soil is reclaimed swamp, 
and enormous crops are raised in good years from the black peaty 
land which lies under the banks of the Jhelum. In the high villages 
occupied by the Gtijar graziers very fine crops of maize are grown, 
and the out-turn is due to the heavy manuring given to the field by 
buffaloes and cattle. But with this exception maize receives no 
manure, and the system of harvesting renders it unnecessary. A large 
part of the stalk is left on the fields, and in the winter the stalks rot 



AGRICULTURE IT? 

with the snow and rain into the soil. Ordinarily two to three plough- 
ing* are given, and a final ploughing covers over the seeds. A month 
after sowing, when the maize is about a foot high, women weed the 
fields with a small hand hoe and loosen the soil about the roots. As 
a rule, maize is grown on ' dry ' land, and it is rare to find it irrigated. 
For a really good crop of maize fortnightly rains are required, but 
in the swamp-lands the natural moisture of the soil produces fair crops 
even if the rains are delayed. 

Kangni or shot (Setaria italica) is an extremely useful plant ; and 
when it is apparent from the lock of the mountains that snow water 
will be scarce, a large area of rice land is at once sown with it. The 
land, if a good crop is hoped for, must be carefully ploughed about 
four times, and the seed is sown in April and May about the same 
time as rice. Some weeding is done, but as a rule the crop is left 
until it ripens in September. China or ping {Panicum miliaceuni) 
is very like rice in appearance, but is grown on ' dry ' land. The field 
is ploughed three times, and after sowing cattle are turned on to the 
land to tread the soil down. The seed is sown in June, and the crop 
is harvested in September. It is occasionally weeded ; but like kangni, 
with which it is always associated as a cheap food-stuff, china does not 
receive much attention. 

The most beautiful of all the crops is the ganhar, or amaranth, with 
its gold, coral, and crimson stalks and flowers. It is frequently sown 
in rows among the cotton-fields or on the borders of maize plots, and 
the sulphur blooms of the cotton and the coral of the ganhar form 
a delightful combination of colour. Ganhar is sown in May after two 
or three ploughings. No manure or irrigation is given, and with timely 
rains a large out-turn is harvested in September. The minute grain 
is first parched, then ground and eaten with milk or water. It is con- 
sidered a heating food by the people, and Hindus eat it on their fast- 
days. The stalks are used by washermen, who extract an alkaline 
substance from the burnt ashes. 

Trumba, or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentuni), is a most useful 
plant, as it can be sown late in almost any soil, and when the cultivator 
sees no hope of water coming to his rice-fields he will at once sow 
the sweet trumba. There are two varieties. The sweet trumba. which 
has white, pinkish flowers, is often grown as a substitute for rice when 
water is not forthcoming ; it can be sown up to the middle of July, 
and with good rains it gives a fair crop. The bitter trumba, which 
has yellow flowers, is not a mere makeshift, but in the higher villages 
often forms the only food-grain of the people. The unhusked grain 
is black in colour, and is either ground in mills and made into bread 
or is eaten as porridge. The sweet trumba is said to be a good food 
for horses and for poultry. 



n8 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Pulses are not considered of much importance by the people, and 
Punjabis do not regard the Kashmir dal in a favourable light. Gram 
is unknown, and the best pulse is mung (Phaseolus Mungd). The land 
is ploughed three times and the seed is sown in May. No irriga- 
tion is given, and mung is often sown in rice lands which require 
a rest. The roots run deep and air the soil. The other pulses are 
mah [Phaseolus radiatus) and mothi {P. aconitifolius). 

The oilseeds of Kashmir are of some importance, and now that 
Kashmir is linked with the outer world they are assuming a greater 
value as a trade staple. The Kashmiris do not use ghl (clarified 
butter) in their food, but they require vegetable oils ; and at present 
they use these for lighting as well as for cooking, owing to the expense 
of mineral oil. 

The chief oilseed is rape, of which there are three varieties. The 
first is tilgoglu, which is sown in September and October on ' dry ' lands, 
and especially on the soft reclaimed swamp land. As a rule there 
is no weeding, except where the wild hemp is very vigorous. Timely 
rains from February to May are required, and the crop is harvested 
in May and June. The second variety is known as taruz or sarshaf, 
and is sown in the spring. It ripens at the same time as the tilgoglu, 
but gives a smaller amount of oil from its seed. Three maunds of 
seed per acre would be an average yield for tilgoglu. The other 
varieties of rape give less. The third kind is known as sandiji, and 
is sown in the standing rice when the last watering is being given. It 
yields a small crop, but as no labour is expended the cultivator counts 
even the small crop as gain. 

Linseed is cultivated all over the valley, but the best fields are on 
the lower slopes of the mountains. The land is ploughed twice, and 
a third ploughing is given when the seed is sown in April. The crop 
is harvested towards the end of July. Timely rains are required in 
May or the plant withers. The crop is said to exhaust the land. An 
average yield would be i^ to 2 maunds of linseed per acre, but with 
proper cultivation the produce could be increased. No manure is 
given and the fields are not weeded, and as a rule the linseed crop has 
a very dirty and slovenly appearance. As one ascends the slopes of 
the mountains the plant has a longer stem, and some time ago a fitful 
attempt was made to grow flax for fibre. Like other excellent schemes 
for introducing new staples and industries into Kashmir, the experiment 
failed as there was no one to supervise or encourage the cultivators. 

Til (Sesamum indicum), which is a very common crop, is sown in 
April. The land is ploughed four times, and a fifth ploughing is given 
at sowing. No manure is applied, but til requires a rich soil and 
gentle and timely rains. The crop is weeded with the hand hoe, 
and is more carefully looked after than any of the other oilseed plants. 



AGRICULTURE Iig 

The plant is very delicate and is injured by cold winds. The crop 
ripens shortly after rice, and blankets are spread under the plants at 
harvest-time to catch the seeds, which fall out of the pods with the 
slightest movement. In Kashmir the oil, which is sweet, is valued as 
an ointment. An average yield would be about if maunds of seed 
per acre. 

This will be a convenient place to give a brief description of oil 
production. Formerly oil was taken by the State in payment of 
revenue ; but this practice has now ceased, and the cultivator either 
sells his oilseeds to Punjabi traders or expresses oil for his own 
consumption or for sale. There are Telis or professional oil-pressers 
all over the valley ; and they charge for their services a small amount 
of oil and keep the whole of the oil-cake, which they sell to the villagers 
for cattle-food. The press is made of plane-wood, and is worked by 
a single bullock, blindfolded, the driver sitting perched up at a great 
height on the beam which crushes the seed and is carried backwards. 
The press is fed with seed by a man who stands below. The Kash- 
miris say that rapeseed gives the best oil for lighting purposes, and 
linseed for eating; but as a matter of fact one never gets a pure oil 
from the press, as the various seeds are mixed by the oil-presser, and 
kernels of the walnut and apricot are added. The natives give as 
a reason for mixing the various seeds, that a much larger amount of 
oil is obtained by crushing together various sizes and kinds of seed 
than could be obtained from crushing each separately. The walnut 
is an important oil-producer, but this and the apricot are not con- 
sidered to give good oils for lighting. Walnut oil is said to clog, and 
does not give half the burning power of other oil. 

Cotton is grown all over Kashmir up to a certain elevation ; and, as 
a rule, where the white rices cease to be cultivated owing to the cold- 
ness of the air, there too the cotton plant disappears. It is cultivated 
on the karewas, and also in low-lying land which is irrigable but 
requires a rest from rice. The soil should be ploughed frequently, 
and never less than three ploughings are given, after which the clods 
are well pulverized by mallets. The seed is soaked in water and mixed 
with ashes before sowing, but the plant receives no manure. Sowing 
takes place at the end of April and in May, and the fields are often 
watered at sowing time. 

Wheat and barley are the two spring crops of the valley, and of these 
the barley crop is the more important, if area alone be considered. 
The barley commonly grown in the valley is not of a good quality, and 
no pains are taken in its cultivation. One ploughing is given, and when 
the seed is sown from October to December the land is again ploughed. 
The fields are neither weeded nor manured, and probably have not their 
match in the world for bad and slovenly cultivation. It is sometimes 



120 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

difficult to distinguish the barley in the mass of chirman weed (Ranun- 
culus sp.). The grain is not esteemed as a food, but is very often mixed 
by millers with wheat. In the higher villages, at an elevation of 7,000 
feet, there is a peculiar kind of barley known as grim, or Tibetan barley, 
which is an important food-staple among the mountain people. The 
villagers always speak of it as 'bastard wheat.' The grain has not the 
chaff scales adhering to it, but is naked like wheat. The people say 
that, if this is grown at a lower altitude, it reverts to the type of ordi- 
nary barley. It is sown in May and June, and ripens in August and 
September. 

Wheat receives better treatment than barley, but two ploughings, 
with a third at seed-time, are considered sufficient. The land is neither 
manured nor weeded, and as a rule no irrigation is given. Seed is 
sown in September and October, and the crop ripens in June. The 
common variety is a red wheat with a small hard grain, and Punjabis 
consider the flour to be very inferior. Just as the grain of barley, and 
to a certain extent the grain of wheat, are looked down upon as a food 
by the rice-eating Kashmiri, so too the valuable straw of these cereals 
is neglected as a cattle-food, and it is common to see large ricks of 
wheat-straw left to rot on the land. On the other hand, rice-straw, 
which is not used for fodder until all else fails in Northern India, is the 
most popular fodder in Kashmir. It may be that the high elevation 
renders the rice-straw less flinty and more succulent here than in 
India. 

The saffron (Crocus sativus) of Kashmir is famous for its bouquet, 
and is in great request as a condiment and as a pigment for the sect- 
marks of Hindus. Various substitutes, such as turmeric, are now used 
for the latter purpose by Kashmiri Pandits ; but if a man can afford it 
he will use the bright saffron colour, mixed with red lead and pounded 
with a piece of deodar-wood.. The cultivation is peculiar, and the 
legend about its introduction shows at any rate that it is an ancient 
industry. 

At present cultivation is extending as fast as the local method of 
seed-production will allow. But that this method is slow may be 
inferred from the fact that, at measurement of a total area of 4,527 
acres of saffron land, only 132 acres were actually cultivated with the 
crocus. In former days ' the saffron cultivation was a large source of 
revenue to the State ; but in the famine the people in their distress ate 
up the bulbs, and although seed has been imported from Kishtwar, and 
every year land is set apart for the production of seed, the process of 
reproduction is slow. For seed purposes a particular aspect and sloping 
ground is required, and it takes three years before the bulbs can be 

1 'There are 10,000 or 20,000 bighas of land covered with saffron, which afford 
a prospect that would enchant those who are most difficult to please.' — Ain-i-Akbarl. 



AGRICULTURE r2I 

planted out in the small square plots where the saffron is to be grown. 
These plots must remain fallow for eight years, and no manure can be 
applied to them and no assistance given in the way of water. When 
once the bulb has been placed in the square it will live for fourteen 
years without any help from the cultivator, new bulbs being produced 
and the old ones rotting away. The time for planting out is in July 
and August ; and all that the cultivator has to do is to break up the 
surface gently a few times, and to ensure the proper drainage of the 
plot by digging a neat trench on all four sides. The flowers appear 
about the middle of October ; and the purple blooms and the delicious 
though somewhat overpowering scent of the saffron turn the dry, unin- 
viting plateau above Pampur into a rare and wonderful garden. Saffron 
is at present limited to the karewas in the neighbourhood of Pampur, 
but there is no peculiar property in the soil there which does not exist 
in other karewas, though it is of exceptionally good quality. 

In former days men came from all parts to cultivate saffron on the 
Pampur karewas ; but now, with the exception of a few people from 
Srinagar, the industry is in the hands of local cultivators. At harvest- 
time the whole flower is picked and put into bags and then taken to 
the farmer, who takes one bag for himself and gives the other bag 
to the cultivator. The bags are never opened, and it has been found 
by experience that the cultivator never attempts to foist a bad bag on 
the farmer. When the flowers have been collected the real work of 
extracting saffron commences. The flowers are dried in the sun, and 
the three long stigmas are picked out by hand. The stigma has an 
orange-red tip, and this tip forms the shdhi zafardn, the first quality 
saffron. The long white base of the stigma also makes saffron, but it 
is of inferior quality to the tips. The article thus collected in a dry 
condition is known to the trade as mongla, and sells for one rupee per 
lola. When the mongla saffron has been extracted, the sun-dried 
flowers are beaten lightly with sticks and winnowed. Then the whole 
mass is thrown into water, when the petals swim and the essential parts 
of the flower sink. The parts which have sunk {niwal) are collected, 
and those which have risen to the top are dried and again beaten with 
sticks and then plunged into water. The process is repeated three 
times, and each time the niwal becomes poorer. One form of adul- 
teration is to mix niwal of the third with niwal of the first procc 
The saffron obtained in this way is lighter in colour and of fainter 
scent than the mongla, and is known to the trade as lacha, and sells at 
12 annas per tola. The saffron when made is exported by post. 

Next to the saffron cultivation in interest come the floating gardens 
of the Dal Lake, which resemble the 'chinampas' of Old .Mexico. 
The whole cultivation and vegetation of the lake is full of interest and 
of great importance to the people. The radii or floating gardens are 



122 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

made of long strips of the lake reed, with a breadth of about six feet. 
These strips can be towed from place to place, and are moored at the 
four corners by poles driven into the lake bed. When the rddh is 
sufficiently strong to bear the weight of a man, heaps of weed and mud 
are extracted from the lake by poles, formed into cones, and placed at 
intervals on the rddh. The cones are known a.sJ>okar, and each cone 
accommodates two seedlings of melons or tomatoes, or four seedlings 
of water-melons or cucumber. Everything that plant life requires is 
present. A rich soil and ample moisture, with the summer sun, help 
to produce vegetables in surprising abundance and of excellent quality. 
Not inferior to the floating gardens in fertility are the demb lands, which 
are formed along the sides and sometimes in the middle of the lake 
when the water is shallow. The cultivator selects his site, and plants 
willows and sometimes poplars along its four sides. Inside these he 
casts boatloads of weed and mud until his land is above the flood-level, 
and year by year he adds a new dressing of the rich lake weed and mud. 
Around the demb plot run little water-channels from the lake, so that 
moisture is always present ; and on the demb a great variety of crops 
are raised. Rapeseed, maize, tobacco, melons and other Cuairbitaceae, 
potatoes, onions, radishes, turnips, egg-plants, white beans, peaches, 
apricots, and quinces flourish on this rich soil ; and if it were not for 
the constant liability to forced labour, and for the curious system under 
which revenue is collected daily from the half-amphibious dwellers on 
the Dal Lake, the cultivators of the demb lands might be the most 
prosperous people in Asia. The system is of importance, as it is not 
confined to the Dal Lake ; all over Kashmir the people who live by the 
great swamps have begun to construct these curious oblong patches. 

Tobacco is cultivated in many parts, but is chiefly grown in and 
around Srlnagar and the smaller towns. The ordinary cultivator does 
not grow the plant, and it is almost entirely in the hands of the 
gardener class which exists in the city and the towns. The plant 
yielding the most esteemed tobacco grows in one part of Srlnagar, and 
is known as breivari {Nicoticuia Tabacum). It has pinkish flowers, and 
its product, which is of a bright yellow colour, is extremely mild and less 
pungent than the chilCxsi variety, introduced from the Punjab. The 
childsi is N. rustica, a plant with pale yellow flowers. Tobacco is sown 
in April, and is picked about the end of August. It requires very rich 
soil, and is irrigated by the pot and lever system. Formerly the State 
took tobacco as revenue and allowed a high commutation rate for the 
crop ; but of late years tobacco has not been accepted in payment of 
revenue, and it is thought that the cultivation is not increasing. The 
local use of tobacco passed out of fashion at the great famine, and the 
narcotic is now chiefly taken in the form of snuff, which is imported 
from Peshawar. 



AGRICULTURE I23 

In the same rich land, black with poudrette, which the gardener 
class of the city and towns cultivate so carefully and well, the opium 
poppy is raised, and its dried capsules are used in medicine. Ajwain 
and kala zira (Carum sp.) are two garden spring crops, cultivated 
for local use as condiments for improving the condition of hoi 
and cattle. They are largely exported to India, Ladakh, and Afghan- 
istan. Vegetables are of great importance, and every villager has his 
small garden plot, where he raises a wealth of food with very small 
effort. In the neighbourhood of Srlnagar some care is taken in the 
selection of seed, and the villager often buys his seed from the city ; 
but in the remote corners of the valley very little attention is paid to 
this class of cultivation, and the vegetables are poor, fibrous, and small. 
The national vegetable is the knol-kohl. It is a hardy plant, and in 
years of favourable rains large crops are raised without much labour. 
The green variety is the commonest; in the summer the leaves arc- 
eaten as spinach, while the root is kept for the winter. Next in impor- 
tance is the turnip, which is largely cultivated. The root is cut into 
slices and dried for the winter. Vegetable marrows abound, and they 
too are dried in the sun and festooned on ropes for winter use. They 
are grown in raised cones of earth, through which the air passes easily 
to the roots. Tomatoes are a popular vegetable, but the plant is 
allowed to lie on the ground, and the fruit is small and ugly. It is 
cut into rings and dried in the sun for winter use. Chillies are chiefly 
grown by the regular gardening cultivators, and very large crops are 
raised in the neighbourhood of the city and the towns. Cucumbers of 
a large size are grown in abundance on the Dal Lake, but they are not 
common elsewhere. The egg-plant is well-known in the valley ; and 
last, but not least, the potato is gradually extending. On the hill 
slopes of the Trahal ilaka, in Naubug, and in one or two other places, 
excellent potatoes are raised ; and now that the old fear that anything 
good would either be seized or would lead to an enhancement of 
revenue is passing away, they will be a common crop throughout the 
valley. The soil of the valley is well drained, friable, and loamy, and 
every condition requisite to successful potato cultivation is present. 
Nature is so bountiful that the Kashmiri cares little for vegetables in 
the spring or the summer, and his one idea is to grow something that 
will last him through the winter. 

Various herbs are eaten as vegetables in the spring and summer : 
thistles, nettles, the wild chicory, the dandelion— in fact, every plant 
which is not poisonous goes into the cooking-pot, and even the stalk 
of the walnut catkin is not despised. In the hills a dainty dish of the 
wild asparagus can be easily obtained, and wild rhubarb cooked in 
honey has its charms. 

Kashmir is a country of fruits ; and perhaps no country has greater 

vol. xv. i 



i2 4 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

facilities for horticulture, as the indigenous apple, pear, vine, mulberry, 
walnut, hazel, cherry, peach, apricot, raspberry, gooseberry, currant, and 
strawberry can be obtained without difficulty in most parts of the valley. 
The fruits are a great help to the people as a food, and they come in 
a pleasant and changing succession. When the first days of summer 
arrive, the mulberry-trees are surrounded by villagers with their out- 
spread blankets, and by cattle, ponies, and dogs, who all munch the 
sweet black or white fruit. There are grafted varieties, the best of 
which is shahtut, purple and juicy, and much esteemed as a preserve. 
With an eye to the winter the provident cultivator stores away the mul- 
berries which he cannot eat, and they retain their sweetness long. The 
apricot ripens next, and they too are quickly eaten or stored away for 
the winter ; but the Kashmiri looks on the apricot as intended to give 
oil rather than fruit. This fruit is also used by the silversmith for clean- 
ing his metal, and by dyers as an astringent. The cherry is usually of 
the black morella variety, sour in taste, yet appreciated by the people ; 
but in places the delicious whiteheart (an introduction from Europe via 
Arabia, Persia, and Afghanistan) is cultivated. Its Kashmiri name, 
gt'/as, is a corruption of Cerasus. People say that it is indigenous, and 
it is found in places where one might almost imagine it was self-grown. 
The wild plums are excellent, and the cultivated plums are often very 
fine. The peach that has extended its area from cultivation is small 
but refreshing, and a wild raspberry is as good and as delicate in flavour 
as the cultivated raspberry of England. The gooseberry is small and 
flavourless, but the wild strawberry and black currant are excellent. 

The most popular apple is the anbru or amri, which has a large 
round red and white sweet fruit, ripening in October and keeping its 
condition for a long time. This is exported in large quantities, and it 
finds favour with the natives of India for its sweetness and handsome 
appearance. To an English taste it would seem woolly and flavourless. 
The mohi amri is like the amri, but is more acid and redder. It is 
largely exported. The khuddu sari apple is said to have been intro- 
duced from Kabul. It is long in shape, and is juicy and rather acid, 
ripening early and not keeping. But the best apple, so far as flavour 
goes, is the little trel, which abounds in the neighbourhood of Sopur. 
There are three common kinds : the nabadi trel, which is yellow ; the 
jambasi trel, which turns red ; and the sil trel, which is rather larger 
than the nabadi and jambasi, and of a deep red colour. When ripe 
these little apples have the most delicious taste, half sour, half sweet, 
and when they rot they are exactly like the medlar in flavour. From 
this variety, when picked at the right time, excellent cider has been 
made. A superior variety of the trel is the khatoni trel, which is larger 
but possesses all the flavour of the smaller kind. There are many other 
kinds, but the Kashmiri would give the palm to the dud amri, which 



AGRICULTURE ,, 5 

is the sweetest and finest of the amri. Many of the wild apples, such 
as the tet shakr and malmu, are very refreshing, and it is a curious fact 
that the greater part of the orchards consist entirely of wild tr< 
About the beginning of September the people pick the wild apples 
and the irel apples, and having cut them in half dry them in the sun. 

The pear is as yet of secondary importance, and does not form 
a large article of export. But several very good pears are cultiva- 
the best of which are the nak satanvati, which has a beautiful shape 
and a sweet juicy flesh, and the nak gulabi> which has a pretty red skin 
and is a very pleasant fruit. The Kashmiris, though they think it 
essential to peel an apple, never peel pears. They also hold that it is 
dangerous to eat pears in the winter. Cold in the head and t; 
is the result of such indulgence. The early pear is known as the gosh 
bug and is very refreshing, and the later fruit is called tang. None of 
these will keep for long, and late pears are required. From the State 
nurseries a splendid French pear has been sent out all over the valley, 
but unless these are most carefully packed and quickly transported they 
cannot reach India. The wild pear is found all over the valley, and 
it often resembles the perry pear of Herefordshire. 

The quinces, sour and sweet, are famous, and in the gardens of the 
Dal Lake splendid specimens of this fruit are to be seen. The tree- 
is grown for its seed, which is exported to the Punjab. Pomegranates 
are common, but are not of any especial merit. 

In old days Kashmir was celebrated for its grapes ; but now, if a few 
vineyards at the mouth of the Sind valley be excluded, it is difficult 
to obtain a good dessert grape in the country. Everywhere one see> 
giant vines climbing up poplars and other trees, but they are often wild, 
and their fruit is poor and tasteless. The people say that they cut 
down their good vines in order to avoid the exactions of officials. The 
grapes, white and red, from the State vineyard at Raipur in the Sind 
valley are delicious, and efforts are being made to reproduce the Raipur 
vines in other parts of the valley. With the decline of the eating grape 
there has been an attempt to introduce the wine grape, and at present 
there are 389 acres of vineyards on the shore of the Dal Lake. The 
vines were introduced from Bordeaux in Maharaja Ranbir Singh's time. 
and no expense was spared to make the scheme a success, Perhaps 
the vines of Burgundy would have been more suitable. Costly dis- 
tillery plant was imported and set up at Gupkar on the Dal Lake, and 
wines of the Medoc and Barsac varieties, as well as brand), have been 
manufactured year by year. The only market at present is Srinagar, .1- 
the long road carriage and the duties levied at the frontier make it 
difficult to deliver wine in India at a moderate price. In 1900-1 the 
gross receipts were Rs. 33,000, and the net profit had averaged about 
Rs. 11,000 during the preceding four years. 

1 2 



r 2 6 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Hops were also introduced by Maharaja Ranblr Singh, and the hop 
garden at Dubgam below Sopur yields a handsome return to the State. 
In 1900-1 the total produce was 25,000 lb. The crop is sold at from 
12 annas to a rupee per pound, and fetched Rs. 21,000, while the 
expenses were only Rs. 5,600. 

The walnut-tree is indigenous to the country, and is known by the 
vernacular name vont dun ('hard walnut'), as under ordinary circum- 
stances one is unable to break the shell. The fruit is useless, but the 
bark used to be a large export to the Punjab. The fruit of the culti- 
vated tree is an important aid to the villagers, though they seem to 
be somewhat indifferent to its reproduction. The tree is found all 
over the valley, from an elevation of about 5,500 feet to 7,500 feet. 
It is propagated from seed ; and although grafting is not uncommon, 
the general idea seems to be that the three varieties — the kaghazi, the 
hurzal, and the wantu — reproduce themselves from seed. Hitherto 
walnuts have been grown for oil and not for eating, and the wantu, 
in spite of its thick hard shell, is the largest fruiter and gives the most 
oil. The burzal stands half-way between the kaghazi and the wantu, 
and is like the ordinary walnut of England. Some of the trees reach 
an enormous size, and the finest specimens are to be found as one 
ascends the mountain valleys. In former times the State accepted 
walnut oil in payment of revenue, and it was more profitable to the 
villager to give oil as revenue than to sell the nuts to Punjabi traders. 
Now no oil is taken as revenue, and the export of walnuts is rapidly 
increasing. The Kashmiris do not care for the nut as a food, as it is 
heating, but it always forms part of the New Year's presents among 
Hindus and Musalmans. Not long ago the walnuts were exposed to 
a very serious danger. In Paris there was a demand for the huge warts 
which grow on the walnut stem, the wood of which is used by cabinet- 
makers for veneer work, and a Frenchman obtained from the State the 
right to saw off these warts. Countless trees were destroyed, for life 
went with the wart. Another danger to which walnuts, like other fruit 
trees, are liable is the occurrence of the hit kushu, an icy mist which 
settles over the valley in severe winters, and freezes out the life of 
the trees. 

Large almond orchards are scattered over the valley, and many of 
the hill-sides might easily be planted with this hardy and profitable 
tree. It is a somewhat uncertain crop, but very little attention is paid 
to its cultivation, and as a rule the almond orchards are unfenced. 
There are two kinds, the sweet and the bitter ; the former is worth 
double the latter in the market. Ruined almond gardens in all parts 
of the valley attest the fact that State enterprise cannot succeed in 
horticulture. 

There are several varieties of the singhdra (Trapa bispinosa), but all 



AGRICULTURE 127 

seem to have white flowers floating on the surface of the water on 
stems supported by air vessels. When the fruit ripens, the nuts sink 
to the bottom of the lake. The singhara is found on the Dal Lake 
and in other localities, but its home is the Wular Lake. Of the chief 
varieties the best is called basmati, in honour of the rice of that name. 
This is a small nut with a thin skin, and gives one-third of kernel for 
two-thirds of shell. The dogru is a larger nut with a thicker shell ; and 
the hangar has a very thick shell with long projecting horns, and gives 
the least kernel of all. Attempts have been made to propagate the 
bdsmati, but it is found that after one year the inferior varieties assert 
themselves. 

The cattle of Kashmir are small but hardy, rather bigger than Brit- 
tany cattle. They have humps, and their prevailing colour is black or 
grey. Very little attention is paid to selection in breeding, but a strain 
of Punjab blood has entered the valley, and the dairymen favour cows 
of this type. The improvement of the local breeds has been recently 
considered by a committee. As summer approaches, all cattle, save 
the requisite plough-bullocks and the cows in milk, are driven off to the 
mountain pastures, returning in the autumn to the villages. Great pains 
are taken to store fodder for the winter, and there are many excellent 
grasses and fodder trees. The Gujars, who live on the fringe of the 
forests, keep a large number of buffaloes and produce a considerable 
quantity of glu. 

Sheep are largely kept. They supply warmth, clothing, and manure, 
and are of great importance to the villagers. As the days grow warmer, 
the sheep move up to the grand pastures above the forests, and return 
in the autumn. The sheep are made over to professional shepherds 
when they go to the mountains. In the winter they are penned 
beneath the dwelling-rooms of the villagers, and much of the Kash- 
miri's comfort in the cold months depends on the heat given out by 
the sheep. The wool is excellent, but it varies in quality. Roughly 
speaking, the finest wool is found in the north of the valley where the 
grasses are good. For winter fodder the Kashmiri depends on willow 
leaves and the sweet dried leaves of the flag (Iris). Salt is always 
given to the sheep. 

Goats are not numerous in the valley, but every year enormous 
flocks are brought up to the mountains. They do much injury to 
the forests. 

The ponies are small, but wiry and of great endurance. Every 
village has its brood mares, but no care is taken in the selection ot 
sires. There is a great future for rational breeding, and also for mule- 
breeding. 

Poultry is abundant. The best breed of fowls is found in the Lolib 
valley. Geese and ducks are common, and there is a lame export ot 



i28 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

the latter to the Punjab. Turkeys have not yet succeeded in 
Kashmir. 

Honey is produced in the higher villages of the valley. One house 
will often contain many hives, and in a good year a hive will give 8 
seers of comb. The hive consists of two large concave clay plates let 
into the wall of the house, and in the outer plate there is a small hole 
through which the bees enter. The honey is clear and excellent. 

It is believed that the silk industry of Kashmir is of very ancient 
date, and that the valley furnished part of the Bactrian silk which 
found its way to Damascus. In 1869 Maharaja Ranblr Singh, who 
was an enthusiast in new industries, organized sericulture on a very 
large and expensive scale. But the industry was unpopular, as it was 
conducted on purely official lines in which coercion played a great 
part. There was no real skilled supervision ; disease attacked the 
silkworms, and the enterprise languished. But in spite of mistakes 
and failure, it was proved that Kashmir could produce a silk of high 
quality. In the Kothar valley to the south the industry lingered on, 
and the Settlement officer, Mr. (now Sir) Walter Lawrence, fostered 
it, but avoided any large outlay. Excellent silk was produced in 1894, 
and was placed on the English market with satisfactory results. Later, 
in 1897, an expert was employed, and the State started sericulture 
on approved European principles with Italian reeling machinery. All 
attempts to raise local seed were abandoned, and seed was imported 
annually on a large scale. The results have been surprising. The 
industry is no longer confined to Kothar, but has spread all over the 
valley, and its further progress depends on the maintenance and 
extension of mulberry-trees. 

Ten filatures have been built, containing 1,800 basins for reeling 
cocoons, fitted with Italian machinery and giving employment to over 
5,000 people in Srlnagar. The quality of the silk steadily improves, 
and it now commands a price very slightly below Italian silk. In 
1897 only 406 ounces of eggs were imported, while in 1906 the import 
was 27,500 ounces. The number of zamlndars taking seed has risen 
in the same period from 150 to 14,000, and the weight of cocoons 
reared from 375 to 21,400 maunds, while the payments to the rearers 
increased from Rs. 4,300 to Rs. 3,28,500, all the eggs and mulberry 
leaf being given free of cost. The total production in 1905-6 was 
109,072 lb. of raw silk, and 43,349 lb. of silk waste. The profits 
since 1897, when the industry was started on a scientific basis, have 
been 15-4 lakhs, of which 4-6 lakhs was made in 1905-6. The total 
capital outlay has been Rs. 7,25,000, while the working expenses are 
about 7 lakhs a year. 

The forests of the State are extensive and valuable, and their 
conservation is of great importance in the interests of the country 



FORESTS 



129 



drained and irrigated by the rivers passing through them. Including 
the Bhadarwah jdgir, which contains the finest quality of timber, 
the area is reported as 2,637 square miles of all 
kinds, comprising deodar, firs, pines, and broad- 
leaved species. This may be divided into the drainage areas of the 
Jhelum (1,718 square miles), Chenab (806), and Ravi (113). The 
deodar, which is the most valuable species, extends between 5,000 and 
9,000 feet above sea-level, and is at its best between 6,000 and 9,000 
feet. The blue pine appears at about 6,000 feet, and extends to nearly 
10,000 feet, the finest specimens being found mixed with deodar. 
A zone between 8,000 to ir,ooo feet is occupied by silver fir, which 
occurs pure in dense forests at the lower elevation and is mixed at 
greater heights, first with maple and then with birch. Tree vegetation 
above 11,000 feet consists of dwarf rhododendron and juniper. 

The total area under deodar is about 543 square miles. In the 
Kashmir Valley it is found principally, indeed almost entirely, in the 
north-west — that is, the district known as Kamraj — and the largest 
areas are in the Utr Machipur tahsll. In Udhampur district, which 
includes the Kishtwar and Padar tahslls, there are 198 square miles of 
deodar-bearing tracts situated on the Chenab and its affluents. These 
forests are of a very good class, containing many fine trees of 12 to 18 
feet girth, and the reproduction is mostly good. In the Muzaffarabad 
district, which contains the valley of the Kishanganga. river and that 
of the Jhelum from Kohala nearly up to Baramula, there are estimated 
to be 158 square miles of deodar forest. Ramnagar, formerly the jdg'ir 
of the late Sir Raja Ram Singh, K.C.B.. contains a very small propor- 
tion of deodar forest, and it has been generally overworked. Finally, 
the Jasrota district, situated on the right bank of the Ravi river, 
contains a small area of deodar in the Basoli tahsil These forests also 
were formerly held in Jdgir and were practically denuded of all mature 
trees, so that no fellings can take place for many years to come. 

Fines and firs occupy about 1,100 square miles, and chil {Pitn/s 
longifolia) 473 square miles. The last is found in lower altitudes 
below the blue pine and deodar, existing in practically pure forests in 
Muzaffarabad, Bhimbar, Ramnagar, Udhampur, Jammu, and Jasrota. 
The Kashmir Valley, having a lowest elevation of 5,200 feet above 
sea-level, contains no chil. The Bhimbar Forest division (and district) 
has the greatest area under chil {220 square miles), situated principally 
in the Kotli and Naoshera tahslls. Some of these forests are of very 
fine quality, and will in time give a large number of mature trees for 
sale, but at present they are not being worked. Next to this comes 
the Ramnagar division, which includes part of the Jammu district ; but 
these forests are badly stocked and have been overfelled, and will take 
many years before they can be of much value as a commercial asset. 



i 3 o KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

The Chenab division, which also comprises part of the Jammu district, 
has some forest of poor quality. In Udhampur most of the forest is 
too far from a market to be profitable. When good cart-roads or light 
railways have been made, it may be possible to utilize the Bhimbar 
and Jammu chil forests for the distillation of turpentine, but at pre- 
sent the cost of carriage is prohibitive. 

Next come the fir forests. Owing to their altitude, it would natu- 
rally cost more to extract their timber ; and the selling price of fir 
being very low, these forests are unworkable except in the Kashmir 
Valley, where the timber is used as firewood mainly for the silk factory 
at Srlnagar. Perhaps in the future, when artificial preservation of the 
timber in the form of sleepers, &c, by creosoting, has been resorted 
to, these forests will prove of great value. 

Lastly, there are the forests of broad-leaved species, and these are 
at present only of value in the Kashmir Valley for the supply of fire- 
wood to the city of Srlnagar. Bamboos are found mainly in the 
Jasrota district on the Ravi river, where there are about 3,200 acres 
of mixed forest which contain the so-called male kind (Dendrocalamus 
Strictus). They are saleable at a good price, but are at present subject 
to much injury from the Gujar tribes, who hack them for fodder for 
their cattle. The grass areas are mostly blanks inside deodar and 
other forests, which are used as grazing-grounds by the villagers. 

In the Kashmir Valley the forests supply timber and firewood for 
local use and also logs for export. During the past few years deodar 
sleepers have been exported down the Jhelum river, the sleepers paying 
very well, though the quality is not so good as in other districts. Little 
deodar is used in Srlnagar in comparison with blue pine, which, being 
both very durable and cheaper than deodar, is the favourite building 
material. From Udhampur both logs and sleepers of deodar are 
exported down the Chenab to Wazlrabad. The trees being of better 
quality, higher prices are obtained for the produce than for that of 
Kashmir. From Muzaffarabad timber in the log and sawn into 
sleepers is exported down the Jhelum. The sleepers are entirely 
of deodar, but logs of both blue and long-leaved pine are also sent 
down in small quantities. These three districts, Kamraj, Udhampur, 
and Muzaffarabad, give the greater part of the forest revenue, which 
in 1904-5 amounted to 9-8 lakhs, while the expenditure was 3 lakhs. 

Up to the present, owing to the weakness of the forest establishment, 
little has been done in the matter of artificial reproduction of deodar, 
nor is it necessary. Owing to the protective measures already taken, the 
three important species — deodar, blue pine, and the long-leaved pine — 
.are rapidly filling up blanks in the forests. The reproduction of deodar 
by natural means, whether in Kashmir, Udhampur, or any other district, 
is remarkable, nor is the blue pine at all backward, while in the 



MINES AND MINERALS 131 

Kotli and Naoshera tahstls of Bhimbar district the restocking of 
blanks inside and outside the forests is all that can be desired. Since 
the last great seed year of 1897 myriads of self-sown chil have appeared 
and are now fine healthy plants, ranging from 6 to 9 inches in height, 
so that unless destructive fires occur there is little or nothing to be 
done in the matter of restocking denuded areas or blanks. So far 
fire protection has been unnecessary and hardly anything has been 
expended on it, and the only parts protected are the Kotli tahsll 
forests. The greatest need at present is protection from the damage 
done by graziers. 
1 About three-quarters of the State forests have been demarcated ; but 
before really scientific forestry can be introduced, it will be necessary 
that a regular survey should be made and a settlement of the forests 
effected, and the great task of drawing up working-plans for future 
guidance must be undertaken. 

Before 1891 there was no proper management of the forests, and 
much damage was done by allowing traders to cut in the forests on 
payment of royalty without any supervision, while villagers also did 
immense injury to the forests in various ways, the State gaining little 
or no revenue. In 1891 the first attempts were made to put matters 
on a proper basis, with the result that, while most forms of forest injury 
except grazing have ceased, the profits have increased largely. Thus 
the net revenue in 1904-5 was 6 lakhs, while before 1891 it hardly 
exceeded 2 lakhs. The Forest department is under the control of 
a European Conservator, assisted by a staff of subordinates. 

Some authorities have held that there is not much hope of mineral 

wealth in the State ; and among the reasons given is the fact that, as 

a rule, where valuable minerals exist, the natives of 
, , r , • ,.,,, , r 1 - • Mines and 

the country know of their existence. I he Kashmiris, minerals. 

however, have excellent reasons for reticence on the 

subject of minerals; and the find of valuable sapphires in Padar in 

1882, and the more recent discovery of coal at Ladda and Anji in the 

Udhampur district of Jammu territory, give hopes for the future. 

Vast fields have been found, in two sections of which it is estimated 

that there are 1 1 million tons of workable coal. The coal is extremely 

friable, dirty, and dusty. Some of it cokes strongly if subjected to 

great heat. It is held by competent authorities that the washed and 

briquetted coal of these fields will have a value equal to, if not greater 

than, Bengal coal. Exploration for minerals has not yet been 

attempted on sound or business-like lines. Excellent iron has been 

obtained at Sof in the south of Kashmir ; good limestone is available 

in large quantities ; gypsum is abundant ; and a recent discovery of 

gold has been made at Gulmarg, the chief summer resort of European 

visitors to Kashmir. 



132 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

The industries connected with sericulture, oil-pressing, and the 

manufacture of wine and brandy have already been mentioned, but 

the State is still more celebrated for its arts. The 

T . a . n most important of these is described in the article 

manufactures. _ r 

on Srinagar, but other places also possess consider- 
able reputation for various classes. Wood-carving is practised at many 
places, and that turned out at Bijbihara is especially noted. The work 
is artistic, but suffers from the fact that the Kashmiri is a bad carpenter. 
Lacquered wood-work is produced at Kulgam. 'Woollen cloth (pattu) 
is woven all over the State, the best work being produced in the north, 
while the finished product of the south is especially famous. Blankets 
are made in many places, and sometimes fetch Rs. 25 a piece. The 
blacksmiths are very skilful, and some have been able to make surgical 
instruments and repair gun-locks. The city of Srinagar is noted for 
its silver, copper, wood-carving, and lacquer. The shawl and paper 
industries are almost extinct, but many of the shawl-workers have 
become expert weavers of carpets or have taken to embroidering felts. 
Good embroidery is also turned out at Islamabad. An industry started 
very recently, in connexion with the development of sericulture, is the 
weaving of silk cloth. In 1906 about 100 looms of improved pattern 
were imported and set up. 

Up to quite recent times Kashmir was almost a self-supporting 

country, and the chief imports — piece-goods, metals, salt, sugar, tea, and 

tobacco — were of modest dimensions. Before the 

^"trade* ^ °P enin 8 of the cart-road from Rawalpindi to Bara- 
mula in 1S90, the trade was carried by Kashmiris 
who went down every winter to work in the Punjab, and brought 
back domestic requisites, or by the professional muleteers, or by 
Punjabi bullock-drivers. There were three trade routes. The most 
direct crossed the Banihal pass and ran to Jammu, the railway terminus ; 
the most popular route followed the old imperial road over the Plr 
Panjal, reaching the railway at Gujrat : and the third was known as the 
Jhelum valley road, which is now the cart-road and the main line of 
communication with the Punjab. 

In 1892-3 the total imports from India were valued at 48-7 lakhs. 
In 1902-3 the imports reached 118 lakhs, but the trade of that and 
later years was greatly impaired by the prevalence of plague in the 
Punjab. In 1904-5 the total value was 115 lakhs. The table on the 
next page shows the value of the more important imports in the years 
chosen for comparison. 

There can be little doubt that Kashmir has increased enormously 
in prosperity of late years. The land revenue settlement has turned 
the agricultural classes from serfs into well-to-do peasants, and their 
wealth is reflected in their increased purchases. The increase in the 



COMMERCE AXD TRADE 



*33 



import ot salt is especially satisfactory, as in 1892 it was shown that the 
annual average of consumption in Kashmir was exactly half of that 
prevailing in the Punjab. 





1892-3. 


1902-3. 


'904-5- 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Piece-goods : — 








European .... 


76,688 


34, 7 2:934 


35>9 2 .55 6 


Indian ..... 


21,572 


9,60,185 


7,86,485 


Metals : — 








Brass and copper 


1,33,143 


1,42,410 


99,888 


Iron 


1,31,27° 


4,92,020 


1,19.567 


Salt 


4= 8 3>293 


8,69,761 


9,32,601 


Sugar : — 








Kenned ..... 


4,82,584 


9,21,872 


8,28,675 


Unrefined .... 


i,i5,433 


2,47,686 


3,43,76i 


Tea : — 








Indian ..... 


i,73,73o 


3,57,638 


5.22.871 


foreign ..... 


2,030 


1,360 


3,615 


Tobacco ..... 


1,01,253 


2,32,302 


3,91,960 


Petroleum ..... 


56,112 


81,795 


1,84,164 



In 1892-3 the total exports were valued at 53-3 lakhs. In 1902-3 
the value reached 99-6 lakhs, and in 1904-5, 192 lakhs. 

The following table shows the value of the more important exports 
in the years selected :— 





1892-3. 


1902-3. 


1904-5. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Drugs, not intoxicating 


1,60.625 


5,06,192 


5-7 s -4-5 


Dyes 


2.74,826 


95,533 


48,023 


Fruits ...... 


2,38,683 


4.58,702 


7,48,883 


Hides 


1,86,594 


2,97.617 


7,98,160 


Skins ...... 


1,39.386 


3,43,35o 


5,63,065 


Ghl 


16,50,172 


20,05,849 


,-,0.02,974 


Linseed ..... 


1,335 


''•55,674 


73 -95 2 


Wool : — 








Manufactured piece-goods 


5,9 r .439 


7,5i,365 


10 -75,°47 


Shawls ..... 


2,19,275 


35,6oo 


1.000 



The value of fruits exported is increasing steadily, and would expand 
further with more rapid communications. Ghl also is a very important 
export. Perhaps one of the most remarkable increases is that in linseed, 
which possessed very little value before the opening of the cart-road. 
The trade in shawls was practically dead before 1892-3. An important 
new staple not included in the list must be noticed. Raw silk produced 
in the Kashmir Valley has been exported in rapidly increasing quantities 
and values, and there are indications that it will become one o\' the most 
important products of the country. The value increased from R>. 7,000 
in 1897-8 to 13-6 lakhs in 1902-3 and nearly 21 lakhs in 1004-5. 



i 3 4 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

Another item of some importance is the trade which passes through 
Kashmir between India, Chinese Turkistan, and Tibet via Leh. In 
1904-5 the total value of this trade was 61-2 lakhs. It is subject to 
considerable fluctuations, owing to great physical difficulties, the keen 
rivalry of Russia, and the passive obstruction of Tibet. During the 
ten years ending 1901 the average value was 44-3 lakhs, the maximum 
being 62-2 lakhs in 1895-6, and the minimum 30-1 lakhs in 1891-2. 
The imports from Central Asia into Ladakh amounted to 17-8 lakhs. 
Of this, about 14 lakhs came from Chinese Turkistan and the balance 
from Tibet. Goods to the value of 11-3 lakhs found their way to the 
Punjab via Kashmir, others going via Kulu. The chief articles were 
raw silk (5-9 lakhs), Russian gold coins (4-3 lakhs), raw wool (3 lakhs), 
and chat-as (2-2 lakhs). The exports from Ladakh to Central Asia 
amounted to 11-4 lakhs. Of this, goods to the value of 10 lakhs went 
to Chinese Turkistan and the remainder to Tibet. The more impor- 
tant articles of export were : European cotton piece-goods (3-4 lakhs) ; 
coral (1-2 lakhs) ; silk goods, European (i-8 lakhs), Indian (Rs. 54,000)- 
The value of trade passing from India to Ladakh was 14-3 lakhs. 

The nature of the country renders communications difficult. In the 
valley proper the Jhelum forms a great waterway, but other rivers are 
not navigable. Throughout the greater part of the 
State the roads are chiefly fair-weather tracks and 
are not used for wheeled traffic. A cart-road has, however, been con- 
structed from Srinagar, through Baramula and down the Jhelum valley, 
to Abbottabad in the North- West Frontier Province and to Murree in 
the Punjab, while another cart-road is being constructed from Srinagar 
to Udhampur. The principal roads within the State lead from Srinagar 
to Islamabad and Jammu over the Banihal pass (9,200 feet) ; to 
Shupiyan, Bhimbar, and Gujrat in the Punjab over the Pir Panjal 
(11,400); to Gandarbal and Ladakh over the Zoji La (11,300); and to 
Gilgit over the Rajdiangan (11,700), and Burzil (13,500), or Kamri 
(13,100). Much has been done in recent years to improve these 
routes and a number of smaller roads, such as that from Srinagar to 
Gulmarg, which is practicable for tongas. A road cess amounting to 
2 1 per cent, on the revenue has been imposed, in place of the forced 
labour which used to be exacted. The Jhelum is crossed by several 
wooden bridges on the cantilever principle at Srinagar, and over the 
hill torrents swing frail suspension bridges consisting of cables made of 
plaited twigs or buffalo-hide. The latter sometimes reach a span of 
300 feet, and are renewed every three years, if they have not been 
carried away meanwhile by floods. 

The only railway at present is a short length of 16 miles, constructed 
at the cost of the State, which is included in a branch of the North- 
western State Railway from Wazlrabad through Sialkot. It cost 



FAMINE 



'35 



9-6 lakhs, and has usually earned a net profit of i to i\ per cent., in 
addition to the rebate allowed from traffic exchanged with the North- 
Western Railway. A line has been surveyed along the Jhelum valley 
route, and it is proposed to work this by electricity derived from the 
river. 

The State is included for postal purposes in the circle administered 
by the Postmaster-General of the Punjab and North-West Frontier 
Province. Formerly Kashmir had its own postal service and used its 
own postage stamps, but as far back as 1876 there were British p 
offices in Srlnagar and Leh. The State stamps were used only for local 
purposes, and letters and other postal articles passing between the State 
post offices and British India were charged with both Kashmir and 
Indian postage. In 1894 the State posts were entirely amalgamated 
with the Indian postal system. The following statistics show the 
advance in postal business since 1 880-1 : — 





1S80-1. 


1890-1. 


1 900-1. 


<-4- 


Number of post offices 


2 


2 


81 


;- 


Number of letter boxes 






'99 


207 


Number of miles of postal communica- 










tion . . 






[,588 


1,678 


Total number of postal articles de- 










livered : — 










Letters 


48,126 


138,216 


1,414,140 


1.519,674 


Postcards . . . . - 


3.4o6 


26,S 5 8 


I,209,lS2 


1,639.430 


Packets 


832 


16,146 


96,356* 


166,400 


Newspapers .... 


42,978 


70,226 


193,414+ 


246,9:4 


Parcels ..... 


i,742 


4.9M 


32,786 


77.4°2 


Value of stamps sold to the public Rs. 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


81,030 


1,06,02s 


Value of money orders issued . Rs. 


+ 

+ 


+ 
+ 


3»I°:59 I 


i6,37>7 8 7 



* Including unregistered newspapers. t Registered as newspapers in the Post Office. 

♦ The figures are included in those of the Punjab. 

The accounts of early famines are vague, but it is known that famines 
occurred. While Sher Singh was governor (183 1-3) severe distress was 
felt and many people fled, but the next governor, Famine . 

Mian Singh, did much to restore prosperity by im- 
porting grain. It is said that the population was reduced to a quarter in 
that famine. In 1877-9 a worse disaster was experienced and the loss 
of life was enormous. Famines in Kashmir are not caused by drought. 
as in India, because the rice crop is generally protected by irrigation. 
The greatest distress is due to the fall of rain or snow while the rice 
and maize are ready for harvest. The famine of 1832 was caused by 
early snow, and was aggravated by the floods which followed. In 1877 
rain fell almost continuously for three months, and the old system oi 
collecting revenue in kind prevented cultivators from gathering their 
crops when opportunity served. Food-grains were not to be had : and 



1 36 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

when imports were made at the expense of the State, the corrupt 
officials were the chief persons to profit. It is improbable that such 
distress can be experienced again, owing to the construction of a cart- 
road, and the change in the method of collecting revenue. 

The State is in direct relationship with the Government of India, who 
is represented by an officer of the Political department, styled the 
Resident. His head-quarters are at Srinagar. At Gilgit a Political 
Agent exercises some degree of supervision over the Wazir Wazarat, and 
is directly responsible to the Government of India for the administration 
of the outlying petty States. A British officer is stationed at Leh to 
assist in the supervision of Central Asian trade. 

On his accession to the gaddi in 1885, the present Maharaja was 

entrusted with the administration of the State, aided by two ministers ', 

., . . . ,. but in 1887, at his own request, he was relieved from 
Administration. . " . . ? ' 

all part in the administration, which was then placed, 

subject to the control of the Resident, in the hands of a Council 

consisting of His Highness's brother and two selected officials from the 

British service. In 1891 the Maharaja assumed the presidentship of 

the Council, while his brother, Raja Sir Amar Singh, K. C.S.I. , became 

vice-president. The Council was abolished in 1905, and its powers 

were conferred on the chief himself. Under the new arrangements the 

Maharaja administers the State. There are three ministers, in charge of 

the revenue, judicial, and home departments ; but business requiring the 

orders of the Maharaja is laid before him by the chief minister, Raja. 

Sir Amar Singh. For some time past the departments of finance, 

revenue settlement, forests, and public works have been in charge of 

British officers, whose services have been temporarily placed at the 

disposal of the Darbar. 

The four chief executive officers are : the governor or Hakim-i-Ala of 
Jammu, the governor of Kashmir (each aided by a general assistant), 
the Wazir Wazarat of Gilgit, and the Wazir Wazarat of Ladakh. 

In Jammu there are five districts, each in charge of a Wazir Wazarat, 
an official whose average salary is Rs. 250 a month. Under the Wazir 
Wazarat are tahsildars and sometimes subdivisional officers. All these 
officers exercise revenue, civil, and criminal jurisdiction, with regular 
stages of appeal. In revenue cases the appeal lies to the governor, and 
from him to the revenue minister. In civil and criminal judicial cases 
the appeal lies to the Chief Judge of Jammu. From him there is an 
appeal to the judicial minister, who is virtually the final court, and it is 
only on rare occasions that an appeal is made from him to the Maharaja. 
All death sentences passed by the Chief Judge require the confirmation 
of the Maharaja. In 1900-1 there were eighty-one courts of all grades, 
of which eight exercised criminal jurisdiction only. Although there is 
a centralized form of government, as in British India, the real power 



F7XAXCE i 37 

rests with the fa/isl/dar, and distance and the absence of easy communi- 
cations are practical checks on the use or abuse of appeals. 

Before 1892, when the law of limitation was introduced into Jammu, 
litigation was not very heavy and the people frequently settled their 
differences out of court. The improvement in the 

courts, and the effects of this alteration in the law, Le eislation and 

justice 
are shown by the fact that the number of suits for 

money or movable property increased from an average of 3,735 during 

the ten years ending 1890 to 10,766 in the next decade, and was 

12,160 in 1900-1. The system of registration for deeds resembles that 

in British India. In 1 900-1 the number of documents registered was 

i,348. 

Crime is not serious in the Jammu province ; but there has been an 
increase in cases of theft, hurt, and mischief, due to the greater activity 
of the police force, which is being gradually assimilated to the rules and 
procedure prevailing in British India. In the whole State 17,320 
persons were brought to trial in 1900-1, of whom 2,169, or 13 per cent., 
were convicted. 

In Kashmir the tahsils in the valley are superintended by the 
governor himself, while those of the Muzaffarabad district are in charge 
of a Wazlr YVazarat subject to the governor and the Chief Judge, whose 
offices are in Srlnagar. 

The finances of the State are immediately controlled by an accountant- 
general, who for some years has been lent by the British Government. 

The revenue and expenditure for 1895-6, 1 900-1, and 

1 r,, , , ttt 1 -tV 1 1 Finance. 

1905-6 are shown in lables IV and V at the end 

of this article (pp. 146 and 147). In the last year the total revenue 

was 93 lakhs, the chief items being land revenue (38-9 lakhs), for. 

(13 lakhs), customs and octroi (9-2 lakhs), and scientific and minor 

departments (2-2 lakhs). The expenditure of one crore included public 

works (30-8 lakhs), military (13-8 lakhs), privy purse and courts (10-9 

lakhs), scientific and minor departments (2-1 lakhs), and land revenue 

(6-r lakhs). The State is very prosperous, and has more than 40 lakhs 

invested in securities of the Government of India. 

The British rupee is now the only rupee used in the State. Pre- 
viously three coins were current : namely, the khdm rupee, value 
8 annas, bearing the letters J. H. S. (these letters have given rise to many 
stories, but they were really a mint-mark to indicate Jammu, Hari 
Singh); the chilki rupee, value 10 British annas; the Nanak shdhi 
rupee, value 12-16 British annas. 

The kharwar or ass-load, which has for centuries past been the 
standard of weight, is equivalent to 177I lb. The word is usually 
abbreviated to khar. Land measures are calculated not by length and 
breadth, but by the amount of seed required by certain areas of rice 



r 3 S KASHMIR AXD JAMMU 

cultivation. It has been found by measurements that the khanvar of 
land — that is, the rice area which is supposed to require a khanvar's 
weight of rice-seed — exactly corresponds to 4 British acres. For length, 
the following measure is used : — 

1 gira = j\ inches. 
1 6 giras = 1 gaz. 
20 giras = 1 gaz, in measuring pashmlna cloth. 

There is no sealed yard measure in Srlnagar, but from frequent experi- 
ment it was found that the gaz of 16 giras is about half an inch longer 
than the British yard. 

The land revenue system has been described as ' ryotwari in ruins.' It 
is probable that the methods of administration introduced under Akbar 
led to a fictitious joint responsibility, but this was 
never fully accepted. The land was regarded as the 
absolute property of the State, and the cultivators were merely tenants 
holding from year to year, with no rights in the waste land. Within the 
village, however, the cultivators recognized the acquisition of what may 
be called a right of occupancy acquired by long prescription {minis). 
At the settlement which commenced in 1887 this custom was accepted 
by the State, and permanent hereditary rights were conferred on persons 
who agreed to pay the assessment fixed on the land entered in their 
names. The right is not alienable by sale or mortgage, and the holder 
is called an asami. Besides the ordinary village occupants there were 
grantees, but these have gradually been converted into asdmts. 

Under the local Sultans the State share of produce was reckoned at 
one-half, and this was increased to three-quarters by the Mughals. In 
the absence of any survey or record of rights, the revenue administration 
was harsh and corrupt. Land agents called kardars were appointed 
who parcelled out the land annually, the area of land allotted to each 
family being regulated by the number of individuals it contained. The 
State took three-fourths of rice, maize, millets, and buckwheat, and nine- 
sixteenths of oilseeds, pulses, and cotton. In i860 the share was 
reduced to one-half, and villages were made over to contractors called 
chakladdrs, who robbed the cultivators and the State. An attempt was 
made in 1873 t0 introduce a ryoiwari settlement for three years, but 
the interests of the chakladars and corrupt officials were too strong to 
allow such an innovation. Abul Fazl, in the Ain-i-Akbarj, notes that 
revenue was chiefly paid in kind in Kashmir, and it was not till 1880 
that a so-called cash assessment was introduced. This was made by 
taking the average collections for the previous three years in each vil- 
lage, and adding a considerable proportion, never less than 30 per 
cent. ; but as a matter of fact, it was left to an official to decide how 
much revenue should be taken in cash, and how much in kind. There 
was no pretence of inspecting villages, or of distributing the demand 



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MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 139 

fixed for a whole village over separate holdings, and the dislocation 
caused by the famine of 1877-9 added to the evils of such summary 
procedure. Two years later a system of auctioning villages was intro- 
duced, which led to even greater abuses, while the commutation rates 
for grain were altered, so as to injure the cultivators. 

In 1887 a regular settlement was commenced in the valley by 
a British officer, lent by Government. It was preceded by a complete 
survey, and the revenue was fixed for ten years. Villages were classified 
according to their position, and standard out-turns of produce were cal- 
culated. In estimating the produce, allowance was made for walnut- 
trees, fruit trees, apricots, and honey. The assessment was also checked 
by considering the collections in previous years and reports made by 
former contractors. Its moderation and even distribution are attested 
by the return of the cultivators who had fled during the disastrous 
famine. When the settlement was completed in 1893, it had cost 3-4 
lakhs and had raised the revenue by 1-9 lakhs annually. A revision 
was commenced in 1898 and completed in 1905, the methods employed 
being similar to those followed at the first regular settlement. This has 
further raised the revenue in the valley from 13-4 to 17 lakhs, or by 27 
per cent. The incidence of revenue varies from about 10 annas to 
Rs. 12 per acre, and represents an all-round rate of about 30 per cent, 
of the gross produce. Regular settlements have also been completed in 
other parts of the State, such as Gilgit, Jammu, and Baltistan. The 
total receipts from land revenue in 1905-6 amounted to 38-9 lakhs. 

The Excise department of the State is chiefly concerned with the 

manufacture and sale of liquor, including wine and brandy, at the 

Gupkar distillery. In 1900 the administration was 

examined by an officer lent by the British Govern- Mi *"!!^! 0US 
' ' revenue. 

ment, and as a consequence private distilleries in 
the province of Jammu were entirely closed. The total receipts in 
1 900- 1 were only Rs. 50,000, but by 1905-6 they had risen to 
Rs. 1,37,000. 

In 1905-6 the total revenue from stamps was 2-22 lakhs, of which 
i-6 lakhs represented receipts from judicial stamps. 

A considerable revenue is derived from customs and octroi levied 
on the trade which passes into the State. The receipts amounted to 
9-2 lakhs in 1905-6. 

Cesses are levied, amounting to \2\ per cent, on the land revenue, 
for the following objects : payments to lambardars (village headmen), 
5 per cent. ; patwaris and zailddrs, 4^ per cent. ; education, ^ per 
cent. ; and roads, z\ per cent. 

There are two municipal committees in the State : one at Srinagar, 
and the other at Jammu, presided over by the chief medical officer, 
Kashmir, and the governor of the Jammu province, respectively. The 

vol. xv k 



i 4 o KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

members are nominated by the Darbar as representatives of different 
communities. There is no separate municipal fund ; the State provides 
the expenditure for municipal and sanitary pur- 
Local and p 0S es, while the receipts, such as octroi, are likewise 
credited to the general revenues. The expenditure 
in 1905-6 was Rs. 92,000, of which Rs. 6,400 was met from fees and 
taxes and the balance by a grant from the State. In other towns con- 
servancy establishments are maintained, which are under the municipal 
committee of the province in which the town is situated. Great 
improvements have lately been made in the drainage system of Jammu 

town. 

The expenditure on public works in 1905-6 was 30-8 lakhs, and will 

always be heavy. The maintenance of long lines of communication 

between Kashmir and India and between Kashmir, 

Public works. G[lg ^ and Ladakh, the cost of buildings in Srlnagar 
and Jammu, and the enormous losses which have to be repaired when 
great floods and earthquakes occur render a large annual outlay inevi- 
table. The road from Kohala to Baramula alone cost 22 lakhs to 
construct, and the road from Kashmir to Gilgit cost, in the first in- 
stance, 15 lakhs. In 1901 the construction of a cart-road from Jammu 
to Udhampur was sanctioned. In 1905-6 the utilization of the Jhelum 
river for a great electric power scheme was taken in hand, and 4-6 lakhs 
was spent on it. The State Engineer is usually an officer lent by the 
British Government ; and the State is divided into eight divisions, 
known as Kashmir, Jammu, the Jhelum valley, Gilgit, Udhampur cart- 
road, Palace, Jhelum power, and Jammu irrigation. 

The expenditure on the army is heavy, amounting to nearly 14 lakhs 
in 1905-6, but the administration is sound and economical, and there 
is considerable efficiency. The State has splendid 
materials for an army, as the Dogras are, in the 
opinion of competent authorities, second to none in martial qualities. 
The commander-in-chief up to the year 1900 was assisted by a British 
officer as military adviser. The first military adviser was Colonel (after- 
wards Sir) Neville Chamberlain, to whose energy and tact the State 
owes its present efficient and well-equipped force. The army consists 
of two mountain batteries, one horse artillery and one garrison battery, 
one squadron Kashmir Lancers, one troop body-guard cavalry, 7 regi- 
ments of infantry, and 4 companies of sappers and miners, with a total 
strength of 6,283. Out of this the State maintains a force of 3,370 
Imperial Service troops, the remainder being called regular troops. 
Jammu, the winter capital, has a strong garrison. Imperial Service 
troops are stationed at Satwari cantonment, about 5 miles from Jammu, 
on the opposite bank of the Tawi river. Two regiments of regular 
infantry and a garrison battery are stationed at Srinagar, and small 



EDUCATION 141 

detachments of infantry are detailed from this garrison for Bandipura, 
Leh, Skardu, Padar, and various other posts. The troops in Gilgit, the 
northernmost part of the State, consist of two regiments of Imperial 
Service infantry, a battery of four mounted guns, and two companies of 
the Kashmir sappers and miners. Detachments of infantry are supplied 
to the frontier posts of Gupis, Chilas, &c, and the battery is stationed 
at Bunji and Ruttoo. The troops at the Gilgit, Ladakh, and Skardu 
frontiers are relieved biennially. The Imperial Service infantry regi- 
ments are armed with Lee-Metford rifles, and the regular regiments with 
Enfield-Sniders. The mountain batteries are equipped with 2-5-inch 
guns, and the cavalry are armed with lances and carbines. A num- 
ber of forts partially armed are scattered all over the country. The 
State army is commanded by General Raja Sir Amar Singh, K.C.S.I., 
younger brother of the Maharaja. 

Serious crime is rare, and the force of regular police is comparatively 
small. It includes 3 assistant superintendents, 9 inspectors, 297 sub- 
ordinate officers, and 1,213 constables, costing about 
2-2 lakhs annually. The force is controlled by two ° j^jif n 

Superintendents for the chief provinces of Jammu 
and Kashmir. Police duties in the villages are performed by the 
chaukiddrs, who are generally Dums in the Jammu province, and are 
paid by the villagers. The responsibility of the headman for reporting 
crime is insisted on. A training school for regular police is main- 
tained, and the system of identifying convicts by thumb impressions 
has been introduced. In 1904-5 only 2,076 cognizable cases were 
reported, of which 640, or 30 per cent., ended in conviction. 

Central jails are maintained at Jammu and at Srlnagar, and seven 
small jails in outlying places. Both the Central jails are usually over- 
crowded, the daily average number of prisoners in 1904-5 being 543. 
The expenditure in the same year was Rs. 47,000 on the Central jails, 
and Rs. 3,600 on the others; and in 1905-6 a total of Rs. 54,000. 
Convicts are employed in printing, paper-making, and other minor 
industries in the Srlnagar jail, and in printing, weaving, and manu- 
facturing industries at Jammu. The receipts from jail manufactures in 
1905-6 were Rs. 18,000. 

The Census of 1901 showed how little attention was formerly paid 
to education. In that year only 2 per cent, of the population could 
read and write. Among males the proportion rises to _, 
3-8 per cent., while among the total female popula- 
tion only 1,260 were literate. Hindus appear to be much better 
educated than Muhammadans. In 1900-1 the State maintained 87 
schools, attended by 6,197 boys. By 1905-6 the number of State 
schools had risen to 154, including two high schools, a normal school, 
7 Anglo-vernacular and 12 vernacular middle schools, and 133 primary 

k _• 



1 42 KASHMIR AND JAMMU 

schools. Besides these, 3 girls' schools are maintained by the State 
at Srmagar ; and there are one aided girls' school at Jammu, two aided 
high schools and an aided middle school at Srinagar, and an aided 
middle school at Jammu. Sanskrit schools attached to the State high 
schools, one at Jammu and the other at Srinagar, teach up to the 
Shastri standard. The total number of pupils in all the schools was 
11,460. The department is under the control of the foreign minister, 
who is aided by an inspector and two assistant inspectors of schools. 
There being no State college, 17 scholarships are annually granted 
by the Darbar to students for prosecuting their studies at colleges 
at Lahore. Two scholarships of Rs. 4,000 each have also been sanc- 
tioned for training State subjects abroad in useful arts, &x. Ten 
stipends of the value of Rs. 8 a month are granted in the Srinagar 
normal school, and thirteen of the value of Rs. 1,944 are awarded to 
students sent up for training in the normal school and training college 
at Lahore, while two teachers are annually sent to the latter on the 
full pay of their appointments. The total expenditure on education in 
1905-6 was 1-05 lakhs, compared with only Rs. 45,000 in 1 900-1. 

An Arts college was opened at Srinagar in 1905 by the trustees 
of the Central Hindu College, Benares, in connexion with the Hindu 
high school, and the Maharaja has sanctioned a grant-in-aid of 
Rs. 15,600 per annum for the college and school from the year 1906. 

The State maintains at Srinagar two hospitals, two dispensaries 
with accommodation for in-patients, and a leper asylum, and at Jammu 
two hospitals for the civil population, besides mili- 
tary hospitals at Jammu and at Satwari cantonment. 
In 1904-5, besides these, 43 dispensaries were maintained in the 
State. Two chief medical officers are in charge of the Jammu and 
Kashmir provinces, and the Agency Surgeon supervises work in Gilgit. 
The Medical department of the State is under the control of a Super- 
intending Surgeon. In 1904-5 the total number of patients treated 
was 401,120, of whom 4,338 were in-patients, and 11,830 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was 1-5 lakhs. In addition to the 
State institutions, valuable work is being done by the Medical Mission, 
which has a large hospital at Srinagar and a hospital at Anantnag. 
The leper asylum referred to above is also managed by them for the 
Darbar. 

The staff for vaccination consists of eighteen men, who work in the 
province of Jammu in winter, and in that of Kashmir in summer. 
Vaccination is not compulsory, but a good deal of work is done by 
the exercise of tact and moral persuasion. In 1904-5 the number 
of persons successfully vaccinated in both provinces was 33,784, while 
4,200 vaccinations were also carried out in Gilgit. The people of 
Ghizar, Yasln, Ashkuman, and Chilas districts formerly refused vaccina- 



MEDICAL 143 

tion, but are now accepting it. The total expenditure in 1905-6 was 
Rs. 5,685. Inoculation is practised by the people in the frontier 
districts, but not elsewhere. 

[F. Bernier : Voyages (1699). — G. T. Vigne : Travels in Kashmir, 
Ladak, Iskardo (1842). — A. Cunningham : An Essay on the Arian 
Order of Architecture as exhibited in the Temples of Kashmir ^1848). — 
J. Biddulph : Tribes of the Bind u Koosh (1880). — Drew: Jammu and 
Kashmir Territories (1875). — E. F. Knight: J J 'here Three Empires 
meet (1S93). — W. R. Lawrence : The Valley of Kashmir (1895V — 
Kalhana's Rajatarangini, a Chronicle of the Kin^s of Kashmir, trans- 
lated by M. A. Stein, 2 vols. (1900).] 



144 



KASHMIR AND JAMMU 



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146 



KASHMIR AND J A MAW 



TABLE IV 
Principal Sources of Revenue, Kashmir 

(In thousands of rupees) 





1895-6. 


1900-1. 


1 905-6. 


Opening balance .... 
Land revenue 


29-53 


41,12 


38,26 


35,73 


38,78 


38,9! 


Customs and octroi .... 


4,22 


7,61 


9,18 


Grazing fees ..... 
Excise ...... 


2,37 
37 


3,33 
50 


4,84 
i,37 


Receipts from State property in India 
Stamps .... . . 

Courts of law ..... 


1,91 

i,37 
27 


42 

i,75 

3° 


36 

2,22 

32 


Jails 

Post Office 


5 
1 1 


/ 


'9 


Telegraphs ..... 
Scientific and minor departments 


3 

7.7i 


6 

2,70 


8 
2,22 


Sericulture ..... 


7 


2,67 


14,02 


Interest ...... 


81 


i,49 


2,98 


Forests ...... 


8,09 


8,83 


13,01 


Military 


25 


29 


35 


Public works ..... 


M 


48 


58 


Miscellaneous ..... 

Total 
Debt and remittance. 

Grand total 


3,9° 


5.2S 


2,36 


67,40 


74,56 


92,99 


1,42,70 


i,77,04 


3,6i,73 


2,39,63 


2,92,72 


4,92,98 



TABLES 



'47 



TABLE V 



Principal Items of Expenditure, Kashmir 
(In thousands of rupees) 



i 


1895-6. 


1900-1. 


1905-6. 


Land revenue . . . 


3.15 


4,77 


6,12 


Customs . 










75 


i,3° 


Forests 








2,55 


2,95 


3,98 


Post Office 








16 


, , 


... 


Telegraphs 








77 


26 


29 


Privy purse and court 








9, 2 4 


8,46 


10,87 


General administration 








i>7 s 


2,49 


3,27 


Courts of law . 








68 


88 


1,22 


Jails 








3 2 


47 


54 


Police 








i ;4 S 


i,97 


2,05 


Education 








37 


5° 


1,05 


Medical . 








82 


i,39 


!,57 


l'olitical . 








J ,74 


2,36 


9,38 


Scientific and minor depart 


ment: 






72 


I ;°5 


2,11 


Sericulture 








>5 


4A3 


7,53 


Pensions and gratuities 








1,10 


',34 


1,32 


Stationery and printing 








20 


64 


48 


Stables, &c. 








i, 01 


i,54 


'•47 


Refunds . 








36 


25 


54 


Military . 








*3,44 


11,69 


I3,S2 


Public works . 








12,62 


15,80 


3°,So 


Miscellaneous . 








8,57 


1 ,33 


!,7! 


Total 
Debt and remittance .... 

Total 


61,23 


6 5,52 


1,01,42 


i>54> 2 7 


1,81,52 


3,57,03 


2,15,5° 


2,47,04 


4,58,45 


Closing balance ..... 


24,13 


45,68 


34,53 


Gr 


AND ' 


rOTA] 


L 


2,39, 6 3 


2,92,72 


4,92,98 



r 4 8 KASHMOR 

Kashmor. — Tdluka of the Upper Sind Frontier District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 28 4' and 28 29' N. and 69 15' and 69 
47' E. In 190 1 the area was 500 square miles. The population in 
1 90 1 was 38,179, compared with 35,763 in 1891. The density, 77 
persons per square mile, is much below the District average. The 
tdluka contained 65 villages, of which Kashmor is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 1-2 lakhs. Owing 
to the vagaries of the Indus, the present area of the tdluka is 508 
square miles, of which about 37 square miles are covered by forests. 
A large area of land is still unoccupied and available for cultivation. 
Irrigation depends upon floods and upon the Desert and Dingro Wah 
Canals and canals from the Kashmor Band. 

Kas.ia. — Subdivision of Gorakhpur District, United Provinces, 
comprising the Padrauna Tahsil. The subdivision takes its name 
from the village of Kasin, at which the head-quarters of the sub- 
divisional officer are situated. Population of the village (1901), t,688. 
The village is situated at the junction of the Deoria-Padrauna and 
Gorakhpur-Pipraghat roads, near the bank of the Rama Bhar lake, 
and contains a dispensary and a town school with 114 pupils. A short 
distance away, in the village of Bishanpura, is situated the important 
group of ruins which was long supposed to mark the site -of Kusa- 
nagara, where Gautama Buddha died. The ruins include a large stupa 
and many small ones, the remains of a monastery, and a temple which 
enshrines a colossal statue of the dying Buddha, 20 feet in length. 
It has now been recognized that the buildings on this site do 
not agree with the description of Kusanagara given by the Chinese 
pilgrims. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vols, xviii and xxii ; 
V. A. Smith, The Remains near Kasid (1896), and in Journal, Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1902, p. 139; W. Hoey, Journal, Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1900, p. 83.] 

Kasimbazar. — Decayed town in Murshidabad District, Bengal. 
See Cossimbazar. 

Kasipur-Chitpur. — Town in the District of the Twenty-four Par- 
ganas, Bengal. See Cosstpore-Chitpur. 

Kasla Pagina Muvada.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Kasumpti.— Suburb of Simla station, Punjab. It lies within the 
territory of the Raja of Keonthal, but being practically part of Simla 
was leased from the Raja in 1884, and constituted a separate munici- 
pality, whose functions are performed by the Deputy-Commissioner 
of Simla. The municipal income and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,600. In t 903-4 the income was 
Rs. 6,200, chiefly from taxes on houses and lands ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 6,300. Population (March, 1901), 170. 



KASUR TOWN 149 

Kasur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Lahore District, Punjab, 
consisting of the Kasur and Chunian tahsils. 

Kasur Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil of Lahore District, Punjab, 
lying between 30 54/ and 31 27' N. and 74 13' and 74 58' E., on 
the north bank of the Sutlej, with an area of 8r6 square miles, of which 
two-thirds belong to the tract known as the Manjha and the remainder 
to the lowlands beneath the old bank of the Beas. The Manjha 
portion is irrigated by the Pari Doab Canal, and the southern low- 
lands by the Katora Inundation Canal. The population in 1901 was 
311,690, compared with 280,647 ,n 1891. The head-quarters are at 
the town of Kasur (22,022) ; and it also contains the towns of Khem 
Karan (6,083) and Patti (8,187), and 345 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,71,000. The battle- 
field of Soeraon lies in this tahsil. 

Kasur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the 
same name in Lahore District, Punjab, situated in 31 8" N. and 
74 28' E., upon the north bank of the old bed of the Beas, on the 
North-Western Railway and on the Ferozepore road, 34 miles south- 
east of Lahore city ; distant by rail from Calcutta 1,209 miles, from 
Bombay 1,237, and from Karachi 778. Population (1901), 22,022, of 
whom 5,327 are Hindus and 16,257 Muhammadans. Tradition refers 
its origin to Kusa, son of Rama, and brother of Loh or Lava, the 
founder of Lahore. It is certainly a place of great antiquity, and 
General Cunningham identified it with one of the places visited by 
Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century a.d. A Rajput city seems to 
have occupied the modern site before the earliest Muhammadan 
invasion ; but Kasur does not appear in history until late in the 
Muhammadan period, when it was settled by a Pathan colony from 
the east of the Indus. These immigrants entered the town either in 
the reign of Babar or in that of his grandson Akbar, and founded 
a considerable principality, with territory on both sides of the Sutlej. 
When the Sikhs rose to power, they experienced great opposition from 
the Pathans of Kasur ; and, though the chiefs of the Bhangi con- 
federacy stormed the town in 1763, and again in 1770, and succeeded 
for a while in holding the entire principality, the Pathan leaders re- 
established their independence in 1794, and resisted many subsequent 
attacks. In 1807, however, Kutb-ud-dfn Khan, the last chieftain, was 
forced to give way before Ranjlt Singh, and retired to his property 
at Mamdot, beyond the Sutlej. The town of Kasur was then incor- 
porated in the kingdom of Lahore. It consists of an aggregation of 
fortified hamlets, standing on the upland bank and overlooking the 
alluvial valleys of the Beas and the Sutlej. The Pathan element has 
now declined. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 52,800, and the 



150 KASUR TOWN 

expenditure Rs. 50,900. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure 
were Rs. 60,400 and Rs. 54,500 respectively. The chief source of 
income was octroi (Rs. 50,000), while the main items of outlay were 
conservancy (Rs. 4,000), education (Rs. 8,500), hospitals and dispensaries 
(Rs. 6,300), and administration (Rs. 18,800). Kasiir is now, next to 
Lahore, the most important town in the District. It is the centre of local 
trade, and exports grain and cotton to the annual value of ro lakhs. 
Harness and other leathern goods are manufactured, and there are 
4 cotton-ginning and 2 cotton-pressing factories, which in 1904 em- 
ployed 436 hands. The chief educational institution is the Anglo- 
vernacular high school maintained by the municipality. An industrial 
school formerly existed, but is now extinct. The town also contains 
a hospital, and since 1899 has been an out-station of the American 
Presbyterian Mission. 

