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Notes on Transliteration 


a has the sound oi a in 'woman.' 

a has the sound of a in ' father.' 

e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 

i has the sound of/ in 'pin.' 

1 has the sound of / in ' police.' 

o has the sound of ^ in ' bone.' 

u has the sound of // in ' bull.' 

u has the sound of u in ' flute.' 

ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 

au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 


Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d^ i, r, &c., marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common : and, 
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound uf 
th in ' this' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse' 
and ' boathook.' 



Burmese Wo7-ds 
Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in * law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like J in ' jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in 

w after a consonant has the force of jnv. Thus, ywa and ptve 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written yuwa and puwe. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2J., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold imyments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 


the exchange value uf the rupee to is. 4^/., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. ^d. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only nmst the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — ^ = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 ^^er 1899; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i^d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer =16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when {)rices 
change what varies is not the amount uf money to be paid for the 


same quantity, but the quanlit}- to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, w^here pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted — based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at \s. ^d. : i seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 25. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the blgha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 


Punjab to face p. 394 



Pardi Taluka. — Southernmost tdliika of Surat District, Bombay, 
lying between 20° 17' and 20*^ 32' N. and 72° 50' and 73° 7' E., with 
an area of 163 square miles. It contains one town, Pardi (population, 
5,483), the head-quarters; and 81 villages. The population in 1901 
was 61,691, compared with 58,245 in 1891. Land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to nearly \\ lakhs. The tdliika adjoins the 
Portuguese territory of Daman, and is for the most part an undulating 
plain sloping westwards to the sea. The fields are, as a rule, unenclosed. 
Pardi is divided into an infertile and a fertile region by the Kolak 
river. Its climate has a bad reputation. The annual rainfall, averaging 
72 inches, is the heaviest in the District. 

Pardi Town.— Head-quarters of the tdhika of the same name in 
Surat District, Bombay, situated in 20° 31' N. and 72° 57' E., on the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Population (1901), 
5,483. The town contains a dispensary and three schools, two (in- 
cluding an English school) for boys and one for girls, attended 
respectively by 230 and 94 pupils. 

Parenda Taluk. — Crown taluk in the west of Osmanabad District, 
Hyderabad State, with an area of 501 square miles. The population 
in 1901, including ya^J/-jr, was 59,685, compared with 71,860 in 1891, 
the decrease being due to the famine of 1900. The taluk contains 
112 villages, of which 6 w[q Jaglr, and Parenda (population, 3,655) 
is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 amounted to i-8 lakhs. 
The soil is chiefly regar or black cotton soil. 

Parenda Village. — Head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name 
in Osmanabad District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 16' N. and 
75° 27' ¥.. Population (1901), 3,655. The fort, erected by Mahmud 
Gavan, the celebrated Bahmani minister, contains several large guns 
mounted on bastions. Parenda was the capital of the Nizam Shahis 
for a short time after the capture of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals in 
1605. It was besieged unsuccessfully by Shah Jahan's general in 1630. 
It was, however, reduced by Aurangzeb during his viceroyalty of the 


Deccan. The fortifications are in good order, but the old town is in 
ruins. Numerous ruins in the neighbourhood and the fort testify to 
the former populousness of the place. It now possesses a tahsil and 
police inspector's office, a custom station, a school, and a taluk post 

Parganas, The Twenty-four. — District in Bengal. See Twenty- 
four Pakganas. 

Parghat. — Old pass or route across the \Vestern Ghats in Bombay, 
leading from Satara District to Kolaba. Two villages, Par Par or Par 
Proper and Pet Par, situated 5 miles west of Mahabaleshwar and 
immediately south of Pratapgarh, give their name to and mark this old 
route into the Konkan, which goes straight over the hill below Bombay 
Point, and winds up a very steep incline with so many curves that it 
was named by the British the Corkscrew Pass. Passing through the 
two Pars, the farther line of the AN'estern Ghats is descended by an 
equally steep path to the village of Parghat in Kolaba District. This 
route was maintained practicable for cattle and the artillery of the 
period from very early times, and toll stations for the levy of transit 
duties as well as for defence were stationed at various points. Afzal 
Khan, the Muhammadan general of the Sultan of Bijapur, brought his 
forces by this pass to the famous interview at Pratapgarh, where he was 
murdered by Sivajl. Until the building of the Kumbharli road in 1864 
and the Fitzgerald Pass road in 1876, the Parghat was the only highway 
leading from Satara to the Konkan. 

V2Sg\,— Taluk in Mahbubnagar District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 220 square miles. The population in 1901, including y'iZ^zrj-, 
was 31,425, compared with 22,008 in 1891. It contains 71 villages, 
of which 22 2atjagi7-. Pargi (population, 2,361) is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 48,000. In 1905 this taluk was 
enlarged by the addition of villages from the Koilkonda and Jedcherla 
taluks^ and now contains 114 khaha villages. 

Parichhatgarh. —Town in the Mawana tahsil of Meerut District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28" 59' N. and 77° 57' K., 14 miles east 
of Meerut city. Population (1901), 6,278. The fort round which the 
town is built lays claim to great antiquity ; tradition ascribes its con- 
struction to Parikhshit, grandson of Arjuna, one of the five Pandava 
brethren in the Mahabharata, to whom is also attributed the foundation 
of the town. The fort was restored by Raja Nain Singh on the rise of 
Gujar power in the eighteenth century. It was dismantled in 1857, 
and is now used as a police station. The town is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,700. The trade is 
local. There are branches of the Church Missionary Society and the 
American Methodist Mission, and two primary schools. 

Parkal.— 7'J//<'^ in Karimnagar District, Hyderabad State, with an 


area of 654 square miles. The populatiun in 1901, \\\c\\x^\\\g jagirh, was 
84,228, compared with 74,048 in 1891. The taluk contains 1 1 7 villages, 
of which 5 2LXZjdgir\ and Ambal (population, 1,849) i^ ^^e head- 
quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 3-1 lakhs. Rice is extensively 
raised by tank-irrigation. 

Parlakimedi Estate. The largest permanently settled impartible 
estate in Ganjam District, Madras, lying in the west of the District, 
with an area of 614 square miles, and a population (1901) of 256,414. 
In 1903 ^i:. peshkash and cesses amounted to Rs. 1,05,900. 

The Raja claims descent from the Orissa Gajapatis. The whole 
Kimedi country, consisting of the present zamindaris of Parlakimedi, 
Peddakimedi, and Chinnakimedi, was under one ruler until 1607 ; but 
in that year the Kimedi Raja allotted Peddakimedi and Chinnakimedi 
to his younger son, whose descendants subsequently divided them 
into the two existing zammddris of those names. The British first 
came into contact with the Parlakimedi family in 1768, when Colonel 
Peach led a detachment against Narayana Deo, the zaminddr, and 
defeated him at Jalmur. In 1799 the Company temporarily assumed 
control of the estate for breach of an engagement. Restored to the 
family, this difficult country was the scene of continued disturbances 
for many years. In 18 16 it was ravaged by Pindaris ; in 1819 it was 
found necessary to send a Special Commissioner, Mr. Thackeray, to 
quell a rising in it ; while in 1833 a field force was sent under General 
Taylor, and peace was not finally restored till 1835. No further 
disturbance took place for twenty years, but in 1856-7 the employment 
of a small body of troops was again necessary to restore order. 

The estate was under the management of the Court of ^^'ards from 
1830 to 1890, owing to the incapacity of two successive Rajas. \N"hen 
the estate was taken under management there was no money in hand 
and the peshkash was heavily in arrear. During the management 
considerable improvement was effected in its condition, a survey and 
settlement being made, good roads constructed, sources of irrigation 
improved at a cost of 29 lakhs, and cultivation greatly extended ; the 
income rose from Rs. 1,40,000 to Rs. 3,86,000, and the cash balance 
in 1890 amounted to nearly 30 lakhs. The Raja who then succeeded 
has recently died, and the estate is again under the management of 
the Court. 

Parlakimedi is singularly favoured by nature, the soil being fertile 
and irrigation available from the Vamsadhara and Mahendratana)a 
rivers, a channel from the latter, and many large tanks. The lands are 
lightly assessed, and the ryots are much better off than in the other 
zamindaris of the District. 

There are 120 miles of metalled road in the estate. A light railway 
of 2 feet 6 inches gauge, 25 miles in length, was constructed by the 


late Raja at a cost of 7 lakhs from Naupada, a station on the East 
Coast Railway, to Parlakimedi, the chief town of the zainindari. 
This is the first work of the kind undertaken by a private individual 
in Southern India. Besides its capital, the chief places in the estate 
are Mukhalingam, a place of pilgrimage, and Patapatnam, Battili, and 
Hiramandalam, which are centres of trade. 

Parlakimedi Tahsil. — Westernmost zamlnddri tahsil in Ganjam 
District, Madras, lying between 18° 31' and 19° 6' N. and 83° 49' and 
84° 25' E., with an area of 972 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 311,534, compared with 304,359 in 1891. The tahsil contains 
one town, Parlakimedi (population, 17,336), the head-quarters; and 
1,015 villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
was Rs. 1,16,000. The tahsil consists of the Parlakimedi Estate, 
which is described separately, and the Parlakimedi Maliahs. The 
latter are attached to the estate and are chiefly inhabited by Savaras. 
They have an area of 358 square miles, and contained a population 
in 1901 of 55, 120, compared with 52,302 in 1891. They consist of the 
forts (as the head-quarters villages are termed) and muttahs (groups of 
villages) of the ten Bissoyis, or hill chiefs. Of their 348 villages, 122 
are situated below the Ghats and the rest above. In 1894 the Raja 
of Parlakimedi brought a suit in the Agent's court to obtain possession 
of these Maliahs and won his case. On appeal it was held by the 
High Court that he had no right to any portion of them. A further 
appeal to the Privy Council was dismissed, and the Government has 
ordered the introduction of a ryotwdri settlement in the 122 villages 
below the Ghats. The Bissoyis hold the muttahs as service indmddrs, 
on condition of keeping order in the hill tracts and maintaining 
an establishment of sarddrs and paiks. The latter may be described 
as the rank and file, and the former as the titular commanders of 
a semi-military force which the Bissoyis employed in olden days to 
overawe the Savaras, and to garrison posts at the passes as a check 
upon their irruptions into the low country. The Bissoyis pay a quit- 
rent called kattubadi, and this was included in the assets on which 
the peshkash of the Parlakimedi zamlnddri was fixed. They collect 
wJw/7/.y (customary fees), which were settled and fixed in 1881, from 
the Savaras. The Maliahs contain considerable forests, in which is 
some good sal {Shorea robtistd). The highest point in them is 
Devagiri, 4,535 feet above the sea. 

Parlakimedi Town.— Chief place in the zamlnddri and tahsil of 
the same name in Ganjam District, INIadras, situated in 18° 47' N. 
and 84" 5' E., 25 miles from the Naui)ada station on the East Coast 
Railway by the 2 ft. 6 in. railway which the late Raja constructed to 
meet the main line there. The town stands in the midst of picturesque 
scenery, being situated in an amphitheatre of hills with beautiful tanks 


adjoining it. Its population is increasing rapidly, and in 1901 amounted 
^0 17)336- The chief buildings are the palace, constructed for the 
Raja from designs by a former Government architect at a cost of 
6 lakhs, and a second-grade college, maintained entirely by the Raja, 
which has a hostel attached to it. In 1903-4 the college had an 
average attendance of 488 students, of whom 40 were reading in the 
F.A. classes. The Raja also maintains a girls' school and a resthouse 
for native travellers. Parlakimedi was constituted a municipality in 
1886. The municipal receipts and expenditure during the ten jears 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 15,000 and Rs. 14,000 respectively. In 
1903-4 they were Rs. 17,000. Most of the income is derived from 
taxes on houses and lands, and tolls. Fine mats, fancy baskets, flower- 
stands, cheroot-cases, &c., are made here from a species of reed. The 
chief trade is in rice. 

Parli Fort (or Sajjangarh). — Fort in the District and tdluka of 
Satara, Bombay, situated in 17° 40' N. and 73° 55' E., on a detached 
spur of the Western Ghats, about 6 miles west of Satara town, and 
1,045 ^^^"^ above the plain. Population (1901), 1,287. The fort was 
built by one of the kings of Delhi in the thirteenth century. Parli 
was the favourite residence of Ramdas Swami (1608-81), the spiritual 
guide or guru of Sivaji (1627-80), who gave it to the Swami in indm. 
The local tradition is that, if Sivaji in Satara required counsel from 
Ramdas, the Swami reached Satara through the air in a single stride. 
The temple of Ramdas is in the middle of the village, surrounded by 
the dwellings of his disciples. The temple of basalt with a brick-and- 
mortar dome was built b\- Aka Bai and Divakar Gosavi, two disciples 
of the Swami. A yearly fair, attended by about 6,000 people, is held in 
February. On the north-west of Parli village are two old Hemadpanli 
temples. The existence of these makes it probable that a fort had 
been constructed before Musalman times. It was subsequently occu- 
pied by them, and surprised by a detachment of Sivaji's Mavalis in 
May, 1673. A few days before his death in 1681 Ramdas Swami 
addressed from Parli a judicious letter to Sanibhaji, advising him for 
the future rather than upbraiding him for the past, and pointing out the 
example of his father, yet carefully abstaining from personal comparison. 
In 1699, when the Mughals were besieging Satara, Parshuram Trimbak 
Pratinidhi prolonged the siege by furnishing supplies from Parli. After 
the capture of Satara in April, 1700, the Mughal army besieged Parli. 
The siege lasted till the beginning of June, when the garrison evacuated 
the fortress. Aurangzeb renamed it Naurastara. In a revenue state- 
ment of about 1790 Parli appears as the head-quarters of a pargana 
in the Nahisdurg sarkdr, with a revenue of Rs. 22,500. In 1818 it 
was taken by a British regiment. 

Parli Town.— Town in the Amba taiuk of Bhir District, H\derabad 


State, situated in i8° 51' N. and 76° 2ii' ^1 ^4 miles north-east of 
Amba, at the foot of the spur of hills passing through the taluk. 
Population (1901), 7,289. The temple of Baijnath, built on a hill to 
the west of the town, is an important place of pilgrimage. Parli is 
a centre of the cotton trade, and contains a ginning-mill employing 
50 hands daily. 

Parmagudi. — Zamuiddri tahs'il and town in Madura District, 
Madras. See Para.magudi. 

Parner Taluka. — Tdluka in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, lying 
between 18° 50' and 19° 21' N. and 74° 11' and 74° 44' E., with an 
area of 727 square miles. It contains 117 villages, including Parner 
(population, 5,300), the head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 
72,617, compared with 79,093 in 1891. The density, 100 persons per 
square mile, is much below the District average. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 10,000. The 
surface of Parner is very irregular and hilly, consisting of a series of 
plateaux of various heights. The highest is the Kanhur or central 
plateau, formed by the widening out of the summit of one of the 
spurs of the Western Ghats, which traverses the tdluka from north- 
Avest to south-east. The average height of the central plateau is about 
2,800 feet above sea-level, though some points on it are 300 feet higher. 
On the whole, the water-supply is fairly good. Many of the smaller 
streams have a perennial flow. 

Parner Village. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, situated in 19° N. and 74° 26' 
E., 20 miles south-west of Ahmadnagar city and 15 miles west of 
Sarola station on the Dhond-Manmad Railway. Population (1901), 
5,300. Parner contains numerous money-lenders, chiefly Marwaris, 
with a bad name for greed and fraud. In 1874-7 disturbances arose 
between the husbandmen and the money-lenders. The villagers placed 
the money-lenders in a state of social outlawry, refusing to work for 
them, to draw water, supply necessaries, or shave them. The watchful- 
ness of the police saved Parner from a riot. Near the camping-place, 
at the meeting of two small streams, is an old temple of Sangameshwar 
or Trimbakeshwar. The village contains a Sub-Judge's court and 
a dispensary. 

Parnera Hill. — Hill in Surat District, Bombay, situated in 20° 34' 
N. and 72° 57' E., 4 miles south-east of Bulsar, and 120 miles north of 
Bombay, rising to a height of about 500 feet above the plain. From 
its commanding position the fortified sunmiit has long been considered 
a place of consequence. Originally a Hindu fort, it remained under 
the Raja of Dharampur, till, about the end of the fifteenth century, 
it was taken by Mahmud Begara, Sultan of Gujarat (1459-15 11), 
The fort remamed for some lime under the charge of Musalman 

PAR ox 7 

commanders, but in the disorders that marked the close of the power 
of the Ahmadabad kings it fell into the hands of a chief of banditti. 
According to a Portuguese writer, Parnera was twice (in 1558 and 1568) 
taken by expeditions from Daman, and on the second occasion the 
fortifications were destroyed. After it had been in ruins for more than 
a hundred years, the fort was, in April, 1676, taken and rebuilt by 
Moro Pandit, one of Sivaji's generals. For about a century Parnera 
remained under the Marathas. It was then (17S0) taken by a detach- 
ment of English troops under Lieutenant Welsh. At first, as a pro- 
tection against the raids of Pindaris, the fort was occupied by a military 
detachment ; but early in the nineteenth century the garrison was 
removed, and during the Mutiny of 1857 the fort was dismantled. 

Paro. — Town in the State of Bhutan, situated in 27° 23' N. and 
89° 27' E. Paro is the head-quarters of the Paro Penlop, the governor 
of Western Bhutan. 

Parola. — Town in the Amalner tdluka of East Khandesh Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 20° 53' N. and 75° 7' E., 22 miles west of 
Mhasvad on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901). 
13,468. Parola has been a municipality since 1864, with an average 
income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 8,700. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 9,800. It is said to have been raised by its proprietor, 
Hari Sadashiv Damodar, from the position of a small village of fifty 
houses to that of a walled town. He is also said to have built, about 
1727, the spacious fort, one of the finest architectural remains of the 
kind in Khandesh. It must have been at one time a very strong 
place : it is surrounded by a moat, and the entrance was formerly 
protected by a drawbridge and large flanking towers. During the 
Mutiny in 1857, the proprietors proved disloyal, and their estate was 
confiscated, the town being taken possession of by Government, and 
the fort dismantled. A considerable trade is carried on in cattle, 
cotton, lugdas (women's robes), and grain ; and the village of Mhasva, 
2 miles distant, is famous for ghl. The town contains two cotton-gins, 
a cotton-press, a dispensary, and five schools, with 620 pupils, of 
which one, with 54 pupils, is for girls. Four miles south-west is a 
handsome temple of Mahadeo on an island in the Bori river. 

Paron (or Narwar). — Mediatized chiefship in the Central India 
Agency, under the Resident at Gwalior. It is a minor State, about 
60 square miles in area, surrounding the village of Paron. 

Though the holder is of very ancient family, being descended 
from the Kachwaha clan, of which the Maharaja of Jaipur is now the 
principal representative, the present holding has only existed since 
181 8, the chiefs ancestor having been driven from Narwar in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century by Daulat Rao Sindhia. In 
1 81 8, through the mediation of the Resident at Gwalior, the present 


estate of Paron was granted to Madho Singh under the British guar- 
antee, on the condition that he disbanded his army and ceased from 
plundering. When the Mutiny broke out in 1857, Man Singh, nephew 
and successor of Madho Singh, joined the rebels. His fort was as- 
saulted and he was forced to fly. Seeing the turn events were taking, 
he surrendered in 1859, and was reinstated in his possessions. Later 
on he undertook to secure the rebel Tantia Topi, the Nana Sahib's 
agent, who was then wandering in these districts. After handing 
over Tantia Topi, an annuity of Rs. 1,000 was granted to him and his 
heirs in perpetuity. On his death on December 31, 1882, the Gwalior 
Darbar contended that the guarantee should lapse, owing to the chief's 
defection in 1S57, a view which the Government of India declined to 
accept, and the succession was continued to his son, Gajendra Singh. 
The present holder is Raja Mahendra Singh, who was born in 1892, 
and succeeded in 1899, the State being administered by a Kamdar 
under the direct supervision of the Resident at Gwalior. The chief 
bears the title of Raja. The population has been : (i88t) 7,328,(1891) 
7,984, and (1901) 5,557. Hindus number 4,562, or 82 per cent. ; and 
Animists, 891, chiefly Saharias and Mlnas. Of the total population, 
only I per cent, are literate. There are thirty-one villages, of which 
Munderl (population, 1,165) is the largest, though not that from 
which the State takes its name. The head-quarters of the present 
administration are situated in this place, and a school and a dispensary 
have been opened there. 

Of the total area, 16 square miles are under cultivation, of which one 
square mile is irrigated ; of the uncultivated area, 24 square miles are 
capable of cultivation. Good crops of all ordinary grains and poppy 
are grown. The total revenue is Rs. 25,000, of which Rs. 18,500 
is derived from the land. 

Parsoli. — Chief place in an estate of the same name in the State 
of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25° 7' N. and 74° 53' E., about 
84 miles north-east of Udaipur city. Population (1901), 831. The 
estate consists of 40 villages, and is held by a first-class noble of 
Mewar, who is termed Rao and is a Chauhan Rajput descended from 
the Bedla family. The income is about Rs. 20,000, and a tribute 
of Rs. 740 is paid to the Darbar. 

Partabgarh State (/V^/a/^aM).— State in the south of Rajput- 
ana, lying between 23° 2>'^' and 24" 18' N. and 74° 29' and 75° E., with 
an area of 886 square miles. It is bounded on the north and north- 
west by Udaipur ; on the west and south-west by Banswara ; on 
the south by Ratlam ; and on the east by Jaora, Sindhia's districts 
of Mandasor and Nimach, and a detached portion of the Rampura- 
Bhanpura district of Indore. The greater portion of the State consists 
of fine open land ; but the north-west is wild, rocky, and hilly, and 


a range, which in places attains an elevation of 1,900 feet, forms the 

entire western boundary. There are no rivers of any importance : 

the Jakam, which is the largest, rises near Chhoti 

Sadri in Udaipur, flows through the north-west of the nysical 

State, and eventually falls into the Soni, a tributary 

of the Mahl. 

A large proportion of Partabgarh is covered with Deccan trap, the 
denudation of which has exposed underlying areas of older rocks 
belonging to the Delhi system, such as shales, quartzites, and lime- 
stones, which in the west rest unconformably upon gneiss. 

In addition to the usual antelope, gazelle, and small game, tigers, 
leopards, bears, sambar [Cenuis unicolor), and ckital (C. axis) are to 
be found along the western border. 

The climate is generally good and the temperature moderate. The 
annual rainfall, measured at the capital, averages a little over 34 inches. 
More than 63 inches fell in 1893, and less than 11 in 1899. 

The territory was formerly called the Kanthal, meaning the ' border ' 

or ' boundary ' {kdntha) between Malwa and Gujarat. The northern 

portion was inhabited by Bhils and the rest by 

• T^-- 1 1 .in.- / History. 

various Rajput clans, such as the Sonigaras (a 

branch of the Chauhans) and the Dors or Dodas. The founder of 
the State was one Bika, a descendant of Rana Mokal of Mcwar, who 
left his estates of Sadri and Dariawad in 1553, proceeded south 
and subdued the aboriginal tribes. In 1561 he founded the town 
of Deolia or Deogarh, naming it after a female chieftain called Devi 
Mini, and subsequently he overpowered the Rajputs living farther 
to the south and east. About sixty-five years later, one of his suc- 
cessors, Jaswant Singh, being considered dangerously powerful, was 
invited to Udaipur and treacherously murdered with his eldest son 
in the Champa Bagh, whereupon the Kanthal was occupied by 
Mewar troops. Jaswant Singh's second son, Hari Singh, proceeded 
to Delhi about 1634, where, partly by the interest of Mahabat Khan, 
Jahangir's great general, and partly by his own skill and address, he 
got himself recognized as an independent chief by the emperor Shah 
Jahan on payment of a tribute of Rs. 15,000 a year. He also received 
the rank of Haft hazdri, or 'commander of 7,000,' and the title of 
Rawat or, as some say, Maharawat. On his return the Mewar garri- 
son was expelled with the help of the imperial forces, and the whole 
country brought under subjection. Hari Singh's son, Pratap Singh, who 
succeeded in 1674, founded the town of Partabgarh in 1698 ; and from 
it the State now takes its name, though some of the people still use the 
older name Kanthal, or, uniting the names of the former and the 
present capitals, call the State Deolia-Partabgarh. As recently as 
1869 the chief was described in an extradition treaty then ratified as 


partAbgarh state 

the ' Rajah of Dowleah and Partabgurh/ In the time of Sawant Singh 
(1775-1844) the country was overrun by the Marathas, and the Maha- 
rawat only saved his State by agreeing to pay Holkar a tribute of 
Sdlim shdhi Rs. 72,720, in lieu of Rs. 15,000 formerly paid to Delhi. 
The first connexion of the State with the British Government was in 
1804; but the treaty then entered into was subsequently cancelled by 
Lord Cornwallis, and a fresh treaty, by which the State was taken 
under protection, was made in 181 8, The tribute to Holkar is paid 
through the British Government, and in 1904 was converted to 
Rs. 36,360 British currency. 