Katak. — District, subdivision, and town in Bengal. See Cuttack. 

Katakhal.— River in Cachar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
See Dhaleswari. 

Katas. — Sacred pool in the centre of the Salt Range, in Jhelum 
District, Punjab, situated in 32 43' N. and 72 59' E., 15 miles north 
of Pind Dadan Khan, at an elevation of over 2,000 feet. The pool lies 
at the head of the Ganlya nullah, a small ravine between low stony 
hills, and is fed by springs. From it issues a small stream which flows 
past Choa Saidan Shah into the Gandhala valley. It is visited every 
year by thousands of pilgrims who come to bathe in its waters. The 
Brahmanical story is that Siva being inconsolable at the death of his 
wife Sari, 'the true one,' tears rained from his eyes and formed the two 
pools of Katas or Kataksha, ' raining eyes,' and Pushkar near Ajmer. 
The pool is partly artificial, the rock having been cut away to enlarge 
the natural basin in the bed of the ravine. Just above it once stretched 
a strong masonry wall which dammed up the stream, so as to enclose 
a large lake ; but the water now escapes through the broken rocks and 
ruins of the embankment. About 800 feet below the pool the Ganlya 
nullah passes between two low flat-topped hills, on which the ancient 
town is said to have stood. At the foot of Kotera, the west hill, are 
the remains of twelve temples clustered in a corner of an old fort. 
These are called the Sat-Ghara, or ' seven temples,' and are popularly 
attributed to the Pandavas, who are said to have lived at Katas during 
a portion of their seven years' wanderings. Their style is that of the 
Kashmir architecture which prevailed from the eighth to the thirteenth 
century, and they comprise a group of six small temples placed in 
pairs at regular distances around one large central temple. Facing 
this to the east is the basement of a great structure, which was in 
all probability a Buddhist stupa. 

South-west of the village of Choa Saidan Shah, which lies 2 miles 



KATHA DISTRICT t 5i 

due east of Katas, extends the Gandhala valley, itself 2,000 feet above 
the sea, and separated by lofty cliffs from Katas on the north. On the 
bank of the Katas stream, which flows through the valley, lies the hill 
of Murti, rising on a base of solid sandstone to about 100 feet above 
the stream, its level top being 225 feet long by 190 broad. On this 
plateau is a small mound, the remains of a stupa ; and close to it once 
stood a small Jain temple, from the debris of which a considerable 
quantity of highly ornamented architectural fragments (now in the 
Lahore Museum) were recovered by Dr. Stein's excavations in 1890. 
The temple has been identified with a famous Jain shrine where 
Mahavira was supposed to have obtained his enlightenment. The 
locality is also identified with Singha-pura, the Sang-ho-pu-lo of the 
Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, and described by him as the capital 
of a dependency of Kashmir about a. d. 630. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. ii, pp. 88 and 90 ; A. Cunning- 
ham, Ancient Geography of India, pp. 124-8 ; Vienna Oriental Journal, 
vol. iv (1890), pp. 80 and 260.] 

Katha District. — District in the Mandalay Division of Upper 
Burma, lying between 23 30' and 25 f N. and 95 6' and 96 42' E., 
for the most part along the west bank of the Irrawaddy, with an area 
of 6,994 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Upper 
Chindwin and Myitkyina Districts ; on the east by the Kaukkwe river 
as far as its junction with the Irrawaddy ; thence, by the State of 
Mongmit (Momeik) and the Shweli river to its mouth, and southwards 
of this point by the Irrawaddy. The southern boundary abuts on the 
Ruby Mines and Shwebo Districts, and the western on the Upper 
Chindwin. 

With the exception of a small tract east of the Irrawaddv, the greater 
part of Katha is a mass of hill country. Three main ranges traverse 
the District, roughly from north to south, separating 
its principal streams, but they are of no very great snecfcf 

height. Of these, the easternmost is the Gangaw 
range, which runs southwards from the north-east corner of the 
District to meet the Irrawaddy at Tigyaing. Its course is, in the 
main, parallel to that of the stream, and its highest point is 4,400 feet 
above sea-level. The principal pass crossing it is at Petsut, 12 miles 
west of Katha, over which a small branch line runs from Katha to 
Naba on the main line of the railway, at a height of about 500 feet 
above the surrounding country. West of the Gangaw Hills is the 
Minwun range, starting from the extreme northern limit of Katha, east 
of the Taungthonlon hill, and running down the centre of the District 
to its southern boundary, where the Irrawaddy flows about 5 or 6 miles 
east of the hills. The principal pass over this ridge is the Mawgun- 
daing, crossed east and west by the road from Tigyaing to Wuntho, 



i<52 KATHA DISTRICT 



about 12 miles west of Tigyaing, at a height of about 1,500 feet. 
There is a gap in the hills near Mawteik, through which the Meza 
river has cut from west to east. The Sagaing-Myitkyina railway on its 
way north climbs the range by way of a gorge between Bonchaung and 
Nankan. The third main range, the Mangin, passes through the 
Wuntho subdivision to the east of the Mu river. Its most elevated 
point is Maingthon, 5,450 feet above sea-level, a little west of the 
centre of the District. This is the highest peak actually within the 
District, though the Taungthonlon, on the north-western border, is 
a little higher. All three hill ranges are covered with dense jungle, 
and contain much teak and other valuable timber, besides considerable 
quantities of bamboo. 

The principal rivers are the Irrawaddy, the Kaukkwe, the Shweli, 
the Meza, the Mu, and the Namyin (or Mohnyin). The Irrawaddy 
enters Katha about half-way down its eastern side, and as far south as 
the mouth of the Shweli separates the greater part of the District from 
a small level tract on its eastern bank. South of the Shweli it forms 
the eastern boundary for about 25 miles. It runs with a south-westerly 
course in what is for the most part a wide channel interspersed with 
numerous slands, and is navigable all through the year by all sizes 
of river-craft. The Shweli flows into the Irrawaddy on its left bank, 
in the south-east of the District, separating Katha from the Ruby 
Mines' District for about 25 miles. In these lower reaches it is a wide 
waterway on which boats can ply. The Kaukkwe stream, winding 
southwards into the Irrawaddy from Myitkyina, forms the eastern 
boundary from its confluence with the main stream up to the north- 
east corner of the District. It can be used by light-draught launches 
as far as Thayetta (20 miles), and by small river-craft right up into 
Myitkyina. Separated from the Irrawaddy valley by the Gangaw 
range is the malarious Meza valley. The Meza rises in the Taung- 
thonlon hill on the north-west border of the District, and, with its 
numerous affluents, waters nearly all the Banmauk subdivision. Follow- 
ing a southerly course, it passes through a gap in the Minwun range, 
and enters the Indaw township near Mawteik, and thence flows 
southwards between the Gangaw and Minwun ranges, emptying itself 
eventually into the Irrawaddy, immediately below Tigyaing. The 
valley between the two eastern hill ranges, followed by the railway 
for the greater part of its course through the District, is drained in 
the far north by the Namyin (Mohnyin), a southern tributary of the 
Mogaung river in Myitkyina District. In the south-western quarter 
of the District, lying west of the Mangin range, is the Mu, which rises 
in the south-west of the Banmauk subdivision and flows in a southerly 
direction, through the middle of the Pinlebu township, into Shwebo 
District, but is not navigable within the limits of Katha. Its tributary 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 153 

on the east, the Daungyu chaung, rises in the Wuntho township, waters 
the entire Kawlin township, and from its mouth eastwards for more 
than 30 miles forms the southern boundary of the District. 

The Indaw Lake is the only considerable sheet of water in Katha. 
It lies close to the railway, 5 miles west of Naba junction near the 
centre of the District. It is more than 3 miles long and a mile broad, 
and is a fishery of some importance. A curious feature of the lake is 
the absence of any streams flowing either into or out of it. 

The Mangin range of hill consists of trap, with veins of gold-bearing 
quartz, while the eastern part of the District is occupied by crystalline 
palaeozoic rocks, of which little is known. West of these, a portion of 
the country is covered by Tertiary sandstones and clays, in which coal 
has been found near Wuntho. West of this again, a large area of 
eruptive diorite, associated with volcanic ash, has been laid bare by 
the denudation of the Tertiary sandstones. The diorite contains 
veins of auriferous pyrites, the same metal being found also dissemi- 
nated in the ash-beds. The Minwun range is principally sandstone, 
and the Gangaw range consists of mica schist in the south and of 
granite in the north. Limestone also occurs in parts. 

The most noticeable features of the vegetation are touched upon 
under the head of Forests below. The flora is rich and varied, but 
has not been studied scientifically. 

The wild animals usually found in Upper Burma are plentiful. 
Tigers, leopards, elephants, bison, and tsine or hsaing [Bos sondaicus) 
roam the jungles in considerable numbers, while bears are common in 
the more hilly parts. Thamin (brow-antlered deer) are fairly numerous 
in the southern part of the Wuntho subdivision. Wild hog are 
plentiful everywhere, and do much damage to the crops. The 
Khedda department are at present working in the District, and have 
effected considerable catches of elephants, but many of these died of 
anthrax. 

Katha has a bad reputation for malarial and other fevers. The 
tarai at the foot of the hills is undoubtedly very unhealthy at all 
times ; in the hot months the heat all over the District is great, 
and the absence of wind at this season and in the rains adds to the 
discomfort of the residents, while even the cold season is made un- 
healthy by fogs near the Irrawaddy and the other streams. The 
temperature has not been regularly recorded ; but it has been found 
to range roughly from 45 at night to 75 in the day in the winter, 
from 70 to 90" in the rains, and from 8o° to 105° in the hot season. 
In the cold season there are heavy dews. The annual rainfall aver- 
ages 58 inches at Katha, and varies in the other portions of the 
District from 42 inches at Tigyaing in the plains to 67 inches at 
Banmauk in the hilly areas. The Meza valley between the Indaw 



1 54 KATHA DISTRICT 

Lake and Meza railway station is subject to inundation. The most 
notable flood of recent years occurred in 1901, when considerable 
damage was done to the railway and to other property. 

Few details of the early history of the District are known. It is 
said that during the eleventh century Anawrata, who was then king 
, of Pagan, made a pilgrimage to China in search of 

relics of Buddha. This led to an endeavour to 
define the boundary of his territory with China ; and from this time 
onwards the tribes to the north, including those in the neighbour- 
hood of what is now known as Katha, are said to have acknowledged 
Burmese suzerainty. The Kachins are reputed at one time to have 
inhabited a large area in Katha and to have been gradually pushed 
back to the northern hills by the Shans and Burmans, but this 
seems doubtful ; in fact, everything points to the pressure having 
been from the north, and to have been applied by the Kachins, 
who have, so far as appears, not given ground again. A Chinese 
army is said to have overrun the District in one of the invasions 
from the north, but its stay was of brief duration. It established 
itself at Tigyaing, where portions of the old fort walls are still visible, 
but it was soon driven out. In 1883 the northern part of the District 
was invaded by Kachins from the north, who burnt many villages 
and ravaged a great portion of the country. 

Katha was first occupied by the British early in 1886, and gave some 
trouble during that and the following year. In course of time the 
troops, British and Native, were gradually replaced by military police. 
It was not, however, until the commencement of the year 1890 that 
the assistance of the regulars could be wholly dispensed with. The 
character of the country rendered the breaking up of the rebel and 
dacoit gangs, many of which were headed by ex-Burmese officials 
and professional brigands, no easy or expeditious matter, and the 
malarious climate caused the loss of many lives. The District, known 
in the early years after the annexation as Myadaung, was always noted 
for its turbulence ; and it is gravely recorded that the local village 
officials (myothugyis and shwehmus) were formerly compelled to live in 
specially high houses, and to sleep in coffin-like troughs of wood of 
sufficient thickness to resist a gunshot or the lunge of a spear. 

Chief among those who indirectly opposed the British after the 
annexation was Maung Aung Myat, the Sawbwa of Wuntho, a so- 
called Shan State lying between Katha District and the Upper 
Chindwin. This chieftain seized the opportunity to increase both 
his power and the area of his State. By various means he succeeded 
in driving out a number of officials on his borders, and by promises 
of loyalty and obedience to the British Government he obtained 
permission to retain as part of the Wuntho State a portion of the 



POPULATION 155 

territory thus acquired. It was long, however, before he would meet 
British officials, and eventually in 1891 a rebellion broke out at his 
instigation among the Wuntho people. The first signal act of insur- 
rection was the seizure of Banmauk in February. This was followed 
by an attack upon Kawlin and the burning of the subdivisional head- 
quarters. Other acts of violence were committed and much damage 
was done to property. The rebels were, however, defeated at Kawlin, 
at the Kyaingkwin hill between Kawlin and Wuntho, and at Okkan in 
the Ye-u country ; and the rising was suppressed before the end of the 
hot season, at the cost, however, of a European officer and a number 
of men. Its immediate result was the incorporation of Wuntho State 
in Katha District. The Sawbwa escaped to China, where he is 
believed to be still living. 

The most notable sacred edifices are the Myazedi, the Shwegugyi, 
the Aingtalu, the Myatheindan, and the Shwebontha pagodas. The 
Myazedi is situated in the middle of Katha town, and forms the land- 
mark dividing the northern from the southern quarter. It is said to be 
one of 84,000 pagodas, each no bigger than a cotton basket, built by 
a king of Patna, known to the Burmese as Thiridhammathawka Min of 
Patayipotpyi. U Pathi, a myothugyi of Katha, enlarged the pagoda to 
its present size and shape in 1832. In 1883 it was greatly damaged by 
the wild Kachins who occupied the town during the raid referred to 
above, and what almost amounts to a new shrine has now been built 
on the old site in the most modern style of Burmese architecture. 
The Shwegugyi pagoda, built by king Bodawpaya, stands in the northern 
quarter of Katha town. The Shwebontha pagoda, situated at Bilumyo, 
is also said to be one of the 84,000 works of merit aforesaid. Near it 
are the ruins of an old fortified city. The Aingtalu pagoda stands 
about 2 miles north-east of Aleywa (Moda), on a hill on the west bank 
of the Irrawaddy. It appears to be a very ancient structure, and is 
much broken down, and for many years was completely hidden by 
jungle growth. The Myatheindan pagoda stands on the end of the 
Gangaw range above the Irrawaddy at Tigyaing. The remains of 
the old wall erected by the Chinese when they invaded this part of the 
country are still to be seen at Tigyaing. 

The population of Katha in 1891 was 90,548 (not including the 

Wuntho State, annexed in that year), and in 190 1 

' ../.... Population, 

amounted to 176,223. Its distribution in the latter 

year is shown in the table on the next page. 

There are no towns of importance, and very few large villages. The 
last few years have seen a rapid increase of population in the country 
lying along the railway; but it has not extended to the riverain portions 
of the District, where, it is said, development has been arrested by the 
cost of transit. Immigration has taken place largely from Shwebo, and 

vol. xv. 1. 



i 5 6 



KATHA DISTRICT 



to a lesser extent from Mandalay District. Rather more than 95 per 
cent, of the people are Buddhists. Burmese is the language of about 
123,000. Kadu is spoken in the west, and Shan and Kachin in 
the north. 



Township. 



Katha . 
Tigyaing 
Mawlu . 
Indaw 
Wuntho . 
Kawlin . 
Pinlebu . 
Banmauk 

District total 



e 


Number of 












(fl 


T* 


c 


fcJ) 








~ m '. 


< 


H 
1 


> 


1,152 


.78 


352 


... 


116 


I ,344 




281 


416 


... 


15' 


59 2 




3oi 


536 


... 


239 


1,367 


. • • 


362 


1,235 


... 


338 


6,994 


1 


i,y66 



s 



20,062 
16,046 

17,178 

14,208 

2 2,934 
28,114 

29,321 

28,360 



176,223 




5, I2 7 
4,448 
2,564 
3,o49 
5,5° 8 
7,56i 
4,593 
3,43i 



36,281 



* The last four townships belonged in 1891 to the State of Wuntho. 

Of the total population in 1901, Burmans numbered 82,800; Shans, 

49,4005 Kadus, 34,200; and Kachins, 5,900. The first named are 

settled over the greater part of the District ; but while the Tigyaing 

and Wuntho townships are almost exclusively Burmese, there are 

comparatively few Burmans in the Banmauk and Mawlu townships. 

Broadly speaking, the Burmese element is strongest in the south, and 

grows weaker towards the north, where Shans, Kadus, and Kachins 

preponderate. The Kadus inhabit the western townships — Banmauk, 

Pinlebu, and Indaw; the Shans occupy the north, being most numerous 

in the Mawlu township, but they are well represented also in Katha, 

Indaw, Pinlebu, and Banmauk, particularly in the last two. The 

Kachins are found in greatest numbers in the hills of Mawlu in 

the north of the District, and in the north of the Katha township. 

In 1 90 1 Musalmans numbered 940 and Hindus 1,240 : of these 450 

Musalmans and 180 Hindus lived in Katha town. A large number 

of the Indian residents are Government or railway employes. The 

number of Christians in 1901 was only 153, mostly Europeans and 

Eurasians. Nearly half of them were residents of Katha town. In 1901 

about 77 per cent, of the population were engaged in or dependent on 

agriculture, about one-sixteenth of these being supported by tau/igya 

(shifting) cultivation alone. 

The District is composed mainly of hills, between which lie scattered 

patches of cultivated land, where the silt brought down by the streams 

. . ,. from the hill-sides has been deposited so as to form 

Agriculture. . „ . , , , . l . , . T 

a surface sufficiently level for rice cultivation. In 

the higher valleys the soil is, as a rule, very fertile, the most common 



AGRICULTURE 157 

type being a rich grey loam known us myetna. Another kind is a thick 
heavy clay, hard to work, and very liable to become waterlogged, a 
defect which is common more or less to all the soils of the District. 
In the lower valleys the ground is often similar to that described above, 
but in many cases it appears to have been formed of matter washed 
down from the lower slopes of the hills. These are as a rule composed 
of indaing or laterite, and the low land is therefore often very sandy and 
of poor quality. Plains of moderate extent stretch southwards from 
Wuntho to the boundary of Shwebo District, and from Mohnyin in a 
north-easterly direction to Myitkyina. Taungya-culXmg is practised 
in parts, but there is little or no permanent ya (high land) cultivation. 
The taungya-cutters are recognized as the poorest members of the 
agricultural community, and it is always their ambition to become 
possessed of ordinary plain rice land, though they seem somewhat 
reluctant to migrate in search of it. 

The land tenures prevailing are of considerable interest. Officers 
have from time to time been placed on special duty in connexion with 
this question, but a comprehensive inquiry has only recently been 
made by the Settlement officer. From his report it appears that the 
southern part of the District includes small portions of the old Pyinsala- 
nga-myo and Mvedu zvun-sbips. In these tracts the tenures are similar 
to those prevailing in other parts of Upper Burma. In the rest of the 
District the tenures are found to have been of a communal nature. 
Land within a village or tkugyi-ship could be held only by a resident, 
and sales or mortgages, where permitted at all, were allowed only to 
another resident. If a landholder removed to another village he 
forfeited his land, though in some cases he was entitled to recover 
it on his return. This system was enforced most stringently in the 
old Wuntho State, where no mortgages or sales were permitted, and 
where the thugyi, as head of the commune, allotted available lands 
to residents, and might in certain cases redistribute land already 
occupied or subdivide an existing holding to provide land for a new- 
comer. In what is known as the S/nve country, and elsewhere in the 
District, the power of the thugyi was more restricted. 

The principal agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in the table 
on the next page, the areas being in square miles. 

Of the total cultivated area, rice covered 223 square miles, and 
sesamum 3,300 acres. Tea and tobacco are grown, but only to a small 
extent. The former is produced on the hills in the Banmauk township 
in the north-west of the District. The area under garden cultivation 
was only 800 acres, composed mostly of plantain groves. 

Cultivation is extending gradually and normally, and in several areas 
it is still susceptible of considerable expansion. Its growth is most 
marked in the plains around Mohnyin. This part of the country, 

l 2 



i 5 8 



KATHA DISTRICT 



which was ravaged by the Kachins in 1883, is now being rapidly 
repopulated, and much of the old cultivated- land is being cleared 
afresh. There is little indebtedness among the local husbandmen. 
The ancient systems of land tenure are still maintained, and these 
being of a communal or quasi-communal character strictly forbid the 
alienation of land to persons living outside the community. Govern- 
ment advances for agricultural purposes have been freely made since 
1888-9. The amount advanced in 1903-4 was Rs. 18,000. No 
difficulty has been experienced in the recovery of the loans. 



Township. 


Total aiea. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Katha . 
Tigyaing 
Mawlu . 
Indaw 
Wuntho . 
Kawlin . 
Piulebu . 
Banmauk 

Total 


1,152 

352 

x .-344 
416 

592 
536 

1,367 
1,235 


] I 
16 
IS 
18 
4 1 
7° 
35 
23 


5 
7 

"s 

23 

4 


\ 4,000 


6,994 


232 


47 


4,oco 



There are no special breeds of domestic animals. Buffaloes are 
more generally used than kine, and those suitable for timber-dragging 
fetch the highest prices. Ponies are imported principally from the 
Shan States through Bhamo, and are generally small-sized. Generally 
speaking, goats are kept only by natives of India. 

A good deal of the rice land is irrigated in some way or other, as the 
conformation of the country lends itself to such processes. To secure 
the required water, the many hill streams and rainy season drainage 
channels are dammed, and their contents diverted on to the fields. 
Most of the dams, however, supply only small areas, sometimes only 
a single holding. The most important irrigation scheme is at Wuntho, 
where two weirs on the Daungyu water a considerable area, dowered 
with a fertile soil and productive of good crops. A fairly extensive 
area also is irrigated in the neighbourhood of the Indaw Lake. On 
the Meza the water-wheel known as the yit is used to lift water on 
to the fields. The total area returned as irrigated in 1903-4 was 47 
square miles. The most important inland fishery is in the Indaw Lake. 
Fishing is carried on in sections of the Irrawaddy and the Meza, 
known as the Myityo fisheries, and in the swamps adjoining the 
former river. The fishery revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 70,000. 

The District comprises the greater part of the Katha Forest division, 
as well as portions of the Mu and Upper Chindwin divisions. The 
Katha division lies close to the Irrawaddy, and includes the area 
drained by the Meza river. The Mu division comprises as much of 



MINERALS 159 

the District as is drained by the Mu river and its tributary the 

Daungyu. A portion of the Banmauk township falls within the 

drainage area of the Chindwin, and is included in the 

. ... Forests. 

Upper Chindwin Forest division. The total forest 

area exceeds 4,000 square miles in extent, and includes 1,119 square 

miles of ' reserved ' forests. Reservation is not yet complete, but some 

areas have already been notified, and others will probably be proposed 

shortly. Teak is the predominant species of timber tree ; in fact, in 

many places it may be said to grow almost like a weed. Pad auk 

(Pterocarpus sp.) and pyingado (Xylia dolalwiformis) are found in the 

south of the District, where the climate is drier. Considerable 

quantities of ' unreserved ' woods are extracted, principally from un- 

classed forests ; of these the most important are in (Dipterocarpus 

tuberculatum ingyin {Pentacme siamensis), kanyinbyu (Dipterocarpus 

alatus), and yamane {Gmelina arbored). Bamboos and canes are also 

obtained in large quantities. The minor forest produce consists of 

shaiv (Sterculia sp.), indwe, and pwenyet. A little cutch is extracted in 

the south, and small quantities of lac are found near Banmauk. 

Owing to the accessibility of the Irrawaddy and Meza forests, most 
of the valuable teak was extracted from them before annexation. 
Large trees are now scarce in these areas, and where found prove 
difficult of extraction, and in many of the Reserves the growing stock 
consists mainly of coppice or stool shoots springing from the old 
stumps. There are some teak taungya plantations and a little experi- 
mental cultivation of rubber in the Mohnyin Reserve. 

The total forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to about 4! lakhs. It 
is impossible to give exact figures of either the revenue or the area 
of unclassed forests, in consequence of the fact that the District 
boundaries and those of forest divisions do not coincide. 

Gold, copper, iron, and lead are found. A gold-mine was worked 

for some years at Kyaukpazat by an English company, but the reef 

has been worked out and the mine is now closed. ... , 

Minerals. 
The company had a capital of Rs. 12,000, and used 

the cyanide process, with a crushing plant of ten stamps. Gold- 
washing is still carried on locally in the beds of streams in many parts 
of the Wuntho subdivision, and in some places in Banmauk. Little 
is known as to the return obtained, but it appears to be very small. 
This part of the country was formerly known as the Skive ('golden') 
country, three divisions of which were recognized : the Shwe Ashe 
Gyaung, the Shwe Ale Gyaung, and the Shwe Anauk Gyaung, the two 
first being within Katha District. They were not continuous tracts, 
but included many scattered villages where revenue used to be paid 
in gold, and whose tkugyis were called shwehmus. Iron is found in 
small particles in the beds of streams at Thanthonda, Gananma, 



i6o KATHA DISTRICT 

Gananbwa, and Taman in the Wuntho subdivision, but there is little 
or no trade in local iron now. Lead occurs at Mawka, Mawhaing, and 
Mawkwin, and used to be dug out of pits from 20 to 60 feet deep, 
which are, however, not worked at present. Copper is found at 
Sigadaung and, like lead, was at one time extracted, but the mines 
have been closed for many years. Jade occurs at Mawlu, and soap- 
stone of inferior quality in the Katha township. A small quantity 
of salt is produced, principally from brine-wells in the Mawlu and 
Pinlebu townships. 

Katha possesses no arts or manufactures. The greater part of the 

population are dependent on agriculture, supplementing their earnings 

by other kinds of manual labour in the dry season. 

Irade and jr rom Pinlebu and Banmauk a considerable number 
communications. 

of persons go every year to work at the jade- 
mines. After agriculture the extraction of timber is the most important 
industry. Three European firms are at present engaged in the timber 
business in different parts of the District, in addition to a number 
of minor contractors. A steam saw-mill at Kalon, on the west bank of 
the Irrawaddy, 22 miles south of Katha town, employs about twenty-two 
persons. The only other industrial enterprise which employed steam- 
power was the Kyaukpazat gold-mine, now closed. Pickled tea of two 
kinds, known respectively as paungthi and pyaokthi, is made in the 
west ; gold-washing and salt-boiling are both practised on a small 
scale ; and the manufacture of cart-wheels and the making of sandals 
and straw hats are other minor industries. 

Timber, bamboos, cane and other minor forest produce, and paddy 
are the principal exports. The trade in timber consists of teak, in, and 
ingyin, and a few other ' unreserved ' woods, which are rafted down 
the Kaukkwe, Meza, and Shweli streams into the Irrawaddy, and go 
by this route to Mandalay, the railway being utilized occasionally from 
Kadu, about 5 miles along the line south-west of Mohnyin. Con- 
siderable quantities of paddy are exported by Burmese brokers by 
rail and river, principally to Mandalay, for milling. The collecting 
centres on the railway are Wuntho, Kawlin, and Mohnyin, which are 
within easy reach of the large rice-growing areas : namely, Tigyaing 
on the Irrawaddy and Kywegawgyi on the Meza. Timber in rafts 
and paddy in boats are also sent down the Mu from Pinlebu ; and a 
fair amount of cured and dried fish from the riverain villages leaves 
Katha by rail for Mogaung and the jade-mines, and by road for the 
west of the District and the Upper Chindwin. A small trade in pickled 
tea is carried on in the Wuntho subdivision, where it is grown and 
manufactured. The main imports are hardware for agricultural imple- 
ments and house-building purposes, cotton twist and yarn, cotton piece- 
goods, silk and cotton waistcloths and handkerchiefs of both European 



A DMINISTRA TIOX i 6 1 

and Burmese manufacture, Japanese umbrellas, crockery and plated 
ware, jaggery, til or gingelly and kerosene oil, and salt of both 
European and Shwebo manufacture. 

The Sagaing-Myitkyina railway cuts through the District in a north- 
easterly direction for 115 miles, traversing the most important rice- 
growing tracts, with stations at Kawlin, Wuntho, Indaw, Mawlu, 
Mohnyin, and other places. A branch line, 15 miles long, runs from 
Naba south-eastwards to Katha, connecting the main line with the 
Irrawaddy. 

In the eastern part of the District the Irrawaddy forms the chief 
means of communication. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company runs 
regular services of mail and cargo steamers up and down the river, 
and a daily ferry steamer between Katha and Bhamo connects with 
the railway at Katha. 

The Public Works department maintains 185 miles of road, mostly 
unmetalled. The principal tracks are : Indaw to Mansi, passing 
through Banmauk, 61 miles, unmetalled; Wuntho to Pinlebu, 41 
miles, unmetalled ; Kawlin to Tawma, 30 miles, metalled in places 
only; Wuntho to Singon, 17 miles, and Wuntho to Taungmaw, n 
miles, metalled in places only. The District fund, which is small, 
maintains only one unmetalled road, from Tigyaing to Manle. 

For purposes of administration the District is divided into three 
subdivisions : Katha, comprising the townships of Katha, Tigyaixg, 
Mawlu, and Indaw ; Wuntho, comprising the town- Administration# 
ships of Wuntho, Kawlin, and Pinlebu ; and the 
subdivision and township of Banmauk. Subordinate to the township 
officers are 530 village headmen. In addition to the subdivisional 
and township officers, the Deputy-Commissioner is assisted by a 
treasury officer, who is also sub-registrar, an akunwun (in subordi- 
nate charge of the revenue administration), and a superintendent of 
land records, who has under him 5 inspectors and 34 surveyors. 
The Public Works department is represented by an Assistant Engineer 
under the Executive Engineer in charge of the Myitkyina division. 

The Deputy-Commissioner, subdivisional officers, and township 
officers preside over the District, subdivisional, and township courts. 
Under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895, which is in force 
in the hill tracts of the District, the District Magistrate is Sessions 
Tudge. Crime generally is infrequent and no class of offence is 
exceptionally common. In the Kachin Hills, however, a good deal 
of opium smuggling takes place, which is difficult to check, and a 
few large seizures of opium brought in from China through Bhamo 
have been made in recent years. The opium habit is prevalent in most 
parts of the District, as is frequently the case in malarious tracts. 

The revenue system is at present at a stage of transition. On culti- 



l62 



KATHA DISTRICT 



vated land which has been surveyed, land revenue is for the present 
assessed at rates varying from 4 annas to Rs. 1-8-0 per acre, the 
average assessment being about 10 annas. On unsurveyed land, 
revenue is assessed at one-eighth of the gross produce, commuted at 
rates which are fixed annually. The incidence of this form of taxation 
is slightly heavier than that by acre rates. In the surveyed portions 
the average size of a holding is a little over 4 acres. A special survey 
is now being made which will include most of the unsurveyed but 
cultivated land. The settlement is in progress, and the operations 
have by now reached an advanced stage. 

' The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the fluctuations 
in the revenue since 1891-2, the first year for which statistics for 
the District as now constituted are available :— 





1891-2. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


66 
4,86 


i,73 

6,28 


1,69 
6,48 



Thathameda brought in Rs. 3,65,000 in 1903-4, and till the settle- 
ment rates have been introduced will continue to be the main source 
of revenue. 

The District fund, administered by the Deputy-Commissioner 
for the upkeep of roads, <^?/£-bungalows, &c, had an income of Rs. 
15,700 in 1903-4, the chief item of expenditure being public works 
(Rs. 5,400). No municipalities have been constituted. 

The civil police force is in charge of a District Superintendent, and 
is divided into three subdivisional charges corresponding with the 
civil administrative subdivisions, Katha, Wuntho, and Banmauk. The 
first is an Assistant District Superintendent's subdivision, the two latter 
are inspectors' charges. An inspector is also attached to the force at 
District head-quarters. There are 9 police stations and 9 outposts. 
The sanctioned strength of the force, excluding the superior officers, 
is 7 head constables, 23 sergeants, and 268 constables. This includes 
2 Kachin police, who, while nominally attached to the police stations, 
actually live in the hills. 

The military police are a detachment of the Shwebo battalion, under 
an assistant commandant, who has his head-quarters at Katha town. 
The strength is 368 men, of whom 128 are stationed at Katha, the 
remainder being distributed at the various township head-quarters. 

The District jail at Katha has accommodation for 87 prisoners. 
The principal industries carried on are grinding wheat for the military 
police, and carpentry and cane-work to supply the needs of the various 
Government offices. There is no public demand for jail-made articles, 
but the surplus produce of the jail garden is sold in the bazar. 



KATHA TOll'X 16 



o 



The standard of education is, all things considered, fairly high. In 
1 90 1 about 40 per cent, of the males and 2 per cent, of the females 
enumerated were able to read and write, the proportion for both sexes 
being 21 per cent. Of the 309 schools in the District in 1904, 2 were 
secondary, 53 primary, and 254 elementary (private); and the total 
attendance was 4,142 pupils, of whom 224 were girls. All are purely 
vernacular schools, and none is entirely supported by Government or 
municipal funds. The expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 2,400, derived entirely from Provincial funds. 

There are 2 civil hospitals, with accommodation for 42 in-patients. 
In 1903 the number of cases treated was 15,970, including 699 in- 
patients, and 227 operations were performed. The income was made 
up of Rs. 4,900 from Provincial funds and Rs. 850 from subscriptions. 
Out-patients are treated in 3 military police hospitals, the total for 1903 
being 2,341. There are also 2 railway dispensaries. Quinine in pice 
packets is sold only by the post offices, sales through the agency of 
village headmen having been a failure. 

Vaccination is not compulsory in any part of the District, and makes 
but little progress. In 1903-4 the number of persons vaccinated was 
onlv 2,315, or 13 per 1,000 of the population. 

Katha Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Katha District, Upper 
Burma, containing the Katha, Tigvaing, Mawlu, and Indaw town- 
ships. 

Katha. Township. — North-eastern township of Katha District, 
Upper Burma, lying on both sides of the Irrawaddy, between 23° 53' 
and 24 56' N. and 96 10' and 96 42' E., with an area of 1,152 
square miles. The population was 18,783 in 1891, and 20,062 in 
1901, distributed in 178 villages and one town, Katha (population, 
2,931), the head-quarters. The greater portion of the township is 
covered with dense forests abounding in game. The inland villages 
obtain water for their rice lands from the network of small creeks 
covering the low-lying levels. The hilly parts to the north and 
west are inhabited by Kachins, who practise taungya cultivation. 
The cultivated area under supplementary survey in 1903-4 was n 
square miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 
52,100. 

Katha Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name in 
Upper Burma, situated in 24 io' N. and 96 21 E., close to the edge 
of the hills on the right bank of the Irrawaddy ; 70 miles below Bhamo, 
and nearly 200 above Mandalay. Population (1901^, 2,931. The town 
is unimportant historically, and has only come into prominence since 
the advent of the British. It contains a bazar and the usual public 
buildings, and is laid out along five principal roads running north and 
south parallel with the river, covering an area about half a mile long 



1 64 KATHA TOWN 

and a quarter broad. The houses in the native quarter are for the 
most part unpretentious. A branch line, taking off from the Sagaing- 
Myitkyina railway at Naba. Junction (15 miles in length), terminates 
on the river bank close to the courthouse, giving easy access to the 
steam ferry to Bhamo and the boats of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company 
plying between that station and Mandalay. The town contains a civil 
hospital with 23 beds, maintained by Provincial funds. Katha is 
one of the District head-quarters in Burma which have not yet been 
constituted municipalities. 

Kathaun. — Thakurat in the Gwalior Residency, Central India. 

Kathgodam (' Timber depot '). — Village in the Bhabar tract of 
Naini Tal District, United Provinces, situated in 29 16' N. and 79 
33' E., at the terminus of the Rohilkhand and Kumaun Railway. 
Population (1901), 375. The place has only become of importance 
since the railway was extended from HaldwanT, the former terminus. 
It is now the starting-point for the ascent to the hill stations of Naini 
Tal, Ranlkhet, and Almora. Kathgodam is administered together with 
Ranlbagh, three miles away on the tonga road, under Act XX of 1856, 
the income being about Rs. 800. Ranlbagh (population, 624) is 
situated at the junction of the tonga road with bridle-paths to various 
places in the hills. It is an important stage in the trade route to the 
interior. 

Kathi. — Estate in Khandesh District, Bombay. See Mehwas 
Estates. 

Kathiawar (or Surashtra). — The peninsula or western portion of 
the province of Gujarat, Bombay, lying between 20 41' and 23 
8' N. and 68° 56" and 72 20' E. The extreme length of the peninsula 
is about 220 miles, its greatest breadth about 165 miles, its area about 
23,445 square miles, and its population (1901) 2,645,805. Of these 
totals, about 1,245 square miles, with 173,436 persons, belong to the 
Gaikwar ; about 1,298 square miles, with 128,559 persons, belong to 
Ahmadabad District ; about 20 square miles, with 14,614 persons, 
belong to the Portuguese possession of Diu ; while the remainder (area 
20,882 square miles and population 2,329,196) is the territory form- 
ing the Political Agency subordinate to the Government of Bombay, 
established in 1822, having under its control 193 separate States, 
great and small, whose chiefs divide among themselves the greater 
portion of the peninsula of Kathiawar. 

The Kathiawar Agency is divided for administrative purposes into 
four pnuits or divisions — Jhalawar, Halar, Sorath, and Gohelwar— 
and the States have since 1863 been arranged in seven classes. The 
first-class States number 8, second-class 6, third-class 8, fourth-class 9, 
fifth-class x6, sixth-class 30, seventh-class 5, and the remaining 11 1 are 
combined into thana circles. 



KATHIAWAR 



165 



General Statistics for each State and Taluka in Kathiawar 









. 


no 

— 


Revenue 


(1903-4). 


Tribute. 




Caste, tribe, 


'id = 




r; "-" 








State. 


or race of the 


V O 


-^ 


~ 

3 cr, 












ruling chief. 


tfl 


t> 


— - 

a. 


From 
land. 


Total. 


Amount. 


To whom 
payable. 


Gohetwar Print. 










Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


*i Bhaunagar. . 


Gohel Rawal 
Rajput. 


2,860 


666 


412,664 


25,00,861 


39.53.602 


1,54,500 British, Gaik- 
war, and Ju- 
nagarh. 


2 Palitana . . . 


Gohel Rajput 


200 


9i 


52.856 


5,11-277 


6.40.91 1 


10.364 Gaikwarand 


3 Jasdan . . . 


Kathi . . . 


283 


56 


25.7 2 7 


1-14-715 


1.22.921 


10.661 


Junagarh. 
British and 
















Gaikwar. 


3 \ ala . . . . 


Gohel Rawal 


100 


40 


13,285 


2,10,000 


?,oco 


c.202 Gaikwar and 


4 Lathi .... 


Rajput. 


42 


9 


8,831 


',21,957 


r -37,5" 


Junagarh. 

i,857 


|6Bhad!i . . . 


Kathi . . . 




16 


2,988 


12,000 


16,000 


1.357 British and 


















Junagarh. 


Itana .... 


,» 




2 


506 


2,800 


3,coo 


355 




6 Kotra Pitha . 
6 Yankia . . . 


;» 




13 


6,772 


44.500 


70,000 


5-578 


■• 






3 


947 


4,745 


5-051 


524 


•• 


7 KariSna ■ . . 


,. 




9 


2,265 


1 6,000 


20,000 


MS? 




Akadia . . . 


Chavada Raj- 
put. 
Gohel Rajput 




1 


102 


1,025 


1.025 


154 


I, 


Alampur . . . 




» 


497 


4,000 


4,500 


'•397 


Gaikwar and 


















Junagarh. 


Babra .... 


Kathi . . . 




6 


7.417 


48,921 


69,683 


— 


— 


Bhandaria . 


Kamalia AhTr 


'. '. 


1 


449 


3,750 


4,000 


322 


Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 


Bhoiavadar . . 


Gohel Rajput 




1 


764 


5,000 


5.300 


550 


.] 


Bildi .... 


Sindi . . . 




1 


388 


35i 


749 


— 


— 


Boda-no-nes 


Kamalia AhTr 




1 


136 


1,000 


1,200 


112 


Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 


Chamardi . . 


Gohel Rajput 




1 


2,168 


9,000 


10,000 


858 


., 


Chiroda . . . 


Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 
Gohel Rajput 




1 


247 


2,250 


2.500 


"35 


" 


Chitravav . . 




1 


246 


2,000 


2,200 


529 


.. 


Chok .... 


Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 




2 


1,213 


6,500 


6,800 


417 




Datha . . . 


jj 


6g 


24 


9-452 


25,339 


31-339 


5.39S 




Dedarda . . . 


., 


. . 


j 


783 


4.200 


4,5oo 


103 


Gaikwar. 


Derdi-Janbai . 


Charan . . 


• 


1 


492 


4,338 


4,870 


— 


— 


Dhola. . . . 


Gohel Rajput 




1 


261 


1,800 


1,800 


Gaikwarand 


















Junagarh. 


Gadhali . . . 


,, 




3 


'iSS? 


9,000 


10,000 


2,000 


n 


Gadhoola . . 


» 




1 


366 


2,800 


3.000 


196 


-• 


Gandhol . . . 


j> 




1 


J 37 


i,foo 


2,000 


in 


-- 


Iavej .... 


Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 




2 


979 


5,000 


5,200 


290 


** 


Jaiia Amaraji . 


» 




1 


444 


2,300 


2.500 


136 


11 


Jalia Manaji . 


. " 




1 


236 


2,000 


2,200 


3 1 


Gaikwar. 


Juna Padar . . 


Khasia Koll . 




1 


143 


850 


900 


50 


Gaikwar and 

Junagarh. 


Kamadhia . . 


Mir Muham- 
madan. 




1 


496 


4,079 


5,611 


377 


British. 


Kanjarda . . 


Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 




1 


313 


I.; CO 


i,6oo 


128 


Gaikwar. 


Katodia . . . 


Gohel Rajput 




1 


347 


2.COO 


3,ooo 




Gaikwar and 

Junagarh. 


Khijadia . . . 


Saiyid Mu- 
hammadan. 




1 


391 


3,000 


3.100 


— 


— 


KhijadiaDosaji 


Gohel Rajput 




' 


361 


2.500 


2,600 




Gaikwar and 

Junagarh. 


Limbda . . . 


>. 




4 


2,194 


26.0CO 


28.000 


1,212 




Morchopna . . 


Kamalia AhTr 




I 


375 


1,500 


' " 


163 


u 


Nilvala . . . 


Kathi . . . 




1 


457 


3,083 


3-735 


e6 5 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Pachhegam 


Gohel Rajput 


• • 


,1 


3-655 


23.SOO 


25,000 


- 


Gaikwar and 

Junagarh. 



* This and other numbers in the first column denote the class of the chiefs. 



i66 



KATHTAWAR 



State. 



Gohehvar Pi ant 
— contd. 

Pah ... . 

Panchavada 

Rajpara . . . 

Ramanka . . 

Randhia . . . 






Caste, tribe, 
or race of the 
ruling chief. 



RanTgam 



Ratanpur Dha- 

manka. 
Rohisala . . 

Samadhiala 
Samadhiala 

(Chabharia). 
Samadhiala 

(Charan). 
Sanala . . . 

Sata-no-nes. . 
Shevdivadar . 
Songadh . . 
Toda Todi . . 
Vadal .... 
Vadod . . . 

Vangadhra . . 
VavdiDharvala 
VavdiVachhani 
Vija-no-nes . . 



Halar Prant 
i Gondal . 

i Morvi . . 

1 Navanagar 

2 Dhrol . . 

2 Rajkot . 

2 Wankaner 

4 Kotda Sangan 

4 Malia . . 

4 Vlrpur 

5 Gadhka . 
5 Gavridad 
5 Talia Devani 
5 Kotharia 

5 Mengni . 
5 Pfd. . 

6 Bhadva , 

6 Rajpara . 
6 Shahpur . 



< 2 



Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 



Gohel Rajput 

Saiyid Mu- 
hammadan. 

Sarvaiya Raj- 
put and Ka- 
thi. 

Gohel Rawal 
Rajput. 

Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 



Gohel Rajput 

Sarvaiya Raj- 
put. 
Kamalia AhTr 
Khasia KulT 
Gohel Rajput 

», 
Kamalia AhTr 
Gohel Rajput 



Khasia KolT , 



Total 



Jadeja Rajput 



Jhala Rajput 
Jadeja Rajput 



4,21° 



1,024 

822 

3.79 1 

283 
282 

4i5 

74 
103 

67 

23 
27 
36 



35 
22 



-£ = 



1,003 



'74 
141 
669 

68 
61 

102 

:'.o 
17 

13 

5 

6 

10 

6 



.3 O 

3 ON 

a " 
o 

0, 



273 

287 

552 
470 

693 

793 



651 

411 

617 
i,273 

195 
416 

240 

177 

2.031 

380 

320 

814 

582 

2,007 

490 

193 



Revenue (1903-4). 



577,757 



162,859 

87,496 

33 fi ,779 

21,906 
49,795 

27,383 
3,835 
9,°75 

6,152 

1,636 
1,916 
2,444 
2,156 

3,354 
i,359 

1,051 
1,862 
1,156 



From 
land. 



Rs. 

2,500 

1,500 

2,COO 
3,000 

6,779 
9,cpo 

4,200 

2,500 

5,000 
6,500 

2,500 

3,000 

1,000 
1,000 
2,000 

3>5°o 
2,750 
3,000 

2,200 

10,500 

3,000 

700 



38,27,670 



12,15,842 

4,43,25o 

19,00,719 

62,622 

2,91.343 

1,80,0^4 
74.568 
69,874 

52,279 

8,720 
18,500 
14.966 
22,712 

25,465 
9,983 

13,375 
10,732 

6,948 



Total. 



Tribute. 



2,600 

1,700 
2,150 
3,200 
6,779 

9,400 



4,200 

2,650 

5,200 
7,000 

2,700 

3,200 

1,200 
1,100 
2,600 
3,800 
3,000 
3,200 

2,400 

11,000 

3,3oo 

75° 



55,27,787 



15,00,000 

7,10,044 

24,84,210 

1,07,175 
3,60,150 

2,18,925 

91,586 

1,55,994 

65,363 

12,633 
24,126 
16,230 
25,930 

29,847 
17,836 

15.532 

13,654 
15,233 



Amount. 



Rs. 



7M 

9°3 
in 

518 
2,280 



322 

109 
60 

572 

i75 

154 

1,102 

104 

i,53o 

334 

3' 



To whom 
payable. 



319 


Gaikwar and 




Junagarh. 


241 


,. 


274 


»» 


672 


,, 



Gaikwar. 



Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 



2,25,248 



1,10,721 

6i,559 
1,20.093 

10,231 

21,321 

18,879 

11,616 

1,367 

4,"4 

845 
1,621 

i,552 
1,246 

3.412 

1.647 

1,632 

3,»63 
610 



Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 



Gaikwar. 
Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 



Gaikwar. 



British and 
Junagarh. 

British and 
Gaikwar. 

British, Gaik- 
war, and 
Junagarh. 

Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 

British and 
Junagaih. 



Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 

British and 
Junagarh. 



Gaikwar. 
British and 

Junagarh. 
British. 
British and 

Junagarh. 






• 1 his is the actual area of the prant. No details are available for small States. 



GENERAL STATISTICS 



167 







tr. 


lM 








■ 






V 


O . 


.2 


Revenue 


(1903-4). 


Tribute. 


State. 


Caste, tribe, 
or race of the 


0> V 


g.2 


1? 

3 c 


















ruling chief. 


<1 





0. h 


From 
land. 


Total. 


Amount. 


To whom 
payable. 


Hilar Print — 


















contd. 










Rs. 


R>. 


Rs. 




7 Khirasra . . . 


Jadeja Rajput 




13 


3>"7 


11,000 


15,432 


2,716 


British and 
Junagarh. 


7 Lodhika . . . 


i) 




12 


4.554 


24,554 


34,73o 


1,692 


.. 


7 Vadiili . . . 


i] 




I 


409 


5,109 


6,435 


324 


,, 


Amrapur . . . 


Shaikh Mu- 
hammadan. 




2 


1,240 


8, 000 


8,000 


5" 


British. 


Bhalgam Bal- 


Kathi . . . 




I 


617 


8,471 


9,168 


262 


British and 


dhoi. 
















Junagarh. 


Drafa . . . . 


Jadeja Rajput 




24 


8,456 


50,000 


70,000 


4,871 


„ 


Kanksifdi . . 


jj 




I 


224 


2,102 


2,538 


in 


,, 


Kanpar Ish- 


Kathi . . . 




2 


1.365 


15,457 


16,135 


347 


,» 


waria. 


















Kotda Nayani . 


Jadeja Rajput 




I 


1,000 


9,313 


11,065 


63 7 


Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 


Mowa. . . . 


jj 




I 


247 


2 .977 


3,3" 


158 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Mulila Deri . 


n 




7 


2,350 


9,845 


12,488 


i,454 


„ 


Satodad-Vavdi 


)j 




4 


2,790 


9,000 


12,500 


!,927 


,■ 


Sisang Chandli 


)) 




2 


1.756 


15,324 


17,014 


946 


„ 


Virvao . . 
Jhalaivar Pra nt. 


Total 




1 


193 


1,515 


1,540 


193 


„ 


"7.477 


1,394 


755.532 


45.94.6i9 


60,84,835 


3,91,828 












1 Dhrangadhra . 


Jhala Rajput 


M5° 


134 


70,880 


2,59,398 


4,43,76i 


44.677 


British and 
Junagarh. 


2 Limbdi . . . 


,, 


344 


47 


31.287 


1,76,409 


2,02,264 


4 -.534 


„ 


2 Wadhwan . . 


,, 


236 


32 


34.851 


3,28,094 


3,95,954 


28,692 


,, 


3 Chuda . . . 


,, 


78 


14 


12,005 


i,o7.479 


1,19,277 


7.143 


,, 


3 Lakhtar . . . 


,, 


248 


5i 


15,114 


55,"o 


70,250 


7.351 


,, 


3 Sayla .... 


,, 


222 


39 


11,661 


62,000 


66,550 


15.5" 


,, 


4 Bajana . . . 


Jat Malek 


183 


27 


10,279 


46,326 


7",335 


7.938 


,, 


4 Muli .... 


Parmar Raj- 
put. 


J 33 


20 


15.136 


31,263 


80,000 


9.354 


„ 


4 PStdi .... 


Kunbi . . . 


39 


7 


2,190 


85,950 


88,278 


3.219 


British. 


5 Vanod . . . 


Jat Malek . 


57 


13 


3.9H 


26,833 


30,924 


1.953 


British and 
Junagarh. 


6 Anandpur . . 


Kathi . . . 




34 


5.o6i 


29,652 


31,902 


920 


,, 


6 Bhoika . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




3 


3.013 


19,500 


20,000 


2,132 


Britishjuna- 
<jarh, and 
Sukhdi. 


6 Chotila . . . 






32 


6,635 


3°,3i3 


41,150 


898 


British and 
Sukhdi. 


6 Dasada . . . 


Malek . . . 


120 


22 


10,941 


1,80,331 


2,08,354 


12,991 


„ 


6 Rai-Sankli . . 






2 


427 


6,254 


6,579 


938 


British and 
Gaikwar. 


6 Rajpur . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




3 


1,718 


20,427 


26,883 


2,598 


British and 

Junagarh. 


6 Sanosra . . . 


Kathi . . . 




3 


667 


4,i33 


4,963 


237 


British, Ju- 
nagarh, and 
Sukhdi. 


6Vadod . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




3 


1,264 


12,356 


12,356 


1,530 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Ankevalia . . 


,, 




3 


1,497 


19,500 


2 1 ,000 


1,526 


„ 


Bamanbore . 


Kathi . . . 




4 


847 


4,015 


4,229 


76 


British and 

Sukhdi. 


Bhadvana . . 


a 


• • 


2 


400 


4,225 


4,225 


1,081 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Bhalala . . . 


j> 


. . 


I 


265 


1,424 


1,424 


474 


British. 


Bhalgamda . . 


)> 




3 


1,588 


7,000 


8,000 


1,505 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Bharejda . . 


i) 




1 


421 


1,283 


1,702 


126 


ltriti-h and 
Sukhdi. 


Bhathan . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




1 


405 


1,500 


1,800 


701 


British and 
J unagarh. 


Bhimora . . . 






11 


1,204 


10,241 


!o,555 


371 


11 



This is the actual area of ihzptant. No details are available for small States. 



i68 



KATHIAWAR 







err 


O • 


c 
. 


Revenue 


(1903-4). 


Tribute. 


State. 


Caste, tribe, 
or race of the 




15 


£0 

5 0- 


















ruling chief. 


< 1 







From 
land. 


Total. 
Rb. 


Amount. 


To whom 
payable. 


Jlialawar Print 

■ — contd. 










Rs. 


Rs. 




Chachana . . 


Jhala Rajput 




1 


459 


5,000 


5,000 


318 


British. 


Chhalala . . 


n 




I 


557 


4.517 


5,017 


1,122 


British, Ju- 
nagarh,and 
Sukhdi. 


Chobari . . . 


Kathi . . . 




3 


280 


4,401 


4,556 


199 


British and 
Sukhdi. 


Darod . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




I 


IS' 


2,500 


3,000 


416 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Devlia . , . 


M 




2 


494 


2,240 


2,240 


S23 


.. 


Dudhrej . . . 


11 




2 


2,026 


20,000 


25,000 


1,199 


.. 


Gedi . . . . 


JJ 




2 


574 


4,000 


4,500 


r >339 


.. 


Gundiali . . . 


11 




2 


1.465 


12,262 


17,865 


1,408 


British. 


Jakhan . . . 


n 




I 


441 


2,300 


2.500 


288 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Jamar . . . 


w 




I 


289 


3.960 


3,960 


464 


British. 


Jhampodad . . 


11 




I 


45i 


3,200 


3,4°° 


138 


.. 


Jhinjhuvada in- 


Koll . . . 


i6s 


18 


"i732 


67,989 


74,343 


11,074 


». 


cluding Rozva. 


















Kamalpur . . 


Jhala Rajput 




I 


670 


4,200 


4,500 


776 


.. 


Kantharia . . 


n 




2 


1.573 


10,000 


11,000 


1,788 


British, Ju- 
nagarh, and 
Sukhdi. 


Karmad . . . 


11 




I 


465 


8,ooo 


8,200 


231 


British and 
Sukhdi. 


Karol. . . . 


ii 




2 


981 


1^.935 


11,000 


796 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Kesria . . . 


>i 




I 


146 


1,900 


1,900 


278 


British. 


Khambhlav . . 


ii 




2 


852 


1,400 


1,500 


869 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Khandia . . . 


» 




I 


627 


4,000 


4,000 


900 


British, Ju- 
nagarh, and 
Sukhdi. 


Kherali . . . 


it 




2 


1,638 


24,600 


25,880 


678 


British. 


Laliyad . . . 


ii 




I 


755 


6,000 


6,000 


362 


H 


Matra Timba . 


Kathi . . . 




I 


352 


2.59 1 


2,727 


362 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Mevasa . . . 


.. 




6 


619 


5,085 


6,796 


559 


British and 
Sukhdi. 


Munjpur . . . 


Parmar Rajput 




1 


436 


10,000 


10,000 


603 


British. 


Palali. . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




2 


320 


600 


650 


403 


British and ' 
Junagarh. 


Paliyad . . . 


Kathi . . . 




17 


6,970 


38,055 


43,699 


1.213 


.. 


Ramparda . . 


11 




1 


299 


607 


625 


75 


British and 
Sukhdi. 


Sahuka . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




1 


801 


9,000 


9,200 


584 


British and 
Junagarh. 


Samla .... 


ii 




2 


916 


8,000 


8,000 


1,063 


.. 


Sejakpur . . . 


Kathi . . . 




4 


864 


2,052 


3,600 


433 


.. 


Sudamda-Dhan- 


,, 




27 


5.359 


22,208 


24,746 


3,124 


.. 


dhalpur. 


















Talsana . . . 


Jhala Rajput 




7 


1,691 


10,000 


10,500 


1,052 


.. 


Tavi .... 


), 




1 


5°9 


2,000 


2,000 


335 


.. 


Untdi. . . . 


)) 




1 


240 


1,100 


2,000 


539 


" 


Vana .... 


., 




3 


2,749 


26,000 


26,000 


3.993 


„ 


Vanala . . . 


,, 




1 


3" 


2,100 


2,300 


396 


British. 


Yithalgadh . . 


Kayasth Pra- 


26 


6 


'. 174 


7,226 


7,659 


— 


— 


S or at !i Piant. 


bhu. 

Total 
















*3,978 


641 


293,883 


19,27.044 


23.59.580 


2,39.376 














i Junagarh . . 


Muhammadan 


3>28 3 


818 


395.428 


18,91,616 


26,22,753 


65,604 


British and 1 
Gaikwar. 


i Porbandar . . 


Jethwa Rajput 


636 


97 


82,640 


2,94,168 


9,74.734 


48,504 


British,Gaik-l 
war, and Ju- 
nagarh. 



* This is the actual area of the praut. No details are available for small States. 



GENERA L STA TISTICS 



169 



1 


Caste, tribe, 


1> v 


1— 
A 
Si v 


e 
.2 • 


Revenue 


(1903-4). 


Tribute. 


State. 


or race of the 


|8f 


£ 5 


















ruling chief. 




5" 


0," 




From 
land. 


Total. 


Amount. 


To whom 
payable. 


Sorath Print 


















— contd. 










Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 




1 Jafarabad . . 


Habsi . . . 


42 


12 


12,097 


22,905 


61,800 


__ 


_ 


3 Bantva • Mana- 


Babi Muham- 


90 


2 3 


14,478 


1,50,951 


=,35,447 


14,821 British. 


vadar. 


madan. 
















3-7 Jetpur . . . 


Kathis . . . 


724 


148 


107,049 


7>94,5o9 


9,29,683 


59,223 


British.Gaik- 
war, and Ju- 


5 Bantva (Gidad). 


Babi Muham- 

madan. 
Kathi - Babe- 


132 


33 


24,374 


1,65,674 


2,28,178 


14,820 


nagarh. 
British. 


5 Dedan . . . 


5° 


12 


4,394 


30,950 


59,405 


4,181 


Gaikwar and 




ria-Kotila. 














Unamamuli 
















fl22=). 


5 Vasavad . . . 


Xagar Brah- 
man. 


«7 


4 


5,i37 


1 2,000 


18,000 


766 t British. 


6 Bagasra . . . 


Kathi . . . 




'7 


17,339 


'.13.932 


1,20,759 


4,098 Gaikwar and 


6 Kuba .... 


Nagar Brah- 
man. 


3 


1 


396 


3,220 


3,34o 


Junagarh. 


6 Vinchhavad 


11 


4 


1 


414 


4,000 


4,100 


__ 


Charkha . . . 






2 


1,519 


25,000 


27,000 


541 Gaikwar and 


















Junagarh. 


Dahida . . . 


11 




3 


915 


13,000 


13,500 


— 





Dholarva . . 


1 » 




i 


460 


8,000 


8,300 


126 


Gaikwar and 


Gadhia . . . 


H 




2 


528 


4,200 


4,500 


295 


Junagarh. 


Garmali Moti . 


1) 




1 


385 


4,500 


4,700 


220 




Garmali Nani . 


,, 




1 


34o 


2,300 


2,400 


194 


Gaikwar. 


Gigasaran . . 


»1 




1 


582 


6,500 


6,600 







Halaria . . . 


1 ) 




4 


1,268 


12,000 


12,500 


179 


Gaikwar and 
















Junagarh. 


Jamka . . . 


)) 




1 


601 


6,000 


15,000 


185 Gaikwar. 


Kaner . . . 


I) 




1 


261 


2,300 


2,400 


J 95 „ 


Kathrota . . 


M 




1 


138 


2,200 


2,300 


52 


KhijadiaNajani 


») 




1 


156 


2,700 


2,800 


52 




Lakhapadar 


11 




1 


544 


2,700 


3,000 


178 


Gaikwar and 


















Junagarh. 


Manavav . . 


)) 




1 


400 


4,000 


4,100 


172 




Monvel . . . 


Ji 




3 


1,967 


18,000 


18,200 


3i3 


Gaikwar. 


Silana .... 


)> 




1 


774 


6,000 


6,250 


102 




Vaghvadi . . 


11 




1 


109 


1,400 


1,450 


154 


Gaikwar and 
Junagarh. 


Vekaria . . . 

Civil Stations 


it 

Total 


• • 


1 


595 


6,000 


6,150 


55 


Gaikwar. 


*S>2i7 


'.193 


675,288 


36,10,725 


53,99,349 


2,15,030 




11 


26,736 








and other vil- 


















lages.t 
Grand Total 


















J20.882 


4,242 


2,329,196 


1,39,60,058 


i,93,7i,55i 


§10,71,48.' 



* This is the actual area of the print. No details are available for small States. 

t The total number of villages and population according to the Census of 1901 are respectively 4,242 and 
2,329,196: of the former, 11 (three civil stations and the rest villages of insignificant tilukdars who do not pay 
tribute) with an aggregate population of 26,736, have been omitted from the print totals. They are : Rasnal, 
Pipalva (Vithalgadh) (1,811), Ranparda (459), Hathasni (939), and Noghanvadar (113), in Gohilwar ; RSjkol Civil 
Station (8,992), and Hadala (468), in Halar; Wadhwan Civil Station (11,255), in Jhalawar ; and Jetalsar Ci\il 
Station (463), Dhasa (1,473), an d Shapur (763), in Sorath print. 

X Separate figures for tilukas under thina circles are not available. The areas of the whole thana 
circles, in square miles, are — 

Biibra . . . 299 ! Chok. . . 104 J Wadhwan thana 197 Paliyad . . 227 
Songadh . 82 I Lodhika . . 265 Chotila . . 368 Lakhapadar . 137 

Chamardi . 72 | Dhrafa . . 208 | Bhoika . . 179 Bagasra . . 89 

§ The total amount of tribute of all kinds is Rs. 10,79,371, according to Aitchison's Treaties. To this sum 
Rs. 1,225 on account of Unamamuli paid by Dedan has been added ; while Rs. 9,114, the amount of tribute and 
zorialbi paid by the Amreli mahal of the Gaikwar, has been omitted. 



170 KATHIAWAR 

Formerly Kathiawar was divided into ten prants : namely, Jhalawar 
in the north ; Machhukantha, west of Jhalawar ; Halar, in the north- 
west ; Okhamandal, in the extreme west, belonging to Baroda ; Barda 
or Jethwar, along the south-west coast ; Sorath, in the south ; Babriawar, 
a hilly tract in the south-east ; Kathiawar, a large district near the 
middle ; Undsarviya, situated along the Shetrunji river ; and Gohelwar 
in the east, along the shore of the Gulf of Cambay, so named from the 
Gohel Rajputs who are the ruling race in it. In this last-named 
division is situated the Gogha mahal of Ahmadabad District. 

A square peninsula, standing boldly out into the Arabian Sea be- 
tween the smaller projection of Cutch and the straight line of the Gujarat 

coast, its physical features suggest that it may once 
Plivsic3.1 • 

as ts have been an island or a group of islands of volcanic 

origin. Along its northern border stretch the shallow 

waters or the salt-encrusted surface of the Rami. On the east, between 

Kathiawar and the mainland, a belt of salt lands and the long lagoon 

of the Nal mark the line of the depression, which, unless the evidence 

of travellers is unusually at fault, formed until recent times during the 

rains a connecting link between the Gulf of Cambay and the Little Rann. 

Three travellers of authority, all of whom visited Cambay, speak of 
Kathiawar as an island. The first of these, Varthema, 1503-8 (Badger's 
edition, p. 105), says that the city of Cambay lies 3 miles inland close 
to the mouth of the Indus. Baldaeus, 1672 (Churchill's Voyages, vol. iii, 
p. 566), states that Cambay stands on one of the largest channels of the 
Indus; Alexander Hamilton, 1690-1721 {New Account, vol. i, p. 131), 
states that one of the largest branches of the Indus running into the sea 
at Cambay makes Gujarat an island. Still more difficult to consider 
a mistake is Captain MacMurdo's statement in 18 13 {Journal, Royal 
Asiatic Society, vol. i, p. 41), that a tract similar to the Rann and known 
partially by the same name connects the Gulf of Cutch and Cambay, 
forming an island off the peninsula of Gujarat for six months in the 
year. From the coast Kathiawar rises to a central table-land where all 
the rivers of the peninsula take their rise. The silt of the old eastern 
branch of the Indus and of the rivers Luni, Banas, SaraswatI, and 
Rupen, gradually filling the sea-bed, with some help possibly from the 
great upheaval of 1820, has joined north-east Kathiawar with the main- 
land of Gujarat. 

Kathiawar was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of 
^uvpuaTp^vt] • the Muhammadans called it by the prakritized name 
of Sorath, and to this day a large division in the south-west, 100 miles 
in length, retains that title. Another tract, quite as large, to the east 
of the centre, however, has long been known as Kathiawar, from having 
been overrun by the Kathis, who entered the peninsula from Cutch in 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In the fifteenth century the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 



r?i 



whole tribe was driven out of Cutch, and in that and the following 
century conquered a considerable territory. The Marathas who came 
into contact with them in their forays, and were sometimes successfully 
repelled by them, extended the name of Kathiawar to the whole pro- 
vince, and from them has been borrowed the appellation in its wider 
sense ; but by Brahmans and the natives generally it is still spoken of 
as Surashtra. 

The surface of Kathiawar is for the most part undulating, with low 
ranges of hills running in very irregular directions. With the exception 
of the Thanga and Mandav hills, in the west of Jhalawar, and some 
unimportant hills in Halar, the northern portion of the country is flat ; 
but in the south, from the neighbourhood of Gogha, the Glr range runs 
nearly parallel with the coast, and at a distance of about 20 miles from 
it, along the north of Babriawar and Sorath to the neighbourhood of 
Girnar. Opposite this latter mountain is the solitary Osam hill, and 
still farther west is the Barda group, between Halar and Barda, run- 
ning about 20 miles north and south from Ghumli to Ranawao. The 
Girnar clump of mountains is an important granitic mass, the highest 
peak of which rises to 3,500 feet above the sea. 

The principal river is the Bhadar, which rises in the Mandav hills 
and, flowing south-west, falls into the sea at Navibandar, in Barda, 
after a course of about no miles, everywhere marked by highly 
cultivated lands bordering its course. From the same hills rises 
another Bhadar, known as the Sukha Bhadar, flowing eastward into 
the Gulf of Cambay. Other rivers are the Aji, Machhu, Bhogava, and 
Shetrunji, the latter remarkable for wild and romantic scenery. 

Of salt-water creeks the most important are Hansthal, connecting the 
outer and inner Gulf of Cutch ; Bhaunagar, forming the channel between 
that town and the Gulf of Cambay ; the Sundrai, 8 miles north of 
Bhaunagar ; the Bavliali, 2 miles north of the Sundrai creek ; and the 
Dholera, leading from the Gulf of Cambay 10 miles inland to the town 
of Dholera. 

Notwithstanding its extent of coast, Kathiawar has no really good 
harbour except Beyt, at the north-east corner of Okhamandal. The 
principal ports are Vavania, Jodiya, Berli, and Salaya in the Gulf of 
Cutch ; Dholera, Bhaunagar, and Gogha in the Gulf of Cambay ; and 
Mahuva, Jafarabad, Diu, Veraval, Mangrol, Navibandar, and Porbandar 
on the south and west coasts. Of these, Vavania, Jodiya, Bedi, 
Salaya, Navibandar, Mahuva, Bhaunagar, and Dholera are on creeks, 
and communication with them depends on the tide ; while the rest are 
little better than open roadsteads. 

The chief islands are Piram in the Gulf of Cambay ; Chanch, Shial, 
and Diu off the south coast ; Beyt in the west ; and the Chanka islets 
in the Gulf of Cutch. 

VOL. XV, M 



1 72 KATHIAWAR 

The peninsula contains few lakes larger than village reservoirs. The 
most remarkable are the Nal at the head of the Rann of Cambay, and 
the Gheds on the south-west coast near Madhavpur. 

With the help of the Nal, two ranns or salt wastes nearly encircle the 
east and north-east of Kathiawar, the little Cutch Rann and the Rann 
of Cambay stretching about 35 miles north from the mouth of the 
Sabarmatl. From the head of the Gulf of Cutch, at the mouth of 
the Hansthal creek, the Little Rann, covering an area of about 
1,600 square miles, stretches north-east for about 60 miles, varying 
from 5 to 30 miles in breadth, and connecting with the Great Rann. 
In the south-west corner are the Kharaghoda salt-works. 

The Rann of Cambay, a long, shallow, rocky channel or dry estuary, 
extends north-west about 35 miles from near the mouth of the 
Sabarmatl at the upper end of the Gulf of Cambay. The lower part 
is rich in marine silt, and joins the Nal during the south-west monsoon, 
forming a connected sheet of water which spreads over the neighbouring 
tracts of the Bhal and the Nalkantha, turning the villages into islands 
and cutting off communication with Ahmadabad. The upper end of the 
Rann is now crossed by the railway between Viramgam and YVadhwan. 

Basalt beds belonging to the Deccan trap formation occupy the 
greater portion of the peninsula of Kathiawar. They lie almost hori- 
zontally, and have been deeply denuded, so that countless numbers of 
intrusive dikes, filling the fissures through which the molten material 
was injected, have become visible in every district. These dikes are 
remarkable for their columnar structure, consisting of huge hexagonal 
prisms loosely stacked upon one another and arranged horizontally. 
They exert a pronounced influence upon the underground drainage, 
a circumstance well-known to the agriculturists, who persistently sink 
their irrigation wells along the dikes, tracing out their course with great 
assiduity, and are almost invariably rewarded by the presence of water 
at a depth of 15 to 20 feet. In some instances apparently the joints 
and cracks in the dike rock communicate with some deep-seated water- 
bed ; in other cases the dikes seem to wall up and keep in on one side 
the water of the adjoining strata. The Girnar mountains, and probably 
the Barda hills north-east of Porbandar, appear to be great intrusive 
masses of the same age as the basalt flows and columnar dikes ; they 
may represent the inner cores of great volcanoes now denuded of the 
volcanic ejectamenta that formerly covered them. The rocks of Girnar 
contain the somewhat uncommon mineral alaeolite, and some of them 
belong to the exceptional class of rocks known as monchiquites. The 
basaltic formation has a very low dip from north to south, perhaps 
original, in consequence of which some of the older underlying rocks 
in the northern part of the peninsula, and some of the newer super- 
incumbent strata, are exposed. The older rocks in the northern part 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS x 



/ o 



belong to two different series : the Umia beds, which are of neocomian, 
that is, of the Lower Cretaceous age ; and the Lameta beds, which are 
Upper Cretaceous (cenomanian). The Umia beds (which take their 
name from a village in Cutch) are principally exposed about Dhran- 
gadhra and farther south-west. They consist chiefly of sandstone, 
open, imperfectly cemented, and unevenly stratified, with coarse and 
gritty, or even conglomeratic runs and layers. There are, however, 
some thick beds of fine texture among them, and a few subordinate 
bands of shale. The Lameta beds occur principally round Wadhwan, 
where they are locally known as the Wadhwan sandstones. Beds 
newer than the basalts and overlying them run along the southern 
seaboard of the peninsula from Dwarka on the west to Bhaunagar 
on the east. They include sandstones and pure limestones with 
marine fossils identical with those of the Gaj group in Sind, overlaid 
by sandstones and conglomerates of fluviatile origin corresponding 
in age with the Siwalik. These fluviatile beds contain an older series, 
sometimes with abundant remains of terrestrial animals, as for instance 
in the island of Piram, corresponding with the Lower or Middle Siwaliks; 
and a newer series known as the Dwarka beds, corresponding with the 
Upper Siwaliks. Laterite sometimes intervenes between the basalt and 
the overlying Tertiary beds. 

A belt of recent alluvium follows the southern coast, and there are 
large alluvial areas in the eastern part of the peninsula near the Gulf of 
Cambay and in its northern part where the alluvium merges into the 
silt of the Little Rann. Raised beaches occur at some places along 
the sea-coast. The somewhat low rainfall allows to a certain extent the 
accumulation of wind-borne deposits ; the finer particles of the sand on 
the sea-beach, consisting principally of the minute shells of foraminifera, 
are blown all over the land, where they accumulate to form the curious 
calcareous rock known as miliolite. In the immediate neighbourhood 
of the coast this wind-formed miliolite merges into the raised beaches. 
The well-known ' Porbandar stone,' which is largely quarried and 
shipped to Bombay, is a variety of miliolite 1 . 

Except in the Gir forest, Ka.thia.war is thinly wooded ; and even there 
the timber is of little value. The mangrove abounds along the shores 
of the peninsula and is largely used as fuel. The coco-nut grows 
rapidly and bears steadily all along the south coast, and the wild date 
is met with in most parts of the peninsula. Excellent mangoes are 
grown in Mahuva from Bombay grafts. 

1 F. Fedden, Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. xxi, pt. ii ; J. W. Evans, 
Quarterly Journal, Geological Society of London, vol. lvi (1900), pp. 559-83, and 
vol. lvii (1900), pp. 38-54. Descriptions of the fossil bones from the Island of Pcrim 
(Piram) have been published by H. Falconer in vol. i (1854) of the Quarterly Journal, 
Geological Society of London, and by R. Lydekker in Series X of the Palaeoniologia 
Indica. 

M 2 



T74 KATHIAWAR 

The principal wild animals include the lion (found in the Gir range), 
leopard, hunting cheetah, antelope, hog, hyena, wolf, jackal, wild cat, 
fox, porcupine, and smaller vermin. Of reptiles, the Indian python, 
the cobra, the whip-snake, and others abound, and the crocodile and 
land tortoise are common. 

The lion was formerly common all over the Kathiawar peninsula, 
extending into Gujarat and Central India. It is now found only in the 
Gir forest, and rarely on the Girnar mountain. Its mane is shorter 
and its colour lighter than that of the African lion. Approximating in 
size to the tiger, it is somewhat heavier in bulk and stronger. It seeks 
the loneliest spot for its midday sleep, and when disturbed does not 
try to conceal its escape like the tiger, but walks boldly away. It used 
to avoid man more than either the tiger or leopard, and never lived 
near a village or hamlet; but since the last famine these habits have 
changed. Of a gregarious disposition, it moves in family parties, 
comprising occasionally three generations. Careful preservation of 
these lions has resulted in an appreciable increase of their number, 
which at present must be from 60 to 70. Since the last famine they 
have done considerable damage to cattle, and cases of attack upon men 
have also been reported from outlying villages. 

The climate of Kathiawar is in general pleasant and healthy. January, 
February, and March are marked by heavy dews and thick fogs. The 
hot season, which is the healthiest period of the year, begins in April 
and lasts until the rain falls in June. The hot wind is most felt in the 
south. From September to the first part of November the climate is 
unhealthy for both Europeans and natives. A violent bilious attack, 
lasting for four or five days and followed by ague and fever, is the only 
special Kathiawar disease. 

The heaviest rainfall in the peninsula occurs at Junagarh (42 inches), 
in the Sorath prant ; at Rajkot, in the Halar prdnt, the average yearly 
fall is 30 inches ; at Wadhwan, in Jhalawar, 21 inches. The monsoon 
begins in June and ends in October, the wettest months of the year 
being July to September. 

During the last century Kathiawar suffered several times from earth- 
quakes. On April 29, 1864, a shock occurred in many parts of the 
peninsula a little after n a.m. It was preceded by a low rumbling 
noise followed by a vibration for six seconds, causing widespread panic 
and excitement. On Nov. 27, 1881, at midnight a shock of earth- 
quake was felt at Rajkot. In September and October, 1898, shocks 
of earthquake were felt in the northern districts, and in other years 
lesser shocks ; but none of them caused any damage. 

At a very early period Surashtra was doubtless brought under the 
influence of Brahmanical civilization, and, from its position on the 
coast, was most accessible to influences from the west. The edicts 



HISTORY i 75 

of Asoka (265-231 B.C.) were inscribed by that monarch on a huge 
granite boulder between Junagarh and Girnar. The Saraostos of 
Strabo is not improbably identical with Surashtra ; 
and if so, the peninsula was included in the con- 
quests of the Indo-Scythian kings {circa 190-144 B.C.). Its shores 
were well-known to the Alexandrian merchants of the first and second 
centuries, but there is considerable difficulty in identifying the places 
mentioned by them. 

Of the early history of the country we have but scanty notice. 
Mauryas, Greeks, and Kshatrapas probably held it in succession, and 
were followed for a brief space by the Guptas of Kanauj, who 
apparently governed by senapatis. The later senapatis became kings 
of Surashtra, who placed their lieutenants at Vallabhi-nagar (identified 
with the buried city at Yala, 18 miles north-west of Bhaunagar). When 
the Gupta empire fell to pieces, the Yallabhi kings, whose dynasty was 
founded by Bhattaraka, a Gupta commander, extended their sway over 
Cutch and defeated the Mers, who appear to have gained considerable 
authority in Ka.thia.war between 470 and 520. It was in the reign 
of Dhurvasena II (632-40) that the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang 
visited Va-la-pi (Vallabhi ?) and Su-la-ch'a (Surashtra), the inhabitants 
of which, he says, are indifferent and not given to learning, but profit 
by the proximity of the sea, and engage much in trade and barter. 
The people he described as numerous and wealthy, and he remarked 
many convents established for the benefit of recluses engaged in the 
contemplative piety of Buddhism. 

How Vallabhi fell is not known, but possibly it was subverted by 
Muhammadan invaders from Sind. The seat of government was then 
moved farther north beyond the borders of Kathiawar, and remained 
at Anhilvada from 746 to 1298, during which time various petty king- 
doms arose, and the Jethwas became a powerful tribe in the west ot 
Surashtra. Anhilvada was sacked by the Muhammadans in 11 94, and 
finally conquered in 1298. The Jhalas are said to have been settled 
in Northern Kathiawar by the Anhilvada kings. The Gohels (now in 
Eastern Kathiawar) came from the north in the thirteenth century, 
retreating before the tide of Muhammadan conquest, and were enabled 
by the decadence of Anhilvada to conquer new seats for themselves. 
The Jadejas and the Kathis came from the west, through Cutch. The 
sack of Somnath, in Southern Kathiawar, by Mahmud of Ghazni in 
1026, and the capture of Anhilvada in 1194, were the prelude 10 
occasional Muhammadan invasions of Kathiawar. In 1324 Zafar Khan 
destroyed the temple of Somnath. He was the first of the Muham- 
madan kings of Gujarat, who reigned in prosperity from 1396 to 1535, 
and in decadence to the close of 1572, when Gujarat was conquered 
by Akbar. The Ahmadabad kings, who held the tributary chiefs of 



176 KATHIAWAR 

Kathiawar in subjection, carefully fostered commerce, and developed 
the ports of Mangrol, Veraval, Diu, Gogha, and Cambay. 

About 1509 the coast was threatened by the Portuguese. Bahadur, 
defeated by Babar's son Humayun, sought safety in Diu, and afterwards 
permitted the Portuguese adventurers to build a factory, which they 
turned into a fort, after having treacherously killed Bahadur (1537). 
The island and fort of Diu are still a Portuguese possession. Gujarat, 
after its conquest by Akbar in 1572, was ruled by viceroys from the 
court of Delhi, until the Marathas supplanted the imperial power. In 
1705 the Marathas entered Gujarat, and by 1760 had firmly established 
their rule ; but the following half-century was a time of little ease for 
the tributaries in Kathiawar, and petty wars were frequent. During 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, according to Musalman and 
Maratha custom, the Gaikwar, partly for himself and partly for his 
overlord the Peshwa, sent yearly a revenue-collecting army {mu/k-giri) 
to collect contributions from the chiefs of Western and Northern 
Gujarat. As this armed expedition caused much waste and confusion, 
the British Government agreed to associate itself with the Gaikwar in 
recovering the Maratha tribute from the Kathiawar States. 

In 1803 some of the weaker talukddrs applied to the British Resident 
at Baroda for protection, offering to cede their territory to the Com- 
pany. They were then independent of the Peshwa and the Gaikwar, with 
the exception of being bound to furnish contributions. In 1807 the 
forces of the Company and the Gaikwar advanced into Kathiawar, and 
the chiefs entered into engagements to pay a fixed tribute to their over- 
lords, to keep the peace towards each other, and to maintain order 
within their own limits. In return, they were secured from the visita- 
tions of the mulk-giri force, which usad to appear at harvest-time and 
in default of payment ravaged the crops and fired the villages. Internal 
warfare and resistance to the supreme authority were ended in 1807-8 
by the settlement effected by Colonel Walker, one great feature of 
which was that the tributes were fixed, and the work of collection 
was undertaken by the British Government, which also acquired the 
Peshwa's rights in Kathiawar after the Satara proclamation in 1818. 
In 1820 the Gaikwar agreed to have his share collected and paid by 
the British Government. 

Under the ruling houses there are numerous petty Rajput lairds and 
yeomen, representatives of old houses long ruined and supplanted, or 
of the younger brothers of chiefs who have received their girds or 
portions from the estate. 

Kathiawar has many notable antiquities, which have been fully 
described by Dr. James Burgess 1 . Besides the famous inscription 
of Asoka already referred to, there are a number of rock-cut Buddhist 
1 Archaeological Survey of Western India, vols, ii and viii. 



AGRICULTURE i 77 

caves and temples at Junagarh, mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang in the 
seventh century, and some fine Jain temples on Mount Girnar and 
the Shetrunja hills at Palitana. At Ghumli, a former capital of the 
Jethwas, there are extensive ruins. 

The Political Agency of Kathiawar has (190 1 )a population of 2,329,196. 
The population in 1872, 188 1, and 189 1 was 2,318,642, 
2 >343>899> and 2,752,404. During the last decade 
there was a decrease of 423,208, due to the famine of 1899-1901. 

Natives of Kathiawar are largely represented in Bombay city, where 
45,000 immigrants were enumerated at the recent Census. A similar 
number were found in Ahmadabad city. The more adventurous 
Musalman traders in the coast towns travel in considerable numbers 
to South Africa and Natal, and the seafaring population, once notorious 
for piracy, now furnishes numerous lascars to ocean-going steamers. 
The last detected case of piracy from Kathiawar occurred as recently 
as 1903. The distribution of the population among the numerous 
States of the Agency has been given above (pp. 165-9). They contain 
52 towns and 4, 163 1 villages, with an average density of 112 persons 
per square mile. The principal towns are Bhaunagar, Navanagar, 
Junagarh, Rajkot, Dhoraji, Porbandar, Gondal, Morvi, Mahuva, 
Veraval, and Wadhwan. Hindus form 81 per cent, of the total, 
Musalmans 14 per cent., and Jains 5 per cent. 

The most interesting caste is the Rajput, numbering 113,000, and 
including the ruling families of the majority of the States. The Kathis, 
from whom the peninsula derives its name, number 21,700. Among 
castes of 100,000 and over are Kunbls (358,000), Kolis (249,000), 
Brahmans (158,000), traders, including Vanls and Lohanas (135,000), 
and Dhers (116,000). Of the Brahmans, more than half are of the 
Audich sub-caste (90,000). Modhs, Nagars, and Srimalis are other 
subdivisions of this caste of local importance. The traders are mainly 
Lohanas (64,000). Ahirs, an immigrant caste of shepherds who 
entered the peninsula at an early date and also spread southward to 
Khandesh, number 74,000. Among Musalmans, the most numerous 
sections are the Memons (68,000), who are traders ; Khojas (29,000), 
also traders ; and Ghanchis, or oil-men (24,000). 

Of the total population, 41-6 per cent, depend on agriculture; com- 
merce supports 5-6 per cent., industry 27-6 per cent., and various 
employments 25-2 per cent. 

Kathiawar has the essential features of a prosperous agricultural 
country. The climate is, on the whole, temperate, . 

the rainfall moderate, streams abound, ponds and 
wells are fairly numerous, and there is much variety in the texture, 

1 Besides these there are 27 villages, which, being unpopulated at the time of the 
Census, were not returned. 



i7S KATHIAWAR 

quality, and depth of soil. On the other hand, the peninsula is thinly 
peopled ; cultivators take up more land than they can till, and the style 
of farming is slovenly. The soil is of two main classes, black or red, 
the red being considered the less valuable. Of the first class is the 
deep black soil known as kampal, suitable for the growth of cotton, 
while the better kinds of red soil favour the production of irrigated 
wheat and barley. A saltish earth, impregnated with clay and 
impervious to water, is not uncommon. 

Some of the richest tracts lie along the course of the Bhadar river, 
and at Mahuva and Lilia, where excellent fruits and vegetables are 
grown. Sugar-cane is grown with success in the same locality. In 
Sorath, Chorwad is noted for its betel-vines. Gondal cotton is famous- 
In the northern and eastern districts of Jhalawar much cotton is grown. 
Halar in the west yields excellent Jozvdr, bdjra, wheat, and other grains, 
and Sorath in the south is rich both in cotton and in grain. In 
Limbdi, and on the eastern coast of Kathiawar bordering the Gulf 
of Cambay, wheat, cotton, and grain are produced from a rich silt 
which requires no manure. Turmeric and mug are common products. 

The chief cultivating classes are : among Hindus, Kunbls, Sathvaras, 
Rajputs, Ahirs, Mers, and Kolls ; and among Musalmans, Memons, 
Ghanchis, Bohras, Sindis, Jats, and Mianas. Of these the most expert 
are the Kunbls. 

During recent years considerable progress has been made in irriga- 
tion, by the construction of storage tanks wherever the natural features 
of the country render them possible. At least ten of these tanks with 
a systematic control of the water-supply have been constructed during 
the last ten years. Prominent among these are the Lalpuri tank at 
Rajkot, Alansager at Jasadan, Paneli in Gondal, and Champa and Moldi 
tanks in the Chotila Thana circle. The successive bad years have 
also been the cause of an increase in the number of wells for irrigation 
purposes. 

The total cultivated area in 1903-4 was 8,074 square miles, dis- 
tributed as follows : cotton (2,446), millet (2,00%), Jozvdr (1,866), wheat 
(406), gram (178), mftg (16), udld (16), and 'others' (1,138). 

The numerous petty courts and their people form a large body of 
rich resident landholders, spending their rents on their estates ; and 
the ministers, officials, and landholders, of various stations and wealth, 
contribute to impart a brisk vitality to the progress and general well- 
being of the country. A large proportion of the public business of 
Kathiawar is conducted by, and at the cost of, native Darbars. 
Bhaunagar has taken the lead in the material development of her 
resources, and was the first State in the Bombay Presidency to 
construct a railway at her own expense and risk. 

Horses, formerly of excellent repute, are bred in large quantities. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 179 

The peninsula is suitable for the raising of stock, the central portion 

being famous as a breeding-ground. Most of the States maintain stud 

farms. In 1903-4 nine of the States maintained 56 stallions, which 

covered 791 mares. Milch cows and buffaloes are reared in the Gir, 

camels in the Rann, and asses in Halar and Jhalawar. The buffaloes of 

the Gir, as also the cows, are famed as good milkers and are sold to 

dairymen in various parts of the Presidency, particularly in Bombay 

city. A good buffalo yields about 32 quarts of milk daily, and 

a good cow 1 2 quarts. Sheep are plentiful in some parts : their 

wool forming, together with cotton and grain, the chief article of 

export. 

Besides the Gir with its 1,500 square miles of forest, there are 

important wooded tracts in Kathiawar. In Yankaner and the 

Panchal lands have been set aside for the growth 

Forests 
of timber, and in Bhaunagar, Morvi, Gondal, and 

Manavadar babul plantations have been formed. Palms, mangoes, and 

casuarina have been specially planted and cared for in Bhaunagar ; 

trunk and feeder roads are being gradually planted with trees along 

their entire length ; and several minor estates and villages are paying 

attention to forest conservancy. 

Kathiawar abounds in minerals and is particularly rich in building 

stone. The principal metal is iron, which in former days was 

worked in Barda and Khambhaliya districts. Near __. . 

Ivliiier3.1s 
Porbandar a valuable description of building stone 

is extracted from the hills and sent to Bombay in large quantities. 

Pearls of good quality, but inferior in lustre to those of the Persian 

Gulf, are found in the Gulf of Cutch within Navanagar limits. A few 

are also found in Junagarh and Bhaunagar near Bherai and Chanch. 

White coral of no market value is common. Red coral is sometimes 

found in small quantities at Mangrol and Sil. Bloodstone and agate 

are common near Tankara in Morvi. 

The Kathiawar region is a wealthy one. The land, though not of 

extraordinary richness, is generally of fair quality and is amply watered. 

The cotton exported supplies one-sixth of the total 

amount of cotton shipped from Bombay to foreign commun i cat i ns. 

countries, and a large import of bullion and grain 

is yearly received by Kathiawar as part of the price. Cotton cloth, sugar, 

and molasses are largely imported. The total value of the sea-borne 

trade in 1903-4 was 378^ lakhs : exports 197 lakhs, and imports 

i8i| lakhs. The exports of cotton alone were more than 126 lakhs in 

value, and of wool 5 \ lakhs. The imports of grain vary according to 

the season. Railways have absorbed a great portion of the expert 

trade from the smaller ports on the coast-line, and concentrated it at 

Wadhwan in the north-east and Bhaunagar in the south-east, while 



i8o 



KATHIAWAR 



the import trade on the contrary is drawn towards the minor ports. 
Private enterprise has established three cotton-weaving mills and 
steam cotton-press factories, and there is a prosperous trade in timber. 
The chief handicrafts are gold and silver thread-making, weaving of 
silk and brocades, the making of red powders, of fragrant oils, of 
perfumed sticks and powder, of rose and other essences, inlaying 
ivory, and carving sandal-wood. 

In the matter of roads, great progress has been made of late years. 
Where there was not a single mile of road in 1865, there are now 
more than 600 miles, for the most part bridged and metalled. Two 
great lines of trunk roads intersect the peninsula, one proceeding from 
Wadhwan to Junagarh and Veraval, and the other from Bhaunagar to 
Jodiya, crossing at Rajkot, the head-quarters of the Agency. The 
Junagarh line has a branch bifurcating at Jetpur towards Porbandar, 
while the Jodiya line has a similar branch going towards Navanagar. 
These main lines have various feeders to connect the capitals and 
other important towns of the numerous States. 

Since 1880 communication has been improved by the introduction 
of railways, principally at the cost of Native States. The first entry 
of the railway into Kathiawar took place in 1872, under the auspices 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway Company. The 
terminus was at Wadhwan, and the length of the line within 
Kathiawar limits 39^ miles. A line constructed at a cost of 96 lakhs, 
shared by Bhaunagar and Gondal in the proportion of two-thirds and 
one-third, was opened in 1880. The total length of this line was 
192 miles. In 1886 Junagarh constructed at a cost of 37 lakhs 
a line 69 miles long, passing from Jetalsar through the capital to 
the port of Veraval. The Wadhwan-Morvi Railway was opened in 
1887 and the extension to Rajkot completed in 1889. The Jetalsar- 
Rajkot Railway was opened in 1S93. 

The total length of railways in Kathiawar in 1904 was 577-09 miles, 
of different gauges, namely : — 

Bhavnagar-Goridal-Junagarh-1'oi bandar Railway 
Jetalsar-Rajkot Railway .... 

Jamnagar Railway 
Dhrangadhra Railway 



Rajputana-Malwa Railway 
Morvi (metre-gauge) Railway . 
Morvi (2 feet 6 inches) Railway 



334- J 9 
46*21 
54.22 
20-83 
32.00 
73-94 
15-7° 
Total 577-09 



The conversion to the metre gauge from the standard gauge of the 
section between Viramgam to Wadhwan since December, 1902, has 
given the Rajputana-Malwa Railway access to Wadhwan junction, and 
Kathiawar thus possesses through connexion with the whole of Upper 



ADMINISTRATION 181 

India. The gross earnings of the (i) Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh- 
Porbandar, (2) Jetalsar-Rajkot, (3) Jamnagar, and (4) Dhran- 
gadhra railways in 1904 amounted to 22-3 lakhs, and the working 
expenses to 10-5 lakhs. The gross earnings of the Morvi Railway 
amounted to nearly 3-5 lakhs, and the working expenses to i-6 lakhs, 
representing a return of 7-71 per cent, on the capital cost. 

Besides 248 British post offices, private internal postal arrange- 
ments are made by the State of Junagarh. People from villages where 
there is no British post office or postal box send their letters 
through the State post, and are required to affix stamps issued by 
the State. 

The first famine of which records are available occurred in 1559. 

Since then the most notable famines have occurred in 1632, in 17 19, 

in 1 7 32, in 1747, and in 1791. The famine of _ 

o j -j j t o Famine. 

1077-9 was severe and widespread. In 1899- 1902 

the peninsula again suffered severely from famine. Relief measures 
were commenced in October, 1899, and closed in October, 1902. 
The highest number in receipt of relief exceeded 300,000 in May, 
1900. More than 15 lakhs were spent on relief. The States con- 
tracted loans, partly from Government (65 lakhs) and partly in the 
open -market (41 lakhs), amounting to 106 lakhs to meet the cost 
of this famine. Of this sum 36 lakhs was borrowed by Bhaunagar, 
16 lakhs by Navanagar, and 7^ lakhs by Dhrangadhra. The mortality 
was heavy, the Agency losing 15-37 per cent, of its population from this 
and other causes. 

The year 1 814-5 was called the 'rat year,' from the famine 
produced by the ravages of these animals. Captain Le Grand Jacob 
remarked of this pest : — - 

'They appear suddenly in dense masses past all counting, as it 
springing from the earth, about the harvest season. Nothing can 
stop them . . . fires, ditches, have been tried in vain ; they move 
along, a mighty host, eating up all that comes in their way. All 
at once they vanish as if by magic, and for years not one is to be 
seen; they are about double the size of a common rat, and are of 
a reddish sandy colour.' 

A similar swarm took place after the recent famine. 

Since 1822 political authority in Kathiawar has been vested in the 
Political Agent subordinate to the Government of Bombay. In 
1903 the designations of the Political Agent and Administration- 
his Assistants were changed to those of Agent to 
the Governor and Political Agents of the prints. 

Before 1863, except for the criminal court of the Agent to the 
Governor, established in 1S31, to aid the Darbars of the several 
States in the trial of heinous crimes, interference with the judicial 



182 KATHIAWAR 

administration of the territories was diplomatic, not magisterial ; and 
the criminal jurisdiction of the first and second-class chiefs alone 
was defined. In 1863, however, the country underwent an important 
change. The jurisdiction of all the chiefs was classified and denned : 
that of chiefs of the first and second classes was made plenary ; that of 
lesser chiefs was graded in a diminishing scale. Four Political Agents 
of the prants, resident in the four divisions of Kathiawar, now exer- 
cise residuary jurisdiction with large civil and criminal powers. Each 
Political Agent of a prdnt has a deputy who resides at the head- 
quarters of the prant or division, and exercises subordinate civil and 
criminal powers. Serious criminal cases are committed by the deputies 
to the court of the Agent to the Governor, to whom also civil and 
criminal appeals lie. The Agent to the Governor is aided in this 
work by an officer known as the Political Agent and Judicial Assistant, 
who is usually a member of the Indian Civil Service. Appeals from 
his decisions lie direct to the Governor of Bombay in Council in 
his executive capacity. An officer styled the Superintendent of 
Managed Estates, who is ex officio an Assistant Political Agent, and 
two Deputy-Assistants also help the Agent. 

In each division are several subdivisional thanaddrs, holding petty 
magisterial powers over a circle of villages contiguous to their stations 
or thdnas. These thanaddrs administer 146 tdlukas out of the 193 
territorial divisions of Kathiawar ; they possess certain powers of general 
administration as well as judicial authority. But as the larger prin- 
cipalities occupy more than 15,000 square miles of the total area of 
20,882 square miles, the Agency through its Assistants, Deputy- 
Assistants, and thanaddrs cannot be called upon to administer more 
than one-fourth of the entire area. There are 12 thdnas in the penin- 
sula. The tdlukddrs are poor, ignorant, and in debt, and have only the 
semblance of authority. \xAex-tdlukddr relations are characterized by 
petty squabbles, small jealousies, and endless subdivision of estates. 

The law administered by the darbdri tribunals of the State is the 
customary law : namely, the Hindu and Muhammadan religious law 
as modified by local or tribal usage. The larger States have procedure 
and penal codes based on those in use in British India. To meet 
a particular class of land disputes, however, a special court was estab- 
lished in 1873. This was the Rajasthanik Court, constituted with the 
assent and at the cost of the chiefs. It decided, under the presidency 
of a British officer, all disputes as to girds or hereditary estates, between 
the chiefs and the bhdydds and mulgirdsias, who are for the most part 
the kinsmen of the chiefs or the descendants of earlier holders who 
have been deprived of their estates. It surveyed and mapped out the 
girdsia's estate, fixed his miscellaneous dues, and defined his relation 
to his chief by laying down the extent of his obligations. The court 



ADMTXIR TR. 1 TION 1 83 

was originally established for three years ; but it was continued for 
a succession of short periods, and was eventually abolished on April 1, 
1899. Since its establishment the peace of Kathiawar has seldom 
been broken by the more unruly members of the chiefs' families ; but 
a real or fancied grievance may still produce a body of outlaws ; and as 
recently as 1892 a band of these baharwattias was not captured until 
they had caused the death of the British officer in charge of the pur- 
suing troops. At the present time disputes between the first four 
classes of chiefs are usually referred to the State courts, and are dealt 
with by the Agent to the Governor in appeal. Similar disputes between 
the talukdars of other classes are decided by the Judicial Assistant, 
subject to the control of the Agent to the Governor, according to rules 
published in 1898. 

As each tribe of Rajputs invaded the peninsula, its chiefs bestowed 
on their relations portions of the land they had won. This share was 
named kapal girds, and passed to the descendants of the original grantees. 
The more enterprising girasias continued to acquire fresh lands from 
their neighbours, until they found themselves sufficiently strong to set 
up as independent rulers. Others, less enterprising, surrendered the 
greater portion of the land to a neighbouring chief in return for pro- 
tection, and fell into the position of mnlgirdsias or 'original sharers.' 
When a girdsia succeeded in gaining his independence he became 
a tdh/kddr, and assumed the title of Thakur, Raval, Rana, or Raja. 
As he rose in the social scale, the landed proprietor became anxious 
to leave his possessions intact to his eldest son ; at the same time the 
custom of the country compelled him to set aside a portion of his 
estates for each of his younger sons, and these in turn became girasias 
owing submission to the head of the family, but otherwise independent. 
Thus in Kathiawar landed property has been minutely subdivided, and 
the process still continues, so that some estates not larger than a single 
village have upwards of a hundred shareholders. As a rule, the revenue 
control of these estates has been left to the shareholders, except during 
minority, &c. In addition to the landed estates held by talukdars and 
girasias, many villages or portions of villages are held hereditarily as 
religious and service grants. Another large class of proprietors are 
jivaiddrs, or holders of estates as maintenance or on service tenure. 
They have not the position or privileges of girasias, and possess neither 
civil nor criminal jurisdiction. Some of them are life tenants. Common 
forms of service tenure are lands held by village headmen, watchmen, 
or scavengers, or by tribes such as the Mers who pay a hearth-tax and 
a plough-tax for cultivation, though in some cases holding rent free. 
The talukdars of Kathiawar have absolute power over property in their 
private or khdlsa land. The landlord's rent or raj bhdg is a fixed share 
of the produce. In practice this share is supplemented by numerous 



i8 4 KATHTAWAR 

petty cesses, some of which are taken by the proprietor, while others 
are devoted to village expenses. 

During the last thirty years considerable improvements have been 
introduced into the revenue system. Previously whole subdivisions 
were farmed to the highest bidders, who in turn sublet villages or 
shares of villages. The farming system has now been almost com- 
pletely abandoned, and a scientific revenue survey has been introduced 
in nearly all parts of the peninsula. 

In Kathiawar the organization of the village community has still 
considerable vitality. The prevalence of a system of revenue collection 
in kind imposes a special demand on the watchfulness of the headman 
and his subordinates. Even the smallest villages have their patel, 
havildar, and pctgl, who, like the priest, carpenter, tailor, and scavenger, 
are remunerated for their services by payment in kind. Under recent 
arrangements, the village police under the Agency thana circles are 
paid in cash and not in kind. 

The table given on pages 165-9 shows that in 1903-4 the total 
revenue of the Agency was estimated at 194 lakhs, while the tribute 
amounted to nearly 11 lakhs, about 7 lakhs payable to the British, 
2-9 lakhs to the Gaikwar, and Rs. 92,400 to Junagarh, compared with 
165A lakhs and 11 lakhs respectively in 1880. Of the 193 States, 
12 pay no tribute, 105 are tributary to the British Government, and 
79 to the Gaikwar of Baroda, while 134 pay tribute also to the Nawab 
of Junagarh. As the financial accounts of the States, except those 
temporarily under management, are never submitted to the Agency, 
the revenue entered in the table above referred to must be considered 
only approximately correct. A large share of the revenue is never 
brought to book in the State accounts, being credited to the private 
income of the chief or of the members of his family. Villages are 
assigned in maintenance or alienated, and taxes are farmed and their 
proceeds carried to some private account. The greater part of the 
revenue in every State is derived from the land, the general rule being 
to take a fixed share of the crops, supplemented by cash cesses, the 
total averaging from one-third to one-half of the crops. The States 
which possess a seaboard levy an export duty on all field produce 
leaving the State limits by any land route, in order to turn trade to 
their own ports. The maritime States not only levy import and export 
duties, but have also a monopoly of the manufacture of salt, a branch 
of revenue of increasing importance. All jurisdictional States also 
retain the monopoly of the sale of opium, and are entitled to two-thirds 
of the value of all smuggled opium seized within their territories. 
Other items of revenue are house taxes levied on artisans and shop- 
keepers, and taxes on labourers, shepherds, &c. Stamp duties and 
fees are levied on various judicial processes. Under the authority 



ADMINISTRATION 185 

of Government, an improvement cess of two annas per acre has been 
imposed on subordinate landholders for the last thirty years. There 
is no regular classification of land. Assessment is levied chiefly in 
kind, but it works out at about Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 per acre for 'dry crops' 
and Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 for irrigated crops. 

The British rupee is current throughout the peninsula. There is 
a local mint at Junagarh, of which the coins are current in that State 
alone. The silver coins are koris and hatf-ioris, the copper coins being 
known as dhinglas, dokdas, and trambia. The Bhaunagar mint was 
closed in 1840 under an arrangement with the Bombay Government. 

Municipal taxes are levied in many of the large towns. Since 1879 
a certain amount has been contributed by each State and landed 
proprietor in Kathiawar, and credited to a general Local fund adminis- 
tered by the Agent to the Governor. All expenses connected with 
the improvements of the Agency are met from this fund, which has an 
income of i-8 lakhs, with a balance in 1904 of 5 lakhs. 

Imperial service troops are maintained at Bhaunagar, Junagarh, and 
Jamnagar, which each equip a small force of cavalry. The British 
troops at Rajkot consisted in 1905 of a regiment of Native infantry. 

There is no general police force in Kathiawar. The chiefs are bound 
by stipulation to preserve order and indemnify losses through crime 
committed in their territory. In 1903-4 the Agency police, which 
is employed at a cost of 2-4 lakhs in thanas and civil stations, 
numbered 998 men ; while, so far as information can be obtained, 
the several States maintained a stipendiary police force aggregating 
5,378 men, at a cost of 7-7 lakhs. In that year 6,114 offences 
were reported and 7,479 persons were arrested, of whom 4,218 were 
convicted and 2,820 acquitted. Conviction is generally sought through 
the agency of an informer. The daily average of prisoners in the 
Rajkot jail was 103. At the present time life and property are as 
safe in Kathiawar as in the Districts of British India. 

Of the total population, 9-7 per cent. (17-7 males and 1-3 females) 
could read and write in 1901. Education has made rapid strides of 
late years. In 1858 there were 59 schools and 1,909 pupils, increasing 
in 1881 to 599 schools with 33,000 pupils: in 1891 the numbers 
further rose to 939 schools and 59,804 pupils. In 1903-4 the number 
of institutions, including 224 private schools, was 1,200, attended by 
80,041 pupils, of whom 10,108 were girls. These include 2 Arts 
colleges, 1 1 high schools (including the Rajkumar College and the 
Gondal Girasia School), 42 middle schools (including the Talukdari 
Girasia School), and 2 training schools. At the Rajkumar College 
and the Girasia Schools the advantages of a liberal education are 
enjoyed by many of the chiefs during their minority. The total 
amount spent on education in 1903-4, including the amount spent on 



1 86 KATHIAWAR 

the Rajkumar College (Rs. 45,000) and Girasia Schools (Rs. 33,000), 
was 8-3 lakhs, of which Provincial funds contributed 0-4 per cent., 
the revenue of the States 78-7 per cent., and other sources 2-7 per cent., 
while 1 8-6 per cent, was recovered as fees. 

There are 124 hospitals and dispensaries in Kathiawar. The 
patients treated at these institutions in 1903-4 numbered 739,000, 
of whom 15,813 were in-patients. Nearly 54,000 persons were vac- 
cinated in the same year. 

Kathor. — Town in the Kamrej taluka, Navsari prant, Baroda State, 
situated in 21 i7 / N. and 72 59' E., on the northern bank of the Tapti 
river, about 22 miles from Navsari and 10 miles from Surat. Popu- 
lation (1901), 4,407. The town possesses a Munsif's court, a dis- 
pensary, vernacular schools, an industrial school, and public offices. 
The place is remarkable for the number of Musalmans, of whom there- 
are no fewer than 2,444. They are chiefly Bohras of the Sunni persua- 
sion ; and being people of great enterprise they repair in great numbers 
to Mauritius, China, Natal, and other distant places, where they stay for 
long periods, and return to Kathor after amassing sufficient wealth to 
enable them to settle permanently at home. The principal articles of 
trade in the town are grain, printed calicoes, and cotton cloth. 

Kathiwara. — Thakurat in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Kathoria. — Bhumiat in the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Kathrota. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Kathua. — Overgrown village in the Jasrota district, Jammu pro- 
vince, Kashmir, situated in 32 22' N. and 75 32' E., on the right 
bank of the Ravi and between it and the Ujh river. Population (1901), 
5,801. Kathua possesses no points of interest. The buildings are 
mean and dilapidated, and the place has no past and no future. The 
climate is unhealthy, and the water-supply scanty and bad. 

Kathumar. — Head-quarters of a tahsll of the same name in the 
State of Alwar, Rajputana, situated in 27 19' N. and 77 5' E., about 
35 miles south-east of Alwar city, and 9 miles north-east of Kherll 
station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. The town is said to be 800 
years old ; it possesses a fort, a post office, and a vernacular school. 
The population in 1901 was 3,388. The tahsll is situated in the south- 
east of the State, and in 1901 contained 78 villages, with a population 
of 41,152, of whom 90 per cent, were Hindus. Under Mughal rule it 
was attached to the province of Agra, but, from its proximity to Jaipur, 
was generally held as a fief by the Jaipur chief. From 1778 to 1784 
the Mughals held direct possession, but in the latter year the Marathas 
overran and occupied it. Their oppressions aroused the local popu- 
lation, who invoked the aid of Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh about 
1802. The latter sent a strong force, which expelled the Marathas and 
occupied the fort of Kathumar; but in 1803 the Maratha troops, in 



KATMANDU 187 

their retreat before Lord Lake, bombarded the town and fort and 
expelled the Alwar garrison. It was this army which was annihilated 
three days later at Laswari. Just before the battle the tahsil of 
Kathumar had been granted to the Maharaja of Bharatpur ; but as he 
broke his engagements with the British, it was resumed in 1805 and 
ceded to Alwar. 

Katiadi. — Village in the Kishorganj subdivision of Mymensingh 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 15' N. and go° 
48' E. Population (1901), 1,472. It is one of the most frequented 
bazars in the south of the District. 

Katihar. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Purnea District, 
Bengal, situated in 25 34' N. and 87 35' E. Population (1901), 9,761. 
Katihar, which was formerly known as Saifganj, is an important railway 
junction, at which the Bengal and North- Western Railway meets the 
Bihar section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway. The latter is 
continued to Maniharl Ghat on the Ganges, whence a steamer plies to 
Sakrigali, establishing communication also with the East Indian Railway. 
There is a large export of rice and mustard seed. The town is the 
head-quarters of the sheep-breeding trade, and rough blankets are 
manufactured by a colony of Gareris settled there. 

Katmandu. — Capital of the kingdom of Nepal, situated towards 
the western side of the Nepal Valley, on the east bank of the Vishnu- 
mati river, at its junction with the Baghmati ; approximate position, 
2 7 42' N., 85 iV E. It is the largest city in Nepal, and has a popu- 
lation which is roughly estimated at from 70,000 to 80,000. Most of 
the inhabitants are Newars, of whom about two-thirds are Buddhists. 
Katmandu is said to have been founded by Raja Giinakamadeva about 
a.d. 723. The earliest name by which the city was known was Manju 
Patan, after the Buddhist saint Manjusri. Tradition asserts that the 
plain of Katmandu was covered by a great lake, till the saint cut the 
dam with his sword and so released the water. 

The general shape of the city is very irregular, and is supposed by 
the Hindus to resemble the khara or sword of the goddess Devi, while 
the Buddhist Newars declare it to have been built after the shape of the 
sword of Manjusri. Its modern name is said to be derived from an 
ancient building which stands in the heart of the city near the royal 
palace, and which is still known as Katmandu from kdf, 'wood' (of 
which material it is chiefly composed), and mandi or mandon, 'an 
edifice.' This building was erected by Raja Lachmina Singh Mai, in 
1596, as a house of accommodation for religious mendicants. Prior to 
the Gurkha conquest of the country in 1769, Katmandu was the seat 
of government of Newar kings who, with the princes of the neighbour- 
ing towns of Patan and Bhatgaon, reigned over the Valley of Nepal 
and adjacent country (see Nepal). Of the high walls, with their 

VOL. XV. N 



1 88 KATMANDU 

numerous gateways, which once surrounded the city, considerable 
portions have been demolished or have fallen into disrepair. 

The town is a labyrinth of narrow streets, most of which are im- 
passable for carriage traffic and indescribably filthy. The buildings 
on cither side are densely crowded, and are usually from two to four 
storeys high. They are made of brick, and tiled, and are built in the 
form of hollow squares, opening off the streets by low doorways, the 
central courtyards serving as receptacles for rubbish of every sort. In 
contrast to this dirt and squalor is the wealth of wood-carving which 
ornaments the facades of the houses. Most of these have projecting 
wooden windows or balconies, elaborately carved in beautiful designs. 
The streets generally lead to the tols or squares, of which there are 
many throughout the city. These are open spaces, paved, like the 
streets, with brick and stone, in which the various markets are held. 
The largest and most important building is the royal palace or Darbar. 
This covers a considerable extent of ground. On the west it faces an 
open square which contains many temples and a monolithic pillar. 
Opposite the north-west corner of the Darbar stands a large semi- 
European building called the Khot, which is famous as having been 
the scene of the massacre in 1846 of almost all the leading men of the 
country, by which Sir Jang Bahadur established himself in power. 
The Darbar is now used only for ceremonial purposes, as a residence 
for various relations of the king, and as public offices. The king, the 
Minister, and most of the nobles in the country have long since given 
up living within the city, and have built themselves imposing palaces 
and houses in European style outside it. 

Katmandu, though a filthy city, presents an exceedingly picturesque 
appearance. This is, in a great measure, due to the Chinese style of 
architecture which predominates. Many of the temples are like 
pagodas, of several storeys in height, and profusely ornamented with 
carvings, paintings, and gilding. The roofs of many of them are 
entirely of brass, or copper gilt, and along the eaves of the different 
storeys are hung numerous little bells which tinkle in the breeze. At 
some of the doorways, which are often copper gilt, are placed a couple 
of large stone lions or griffins, with well-curled manes. Immediately 
outside the city is a fine parade-ground nearly a mile in length, 
surrounded by an avenue of trees and ornamented with modern 
equestrian statues of various Ministers. 

A good water-supply was introduced in 1892, and lately drainage 
works have been started. There are two hospitals — one for women, 
the other for men — a school, and a free library. 

A British Resident, with a small staff and escort, is stationed at 
Katmandu. The Residency is situated about a mile out of the city on 
the north side, in what was formerly a barren patch of ground, supposed 



KATRA 189 

to be haunted by demons, but now one of the most beautiful and best- 
wooded parts of the Valley. Within the grounds is a British post office 
under the control of the Resident. 

Katni.— Railway junction in the Murwara tahsil of Jubbulpore 
District, Central Provinces, situated in 23 50' N. and 8o° 24/ E., on the 
East Indian Railway, 673 miles from Bombay and 727 from Calcutta, 
adjoining the town of Murwara. It is connected with Bilaspur on the 
main line of the Bengal-Nagpur system by a link of 168 miles, and with 
Bina on the Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
from Itarsi to Agra by one of 163 miles. These two connecting lines 
may eventually form part of the through route from Calcutta to 
Karachi. 

Katodia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Katoi Tahsil. — Western tahsil of Nagpur District, Central Provinces, 
lying between 21 2' and 21 31' N. and 78 15' and 78° 59/ E., with 
an area of 800 square miles. The population in 1901 was 162,588, 
compared with 157,100 in 1891. The density is 200 persons per 
square mile. The tahsil contains five towns — Katol (population, 
7,313), the head-quarters, Narkher (7,726), Kelod (5,141), Mohpa 
(5,336), and Mowar (4,799) — and 356 inhabited villages. Excluding 
56 square miles of Government forest, 77 per cent, of the available 
area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 
540 square miles. The demand for land revenue in the same year was 
Rs. 2,57,000, and for cesses Rs. 22,000. The tahsil contains tracts of 
very fertile land in the valleys of the Wardha and Jam rivers, and some 
hilly and stony country to the south. It is one of the great cotton- 
growing areas of the Province. 

Katol Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name, 
Nagpur District, Central Provinces, situated in 21 17' N. and 7 8° 36' E., 
on the Jam river, 36 miles west of Nagpur city by road. Population 
(1901), 7,313. The suburb of Budhwara on the opposite side of 
the river has recently been included in its limits. Within the town are 
the ruins of an old fort, and a curious temple of very early date built 
entirely of layers of sandstone with many grotesque carvings. Katol is 
not a municipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary purposes. It 
is one of the important cotton markets of the Province, and contains 
4 ginning factories with 160 gins and 3 cotton-presses, having a 
total capital of about 5 lakhs. The mangoes grown locally have some 
reputation. Katol has an English middle school and a dispensary. 

Katosan. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Katra (or Miranpur Katra). — -Town in the Tilhar tahsil of Shah- 
jahanpur District, United Provinces, situated in 28 2' N. and 79 40' E., 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 6,209. 
The town generally is built of mud, and contains a police station, a 

N 2 



190 



KA TRA 



dispensary, and a branch of the American Methodist Mission. Between 
this place and Fatehganj East in Bareilly District was fought the battle 
in which the united British and Oudh forces defeated the Rohillas under 
Rahmat Khan, and effected the annexation of Rohilkhand to Oudh. 
Ratra is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 1,500. There is a considerable export of local produce by railway. 
The middle school has 128 pupils. 

Katumbar. — Tahsil and head-quarters thereof in Alwar State, 
Rajputana. See Kathumar. 

Katwa Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Burdwan Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 23 26' and 23 50' N. and 87 44' and 
88° 17' E., with an area of 404 square miles. The subdivision is a flat 
alluvial tract, and in the east, along the banks of the Bhagirathi, the 
soil is waterlogged and swampy. The population in 1901 was 248,806, 
compared with 230,227 in 1891, the density being 616 persons per 
square mile. It contains two towns, Katwa (population, 7,920), its 
head-quarters, and Daixhat (5,618) ; and 465 villages. Large annual 
fairs are held at Agradwlp and Dadia. The manufacture of tasar silk 
is an important industry. 

Katwa Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in Burdwan District, Bengal, situated in 23 39' N. and 88° 8' E., at 
the junction of the Bhagirathi and Ajav rivers. Population (1901), 
7,220. Katwa was at one time considered the key to Murshidabad 
when that town was the capital of Bengal, and an old fort here was 
the scene of the defeat of the Marathas by AH Yard! Khan. It is 
held sacred by the Vaishnavas, as having been the place where their 
apostle Chaitanya entered upon the life of an ascetic. Steamers used 
to visit it the year round, but owing to the silting up of the Bhagirathi 
and the opening of the East Indian Railway its commercial importance 
has greatly declined ; it is now proposed to construct a branch railway 
from Hooghly. Katwa was constituted a municipality in 1869. The 
income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 7,800, and 
the expenditure Rs. 7,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10.200, 
half of which was derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 8,300. The town contains the usual public 
offices ; the subsidiary jail has accommodation for 24 prisoners. 

Kauriala (also called Karnali). — River of Northern India, rising in 
Tibet, not far from one of the sources of the Sutlej, in 30 40' N. and 
8o° 48' E. After leaving Tibet by the Takla Khar or Yari pass, it 
flows through Nepal, generally in a south-easterly direction, till it 
emerges from the lower range of the Himalayas through a deep pictur- 
esque gorge known as Shlsha PanI ('glass water'). The stream here 
is about 300 yards broad and of great depth, with a slow current, closely 
shut in by precipitous cliffs 2,500 feet high. A little below Shlsha 



KAVERI 191 

Pani the channel widens, with a steeper and rockier descent, causing 
magnificent rapids nearly half a mile broad. Lower down the river 
divides into two, the western branch retaining the name of Kauriala or 
Karnali, the eastern being called the Girwa. Formerly the latter was 
an insignificant stream, but its volume has gradually increased till it is 
now considerably larger than that of the Kauriala. They are both rapid 
rivers, with pebbly beds and fords which an elephant can generally cross 
without difficulty. Eighteen miles from its point of exit from the hills 
the Kauriala enters British territory, at the point where it receives the 
Mohan, and marks the boundary between the Oudh Districts of Kheri 
and Bahraich. It now receives on the east bank its former offshoot, 
the Girwa, and on the west the Suhell, Dahawar, and Chauka, all 
branches of the Sard a river. From the point of confluence with the 
Chauka the united rivers become the Gogra, which ultimately falls 
into the Ganges on its left bank, a little above Dinapore. The Kauriala 
is navigable by large boats of about 17 tons burden beyond the limits 
of British territory. The principal traffic is the export of grain, and of 
timber, ginger, pepper, ghl, and catechu from Nepal. Gold-washing is 
carried on by a caste called, after their occupation, Sonahis. The river 
abounds in fish. 

Kavali Taluk. — Taluk of Nellore District, Madras, lying between 
14 40' and 15 4' N. and 79 36' and 8o° f E., and bounded on the 
east by the Bay of Bengal. Its area is 548 square miles, about one- 
third of which is shrotriem and zamindari. The population in 1901 
was 87,015, compared with 83,109 in 1891. It contains 77 villages, 
besides the head-quarters, Kavali (population, 8,635). The demand 
on account of land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2,41,000. The taluk is generally flat, but contains a few isolated 
hills, while to the west and north-west are extensive low jungles, in parts 
very dense. The soil is poor, and large beds of laterite are frequently 
met with. The taluk is drained by the Upputeru (an affluent of the 
Manneru), the Gundalavagu, Ubbalivagu, and Pillivagu. There are 
35 tanks under the charge of the department of Public Works, and 
31 minor irrigation works. With a few exceptions these are rain-fed, 
and the supply is therefore not very certain. Irrigation from the 
Sangam dam across the Penner has been extended to two villages. 
1 Wet ' cultivation is most common in the eastern portion. The con- 
sumption of rice has much increased of late years. Along the sea-coast 
large tracts have been planted with palmyra palms and casuarina. 

Kavali Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Nellore District, Madras, situated in 14 55' N. and 8o° E. Population 
(1901), 8,635. ^ contains a District Munsifs court and the usual 
offices. 

Kaveri. — River of Southern India. See Cauvery. 



192 KAVERIPAK 

Kaveripak. — Village in the VValajapet taluk of North Arcot District, 
Madras, situated in 12 54/ N. and 79° 28' E. Population (1901), 
5,566. It is known in history as the scene of the victory gained by 
Clive over Raja Sahib and his French allies in 1752. It is a flourishing 
place, lying to the south of the embankment of the large tank to which 
it gives its name. A small fort formerly stood near, but this has been 
destroyed. The tank is the most extensive in the District, its embank- 
ment being about 4 miles long. Upon this is built a little bungalow, 
with a view over the water towards the Sholinghur hills. Wild duck 
and other water-fowl are abundant. The tank, which is fed by a 
channel from the Palar, is rarely dry, but has much silted up in the 
course of years. 

Kaveripatnam. — Village in the Krishnagiri taluk of Salem District, 
Madras, situated in 12 26' N. and 78 13' E., on the right bank of 
the Ponnaiyar, 7 miles from Krishnagiri. Population (1901), 4,954. 
The place was regarded as of some strategical importance in the Mysore 
Wars, as it commanded the entrance to Dharmapuri taluk and the 
Carnatic, and was strongly fortified. In 1767 the English took it from 
Haidar All; but the latter almost immediately recaptured it, and used it 
as a support in the next campaign until his withdrawal above the Ghats. 
Colonel Wood then took the place, and in 1790 Colonel Maxwell made 
it his head-quarters before advancing against Tipu. 

Kavlapur. — Town in the State of Sangli, Bombay, situated in 
1 6° 89' N. and 74 72' E. Population (1901), 5,127. The town, 
formerly called Shingnapur and Kavandanyapur, is built on stony 
undulating ground, and lies 5 miles north-east of Sangli town, near 
a small stream which rises in the Dandoba hills and falls into the 
Kistna. This stream supplies the town with drinking-water, the well- 
water being brackish and unhealthy. The town contains a substantial 
schoolhouse, with accommodation for 100 boys, a Jain basti, a Muham- 
madan dargah, and fourteen Hindu temples, the most important of 
which is that of Siddheshwar. 

Kawa.- South-eastern township of Pegu District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 16 58' and 17 26' N. and 96 17' and 96 53' E., with 
an area of 514 square miles. It is a flat area producing rice, and lying 
for the most part between the Pegu river and the mouth of the Sittang. 
In 1 90 1 it contained 206 villages, with a population of 79,057, its 
inhabitants in 1891 having numbered 60,435. The head-quarters are 
at Kawa (population, 1,866), on the left bank of the Pegu river, not far 
from Tongyi railway station. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 345 
square miles, paying Rs. 6,59,800 land revenue. 

Kawahi. — River in Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
See Khowai. 

Kawardha. — Feudatory State in the Central Provinces, lying 



K AWARD HA 193 

between 21 50' and 22 3c/ N. and 8o° 5c/ and 8i° 26' E., with an 
area of 798 square miles. It lies on the border of the eastern range of 
the Satpura Hills, between the Districts of Balaghat, Drug, Bilaspur, 
and Mandla. The western half of the State consists of hill and forest 
country, while to the east is an open plain. Kawardha (population, 
4,772), the head-quarters, is 54 miles from Tilda station on the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The name is believed to be a corruption of 
Kabirdham or ' the seat of Kablr,' and Kawardha is the official head- 
quarters of the mahcuits of the Kabirpanthl sect. At the village of 
Chhapri, 1 1 miles to the west of Kawardha, is situated the fine old 
temple of Bhoram Deo. It is highly decorated, contains several in- 
scriptions, and is assigned to the eleventh century. The Kawardha 
family are Raj Gonds and are related to the zamlndars of Pandaria 
in Bilaspur, the Kawardha branch being the junior. In the event of 
failure of heirs, a younger son of the Pandaria zamlndar succeeds. 
The estate was conferred for military services by Raghuji Bhonsla. 
The present chief, Jadunath Singh, succeeded in 1891 at the age of 
six years. He is being educated at the Rajkumar College, Raipur, and 
during his minority the State is administered through the Political 
Agent for the Chhattisgarh Feudatory States. The State contains 346 
inhabited villages, and the population in 1901 was 57,474. It decreased 
by 37 per cent, in the preceding decade, during which Kawardha was 
severely affected by famine in several years. The density is 72 persons 
per square mile. Gonds, Chamars, Kurmis, and Telis are the principal 
castes, and the Chhattisgarhl dialect of Hindi is universally spoken. 

In the open country there is a considerable quantity of good black 
soil. Included in Kawardha are the three subordinate zamindari 
estates of Bona, Bhonda, and Rengakhar, with an estimated total area 
of 405 square miles. These have not been surveyed, and no statistics 
for them are available. Of the remaining area, which has been 
cadastrally surveyed, 242 square miles are occupied for cultivation, of 
which 222 are under crop. The cropped area has considerably de- 
creased in recent years owing to the unfavourable seasons. The 
principal crops are kodon, which covers 100 square miles, wheat ^^, 
rice 35, and cotton 54. Only 165 acres are irrigated, from wells. About 
452 square miles, or more than half the total area of the State, are 
forest. The forests consist mainly of inferior species, and sal (S/iorea 
robustd) is the principal timber tree. The State contains 36 miles of 
gravelled and 74 miles of embanked roads, constructed under the 
supervision of the Engineer of the Chhattisgarh States division. The 
principal routes are those from Dongargarh to Pandaria, and from 
Kawardha to Simga. 

The revenue of the State in 1904 amounted to Rs. 1,10,000, of 
which Rs. 70,000 was derived from land, Rs. 13,000 from forests, and 



194 KA WARD HA 

Rs. 10,000 from excise. The system of land revenue assessment is the 
same as in British territory, but the headmen of villages have no pro- 
prietary rights. Excluding the zamlndari estates, which pay a revenue 
of Rs. 1,630, the incidence of land revenue is 8 annas 9 pies per culti- 
vated acre. The usual cesses are realized with the land revenue. The 
expenditure in 1904 amounted to Rs. 1,12,000, the principal items 
being Government tribute (Rs. 32,000), allowances to the ruling 
family (Rs. 13,500), public works (Rs. 9,000), general administration 
(Rs. 9,600), and police (Rs. 6,000). The tribute is liable to periodical 
revision. Since 1893 the State has allotted Rs. 1,60,000 to public 
works, which has been mainly expended in the construction of the 
roads already mentioned and of buildings for the State offices. The 
expenditure on education in 1904 was Rs. 2,900, from which 12 schools 
with about 900 pupils are maintained. Only 879 persons were returned 
as literate in 1901, the proportion of the male population able 
to read and write being 3 per cent. A dispensary has been estab- 
lished at Kawardha, at which 15,000 persons were treated in 1904. 
The relations of the State with Government are in charge of a 
Political Agent, under the supervision of the Commissioner, Chhattls- 
garh Division. 

Kawkareik Subdivision. — Subdivision consisting of the eastern 
half of Amherst District, Lower Burma, with head-quarters at Kaw- 
kareik. It contains two townships, Kawkareik and Kvaikmaraw. 

Kawkareik Township. — North-eastern township of Amherst Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma (formerly known as the Haungtharaw township), 
lying between 15 37' and 17 2' N. and 97 59' and 98 51/ E., with 
an area of 1,963 square miles, bounded on the west by Haungtharaw, 
and on the east by Thaungyin and by Siamese territory. It is for the 
most part very hilly and very sparsely inhabited. The population was 
22,512 in 1891, and 35,111 in 1901, distributed in r62 villages and 
one town, Kawkareik (population, 3,919), the head-quarters. The 
area cultivated has more than doubled during the past ten years. In 
1903-4 it reached an aggregate of 50 square miles, paying Rs. 39,300 
land revenue. 

Kawkareik Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Amherst District, Lower Burma, situated in 16 35' N. and 
98 14' E. The town lies in the north-cast of the District, nearly 
50 miles due east of Moulmein, stretching along both banks of the 
Kawkareik, a stream which flows from the western slopes of the Dawna 
range into the Haungtharaw river, and is navigable up to Kawkareik 
during the rains by boats of fairly heavy burden. The town is an 
important trade centre on the main caravan route between Moulmein 
and Siam. Population (1901), 3,919. In 1884-5 Kawkareik was 
placed in charge of a town committee, which was reconstituted in 1903. 



KA YANKULAM 195 

The income administered by the town authorities was Rs. 8,700 in 
1903-4, and the expenditure was Rs. 9,000, devoted chiefly to public 
works. The town possesses a civil hospital, with eight beds, which is 
supported by the town fund. 

Kawlin. — Southernmost township of Katha District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 23 30' and 23 54' N. and 95 20' and 96 E., on either 
side of the Sagaing-Myitkyina railway, with an area of 536 square miles. 
It was annexed in 1891 with the rest of the former YVuntho State. 
The population in 1901 was 28,114 (practically all Burmans), dis- 
tributed in 239 villages. The head-quarters are at Kawlin (population, 
813) on the railway, the scene of some of the most exciting episodes 
in the Wuntho rebellion. The surveyed area under cultivation in 
1903-4 was 70 square miles, and the land revenue and thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 1,05,400. 

Kayal. — Village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, situated in 8° 40' N. and 78 5' E., near the sea, on the 
northern bank of the Tambraparni river. It was once a famous port, 
and was visited in 1292 by Marco Polo, who calls it 'a great and noble 
city,' and notices it at length (Col. Yule's translation, vol. ii, p. 305). 
A similar glowing account of the place is given by two Persian 
historians quoted by Colonel Yule. Kayal sprang into existence after 
Kolkai, but the silt of the Tambraparni ruined both places as ports 
and has now turned them into inland villages. Relics of the ancient 
greatness of Kayal are, however, still discoverable in the shape of 
broken tiles and remnants of pottery. There are also two old temples 
with inscriptions. An interesting and detailed account of the place 
will be found in Bishop Caldwell's History of Tinnevelly. 

Kayalpatnam. — A small port in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tin- 
nevelly District, Madras, situated in 8° 34' N. and 7 8° 8' E., a few 
miles to the south of the Tambraparni river and 18 miles south of 
Tuticorin ; not to be confounded with Kayal. It is a Union, with 
a population (1901) of 11,746. Its sea-borne trade, which is chiefly 
in rice and coco-nuts with Ceylon and in timber and areca-nuts with 
Travancore, is carried on by the Musalman tribe of Labbais. There 
is also some trade in palmyra-leaf boxes and jaggery (coarse sugar), 
and a large salt factory is at work. 

Kayankulam. — Town on the backwater of the same name in the 
Kartikapalli taluk of Travancore State, Madras, situated in y° 11' N- 
and 76° 30' E. Population (1901), 5,745. Formerly capital of an 
independent principality known as Onad, it held an equal position with 
Venad, or Travancore. In the sixteenth century it was an important 
harbour where the Portuguese had a factory. The Onad Raja, was the 
earliest Malabar ally of the Dutch. After a protracted war, he sub- 
mitted to Travancore in 1746. In a. o. S29 one of the earliest Syrian 



196 KAYANKULAM 

Churches was founded here. The place has a well-attended market 
and a magistrate's court. 

Kedarnath. — Famous temple and place of pilgrimage in Garhwal 
District, United Provinces, situated in 30 44' N. and 79 E., imme- 
diately below the snow peak of Mahapanth, at an elevation of 
11,753 f eet above sea-level. It marks the spot where Sadasiva, a form 
of Siva, in his flight from the Pandavas, assumed the form of a buffalo 
and attempted to dive into the earth to escape his pursuers, but left 
his hind quarters on the surface. A rock is still worshipped as part 
of the deity, and the remaining portions of his body are reverenced 
elsewhere : at Tungnath, Rudranath, Madhyamaheshwar, and Kalpesh- 
war. Four miles from the temple on the way to the Mahapanth peak 
is a precipice known as the Bhairab Jhamp, where devotees formerly 
committed suicide by flinging themselves from the summit ; but the 
British Government suppressed this practice shortly after annexation. 
The Raival or chief priest of Kedarnath is always a Jangama from 
Mysore or some other part of Southern India. Large numbers of 
pilgrims annually visit Kedarnath. 

Kedgeree (Khejri). — Village in the Contai subdivision of Midnapore 
District, Bengal, situated in 21 52' N. and 87° 59' E., on the right 
bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 1,457. This was 
formerly an important anchorage, and close by is an old English 
burial-ground containing numerous graves of Europeans who died 
on shipboard off the coast. 

Kehsi Mansam (Burmese, Kyithi Bansan). — State in the eastern 
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 21 48' and 
22 15' N. and 97°4o' and 98 22' E., with an area of 632 square miles. 
It is bounded on the north by the Northern Shan States of Hslpaw and 
South Hsenwi ; on the east by Kenglon, Manglon, and Monghsu ; on 
the south by Mongnawng and Mongkiing ; and on the west by Mong- 
kiing. In early days Kehsi Mansam formed part of North Hsenwi, but 
was made a Myozaship in i860. The State consists chiefly of open 
rolling country, nowhere rising to any great height. Around the capital 
and to the east of it are almost treeless downs. Between the Nam 
Pang and the border of Manglon are two circles, undulating like the 
rest, but covered with scrub jungle. To the north and west the downs 
become low hills, as yet untouched by the taungya cultivator; in the 
valleys between these hills most of the ' wet ' rice of the State is grown. 
The chief river is the Nam Heng, which separates the State from 
Hslpaw and joins the Nam Pang. Rice is grown in both irrigated 
fields and taungyas, the other crops being cotton, tobacco, and sesa- 
muni. Kehsi Mansam is, however, a commercial rather than an agri- 
cultural State. A good deal of business is clone with Tawngpeng in 
tea : and there is a considerable trade in agricultural implements and 



KELOD 197 

bamboo hats (the Burmese kamauk), which are made in the northern 
part of the State. The population in 1901 was 22,062 (distributed in 
378 villages), of whom about 19,500 were Shans, and about 2,500 Yins 
(Vanglam). Kehsi Mansam (population, .618), in the western part of 
the State, on the Nam Heng, is a trading centre of some importance, 
and was once a large town. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 15,000 (mainly from thalhamedd) ; the chief items of expenditure 
were Rs. 8,000 tribute to the British Government, Rs. 4,000 general 
administration charges, Rs. 2,000 privy purse, and Rs. 1,000 public 
works. 

Kekri. — Town in Ajmer-Merwara, Rajputana, and the head-quarters 
of an Extra-Assistant Commissioner, situated in 25 25' N. and 75 
13' E. Population (1901), 7,053, including 5,472 Hindus, 1,193 
Muhammadans, and 364 Jains. Kekri was formerly a thriving com- 
mercial town, but has of late years declined in importance. The 
municipal income in 1902-3 was about Rs. 14,000. The water-supply 
is scarce and bad. Kekri possesses three hydraulic cotton-presses 
and a ginning factory. 

Keladi.— Village in the Sagar taluk of Shimoga District, Mysore, 
situated in 14 13' N. and 75 i' E., 4 miles north of Sagar town. 
Population (1901), 1,595. It was the place of origin, at the close of 
the fifteenth century, of the chiefs who became kings of the whole of 
the north-west of Mysore, and of the Kanarese districts below the 
Ghats, and continued in power till overthrown by Haidar All in 1763. 
They were at first tributary to Vijayanagar, but assumed independence 
after the fall of that empire. The capital was first removed to Ikkeri, 
and eventually to Bednur. 

Kelapur Taluk. — Taluk of Yeotmal District (formerly known as 
Wun), Berar, lying between 19 50' and 20 29' N. and 78 2' and 78 
51' E., with an area of 1,080 square miles. The population fell from 
105,926 in 1891 to 103,657 in 1901, the density being 96 persons 
per square mile. The taluk contains 310 villages, but no town. The 
head-quarters are at Pandharkawada (population, 1,992), near the small 
village of Kelapur, from which the taluk takes its name. The taluk 
contains a larger proportion of Gonds than any other in Berar. It 
marched with, and probably at times formed part of, the Gond kingdom 
of Chanda. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,35,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The taluk lies in the Balaghat or southern 
plateau of Berar, but possesses fertile tracts in the valleys of the Wardha 
and Penganga rivers, which bound it on the north and south. 

Kelat-i-Ghilzai. — Fort in Kandahar province, Afghanistan. See 
Kalat-i-Ghilzai. 

Kelod.— Town in the Katol tahsil of Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 2i c 27' N. and 78 53' E., 28 miles from Nagpur 



i 9 8 KELOD 

city on the Chhindwara road. The name is probably an abbrevia- 
tion from keljhar, 'a plantain- tree,' as plantain groves were formerly 
numerous here. Population (1901), 5,141. The town contains an old 
fort. It is not a municipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary 
purposes. A cotton-ginning factory has recently been opened. The 
chief local industry is the manufacture of large brass water-vessels. 
There is a vernacular middle school. 

Kelve-Mahim. — Head-quarters of the Mahim taluka of Thana Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 19 36' N. and 72 44' E., about 5^ miles west 
of the Palghar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 
and 56 miles north of Bombay. Population (190 1), 5,699. The village 
of Kelve, whose name is thus joined with Mahim, lies on the opposite 
side of a creek about 2\ miles to the south. The coast is very rocky 
near the harbour, and a reef stretches for 2 miles from the shore. A 
small island fort lies opposite the village of Kelve. Near the two 
creeks which form the harbours of Mahim and Kelve are two small 
forts, forming links in the chain built by the Portuguese along the coast 
of the taluka. The town is to a large extent occupied by gardens, and 
has a fair trade in plantains, sugar-cane, ginger, and betel-leaf. Delhi 
Musalmans had possession of Mahim in 1350; Gujarat governors suc- 
ceeded; in 1532 the Portuguese occupied it; and in 1612 it was 
bravely held against the Mughals. The tomb of a Portuguese noble- 
man has been unearthed and its slab placed in the Collector's garden 
at Thana. Kelve-Mahim has been a municipal town since 1861. 
During the decade ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 8,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,700. Kelve village was included in the 
Mahim municipality in 1890. The town contains a dispensary, and 
6 schools for boys with 356 pupils and one for girls with 51 pupils. 

Kelwara.— Head-quarters of the Kumbhalgarh pargana in the 
State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25 7' N. and 73 36' E., in 
the heart of the Aravalli Hills, about 2\ miles south of the Kumbhal- 
garh fort and 38 miles north of Udaipur city. Population (1901), 1,204. 
It was in Kelwara that Rana Ajai Singh found refuge when his father, 
Rana Lakshman Singh, and his seven brothers had been killed defending 
Chitor against Ala-ud-din at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

Ken (or Kayan ; Skt. Kamdvati; the Kainas of Arrian). — River of 
Bundelkhand. It rises in the north-western slopes of the Kaimur 
Hills (23 54' N., 8o° io' E.), and flowing north-east through Damoh 
and Panna enters Banda District in the United Provinces near Bilharka. 
After a course of more than 100 miles along the border of and through 
Banda, it joins the Jumna near Chilla, on the road from Banda to 
Fatehpur, 230 miles from its source. The river flows in a deep, well- 
defined bed, and is navigable for small boats as far as Banda town ; but 
there is not much traffic. At Banda the bed is sandy, but pebbles and 



KENGHKAM 199 

fragments of quartz and other rocks are found in it, which are polished 
and made into ornaments. Above Banda the bed becomes more rocky, 
and the scenery near KharaunI is singularly beautiful. A canal taking 
off from the river near Bariarpur in the Ajaigarh State has recently been 
completed. At present it is designed to irrigate only a part of Banda 
District : namely, the area between the Ken and Baghain, of which it 
will command about half, or 374,000 acres. The reservoir formed 
in connexion with this project will impound about 182 million cubic 
feet of water in the valley of the river. 

Kendrapara Subdivision. — -North-eastern subdivision of Cuttack 
District, Bengal, lying between 20 18' and 20 48' N. and 86° 15' and 
87 i' E., with an area of 977 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 467,081, compared with 429,770 in 1891. The subdivision is a 
deltaic alluvial tract, bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and 
intersected by numerous rivers and streams. The strip along the coast 
is very sparsely populated, but the density rises towards the west, and 
the average for the whole subdivision is 478 persons per square mile. 
It contains one town, Kendrapara (population, 15,245^, its head- 
quarters; and 1,338 villages. 

Kendrapara Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Cuttack District, Bengal, situated in 20 30' N. and 86° 25' E. 
Population (1901), 15,245. Its position on the Kendrapara Canal in 
the heart of a rich rice-producing country gives it a considerable trade ; 
and it is connected by road with Cuttack, Jajpur, and Chandbali. It 
was constituted a municipality in 1869. The income and expenditure 
during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 8,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 11,200, of which Rs. 6,700 was derived from a tax 
on persons (or property tax); and the expenditure was Rs. 11,100. 
Besides the usual public buildings, Kendrapara possesses a good school 
and dispensary, and a public library has lately been opened for the 
circulation of English and vernacular literature. The sub-jail has 
accommodation for twelve prisoners. 

Kenduli. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Blrbhum Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 23° 38' N. and 87 26' E., on the north bank 
of the Ajay river. Population (1901), 774. It was the birthplace of 
Jayadeva, the author of the celebrated Glta Gobinda, a Sanskrit poem 
in praise of Krishna Chaitanya, who was a disciple of the Vaishnav 
reformer. An annual fair in honour of Jayadeva is held in the village 
on the last day of Pus (the middle of January), which is attended by 
50,000 persons. 

Kenery. — Island near the entrance of Bombay harbour, off the 
mainland of Kolaba District, Bombay. See Khanderi. 

Kenghkam (Burmese, Kyaingkan). — Small State in the eastern 
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20 50' and 



200 KENGHKAM 

2i° i' N. and 98 2c/ and 98° 37' E., with an area of 167 square miles. 
It lies on both sides of the Nam Pang, and is bounded on the north by 
Mongnawng and a detached portion of Mongnai ; on the east by a 
detached portion of Mongnawng and by the Salween river ; and on the 
south and west by Mongnai. Rice is cultivated in the plain lying along 
the western bank of the river and on the hills to the west, but owing to 
the loss of population a large number of paddy-fields are fallow. The 
population of the State in 1901 was 5,458, practically all Shans, distri- 
buted in 52 villages. The residence of the Myoza is at Kenghkam 
(population, 1,203), a picturesquely situated village on the Nam Pang, 
a few miles north of the point where that stream flows into the Salween. 
The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,000 (mostly from thatha- 
medd), and the tribute to the British Government is Rs. 2,000. 

Kenglon (Burmese, Kyainglon). — Small State in the eastern division 
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying geographically within the 
borders of Kehsi Mansam, but abutting in the south-east on Monghsu. 
It is situated between 21 51' and 22 2' N. and 98 2' and 98 13' E., 
with an area of 43 square miles. Kenglon used at one time to form 
part of North Hsenwi. The country is undulating on the whole, and 
the land is fertile. The main crop is lowland rice ; and the people, 
who in 1 90 1 numbered 4,259 (practically all Shans), export a good 
deal of rice. The population was distributed in 69 villages, of which 
the largest is Kenglon, the residence of the Myoza (population, 341), 
west of a chain of low hills towards the north of the State. The 
revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,000, and the tribute to the British 
Government is Rs. 1,500. 

Kengtung (Burmese, Kvai/igton). — A division of the Southern Shan 
States, Burma, and a State under a Sawbwa, residing at the capital, 
Kengtung. It is the largest Native State in Burma, having an area 
of about 12,000 square miles, and is situated between 20 4' and 
22 10' N. and 98° 28' and 101 9' E., lying, with the exception of 
a small area between the mouth of the Nam Hka river and the Takaw 
ferry, entirely east of the Salween. On the north it is bounded by the 
newly drawn Chinese frontier ; on the east by China ; on the south by 
the French Lao territory and Siam ; and on the west by the Southern 
Shan States of Mongpan, Mongnai, and Mongnawng, and the Northern 
Shan State of Manglon, from which it is separated by the Nam 
Hka river. It includes the dependencies of Hsenyawt, Hsenmawng, 
Monghsat, Mongpu, and Western Kengcheng. A good deal of the 
early history of Kengtung is purely legendary. It is clear, however, 
that the State has suffered much in the past at the hands of the 
Siamese and the Chinese, both of whom invaded it several times be- 
tween the middle of the eighteenth and the middle of the nineteenth 
Century. Some of the main features of the history of Kengtung since 



KENGTUNG TOWN 20 t 

the annexation of Upper Burma are given in the article on the 
Southern Shan States. The country is broken and mountainous, 
the hill ranges having a general north and south tendency ; about 
two-thirds of it lies in the basin of the Mekong, and about one-third 
in the basin of the Sahveen, the watershed being a hill range varying 
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet in height. The climate in the valleys is 
extremely enervating during the rains ; dense fogs prevail in the cold 
season, and the valleys are much hotter than their altitude would lead 
one to expect, while the daily range of temperature is large. Rice 
is the staple, but fruit of all kinds is cultivated in the gardens, while 
on the uplands cotton is the main crop. On the highest hills poppy is 
grown in addition to taungya rice and sesamum, and tea is cultivated 
for local consumption. There are rich forests, the revenue from which 
amounted in 1904 to Rs. 34,000. The population of the State in 1901 
was 190,698, of whom 139,735 were returned as Buddhists and 50,039 
as Animists. The people are Shans (Hkiin and Lii), or belong to 
a variety of hill tribes, of which the most important are the Kaws or 
Akhas, the Muhsos, and the Was (Tai Loi, Sec). Divided by- 
languages, 57,058 persons spoke Shan, 42,160 Hkiin (the language 
of the Kengtung valley), 27,652 Akha, 19,380 Lii (the language of the 
valley between Kengtung and the Mekong), and 44>44 8 other ver- 
naculars, such as Palaung, Kachin, and Lisaw. The population in 
1901 was distributed in 2,338 villages, the only urban area of any 
size being the capital, Kengtung (population, 5,695). The revenue, 
chiefly from tkathameda, amounted in 1903-4 to i-i lakhs. The 
expenditure included Rs. 30,000 paid as tribute to the British Govern- 
ment, Rs. 24,000 spent on miscellaneous administrative charges, Rs. 
33,500 devoted to the salaries of officials, Rs. 18,000 to the privy- 
purse, and Rs. 4,350 to public works. 

Kengtung Town. — Capital of Kengtung State in the Southern 
Shan States, Burma, situated in 21 18' N. and 99 45' E., towards 
the southern end of the central valley of the State. The town, which 
lies on low, undulating ground, was built early in the nineteenth 
century, and in 1901 had a population of 5,695. It is a straggling 
area, containing a few brick buildings and the Sawbwa's haw or palace 
of timber surrounded by a brick wall. Kengtung has till recently been 
the head-quarters of an Assistant Superintendent. It was a post of 
importance in the eighteenth century, and was fortified strongly by 
Alaungpaya with a thick wall and a moat. It is still an important 
trading centre. The present station of Kengtung is a quarter of a 
mile away, and contains the quarters of the police. The cantonment 
is about 7 miles west of the town. The place is very unhealthy, and 
a site for a new station has been found on a spur (Loi Mwe) at an 
altitude of 5,500 feet, 12 miles south-east of Kengtung town. There is 



202 KENGTUNG TOWN 

room here for both the civil station and the cantonment, and a good 
supply of drinking-water is obtainable. The garrison of Kengtung has 
recently been replaced by military police. 

Keonjhar State. — One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal, 
lying between 21 1' and 22 io' N. and 85 n / and 86° 22' E. It is 
the second largest of the Orissa States, having an area of 3,096 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Singhbhum District ; on the 
east by the State of Mayurbhanj and Balasore District ; on the south 
by Cuttack District and the State of Dhenkanal ; and on the west by 
the States of Pal Lahara and Bonai. Keonjhar is divided into two 
widely dissimilar tracts, Lower Keonjhar being a region of valleys and 
lowlands, while Upper Keonjhar includes the mountainous highlands. 
The latter consist of great clusters of rugged crags, which in troublous 
times afforded a safe retreat to its inhabitants. The mountain-tops 
appear from the lowlands to be sharply ridged or peaked, but in reality 
they have extensive table-lands on their summits, fit both for pasture 
and for tillage. The BaitaranI river takes its rise in the hilly north- 
western division. The principal peaks are Gandhamadan (3,479 feet), 
Thakurani (3,003 feet), Tomak (2,577 feet), and Bolat (1,818 feet). 

Keonjhar originally formed part of Mayurbhanj, but about 200 
years ago the local tribes thr^v off their allegiance to that State and 
chose a brother of the Raja as their king. Since that time thirty-six 
chiefs have ruled. The late chief rendered good service during the 
Mutiny of 1857, in recognition of which his tribute was reduced and he 
was made a Maharaja. He died in 1861 without legitimate issue; and 
on Government nominating his natural son, the present chief, to the 
gaddi, a dispute arose as to the succession, culminating in an insur- 
rection of the Bhuiya and Juang tribes, which was suppressed only 
with the aid of British troops. The hill tribes again rebelled in 1891 
as a protest against the oppressions of the minister, and the aid of 
British troops had again to be invoked before the rising could be 
put down. The State has an estimated revenue of 3 lakhs, and pays 
a tribute of Rs. 1,710 to the British Government. The population 
increased from 248,101 in 1891 to 285,758 in 1901, but is still very 
sparse, the density in the latter year being only 92 persons per square 
mile. There is one town, Keonjhar (4,532), and 1,937 villages, of 
which the most important is Anandpur, situated on the BaitaranI river. 
Of the total population, 246,585 are Hindus and 38,567 Animists, the 
most numerous castes being Pans (31,000), Khandaits (29,000), Gaurs 
(28,000), Hos (24,000), Bhuiyas (20,000), Kurmls (17,000), Gonds 
(16,000), Bathudis (13,000), and Khonds (12,000). The old Midna- 
pore-Sambalpur road runs through Keonjhar town, and a few metalled 
roads have been made in the neighbourhood of the head-quarters. 
A new and important fair-weather road has lately been completed, 



KERUR 203 

connecting Keonjhar town with Bhadrakh station in Balasore on the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway (84 miles) on the one side, and on the other 
with Jaintgarh on the borders of Singhbhum District (36 miles). 
For administrative purposes the State is divided into subdivisions : 
namely, the head-quarters, Anandpur or Lower Keonjhar, and Cham- 
peswar or Nuagarh. The State maintains 3 charitable dispensaries, 
2 middle English, 7 upper primary, and 84 lower primary schools. 

Keonjhar Town (or Nijgarh). — Head-quarters of the Orissa 
Tributary State of the same name, Bengal, situated in 21 38' N. 
and 85 36' E., on the Midnapore-Sambalpur road. Population 

(i9°0> 4,53 2 - 

Keonthal {Kiunthal). — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying 
between 30 55' and 31 13' N. and 77 10' and 77 25' E. The main 
block of territory adjoins Simla station. It has an area of 116 square 
miles, divided into 22 villages, and the population in 1901 was 22,499. 
The revenue in 1903 was estimated at Rs. 66,000. The principal 
products are grain and opium. The present Raja is Bijai Sen, a Rajput 
by caste, who succeeded his father Balblr Sen in 1901. The chief 
of Keonthal was formerly styled Rana, but was raised by the British 
Government to the higher rank of Raja in 1857. After the Gurkha 
War a portion of the territory of Keonthal, which had been occupied 
by the Gurkhas, was sold to the Maharaja of Patiala. In consideration 
of this, no tribute is paid by the Keonthal Raja for the remainder 
of his State, which was restored to him by sanad in 1815, on the 
expulsion of the Gurkhas from the country. The Raja holds another 
sanad, dated September, 181 5, conferring on the Keonthal chief and 
his heirs for ever paramount authority over the petty states of Theog, 
Koti, Ghund, and Madhan, the chiefs of which, with their descendants, 
are bound to regard the chief of Keonthal as their liege, and to pay 
him tribute. Ratesh also is a fief of Keonthal. A third sanad was 
granted to the Raja, conferring Punnar on him and his heirs. It is 
dated 1823, though the transfer was authorized in 1S16. The reasons 
given for this measure were the isolated position of Punnar, the 
turbulent character of its inhabitants, the indisposition of Government 
to extend its territories in the hills, and a desire to benefit Keonthal. 

Kerakat. — Tahsil in Jaunpur District, United Provinces. See 
Kirakat. 

Kerala. — Ancient kingdom on the west coast of the Madras 
Presidency. See Chera. 

Kerowlee. — State and capital thereof in Rajputana. See Karauli. 

Kerur. — Village in the Badami tdli/ka of Bijapur District, Bombay, 
situated in 16 i' N. and 75° 33' E., n miles north-west of Badami. 
Population (1901), 5,353. This is a fortified place on the Sholapur- 
Hubli road. The fort stands on a gentle slope about 300 yards south- 

vol. xv. o 



204 RERUR 

west of the village. As the village increased, a new market was built 
to the east of the fort, and a colony of weavers established themselves 
in a market to the south, where they formerly carried on a flourishing 
trade. The village and fort contain several temples and a large 
reservoir. 

Kesabpur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Jessore 
District, Bengal, situated in 2 2° 55' N. and 89 13' E., on the Harihar 
river, about 18 miles south of Jessore town. It is a large centre of the 
sugar trade. An import trade in rice is carried on, and large quantities 
of earthen pots and vessels are manufactured in connexion with the 
sugar industry. Another local manufacture is brass-work. 

Kesariya. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Champaran 
District, Bengal, situated in 2 6° 21' N. and 84° 53' E. Population 
(1901), 4,466. Kesariya contains a lofty brick mound, 1,400 feet in 
circumference, supporting a solid tower or stupa of the same material, 
62 feet high and 68 feet in diameter, which was supposed by General 
Cunningham to have been erected to commemorate one of the acts 
of Buddha. The brick tower is said to date from a. d. 200-700; but 
the mound is of an earlier period, being associated with the name 
of Raja Ben Chakrabartti, a traditional emperor of India. 