The chiefs subsequent to Sawant Singh have been Dalpat Singh 
(1844-64), Udai Singh (1864-90), and Raghunath Singh, who was 
born in 1859, succeeded by adoption in 1890, and was installed with 
full powers in 1891. He bears the titles of His Highness and Maha- 
rawat, and receives a salute of 15 guns. 

Among places of archaeological interest are Janagarh, 10 miles 
south-west of the capital, with its old fort, in which some Mughal 
prince is said to have resided, and the remains of a mosque, bath, 
and stables ; Shevna, 2 miles east of Salimgarh, which tradition says 
was the capital, Shivnagri, of a large state, and which must have been 
a fine city. Besides a fort it contains several temples, one of which, 
dedicated to Siva, is beautifully carved. At Virpur, near Sohagpura, is 
a Jain temple said to be 2,000 years old, and old temples also exist 
at Bordia, 20 miles south of the capital, and at Ninor in the south- 
east ; but none of these places has been professionally examined. 

The number of towns and villages in the State is 413, and the popu- 
lation at each Census has been: (1881) 79,568, (1891) 87,975, and 
(1901)52,025. The decrease of nearly 41 per cent, at 
Popu a ion, ^j^^ i^^j, g(-mmeration was due partly to the famine of 
1899-1900, followed by a disastrous type of fever, and partly, it is 
believed, to an exaggerated estimate of the Bhils in 1891. The State 
is divided into the three zilas or districts of Partabgarh, Magra, and 
Sagthali, as shown below : — 


Number of 


Number able 

to read and 




Sagthali . 

State total 











The only town is Partabgarh, the capital. More than 61 per cent, 
of the people are Hindus, 22 per cent, are .A.nimist BhIls, and 
9 per cent, are Jains. The language mainly spoken is Malwi or 


Rangri. By far the most numerous tribe is that of the BhIls, the 

original inhabitants of the country, who in 1901 numbered 11,500. 

Next come the Mahajans (5,600), the Brahmans (3,200), the Rajputs 

(3,200), the Kumhars (3,000), and the Chamars (2,600). About 

51 per cent, of the population are dependent on agriculture. 

The north-west (the Magra district) is hilly and stony, and here 

maize is almost the only product ; elsewhere the soil is excellent, 

being mostly black intermixed with a reddish-brown . . 

, rp, ... , . Agriculture. 

loam. 1 lie prmcipal crops are wheat, sugar-cane, 

maize, Jozvdr, gram, and barley. Poppy is extensively cultivated. 

The Bhils largely practise the destructive form of shifting cultivation 

known as wd/ar, which is described in the article on Banswara 


Irrigation is mainly from wells, of which more than 2,000 are worked 
in the khdlsa portion of the State ; there are nine irrigation tanks, 
but they are old and out of repair, and the area watered from them 
is insignificant. 

The hilly portions of the State are fairly well wooded, teak, black- 
wood, pipal {Ficus re/igiosa), and babfil [Acacia arabica) being fre- 
quently met with, while the south produces sandal-trees, which are 
a State monopoly. There is no systematic forest conservancy, and 
the Bhils burn the jungle for purposes of sport or agriculture practi- 
cally unchecked. 

Manufactures are unimportant, the products consisting only of coarse 
cotton fabrics, black woollen blankets, and a little 
enamel work of gold on glass, the latter ^^^^^^ ^^J^^^^^s^Zx^r^s. 
confined to a few families at the capital. 

The principal exports are grain and opium, and the imports are 
cotton cloth and salt. The trade is mostly with Bombay. During 
the eight years ending 1900 the average number of chests of opium 
exported was 629, worth about 3 lakhs, and the export duty levied 
by the Darbar averaged Rs. 7,700. In 1901 this duty was raised 
from Sdlim shahi Rs. 27 to British Rs. 27 per chest of i| maunds, 
and the 532^ chests exported in 1903-4 paid a duty of more than 
Rs. 14,000. Salt is obtained from Sambhar, about seven to eight 
thousand maunds being imported annually. 

There is no railway in the State, the nearest station being Mandasor 
on the Rajputana-Malwa line, 20 miles from Partabgarh town by a 
metalled road which was constructed in 1894, and of which 13 miles 
lie in Partabgarh territory. With this exception and a few streets at 
the capital, the communications are mere country tracks. Two British 
post offices and one telegraph office are maintained, and the State 
has no local postal system. 

Partabgarh is less liable to famine than most of the States of 



Rajputana, but in 1899-1900 the rainfall was less than one-third of 
the average and both harvests failed. The system of relief was ade- 
quate and efficient, and the extent of the operations 
was limited only by the financial resources of the 
State. Practically no land revenue was collected; more than 727,000 
units were relieved on works and nearly 100,000 gratuitously in villages 
and poorhouses. Including advances to agriculturists and remissions 
and suspensions of land revenue, the famine cost the State about 
1-7 lakhs, and one-third of the cattle perished. 

Tlie State is governed by the Maharawat with the help of a Kamdar 
. . . or minister and, in judicial matters, of a committee 
of eleven members styled the Raj Sabha. Each of 
the three districts is under a hdkiin. 

In the administration of justice the courts arc guided generally by 
the Codes of British India. The lowest courts are those of the hakims, 
two of whom (at Partabgarh and Sagthali) are second-class magis- 
trates, and can decide civil suits the value of which does not exceed 
Rs. 500, while the third (in Magra) is a third-class magistrate and can 
decide civil suits up to a value of Rs. 250. The Sadr Criminal and 
Civil Court, besides hearing appeals against the decisions of hakims, 
takes up cases beyond their powers, the presiding officer being a first- 
class magistrate with jurisdiction in civil suits up to a value of 
Rs. 1,000. The highest court of the State is the Raj Sabha; it can 
punish with a fine of Rs. 2,000, five years' imprisonment, and two 
dozen stripes, and decide civil suits not exceeding Rs. 3,000 in value, 
while it hears appeals against the decisions of the Sadr Court. When 
presided over by the chief, its powers are absolute. The principal 
nobles have limited jurisdiction in their own estates over their own 
people ; in criminal cases they can award six months' imprisonment 
and Rs. 300 fine, while on the civil side they decide suits the value 
of which does not exceed Rs. 1,000. Cases beyond their powers 
go before the Raj Sabha. 

The normal revenue of the State, excluding income from lands 
alienated to Rajputs, Brahmans, temples, &c., is about 1-7 lakhs, 
of which one lakh is derived from the land, Rs. 40,000 from customs, 
and Rs. 20,000 as tribute from jdglrddrs. The normal expenditure 
is about 1-4 lakhs, the main items being privy purse (Rs. 40,000), 
tribute (Rs. 36,360), cost of administration (Rs. 33,500), and army 
and police (Rs. 24,000). The State is in debt to Government to 
the extent of about 6\ lakhs, and the finances have consequently 
since 1901 been under the control of the Resident in Mewar. 

According to the local account a mint was established at the capital 
early in the eighteenth century, but the story is improbable. The 
coins struck there have for a long time been commonly called Sdlim 


shdhi, the name being derived from that of Sahm Singh, the ruler 
of Partabgarh from 1758 to 1775, or possibly a contraction of Shah 
Alam II, who is said to have confirmed the right of coining. The 
local rupee was formerly worth from 12 to 13 British annas, but 
in January, 1903, it exchanged for about 7 annas only. It was con- 
sequently decided to replace the local currency in 1904 by British 
coin ; but as the actual market rate of exchange during the period 
of conversion was more favourable to holders of the Partabgarh rupee 
than the rate fixed on the average of the previous six months, no coins 
were tendered for conversion. The Sdlim shdhi currency is, however, 
no longer legal tender in the State, and the Partabgarh mint has been 
closed in perpetuity. 

There are three kinds of land tenures in the State : namely, khdlsa, 
chdkrdna, and dharmCida. Khdlsa land is the property of the State 
and is leased generally on the ryotwdri system, there being few inter- 
mediate zaminddrs. The lessees can neither sell nor mortgage, but, 
on the other hand, they are never, without sufficient reason, deprived 
of their holdings, which usually descend from father to son. Chdkrdna 
lands are those granted to Rajputs and officials for work performed, 
and are held on the usual tenure of service and tribute. Lands 
granted to Brahmans, temples, Charans, and Bhats are called dhar- 
mdda ; they are held rent free, but neither they nor chdkraiia lands 
can be mortgaged or sold. 

A rough settlement was made in 1875, when leases were granted 
for ten years, but the people were opposed to a settlement of any 
kind, and it has since been customary to grant annual leases. Regular 
settlement operations are, however, in progress, which were to be 
finished by the end of 1906. The current assessment per acre 
varies from 8 annas to Rs. 1-8 for 'dry' land and from Rs. 2-8 to 
Rs. 1 7-8 for ' wet ' land, and the revenue is collected mostly in cash. 

The military force consists of 13 gunners, 22 cavalry, and 76 
infantry, with 19 unserviceable guns ; while the police force numbers 
170 of all ranks, including 6 mounted men. The jail has accom- 
modation for 23 males and 17 females, the average daily number 
of prisoners in 1904 being 33. A new jail is under construction. 

Eciucation is at a low ebb, only 4 per cent, of the population 
(8-3 males and about o-i females) being able to read and write. 
In 1901 there was but one regular school, attended by 194 pupils, 
or less than 3 per cent, of the population of school-going age, while 
the total expenditure on education was Rs. 600. The daily average 
attendance at this school fell in 1903 to 98. Recently two more 
schools have been started : namely, a nobles' school at the capital 
for the sons of Thakurs and of people of means, and a small 
vernacular school at Deolia. The daily average attendance at these 


institutions in 1904 was, respectively, 30 and 14, and the total 
expenditure on education was Rs. 2,650. 

The State possesses one hospital, with accommodation for 4 in- 
patients, and one dispensary. In 1904 the number of cases treated 
was 9,311, of whom 16 were in-patients, and 643 operations were 
performed. The cost of these institutions, about Rs. 1,900, was 
borne entirely by the State. 

A'accination is very backward. Only one vaccinator is employed, 
and in 1904-5 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 
244, or about 4 per 1,000 of the population. 

\Rajputdtui Gazetteer, vol. iii (1880, under revision).] 

Partabgarh Town {Pratdpgarh) (i). — Capital of the State and the 
head-quarters of the district of the same name in Rajputana, situated 
in 24° 2' N. and 74° 47' E., twenty miles by metalled road west of 
jSIandasor station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. The popula- 
tion in 1901 numbered 9,819, of whom 52 per cent, were Hindus, 
27 per cent. Jains, and 20 per cent. Musalmans. The town, which 
was founded by, and named after, Maharawat Pratap Singh in 1698, 
lies 1,660 feet above sea-level, in a hollow formerly known as Doderia- 
ka-khera. It is defended by a loopholed wall with eight gates built 
by Maharawat Salim Singh about 1758, and on the south-west 
is a small fort in which the chief's family occasionally reside. The 
palace, which is in the centre of the town, contains the State ofifices 
and courts ; and outside the town are two bungalows, one used by 
the chief and the other as a guest-house. Partabgarh used to be 
somewhat famous for its enamelled work of gold inlaid on emerald- 
coloured glass and engraved to represent hunting and mythological 
scenes. The art of making this jewellery is said to be confined 
to five families, and the secret is zealously guarded. In the town 
are eleven Jain and nine Hindu temples, a combined post and tele- 
graph office, a small jail which has accommodation for 40 prisoners 
and is generally overcrowded, an Anglo-vernacular middle school 
for bo)s (daily average attendance 98 in 1904), a school for the 
sons of the wealthier classes (daily average attendance 30 in 1904), 
and a hospital called the Raghunath Hospital after the present chief, 
which was built in 1893 and has accommodation for 4 in-patients. 

Partabgarh District {Pratdpgarh). — Southern District of the 
Fyzabad Division, United Provinces, lying between 25*^ 34' and 
26° 21' N. and 81° 19' and 82° 27' E., with an area of 1,442 square 
mile.s. It is bounded on the north by Rae Barell and Sultanpur; on 
the east and south-east by Jaunpur ; on the south by Allahabad ; and 
on the west by Allahabad and Pac Bareli. Portions of the District 
are enclosed in Jaunpur and Allahabad, and some villages of Allahabad 
form enclaves within Partabgarh. The general aspect is that of a richly 


wooded and fertile plain, here and there relieved by gentle undulations, 

and broken into ravines in the vicinity of the ri\ers and streams. The 

southern portion is perhaps more densely wooded 

than other parts. IJarren tracts of uncultivablc land i'nysical 

impregnated with saline efflorescence {t-eli) are met 

with in places, but do not extend over any considerable area. For 

the most part, Partabgarh is under rich and varied crops, dotted with 

many villages and hamlets, which are surrounded by fine groves of 

mango, mahud, or other trees. 

The Ganges forms part of the southern boundary, and the Gumtl 
touches the north-east corner of the District. The chief river is, 
however, the Sai, which enters Partabgarh from Rae Bareli, and after 
an exceedingly tortuous south-easterly course falls into the Gumti in 
Jaunpur. This river runs chiefly between high banks, broken by deep 
ravines, at a considerable depth below the level of the surrounding 
country. It is navigable during the rains, when it swells into a con- 
siderable stream ; but in the hot season it runs nearly dry. It receives 
a number of tributary rivulets, but none of importance. The District 
contains many tanks and swamps, some of which in the rains measure 
several miles in circumference. 

Partabgarh is entirely composed of alluvium, and kankar or nodular 
limestone is the only rocky formation. 

.Small patches of jungle land occur in many parts, chiefly covered 
with dhak (^fiutea frondosa). The babul {Acacia arain'ca) grows in the 
ravines, and the usual varieties of fig and other trees are scattered 
about the District. Groves of mango and mahud {Bassia latifolia) are 
exceptionally numerous and large, one of them covering an area of 
80 acres. 

Wild animals are not numerous, owing to the closeness of cultiva- 
tion. Wolves are fairly common in the ravines and broken land, and 
wild hog and a few n'llgai are found in the tamarisk jungle along the 
Changes. Jackals and foxes occur in all parts. Wild-fowl are un- 
usually scarce, though in the cold season geese and duck visit the 
large sheets of water. Both rivers and tanks abound in fish. 

The climate is dry and healthy. The mean monthly temperature 
ranges from about 60° in December and January to 92° in May. 

Over the whole District the annual rainfall averages 38 inches, 
evenly distributed. Considerable fluctuations occur from year to year, 
and the fall has varied from 19 inches in 1877 to 75 in 1894. 

Tradition connects most of the ancient sites in the District with 

the Bhars ; but some of them certainly date from the Buddhist period. 

Legend ascribes the foundation of Manikpur on the 

rr ,, , r ,-,T>ii History. 

Ganges to one Manadeva, son of a mythical Baldeva 

of Kanauj, and its change of name to Manik Chand, brother of the 


great |ni ('hand. The Bhars were displaced by the Somavansis from 
JhusT, and other Rajput clans spread over the District. In the 
eleventh century the warrior saint of Islam, Saiyid Salar, defeated 
the Hindu princes of Manikpur and Kara, but Muhammadan rule was 
not established till the defeat of Jai Chand by Muhammad Ghorl. 
Manikpur and Kara on the opposite bank of the Ganges were im- 
portant seats of government in the early Muhammadan period. 
Ala-ud-dTn Khiljl was governor here, before he gained the throne of 
Delhi by murdering his uncle on the sands of the river between these 
two places. In the fifteenth century the District came under the rule 
of the SharkI kings of Jaunpur, and after its restoration to Delhi the 
Rajput chiefs and the Muhammadan governors were frequently in 
revolt. The Afghans long retained their hold on the District, and 
early in the reign of Akbar the governor of Manikpur rebelled. 
Manikpur lost its importance when Allahabad became the capital of 
a Province, and from that time it was merely the chief town of a 
sarkar. The Rajputs again rose during the anarchy which marked the 
disruption of the empire after the death of Aurangzeb. They were, 
however, gradually reduced by the Nawabs of Oudh, and in 1759 
Manikpur was removed from the Suhah of Allahabad and added to 
Oudh. The later history of the District is a record of constant 
fighting between the officials of Oudh and the Rajput chiefs. At 
annexation in 1856 the eastern part of the District was included in 
Sultanpur, while the west formed part of Salon {see Rae Bareli 
District). A new District was in process of formation when the 
Mutiny broke out. Raja Hanwant Singh of Kalakankar escorted the 
fugitives from .Salon to Allahabad, and then turned rebel. With few 
exceptions all the large landholders joined the mutineers, and the 
District relapsed into a state of anarchy. Troops advanced in July, 
1858, but the campaign was checked by the rains, and it was not till 
November that British rule was re-established. On November i, 1858, 
the proclamation of the Queen, assuming the government of the 
country, was read to the army by Lord Clyde at Partabgarh town. 
The area of the District then formed was altered in 1869 by the 
transfer of territory to Rae BarelT. 

Only one or two of the ancient sites which are found in many parts 
have been excavated ^ The chief memorials of Muhammadan rule 
are at Manikpur, where the vast mound of the ancient fort still rises 
high above the Ganges, and a number of ruined mosques and palaces 
dating from the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan attest the 
former importance of what is now a mere village. 

Partabgarh contains 4 towns and 2,167 villages. The population 
has increased considerably during the last thirty years. The numbers 
' Cunningham, Archaeological Stni'ey Reports, vol. xi, pp. 63 and 70. 




at the four enumerations were as follows: (1869) 782,681, (1881) 
847,047, (1891) 910,895, and (1901) 912,848. There are three tahs'tls — 
Partabgarh, Kunda, and Patti — the head-quarters 
of each being at a place of the same name, except 
in the case of Partabgarh, the tahsilddr of which is stationed at Bfi.a. 
This is the only town of importance, and is also a municipality and 
the head-quarters of the District. The following table gives the chief 
statistics of population in 1901 : — 


Kunda . 

District total 


Number of 



"> s 





rt = 














4 2,167 







oci- 1 

U'"'~ C^-. I 

MS goo O 

a? *" O " 
« o. 

+ 3-3 

- 2.8 

+ 0-5 

+ 0-2 






Hindus form nearly 90 per cent, of the total, and Musalmans 
10 per cent. The whole District is thickly populated, and supplies 
considerable numbers of emigrants to other parts of India and to the 
Colonies. The AwadhI dialect of Eastern Hindi is spoken by almost 
the whole population. 

The most numerous Hindu castes are Kurmis (agriculturists), 
1 12,000 ; Brahmans, 1 1 1,000 ; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 102,000 ; 
Chamars (tanners and labourers), 98,000 ; Rajputs, 70,000 ; Pasis 
(toddy-drawers and labourers), 51,000; and Banias, 33,000. Musal- 
mans include Shaikhs, 27,000; Pathans, 12,000; and Julahas (weavers), 
7,000. Agriculture supports 77 per cent, of the total population, 
a high proportion. The District supplies a considerable number of 
recruits for the Indian army. Rajputs hold nine-tenths of the land, 
Sombansis, Bachgotis, Kanhpurias, Bilkharias, and Bisens being the. 
chief clans. Brahmans, Kurmis, Rajputs, and Ahirs occupy the largest 
areas as cultivators. 

Only 43 native Christians were enumerated in 1901, of whom 
36 belonged to the Anglican communion. A branch of the Zanana 
Bible and Medical Mission was founded here in 1890, and a branch 
of a Canadian mission in 1903. 

In the south-west near the Ganges lies a strip of low alluvial land, 
which is generally sandy and unproductive. Beyond the high bank 
is a tract of rich loam, which gradually stiffens to 
clay. The valley of the Sai is mainly composed of 
a light fertile loam, deteriorating to sand near the river and its 
tributary streams. North of the Sai lies another clay tract. Both 



of these areas of stiff soil are studded with lakes and swamps, and 
are liable to waterlogging in wet seasons owing to defective drainage, 
but in ordinary years they produce excellent rice. The cultivation of 
sugar-cane is chiefly confined to the Patti tahsil. 

The usual tenures of Oudh are found. About two-thirds of the 
total area is included in talukddri estates, while nearly lo per cent, 
is held by sub-settlement holders and under-proprietors. The main 
agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles : — 


Total an^a. 

Cultivated. Irrijjfateci 







265 127 
289 1 151 
256 136 



810 414 


Rice covered 207 square miles, or 26 per cent, of the total, barley 

192 square miles, gram 138, wheat tii, arhar 88, peas and masiir 62, 

jotvdr 54, and bajra 52. The chief non-food crops are poppy (19), 

yrtw-hemp (16), and sugar-cane {19). A little indigo is also grown, 

and there are many small pan gardens. 

A marked increase occurred in the area under cultivation between 
the first and second regular settlements, chiefly due to the reclamation 
of waste. A large area near the Changes, once occupied by a swamp, 
was reclaimed by a European, who constructed a large dam and 
erected pumps. The drainage of the Patti iahsll has recently been 
improved. The area bearing two crops in a year has also risen, and 
the principal changes in the methods of cultivation have been directed 
towards increasing this area. The larger areas under rice, sugar-cane, 
and poppy are also noticeable. Advances are taken with some 
regularity under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans 
Acts. During the ten years ending 1900 the total loans amounted to 
1-6 lakhs, of which i-i lakhs was advanced in 1896-7. Li the next 
four years the advances averaged Rs. 3,500 annually. 

The cattle bred locally are small and inferior. The ponies of the 
District are also poor, but a stallion is now maintained by Clovern- 
ment. Sheep and goats are largely kept, and a fine breed of sheep is 
found in the Kunda tahsil. The Gadarias, or shepherds, who own 
the latter keep them chiefly for their wool. 

Wells are the chief source of irrigation, supplying 257 square miles 
in 1903-4. Tanks or swamps served 153 square miles, but the area 
supplied from them is liable to considerable fluctuations. Thus in the 
dry year 1897 more than 84 per cent, of the irrigated area was supplied 
from wells. Other sources are negligible. The number of wells is 


increasing rapidly, and masonry wells have replaced unprotected ones 
to a considerable extent. Water is almost invariably raised from wells 
in leathern buckets drawn by bullocks, and from tanks and j7it/s by 
the swing-basket. Some of the tanks used for irrigation are artificial 
but these are of small size. 

Kankai' or nodular limestone is the chief mineral product, and is 
used for metalling roads and for making lime. A little saltpetre is 
extracted from saline efflorescences, and glass is also manufactured. 

There are very few industries besides agriculture. Indigo is still 
made on a small scale, and sugar-refining is of considerable importance 
in the east of the District. An interesting experi- 
ment in the rearing of silkworms and manufacture comrnunlaitions. 
of silk is being conducted by the tahtkdar of Kala- 
kankar. Coarse cotton cloth and woollen blankets are made at a 
few places. 

The District exports grain, oilseeds, opium, i'a;/-hemp, and hides, 
and imports piece-goods, metals, hardware, and sugar, the local pro- 
duction of common sugar being insufficient. Bela is the chief mart, 
and small markets have sprung up at several places along the railway. 

The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway passes from 
south-east to north-west across the District, and at Bela meets the 
Allahabad-Fyzabad branch running from north to south. There are 
615 miles of road, of which 64 are metalled. The latter are in charge 
of the Public Works department ; but the cost of all but 24 miles is 
charged to Local funds. The chief routes are from Partabgarh town 
to Allahabad and Fyzabad, and towards Rae BarelT and Akbarpur. 
Avenues of trees are maintained on 97 miles. 

The District is so well protected by means of irrigation that it has 

suffered little from famine. Deficiency of rain caused some damage 

to the crops in 1864, t868, and 187-?. In 1878 the „ 

„ r , , • . • Famine. 

eriects ot drought m the previous year were more 

marked, and relief works were opened, but never attracted more than 
4,600 persons on one day. The early cessation of the rains in 1896 
was felt, because it follow^ed a series of years in which excessive rain 
had done much damage. Relief works were opened in December, 
but were not largely resorted to, and distress was less severe than in 
the adjoining Districts. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is usually assisted by four Deputy- 
Collectors recruited in India, and a tahsllddr is stationed at the 

head-quarters of each tahsll. The cultivation of . 

... ^^ r X r^ ■ Administration, 

poppy IS supervised by an orncer of the Opuim 


Two Munsifs and a Subordinate Judge have civil jurisdiction in the 

District, which is included in the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of Kae 


Barell. Crime is light and not of a serious type, the more heinous 
forms being rare. Thefts and burglaries are the chief offences. Female 
infanticide was once very prevalent, but has not been suspected for 
many years. 

A summary settlement was made in 1856, and on the restoration 
of order in 1858 a second summary settlement was carried out, by 
which the revenue was fixed at 7-3 lakhs. A survey was then made, 
and a regular settlement followed betw^een i860 and 187 1. The 
assessment was largely based on the actual rent-rolls, and average rates 
were derived from these to value land cultivated by proprietors or held 
on grain rents. It resulted in an enhancement of the revenue to 
9'9 lakhs. A large number of claims to rights in land were decided 
by the settlement courts. The second regular settlement was made 
between 1892 and 1896 by the Deputy-Commissioner in addition to 
his regular duties. It was based, as usual, on the actual rent-rolls, and 
allowance was made in valuing land which did not pay cash rents for 
the difference in rents paid by high-caste and low-caste cultivators. 
The new revenue amounts to 13-4 lakhs, and the incidence is Rs. 1-6 
per acre, with very slight variations in different pargaiias. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 






There is one municipality, Bela, and three towns are administered 
under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the limits of these, local affairs are 
managed by the District board, which in 1903-4 had an income of 
Rs. 90,000, chiefly derived from local rates, and an expenditure of 
Rs. 97,000, including Rs. 49,000 spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of 
2 inspectors, 65 subordinate officers, and 237 constables distributed in 
12 police stations, besides 32 municipal and town police, and 1,719 
rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 
125 prisoners in 1903. 

In regard to education, Partabgarh does not hold a high place. 
In 1 90 1, 3-1 per cent, of the population (6-i males and O'l females) 
could read and write. The number of public schools increased from 
88 with 3,121 pupils in 1 880-1 to 126 with 7,037 pupils in 1900-1. 
In 1903-4 there were 161 such schools with 7,493 pupils, of whom 
65 were girls, besides 48 private schools with 1,036 pupils, including 
2 girls. Only 916 pupils had advanced beyond the primary stage. 
Two schools are managed by Government and 100 by the District 

PARUR 2 1 

board. The total expenditure on education was Rs. 40,000, of which 
Rs. 24,000 was provided from Local funds, and Rs. 6,000 by fees. 

There are ten hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation 
for 95 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 
49,000, including 674 in-patients, and 1,489 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 11,000, chiefly met from 
Local funds. 

About 24,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, 
representing the low proportion of 26 per 1,000 of population. Vacci- 
nation is compulsory only in the municipality of Bela. 

[H. R. Nevill, District Gazetteer, 1904.] 

Partabgarh Tahsil {Fratdpgarh). — Central ta]isll of Partabgarh 
District, United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Ateha and 
Partabgarh, and lying between 25° 43' and 26° 11' N. and 81° 31" and 
82° 4' E., with an area of 432 square miles. Population increased 
from 306,427 in 1891 to 316,580 in 1901, this being the only part 
of the District which showed an appreciable rise. There are 679 
villages and three towns, Bela (population, 8,041), the District and 
tahsil head-quarters, and Partabgarh (5,148) being the largest. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,17,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 67,000. The density of population, 733 persons per square mile, 
is the highest in the District. Through the centre of the tahsil flows 
the Sai in a very winding channel. The banks of the river are sandy, 
but good loam is found at a short distance. In the south the soil 
is clay and swamps abound. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 265 square miles, of which 127 were irrigated, wells being the 
chief source of supply. 

Partabgarh Town {Fratdpgarh) (2). — Town in the District and 
tahsil o{ the same name. United Provinces, situated in 25° 54' N. and 
81° 57' E., 5 miles south of Bela. Population (1901), 5,148. It is 
said to have been founded about 16 17 by Raja Partab Singh. The 
fort was of some importance in the eighteenth century and sustained 
several sieges. In the nineteenth century it was taken by the Oudh 
government. The Raja of Partabgarh resides in a fine building, 
portions of which are of considerable antiquity. He maintains a large 
school with 164 pupils, and a dispensary. Partabgarh is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 600. There 
is a flourishing local trade. 

Parur {Paravfi?-). — Head-quarters of the tdlt/k of the same name 
in Travancore State, Madras, situated in 10° lo' N. and 76° 15' E., 
about 17 miles north of Ernakulam, the southern terminus of the 
Cochin-Shoranur Railway. Population (1901), 12,962, including almost 
all the Jews of Travancore. A Raja of Pariir once ruled here. At one 
time the place belonged to Cochin, but it was made over to Travancore 

2 2 PARUR 

in 1762. It was then converted into a military station for the frontier 
troops. Tipu, in his second invasion of Travancore, destroyed a great 
portion of it. It is now a busy trading centre, and contains the courts 
of a District and Sessions Judge, a Munsif and a magistrate, and other 
public ofifices. 

Parvatipur. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Dinajpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° 40' N. and 
88° 56' E. Population (1901), 1,787. It is an important railway 
junction, where the Assam and Bihar sections of the Eastern Bengal 
State Railway branch off east and west from the main line. 

Parvatipuram Subdivision. — Subdivision of Vizagapatam Dis- 
trict, Madras, consisting of the zamindaii tahsils of Parvatipuram 
(including Agency area), BIS.SA^fcuTTACK, Ravaoada, Gunupur, 
BoBBiLi, and Salur (including Agency area). 

Parvatipuram Tahsil. — Zam'indari tahsil in Vizagapatam District, 
Madras, lying between 18° 38' and 19° 8' N. and 83° 17' and 83° 
50' E., in the north of the extensive plain drained by the Nagavali or 
Langulya river, with an area of 799 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 160,523, compared with 157,014 in 1891. The head-quarters 
are at Parvatipuram Town (population, 17,308); the number of 
villages is 498. The northern part of the tahsil is hilly and lies within 
the x\gency limits ; the rest is flat and presents no features of interest. 
The tahsil is all zaitnnddri land, belonging partly to the Belgam and 
Parvatipuram estates and partly to the zamlnddrs of Kurupam, 
Sangamvalsa, and Merangi. The demand for land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 77,500. 

Parvatipuram Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and 
tahsil of the same name in Vizagapatam District, Madras, lying in 
18° 47' N. and 83° 26' E. Population (i 901), 17,308. An Assistant 
Superintendent of police and a police reserve are stationed here. 
Lying at the junction of roads from Bengal, Jeypore, Palkonda, and 
Vizianagram, Parvatipuram is a rapidly growing centre of trade 
between the hills and the low country. 

Pasni. — An open roadstead and port in Makran, Baluchistan, 
situated in 25° 16' N. and 63° 28'' E., about 220 miles from Karachi, 
on a sandbank connecting the headland of Zarren with the mainland. 
The inhabitants live in mat huts ; the telegraph bungalow and three 
other structures constitute the only permanent buildings. The popu- 
lation (1904) numbers 1,489, and consists of Meds (1,065) ^^'^^ ^ ^^w' 
Hindus, Khojas or Lotias, and Kalmatis. Pasni obtains its importance 
from its proximity to I'urbat, the head-quarters of Makran, about 
70 miles distant. Mail steamers make fortnightly calls at the port, 
but the open roadstead affords poor anchorage. Improved facilities 
for landing are now in contemplation. The trade of Pasni is rapidly 


expanding, and amounted in \h1uc to about 4^ lakhs during the Iwenty- 
one months from June, 1903, lo P'ebruary, 1905. The annual customs 
lease has also risen from Rs. 4,500 in 1899 1° ^^^- 18,000 in 1905. 
The only industry is fishing, on which the majority of the population 

Pasrur Tahsil. — Central /aksii of Sialkot District, I'unjab, lying 
between 3 1° 56' and 32^ 20' N. and 74*^ 32' and 74° 57' E., with an area 
of 394 square miles. The population in 1901 was 193,746, compared 
with 203,875 in 1 89 1. The head-quarters are at the town of Pasrur 
(population, 8,335), ^"*i '*■ '^^^^ contains the town of Kila Sobha 
Singh (3,338) and 443 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,10,000. Irrigation dams arc an im- 
portant factor in cultivation, especially in the south and west of the 
tahsil. The richest tract is the north-east corner. In the centre the 
country lies higher and is less fertile, while in the south the soil is 
a sour cla)-. The Degh passes through the eastern portion. 

Pasrur To'wn. — Head-quarters of the fa/isil of the same name in 
Sialkot District, Punjab, situated in 32° 16' N. and 74° 40' E., on the 
road from Sialkot to Amritsar, 18 miles south of Sialkot town. Po])u- 
lation (1901), 8,335. ^^ ^^''"-^ originally called Parasrur after I'aras 
Ram, Brahman, to whom the town was assigned by its founder ; it is 
mentioned by Babar as a halting-place between Sialkot and Kalanaur, 
and seems to have once been of considerable importance. It possesses 
a large tank, constructed in the reign of Jahangir. To feed this, Dara 
Shikoh dug a canal, traces of which are still extant. Near by are the 
remains of a bridge built by Shah Daula. At the Muharram a great 
gathering takes place at the shrine of Mian Barkhurdar, a famous 
Muhammadan saint. The trade of Pasrur has much decayed, partly 
through the opening of the North-Western Railway, and partly on 
account of the octroi duties which have diverted trade to the neighbour- 
ing village of Kalaswala. Hand-printed cotton stuffs are the only manu- 
facture of importance. Pasrur is a station of the American United 
Presbyterian Mission. The municipality was created in 1867. The 
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,900, and 
the expenditure Rs. 7,800. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 8,000, 
chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 6,900. The town 
contains an Anglo-vernacular high school maintained by the District 
board, and a Government dispensary. 

Patan Taluka (i).— North-western tdluka of the Kadi/ra«/, Baroda 
State, with an area of 409 square miles. The population fell from 
136,083 in 1891 to 104,136 in 1901, The tdluka contains two towns, 
Patan (population, 31,402), the head-quarters, and Balisna (4,650); 
and 140 villages. It presents the appearance of a fairly wooded plain, 
with the river Saraswati running through the centre. To the west and 


north the soil is black, while to the east it is light and sandy. In 
1904-5 the land revenue was Rs. 3,26,000. 

Patan Town (i). — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name. 
Kadi /ra;//, Baroda State, situated in 23° 51' N. and 72° 10' E., on 
the Gaikwar's State line from Mehsana on the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway. Population (1901), 31,402. In former times it was known 
as Anhilvada or Anhilpur, and was founded about a.d. 746, or, 
according to some accounts, in 765, by Vanaraja, the forest-born son 
of the beautiful Rani, Rup Sundri. He was the first of a line of kings, 
named Chavada, a dynasty which was succeeded by the Solankis, and 
afterwards by the Vaghelas. The town, afterwards known as Nahrwara 
or Nahrwala, was celebrated for its size and magnificence, and yielded 
much plunder to Mahmud of Ghazni. The last of the Vaghelas, 
Karan Ghelo ('the insane'), was overpowered in 1298 by Ulugh Khan ; 
and the Muhammadans afterwards levelled the walls of the town, 
buried the temples in their foundations, and ploughed up the ground 
on which they stood. The modern Patan has sprung up on the ruins 
left by the ancient conquerors, but does not possess the magnificent 
palaces, parks, tanks, schools, libraries, markets, and offices which are 
said to have adorned the old town. Some remains, however, are still 
to be seen which indicate the former greatness of Anhilvada. One 
of these is the Rani Vav, or large well built by Udayamati, the queen 
of Raja Bhima, in the eleventh century, of which a few battered 
fragments remain. The water is said to possess the power of curing 
infantile cough. The Sahasra Ling Talav, or * tank with the thousand 
shrines,' was dedicated to Siva by the famous Jay Singh Siddha Raja 
of the Solanki line (1093-1143), when he set out on his expedition 
against Yasovarma, king of Mahva. But of this nothing now remains, 
save a large field with the ruins of a Muhammadan building in the 
centre, constructed on the site of a temple. Bairam, the minister of 
Humayun and Akbar, was assassinated on the bank of this lake in 
1561, while on his way to Mecca. A marble statue of Vanaraja, the 
founder of the place, in one of the Jain temples, bears an inscription 
dated 1467. Another tank worthy of notice is the large reservoir to 
the south of the town, known as the Khan Sarovar, which, however, 
is of Muhammadan origin. The modern town of Patan, together with 
the citadel, is the result of Maratha efforts. It is situated to the south- 
east of old Anhilvada, nearly a mile from the SaraswatT river. A lofty 
wall, most of which is of great thickness, entirely surrounds it, and 
there are numerous gateways. The public buildings, of which the chief 
are the offices in the citadel, the high school, and the civil hospital, are 
of no great interest ; and the general aspect of the streets and houses, 
with the exception of a few which display profuse and elaborate wood- 
carving, is depressing. The Jain temples in the town are said to 


number 108 or no, but none is of much architectural or archaeological 
importance. In these thousands of palm-leaf manuscripts are carefully 
preserved, of which a list has recently been made. The manufactures 
carried on at the present day are not of great importance, though there 
is a fair out-turn of swords, betel-nut slicers, patolas (variegated saris), 
embroidery, and pottery. The last is said to be superior to any of its 
kind in Gujarat, and is remarkable for its glaze. It is, however, of a 
very fragile nature. Wood-carving and ivory-turning are also practised. 
The town is the most important centre for trade in the Kadi prdnt^ 
and its commercial facilities have been greatly increased since the 
opening of the line from Mehsana to Patan. The municipality, which 
was reconstituted on a partly elective basis in 1905, has an income 
of Rs. 10,000 from excise, customs, and tolls, besides an annual grant 
of Rs. 5,000 from the State. 

[J. Burgess and H. Cousens, Architectural Antiquities of Gujarat 


Patau Taluka (2). — South-easternmobt tdluka of Satara District, 
Bombay, lying between 17° 8' and 17° 34' N. and 73° 39' and 74° \' E., 
with an area of 438 square miles. It contains 203 villages, but no town. 
Patan is the head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 104, 167, com- 
pared with 131,833 in 1891. The density, 238 persons per square 
mile, is the same as the average of the District. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was 1-2 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 11,000. Piitan is 
hilly. The chief feature in the west is the Koyna valley running south, 
with lofty fianking hills. On the east the valleys of the Koyna, Tarli, 
and Kole open into the plains of the Kistna. The soil of the eastern 
valleys is good, yielding both early and late crops, chiefly y'^zf^r and 
ground-nuts, and, when watered, sugar-cane. The rest of the soil is 
red, and except in the hollows where rice and sometimes sugar-cane 
are grown, is under nomadic cultivation. The Koyna and the Tarli 
with their feeders furnish abundance of water to the villages on and 
near their banks. Away from the rivers, both on the tops of the hills 
and in the valleys, especially during March, April, and May, water is 
scarce. The climate is cool and healthy in the hot season, but the 
chilly damp of the rains makes it feverish. Compared with the greater 
portion of the District the rainfall is heavy, averaging 67 inches 

Patan Town (or Lalita Patan) (2).— One of the chief towns of Nepal, 
situated, approximately, in lat. 27° 41' N. and long. 85° 20' E., on 
rising ground, a short distance from the southern bank of the Bagh- 
mati, about 2 miles south-east of Katmandu. Patan is thus described 
by Dr. Wright, formerly Surgeon to the British Residency in Nepal :— 

' It is an older town than Katmandu, having been built in the reign 
of Raja Bir Deva in the Kaligat year 3400 (a. d. 299). It is also 


known by the names of Velloudebi and Lalita Palan. The latter name 
is derived from LaUt, the founder of the city. Its general aspect is 
much the same as that of the capital [Katmandu]. The streets are 
as narrow and dirty, the gutters as offensive, and the temples even 
more numerous ; but it appears much more dilapidated than Katmandu, 
many of the houses and temples being in ruins. The main square, 
however, in the centre of the town, is very handsome. On one side is 
the old Darbar with a fine brazen gateway, guardian lions, and endless 
carvings. In front of this are monoliths, with the usual figures on 
them, and behind these a row of handsome old temples of every 
description. The parade-ground lies to the south-east of the town, 
the road to it passing through a suburb abounding in pigs. The 
parade-ground is extensive, and there are several large tanks to the 
west, while on the southern side stands a huge Buddhist temple of 
the most primitive description. This temple is merely a mound or 
dome of brickwork, covered with earth. There is a small shrine at 
each of the cardinal points, and on the top what looks like a wooden 
ladder. Many similar mound-temples or chaityas exist in and around 
Patan. The population of the town is said to be about 30,000, mainly 

From the early part of the seventeenth century Patau was one of the 
three petty Newar States in the Valley of Nepal, and its quarrels with 
its neighbours at Katmandu and Bhatgaon paved the way for its 
conquest by the Gurkhas in 1768-9. The town is now garrisoned by 
the Gurkha government. 

Patan. — District and head-quarters thereof in the Bundi State, 
Rajputana. See Keshorai Patan. 

Patancheru. —Village in the Kalabgur taluk of Medak District, 
Hyderabad State, situated in 17° 32' N. and 78° 16' E. Population 
(1901), 1,886. It was formerly the head-quarters of the Subahdar 
(Conunissioner) of the Bidar Division, and is still the head-quarters of 
the Commissioner of the Medak Gulshanabad Division. Groups of 
underground Hindu temples are said to exist in the vicinity of the 
village, buried under the sand. Some old copper coins were recently 
discovered here. A pillar bearing the zodiacal signs, sculptured in 
a circle around a lotus or conventional representation of the sun, is 
an interesting relic. The place contains many buildings and tombs 
of Musalman origin. 

Pataudi State. — Native State in the Punjab, under the political con- 
trol of tlie Commissioner of the Delhi Division, lying between 28° 14' 
and 28^ 22' N. and 76° 42' and 76° 52' E., in the midst of the British 
District of Gurgaon. Its area is 52 square miles; population (1901), 
21,933; and it contains one town, Pataudi (population, 4,171), the 
capital, and 40 villages. It consists of a level plain, badly watered, 
except in a few villages to which floods give occasional irrigation. The 
ruling chief of Pataudi is descended from a saintly Afghan family, 


which settled originally near Saniana in Patiala. A descendant, Talab 
Faiz Khan, who was closely connected with the Jhajjar family by 
marriage, was in the Maratha service and received the fief of Rohtak. 
On the defeat of the INIarathas in 1803 he was employed under Lord 
Lake, who in 1806 granted him the Pataudi territory in perpetuity. 
In 1826 he took part in the siege of Bharatpur. His son, Akbar All, 
behaved loyally during the Mutiny of 1857. The present Nawab was 
born in 1863 and succeeded in 1898. The administration is carried 
on by a iidzwi, who exercises judicial functions and superintends the 
revenue administration, which is in the hands of a tahsllddr with 
a staff of eleven subordinates. The State maintains a small force of 
horsemen as the Nawab's personal escort, and 33 infantrymen who are 
employed on guard duties. It also supports a dispensary and a pri- 
mary school at Pataudi, and 4 village schools. The total land revenue, 
as settled in 1891, amounts to Rs. 76,631. The excise administration 
is leased to the British Government for Rs. 650 per annum. 

Pataudi Town. — Capital of the Pataudi State, Punjab, situated 
in 28° 20' N. and 76° 48' E., 19 miles south-west of Gurgaon, and 
2\ miles from Jatauli station on the Rajputana-Malvva Railway. 
Population (1901), 4,171. It was founded in the time of Jalal-ud- 
din Khilji, by Pata, a Mewati, from whom it derives its name. The 
town contains the residence of the Nawab of Pataudi and the public 
offices of the State. 

Patdi. — State in the Kalhiawar Political Agency, Bombay, lying 
between 23° 7' and 23° 8' N. and 71° 48' and 71" 58' E., with an 
area of 40 square miles. The population in 1901 was 2,190, residing 
in seven villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 22,000, and the 
cultivated area 94 square miles. The State ranks as a fourth-class 
State in Kathiawar. 

Patdi. — Town in Ahmadabad District, Bombay. See Patki. 

Pathankot Tahsil. — Tahs'il of Gurdaspur District, Punjab, lying 
between 32*" 5' and 32° 30' N. and 75° 20' and 75° 56' E., with 
an area of 367 square miles. It consists mainly of a narrow strip 
of broken country along the left bank of the Ravi, but includes a 
small fertile tract to the west of the river, irrigated by hill-streams. 
It includes the hill station of Dalhousie (population, 1,316), together 
with the cantonments of Balun and Bakloh, and the cart-road 
leading thereto. It also contains the towns of Pathankot (population, 
6,091), the head-quarters, and Sujanpur (5,687); and 395 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 141,623, compared with 140,850 in 
1 89 1. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 

Pathankot Town.— Head-quarters of the talis'il of the same name 
in Gurdaspur District, Punjab, situated in 32° 16' N. and 75° 40' E., 

VOL. XX. c 


and the terminus of the Amritsar-Pathankot branch of the North- 
western Railway. Population (1901), 6,091. A good cart-road leads 
from Pathankot to Palampur (70 miles) and Dharmsala (52 miles), and 
another to Dunera (for Dalhousie and Chamba). The situation of 
Pathankot has, from very ancient times, made it an emporium of trade 
between the hills and plains. From coins found here, Cunningham 
concluded that it was at an early date inhabited by the Udumbaras, 
who are coupled in the Puranas with the Traigarttas and Kulindas, or 
people of Kangra and Kulu, and with the Kapisthalas, who must be 
the Kambistholi mentioned by Arrian as dwelling on the Ravi ; and 
that the kingdom of Dahmeri, which in historical times included most 
of Gurdaspur and Kangra, bears a name derived from this people. 
The capital of this State was Nurpur in Kangra, but Pathankot must 
have been a place of some importance, as from it the Pathania Rajputs 
of Nurpur take their name^ It was from ancient times held by a line 
of Rajput chiefs, of whom the most noted are Raja Bakht Mai, who 
fought for Sikandar Siiri at Mankot ; Bas Deo, who rebelled against 
Akbar ; Suraj Mai, who rebelled against Jahanglr ; and Jagat Singh, 
who rebelled against Shah Jahan and accompanied Dara Shikoh to 
Kandahar. The State of Pathankot was taken by Ranjit Singh in 
1 81 5. The municipality was created in 1867. The income during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 11,500, and the expenditure 
Rs. 11,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,500, chiefly from octroi ; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 11,800. Pathankot is the seat of a 
considerable blanket and shawl-weaving industry, and, lying at the 
point where the trade routes from Chamba, Nurpur, and Kangra unite, 
is a place of some commercial importance, with a growing trade. The 
District board maintains an Anglo-vernacular middle school and a 

Pathardi. — Town in the Shevgac;n taluka of .\hmadnagar District, 
Bombay, situated in 19° 10' N. and 75° 11' E., about 30 miles east 
of Ahmadnagar city. Population (1901), 6,299. '^^6 town lies pic- 
turesquely on the side of a steep hill which rises in the midst of 
a barren tract, skirted on the north and east by a range of hills running 
from Dongargaon into the Nizam's Dominions. 

Patharghata. — Hill in the head-quarters subdivision of Bhagalpur 
District, Bengal, lying between 25° 17' and 25° 22' N. and 87° 12' 
and 87" 16' E., on the bank of the Ganges. On the northern side 
of the hill are some rock sculptures, apparently of a date prior to the 
seventh or eighth century a. d., the most interesting of which is a long 
row of figures known locally as the Chaurasi suntii (' 84 sages '). The 

^ Archaeological Survey Reports, \o\. xiv, p. 115. The name of Pathankot has 
nothing to do wilh the trans-Indus Pathans, but is often written Paithan, and accord- 
ing to Cunningham is a corruption of Pratisthdna, ' the citablished city.' 


hill also contains five caves, in the most important of which, the 
Bateswar cave, bronze and silver relics have been discovered. 

[M. Martin, Eastern India, vol. ii, pj). 64-5 ; Archaeological Survey 
Reports, vol. xv, pp. 36-7.] 

Pathari State. — A petty mediatized .State in Central India, under 
the Bhopal Agency, with an area of 22 square miles, and a population 
(1901) of 2,704. Locally the State is called Baro-Patharl or Chor- 
Pathari, the former from the old ruined city of Baro, the latter from its 
former unenviable notoriety as the home of marauding gangs. 