Keshorai Patan. — Head-quarters of the talisil of the same name 
in the State of Bundi, Rajputana, situated in 25 17' N. and 75 57' E., 
on the northern bank of the Chambal, about 1 2 miles below Kotah 
town and 22 miles south-east of Bundi town. Population (1901), 3,773. 
The place claims a very remote antiquity, local historians affecting to 
trace its traditions back to the mythological period of the Mahabharata. 
In old days it was a wild jungle, known as Jambu Karan from the 
number of Jdmun-tvees (in Sanskrit jambu) and of jackals (in Sanskrit 
jambuk) found there. The original name of the town was Rantideo 
Patan, after Raja Rantideo, chief of Maheshwar and cousin of Raja 
Hasti, the founder of Hastinapur. The oldest inscriptions found are 
in a couple of sati temples on the banks of the river, which are 
supposed to bear dates a.d. 35 and 93 ; it is also stated that, long 
before this period, one Parasram built the Jambu Margeshwar or 
Keshwar temple sacred to Mahadeo. The building gradually fell into 
decay and was reconstructed in the time of Rao Raja Chhatarsal 
(1631-58), to whom also is due the erection of the larger temple of 
Keshorai, for which the town is now famous, though the foundations 
were actually laid in the time of his predecessor. This temple contains 
an image of Keshorai, a name for Vishnu, and attracts yearly a large 
crowd of worshippers. It possesses no marked architectural beauties, 
and has been so incessantly covered with fresh coats of whitewash that 
it looks not unlike a huge piece of fretwork in wax or sugar which the 
heat or moisture has partially melted. The tahsil of Patan, one of 



KHACHROD 205 

the most fertile in the State, was ceded to the Peshwa in the eighteenth 
century for assistance rendered in expelling a usurper, and was by him 
transferred, two-thirds to Sindhia and one-third to Holkar. Under the 
treaty of 18 18 the portion held by Holkar was restored to Bundi, while 
under the treaty of i860 with Sindhia the sovereignty of the remainder 
of the tract was transferred to the British Government, who made it 
over in perpetuity to Bundi on payment of Rs. 80,000 a year. 

Kesria. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Keti (or Keti Bandar). — Port, town, and municipality in the Ghora- 
bari tdluka of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24 8' N. 
and 6 7 30' E., close to the sea, on the Hajamro branch of the Indus. 
Population (1901), 2,127. Keti is the chief port in the Indus delta 
for river and sea-going boats, and has taken the place of Ghorabari, 
a little farther inland on the same branch, which was formerly the 
principal commercial town of the surrounding tract. In 1848 the 
Hajamro capriciously receded, and Ghorabari immediately dwindled 
into comparative insignificance. The trade of the deserted port then 
betook itself to the first Keti, nearer the sea; but about 1853 the place 
was swept away by a flood, and a new site was chosen in the neigh- 
bourhood. This second Keti, the existing town and harbour, now 
about fifty years old, soon attracted the river trade, and at present 
ranks next to Karachi among the ports of Sind. Exports to the 
Bombay and Madras Presidencies, to Sonmiani, and Makran, comprise 
grain, pulses, oilseeds, wool, cotton, drugs, dyes, saltpetre, and firewood. 
Imports, from the same places and the Persian Gulf, include coco-nuts, 
cotton piece-goods, metals, sugar, spices, coir, and shells. The value 
of the sea-borne trade of Keti in 1903-4 amounted to 6-8 lakhs: 
exports, 5-3 lakhs; imports, 1-5 lakhs. During the prevalence of the 
south-west monsoon trade remains at a standstill, vessels being unable 
to make the harbour from seaward. In the brisk season, from 70 to 
90 boats of various sizes may be seen lining the bandar. Sea-borne 
goods for transit up the Indus must here be transferred to river boats. 
The town has several times been in danger of floods, but, owing to 
its slightly elevated position, has hitherto escaped the fate of its pre- 
decessor. It communicates by road with Tatta, 60 miles south-west ; 
with Mlrpur Sakro, 36 miles south-west; and with Ghorabari, 13 miles. 
The municipality was established in 1854, and had an average income 
during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 6,400. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 6,100. The town contains a dispensary, and one school for 
boys, with an average daily attendance of 88 pupils. 

Keunjhar. — Native State and town in Orissa, Bengal. See Keon- 
jhar. 

Khachrod (Khachraud). — Town in the Ujjain district of Gwalior 
State, Central India, situated in 23 26' N. and 75 20' E., on the 

o 2 



206 KHACHROD 

Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, 1,700 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 9,186. The 
town is mentioned in the Aiu-i-Akbarl as the head-quarters of a mahal 
in the Ujjain sarkar of the Subah of Malwa. It is a place of increasing 
commercial importance owing to the opening of the railway, and will 
be still further benefited by the extension of the line to Muttra, now 
under construction. It is famous for its painted woodwork and 
tobacco. A school, a post office, and an inspection bungalow are 
situated in the town. 

Khadal. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay. 

Khadki. — Town in the Haveli tahtka of Poona District, Bombay. 
See Kirkee. 

Khaga. — Eastern tahsil of Fatehpur District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Dhata, Ekdala, Hathgaon, and Kutila, and 
lying between 25 26' and 26 1' N. and 8i c o' and 8i° 20' E., with an 
area of 481 square miles. Population fell slightly from 224,605 in 1891 
to 224,348 in 1 90 1. There are 493 villages and one town, Kishanpur 
(population, 2,354). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 3,80,000, and for cesses Rs. 61,000. The density of population, 
466 persons per square mile, is above the District average. North and 
south the tahsil is bounded by the Ganges and Jumna, while the centre 
is drained by a shallow channel called the Sasur Khaderl. Near the 
Ganges the soil is sandy, while towards the Jumna ravines and poor 
soil retard cultivation. The central portions are, however, fertile. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 269 square miles, of which 112 
were irrigated. Wells supply more than half, and tanks or jhlls are 
the next most important source. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower 
Ganges Canal, which was opened in 1898, is extending its operations. 

Khagan.— Mountain valley in Hazara District, North-West Frontier 
Province. See Kagan. 

Khagaria. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Monghyr 
District, Bengal, situated in 25° 30' N. and 86° 29' E., on the Gandak. 
Population (190 1), 11,492. Khagaria is a station on the Bengal and 
North-Western Railway and possesses a large trade. 

Khagaul. — Town in the Dinapore subdivision of Patna District, 
Bengal, situated in 25 35' N. and 85° 3' E., a short distance to the 
south of Dinapore. Population (1901), 8,126. The Dinapore railway 
station is just outside the town, which has only grown into importance 
since the opening of the railway. It is the head-quarters of a company 
of East Indian Railway volunteers. 

Khaibar. —Historic pass leading from Peshawar District in the 
North-West Frontier Province into Afghanistan. See Khyber. 

Khair. — North-western tahsil of Aligarh District, United Provinces, 
comprising the J>arga?ias of Khair, Chandaus, and Tappal, and lying 






KHAIRAGARH STATE 207 

between 27 51' and 2 8° n' N. and 77 29' and 7 8° i" E., with an area 
of 407 square miles. The population rose from 150,656 in 1891 to 
178,867 in 1901. There are 272 villages and three towns, none of 
which has as many as 5,000 inhabitants ; Khair, the tahsll head- 
quarters, has a population of 4,537. The density, 439 persons per 
square mile, is much below the District average. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,11,000, and for cesses Rs. 66,000. 
The tahsll is bounded on the west by the Jumna, and has a con- 
siderable area of khadar land in which nothing grows but coarse grass 
and tamarisk, the haunt of innumerable wild hog. Large herds of 
cattle are grazed by the Gujar inhabitants of this tract, who are 
inveterate cattle-thieves. The Mat branch of the Upper Ganges Canal 
provides irrigation. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 292 
square miles, of which 119 were irrigated. 

Khairabad. — Town in the District and tahsll of Sitapur, United 
Provinces, situated in 27 32' N. and 8o° 46' E., on the Lucknow- 
Bareilly State Railway. Population (1901), 13,774. It was formerly 
a place of importance, and is said to have been founded by one 
Khaira, a Pasi, in the eleventh century. It is, however, more probable 
that the name was given by Muhammadans to an older town on the 
same site ; and it has been identified with Masachhatra, an ancient holy 
place. A governor was stationed here by the early kings of Delhi, and 
under Akbar it was the capital of a sarkar. During the first half of 
the nineteenth century Khairabad was the head-quarters of an Oudh 
nizamat; and after annexation a Division took its name from the town, 
though the head-quarters of the Commissioner were at Sitapur. A 
number of temples and mosques are situated here, some of them dating 
from the reign of Akbar, but none is of much interest. Khairabad 
contains a branch of the American Methodist Mission. It has been 
a municipality since 1869. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure averaged Rs. 7,500. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 9, too, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 5,300) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 12,300. Trade has suffered owing to the rise in importance 
of Sitapur ; but there is a daily market, and a small industry in 
cotton-printing survives. A large fair is held in January. There 
are five schools, including two for girls, with about 300 pupils ; and two 
dispensaries. 

Khaira Gali. — Small cantonment in Hazara District, Xorth-West 
Frontier Province, situated in 33 55' N. and 73 20' E., on the road 
between Abbottabad and Murree. During the summer months it is 
occupied by one of the British mountain batteries which are stationed 
at Rawalpindi in the winter. 

Khairagarh State. — Feudatory State in the Central Provinces* 
lying between 21 4' and 21 34' N. and 8o° 27' and 8i° 12' E., with 



208 KHAIRAGARH STATE 

an area of 931 square miles. The State consists of three separate 
sections, and is situated on the western border of Drug District, with 
which, and with the States of Chhulkhadan, Kawardha, and Nandgaon, 
its boundaries interlace. Of these three sections, the small pargana of 
Khuhva to the north-west was the original domain of the chiefs of 
Khairagarh; Khamaria on the north-east was seized from the Kawardha 
State at the end of the eighteenth century in lieu of a small loan ; while 
of the main area of the estate in the south, the Khairagarh tract was 
received at an early date from the Mandla Rajas, and that of Don- 
gargarh represents half the estate of a zamlndar who rebelled against 
the Marathas, and whose territory, when the rebellion was crushed by 
the chiefs of Khairagarh and Nandgaon, was divided between them. 
The head-quarters are at Khairagarh, a village of 4,656 inhabitants, 
situated 23 miles from both the Dongargarh and Raj-Nandgaon stations 
on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The western tracts of the State are 
hilly, but those to the east lie in a level black-soil plain of great 
fertility. The ruling family are considered to be Nagvansi Rajputs, 
and to be connected with the house of Chota Nagpur. Their pedigree 
dates back to a.d. 740. The present chief, Kamal Narayan Singh, 
was installed in 1890 at the age of twenty-three years, and the here- 
ditary title of Raja was conferred on him in 1898. He conducts the 
administration of the State with the advice of a Dlwan appointed by 
Government, under the supervision of the Political Agent for the 
Chhattisgarh Feudatory States. The population in 1901 was 137,554, 
showing a decrease of 24 per cent, in the previous decade, during which 
the State was severely affected by famine. There are 497 inhabited 
villages, and one town, Dongargarh (population, 5,856). The density 
of population is 147 persons per square mile. Gonds, Lodhls, Chamars, 
and Ahirs are the most important castes numerically ; the people 
belong almost entirely to Chhattisgarh, and the local dialect of Eastern 
Hindi named after that tract is universally spoken. 

The eastern part of the State is a fertile expanse of black soil, while 
in the west the land is light and sandy. In 1904 nearly 543 square 
miles, or 58 per cent, of the total area, were occupied for cultivation, 
and nearly 486 square miles were under crop. Kodon covers 41 per 
cent, of the cropped area, rice 21 per cent., and wheat 22 per cent. 
The cultivated area has decreased by about 70 square miles since 1894. 
There are 224 irrigation tanks, by which about 3,000 acres are pro- 
tected. About 165 square miles are covered with forest, the principal 
species being teak, bljasal (Pferocarpi/s Marsi/pii/m), and bamboos. 
Brass vessels and wooden furniture are made at Khainlgarh town, and 
carpets of a good quality are produced in the jail. The rolling of 
native cigarettes gives employment to a considerable number of per- 
sons. The Bengal-Nagpur Railway passes through the south of the 



KHAIRAGARH TAHSIL 209 

State, with the stations of Bortalao, Dongargarh, and Musra within its 
limits. About 63 miles of embanked and 57 miles of unembanked 
roads have been constructed, the most important being those from 
Dongargarh through Khairagarh to Kawardha, and from Khairagarh 
to Raj-Nandgaon. Exports of produce are taken to Raj-Nandgaon 
and Dongargarh railway stations. 

The total revenue of the State in 1904 was Rs. 3,03,000, Rs. 1,84.000 
being realized from land revenue, Rs. 29,000 from forests, and Rs. 
21,000 from excise. The incidence of land revenue is R. 0-10-5 P er 
occupied acre. A regular cadastral survey has been carried out, and 
the method of assessment is that prescribed for British Districts. The 
revenue is settled with the headmen of villages, who are allowed 
a commission of 20 or 30 per cent, of the 'assets,' but have no pro- 
prietary rights. The rents of the cultivators are also fixed at settle- 
ment. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 3,18,000, the principal items 
being Government tribute (Rs. 70,000), private expenses of the ruling 
family (Rs. 90,000), general administration (Rs. 21,000), public works 
(Rs. 20,000), education (Rs. 9,000), and medical relief (Rs. 4,000). 
Some arrears of tribute and Government loans were also repaid in that 
year. In respect of tribute Khairagarh was treated by the Marathas as 
an ordinary estate, and the revenue was periodically raised on a scrutiny 
of the ' assets.' It is now fixed by Government for a term of years. 
During the twelve years ending 1905 nearly 3-84 lakhs has been 
expended on the improvement of communications and the erection 
of public buildings. The State maintains 26 schools, including a high 
school at Khairagarh, middle schools at Khairagarh, Dongargarh, and 
Khamaria, and a girls' school at Dongargarh, with a total of 1,931 
pupils. At the Census of 1901 the number of persons returned as able 
to read and write was 2,064, the proportion of male literates being 2-9 
per cent, of the population. Dispensaries are maintained at Khairagarh 
town and Dongargarh, in which 12,000 persons were treated in 1904. 

Khairagarh Tahsil. — South-western tahsil of Agra District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 26 45' and 27 4' N. and 77 26' and 78 7' E., with an area 
of 309 square miles. Population increased from 123,893 in 1891 to 
127,692 in 1901. There are 155 villages and one town, Jagnair 
(population, 4,051). Khairagarh, the tahsil head-quarters, is a small 
village. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,85.000, 
and for cesses Rs. 35,000. The density of population, 413 persons 
per square mile, is much below the District average. The tahsil is 
divided into two portions by the Utangan. The tract south-west of 
that river is a spur of British territory almost surrounded by the Native 
States of Bharatpur and Dholpur, with a range of the Yindhyas along 
the northern boundary and isolated hills scattered farther south. 



210 KHAIRAGARH TAHSIL 

These hills are of red sandstone, which is valuable for building 
purposes. Near the hills the soil is sandy, but after passing a tract 
of infertile clay a richer soil is reached. East of the Utangan the 
ordinary loam is found, stretching up to the Khari Nadl, which forms 
the eastern boundary of the lahsll and is bordered by deep and 
precipitous ravines. There is no canal-irrigation, and in 1903-4 the 
irrigated area was only 34 square miles out of 206 under cultivation. 
Wells are the sole source of supply, but owing to the faulty substrata 
they cannot be made in many places. 

Khairi-Murat. — Mountain range in the Fatahjang tahsil of Attock 
District, Punjab, midway between the Sohan river and the Kala-Chitta 
range. It rises about 30 miles from the Indus, and runs eastward for 
about 24 miles, a barren ridge of limestone and sandstone rock, 
extending from 72 37' to 72 56' E. and from 33 25' to 33 30' N. 
North of the range lies a plateau intersected by ravines ; while south- 
ward a waste of gorges and hillocks extends in a belt for a distance of 
5 miles, till it dips into the fertile valley of the Sohan, one of the 
richest tracts in Rawalpindi District. The Khairi-Murat was formerly 
covered with jungle ; but it is now completely destitute of vegetation, 
except where the hill has been formed into a ' reserved ' forest and 
closed to grazing. In these parts the trees are rapidly springing up 
again. The hills run nearly parallel to the Kala-Chitta, about 10 miles 
to the south. The formation is chiefly limestone, edged with sandstone 
and earthy rocks whose vertical and contorted strata indicate intense 
disturbance. The southern portion of the range is extremely dreary, 
being formed of rocky ravines and stony hillocks, gradually sinking 
into the fertile valley of the Sohan. 

Khairpur State. — State in Sind, Bombay, lying between 2 6° 10' 
and 2 7 46' N. and between 68° 20' and 70 14' E., with an area of 
6,050 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Sukkur District; on 
the east by Jaisalmer State in Rajputana ; on the south by Hyderabad 
and Thar and Parkar Districts ; and on the west by the river Indus. 
Its greatest length from east to west is about 120 miles, and its breadth 
from north to south about 70 miles. 

Like other parts of Sind, Khairpur consists of a great alluvial plain, 
the part bordering directly upon the Indus being very rich and fertile, 
though much of it is used as moharis or hunting- 
Physical grounds. With the exception of the fertile strip 
watered by the Indus and its canals, and of a 
narrow strip irrigated by the Eastern Nara, the remainder or three- 
fourths of the whole area is a continuous series of sandhill ridges 
covered with a stunted brushwood, where cultivation is altogether 
impossible. The country generally is exceedingly arid, sterile, and 
desolate in aspect. In the northern portion of the State is a small 



K HAIR PUR STATE 211 

ridge of limestone hills, being a continuation of the low range known 
as the Ghar, which runs southward from Rohri for a distance of 
about 40 miles. On a western outlying spur of this ridge is situated 
the fort of Diji. 

The State of Khairpur is mostly occupied by Indus alluvium and 
desert formations. The Kirthar limestone (middle eocene) forms a 
range of hills in the north-eastern portion, between the Mir Wah and 
the Nara river. On the top of the range are found oyster, cockle, 
and numerous other kinds of marine shells. 

The trees and shrubs are identical with those found in Sukkur 
District, and good timber is to be met with in different game preserves 
bordering on the Indus. The kandi-txee grows luxuriantly in the 
valleys, and the tali is largely grown by cultivators. 

The wild animals found in Khairpur include the hyena, wolf, jackal, 
fox, wild hog, deer, gazelle, and antelope. The birds and water-fowl 
are those common to Sind generally, such as bustard, wild geese, snipe, 
partridges (both black and grey), and various kinds of wild duck (which 
arrive in the cold season). Snakes abound, as in other parts of Sind. 

The climate of Khairpur is agreeable during four months of the year, 
when the minimum temperature falls to 40 , but is fiercely hot during 
the remaining eight, when the maximum rises to 113 . The rainfall is 
slight, but dust-storms are frequent and have the effect of cooling the 
atmosphere to some extent. 

The present chief of Khairpur belongs to a Baloch family called 
Talpur ; and, previous to the accession of this family, on the fall of the 
Kalhora dynasty of Sind in 1783, the history of 
Khairpur belongs to the general history of Sind. 
In that year Mir Fateh All Khan Talpur established himself as Rais 
or ruler of Sind ; and subsequently his nephew, Mir Sohrab Khan 
Talpur, founded the Khairpur branch of the Talpur family. The 
dominions of Mir Sohrab Khan were at first confined to the town 
of Khairpur and a small adjacent tract of country ; but by conquest 
and intrigue he managed to enlarge them, until they extended to 
Sabzalkot and Kashmor on the north, to the Jaisalmer desert on the 
east, and to the borders of Cutch Gandava on the west. About 
the year 181 3, during the troubles in Kabul incidental to the estab- 
lishment of the Barakzai dynasty, the Mirs were able to withhold the 
tribute which up to that date had been somewhat irregularly paid 
to the rulers of Afghanistan. Two years earlier, in 181 1, Mir Sohrab 
had abdicated in favour of his son Mir Rustam. But he appears to 
have endeavoured to modify this arrangement subsequently ; and 
ultimately the jealousy between the two brothers, Mir Rustam and 
All Murad, was one of the factors in the crisis that caused the inter- 
vention of the British power. 



212 KHAIRPUR STATE 

In 1832 the individuality of the Khairpur State, as separate from the 
other Talpur Mirs in Sind, was recognized by the British Government 
in a treaty, under which the use of the river Indus and the roads of 
Sind were secured to the British. When the first Kabul expedition 
was decided on, the Sind Mirs were required to assist the passage of 
the British through their territories, and allow of the occupation of 
Shikarpur. Most of the princes showed great disinclination to comply 
with these demands. But in Khairpur, All Murad, who gradually 
succeeded in establishing his hold on the raisat, or chiefship, cordially 
supported the British policy; and the result was that, after the battles 
of Miani and Daba had put the whole of Sind at the disposal of 
the British Government, Khairpur was the only State that was allowed 
to retain its political existence under the protection of the paramount 
power. In 1866 a sanad was granted to the Mir, under which the 
British Government promised to recognize any succession to the chief- 
ship that might be in accordance with Muhammadan law. Mir All 
Murad died in 1894, and was succeeded by his son Mir Faiz 
Muhammad Khan, who is entitled to a personal salute of 17 guns. 
The ordinary salute is 15 guns. 

The State contains one town and 153 villages. The population 
was: (1872) 126,962, (1881) 125,919, (1891) 128,611, and (1901) 
Population T 99,3i3- The density is 33 persons per square 
mile. Distributed by religion, there are 36,000 
Hindus and 163,000 Muhammadans. The Hindus are almost entirely 
Lohanas (33,000), traders and clerks. Among the Muhammadans 
of foreign extraction, Arabs number 12,000; Baluchis, chiefly of the 
Rind, Burdi, Chandia, Dombki, Jatoi, and Marri tribes, 24,000 ; 
Jats, 4,000 ; and the fishermen or Mohanos, 5,700. Sindls include 
12,000 Sumras, 58,000 Sammas, and 41,000 returned as SindTs un- 
specified. Agriculture supports 69 per cent, of the total population. 
About 95 per cent, of the Muhammadan males and about one-fourth 
of the Hindus follow agricultural pursuits. The rest are engaged in 
trade and other callings. Sindl, Persian, SiraikI, and Baluchi are 
the languages chiefly spoken. 

The soil of Khairpur, especially in the strip adjoining the Indus, 

is very productive. The tract lying between the Mir Wah Canal 

. . and the Indus is the richest part of the State ; but 

Agriculture. . . , . . 

cultivation even there is by no means so extensive 

as it might be, though of late years the area under tillage has 

greatly increased. The area of cultivable land in 1903-4 was 1,550 

square miles, and fallow lands covered 1,226 square miles. The 

principal crops are joivar, bdjra, wheat, gram, various pulses, and 

cotton. Indigo is also cultivated, but the area is decreasing. The 

fruit trees are the mango, mulberry, apple, pomegranate, date, &c. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 213 

Recently cultivation has been greatly extended, owing to the con- 
struction of new canals and the improvement of old ones. Advances 
are made to agriculturists, free of interest. 

The domestic animals comprise the camel, horse, buffalo, bullock, 
sheep, donkey, and mule. The State maintains both horse and donkey 
stallions for breeding purposes. 

Cultivation is dependent on irrigation from the Indus river by 
canals. The largest and most important of these is the Mir Wah, ex- 
cavated by Mir Sohrab, with its feeder the Sathio Wah. The latter, 
with the Abdul Wah, was excavated in the time of Mir All Murad. 
Under the rule of the present Mir a canal department has been 
formed and the following important branch canals excavated : Faiz 
Wah, Faiz Bakhsh, Faiz Ganj, Faiz Bahar, and Faiz Manj. The 
Sathio has been improved, so as to ensure a supply at all seasons. 
Forced labour in the clearance of canals is now entirely abolished. 
The Eastern Nara flows through the desert along an abandoned 
course of the river, and there is a small area of cultivation along 
it. The area irrigated by the State canals in 1903-4 was 246 square 
miles. About 20 square miles of land were supplied from wells 
and tanks in the same year. 

The State possesses 331 square miles of forests, of which 200 
square miles are reserved for game by the Mir. They are in charge 
of a Forest officer, appointed by the State, and a small staff. The 
forest trees are the tali, bahan, babul, and kandi. The bush jungle 
consists principally of tamarisk ; reed grasses are abundant. The 
game preserves bordering on the Indus supply good timber. The 
valleys produce fair kandi wood. In 1903-4 the revenue from 
forests amounted to Rs. 26,000. 

In the desert portion of Khairpur are pits of natron — an impure 
sesquicarbonate of sodium, always containing sulphate and chloride 
of sodium. It is generally obtained by means of evaporation. The 
natron pits are a source of income to the Mir, yielding about 
Rs. 25,000. 

The manufactures comprise cotton fabrics, such as woven sheets 

and coloured cloth, silk fabrics, silver-ware of different kinds, lacquered 

woodwork, boots, shoes, horse-trappings, swords, 

matchlocks, and earthen potterv for local use. „__„_j„*i„_ 
' r j communications. 

Gambat is noted for bed-sheets called ktiais, and 

Khairpur for cloth-dyeing. Khairpur town possesses one carpet 

factory, attached to an industrial school. 

The trade of the State resembles that of the adjoining British towns 
and villages — the chief exports being cotton, wool, grain, indigo, 
hand-made cloth, hides, tobacco, &c. The only product which is 
peculiar to Khairpur and is not common to the surrounding British 



214 KHAIRPUR STATE 

territory — the Thar and Parkar District excepted— is carbonate of 
soda, which is chiefly bought by Bombay merchants. The value 
of the articles annually exported from Khairpur to British Sind and 
the Native State of Jaisalmer has been approximately estimated at 
about 6 lakhs, and that of the imported articles at somewhat more 
than 6 lakhs. Of the annual fairs, that of Ranipur, 45 miles from 
Rohri, is the most important. 

The railway from Hyderabad to Rohri runs through the whole length 
of the State. In addition to the main trunk road between the same 
towns, which passes through Khairpur at a distance of about 20 miles 
from the Indus, and another road connecting them by a somewhat 
more direct route, there are several roads connecting tahtka head-quar- 
ters with Khairpur town and Kot Diji. Ten post offices are maintained 
in the State. There are six ferries, chiefly on the Indus. 

The rule of the Mir is patriarchal, but many changes have been 

made introducing greater regularity of procedure into the adminis- 

. , . . . .. tration. The State is divided into five talukas, 

Administration. ._ , . ' 

each under a mukhtiarkar. These are : Khairpur 

and Gambat (forming the Khairpur subdivision), Mir Wah, Faiz 
Ganj, and Naro (forming the Mir Wah subdivision). Each sub- 
division is under a naib-wazir. The Wazir, an officer lent from British 
service, conducts the administration under the Mir. The Collector 
of Sukkur is ex-officio Political Agent for the State. The Mir himself 
exercises the powers of a High Court, but cannot try British subjects 
for capital offences without the Political Agent's permission. The 
Wazir is District Magistrate and District and Sessions Judge. The 
naib-wazirs are subdivisional magistrates and first-class sub-judges, 
and criminal and civil powers are also exercised by the mukhtiarkars, 
as well as by two near relatives of the chief. The Indian Penal 
Code and the Criminal Procedure Code have been adopted. There 
is also a Court of Elders on the lines of the British Frontier Tribes 
Act. Steps have recently been taken to remedy the indebtedness of 
the agriculturists by the introduction of a Relief Act. Civil cases 
are largely decided by arbitrators, but a more fixed procedure is being 
introduced. In 1903-4, 765 offences were reported to the police, 
mostly grievous hurt and thefts of cattle and property. 

The revenue is collected almost entirely in kind according to the 
primitive bated system, the Mir receiving a third of the produce of 
the land, which yields on an average Rs. 58 per acre of cultivation. 
The gross revenue, which amounted in 1882-3 t0 5*7 lakhs, had 
increased by 1902-3 to 13 lakhs. In 1903-4 the gross receipts 
amounted to only 8-3 lakhs, the decrease being due to large stocks 
of grain remaining unsold, untimely rain, and the presence of locusts. 
Of the total receipts, which average about 13 lakhs, about Rs. 1,85,000 



KHAIRPUR TOWN 215 

represents the share of jdglrddrs and other alienees. The former are 
chiefly the Mlr's sons and the ladies of his family. The gross receipts 
in 1903-4 included land revenue 6 lakhs, excise about Rs. 90,000, 
miscellaneous taxes Rs. 58,000, and forests Rs. 26,000. The land 
revenue amounts on the average to 10 lakhs a year; but as it is chiefly 
paid in kind, considerable fluctuations occur in accordance with the 
character of the harvest. The total expenditure in 1903-4 was 11 -6 
lakhs, of which more than 2 lakhs was spent on public works, such 
as canals, buildings, roads, bridges, wells, and tanks. Until the end of 
1902 coins of local issue were current in the State, but they have now- 
been replaced by the British silver currency. No tribute is payable 
by the Mir. 

No salt is manufactured, the British Government supplying it at 
a reduced rate. Poppy is cultivated sufficient to meet the demand for 
local consumption. Liquor is manufactured, but may not be taken 
into British territory. 

The military force consists of 377 men, of whom 163 are mounted. 
The total strength of the police, including officers, in 1903-4 was 220, 
and a preventive service to check opium smuggling from Jaisalmer 
State has recently been organized. The Central jail is situated at 
Kot Uiji, and a sub-jail at Khairpur. The daily jail population in 
1903-4 averaged 214. 

Though recent years have shown some progress, Khairpur is very 
backward in education. In 1881 there were 6 schools in the State, 
with an attendance of 2,387 pupils. In 1903-4 the number of schools 
was 95, attended by 4,586 pupils, of whom 387 were girls. Of the 
total number of pupils, 4,242 were in primary, 83 in secondary schools, 
and the remainder in an industrial school. Persian is taught by mu/ias, 
who receive one pice weekly from the parents of each child. At the 
industrial school, carpentry, smith-craft, embroidery, turnery, carpet- 
making, and tailoring are taught. 

The State possesses 3 hospitals and 3 dispensaries. In 1903-4 the 
number of cases treated was 160,640, of whom 1,292 were in-patients; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 19,678. About 6,200 persons were vacci- 
nated in the same year. 

[A.M.Hughes, Sind Gazetteer (1876); E. A. Langley, Narrative 
of a Residence at the Court of Mir All Murad, 2 vols, (i860); 
C. M. Aitchison, Treaties, E?igagements, and Sanads.] 

Khairpur Town (1). — Capital of the State of Khairpur, Sind, 
Bombay, situated in 27 31' N. and 68° 48' E., on the Mir Wah canal, 
about 15 miles east of the Indus, and 17 miles south of Rohri. 
The nearest railway station on the Kotri-Rohri section of the North- 
western Railway is Khairpur Mir, situated about 2 miles to the south- 
east of the town. Population (1901), 14,014, mainly Musalmans. The 



216 KHAIRPUR TOWN 

town, which is irregularly built, consists of a collection of mud hovels, 
intermingled with a few houses of a better class. The palace is seldom 
used by the ruler, who lives at Kot Diji, but there is a handsome guest- 
house. Outside the town stand the tombs of three Muhammadan 
saints — Plr Ruhan, Zia-ud-din, and Haji Jafar Shahid. The town 
contains two hospitals, one of which is for women. 

During the flourishing period of the Talpur dynasty, Khairpur is said 
to have possessed not less than 15,000 inhabitants, but the place has 
decreased in importance since the conquest of Sind. The manufactures 
comprise the weaving and dyeing of cloths of various kinds, goldsmith's 
work, and the making of firearms, swords, &c. A carpet factory has 
recently been opened, the workers being under instruction by a teacher 
brought from the Punjab. The trade is principally in indigo, grain, 
and oilseeds, which form the chief articles of export ; the imports are 
piece-goods, silk, cotton, wool, metals, <xx. On the present site of the 
town, which owes its rise to Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, there stood, 
prior to the year 1787, the village of Boira and the zamindari or 
estate of the Phulpotras. It was selected as the residence of the chief 
Mirs of Northern Sind ; and for some time during Talpur rule a 
British Resident was stationed here, in terms of the treaty of April 20, 
1S38, concluded between the British Government and the Mirs of Sind. 

[E. A. Langley, Narrative of a Residence at the Court of Mir All 
Murdd, 2 vols, (i860).] 

Khairpur Tahsll. — Tahsil in the Minchinabad nizamat, Bahawalpur 
State, Punjab, lying on the left bank of the Sutlej, between 28 49' 
and 30 N. and 72 7' and 73 18" E., with an area of 2,300 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 81,871, compared with 74,732 in 
1 89 1. It contains the towns of Khairpur (population, 5,013), the 
head-quarters, and Hasilpur, which was created a municipality in 1902 ; 
and 199 villages. The Hakra depression passes through the southern 
portion of the tahsll, the remainder of which is divided between the 
central uplands and the riverain tract along the Sutlej. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1905-6 amounted to 2-2 lakhs. 

Khairpur Town (2). — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 29 35' N. and 72 18' E., 
38 miles north-east of Bahawalpur town on the Southern Punjab Rail- 
way. Population (1901), 5,013. It is a decaying town, as the sand 
from the desert of Cholistan has for years been encroaching on it, but 
contains a school and a dispensary. The municipality had an income 
in 1903-4 of Rs. 6,200, chiefly from octroi. 

Khairpur (3). — Town in the Alipur tahsil of Muzaffargarh District, 
Punjab, situated in 29 20' N. and 70 49' E., 57 miles south of 
Muzaffargarh town, close to the junction of the Indus and Chenab. 
Population (1901), 2,257. It was founded early in the nineteenth 



KHAJRAHO 2 1 7 

century by Khair Shah, a Bukhari Saiyid, from whom it takes its name. 
The town lies low, and is protected from inundation by an embank- 
ment built at considerable cost and 5 miles in circumference. The 
municipality was created in 1873. 1 ne income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,100, and the expenditure Rs. 3,300. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,300, chiefly from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 2,800. The inhabitants are enterprising traders, 
and their trade with Sukkur (Sind), Multan, and other places at a dis- 
tance is larger than that of any other town in the District. The exports 
consist principally of wool, cotton, and grain ; the imports, of cloth 
and sundries. 

Khajraho. — Village in Chhatarpur State, Central India, famous 
for its magnificent collection of mediaeval temples, and situated in 
24° 51' N. and 79 56' E., 25 miles from the town of Chhatarpur. 
Population (1901), 1,242. 

The old name as given in inscriptions was Khajjuravahaka. By the 
bard Chand it is called Khajurapuraor Khajjinpura. Tradition ascribes 
the origin of the name to two golden khajitr-txees (date-palms) with 
which the city gates were ornamented, but it was more probably due to 
the prevalence of this tree in the neighbourhood. The place was in 
early days of some importance, being the capital of the kingdom of 
Jijhoti, which practically corresponded with modern Bundelkhand. 

The earliest supposed reference to Khajraho is in the account of the 
travels of Hiuen Tsiang, who visited the country of Chi-ki-to, which 
has been identified with Jijhoti. The Chinese pilgrim does not men- 
tion any chief town by name, but notes that there were in the country 
a number of sangharamas (monasteries) with but few priests, and also 
about ten temples. 

There are no Buddhist remains on the spot, except a colossal Buddha 
inscribed with the usual creed in characters of the seventh or eighth 
century. Abu Rihan, who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his 
campaign against Kalinjar in 102 1, notices 'Kajuraha' as the capital 
of Jijhoti. Ibn Batuta, who visited the place about 1335, calls it 
' Kajura,' and describes the lake, about a mile long, round which there 
were idol temples frequented by a tribe of Jogis, with long and matted 
hair, to whom even Muhammadans resorted in order to learn magic. 
The place must, therefore, at this time have still been in the possession 
of the Hindus, and important as a religious centre. It seems probable 
that the partial demolition of its temples and consequent loss of impor- 
tance dates from 1494-5, when Sikandar Lodi, after his expedition into 
Panna and Baghelkhand, retreated through this region and sacked the 
country as far as Banda. 

Its present importance lies solely in its magnificent series of temples, 
which, with two exceptions, were all built between 950 and 1050. 



2i8 KHAJRAHO 

The epigraphical records contained in them are of great historical 
value. 

The temples fall into three main groups : the western, northern, and 
south-eastern, each group containing a principal shrine or cathedral and 
several smaller temples. The western group consists entirely of Brah- 
manical temples, both Saiva and Vaishnava. The northern group 
contains one large and some small temples, all Vaishnava, and several 
heaps of ruins. The south-eastern group consists entirely of Jain 
temples. All the temples, with the exception of the Chaunsat Jogini 
and Ghantai, are constructed of sandstone, and are in the same style. 
Even the Jain temples in the south-eastern group show none of the 
peculiarities commonly found in the temples of this religion, and 
externally they are similar in appearance to the Hindu edifices. The 
spire is here of more importance than the porch, there are no court- 
yards with circumambient cells, and no prominent domes. 

The oldest temple in the western group is that known as the Chaun- 
sat Jogini. All that now remains is a celled courtyard, the cells being 
of very simple design. Fergusson was of opinion that there had 
originally been a central shrine of wood which has disappeared. 
Unlike the other temples, this is built entirely of gneiss. It is 
assigned to the end of the eighth or early part of the ninth century. 
Of the remaining temples, the Kandarya Mahadeo is by far the finest. 
Its construction is curious, as the sanctuary does not occupy the full 
breadth of the building, a passage being left round the sanctuary for 
the circumambulation of the image, and the outer wall pierced by 
three porticoes to admit light to the passage. This gives the temple 
the unusual form of a double instead of a single cross. The carving 
is exceedingly rich and covers every available inch of space, but many 
of the figures are highly indecent, not a usual defect in Saiva temples. 
The other large temple in this group is the Ramachandra or Laksh- 
manjT, dedicated to Vishnu, which in plan and decoration is similar to 
the Kandarya Mahadeo. It contains an inscription of the Chandel 
dynasty, dated in 954. The Vishvanath temple, also in this group, 
contains Chandel inscriptions of 1001 and 1 1 17, and one of a 
feudatory, dated 1000. 

The northern group includes one large temple dedicated to the 
Vamana or dwarf incarnation of Vishnu. It is, however, very inferior 
in decoration to the best in the western group, and the remaining 
temples in this group are small. The heaps of ruins or mounds in this 
portion, which General Cunningham considered to be the remains of 
the sangharamas mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, are situated near the 
large temple. 

The south-eastern group contains Jain remains only. The oldest 
temple in this group is the Ghantai, now a mere skeleton, consisting of 



KHAJUHA TOWN 219 

a set of exquisitely delicate pillars still bearing the architraves. The 
pillars are of sandstone, but the walls were of gneiss and quite plain. 
The remains of this temple, which is assigned to the sixth or seventh 
century, are very similar to those at Gyaraspur. The cathedral 
of this group is the temple to Jinanath, Its design is unusual, consist- 
ing of a simple oblong with an open pillared vestibule and sanctuary, 
and the interior decoration is very fine. A Chandel inscription of 
954 exists in it. 

On the Kurar Nala, not far from the village of Khajraho, stands the 
magnificent temple known as the Kunwar Nath, which, though inferior 
in size to some of those in the three groups, is quite equal to them in 
design and the profuseness of its decoration. At the village of Jatkari, 
\\ miles away, stands another temple which is traditionally said to have 
been built by Suja, sister of the famous Banaphar hero, Alha, who 
figures so prominently in popular traditions of the wars between the 
Chandels and Prithwi Raj of Delhi. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. ii, p. 412 ; 
vol. vii, p. 5 ; vol. x, p. 16 ; vol. xxi, p. 55 ; Epigraphia Indica, vol. i, 
p. 121 ; Archaeological Survey of Western India Progress Report to 
June, 1904.] 

Khajuha Tahsil. — Western tahsil of Fatehpur District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Bindkl, Kora, Kutia Gunlr, and 
Tappa Jar, and lying between 25 51' and 26 16' N. and 8o° 14' and 
8o° 47' E., with an area of 504 square miles. Population fell from 
206,711 in 1891 to 199,223 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the 
highest in the District. There are 385 villages and three towns, the 
largest being BindkT (population, 7,782). Khajuha, the tahsil head- 
quarters, has a population of 2,944. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 4,42,000, and for cesses Rs. 71,000. The density of 
population, 395 persons per square mile, is below the District average. 
The tahsil extends from the Jumna to the Ganges, and is crossed by 
the Rind. A considerable area is covered by the ravines of the Jumna 
and Rind, which are absolutely waste, though they provide grazing for 
herds of cattle. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 276 square 
miles, of which 83 were irrigated. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower 
Ganges Canal at present serves about one-third of the irrigated area, but 
is likely to take a larger share. Wells supply most of the remainder. 

Khajuha Town, — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Fatehpur District, United Provinces, situated in 2 6° 3' N. and 8o° 32' 
E., on the old Mughal road from Agra to Allahabad, 21 miles west of 
Fatehpur town. Population (1901), 2,944. A town was founded in 
the village of Khajuha by Aurangzeb to commemorate his victory over 
Shuja in 1659, and was called Aurangabad, but the old name has sur- 
vived the new. The sarai and hdradarl, built at the same time, are 

vol. xv. p 



2 2o KHAJUHA TOWN 

fine buildings which have been restored. In 17 12 Farrukhsiyar de- 
feated his cousin, Azz-ud-din, near here, and proceeded on his victorious 
march to Delhi. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 600. The trade of the place has largely 
been diverted to Bindkl ; but brass vessels are still made in some quan- 
tities, and the playing-cards made here have some reputation. There 
is a school with 50 pupils. 

Khajuri. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Khalilabad. — South-eastern tahsll of Basti District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the parganas of Maghar (East) and Mahuli (East), 
and lying between 26 25' and 27 5' N. and 82 50' and 83° 13' E., 
with an area of 564 square miles. Population increased from 380,486 
in 1891 to 394,675 in 1901. There are 1,388 villages and only one 
town, Mehndawal (population, 10,143). The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,75,000, and for cesses Rs. 70,000. The 
density of population, 700 persons per square mile, is above the District 
average. The tahsll lies entirely in the fertile upland tract which ex- 
tends northwards from the Gogra. It is crossed by the Kuwana, Ami, 
and several smaller streams. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 
394 square miles, of which 234 were irrigated. Tanks and swamps 
supply more than half the irrigated area, and wells about one-third. 

Khambhaliya. — Fortified town in the State of Navanagar, Kathi- 
awar, Bombay, situated in 22 12" N. and 69° 50' E., at the confluence 
of two small streams, the Teli and Ghi, flowing into the Salaya creek, 
about 10 miles east of the port of Salaya. Population (1901), 9,182. 
After Navanagar, it is the most important town in the State. It was 
formerly a possession of the Vadhels, from whom it was conquered by 
Jam Rawal, and was the residence of the Jam or chief until the death 
of the emperor Aurangzeb. It contains several old temples. The iron- 
smiths of the town are renowned for their skill, and the gunsmiths are 
capable of making breech-loading firearms. A tax is levied on all pil- 
grims passing through to Dwarka and Pindtarak, a seaport under 
Khambhaliya which contains a celebrated shrine. It is said that the 
remains of several ancient temples, now covered by the sea, are visible 
at extremely low tides. Khambhaliya is the head-quarters of a mahal 
or revenue division of the Navanagar State. 

Khambhtav. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Khamgaon Subdivision. — Subdivision of Buldana District, Berar, 
consisting of the taluks of Jalgaon and Khamgaon. 

Khamgaon Taluk. — la/nk of Buldana District, Berar, lying 
between 20 26' and 20° 55' N. and 76 32' and 76 48' E., with an 
area of 443 square miles. The population rose from 99,785 in 1891 to 
102,948 in 1 901, the density in the latter year being 232 persons per 
square mile. The taluk contains 134 villages and two towns, Kham- 



KHAMTI HILLS 221 

GAON (population, 18,341), the head-quarters, and Shegaon (15,057). 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,04,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 23,000. The Khamgaon State Railway, connecting Kham- 
gaon with Jalam on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, lies within the 
taluk, which is bounded on the east by the Mun river and on the north 
by the Puma. The taluk formerly belonged to Akola District, and 
was transferred to Buldana in 1905. 

Khamgaon Town.— Head-quarters of the subdivision and taluk of 
the same name in Buldana District, Berar, situated in 20 43' N. and 
76 38' E. Population (1901), 18,341. Khamgaon was the largest 
cotton market in Berar before Amraoti outstripped it. Its cotton trade 
dates from about the year 1820, when a few merchants opened shops 
and began to trade in gin, raw thread, and a little cotton ; and it now 
has several cotton-presses and ginning factories. A state railway, 
8 miles in length, connects the town with the Nagpur branch of the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Jalam station. The weekly market 
is held on Thursdays, and during the busy season it is very largely 
attended. The town has also a special cotton market. The munici- 
pality was created in 1867. The receipts and expenditure during the 
ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 35,000 and Rs. 39,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 34,000, derived chiefly from taxes and 
cesses; and the expenditure was Rs. 25,000, the principal heads being 
conservancy and education. The town is supplied with water from 
a tank about i| miles distant, and several gardens produce good oranges 
and vegetables. 

Khammamett.— Southern taluk of Warangal District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 990 square miles. The population in 1901, in- 
cluding Jagzrs, was 154,540, compared with 154,159 in 1891. The 
taluk contains 195 villages, of which 13 are Jagir, and Khammamett 
(population, 3,001) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 190 1 
was 4-6 lakhs. Rice is largely grown and irrigated from tanks and 
wells. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway runs through the taluk 
from north to south. 

Khamti Hills. — A hilly country on the frontier of Assam, lying at 
the eastern end of the Brahmaputra Valley and inhabited by the Kham- 
tis, a tribe of Shan origin, who are said to have migrated northwards to 
the hills near the upper waters of the Irrawaddy and Mekong when 
Mogaung was conquered by the Burmese king, Alaungpaya, about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. A section of the tribe moved 
on into Assam and settled near Sadiya, and their leader succeeded 
in establishing his position as the feudal chief of the surrounding 
country. He was recognized by the British when they took over the 
territories of the Ahom prince ; but his son declined to abide by the 
decisions of the local British officer, and was deprived of his office and 

p 2 



222 KHAMTI HILLS 

dignities. The Khamtis then rose, raided the settlement at Sadiya, 
and killed the commanding officer, Colonel White, in 1839. The rising 
was, however, quickly suppressed, and no trouble has since been given 
by the tribe. 

Bor Khamti, the principal stronghold of this people, consists of the 
valley of the Namkiu (the western branch of the Irrawaddy) with the 
surrounding hills. It can be reached via the Patkai and the Hukawng 
valley, or by a route running south-east from Sadiya up the valley of the 
Diyun, over the Chaukan pass, which is 8,400 feet above the level of 
the sea. The distance from Sadiya to Putau, the principal Bor Khamti 
village, is 197 miles. After Bishi the path is very difficult in places, 
running through dense forests where there are no villages and no means 
of obtaining supplies. Oaks, rhododendrons, and beeches grow freely 
on the hills, and large game, such as elephants and rhinoceros, are 
common. Putau is situated in a valley, shut in on every side except the 
south by hills, which in the winter are crowned with snow. The valley 
is about 25 miles long by 15 broad, and is about 1,500 feet above sea- 
level. The villages are surrounded with a palisade about 12 feet high, 
made of split trees interlaced with bamboo. The houses are large, com- 
modious structures built on piles, and the audience chamber in the 
Raja's house is 50 feet in length by 40 wide. Rice is the staple crop 
grown in the valley, but pulse and poppy are also cultivated, the Kham- 
tis being much addicted to the use of opium. The people are much 
more civilized than most of the hill tribes on the north-east frontier, 
and near Putau there is a brick-built temple 95 feet high with a gilded 
cupola. Some of the images of Buddha in this temple are of consider- 
able artistic merit. The Khamtis seem to stand in some awe of the 
Singphos, who adjoin them on the west, and also of the Khakus, said to 
be of the same race as the Singphos, who occupy the hills on the east. 
Little is known about the geology of the tract, but pyrite, calcho-pyrite, 
and galena have been found. 

[An account of the Khamtis will be found in Colonel Dalton's 
Ethnology of Bengal, ,] 

Khana. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Burdwan Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 23 20' N. and 87 46' E. Population (1901), 
1,600. Khana is an important junction on the East Indian Railway, 
where the chord-line branches off from the loop-line. 

Khanakul. — Village in the Arambagh subdivision of Hooghly Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 22 43' N. and 87 52' E., on the west bank 
of the Kana Nadl. Population (1901), 886. There is some trade, in 
brass-ware, and cotton fabrics of a superior quality are manufactured 
in the neighbourhood. Vegetables are extensively grown for the 
Calcutta market. A large temple to Siva stands on the river bank. 

Khanapur Taluka (1). — Southernmost taluka of Belgaum District, 



KH AND ALA 223 

Bombay, lying between 15 22' and 15 47' N. and 74 5' and 74 44' 
E., with an area of 633 square miles. It contains 217 villages, includ- 
ing Nandgad (population, 6,257). The population in 1901 was 
81,902, compared with 85,596 in 1891. The density, 129 persons 
per square mile, is much below the District average, and it is the most 
sparsely peopled taluka in the District. The head-quarters are at 
Khanapur. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-45 lakhs, 
and for cesses Rs. 11,000. In the south and south-west the country is 
covered with hills and dense forest ; the inhabitants are few and 
unsettled ; and, except in patches, tillage disappears. In the north- 
west the hills are especially lofty. In the centre, north-east, and east, 
the country is an open, well-tilled, black-soil plain, with many rich and 
populous villages. The climate is temperate and healthy during the 
hot months, but feverish in the cold season and during the south- 
west rains. The annual rainfall, averaging 71 inches, is heavier than 
in other tdlukas. 

Khanapur Taluka (2). — Taluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying 
between 17 8' and 17 27' N. and 74 14' and 74 51' E., with an area 
of 510 square miles. It contains 91 villages, including Khanapur 
(population, 5,229) and Vita (5,035), the head-quarters. The population 
in 1901 was 86,049, compared with 95,931 in 1891. The density, 169 
persons per square mile, is much below the District average. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was i-6 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 13,000. Khanapur is an upland, rising more than 200 feet above 
the Karad valley on the west and the great plain of the Man on the 
east. It is sparingly wooded, except near the feeders of the Yerla river, 
which crosses the taluka from north to south on its way to join the 
Kistna. The climate is fairly temperate, save for occasional hot winds ; 
but the rainfall, which measures only 24 inches annually, is uncertain, 
and water is often scarce in the hot season. The soil is either black or 
grey murrain with its intermediate varieties. 

Khanapur Village. — Village in the taluka of the same name 
in Satara District, Bombay, situated in 17 15' N. and 74 43' E., 
about 10 miles east of Vita. Population (1901), 5,229. From its 
proximity to the fort of Bhopalgarh it was probably in early times the 
administrative head-quarters of the surrounding country. The town 
has stone and mud walls, now much decayed, and gates at the north- 
west and east flanked with bastions. Within the village is an old 
mosque, containing the tomb of a female saint, supposed to have been 
the daughter of one of the Bijapur Sultans. The mosque contains two 
inscriptions, in Arabic and Kanarese. 

Khandala. — Sanitarium in the Maval taluka of Poona District, 
Bombay, situated in 18 46' N. and 73 22' E., on the Western Ghats, 
about 41 miles north-west of Poona city. It is a favourite retreat of 



224 KH AND ALA 

the inhabitants of Bombay during the summer months. Population 
(1901), 2,322. A much-admired waterfall, distant about half a mile, 
consists in the rainy season of two cataracts, divided into an upper and 
a lower fall. The upper cataract has a sheer fall of 300 feet. Khan- 
dala owes its importance entirely to the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, on which it is a station. The climate is temperate in the hot 
season, owing to the cool sea-breezes. There are a hotel for Euro- 
peans, a convalescent home, and a dispensary. Khandala contains 
4 schools with 175 boys and 65 girls, three of which are supported by 
missions. One is a Roman Catholic Mission school, connected with 
the St. Mary's College in Bombay, the second is St. Peter's Protestant 
High School, and the third is maintained by the All Saints' Community 
of Bombay. Several bungalows have been built by native merchants of 
Bombay, who resort hither during May and October. In the vicinity 
are many fine views of the Ghat range, which runs north and south 
in lines of great natural beauty. Khandala is a military sanitarium 
in the Poona division of the Western Command. 

Khandela. — Principal town of an estate of the same name in the 
Torawati nizdmal of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 27 37' 
N. and 75 30' E., about 55 miles north-by-north-west of Jaipur city. 
Population (1901), 9,156. The town has a local reputation for its 
lacquered articles and toys, and possesses a fort and three indigenous 
schools attended by 155 pupils. The Khandela estate is held by two 
Rajas, who pay a tribute of Rs. 72,550 to the Jaipur Darbar. 

Khanderi (or Kenery). — Small island in the Alibag taluka of 
Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 42' N. and 72 49' E., near 
the entrance of Bombay harbour, 11 miles south of Bombay and 
6 north-west of Alibag. It lies 2\ miles from the Kolaba mainland and 
1 \ miles from its sister island of Underi. Population (1901), 130. 
The island is a mile and a half long by half a mile broad. A lighthouse, 
which was built in 1867, stands on the highest part. It is an octagonal 
masonry tower 78 feet high on the centre of a flat-roofed house, the 
centre of the lantern being 1,581 feet above the level of high- water. 
The light is a catadioptric of order 1, and is a single light with groups 
of flashes showing white with red sector. The period of revolution is 
ten seconds, and it is visible for 18 miles. A flagstaff 200 feet high 
stands north-east-by-north from the light tower. 

In 1679 SivajT, whom no advantage escaped, sent 300 soldiers and as 
many labourers, with arms and materials, to Khanderi, and began to 
raise breast-works at the landing-places. The island had never before 
been inhabited, and its only produce was fuel, which had formerly been 
sent to Bombay. When they heard of SivajT's works on Khanderi, the 
English claimed it as part of Bombay, the Portuguese as an old settle- 
ment. Two attempts to turn out the Marathas failed ; and even after 



KHANDESH DISTRICT 225 

a naval battle in which the British fleet of eight ships put to flight 50 
sail, the English were not able to prevent the Marathas strengthening 
their forces on Khanderi. The Sidi, as Mughal admiral, joined the Eng- 
lish with a strong fleet; but the English commander found that the Sidi 
did not mean to give up the island if he took it, and held aloof. The 
Sidi continued to batter Khanderi and then suddenly fortified Underi. 
Daulat Khan, SivajI's admiral, tried to stop this, bringing guns on the 
mainland opposite. But he was defeated and severely wounded, his 
small open boats not being able to stand against the Sldi's stronger and 
larger vessels. For several years after this there were constant struggles 
between the Sidi and the Marathas for the possession of these islands. 
In 1693 Khafi Khan mentions ' Kalaba and Gandiri' as the strongest 
of SivajI's newly built forts on the sea-shore. In 1695 Gemelli Careri 
calls them Underin and Canderin, two forts on the island and continent, 
a rock with some dwellings of SivajT, who was at war with the Great 
Mughal and consequently in action against the Sidi. About 1706 Mr. 
Strutt, Deputy-Governor of Bombay, described Khanderi as strongly 
fortified by Angria and covered with houses. Khanderi was one of the 
ten forts and sixteen fortified places of less strength which, in 17 13, 
Kanhoji Angria obtained on siding with Raja Sahu. In October, 1718, 
the English tried to take Khanderi and failed. This failure is said to 
have been due to the treachery of one Rama Ka.ma.ti who held a con- 
fidential post under Governor Boone, while a year later a Portuguese 
captain, who lay on one quarter of it with some war-vessels to hinder 
relief coming to it, betrayed his trust, and let some boats pass in the 
night with provisions and ammunition which the island greatly needed. 
About 1740 it was settled between the English and the Sidi that, if 
Khanderi was taken, it should be delivered with all its guns and stores 
to the English. The cession of Khanderi to the English was again pro- 
posed in 1755. It was not actually ceded until 1775 under the terms 
of the Treaty of Surat, and shortly after was taken back under the 
Treaty of Purandhar. Khanderi was then held by the Marathas till it 
passed to the British in 1 Si 8 as part of the Peshwa's dominions. 

Khandesh District 1 . — District in the Central Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 20 16' and 22 2' N. and 73 35' 
and 76 24/ E., with an area of 10,041 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by the Satpura Hills and the Narbada river ; on the east by 
Berar and the Nimar District of the Central Provinces ; on the south 
by the Satmala, Chandor, or Ajanta hills ; on the south-west by the 

1 In 1906 the District was divided into two new Districts called West and East 
Khandesh, with head-quarters at Dhulia and Jalgaon. The former contains 7 tahikas 
and on&petha, with an area of 5,497 square miles, a population of 469,654, and a land 
revenue of 15-7 lakhs. The latter contains 10 tdlukas and 3 pcthas, with an area of 
4,544 square miles, a population of 957.7-S, and a land revenue of 27-4 lakhs. 



226 KHANDESH DISTRICT 

District of Nasik ; and on the west by Baroda territory and the petty 
State of Sagbara in the Rewa. Kantha Agency. 

Khandesh forms the most northerly section of the Deccan table-land. 
The chief natural feature is the river Tapti, which, entering at the 
north-east corner of the District, flows in a westerly 
asDects direction, dividing it into two unequal parts. Of 

these, the larger lies towards the south, and is 
drained by the rivers Girna, Bori, and Panjhra. Here is the long 
central plain of Khandesh — an unbroken stretch of 150 miles, from 
the border of Nimar to Nandurbar, comprising an extensive area of 
rich alluvial soil. In this tract large and prosperous towns and villages, 
surrounded by mango groves and gardens, are numerous. Except 
when blasted by the hot winds of the dry season, the fields are clothed 
with a harvest of various crops. Northwards beyond the alluvial plain 
the land rises towards the Satpura Hills. In the centre and east, save 
for some low ranges of barren hills, the country is level, and has in 
general an arid, infertile appearance. Towards the north and west, 
the plain rises into a difficult and rugged country, thickly wooded, 
and inhabited by tribes of Bhlls, who chiefly live on the wild fruits 
of the forest and are supported by the profits of wood-cutting. The 
drainage of the District centres in the Tapti, which receives thirteen 
principal tributaries in its winding course of 180 miles through Khan- 
desh. None of the rivers is navigable, and the Tapti flows in too 
deep a bed to be made use of for irrigation. Its banks rise high 
and bare at a distance of from 240 to 400 yards across. Except for two 
waterfalls, one above and the other below the Bhusawal railway bridge, 
the river rolls over long sandy stretches for forty miles till it meets the 
waters of the Vaghar. During the rainy season the Tapti is not ford- 
able ; the only bridge across it is the railway bridge at Bhusawal. The 
Narbada skirts the north-west corner of the District for 45 miles. 
It occasionally serves to carry timber to the coast. Khandesh District 
on the whole may be said to be fairly well supplied with surface water, 
for, besides the rivers that flow during the whole year, the channels 
of many of the smaller streams are seldom entirely without water. 
The four principal mountain ranges are : in the north, the SATPURA 
Hills, dividing the valleys of the Tapti and the Narbada, including the 
peak of Panchu-Pandu (3,000 feet) and plateau of Turanmal (3,300 
feet), the starting-point of Khandesh history ; in the south-east, the 
Hatti ; in the south, the Satmala, Chandor, or Ajanta range, sepa- 
rating Khandesh from the Deccan table-land, and, speaking roughly, 
from the Nizam's Dominions ; on the west, between Khandesh and 
Gujarat, is the northern extremity of the Western Ghats. The Arva 
and Galna hills divide Khandesh from Nasik. 

The geology of Khandesh has been examined only as far south 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 227 

as the Tapti. The strip of varying breadth between the Tapti and 
Satpura Hills is chiefly covered with alluvium. Basalt of the Deccan 
trap group is the only other formation, composing the hills and showing 
here and there in the deeper ravines. Basalt probably occurs in the 
bed of the Tapti, as, in many places to the south, it rises at no great 
distance from the stream ; and though alluvium stretches north for 
15 miles, rock appears near Bhusawal at the point where the railway 
bridge crosses the Tapti. About 5 miles from Burhanpur, and about 
a mile north-east of Chulkhan village, there is a singular patch of lime- 
stone, about 50 feet long. It shows no sign of crystallization and 
appears to contain no fossils. At one end there is white sandy rock, 
like decomposed gneiss, standing upright as if part of a vertical bed. 
The presence of rounded grains points to its being sandstone ; and 
the whole rock is evidently part of an infra-trappean formation, either 
Lameta or Bagh, brought up by a dike or included in a lava-flow. The 
Deccan trap in the north of Khandesh shows signs of disturbance sub- 
sequent to its original formation. The beds are in some places hori- 
zontal, as in the Aner valley and near Uaulet, north of Chopda, and 
also westward as far as the Bombay-Agra road, where, on the top 
of the ascent to Sindwa, the beds stretch in horizontal terraces. The 
traps of Turanmal are nearly horizontal, but in the low rises from 
Burhanpur to the neighbourhood of Raver the beds appear to dip 
northwards. North-west of Turanmal is a low east-north-east dip 
which continues as far as the Udai river. The trap along the north 
boundary of Khandesh has a low irregular northerly dip. There are 
four hot springs, three in Chopda and one in Shirpur 1 . 

Khandesh is usually considered a separate botanical province of the 
Presidency, including the valley of the Tapti and the western half 
of the Satpura Hills. The former is generally well wooded, and the 
latter is clothed with dense forests. In the east of the Khandesh 
Satpuras anjan and salai (Boswe/iia serratd) predominate. In Chopda 
and Shirpur teak is found in all the valleys. The Shahada forests are 
chiefly khair, and in Akhrani anjan reappears on the banks of the 
Narbada. On the west the spurs of the Ghats are remarkable for 
the growth of anjan, and about Savda on the east the country has 
quite a park-like appearance. In the south-east the forest area is small, 
yielding only a small quantity of anjan. The chief trees are the banyan, 
mango {Mangifera indiai), mahud (Bass/a latifolia), plpal (Fiats reli- 
giosa), pa/as (Bttiea jroudosa), umbar {Fiats glomerata\ and temburni 
(Diospyros melanoxylori). The chief flowering plants are the Hibiscus, 
Sida, Indigojera, Crotalaria, Buica, Cassia, Echinops, Trichodesma, 
Cummelina, Ipomoca, and Celosia. 

1 W. T. Blaniord, • Geology of the Tapti and Lower Narbada Valleys, &c.,' 
Memoirs, Geological Survey oj India, vol. vi, pp. 286-90 and 344-51. 



2 28 KHANDESH DISTRICT 

Wild beasts are numerous, comprising the tiger, leopard, hunting 
cheetah, bear, lynx, wolf, bison, sdmbar deer, spotted deer, nilgai, 
antelope, ' ravine deer ' (gazelle), and the four-horned deer. Up to the 
seventeenth century the hilly tracts to the north of the District were a 
breeding-ground for wild elephants. At the time of the introduction of 
British rule, and for many years after, tigers and leopards were found 
in every part of the District. As late as 1858, tigers were numerous; 
but since then they have been very closely hunted, and are now rare. 

Owing to differences of elevation, the climate varies greatly in differ- 
ent parts of the District. In the western hills and forests and in the 
Satpuras the rainfall is heavy ; but over much of the centre and south 
it is scanty. Nevertheless the District has till quite recently been 
considered safe from famine. The town of Dhulia, which may be 
taken to illustrate the average, has an annual rainfall of 22 inches. 
In the District it varies from 20 to 45. In the cold season (October 
to January), except on cloudy days, the climate is pleasant and bracing. 
During the hot months the air is extremely dry. At Dhulia the 
temperature falls as low as 52 in January, rising to no in May, when 
the heat is excessive. The general health of the people is best in the 
hot and worst in the cold season. Malaria is rife at the beginning of 
the latter, when the ground commences to dry after the rains. In the 
east and centre, the climate is trying to Europeans, but healthy to the 
natives. In the west, all periods except the hot season are injurious 
to native and European alike. 

The early history of Khandesh extends from 150 B.C., the date of 
the oldest rock inscription yet discovered and deciphered, to the year 
a.d. 1295, when the Musalman emperor Ala-ud-dln 
suddenly appeared from Delhi. The mythical annals 
of the Hindu period may be said to commence with the mention in 
the Mahabharata of the hill forts of Turanmal and Asirgarh : the ruler 
of Turanmal is recorded as having fought against the Pandavas ; the 
fort of Asirgarh is named as a place of worship to Ashvatthama. Local 
tradition asserts that, from a time long previous to Christianity, the 
dynasty in power was that of a Rajput chief whose ancestors had come 
from Oudh. The first line of which distinct record remains is, how- 
ever, that of the Andhras. The Andhras were temporarily displaced 
by the Western Satraps; in the fifth century a.d. the Chalukya dynasties 
rose to power; local chiefs followed; and Khandesh was under the 
Chauhan ruler of Asirgarh when Ala-ud-dln appeared. 

Muhammadan rule lasted until the Marathas captured the stronghold 
of Asirgarh in 1760. In the interval, until the Farukis, Khandesh was 
subject to successive governors from Delhi, sent by the different 
dynasties that rose in that city. Under Muhammad bin Tughlak, from 
1325 to 1346, Khandesh was administered from Ellichpur in Berar. 



HISTORY 229 

From 1370 to 1600 the Arab dynasty of the Farukis administered the 
District, and, though nominally subject to the Sultans of Gujarat, were 
practically independent. The last year of the sixteenth century (1599) 
saw the coming of the Mughals. In that year Akbar in person overran 
Khandesh at the head of an army, captured Asirgarh, and sent the 
reigning prince, Bahadur Khan, to Gwalior for safe keeping. Khandesh 
then became incorporated into the Delhi empire. Its name was 
changed for a time to Dandesh in honour of its new governor, prince 
Daniyal. In the middle of the seventeenth century it was highly pros- 
perous. From 1670 Maratha raids commenced, and it was for more 
than a century given up to every species of calamity, internal and 
external. In that year Sivaji, after his second sack of Surat, sent an 
officer to demand chanth in Khandesh. The Marathas captured and 
held Salher fort, and afterwards Khande Rao Dabhade established 
himself in the western hills. Thenceforward the District was the 
scene of numerous plundering raids. Sivaji, Sambhajl, and the 
emperor Aurangzeb ravaged it in turn. In 1720 Nizam-ul-mulk an- 
nexed Khandesh and held it throughout his life. His son was ousted 
by the Marathas in 1760. The Peshwa, on recovering the District, 
granted portions of it to Holkar and Sindia. 

In 1802 the country was ravaged by Holkar's army. For two 
seasons the land remained uncared for, the destruction and ruin 
bringing on a severe famine. In the years that followed, Khandesh 
was further impoverished by the greed and misrule of the Peshwa. 
The people, leaving their peaceful callings, joined together in bands, 
wandering over the country, robbing and laying waste. It was in this 
state that, in 1818, the District passed into British hands. For many 
years after annexation the Bhll tribes gave trouble by outbreaks of 
lawlessness, and were only brought into submission under the kindlier 
measures adopted in the time of Elphinstone (1825), who entrusted 
the work of pacification to the skilful hands of Outram, the founder 
of the Bhll Corps. A serious riot occurred in 1852, and in 1857 the 
Bhils broke out under the leadership of Bhagoji and Kajarsing Naik ; 
but these disorders were easily suppressed. 

Generally distributed over Khandesh, as well as in Ahmadnagar and 
the Central Deccan, are the stone-built temples, reservoirs, and wells 
locally known as Hemadpanti, or in Khandesh as Gauli Raj. The 
term 'Hemadpanti' is derived from Hemadpant or Flemadri, the 
minister (inantri) of Ramchandra ( 1 2 7 1 ) the Yadava ruler of Deogiri, 
but is now applied to any old stone building. The local Khandesh term 
'Gauli Raj' probably also refers to the Yadava kings. In Khandesh 
thirty-nine Hemadpanti buildings are found, thirty-one of them being 
temples, six step-wells, and two stone-lined reservoirs. Some may be 
of greater age, but most of them were probably built in either the 



2 3 



KHAXDESH DISTRICT 



twelfth or the thirteenth century. These Hemadpanti buildings are 
all of blocks of cut stone carefully joined and put together without 
mortar. In some the stones are so large as to have given rise to the 
saying that they are the work of giants. 

Besides the Hemadpanti remains, the District possesses some Musal- 
man buildings, the most important of which is the mosque at Erandol. 
Pitalkhora glen in the Chalisgaon tdluka contains a ruined chaitya and 
vihara, very early Buddhist works, probably dating from two centuries 
before Christ. In the valley beneath is the deserted city of Patna, 
where there are old carved temples and inscriptions, while on the hill 
opposite are other and later caves. The temple of Krishna in Vaghali, 
built 200 years before Hemadpant lived, contains three fine inscribed 
slabs in the inner wall of the hall. 

There are 31 towns and 2,614 villages in the District. The Census 
of 1901 disclosed a total population of 1,427,382, or an increase 
of 40 per cent, in the last thirty years. In previous 
years the numbers were: (1872) 1,030,106, (1881) 
1,237,308, and (1891) 1,434,802. The increase of 20 per cent, in 1881 
was due to immigration, attracted by the large area of unoccupied 
fertile land available for cultivation. The population decreased by 
0-5 per cent, in 190 1 owing to a succession of bad harvests (1896-1901)- 
The distribution by talukas is as follows : — 



Population. 





square 

ES. 


Number of 




ion per 
mile. 


age of 
ion in 
ion be- 
1891 
901. 


er of 
able to 
ami 
ie. 






Talukas. 


—"5 

r. - 


CO 

c 


be 

_2 


S 

a. 


- - 

— — 


cent 
riat 
ulat 
een 
nd 1 


ons 
cad 

wrii 




< 




H 
1 


> 











Taloda 


i.- 1 77 




*93 


33,881 


29 


-40 


1,080 


Shahada 


479 


2 


155 


59,758 


2 5 


- 8 


3,162 


Xandurbar . 

,, Navapur/^a 


} 99 2 { 


I 


203 
81 


67:369 
20.06S 


}88{ 


— 1 

- 34 


2,8l8 
271 


Sindkheda . 


5°5 


2 


141 


76,811 


152 


+ 5 2,963 


Shirpur 


651 


I 


99 


SO-- 1 /? 


77 


- 10 2,045 


Chopda 


368 


2 


9i 


75.-55° 


205 


+ 4 2,763 


Yaval. 


250 


2 


75 


82,299 


329 


+ 2 4,614 


Raver. 


481 


2 


106 


80.368 


67 


+ 5 4,667 


i'lmpalner . 


933 




151 


56,638 


61 


- 5 2,000 


Dhulia 


760 


2 


*54 


104.952 


13S 


+ 7 6,435 


Amalner 


} * 28 l 


I 


164 


73,083 


}-( 


+ 4 


2:453 


„ Yaxola. pelha . 


I 


64 


38,210 


- 4 


1 - s 93 


Erandol 


458 


3 


'95 


105,840 


-3' 




6,435 


Jalgaon 


3'9 


2 


89 


85,15' 


269 


+ 1 


5:5'6 


Bbusawal . 


} 57o| 


3 


105 


76.943 


}l 9 2{ 


- 2 


5-387 


,, lidalabad pelha 




75 


32,372 


- 9 


'.-163 


Jamner 


5 2 7 


2 


i55 


91:739 


174 


+ 5 


3,343 


Pachora 

,, Bhad^aon pet ha 


} 542 { 


2 
1 


121 

65 


80.724 
44>6'2 


}2 3 l{ 


+ 1 

+ 7 


3-934 
2,244 


Chalisgaon . 

I Strict total 


5°i 


1 


132 


9°. s 37 


l8l 


+ 21 


3:5*2 


10,041 


3i 


2,614 


1,427,38a 


I 4 2 


-0-5 68,773 



POPULATION 231 

The chief towns are : Dhulia (the head-quarters of the new District 
of West Khandesh), Bhtjsawal, Dharangaon, Nasirabad, Nandur- 
bar, Chalisgaon, Bhadgaon, Jamxer, Adavad, Chopda, Jalgaon 
(the head-quarters of the new District of East Khandesh), Parola, 
Erandol, Amalner, Faizapur, Pachora, Nagardevla, and Bodvah. 
The average density is 142 persons per square mile, but the western 
portion of the District is on the whole more thinly populated than the 
east. Shahada and Taloda are the tahtkas of smallest density, and 
Yaval and Jalgaon are the most densely populated. Of the total 
population, 90 per cent, are Hindus, 8 per cent. Musalmans, 12,298 
or 0-9 per cent. Jains, and 11,600 or o-8 per cent. Animists ; 
Christians number 1,398. Gujarat! is in use among the higher classes 
of husbandmen to the north of the Tapti, and it is the language of 
trade throughout the District ; but MarathI, the speech of the people in 
the south and west, is the language of Government offices and schools, 
and is gradually gaining ground. In their homes the majority of the 
people speak a dialect known as Khandesh! or AhiranI, a mixture of 
Gujarat!, MarathI, Nemadl, and Hindustani, in which Gujarat! pre- 
dominates. 

The important castes are: Kunbl, 330,000; Bhll, 167,000 (of whom 
10,000 are Musalmans); Mahar, 107,000; Maratha, 94,000; Mall 
(gardener), 60,000; KolT, 57,000; Brahman, 50,000; Vani, 47,000 
(chiefly Gujars) ; Rajput, 40,000 ; Dhangar, 39,000 ; Vanjari, 32,000 ; 
Teli (oil-men), 27,000; Sonar (goldsmith), 24,000; Nhavi (barber), 
21,000; Chamar (leather-worker), 20,000; Sutar (carpenter), 16,000; 
Shimpi (tailor), 16,000; and Mang, 13,000. Of the thirteen divisions 
of Brahmans in the District, three understand but do not speak 
MarathI ; the remaining ten use that language. As a rule, the main 
divisions eat together but do not intermarry ; the subdivisions as a rule 
do both. Deshasths (32,546) are most numerous. The others are the 
descendants of Brahmans from every part of India who found their 
way to Khandesh. The Prabhus, a section of the 'writer' class, are 
scattered over the District, most of them in the service of Government. 

Besides the general body of cultivators, who are Kunbis by caste, 
large numbers of Pardhls (5,150), a low caste of wandciing hunters and 
snarers, and Rajputs have long been settled in the District. Another 
class of cultivators worthy of notice are the Gujar Varus, the most 
industrious and well-to-do of the agricultural population. Their name, 
and their habit of speaking Gujarat! among themselves, show that they 
are immigrants from Gujarat. Most of the traders are foreigners : 
Banias from Marwar and Gujarat, and Bhatias, recent comers from 
Bombay. Wandering and aboriginal tribes form a large section of the 
population. Many of the Bh!ls are employed on police duties and as 
village watchmen. But though most have settled down to peaceable 



232 KHANDESH district 

ways, they show little skill in farming. Since the introduction of 
British rule into Khandesh, the efforts made, by kindly treatment and 
the offer of suitable employment, to win the Bhlls from a disorderly life 
have been most successful. With the Mahars they form the labouring 
class in nearly all the villages of Khandesh. The Nirdhls dwell along 
the foot of the Satmalas. In former times they were much dreaded. 
During seasons of revolt the most atrocious acts were invariably the 
work of the Nirdhls. Vanjaris or Lamanis, the pack-bullock carriers 
of former and the gipsies of present times, have suffered much from 
the increased use of carts and the introduction of the railway. A few 
are well-to-do traders ; but most of them live apart from the villages, in 
bands or tandas, each with its own leader or naik. Forced to give up 
their old employment, they now live chiefly by grazing, and cutting 
grass and wood. The majority of the Musalmans are converts from 
Hinduism and are styled Shaikhs (55,787). In 1901, 18,504 Pathans, 
descendants of the Musalman invaders, were found in the District. 
More than 50 per cent, of the population are agriculturists, and various 
industries support 22 per cent. 

Of the 821 native Christians in the District in 1901, 440 were Roman 
Catholics and 132 Anglicans. There are Roman Catholic chapels at 
Dhulia, Bhusawal, and Dharangaon. For missionary purposes the 
District is divided into three parts, the western portion being occupied 
by the Scandinavian-American Mission, the centre by the Church 
Missionary Society, and the east by the American Alliance Mission. 
The head-quarters of the first-named society are at Nandurbar, of the 
second at Dhulia, while the Alliance Mission has stations along the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Bhusawal, Jalgaon, Pachora, and 
Chalisgaon. Besides these, there are two smaller semi-independent 
missions : the Tapti Valley Railway Industrial Mission at Navapur, 
which works chiefly among the Bhlls, and the Peniel Mission at 
Dharangaon. The majority of the Christian population reside at 
Nandurbar, Dhulia, Bhusawal, and Dharangaon. 

The soils are composed of all grades, from the deep rich black 

of the Tapti valley to the poor stony red and white of the low trap 

ranges. The local husbandmen divide them into 

four classes : kali (black), pandhari (white), khdra?i 

(salt), and burki (white and salt). 

The District is chiefly ryotwdri, only about 2 per cent, of the total 
area being held on udhiid tenure and 3 per cent, as inam land. The 
chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown in the table on the 
next page, in square miles. 

Jowar and bdjra are both largely grown in Khandesh, the areas 
under these crops being 667 and 929 square miles respectively. 
Joivar is chiefly grown as a kharif crop, in rotation with cotton. 



AGRICULTURE 



1 1 ■> 
-jj 



Bajra everywhere holds a far more important place. Wheat, 
with an area of 182 square miles, is grown throughout the District, 
though most common along the Tapti valley and in the west. The 
chief pulses are titr, gram, udid, kulitk, and mug, which together 
occupied 581 square miles in 1903-4. Til and linseed are the 
principal oilseeds, covering 250 and 63 square miles respectively. The 
former is considered the more profitable crop. The area under the 
latter varies considerably according to the nature of the late rains. 
Cotton, long one of the chief crops, occupied 2,013 square miles. It 
is seldom grown oftener than once in three years in the same field, 
and the local variety has been supplemented by Hinganghat and 
Dharwar seed. 



Talnka. 


Total 
area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forest. 