The chiefs, who are descended from the Bhopal house, are Pathans 
of the Barakzai family and the Mirzai Khel. Murid Muhammad Khan, 
father of the original grantee, held a Jdgir in Rahatgarh (now in the 
Central Provinces), of which he was deprived by Mahadaji Sindhia. 
On the mediation of the British authorities, however, his son, Haidar 
Muhammad Khan, received the Pathari yo^Jr in 1794, as a grant from 
Daulat Rao Sindhia. Land is still held by the Nawabs at Rahatgarh, 
in the Saugor District of the Central Provinces. The present chief, 
Abdul Karmi Khan, succeeded in 1859 as a boy of five, and received 
powers in 1872. He pursued, however, a course of extravagance, 
plunging the State so deeply in debt as to necessitate his removal 
from the management in 1895. He resides at Sehore with his family, 
and the State continues under British administration. The chief bears 
the hereditary title of Nawab. The archaeological remains at Pathari 
are of considerable interest, forming in fact a part of those at Baro, 
which is situated one mile south of this town. The road from Baro 
to Pathari is marked by the remains of numerous temples, sati stones, 
and other indications of an extensive settlement. 

The soil is ferUle and produces good crops. Of the total area of 
22 square miles, 5 square miles, or 23 per cent., are cultivated, while 
12 square miles are capable of cultivation, the rest being grazing, 
jungle, and waste land. The chief ordinarily exercises limited powers, 
all serious matters being dealt with by the Political Agent. The State 
has a revenue of Rs. 9,000. Its finances are at present burdened with 
a debt of Rs. 30,000. 

The chief town of Pathari is picturesquely situated on a small sand- 
stone hill 1,800 feet above the level of the sea, on the edge of a lake 
enclosed by a fine dam of undressed stone, in 23° 56' N. and 78° 13' E. 
It is II miles distant by metalled road from Kulhar station on the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 1,106. A British 
post office and a jail are situated in the Icjwn. 

Pathari shows many signs of its importance in the early days ot 
Hindu rule, though, as it now stands, it is purely Muhammadan in 
character. The remains of numerous statues, carved stones from 
Hindu temples, and old foundations are everywhere visible. The 

c 2 


principal object of interest is the magnilicent column which stands 
to the east of the town. It is cut from a fine white sandstone, 
apparently hewn in the old quarry close by, and is 47 feet high, 
42 feet being in a single piece. It is surmounted by a bell capital, 
on which there were originally two human figures back to back, but 
only a part of one remains. Close by is a small temple, which now 
contains a lingain, but was originally dedicated to Vishnu, as is shown 
by the figure of Garuda over the doorway. On the northern face of 
the pillar there is an inscription of thirty-eight lines. The record is 
dated in a.d. 861, and sets out that the temple of Vishnu (no doubt 
that close by) was built by a king Parabala of the Rashtrakuta race, 
who set up this Garuda bannered pillar before it. The record is 
additionally interesting in connexion with the Monghyr copperplate, 
which records the birth of the Pala king Devapala, who was born 
of Ram Devi, daughter of king Parabala. A slab in an old Imori 
(well with steps), dated in 1676, records its construction by Maharaja 
Prithwiraj Ju Deo, in the time of Aurangzeb. The Hindu town was 
destroyed by the Muhammadans, possibly by Alamgir. 

^Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xvii, part ii, p. 305 ; 
A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports^ vol. vii, p. 64 ; vol. x, 
p. 69; Nachrichten der Konig. Gesell. der JVissen. zu Gottingen (1901), 
p. 519 i Indian Antiquary, vol. xxi, p. 258.] 

V2i\Xy2s\, —Thakurdt in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Patharia. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Pathar Kachhar.— State in the Baghelkhand Agency, Central 
India. See Baraunda. 

Patheingyi. — Township to the east of Mandalay city in Mandalay 
District, Upper Burma, lying between 21° 51' and 22^ 8' N. and 96° 3' 
and 96° 24' E., with an area of 213 square miles. Its population was 
31,597 in 1891, and 28,546 in 1901, distributed in 152 villages, the 
head-quarters being at Patheingyi (population, 532), about 6 miles 
north-east of Mandalay. The western part of the township is irrigated 
by the Shwetachaung Canal and produces rice ; the eastern is high land 
bearing 'dry crops.' Alayin rice is cultivated below the Nanda tank 
and west of the Shwetachaung Canal, and the centre of the township 
is now irrigated by the Mandalay Canal. The area cultivated was 
65 square miles in 1903-4, but will probably increase largely now that 
the Mandalay Canal has been completed. The land revenue and 
thalhanieda amounted to Rs. 2,02,000. 

Pathri Taluk. — Western taluk of I^arbhani District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 784 square miles. Including jdglrs, the popula- 
tion in 1901 was 119,324, compared with 123,553 in 1891, the decline 
being due to the famine of 1900. The idluk contains two towns, 
Pathri (population, 5,828), ihe head-cjiiartcrs, and Manwat (7,395); 


and 170 villages, of which rg are j'aglr. In 1905 this /d/uk received 
8 villages from the Anibarh Ar///k of Aurangabad District, and gave 
6 villages to that fd/uk in exchange. The land revenue in 1901 was 
3-8 lakhs. The (lodavari river separates it from Bhlr District 
on the south. The soils are chiefly alluvial and regar. North is thi- 
jdgii' tdhtk of Partur ; population (1901), 28,213. It comprises 90 
villages ; and Partur (4,043), its head-quarters, is a station on the 
Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway. It has an area of about 
374 square miles, and contains a ginning factory, a State post otifice 
and a British sub-post office, a school, and a dispensary, the last two 
being maintained by the j'lgir authorities. 

Pathri Town. — Head quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Parbhani District, Hyderabad State, situated in 19° 15' N. and 76° 
27' E. Population (1901), 5,828. The town contains a tahsll and 
police inspector's office, a post office, and two schools. 

Pathyar. — Village in Kangra District, Punjab, 12 miles south-east 
of Dharmsala. Population (1901), 1,983, An inscription of a primidve 
type, cut in both the Brahmi and Kharoshthl scripts, in letters of 
remarkable size, recording the dedication of a tank, probably in the 
third century B.C., has been found here. The village suffered serious 
damage in the earthquake of April 4, 1905. 

\Epigraphia hidica, vol. vii, p. 116.] 

Patiala State. — The largest in area, wealth, and population of the 
three Phulkian States, Punjab, and the most populous of all the Native 
States in the Province, though second to Bahawalpur in area. It lies 
mainly in the eastern plains of the Punjab, which form part of the 
great natural division called the Indo-Gangetic Plain West ; but its 
territories are somewhat scattered, as, owing to historical causes, it 
comprises a portion of the Simla Hills and the Narnaul ildka^ which 
now constitutes the nizdmat of Mohindargarh, in the extreme south-east 
on the borders of Jaipur and Alwar States in Rajputana. The territory 
is interspersed with small tracts or even single villages belonging to the 
States of Nabha, Jind, and Maler Koda, and to the British Districts 
of Ludhiana, Ferozepore, and Karnal, while, on the other hand, it 
includes several detached villages or groups of villages which lie 
within the natural borders of those States and Districts. 

Its scattered nature makes it impossible to describe its boundaries 
clearly and succinctly, but briefly it may be described as consi.sting of 
three portions. The main portion, lying between 29° 23' and 30° 55' N. 
and 74° 40' and 76° 59' E., and comprising the plains portion of the State 
west of the Jumna valley and south of the Sutlej, is bordered on the 
north by the Districts of Ludhiana and I^ erozepore ; on the east by 
Karnal and Ambala ; on the south by the State of jTnd and Hissar 
District; and on the west by Hissar. This portion forms a rough parallelo- 


gram, 139 miles in length from east to west, and 125 miles from north to 

south, with an appendage on the south lying south of the Ghaggar river 

and forming part of the nizdmat of Karmgarh. The second block lies in 

the Siwalik Hills, between 30^40' and 31° 10' N. and 76°49'and ifi^'Y^. 

It is bordered on the north by the Hill States of Bhagal, Dhami, and 

Bhajji ; on the east by those of Koti, Keonthal, and Sirmur ; on the 

south by Ambala District ; and on the west by the States of Nala- 

garh and Mailog, and by Ambala District. This portion is 36 miles 

from north to south, and 29 miles from east to west, and forms a 

part of the fiizdmat of Pinjaur. The third block, the nizdmat of 

Mohindargarh, lies between 27° 47' and 28° 28' N. and 75° 56' and 

76^' 17' E., and is entirely surrounded by Native States— Jind to the 

north, Alwar and Nabha to the east, and Jaipur to the south and west. 

It is 45 miles from north to south, and 22 miles from east to west. 

No great river flows through the State or along its borders, the chief 

stream being the Ghaggar, which runs in an ill-defined bed from the 

north-east of its main portion south-west through 
Physical _ _ • 

aspects ^^'^ Pawadh to the Bangar and thence m a more 

westerly direction, separating the Pawadh from the 

Bangar (Narwana tahsll), after which it leaves Patiala territory. The 

other streams are mere seasonal torrents. They include the Sirhind 

Choa or stream which enters the State near Sirhind and traverses the 

Fatehgarh, Bhawanigarh, and Sunam tahsl/s, following probably the 

alignment of the canal cut by Firoz Shah III about 1361. South 

of this through the Bhawanigarh and Karmgarh tahslls flows the 

Jhambowali Choi, and the Patialewali Nadl, which passes the capital. 

Both fall into the Ghaggar. There are minor streams in the Pinjaur 

tahsll and the Mohindargarh nizdmat. In the former alone are there 

any hills of importance, the rest of the State being a level plain. 

Geologically, the State may be divided into the Patiala Siwaliks, 
composed entirely of Tertiary and principally of Upper Tertiary 
deposits ; the Aravalli outliers in Mohindargarh ; and the portion 
which lies in the Indo-Gangetic alluvium. 

Botanically, the State includes a large portion of the Eastern Punjab, 
belonging partly to the upper Gangetic plain, and partly to the desert 
area ; the territories of Narnaul, &:c., in north-eastern Rajputana, with 
a desert flora ; and a tract near Simla in the Outer Himalayas, whose 
flora is practically that described in the Flora Simlensis. The kikai- 
{Acacia arahica), which grows abundantly in the Pawadh and Dun, 
is used for all agricultural purposes. The bet-i {Zizyphus Jitjnba) is 
planted near wells and in fields, and in the Mohindargarh nizdmat and 
at Sunam, Samana, and Sanaur in gardens. Banur and Sirhind, the 
eastern parts of the I'awadh, are noted for their mangoes. The pipal 
{Ficits re/(i,iosa), barota {Ficiis i/idica), and 7iim {Afe/ia Azadirachta) 



are planted close to wells and ponds near villages. The shlshatu 
i^Da/bergia Sissoo) is planted in avenues along the canals, and siras 
{Albizzia LebbeU) on the road-sides. The frdns [Tamarix orien talis), 
common near villages, is used for roofing. The dhdk [Bu/ea frondosa) 
is found in marshy lands and blrs (reserves). The Jand {Prosopis 
spicigera), kikar, rent, and jdl are common in the Jangal, Bangar, and 
Mohindargarh. The khair {Acacia Ca/echu) and gugai {Ba/samode/idron 
Muki/l) are common in the Mohindargarh nizdmat, and the khajFir 
{Phoenix dacfyiifera) in Pinjaur, Dun, and in the Bet (Fatehgarh tahsJl). 

Chltal (spotted deer), chark/i, kdkar (barking-deer), musk deer, 
gural, and leopard are common in the hills ; and the following mam- 
mals are found throughout the State : wolf, jackal, fox, wild cat, otter 
(in the Bet), wild hog (in the blrs), antelope, nilgai (in the blrs, Bet, 
Narwana, and Mohindargarh), monkeys (in the Narwana fa/isll), and 
gazelle {chinkdra). 

Game-birds include peafowl, partridges (black and grey), quail, 
lapwing, chikor, and pheasant (in the hills). The crane, snipe, green 
pigeon, goose, and sand-grouse are all seasonal visitors. Among 
venomous snakes are the cobra, chitkabra or kaiiridla (found every- 
where), dhdman, ragadbans, and padma (in the Mohindargarh tiizdmat). 

The healthiest parts of the State are the Bangar and Jangal tracts 
and the Mohindargarh nizdmat. The Bet and the thdnas of Ghuram 
Ghanaur and Banur are very unhealthy, consisting largely of swamps. 
In the Pawadh, where there is no marsh-land, the general health is fair. 
The climate of the hills is excellent, except in the Pinjaur ihdna. In 
the Pinjaur hills the winter is cold, and the rainy season begins some- 
what earlier than in the plains, while in summer the heat is moderate. 
In the Jangal tract and the Mohindargarh nizdmat the heat is intense 
in the hot season, which begins early, and the air is dry all the year 
round. But if the sky is clear the nights are generally cool. 

The rainfall, like the temperature, varies considerably in different 
parts of the State. About Pinjaur and Kalka at the foot of the Simla 
Hills it averages 40 inches, but decreases away from the Himalayas, 
being probably 30 inches at Sirhind, 25 at Patiala and Pail, 20 at 
Bhawanigarh, and only 12 or 13 at Bhatinda and in the Mohindargarh 
nizdmat. In the south-west the rainfall is not only less in amount, but 
more capricious than in the north and east. Fortunately the zone of 
insufficient rainfall is now for the most part protected by the Sirhind 
Canal, but Mohindargarh is still liable to severe and frequent droughts. 

Patiala town lies in a depression, and there were disastrous floods in 
1852, 1887, and 1888. The greatest achievement of the State Public 
Works department has been the construction of protective works, 
which have secured the town from the possibility of such calamities 
in future. 


The earlier history of Patiala is that of the Phulkian States. Its 
history as a separate power nominally dates from 1762, in which year 
Ahmad Shah Durrani conferred the title of Raja 
upon Ala Singh, its chief; but it may be more justly 
regarded as dating from 1763, when the Sikh confederation took the 
fortress of Sirhind from Ahmad Shah's governor, and proceeded to 
partition the old Mughal province of Sirhind. In this partition 
Sirhind itself, with its surrounding country, fell to Raja Ala Singh. 
That ruler died in 1765, and was succeeded by his grandson Amar 
Singh, whose half-brother Himmat Singh also laid claim to the throne, 
and after a contest was allowed to retain possession of the Bhawanigarh 
pargana. In the following year Raja Amar Singh conquered Pail 
and Isru from Maler Kotla, but the latter place was subsequently made 
over to Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. In 1767 Amar Singh met Ahmad 
Shah on his last invasion of India at Karabawana, and received the 
title of Raja-i-Rajgan. After Ahmad Shah's departure Amar Singh 
took Tibba from Maler Kotla, and compelled the sons of Jamal Khan 
to effect a peace which remained unbroken for many years. He next 
sent a force under his general Bakhshi Lakhna to reduce Pinjaur, 
which had been seized by Gharib Das of Mani Majra, and in alliance 
with the Rajas of Hindur, Kahlur, and Sirmur captured it. He then 
invaded the territory of Kot Kapura, but its chief Jodh having been 
slain in an ambush, he retired without further aggression. His next 
expedition was against the Bhattis, but in this he met with scant 
success ; and the conduct of the campaign was left to the chief of 
Nabha, while Amar Singh turned his arms against the fortress 
of Govindgarh, which commanded the town of Bhatinda. After a long 
struggle it was taken in 1771. Soon after this Himmat Singh seized 
his opportunity and got possession of Patiala itself, but he was induced 
to surrender it, and died in 1774. In that year a quarrel broke out 
between jTnd and Nabha, which resulted in the acquisition of Sangrur 
by jTnd from Nabha, Patiala intervening to prevent Jind from retaining 
Amloh and Bhadson also. Amar Singh next proceeded to attack 
Saifabad, a fortress only 4 miles from Patiala, which he took with the 
assistance of Sirmur. In return for this aid, he visited that State and 
helped its ruler Jagat Parkash to suppress a rebellion. In a new 
campaign in the Bhatti country he defeated their chiefs at Begran, 
took Fatehabad and Sirsa, and invested Rania, but was called on to 
repel the attack made on JInd by the Muhammadan governor of 
Hansi. For this purpose he dispatched Nanu Mai, his Diwan, with 
a strong force, which after defeating the governor of Hansi overran 
Hansi and Hissar, and Rania fell soon after. But the Mughal govern- 
ment under Najaf Khan, its minister, made a last effort to regain the 
lost districts. At the head of the imperial troops, he seized Karnal 



and part of Rohtak ; and the Raja of I'atiala, though aided for 
a consideration by Zabita Klian Rohilla, met Najaf Khan at jTnd and 
amicably surrendered Hansi, Hissar, and Rohtak, retaining Fatehabad, 
Rania, and Sirsa as fiefs of the empire. The wisdom of this moderation 
was evident. In 1777 Amar Singh overran the Farldkot and Kot 
Kapura districts, but did not attempt to annex them, and liis newly- 
acquired territories taxed his resources to the utmost. Nevertlieless, in 
1778 he harried the ^Vlani IVIajra territory and reduced Gharib Das tf> 
submission. Thence he marched on Sialba, where he was severely 
defeated by its chief and a strong Sikh coalition. To retrieve this 
disaster Amar Singh formed a stronger confederacy, enticed away the 
Sialba troops by offers of higher pay, and at length secured the sub- 
mission of the chief without bloodshed. In 1779 the Mughal forces 
marched on Karnal, Desu Singh, Bhai of Kaithal, being in alliance 
with them, and hoping by their aid to crush Patiala ; but the Delhi 
minister found it more profitable to plunder the Bhai, and the Sikhs 
then united to oppose his advance. He reached Kuhram, but then 
retreated, in fear of the powerful forces arrayed against him. 

In 1 781 Amar Singh died of dropsy, and was succeeded by his son 
Sahib Singh, then a child of six. Diwan Nanu Mai, an Agarwal Bania 
of Sunam, became WazTr and coped successfully with three distinct 
rebellions headed by relatives of the Raja. In 1783 occurred a great 
famine which disorganized the State. Eventually Nana Mai was 
compelled to call in the Marathas, who aided him to recover Ban Or 
and other places; but in 1788 they compelled him to pay blackmail, 
and in 1790, though he had been successful against the other enemies 
of Patiala, he could not prevent them from marching to Suhlar, 2 miles 
from Patiala itself. Saifabad had been placed in their hands, and 
Nanu Mai's fall from power quickly followed. With him fell Rani 
Rajindar, cousin of Amar Singh, a woman of great ability and Nanu 
Mai's chief supporter, who had induced the Marathas to retire and 
visited Muttra to negotiate terms with Sindhia in person. Sahib 
Singh, now aged fourteen, took the reins of state into his own hands, 
appointing his sister Sahib Kaur to be chief minister. In 1794 the 
Marathas again advanced on Patiala, but Sahib Kaur defeated them 
and drove them back on Karnal. In this year Bedi Sahib Singh 
attacked Maler Kotla and had to be bought off by Patiala. In 1798 
the Bedi attacked Raikot, and, though opposed by the Phulkian chiefs, 
compelled its ruler to call in George Thomas, who advanced on 
Ludhiana, where the Bedi had invested the fort, and compelled him to 
raise the siege. Thomas then retired to Hansi ; but taking advantage 
of the absence of the Sikh chiefs at Lahore, where they had assembled 
to oppose the invasion of Shah Zaman, he again advanced and laid 
siege to jTnd. On this the Phulkian chiefs hastened back to the relief 


of Jind and compelled Thomas to raise the siege, but were in turn 
defeated by him. They then made peace with Thomas, who was 
anxious to secure their support against the Marathas. Sahib Singh 
now proceeded to quarrel with his sister, and she died not long after- 
wards, having lost all influence in the State. Thomas then renewed 
his attacks on the jTnd State, and as the Phulkian chiefs united to 
resist him he invaded Patiala territory and pillaged the town of 
Bhawanigarh. A peace was, however, patched up in 1801, and Thomas 
retired to Hansi, whereupon the Cis-Sutlej chiefs sent an embassy to 
General Perron at Delhi to ask for assistance, and Thomas was 
eventually crushed. The British now appeared on the scene ; but the 
Phulkian chiefs, who had been rescued from Thomas by the Marathas, 
were not disposed to join them, and remained neutral throughout the 
operations round Delhi in 1803-4. Though Holkar was hospitably 
received at Patiala after his defeat at Dig, he could not obtain much 
active assistance from Sahib Singh. After Holkar's flight to Amritsar 
in 1805, the dissensions between Sahib Singh and his wife reached 
a climax, and the Rani attacked both Nabha and Jind. These States 
then invoked the intervention of RanjTt Singh, Maharaja of Lahore, 
who crossed the Sutlej in 1806. Ranjit Singh did little to settle the 
domestic differences of the Patiala Raja, but despoiled the widows 
of the Raikot chief of many villages. Patiala, however, received no 
share of the plunder ; and on Ranjit Singh's withdrawal the conflict 
between Sahib Singh and his wife was renewed. In 1807 Ranjit Singh 
reappeared at Patiala, when he conferred Banur and other districts, 
worth Rs. 50,000 a year, on the Rani and then marched on 

It was by this time clear to the Cis-Sutlej chiefs that they had 
to choose between absorption by RanjTt Singh and the protection 
of the British. Accordingly, in 1808, Patiala, Jind, and Kaithal 
made overtures to the Resident at Delhi. No definite promise of 
protection was given at the time; but in April, 1809, the treaty with 
Ranjit Singh secured the Cis-Sutlej territory from further aggression 
on his part, and a week later the desired proclamation of protection 
was issued, which continued to ' the chiefs of Malvva and Sirhind . . . 
the exercise of the same rights and authority within their own posses- 
sions which they enjoyed before.' Two years later it became necessary 
to issue another proclamation of protection, this time to protect the 
Cis-Sutlej chiefs against one another. Meanwhile internal confusion 
led to the armed interposition of the British Agent, who established 
the Maharani As Kaur as regent with sole authority. She showed 
administrative ability and an unbending temper until the death of 
Maharaja Sahib Singh in 18 13. He was succeeded by Maharaja 
Karin Singh, who was largely influenced at first by his mother and 


her minister Naunidhrai, generally known as Missar Naudha. The 
Gurkha War broke out in 1814, and the Patiala contingent served 
under Colonel Ochterlony. In reward for their services, the British 
Government made a grant of sixteen parganas in the Simla Hills 
to Patiala, on payment of a nazarCma of Rs. 2,80,000. Kami Singh's 
government was hampered by quarrels, first with his mother and later 
with his younger brother, Ajit Singh, until the Hariana boundary 
dispute demanded all his attention. The English had overthrown 
the Marathas in 1803 and had completed the subjugation of the 
Bhattis in Bhattiana in 1818; but little attention was paid to the 
administration of the country, and Patiala began to encroach upon 
it, growing bolder each year, until in 1835 her colonists were firmly 
established. When the attention of the British Government was 
at last drawn to the matter, and a report called for, the Maharaja 
refused to admit the British claims, declined arbitration, and pro- 
tested loudly when a strip of country more than a hundred miles 
long and ten to twenty broad was transferred from his possessions 
to those of the British Government. The Government, however, 
listened to his protest, the question was reopened, and was not finally 
settled till 1856, when some 41 villages were handed over to Patiala. 
When hostilities between the British and the government of Lahore 
became certain at the close of 1845, Maharaja Karm Singh of Patiala 
declared his loyalty to the British ; but he died on December 23, 
the day after the battle of Ferozeshah, and was succeeded by his 
son Narindar Singh, then twenty-three years old. It would be idle 
to pretend that the same active spirit of loyalty obtained among the 
Cis-Sutlej chiefs in 1845 ^^ showed itself in 1857. The Maharaja 
of Patiala knew that his interests were bound up with the success 
of the British, but his sympathies were with the Khalsa. However, 
he provided the British with supplies and carriage, besides a contin- 
gent of men. At the close of the war, he was rewarded with certain 
estates resumed from the Raja of Nabha. The Maharaja sanctioned 
the abolition of customs duties on the occasion of Lord Hardinge's 
visit in 1847. 