Taloda 


I - I 77 


IOO 


I 


IS 


*5 


Shah ad a 




482 


284 


I 


16 


74 


Nandurbar 




992 


243 


3 


69 


49 


Sindkheda 




505 


377 


4 


20 


34 


Shirpnr 




678 


201 


■ . . 


17 


27 


Chopda 




368 


228 


. . . 


16 


M 


Yaval 




249 


214 


5 


I 


*> 



Raver 




480 


205 


3 


12 


12 


Pimpalner 




932 


344 


9 


163 


299 


Dhulia 




759 


412 


7 


55 


199 


Amalner 




52S 


409 


8 


9 


33 


Erandol 




458 


366 


3 


8 


27 


Jalgaon 




3 T 9 


228 


2 


5 


36 


Bhusawal 




57o 


379 


3 


23 


106 


Jamner 




5 2 7 


37o 


1 


39 


65 


Pachora 




542 


388 


3 


17 


44 


Chalisgaon 


504 


306 


3 


16 


95 




Total 


10,070* 


5,°54 


56 


504 


1.132 



* For 2,530 square miles of this area statistics are not available. There have 
been changes since 1900 in the areas of several /ainkas, owing to the introduction 
of the revision survey. 

Several attempts have been made, dating from 1829, to reclaim the 
Pal lappa, a waste tract in the neighbourhood of the Satpura Hills, 
which is said to have been formerly well inhabited. At the time of 
the British occupation in 181 8, this was a deserted jungle, excessively 
unhealthy, and infested with wild beasts. It is said to have been 
deserted about the middle of the seventeenth century, owing to 
famine ; and the remains of ancient buildings show that the village of 
Pal was formerly of considerable importance. Special efforts to improve 
the staple of the local cotton have been made for many years, but the 
cultivation of exotic varieties has not spread ; it is found that the 
exotics speedily deteriorate in quality and give an inferior yield to that 
of the local variety. In 1903-4 a small plot of land was acquired 
by Government at Dhulia, and several varieties of cotton and jowar, 



234 KHANDESH DISTRICT 

new to the District, were sown. The experiment is reported to be more 
promising than previous attempts, but definite results have not been 
arrived at. Sugar-cane is grown in small areas where irrigation is 
available. Chillies, fennel, and coriander are the principal condiments 
and spices. The cultivation of betel-vines is carried on with consider- 
able success in garden lands. 

The cultivators of Khandesh have availed themselves freely of the 
Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, and nearly 25 lakhs 
was advanced during the decade ending 1904. Of this sum, nearly 
20 lakhs represents advances made during the famine years 1899-1900, 
1 900-1, and 1901-2. 

The District contains many fine cows and bullocks, brought chiefly 
from Nimar and Berar. The Thilari herd of cattle of West Khandesh 
has a good reputation in the Deccan ; but the greater number of the 
cattle are small and poor, reduced during the hot season to the most 
wretched condition. The horses also are small and of little value. 
To improve the breed, the Civil Veterinary department maintains 
two pony stallions at Dhulia and Chalisgaon, which are not, however, 
fully utilized. 

Irrigation is practised mainly from dams thrown across the streams, 
particularly on the Girna and Panjhra rivers, and there are lakes 
and reservoirs which also serve for irrigation. The area under various 
classes of irrigation is 56^ square miles, or a little more than one per 
cent, of the total cultivated area of the District. Government canals 
supply 16 square miles, private canals one, wells 38, and other sources 
\\ square miles. The dams must at one time have been very 
numerous. In the west there is scarcely a stream of any size without 
traces of them. Of works carried out by the Irrigation department 
the chief are : lower Panjhra river works, the Hartala tank, the Jamda 
canals, and the Mhasva lake. The first two are old works improved 
and extended ; the others are new. The lower Panjhra water-works, 
which are estimated to command nearly 20 square miles, supply about 
4 square miles in Dhulia and Amalner. The Jamda canals on the 
Girna, one of the earliest Government water-works, which are esti- 
mated to command 72 square miles, water about 2 square miles, 
mostly in Chalisgaon and Pachora. The Hartala lake in the Bhusawal 
talnka commands an area of 600 acres, but did not supply water in 
1903-4. The Mhasva lake in the petty subdivision (pet/id) of Parola 
in Amalner irrigated a total area of 181 acres, and is estimated 
to command 4,600 acres. Over most of the District water is found 
near the surface. But near the Satpuras and within 8 or 10 miles of 
the Tapti, wells have sometimes to be dug as deep as 100 feet. 
For drawing water the leathern bag or mot is in almost universal use. 
Each bag waters a quarter of an acre daily. In 1903-4, 83 other 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 235 

irrigation works (including the Parsul tank, irrigating 668 acres) watered 
19,500 acres. Wells numbered 27,031, and minor tanks 12. 

Khandesh is the most important forest District of the Bombay Presi- 
dency after Kanara. The absence of conservancy rules in the past and 

the destructive habits of the hill tribes have robbed „ 

Forests 
the jungles of most of their valuable timber. The 

forest Reserves now cover more than 2,168' square miles, and the area 
of fodder reserves and pasture land under the control of the Revenue 
department is 284 square miles. They lie chiefly on the hills to the 
west and south-west, but much of the hilly land unsuited for cul- 
tivation may eventually be reserved for forest. In spite of its large 
area, Khandesh uses more timber than it grows. The most impor- 
tant minor produce is the mahud flower. Myrabolams and mahua 
seed are collected in the west. Teak, babul, and black-wood are of 
common occurrence. The gross forest revenue in 1903-4 amounted to 
2 -3 lakhs. The District is divided into two forest divisions, which 
are in charge of divisional Forest officers aided by two subdivisional 
officers. 

Khandesh has little mineral wealth. Building stone occurs every- 
where, the best quarry being in the bed of the Vaghur river near 
Bhusawal. Kankar or nodular limestone is found in all black soil 
and yields good lime, while clay suitable for brick-making is obtain- 
able in all parts of the District. 

The crafts and industries are of some importance. Cotton-pressing 
and ginning is carried on in 36 presses with 2,228 
operatives. The weaving of coarse woollen blankets commun ; ca ti ons 
is common all over the District. There is a cotton- 
spinning and weaving mill at Jalgaon, started in 1874, under the 
name of the Khandesh Spinning and Weaving Company. It has 
425 looms and 20,948 spindles, and employs 1,185 hands. The out- 
turn is over 2 million pounds of yarn and \\ million pounds of cloth, 
and the paid-up capital *\\ lakhs. The cloth is sold in Khandesh, 
Berar, and the Nizam's Dominions. There are railway workshops at 
Bhusawal. 

The most important article of export is cotton. The Bombay 
Bhatias buy it from local dealers and growers, and press it for direct 
shipment by sea. Of late years many Bombay mercantile houses 
have established agencies in Khandesh, and towards the east in the 
rich Tapti valley. Jalgaon and Bhusawal are rising into important 
centres of trade. The other chief exports are food-grains, oilseeds, 
butter, indigo, wax, and honey. Of imports the chief articles are salt, 

1 This figure differs from that in the table on p. 233, owing to the omission of forest 
statistics of certain villages in the Shahada taluka and to the non-inclusion in the 
revenue returns of the forest area of the Mehwas estates. 

VOL. XV. (J 



236 KHANDESH DISTRICT 

spices, metals, piece-goods, yarn, and sugar. The internal trade is 
carried on by means of weekly markets and a succession of fairs and 
religious feasts. 

At the beginning of British rule there were no made roads. The 
first to be constructed was the Bombay-Agra road, which runs via 
Malegaon, Dhulia, and Shirpur through the District. Since then road- 
making has made considerable progress, and some of the passes 
through the hills have been opened to cart traffic. Besides the 
Bombay-Agra road, the chief roads are those from Dhulia to Surat 
and from Dhulia to Mhasawad. The total length of roads is 955 
miles, of which 325 are metalled. Of these, 300 miles of metalled 
roads and 252 miles of unmetalled roads are maintained by the 
Public Works department. Avenues of trees are planted on about 
950 miles. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs for 137 miles 
through the south of the District from Naydongri to Bhusawal, where 
it divides, one branch going to Jubbulpore and the other to Nagpur. 
Branches from Jalgaon to Amalner, 35 miles long, and from Chalisgaon 
to Dhulia, 35 miles in length, were opened in 1900. The Tapti Valley 
Railway from Surat to Amalner, running for 108 miles through the 
central portion of the District from east to west, was opened in March, 
1900, and has ten stations within its limits. 

The Tapti and lesser streams are liable to sudden and disastrous 

rising of their waters. Six great floods caused more or less injury in 

_ . „ the District during the nineteenth century. In 

Famine, &c. n n .., . , , . , 

1822 sixty-five villages were entirely destroyed by 

the Tapti, and fifty were partly washed away, causing a loss in money 
value of z\ lakhs. In 1872 the Girna and Panjhra rose 45 feet above 
the level of the river-bed, the latter sweeping away five hundred houses 
in the town of Dhulia. A whole village on the opposite side of the 
river suddenly disappeared. One hundred and fifty-two villages were 
damaged, and property to the value of 16 lakhs destroyed. Over one 
thousand persons were on this occasion relieved by public and private 
charity. 

Besides the Durga-devi famine, which is said to have greatly reduced 
the population of Khandesh, the only scarcity mentioned before the 
beginning of the last century was in 1629. In that year, following 
the ravages of war, there was a total failure of rain which caused 
widespread distress. A severe famine was recorded in 1802-4, when 
the selling price of grain is reported to have risen to one seer per 
rupee. Great numbers died, and extensive tracts were left deserted 
and waste. This famine was due, not to any natural causes, but to 
the ravages of Holkar's army, which during two years (1802-3) spread 
desolation and famine throughout the District. Scarcities not amount- 
ing to famine occurred in 1824, 1833-6, 1845, 1876-7, and 1896-7. 



ADMIXIST&A TION z 3 7 

In 1896 the population suffered from a general rise in the prices of 
food. The early rains, however, were excellent, and the kliarif did 
not fail. The hill tribes therefore suffered little, and West Khan- 
desh was free from the pinch of the high prices. Relief works were 
maintained for fourteen months, the workers reaching a maximum 
of 36,560 in April, 1897. In 1899 the failure of the rains affected 
all parts of the District, and the distress lasted for fourteen months. 
The kharif crop was a total failure and the rabi area was not sown, 
except in irrigated lands, there being no late rains. As early as 
October, 1899, the number on relief works exceeded 33,000. It 
advanced steadily till in March of 1900 it was 257,000, while the 
number on gratuitous relief was 13,000. From this it fell to 553 
in February, 1901, rising again to 42,000 in July, 1901, and falling 
to 1,800 in September. It is calculated that 79,000 deaths occurred 
in excess of the normal during the period, and that 385,000 cattle 
died. The total cost was about 76 lakhs. Remissions amounted 
to 17 lakhs, and nearly 20 lakhs was granted in loans to agri- 
culturists. 

Locusts have sometimes visited Khandesh, but seldom in sufficient 
numbers to do much harm. In 1869 a large cloud crossed the Dis- 
trict from north to south, and in 1873 and 1878 they did some injury 
to the late crop. Rats in 1847-8, 1 8 78-9, and in 190 1-2 caused much 
havoc. 

The District is divided 'into seventeen talukas, in charge of three 
covenanted Civilians and two Deputy-Collectors. Of the three cove- 
nanted Civilians, one is Personal Assistant to the . . 

Administration. 
Collector, who has also an extra Deputy-Collector 

as daftardar. There are four petty subdivisions or pethas : Parola, 
Bhadgaon, Navapur, and Edalabad, in the talukas of Amalner, Pachora, 
Nandurbar, and Bhusawal respectively. The formation of two separate 
Districts is referred to in the note on p. 225. The Mehwas estates are 
included in the District for administrative purposes. 

The District and Sessions Judge at Dhulia is aided for civil business 
by ten Subordinate Judges. Criminal justice is administered by 50 
Magistrates, including the District Magistrate. The commonest forms 
of crime are theft, house-breaking, and dacoity. 

On occupation by the British, 1,146 Government villages were found 
entirely deserted, besides 413 which were uninhabited but partly tilled 
by persons living in the neighbouring villages ; only 1,836 villa 
were inhabited. The establishment of order and the advent of high 
prices soon caused a rapid increase in tillage and revenue. But a sub- 
sequent fall in prices checked improvement, and progress was slow for 
several years. After 1832 the improvement began to be more marked, 
and continued steadily up to 1852. One of the first measures of im- 



2 3 S 



KHANDESH DISTRICT 



provement was the withdrawal from the hereditary officials of powers 
the possession of which by them was found to be a source of oppression 
to the people. The settlement of the revenue was then made direct 
with the cultivators and not with the headmen of the villages. The 
revenue was fixed on the average payments of ten previous years. 
Gradually, inequalities of measurement were reduced to a common 
standard. About 1830 it was found that the assessments were too 
high, leaving no margin to the cultivator for improvements. Great 
reductions were then made in the rates on irrigated lands ; the rates 
on ' dry-crop ' lands were also reduced, wherever this was found to be 
necessary, and liberal remissions were made. Still progress was slow; 
and no attempt was made until 1852 to introduce a survey, which, it 
was felt, would be very costly. In that year, as it appeared that the 
rates in Khandesh were higher than in other Districts, it was determined 
to carry out a survey on a plan suited to a country where so much of the 
land was waste. The objects of it were misunderstood, and troops had 
to be called out. But, on the leaders being seized, the opposition died 
away and the work was carried out between the years 1854 and 1870. 
Since then the District has made a most marked advance. Its popu- 
lation has largely increased and the area under cultivation has nearly 
trebled. Cultivation has been pushed to the base of the hills ; and 
only in a few parts can good land now be found untilled, while wild 
beasts have been driven from the plain to the hills and the ravines. 
This remarkable development is, no doubt, in great measure due to the 
facilities offered by the railway for the export of produce to better 
markets, and to the great demand for cotton, which Khandesh is in 
a position to satisfy. The revision survey settlement was commenced 
in 1886 and completed (with the exception of a small area, chiefly in 
Nandurbar, originally settled in 1901-3) in 1904. The new survey 
found an increase in the cultivated area of 4 per cent, over the amount 
shown in the accounts, and the settlement enhanced the total revenue 
from 31 to 40 lakhs. The average assessment per acre of ' dry ' land is 
Rs. 1-6 ; of rice land, Rs. 1-10 ; and garden land, Rs. 2-14. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1890-1. 1900-1. 


i9°3-4- 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue 


34,13 
46,27 


1 

39,76 50,3-! 
57,4° 64,72 


4 S,6o 
67,59 



The District has 21 municipalities: namely, Amalner, Parola, 
Erandol, Dharangaon, Bhadgaon, Chopda, Shirpur, Sindkheda, 
Betwad, Savada, Yaval, Bhusawal, Jalgaon, Dhulia, Songir, 






KHANDGIR1 239 

Taloda, Shahada, Prakasha, Nandurbar, Faizpur, and Raver. 
The total receipts of these average nearly 3 lakhs. The District board 
and 17 taluka boards had an income in 1903-4 of 4J lakhs. The 
principal source of income is the land cess. The expenditure 
amounted to 4^ lakhs, including nearly 2 lakhs devoted to the main- 
tenance and construction of roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is aided by three Assistant 
Superintendents, one probationary Assistant Superintendent, and four 
inspectors. There are altogether 37 police stations. The force in 1904 
numbered 1,636 : namely, 23 chief constables, 335 head constables, 
and 1,278 constables. The mounted police number 62 under 8 daffa- 
dars. In addition to the District jail at Dhulia, with accommodation for 
450 prisoners, there are 23 subsidiary jails and 21 lock-ups which can 
accommodate 408 and 202 prisoners respectively. The daily average 
number of prisoners in 1904 was 493, of whom 16 were females. 

Khandesh stands twelfth as regards literacy among the twenty four 
Districts of the Presidency. The Census of 1901 returned 4-8 per cent, 
of the population (9-3 males and 0-2 females) as able to read and write. 
Education has made great progress of late years. In 1881 there were 
only 317 schools, attended by 18,656 pupils. The number of pupils rose 
to 29,346 in 1891 and to 30,293 in 1901. In 1903-4 the schools num- 
bered 538 (including 122 private schools with 1,713 pupils), attended 
by 22,181 pupils, of whom 845 were girls. One is a high school, 12 are 
middle schools, 401 primary, one is a training school, and one an indus- 
trial school. Three are maintained by Government, 332 by local boards, 
70 by municipalities, and 1 1 are aided. The training school and the 
industrial school are at Dhulia. The expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was 2\ lakhs, of which Local funds contributed Rs. 73,000 
and Rs. 24,000 was recovered as fees. Of the total, nearly 80 per 
cent, was devoted to primary schools. 

The District contains twenty dispensaries, one hospital, and two other 
medical institutions, accommodating 167 in-patients. In these institu- 
tions 114,213 persons, including 1,229 in-patients, were treated in 1904, 
and 3,797 operations performed. The total expenditure was over 
Rs. 39,000, of which Rs. 16,940 was contributed by Local and muni- 
cipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
39,000, representing a proportion of 27 per 1,000 of population, which 
exceeds the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xii (1880); A. F. David- 
son, Settlement Report (1854).] 

Khandgiri. — Hill in the Khurda subdivision of Purl District, Ben- 
gal, situated in 20 16' N. and 85 47' E., about 4 miles west of 
Bhubaneswar. It consists of two separate peaks, the northern one of 



2 4 o KHANDGIRI 

which is called Udayagiri and the southern Khandgiri, the last name 
being also applied to the entire group. The caves on this hill were 
occupied by monks of the Jain sect, and not, as is usually stated, by 
Buddhists. The earliest of them go back to the time of king Khara- 
vela, whose large but mutilated inscription over the Hathi Gumpha 
cave is dated in the year 165 of the Maurya era, or 155 B.C. ; and there 
are also short inscriptions of his queen and immediate successors. 
Various mediaeval Jain carvings and inscriptions show that the Jains 
continued to occupy the caves till about the twelfth or thirteenth cen- 
tury ; and there still exist later Jain temples, one of which, on the top 
of the Khandgiri peak, is annually visited by Jain merchants from Cut- 
tack. Of the oldest caves the most interesting are the following : On 
the Udayagiri peak, (1) the Ran! Gumpha, comprising two storeys with 
open verandas. The frieze of the upper veranda contains a series of 
relief carvings, evidently representing one connected story, in which 
occurred a fight with wild elephants, the rape of a female, and a hunt 
after a winged antelope : the legend to which it refers has not, however, 
been traced. (2) The Ganesh Gumpha, with a carved frieze represent- 
ing the same story as in the Rani Gumpha ; the steps of the cave are 
flanked by the figures of two elephants. (3) The Hathi Gumpha, with 
the famous inscription of king Kharavela, a purely historical record of 
the principal events of his life. Unfortunately it has been badly muti- 
lated, but it has recently been protected by a shade to preserve it from 
further destruction. (4) The Bagh Gumpha, shaped like the head of 
a tiger ; and (5) the Svarga Gumpha, (6) the Maujapuri, and (7) the 
Patal Gumpha, three caves raised one above the other and consequently 
now explained as a representation of heaven, earth, and hell. On the 
Khandgiri peak, the most notable of the old caves are the Ananta 
Gumpha, with carved panels over its gates, representing Lakshmi, the 
sun-god, an elephant, and the worship of a sacred tree ; the Tentuli 
Gumpha, so called from a tamarind-tree close to it ; and the Tantua 
Gumpha I and Tantua Gumpha II, one above the other. The name 
tantua means a diving-bird and has been given to these caves on 
account of the figures of birds, with their heads bent down as if in the 
act of diving, which have been carved over the arches of the doors. 
The best specimens of mediaeval caves are : the Navamuni cave, with 
an inscription dated in the eighteenth year of king Uddyota Kesari, 
who preceded the Ganga kings and belonged to the family of the so- 
called Somavansi, or kings of the lunar race, who ruled over Orissa 
in the tenth and eleventh centuries ; and the Satghara cave, which has 
numerous mediaeval Jain figures carved over its walls. 

[Refort of the Archaeological Survey of India for 1002-3 (Calcutta, 
1904).] 

Khandia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 



KHANDWA TOWN 241 

Khandpara. — One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal, lying 
between 20 11' and 20° 25' N. and 85 o' and 85 22' E., with an area 
of 244 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the MahanadI 
river, which separates it from the States of Narsinghpur and Baramba ; 
on the east by Cuttack and Purl Districts ; on the south by Purl 
and the State of Nayagarh ; and on the west by Daspalla State. The 
State originally formed part of Nayagarh, and was separated from it 
about 200 years ago by a brother of the Nayagarh Raja, who estab- 
lished his independence. The State has an estimated revenue of 
Rs. 30,000, and pays a tribute of Rs. 4,212 to the British Government. 
The land is very fertile, and the State is one of the best cultivated in 
Orissa. Fine sal timber (Shorea robi/sta) abounds in the hilly tracts, 
and magnificent banyan and mango trees stud the plain. It is inter- 
sected by the Kuaria and Dauka rivers, small tributaries of the 
MahanadI. The population increased from 63,287 in 1891 to 69,450 
in 1 90 1. The number of villages is 325, of which the most important 
is Kantilo, a large mart on the MahanadI. The density is 284 per- 
sons per square mile. The State maintains a charitable dispensary, 
a middle vernacular and 30 lower primary schools. 

Khandwa Tahsil. — North-western tahsll of Nimar District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 21 31' and 22 20' N. and 76 4' and 76 
59' E., with an area of 2,046 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 181,684, compared with 163,003 in 1891. The density is 89 
persons per square mile. The tahsil contains one town, Khandwa 
(population, 19,401), the head-quarters of the District and tahsll \ and 
437 inhabited villages. Excluding 671 square miles of Government 
forest, 58 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. 
The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 713 square miles. The demand 
for land revenue in the same year was Rs. 1,67,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 18.000. The tahsll consists of an undulating plain, forming the 
valleys of the Abna and Sukta rivers, and fringed by low hills towards 
the north and west. 

Khandwa Town. — Head-quarters of Nimar District, Central Pro- 
vinces, situated in 21 50" N. and 76 22" E., on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, 353 miles from Bombay, and forming the junction 
for the metre-gauge Rajputana-Malwa branch line to Mhow. The 
town stands at an elevation of 1,007 f eet , on a sheet of basalt rock 
covered with shallow surface soil \ and, because of the proximity of the 
rock to the surface, there is a noticeable absence of trees. The popu- 
lation at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 14,119, (1881) 
15,142, (1891) 15,589, and (1901) 19,401. 

Khandwa is a place of considerable antiquity. Owing to its situation 
at the junction of the two great roads leading from Northern and 
Western India to the Deccan, it must have been occupied at an early 



242 



KHANDWA TOWN 



period, and Cunningham identifies it with the Kognabanda of Ptolemy. 
It is mentioned by the geographer Albiruni, who wrote early in the 
eleventh century. In the twelfth century it was a great seat of Jain 
worship ; and many finely carved pillars, cornices, and other stone- 
work belonging to old Jain temples may be seen in the more modern 
buildings. The town has four old tanks with stone embankments. A 
new Jain temple, constructed at a cost of Rs. 75,000, is now approach- 
ing completion. Khandwa is mentioned by the historian Firishta as 
the seat of a local governor of the kingdom of Malwa in 15 16. It was 
burnt by Jaswant Rao Holkar in 1802, and again partially by Tantia 
Topi in 1858. 

Khandwa was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal 
receipts and expenditure during the decade ending 1901 averaged one 
lakh. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,07,000, the main heads of 
receipt being octroi (Rs. 65,000), markets and slaughter-houses 
(Rs. 5,000), and conservancy (Rs. 3,000) ; while the expenditure, 
which amounted to Rs. 1,04,000, included refunds of duty on goods 
in transit (Rs. 34,000), conservancy (Rs. 8,000), education (Rs. 10,000), 
and general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 8,000). The 
town is supplied with water from the adjoining Mohghat reservoir. 
The catchment area of the tank has been increased by the construction 
of a canal 3! miles in length to Ajanti, and is now about 9 square 
miles, the daily supply being calculated at 450,000 gallons. The 
works were opened in 1897 at a cost of 4 lakhs. The maintenance 
charges amount to about Rs. 5,000, to meet which a water rate has 
recently been imposed. Cotton is an important crop in Nimar District, 
and Khandwa is a centre for the export of the raw product. It now 
contains 9 ginning and 5 pressing factories, which have a total capital 
of about d\ lakhs and employ 1,000 operatives. Seven out of the 
fourteen factories have been opened within the last eight years. An 
oil-pressing and timber-sawing factory has also been erected. The 
depot for the supply of ga?tja {Cannabis sativd) to the Central Pro- 
vinces is situated at Khandwa, the crop being grown under licence 
in Nimar District. A rest camp for troops is maintained during the 
trooping season. There is a printing press, which issues a weekly paper 
in Marathl. The educational institutions comprise a high school, 
with 46 pupils, two English middle schools, and four branch schools. 
The Roman Catholic and Methodist Episcopal Churches carry on mis- 
sion and educational work in Khandwa, and maintain schools and an 
orphanage. The town has three dispensaries, one of which is a police 
hospital and another is maintained by the railway. A veterinary 
dispensary has recently been opened. 

Khangah Dogran Tahsll. — Tahsll of Gujranwala District, Punjab, 
lying between 31 31' and 31 59' N. and 73° 14' and 74 5' E., with 



KHANIADHANA 243 

an area of 873 square miles. This tahsil was formed, mainly out of 
the unwieldy tahsil of Hafizabad, in 1893. The population in 1901 
was 237,843. It contains 239 villages, including Khangah Dogran 
(population, 5,349), the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,41,000. The tahsil consists of a uni- 
form Bar tract with a soil of good loam. Three-fourths of it are now- 
irrigated by the Chenab Canal. 

Khangah Dogran Village. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the 
same name in Gujranwala District, Punjab, situated in 31 49' N. and 
73 41' E. Lying in the heart of the Bar, it was until recently famous 
only for a number of Muhammadan shrines at which a fair is held in 
June. In 1893 it was made the head-quarters of the newly constituted 
tahsil named after it ; and as it lies in the centre of the tract brought 
under irrigation by the Chenab Canal, it is rapidly growing in impor- 
tance, as is testified by the increase of its population from 877 in 1881 
and 1,646 in 1891 to 5,349 in 1901. The village is administered as 
a 'notified area.' It contains a cotton-ginning factory, which in 1904 
employed 34 hands. 

Khangarh. — Town in the District and tahsil of Muzaffargarh, Pun- 
jab, situated in 29 55' N. and 71 io' E., n miles south of Muzaffar- 
garh town and 4 miles west of the Chenab, on the road leading to 
Sind. Population (1901), 3,621. It was built by Khan Bibi, sister 
of Muzaffar Khan, and at the beginning of the last century was an 
Afghan post ; but the town has now outgrown the dimensions of the 
circular fortification which originally enclosed it. At annexation in 
1849 it became the head-quarters of the District, but was abandoned 
in 1859 on account of floods from the Chenab. The municipality was 
created in 1873. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 6,200, and the expenditure Rs. 6,400. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 6,400, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 5,600. The town contains a small cotton-ginning and rice-husking 
factory, which gave employment in 1904 to 25 persons; but it owes 
such importance as it possesses to its being the agricultural centre 
for a fertile tract. 

Khaniadhana. — Small sanad State in the Central India Agency, 
under the Resident at Gwalior. It has an area of about 68 square 
miles, lying round the town of the same name. It is bounded on the 
east by Jhansi District of the United Provinces, and on all other 
sides by Gwalior State. Although the State is situated politically in 
the Gwalior Residency, it lies geographically in Bundelkhand, and 
until 1888 was included in the Political Charge of that name. 

Khaniadhana was originally a part of Orchha ; but in 1724 it was 
granted by Maharaja Udot Singh of Orchha to his son Amar Singh, 
together with the villages of Mohangarh and Ahar. On the dis- 



244 KHANIADHANA 

memberment of the Orchha State by the Marathas a sanad was granted 
to Amar Singh by the Peshwa in 1751, confirming him in his grant. 
The question of suzerainty was, from this time onward, always a subject 
of contention between the chiefs of Orchha and of the Maratha State 
of Jhansi. On the lapse of the latter State in 1854, the Khaniadhana 
chief, PirthTpal Bahadur Ju Deo, claimed absolute independence. It 
was, however, ruled that he was dependent on the British Government 
as successor to all the rights previously exercised by the Peshwa ; and 
a sanad was accordingly granted in 1862 confirming him in his posses- 
sion, a sanad of adoption being granted at the same time. The chiefs 
of Khaniadhana are Bundela" Rajputs of the Orchha house, and bear 
the title of Jagirdar. The present chief, Chitra Singh, who succeeded 
in 1869, obtained the title of Raja as a personal distinction in 
1877. 

The population has been: (1881) 13,494, (1891) 14,871, and (1901) 
15,528. Hindus number 13,548, or 87 per cent. ; and Animists, 1,208, 
or 8 per cent., chiefly Saharias. The population has increased by 4 per 
cent, since 1891, and its density is 243 persons per square mile. The 
chief dialect is BundelkhandT. Only one per cent, of the inhabitants are 
literate. The principal castes are Thakurs (Bundela) and other Raj- 
puts, and the population is almost entirely supported by agriculture. 
The State contains 49 villages. 

The country is rocky, belonging to the Bundelkhand gneiss area. 
In the valleys, where intrusive dikes of trap are met with, good soil 
is produced by its disintegration, bearing fair crops of all the ordinary 
grains. Of the total area, 21 square miles, or 32 per cent., are under 
cultivation, of which 13 are irrigated. About 27 square miles are 
capable of cultivation, the rest being rocky and irreclaimable. The 
chief exercises full powers in all general administrative matters. In 
criminal cases he is required to report all heinous crimes to the 
Resident at Gwalior. The total revenue is Rs. 22,000, of which 
Rs. 18,000 is derived from the land. The British rupee was made 
legal tender in 1886. There are two schools in the State and one 
dispensary. 

The chief place is Khaniadhana, situated in 25 2' N. and 78 8' E. 
Population (1901), 2,192. It contains a small fort in which the chief 
lives, and also a school and a dispensary. 

Khanna.— Town in the Samrala tahstl oi Ludhiana District, Punjab, 
situated in 30 42' N. and 76 13' E., on the North-Western Railway, 
27 miles from Ludhiana town. Population (1901), 3,838. The town 
possesses two cotton-ginning factories, with a flour-mill attached to one 
of them. The number of employes in the factories in 1904 was 145, 
and in the mill 30. Khanna is a depot for the agricultural produce 
of the neighbourhood. It contains an Anglo-Sanskrit middle school 



KHANUA 245 

(unaided) and a Government dispensary. The municipality was created 
in 1875. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 6,400, and the expenditure Rs. 6,100. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 6,600, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 5,900. 

Khanpur Tahsll. — Head-quarters tahsll of the Khanpur nizci)nat, 
Bahawalpur State, Punjab, lying on the left bank of the Indus, between 
27 43' and 29 4' N. and 70 27' and 70 53' E., with an area of 
2,415 square miles. The population in 1901 was 120,810, compared 
with 115,112 in 1 89 1. It contains the towns of Khanpur (population, 
8,611), the head-quarters, Garhi Ikhtiar Khan (4,939), and Ghaus- 
pur, which was created a municipality in 1903: and 52 villages. It is 
traversed by the Hakra depression, south of which comes the desert. To 
the north lie the central tract of barren soil and the fertile lowlands 
along the Indus. The tahsll is famous for its date-palms, and is, after 
Allahabad, the most fertile in the State. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1905-6 amounted to i-8 lakhs. 

Khanpur Town. — Head-quarters of the nizamat and tahsll of the 
same name in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 28 39' N. and 
70 41/ E., on the North-Western Railway, 63 miles south-west of 
Bahawalpur town. Population (1901), 8,611. Founded in 1S06 by 
Nawab Bahavval Khan II as a counterpoise to Garhi Ikhtiar Khan, 
which lies 6 miles to the west, the town is now the chief centre of the 
trade in agricultural produce in the State, and contains three steam 
rice-husking mills, in one of which cotton-ginning is carried on as well. 
It possesses a middle school and a dispensary. The municipality had 
an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 12,800, chiefly from octroi. 

Khanpur. — Name once given to Gujranwala Town in Gujranwala 
District, Punjab. 

Khanspur. — Part of the Ghora Dakka cantonment in Hazara Dis- 
trict, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 34° 2' X. and 73 
30' E. During the summer months it is occupied by a detachment 
of British infantry. 

Khanua. — Village in the Rupbas tahsll of the State of Bharatpur, 
Rajputana, situated in 27 2' N. and 77 33' E., close to the left bank 
of the Banganga river, and about 13 miles south of Bharatpur city. 
Population (1901), 1,857. Here, in March, 1527, was fought the great 
battle between Babar and the confederated Rajputs under Rana 
Sangram Singh of Mewar. In the preliminary skirmishes the latter 
were successful, and the emperor, deeming his situation serious, 
resolved to carry into effect his long-deferred vow and nevermore drink 
wine. The gold and silver goblets and cups were broken up and the 
fragments distributed among the poor. In the final battle (March 12, 
1527) the Rajputs were completely defeated; the Rana was wounded 



246 KHANUA 

and escaped with difficulty, while among the slain was Rawal Udai 
Singh of Dungarpur. 

Khapa. — Town in the Ramtek tahsll of Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 21 25' N. and 79 2' E., on the Kanhan river, 
22 miles north of Nagpur city, and 6 miles from the Chhindwara 
road. Population (1901), 7,615. The town is built on a site high 
above the river and immediately overhanging it, while on the land side 
it is completely shut in by fine groves. Khapa was constituted a 
municipality in 1867. The income during the decade ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 6.500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,000, octroi being 
the principal head of receipt. Thirty years ago Khapa was described 
as one of the most flourishing towns in the District, and its decrease in 
population is to be attributed to changes in the course of trade. Hand 
cotton-weaving, the principal local industry, is now declining owing to 
the competition of the mills. Khapa is not favourably situated for the 
location of ginning and pressing factories, and is therefore being sup- 
planted by its younger rivals in the centre of the cotton area. Cotton 
cloths in various colours for women are principally woven. Two 
weekly markets are held here, and the town contains a vernacular 
middle and a girls' school, and a dispensary. 

Kharaghoda. — Village in the Viramgam taluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 23 N. and 71 50' E., on the border of 
the Little Rann of Cutch. Population (1901), 2,108. At the time 
when Ahmadabad passed to the British, the eastern shore of the Little 
Rann contained five large salt-works in the possession of petty chiefs. 
These were gradually acquired by purchase between 1822 and 1840, 
and were subsequently closed in 1875 in favour of a single manufactory 
at Kharaghoda. This, however, proved unequal to meeting the con- 
stantly increasing demand for salt; and in 188 1-2 new salt-works were 
opened at Ooru, which is 6 miles north of Kharaghoda and is con- 
nected with it by a line of rail. In 1904-5 the total out-turn of salt 
from these two works was 2,545,521 maunds, of which 2,313,965 
maunds were sold. Kharaghoda is the head-quarters of two Assistant 
Collectors of Salt Revenue, one of whom is in charge of the works and 
the other of the preventive establishment which patrols a line extend- 
ing from Dhanduka to Jamaiya. The town contains a dispensary, 
a library, a dharmsala, and a market; and water is supplied by pipes 
from a tank built at a cost of 2-| lakhs about a mile to the north 
of the town. 

Kharagpur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Monghyr 
District, Bengal, situated in 25 7' N. and 86° 33' E. Population 
(1901), 2,442. The parga/ia named after it now forms part of the 
estates of the Maharaja of Darbhanga. The village is best known for 
its irrigation works. These consist of a dam across the river Man, 



KHAR AX 247 

by which its water is banked up in a valley in the hills, and about 
28 square miles in the possession of the Raj tenants are irrigated. 

Kharakpur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Midnapore 
District, Bengal, situated in 22 20' N. and 87 21' E. Population 
(1901), 3,526. It is an important junction on the Bengal-Xagpur 
Railway, from which the East Coast section runs south to Madras, 
while the main line connects Calcutta with Bombay, and a branch runs 
north to Bankura and Jherria. Kharakpur is 8 miles from Midnapore 
town, with which it is connected by road. In the village is the shrine 
of Pir Lohani, which is venerated by Hindus as well as by Muham- 
madans. 

Kharakvasla. — Artificial reservoir in Poona District, Bombay. 
See Lake Fife. 

Kharan. — A quasi-independent tribal area of the Kalat State, 
Baluchistan, lying between 26° 52' and 29 13' N. and 62" 49' and 
66° 4' E., with an area of 14,210 square miles. It consists of a wide 
plain, irregularly quadrilateral in shape, and varying in elevation from 
2,500 feet on the north-east to 1,600 feet on the west. It is bounded 
on the north by the Ras Koh hills ; on the south by the Siahan range ; 
on the east by the Garr hills of the Jhalawan country : while on the 
west the boundary runs with Persia. The country is generally regarded 
as entirely desert ; in reality, however, considerable tracts of cultivated 
land are situated at the foot of the hills and along the courses of the 
Baddo and Mashkel rivers. Most of the remainder of the country is 
covered by immense stretches of sand. The hydrography of the 
plain is peculiar. Torrents drain into it from the surrounding moun- 
tains, but find no outlet to the sea. Besides the Mashkel and Baddo. 
the only streams of importance are the Garruk or Sarap and the 
Korakan. 

The only part of Kharan that has been geologically examined is the 
Ras Koh range, the mass of which may be divided into three zones, 
the northern consisting mainly of intrusive rocks, the central of shales, 
and the southern of tall limestone ridges. The plain is covered in 
parts with alluvial deposit and elsewhere with sand. The botany of 
the country has never been studied. Trees are scarce, but the ravines 
contain quantities of tamarisk, of Hah.xylon ammodendrdft, and in 
years of good rainfall many grasses. Among the latter may be men- 
tioned magher (Rumex vesicarius), the seed of which is eaten as a 
famine food and is also exported. Another famine food consists of 
kulkusht^Citrullus Colocynthis), the seeds of which are made into bread. 
The surrounding hills produce asafoetida. Sind ibex and mountain 
sheep inhabit the hills, and 'ravine-deer' (gazelle) their skirts. Herds 
of wild asses are found in the neighbourhood of the Mashkel river. 
Snakes are numerous. 



248 KHAR AN 

The climate is dry but healthy. Severe dust-storms are experienced 
throughout the year, being especially trying from June to September. 
The heat in summer is great, but the nights are always cool. The 
winter is cold. Most of the small amount of rain that falls is received 
between January and March. 

Little is known of the history of the country previous to the end of 
the seventeenth century, when Ibrahim Khan, the Nausherwani chief 
of Kharan, served the Ghilzai dynasty of Kandahar, except that it 
appears to have formed part of the Persian province of Kirman. The 
Nausherwani chiefs, round whom local history centres, claim descent 
from the Kianian Maliks, and have always been a race of strong-willed, 
bold, and adventurous men, taking full advantage of their desert-pro- 
tected country for organizing raiding expeditions against their neigh- 
bours, and professing a fitful allegiance to Persia, to Kalat, and to 
Afghanistan in turn. The most famous were Purdil Khan, against 
whom Nadir Shah had to send an expedition about 1734; and Azad 
Khan, who died in 1885. There is evidence that, in the time of Nadir 
Shah, Kharan was still included in Kirman ; but Naslr Khan I appears 
to have brought it under the control of Kalat, and the country remained 
under that State until quarrels between Mir Khudadad Khan and Azad 
Khan in the middle of the nineteenth century threw the latter into the 
arms of Afghanistan. In 1884 Sir Robert Sandeman visited Kharan, 
and succeeded in settling the chief points of difference between the chief 
and Khudadad Khan. Kharan was brought under the political control 
of the British, and an allowance of Rs. 6,000 per annum was given to 
the chief. The only Europeans who had previously visited Kharan 
were Pottinger, who marched through the whole length of the country 
in 1 8 10 ; and Macgregor, who crossed the western end in 1877. 

The principal objects of archaeological interest are tombs, attributed 
to the Kianian Maliks, bearing large brick slabs on which are engraved 
rough representations of camels, horses, and other animals, the best 
preserved being at Gwachig in Dehgwar. Inscriptions, presumably 
Kufic, have been found in Jalwar and Kallag. 

The normal population is about 19,000 persons, but it is estimated 
that 5,500 have recently emigrated. Almost all are nomads living in 
mat huts and blanket tents. The permanent villages number twenty. 
The head-quarters of the country are at Shahr-i-Karez or Kharan Kalat, 
which possesses a population of 1,500. Baluchi is the language of the 
majority, but in the east Brahul is also spoken. The name usually 
applied by the people to themselves is Kakhshani ; but this term is 
strictly applicable only to the groups forming the majority, the 
remainder being Muhammad Hasnis, and miscellaneous groups such 
as Kambranis, Gurgnaris, Chhanals, Loris, and servile dependants. 
The dominant class, the Nausherwanis, consists of nine families. 









KHAR AN 249 

Other Nausherwanis live in Makran, where their quarrels with the 
Gichkis have long been a thorn in the side of the Makran adminis- 
tration. Camel-breeding and flock-owning are the principal occupa- 
tions, in addition to agriculture. Felts, rugs in the dari stitch, and 
sacking are made by the women for home use. By religion the people 
are Sunni Muhammadans. 

The country is divided into six niabats : Kharan with Sarawan, 
Gwash, Shimshan with Salambek, Hurmagai including Jalwar, Mashkel, 
and Washuk with Palantak. Raghai and Rakhshan in Makran also 
belong to the Kharan chief, and he holds lands in Panjgur, Mashkai, 
and elsewhere in the Jhalawan country. 

The greater part of the cultivable area is ' dry crop,' dependent on 
flood irrigation. Four dams have been constructed in the Baddo river, 
and one each in the Korakan and the Garruk. The niabats of Kharan 
with Sarawan, Gwash, and Washuk with Palantak possess a few irri- 
gated lands. The alluvial soil is fertile when irrigated. The spring 
harvest consists of wheat with a little barley. In summer jowar and 
melons are grown. Washuk and Mashkel contain large date-groves. 
The system of planting the date-trees is peculiar, the root-suckers being 
placed in pits, dug to the depth of the moisture-bearing strata, which 
are kept clear of the wind-blown sand until the suckers have taken 
root, when the pits are allowed to fill. Camels, sheep, and goats form 
the live-stock of the country, and are sold in Afghanistan and many 
parts of Baluchistan. About 100 horses are kept by the chief. 
Bullocks are few in number. Good salt is obtained from Wad-i-Sultan 
and Wadian in the Hamun-i-Mashkel. 

Since the recent development of Nushki, much of the trade finds its 
way to that place. Trade is also carried on with Nal in the Jhalawan 
country and Panjgur in Makran. The exports consist of gM and wool, 
and the imports of piece-goods, tobacco, and grain, the latter chiefly 
from the Helmand valley. Sheep and goats are sent to Quetta and 
Karachi. Tracks, possessing a moderate supply of water from wells, 
connect Shahr-i-Karez with Ladgasht and thence with Panjgur ; with 
Nal via Beseima ; and with Panjgur via Washuk. 

Long periods of drought are common, causing the people to migrate. 
That such migrations were not unknown in former days also is indicated 
by a sanad from Ahmad Shah Durrani, which is still extant, permitting 
the Kharan chief to collect his scattered people from the adjoining 
countries. In recent years the rainfall has been constantly deficient 
and much emigration has taken place. The chief always keeps the 
granaries in his niabats full, and when scarcity occurs makes advances 
in grain without interest, which are recovered at the next harvest. 
This system is quite exceptional for Baluchistan. 

In 1884 the chief consented to sit in Kalat darbdrs with the Sarawan 



250 KHAR AN 

division of the Brahuis ; but since then he has acquired a position of 
quasi-independence, and is directly controlled by the Political Agent in 
Kalat. Each of the niabats already mentioned is in charge of a naib, 
whose business is to collect the revenue, pursue raiders and offenders, 
and report cases after inquiry to the chief or to his agent, known as 
the shahghasi. Civil cases are decided either by the chief or his agent, 
or by the kazl at Kharan Kalat in accordance with Muhammadan law. 
Order is maintained by a force of about 450 men, armed with swords, 
matchlocks, and breechloaders. About 1 70 of these form the garrison 
of Dehgwar, to prevent raids by the Damanis of the Persian border, 
and 69 are stationed in Raghai and Rakhshan. In addition, all the 
tribesmen are liable to military service, when called upon. Those 
living near Shahr-i-Karez and all sepoys must always keep ready for 
emergencies a skin of water, a pair of sandals, and a bag containing 
about 8 lb. of flour. The chief possesses three muzzle-loading cannon 
and a mortar. 

Besides an allowance of Rs. 6,000 from the Government, the chief's 
revenue consists of his share of grain in kind ; a poll-tax on some 
households ; a goat, sheep, or felt from others ; the equivalent of the 
price of one or two camels from certain groups ; fines ; unclaimed 
property ; and transit dues. The aggregate income from local sources 
fluctuates with the character of the agricultural seasons, but probably 
amounts to about a lakh of rupees in a good year. The land revenue 
is levied at the rate of one-fourth to one-tenth of the produce. The 
chiefs own lands are cultivated by his dependants and servants, who 
receive a share of the produce, generally one-fifth. The largest items 
of expenditure are incurred on the maintenance of the chief's per- 
manent force, which is estimated to cost about Rs. 2,000 a month, and 
on the entertainment of guests, the system of Baloch hospitality 
obliging the chief to keep his house open to all comers. 

Kharar. — Tahsil of Ambala District, Punjab, lying at the foot of the 
Himalayas, between 30 34' and 30 56' N. and 76 22' and 76 55' E., 
with an area of 370 square miles, and forming part of the Rupar sub- 
division. The population in 1901 was 166,267, compared with 176,298 
in 1 89 1. It contains 369 villages, of which Kharar is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-1 lakhs. For 
administrative purposes the hill station of Kasauli (population, 2,192) 
and the town of Kalka (7,045) are included in this tahsil. The 
northern part lies in the Siwaliks. Between the hills and the Ghaggar, 
in the east, is an unhealthy tract of jungle and rice-fields. The soil in 
the centre and west is a fertile loam, which in the south stiffens into 
clay. Communications are everywhere rendered difficult by the torrent- 
beds which intersect the country. 

Kharar. — Town in the Ghatal subdivision of Midnapore District, 






KHARGOX 251 

Bengal, situated in 22 40' N. and 87 44' E. Population (1901), 
9,508. Brass and bell-metal wares are extensively manufactured. 
Kharar was constituted a municipality in 1888. The income and 
expenditure during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 3,500 
and Rs. 3,600 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,800, 
derived mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 4,100. 

Kharari.— Town in Sirohi State, Rajputana. See Abu Road. 

Kharda. — Town in the Jamkhed taluka of Ahmadnagar District, 
Bombay, situated in 18° 38' N. and 75 29' E., 56 miles south-east of 
Ahmadnagar city. Population (1901), 5,930, including a hamlet of 
798. In 1795 an engagement took place near here between the 
Marathas and the Nizam. The general of the latter, being defeated, 
retreated to Kharda, where he was completely hemmed in, and 
constrained to accede to an ignominious treaty. The town contains 
upwards of 500 substantial merchants, shopkeepers, and money-lenders, 
many of whom carry on a large trade in grain, country cloth, and other 
articles. Kharda belonged to the Nimbalkar, one of the Nizam's 
Maratha nobles, whose handsome mansion in the middle of the town 
is now in ruins. In 1745 the Nimbalkar built a fort to the south-east 
of the town. The fort is square, in good repair, being built with cut 
stone walls 25 or 30 feet high, and is surrounded by a ditch, now in 
ruins. The walls have a massive gateway, and two gates at right angles 
to each other. The cattle market on Tuesday is the largest in the 
District. The municipality, which was constituted in 1890, had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 2,400. In 
1903-4 the income was also Rs. 2,400. 

Khardah. — Village in the Barrackpore subdivision of the District of 
the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22°44'N. and 88° 22' 
E., on the left bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 1,777. 
Khardah is a favourite place of pilgrimage for Vaishnavas, who visit it 
in honour of Nityananda, one of the disciples of Chaitanya, who took 
up his residence here. His descendants are regarded as gurus, or 
spiritual guides, by the Vaishnavas. There is a line temple, containing 
the image of Syam Sundar, a name for the god Krishna. The village 
lies within the South Barrackpore municipality, and is a station on the 
Eastern Bengal State Railway. Shoe-brushes and bricks are manu- 
factured on a large scale. 

Khargon. — Head-quarters of the Nimar district, Indore State, Cen- 
tral India, situated in 21 50' N. and 75° 37' E., on the left bank of the 
Kundi river, a tributary of the Narbada. Population (1901), 7,624. 
Khargon appears to have been founded under the Mughals. It was the 
chief town of a tnahal in the Bijagarh sarkar of the Subak of Malwa, 
and later on became the chief town of the sarkar. Its importance in 

VOL. XV. R 



252 KHARGON 

those days is shown by the remains of large houses and numerous 
tombs. Besides the district and pargana orifices, a jail, a school, a dis- 
pensary, a public library, and a State post office are situated in the 
town. Local affairs are managed by a municipality, with an income of 
Rs. 500, chiefly derived from octroi and other taxes. 

Kharia. — River of Bengal, another name for the JalangT. 
Kharian. — Tahsil of Gujrat District, Punjab, lying between 32 31' 
and i>£ *' N. and 73 35' and 74° 12' E., with an area of 646 square 
miles. The Jhelum river divides it on the north-west from Jhelum Dis- 
trict, while on the north-east a fixed boundary has now been laid down 
between this tahsil and Kashmir territory. The greater part consists 
of a slightly undulating plain, well wooded, highly cultivated, and inter- 
sected by nullahs, especially towards the east. The Pabbl Hills run 
north-east and south-west, roughly parallel to the Jhelum river. The 
southern face of the range is steep, but towards the river the slope is 
more gradual. The population in 1901 was 242,687, compared with 
248,076 in 1891. It contains the town of Dinga (population, 5,412) 
and 507 villages, including Kharian, the head-quarters. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-9 lakhs. Lala Musa 
railway junction is situated in this tahsil. 

Kharsawan. — Feudatory State of Chota Nagpur, Bengal, lying 

between 22 41' and 22 53' N. and 85 38' and 85 55' E., with an 

area of 153 ' square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Districts 

of Ranchi and Manbhum ; on the east by the State of Saraikela ; and 

on the south and west by Singhbhum District. The river Sonai flows 

through the State from north-west to south-east. The country on the 

north and the Kolhan pir on the south of this river consist of long 

ranges of jungle-clad hills, attaining in one place an elevation of 2,529 

feet. The depressions between them are terraced for cultivation. The 

rest of the State is a lowland tract, dotted here and there with isolated 

small hills. In this part, almost the whole of the cultivable area has 

been cleared of forest and turned into rice lands. Iron is found in 

a nodular form in most of the hilly ranges. Gold is found in very 

small quantities in the sands of the Sonai river. Copper must once 

have been extracted on a very large scale in Kharsawan, and traces of 

ancient mines can be seen at intervals throughout the whole breadth 

of the State for a length of 15 miles; the most extensive were in the 

neighbourhood of Lopso. Recent prospecting operations indicate that 

the supply of copper is still far from exhausted, and it is probable that 

in the near future the State may once more become an important 

mining centre. Nodular limestone, a stalagmitic deposit called asurhad, 

slate, and potstone are found in the hilly tracts. About 40 square 

1 This figure, which differs from the area shown in the Census Report of 1901, was 
supplied by the Surveyor-General. 



KHARSAWAN 253 

miles of the State are covered with forest, containing chiefly sal {Shorea 
robusta), dsan (Terminalia tomentosa), gamhar (Gtnelina arborea), 
kusum (Schleichera trijuga), pidsal (Rterocarpus Alarsnpium), kend 
{Diospyros melanoxylon), jamuii {Eugenia Jambolaua), and bamboos. 
Minor jungle products comprise lac, tasar cocoons, and myrabolams. 
Tigers, leopards, bears, several kinds of deer, hares, and peafowl abound 
in the forests. Snakes of several kinds are common everywhere. 

The chief of Kharsawan belongs to a junior branch of the Porahat 
Raja's family. Some generations before the establishment of British 
rule, Kunwar Bikram Singh, a younger brother of the Raja, obtained 
from him as a maintenance grant the eleven plrs which constitute the 
present States of Saraikela and Kharsawan. Bikram Singh by his two 
wives left five sons. The eldest succeeded to Saraikela, and the second 
son, from whom the present chief is directly descended, to Kharsawan. 
The State first came under the notice of the British in 1793, when, in 
consequence of disturbances on the frontier of the old Jungle Mahals, 
the Thakur of Kharsawan and the Kunwar of Saraikela were compelled 
to enter into certain agreements relating to the treatment of fugitive 
rebels. The chief is bound, when called upon, to render service to the 
British Government, but he has never had to pay tribute. His present 
sanad was granted in 1899. He exercises all administrative powers, 
executive and judicial, subject to the control of the Deputy-Com- 
missioner of Singhbhum and the Commissioner of Chota Nagpur, 
and is empowered to pass sentences of imprisonment up to five years 
and of fine to the extent of Rs. 200. Sentences of imprisonment for 
more than two years require the continuation of the Commissioner. 
Heinous offences calling for heavier punishment are dealt with by the 
Deputy-Commissioner of Singhbhum. The present chief, Sri Ram 
Chandra Singh Deo, being a minor, the State is, for the time being, 
under direct British administration. 

The population increased from 35,470 in 1891 to 36,540 in 1901, 
the density being 239 persons per square mile. The inhabitants 
dwell in 263 villages, the most important of which is Kharsawan, 
the head-quarters of the State. Hindus number 19,854 and Animists 
16,277, tne tLos being the most numerous tribe. About 78 per cent, 
of the population are supported by agriculture. The principal crops 
grown in the State in order of importance are rice, maize, pulses, 
mustard, sugar-cane, and tobacco. Coarse cotton cloths and iron 
cooking utensils are manufactured for local use, and in some villages 
leaf mats are made. The chief exports are rice, pulses, oilseeds, stick- 
lac, tasar cocoons, and iron ; and the chief imports are salt, cottun 
thread, cotton piece-goods, tobacco, and brass cooking utensils. Trade 
has been stimulated by the opening of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 
which runs through 1 2 miles of the State boundary ; a station at Amua 

K 2 



254 



KHARSA WAN 



is 3 miles from its head-quarters. The State contains 8 miles of 
metalled and 28 miles of unmetalled roads. The total revenue is 
Rs. 42,000, of which Rs. 17,000 is derived from the land. The police 
force consists of 4 officers and 13 constables, and there is a jail with 
accommodation for n prisoners. The State also maintains a dis- 
pensary, a middle English school, and two lower primary schools. 

Kharsi. —Thakurat in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Kharsiang. — Subdivision and town in Darjeeling District, Bengal. 
See Kurseong. 

Khasi and Jaintia Hills. — District in Eastern Bengal and Assam, 
lying between 24 58' and 26 f N. and 90° 45' and 92 51/ E., with 
an area of 6,027 square miles. The District, which forms the central 
section of the watershed between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and 
the Surma, is bounded on the north by Kamrup and Nowgong ; on 
the east by Nowgong and Cachar ; on the south by Sylhet ; and 
on the west by the Garo Hills. To the north the hills rise gradually 
from the Brahmaputra Valley in a succession of 
ysica low ranges, covered with dense evergreen forest ; 

but on the south the Khasi Hills spring immedi- 
ately from the plain to a height of 4,000 feet, and form a level wall 
along the north of the Surma Valley. The Jaintia Hills slope more 
gently to the plain, but these also have no low outlying ranges. The 
southern and central portions of the District consist of a wide plateau 
between 4,000 and 6,000' feet above sea-level, the highest point of 
which, the Shillong peak, rises to 6,450 feet. On the north towards 
Kamrup are two similar plateaux of lower elevation. The general 
appearance of these table-lands is that of undulating downs. They 
are covered with short grass, but destitute both of the dense forest and 
of the high jungle with one or other of which waste land in Assam is 
almost invariably covered. Here and there are to be seen clumps of 
oak and pine, the hills are broken up with deep gorges and smiling 
valleys, and the scenery is not unlike that found in many parts of 
England. A considerable number of rivers rise in the hills, but are 
of little importance as a means of communication within the boun- 
daries of the District. The largest streams flowing towards the north 
are the Kapili, Barpani, Umiam or Kiling, and Digru, all of 
which fall either direct or through other channels into the Kalang in 
Nowgong ; and the Khri, which is called the Kulsi in Kamrup. To 
the south the best-known rivers are the Lubha, Bogapani, and 
Kynchiang or Jadukata. Where they flow through the plateau, the 
larger rivers have cut for themselves deep gorges of great beauty, whose 
precipitous sides are generally clothed with forest. 

The Shillong plateau consists of a great mass of gneiss, which is bare 
on the northern border, but in the central region is covered by tran- 



KHASL AXD JAINTlA HILLS 255 

sition or sub-metamorphic rocks. To the south, in contact with the 
gneiss and sub-metamorphic, is a great volcanic outburst of trap, which 
is stratified and brought to the surface south of Cherrapunji. Still 
farther south are Cretaceous and Nummulitic strata, which contain 
deposits of coal and lime. 

The characteristic trees of the central plateau are those of a tem- 
perate zone. At an elevation of 3,000 feet the indigenous pine (Pinus 
Khasya) predominates over all other vegetation, and forms almost pure 
pine forests. The highest peaks are clothed with fine clumps of oak, 
chestnut, magnolia, beech, and other trees, which superstition has 
preserved from the axe of the wood-cutter. Azaleas and rhododen- 
drons grow wild, and many kinds of beautiful orchids are found in 
the woods. 

Wild animals include elephants, bison (Bos gai/rus), tigers, bears, 
leopards, wild dogs, wild buffaloes in the lower ranges, and various 
kinds of deer. 

The climate is cool and pleasant. In the hottest weather the ther- 
mometer at Shillong rarely rises above 8o°, and in the winter ice 
often forms. Snow seldom falls, but this is partly due to the fact 
that there is little or no precipitation of moisture in the cold season. 
Malaria lurks in the low ranges of hills on the north, but the climate 
of the high plateau is extremely healthy, and is admirably adapted to 
European constitutions. 

There is no station in India where the recorded rainfall is as heavy 
as at Cherrapunji, on the southern face of the Khasi Hills. The 
average annual fall at this place is 458 inches ; but the clouds are 
rapidly drained of their moisture, and at Shillong, which is less than 
30 miles away, it is only 82 inches. At Jowai, which lies at about the 
same distance south-east of Shillong, the average annual fall is 237 
inches. The rainfall has never been recorded in the northern hills, 
but it is probably between 80 and 90 inches in the year. The District 
has always been subject to earthquakes, hut all previous shocks were 
thrown into insignificance by the catastrophe of June 12, 1897. The 
whole of Shillong was levelled with the ground, masonry houses 
collapsed, and roads and bridges were destroyed all over the District. 
The total number of lives lost was 916. Most of these casualties 
occurred in the cliff villages near Cherrapunji, and were due to the 
falling of the hill-sides, which carried villages with them or buried 
them in their ruins. 

On ethnological grounds there are reasons for supposing that the 
Khasis and Syntengs have been established in these hills for many 
centuries ; but, living as they did in comparative 
isolation in their mountain strongholds, little is 
known of their early history. At the end of the eighteenth century 



256 KNASL AND JALNTLA HILLS 

they harried the plains on the north and south of the District, and 
their raids were thus described by Pemberton in 1835 : — 

'Thev descended into the plains both of Assam and Sylhet, and 
ravaged with fire and sword the villages which stretched along the base 
of this lofty region. Night was the time almost invariably chosen for 
these murderous assaults, when neither sex nor age were spared 1 .' 

The Khasi Hills were first visited by Europeans in 1826, when 
Mr. David Scott entered into arrangements with the chiefs for the 
construction of a road through their territory from Assam into Sylhet. 
Work was begun; but in 1829 the Khasis took alarm at the threats 
of a Bengali chaprasi, who declared that the hills were to be brought 
under taxation. The tribes suddenly rose and massacred two Euro- 
pean officers, Lieutenants Bedtngfield and Burlton, near Nongkhlao, 
with about 60 of their native followers. Military operations were at 
once commenced, but were protracted through several seasons, and 
it was not till 1833 that the last of the Khasi chiefs tendered his sub- 
mission. Engagements were then entered into with the heads of the 
various Khasi States. Their independence was recognized, Govern- 
ment abstained from imposing any taxation upon their subjects, and 
their territories were held to be beyond the borders of British India. 
Since that date the history of the Khasi States has been one of peace- 
ful development, only checked by the great earthquake of 1897. The 
Jaintia Hills lapsed to the British Government in 1835, when the Raja 
was deprived of the Jaintia Parganas in the District of Sylhet, on 
account of his complicity in the murder of three British subjects. For 
the next twenty years the Syntengs, as the inhabitants of the Jaintia 
Hills are called, were left almost entirely to their own devices. The 
administration was entrusted to their own headmen, who were un- 
doubtedly corrupt ; but the only tax levied was that dating from the 
Raja's time, which consisted of one male goat from each village. In 
i860 a house tax was imposed, as in the other hill tracts of the 
Province, and within a few months the people rose in open rebellion. 
Fortunately, a large force of troops was close at hand, and before the 
revolt could make headway it was stamped out. Scarcely, however, 
had the agitation subsided when the income tax was introduced into 
the hills. The total amount assessed was only Rs. 1,259, and the 
highest individual assessment Rs. 9 ; but this was enough to irritate 
a people who had never been accustomed to pay anything but the 
lightest of tribute to their own princes, and who had never been taught 
by conquest the extent of the British resources. In January, 1862, 
a revolt began ; and, though apparently crushed in four months, it broke 
out again, and it was not till November, 1863, that the last of the 

1 Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India, by Captain R. 1$. Pemberton, 
p. 221 (Calcutta, 1835). 



POPULATIOX 



257 



leaders surrendered, and the pacification of Jaintia could be said to 
be complete. Since that date a British officer has been posted 
in the Jaintia Hills, and the people have given no trouble. Cherra- 
punji was originally selected as the head-quarters of the hills, but the 
rainfall was found to be so excessive that the District officer moved 
to Shillong in 1864; and Shillong was constituted the head-quarters of 
the Administration when Assam was formed into a separate Province 
ten years later. 

The population of the District, as returned at the last four enumera- 
tions, was: (1872) 140,356, (1881) 167.804,(1891) 197,904, and (1901 ) 

202, 2 ;o. The slow rate of increase which occurred „ , . 

J Population. 

during the last decade was due to the unfavourable 

conditions prevailing after the earthquake of 1897. The first two 

enumerations were probably incomplete. The District contains two 

subdivisions, Shillong and Jowai, with head-quarters at places of 

the same names. Shillong (population, 8,384) is the only town, and 

there are 1,839 villages. 

The following table gives for each subdivision particulars of area, 

population, &c., according to the Census of 1901 :— 





Area in square 
miles. 


Xumlx-r of 


§• 


Population per 

square mile. 


- - X - 

txe g & 
g'Sg 1 \ 

v > 5"— 





Subdivision. 


I 


go 

fie 

> 


Number 

persons al 

1 ead ai 

write 


Shillong 
Jowai 


3,94' 
2,086 


1,199 
64O 


1 34; ?> 2 9 
67.921 


34 
33 


+ c-7 
+ 5' 2 


j "-4P 


District total 


6.027 


I 


'.839 


202.250 


34 


+ 2-2 


»,478 



About 88 per cent, of the population of 1901 were still faithful to 
their tribal religion, 3 per cent, were Hindus, and nearly all the 
remainder Christians. The female element in the population is very 
large, and there were 1,080 women to every 1,000 men enumerated 
in 1 90 1, a fact which is probably connected with the independent 
position enjoyed by women. Of the total population, 59 per cent, 
spoke Khasi, a language which belongs to the Mon-Anam family, and 
27 per cent. Synteng. The principal tribes were Khasis (107,500), 
Syntengs, a cognate tribe in the Jaintia Hills (47,900), and Mikirs 
(12,800). The proportion of the population supported by agriculture, 
76 per cent., is comparatively low for Assam ; but the Khasis are keen 
traders, and ready to earn money in any honest way. 

The Khasis and Syntengs, like the other tribes of Assam, are 
descendants of the great Indo-Chinese race, whose head-quarters are 
supposed to have been in North-Western China between the upper 
waters of the Ho-ang-ho and the Yang-tse-kiang. They are. however, 



258 KHASI AND JAINTIA HILLS 

thought to belong to one of the earliest bands of immigrants, and their 
language is quite unlike any other form of tribal speech now found in 
Assam, but is connected with the Mon-Khmer language used by 
various tribes in Anam and Cambodia. While the rest of the horde 
pressed onwards towards the sea, the Khasis remained behind in their 
new highland home, and for many centuries have maintained their 
nationality intact, though surrounded on every side by people of 
a different stock. The tribe is subdivided into a large number of 
exogamous clans, which are in theory composed of persons descended 
from the same female ancestor. Each clan possesses distinctive 
religious rites, and a special place in which the uncalcined bones 
are buried after cremation. Politically, they are divided into a large 
number of petty States, most of which are ruled by a chief, or Siem, 
and some of which have less than 1,000 inhabitants. The Siemship 
usually remains in one family, but the succession was originally con- 
trolled by a small electoral body, constituted from the heads of certain 
priestly clans. Of recent years there has been a tendency to broaden 
the elective basis, and the constitution of a Khasi State has always 
been of a very democratic character, a Siem exercising but little control 
over his people. 

In personal appearance the Khasis are short and sturdy, with great 
muscular development of the leg. The features are of a distinctly 
Mongolian type, with oblique eyes, a low nasal index, and high cheek 
bones. They are of a cheerful, friendly disposition, but, though 
peaceful in their habits, are unused to discipline or restraint. 

Among many of the north-east frontier tribes there is little security 
of life and property, and the people are compelled to live in large 
villages on sites selected for their defensive capabilities. The Khasis 
seem, however, to have been less distracted by internal warfare, and 
the villages, as a rule, are small. The houses are low, with roofs nearly 
reaching to the ground, and are usually made of wooden planks. 
They are not built on platforms, as is commonly the case with the 
hill tribes ; but the floor is often made of boards, and the roofs of 
the well-to-do are covered with corrugated iron or oil tins beaten flat. 
The interior is generally divided into two compartments. 

The men usually wear a sleeveless cotton shirt, a loin-cloth, and 
a wrap, and on their heads a turban, or a curious cloth cap with a peak 
over the forehead. The women are well clad in chemises and body- 
cloths, and both sexes often wear stockings with the feet cut off. The 
costumes brought out on gala days are most elaborate. The men wear 
silk loin-cloths and finely embroidered coats, while the women appear 
in really handsome silk cloths of different colours. The jewellery 
is massive, but handsome, consisting of silver coronets and pendants 
and heavy necklaces of coral and lac overlaid with gold. Their 






POPULATION 259 

weapons are bows and arrows, with which they are always practising, 
swords, and shields. Their staple diet is dried fish and rice ; but they 
eat, when they can afford it, pork, beef, and any kind of game. Dog, 
however, they avoid, as, according to their legends, he was created to 
be the companion of man and his assistant in the chase. They drink 
large quantities of liquor, prepared from rice and millet, both fer- 
mented and distilled, and continually chew pd?i. 

At a marriage the parties are pronounced man and wife in the 
presence of their friends, and a feast usually follows. The essential 
part of the ceremony consists in the mixing of liquor from two different 
gourds, representing the two contracting parties, and the eating by the 
bride and groom out of the same plate. The bride at first remains in 
her mother's house, where she is visited by her husband ; but when 
children are born, the parents, if they continue satisfied with one 
another, set up housekeeping together. This union between the sexes, 
however, can be terminated by mutual consent ; and as the initial 
ceremony costs but little, a man is not deterred from changing his wife 
by the expense of obtaining a new partner. Divorce is very common, 
and is effected by a public declaration, coupled with the presentation 
by the man to the woman of five cowries or copper coins, which she 
returns to him with five similar coins of her own. He then throws 
them away. The public proclamation is occasionally dispensed with, 
and the marriage dissolved by the simple tearing of a pan leaf. The 
facility with which divorce can be obtained renders adultery or inter- 
course prior to marriage uncommon. Marriage, in fact, is merely a 
union of the sexes, dissoluble at will, and the people have no tempta- 
tion to embark on secret intrigues. A woman who commits adultery 
is, moreover, regarded with extreme disfavour ; and, according to the 
Khasi code of morals, there is only one thing worse, and that is to 
marry in one's own clan. A widow is allowed to remarry, but not into 
the family of her late husband, a practice exactly the converse of that 
prevailing in the Garo Hills, to the west. 

The Khasis burn their dead, each clan or family having its own 
burning-ground. Two arrows are shot, one to the east and the other 
to the west, to protect the dead man, and a cock is sacrificed, which is 
supposed to show the spirit the way to the other world, and to wake 
him at dawn so that he may pursue his journey. The bones are 
subsequently collected from the pyre and removed to the common 
burial-place of the tribe. The stones erected to the memory of the 
dead form a special feature, being very numerous and often of great 
size; the largest are as much as 27 feet in height with an average 
breadth of nearly 7 feet. These monuments are of two kinds, some 
being tall upright monoliths, others flat slabs resting on smaller stones 
about 18 inches high. The monoliths are generally placed in rows, 



2no 



KHAST AND JAINTIA HILLS 



the central stone being erected in memory of the maternal uncle and 
one on either side in honour of the deceased and the deceased's father. 
As with all monuments, these stones are erected near villages and 
paths, where they will be most often seen. The matriarchal theory 
is in full force, and inheritance goes through the female line. A Siem 
is usually succeeded by his uterine brothers, and failing them by his 
sisters' sons. If he has no such nephews, the succession falls to his 
first cousins or grandnephews, but only to such as are cognates, 
his own sons and his kinsmen through the male line having no claim 
at all to the inheritance. So long as a man remains in his mother's 
house, whether married or unmarried, he is earning for his mother's 
family, and his mother or sisters and their children are his heirs. 
If, however, he is living separately with his wife, she and her daughters 
are entitled to succeed. 

The natural religion of the Khasis, like that of most of the hill 
tribes, is somewhat vague and ill defined. They believe in a future 
state, but do not trouble themselves much about it. Misfortunes are 
attributed to evil spirits, and steps are at once taken to ascertain who 
is offended, and how he best may be propitiated. One of their most 
curious superstitions is that of the thlen. The tradition runs that there 
was once in a cave near Cherrapunji a gigantic snake or t/iku, which 
caused great havoc among men and animals. At last, one man took 
with him to the cave a herd of goats, and offered them one by one to 
the monster. The snake soon learnt to open its mouth to be fed at 
a given signal, and the man then made a lump of iron red hot, threw it 
into its mouth, and thus killed it. The body was then cut up and 
eaten, but one small piece remained, from which sprang a multitude of 
thlens. These thlens attach themselves to different families, and bring 
wealth and prosperity, but only if they are from time to time fed on 
human blood. To satisfy this craving a human being must be killed, 
and the hair, the tips of the fingers, and a little blood offered to the 
snake. Many families are known or suspected to be ri f/i/en, or 
keepers of the thlen, and murders are not unfrequently committed in 
consequence of this awful superstition. 

The people have shown themselves extremely receptive of Chris- 
tianity, but have little taste for Hinduism. One of their chief char- 
acteristics is a dislike of all restraint, including the restraint of tradition, 
which is of such binding force among most of the inhabitants of the 
East. There are few people less conservative than the Khasis, and 
they are ever ready to take up a noveltv. To this healthy spirit of 
enterprise is due the marked progress they have made in the develop- 
ment of material comfort, and the extent to which they have outstripped 
the other tribes on the north-east frontier in their progress towards 
civilization. 



AGRICULTURE 261 

The Syntengs are very closely allied to the Khasis in language, 
religion, and customs. They are, however, less sturdily built and 
have darker complexions, the result, in all probability, of closer con- 
nexion with the plains. They owned allegiance to the Jaintia Raja, 
whose local representatives were twelve dollois or headmen ; but he 
received little in the way of tribute, and it is doubtful whether his 
influence in the hills was ever very strong. 

The Welsh Presbyterian Mission, which has been established in 
these hills since 1841, has met with a large measure of success. The 
schools of the District are under the management of this society, which 
has succeeded not only in converting, but in imparting the elements of 
instruction to, a large proportion of the animistic population. In 1903 
they had nine centres in the hills, at which twenty-one missionaries 
were employed. Of recent years a Roman Catholic mission has 
started work. The total number of native Christians in the District 
at the Census of 1901 was 17,125. 

The soil of the Khasi Hills consists of a stiff clay, often indurated 

with particles of iron, which in its natural state is far from fertile. 

Manure is accordinsrlv much prized, and cow-dung . fi 

c 11 ,. 1 j ^ r Agriculture. 

is carefully collected and stored. 1 owards the 

east, the land becomes more fertile, and is often a rich black 

loam, and manure is not so necessary. In the more level valleys, 

in which the central plateau abounds, rice is grown in terraces and 

irrigated ; and such fields are also found on the northern margin 

of the District, wherever the conformation of the surface admits of 

them. Water is run on these fields in winter, to keep the soil soft 

and free from cracks. Elsewhere, the crop is raised on the hill-side. 

Turf and scrub are dug up, arranged in beds and burnt, and seed is 

sown in the ashes which serve as manure. In addition to rice, the 

principal crops are maize, job's-tears (Coix Lacrymct), various kinds of 

millet and pulse, and a leguminous plant called sohphlang (Flemingia 

vestitd), which produces large numbers of tubers about the size of 

pigeons' eggs among its roots. Cotton is grown in the forest clearings 

to the north, and oranges, bay leaves, areca-nut, and pine-apples on the 

southern slopes of the hills. This portion of the District was much 

affected by the earthquake of 1897, and many valuable groves were 

destroyed by deposits of sand. 

There are no statistics to show the area under cultivation ; but the 

Khasis are energetic and enterprising farmers, and readily adopt fresh 

staples that seem likely to yield a profit. Potatoes were first introduced 

in 1830, and were soon widely cultivated. In 1882 nearly 5,000 tons 

of this tuber were exported from the hills, but a few years later blight 

appeared, and there has since been a great decrease in the exports. 

An experimental farm has been started near Shillong, and new varieties 



262 KHAST AND JAINTIA HILLS 

of potato introduced, which have been readily adopted by the Khasis. 
Peach- and pear-trees are grown in the higher hills, and efforts have 
recently been made to acclimatize various kinds of English fruit. 
A serious obstacle is, however, to be found in the heavy rainfall of 
May and June, and only early-ripening varieties are likely to do well. 

The cattle are fat and handsome little animals, much superior to 
those found in the plains. The cows yield little milk, but what they 
give is very rich in cream. The Khasis do not milk their cows, and in 
many places do not use the plough, cattle being chiefly kept for the 
sake of the manure they yield, and for food. Ponies are bred, which 
in appearance and manners are not unlike the sturdy little animals of 
Bhutan. Pigs are kept in almost every house, and efforts have been 
recently made to improve the breed by the introduction of English 
and Australian animals. 

Two square miles of pine forest near Shillong have been formally 
reserved, and there is a ' reserved ' forest 50 square miles in area at 
Saipung in the south-east corner of the Jaintia Hills. This forest is 
said to contain a certain quantity of nahor (Mesua ferrea) and sam 
(A?-focarj)t/s Chaplasha), but up to date it has not been worked. Pine 
and oak are the predominating trees in the higher plateaux ; but this 
portion of the District is very sparsely wooded, the trees having been 
killed out by forest fires and shifting cultivation. The ravines on the 
southern face of the hills and the low hills to the north are, however, 
clothed with dense evergreen forest. The area of these forests is not 
known, but there is very little trade in timber. 

The mineral wealth of the District consists of coal, iron, and lime- 
stone. Iron is derived from minute crystals of titaniferous iron ore, 
M . . which are found in the decomposed granite on the 

surface of the central dike of that rock, near the 
highest portion of the plateau. The iron industry was originally of 
considerable importance, but is now almost extinct. Cretaceous coal 
is found at Maobehlarkhar, near Maoflang, which is worked by the 
villagers in a primitive way for the supply of the station of Shillong. 
Another outcrop occurs at Langrin on the Jadukata river. Nummulitic 
coal is found at Cherrapunji, Lakadong, Thanjinath, Lynkerdem, 
Maolong, and Mustoh. The Maolong field, which is estimated to 
contain 15,000,000 tons of good workable coal, has lately been taken 
on lease by a limited company. Limestone is found all along the 
southern face of the hills as far as the Hari river, but it can only be 
economically worked where special facilities exist for its transport from 
the quarries to the kiln. Altogether thirty-four limestone tracts are 
separately treated as quarries. The most important are those situated 
on the Jadukata and Panatirtha rivers, the Dwara quarries, the Sheila 
quarries on the Bogapani, the quarries which lie immediately under 



ADMINISTRATION 263 

Cherrapunji, and the Utma quarries a little to the east on an affluent 
of the Piyain. The stone is quarried for the most part during the dry 
months, and rolled down to the river banks. When the hill streams 
rise, it is convtyed in small boats over the rapids, which occur before 
the rivers issue on the plains. Below the rapids it is generally reloaded 
on larger boats and carried down to the Surma river, on the banks of 
which it is burnt into lime during the cold season. The earthquake 
of 1897 considerably increased the difficulties of transport, and the 
lime business has of recent years been suffering from a depressed 
market. The output in 1904 amounted in round figures to 123,000 
tons. The quarries are worked by private individuals, usually them- 
selves Khasis, employing local labour. Stone quarries are also worked 
in the Jaintia Hills. Government realized in royalties in 1903-4 about 
Rs. 12,000 from lime, and Rs. 1,600 from coal. 