The conduct of the Maharaja on the outbreak of the Mutiny 
is beyond praise. He was the acknowledged head of the Sikhs, and 
his hesitation or disloyalty would have been attended with the most 
disastrous results, while his ability, character, and high position would 
have made him a formidable leader against the British. On hearing 
of the outbreak, he marched that evening with all his available troops 
in the direction of Ambala. In his own territories he furnished 
supplies and carriage, and kept the roads clear. He gave a loan 
of 5 lakhs to Government and expressed his willingness to double 
the amount. His troops served with loyalty and distinction on many 


occasions throughout the campaign. Of the vahie of the Maharaja's 
adhesion the Commissioner wrote : ' His support at such a crisis was 
worth a brigade of EngHsh troops to us, and served more to tran- 
quillize the people than a hundred ofificial disclaimers could have 
done.' After the Mutiny the Narnaul division of the Jhajjar terri- 
tory, jurisdiction over Bhadaur, and the house in Delhi belonging 
to Begam Zinat Mahal fell to the share of Patiala. The Maharaja's 
honorary titles were increased at the same time. The revenue of 
Narnaul, which had been estimated at 2 lakhs, was found to be only 
Rs. 1,70,000. On this, the Maharaja appealed for more territory. 
The British Government had given no guarantee, but was willing 
to reward the loyal service of Patiala still further ; and consequently 
parts of Kanaud and Buddhuana, in Jhajjar, were conferred on the 
Maharaja. These new estates had an income of about one lakh, 
and the Maharaja gave a nazardna equal to twenty years' revenue. 

In 1858 the Phulkian chiefs had united in asking for concessions 
from the British Government, of which the chief was the right of 
adoption. This was, after some delay, granted, with the happiest 
results. The power to inflict capital punishment had been with- 
drawn in 1847, but was exercised during the Mutiny. This power 
was now formally restored. The Khamanon villages (the history 
of which is given under 'Administration' on p. 47) were transferred 
to Patiala in i860. Maharaja Narindar Singh died in 1862 at the 
age of thirty-nine. He was a wise ruler and brave soldier. He 
was one of the first Indian chiefs to receive the K.C.S.I., and was 
also a member of the Indian Legislative Council during Lord 
Canning's viceroyalty. 

His only son, Mohindar Singh, was a boy of ten at his father's 
death. A Council of Regency was appointed, which carried on the 
administration for eight years. The Maharaja only lived for six years 
after assuming power. During his reign the Sirhind Canal was sanc- 
tioned, though it was not opened until 1882. Patiala contributed 
one crore and 23 lakhs to the cost of construction. The Maharaja 
was liberal in measures connected with the improvement and general 
well-being of the country. He gave Rs. 70,000 to the University 
College, Lahore, and in 1873 he placed 10 lakhs at the disposal 
of Government for the relief of the famine-stricken people of Bengal. 
In 1875 he was honoured by a visit from Lord Northbrook, who 
was then Viceroy, when the Mohindar College was founded for the 
promotion of higher education in the State. Mohindar Singh died 
suddenly in 1876. He had received the G. C.S.I, in 1871. 

A long minority followed, for Maharaja Rajindar Singh was only 
four when his father died. During his minority, which ceased in 
1890, the administration was carried on by a Council of Regency, 



composed of three officials under the presidency of Sardar Sir Dewa 
Singh, K.C.S.I. The finances of the State were carefully watched, 
and considerable savings effected, from which have been met the 
charges in connexion with the Sirhind Canal and the broad-gauge 
line of railway between Rajpura, Patiala, and Bhatinda. In 1879 
the Patiala State sent a contingent of 1,100 men to the Afghan 
War. The Maharaja was exempted from the presentation of tiazars 
in Darbar, in recognition of the services rendered by his troops 
on this occasion. He was the first chief to organize a corps of 
Imperial Service troops, and served with one regiment of these in 
the Tirah expedition of 1897. Maharaja Rajindar Singh died in 
1900, and a third Council of Regency was formed. The present 
Maharaja, Bhupindar Singh, was born in 1891. He is now being 
educated at the Aitchison College, Lahore. He ranks first amongst 
the chiefs of the Punjab, and is entitled to a salute of 17 guns. 

In 1900 it was decided by the Government of India to appoint 
a Political Agent for Patiala, and the other two Phulkian States of 
Jlnd and Nabha were included in the Agency, to which was after- 
wards added the Muhammadan State of Bahawalpur. The head- 
quarters of the Agency are at Patiala. 

The Siva temples at Kalait, in the Narwana laksii, contain some 
old carvings supposed to date from the eleventh century. Of Pjnjauk, 
it has been remarked that no place south of the Jhelum has more 
traces of antiquity. The date of the sculptured temples of Bhima 
Devi and Baijnath has not been determined. The walls of the 
houses, &c., in the village are full of fragments of sculptures. The 
gardens, which are attributed to Fidai Khan, the foster-brother of 
Aurangzeb, were modelled on the Shalamar gardens at Lahore, and 
are surrounded by a wall originally made of the debris of ancient 
buildings, but the fragments of sculpture built into it are much 
damaged. At Sunam are the remains of one of the oldest mosques 
in India. At Sirhind Malik Bahlol Lodi assumed the title of Sultan 
in 1451, and his daughter was buried here in 1497, in a tomb still 
existing. The oldest buildings in the place are two fine double- 
domed tombs, traditionally known as those of the Master and the 
Disciple. The date is uncertain, but the style indicates the four- 
teenth century. Shah Zaman, the refugee monarch of Kabul, was 
buried in an old graveyard of great sanctity near the town. The 
first certain mention of Sirhind is in connexion with events which 
occurred in 1360, but the place has been confused by historians 
with Bhatinda or Tabarhind, a much older place. The fort at Sirhind 
was originally named Firozpur, probably after P'lroz Shah. The tomb 
of Ibrahim Shah at Narnaul, erected by his grandson, the emperor 
Sher Shah (1540-5), with its massive proportions, deeply recessed 




doorways, and exquisite carvings, is a fine example of the Pathan 
style. Bhatinda was a place of great importance in the pre-Mughal 
days ; but the date of the fort, which is a conspicuous feature in the 
landscape for miles round, is unknown. At Patiala and at Bahadur- 
garh, near Patiala, are fine forts built by chiefs of Patiala. 

The State contains 14 towns and 3,580 villages. Its population at 
the last three enumerations was: (1881) 1,467,433, (1891) 1,583,521, 
and (1901) 1,596,692. The small increase in the last 
decade was due to the famines of 1897 and 1900, 
which caused much emigration from the Mohindargarh nizdmaL The 
State is divided into the five nizdmats, or administrative districts, of 
Karmgarh, Pinjaur, Amargarh, Anahadgarh, and Mohindargarh. 
The head-quarters of these are at Bhawanigarh, Basi, Barnala, Rajpura, 
and Kanaud respectively. The towns are Patiala, the capital, Nar- 
NAUL, Basi, Govindgarh or Bhatinda, Samana, Sunam, Mohindargarh 
or Kanaud, Sanaur, Bhadaur, Barnala, Banur, Pail, Sirhind, 
and Hadiaya. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 
1901 : — 




w u 


Number of 






Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 190 1. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 





Pinjaur . 
Anahadgarh . 

State total 















+ 1.06 

+ 8.62 
- 5-09 









+ 0.83 


Note. — The fiirures for the areas of nicamais are taken from revenue returns. The 
total State area is that given in the Census Report. 

Hindus form 55 per cent, of the total, and Sikhs, though Patiala is 
the leading Sikh State of the Punjab, only 22 per cent., slightly less 
than Muhammadans. Jains, fewer than 3,000 in number, are mostly 
found in the Mohindargarh nizdmaf. The density, though higher than 
the Provincial average for British Districts, is lower than the average 
of the Districts and States situated in the Indo-Gangetic Plain West. 
It is lowest in the Anahadgarh nizdtnai, where less than 14 per cent, 
of the total area is cultivated. There is not, however, much room for 
extension of cultivation, as the cultivable tracts are fully populated. 
Punjabi is the language of 88 per cent, of the population. 

Nearly every caste in the Punjab is represented in Patiala, but the 
Jats or Jats, who comprise 30 per cent, of the population, are by far 


its strongest element. Other cultivating castes are the Rajputs, Ahirs 
(in Mohindargarh), Gujars, Arains, and Kambohs. Brahmans and 
Fakirs number nearly 8 per cent, of the population ; and artisan and 
menial castes, such as the Chamars, Chuhras, Tarkhans, &c., comprise 
most of the residue. Of the whole population, 62 per cent, are 
dependent on agriculture ; and the State has no important industries, 
other than those carried on in villages to meet the ordinary wants of 
an agricultural population. 

In 1901 the State contained 122 native Christians. The principal 
missionary agency is that of the American Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, which was established in 1892, when Maharaja Rajindar Singh 
permitted Dr. Scott, a medical missionary of that Church, to establish 
a mission at Patiala town, granting him a valuable site for its buildings. 
The only other society working among the native Christians is the 
American Methodist Episcopal Mission, established at Patiala in 1890. 
In the village of Rampur Katani (Pail tahsll) an Anglo-vernacular 
primary school, started by the Ludhiana American Mission, teaches 
22 Jat and Muhammadan boys. There is also a small mission school 
at Basi, where twelve or thirteen sweeper boys are taught. 

Agricultural conditions are as diversified as the territory is scattered. 
In the Pinjaur tahsll they resemble those of the surrounding Simla 
Hill States, and in the Mohindargarh nizdmat those . 

of Rajputana. Elsewhere the State consists of level 
plains with varying characteristics. The Rajpura, Banur, and Cihanaur 
tahsils of the Pinjaur nizdmat, the Patiala and part of the Bhawanigarh 
tahsll of the Karmgarh ttizdmat, and the Fatehgarh (Sirhind) and 
Sahibgarh (Pail) tahsils of the Amargarh nizdmat lie in the Pawadh, 
a naturally fertile tract of rich loam. Sirhind and Pail are both pro- 
tected by wells, and, though not irrigated by canals, are the richest in 
the State from an agricultural point of view. The Narwana tahsll lies 
in the Bangar, a plateau or upland in which the spring-level is too low 
for wells to be profitably sunk. The remaining parts of these three 
nizdjnats, and the whole of Anahadgarh, lie in the Jangal, a tract 
naturally fertile, but unproductive owing to the absence of rain and 
the depth of the spring-level until irrigated by the Sirhind Canal. 
The Jangal consists of a great plain of soft loam covered with shifting 
sandhills, with a few wells on the borders of the Pawadh ; but agri- 
culturally it is in a transition stage, as the canal permits oi intensive 

The bhaiydchdrd is the general form of tenure, except in Mohindar- 
garh, where the pattlddri form is prevalent. 

The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in the tabic 
on the next page. 

The principal food-grains cultivated arc gram (area in 1903-4, 



660 square miles), barley and gram mixed (587), wheat (432), hdjra 
(367), joivdr (362), wheat and gram mixed (284), and maize (239). 
Mustard covered 286 square miles, (r/^ar/ (yWw grown for fodder) 238, 
and cotton 72. In the hill tract (Pinjaur tahsll) potatoes, ginger, 
turmeric, and rice are the most valuable crops, and Indian corn is 
largely grown for food. In the Sirhind and Pail tahslh sugar-cane 
is the most paying crop. It is also grown in parts of the Patiala, 
Amargarh, and Bhawanigarh talis'ils. Cotton is grown generally in all 
but the sandy tracts of the south-west, and it forms the staple crop in 
Narwana. Tobacco is an important crop in the Pawadh tract. Rice 
is grown in the three tahsils of the Pinjaur nizdmat which lie in the 
Pawadh. Wheat is the staple crop in the north-western half, -barley 
and gram, separately or mixed, in the south and west, and millet in 
the INlohindargarh nizdmat. In the latter millet is an autumn crop, 
dependent on the mcnisoon rains. In the rest of the State the spring 
harvest is more important than the autunm harvest, and its importance 
increases as canal-irrigation is developed. 






Pinjaur . 
Anahadgarh , 


















1,257 , 876 

Cash rents are very rare. The landlord's share of the produce varies 
from one-fifth to one-half, and one-third may be taken as the average 
rate. Land irrigated from wells usually pays a higher rate than other 
land, except in the dry tracts to the west and south, where the soil 
is inferior and the expense of working wells heavy. The highest rates 
are paid in the submontane country to the north and east of Patiala. 
The wages of unskilled labour when paid in cash, as is generally the 
case in towns and more rarely in the villages, vary from 3 annas a day 
in oudying tracts to 6 annas in the capital. A reaper earns from 6 to 
12 annas a day, and a carpenter from 8 to 12 annas or even R. i in the 
hills. Prices have risen about 1 2 per cent, in the last fifteen years. 

Few State loans to cultivators were made prior to the revision of the 
settlement which began in 1901 and is still proceeding, and very high 
rates of interest were charged. During the three years ending 1906, 
a total of nearly Rs. 80,000 was advanced. The rate of interest on 
loans for the construction of wells and the purchase of bullocks is just 
under 4I per cent., while loans for the purchase of seed are given free 
of interest. 


■ The cattle of the Jangal in the south-west and of Mohindargarh are 
fine up-standing animals, but the cows are poor milkers, and cattle- 
breeding hardly exists. Ponies of a fair class are raised in the Bangar, 
in the Narwana fahsll ; and there is a State stud at Patiala, established in 
1890, with 5 horse, i pony, and 3 donkey stallions, and 25 brood-mares. 

Fairs are held twice a year at Karauta and Dharson, both in the 
Mohindargarh 7iizdmat, at which about 20,000 cattle change hands 
yearly. Cattle fairs were also started in 1903-4 at Bhatinda, Barnala, 
Mansa, Boha, Dhamtansahib, Sunam, Patiala, Rajpura, Dhiiri, Sirhind, 
and Kanaud. 

Of the total area under cultivation in 1903-4, 1,257 square miles, or 
27 per cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 342 square miles, 
or 27 per cent., were irrigated from wells, and the rest from canals. 
The State contains 12,696 wells in use, besides unbricked wells, lever 
wells, and water-lifts. Patiala owns 84 per cent, of the share (36 per 
cent.) of the Sirhind Canal possessed by the Phulkian States. The 
Hissar branch of the Western Jumna Canal, which irrigated 85 square 
miles in 1903-4, also secures against famine a large part of the Narwana 
tahsll ; and in the tahs'ih of Banur and Ghanaur a small inundation 
canal from the Ghaggar, which irrigated 14 square miles in 1903-4, 
serves a number of villages. Wells are mainly confined to the Pawadh 
and the part of the Jangal which adjoins it. Wells are also used in the 
Mohindargarh nizamat, but the water in some is brackish and only 
beneficial after rain. Jats generally use the bucket and Arains the 
Persian wheel on a masonry well, but some of the Arains and Kambohs 
in the Banur tahsll use the ding/i or lift. 

In the hill thdnas of Pinjaur, Dharmpur, and Srinagar, in the Pinjaur 
Dun and Siwaliks, the State possesses valuable forests, in which con- 
siderable quantities of chll {Finns longifolia), pine, 
oak, deodar, and bamboo are found. The first and 
second-class forests have an area of 109 square miles, with 171 square 
miles of grass lands. It also possesses several ' reserves ' (Inrs) aggre- 
gating 12,000 acres in the plains. The forests are controlled by 
a Conservator, who has two cissistants in the hills and one in the 
plains. Avenues of shlsham {Dalbergia Sissoo) are planted along the 
canal banks, and ol klkar [Acacia arabica) along the roads. The forest 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 51,000. 

Kankar is found at many places. Slate, limestone, and sandstone 
occur in the Pinjaur hills, and in the detached hills of the Mohindar- 
garh nizamat. Saltpetre is manufactured in the Rajpura, Ghanaur, 
Banur, Narwana, and Narnaul tahsils, and carbonate of soda in the 
Bangar. Copper and lead ores are found near Solon ; and mica and 
copper and iron ores in the Mohindargarh nizamat. 

Manufactures, other than the ordinary village industries, are virtually 



confined to the towns. Cotton fabrics are made at Sunam, and silk at 
Patiala. Gold lace is manufactured at Patiala, and susl at Patiala and 
Basi, the latter being of fine quality. At Samana 
communiSions. ''^"^ Narnaul legs for beds are turned, and at Pail 
carved doorways are made. Ironware is also pro- 
duced at four villages. Brass and bell-metal are worked at Patiala and 
Bhadaur, and at Kanaud (Mohindargarh), where ironware is also 
manufactured. The only steam cotton-ginning factory in the State 
is at Narwana. A workshop is situated at Patiala. The number of 
factory hands in 1903-4 was 80. 

The State exports grain in large cjuantities, principally wheat, gram, 
rapeseed, millet, and pulses, with ghi, raw cotton and yarn, red pepper, 
saltpetre, and lime. It imports raw and refined sugar and rice from 
the United Provinces, piece-goods from Delhi and Bombay, and 
various other manufactures. The principal grain marts are at Patiala, 
Narnaul, Basi, Barnala, Bhatinda, and Narwana ; but grain is also 
exported to the adjoining British Districts and to Nabha. 

The North-Western Railway traverses the north of the State through 
Rajpura and Sirhind, and the Rajpura-Bhatinda branch passes through 
its centre, with stations at the capital, Dhuri Junction, Barnala, and 
Bhatinda. The latter line is owned by the State, but worked by the 
North-^^'estern Railway. The Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal Railway, with 
stations at Dhuri and Sunam, also serves this part of the State. The 
Southern Punjab Railway passes along the southern border, with a 
station at Narwana in the Karmgarh nizdjiiat. A mono-rail tramway, 
opened in February, 1907, connects Basi with the railway at Sirhind. 
There are 185 miles of metalled roads, all in the plains, and about 
194 miles (113 in the plains and 81 in the hills) of unmetalled roads 
in the State. Of the former, the principal connects Patiala with Sunam 
(43 miles), one branch leading to Sangrur, the capital of Jlnd State, 
and another to Samana, The others are mainly feeder roads to the 
railways. There are avenues of trees along 142 miles of road. 

The postal arrangements of the State are governed by the convention 
of 1884, as modified in 1900, which established a mutual exchange of 
all postal articles between the British Post Office and the State post. 
The ordinary British stamps, surcharged 'Patiala State,' are used. 
Under an agreement concluded in 1872, a telegraph line from Ambala 
to Patiala was constructed by Government at the expense of the State, 
which takes all the receipts and pays for the maintenance of the line. 

The earliest and most terrible of the still-remembered famines was 

the chdllsa of Samvat 1840 (a. d. 1783), which depopulated huge tracts 

. in the Southern Punjab. In 181 2 and 1833 the 

State again suffered. The famine of 1 860-1 was the 

first in which relief was .systematically organized by the State. Relief 


works were opened: over 11,000 tons of grain were distributed, and 

3^ lakhs of revenue was remitted. The famine of 1897 cost the State 

nearly 2 lakhs in relief works alone. Three years later came the great 

fiimine of 1900. It was a f(xlder famine as well as a grain famine, and 

cattle died in large 'numbers. Relief measures were organized on the 

lines laid down for the British Districts of the Province. Nearly 4 lakhs 

was spent on relief works and gratuitous relief. Two lakhs of revenue 

was remitted and 2\ lakhs was suspended. 

The Political Agent for the Phulkian States and Bahawalpur resides 

at Patiala. He is the representative of the Lieutenant-Governor, and 

is the channel of communication in most matters . , . . 

, , r. 1 • • 1 1 J 1 Administration. 

between the State authorities on the one hand and 

British officials or other States on the other. He has no control over 

the State courts, but he hears appeals from the orders of certain of 

the District Magistrates, &c., of British Districts, in their capacity as 

Railway Magistrates for the various railways which pass through 

Patiala territory. 

During the minority of the Maharaja, his functions are exercised 
by a Council of Regency consisting of three members. There are 
four departments of State : the finance department {Dmuin-i-Mdl) 
under the Diwan, who deals with all matters of revenue and finance, 
the foreign department {Munsh'i Khdna) under the Mir Munshi, the 
judicial department {Scidr Add/at) under the AdalatI, and the military 
department {Bak/ishi Khdna) under the Bakhshi or commander-in- 
chief. The Chief Court was created by Maharaja Rajindar Singh, to 
hear appeals from the orders of the finance, foreign, and judicial 
ministers. There is no regular legislative department. Regulations 
are drafted in the department concerned and submitted for sanction 
to the IJids-i-Khds, or court of the Maharaja. Under the present 
arrangements the power of sanction rests with the Council of Regency, 
the members of which possess the power of initiation. For general 
administrative purposes the State is divided into five nizdmats^ each 
being under a iiazim, who exercises executive powers and has sub- 
ordinate to him two or three 7iaib (deputy) ndzims in each nizdinaf, 
and a tahs'ilddr in each tahs'il. 

The lowest court of original jurisdiction in civil and revenue cases 
is that of the fahsilddr, from whose decisions appeals lie to the udzini. 
The next higher court is that of the naib-tidzvn^ who exercises criminal 
and civil powers, and from whose decisions appeals also lie to the 
ndzim. The 7idzim is a Sessions Judge, with power to pass sentences 
of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, as well as an appellate 
court in criminal, civil, and revenue cases. From his decisions appeals 
lie in criminal and civil cases to the Sadr Add/at, and in revenue 
cases to the Diwan, with a second appeal to the Chief Court, and 

D 2 


a third to tlie Ijlds-i-Khas ; both the last-mentioned courts also 
exercise revisional jurisdiction in all cases. All sentences of death or 
transportation for life require the confirmation of the Maharaja, or, 
during his minority, of the Council of Regency. 

Special jurisdiction in criminal cases is also exercised by the 
following officials. The Mir Munshi, or foreign minister, has the 
powers of a Sessions Judge with respect to cases in which one or both 
parties are not subjects of the State ; cases under the Telegraph and 
Railway Acts are decided by a special magistrate, from whose decision 
an appeal lies to the Mir Munshi ; certain canal and forest officers 
exercise magisterial powers in respect of offences concerning those 
departments; and the Inspector-General exercises similar powers in 
respect of cases in which the police are concerned. During the settle- 
ment operations the settlement officers are also invested with power to 
decide revenue cases, and from their decisions appeals lie to the 
Settlement Commissioner. At the capital there are a magistrate and 
a civil judge, from whose decisions appeals lie to the Mudwin Addlat. 

The Sikh Jats are addicted to crimes of violence, illicit distillation, 
and traffic in women, the Hindu Jats and the Rajputs to cattle-theft, 
and the Chuhras to theft and house-breaking, while the criminal 
tribes — Sansis, Baurias, Baloch, and Minas — are notorious for theft, 
robbery, and burglary. 

In 1902 a few panchdyats were established in the Narwana and 
Govindgarh tahslls for the settlement of disputes of a civil nature. 
The experiment has proved successful, and there are now 76 of these 
rural courts scattered about the State. Up to the end of 1906, they 
had disposed of more than 45,000 cases, the value of the claims dealt 
with being considerably over 60 lakhs. The parties have the right 
to challenge the decision of the parichdyat in the ordinary courts, but 
up to the present less than 2 per cent, of the decisions in disputed 
cases have been challenged in this manner. 

The chief of the feudatories are the Sardars of Bhadaur, who 
between them enjoy a jdgir of over Rs. 70,000 per annum. Like 
the ruling family, they are descendants of Phul ; but in 1855 the 
claim of Patiala to regard the Bhadaur chiefs as feudatories of her own 
was disallowed by Government, and their villages were brought under 
British jurisdiction. Three years later the supremacy over Bhadaur 
was ceded to the Maharaja as a small portion of the reward for his 
loyalty in 1857. The tenure of the jdgtr is subject to much the same 
incidents in respect of lapse and commutation as similar assignments 
in the British portion of the Cis-Sutlej territory. There are at present 
six sharers in the jdgir, while the widows of deceased members of the 
family whose shares have lapsed to the State receive maintenance 
allowances amounting to Rs. 8,699. 



The numerous jaglrdars of the Khamanon villages receive between 
them over Rs. 90,000 a year from the State, and are entitled, in 
addition, to various dues from the villagers. Ever since 18 15 Patiala 
had been held responsible for the general administration of this estate, 
though the British Government reserved its rights to escheats and 
military service. In 1847 the question of bringing the villages 
entirely under British jurisdiction was mooted. The negotiations were 
prolonged until after the Mutiny, when, in i860, Government trans- 
ferred its rights in the estate to Patiala in return for a nazardna of 
Rs. 1,76,360. The Jdgtrddrs are exempted from the appellate juris- 
diction of the ordinary courts, and are entitled to have their appeals 
heard by the foreign minister. The jdgJrddrs of Pail constitute the 
only remaining group of assignees of any importance. Their j'dgtrs 
amount in all to over Rs. 18,000, and are subject to the usual incidents 
of lapse and commutation. 

The main area of the State corresponds roughly to the old Mughal 
sarkdr of Sirhind, and was subject to Akbar's fiscal reforms. Formerly 
the State used to collect nearly all its revenue in kind, taking generally 
one-third of the produce as its share, calculated either by actual 
division or by a rough and ready appraisement. In 1862 a cash 
assessment was first made. It resulted in a total demand of about 
30-9 lakhs, reduced three years later to 29-4 lakhs. Afterwards 
summary assessments were made every ten years, until in 1901 
a regular settlement was undertaken, a British ofificer being appointed 
Settlement Commissioner. The present demand is 41-5 lakhs or, 
including cesses and other dues, 44-8 lakhs, of which 4-7 lakhs are 
assigned, leaving a balance of 40 lakhs realizable by the State. The 
revenue rates on unirrigated land vary from a minimum of R. 0-6-4 
in parts of Mohindargarh to a maximum of Rs. 5-1 1-3 in the Bet 
circle of the Sirhind tahsil, and on irrigated land from 12 annas in 
Pail to Rs. 9-9-6 in the Dhaya circle of Sirhind. There are wide 
variations from circle to circle in the average rates. The average 
' dry ' rate in one of the Mohindargarh circles is ten annas, while in 
the Bet of Sirhind it is Rs. 3-14-6. Similarly, the average 'wet' rate 
in the Sunam tahsil is Rs. 1-13-4, and in the Dhaya of Sirhind 
Rs. 5-1 1-3. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are 
shown below, in thousands of rupees : — • 



1 900- 1. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 





The principal sources of revenue, other than land revenue, and the 


amounts derived from each in 1903-4, are: public works, including 
irrigation and railways (14-1 lakhs), excise (2-2 lakhs), octroi (1-9 lakhs), 
stamps (i-7 lakhs), and provincial rates (1-4 lakhs); while the main 
heads of expenditure are public works (14-4 lakhs), army (9-1 lakhs), 
civil list (4-5 lakhs), police (4-2 lakhs), land revenue administration 
(4 lakhs), general administration (3 lakhs), religious and charitable 
endowments (1-9 lakhs), and medical (i-8 lakhs). 

The right of coinage was conferred on Raja Amar Singh by Ahmad 
Shah Durrani in 1767. No copper coin was ever minted, and only on 
one occasion, in the reign of Maharaja Narindar Singh, were 8-anna 
and 4-anna pieces struck ; but rupees and gold coins or ashrafis were 
coined at intervals up to 1895, when the mint was closed for ordinary 
coinage. Up to the last the coins bore the legend that they were 
struck under the authority of Ahmad Shah, and the coinage of each 
chief bore a distinguishing device, generally a representation of some 
kind of weapon. The Patiala rupee was known as the Raja shdhi 
rupee. It was rather lighter than the British rupee, but contained 
the same amount of silver. Rupees known as Ndnak shdhi rupees, 
which are used in connexion with religious ceremonies at the Dasahra 
and DiwalT festivals, are still coined, with the inscription — 

T>egh, tegh fateh Jiusrat be darajig. 
Yaft az Ndnak Guru Gobi/id Si/igh. 

Prior to 1874, the distillation, the sale, and even the use of liquor 
were prohibited. The present arrangement is that no distillation is 
allowed except at the central distillery at Patiala town. The distiller 
there pays a still-head duty of Rs. 4 per gallon. The licences for retail 
sale are auctioned, except in the case of European liquor, the vendors 
of which pay Rs. 200 or Rs. 100 per annum according as their sales 
do or do not exceed 2,000 bottles. The State is privileged to receive 
a number of chests of Malwa opium every year at a reduced duty of 
Rs. 280 per chest of 140^- lb. The number is fixed annually by the 
Government of the Punjab, and varies from 74 to 80. For anything 
over and above this amount, the full duty of Rs. 725 per chest is paid. 
The duty paid on the Malwa opium imported has, since 1891, been 
refunded to the State, with the object of securing the hearty co- 
operation of the State officials in the suppression of smuggling. 
Import of opium into British territory from the Mohindargarh 7iizdniat 
is prohibited. The importers of opium into Patiala pay a duty of 
R. I per seer to the State. Licences for the retail sale of opium and 
hemp drugs are sold by auction. Wholesale licences for the sale of 
liquor, opium, and drugs are issued on payment of small fixed fees. 

Patiala town was constituted a municipality in 1904 and Narnaul 
in 1906. 

The Public Works de[)artment was reorganized in 1903 under a 


Superintending Engineer, who is subject to the control of one of the 
members of Council of the Regency. An extensive programme of 
public works has been framed, the total cost of which will be 85 lakhs ; 
and a considerable portion of it has been carried out at a cost of 
25 lakhs during the three years that have elapsed since the reorganiza- 
tion of the department. Public offices, tahsils, police stations, schools, 
dispensaries, markets, and barracks have been erected. The darbar 
chamber in Patiala Fort has been remodelled and reroofed, and is 
now a magnificent hall. A large Central jail has been constructed at 
Patiala, and a number of new roads have been made. Among build- 
ings erected during the last few years by private subscription may be 
mentioned the Victoria Memorial Poorhouse at Patiala, which cost 
Rs. 80,000, and the Victoria Girls' School, which cost half that sum. 

In 1903-4 the regular police force consisted of 1,973 of all ranks. 
The village watchmen numbered 2,775. There are 42 police stations, 
3 outposts, and 17 road-posts. The force is under the control of an 
Inspector-General. District Superintendents are appointed for each 
nizdmat with inspectors under them, while each police station is in 
charge of a thdnadar. The State contains two jails, the Central jail 
at the capital and the other at Mohindargarh, which hold 1,100 and 
50 prisoners respectively. The Imperial Service contingent maintained 
by the State consists ot a regiment of cavalry and two battalions of 
infantry. The local troops consist of a regiment of cavalry, two 
battalions of infantry, and a battery of artillery with eight guns. The 
State possesses altogether fifty serviceable guns. The total strength of 
the State army— officers, non-commissioned officers, and men — is 3,429. 
Patiala is the most backward of the larger States of the Punjab in 
point of education. The percentage of literate persons is only 2-4 
(4-2 males and o-i females) as compared with 2-7, the average for the 
States of the Province. The percentage of literate females doubled 
between 1891 and 1901, but that of literate males declined from 
5-3 to 4-2. The number of persons under instruction was 6,479 i" 
1880-1, 6,187 in 1890-1, 6,058 in 1900-1, and 6,090 in 1903-4. In 
the last year the State possessed an Arts college, 21 secondary and 
89 primary (public) schools, and 3 advanced and 129 elementary 
(private) schools, with 538 girls in the public and 123 in the private 
schools. The expenditure on education was Rs. 83,303. The 
Director of Public Instruction is in charge of education, and under 
him are two inspectors. 

The State possesses altogether 34 hospitals and dispensaries, of 
which 10 contain accommodation for 165 in-patients. In 1903-4 the 
number of cases treated was 198,527, of whom 2,483 were in-patients, 
and 10,957 operations were performed. The expenditure was 
Rs. 87,076, wholly met from State funds. The administration is 


usually controlled by an officer of the Indian Medical Service, who 
is medical adviser to the Maharaja, with nine Assistant Surgeons. 
The Sadr and Lady Dufferin Hospitals at the capital are fine buildings, 
well equipped, and a training school for midwives and nurses was 
opened in 1906. 

Vaccination is controlled by an inspector of vaccination and regis- 
tration of vital statistics, under whom are a supervisor and thirty 
vaccinators. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated 
was 43,782, or 27 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is no- 
where compulsory. 

The Bhadaur villages in the Anahadgarh talis'il were surveyed and 
mapped by the revenue staff in 1854-5, and the whole of the 
Mohindargarh tahsil in 1858, while they were still British territory. 
In 1877-9 ^ revenue survey of the whole State, except the Pinjaur 
ia/is'i/, was carried out ; but maps were not made except for the 
INIohindargarh and Anahadgarh 7iizdmats^ and for a few scattered 
villages elsewhere. During the present settlement, the whole of the 
State is being resurveyed, and the maps will be complete in 1907. 

The first trigonometrical survey was made in 1847-9, ^^''^ maps 
were published on the i-inch and 2-inch scales ; but the Pinjaur tahsil 
was not surveyed until 1886-92, when 2 -inch maps were published. 
A 4-inch map of the Cis-Sutlej States was published in 1863, and in 
the revised edition of 1897 the Pinjaur tahsil was included. The 
I -inch maps prepared in 1847-9 ^G^e revised in 1886-92. 

[H. A. Rose, Phulkidii States Gazetteer (in the press) ; L. H. Griffin, 
The Rdjds of the Fi/njab {second edition, 1873); Khalifa Muhammad 
Hasan, Tdrlkh-i-Patidla (1877); also the various Histories of the 

Patiala Tahsil (or Chaurasi). — North-eastern tahsil of the Karm- 
garh nizdmat, Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30° 8' and 3o°2 7'N. 
and 76° 17' and 76° 36' E., with an area of 273 square miles. The 
population was 121,224 in 1 901, compared with 128,221 in 1891. It' 
contains two towns, Patiala (population, 53,545), the head-quarters, 
and Sanaur (8,530); and 197 villages. The tahsil lies wholly within 
the Pawadh. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
2-1 lakhs. 

Patiala Town.— Capital of the Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 
30° 20' N. and 76° 28' E., on the west bank of the Patiala stream, 
34 miles west of Ambala cantonment, and on the Rajpura-Bhatinda 
branch of the North-Western Railway. It is also connected with Nabha 
and Sangrur by metalled roads. Population (1901), 53,545. 

After the fall of Sirhind in 1763, Raja Ala Singh built a masonry fort 
on the site of Patiala, then a petty village, from the customs dues 
collected at Sirhind. The inhabitants of Sirhind migrated in large 


numbers to Patiala, which has ever since been the capital of the chiefs 
of the State. It is the centre of a considerable local trade, many 
articles of luxury being manufactured in it. It contains a State work- 
shop. The old palace is in the middle of the town, which is not 
unpicturesque, the bazars being wide and straight, though the side 
streets are narrow and crooked. The environs of the town are, how- 
ever, beautifully laid out with gardens and shady roads, among which 
are the numerous public buildings and residences of the Maharaja and 
his officials. Of the former, the Mohindar College, the Rajindar 
Victoria Diamond Jubilee Library, the Rajindar Hospital, the Baradari 
or royal residence, the Moti Bagh, or 'pearl garden,' and the Victoria 
Memorial Poorhouse deserve mention. The sanitation of the town 
is efficient ; but owing to its low-lying situation it is subject to heavy 
floods, which occasionally do much damage to its buildings, and cause 
malarial fevers in the autumn months. A municipality has recently 
been established. The town contains the Sadr and Lady Dufferin 
Hospitals, and the Lady Curzon Training School for midwives and 
nurses, opened in 1906. The Victoria Girls' School was opened in 
the same year. 

Patkai. — A range of hills lying to the south of Lakhimpur District, 
Assam, between 26° 30' and 27° 15' N. and 95° 15' and 96° 15' E. 
The general height of the range is about 4,000 feet, but it contains 
summits nearly 7,000 feet in height. The hills are composed of Upper 
Tertiary rocks, and their sides are clothed with dense forest. The pass 
over the Patkai is the recognized route between Burma and the Assam 
Valley, though, as it entails a long march through wild and hilly 
country, there is little intercourse between the two Provinces. It was 
by this route that the Ahoms entered the valley of the Brahmaputra in 
the thirteenth century ; and it was used by the Burmese when they were 
summoned to Assam at the beginning of the nineteenth century to 
assist Chandra Kanta, one of the last of the Ahom Rajas. In 1837 
Dr. Griffiths crossed the Patkai into the Hukawng valley, and in 1896 
a railway survey party traversed the range. The construction of a 
line from Ledo in Lakhimpur District over the Patkai and down the 
Hukawng valley to Taungni station in the Mu valley was estimated 
to cost 383 lakhs for a total length of 284 miles. The line, if made, 
would be carried through the summit of the Patkai in a tunnel 5,000 
feet in length and situated 2,750 feet above the level of the sea. The 
rocks in that neighbourhood consist of an indurated sandstone. The 
hills are inhabited by Naga tribes. Those who live on the Hukawng 
side of the watershed are subject to Singpho chiefs. They are armed 
with daos, muskets, and cross-bows, and their villages are usually well 
situated for defence. An account of these people is annexed to the 
report of the railway survey party. 



Patlur. — ' (j-own ' taluk of the Atraf-i-balda District, Hyderabad 
State, lying south of Bidar District, with an area of 595 square miles 
including jdgirs. The population in 1901 was 52,833, compared 
with 53,878 in 1891. It contains 138 villages, of which 23 ave j'dglr, 
and Dharur (population, 1,949) is the head-quarters. The land revenue 
in 1 901 was i-6 lakhs. 

Patna Division. — A Division of Bihar in Bengal, lying between 
24° if and 27° 31' N. and 83° 19' and 86° 44' E. It is bounded on 
the east by the Bhagalpur Division, and on the west by the United 
Provinces, and extends from Nepal on the north to the Chota Nagpur 
plateau on the south. The head-quarters of the Commissioner, who 
is assisted by an Additional Commissioner, are at Bankipore. The 
Division includes seven Districts, with area, pot)ulation, and revenue 
as shown below : — 


Area in 
square miles. 


Land revenue 
and cesses, 

in thousands 
of rupees. 















1 9,. "^4 




Note.— In the Census RepOJ-i oi igoi the area of Saran was shown as 2,656 
square miles, of Muzaffarpur as 3,004 square miles, and of Darbhanga as 
.3,3,1s square miles. The figures adopted above aie taken from the recent 
Settlement Reports. 

The population increased from 13,118,917 in 1872 to 15,061,493 in 
1881 and to 15,811,604 in i89i,but in 1901 it had fallen to 15,514,987. 
This decrease was shared by all the Districts except Muzaffarpur and 
Darbhanga. In Champaran the decline is attributable to the un- 
healthiness of the District, which suffered greatly from malarial 
affections and severe epidemics of cholera. Elsewhere the decrease 
is mainly attributable to the direct and indirect losses caused by the 
plague epidemic, a very heavy mortality, the flight of the immigrant 
l)opulation, and, in some parts where the epidemic was raging at the 
time of the Census, the failure of the census staff to effect an ex- 
haustive enumeration. Prior to 1901 the epidemic had been most 
virulent in Patna, whose population declined by 8-4 per cent, during 
the decade. 

'^I'he average density is 653 persons per square mile, a high propor- 
tion compared with Bengal as a whole. The population exceeds that 


of any other Division, and is, in fact, about the same as that of Ihc 
whole of the lionibay Presidency excluding Sind, while it is nearly 
three times as numerous as that of Assam. In 1901 Hindus constituted 
88-4 per cent, of the total and Musalmans 11-5 per cent.; there were 
7,350 Christians (of whom 3,146 were natives), and 999 Jains. 

The Division is intersected from west to east by the Ganges. North 
of the river it is a flat alluvial formation, rising very gradually towards 
the foot of the Himalayas, and possessing many tracts of great natural 
fertility. On the other side of the river it contains a strip of alluvium 
along the bank of the Ganges, but farther south the soil changes, and 
the surface becomes more undulating and gradually rises till the Chota 
Nagpur plateau is reached. The north of the Division enjoys in 
ordinary years a comparatively copious rainfall increasing towards the 
north, but is peculiarly liable to failure of crops in seasons of deficient 
rain. In the south a large area is protected by the Son Canals 
system, and elsewhere the undulating surface enables the people to 
construct small reservoirs from which to water their fields. The four 
North Ganges Districts have recently been surveyed, and a record-of- 
rights has been prepared. This tract is the main seat of the indigo 
industry in Bengal, and its out-turn in 1903-4 amounted to 907 tons, 
compared with 476 tons from the rest of the Province. The com- 
petition of synthetic indigo and the consequent fall in prices have 
struck a severe blow at the prosperity of the industry, and for some 
years it has been steadily on the decline. Experiments are being 
made with a view to increase the out-turn and to improve the quality 
of the dye, while several factories are now devoting their attention to 
other crops, and attempts are being made at Ottur in Muzaffarpur 
District and elsewhere to revive the old sugar industry. 

The Division contains 35 towns and 34,169 villages. The largest 
towns are Patna (population, 134,785), Gava (71,288), Darbhanga 
(66,244), Arrah (46,170), Chapra (45,901), Muzaffarpur (45,617), 
Bihar (45,063), Dinapore (33,699 including the cantonment), Bettiah 
(24,696), Sasaram (23,644), and HajIpur (21,398).. Owing to the 
prevalence of plague at the time of the Census (March, 1901), these 
figures do not in several cases represent the normal populations of the 
towns ; a subsequent enumeration held in July showed the population 
of Patna city to be 153,739. Patna is, after Calcutta and its suburb 
Howrah, the largest town in Bengal, and is a very important commercial 
centre ; a large amount of trafific also passes through Revelganj, 
HajIpur, and Mokameh, while the workshops of the Bengal and North- 
western Railway are at Samastipur. 

The Division contains the oldest towns in the Province ; and Patna, 
Gaya, and Bihar have a very ancient history. Patna was the Pataliputra 
of Greek times and, like Gaya, contains many interesting antiquities. 


This neighbourhood was at one time a stronghold of Buddhism ; 
and many Buddhist remains occur in Patna, Gaya, Champaran, and 
Muzaffarpur Districts, among the most important sites being Patna 
city and Buddh Gava. Four pillars mark the route taken by Asoka 
through Muzaffarpur and Champaran on his way to what is now 
the Nepal tarai. Of these, the pillar near Lauriya Nandangarh 
is still almost perfect; another. stands near Basarh, which is probably 
the site of the capital of the old kingdom of Vaisali. Interesting 
remains of the Muhammadan period are found in the town of Bihar, 
in the city of Patna, and at Sasaram, Rohtasgarh, Shergarh, and 
Maner. Buxar was the scene of the defeat in 1764 of Mir Kasim 
in the battle which resulted in the civil authority of Bengal, Bihar, and 
Orissa being conferred on the East India Company. Several places 
in the Division are associated with incidents in the Mutiny of 1857. 
After the outbreak of three regiments at Dinapore, Shahabad, from 
which the native army was largely recruited, was for some time overrun 
with the rebels, and the story of the defence of Arrah is well-known. 
Gaya was traversed by several bands of mutineers, and on three occa- 
sions the jail was broken open and the prisoners released. At Sagauli 
in Champaran District Major Holmes was massacred by his troops. 

Patna District. — District of the Patna Division, Bengal, lying 
between 24° 57' and 25° 44' N. and 84° 42' and 86^4' E., with an 
area of 2,075 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the river 
Ganges, which divides it from Saran, Muzaffarpur, and Darbhanga ; on 
the south by Gaya ; on the east by Monghyr ; and on the west by 

With the exception of the Rajgir hills in the south, the whole District 

is quite flat. The land along the bank of the Ganges is slightly higher 

than that farther inland, and the line of drainage 
asoects consequently runs from south-west to north-east. 

The Rajgir hills^ which enter the District from 

Gaya, consist of two parallel ranges ; they seldom exceed 1,000 feet 

in height, and are for the most part rocky and covered with low 

jungle. The principal river is the Ganges, which flows for 93 miles 

along the northern boundary. The Son forms the western boundary 

of the District for 41 miles, entering it near Mahabalipur and flowing in 

a northerly direction to its junction with the Ganges. A little above 

the junction it is bridged by the East Indian Railway at Koelwar, from 

which point the river divides into two streams with a fertile island in 

the middle. The Pilnpun river, which rises in the south of Gaya 

District, flows through Patna in a north-easterly direction. At Naubat- 

pur it approaches the Patna Canal, and from that point it turns to 

the east, and fiills into the Ganges at Fatwa. Some 9 miles above 

this point it is joined by the Morhar. The Panchana and the Phalgu, 


though comparatively small streams, are of the greatest value for irriga- 
tion purposes ; the whole of their water is diverted into artificial 
channels and reservoirs, and their main channels are mere dried-up 
beds for the greater part of the year. The Sakri is another river which 
fails to reach the Ganges owing to the demands made upon it for irriga- 
tion purposes, nearly all its water being carried away by two large 
irrigation channels constructed on its left bank, 12 miles below Bihar 

The whole District is of alluvial origin except the Rajgir hills, which 
consist of submetamorphic or transition rocks. 

The District contains no forests. The level country near the Ganges 
has in the rice-fields the usual weeds of such localities. Near villages 
there are often considerable groves of mango-trees and palmyras 
{Borassus Jiabellifef), some date-palms {Fhoe?iLv sylvestris), and nume- 
rous examples of the tamarind and other semi-spontaneous and more 
or less useful species. Farther from the river the country is more diver- 
sified ; and sometimes a dry scrub jungle is to be met with, contain- 
ing various shrubs of the order of Euphorbiaceae, the palds {Bitlea 
frondosa) and other leguminous trees, and various kinds of Fiais, 
Schleichera, Wetidlandia, and Ginelina. The grasses that clothe the 
drier parts are generally of a coarse character. 

Antelope are found near the Son river, and wild hog in the didras or 
islands of the Ganges ; bears and leopards occasionally visit the Rajgir 
hills, and wolves also are sometimes seen. 

Owing to its distance from the sea, Patna has greater extremes of 
climate than the south and east of Bengal. The mean temperature 
varies from 60° in January to 88° in May. The highest average maxi- 
mum is 101° in April. Owing to the dry westerly winds with increasing 
temperature in March and April, the humidity at that season is 
very low and averages 50 per cent. With the approach of the monsoon 
the air gradually becomes more charged with moisture, and the 
humidity remains steady at about 86 per cent, throughout July and 
August, falling to 71 per cent, in November. The annual rainfall 
averages 45 inches, of which 7 inches fall in June, 12-2 in July, 11-3 in 
August, and 6-9 in September. Floods are common, but they ordinarily 
do little damage and are seldom attended with loss of life. Heavy 
floods occurred in 1843, 1861, 1870, and 1879; of late years the prin- 
cipal floods were those of 1897 and 1901, when the Son and the 
Ganges were in flood at the same time. 

The District possesses great interest for both the historian and the 
archaeologist. It was comprised, with the country now included in the 
Districts of Gaya and Shahabad, within the ancient 
kingdom of Magadha, whose capital was at Rajgir ; 
and its general history is outlined in the articles on Magadha and 


Bihar, in which Afagadha was eventually merged. Its early history 
is intimately interwoven with that of Patna City, which has been 
identified with Pataliputra (the Palibothra of Megasthenes). It con- 
tains the town of Bihar, the early Muhammadan capital, from which 
the sub-province takes its name ; and it was a famous seat of Buddhism, 
and many places in it were visited and described by the Chinese 
pilgrims. Fa Hian and Hiuen Tsiang. 