The manufactures of the District are not important. Handsome but 
rather heavy jewellery is made to order, and the Khasis manufacture 
rough pottery and iron hoes and daos, or hill knives. 

Cloths and jackets are woven in the Taintia Hills a e - a ?- 

J J communications. 

from thread spun from the en silkworm, and from 

cotton grown in the jhums. Bamboo mats and cane baskets and 

sieves are also made. 

The hillmen are keen traders, and a considerable proportion of the 
people earn their living by travelling from one market to another. 
The chief centres of business are at Cherrapunji, Laitlyngkot, Shillong, 
Jowai, and a market on the border of Sylhet near Jaintiapur. The 
principal exports are potatoes, cotton, lac, sesamum, oranges, bay- 
leaves, areca-nuts, and lime. The imports are rice and other food- 
grains, general oilman's stores, cotton piece-goods, kerosene oil, 
corrugated iron, and hand-woven cotton and silk cloths from the 
plains. There are a few Marwari merchants at Shillong, but they 
have no shops in the interior of the District, where trade is left in 
the hands of the Khasis and Syntengs. 

An excellent metalled cart-road runs from Gauhati to Cherrapunji, 
via Shillong, a distance of 97 miles. The gradients between Shillong 
and Gauhati have been most carefully adjusted, and a tonga and 
bullock-train service is maintained between these two towns. Except 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Shillong, few roads are suitable 
for wheeled traffic; but in 1903-4 there were altogether 356 miles of 
bridle-paths in the District. 

The District is divided into two subdivisions, Shillong and Jowai. 

Shillong is the head-quarters of the Deputy-Commissioner and the 

summer head-quarters of the Local Government. 

rpi 7 • 1 j 1 r t- Administration. 

I he Jowai subdivision is in charge of a European 

Subordinate Magistrate. In addition to these officers, an Assistant 



264 



KHASI AND JAINTIA HILLS 



Magistrate is stationed at Shillong, and an Engineer who is also in 
charge of Kamrup District. The Jaintia Hills, with Shillong, and 34 
villages in the Khasi Hills, are British territory. The rest of the Khasi 
Hills is included in twenty-five petty Native States, which have treaties 
or agreements with the British Government. These States vary in 
size from Khyrim, with a population of 31,327, to Nonglewai, with 
a population of 169. Nine of these States had a population of less 
than 1,000 persons in 1901. 

The High Court at Calcutta has no jurisdiction in the hills, except 
over European British subjects. The Codes of Civil and Criminal 
Procedure are not in force, and the Deputy-Commissioner exercises 
powers of life and death, subject to confirmation by the Lieutenant- 
Governor. Petty criminal and civil cases, in which natives of the 
District are concerned, are decided by the village authorities. Serious 
offences and civil suits in which foreigners are concerned are tried by 
the Deputy-Commissioner and his Assistants. There is, on the whole, 
very little serious crime in the District, but savage murders are 
occasionally committed. 

Land revenue is assessed only on building sites and on flat rice land 
in the Jaintia Hiils, which pays Rs. 1-14 per acre. The principal 
source of revenue in British territory is a tax of Rs. 2 on each house. 

The revenue from house-tax and total revenue is shown in the 
following table, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1. 1890-1. 


1 900-1. 


1903-4. 


Revenue from house-tax . 15 
Total revenue . . . 71* 


1 ~ 

'>>5 


2 7 
i,35 


28 
',44 



Exclusive of forest revenue. 

There are police stations in the hills, at Shillong, Cherrapunji, and 
Jowai, and an outpost at Nongpoh, half-way between Shillong and 
Gauhati. The force has a sanctioned strength of 23 officers and 183 
men, who are under the immediate charge of the Deputy-Com- 
missioner, but ordinary police duties are discharged by the village 
officials. The only jail in the District is at Shillong ; it has accommo- 
dation for 78 prisoners. 

Thanks to the efforts of the Welsh Presbyterian Mission, education 
has made considerable progress, and in 1901 the proportion of literate 
persons (5-7 per cent.) was higher than that in any District in 
Assam. The number of pupils under instruction in 1880-1, 1890-i, 
1900-1, and 1903-4 was 2,670, 3,582, 6,555, an d 7,275 respectively. 
The Khasi Hills owes its position to the spread of female education, 
3-4 per cent, of the women being able to read and write, as compared 
with 0-4 per cent, in Assam as a whole. In 1903-4 there were 



KHATAO 265 

348 primary, 8 secondary schools, and one special school in the District. 
The number of female scholars was 2,395. The great majority of 
the pupils under instruction were only in primary classes. Of the male 
population of school-going age 28 per cent, were in the primary stage 
of instruction, and of the female population of the same age 14 per 
cent. The total expenditure on education was Rs. 1,21,000, of which 
Rs. 7,000 was derived from fees; about 40 per cent, of the direct 
expenditure was devoted to primary schools. 

The District possesses two hospitals and four dispensaries, with 
accommodation for 23 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases 
treated was 25,000, of whom 200 were in-patients, and 500 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 10,000, the greater part of 
which was met from Provincial revenues. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in Shillong town, and has been 
somewhat neglected in the District. In 1903-4 only 28 per 1,000 of 
the population were protected, as compared with 44 per 1,000 in 
Assam as a whole. 

[A. Mackenzie, History of the Relations of the Government with the 
Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier of Bengal (Calcutta, 1 884) ; 
VV. J . Allen, Report on the Administration of the Cossyah and Jynteah 
Hill Territory (Calcutta, 1858); J. D. Hooker, Himalayan Journals 
(1854); B. C. Allen, District Gazetteer of the Khdsi and Jaintia Hills 
(1906) ; Major P. R. T. Gurdon, The Khdsis (1907).] 

Khaspur. — Village in the Silchar subdivision of Cachar District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 55' N. and 92 57' E., near 
the southern face of the Barail range. This was the capital of the 
Rajas of Cachar from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the 
death of the last Raja in 1830. While living here the Kaeharis came 
under the influence of Hinduism, and in 1790 the Raja and his 
brother entered the body of a copper image of a cow and emerged as 
Kshattriyas. The only traces of the former capital are to be found 
in the remains of four temples, two other buildings, and three tanks. 
The village is no longer of any importance. 

Khatao. — Tdluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between 17 18' 
and 1 7 48' N. and 74 14' and 74 51' E., with an area of 501 square 
miles. There are 85 villages, but no town. The head-quarters are at 
Vaduj. The population in 1901 was 96,416, compared with 95,223 in 
189L The density, 241 persons per square mile, is almost equal to 
the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-4 
lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 12,000 Khatao is a northerly continuation 
of the Khanapur plateau, and consists of the valley of the Verla, which, 
rising at the northern point of the tdluka, flows southward through it. 
Of the two ranges of hills which enclose the valley, the western range is 
the higher, while the eastern rises but little above the Khatao upland. 



266 



KHATAO 



The rainfall, which averages 20 inches annually at Vaduj, is scanty and 
fitful ; but the climate is fairly healthy. 

Khatauli. — Town in the Jansath taJis'd of Muzaffarnagar District, 
United Provinces, situated in 29 17' N. and 77 44' E., on the North- 
western Railway and on the road from Meerut to Roorkee. Popu- 
lation is increasing steadily, and was 8,695 m i9°i- The town is of 
some age, and contains four large Jain temples and a large sarai built 
by Shah Jahan. It first became of importance during the Bihar famine 
of 1874, when all the surplus grain in the District was exported from 
the railway station. The streets have recently been paved and masonry 
drains constructed. Khatauli is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 3,000. Its trade is chiefly connected with 
the export of grain and sugar, and is largely in the hands of Jain 
merchants. The tahslll school has 64 pupils, and an aided Jain 
school 38. 

Khatmandu.— Capital of Nepal. See Katmandu. 

Khed Taluka (1). — Tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, including the 
petty subdivision (petha) of Ambegaon, and lying between 18 37' and 
1 9 13' N. and 73 31' and 74 10' E., with an area of 876 square miles. 
There are two towns, Khed (population, 3,932), the head-quarters, 
and ALANDr (2,019); an d 2 4 2 villages, including Ghod (5,720) and 
Manchar (5,300). The population in 1901 was 156,275, compared 
with 162,391 in 1891. The density, 179 persons per square mile, is 
slightly below the District average. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was 2-3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 18,000. There are two large 
chains of hills, one in the north and the other in the south. The east 
is a series of table-lands crossed by mountains and hills, the country 
becoming rapidly more rugged as it approaches the Western Ghats. 
Most of the soil is red or grey. The Maval or west has little ' dry- 
crop' tillage. Khed contains the largest forest area in the District. 
The climate is generally good. The annual rainfall averages about 
26 inches. 

Khed Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Poona District, Bombay, situated in 18 51' N. and 73° 53' E., on the 
left bank of the Bhlma river, 26 miles north of Poona city. Population 
(1901), 3,932. Khed has an area of upwards of 20 square miles, 
within which limits are at least three places of interest from an archi- 
tectural or archaeological point of view : namely, the tomb and mosque 
of Dilawar Khan, an old Hindu temple of Siddheswar on the left bank 
of the Bhlma river, and a temple of Tukai-devi some centuries old 
a few yards to the right of the Poona-Nasik road. The mosque is a 
graceful specimen of Musalman carved stone-work. The town con- 
tains a Sub- Judge's court, a dispensary, and one school with 171 boys 
and 25 girls. The municipality was established in 1863. For the 



KHEM KARAN 267 

decade ending 1901 the average income was Rs. 3,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 3,500, chiefly derived from a house tax. A branch of 
the Church Missionary Society, stationed here, carries on evangelistic 
work in the taluka. 

Khed Taluka (2). — North-eastern taluka of Ratnagiri District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 17 33' and i7°54 / N. and 73 20' and 73°42 / E., with 
an area of 392 square miles. It contains 146 villages, including Khed 
(population, 5,053), the head-quarters ; but no town. The population in 
1901 was 95,594, compared with 100,550 in 1891. The decrease is 
ascribed to a virulent cholera epidemic and considerable emigration 
during the fair season. The density, 244 persons per square mile, is 
much below the District average. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 86,000, and cesses Rs. 6,ooo. The taluka consists cf 
a rugged and hilly surface, with patches of poor land. The north-west 
is much broken by ravines ; in the north-east are three hills, Mahipat- 
garh, Sumargarh, and Rasalgarh, detached from the Western Ghats 
by the deep valley of the Jagbudi. The principal passes across the 
Ghats are the H allot and the Amboli, the latter passable by pack- 
bullocks. The village sites are protected by shade-giving trees ; 
near the villages are numerous sacred groves. The river Jagbudi is 
navigable by small craft as far as Khed. The greater part of the taluka 
lies beyond the influence of the sea-breeze, and is consequently very 
hot during March, April, and May. The annual rainfall is heavy, 
averaging about 143 inches. 

Khed Village. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Ratnagiri District, Bombay, situated in 17 43' N. and 73 24' E., at 
the head of the Jagbudi river, and surrounded by hills. Population 
(1901), 5,053. A cart-road connects Khed with the port of Harnai, 26 
miles distant. Boats of light draught work up from Dabhol and Anjan- 
vel to Khed. East of the village are three small rock temples. The 
place contains a dispensary, and two schools with 150 boys and 9 girls. 

Kheda. — District and town in Bombay. See Kaira. 

Khejri. — Village in Midnapore District, Bengal. See Kedgeree. 

Khekra. — Town in the Baghpat tahstl of Meerut District, United 
Provinces, situated in 28 52' N. and 77 17' E., 26 miles west of 
Meerut city. Population (1901), 8,918. It is said to have been 
founded 1,600 years ago by AhTrs, who were ousted by Jats from 
Sikandarpur. In the Mutiny the owners rebelled, and the land was 
confiscated. The place is administered under Act XX of 1856, with 
an income of about Rs. 2,000. It is rising in importance as a centre 
of the grain and sugar trade. There is a primary school with 60 pupils. 

Khelat. — State and town in Baluchistan. See Kalat. 

Khem Karan. — Town in the Kasur tahsiloi Lahore District, Punjab, 
situated in 31 9' N. and 74 34' E., 7 miles from Kasur town, on the 

VOL. XV. 3 



268 KHEM KARAX 

North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 6,083. The Kasur branch 
of the Bari Doab Canal flows near the town, and the population, which 
is mainly agricultural, is well-to-do. The municipality was created in 
1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 5,200, and the expenditure Rs. 4,800. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 5,700, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 6,200. The town has a vernacular middle school, maintained 
by the municipality. 

Kherali. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Kheralu Taluka. — North-eastern taluka of the Kadi prant, Baroda 
State, with an area of 246 square miles. The population fell from 
98,682 in 1891 to 76,463 in 1901. The taluka contains three towns, 
Kheralu (population, 7,617), the head-quarters, Vadnagar (13,716), 
and Umta (5,242); and 88 villages. It is level throughout, and is 
fairly well wooded. The surface soil is for the most part sandy, but 
there is a little black soil. The Khari flows through it from east to 
west. The land revenue in 1904-5 was Rs. 42,000. 

Kheralu Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, 
Kadi prdnt, Baroda State, situated in 23 54' N. and 72°39 / E., on the 
Gaikwar's State line from Mehsana on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. 
Population (1901), 7,617. The town contains a magistrate's court, 
a dispensary, two dlia?-msalas, local offices, and a vernacular school, and 
is celebrated for the temple founded by the Vaishnavite reformer 
Vallabhacharya, who is said to have dwelt here. It is administered 
by a municipality, which receives an annual grant of Rs. 1,600 from 
the State. 

Kheravada {Khedavada).—Ve\Xy State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Kheri District (K/iiri).— Northern District of the Lucknow Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 27 41' and 28 42' N. and 8o° 2' 
and 8i° 19' E., with an area of 2,963 square miles. In shape it is 
roughly triangular, the flattened apex pointing north. The District is 
bounded on the north by the river Mohan, separating it from Nepal ; 
on the east by the Kauriala river, separating it from Bahraich ; on the 
south by Sitapur and Hardol Districts ; and on the west by PllJbhlt 
and Shahjahanpur. An old bed of the Sarda or Chauka, called the 
Ul, which again joins that river, divides Kheri into 
aspects tw0 P ortlons - ^he area lying north-east of the Ul 

is a wild tract of country, which forms practically 
a vast river-bed in which the Sarda has worn several channels. The 
widely scattered village sites are perched on the highest ground avail- 
able, and in the north stretch large areas of forest. During the rains 
the old channels fill with water, and the courses of the rivers vary from 
year to year. The greatest volume of water is carried by the Sarda or 
Chauka, which divides into two branches on the southern border. One 



KHERI DISTRICT 269 

of these, called the Dahawar, forms, for a short distance, the boundary 
between Kheri and Sitapur, and flows into the Kauriala. North of the 
Sarda lies an old bed called the Sarju or SuhelT, which also discharges 
into the Kauriala and receives many small tributaries from the north. 
The portion of the District lying south-west of the Ul is drier and more 
stable, but is also traversed by a number of streams, of which the most 
important are the Sarayan, Kathna, and Gumti, while the Sukheta flows 
along the south-west border. The District is studded with many lakes, 
which in the north-east take the form of deep pools marking the beds 
of old channels of the rivers, while in the south-west they are large 
shallow swamps or sheets of water, drying up in the hot season. 

The District exposes nothing but alluvium, and kankar or nodular 
limestone is the only stony formation. 

Kheri contains the luxurious vegetation found in the damp submon- 
tane tract. Besides the forests, which chiefly produce sal and will be 
described separately, groves of mangoes are common, and there are 
a few areas of dhak (Bitteafrondosa) and other scrub jungle. 

The large forest area gives shelter to many wild animals. Tigers, 
bears, and wolves are not rare, while leopards, wild dogs, hyenas, 
jungle-cats, and jackals are more common. Five species of deer are 
found, the swamp deer being the commonest, and a fair number of 
antelope, and great quantities of nilgai and hog. Game-birds are in 
abundance. Fish are plentiful, and mahseer are caught in all the 
large rivers. 

South-west of the Ul the country is generally healthy. The strip of 
jungle along the Kathna is still malarious, but is gradually being re- 
claimed. North-east of the Ul, and especially beyond the Chauka, the 
climate is exceedingly damp and feverish. The District generally is 
comparatively cool, and enjoys a mean annual temperature of about 79 . 

The rainfall is high ; the annual average amounts to 46 inches, the 
south-west receiving less than the north-east. Variations from year to 
year are considerable, and the total has fluctuated from 70 inches to 24. 

Traditions point to the inclusion of this tract in the realm of the 

Lunar race of Hastinapur, and several places are associated with 

episodes in the Mahabharata. The early history is, _. . 

, • , , rr„ , History, 

however, entirely unknown, lhe northern part was 

held by Rajputs in the tenth century, and tradition relates that they 
dispossessed the Pasis and other aboriginal tribes. Musalman rule 
spread slowly to this remote and inhospitable tract ; and it was pro- 
bably not before the fourteenth century that a chain of forts was con- 
structed along the northern frontier, to prevent the incursions of 
marauders from Nepal. Under Akbar the District formed part of 
the sarkdr of Khairabao in the Subah of Oudh. The later history 
is merely that of the rise and decline of individual families, and is 

S 2 



>7° 



KlfF.RI DISTRICT 



of purely local importance. When Rohilkhand was ceded to the 
British in 1801 part of this District was included in the cession, but 
it was restored to Oudh after the Nepalese War of 1814-6. On the 
annexation of Oudh in 1856 the west of the present area was formed 
into a District called Muhamdi and the east into Mallanpur, which also 
included part of Sitapur. A year later Muhamdi became one of the 
chief centres of disaffection in northern Oudh. The refugees from 
Shahjahanpur reached Muhamdi on June 2, and two days later that 
place was abandoned ; but the whole party, with few exceptions, were 
shot down on the way to Sitapur, and the survivors died or were 
murdered later at Lucknow. The British officials at Mallanpur, with 
a few who had fled from Sitapur. escaped to Nepal, where most of 
them died. No real attempt to recover the District was made till 
October, 1858, but peace was restored before the end of that year. 
The head-quarters of the single District then formed were moved to 
Lakhlmpur shortly afterwards. 

Many villages contain ancient mounds in which fragments of 
sculpture have been found, Balmiar-Barkhar and Khairlgarh being the 
most remarkable. A stone horse found near Khairlgarh bears an 
inscription of Samudra Gupta, king of Magadha, dated in the fourth 
century a.d. Gola possesses a celebrated temple. 

There are 5 towns and 1,659 villages. Population is increasing 
steadily. At the four enumerations the numbers were : (1869) 738,089, 

(1881) 831,922, (1891) 903,615, (1901) 905,138. 

The District is divided into three tahslls — Muhamdi, 
Nighasan, and Lakhimpur — each named after its head-quarters. 
The municipality of Lakhimpur, the 'notified area' of Muhamdi, 
and the town of Gola are the principal places. The following 
table gives the chief statistics of population in 190T : — 



Population. 



Tahsil. 



Muhamdi 
Nighasan . 
Lakhimpur 

District total 





Number of 


i"s 










cr: 




V 


■-e 


& 


be 


V 





^; 


u 

< 


H 

1 


> 


651 


607 


L237 


2 


3S6 


L075 


2 

5 


666 


2,963 


', 659 



3 

D. 



257,9 8 9 
28l,I23 
366,026 



9 5, I 3§ 



! u 

1 4) • 

t 

'Z v 
|| 

S- — 
'^ 

396 

; 227 
, 34° 

1 3°r 


Percentage of 

variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


— 0-2 
+ 0.6 

+ O-I 


5,296 

3,609 
7,326 


+ 0.2 


16,231 



About 86 per cent, of the total population are Hindus and nearly 
14 per cent. Musalmans. Between 1891 and 1901 the District 
suffered both from floods and from droughts, and the rate of increase 
was thus smaller than in previous decades. The density of population 



AGRICULTURE 



271 



is the lowest in Oudh. Eastern Hindi is the language principally 
spoken. 

Kheri is remarkable for the small proportion of high-caste Hindus 
found in it. Brahmans number only 65,000 and Rajputs 30,000. The 
most numerous castes are Chamars (tanners and cultivators), 104,000 ; 
Kurmis (agriculturists), 82,000 ; Pasis (toddy-drawers and cultivators), 
69,000 ; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 60,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 
44,000 ; and Muraos (market-gardeners), 34,000. Among Musalmans 
are Julahas (weavers), 20,000; Pathans, 16,000; Rajputs, 12,000; 
Shaikhs, 11,000; and Behnas (cotton-carders), 11,000. The Banjaras 
of this District number 6,800, found only in the submontane tracts. 
They are largely carriers of grain. Kurmis, Brahmans, Rajputs, 
Muraos, Chamars, and Pasis are the principal cultivators. Agriculture 
supports as many as 77 per cent, of the total population. 

Out of 417 native Christians in 1901, 337 were Methodists. The 
American Methodist Mission, opened in 1862, has a number of 
branches in the District. 

Kherl is divided by its rivers into four tracts of varying conditions. 
The south-west corner between the Sukheta and the Gumtl consists of 
fertile loam, which turns to sand along the Gumtl. 
Between the Gumtl and the Kathna lies a high sandy 
tract called the Parehar, in which cultivation is extremely precarious, 
but which is celebrated as a breeding-ground for cattle. The richest 
part of the District is included between the Kathna and the Ul, where 
the soil is a rich loam. Beyond the Ul, cultivation shifts over wide 
tracts. The floods of the Kauriala usually deposit coarse, infertile 
sand, while the Sarda and Dahawar bring down finer silt in which rice 
can be grown. 

The tenures in Kheri are those commonly found in Oudh. Of 
the total area, 71 per cent, is held by talukddrs, but only a very small 
area is sub-settled. Most of the rest is included in zamliidari mahals. 
The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square 
miles : — 



Agriculture. 



Ta/isil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Muhamdl 
Nighasan 
Lakhimpur . 

Total 


651 
1,237 

1,075 


406 
439 
529 


99 

* 


161 
297 
2I 5 


2 ,9 6 3 


i>374 


176 


673 



Wheat is the crop most largely grown, covering 343 square miles or 
25 per cent, of the area cropped. Rice (230), maize (208), barley 
(157), gram (151), kodon (148), and pulses (138) are also important. 
Sugar-cane (49) and oilseeds (50) are the chief non-food crops. 



272 KHERI DISTRICT 

The District was very backward at the time of the first regular 
settlement, but in thirty years the cultivated area had increased by 
1 8 per cent. A series of bad seasons from 1892 to 1896 reduced 
cultivation considerably ; but in 1903-4 the area was 25 per cent, 
greater than it had been fort)' years before. There has also been 
a rise in the area double cropped. The area under sugar-cane, 
wheat, and rice has increased to some extent, but the improvement 
in the kind of staple grown is not so marked as elsewhere. The 
demand for advances under the Land Improvement and Agricul- 
turists 1 Loans Acts is small, except in unfavourable years. Only 
Rs. 88,000 was lent during ten years ending 1900, and half of this 
sum was advanced in the famine year, 1897. Practically no loans 
have been given since 1900. 

Kherl is the most - important centre for cattle-breeding in the 
United Provinces. It supplies a large number of draught bullocks 
to the whole of Oudh and the Gorakhpur Division. The most 
distinctive breed is called Parehar, from the tract of country where 
it is found. The bullocks are small, but fiery tempered, fast movers, 
and very enduring. Other breeds are the Bhur, Khairlgarh, Majhra, 
Singahl, and Dhaurahra, which are larger and coarser. During the 
hot season cattle are taken in large numbers to graze in the jungles 
of Nepal. Ponies are numerous, but of a very inferior type, and are 
chiefly kept as pack-animals. Sheep and goats are kept for meat, and 
for their wool and hair. 

Only 176 square miles were irrigated in 1903-4, of which 109 were 
supplied by wells, 60 by tanks or jhlls, and 7 by other sources. 
Irrigation is practically confined to the south-west of the District, 
excluding the Parehar tract, in which there is hardly any. The 
spring-level is high, and the dhenkli or lever is used to raise water from 
wells. Irrigation from JM/s is carried on by the swing-basket. 

' Reserved ' forests cover an area of 443 square miles in the north of 
the District. The chief timber tree is sal {S/iorca robustd) ; but the 
forests also contain asaina {Terminalia tomentosa\ haldu (Adina cordi- 
folia), khair {Acacia Catechu), and other valuable species. The minor 
products include fuel, thatching-grass, and grass used as fibre. In 
1903-4 the total revenue from forest produce was 2-6 lakhs, the 
receipts from timber being the most important item. The forests arc 
included in the Kherl division of the Oudh circle. 

Kaiikar is the only mineral product, and is used for making lime 
and metalling roads. It is, however, scarce and of poor quality, as is 
usual in the submontane Districts. 

The most important industry is sugar-refining, and this is only carried 
on south-west of the Gumti. Cotton cloth for local use is woven at a 
few places, and at Oel there is a small manufacture of brass utensils. 



ADMIXISTRATIOX 273 

The District exports grain, sugar, forest produce, .cattle, and ghi, 

while the chief imports are piece-goods, metals, and salt. There is also 

some trade with Nepal, from which timber, rice, and 

spices are received. The principal trading centres Trade and 

til- Ari 1- 1 ^1 , communications, 

are Lakhimpur, Muhamdi, and Gola. 

The Lucknow-Bareilly State Railway (managed by the Rohilkhand 
and Kumaun Railway) crosses the District south-west of the Ul. From 
MailanI a branch strikes off through the forest to Marauncha. Ghat on 
the Sarda, which is crossed by a temporary bridge, the line being 
continued from the opposite bank to Sonaripur. A short branch of 
this line from Dudhwa to the Nepal frontier, opened in 1903, is used 
chiefly for the export of grain and forest produce. The whole line 
from MailanI is open only from January to June. The Pawayan 
steam tramway, which connects MailanI with Shahjahanpur, has a 
short length in the District. 

Communications by road are very poor. Only 40 miles are metalled 
out of a total length of 656. About 250 miles are maintained by the 
Public Works department, but the cost of all but 17 miles is charged to 
Local funds. The chief metalled road is that from Sitapur to Shah- 
jahanpur, which passes through the south-west corner of the District, 
and the other metalled roads are merely short lengths of feeder-roads 
to railway stations. The improvement of communications, and in 
particular the construction of bridges, is rendered difficult by the 
vagaries of the streams which intersect the District. Avenues of trees 
are maintained on only 8 miles. 

Owing to the natural moisture of the soil and the rarity of a serious 
failure of the rainfall, scarcity from drought is not severely felt in this 
District. Distress was experienced in 1769, and 
tradition relates that in 1783 there was severe famine 
and many deaths occurred from starvation. Scarcity was again felt in 
1865, 1869, and 1874. In 1878 relief works and poorhouses were 
opened, but were not much resorted to. Up to that time the difficulties 
of transport had added to the distress caused by a local failure of 
the crops; but the railway, opened in 1887, now makes it possible 
to import grain when needed. From 1892 to 1895 excessive rain 
injured the crops in the low-lying parts of the District. The drought 
of 1896 thus caused an increase in the cultivated area north-east of 
the Ul, though it was followed by a contraction in the area under 
spring crops in 1897. Relief works and poorhouses were opened, but 
famine was not severe. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is assisted by a staff of three Deputy- 
Collectors recruited in India, and a tahsilddr resides 
at the head-quarters of each tahsil. A Deputy-Con- 
servator of Forests is stationed at Lakhimpur. 



2 74 



KI/ERI DISTRICT 



The civil courts are those of the Munsif and Subordinate Judge, 
and the District is included in the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of 
Sltapur. Crime is generally light, though thefts and burglaries are 
common, owing to the fact that the houses in many parts are simply 
wattle sheds. The jungle along the Kathna formerly had a bad 
reputation for sheltering criminals. An attempt has been made, with 
only partial success, to reclaim the criminal tribe known as Bhatus 
or Sansias by settling them on the land. Female infanticide was 
formerly rife, but is no longer suspected. 

The records of the first summary settlement made after annexation 
perished in the Mutiny. It is, however, certain that under it the tdluk- 
ddrs lost few villages. After the Mutiny a second summary settlement 
was made on the basis of the accounts under native rule, the demand 
amounting to 4-9 lakhs. A survey was commenced in 1864 and 
a regular settlement followed, which was completed by 1872. The 
assessments were based on estimates of produce and on selected rent 
rates, while they also anticipated a great extension of cultivation 
and proved too high. The necessity for revision was increased by a 
succession of bad years, and the whole settlement was again examined 
between 1872 and 1877, with the result that the demand was reduced 
from 12-2 to 8 lakhs. The settlement officers sat as civil courts to 
determine claims to rights in land, but their work was lighter here than 
in most Districts of Oudh. A new settlement, preceded by a resurvey, 
was made between 1897 and 1900, and was characterized by speed 
and economy. Rents are payable in kind over a large area, and the 
valuation of this portion of the District was made by ascertaining 
the actual receipts over a series of years. In some cases rents are paid 
by cash rates on the area actually cultivated in each harvest, and for 
the finer staples cash rents are invariably paid. The demand fixed 
amounted to 10-3 lakhs, which represented 46 per cent, of the estimated 
net 'assets.' In different parts of the District the incidence varies 
from Rs. 2 to R. 0-4, the average being R. 0-7. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880 I. 1890-1. 


1900-1. 

9>°3 
12,42 


1903-4- 


Land revenue . . 7,44 8,30 
Total revenue . . 8,39 11,02 


9,86 
J 4,47 



The District contains one municipality, Lakhimpur, one 'notified 
area,' MuHAMDl, and two towns administered under Act XX of 1856. 
Local affairs beyond the limits of these are managed by the District 
board, which in 1903-4 had an income and expenditure of i-i lakhs 



KHERWARA 275 

About halt' the income is derived from rates, and the expenditure 
included Rs. 58,000 spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of 

3 inspectors, 85 subordinate officers, and 256 constables, distributed in 
12 police stations; and there are also 44 municipal and town police, 
and 1,762 rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily 
average of 286 prisoners in 1903. 

Kherl is one of the most backward Districts in the United Provinces 
in regard to education, and only i«8 per cent, of the population 
(7,-^ males and 0-2 females) could read and write in 1901. The 
number of public schools increased from 95 with 3,430 pupils in 
1880-1 to 116 with 4,046 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 
162 such schools with 5,676 pupils, of whom 189 were girls, besides 

4 private schools with 61 pupils. Three schools are maintained by 
Government and 89 are managed by the District and municipal boards. 
The total expenditure on education in the same year was Rs. 40,000, 
of which Rs. 34,800 was provided from Local funds and Rs. 4,400 
by fees. 

There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
39 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 46,000, 
including 415 in-patients, and 1,988 operations were performed. The 
expenditure amounted to Rs. 10,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 13,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting a proportion of 34 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is 
compulsory only in the municipality of Lakhlmpur. 

[S. H. Butler, Settlement Report (1901) ; H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1905).] 

Kherl Town (Khiri). — Town in the Lakhlmpur tahsil of Kherl 
District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 54' N. and 8o c 48' E., on 
the Lucknow-Bareilly State Railway. Population (1901), 6,223. Kheri 
is a place of some antiquity, and contains a tine tomb built over the 
remains of Saiyid Khurd, who died in 1563. It is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 800. Though giving 
its name to the District, it is of small importance. A daily market 
is held, and the town contains a branch of the American Methodist 
Mission and a school with 144 pupils. 

Kheri-Rajapur. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agencv, Central India. 

Kherwara (1). — Cantonment included in the fifth or Mhow division 
of the Western Command of the Indian army, and situated in 23° 59' N. 
and 73 36' E., in the south-west corner of the State of Udaipur, 
Rajputana, about 50 miles south of Udaipur city. It stands in a valley 
1,050 feet above the sea, and on the banks of a small stream called the 
Godavari. Population (1901), 2,289. Kherwara is the head-quarters 
of the Mewar Bhil Corps, which was raised between 1840 and 1844, 



2'/6 



K1IER WAR A 



with the objects of weaning a semi-savage race from its predatory 
habits, giving them honourable employment, and assisting the Me war 
State in preserving order. The uniform of the Bhll sepoy of those 
early davs was a scanty loin-cloth (he would wear no other) ; his arms 
were a bow and arrows : and his distrust and suspicion was such that 
he would serve for daily pay only, deserting if that were withheld. 
Throughout the Mutiny of 1857 the corps remained staunch. At that 
time a squadron of Bengal cavalry was stationed here, and left in 
a body for Nimach after endeavouring to persuade the Bhlls to join 
them. The latter followed up the squadron, killed every man, and 
brought back their horses and accoutrements to Kherwara. A detach- 
ment operated against Tantia Topi's adherents in Banswara and Partab- 
garh, and gained the Mutiny medal. The corps received its colours in 
1862, and was placed under the Commander-in-Chief in 1897. It con- 
sists of eight companies (seven of Bhlls and one of Hindustanis), and 
furnishes detachments at Kotra, Udaipur city, and the town of Dungar- 
pur. Much good has been effected by the enlistment of these hill- 
men ; and, through the influence of those in the service and" of the 
numerous pensioners in the districts, the Bhlls have largely forsaken 
their predatory habits. During the famines of i899-i90oand 1901-2 
the corps did excellent work in hunting down dacoits and keeping 
order generally. Besides the regimental school and hospital, the 
cantonment contains a school maintained by the Church Missionary 
Society, which has a branch here, and a hospital with accommodation 
for 10 in-patients, which is kept up from private subscriptions and a 
grant from the Darbar. The commandant of the Bhll Corps is also 
Political Superintendent of the Hilly Tracts, a wild country, com- 
prising the two bhumidts or districts of Kherwara and Kotra, con- 
taining altogether 361 villages and 34,296 inhabitants, almost all of 
whom are Bhlls. The villages are for the most part held by petty 
Girasia chiefs, who pay a small tribute or quit-rent to the Mewar 
Darbar. The principal chiefs in the Kherwara district are the Raos 
of Jawas, Para, and Madri. 

Kherwara (2). — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Khetri. — Head-quarters of the chiefship of the same name in Jaipur 
State, Rajputana, situated in 28 N. and 75 47' E., about 80 miles 
north of Jaipur city. Population (1901), 8,537. The town is pic- 
turesquely situated in the midst of hills, and is difficult of access, there 
being only one cart-road and two or three bridle-paths into the valley in 
which it stands. It is commanded by a fort of some strength on the 
summit of a hill 2,337 feet above sea-level. In the town the Raja 
maintains an Anglo-vernacular high school attended by 66 boys, 
a Hindi school attended by 112 boys, and a hospital with accom- 
modation for 6 in-patients. There are also 5 indigenous schools, and 



KHILCHIPUR STATE 277 

a combined post and telegraph office. In the immediate neighbour- 
hood are valuable copper-mines, which, about 1854, yielded an income 
of Rs. 30,000, but which, owing to the absence of proper appliances for 
keeping down the water and a scarcity of fuel, have not been worked 
for many years. Nickel and cobalt have been found ; but these minerals 
are quarried principally at Babai, about 7 miles to the south, the ore 
being extensively used for enamelling and exported for this purpose to 
Jaipur, Delhi, and other places. The chiefship, which lies partly in the 
Shekhawati and partly in the Torawati nizamat, consists of 3 towns — 
Khetri, Chirawa, and Kot Putli— and 255 villages; and the popu- 
lation in 1901 was 131,913, Hindus forming nearly 92 per cent, and 
Musalmans 8 per cent. In addition, the Raja has a share in 26 
villages not enumerated above, and possesses half of the town of Six- 
ghaxa. The town and pargana of Kot Putli are held as a free grant 
from the British Government, while for the rest of his territory the Raja 
pays to the Jaipur Darbar a tribute of Rs. 73,780. The normal income 
of the estate is about 5-3 lakhs, and the expenditure 3-5 lakhs. 

Khetur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Rajshahi Dis- 
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 24' N. and 88° 25' E. 
Population (1901), 440. It enjoys a high repute for sanctity from its 
having been visited by Chaitanya, the great Hindu religious reformer 
of the sixteenth century, in whose honour a temple has been erected 
in the village. A religious fair held annually in October is attended 
by 25,000 persons. 

Khewra. — Salt mines in Jhelum District, Punjab. See Mayo Mine. 

Khiaoda. — Thakurat in the Gwalior Residencv, Central India. 

Khiching.— Village in Mayurbhanj, one of the Orissa Tributary 
States, Bengal, situated in 21 55' N. and 85° 50' E. Population 
(1901), 269. It contains archaeological remains, such as statues, pillars, 
mounds, and the ruins of several brick and stone temples. A group of 
temples adjoining the village is of great interest. One of the temples 
(to Siva) seems to have been repaired in the time of Man Singh, 
Akbar's Hindu general, to whom another (unfinished) temple should 
probably be ascribed. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xiii, pp. 74-6.] 

Khijadia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Khijadia Dosaji. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Khijadia Najani.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Khilchipur State. — Mediatized chiefship in Central India, under 
the Bhopal Agency, lying between 23 52' and 24° 17' N. and 76° 26" 
and 76 42' E., with an area of about 273 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the Kotah State of the Rajputana Agency ; on the east 
by Rajgarh ; on the west by Indore ; and on the south by Narsingh- 
garh. The State is situated in the district of Malwa known as 



278 KHILCHIPUR STATE 

Khichiwara, mainly in the Deccan trap area, but over its more northern 
portion sandstones of the Kaimur and other allied series are exposed. 
The climate is temperate, the annual rainfall averaging about 32 inches. 

The chiefs are Khichl Rajputs, a section of the great Chauhan clan. 
This State was founded in 1544 by Ugrasen, who was forced by family 
dissensions to migrate from the Khichi capital of Gagraun. A grant of 
land was subsequently made to him by the Delhi emperor, which 
included the adjoining Zirapur and Machalpur parganas, now a part of 
Indore State, and Shujalpur, now in Gwalior. This territory was lost in 
1770, when Abhai Singh was obliged to make terms with Sindhia. At 
the time of the settlement of Malwa in 18 19 a dispute existed regarding 
the succession, which at the request of the Gwalior Darbar was settled 
by the mediation of the British authorities, Diwan Sher Singh succeed- 
ing as a boy of five. He was followed in 1869 by his nephew Amar 
Singh, who received the hereditary title of Rao Bahadur in 1873. In 
1884 he abolished all transit duties in the State, except those on opium. 
The present chief, Bhawani Singh, succeeded in 1899. The Rao 
Bahadur of Khilchipur is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. 

The population was : (1881) 36,125, (1891) 36,302, and (1901) 
31,143, giving a density of 114 persons per square mile. The State 
contains one town, Khilchipur (population, 5,121), the capital; and 
283 villages. Hindus number 29,258, or 94 per cent. ; Musalmans, 
1,051, or 3 per cent. ; and Animists, 796, mostly Bhils. The chief 
castes and tribes are Sondhias, 4,900; Dhakads, 3,800; Deswalis 
(allied to Sondhias), 3,070; Chamars, 2,550; Dangls, 2,520; Lodhas, 
2,340; and Rajputs, 2,210. 

The soil in the south-west is of the fertile black variety, bearing good 
crops of all the ordinary grains ; but the northern portions are covered 
with a rough stony soil of little agricultural value. Of the total area, 84 
square miles, or 31 per cent., are cultivated, of which 5 square miles 
are irrigable ; 80 square miles are under forest ; 46 square miles, or 1 7 
per cent., are cultivable but not cultivated ; and the rest is waste. 
Joivar occupies 38 square miles, or 44 per cent, of the cultivated area ; 
cotton, 4 square miles : poppy, 2 square miles ; and wheat, 1 square 
mile. 

The State is divided for administrative purposes into three /ahsils, 
each under a tahslldar. The chief has full powers in civil and revenue 
matters, but all serious cases of crime are dealt with by the Political 
Agent in Bhopal. The total revenue amounts to about i-i lakhs, of 
which Rs. 85,000 is derived from land, Rs. 11,000 from tdnka, and 
Rs. 10,000 from customs dues, including Rs. 2,000 from opium. The 
principal heads of expenditure are : Rs. 7,000 on the chiefs establish- 
ment, Rs. 4,000 on general administration, Rs. 10,000 on army and 
police, and Rs. 3,000 on public works. A tribute of Rs. 12,625, formerly 



KHOJAK 279 

made direct to Sindhia, has been since 1844 paid to the British Govern- 
ment through the Political Agent, in adjustment of Sindhia's contribu- 
tion towards the local corps in Malwa. The land revenue is farmed 
out and is realized in British coin, which has been legal tender since 
1898. The State keeps up a small force of regular infantry, 161 strong, 
as a body-guard to the chief. There are also 25 horse and 288 foot, 
who act as police, and serve 4 guns. A British post office, a school, 
and a hospital are maintained at the chief town. 

Khilchipur Town. — Chief town of 'the State of the same name in 
Central India, situated in 24 3' N. and 76 35' E., about 1.400 feet 
above the level of the sea, in the rugged country at the foot of the arm 
of the Vindhyas which strikes eastwards from Chitor to Chandeii. The 
name was originally Khichipur ; and the corruption may be due to an 
attempt on the part of the Muhammadan rulers to substitute KhiljTpur, 
the name under which the town is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbarl. 
Population (1901), 5,121. A British post office, a jail, a school, and 
a hospital are situated in the town. Khilchipur is connected with 
the Agra-Bombay high road by a feeder-road, 25 miles long, whence 
traffic passes to Guna station on the Blna-Baran branch of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway, 53 miles distant. 

Khipro. — Taluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, lying 
between 25 26' and 26 15' N. and 69 3' and 70 16' E., with an area 
of 2,249 square miles. Population in 1901 was 54,681, compared with 
47,199 in 1 89 1. The density, 24 persons per square mile, is almost 
equal to the District average. The taluka contains 125 villages, the 
head-quarters being at Khipro. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to nearly 2 lakhs. Excepting the desert portion, known as 
Rana.hu tafia, the taluka is irrigated by the Mithrao Canal and the 
Dhoro Naro. 

Khirasra. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Khirpai. — Town in the Ghatal subdivision of Midnapore District, 
Bengal, situated in 22 43' N. and 87 37' E. The population in 190 1 
was 5,045, compared with 8,046 in 1872. The decrease is due to the 
ravages of the Burdwan fever. Khirpai was constituted a municipality 
in 1876. The income and expenditure during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 2,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,100, 
mainly derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 3,450. 

Khojak (Kozhak). — An historic pass across the Khwaja Amran off- 
shoot of the Toba-Kakar mountains in the Quetta-Pishln District, 
Baluchistan. It lies in 30 51' N. and 66° 34" E., 70 miles from Quetta 
by rail. From Kila Abdullah, on the south, there is a gradual ascent 
to Shelabagh, whence the summit (7,457 feet) is reached in 3! miles. 
A cart-road through the pass connects Kila Abdullah with Chaman. At 



2 So KHOJAK 

Shelabagh the railway runs through the Khojak tunnel, which is just 
under z\ miles long, and cost rather less than 70 lakhs of rupees, or 
about Rs. 530 per lineal foot. It was constructed between 1888 and 
1891. Lying on the route from Kandahar to India, the Khojak Pass 
has been crossed and recrossed for centuries by conqueror, soldier, and 
merchant ; and its passage was twice effected by the British arms, in 
1839 and in 1879. 

Khojankhera. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Kholapur. — Town in the District and taluk of Amraoti, Berar, 
situated in 20 57' N. and 77 ^ E., 18 miles west of Amraoti town. 
Population (1901), 5,373. Its silk trade was once considerable. In 
1809 Vithal Bhag Deo, Subahdar of Ellichpur, demanded a contribu- 
tion of Rs. 1,00,000. On payment being refused he captured the town, 
which was then protected by walls, and it was sacked by his troops. 
Its rapid decadence is partly attributable to the annual fights which 
formerly occurred between the Musalmans and the Rajputs, when 
the victorious party always took occasion to plunder at least part of 
the town. 

Khond (Ka/id/i). — A Dravidian tribe mostly found in the Tributary 
States of Orissa, and in the adjoining Agency tract of Ganjam District, 
Madras. The total number of Khonds or Kandhs (including Konda 
Dora) returned at the Census of 1901 was 701,198, of whom no less 
than 517,771 retained their animistic faith, while 494,099 still spoke 
Kandh or Kul. The following description chiefly relates to the 103,000 
Khonds in the Orissa State of Kalahandi, a large tract of which is 
known as the Kondhan : — 

The Khonds call themselves Kuiloka or Kuienju, which may possibly 
be derived from ko or ku, meaning a 'mountain' in Telugu. Their 
own traditions as to their origin are of no historical value. They were, 
however, probably in possession of the country before the Oriya 
immigration, as is shown by the fact that the Raja of Kalahandi was 
accustomed until recently to sit in the lap of a Khond on his accession, 
while his turban was tied on and he received the oaths of fealty. The 
Rajas were also accustomed to take a Khond girl as one of their wives, 
while many of the zanundars or large landholders in Kalahandi. Patna, 
and Sonpur are Khonds. 

There is no strict endogamy in the Khond tribe. It has two main 
divisions : the Kutia Khonds, who are hill-men and retain their primi- 
tive tribal customs ; and the plain-dwelling Khonds, who have acquired 
a tincture of Hinduism. The latter have formed several divisions 
which are supposed to be endogamous, though the rule is not strictly 
observed. Among these are the Raj Khonds, Dal, Taonla, Porkhia, 
Kandharra, Ciouria, Nagla, and others. The Raj Khonds are the 
highest, and are usually landed proprietors. Unless they have land they 



KHOXD 281 

are not called Raj Khonds, and if a Raj Khond marries in another 
division he descends to it. The Dais, also called Balmudia or ' shaven,' 
may have been soldiers. The Porkhias eat por, or buffalo ; the Kan- 
dharras grow turmeric ; the Gourias graze cattle ; and the Nagla, or 
' naked,' are apparently so called because of their paucity of clothing. 
The divisions therefore are mainly due to differences of social practice. 
The Kutia or hill Khonds are said to be so called because they break 
the skulls of animals when they kill them for food. Traditionally the 
Khonds have thirty-two exogamous septs, but the number has now 
increased. The septs are further divided into sub-septs, which are 
also exogamous, and are usually totemistic. The same sub-sept is 
found in different septs, and a man may not marry a girl belonging to 
the same sept or sub-sept as himself. But there is no restriction as 
to marriage on the mother's side, and he can marry his maternal 
uncle's daughter. 

Marriage is adult, and a price is paid for the bride, which was 
formerly from 12 to 20 head of cattle, but has now been reduced in 
some localities to two or three, and a rupee in lieu of each of the 
others. A proposal for marriage is made by placing a brass cup and 
three arrows at the girl's door. If these are not removed by her father 
in token of refusal, the terms are discussed. The wedding procession 
goes from the bride's to the bridegroom's house. At the marriage the 
bride and bridegroom come out, each sitting on the shoulders of one 
of their relatives. The bridegroom pulls the bride to his side, when 
a piece of cloth is thrown over them, and they are tied together with 
a piece of new yarn wound round them seven times. A cock is 
sacrificed, and the cheeks of the couple are singed with burnt bread. 
They pass the night in a veranda, and next day are taken to a tank, 
the bridegroom being armed with a bow and arrows. He shoots one 
through each of seven cow-dung cakes, the bride after each shot wash- 
ing his forehead and giving him a green twig for a toothbrush, and 
some sweets. This is symbolical of their future course of life, the 
husband procuring food by hunting, while the wife waits on him and 
prepares his food. Sexual intercourse before marriage between a man 
and girl of the tribe is condoned, so long as they are not within the 
prohibited degrees of relationship. A trace of polyandry survives in 
the custom by which the younger brothers are allowed access to the 
elder brother's wife till the time of their own marriage. 

On the sixth day after a male child has been born, his mother takes 
a bow and arrows, and stands with the child facing successively to 
the four points of the compass. This is to make the child a skilful 
hunter when he grows up. 

The dead are usually buried, but the practice of cremating the bodies 
of adults is increasing. When a body is buried a rupee or a copper 



282 KHOXD 

coin is tied in the sheet, so that the deceased may not go penniless to 
the other world. Sometimes the dead man's clothes and bows and 
arrows are buried with him. On the tenth day the soul is brought 
back. Outside the village, where two roads meet, rice is offered to 
a cock, and if it eats, this is a sign that the soul has come. The soul 
is then asked to ride on a bow-stick covered with cloth, and is brought 
to the house and placed in a corner with those of other relatives. 
The souls are fed twice a year with rice. In Sambalpur a ball of 
powdered rice is placed under a tree with a lamp near it, and the first 
insect that settles on the ball is taken to be the soul, and is brought 
home and worshipped. 

The Khond pantheon consists of eighty-four gods, of whom DharnI 
Deota, the earth-god, is the chief. He is usually accompanied by 
Bhatbarsi Deota, the god of hunting. The earth-god is represented 
by a rectangular piece of wood buried in the ground, while Bhatbarsi 
has a place at his feet in the shape of a granulated piece of stone. 
Three great festivals are held annually, marking the dates from which 
the new mahua flowers and rice may be first eaten. Once in four or 
five years a buffalo is offered to the earth-god, in lieu of the human 
sacrifice which was formerly in vogue. The animal is predestined for 
sacrifice from its birth, and is allowed to wander loose and graze on 
the crops at its will. The stone representing Bhatbarsi is examined 
periodically, and when the granules on it appear to have increased it is 
decided that the time has come for the sacrifice. In Kalahandl a lamb 
is sacrificed every year, and strips of its flesh distributed to all the 
villagers, who bury it in their fields as a divine agent of fertilization, 
in the same way as the flesh of the human victim was formerly buried. 
The Khond worships his bows and arrows before he goes out hunting, 
and believes that every hill and valley has its separate deity, who must 
be propitiated with the promise of a sacrifice before his territory is 
entered, or he will hide the animals within it from the hunter, and 
enable them to escape when wounded. They apparently believe that 
the souls of the departed are born again in children. Some boys are 
named Majhian Budhi, which means an 'old headwoman,' whom they 
suppose to have been born again with a change of sex. Children are 
weaned in the fifth or sixth year, and are then made to ride a goat or 
pig, as a mark of respect, it is said, to the ancestor who has been 
reborn in them. Names usually recur after the third generation. 

The Khond traditionally despises all occupations except those of 
husbandry, hunting, and war. They are considered very skilful culti- 
vators in places, but usually, like other forest tribes, they are 
improvident and fond of drink. 

In 1882 occurred an armed rising of the Khonds of Kalahandl, 
as a result of their grievances against members of the Kolta caste, who 



KHONDMALS 2 8 3 

had ousted them from some of their villages, and reduced many of 
their headmen to a hopeless condition of debt. A number of Koltas 
were murdered and offered to temples, the Khonds calling them their 
goats, and in one case a Kolta was offered as the meriah sacrifice to 
the earth-god. The rising was promptly suppressed by a Political 
officer appointed to the charge of the State. 

The Khond or Kandh language, called Kui by the Khonds them- 
selves, is spoken by 32 per cent, of the members of the tribe in Kala- 
handl. It is much more nearly related to Telugu than is Gondi, and 
has no written character. Further information about the Khonds will be 
found in the articles on the Khondmals, Angul District, and Maliahs. 

Khondmals. — Subdivision of Angul District, Bengal, lying between 
20 13' and 20 41' N. and 83 50' and 84 36' E., with an area of 
800 square miles. The population fell from 66,352 in 1891 to 64,214 
in 1 90 1, the decrease being due to the prevalence of cholera and other 
diseases, and to short crops in 1896 and 1899 which stimulated emigra- 
tion. The density in 1901 was 80 persons per square mile. The 
subdivision consists of a plateau 1,700 feet in height, intersected by 
circular ranges of hills. Heavy forest still covers much of the area, 
and the cultivated lands lie in scattered clearings on the hill-sides and 
in the valleys below. A range of hills 3,000 to 3,300 feet in height 
separates the Khondmals from Ganjam, forming the southern watershed 
of the Mahanadl. The head-quarters are at Phulbani, and there are 
995 other villages. The Khonds, a Dravidian tribe, here survive as 
a distinct nationality with a history, a religion, a language, and a system 
of law and landed property of their own. The villages are divided 
from each other by rugged peaks and dense forests ; but a regular 
system of government on the aboriginal plan is maintained, the hamlets 
being distributed into muthas each under the supervision of its own 
chief. Throughout this wild tract the Khonds claim an indefeasible 
right in the soil. At no time were they more than nominally subject 
to the Baud Raja, who was totally unable to control or coerce them. 
They first came into prominence in the early part of the nineteenth 
century, owing to the prevalence among them of human sacrifices and 
female infanticide. The human sacrifice was a propitiatory offering to 
the earth-god, and the flesh of the victims was buried in the field 
to ensure good crops ; it was firmly believed that turmeric could not 
have a deep-red colour without the shedding of blood. The victims, 
or meriahs as they were called, were purchased, as an ancient rule 
ordained that the meriah must be bought with a price. The duty of 
providing them rested with the Pans, who are attached to every Khond 
village as serfs, and who either kidnapped them from the plains or 
purchased them locally. These human sacrifices were suppressed with 
difficulty by the British Government. 
vol. xv. T 



284 KHONDMALS 

The Khonds hold their lands directly under the Government and 
pay no rent or tax, except a contribution of 3 annas per plough for the 
improvement of communications. Infant and adult marriages are both 
common ; in the former case, the girl is often older than the boy. 
The Khonds of the Khondmals recognize two principal gods, Saru 
Pennu and Taru Pennu, of whom Saru Pennu may be described as 
the god of the hills and Taru Pennu as the earth-god. 

[H. H. Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal (1891).] 

Khonoma. — A large and powerful AngamI Naga village in the 
Naga Hills District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25 39' N. 
and 94 i' E. In 1879 Mr. Damant, the Political officer, was 
treacherously attacked here, and was killed, together with thirty-five 
of his escort. Khonoma was besieged and taken in November, 1879; 
but two European officers lost their lives in the assault, and the de- 
fenders retreated to a very strong position above the village on a spur 
of Mount Japvo, where they maintained themselves till the end of the 
campaign. In January, 1880, a party of these Nagas, though their 
village was at that very time occupied by our troops, made a daring 
raid on the Baladhan garden in Cachar, more than 80 miles distant, 
where they killed the manager, Mr. Blyth, and sixteen coolies. 

Khowai. — River of Assam, which rises in the State of Hill Tippera, 
and, after flowing north-west through the Habiganj subdivision of 
Sylhet District, falls into the Barak near Habiganj. The river passes 
by numerous local centres of trade, the most important of which are 
Muchikandi and Habiganj, and is largely used as a trade route. 
During the rains boats of 4 tons burden can proceed as far as Balla 
Bazar in Hill Tippera, and even in the dry season a vessel half that 
size can nearly reach the frontier of the District. The total length of 
the river is 84 miles. 

Khudabad. — Ruined town in the Dadu talnka of Larkana District, 
Sind, Bombay, situated in 26 4c/ N. and 67 46'' E., 16 miles north- 
east of Sehwan on the North-Western Railway. Thornton writes of it 
as follows : — 

' Little more than thirty years ago it rivalled Hyderabad in size and 
population ; yet now not one habitable dwelling remains. It was a 
favourite residence of the Talpur chiefs of Sind, and the remains of 
many of them rest here in tombs of neat but plain construction.' 

At present the chief objects of interest are the Masjid, built in 17 10, 
and decorated with coloured tiles ; and the tomb of Yar Muhammad 
Kalhora, about a mile away, which is similarly decorated. The tomb 
is in fair repair, but the mosque has been greatly damaged and is 
falling into ruin. 

Khudaganj. — Town in the Tilhar tahsil of Shahjahanpur District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28 8' N. and 79 44' E., 24 miles north- 



KHULNA DISTRICT 285 

west of Shahjahanpur city. Population (1901), 6,356. It is said 
to have been founded as a market in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, and under British rule was the head-quarters of a tahsil as 
late as 1850. Khudaganj is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 2,000. It is a thriving place, with a 
considerable trade in agricultural products. The middle school has 
95 pupils. 

Khudian. — Town in the Chunian tahsil of Lahore District, Punjab, 
situated in 30 59" N. and 74 17' E., on the Multan-Ferozepore road, 
12 miles south-west of Kasur. Population (1901) 3,401, chiefly agricul- 
turists. The Katora Inundation Canal of the Upper Sutlej system 
runs close to the town. The municipality was created in 1875. The 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 2,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,700, derived chiefly 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 2,400. The town contains 
a dispensary. 

Khuldabad Taluk (or Rauza). — ' Crown ' taluk in the north-west 
of Aurangabad District, Hyderabad State, with an area of 129 square 
miles. The population in 1901, including jdgirs, was 14,512, com- 
pared with 16,353 in 1891, the decrease being due to the famines of 
1897 and 1899-1900. The taluk contains 38 villages, of which 9 are 
jaglr, and Khuldabad (population, 2,845) * s trie head-quarters. The 
land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 43,300. The country is hilly towards 
the east and north. 

Khuldabad Village (or Rauza). — Village in the Khuldabad taluk 
of Aurangabad District, Hyderabad State, situated in 20 1/ N. and 
75 12' E., 2,732* feet above sea-level and 500 feet above the plains, 
14 miles north-west of Aurangabad city. Population (1901), 2,845. 
Khuldabad contains the tombs of Aurangzeb and of his son Azam 
Shah ; of Asaf J ah, the founder of the Hyderabad State ; of Nasir Jang, 
Nizam Shah, king of Ahmadnagar ; of Malik Ambar, the Nizam Shahr 
minister ; of Tana Shah, the last of the Kutb Shahi kings ; and of 
several Musalman saints. The former name of the place was Rauza, 
which was changed to Khuldabad in consequence of the title of KhulJ 
Makan conferred on Aurangzeb after his death. The extensive ruins 
of the ancient Hindu city of Buddravanti are situated on an adjoining 
table-land. In addition to the taluk office, Khuldabad contains a 
post office, a school, a police amiris office, and a police station. It is 
largely resorted to as a sanitarium. 

Khulna. District. — District of the Presidency Division, Bengal, 
lying between 21 38' and 23 1' N. and 88° 54' and 89 58' E. Its 
area, exclusive of 2,688 square miles in the Sundarbans on the south, 
is 2,077 square miles. It occupies the south central portion of the 
delta between the Hooghly and Meghna estuary, and is bounded on 

t 2 



236 KHULNA DISTRICT 

the north by Jessore District ; on the east by Backergunge ; on the 
west by the Twenty-four Parganas; and on the south by the Bay of 
Bengal. 

The general shape of the District is an irregular parallelogram, and 
it may be divided into four parts : the north-western portion, where 
the land is well raised ; the north-eastern portion, 
aspects f rom tne J essore boundary down to the latitude of 

Bagherhat, where the land is low and covered with 
swamps ; the central portion, also low-lying but now brought under 
cultivation ; and the southern portion, which forms the Khulna Sun- 
darbans, a. tangled network of swamps and rivers, in the greater part of 
which tillage is impossible and there is no settled population. The 
whole District forms an alluvial plain intersected by rivers flowing from 
north to south ; their banks, as in all deltaic tracts, rise above the 
adjacent country, and the land slopes away from them, thus forming 
a depression between the main lines of the rivers. They have, how- 
ever, with the exception of the MadhumatI, which forms the eastern 
boundary of the District, ceased to be true deltaic streams owing to 
the silting up of their heads. The MadhumatI, with its continuation 
the Baleswar and its estuary the Haringhata, still brings down a great 
quantity of Ganges water to the sea. The other rivers are connected 
by numerous cross-channels, and are known by a confusing multiplicity 
of names in different portions of their courses. The most important 
are the Ichamati (2), the Jamuna (2), and the Kabadak, which discharge 
into the sea by the Raimangal and Malancha estuaries respectively ; 
and the Bhairab, now a tributary of the MadhumatI, though a great deal 
of its water finds its way into the Bay of Bengal through the Rupsa 
river. There are no lakes ; but the District is studded with marshes, 
the largest of which, the Bayra Bll, extends over 40 miles, but has to 
a great extent been brought under cultivation. 

The District is covered by recent alluvium, consisting of sandy clay 
and sand along the course of the rivers, and fine silt consolidating into 
clay in the flatter parts of the river plain, while beds of impure peat 
commonly occur. 

In the north-west of the District there are extensive groves of date- 
palms {Phoenix acaulis), especially on the outskirts of villages. The 
north-east and centre of the District are generally inundated during 
the rainy season, only the river banks and the artificial mounds on 
which habitations are situated rising above the water. These elevated 
embankments are, where not occupied by gardens, densely covered 
with a scrubby jungle or semi-spontaneous species, from which rise 
bamboos, betel-nut and coco-nut palms, with a few taller trees, the 
commonest being the Odina Wodier, and the most conspicuous the red 
cotton-tree {Bombax ?nalabaricum). The surface of the marshes shows 



POPULATION 287 

either huge stretches of inundated rice or is covered with matted 
floating islets of sedges and grasses and various water-lilies, the most 
striking of these being the maka?ia (Euryale ferox). The forests of 
the Sundarbans in the south produce many kinds of timber and an 
abundant supply of firewood. 

The same forests also abound in tigers, leopards, wild buffaloes, hog, 
swamp deer, spotted deer, hog deer, barking-deer, porcupines, otters, 
and monkeys. Tigers are very numerous, and their ravages often 
interfere with the extension of cultivation. Crocodiles are common in 
the MadhumatI and Bhairab and in all the rivers in the Sundarbans. 
Snakes of various kinds infest the whole District. 

Statistics of temperature are not available. Rainfall commences 
early, and the annual fall averages 65 inches, of which 6-5 inches fall 
in May, 12-6 in June, 12-8 in July, n-8 in August, 8-8 in September, 
and 4-9 in October. Serious floods occurred in 1885, 1890, and 1900, 
but they are less now than they were before the MadhumatI had 
opened out its present channel and the other rivers had silted up at 
their heads. A cyclone accompanied by a storm-wave occurred in 
the Bagherhat subdivision in 1895. 

In ancient times the District formed part of the old kingdom of Banga 
or Samatata, and subsequently of the Bagri division of Bengal con- 
stituted by Ballal Sen. The earliest traditions are, 
however, associated with the name of Khanja All, 
who came to the District four and a half centuries ago. He obtained 
a jaglr from the king of Gaur and made extensive clearances in the 
Sundarbans, where he appears to have exercised all the rights of sove- 
reignty till his death in 1459. He covered the country with numerous 
mosques and tombs, the remains of some of which are still to be seen at 
Bagherhat and Masjidkur. Vikramaditya, one of the chief ministers 
of Daud Khan, the last king of Bengal, obtained a grant in the Sun- 
darbans when that monarch rebelled against the king of Delhi, and 
established at Iswaripur a city from which the District of Jessore took 
its name. He was succeeded by his son Pratapaditya, the popular hero 
of the Sundarbans, who gained pre-eminence over the twelve chiefs 
or Bhuiyas then holding possession of Southern Bengal, but was eventu- 
ally defeated and captured by Man Singh, Akbar's Hindu general. 
The present District of Khulna was formed in 1882 out of the Khulna 
and Bagherhat subdivisions of Jessore and the Satkhira subdivision of 
the Twenty-four Parganas, and its history after the British accession 
to the dlivani is comprised in the accounts of those Districts. 

The population has grown rapidly since 1872, the figures being 

1,046,878 in 1872, 1,079,948 in 1881, 1,177,652 in 

• rj,, ■ A Population. 

1891, and 1,253,043 in 1901. 1 he increase is due to 

a large expansion of cultivation in the south, central, and south-west 



2S8 



KHULNA DISTRICT 



portions of the District, and a steady but less rapid growth in the 
marshy country to the north-east, on the confines of Fandpur. There 
has been a decrease of population in the north-western corner, and also 
in a narrow strip of country running from it first in a southerly and 
then in a south-easterly direction ; in this tract fever is very prevalent. 
In the northern part of the Satkhira subdivision the drainage is bad, 
there are numerous swamps, and malaria is always present. The other 
northern thanas are also low-lying, but though there are numerous 
marshes, the country is more open ; and there is less jungle, while the 
stagnant pools and tanks which are so common in North Satkhira are 
rarely to- be seen. Dyspepsia, diarrhoea, and dysentery are common 
when the river water becomes brackish, and cholera sometimes breaks 
out in an epidemic form. The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 
are given below : — 



Subdivision. 



Khulna . 
Bagherhat 
Satkhira . 

District total 



V 
u 


Number of 


id 




Ijj 






a — 


to 


V- 


•- a 


c 


fcj) 


rt - 


■i 


o 







i ; 


< 


H 


> 


649 


I 


929 


679 


• • . 


1,045 


749 


2 

3 


1,467 


2,077* 


3,441 



a 
o 



401,785 
363,041 
488,217 



1,253,043 



V . 

§1 

— . c3 

3 3 

C cfl 



619 

535 
652 



603" 



bl 



Ph 



e u - 

a coo o 
.2.2 " o 

> o - 



+ 177 

+ 6-6 


— 


'•5 



+ 6-4 



oJi-o 

*2 ai-o'C 
a c ca s 

30JJ' 

Z. - 
tl 



2 4, 6l 5 
3i,279 
30,49! 



86,385 



* These figures exclude 2,688 square miles in the Sundarbans. If this area be 
included, the density for the whole District is 263 persons per square mile. 

The three towns are Khulna, the head-quarters, .Debhata, and 
Satkhira. There is a large immigration from the Districts of Backer- 
gunge, Jessore, and Farldpur, which supply many of the cultivators 
on new clearances in the Sundarbans ; some of these have settled 
permanently, but many are still domiciled elsewhere. The dialects 
spoken are Eastern Bengali, or Musalmanl, and East Central Bengali. 
Hindus (619,123) and Muhammadans (632,216) are almost equally 
divided. 

The great majority of the Muhammadans are Shaikhs (292,000) and 
Ajlafs (285,000), while of the remainder the weaving caste of Jolahas 
(27,000) is the most largely represented. Probably most of these are 
descended from local converts from Hinduism, and chiefly from the 
Chandals (Namasiidras) and Pods, who still number 191,000 and 
105,000 respectively. Of other castes, Kayasths (39,000), Kaibarttas 
(36,000), and Brahmans (31,000) are the most numerous. Agriculture 
supports 77 per cent, of the population, industries 11-7 per cent, and 
the professions i-8 per cent. 

Christians in 1901 numbered 1,275, including 1,228 native Christians, 



AGRICULTURE 289 

the most important mission at work being the Baptist Missionary 
Society, which has 18 churches and 24 schools, mostly among the 
cultivating classes in the Sundarbans. The Oxford Mission has 
a station at Shelaburia on the Pusur, about 30 miles south of Khulna ; 
and some Roman Catholics at Malgachi, also in the Sundarbans, are 
visited occasionally by their priests. 

The clay land of the river plain {mathial) is most suitable for rice, 
while cold-season crops, such as pulses, oilseeds, and the betel-vine 
{Piper Betle), grow best on the sandy clay known as 
doashia. In the decomposed vegetable deposits of 
the marshes winter rice of the coarsest sort is the only crop grown. 
Except in the higher land and in the north of the Sltkhira subdivision, 
partial failure of crops is not uncommon owing to the deposits of salt 
left by the tide. The south-west of the District suffers especially from 
this cause ; elsewhere the salt is as a rule annually washed away during 
the rainy season, and the soil is renovated by the deposits left by 
the overflow of the rivers. The cultivators in some places put up small 
embankments, known locally as bheris, to keep out the salt water. It 
is estimated that 1,343 square miles were cultivated in 1903-4, and 
that the cultivable waste amounted to 334 square miles ; separate 
statistics for the subdivisions are not available. 

Rice is the staple food-grain, covering 1,213 square miles. The 
principal crop is the winter variety, for which the reclaimed portions 
of the Sundarbans are famous ; the soil is here new and unexhausted, 
and the out-turn is abundant. In the Sundarbans this crop is sown 
broadcast in the early part of July and reaped in January. Elsewhere 
it is sown in nurseries during April and May, transplanted about July, 
and reaped in November and December ; in low lands, however, it is 
occasionally sown broadcast. Oilseeds, principally mustard, are grown 
on 100 square miles, while jute covers 14 and tobacco 8 square miles. 
Date-palms (Phoenix acaulis) and betel-nut palms (Areca Catechu) are 
also largely grown. Fisheries are plentiful, and fishing constitutes an 
important industry. 

Cultivation is being steadily extended into the shallow bils which 
form so marked a feature of this part of Bengal. In the south progress 
is being made in pushing back the jungle of the Sundarbans, where the 
new clearances attract cultivators not only from other parts of the Dis- 
trict, but also from Nadia, Jessore, Faridpur, and elsewhere. There 
was some scarcity in 1896-8, when Rs. 69,000 was advanced under the 
Agriculturists' Loans Act ; the annual average of the sums advanced 
under that Act during the ten years ending 1901-2 was Rs. 7,000, while 
the sums advanced under the Land Improvement Loans Act averaged 
Rs. 5,000 per annum. 

There is little real pasture land in the District, and fodder is scarce. 



2 9 o KHULNA DISTRICT 

No attempts have been made to improve the breed of cattle, which 
is very poor. 

The Forest department administers 2,081 square miles of 'reserved' 
forests in the Sundarbans, but this area includes 533 square miles of 
water channels ; large quantities of forest produce are 
exported to the adjoining Districts. The principal 
trees are sundri (Heritiera littoralis), pasur ( Carapa moluccensis), amiir 
(Amoora cucullata), keora (Sonneratia apetala), garan (Ceriops Can- 
dot Veana), and geod (Excoecaria Agallocha). The minor produce con- 
sists of golpata (JVipa frutescens), hantdl {Phoenix paludosa), nal or 
thatching-grass, honey, wax, and shells. The gross revenue from the 
forests in 1903-4 was 3-33 lakhs. 

The chief industry is the manufacture of sugar and molasses from 
the juice of the date-palm, but for some years it was seriously affected 

by the competition of imported sugar. The out-turn 

Trade and c ■ r b , , , 

communications. of su § ar in J 9°3~4 was 19,000 maunds valued at 

1-96 lakhs, and of molasses 68,000 maunds valued 

at 1-83 lakhs. The earthen pottery, cutlery, and horn industries of 

Kallganj are of considerable importance. Coarse cotton cloths are 

manufactured on hand-looms, and are said to be preferred by the 

poorer classes to machine-made goods on account of their durability ; 

but the industry is not flourishing. 

The chief exports are rice and paddy to Calcutta, the Twenty-four 
Parganas, Nadia, and Jessore ; and gram, pulses, oilseeds, jute, tobacco 
(unmanufactured), sugar (unrefined), firewood, timber, minor forest 
produce, pan leaf, betel-nuts, coco-nuts, and fish to Calcutta. The 
chief imports are raw cotton, cotton twist, European cotton piece-goods, 
hardware, glassware, sugar (refined), shoes, English liquors, kerosene 
oil, coal and coke, lime, and tobacco. The chief trade centres are 
Khulna, Daulatpur, Phultala, Allpur, Kapilmuni, Chaknagar, Chalna, 
Talma, Dumria, and Kutlrhat, all in the head-quarters subdivision ; 
Bagherhat, Faklrhat, Mausha, Jatrapur, Kachua, Chitalmari, Gaur- 
ambha, and Morrelganj in the Bagherhat subdivision ; and Baradal, 
Patkelghata, Kalfganj, Kalaroa, Debhata, Chanduria, Basantpur, 
Asasuni, Tala, and Naobanki in the Satkhira subdivision. The 
principal castes engaged in trade are Kayasths, Telis, Baruis, Sahas, 
Malos, Baniks, Namasudras, and Muhammadans. 

The Eastern Bengal State Railway connects Khulna with Jessore 
and Calcutta. In 1903-4 the District contained 490 miles of roads, of 
which only 12 miles were metalled, in addition to 1,031 miles of village 
tracks. The principal roads are those connecting Khulna with Jessore 
and Bagherhat. 

The larger rivers are for the most part tidal and navigable by large 
boats throughout the year, and they carry a great amount of traffic 



FAMINE 291 

Some of the connecting channels form portion of a very important 
system of waterways connecting Calcutta with the eastern Districts, 
and also with the Ganges and the Brahmaputra systems (see Cal- 
cutta and Eastern Canals). The central mart of the Sundarbans is 
the town of Khulna, towards which all the boat routes converge. The 
chief route, after reaching the junction of the Kabadak with the 
Morirchap river, proceeds by the latter as far as its junction with 
the Betua and the Kholpetua, where it divides into two channels. The 
large boats pass along the Kholpetua, Galghasia, Banstala, and Kank- 
siali channels to Kallganj, while the smaller boats enter the Sovnali 
at its junction with the Kholpetua and proceed to Kallganj by the 
Guntiakhali, Habra Sltalkhali, Jhapjhapia, and Kanksiali ; the route 
through the Sltalkhali has been shortened since the opening of the 
Gobinda Canal, and boats of all sizes now pass through it. From 
Kallganj the route proceeds through the Jamuna as far as Basantpur, 
where it again divides, forming an inner and an outer passage. The 
outer passage enters the Twenty-four Parganas through the Kalindri 
river and the Sahibkhali and Barakulia Khals, while the inner passage 
proceeds by the Jamuna from Basantpur to Husainabad, where it 
enters a channel called the Husainabad or Dhansara Khal. From 
Khulna routes branch off north, east, and south ; the chief northern 
route proceeds up the Atharabanki, Madhumatl, and Garai into the 
Padma or main channel of the Ganges, and carries the river trade 
not only of Northern Bengal but also of Bihar during the season when 
the Nadia rivers are closed. In recent years, the silting up of this 
route has led to its abandonment by steamers. The eastern route 
from Khulna passes down the Bhairab, and then by Barisal through 
Backergunge District to Dacca. The main southern route connects 
Khulna with Morrelganj. 

In addition to the Cachar-Sundarbans dispatch service, which plies 
from Calcutta through the Sundarbans to Barisal, Chandpur, Narayan- 
ganj and Assam, there are services of steamers between Khulna and 
Muhammadpur, Khulna and Binodpur, and (during the rains) Magura 
and Khulna and Madanpur via the Madhumatl Bil route (see Faridpur 
District). There is also a service on the Kabadak between Kapilmuni 
in Khulna and Kotchandpur in the Jessore District, which taps the 
railway at Jhingergacha. 

The famine of 1897-8 affected parts of the Khulna and Satkhira sub- 
divisions. The rainfall was deficient in 1895-6, and a cyclonic storm 

drove salt water over the fields and destroyed the _ 

1 r™ • r ,1 • 1 Famine, 

young plants. The rainfall was again very short in 

1896-7, and the out-turn of the great rice area bordering on the 

Sundarbans barely amounted to an eighth of the normal crop. An 

area of 467 square miles with a population of 276,000 was affected, but 



2 9 2 KHULNA DISTRICT 

the number requiring relief never exceeded 16,000. The relief works 
were closed at the end of September, but poorhouses were maintained 
till a month later. The total expenditure was 1-74 lakhs, of which 
Rs. 61,000 was spent on relief works and Rs. 75,000 on gratuitous relief. 
Apart from this, Rs. 48,000 was advanced under the Land Improvement 
Loans Act and Rs. 69,000 under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Khulna, Bagherhat, and Satkhira. 
The Magistrate-Collector is assisted at head-quarters 
Administration. ^ ^ ^^ q{ four Deputy _Magistrate-Collectors, and 

the Bagherhat and Satkhira subdivisions are each in charge of a Deputy- 
Magistrate-Collector assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Collector. A Deputy- 
Conservator of forests and two Extra-Assistant Conservators attached to 
the Sundarbans division are also stationed at Khulna. 

For the disposal of civil judicial work, in addition to the District and 
Sessions Judge, who is also Judge of Jessore, two Munsifs and a Sub- 
ordinate Judge sit at Khulna and three Munsifs at each of the other 
subdivisional head-quarters. There are in all twelve criminal courts, 
including the court of an Additional Sessions Judge, who also sits at 
Jessore for a portion of the year. The most common cases are those 
arising out of land disputes. 

The early land revenue history of the District cannot be distinguished 
from that of the neighbouring Districts of Jessore and the Twenty-four 
Parganas, of which until recently it formed part. At the time of the 
Permanent Settlement, most of the present District was divided into 
a few large zaminddris, including portions of the Isafpur and Saidpur 
estates (see Jessore District). Of 979 estates in 1903-4 with a current 
demand of 6-9 lakhs, 756 with a demand of 5-1 lakhs were permanently 
settled. There are no tenures peculiar to the District. Uibandi 
tenants pay rent only upon the land actually cultivated during the year 
(see Nadia District). Korfd ryots hold under a middleman such as 
& gdtithlddr or jotddr, middi ryots are liable to ejectment after a fixed 
period, kistkdri ryots are tenants-at-will, while the occupants of jula 
jama and dhdnya kardri holdings pay rent in kind. For the whole 
District the incidence of rental is Rs. 4-3-2 per cultivated acre ; but 
rents vary greatly, ranging from Rs. 4-8 to Rs. 9 per acre in the Khulna 
subdivision, from Rs. 3 to Rs. 18 in Bagherhat, and from Rs. 3 to Rs. 7 
in Satkhira. Pan and garden lands bring in between Rs. 6 and Rs. 9 
in Bagherhat, and between Rs. 9 and Rs. 18 in Khulna, while in 
Satkhira as much as Rs. 30 is occasionally paid for garden and Rs. 52 
for pan land. In a settlement of a small tract which was made in 
1 90 1-2 the rate of rent was found to vary from Rs. 2-13 to Rs. 6 per 
cultivated acre, the average rate being Rs. 4-6-6, and the average 
'holding of each tenant 12-28 acres. 