In recent times two events of special interest to Englishmen stand 
prominently out and demand separate notice. The one is known as 
the Massacre of I'atna (1763), and the other is connected with the 
Mutiny of 1857. The former occurrence, which may be said to have 
sealed the fate of Muhammadan rule in Bengal, was the result of a 
quarrel between Mir Kasim, at that time Nawab, and the English 
authorities. The Nawab, after much negotiation, had agreed to a con- 
vention which was also accepted by Mr. Vansittart, the Governor, that 
a transit duty of only g per cent, should be paid by Englishmen, which 
was far below the rate exacted from other traders. This convention, 
however, was repudiated by the Council at Calcutta ; and Mir Kasim, 
in retaliation, resolved to abandon all duties whatever on the transit 
of goods, and to throw the trade of the country open to all alike — a 
measure still less acceptable to the Company's servants — and their 
relations with the Nawab became more strained than ever. In April, 
1763, a deputation, consisting of Messrs. Hay and Amyatt, was dis- 
patched from Calcutta to Monghyr, where the Nawab had taken up his 
residence ; but it was now too late for negotiation. Numerous and 
fierce disputes had arisen between the gumdshtas (agents) of the English 
and the Muhammadan officers ; and an occurrence which happened 
at Monghyr, while Messrs. Hay and Amyatt were there, hastened the 
rupture. Mir Kasim seized and detained some boat-loads of arms 
which were passing up the Ganges to Patna, on the ground that the 
arms were destined to be used against himself, whereupon Mr. Ellis, 
the chief of the factory at Patna, ordered his sepoys to occupy Patna 
city, which was done the following morning, June 25. In revenge 
the Nawab sent a force in pursuit of Mr. Amyatt, who had been allowed 
to return to Calcutta, Mr. Hay having been detained as a hostage. 
Mr. Amyatt was overtaken and murdered near Cossimbazar. In the 
meantime the Company's sepoys, who had been plundering Patna city, 
were driven back to the factory, a large number of them being killed. 
The remainder, less than a sixth of the original force of 2,000 men, 
after being besieged for two days and nights, fled in their boats to the 
frontier of Oudh, where they ultimately laid down their arms. They 
were brought back to Patna, to which place had been conveyed 
Mr. Hay from Monghyr, the entire staff of the Cossimbazar factory, 
who had also been arrested at the first outbreak of hostilities, and 


some other prisoners. As soon as regular warfare commenced, Mir 
Kasim's successes came to an end. He was defeated in two battles 
by Major Adams, at Giria on August 2, and at Udhua Nullah on 
September 5. These defeats roused the Nawab to exasperation, and 
on September 9 lie wrote to Major Adams : ' If you are resolved to pro- 
ceed in this business, know for a certainty that I will cut off the heads 
of Mr. Ellis and the rest of your chiefs, and send them to you.' This 
threat he carried out on the evening of October 6 with the help of 
a renegade named ^\'alter Reinhardt, who was known to the Muham- 
madans as Sumru. About 60 Englishmen were murdered, their bodies 
being thrown into a well in the compound of the house in which they 
were confined, and aliout 150 more met their death in other parts of 
Bengal. This massacre was followed by an active campaign in which 
the Enghsh were everywhere successful ; and finally in August, 
1765, after the decisive battle of Buxar, the administration of Bihar, 
Bengal, and Orissa was made over to the East India Company. An 
English Resident was appointed at Patna ; but the administration of 
Bihar, which then comprised only Patna and Gaya Districts — Patna 
city itself being regarded as a separate charge — remained in the hands 
of natives. In 1769 English Supervisors were appointed, and in 1770 
a Council for Bihar was established at Patna. In 1774 the Supervisors, 
who had meanwhile been designated Collectors, and the Council for 
Bihar were abolished, and a Provincial Council was established at 
Patna. This lasted till 1781, when Bihar was made a District under a 
Collector and a Judge-Magistrate. In 1865 it was divided into Patna 
and Gaya Districts, the Bihar subdivision being included in the former, 
and nineteen estates were transferred from Patna to Tirhut in 1869, 
thus constituting the District as it now exists. 

The other important event in the modern history of the District is 
the mutiny of the sepoys stationed at Dinapore, the military station 
attached to Patna city. The three sepoy regiments at this place in 
1857 were the 7th, 8th, and 40th Native Infantry. General Lloyd, who 
commanded the station, wrote expressing his confidence in their loyalty, 
and they were accordingly not disarmed ; but as the excitement in- 
creased throughout Bihar, and stronger measures seemed in the opinion 
of the Commissioner, Mr. Tayler, to be necessary, the general, while 
still apparently relying on the trustworthiness of the men, made a half- 
hearted attempt at disarming the sepoys. The result was that the 
three regiments revolted and went off in a body, taking with them 
their arms and accoutrements, but not their uniforms. Some took to 
the Ganges, where their boats were fired into and run down by a 
steamer which was present, and their occupants shot or drowned. But 
the majority were wiser, and hastened to the river Son, crossing which 
they found themselves safe in Shahabad. The story of what took place 


in Shahabad will be found in the article on Arrah. When the 
news reached Bankipore that the rebels, headed by Kunwar (or Kuar) 
Singh, had surrounded the Europeans at Arrah, an ill-fated attempt 
was made to rescue them. A steamer, which was sent up the river 
on July 27, stuck on a sandbank. Another steamer was started on 
the 29th ; but the expedition was grossly mismanaged. The troops 
were landed at 7 p.m., and fell into an ambuscade about midnight. 
When the morning dawned, a disastrous retreat had to be commenced. 
Out of the 400 men who had left Dinapore fully half were left behind ; 
and of the survivors only about 50 returned unwounded. Two volun- 
teers, Mr. McDonell and Mr. Ross Mangles, both of the Civil Service, 
besides doing excellent service on the march, performed acts of 
conspicuous daring. The former, though wounded, was one of the 
last men to enter the boats, and subsequently stepped out of shelter, 
climbed on the roof of the boat, and released the rudder, which had been 
lashed by the insurgents, amidst a storm of bullets from the contiguous 
bank. Mr. Ross Mangles's conduct was equally heroic. He carried a 
wounded man for 6 miles till he reached the stream, and then swam 
with his helpless burden to a boat, in which he deposited him in safety. 
Both these gentlemen afterwards received the Victoria Cross as a 
reward for their heroism. 

The chief places of archaeological interest are Rajgir, Maner, 
Patna City, Bihar, and Giriak. The village of Baragaon has been 
identified as the site of the famous Nalanda monastery, and with the 
neighbouring village of Begampur contains masses of ruins : at 
Tetrawan and Jagdispur are colossal statues of Buddha, and at Telhara 
and Islampur the remains of Buddhist monasteries. Many other 
Buddhist remains are of more or less interest. 

The population increased from 1,559,517 in 1872 to 1,756,196 in 

1881 and to 1,773,410 in 1891, but dropped to 1,624,985 in 1901. 

_ , ^. The apparent increase between 1872 and 1881 was 

Population. , , • , 1 r .• • • 1 r 

largely owing to detective enumeration in the former 

year, while the decrease recorded in 1901 is due mainly to the direct 

and indirect results of plague, which first broke out in January, 1900, 

and was raging in the District at the time when the Census was taken, 

causing many people to leave their homes and greatly increasing the 

difficulties in the way of the census staff. The loss of population was 

greatest in the thickly populated urban and semi-urban country along 

the banks of the Ganges, where the plague epidemic was most virulent. 

The south of the District, which suffered least from plague, almost held 

its ground. Plague has since become practically an annual visitation 

and heavy mortality. The principal statistics of the Census of 

igor are shown in the table on the next page. 

The chief towns are Patna Citv, Bihar, Dinapore, Mokameh, and 



Barh. The head (luurlcis are at Bankipore, a suburb of Patna. The 
density is highest along the Cianges and in the Bihar ihdna, and least 
in the Bikram and Masaurhibazurg tJiaiuis in the south-west and in the 
Rajgir hills. There is a considerable ebb and flow of population across 
the boundary line which divides Patna from the adjoining Districts, 
and, in addition to this, no less than one-twentieth of its inhabitants 
have emigrated to more distant places. They are especially numerous 
in Calcutta, where more than 30,000 natives of this District were 
enumerated in 190 1 ; these were for the most part only temporary 
absentees. The vernacular (jf the l^istrict is the Magahi dialect of 
Bihari Hindi. Hindus number 1,435,637, or 88-3 per cent, of the 
total population, and Musalmans 186,411, or ii'5 per cent. 




Number of 


.2 - 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 



Dinapore . 

District total 




I. -075 



- >5-6 

- 10.4 

- 10-5 

- 0.9 








- 8.4 


The most numerous Hindu castes are Ahirs and Goalas (220,000), 
Kurmis (181,000), Babhans (114,000), Dosadhs (96,000), Kahars 
(85,000), Koiris (80,000), Rajputs (64,000), Chamars (56,000), and 
Telis (52,000). Agriculture supports 62'3 per cent, of the population, 
industries ry-i percent., commerce 1-2 per cent., and professions 2-4 
per cent. 

Christians number 2,562, of whom only 139 are natives. The 
principal missions are the London Baptist Missionary Society, the 
London Baptist Zanana Mission, the Zanana Bible and Medical 
Mission, and the Roman Catholic Mission. The Zanana Bible and 
Medical Mission possesses a well-equipped hospital in Patna city ; the 
Roman Catholic Mission has a boys' school at Kurjl, and a girls' 
boarding-school and European and native orphanages at Bankipore ; 
while each of the other missions, in addition to evangelistic work, 
maintains some schools. 

The agricultural conditions are fairly uniform throughout ; but the 

Bihar subdivision is for the most part lower than the rest of the District 

and is better adapted for the cultivation of rice, . . ,. 

_ . ,. Agriculture. 

while the Barh subdivision is more suited to rabi 

crops. The most naturally productive soil is the didra land along the 

bank of the Ganges ; but the most valuable of all is the fertile high 




land in the vicinity of villages, where well-irrigation can be practised, 
and vegetables, poppy, and other profitable crops are grown. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 


Total. Cultivated. 

from canals. 


Bankipore . 
ninapore . 







1 2 







It is estimated that lo per cent, of the cultivated area is twice 
cropped. Rice is the staple food-crop, covering 338 square miles. 
It is sown in June and reaped in December; in low-lying marsh lands 
sowing may commence as early as April. The greater portion of it is 
transplanted, but on inferior lands it is sown broadcast. Of other 
food-crops, wheat (202 square miles), barley (127 square mWe.?,), jowdr 
(20 square miles), inarud (97 square miles), maize (189 square miles), 
gram (149 square miles) and other pulses (175 square miles) are widely 
grown. Maize forms the principal food of the lower classes, except in 
the Bihar subdivision, where mama takes its place. Maize and rahar 
are frequently sown together, the maize being harvested in September 
and the rahar in March. Oilseeds are grown on 74 square miles, 
while of special crops the most important is poppy (27 square miles). 
The poppy cultivated is exclusively the white variety {Papaver somni- 
feruvi), and the crop, which requires great attention, has to be grown 
on land which can be highly manured and easily irrigated. Potatoes 
are also grown extensively and arre exported in large quantities, the 
Patna potato having acquired more than a local reputation. Little use 
has been made of the provisions of the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts ; Rs. 2,800 was advanced under the former 
Act during tlie scarcity of 1897. 

In addition to the common country cattle, two varieties are bred : 
one a cross between the Hansi and the local stocks, and the other with 
a strong English strain known as the Bankipore breed. The former 
class are large massive animals, and the bullocks do well for carts 
or ploughs, though the cows are not very good milkers. The Bankipore 
breed is the residue of an English stock imported some fifty )'ears ago. 
The cows are excellent milkers, but the bullocks are not heavy or 
strong enough for draught purposes. The breed has fallen off greatly 
of late years through in-breeding and the want of new blood, but the 
District board has recently imported two Jersey bulls from Australia. 
Bullocks from Tirhut arc largely used for ploughing. Pasture grounds 


are very scarce, and the cattle are usually fed with chopped straw or 
maize stalks witli bhusa (chaff) and i)ulsc, or with linseed cake when 
available. Persons wishing to buy horses or cattle usually go to the 
Sonpur fair in Saran or the Barahpur fair in Shahabad, a fair at Bihta 
with an attendance of 5,000 being the only cattle fair held in Patna 
District. Of other fairs, that held at Rajgir is by far the most 

The whole District depends largely on irrigation. In the head- 
quarters and Dinapore subdivisions the Patna Canal, a branch of the 
Son Canals system, irrigates an area of 70 square miles, and supplies 
most of the needs of the people. The length of the main canal (in this 
District) is 42^ miles, that of the parallel channels 24 miles, and that 
of the distributaries 161 miles. In the Bihar subdivision an extensive 
system of private irrigation works fed from the local rivers is maintained 
by the zamlndars. Each zaminddr has vested rights in a certain 
quantity of river water, which he carefully stores by means of embank- 
ments and distributes through reservoirs and channels to his ryots. 
It is estimated that the area thus irrigated in this subdivision is about 
437 square miles, out of a total cultivated area of 584 square miles. 
The system works admirably as long as the rivers which feed the 
irrigation works bring down their normal quantity of water; but a 
serious drought, both locally and in the hills of Chota Nagpur w^here 
these rivers rise, means an almost complete failure of crops. The 
absence of a proper system of managing the head of supply has caused 
many old streams to silt up and rendered useless some of the 
distributing channels. Well-irrigation is universally used for vegetable 
and poppy cultivation, and occasionally for irrigating the rati crops ; 
one well will irrigate about 2 acres of land. Irrigation from tanks is 
seldom practised. 

Carpets, brocades, embroidery, pottery, brass-work, toys, fireworks, 
lac ornaments, gold and silver wire and leaf, glass-ware, boots and 
shoes, and cabinets are made in Patna city ; carpets 
in Sultanganj, Pirbahor, and Chauk ; and embroidery communiStions. 
and brocade work in the Chauk and Khwaja Kalan 
thdnas. Durable furniture and cabinets are made at Dinapore. The 
manufactures of the Barh subdivision are jessamine oil {chameli), coarse 
cloth, and brass and bell-metal utensils ; and of the Bihar subdivision 
soap, silk fabrics, tubes for hiikkas, muslin, cotton cloth, and brass and 
iron-ware. Apart from hand industries, certain articles, such as stools 
and tables, are made in the workshops of the Bihar School of Engineer- 
ing, and chests for packing opium in the saw-mills of the Patna Opium 
Eactory. Opium is manufactured by Government at a factory in Patna 
city. Some iron foundries are at work in Bankipore and Dinapore, 
and an ice and aerated waters factory has been started at Bankipore. 

£ 2 


The principal imports are rice, paddy, salt, coal, kerosene oil, 
European cotton piece-goods, and gunny bags ; and the princi})al 
exports are wheat, linseed, pulses, mustard seed, hides, sugar, tobacco, 
and opium. A large amount of trade is carried by the railway, but the 
bulk of it is still transported by river. Patna city, with its 7 or 8 miles 
of river frontage in the rains and 4 miles in the dry season, is the great 
centre for all the river-borne trade. It is by far the largest mart in the 
District, and its commanding position for both rail and river tralific 
makes it one of the i)rincipal commercial centres of Bengal. Goods 
received by rail are there transferred to country boats, bullock-carts, &c., 
to be distributed throughout the neighbourhood, which in return sends 
its produce to be railed to Calcutta and elsewhere. The river trade 
is carried by country boats and river steamers between Patna and 
Calcutta and other places on the Ganges and Nadia Rivers, and by 
country boats between Patna and Nepal. Trade has declined very 
greatly of late years, largely owing to the reduced freight charged by the 
railways on goods booked direct to Calcutta. Other important markets 
are Dinapore, Bihar, Barh, Mokameh, Islampur, Fatwa, and 
HiLSA. The principal trading castes are Telis, Baniyas, and Agarwals. 
The transport by river is mostly in the hands of Musalmans, Tiyars, 
and Mallahs, while the road tratific is almost monopolized by Goalas 
and Kurmis. 

The main line of the East Indian Railway runs through the north of 
the District for 84 miles from east to west, entering at Dumra station 
and leaving at the Son bridge. The chief stations are at Mokameh, 
Barh, Bakhtiyarpur, Patna, Bankipore, and Dinapore. From Bankipore 
one branch line runs to Gaya, and another to Gigha Ghat in connexion 
with the Bengal and North-Western Railway ferry-steamer which 
crosses the Ganges to the terminus of that railway at Sonpur. A third 
branch line from Mokameh to Mokameh Ghat establishes another 
connexion with the Bengal and North-Western Railway. A light 
railway (18 miles in length) connects Bakhtiyarpur and Bihar. Ex- 
clusive of 673 miles of village tracks, the District contains 614 miles 
of road. Of these 132 miles are metalled; 10 miles are maintained 
from Provincial and 17 from municipal funds, and the remainder by 
the District board. The chief road crosses the north of the District 
through Barh, Patna city, Bankipore, and Dinapore, leading from 
Monghyr on the east to Arrah on the west. Other important roads 
are those from Bankipore to Palamau, from Bankipore to Gaya, from 
Fatwa to Gaya, and from ]3akhtiyarpur through Bihar to Hazaribagh. 

The Ganges and the Son are the only rivers navigable throughout 
the year. The former is navigable by steamers, and daily services 
run between Digha and Goalundo, Digha and Buxar, and Digha 
and Barhaj, with an extended run every fourth day to Ajodhya 


on the Gogra. Paddle steamers ply from Digha to Goalundo, but 
above Digha there are shallows and only stern-wheelers can be used. 
The passenger traffic consists principally of labourers going to Eastern 
Bengal in search of work, while the goods traffic is mostly in grain, 
sugar and its products, and piece-goods. The Patna Canal is navi- 
gable, and a large number of bamboos are brought down by it to 
Patna. A bi weekly service runs on it between Khagaul (Dinapore 
railway station) and Mahabalipur in the head-quarters subdivision via 
Bikrani. Several ferries cross the Ganges, the most important being 
those from Bankipore and Patna. 

The District is not ordinarily liable to famine, and even in 1896-7 
only local scarcity in the Barh and Bihar subdivisions was felt. Test 
works were opened, but were closed almost at once. The total amount 
spent on relief was only Rs. 31,000. 

The District is divided into five subdivisions: Bankipore, Bihar, 

Barh, Patna City, and Dinapore, The staff subordinate to the 

District Magistrate-Collector at head-quarters con- . . 

r T-.TkT-.. A-.luT-. Administration. 

sists of a Jomt-Magistrate, an Assistant Magistrate, 

and seven Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors. The other subdivisions are 
each in charge of a European officer — in the case of Bihar a Deputy- 
Magistrate-Collector, and in the case of Barh, Patna city, and Dinapore 
a member of the Indian Civil Service. The subdivisional officers 
of Barh and Bihar are each assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Magistrate- 

The civil courts for the disposal of judicial work are those of the 
District Judge, who is also the Sessions Judge, three Sub-Judges 
and three Munsifs at Patna and one Munsif at Bihar, while the 
Cantonment Magistrate at Dinapore is vested with the powers of 
a Small Cause Court Judge. Criminal courts include those of the 
Sessions Judge, District Magistrate, and the above-mentioned Joint, 
Assistant, and Deputy-Magistrates. The majority of the cases which 
come before the courts are of a petty nature. Both burglary and 
robbery are, however, more common than in the other Districts of the 
Division. Riots are also numerous ; they are generally connected 
with land disputes or arise out of cattle trespass or questions of 

Under the Muhammadans the District formed part of Subah Bihar. 
After it passed under British rule the principal feature of its land 
revenue history has been the remarkable extent to which the sub- 
division of estates has gone on. In 1790 there were 1,230 separate 
estates on the roll held by 1,280 registered proprietors and copar- 
ceners, the total land revenue in that year amounting to 4-33 lakhs. 
In 1865 the Bihar subdivision with 796 estates was added to the 
District, and four years later 19 estates were transferred tVom i-'atna 


to Tirhut. This brouglit the District practically to its present dimen- 
sions. In 1 870-1 the number of estates was 6,075, while the number 
of registered proprietors had increased to 37,500 and the revenue 
to 15-08 lakhs. In 1903-4 the number of estates had still farther 
increased to 12,923 and of proprietors to 107,381, while the current 
land revenue demand was 14-97 lakhs. This subdivision of estates 
has added greatly to the difficulty of collecting the revenue and of 
keeping the accounts connected therewith. The average area held 
by each ryot, as shown in the latest settlement papers of certain 
Government estates, varies considerably in different parts of the Dis- 
trict, ranging from 1-47 acres in the Bihar to 4-76 acres in the Barh 
subdivision for ordinary holdings, and from 7-30 acres in Dinapore 
to 13-04 acres in the head-quarters subdivision for the didras or river 
islands. The rents of homestead land are between Rs. 6 and Rs. 24 
per acre. The average rate for clayey soils is about Rs. 5, while 
land in which sand predominates lets for about half that amount. 
The best didra lands fetch as much as Rs. 30 per acre, and the 
worst, where the soil consists chiefly of sand, as little as 12 annas. 
The rent of this class of land is higher than it would otherwise be, 
owing to the fact that in many cases the tenant has no occupancy 
right. About two-thirds of the Bihar subdivision is held under the 
bhaoli or produce-rent system. Three forms of this system prevail : 
namely, ddndbandi, where the value of the produce is estimated and 
the equivalent of the landlord's share paid in cash or rice ; batai, 
where the actual produce is divided ; and a fixed payment of rice 
and ddl. The last is comparatively rare. In the case of ddndbandi 
and batai the shares are supposed to be equal, but actually the 
landlord gets more than half. A common proportion is known as 
'nine-seven,' i.e. out of every 16 seers the landlord takes nine and 
the tenant seven. The ryot always gets the straw and other by- 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only) in thousands of rupees : — 

1 880- 1. 


1 000 -I. 1903-4. 

Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


I4,yi 15,07 
31,85 32,68 

Outside the municipalities of Patna, Barh, Bihar, and Dixaporf, 
local affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local 
boards in each subdivision. The District board has guaranteed 
4 per cent, interest on the capital (8 lakhs) of the Bakhtiyarpur- 
Bihar light railway, but it is entitled to receive half of any profits 
in excess of that amount. In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 2,86,000, 


of which Rs. 2,09,000 was derived from rates ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 2,47,000, inckiding Rs. 1,46,000 spent on pubh'c works and 
Rs. 44,000 on education. 

The District contains 28 police stations and 31 outposts. The 
force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted in 1903 
of 6 inspectors, 49 sub-inspectors, 88 head constables, and 1,195 
constables; there was also a rural police force of 176 dafaddrs and 
3,240 chmikiddrs. The District jail at Bankipore has accommodation 
for 453 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Barh and Bihar for 28 and 
25 respectively. 

Of the population 6-4 per cent. (12-3 males and o-6 females) could 
read and write in 1901. The total number of pupils under instruction 
increased from about 27,000 in 1883-4 to 43,941 in 1 890-1 ; it fell to 
38,162 in 1900-1, but rose again in 1903-4, when 41,533 boys and 
1,689 girls were at school being respectively 34-4 and 1-3 per cent, 
of the children of school-going age. The number of educational 
institutions, public and private, in that year was 1,829, including 
two Arts colleges, 25 secondary, 1,255 primary, and 547 special 
schools. The expenditure on education was 3-51 lakhs, of which 
1-45 lakhs was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 44,000 from District 
funds, Rs. 7,000 from municipal funds, and i-i6 lakhs from fees. 
The chief educational institutions are the Patna College, the Patna 
Medical College, and the Bihar School of Engineering at Patna, the 
Bihar National College and the female high school at Bankipore, and 
St. Michael's College for Europeans and Eurasians at Kurjl, situated 
half-way between Bankipore and Dinapore. There is a fine public 
library at Bankipore. 

In 1903 the District contained altogether 15 dispensaries, of which 
5 had accommodation for 163 in-patients. The cases of 142,000 out- 
patients and 2,500 in-patients were treated, and 12,000 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 39,000, of which Rs, 3,000 
was met from Government contributions, Rs. 19,000 from Local and 
Rs. 14,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 3,000 from subscriptions, 
A lunatic asylum at Patna has accommodation for 206 males and 
56 females. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. During 1903-4 
the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 35,000, or 21-7 per 
1,000 of the population. 

[M. Martin, Eastern India (1838); J. R. Hand, Early English 
Administration of Bihar (Calcutta, 1894); and Sir \\'. W. Hunter, 
Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xi (1877).] 

Patna City (or Azimabad). — Chief city of Patna District, Bengal, 
situated in 25° 37' N. and 85° 10' E., on the right bank of the (ianges 
a few miles below its junction with the Son. Included within the 


municipal limits is Bankipore, the administrative head-quarters of 
Patna District and Patna Division. The city is situated on the East 
Indian Railway 332 miles from Calcutta ; and though its prosperity 
has somewhat diminished of late years, it still possesses an important 
trade, its commanding position for both rail and river traffic making 
it one of the principal commercial centres of Bengal, and, after 
Calcutta, the largest town in the Province. Buchanan-Hamilton 
estimated the population at 312,000; but his calculation referred to 
an area of 20 square miles, whereas the city, as now defined, extends 
over only g square miles. The population returned in 1872 was 
158,900 ; but the accuracy of the enumeration was doubted, and 
it was thought that the real number of inhabitants was considerably 
greater. It is thus probable that the growth indicated by the Census 
of 1881, which showed a population of 170,654, was fictitious. There 
was a falling off of 5,462 persons between 1881 and 1891, while the 
Census of 1901 gave a population of only 134,785, which represents 
a further decrease of more than 18 per cent. This was due mainly 
to the plague, which was raging at the time of the Census and not 
only killed a great number but drove many more away. A second 
enumeration taken five months later disclosed a population of 153,739. 
The decrease on the figures of 1891, which still amounted to 7 per 
cent., may be ascribed, in addition to the actual loss by deaths from 
plague, to a declining prosperity due to the gradual decay of the 
river-borne trade. The population at the regular Census of 1901 
included 99,381 Hindus, 34,622 Musalmans, and 683 Christians. 