ADMIKISTRA TION 



2 9 ; 



The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





1890-1. 


1900-1. 


J 903-4- 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


6,44 
1 1, 4 S 


6,69 

I3>21 


6,86 
I4> 2 3 



Outside the municipalities of Khulna, Satkhira, and Debhata, 
local affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local 
boards in each subdivision. In 1903-4 the income of the District 
board was Rs. 1,95,000, of which Rs. 1,03,000 was derived from rates ; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 1,56,000, including Rs. 98,000 spent on 
public works and Rs. 35,000 on education. 

The District contains 13 police stations and 9 outposts ; and in 1903 
the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted of 3 
inspectors, 35 sub-inspectors, 36 head constables, and 394 constables, 
including 41 water constables and 57 town police. In addition, there 
was a rural police of 239 daffaddrs and 2,155 chaukiddrs. The District 
jail at Khulna has accommodation for 49 prisoners, and subsidiary 
jails at Satkhira and Bagherhat have accommodation for 47. 

In respect of education Khulna is less advanced than would be 
expected from its proximity to Calcutta, and in 1901 only 6-9 per cent, 
of the population (12-4 males and o-8 females) could read and write. 
The total number of pupils under instruction fell from 38,000 in 1892-3 
to 34,000 in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 there were 34,000 boys and 3,000 
girls at school, being, respectively, 34-7 and 3-4 per cent, of the children 
of school-going age. The number of educational institutions, public 
and private, in that year was 1,009, including an Arts college, 91 
secondary, 909 primary, and 8 special schools. The expenditure on 
education was i-8 lakhs, of which Rs. 2r,ooo was met from Provincial 
funds, Rs. 34,000 from District funds, Rs. 1,000 from municipal funds, 
and Rs. 96,000 from fees. 

In 1903 the District contained it dispensaries, of which 3 had 
accommodation for 41 in-patients. At these the cases of 79,000 out- 
patients and 500 in-patients were treated during the year, and 2,000 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, of which 
Rs. 1,100 was met by Government contributions, Rs. 7,000 from Local 
and Rs. 2,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 4,000 from subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In 1903-4 the 
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 32,000, or 26-28 per 
1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vols, i and ii (1875) ; 
Sir J. YVestland, Report on Jessore (Calcutta, 1874) ; F. E. Pargiter, 
Revenue History of the Sundarbans from 1765 to 1870 (Calcutta, 1SS5).] 



294 KHULNA SUBDIVISION 

Khulna Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivision of Khulna Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 21 41' and 23 i' N. and 89 14' and 
89 45' E., with an area of 649 square miles. The subdivision is an 
alluvial tract, merging to the south in the Sundarbans ; the general 
features are the same as in the lower delta through which the rivers of 
Bengal find their way to the sea. Its population in 1901 was 401,785, 
compared with 341,493 in 1891, the density being 619 persons per 
square mile. It contains one town, Khulna, its head-quarters (popu- 
lation, 10,426) ; and 929 villages. Khulna town is the chief centre of 
trade ; but Alaipur, Daulatpur, Dumria, Phultala, and Kapil- 
muni are also important marts. 

Khulna Town. — Head-quarters of Khulna District, Bengal, situated 
in 22 49' N. and 89 34' E., at the point where the Bhairab river 
meets the Sundarbans. Population (1901), 10,426. Khulna may be 
described as the capital of the Sundarbans, and has been for more than 
a hundred years a place of commercial importance. It was the head- 
quarters of the salt department during the period of the Company's salt 
manufacture. It is the terminus of the central section of the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway, and all the great river routes converge on the 
town, it being connected by steamer with Narayanganj, Barisal, 
MadarIpur, Muhammadpur, and Binodpur. Rice, sugar, betel-nuts, 
and coco-nuts, the produce of the vicinity, are collected here for export 
to Calcutta, and the trade in salt is also large. Khulna was constituted 
a municipality in 1884. The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 22,000, and the expenditure Rs. 20,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 19,000, including Rs. 4,600 derived from 
a tax on persons (or property tax), Rs. 3,500 from a tax on houses and 
lands, and Rs. 4,600 from a conservancy rate ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 17,000. The municipality has recently undertaken a scheme 
for improving the drainage. The town contains the usual civil, criminal, 
and revenue courts, District jail, circuit-house, hospital, and schools. 
The jail has accommodation for 49 prisoners ; the principal industries 
are oil-pressing, wheat-grinding, paddy-husking, mat-making, aloe- 
pounding, and rope-making. The Woodburn Hospital was com- 
pleted in 1 90 1 at a cost of Rs. 18,000. 

Khunti Subdivision.— South-eastern subdivision of Ranchl Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 22 38' and 23 iS' N. and 84 56' and 
85 54' E., with an area of 1,140 square miles. The subdivision, 
which was created in 1905, is an elevated table-land ; but to the south 
the surface is broken and the undulating ridges and valleys give place 
to steep hills and ravines, terminating in a comparatively open plain to 
the south-east towards Manbhum. It had a population in 1901 of 
225,407, compared with 198,730 in 1891, the density being 198 
persons per square mile. It contains one town, Bundu (popula- 



KHURDA SUBDIVISION 295 

tion, 5,469), and 599 villages, one of which, Khunti, is the head- 
quarters. 

Khunti Village.— Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Ranch! District, Bengal, situated in 23 5' N. and 85 16' E. 
Population (1901), 1,446. It is a trade centre of some importance on 
the road from Ranchl to Chaibasa. 

Khurai Tahsil {Kierai). — North-western tahs'd of Saugor District, 
Central Provinces, lying between 23 51' and 24 27' N. and 78 4' 
and 7 8° 43' E., with an area of 940 square miles. The population 
decreased from 126,004 in 1891 to 93,788 in 1901. The density in 
the latter year was 100 persons per square mile, which is below the 
District average. The tahsil contains two towns, Khurai (population, 
6,012), the head-quarters, and Etawa (6,418); and 470 inhabited 
villages. Excluding 124 square miles of Government forest, 45 per 
cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated 
area in 1903-4 was 238 square miles. The demand for land revenue 
in the same year was Rs. 77,000, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The tahsil 
is an open undulating plain, with a stretch of hilly and stony land in 
the north, and belts of forest on the borders of the Blna and Betwa 
rivers. 

Khurai Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Saugor District, Central Provinces, situated in 24 3' N. and 7 8° 20' E., 
on the railway line towards Blna, 33 miles from Saugor town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 6,012. An old fort is now used as the tahsil office. 
Khurai contains a considerable colony of Jains and a number of fine 
Jain temples. It was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal 
receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 15,300. In 
1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 8,000, mainly derived from fees on the 
registration of cattle. The town is a collecting centre for local trade. 
A large weekly cattle market is held here, and dried meat is prepared 
for export to Burma. Khurai contains an English middle school, two 
branch and two girls' schools, one of which is supported by the 
Swedish Lutheran Mission, and a dispensary. 

Khurda Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Purl District, Ben- 
gal, lying between 19 41' and 20 26' N. and 84 56' and 85 53' E., 
with an area of 971 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
359,236, compared with 331,423 in 1891, the density being 370 
persons per square mile. The subdivision adjoins the south- 
eastern fringe of the Chota Nagpur plateau, and detached hills of 
gneiss occur, the plains between them consisting of laterite and 
alluvium. It contains 1,212 villages, one of which, Khurda, is its 
head-quarters ; but no town. At Bhubaneswar are situated the cele- 
brated Lingaraj temple and numerous other temples, and the Khand- 
giri and Udayagiri hills contain many caves and rock temples. 



296 KHURDA SUBDIVISION 

Khurda was the last portion of territory held by the independent 
Hindu dynasty of Orissa. The Maratha cavalry were unable to overrun 
this jungle-covered and hilly tract; and the ancient royal house retained 
much of its independence till 1804, when the Raja rebelled against the 
British Government and his territory was confiscated. A rising on the 
part of the peasantry took place in 181 7-8, due chiefly to the oppres- 
sion of the minor Bengali officials. The insurrection was speedily 
quelled, reforms were introduced and grievances redressed ; and at the 
present day Khurda is a profitable and well-managed Government 
estate, the cultivators being a contented and generally prosperous 
class. The current settlement dates from 1897, when the demand was 
assessed at 3-77 lakhs. The present Raja of Khurda is hereditary 
superintendent of the temple of Jagannath, but has delegated all his 
powers as such for five years to an experienced Deputy-Magistrate- 
Collector. 

[J. Taylor, Settlement Report (Calcutta, 1900).] 

Khurda Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Purl District, Bengal, situated in 20 11' N. and 85 38' E., 
on the high road from Cuttack to Ganjam in Madras, and connected 
by road with the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Population (1901), 3,424. 
Between 1818 and 1828 Khurda was the head-quarters of Purl Dis- 
trict, transferred in the latter year to Purl town. It contains the usual 
public offices; the sub-jail has accommodation for 10 prisoners. 

Khuria. — Plateau in the Jashpur State, Central Provinces, occupying 
the north-western portion of the State, and lying between 23 o' and 
23 14' N. and 83 30' and 83 44' E. It consists of trap-rock topped 
with volcanic laterite, overlying the granite and gneiss which form the 
surface rocks at lower elevations. The plateau affords excellent 
pasturage, and Ahirs or cowherds from Mirzapur and elsewhere drive 
in large herds of cattle to graze ; many such Ahirs have settled here 
permanently. 

Khurja Tahsil. — Southern tahsll of Bulandshahr District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Jewar, Khurja, and Pahasii, and 
lying between 28 4' and 28 20' N. and 77 29' and 78 12' E., with 
an area of 462 square miles. The population rose from 221,137 in 
1891 to 266,838 in 1901. There are 348 villages and seven towns, the 
largest of which are Khurja (population, 29,277), the tahsll head- 
quarters, Jewar (7,718), Pahasu (5,603), Chhatari (5,574), and 
Rabupura (5,048). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 5,05,000, and for cesses Rs. 82,000. The tahsil is drained by 
the East Kali Nadi, the Karon or Karwan, and the Patwai or Patwaha 
Bahu, all which have been deepened and straightened to improve 
the drainage. The Jumna flows along the western border. East of 
the Kali Nadi and west of the Patwai are tracts of light sandy soil ; 



KHUSHAB TAHSIL 297 

but the central portion is highly fertile, and is well supplied by irri- 
gation from the Upper Ganges Canal and the Mat branch of the same 
work. Cotton is more largely grown in this tract than in any other 
part of the District. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 345 
square miles, of which 152 were irrigated. Well-irrigation supplies 
about one-third of the total, and is chiefly important in the area 
between the canals. 

Khurja Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Bulandshahr District, United Provinces, situated in 2 8° 15' N. and 77 
51/ E., near the grand trunk road, and 4 miles from Khurja station on 
the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 29,277, of whom 15,878 
are Hindus and 12,923 Musalmans. The town is said to derive its 
name from kharija ('revenue free'), as it was built by the Bhale Sultan 
Rajputs on a revenue-free grant made by Firoz Shah Tughlak. The 
descendants of the original grantees retained possession of their hold- 
ings till they were resumed partly by Suraj Mai, Raja of Bharatpur, 
in 1740, and partly by Daulat Rao Sindhia towards the close of the 
eighteenth century. There is only one ancient building, the tomb of 
Makhdum Sahib, near the grand trunk road, which is about 400 years 
old. The chief public buildings are the tahslli, dispensary, and town 
hall. The principal inhabitants are Kheshgi Pathans and Churuwal 
Banias ; the latter, who are Jain by religion, are an enterprising and 
wealthy class, carrying on banking all over India and taking a leading 
share in the trade of the place. Thirty years ago they built a magni- 
ficent domed temple, which cost more than a lakh and is adorned with 
a profusion of stone carving of fine execution. The interior is a blaze 
of gold and colour, the vault of the dome being painted and decorated 
in the most florid style of indigenous art. The market-place, bazar, and 
dharmsala, all adorned with handsome gateways of carved stone, also 
owe much to the munificence of the Jain traders. There are branches 
of the American Methodist and the Zanana Bible and Medical Missions. 

Khurja has been a municipality since 1866. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 27,500. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 38,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 28,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 42,000. The town is the 
chief commercial centre of the District, and contains seven cotton-gins 
and presses, which employed 444 hands in 1903. Cotton-ginning by 
hand is important, and there is a very large export of grain, besides 
a smaller trade in indigo, sugar, and gkl. The pottery of Khurja 
resembles that made at Multan and in the Rampur State, and has 
some reputation. English cotton cloth, metals, and brass utensils are 
the chief articles imported. There are eight schools with about 600 
pupils. 

Khushab Tahsil. — Tahsil oi Shahpur District, Punjab, lying between 



298 KHUSHAB TAHSIL 

31 32' and 32 42' N. and 71 37' and 72 38' E., with an area of 
2,536 square miles. It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum river. 
The population in 1901 was 161,885, compared with 151,627 in 1891. 
The head-quarters are at the town of Khushab (population, 11,403). 
The number of villages is 206. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 2-4 lakhs. The Salt Range runs through the north of the 
tahsll, culminating in the peak of Sakesar. The fertile southern slopes 
sink into a salt-impregnated plain, which in turn gives place to the sand- 
hills of the Thai. Along the Jhelum lies a narrow strip of fertile lowland. 

Khushab Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Shahpur District, Punjab, situated in 32 18' N. and 72 22' E., on the 
right bank of the Jhelum river, and on the Sind-Sagar branch of the 
North- Western Railway. Population (1901), 11,403. It has an exten- 
sive trade, exporting cotton, wool, and ghl to Multan and Sukkur ; 
cotton cloth to Afghanistan and the Derajat ; and wheat grown in the 
Salt Range, which is considered particularly suitable for export, princi- 
pally to Karachi. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 12,100, and the 
expenditure Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 11,500, chiefly 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,000. The town possesses 
an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, 
and a Government dispensary. 

Khutahan. — Northern tahsll of Jaunpur District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Ungli, Ran {talnka Badlapur), Karyat 
Mendha, and Chanda, and lying between 25 50' and 26 12' N. and 
82 21' and 82 46' E., with an area of 362 square miles. Portions of 
the tahsll form enclaves in Partabgarh and Sultanpur Districts. Popu- 
lation fell from 286,832 in 1891 to 269,438 in 1901. There are 700 
villages and only one town, Shahganj (population, 6,430), the tahsll 
head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 
2,27,000, and for cesses Rs. 50,000. The density of population, 744 
persons per square mile, is below the District average. Several small 
drainage channels exist ; but the Gumtl, which crosses the south-west 
of the tahsll, is the only considerable river. Khutahan contains a large 
area of good rice land, and also a number of barren usar tracts. The 
area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 288 square miles, of which 129 
were irrigated. Wells supply about seven-eighths of the irrigated area, 
and tanks and jhlls most of the remainder. 

Khuzdar. — The principal place in the Jhalawan division of the 
Kalat State, Baluchistan, and the head-quarters of the Native Assistant 
and of the Khan of Kalat's nail), situated in 27 48' N. and 66° 37' E. 
It is known to the Sindls as Kohiar, and is a long narrow valley, at the 
upper end of which a fort was constructed in 1870. Khuzdar owes its 
importance to its central position at the point of convergence of roads 



KHYBER 



299 



from Kalat on the north, Karachi and Bela on the south, Kachhi on 
the east, and Makran and Kharan on the west. It is unhealthy in 
summer. The garrison consists of 7 artillerymen with one gun and 
45 irregular levies. The Native Assistant has a small escort of 20 
levies. The niabat of Khuzdar includes land in Baghwana, Zidi, the 
valley of the Kolachi river, Karkh, and Chakku. 

Khyber (Khaibar). — Historic pass leading from Peshawar District 
in the North-West Frontier Province into Afghanistan, the centre of 
the pass lying in 34 6' N. and 71 5' E. The name is also applied 
to the range of hills through which the pass runs. The Khyber moun- 
tains form, indeed, the last spurs of the Safed Koh, as that mighty 
range sinks down into the valley of the Kabul river. The elevation of 
the connecting ridge is 3,400 feet, but it rises to 6,800 feet in the 
Tartara peak. On either side of it are the sources of two small streams, 
one flowing north-west to the Kabul river, the other south-south-east 
towards Jamrud. The beds of these streams form the Khyber defile. 

The Khyber Pass is the great northern route from Afghanistan into 
India, while the Kurram and Gonial Passes form intermediate com- 
munications, and the Bolan Pass is the great southern passage. The 
pass begins near Jamrud, \o\ miles west of Peshawar, and twists 
through the hills for about 33 miles in a north-westerly direction till 
it debouches at Dakka. The most important points en ?-oate are All 
Masjid, a village and fort 10^ miles from Jamrud; Landi Kotal, the 
summit of the pass, 10 miles farther; and Tor Kham, at which point 
the pass enters Afghan territory, about 6 miles beyond Landi Kotal. 
The plains of Peshawar District stretch from the eastern mouth of the 
pass, and those of Jalalabad from the western. Outside the eastern 
gate is the remarkable collection of caves at Kadam, and beyond its 
western limits are many interesting remains of Buddhism and of 
ancient civilization. The pass lies along the bed of a torrent, chiefly 
through slate rocks, and is subject to sudden floods, especially in July, 
August, December, and January. The gradient is generally easy, 
except at Landi Khana, and the road is in good condition. 

The elevation, in feet, at various points of the pass is : Jamrud, 
1,670; All Masjid, 2,433; Landi Kotal, 3,373; Landi Khana, 2,488; 
Dakka, 1,404. The ascent over the Landi Khana pass is narrow, 
rugged, steep, and generally the most difficult part of the road. Guns 
could not be drawn here except by men, and then only after the 
improvement of the road ; the descent is a well-made road, and not 
so difficult. Just beyond All Masjid the road passes over a stretch 
of uneven and slippery rock, which is extremely difficult for laden 
animals. The Khyber can be turned by the Mullagori road, which 
enters the hills about 9 miles north of Jamrud, and either joins the 
Khyber road or keeps to the north of the range and emerges at Dakka. 

vol. xv. u 



300 KHYBER 

The Khyber has always been one of the gateways into India. Alex- 
ander of Macedon probably sent a division under Hephaistion and 
Perdiccas through the Khyber, while he himself followed the northern 
bank of the Kabul river, and thence crossed the Kunar valley into 
Bajaur and Swat. Mahmud of Ghazni only once used the Khyber 
route, when he marched to encounter Jaipal in the Peshawar valley. 
The Mughal emperors Babar and Humayun each traversed it more 
than once. Nadir Shah, advancing by it to attack Nasir Khan, Subah- 
ddr of Kabul under the Mughal government, was opposed by the 
Pathans ; but he led his cavalry through Bazar, took Nasir Khan 
completely by surprise, and overthrew him near Jamrud. Ahmad 
Shah Durrani and his grandson Shah Zaman, in their invasions of 
the Punjab, also followed the Khyber route on several occasions. 
The Mughal emperors attached great importance to the control of the 
Khyber, but were singularly unsuccessful in their attempts to keep 
the route open. Then, as now, it was held by the Afridi Pathans, 
a race implacably hostile to the Mughals. 

Jalalabad, first fortified by Humayun in 1552, was further strength- 
ened by his son Jalal-ud-dln Akbar, after whom it was named ; and 
the latter emperor so improved the road that wheeled carriages could 
traverse it with ease. But even in his reign the Khyber was infested 
by the Roshania sectaries, who wielded great influence over the Afghan 
tribes ; and the Rajput general Man Singh had to force the pass in 
1586, when Akbar desired to secure possession of Kabul on the death 
of his brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim. In 1672, under Aurangzeb, 
the tribes waylaid the Subahdar of Kabul, Muhammad Amln Khan, 
in the pass, and annihilated his army of 40,000 men, capturing all his 
treasure, elephants, women, and children. 

The first British advance into the Khyber was in 1839, when 
Captain Wade was deputed to conduct Shahzada Timur to Kabul via 
Peshawar, while his father Shah Shuja was escorted thither by the 
army of the Indus via the Bolan Pass and Kandahar. 

During the first Afghan War the Khyber was the scene of many 
skirmishes with the Afrldis and of some disasters to our troops. 
Captain Wade, with from 10,000 to 11,000 of all arms, including the 
Sikh contingent, moved from Jamrud on July 22, 1839, to Gagri ; 
here he halted a day and entrenched his position ; on July 24 he 
again marched to Lala China; on the 25th he moved to the attack 
of All Masjid, sending a column of 600 men and 2 guns, under 
Lieutenant Mackeson, to the right, and n companies of infantry, 
one 6-pounder gun, and one howitzer to the left, while below a column 
was placed to watch the mouth of Shadi Bagadi gorge. Both columns 
drove the enemy before them, the right meeting with some opposition, 
and the left getting into a position to shell the fort. On the 26th all 



KHYBER 301 

the enemy's outposts were driven in, and on the 27th they evacuated 
the fort. The enemy had 509 jazaikhis, or musket-men, and were 
supported by several hundred Afridis. The British loss was 22 
killed and 158 wounded. After this there was no further opposition. 

A strong post was left in All Masjid and a detachment near Lala 
China to maintain communication with Peshawar, and a post of 
irregulars under Lieutenant Mackeson was placed near Dakka. The 
post near Lala China was attacked during the operations. It was 
garrisoned by Yusufzai auxiliaries, whose numbers had been thinned 
and the survivors worn down by continued sickness, when the Afridis, 
estimated at 6,000 strong, attacked their breastwork. They were long 
kept at bay, but the marauders were animated by the lust of plunder, 
and persevered in their attacks. They were aware that the devoted 
garrison had recently received their arrears of pay, and that a sum of 
Rs. 12,000 was buried on the spot. Finally, they carried the weak 
fieldwork, and put to the sword 400 of its defenders. They did not 
keep possession of it, but, after repeating their vain attempts on All 
Masjid and the posts in the valley, retired to their mountains. 

When Jalalabad was blockaded, it was proposed to send a force 
through the Khyber to its relief, and as a preliminary measure Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Moseley was detached to occupy All Masjid with two 
regiments of native infantry. He marched on the night of January 15, 
1842, and reached the place with little opposition the next morning. 
Through some mismanagement, however, only a portion of the pro- 
visions requisite for the two regiments accompanied them. It became 
necessary, therefore, to forward the residue without delay ; and Briga- 
dier Wilde advanced from Jamrud with the remaining two regiments 
(the 60th and 30th Native Infantry) and 4 Sikh guns. But the appear- 
ance of Colonel Moseley's detachment had alarmed the Afridis, who 
now rose and, closing the pass, prepared to resist Brigadier Wilde's 
entrance. The brigadier nevertheless pushed onwards on January 19, 
and encountered the enemy at the mouth of the pass ; but, owing 
to the uselessness of the Sikh guns and the inadequacy of his force 
with so powerful a body of the enemy advantageously placed in his 
front, his attempt to reach All Masjid totally failed. The situation of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Moseley, shut up in All Masjid, with scarcely any 
provisions, now became desperate ; but he was successful in forcing 
his way back to Jamrud. 

The next occasion on which the Khyber was used as a great military 
road was when General Pollock advanced on April 6, 1842. On his 
return to India the British army marched through the Khyber in three 
divisions. The first, under General Pollock, passed through with no 
loss. The second, under General M'Caskill, was not equally fortunate. 
One brigade being overtaken by night left two mountain-train guns 

u 2 



302 - KHYBER 

with the rear-guard, which was suddenly attacked, and the guns were 
taken, but recovered next day. The rear-guard of General Nott's force 
was also attacked on November 5 and 6 between Landi Khana and 
Lalabagh, and again on leaving All Masjid. 

It was at All Masjid in 1878 that Sir Neville Chamberlain's friendly 
mission to the Amir Sher Air Khan was stopped and repelled with 
threats. An ultimatum was therefore handed to the Amir's general, Faiz 
Muhammad, in All Masjid; and the day specified having passed without 
the return of an answer, Afghanistan was invaded by three British 
columns, one of which started from Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber. 

On the second day of the campaign the fortress of All Masjid was 
brilliantly captured by the British troops under General Browne. The 
successful passage of the Khyber, and the unopposed occupation, first 
of Dakka at the western mouth of the pass, and then of Jalalabad in 
the plains beyond, immediately followed. The treaty which closed the 
war in May, 1879, ^ft the Khyber tribes for the future under British 
control. From that date the history of the Khyber Pass is bound up 
with that of the Khyber Political Agency, which includes Mullagori 
country north of the Khyber, Tlrah of the Afridis, and the country on 
both sides of the Khyber Pass. None of it is administered, but the pass 
is kept open and is picketed twice a week for the passage of caravans. 

The Khyber Political Agency is bounded on the north by the Kabul 
river and the Safed Koh ; on the east by Peshawar District ; on the 
south by the Aka Khel and Orakzai countries ; and on the west by the 
Chamkanni and Masuzai countries, and the Safed Koh. The Khyber 
Pass between Jamrud and Landi Kotal originally belonged to the Shin- 
waris, Zakka Khel, Kuki Khel, and the Orakzai only. At the time 
of the extension of Sikh rule to Jamrud the Orakzai were ousted by the 
Afridis, and the only trace of their presence is a ruined village near 
Jam. The Sikh rule never extended beyond Jamrud. When Captain 
Mackeson was negotiating with the Afridis in 1840, the Malikdln 
Khel Maliks of Chora forced their w r ay between the Zakka Khel and 
Kuki Khel, and established a small village at Katta Kushta near All 
Masjid. The Sipah Kambar Khel and Kamrai Khel also, seeing the 
advantages of a footing in the Khyber, stepped in, and were admitted 
to a share in the Khyber allowance. 

After the Sikh War the Afridis took service in large numbers in the 
Indian army, and when the Mutiny of 1857 broke out they did exceed- 
ingly well. From 1857 to 1878 the Afridis were subsidized by the 
Afghan government, who- kept a garrison of Afghan troops at All 
Masjid. The Afridis were, however, never on good terms with the 
Afghans. They very often visited the British officers of Peshawar 
District ; but relations with them were maintained through the KhaliL 
and Mohmand Arbabs of Peshawar District, who were generally of an 



KHYBER 303 

intriguing disposition, and very seldom did any real service. Their 
main object was to keep those tribes in a state of unrest, and thus 
enhance their own importance. A year or two before the second 
Afghan War Amir Sher All summoned the jirgas of all the Afrldis 
and Shinwaris, and distributed about 5-,ooo rifles among them. When 
war broke out, and All Masjid was attacked and turned, the Afghans 
and Afrldis fled in great disorder, and the Afghans were robbed of their 
clothes and rifles by the Afrldis in the Khyber and in Bazar. The 
Afrldis, and especially the Bazar Zakka Khel, subsequently harassed 
the passage of the British troops through the Khyber, and a force was 
sent against them in December, 1878. 

By the Gandamak Treaty of 1879 between the British and Amir 
Yakub Khan, it was agreed that the British Government should retain 
the control of the Khyber Pass ; and, in pursuance of this agreement, 
allowances were fixed for the Afrldis, aggregating Rs. 87,540 per 
annum. The management of the pass was entrusted to the tribesmen 
themselves through their ma/iks, who executed a formal agreement by 
which they undertook to guard it with their tribesmen. Some local 
levies called jazailchis (which afterwards became the Khyber Rifles\ 
numbering about 400 men, were also raised for escorting caravans 
through the Khyber. These were eventually increased to 600 strong. 

In 1897 disturbances broke out all along the frontier. The Afrldis 
remained quiet for some time, but in August they attacked the Khyber 
posts and sacked the fortified sarai at Landi Kotal. They met with 
opposition from the Khyber Rifles, but the garrison could not hold out 
owing to want of water. To punish the Afrldis for this violation of 
their engagements, a force was sent into Tirah under Sir W. Lockhart, 
and a fine of Rs. 50,000 and 800 breech-loading rifles was recovered 
from them by April, 1898. In October of the same year a fresh settle- 
ment was made with the Afrldis, by which they undertook to have no 
intercourse with any power except the British, and to raise no objection 
to the construction of railways or roads through the Khyber. On these 
conditions the allowances were restored, with a small increase of 
Rs. 250 for the Kambar Khel. The Khyber Rifles were augmented 
to two battalions of 600 each, 50 of the total being mounted, and were 
placed under British officers. 

The chief subdivisions of the Afrldi tribe are as follows : — 

Section. Habitat. Strength {estimated}. 

I 4,500 fighting men. 
600 

Kuki Khel . . j Jjy a r sjid ; Tan ; rad 

Malik Din Khel . Mardan . 

Sepaiah (Sipah) . Bara Valley and Kajuri Flain 



T , 1 T-i- i ( Maidan, Bara Vallev . 

Kambar Khel . r --j v.11. 

( Kajun Valley . 

Kamrai . . Bara Valley 



4,000 

5,000 
1,200 



Zakka Khel . . Khyber, Bazar, and Bara Valley 4.500 



304 KHYRIM 

Khyrim (Khairam or Nongkhrem). — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam. The population in 1901 was 31,327, and 
the gross revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 12,161. The principal products are 
potatoes, rice, millet, maize, lac, oranges, and cotton ; and the chief 
manufactures, silk, cloth, and iron hoes and billhooks. Deposits of 
lime, coal, and iron exist in the State, but they are not worked. 

Kiamari. — -Formerly an island, now owing to the action of sand- 
drifts a portion of the mainland on the farther side of Karachi harbour, 
Sind, Bombay, situated in 24 49' N. and 67 2' E., and forming one 
of the municipal quarters of Karachi City, with which it is connected 
by a tramway road called the Napier Mole, 3 miles long, constructed in 
1854 by the North-Western Railway. Kiamari is the landing-place for 
passengers and goods destined for Karachi or dispatch up-country, and 
contains the Merewether Pier, called after a former Commissioner in 
Sind, the foundation-stone of which was laid by Lord Ripon in 1880, 
the Erskine Wharf, the James Wharf, and an oil pier. There are here 
a commissariat store, a customs house, a dispensary, &c. Kiamari is 
a station on the North-Western Railway. 

Kichhaunchha (or Ashrafpur-Kichhaunchha). — Town in the Tanda 
tahsll of Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26 25' N. and 
82 47' E., on the bank of a small stream called the Tonri. Population 
(1901), 2,325. This place, with the neighbouring villages of Bashkari 
and Rasulpur, is celebrated as having belonged to a famous saint, 
named Makhdum Ashraf, who lived in the fourteenth century, or to 
his descendants, who received rent-free grants from the Mughal em- 
perors. The saint's tomb is built on rising ground in the village of 
Rasulpur, and is much resorted to by pilgrims, especially in the month 
of Aghan (November-December). A visit is believed to be very effi- 
cacious for persons possessed by devils. Kichhaunchha is admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of Rs. 300. A school 
has 95 pupils. 

Kidderpore. — A quarter of Calcutta containing the docks. See 
Calcutta. 

Kiggatnad. — Southern taluk of Coorg, Southern India, lying be- 
tween n° 56' and 12 18' N. and 75 50" and 76 12' E., with an area 
of 410 square miles. The population in 1901 was 37,235, compared with 
31,230 in 1891. The taluk contains 68 villages, of which Ponnampet 
is the head-quarters. The west rests upon the Western Ghats, covered 
with evergreen forest ; the south is bounded by the Brahmagiri or 
Marenad range, from which ridges of hills branch off throughout the 
taluk ; the east is a continuous stretch of deciduous forest, through 
which flows the LakshmantTrtha. 

Kila Didar Singh. — Town in the District and tahsll of Gujranwala, 
Punjab, situated in 32° 7' N. and 74° 5' E., 10 miles south-west of 



KILIMANUR 305 

Gujranwala town, on the road to Hafizabad. Population (1901), 2,705. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 2,900, and the expenditure Rs. 2,800. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,800, chiefly from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 3,000. 

Kilakarai. — Seaport in the Ramnad tahsil of the Ramnad estate, 
Madura District, Madras, situated in 9 14' N. and 78 48' E., on the 
Gulf of Manaar, ro miles south of Ramnad town, from which it is 
separated by a wide morass, all but impassable in the rainy season. It 
is an untidy and dreary looking town, surrounded by sandy wastes and 
a little low scrub. The population (11,078 in 1901) consists mainly 
of Labbais, a Musalman trading community. Its commerce, which 
is chiefly in grain, is carried on mainly with Cocanada and Ceylon. 
The Labbais are experts in diving for sanhh-sheWs (Ttirbinella rapa), 
which are obtained principally opposite Devipatam, Tirupalakudi, and 
Rameswaram. 

Kila Saifulla. — Tahsil of the Upper Zhob subdivision of the 
Zhob District, Baluchistan, situated between 30 32' and 31 43' N. 
and 68° 9' and 69 18' E. It lies along the central part of the 
valley of the Zhob river, and also includes part of the Toba-Kakar 
range known as Kakar Khorasan. Its area is 2,768 square miles, and 
population (1901) 19,229. The land revenue, including grazing tax, 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 44,000. The head-quarters station is Kila 
Saifulla, and the tahsil contains 60 villages. The majority of the 
people are Sanzar Khel Kakars, who combine flock-owning with agri- 
culture. They cultivate considerable ' rains-crop ' areas. The Jogizais, 
once the ruling family in Zhob, live in this tahsil. Earth-salt is manu- 
factured, and traces of coal have been found. A small trade is done in 
fox-skins. 

Kila Sobha Singh. — Town in the Pasrur tahsil of Sialkot District, 
Punjab, situated in 32 14' N. and 74 46' E., on the banks of the 
Dengh torrent. Population (1901), 3,338. It was founded in the 
eighteenth century by the Sikh chief Bhag Singh, Ahluwiilia, who built 
a fort here and called it after his son Sobha Singh. It contains a 
colony of Kashmiri weavers who weave pashmlna shawls. Vessels of 
white metal are also made, but both industries have much decayed of 
late years. The municipality was created in 1867. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,900. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,400, chiefly from octroi; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 3,700. A vernacular middle school is maintained 
by the District board. 

Kilimanur. — An idavagay, or petty principality, in the Chirayinkll 
taluk of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 46' N. and 76 52' E. 
Population (1901), 3,053. It is a freehold estate belonging to the Koil 



306 KILIMANUR 

Tampurans, who are allied by marriage to the Ranis of Travancore and 
thus to the reigning family. The estate was granted about 1728, in 
recognition of the bravery with which a Koil Tampuran saved a Rani 
and heir apparent to the throne of Travancore from their enemies. 

Kiling. — River in Nowgong District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
See Umiam. 

Kinchinjunga (Kanchenjunga). — A mountain, second only to Everest 
in elevation, situated in the Eastern Himalayas, on the Sikkim-Nepal 
boundary (27 42' N., 88° 9' E.), its summit attaining an altitude of 
28,146 feet above sea-level. 

' The geological position of Kanchenjunga is obviously in the main 
axis of the Himalayas, although that mountain lies considerably to the 
south of the line of water-parting between the Tibetan plateau and 
India, and on a spur which runs at right angles to this line, so that 
even the drainage of its northern slopes flows directly down into the 
Indian plains. . . . The name Kanchenjunga is Tibetan, and means, 
literally, " The Five Repositories of the Great Glaciers," and it is phy- 
sically descriptive of its five peaks. . . . The Lepcha name of this 
mountain is Kong-lo-chu, or "The Highest Screen or Curtain of 
Snows.'" (Waddell, Amojig the Himalayas, 1899.) 

Kindat Subdivision. — Central subdivision of the Upper Chin- 
dwin District, Upper Burma, containing the Kindat and Tamu 
townships. 

Kindat Township. — Central township of the Upper Chindwin 
District, Upper Burma, stretching across the Chindwin river from the 
Yoma in the west to Shwebo District in the east, between 23 25' and 
23 58' N. and 94 18' and 95 2' E., with an area of 1,715 square 
miles. It is covered with forest, thinly populated, and, except in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Chindwin, hilly. The population was 
11,429 in 1891, and 13,946 in 1901, distributed in 117 villages and one 
town, Kindat (population, 2,417), the head-quarters. The area culti- 
vated in 1 903-4 was 2 1 square miles, and the land revenue and thatha- 
meda amounted to Rs. 42,000. 

Kindat Town.— Head-quarters of the Upper Chindwin District, 
Upper Burma, situated in 23 44' N. and 94 26' E., on the left bank 
of the Chindwin river, about 200 miles from the point at which that 
stream flows into the Irrawaddy. Population (1901), 2,417. The 
town is well wooded, but low-lying and in many ways unfavourably 
situated, as in the dry season it is separated by a wide expanse of sand 
from the river channel and the steamer ghat, and during the rains it 
occupies a narrow strip of land bounded on one side by the stream and 
on the other by a large jhil and swampy ground. It is faced across 
the stream by low wooded hills, but on its own side of the river the 
immediate surroundings are flat and uninteresting. The native quarter 



KIR AOL I 307 

stretches for some distance along the bank ; the civil station lies at its 
northern end ; the jail occupies the farther end of the civil station, and 
the military police lines are located to the north again of the jail. 
The civil station, which is protected by embankments from the en- 
croachment of the river on one side and of the jhll on the other, 
contains the District court and circuit house, the residences of the local 
officials, and the club. The civil hospital and the post and telegraph 
offices are in the native quarter. Kindat was a frontier post of some 
importance in Burmese times, but has never succeeded in attracting 
much trade, and is still nothing more than a village. The hospital 
contains 16 beds, and there is a small Anglo-vernacular school. 
Kindat is not a municipality, and can boast of little in the way of 
roads or other public improvements. 

Kinu. — Eastern township of Shwebo District, Upper Burma, extending 
from the Irrawaddy to the Mu river, between 22 38' and 22 55' N. and 
95 27' and 96 o' E., with an area of 244 square miles. It is for the 
most part a level plain, with a low rainfall. The population was 28,107 
in 1891, and 31,499 in 1901, distributed in 120 villages, Kinu (popula- 
tion, 2,223), about 12 miles north of Shwebo on the railway, being the 
head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 39 square miles, 
and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 75,900. 

Kinwat. — Taluk in Adilabad District, Hyderabad State, constituted 
in 1905 out of the northern villages of the former Narsapur and Nirmal 
taluks. The head-quarters are at Kinwat (population, 1,514). 

Kirakat.— Eastern tahsil of Jaunpur District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parga?ias of Daryapar and Bialsl and tappas Chandwak, 
Pisara, and Guzara, and lying between 25 32' and 25 46' N. and 
82 47' and 83 5' E., with an area of 244 square miles. Population 
fell from 201,546 in 1891 to 187,128 in 1901. There are 455 villages 
and only one town, Kirakat (population, 3,355), the tahsil head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903—4 was Rs. 180,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 36,000. The density of population, 767 persons per square 
mile, is almost equal to the District average. Kirakat is bisected by 
the Gumtl, which flows from north-west to south-east in a very winding 
course. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 161 square miles, 
of which 95 were irrigated. There are few tanks or Jhlls, and irrigation 
is supplied almost exclusively by wells. 

Kiraoli. — North-western tahsil of Agra District, United Provinces, 
conterminous with the pargana of Fatehpur Sikri, lying between 27 o' 
and 2 7 17'' N. and 77 30' and 77 55' E., with an area of 272 square 
miles. Population increased from 106,977 in 1891 to 123,812 in 1901. 
There are 171 villages and two towns, Fatehpur Sikri (population, 
7,147) and Achhnera (5,375). The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 2,51,000, and for cesses Rs. 31,000. The density of 



3 oS KIRAOLI 

population, 455 persons per square mile, is below the District average. 
The Utangan flows close to the southern border, while the Kharl Nadi 
crosses the centre. The eastern portion is level, but in the western 
half there are hills, the most important being the range on which the 
town of Fatehpur Slkri stands. A much shorter and lower range of 
hills runs parallel to this, north of the Kharl Nadi. Both ranges consist 
of red sandstone. The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 210 
square miles, of which 67 were irrigated. About one-third of the 
irrigated area is served by the Agra Canal, and extensions are con- 
templated. Wells supply the rest, but in many parts the water is so 
brackish that without good rains it cannot be used. 

Kiratpur. — Town in the Najibabad tahsll of Bijnor District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29 30' N. and 78 13' E., 10 miles north of 
Bijnor town. Population (1901), 15,051. There are two quarters 
of the town, Kiratpur Khas and Basl. The former was founded in 
the fifteenth century during the reign of Bahlol LodI, and the latter 
in the eighteenth century by Pathans, who built a fort. The walls are 
still standing near the gateway, and within is a handsome mosque. 
Kiratpur is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 3,600. Trade is insignificant, but lacquered chairs and 
boxes are made. The District board school has 112 pupils, and six 
aided schools 216 pupils. The American Methodist Mission has 
a branch here. 

Kirkee {Kirki or Khadki).— Town in the Haveli taluka of Poona 
District, Bombay, situated in 18 34' N. and 73 51/ E., on the south- 
east branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 116 miles south- 
east of Bombay and 4 north-west of Poona city. Population (1901), 
10,797. On November 5, 181 7, the first of three battles which led to 
the collapse of the Maratha power was fought near Kirkee, then a mere 
village. The British force under Colonel Burr was 2,800 strong, of 
whom 800 were Europeans. The Peshwa's force under Bapu Gokhale 
numbered 18,000 horse and 8,000 foot, with an immense train of 
ordnance. The Peshwa Baji Rao witnessed the battle and his own 
defeat from Parbati hill, one mile south of Poona. Kirkee is the 
principal artillery station in the Bombay Presidency, four field batteries 
being quartered here. It contains an arms and ammunition factory, 
employing about 2,000 operatives. The average income of the canton- 
ment fund during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 22,000. In 1903-4 
it was Rs. 28,000, and the expenditure amounted to Rs. 22,000. The 
town contains an English school. A branch of the Church Missionary 
Society, stationed here, carries on evangelistic work in the taluka. 

Kirli. — Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay. 

Kirthar Range. — Mountain range forming the boundary between 
Sind and the Jhalawan country in Baluchistan, between 2 6° 13' and 



KISHANGANJ TOWN 309 

28 36' N. and 67 11/ and 67 40' E. From the point where the 
Mula river debouches into the Kachhi plain, the range runs almost 
due south for a distance of 190 miles in a series of parallel ridges of 
bare rocky hills. At intervals similar ranges run athwart them. The 
offshoots tail off south-eastwards into Karachi District, but a single line 
of low hills extends as far as Cape Monze. The greatest breadth is 
about 60 miles. The highest point is the Zardak peak (7,430 feet), 
and another fine peak is the Kuta-ka-kabar, or Kuta-jo-kabar, i. e. ' the 
dog's tomb' (6,878 feet). The principal offshoot is the Lakhi range. 
The Kirthar hills are pierced by the Kolachi or Gaj river in a fine 
gorge, and the chief passes are known as the Harbab, Phusi, Rohel, 
and Garre. These hills give their name to the Kirthar geological group 
of Nummulitic limestone, which is found on their crests, overlaid by 
Tertiary rocks of Nari and Gaj beds, the former being soft sandstone 
and the latter a hard dark-brown limestone exposed on the Gaj river. 
The tribes residing in the Kirthar are the Marri and Jamali Baloch, 
Jamot and Chuta Jats, and some Khidrani and Sassoli Brahuis. They 
subsist chiefly by tending flocks, and by exporting the dwarf- 
palm (Namwrhops Ritchieand). Sind ibex and mountain sheep are 
fairly plentiful, and both black bears and leopards are occasionally 
met with. 

Kishanganj Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Purnea 
District, Bengal, bordering on Nepal and lying between 25 54' and 
26 35' N. and 87 37' and 88° 32' E., with an area of 1,346 square 
miles. The subdivision is a fertile alluvial tract stretching southwards 
from the Nepal tarai. The population in 1901 was 619,476, compared 
with 651,039 in 1 89 1. It contains one town, Kishanganj (population, 
7,671), the head-quarters; and 1,227 villages. The public offices are 
at present situated at the village of Bhariadangi, 4 miles north-west 
of the town ; but the courts will shortly be removed to Kishanganj 
town, where buildings are under construction. The subdivision is 
the most fertile portion of the District, and is more densely populated 
than the rest, supporting 460 persons to the square mile. It is more 
nearly allied to the neighbouring Districts of North Bengal than to 
Bihar, and the majority of the inhabitants are of Rajbansi (Koch) 
origin, though most of them are now converts to Islam. The chief 
markets are at Kishanganj town, Phulbaria, Bibfganj, Gandharbdanga, 
and Islampur. 

Kishanganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in Purnea District, Bengal, situated in 26 7' N. and 87 
56' E., on the Ganges-Darjeeling road, east of the Mahananda river. 
Population (1901), 7,671. Kishanganj is a large exporting centre 
for rice and jute. It was constituted a municipality in 1887. The in- 
come during the decade ending 1 901-2 averaged Rs. 7,500, and the 



310 KISHANGANJ TOWN 

expenditure Rs. 6,800. In 1903-4 the income, which is mainly derived 
from a tax on persons (or property tax), was Rs. 12,000, and the 
expenditure was Rs. 8,ooo. The public offices are at present situated 
about 4 miles from the town, but new courts are being built at Kishan- 
ganj ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 23 prisoners. The town 
contains the head office of the Khagra Ward's estate; a great fair is 
held annually under the auspices of the estate, which is attended by 
some 100,000 persons. A great number of elephants, camels, ponies, 
sheep, and cattle are sold, and much general merchandise changes 
hands ; the camels are in great demand for sacrifice by Musalmans 
at the Bakr-Id festival. Cart-wheels are largely manufactured in the 
neighbouring village of Chakla, which are used throughout the District 
and are also exported. 

Kishangarh State. — A State lying almost in the centre of Rajpu- 
tana, between 25 49/ and 26 59' N. and 70 40' and 75 11' E., with 
an area of 858 square miles. It is bounded on the north and north- 
west by Jodhpur ; on the east by Jaipur ; on the west and south-east by 
the British District of Ajmer; and on the extreme south by the Shah- 
pura chiefship. Leaving out of account five small 
ascect^ isolated patches which contain but a village or two 

each, the territory consists of two narrow strips of 
land, separated from each other, which together are about 80 miles in 
length from north to south, and have a breadth varying from 20 miles in 
the centre to about 2 at the southern extremity. The northern and 
larger of these two tracts is for the most part sandy, and is crossed by 
three parallel ranges of hills, running from south-west to north-east, 
which form part of the Aravallis, the highest peak being 2,045 ^ eet 
above the sea ; the southern portion of the State is generally flat and 
fertile. A few streams contain water during, and immediately after, 
the rains. The Rupnagar, after a north-easterly course, empties itself 
into the Sambhar Lake, while the Mashi (with its tributary, the Sohadra) 
and the Dain flow east and eventually join the Banas. 

The hill ranges and intervening valleys in the north consist of an 
ancient series of highly metamorphosed sediments known as the 
Aravalli system, among the varied strata of which the crystalline lime- 
stones constituting white and coloured marbles are especially valuable. 
The plain in the south-east and south consists principally of gneiss. 
Numerous igneous intrusions penetrate this rock, and most of them 
are granitic pegmatites, sometimes with plates of mica of marketable 
size. Near the capital the intrusions belong to the exceptional group 
of the eleolite syenites, and are remarkable for containing an extraor- 
dinary variety of sodalite, acquiring, when kept in the dark for some 
weeks, a vivid pink tinge, which disappears in a few seconds on ex- 
posure to light, the mineral becoming once more colourless until again 






KISHANGARH STA IE 311 

protected. Near Sarvvar in the south is a considerable outcrop of mica 
schists, containing an abundance of garnets remarkable for their size, 
transparency, and beautiful colouring. 

In addition to antelope, ' ravine deer ' (gazelle), and the usual small 
game, there are wild hog and nilgai {Boselaphus tragocamehis) in the 
northern and central portions of the State, and leopards, hyenas, and 
occasionally wolves in the hills. 

The climate is dry and healthy, but malarious fevers are prevalent in 
October and November. The annual rainfall at the capital averages 
between 20 and 21 inches, ranging from over 36 inches in 1892 to 
about 4^ inches in 1899. There is usually less rain to the north and 
slightly more to the south of the capital. 

The chiefs of Kishangarh belong to the Rathor clan of Rajputs, and 
are descended from Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur. The latter's second 
son, Kishan Singh, born in 1575, remained in the 
country of his birth till 1596, when, in consequence 
of some disagreement with his elder brother, Sur Singh, then Raja of 
Jodhpur, he took up his abode at Ajmer. Obtaining an introduction to 
Akbar, he received from him the district of Hindaun, now in Jaipur; and 
subsequently, for services rendered in recovering imperial treasure car- 
ried off by the Mers, he obtained a grant of Setholao and certain other 
districts. In 16 11 he founded the town of Kishangarh close to Setholao, 
which is now in ruins, and from that time the State began to be called by 
its present name. In Akbar's time Kishan Singh was styled Raja, but 
according to the State records JahangTr gave him the title of Maharaja. 
He died in 16 15 and has been followed by sixteen successors. The 
fourth of these, Rup Singh (1644-58), was a favourite of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, for whom he fought well and gained several victories. He 
thrice accompanied an expedition to Afghanistan, and was rewarded 
with a command of 5,000 and several estates, including the fort and 
district of Mandalgarh, now in Udaipur. Raj Singh, the seventh chief 
of Kishangarh (1706-48), fought in the battle of Jajau on the side of 
Shah Alam Bahadur Shah against Azam Shah, and was wounded ; he 
received a grant of the districts of Sarwar and Malpura, the latter of 
which now belongs to Jaipur. His successor, Sawant Singh, gave half 
the State to his younger brother, Bahadur Singh, and himself ruled at 
Rupnagar in the north. He was a religious recluse, and soon retired 
to Brindaban, where he died in 1764. His son, Sardar Singh, ruled 
for two years only; and, his successor being a minor, Bahadur Singh 
actually governed the whole territory till his death in 1781. 

The thirteenth chief was Kalyan Singh (1797-1832), and in his time 
(1818) Kishangarh was brought under British protection. He soon 
began to behave in a manner which argued either insanity or a total 
absence of principle. Becoming involved in disputes with his nobles, 



3 i2 KISHANGARH STATE 

he fled to Delhi, where he busied himself in buying honorary privileges 
from the titular sovereign, such as the right to wear stockings in the 
royal presence. Meanwhile affairs grew worse at Kishangarh, and, 
British territory having been violated by the disputants, the leaders of 
both parties were called upon to desist from hostilities and to refer 
their grievances to the mediation of the Government. The Maharaja 
was at the same time warned that, if he did not return to his capital 
and interest himself in the affairs of his State, the treaty with him would 
be abrogated, and engagements formed with the insurgent Thakurs. 
This threat brought Kalyan Singh back to Kishangarh, but, finding 
himself unable to govern the State, he offered to lease it to Govern- 
ment. This offer was refused, and he took up his residence at Ajmer. 
The nobles then proclaimed the heir apparent as Maharaja, and laid 
siege to the capital, which they were on the point of capturing when 
Kalyan Singh accepted the mediation of the Political Agent, through 
whom matters were for the time adjusted. The reconciliation with the 
nobles, however, did not prove sincere, and in 1832 Kalyan Singh 
abdicated in favour of his son, Mohkam Singh. The latter was suc- 
ceeded in 1840 by his adopted son, Prithwi Singh, who carried on the 
administration with prudence and more than average ability. In 1867 
a sum of Rs. 20,000 a year was granted by the British Government as 
compensation for the loss of transit dues owing to the introduction of 
the railway; in 1877 he received an addition of two guns to his salute 
for life ; and in 1879 a further sum of Rs. 25,000 a year was granted as 
compensation for suppressing the manufacture of salt and abolishing 
customs duties of every kind on all articles except spirits, opium, and 
intoxicating drugs. Maharaja Prithwi Singh died in 1879, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Sardul Singh, who continued the enlight- 
ened policy of his father. During his rule many valuable reforms in 
almost every department were introduced and carried to a successful 
issue, and in 1892 he was created a G.C.I.E. On his death in 1900 
his only son, Madan Singh, the present Maharaja, succeeded. His 
Highness, who is the seventeenth chief of the State, was born in 1884, 
was for some time an under-officer in the Imperial Cadet Corps, and 
was invested with powers in 1905. The Maharaja of Kishangarh is 
entitled to a salute of 15 guns, and in 1862 the usual sanad was granted 
guaranteeing the privilege of adoption. 

The number of towns and villages in the State in 1901 was 221, and 
the population at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 112,633, 

„ , . (i8qi) 121^16, and (1901) 90,970. The decrease 

Population. \ ■ , \ \ , c -k a 

during the last decade of over 27 per cent, is ascribed 

to emigration during the famine of 1 899-1 900, and to excessive 

mortality from fever in the autumn of 1900. The State is divided into 

the five districts or hukumats of Arain, Bandar Sindri, Kishangarh, 



AGRICULTURE 



3*3 



Riipnagar, and Sarwar. The first four form the northern portion of 
the territory, with an area of 650 square miles, while Sarwar is the 
detached tract on the south. All the three towns (Kishangarh, 
Rupnagar, and Sarwar) are municipalities. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of area and population 
in 1901 : — 



Hnkiimat. 


u 
s 

5f <» 

-a 

V 
u 


Number of 


Population. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


C 
O 

H 


HI 

be 
> 


Arain .... 
Bandar Sindri ) 
Kishangarh \ 
Rupnagar .... 
Sarwar .... 

State total 


196 
260 

194 

208 


I 

I 

I 


5° 
76 

36 
56 


1 7.994 

35. 6 55 
17,409 
19,912 


- 25-8 

- 25-2 

- 29-3 

- 3 10 


648 

2,230 

642 
682 


858 


3 


218 


90,970 


- 27-5 


4,202 



At the Census of 1901, Hindus numbered 79,670, or more than 
87 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 7,169; and Jains, 4,081. The 
majority of the Hindus are said to be Vaishnavas, and the religious 
head of the Nimbarak Sampradaya (a sect of Vaishnavas) resides at 
Sallmabad in the Rupnagar district. The language mainly spoken in 
the State is a form of Dhundarl, but in the north many speak Marwarl. 

The most numerous caste is that of the Jats, who number 16,000, or 
more than 17 per cent, of the total. Next come the Mahajans (7,600) ; 
the Brahmans (7,100); the Gujars (6,100); and the Rajputs (5,100), 
more than half of whom are of the ruling clan. The main occupation 
of the people is agriculture ; nearly 45 per cent, live solely by the land, 
and there are many others who are partially agriculturists. About 
18 per cent, are engaged in industries such as cotton-weaving and 
dyeing, pottery, work in precious stones, &c. ; and nearly 6 per cent, in 
commerce. 

Of the 31 Christians enumerated in 1901, all but one were natives, 
but their denomination was not returned. The United Free Church 
of Scotland Mission has a small branch at the capital, and a native 
pastor of the American Methodist Church resides at Rupnagar. 

Agricultural conditions vary in different parts of the State. In the 

north, where the soil is sandy and the rainfall less than elsewhere, there 

is practically but one harvest, the kharlf. and the . , 

. . . J ... . _ , .. Agriculture, 

principal crops are bajra, joivar, mung, and moth. 

In the centre the soil, though still poor, is firmer, the rainfall heavier, 

and there are several irrigation works. Maize and til take the place 

of bajra in the kharif, while the rabi or spring crops consist of barley, 



3i4 



KISHANGARH STATE 



wheat, gram, and cotton. The southern portion of the State is in every 
way the most favoured, and excellent crops are gathered in both 
autumn and spring. 

Agricultural statistics are available from 1 900-1, but only for the 
khalsa area, or land paying revenue direct to the State. This area 
is estimated at one-third of the total, or about 286 square miles. 
Returns exist for about 200 square miles, and the net area cropped in 
1903-4 was 153 square miles. The areas under principal crops were, 
in square miles, approximately : jowar, 40 ; barley, 25 ; maize, 23 ; 
bajra, 17; til, 17; cotton, 11; gram, 7; and wheat, 5. A few acres 
were also under tobacco, poppy, linseed, and a coarse kind of rice. 

The local cattle are described as of the Gujarati type, being of 
medium size but capable of hard work. Efforts are being made to 
improve the breed by importing bulls from Hissar and Nagaur. A 
cattle fair is held yearly in August at Sursara, near Rupnagar. Mule- 
breeding was started on a small scale in 1901, but is not popular. 
Sheep and goats are kept in considerable numbers to provide wool, 
meat, milk, and manure. 

Of the net area cropped in 1903-4, 73 square miles, or 48 per cent, 
were irrigated : namely, 30 from tanks, 38 from wells, and 5 from other 
sources. The subject of irrigation has for the last forty years received 
the special attention of the Darbar, and very few sites for tanks now 
remain in the central and southern districts. In the khalsa area alone 
there are 175 tanks and 2,500 wells available for irrigation. 

There are no real forests, but several blocks of scrub jungle and 
grass, having a total area of 41 square miles, are protected. The sale 
of timber, grass, and minor produce brings in about Rs. 18,000 a year, 
and the annual expenditure is about Rs. 4,000. 

The principal minerals now worked are garnets near the town of 
Sarwak. The Silora stone quarries near the capital yield slabs 
excellent for roofing and flooring, and are managed by the State Public 
Works department. The yearly out-turn is about 40,000 cubic feet, 
valued at Rs. 10,000. The white marble quarries at Tonkra will supply 
material for the proposed Victoria Memorial Hall at Calcutta ; a pink 
variety is found at Narwar, west of the capital, and a black at Jhak and 
other places in the north. A black mineral paint, discovered in 1886, 
has been successfully tried on the Rajputana-Malwa and Jodhpur- 
Bikaner Railways and on ocean steamers. 

The indigenous industries consist of the manufacture of chintzes and 

coloured cloths, lace, and drinking vessels and bottles made from khas- 

khas grass {Andropogoti muricatus). The establish- 

communications ment °f m ihs and factories as joint-stock concerns 

with limited liability under a local Company Act has 

been encouraged. There are two steam hydraulic cotton-presses 



ADMINISTRA TION 3 1 5 

worked by the State, which in 1903-4 employed an average of 182 
hands and pressed about 520 tons of cotton and wool. One of these 
is at the capital, where also there is a spinning- and weaving-mill and 
a soap factory. 

The chief exports are cotton, wool, caraway, and g/il, while the chief 
imports are sugar, salt, piece-goods, and cereals. A good deal of 
the cotton is exported to Agra, Allgarh, Cawnpore, and Hathras. 

Since 1875 the Rajputana-Malwa Railway has traversed the northern 
portion of the State from south-west to north-east ; its length within 
Kishangarh territory is about 13 miles, and there is one station — at the 
capital. The total length of metalled roads is 35 miles, and of un- 
metalled roads So miles. The Government of India maintains 28 
miles of the metalled roads : namely, ro miles of the Agra-Ahmad- 
abad road and 18 miles of the Nasirabad-Deoli road. 

There are four British post offices in the State, three of which are 
also telegraph offices. The Darbar has also its own postal system and 
postage stamps, maintaining thirteen local post offices and ten runners 
over a length of 65 miles. The postal income and expenditure are 
about Rs. 2,400 and Rs. 1,000 respectively. 

The State has suffered from constant scarcities. In 1755-6 the fort 
at the capital, and in 1783-4 the town walls, were built as relief works. 
The records show that there was famine in 1803-4, 
in 1848-9, and more or less continuously between 
1868 and 1872. In 1891 the rainfall was less than 8 inches; the crops 
failed, and fodder was very scarce. One-fifth of the people emigrated, 
and more than 42,000 cattle died. The average number relieved daily 
for a period of eight months was 1,400, and the total expenditure, 
including loans to agriculturists, was i-8 lakhs. The worst famine of 
which there is any detailed account was that of 1899-1900. The 
preceding two years had been indifferent ones ; the rainfall in 1899 was 
barely 4^ inches, the kharif crop failed entirely, and the whole State 
was affected. The measures adopted by the Darbar were wise and 
humane, and the relief was both effective and economical. The works 
were mainly irrigation projects, but the garnet quarries also afforded 
useful and congenial employment. More than five million units were 
relieved on works, or gratuitously, and the total expenditure exceeded 
3-5 lakhs. Owing 1o scarcity of fodder and water, 70 per cent, of the 
cattle are said to have perished. There was again famine in 1901-2, 
and one million units were relieved at a cost (including remissions of 
land revenue) of about 1-7 lakhs. 

The administration is carried on by the Maharaja, assisted by a 

Council of two members, the senior of whom is AJ . 

, , _ _, , , ... r , r - \ Administration. 

styled Dlwan. The head-quarters district ot Kishan- 
garh is directly under the Revenue Commissioner, while each of the 

vol. xv. x 



3 i6 KISHANGARH STATE 

remaining hukumats is under an official called hakim. In each district 
are several tahsilddrs and naib-tahsllddrs, who are purely revenue 
officers. 

For the guidance of its judiciary the State has its own Codes and 
Acts, based largely on those of British India. Of the four hakims, one 
has the powers of a third-class magistrate, and the rest are second-class 
magistrates, while all of them can try civil suits of any value arising 
in their respective districts. Criminal cases beyond their powers are 
heard by the Sadr Faujdari Court, the presiding officer of which has 
the powers of a first-class magistrate and is also magistrate for the 
Kishangarh district. The civil work of the latter district is disposed 
of partly by the Small Cause Court, and partly by the Sadr Dlwani, or 
chief civil court. The next tribunal is the Appellate Court, which, 
besides hearing all appeals (civil and criminal), has the powers of 
a Sessions Judge. The Council is the highest court in the State ; it 
hears special appeals, exercises general supervision, and when presided 
over by the Maharaja can pass death sentences. 

The normal revenue of Kishangarh is about 4-6 lakhs, and the 
expenditure 4-2 lakhs. The chief sources of revenue are : land (in- 
cluding irrigation), 1-5 lakhs; customs (including Rs. 45,000 received 
as compensation from the British Government), Rs. 60,000 ; cotton- 
mill and presses, &c, Rs. 25,000 ; and judicial (including stamps), 
Rs. 21,000. The main items of expenditure are: administrative staff 
(civil and judicial), 2-6 lakhs; palace and privy purse, Rs. 70,000; 
army and police, Rs. 40,000 ; and public works (including irrigation), 
Rs. 33,000. The financial position is sound ; for while there are no 
debts, there is a considerable cash balailce and a further sum of about 
2-8 lakhs is invested in Government securities and the local cotton- 
presses, mills, &c. 

The State has its own coinage, and there have been several issues 
since the mint was started. The rupee now most common is known 
as the Chaubisania (twenty-fourth year) ; once worth about thirteen 
British annas, it now exchanges for barely eleven, and it is proposed 
to convert the local currency when the rate becomes more favourable. 

The land tenures are the usual jdgir, mudfi, and khdlsa. The 
jdglrdars have to serve with their quota of horsemen, or make a cash 
payment in lieu, and ordinarily attend the Maharaja on his birthday 
and certain festivals. Their estates descend from father to son, or, 
with the sanction of the Darbar, to an adopted son, but are liable 
to resumption for serious offences against the State. Mudfi grants, 
or lands held by individuals such as Brahmans, Charans, and Bhats, 
or by charitable and religious institutions, are rent free, inalienable, 
and may be resumed on failure of heirs. In the khdlsa area or 
crown lands the cultivators are for the most part tenants-at-will, 



KISHANGARH TOWN 317 

liable at any time to be dispossessed, though they are rarely evicted. 
The land revenue is generally paid in kind, the Darbar's share vary- 
ing from one-fourth to one-third of the produce. In some parts, how- 
ever, and in the case of such crops as cotton, poppy, maize, tobacco, 
and spices, the revenue is collected in cash, the rates varying from 
Rs. 6 to Rs. 18 per acre. Special concessions are made to those 
who bring new land under cultivation or sink new wells ; they pay 
the Darbar one-ninth, or sometimes one-eleventh, of the gross pro- 
duce the first year, one-eighth or one-tenth in the second year, and 
so on till the usual one-third is reached. 

The military force consists of 220 regulars (84 cavalry and 136 
infantry) and 1,739 irregulars (836 cavalry and 903 infantry). The 
irregular cavalry are supplied by the jaglrdars. There are 65 guns, 
serviceable and unserviceable, and 35 artillerymen. 

Police duties are performed by a force of 511 of all ranks, in- 
cluding 1 87 Rajput sepoys from the irregular infantry, and 91 village 
cliauk'idars. There are nine police stations and numerous outposts, 
the latter being mostly manned by the jagir militia. Besides the 
Central jail and a small prison for persons under trial at the capital, 
there are three district jails — at Arain, Rupnagar, and Sarwar — in 
which persons sentenced to one month or less are confined. These 
five jails have accommodation altogether for 153 prisoners. 

In the literacy of its population Kishangarh stands fourth among 
the twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with 4-6 per cent. 
(8-4 males and 0-4 females) able to read and write. There are now 
29 educational institutions in the State, attended by about 1,000 
pupils, of whom 70 are girls. Of these schools, 17 are maintained 
by the Darbar at a cost of about Rs. 6,500 a year, 2 by the United 
Free Church of Scotland Mission, and the rest by private individuals. 
The only secondary school is the Maharaja's high school at the 
capital. An education cess calculated at 1 per cent, of the land 
revenue has been imposed since 1902. 

The State possesses one hospital and three dispensaries ; and in 
1904 the number of cases treated was 25,584, of whom 95 were 
in-patients, and 655 operations were performed. The total expendi- 
ture was about Rs. 5,000. 

Vaccination is backward. In 1904-5 the number of persons 
successfully vaccinated was i,S8o, or about 21 per 1,000 of the 
population. 

Kishangarh Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in 
Rajputana, situated in 26 34' N. and 74 53' E., on the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway, about 18 miles north-east of Ajmer city, and 257 
miles south-west of Delhi. It takes its name from Kishan Singh, 
the first chief, who founded it in 161 1. Population (1901), 12,663. 

x 2 



3 i8 KISHANGARH TOWN 

The town and fort occupy a picturesque position on the banks of an 
old lake, over a square mile in extent, called Gundolao, in the centre 
of which is a small garden known as the Mohkam Bilas. The 
Maharaja's palace is in the fort and commands a fine view of 
the surrounding country. The principal industrial occupations of the 
people are cloth-weaving, dyeing, the cutting of precious stones, and 
the manufacture of drinking vessels and betel-nut boxes from khas- 
khas grass. A municipal committee, established in 1886, attends to 
the lighting, conservancy, and slaughter-house arrangements. The 
town possesses a combined post and telegraph office ; a couple of 
jails, with accommodation for 123 prisoners; a hospital, with beds 
for 1 2 in-patients ; and 1 1 schools, attended by about 400 boys and 
50 girls. Of these schools, three are maintained by the State and 
two by the United Free Church of Scotland Mission. The Maha- 
raja's high school is affiliated to the Allahabad University, and 
teaches up to the middle standard in both English and vernacular ; 
the number on its rolls is 294, and the daily average attendance 
270. About a mile and a half north of the town and close to the 
railway station, a flourishing suburb, called Madanganj after the 
present chief, has sprung up. It contains a steam hydraulic cotton- 
press, and a spinning- and weaving-mill. The latter, which was opened 
in 1897, has 10,348 spindles and employs about 500 hands. In 1904 
the total out-turn exceeded 685 tons of yarn, and the receipts were 
about 4-6 lakhs. 

Kishenganj. — Subdivision and town in Purnea District, Bengal. 
See Kishangaxj. 

Kishorganj Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Mymen- 
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 2' and 
24 38" N. and 90 35' and 91 r6' E., with an area of 985 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 719,184, compared with 643,381 
in 1 89 1. It contains two towns, Kishorganj (population, 16,246), 
the head-quarters, and Bajitpur (10,027); an d 1,661 villages. It 
is an alluvial tract, intersected by marshes, and is subject to annual 
inundations and deposits of fertilizing silt from the Meghna and its 
tributaries. It is, after Tangail, the most populous subdivision in the 
District, the density being 730 persons per square mile, against an 
average of 618 for the whole District. There are important markets 
at Bhairab Bazar, KarImganj, and Katiadi. 

Kishorganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
24 26' N. and 90 46' E., on the Kundali Khal, 13 miles east of the 
Brahmaputra. Population (1901), 16,246. An annual fair is held here 
during the Jhulanjatra, a festival in honour of Krishna lasting for a 
month from the middle of July to the middle of August. Kishorganj 



KISTNA DISTRICT 319 

is connected with the Brahmaputra by a road and also by the Kundali 
Khal, which is navigable during the rainy season. The town was 
formerly noted for its muslin manufactures, and the East India Com- 
pany had a factory here. Kishorganj was constituted a municipality 
in 1869. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 6,500, and the expenditure Rs. 6,200. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 8,000, of which Rs. 4,600 was obtained from a property tax; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 7,800. The town contains the usual public 
offices; the sub-jail has accommodation for 22 prisoners. 

Kistna District {Krishna). — District on the north-eastern coast 
of the Madras Presidency, lying between 15 37' and 17 9' N. and 
79 14' and 8i° i>2> E., with an area of 8,498 square miles 1 . 

It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the west by the 
Nizam's Dominions and Kurnool District ; and on the north and south 
by the Districts of Godavari and Nellore respectively. It is named after 
the great river which flows along much of its western boundary, and 
then, turning sharply, runs right across it from north- 
west to south-east, and forms its most striking natural Physical 
feature. On the extreme west the District consists 
of stony uplands, dotted with rocky hills or crossed by low ranges ; the 
centre and north are a level plain of black cotton soil ; but the eastern 
portion is made up of the wide alluvial delta of the Kistna river, an 
almost fiat expanse, covered with irrigated rice-fields, and containing 
some of the most fertile land in the Presidency. These three tracts 
form three sharply differentiated natural divisions. The coast is fringed 
with a wide belt of blown sand, sometimes extending inland for several 
miles. Along the shore the dunes rise to the height of from 30 to 50 
feet. The only hills of any note are those in the west of the District- 
They are outliers of the great chain of the Eastern Ghats, and the 
Palnad taluk is almost surrounded by them. Besides the Kistna, there 
are no rivers, except a few fitful hill torrents and three or four minor 
tributaries of the great river. The Gundlakamma, which rises in 
Kurnool, traverses a corner of the Vinukonda taluk from west to east 
and then passes into Nellore. The Colair Lake (Kolleru) lies within 
the District. 

The broad central belt of low-lying country, situated at the foot of 
the Eastern Ghats and sloping towards the sea, is covered by Archaean 
gneisses. These consist of a thinner-bedded schistose series (which 

1 While this woik was under preparation the area oi the District was changed, the 
taluks of Ellore, Yernagiidem, Tanuku, Bhimavaram, and Narasapur (excluding 
Nagaram Island) being added to it from Godavari District, and those of Tenali, 
Guntur, Sattanapalle, Palnad, Bapatla, Narasaraopet, and Vinukonda being formed 
(with the Ongole taluk of Nellore) into a new Guntur District. The present article 
refers to the Distiict as it stood before these alterations 



320 KISTNA DISTRICT 

includes mica and chloritic schists with quartzites), and of more massive 
granitoid gneisses, all much interbanded and disturbed. They are also 
pierced by occasional younger dioritic dikes, granite, felsite, and quartz 
veins. North-west of this Archaean belt comes the more elevated, 
often plateau-like, country of the Cuddapah and Kurnool series of the 
Purana group. This is an enormous series (aggregating over 20,000 
feet thick) of unfossiliferous, but little altered, sedimentary strata, 
gently inclined as a whole. They comprise repetitions of quartzitic 
and shaly sub-series, with occasional conglomerates and limestones, 
and interbedded traps near the base. The Kurnools overlie the 
Cuddapahs unconformably, forming numerous plateaux, and possess 
a basal diamantiferous conglomerate. South-east of the Archaean 
band are a few scattered outliers of the much younger Upper Gond- 
wanas, with plant-beds and Jurassic marine shells, a double sandstone 
series with shales between ; and these in turn underlie a little sub- 
recent Cuddalore sandstone, and great stretches of coastal and deltaic 
alluvium with a few patches of lateritic rock. 

The flora of the District presents no special characteristics, the 
plants being mainly the usual cultivation weeds of the Coromandel 
coast. Along the sandy shore are found the usual sand-binders, 
Spinifex sqtiarrosus and Ipomoea ; and cashew-nut trees (Anacardium 
occidentale) occur in scattered nooks. The principal crops and forest 
trees are referred to later. Generally speaking, the District is very 
bare of tree-growth. 

Wild animals are far from plentiful. Tigers and sambar are found 
in the Palnad and Vinukonda jungles, on the Medasala Durga ridge, 
and on the Kondapalli and Kondavid hills. Leopards and an occa- 
sional bear lurk in the rocky eminences of some of the inland taluks. 
A few antelope are to be seen in the Bapatla taluk, and wild hog are 
not uncommon in various parts. Bird life is more prominent. Almost 
every species of South Indian feathered game, except the woodcock 
and hill partridge, is to be found in the District. Snipe, duck, and 
teal abound in the season ; and the Colair Lake is the home of almost 
all the known inland aquatic birds. It is also fairly stocked with fish. 

The climate of the District, although in parts trying owing to the 
great heat, may be set down as healthy. Fever is on the whole 
uncommon. Masulipatam (the head-quarters), with a mean tempera- 
ture of 82°, a recorded maximum of 117 , and a minimum of 58 , 
possesses perhaps the most equable climate ; and on the coast gener- 
ally, except for a short time in the month of May, the heat is never 
unbearable. The temperature of the Palnad, Sattanapalle, Nandigama, 
and Tiruvur taluks during November, December, and January resembles 
that of the Mysore plateau, the thermometer falling to 65 ; but the 
temperature becomes extremely high during May and June. 



HISTORY 321 

Of the rainfall, nearly two-thirds is usually registered during the 
south-west monsoon, the first showers of which begin to fall in May. 
The remainder of the supply is received in the three last months of 
the year, but the fall in October and November is as a rule much more 
irregular than in the earlier months. It is at times exceedingly heavy, 
owing to the cyclones that often visit the coast. The annual rainfall 
for the District as a whole during the thirty years from 1870 to 1899 
averaged 33 inches. But this is not evenly distributed ; as elsewhere 
along this coast, the fall in the coast tracts, ■ such as Masulipatam, 
Tenali, and Bapatla, is considerably heavier than that in the inland 
taluks of Palnad, Sattanapalle, and Narasaraopet. Scarcity has been 
known in one or two bad years, but the pinch of real famine has not 
been felt since the Kistna irrigation system was completed. Floods, 
however, are frequent. In 1874, 1875, 1882, 1895, 1896, and 1903 
they did damage which was sometimes very great. All of them were 
due to the Kistna overflowing its banks. The highest flood on record 
in the river was in 1903, when the water breached the bank of the 
main canal and submerged much of the delta. Masulipatam, the 
District head-quarters, has twice been visited by disastrous tidal waves. 
In 1779 the sea flowed 12 feet deep through the Dutch factory, a great 
part of the town was washed away, and at least 20,000 persons were 
drowned and lay unburied in the streets. In 1864 an even worse 
wave inundated the place. The sea penetrated 17 miles inland, sub- 
merging 780 square miles and drowning as many as 30,000 people. 

The earliest known rulers of the District were the Buddhist dynasty 

of the Andhras, who built the stupa at Amaravati and whose curious 

leaden coins are still occasionally found. Following 

, .... r , l History. 

them came, about the beginning ot the seventh 

century A.D., the Brahmanical Eastern Chalukyas, the excavators of 

the cave temple at Undavalle and other rock-cut shrines. About 

999 they in their turn were supplanted by the Cholas. The latter 

some two centuries later gave place to the Ganpatis of Warangal, 

during whose rule Marco Polo landed in the District at Motupalle, 

now an obscure fishing village in the Bapatla taluk. The District then 

came under a dual sway, the kings of Orissa ruling the northern part, 

while the south fell into the hands of a line of cultivators who rose to 

considerable power and are known to history as the Reddi kings. The 

ruins of their fortresses at Kondavid, Bkllamkonda, and Kondapalli 

are still to be seen. In 15 15 king Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar 

wrested the north of the District from the Gajapati kings of Orissa; 

and it passed, on the fall of the Vijayanagar empire in 1565, to the 

Kutb Shahi line of Golconda, and was eventually absorbed (on the 

destruction of that dynasty in 1687) in the empire of Aurangzeb. 

In 161 1 the English founded their second settlement in India at 



322 



KISTNA DISTRICT 



Masulipatam, which continued to be their head-quarters until these 
were finally removed to Madras in 1641. Three years after the found- 
ing of the English settlement came the Dutch, and in 1669 the French 
followed. It was not, however, till the year 1750 that any of the 
European powers exerted any political influence in the District. Two 
years after that date the Subahdar of the Deccan granted the whole of 
the Northern Circars to the French, and it was from them that this 
tract finally passed to the English. On the outbreak of hostilities in 
1758, Colonel Forde, who was sent by Clive from Bengal to attack 
the French in the Northern Circars, defeated them at Condore in 
Godavari District, and following them to Masulipatam besieged them 
there. Faced by a strong garrison in front and hemmed in behind by 
the Subahdar of the Deccan, the ally of the French, his ranks rapidly 
thinning with disease, Forde, as a counsel of despair, at length made 
an almost desperate night attack upon the Masulipatam fort and 
captured it. As a consequence of this victory, first the divisions of 
Masulipatam, Nizampatam, and part of Kondavid, and later the whole 
of the Circars, passed, by a grant from the Subahdar of the Deccan 
(confirmed by the emperor Shah Alam in 1765), to the Company. 
With the cession of the Palnad in 1801 by the Nawab of Arcot, 
the entire District finally became British territory. At first it was 
administered by a Chief and Council at Masulipatam, but in 1794 
Collectors directly responsible to the Board of Revenue were 
appointed at Guntur and Masulipatam. In 1859 these two Collec- 
torates (except two taluks of the latter) were amalgamated into one 
District. 

The most interesting archaeological remains in the District are its 
Buddhist antiquities, and the chief of these is the great stupa at Ama- 
ravati in the Sattanapalle taluk. This was discovered in 1796, and a 
portion of the sculptured marble rails of the processional circle was sent 
by Sir Walter Elliot to England, where it now lines one of the staircase 
walls in the British Museum. The Government Museums at Madras 
and Calcutta contain other pieces of the work. From inscriptions it is 
evident that the temple of Amareswara in the same village was origin- 
ally a Buddhist or Jain sanctuary, and in the neighbourhood are several 
mounds which may perhaps contain other relics of these faiths. In 
the Tenali taluk are the ruins of Chandavolu, a place of great antiquity 
containing a temple and Buddhist mound ; and Buddhist stiipas exist 
at Jaggayyapeta and Gudivada. Gold coins have been found at 
Chandavolu, and in 1874 some workmen came upon several masses of 
molten gold as large as bricks. There was formerly a fine Buddhist 
stupa at Bhattiprolu. Here a curious relic, consisting of a piece of 
bone (supposed to have been one of Buddha's bones) enclosed in 
a crystal casket lodged in a soapstone outer case, was found a few 



POPULATION 



323 



years ago. In the Vinukonda taluk stone circles (dolmens) abound 
and inscriptions are numerous. 

Kistna comprises the thirteen taluks and tahsils of 
which statistical particulars are given below : — 



Population. 





1) 

u 


Number of 


c 


U 


Cj; M 







3 . 









g'i 
'■as 


li'~ C\~ 




Taluk or Tahsil. 




c 


0! 


3 


"o.c - 5 


umbo 
onsal 
ead a 
write 




u 

< 



I 


> 


PLt 


O w 


1- c* a,? cd 


2 t - 


tSezwada 


422 


I07 


124,170 


295 


+ 16.6 


8,189 


Tiruvur 


33S 


. . . 


89 


69,219 


2 05 


+ 13-3 


2,291 


Xuzvid 


789 


I 


2 3 : 


l88,76l 


240 


+ 22-0 


7.427 


Nandigama 


677 


I 


169 


1 39.958 


206 


+ IO.5 


5.555 


Gudivada . 


595 


I 


212 


l 5 I,9l6 


256 


+ 2S-4 


6,751 


Bandar 


740 


I 


191 


2I4,3l6 


29O 


+ 8-0 


15,44° 


Guntur 


500 


2 


109 


2 ° 3 .557 


402 


+ 20-2 


13.083 


Sattanapalle 


7M 


. . . 


16S 


159.645 


224 


+ i;.j 


6,803 


Tenali 


644 


I 


150 


288,127 


44 S 


+ 29-3 


12,860 


Xarasaraopet 


7 J 3 


I 


114 


168,547 


237 


+ 7.8 


7,270 


Palnad 


1,041 




96 


153.638 


I48 


+ S-2 


5.979 


Vinukonda 


646 


I 


7i 


S2.493 


128 


+ 0-1 


3.74 1 


Bapatla 

District total* 


679 


3 


11 1 


213.456 


315 


+ i-73 


12,050 


8,498 


13 


1,818 


-..'54,So3 


254 


+ 16-1 


i°7.439 



* The area of the new Kistna District is 5,899 square miles, and its population 1,744,138. 

The head-quarters of the Bandar taluk are at Masulipatam, of 
Nuzvid at Gannavaram, and of Palnad at Guruzala. Those of the 
other ten taluks are at the places from which they are named. The 
population of the District in 1871 was 1,452,374; in 1881, 1,548,480; 
in 1891, 1,855,582 ; and in 1901, 2,154,803. During the last thirty 
years it has increased by 48 per cent., which, excluding the exceptional 
case of the Nilgiris, is the highest rate for any District in the Presidency : 
and in the decade ending 1901 its growth was at the rate of 16 per cent., 
which was more rapid than in any other District. Of the nine taluks 
in the Presidency which showed the highest rates of increase in that 
period, four — namely, Tenali, Gudivada, Xuzvid, and Guntur — are in 
Kistna. Some of this growth is due to immigration, chiefly from 
Nellore and Vizagapatam. It is most conspicuous in the delta ; but 
even there, except in Tenali, the density of the population is still much 
less than in the neighbouring delta of the Godavari, and the rates of 
increase will probably continue to be high in future. The chief towns 
are the municipalities of Masulipatam, Bezwada, and Guntur, while 
ChIrala and Tenali are the two most populous Unions. Of the total 
population, 1,912,914, or 89 per cent., are Hindus; 132,053, or 6 per 
cent., Musalmans ; and 101,414, or 5 per cent., Christians. The 
number of these last almost trebled during the twenty years ending 
1 90 1, and between 1891 and 1901 advanced by nearly 33,000, a larger 



3 2 4 KISTNA DISTRICT 

increase than in any other District. In 1901 Christians formed a 
higher proportion of the population than in any other District north 
of Madras City. 

Five per cent, of the people speak Hindustani. Telugu is the 
vernacular of practically all the rest, and is the prevailing language 
in every taluk. A peculiarity of the population is that it comprises 
fewer females than males, there being 976 of the former to every 1,000 
of the latter. This characteristic occurs also in six other Districts 
which form, with Kistna, a fairly compact block of country in the 
centre of the Presidency. 

Of the Hindus, 97 per cent, belong to Telugu castes. The Kammas 
(311,000) and Telagas (cultivators, 148,000) are in greater strength 
than in any other District ; as also are the Madigas (leather-workers, 
142,000), the Telugu Brahmans (106,000), and the Komatis (traders, 
81,000). Brahmans of all classes number nearly 6 per cent, of the 
total Hindu and Animist population, which is an unusually high 
proportion. Among other castes which are commoner in Kistna than 
elsewhere may be mentioned the Bogams (dancing-girls), and the three 
beggar communities of the Bandas, Budubudukalas, and Vipravi- 
nodis. The latter beg only from Brahmans, and will only do their 
juggling tricks, for which they are famous, if a Brahman be present. 
Of the Musalmans, an overwhelmning majority returned themselves 
as Shaikhs, but Pathans and Saiyids are fairly plentiful, while Mughals 
are more than twice as numerous as in any other District. 

The occupations of the people differ singularly little from the normal. 
Agriculture, as usual, enormously preponderates. 

At the Census of 1901 there were 101,414 Christians in Kistna 
District, of whom 100,841 were natives. The most numerous sect is 
that of the Baptists (39,027). The Lutheran and allied denominations 
number 34,877 ; while the Roman Catholic and Anglican communions 
are fairly equal in strength, possessing 14,511 and 11,157 members 
respectively. 

The pioneers of Christianity in the District belonged to the Roman 
Catholic Church, being Jesuits who came out to India after the found- 
ing of the well-known mission at Madura. Little is now on record 
regarding their operations, but it is clear that their efforts were less 
continuous and strenuous than in Districts farther south. The 
suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773 almost entirely checked 
their enterprise, and for many years few priests were left in the District, 
and some of the converts went back to Hinduism. In 1874 matters 
revived, four priests coming out from Mill Hill ; and since then more 
has been done. 

The Protestant missions are of much more recent origin. The best 
known of their missionaries, the Rev. Robert Noble, came to Masuli- 



AGRICULTURE 



325 



Agriculture. 



patam in 1841 under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society, 
and worked there without intermission for twenty years, founding the 
college at Masulipatam which bears his name. The American Lutheran 
Mission was started at Guntur in 1842. Its converts are chiefly from 
the lower castes, and it works at Guntur and Narasaraopet. The Bap- 
tists began operations in 1866, but their converts outnumber those of 
any other denomination. 

As has been mentioned, the District consists of three dissimilar areas : 
namely, the Palnad and the neighbouring tracts, where much of the 
soil is formed of detritus from the hills ; the wide 
plain of the rest of the uplands, where it is black 
cotton soil ; and the delta, which is for the most part alluvial. Agri- 
cultural practice naturally differs according to the soil, the lighter land 
requiring only slight showers, the cotton country needing a thorough 
soaking, and the delta having to wait until the floods come down the 
river. There are three general classes of crop, corresponding more or 
less to the seasons : namely, the punasa, or early crop, sown just after 
the first burst of the monsoon in May or June ; the pedda, or big crop, 
between July and September ; and the paira, or late crop, put down in 
November. The sowing of the ' wet ' land is principally done from 
July to October, by the middle of which month more than four-fifths 
of it should have been completed. 

As much as one-fourth of the District consists of zamlnddri and 
indin lands. For the former of these no detailed particulars are on 
record. The area for which accounts are kept is 6,487 square miles, 
details of which, for 1903-4, are appended : — 



Think. 


Area shown 
in accounts. 


Forests. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Bezwada 


232 


5° 


4 


I46 


33 


Nuzvld 


4 









2 


Nandigama . 


437 


41 


4 


346 


12 


Gudivada 


5 2 3 


I 


JI 4 


325 


222 


Bandar 


437 


103 


129 


158 


41 


Guntur 


497 


13 


3 


4'3 


10 


Sattanapallc . 


7'5 


129 


16 


4*4 


3 


Tenali . 


6 45 


45 


5' 


4' s 5 


3 J 5 


Narasaraopet 


696 


45 


24 


545 


9 


Palnad . 


1,041 


354 


89 


502 


6 


Vinukonda . 


57i 


'73 


44 


309 


7 


Bapatla 

Total 


O89 

6 ;4 8 7 


47 


67 


4 8 4 


117 


1,001 


545 


4,200 


777 



The staple crop is rice, which in 1903-4 occupied 800 square 
miles, or 25 per cent, of the total area under cultivation. This is 
of two main kinds : white paddy, which is irrigated and transplanted ; 
and black paddy, which grows with the help of rain alone. The 



326 KISTNA DISTRICT 

latter is found only in two or three Districts besides Kistna, and is 
largely exported to Jaffna. Cholam {Sorghum vulgare), which occupied 
590 square miles in 1903-4, is the principal ' dry ' cereal crop, and 
next in importance is rambu {Pennisetum typhoideum). Of industrial 
crops, cotton, which is chiefly produced in Palnad and Sattanapalle, 
occupied 377 square miles. The area under indigo has fallen from 
180 square miles in 1896-7 to 40 square miles in 1903-4, the 
decline being attributable to the competition of the synthetic dye. 
Tobacco, which is largely exported to Burma, was grown on 28,000 
acres. Castor occupied 39,000 acres, but the cultivation and trade 
in this product- are gradually falling off. 

During the period of thirty-one years from 1872-3 to 1903-4, 
an increase of 12 per cent, occurred in the total extent of holdings. 
The most noticeable advance was in the 'wet' cultivation, the 
extent of which has more than doubled ; the increase in ' dry ' hold- 
ings was comparatively small. In point of quality, cultivation has 
probably receded rather than improved since the introduction of 
irrigation from the Kistna. The delta ryot finds that he can grow 
a crop sufficient for his needs with little trouble, and ploughing is 
done in a perfunctory fashion, while weeding is not necessary under 
the transplantation system. Little advantage has been taken of the 
Land Improvement Loans Act, the amount advanced in sixteen 
years ending 1903-4 being only Rs. 28,000. Most of this was, as 
usual, spent in digging or repairing wells. 

The large extent of pasture in the upland regions affords exceptional 
facilities for rearing stock. Excellent cattle of the Nellore breed are 
found in the Palnad, Narasaraopet, and Vinukonda taluks. These 
animals, though very powerful and useful for heavy draught, are slow, 
and deteriorate quickly if called on to work where the grass is not 
as good as in their native places. In the delta the want of fodder 
is severely felt, and the cattle are generally of poor quality. Sheep 
are fairly plentiful. They have, as a rule, short, coarse, red or brown 
hair, and are extremely leggy. 

The total area irrigated in the District is 777 square miles, as shown 
in the table given above. Practically the whole of it is in the delta 
taluks of Tenali, Gudivada, Bapatla, and Bandar, where it depends 
upon the Kistna river. Nearly 90 per cent, of the irrigated area is 
supplied from Government canals, only 7 per cent, from tanks, and 
only \\ per cent, from wells. The Kistna irrigation is led from the 
great dam across the river at Bezwada, which is 3,714 feet long and 
rises about 20 feet above the bed of the stream. It was finished in 
1854, and feeds the ten main canals which irrigate the delta and 
branch off into smaller and smaller channels until they cover every 
part of it. Vast as is the quantity of water utilized by this great 



AGRICULTURE 327 

system, a large amount of flood-water still runs to waste over the dam : 
but, as the river is not filled by the rains of the north-east monsoon, 
there is little water in it at the end of the year, and the area that grows 
two crops is therefore so small as to be negligible. A project to form 
an enormous reservoir higher up the river, where it runs between very 
steep, high banks, has accordingly been investigated ; this would not 
only supplement the supply at the dam at Bezwada, but would also 
command large areas in the upland taluks above that dam. It is 
estimated that by this means the irrigable area might be doubled. 
Even under existing conditions the value of the irrigated crops is 
estimated at 215 lakhs annually, the greater part of this representing 
the value of the rice crop. 

Among minor irrigation works may be mentioned a dam built across 
the Muneru at Polampalli, by which 3,400 acres were watered in 
1903-4. A dam has also been constructed across the Palleru at 
Katchavaram in the Nizam's Dominions, which is at present held on 
lease by private individuals. All the area supplied from it, which is 
not very great, lies within British territory. In the uplands irrigation is 
from tanks, but none of them is of any great size and the total area 
commanded is inconsiderable. A scheme to irrigate 50,000 acres in 
the Divi Island in the delta by steam pumping has recently been 
started. 

There is now very little real forest within the limits of the District, 
although the hills in the Palnad and those to the north-west of Yinu- 
konda are said to have once been covered with trees. The ' reserved ' 
forests cover about 1,000 square miles, of which more than a third is in 
the Palnad, and much of the remainder in Vinukonda and Sattanapalle. 
The most notable species are Pterocarfius, Terminalia^ Anogeissus, and 
Lagerstroemia. Casuarina has been planted by private enterprise on 
considerable areas of the sandy wastes along the coast. On the 
Kondapalli hills is found a light wood known as ponuku (Gyrocarpus 
Jacquini), which is used in the manufacture of the well-known Konda- 
palli toys. In 1903-4 the forest receipts amounted to Rs. 1,49,000, 
and the working expenses, inclusive of establishment charges, to 
Rs. 74,000. 

Except building stones, among which the marble used in the 
Amaravati stupa deserves special mention, the District contains few 
minerals of economic value. Iron occurs in small quantities and was 
formerly smelted by native methods ; and copper used to be found in 
Vinukonda. The most interesting mining operations which have been 
conducted were those in search of diamonds, before the country came 
into British hands. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when 
the Sultans of Golconda ruled over Kistna, this mining was carried on 
extensively at Malavalli and Gollapalli in the Nuzvid country, at Kolliir 



328 KISTNA DISTRICT 

in Sattanapalle, and at Partiala west of Kondapalli. The first two of 
these mines were still being worked in 1795 when Dr. Heyne visited 
the spot. The earliest trustworthy account of the industry is that of 
Tavernier, the French jeweller, who visited the Kollur mines in the 
seventeenth century. He says that 60,000 men were at work in them ; 
and this would account for the ruins of extensive habitations which 
are still to be seen on what is now a most desolate spot. He speaks 
of a great diamond 900 carats in weight being found there and sent 
to the emperor Aurangzeb. This gem is supposed by some authors 
to be the famous Koh-i-nur. The Pitt, or Regent, diamond (now 
among the French crown jewels) is said in one account to have 
been found at Partiala, but Governor Pitt always kept the history of 
this stone a close secret. 

Kistna is of importance from an agricultural rather than an industrial 

point of view, and the arts and manufactures in it are few. All over 

the District the weaving of coarse cloth from the 

communications. w ° o1 of s ^ ee P an d goats is carried on, but the market 
for the product is purely local. Tape for cots is 
made in the Palnad and Vinukonda taluks. Rough carpets are manu- 
factured at Vinukonda, and mats at Ainavolu. In former years fine 
carpets were exported to England from Masulipatam. The price 
charged by the exporters ranged from Rs. 8 to Rs. 10 per square yard. 
The industry has now fallen into decay, the few carpets that are made 
being of very poor quality. A tannery in the town employs about fifty 
hands and sends out skins to the value of about Rs. 50,000 a year, 
while in a rice mill some twenty to thirty persons are engaged. The 
silk-weaving industry of Jaggayyapeta was once flourishing, but has 
fallen off in late years, trade now following the line of the Nizam's 
Railway. The weavers (who number about fifty families) obtain raw silk 
from Mysore and dye it themselves. An inferior description of cloth 
for women's saris is largely exported to Ellore and surrounding towns. 

At Bezwada the Public Works department workshops employ a daily 
average of about 180 hands, the maximum rising to 300. At GuntOr 
there are three steam cotton-presses and two hand presses, each 
employing from twenty-five to thirty hands. A fourth steam press is 
about to be erected. Five cotton-ginning factories in the town employ 
about 150 persons, and there are seven ginning factories in other parts 
of the District. At Kondapalli, toys are largely manufactured from 
a specially light wood (Gyrocarpus Jacqitini) found on the hills. Paper 
used to be made at Kondavid, but the industry has practically died out 
since 1857, when the Government offices ceased to use the paper. 

Kistna possesses two seaports, Masulipatam and Nizampatam. The 
latter is unimportant, and the trade of the former has declined since 
the opening of the railway from Hyderabad to Bombay made that 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 329 

city the port for the Nizam's Dominions. The completion of through 
railway connexion between Madras and Calcutta was a further blow ; 
nor has Masulipatam ever fully recovered from the effects of the great 
inundation of 1864. The sanctioned railway from Bezwada to Masuli- 
patam may revive its trade to some extent ; but the port cannot be 
called a good one, large ships being unable to approach within five 
miles of the shore. In 1903-4 its exports were valued at Rs. 11,85,000 
and its imports at Rs. 7,57,000. A large proportion both of the export 
and the import trade was with foreign countries. Of the former, goods 
to the value of Rs. 8,17,000 (mainly rice) were sent thither; and of 
the latter, merchandise valued at Rs. 5,48,000 came from that source, 
the largest item being European piece-goods. 

Cotton is the main export from the District by rail. In 1 900-1 the 
presses at Guntur sent 19,000 bales (of 400 lb. each) of cotton to 
Cocanada and Madras, of a value ranging from Rs. 66 to Rs. 48 per 
250 lb. In the following year 29,000 bales were dispatched, but the 
highest price obtainable was Rs. 50 and the lowest Rs. 44J. The 
largest total of any year during the period 1 882-1 902 was that of 1899- 
1900, when 39,000 bales were sent out ; and the smallest that of 
1886-7, namely, 17,408 bales. This cotton consists of two grades, 
known in the market as fair red and machine-ginned red Cocanada. 
It is especially suitable for manufacture into dyed fabrics, its natural 
colour taking the dye more easily than the white variety. In addition 
to its use for weaving, it finds a market for making string, &c. 

In 1901 the East Coast Railway carried from Bezwada 27,500 tons 
of rice, principally to Madras city and stations along the Madras and 
South Indian Railways. Bezwada does a large trade in hides- and 
skins, the sales of which amount at times to a thousand per day. 
Practically all of these are first roughly dressed with salt and then sent 
to Madras. Other exports of the District are castor-seeds, chillies, and 
tobacco ; and among imports are jaggery (coarse sugar), refined sugar 
and spirits from the Samalkot distillery, piece-goods from Madras, and 
kerosene oil from the same city and from Cocanada. The chief 
mercantile caste are the Komatis, but the skin trade of Bezwada is 
carried on, as elsewhere, by the Labbais, a mixed race of Musalmans. 

The most important railway in the District is the East Coast line 
of the Madras Railway (standard gauge), which enters it from Nellore 
at its southern corner at Chinna Ganjam, runs through it in a north- 
easterly direction for 93^ miles, and then passes on into Godavari. 
The section from Nellore to Kistna Canal junction was opened in 1897, 
that on to Bezwada in 1898, and that from Bezwada to Kovvur in 
1893. It crosses the Kistna river just below the anicut on a girder- 
bridge of twelve spans of 300 feet each. Bezwada is also the terminus 
of the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway and of the Southern Mahratta 



330 KISTNA DISTRICT 

Railway. The former line, which was opened in 1889, crosses the 
District frontier at Gangineni, 2\\ miles from Bezwada. It is also on 
the standard gauge. The section of the Southern Mahratta Railway 
(metre gauge) from Cumbum to Tadepalli was opened in 1889, and 
that from Tadepalli to Bezwada in 1894. The length of the line within 
the District is 79 miles. A line is under construction from Bezwada 
to Masulipatam ; and other lines have been projected from Guntur to 
Repalle via Tenali, and from Phirangipuram on the Southern Mahratta 
Railway to Guruzala, by way of Sattanapalle. 

The length of the metalled roads is 709 miles, and of unmetalled 
roads 449 miles. With the exception of 22 miles of the latter, which 
are under the charge of the Public Works department, all are main- 
tained by the local boards. There are avenues of trees along 694 miles. 
On the eastern side of the Kistna river the two chief roads are that 
from Masulipatam to the Hyderabad frontier via Bezwada and Nandi- 
gama, and that from Masulipatam to Nuzvld via Gudivada; and these 
are connected by various branches, partly metalled and partly not. On 
the western side of the river there are five principal lines, chief of which 
is the great northern road which runs from Sltanagaram to Madras via 
Guntur and Chilkalurpet. The southern portion of this part of the 
District, including portions of the Tenali and Bapatla taluks, is badly 
in need of metalled roads, and attempts are being made to remedy 
this defect. 

Since the District came under British administration only one serious 

famine has been recorded, in 1833. This affected other areas also, 

but is known as the Guntur famine in consequence of 

Famine. .^ sever | ty m the ol( j Q unt ur District, which formerly 

occupied the south of Kistna District. There 150,000 persons were 
estimated to have died from want, and the loss of revenue was very 
great in 1833 and the succeeding years. In the great famine ot 
1876-8 Kistna suffered but little in comparison with tracts farther 
south. The average number of persons on relief was only about 5,000. 
Including remissions of revenue, the distress cost the state l\ lakhs. 
Since the irrigation system from the Kistna was completed, the delta 
has not only been free from famine itself but has supplied other Dis- 
tricts with its surplus grain. In the upland tract, however, severe 
distress may still be caused locally by the failure of the seasonal rains. 
In 1900 a few relief works were opened in the Vinukonda and 
Narasaraopet taluks, but no serious scarcity occurred. 

For purposes of administration Kistna is divided into four subdivi- 
sions: namely, Guntur, Bezwada, Narasaraopet, and Masulipatam 1 . 

1 Since the limits of the District were altered (see p. 319), the number of subdi- 
visions is now five— Ellore, Bezwada, Nartvsapur, Gudivada, and Masulipatam 
— as shown in the several articles on them. 



ADMINISTRA TION 3 3 1 

Of these, the two former, which comprise respectively the Guntur, 
Bapatla, Tenali, and Sattanapalle taluks and the Bezwada, Nuzvid, 
Nandigama, and Tiruvur taluks, are ordinarily in the . 

charge of Covenanted Civilians. Narasaraopet, which 
is made up of the Vinukonda, Narasaraopet, and Palnad taluks, is 
under a Deputy-Collector ; and the Masulipatam subdivision, which 
contains the head-quarters of the District and the residence of the 
Collector, and comprises the Bandar and Gudivada taluks, is also 
under a Deputy-Collector. There is a tahsildar at the head-quarters 
of each taluk with the exception of Tiruvur, where a deputy-laksilddr 
is posted ; and, except at Tiruvur, Vinukonda, and Nandigama, there 
is a stationary sub-magistrate at each of these stations. Deputy-/a/m7- 
dars are also stationed at Repalle, Ponnuru, Mangalagiri, Macherla, 
Kaikalur, Avanigedda, and Jaggayyapeta. The superior staff of the 
District consists of the usual officers, but in addition to the District 
Medical and Sanitary officer (whose head-quarters are at Masulipatam) 
a Civil Surgeon is stationed at Guntur. 

Civil justice is administered by seven District Munsifs, stationed at 
Tenali, Guntur, Bapatla, Narasaraopet, Gudivada, Masulipatam, and 
Bezwada ; a Sub-Judge at Masulipatam ; and the District Court at the 
same place. The District, especially the Bezwada subdivision, abounds 
in zam'indaris, and consequently the number of rent suits is large. 
House-breaking, ordinary theft, and cattle theft are the commonest 
offences, but Kistna is not in any way notoriously criminal. Dacoities 
are perhaps somewhat more numerous than in the adjoining Districts. 
In 1 90 1, at Jaggarlamudi in the Bapatla taluk, more than a lakh of 
rupees worth of property (chiefly cash) was stolen from the house 
of a Komati woman by a large gang of robbers. Crime is usually 
the work of the wandering gangs of criminal tribes, which consist 
chiefly of Kuravans and Lambadis. Latterly scarcity has prevailed 
for a number of years in Hyderabad, and this has had the effect 
of driving a number of bad characters from that State into British 
territory. 

Our knowledge of the system of revenue administration followed by 
the Hindu rulers of the country before the Muhammadan conquest 
is very limited. Then, as now, there was a headman in each village 
to collect, and an accountant to record, the items of revenue, but how 
the assessments were calculated is obscure. Under the Muhammadans, 
who acquired the country in the sixteenth century, the revenues were 
at first for the most part collected and accounted for by Hindu 
officials, save in the case of the haveli land, or tracts in the neigh- 
bourhood of military posts intended for the maintenance of troops 
and Muhammadan officers. When the Muhammadan rule became 
lax, these Hindu officials, whose posts were usually hereditary, began 

vol. xv. v 



332 KISTNA DISTRICT 

to call themselves zamindars and to act as if they were independent 
princes, and in the course of time they compounded the revenue 
demand against their respective charges for a fixed sum. The Com- 
pany's officers, who found these zamindars in possession when they 
took over the country, fell into the mistake of regarding them as 
holders of feudatory estates, paying a tribute to their suzerain, and 
furnishing troops in times of war. They left them undisturbed, and 
much mismanagement and oppression resulted. 

In 1802, when the permanent settlement was introduced into the 
District, the peshkash or amount to be paid by each zaminddr was fixed 
at two-thirds of half the gross profits of the land, this half being 
supposed to be the share paid them by the cultivators. The haveli 
land was divided into estates, which were sold and similarly brought 
under the permanent settlement. The Palnad taluk, which, as has 
been mentioned above, was not acquired till later, was treated 
differently, the villages being rented out for terms of years until 1820, 
when this system gave place to a partial ryotwdri settlement. 

The zamlndari system proved an utter failure ; extravagance and 
litigation on the part of the zamindars, and in some cases the fixing 
of the peshkash at too high a figure, led first to the Collector being 
compelled to assume the management of many of the estates, and 
then to these being sold and bought in by Government. By 1850 the 
greater portion of the country was no longer under zamlndari tenure. 
In the estates in the south of the District four different revenue systems 
obtained: namely, (1) ijdra, or rent by auction; (2) makta, or fixed 
village rents ; (3) the sharing system ; and (4) a system partly makta 
and partly sharing. The endeavours of Government were directed 
towards the extension to all parts of the makta system, by which the 
village demand was fixed on a consideration of the average collections 
of former years, the ryots themselves arranging the proportion of the 
total demand that each should bear. The result, as might have been 
expected, was unsatisfactory and the country deteriorated. In 1857 
the ryotwdri system, which had already been adopted in Palnad, was 
introduced in a partial fashion for the 'dry' lands in the southern 
portion of the District. Between 1866 and 1874 a systematic survey 
and a settlement were made, and the ryotwdri tenure brought into 
force in all Government land. The survey showed that the areas of 
the holdings were understated in the accounts by 7 per cent., and the 
settlement enhanced the revenue by 16 per cent. The settlement in 
the southern half of the District is now under revision. In this the 
' dry ' rates vary at present from 4 annas to Rs. 4-4 per acre, and the 
'wet' rates from Rs. 1-12 to Rs. 7-8, a uniform water rate of Rs. 5 
per acre being charged in addition. The average assessment here on 
' dry ' land is Rs. 2 and on ' wet ' land Rs. 5 per acre. In the northern 



ADMINISTRA TION 335 

half of the District the average assessments are respectively Rs. 1-4 
and Rs. 4 per acre. 

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are 
given below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880--1. 


1 890- 1. 


1900-1. 


i9°3-4- 

67.34 
95,06 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


49.37 
55.35 


59.50 
69-r3 


75,94 
95,15 



Owing to territorial changes, the land revenue demand is now about 
Rs. 65,70,000. 

There are three municipalities in the District : namely, Guntur and 
Masulipatam, both established in 1866, and Bezwada, in 1888. Out- 
side these towns local affairs are managed by the District board 
and the four taluk boards of Masulipatam, G\mtur, Bezwada, and 
Narasaraopet, the areas in charge of which correspond with the 
revenue subdivisions above mentioned. The total expenditure of these 
bodies in 1903-4 was Rs. 7,81,000, much of which was devoted to the 
maintenance and construction of roads and buildings. The chief source 
of income is the land cess. The local affairs of twenty-five smaller 
towns are managed by Unions established under Act V of 1884. Ten 
of these Unions are within the limits of the Guntur subdivision, while 
Bezwada contains six, Masulipatam five, and Narasaraopet four. 

The District Superintendent of police has his head-quarters at 
Masulipatam, and an Assistant Superintendent is stationed at Guntur. 
There are 84 police stations, and the number of constables is 970, 
working under 16 inspectors. The reserve police at Masulipatam con- 
sists of 85 constables and 9 head constables. The total strength of the 
force is 1,107. The number of talaiydris, or rural police, is now 1,628 ; 
but it is proposed to reduce them to 1,478 at the forthcoming revision 
of the village establishments. 

Kistna contains no District jail, convicts being sent to the Central 
jail at Rajahmundry ; but there are twenty subsidiary jails, with accom- 
modation for 341 prisoners. 

The Census of 1901 showed that 9-2 per cent, of the males and 
0-7 per cent, of the females of Kistna were able to read and write. 
Of the total population, 5 per cent, possessed this accomplishment, and 
the District takes the thirteenth place in the Presidency in the literacy 
of its people. Education is most widely diffused in Bandar, the head- 
quarters taluk, and in Guntur. The actual number of educated persons 
in Vinukonda and Tiruvur is small, but in proportion to the population 
the proportion is not lower than in the other taluks. In 1 880-1 the 
total number of pupils under instruction in the District was 16,536; in 
1890-1, 36,735; in 1900-1, 46,837; and in 1903-4, 54,181, of whom 

Y 2 






334 KISTNA DISTRICT 

10,346 were girls. On March 31, 1904, there were in the District 1,895 
educational institutions, of which 1,628 were classed as public and 267 
as private. Of the former, 1,586 were primary schools, secondary schools 
numbering 31, and training and other special schools 9. There was an 
Arts college at Masulipatam and another at Guntur. Nineteen schools 
were under the control of Government, the municipalities and the local 
boards managing respectively 22 and 242. Aid from public funds was 
granted to 817 schools, while 528 were unaided but conformed to the 
rules of the department. Of the boys of school-going age on March 31, 
1904, 22 per cent, were receiving primary instruction; and of the girls 
of similar age, 6 per cent. For Musalmans alone the corresponding 
percentages were 42 and 12 respectively. In the same year 5,309 Pan- 
chama scholars were receiving instruction in 584 schools specially kept 
up for them. The total expenditure on education in the District in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,36,000, of which Rs. 1,14,000 was derived 
from fees. Of the total, Rs. 2,07,000 was devoted to primary instruc- 
tion. 

Kistna possesses 14 hospitals and 8 dispensaries. With the excep- 
tion of the hospitals at Bezwada, Musulipatam, and Guntur, and the 
dispensary for women and children at Masulipatam, which are municipal 
undertakings, all these institutions are supported from Local funds. 
Accommodation is provided for 148 in-patients, and in 1903 there were 
1,793 sucri cases, the average daily number in hospital being 80. 
Counting both in- and out-patients, the number of persons treated was 
257,494, and the number of operations performed was 6,990. The 
total expenditure was Rs. 56,000, of which practically the whole was 
defrayed from Local and municipal funds. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 23 per 
1,000 of the population, the mean for the Presidency being 30. Vacci- 
nation is compulsory in the three municipalities, and has been made so 
in seven Unions since the beginning of 1903. 

[For further particulars see the Manual of the Kistna District, by 
Gordon Mackenzie (1883).] 

Kistna River (Sanskrit, Krishna, 'the black'). — A great river of 
Southern India, which, like the Godavari and Cauvery, flows almost 
across the Peninsula from west to east. In traditional sanctity it is 
surpassed by both these rivers, and in actual length by the Godavari ; 
but the area of its drainage, including its two great tributaries, the 
Bhima and Tungabhadra, is the largest of the three. Its total length 
is about 800 miles, and the total area of its catchment basin about 
97,000 square miles. 

The Kistna rises about 40 miles from the Arabian Sea(i7° 59' N. 
and 73 38' E.) in the Western Ghats just north of the hill station of 
Mahabaleshwar, and flows southwards, skirting the eastern spurs of the 



KISTNA RIVER 335 

hills, past Karad (Satara District), where it receives on the right bank 
the Koyna from the western side of the Mahabaleshwar hills, and 
Sangli, where it receives the waters of the Varna, also from the west, 
until it reaches Kurundvad, when the Panchganga joins it, again on the 
right bank. The river then turns eastward and flows through Belgaum 
District, the States of the Southern Maratha Agency, and Bijapur, into 
the Nizam's Dominions, after a course of about 300 miles in the 
Bombay Presidency. In Bijapur District it is joined on the right bank 
by the Ghatprabha and Malprabha from the Western Ghats. Near 
the hills the channel is too rocky and the stream too swift for naviga- 
tion, but its waters are largely used for irrigation in Satara District and 
in the more open country to the south-east. In Belgaum and Bijapur 
its banks of black soil or laterite are 20 to 50 feet high, especially 
on the south side, and the stream forms many islands covered with 
babul bushes. 

On entering the Nizam's Dominions (at Echampet in Raichur 
District) the Kistna drops from the table-land of the Deccan proper 
down to the alluvial doabs of Shorapur and Raichur. The fall is as 
much as 408 feet in about 3 miles. In time of flood a mighty volume 
of water rushes with a great roar over a succession of broken ledges 
of granite, dashing up a lofty column of spray. The first of the doabs 
mentioned above is formed by the confluence of the Bhima, which 
brings down the drainage of Ahmadnagar, Poona, and Sholapur ; the 
second by the confluence of the Tungabhadra, which drains the north 
of Mysore and the ' Ceded Districts ' of Bellary and Kurnool. At the 
point of junction with the Tungabhadra in the eastern corner of Raichur 
District, the Kistna again strikes upon British territory, and forms for 
a considerable distance the boundary between the eastern portion of 
Hyderabad and the Kurnool and Guntur Districts of Madras. Its bed 
is here for many miles a deep, rocky channel, with a rapid fall, winding 
in a north-easterly direction through the spurs of the Nallamalai range 
and other smaller hills. At Wazirabad in Nalgonda District it receives 
its last important tributary, the Musi, on whose banks stands the city 
of Hyderabad. The total course of the river within and along the 
State of Hyderabad is about 400 miles. 

On reaching the chain of the Eastern Ghats, the river turns sharply 
south-eastwards and flows for about 100 miles between the Kistna and 
Guntur Districts (formerly the Kistna District) of Madras direct to the* 
sea, which it enters by two principal mouths. It is in this last part of 
its course that the Kistna is for the first time largely utilized for 
irrigation. From the point where it turns southwards the rate of fall of 
its channel drops rapidly from an average of 3^ feet a mile to r^ feet, 
and eventually, as it nears the sea, to as little as from 7 to 9 inches. 
The enormous mass of silt it carries — which has been estimated to be 



336 KISTNA RIVER 

sufficient in flood-time to cover daily an area of 5 square miles to a 
depth of r foot — has consequently in the course of ages been deposited 
in the form of a wide alluvial delta which runs far out into the sea and 
slopes gradually away from either bank of the river, with an average fall 
of 18 inches to the mile. At Bezwada, at the head of this delta, the 
Kistna runs through a gap 1,300 yards in width in a low range of 
gneissic hills, and here a great masonry dam has been thrown across 
the river and turns its waters into a network of irrigation channels which 
spread throughout the delta. (See Kistna Canals.) Immediately 
below the dam the river is also crossed by the East Coast line of the 
Madras Railway on a girder-bridge of twelve spans of 300 feet. The 
flood velocity of the Kistna at this point is about 6^ miles an hour, and 
the flood discharge has been estimated to reach the enormous figure 
of 761,000 cubic feet a second. 

The Kistna is too rapid for navigation above the dam, but between 
Bezwada and its mouth sea-going native craft ply upon it for about six 
months in the year. The main irrigation canals are also navigable, 
and connect Kistna District with its northern neighbour Godavari, 
and, by means of the Buckingham Canal, with the country to the 
southwards and the city of Madras. 

Kistna Canals. — The canal system of the Kistna delta depends 
upon the masonry dam which has been thrown across the river at the 
head of the delta at Bezwada in Kistna District, Madras, where the 
stream flows through a gap 1,300 yards wide in a low range of hills. 
This point is about 45 miles from the sea in a direct line, and below it 
the river flows in a channel which is at a somewhat higher level than the 
surrounding country. The dam was begun in 1853, subsequent to that 
across the Godavari, and was finished in 1854. Its length from wing 
to wing is 3,714 feet, or between 5 and 6 furlongs, and it rises 20 feet 
above the bed of the river. It is built on masonry wells, is vertical on 
the down-stream side and slopes gradually upwards on the other. At 
the top it is 6 feet wide and has a coping of cut stone. Below it is an 
apron of rough stone 250 feet wide, part of which is held in place by 
a retaining wall built right across the stream. On either flank are 
scouring sluices to keep free from silt the heads of the canals which 
take off from the dam. The system includes ten principal canals, and 
they and their branches lead to every part of the delta, and connect on 
the north with the Godavari Canals and on the south with the 
Buckingham Canal. There are 372 miles of main canal, 307 of which 
are navigable, and 1,630 miles of smaller distributaries. In 1903-4 
616,760 acres, or 964 square miles, of Government land (in addition to 
a large area in zamhidaris, for which there are no accurate statistics) 
were irrigated by this system. The total capital cost amounted to 149 
lakhs and the net revenue was 19 lakhs, representing an interest on 



KOD 337 

the capital of nearly 13 per cent. Full particulars will be found 
in Mr. G. T. Walch's Engineering Works of the Kistna Delta (Madras, 
1899). 

Kittur. — Village and fort in the Sampgaon taluka of Belgaum 
District, Bombay, situated in 15 36' N. and 74 48' E., 26 miles south- 
east of Belgaum town. Population (1901), 4,922. A stone in a temple 
at this place preserves an interesting record of a trial by ordeal in 11 88. 
The Desais of Kittur were descended from two brothers who acted 
as bankers with the Bijapur army towards the close of the sixteenth 
century. For their services they obtained a grant of Hubli, and their 
fifth successor established himself at Kittur. On the fall of the Peshwa, 
the place passed into the hands of the British. But in 181 8, when 
General Munro was besieging the fort of Belgaum, the Desai of Kittur 
gave great assistance, and in return was allowed to retain possession of 
the village. The Desai died in 1824 without issue. An attempt was 
subsequently made to prepare a forged deed of adoption, which led to 
an outbreak, in which the Political Agent and Collector, Mr. Thackeray, 
was killed and his two Assistants imprisoned. The prisoners were 
afterwards released, but the fort was not surrendered until it had been 
attacked and breached, with a loss of 3 killed and 25 wounded. 
Among the killed was Mr. Munro, Sub-Collector of Sholapur, and 
a nephew of Sir Thomas Munro. Kittur then finally passed into the 
hands of the British, although another rising occurred in 1829, which 
was not suppressed without difficulty. Bi-weekly markets are held here, 
at which cotton, cloth, and grain are sold. Weaving and glass bangle 
making are the sole industries. The fort is still standing, though in 
a ruined condition. Kittur contains 3 boys' schools with 222 pupils 
and 2 girls' schools with 104. 

Kiunthal. — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. See Keoxthal. 

Klangdong. — Upper reaches of the Dhaleswari river, in Assam. 

Koch. — Tribe in Cooch Behar State, Bengal. See Cooch Behar. 

Kod. — Southernmost taluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, lying be- 
tween 14 17' and i4°43 / N. and 75 10' and 75 38' E., with an area 
of 400 square miles. There are 176 villages, but no town. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 96,245, compared with 84,427 in 1891. The density, 
241 persons per square mile, is almost equal to the District average. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2-03 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 15,000. The head-quarters are at Hirekerur. The taluka is dotted 
with small hills and ponds. A considerable portion is well watered, 
and covered with sugar-cane fields and areca palms. The soil is chiefly 
red, black soil occurring in a few villages in the east. The north and 
west are studded with small hills and knolls, and the south is also hilly. 
The Tungabhadra touches a few villages in the south-east corner ; the 
Kumadvati, rising in Mysore, flows east across the taluka. Kod is cool 



338 KOD 

and healthy in the hot months, but very malarious during the cold 
season. The Madag tank, fed by the waters of the Kumadvati river, 
once a work of first-class importance but now fallen into disrepair, 
irrigates 922 acres. 

Kodachadri. — Mountain in the Nagar taluk of Shimoga District, 
Mysore, situated in 13 51' N. and 74 52' E., 4,411 feet high. It 
rises more than 2,000 feet above the villages below, and is clothed with 
splendid forests. The top of the hill is a narrow ridge, only 12 feet 
across in many places, and with a precipice on either side. On the west 
the hill descends almost perpendicularly for 4,000 feet, with the Kanara 
forests spread out below. The sea appears quite close, and the bay 
and town of Coondapoor lie opposite. On the hill is a temple to the 
Huli Deva or 'tiger-god,' whose image is provided with thirty-two arms. 

Kodagu. — Vernacular name of Coorg. 

Kodaikanal Taluk. — Minor taluk in the Dindigul subdivision 
of Madura District, Madras. Its limits correspond roughly with the 
Palni Hills, but their exact area has not been ascertained. The 
head-quarters are the hill station of Kodaikanal (population, 1,912), 
and the taluk contains, in addition, 15 small hill villages. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 19,677, compared with 18,380 in 1891. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs- 
42,000. Cultivation is carried on along the sides of the valleys, and 
in some places presents a most picturesque appearance, owing to the 
numerous terraces which have been formed down the slopes of the 
hills, either to obtain sufficiently level ground or to render the hill 
torrents available for irrigation. Among special products may be 
mentioned wheat, garlic, coffee, and cardamoms. The rice produced 
is of a coarse quality and takes between eight and ten months to ripen. 
Plantains are largely cultivated in the villages among the lower Palnis, 
and numerous herds of cattle are tended by the villagers of the upper 
part of the range. Education is backward among the people, and is 
promoted almost entirely by the Jesuit and American Missions. The 
sanitation of the villages is more than usually defective. 

Kodaikanal Town ('Forest of creepers'). — Head-quarters ot the 
taluk of the same name in Madura District, Madras, situated in 
io° 14' N. and 77 29' E., on the Palni Hills. Formerly an insig- 
nificant hamlet of Vilpatti village, it is now one of the largest sanitaria 
in the Presidency. The population according to the Census of 1901 
was only 1,912; but this enumeration was made in the cold season, 
before the influx of the numerous hot-season visitors and their following 
had begun. Kodaikanal was constituted a municipality in 1899. The 
municipal receipts and expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. 10,700 and 
Rs. 9,900 respectively, most of the former being derived from the taxes 
On land and houses. A scheme for supplying the place with water, at 






KODANGAL TALUK 339 

a cost of Rs. 63,000, is under consideration. The station contains 
three churches, a school for European boys and girls managed by the 
American Mission, and a municipal hospital. 

The sanitarium stands about 7,000 feet above sea-level. The houses 
of the European residents are picturesquely grouped about a natural 
theatre of hills surrounding an artificial lake which has been constructed 
at the bottom of a beautiful little valley, or on the cliff which overhangs 
the ghat road leading up from the low country from Periyakulam. 
The temperature of the station is similar to that of Ootacamund, but 
somewhat milder ; and, as the rainfall is lighter and the atmospheric 
conditions more equable than those of the Nilgiris, the climate of the 
place may be said to be one of the best in India. Round about 
Kodaikanal are grassy rolling downs, with beautiful little woods nestling 
in their hollows and perennial streams flowing through them, very 
similar to, though somewhat steeper than, those about Ootacamund. 
The place is thus capable of considerable extension, and its develop- 
ment is at present mainly retarded by the lack of easy means of 
communication with the low country and the railway. The journey 
from the nearest railway station, Ammayanayakkanur on the South 
Indian line, to the foot of the hill where the bridle-path up the ghat 
begins, a distance of 33 miles, is made in bullock-carts. The bridle- 
path makes an ascent of about 6,000 feet in n miles, and is quite 
impracticable for any wheeled vehicles. Visitors have either to ride 
or be carried up in chairs. The want of a cart-road also occasions 
difficulties in bringing up articles from the low country. A driving 
road through the lower Palnis and a light railway through the 
Periyakulam valley have been suggested as means of improving these 
communications, and a trace for a ghat road from the Palni side has 
been made out. Want of funds has prevented its execution. 

Near the station is the Kodaikanal Observatory, which is placed 
7,700 feet above sea-level. Under the scheme for the reorganization of 
Indian observatories which came into operation in 1889, the chief part 
of the Madras Observatory was transferred to Kodaikanal, the place 
being preferred to Ootacamund on account of its greater freedom from 
mist and cloud, and the former Government Astronomer became 
Director of the Kodaikanal and Madras Observatories. The appliances 
and powers of this observatory are now directed to the prosecution 
of inquiry in the sciences of terrestrial magnetism, meteorology, and 
seismology, and to astronomical observations for the purpose of time- 
keeping, but chiefly to the important subject of solar physics. 

About 1,000 feet below Kodaikanal, at Shembaganur, is a Jesuit 
college containing 65 students, who undergo a course of training for 
seven years in preparation for the priesthood. 

Kodangal Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Gulbarga District, Hyderabad 



340 KODANGAL TALUK 

State, with an area of 211 square miles and population in 1901 of 
62,091, including jagirs, compared with 67,983 in 1891. It had 
three towns, Kodangal (population, 5,099), the head-quarters, Tandur 
(5,930), and Kosgi (8,228); and 95 villages, of which 35 are jagir. 
The land revenue in 1901 was t-i lakhs. In 1905 the taluk was 
enlarged by the addition of 59 villages from Gurmatkal and 15 from 
Koilkonda in Mahbubnagar, while it lost 21 villages to Chincholi. 
Rice is grown largely by tank-irrigation. The two jagir taluks, Tandur 
and Kosgi, with 62 and 11 villages, and 23,725 and 15,344 inhabitants 
respectively, lie to the north and south-east. Tandur and Kosgi are 
their head-quarter towns, while their areas are 202 and 25 square miles 
respectively. 

Kodangal Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 17 7' N. and 
77 38' E., 12 miles south of Tandur station on the Nizam's State 
Railway. Population (1901), 5,099. Besides the tahsil office, the 
office of the police inspector, a taluk post office, and a vernacular upper 
primary school with 232 pupils are located here. Kodangal has a 
mosque said to be 300 years old. 

Kodangibetta (' Elk hill ')•— Peak in the east of the Yedenalknad 
taluk of Coorg, Southern India, situated in 12 16' N. and 75 58' E. 

Kodaung. — A hilly tract in the north-east of the Mongmit State, at 
present administered by a civil officer under the control of the Deputy- 
Commissioner as a township of the Ruby Mines District, Upper Burma. 
It lies between 23 5' and 23 49' N. and 96 49' and 97 38' E., with 
an area of 760 square miles. It is a mass of hills rising in places to 
a height of 7,000 feet above the sea ; but though the country is rugged, 
communications are fairly good, for there are usually mule-tracks con- 
necting the villages. At one time Kodaung was entirely populated by 
Palaungs ; but the Kachins began to oust these hill people about a 
hundred years ago, and of the total population (22,127) in 1901 half 
were Kachins and half Palaungs. There are 303 villages, the head- 
quarters being at Molo, on the Shweli. The law in force is that of the 
Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895. 

Kodinar. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, Amreli 
prant, Baroda State, situated in 20 47' N. and 70 42' E. Population 
(1901), 6,664. It is a walled town, pleasantly situated on the south 
bank of the Singavada river, about 3 miles from the sea. It is admin- 
istered by a municipality, which receives an annual grant from the State 
of Rs. 1,400 ; and it possesses Munsif's and magistrate's courts, a dis- 
pensary, a vernacular school, and public offices. Trade is carried on 
by sea with Bombay, Karachi, Porbandar, and Mangrol, the principal 
exports being cotton, grain, and ghi. The imports are wheat, joivar, 
clothes, spices, and dry goods. 






KOHAT DISTRICT 341 

Kohat District.— Central District of the North-West Frontier 
Province, lying between 32 48' and 33 45' N. and 70 30' and 72 i' E.> 
with an area of 2,973 square miles. The District has the shape of an 
irregular rhomboid, with one arm stretching north-east towards the 
Khwarra-Zira forest in Peshawar District. It is bounded on the north 
by Peshawar District, and by the hills inhabited by the Jowaki and 
Pass Afrldis ; on the north-west by Orakzai Tirah ; on the south- 
west by Kabul Khel territory (Wazlristan) : on the south-east by 
Bannu and the Mianwall District of the Punjab ; and on the east 
by the Indus. Its greatest length is 104 miles, and its greatest 
width 50 miles. 

The District consists of a succession of ranges of broken hills, whose 
general trend is east and west, and between which lie open valleys, 
seldom more than 4 or 5 miles in width. These 
ranges are of no great height, though several peaks aspects 

attain an altitude of 4,700 or 4,900 feet. As the 
District is generally elevated, Hangu to the northward being 2,800 feet 
and Kohat, its head-quarters, 1,700 feet above sea-level, the ranges rise 
to only inconsiderable heights above the plain. The general slope is 
to the east, towards the Indus, but on the south-west the fall is towards 
the west into the Kurram river. The principal streams are the Kohat 
and Teri Tois (' streams '), both tributaries of the Indus, and the Shkalai 
which flows into the Kurram. The Kohat Toi rises in the Mamozai 
hills. It has but a small perennial flow, which disappears before it 
reaches the town of Kohat, but the stream reappears some miles lower 
down and thence flows continuously to the Indus. The Teri Toi 
has little or no perennial flow, and the Shkalai is also small, though 
perennial. The most fertile part is the Hangu tahsl/, which comprises 
the valley of Lower and Upper Miranzai. The rest of the District 
consists of ranges of hills much broken into spurs, ravines, and valleys, 
which are sometimes cultivated, but more often bare and sandy. 

The rocks of the District belong chiefly to the Tertiary system, and 
consist of a series of Upper and Middle Tertiary sandstones with inliers 
of Nummulitic limestone. The limestones occur chiefly in the north, 
while sandstone is more prominent to the south. Below the Num- 
mulitic beds is found the most important mineral of the District, 
namely, salt. It occurs, with bands of gypsum and red clay, below 
the eocene rocks at various localities, but is found in greatest quantity 
at Bahadur Khel, where rock-salt is seen for a distance of about 8 miles 
and the thickness exposed exceeds r,ooo feet. The salt is very pure, 
and differs remarkably in colour from that of the Salt Range, being 
usually grey, while that of the latter area is red or pink. There is no 
definite evidence as to its age, which is usually regarded as Lower 
Tertiary ; but the underlying rocks are not exposed, and it has been 



342 KOHAT DISTRICT 

classed with the overlying eocene on account of the apparent absence 
of any unconformity l . 

The vegetation is composed chiefly of scrub jungle, with a secondary 
element of trees and shrubs. The more common plants are : Flacourtia 
sapida, F. sepiaria, several species of Grewia, Zizyphus nummularia, 
Acacia Jacquemontii, A. leucophloea, Alhagi camelorum, Crotalaria 
Burliia, Prosopis sp/cigera, several species of Tatnarix, Nerium odorinn, 
Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, Periploca ap/iy//a, Tecoma undulata, 
Lycium europaeum, Withania coagi/lans, W. somnifera, Nannorhops 
Ritchieandy Fagonia, Tribulus, Pegamtm Harma/a, Calligonum poly- 
gonoides, Polygo?atm aviculare, P. plebejam, Rumex vesicarii/s, Chrozo- 
phora plicata, and species of Aristida, Anthistiria, Cenchrus, and 
Pennisetum. 

Game of all kinds is scarce ; leopards are occasionally shot in the 
hills, and twenty years ago were quite common. There are practically 
no deer. Bears occasionally come down from the Samana range to 
Mlranzai when the corn is ripe. Chikor and partridges abound in 
Mlranzai and the Teri tahsll, and fish are abundant in the Kurram and 
the Indus. 

The District as a whole lies high ; and the hot season, though oppres- 
sive, is short, and the spring and autumn months are pleasant. The 
winter is very cold, and a cutting west wind, known as the ' Hangu 
breeze,' blows down the Mlranzai valley to Kohat for weeks together. 
Owing to the great extremes of heat and cold pneumonia is common, 
but malarial fever is the chief cause of mortality. 

The monsoon rains do not usually penetrate as far as Kohat, and the 
rainfall is very capricious. The annual fall at Kohat averages 18 inches, 
while the greatest fall since 1882 was 48 inches at Fort Lockhart on 
the Samana in 1900-1, and the least 5 inches at Kohat in 1891-2. 
The distribution of the rain is equally uncertain, villages within the 
distance of a few miles suffering, some from drought and some from 
floods, at the same time. 

The first historical mention of the District occurs in the memoirs of 

the emperor Babar. The District was then, as now, divided between 

the Bangash and Khattak branches of the Pathan 
History. . ° _ , . . _,_ _ . „ 

race, the Bangash occupying the Miranzai valley, 

with the western portion of Kohat proper, while the Khattaks held the 
remainder of the eastern territory up to the bank of the Indus. Accord- 
ing to tradition the Bangash were driven from Gardez in the Ghilzai 
country, and settled in the Kurram valley about the fourteenth century. 
Thence they spread eastward, over the Mlranzai and Kohat region, 
fighting for the ground inch by inch with the Orakzai, whom they 

1 Wynne, 'Trans-Indus Salt Region in the Kohat District,' Memoirs, Geological 
Stavey oj India, vol. xi, part ii. 






HISTOR Y 343 

cooped up at last in the frontier hills. The Khattaks are said to have 
left their native home in the Sulaiman mountains about the thirteenth 
century and settled in Bannu. Owing to a quarrel with the ancestors 
of the Bannuchis, they migrated northward two hundred years later 
and occupied their present domains. 

Babar made a raid through the District in 1505, being attracted by 
a false hope of plunder, and sacked Kohat and Hangu. The Mughal 
emperors were unable to maintain more than a nominal control over 
the tract. One of the Khattak chiefs, Malik Akor, agreed with Akbar 
to protect the country south of the Kabul river from depredations, and 
received in return a grant of territory with the right of levying tolls at 
the Akora ferry. He was thus enabled to assume the chieftainship of 
his tribe, and to hand down his authority to his descendants, who ruled 
at Akora, among them being the warrior poet Khushhal Khan. 

Kohat became part of the Durrani empire in 1747, but authority was 
exercised only through the Banga'sh and Khattak chiefs. Early in the 
nineteenth century, Kohat and Hangu formed a governorship under 
Sardar Samad Khan, one of the Barakzai brotherhood, whose leader, 
Dost Muhammad, usurped the throne of Afghanistan. The sons of 
Sardar Samad Khan were driven out about 1828 by the Peshawar 
Sardars, the principal of whom was Sultan Muhammad Khan. In the 
Teri tahsll, shortly after the establishment of the power of Ahmad 
Shah Durrani, it became the custom for a junior member of the Akora 
family to rule as sub-chief at Teri. This office gradually became 
hereditary, and sub-chiefs ruled the western Khattaks in complete 
independence of Akora. The history of affairs becomes very confused : 
the Akora chiefs were constantly interfering in Teri affairs ; there were 
generally two or more rival claimants ; the chiefship was constantly 
changing hands, and assassinations and rebellion were matters of every- 
day occurrence. 

The Sikhs, on occupying the country, found themselves unable to 
levy revenue from the mountaineers. Ranjit Singh placed Sultan 
Muhammad Khan in a position of importance at Peshawar, and made 
him a grant of Kohat, Hangu, and Teri. One Rasul Khan became 
chief of Teri, and on his death in 1843 was succeeded by his adopted 
son, Khwaja Muhammad Khan. Meanwhile, Sultan Muhammad Khan 
continued to govern the rest of the District through his sons, though 
the country was generally in a disturbed state, and the upper Mlranzai 
villages were practically independent. When the Sikh troops took up 
arms at Peshawar on the outbreak of the second Sikh War, George 
Lawrence, the British officer there, took refuge at Kohat ; but Sultan 
Muhammad Khan played him false, and delivered him over as a 
prisoner to the Sikhs. At the close of the campaign, Sultan Muham- 
mad Khan and his adherents retired to Kabul, and the District with 



344 KOHAT DISTRICT 

the rest of the Punjab was annexed to the British dominions. Khwaja 
Muhammad Khan had taken the British side and continued to manage 
the tahsll, which was made a perpetual jdgir. In 1872 Khwaja Mu- 
hammad obtained the title of Nawab and was made a K.C.S.I. He died 
in 1889 and was succeeded by his son, Khan Bahadur Abdul Ghafur Khan. 

At annexation the western boundary was left undefined ; but in 
August, 185 1, Upper Miranzai was formally annexed by proclamation, 
and an expedition was immediately dispatched up the valley to establish 
our rule. There was no fighting, beyond a little skirmishing with the 
Wazlrs near Biland Khel. The lawless Miranzai tribes, however, had 
no desire to be under either British or Afghan rule. They were most 
insubordinate, paid no revenue and obeyed no orders, while incursions 
from across the frontier continued to disturb the peace of the new 
District. At last, in 1855, a force of 4,000 men marched into the 
valley, enforced the revenue settlement, and punished a recusant vil- 
lage at the foot of the Zaimukht hills; The people of Miranzai quickly 
reconciled themselves to British rule; and during the Mutiny of 1857 
no disturbance of any sort took place in the valley, or in any other part 
of the District. In March, 1858, it was finally decided that the Kurram 
river was to form the western boundary of the District, thus excluding 
the Biland Khel on the opposite bank. 

The construction of the road from Kohat to Peshawar was under- 
taken immediately after annexation, and at once brought the British 
into conflict with the border tribes, while the construction of the road 
to Bannu by Bahadur Khel was also the occasion of outbreaks in which 
the salt mines were seized by the insurgents. 

Kohat District contains one town and 298 villages. The population 

at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 174,762, (1891) 195,148, 

_ , . and (1901) 217,865. It increased by n-s per cent. 

Population. ,.,,,, , • , • 

during the last decade, the increase being greatest in 

the Kohat tahsll and least in Teri. The increase, though partly due 

to the presence of coolies, &c, employed in making the Khushalgarh- 

Kohat Railway, was mainly the result of increased tranquillity on the 

border. The District is divided into three tahsl/s, the chief statistics of 

which, in 1901, are shown in the table on the next page. 

The head-quarters of these are at the places from which each is 

named. The only town is Kohat, the administrative head-quarters of 

the District. The District also contains the military outposts of Thal 

and Fort Lockhart. The density of the population is low, and the 

population is too small in some villages to cultivate all the land. Mu- 

hammadans number 199,722, or more than 91 per cent, of the total; 

Hindus, 14,480 ; and Sikhs, 3,344. The language commonly spoken is 

Pashtu ; the Awans and Hindus talk Hindkl, a dialect of Punjabi, 

among themselves, but know Pashtu as well. 






AGRICULTURE 



345 



Tahiti. 


Area in square 
miles 


Number of 


Population. 


Population per 
square mile. 


= c - - . 


Z 


en 


tr. 
V 

be 
> 


Percentag 

variation 

population 

tween 18 

and 190 


Number 

persons a!> 

read an 

write. 


Kohat 
Ten 

Hangu . 

District total 


Sll 

1,616 

546 


1 


89 

]66 

43 


79,601 
94,363 
43,9 QI 


II 4 
62 

S7 


+ 13-7 
+ 10-4 
+ io-6 


5,243 
2,221 
1,629 


2,973 


1 


298 


217.865 


80 


+ n-5 


9,°93 



The most numerous tribe in the District are the Pathans, who num- 
ber 134,000, or 61 per cent, of the total population. They are divided 
into two main branches : the Bangash, who occupy the Miranzai valley 
with the western portion of the Kohat tahsil '; and the Khattaks, who 
hold the eastern part of Kohat and the Teri tahsil up to the Indus. 
The Khattaks are inferior as cultivators but make better soldiers than 
the Bangash. Next in importance to the Pathans come the Awans 
(22,000), who live along the banks of the Indus and are probably im- 
migrants from Rawalpindi District. Saiyids number 8,000. Of the 
commercial and money-lending classes, the Aroras (8,000) are the most 
important, the Khattris numbering only 3,000, and Parachas (carriers 
and pedlars) 2,000. The Shaikhs, who mostly live by trade, number 
3,000. Of the artisan classes, the Tarkhans (carpenters, 4,000), Lohars 
(blacksmiths, 4,000), and Mochis (shoemakers and leather-workers), 
Kumhars (potters), and Julahas (weavers), each returning 2,000, are 
the most important ; and of the menials, only the Nais (barbers, 3,000) 
and Chuhras or Kutanas (sweepers, 2,000) appear in any numerical 
strength. In 1901 the District contained 145 native Christians, but 
no mission has been established. Agriculture supports 68 per cent, 
of the population. 

In the low-lying tracts along the bottom of the main valleys the 
soil is generally a good loam, fertile and easily worked. The silt 
brought down by the mountain torrents is poor 
and thin, but the land is as a rule well manured. 
In the western portion of the Hangu tahsil there are stretches of 
a rich dark loam, which yields good autumn crops in years of 
seasonable summer rains. But the predominant soil in the Dis- 
trict is clay, varying from a soft and easily ploughed soil to a hard 
one, which is useless without a great deal of water. The clay is often 
brick-red in colour, and this, too, is found both soft and hard. The 
soft red clay is an excellent soil, holding water well, and needing no 
manure if cropped only once a year. Towards the Indus the level 
land, which alone can be cultivated, has a thin sandy soil covered in 
many places almost entirely with stones ; these help to keep the soil 



Agriculture. 



346 



KOHAT DISTRICT 



cool, and without them crops could not live on the thin surface soil. 
Agricultural conditions, however, depend chiefly on the presence or 
absence of water. The spring crop, which in 1903-4 occupied 58 per 
cent, of the area harvested, is sown from October to January ; the 
autumn crop mainly in June, July, and August, though cotton and 
great millet are often sown in May. 

The following table shows the main statistics of cultivation accord- 
ing to the revenue returns for 1903-4, the areas being in square 
miles : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Not available 

for 
cultivation. 


Kohat 
Teri . 
Hangu 

Total 


8ll 
I,6l6 

54 6 


107 
300 

54 


43 

3 

15 


186 
182 

54 


518 

M34 
438 


2=973 


461 


61 


422 


2,090 



The chief food-crops arc wheat, covering 173 square miles, or 44 per 
cent, of the cultivated area, and bajra, 102 square miles, or 26 per cent. 
Smaller areas are occupied by gram (30), maize (24), barley, pulses, and 
wivar. Very little rice or cotton is produced. 

The cultivated area has apparently decreased by 3 per cent, since 
the previous settlement, as the lightness of the revenue demand afforded 
no inducement for keeping the poorer soils under the plough, and no 
improvements have been made in agricultural methods. There is, 
however, room for expansion of cultivation, especially in Miranzai. Ad- 
vances for the repair of embankments and watercourses are in some 
demand, and Rs. 36,100 was lent during the five years ending 1903-4 
under the Land Improvement Loans Act. During the same period 
Rs. 31,500 was advanced under the Agriculturists' Loans Act for the 
purchase of seed and bullocks. 

The cattle bred locally are of poor quality, and animals are largely 
imported from the Punjab. Camels are bred in large numbers. Both 
the fat-tailed and ordinary breeds of sheep are found, and large flocks 
of goats are kept. The local breed of horses is fair. Two pony 
and two donkey stallions are maintained by the municipality and the 
District board. 

Out of the total cultivated area of 461 square miles, only 61 square 
miles, or 1 2 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. Of this area, 3-4 square 
miles were supplied by wells and 53-8 square miles by streams and 
tanks, in addition to which 4 square miles are subject to inundation 
from the Indus. There were 413 masonry wells worked by bullocks 
with Persian wheels, and 175 unbricked wells and water-lifts. The 
most effective irrigation is from perennial streams ; but agriculture, 






TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 347 

especially in Mlranzai, is much benefited by the building of tanks and 
embankments to hold up rain-water. 

The District contains 74 square miles of unclassed forest and Gov- 
ernment waste under the management of the Deputy-Commissioner. 
Parts of the hill tracts are covered with dwarf-palm (mazri). The 
District as a whole is not well wooded, though where water is obtain- 
able roadside avenues have been planted, in which the mulberry, Per- 
sian lilac (bakain), willow, and shlsham are preponderant. Elsewhere 
the palosl {Acacia modesta) and other species of acacia, and the wild 
olive, are the commonest trees. The summit of the Samana has been 
almost denuded of trees, but in sheltered places ilex, walnut, and Scotch 
fir are found. 

The salt-producing areas, from which salt has been excavated from 
time immemorial, occupy a tract about 50 miles long with a nearly 
uniform width of 20 miles. The Kohat Salt Quarries at present 
worked are at Jatta, Malgln, Kharak, and Bahadur Khel, of which the 
last presents perhaps the greatest amount of exposed rock-salt to be 
seen in the world. The average sales of salt for the three years ending 
1903-4 exceeded 15,307 tons. The District contains three petroleum 
springs, which would yield perhaps half a gallon a day if the oil was 
gathered daily, but it is only occasionally taken. Sulphur is found in 
the hills to the south of the Kohat Toi, and limestone and sandstone 
all over the District, but they are not regularly quarried. 

The District possesses very few handicrafts and no manufactures. 
Kohat used to be celebrated for its rifles, in which a high degree of 
excellence was attained, considering the rude nature 
of the appliances ; but the industry not being en- CQ J^icarions. 
couraged has now departed to the independent 
villages of the Kohat pass, where it flourishes. Coarse cotton cloth is 
made throughout the District, but not in sufficient quantities to supply 
even the local demand. Turbans of excellent texture and colour are 
woven of both silk and cotton at Kohat and the adjoining villages, and 
coloured felt mats are made ; woollen camel-bags and leathern sandals 
are also produced. The dwarf-palm is used to a very large extent for 
the manufacture of sandals, ropes, mats, matting, and baskets. 

A large and increasing trade with Tirah and Kabul passes through 
the District by the Khushalgarh-Kohat-Thal Railway, but the imports 
and exports apart from this through traffic are not large. Salt, agricul- 
tural produce, and articles made of the dwarf-palm, which grows 
plentifully throughout the District, are the principal exports ; and 
piece-goods and iron are the principal imports. Kohat, Thai, and 
Naryab are the chief trade centres. 

The District is traversed by the 2 feet 6 inches gauge railway from 
Khushalgarh to Thai, opened in 1903. The line at once came into 

vol. xv. z 



34 S KOHAT DISTRICT 

universal use for the conveyance of passengers and goods, and has 
proved an unexpected commercial success. It is being converted to 
the broad gauge, which will be opened on the completion of the bridge 
over the Indus at Khushalgarh. Mails and passengers are conveyed 
by tonga from Peshawar to Kohat over the Kohat pass and on to 
Bannu. There are 179 miles of Imperial metalled roads, and 509 
miles of unmetalled roads. Of the latter, 131 miles are Imperial, and 
378 belong to the District board. Besides the Peshawar-Kohat-Bannu 
road, the most important routes are those from Khushalgarh through 
Kohat to the Kurram at Thai and from Khushalgarh to Attock. There 
is little traffic on the Indus, which has a very swift current in this 
District ; it is crossed by a bridge of boats at Khushalgarh, now being 
replaced by a bridge which both road and rail will cross. 

The District was classed by the Irrigation Commission as one of 
those secure from famine. The crops that matured 
in the famine year of 1 899-1 900 amounted to as 
much as 77 per cent, of the normal out-turn. 

The District is divided for administrative purposes into three tahsils, 

each under a tahslldar and naib-tahsllddr. The Deputy-Commissioner 

. . . . . has political control over the trans-border tribes in 
Administration. ,. . . ■ , , T , • , t-> 

adjoining territory : namely, the Jowaki and Pass 

Afridis, the Sepaiah Afridis (Sipahs), the Orakzai Zaimukhts, the Biland 
Khel and Kabul Khel Wazlrs. Under him are two Assistant Com- 
missioners, one of whom is in charge of the Thai subdivision and 
exercises political control, supervised by the Deputy-Commissioner, 
over the tribes whose territories lie west of Fort Lockhart on the 
Samana range. Two Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one of whom 
is in charge of the District treasury, complete the District staff. One 
member of the staff is sometimes invested with the powers of an 
Additional District Magistrate. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice, and in his capacity of District Judge has charge of the 
civil judicial work. He is supervised by the Divisional Judge of 
the Derajat Civil Division, and has under him a Subordinate Judge, 
whose appellate powers relieve him of most of the civil work, a Munsif 
at head-quarters, and an honorary civil judge at Teri. Crime is still 
very frequent and serious offences preponderate ; but the advance in 
law and order during late years, especially since the Mlranzai expedition 
of 1 89 1, has been considerable. 

The early history of Kohat, fiscal as well as political, is vague and 
uncertain. Under the Mughals and Afghans leases were granted in 
favour of the Khans, but few records remain to show even the nominal 
revenue. In 1700 the emperor Aurangzeb leased Upper and Lower 
Mlranzai to the Khan of Hangu for Rs. 12,000. In 1810 the Kohat 



ADMINISTRA TION 



349 



tahs'd was leased for Rs. 33,000. In 1836 Ranjlt Singh assigned the 
revenue of the whole of the present District to Sultan Muhammad 
Khan, Barakzai, in return for service. This revenue was estimated at 
\\ lakhs. 

After annexation four summary settlements were made of the Kohat 
and Hangu tahslls, which reduced the demand from one lakh to Rs. 
75,000. In 1874 a regular settlement of the Kohat and Hangu iahslls 
was begun, excluding three tappas which were settled summarily. The 
rates fixed per acre varied from Rs. 6-8 on the best irrigated land to 
3 annas on the worst ' dry ' land ; and the total assessment was Rs. 
1,08,000 gross, an increase of 18 per cent, on the previous demand. 
So large a sum was granted in frontier remissions and other assign- 
ments that the net result to Government was a loss of Rs. 5,000 in 
land revenue realizations. The object of the settlement, however, was 
not so much to increase the Government demand as to give the people 
a fair record-of-rights. The increasing peace and security along this 
part of the border, culminating in the complete tranquillity which has 
characterized it since 1898, has worked an agricultural revolution in 
Upper Mlranzai. 

The Teri tahsll, which forms half the District, has a distinct fiscal 
history. The Khan of Teri has always paid a quit rent, which was 
Rs. 40,000 under the Barakzai rulers, and was fixed at Rs. 31,000 on 
annexation. Since then it has been gradually lowered to Rs. 20,000, 
at which it now stands. During the Afghan War the Khan's loyalty to 
the British exceeded that of his people, who resented the forced labour 
then imposed upon them by the Khan. Consequently at the close of 
the war a veiled rebellion broke out in Teri. It was therefore decided 
that the tract should be settled, and a settlement was carried out in 
1 89 1-4, the chief object being to place on a satisfactory footing the 
relations between the Khan and the revenue-payers. 

In 1900 the first regular settlement of Upper Mlranzai and the 
revision of settlement in the rest of the District was begun. This was 
completed in 1905 and resulted in a net increase of Rs. 59,000 in the 
revenue demand, which amounted to Rs. 1,28,000. The rates of the 
new settlement per acre are : ' dry ' land, maximum Rs. 1-12, minimum 
3 annas; and 'wet' land, maximum Rs. 7-12, minimum R. 1. 

The total collections of revenue and of land revenue alone have been 
as follows, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1 890-1. 


1900-1. 


'903-4- 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


90 
93 


79 
90 


85 
94 


74 
S3 



The District contains only one municipality, Kohat Town. Outside 



z 2 



350 KOHAT DISTRICT 

this town, local affairs are managed by a District board, whose income 
is mainly derived from cesses. In 1903-4 the income amounted to 
Rs. 14,100, and the expenditure to Rs. 16,300, education forming the 
largest individual charge. 

The regular police force consists of 527 of all ranks, of whom 44 
are municipal police. The village watchmen number 265. There are 
12 police stations. 16 road-posts, and 4 out-posts. The border military 
police, who are amalgamated with the local militia (the Samana Rifles), 
are under a commandant, assisted by a British adjutant and quarter- 
master, all of whom are officers of the regular police force. The 
control of the commandant is exercised subject to the orders of the 
Deputy-Commissioner. The force, which numbers 1,023 of all ranks, 
garrisons 23 posts for maintaining watch and ward on the border. 
The District jail at head-quarters can accommodate nearly 300 
prisoners. 

Only 4-2 per cent, of the population (7-2 males and 0-3 females) 
could read and write in 1901. The proportion is markedly higher 
amongst Sikhs (39-1 per cent.), and Hindus (29-5), than among the 
agricultural Muhammadans (i-6 per cent.). Owing to the difficulties 
of communication and the poverty of the District board, education con- 
tinues to be very backward, and the percentage of literacy compares 
unfavourably with that of the Province generally. The number of 
pupils under instruction was 375 in 1880-1, 536 in 1890-1, 908 in 
1 900-1, and 1,260 in 1903-4. In the last year there were 2 secondary 
and 28 primary (public) schools, and 55 elementary (private) schools, 
the number of girls being 90 in the public and 230 in the private 
schools. The total expenditure was Rs. 16,000, of which fees brought 
in Rs. 2,400, the District fund contributed Rs. 5,000, the municipality 
Rs. 6,800, and Imperial revenues Rs. 2,600. 

Besides the civil hospital at Kohat, and a branch in the town for 
females, the District possesses two dispensaries, at Hangu and Teri. 
The hospitals and dispensaries contain 57 beds. In 1904 the number 
of cases treated was 53,499, including 1,106 in-patients, and 2,100 
operations were performed. The income was Rs. 10,800, Government 
contributing Rs. 3,800 and municipal and District funds Rs. 7,000. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 951, repre- 
senting 44 per 1,000 of the population. The Vaccination Act has 
been in force in Kohat since 1903. 

[District Gazetteer, 1879 (under revision).] 

Kohat Tahsil.— Tahsll of Kohat District, North-West Frontier 
Province, lying in two portions between $?? 22 ' an d 33° 45' N. and 
71 5' and 71 40' E., and between 33 3' and 33 20' N. and 71 27' 
and 71 46' E., with a total area of 811 square miles. The tahsil 
is divided into two parts, separated by an extension of the Teri tahsil 



KOHAT TOWN 351 

reaching to the foot of the Afridi hills, by which the District is 
bounded on the north. The western portion, which contains the 
town and cantonment of Kohat, consists of the valley of the Kohat 
Toi, after its issue from Lower Mlranzai and the adjacent hills. The 
other part is a strip of barren and fairly level country along the right 
bank of the Indus north of Khushalgarh. The population in 1901 
was 79,601, compared with 69,984 in 1891. It contains the town of 
Kohat (30,762), the District and iahsll head-quarters ; and 89 villages. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 90,000. 

Kohat Salt Quarries. — The Kohat District of the North-West 
Frontier Province possesses important salt quarries at Jatta (or Jatta 
Ismail Khel), MalgTn, Kharak, and Bahadur Khel, lying in the east 
and centre of the District. Bahadur Khel, on the Bannu border, con- 
tains about forty quarries and Jatta sixteen. At the former place a mass 
of rock-salt crops out between two hills, 8 miles long by \ mile- 
broad, the quarries worked lying in a small part of this area. Kohat 
salt is grey to black in colour, and less esteemed than that of the 
Salt Range, though analysis shows it to be of good quality. It is 
purchased by traders direct from the miners under the supervision 
of the preventive establishment, which consists of two superintendents 
at Bahadur Khel and Jatta, an assistant superintendent at Malgln, 
5 inspectors, and 334 subordinates. Numerous outcrops have to be