Patna has a very ancient history. It is to be identified with the 
Pataliputra of ancient India, the Palibothra of the Greeks, and the 
Kusumapura of the early Gupta emperors. Megasthenes describes 
the city as situated on the south bank of the Ganges at the con- 
fluence of another large river, Eramiohoas (the Greek form of Hirajiya- 
Vdhu) or Son, which formerly joined the Ganges immediately below 
the modern city of Patna. The tradition of this junction still lingers 
among the villagers to the south-west of Patna, where there is an old 
channel called the Mara (' dead ') Son. 

Regarding the origin of the city various legends exist. The most 
popular ascribes it to a prince Putraka, who created it with a stroke 
of his magic staff and named it in honour of his wife the princess 
Patali. This story is found in the Kathd Sarit Sdgar and in Hiuen 
Tsiang's travels. Diodorus attributes the foundation of Palibothra 
to Herakles, by whom perhaps he may mean Balaram, the brother 
of Krishna. According to the Vayu Purana and the Sutapitaka, the 
city of Kusumapura or Pataliputra was founded by the Sisunaga 
king Udaya, who ruled in Magadha towards the end of the fifth 
century e.g.; but the Buddhist accounts place its origin in the reign 


of Udaya's grandfather, Ajatasatru. When Buddha crossed the Ganges 
on his last journey from Rajagriha to Vaisali, the two ministers of 
Ajatasatru, king of iMagadha, were engaged in building a fort at the 
village of Patali as a check upon the ravages of the people of VrTji, 
and he predicted that the fort would become a great city. The 
Nandas who overthrew the Sisunagas removed the capital of Magadha 
to Pataliputra from Rajagriha, the modern Rajgir, in the south-east 
of Patna District. Under Chandragupta, the Greek Sandrokottos, 
who established the Maurya dynasty in 321 B.C., Pataliputra became 
the capital of Northern India. It was during the reign of this king 
that in 305 B.C., or a little later, Megasthenes, whose account of 
it has been preserved by Arrian, visited the city. He says that 
Palibothra, which he describes as the capital city of India, is distant 
from the Indus 10,000 stadia, i.e. 1,149 miles, or only 6 miles in 
excess of the actual distance. He adds that the length of the city 
was 80, and the breadth 15 stadia ; that it was surrounded by 
a ditch 30 cubits deep; and that the walls were adorned with 570 
towers and 64 gates. According to this account, the circumference 
of the city would be 190 stadia or 24 miles. Strabo, Pliny, and 
Arrian call the people Prasii, which has been variously interpreted 
as 'eastern' {prachya) people, or the men of Parasa, a name applied 
to Magadha, derived from the palas-Xxee, {Biitea f?-ondosa). 

Asoka ascended the throne in 272 B.C., and was crowned at Patali- 
putra in 269 B.C. During his reign of forty years he is said to have 
changed the outward appearance of Pataliputra. He replaced or sup- 
plemented the wooden walls by masonry ramparts, and filled his capital 
with palaces, monasteries, and monuments, the sites of which have not, 
as was once thought, been washed away by the river, but still remain to 
be properly excavated and identified by archaeologists. Dr. Waddell 
has already shown that Bhiknapahari, an artificial hill of brick debris 
over 40 feet high and about a mile in circuit, now crowned by the 
residence of one of the Nawabs of Patna, is identical with the hermitage 
hill built by Asoka for his brother Mahendra ; a representation of the 
original is still kept at the north-east base of the hill, and is worshipped 
as the Bhikna Kunwar. The site of Asoka's new palace Dr. Waddell 
places at Sandalpur. South of this, near the railway in Buland Bagh, 
is a curious big flat stone, to which the marvellous story still clings 
that it cannot be taken away but always returns to its place. This, in 
Dr. Waddell's opinion, is the actual stone bearing the footprint of 
Buddha which was- seen and described by the Chinese pilgrims. Fa Hian 
and Hiuen Tsiang. Fragments of a polished column, the outline of 
monastic cells, carved stones, and other remains point to Kumrahar as 
the site of the old palace. In the adjacent hamlet of Nayatala is a 
sculptured pillar in highly polished hard sandstone of a pair of Matris, 


or 'divine mothers,' in the archaic style seen in the Bharhut sculptures. 
In the land to the south, which is still called Asobhuk or ' Asoka's plot,' 
are situated brick ruins known as Chotapahari and Barapahari (pro- 
bably the hermitage hill of Upa Gupta who converted Asoka), while in 
the Panchpahari Dr. Waddell recognizes the five relic stupas of excep- 
tional grandeur which Asoka is said to have built. According to tradi- 
tion, the third Buddhist council at Pataliputra was held in the seven- 
teenth year of Asoka's reign. With the death of that monarch in 
231 B.C. the city disappears from history for 530 years, during which 
period the first empire of Northern India was destroyed by the 
Scythians and Andhras. But in a.d. 319 the city, now under the 
name of Kusumapura, witnessed the birth of a second empire, that of 
the Gupta kings. Chandra Gupta I married a Lichchavi princess of 
Pataliputra. The date of his coronation, March 8, a.d. 319, marks the 
beginning of a new era in Indian history. Though Kusumapura is un- 
doubtedly identical with Pataliputra or Patna, yet of this second line of 
emperors not a single trace remains except a broken pillar which stands 
among some Muhammadan graves near the dargah. Samudra Gupta, 
the son and successor of Chandra Gupta I, greatly enlarged the empire 
and removed the capital from Pataliputra or Kusumapura westwards, 
but Pataliputra was still a sacred place for the Buddhists. About 406, 
during the reign of Chandra Gupta II, Fa Hian, after visiting Upper 
India, arrived at Pataliputra, of which he gives a short description, 
and resided there for three years while learning to read the Sanskrit 
books and to converse in that language. 

The next description of Patna is supplied by Hiuen Tsiang, who 
entered the city after his return from Nepal, in 637, more than a 
hundred years after the fall of the Gupta empire. At that time 
Magadha was subject to Harshavardhana, the great king of Kanauj. 
Hiuen Tsiang informs us that the old city, called originally Kusuma- 
pura, had been deserted for a long time and was in ruins. He gives 
the circumference at 70 //, or \\\ miles, exclusive of the new town of 

Little is known of the mediaeval history of I'atna. In the early years 
of Muhammadan rule the governor of the province resided at the city 
of Bihar. During Sher Shah's revolt Patna became an independent 
capital, but it was reduced to subjection by Akl)ar. Aurangzeb made 
his grandson Azlm governor, and the city thus acquired the name of 
AzTmabad, which is still in use among Muhammadans. The two im- 
portant events in the modern history of Patna city— the massacre of 
1763, and the mutiny of the troops at Dinapore cantonments in 
1857 — have been described in the account of Patna District. The 
old walled city of Patna extended about i^ miles from east to west 
and three-quarters of a mile from north to south. It is to this day very 


closely built, mainly with mud houses, hut the fortifications which 
surrounded the city have long since disappeared. 

The city was constituted a municipality in 1864. The municipal 
limits include the suburb of Bankipore on the west. The income 
during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged 2'i8 lakhs, and the 
expenditure 1-91 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income was 1-93 lakhs, in- 
cluding Rs. 83,000 from a tax on houses and lands, Rs. 21,000 from 
a conservancy rate, Rs. 16,000 from tolls, Rs. 13,000 from a tax on 
vehicles, and Rs. 35,000 as grants. The incidence of taxation was 
R. 0-14-5 P^^ head of population. In the same year the expendi- 
ture amounted to \'i<\ lakhs, the chief items being Rs. 5,000 spent on 
lighting, Rs. 10,000 on drainage, Rs. 48,000 on conservancy, Rs. 20,000 
on medical relief, Rs. 7,000 on a new hospital building, Rs. 31,000 on 
roads, and Rs. 6,000 on education. A drainage scheme was carried 
out between 1893 and 1895 at a cost of 2-68 lakhs, but was defective 
owing to its being unaccompanied by any flushing scheme. Two 
complementary schemes were carried out in 1894 and 1900, by 
which 4^ square miles of the total area are now flushed. 

For administrative purposes the city, excluding Bankipore but in- 
cluding a few outlying villages known as the rural area of the City 
subdivision, has been constituted a subdivision under a City Magis- 
trate, who holds his court at Gulzarbagh in the heart of the city. The 
courts and jail are situated at Bankipork. Patna is the head-quarters 
of the Commissioner and Additional Commissioner, the Bihar Opium 
Agent, a Deputy-Inspector-General of police, a Deputy-Sanitary Com- 
missioner, and the Executive Engineer of the Eastern Son division. 
The Patna College is a fine brick building at the west end of the city. 
Originally built by a native as a private residence, it was purchased by 
Government and converted into law courts. In 1857 the courts were 
removed to the present buildings at Bankipore; and in 1862 the 
college was established here. It possesses a chemical laboratory, 
and a law department and collegiate school are also attached to it. 
Close by is the Medical College, in front of which a new hospital has 
been erected. In this neighbourhood also stands the Oriental Library, 
founded by Maulvi Khuda Bakhsh Khan Bahadur, C.I.E., the present 
librarian, who has collected a number of valuable Persian and Arabic 
manuscripts. This library is subsidized by the Bengal Government, by 
the Nizam of Hyderabad, and by private subscriptions. Farther east 
at Afzalpur, on the ground formerly occupied by the Dutch factory, 
have been erected some fine buildings for the Bihar School of Engineer- 
ing, which was opened in August, 1900, out of funds originally col- 
lected to commemorate the visit of the Prince of Wales to Patna in 
1876. It has a good workshop for practical work, and the course of 
studies is the same as that of the apprentice department of the Civil 


Engineering College at Sibpur. About 3 miles farther east, in the 
quarter called Gulzarbagh, the Government manufacture of opium is 
carried on. Patna is one of the two places in British India where 
opium is manufactured by Government. The opium is made up into 
cakes, weighing about 3^ lb. and containing about 3 lb. of standard 
opium. These are packed in chests (40 in each) and sent to Calcutta, 
whence most of them are exported to China. The opium buildings are 
on the old river bank, and are separated from the city by a high brick 
wall. Beyond Gulzarbagh lies the city proper. The western gate is, 
according to its inscription, 5 miles from the gold at Bankipore and 
12 miles from Dinapore. In the southern quarter called Sadikpur, a 
market has been laid out on the ground formerly occupied by the 
Wahhabi rebels. Nearly opposite to the Roman Catholic Church is 
the grave where the bodies of Mir Kasim's victims were ultimately 
deposited. It is covered by a pillar, built partly of stone and partly of 
brick, with an inlaid tablet and inscription. The chief Muhammadan 
place of worship is the monument of Shah Arzani, who died here in 
1623, and whose shrine is frequented by both Muhammadans and 
Hindus. An annual fair is held on the spot in the month of Zikad, 
lasting for three days and attracting about 5,000 votaries. Adjacent 
to the tomb is the Karbala, where 100,000 people attend during the 
Muharram festival. Close by is a tank dug by the saint, where once 
a year crowds of people assemble, and many of them bathe. The 
mosque of Sher Shah is probably the oldest building in Patna and 
the madrasa of Saif Khan the handsomest. 

[L. A. Waddell, Pataliptiira (Calcutta, 1892), and Report on iJte 
Excavations at Pdtaliputra (Calcutta, 1903).] 

Patna State. — Feudatory State of Bengal, lying between 20° 9' and 
21° 4' N. and 82° 41' and 83° 40' E., with an area of 2,399 square 
miles. Up to 1905 the State was included in the Central Provinces. 
It lies in the valley of the Mahanadi, bounded on the north by 
Sambalpur, on the west by Raipur District, on the south by the 
Kalahandi State, and on the east by the Baud State. The head-quar- 
ters are at Bolangir, a village with 3,706 inhabitants (1901), 75 miles 
from Sambalpur by road. The State consists of an undulating plain, 
broken by numerous isolated peaks or small ranges, while a more 
continuous chain of hills runs along the north-western border. The 
northern and southern portions are open and well cultivated, and are 
divided by a belt of hilly country covered with dense forest which 
traverses the centre. The Tel river divides Patna from Kalahandi on 
the south, and the Ong from Sambalpur and Sonpur on the north. 
The Suktel and Barabhailat traverse the centre of the State. 

The Maharajas of Patna formerly dominated a large extent of 
territory to the east of the Ratanpur kingdom, and were the head 


of a cluster of States known as Ihc Athara Garhjat or 'eighteen forts.' 
The present rulers are Chauhan Rajputs, and claim for their family an 
antiquity of 600 years in Patna, with a pedigree of twenty-eight genera- 
tions. According to their traditions, their ancestor was a Rajput 
prince who lived near Mainpuri and was expelled from his territories 
by the Muhanmiadans. He came with his family to Patna, where he 
was killed in battle ; but his wife, who was pregnant, was sheltered by 
a Binjhal, in whose hut she brought forth a son. At this time Patna 
was divided among eight chiefs called the Ath Malik, who took it in 
turn to reign for one day each over the whole territory. The Rajput 
boy Ramai Deo, on growing up, killed all the chiefs and constituted 
himself sole ruler. In succeeding reigns the family extended their in- 
fluence over surrounding territories, including the greater part of what 
is now Sambali)ur District and the adjoining States, the chiefs of this 
area being made tributary. Chandarpur was conquered from the rulers 
of Ratanpur. The twelfth Raja, Narsingh Deo, ceded to his brother 
Balram Deo such portions of his territories as lay north of the river 
Ong. The latter founded a new State (Sambalpur), which very soon 
afterwards by acquisition of territory in every direction became the 
most powerful of all the Garhjat cluster, while from the same time the 
importance of Patna commenced to decline. In the eighteenth century^ 
when the Marathas conquered Sambalpur, Patna had become a depen- 
dency of that State, and was also made tributary ; and its subsequent 
history is that of Sambalpur. It was made a Feudatory State in 1865. 
In 1869 the tyranny of Maharaja Sur Pratap Deo and of his brother 
Lai Bishnath Singh caused a rising among the Khonds of Patna. 
They were speedily reduced, but not until Lai Bishnath Singh and his 
followers had committed many atrocities in cold blood. An inquiry 
into the causes of the outbreak led to the deposition of the chief, and 
the assumption of the management of the State by the British Govern- 
ment in 187 1. The Maharaja died in 1878, and was succeeded by 
his nephew Ramchandra Singh, who was born in 1872 and educated 
at the Rajkumar College, then located at Jubbulpore. He was in- 
stalled in 1894, but had already then begun to show some signs of 
derangement of intellect, and in 1895 he shot his wife and himself in 
the palace, both dying instantaneously. As he left no male issue, his 
uncle Lai Dalganjan Singh was recognized as chief, on his undertaking 
that he would conduct his administration with the assistance of a Diwan 
ap[)ointed by Government. In 1900, in consequence of the unsatis- 
factory condition of the State and an outbreak of organized dacoity, 
the chief was called on to invest his Diwan with large judicial powers 
and control over the police. A Political Agent in subordination to 
the Commissioner of Orissa, as Superintendent of the Tributary Mahals, 
controls the relations of the State with the Bengal Government. 


The population in 1901 was 277,748, having decreased by 16 per cent, 
during the preceding decade. The decrease is mainly to be attributed 
to the famine which visited the State in 1900. The number of in- 
habited villages is 1,850, and the density of population 116 persons 
per square mile. Nearly the whole population are Oriyas, and speak 
Oriya. Gahras or Ahirs, Gandas, Khonds, Gonds, and Savaras are 
the most numerous castes. 

The soil is generally light and sandy, but some black soil is found 
in the north. About a third of the whole State is comprised in 
zamhiddri or other estates held on special tenures, of which no survey 
or measurement has been made. Of the remaining portion, 426 square 
miles were cultivated in 1904. The staple crops are rice, covering 
243 square miles, /// 86, pulses 41, and cotton 11. The surveyed area 
contains 1,139 wells and 1,581 tanks, from which 48 square miles can 
be irrigated. The exact area under forest is not known, but it has 
been estimated at 1,400 square miles. The principal timber tree is 
sal {Shorea robicsta), with which are associated sdj {Terminalia ioiiien- 
iosa), bljdsdl {Fierocarpus Marsupium)^ and other common species. 
There is a very little teak in the extreme south. Owing to the distance 
of the State from a railway, the exports of forest produce are not 
important. The sale of the hides of animals forms, however, a not 
inconsiderable item of revenue. Iron ore is found, and is smelted by 
indigenous methods and made up into agricultural implements. The 
State contains 45 miles of gravelled and 58 of embanked roads. 
The principal routes are those leading from Sambalpur by Bargarh 
to Bolangir and on to Bhawani Patna, the Bolangir-Sonpur road, and 
the road leading from Raipur to Vizianagram, which passes for 
13 miles through Patna. Exports of produce are sent principally to 

The total revenue in 1904 was Rs. 2,00,000, of which Rs. 77,000 
was derived from land, Rs. 25,000 from forests, and Rs. 20,000 from 
excise. The land revenue is obtained by settlement with the headmen 
of villages, who are allowed a percentage of the 'assets.' In the area 
called the Kondhan, inhabited by the forest Khonds, the revenue is 
paid through the tribal chiefs, who receive remuneration in cash. The 
three tracts of Angar, Soranda, and Patnagarh are regularly surveyed 
and assessed on the ' soil-unit ' system of the Central Provinces, and the 
remaining area is summarily assessed. The total expenditure in 1904 
was Rs. 1,70,000: the principal heads being the tribute, Rs. 8,500; 
expenses of the ruling family, Rs. 39,000 ; general administration, 
Rs. 14,000 ; police, Rs. 22,000 ; and public works, Rs. 33,000. The 
tribute is liable to revision. The public works of the State were 
managed by the Chhattisgarh States division from 1893 to 1904, and 
during this time Rs. 2,33,000 was expended. Besides the roads already 


mentioned, a palace for the Maharaja, a courthouse, and a dispensary 
have been constructed, in addition to minor works. The educational 
institutions comprise one English and one vernacular middle school, 
a girls' school, and 37 primary schools with a total of 3,8x9 pupils, 
including 672 girls. The expenditure on education in 1904 was 
Rs. 9,200. At the Census of 1901 only 5,142 persons were returned 
as literate, 1-9 per cent. (3-6 males and o-i females) being able to read 
and write. A dispensary has been estabhshed at Bolangir, at which 
25,000 patients were treated in 1904. 

Patoda. —'Crown' tdltik in the south-west of Bhir District, Hyder- 
abad State, with an area of 353 square miles. The population in 1901, 
including yVf^m, was 30,022, compared with 42,085 in 1891, the de- 
crease being the result of the famines of 1897 and 1899-1900. The 
taluk contains 74 villages, of which 3 'dxejd^r, and Patoda (population, 
3,179) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was i-i lakhs. 
The Manjra river rises in the hills west of Patoda. The taluk is 
situated on a fertile plateau, and is hilly toward the north and west. 

Patri {Fdtdi). — Town in the Viramgam tdluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 23° 11' N. and 71*" 53' E., on the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 58 miles west of Ahmad- 
abad city, on a bare plain at the border of the Rann of Cutch. The 
town is surrounded by a wall and contains a strong castle. Population 
(1901), 5,544. The chief trade is in cotton, grain, and molasses. 
The town has a dispensary and two vernacular schools, one of which 
is for girls, attended by 242 and 128 pupils respectively. 

Pattadkal. — Village in the Badami taluka of Bijapur District, 
Bombay, situated in 15*^ 57' N. and 75° 52' E., 9 miles from Badami 
town. Population (1901), 1,088. It contains several old temples, 
both Brahmanical and Jain, with inscriptions dating from the seventh 
or eighth century, and considered by experts to be pure examples of 
the Dravidian style of architecture. 

Pattan Munara. — Ancient ruin in the Naushahra tahsil of Baha- 
walpur State, Punjab, situated in 28° 15' N. and 70° 22' E., 5 miles 
east of Rahimyar Khan. At the close of the eighteenth century the 
remains of four towers surrounding the central tower of a Buddhist 
monastery still existed here, but only the lower storey of the central 
tower now remains. Tradition avers that it had three storeys, and that 
the extensive mounds around it are the ruins of a city which was over 
100 square miles in extent. It is possible that the ruins mark the site 
of the capital of Mousicanus, who, after a brief submission to Alex- 
ander, revolted and was crucified in 325 B.C. The name Mousicanus 
probably conceals the name of the tribe or territory ruled by the chief- 
tain, and it has been suggested that it survives either in the tribal name 
of the Magsi or Magassi Baloch or in that of the Machkas. Another 


theory identifies the capital with Arur in Sind. A Sanskrit inscrip- 
tion, now lost, is said to have recorded the existence of an ancient 
monastery. The town was refounded by the Sumras in the tenth 
century, but it is now a desolate ruin. 

Patti Tahsil.— Eastern tahsil of Partabgarh District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 25° 39' and 26° 4' N. and 81° 56' and 82° 27' E., with 
an area of 467 square miles. Population increased from 272,592 
in 1 89 1 to 272,760 in 1901. There are 802 villages, but no town. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 406,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 57,000. The density of population, 584 persons per square 
mile, is the lowest in the District. Through the centre of the tahsil 
flows the Sai, while the Gumti touches the north-east corner. A con- 
siderable area is badly drained, and a cut is now being made to 
improve it. The greater part, however, is fertile, and sugar-cane is 
grown more largely than elsewhere in the District. In 1903-4 the 
area under cultivation was 256 square miles, of which 136 were irri- 
gated. ^\^ells supply twice as large an area as tanks or swamps. 

Patti Town. — Town in the Kasur tahsil of Lahore District, Pun- 
jab, situated in 31° 17' N. and 74° 52' E., 38 miles south-east of 
Lahore city anci the terminus of the Amritsar-Patti branch of the 
North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 8,187. Patti is an 
ancient town, and has been identified by some authorities with the 
Chinapati of Hiuen Tsiang. It contains an old fort, used by Ranjit 
Singh as a horse-breeding establishment. The population consists 
principally of Mughals, and is largely agricultural. The municipality 
was created in 1874. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 5,300, and the expenditure Rs. 4,700. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 5,400, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expendi- 
ture was Rs. 5,100. The town has a vernacular middle school and 
a dispensary. 

Pattikonda Taluk (' Cotton-hill '). — Westernmost taluk of Kurnool 
District, Madras, lying between 15° 7' and 15° 52' N. and 77° 21' and 
78° \' E., with an area of 1,134 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 143,033, compared with 138,703 in 1891. The density is 
1 26 persons per square mile, compared with the District average of 
115 and the Presidency average of 270. The taluk was the worst 
sufferer in the District in the great famine of 1876-8, when it lost 
about 60 per cent, of its inhabitants. It contains 104 villages, includ- 
ing five 'whole indms,'' but no town. Pattikonda, Pvapalli, Kodu- 
mur, and Maddikera are places of some importance, the first being the 
head-quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 3,20,000. The Tungabhadra forms the northern boun- 
dary, separating it from the Nizam's Dominions. The only other river 


is the Hindri, wliich rises near Maddikera and drains nearly two-thirds 
of it. Pattikonda was part of Bellary District till 1858. It was then 
called Panchapalaiyam, or the ' land of the five poligdrs.^ Almost 
every village contains a ruined fort. The rainfall is 23 inches, about 
two-thirds of which is received during the south-west monsoon. The 
taluk is almost entirely 'dry,' there being only 34,925 acres of 'wet' 
cultivation supplied by petty tanks and wells. The prevailing soil is 
black cotton soil, but the southern portion is gravelly and hilly. The 
taluk contains 112 square miles of ' reserved ' forests, almost the whole 
of which lies on the Erramalas in the southern and south-eastern 

Pattikonda Village. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Kurnool District, Madras, situated in 15° 24' N. and 
77° 31' E. The population in igor was 4,373, and it is a Union 
under the Madras Local Boards Act V of 1884. It consists of two 
portions : the old pettah, and the new Munro's pettah which is named 
after Sir Thomas Munro, (Governor of Madras, who died here of 
cholera on July 6, 1827, when on tour. To his memory Govern- 
ment constructed a fine stone-feced reservoir, built a mantapam, or 
porch, close by, and planted round it a grove of tamarind-trees. The 
grove and well are maintained by the Ramallakota taluk board. 
A weekly market is held in front of the grove. 

Pattukkottai Taluk. — Southern subdivision and taluk of Tanjore 
District, Madras, bordering on Palk Strait, and lying between 9° 49' 
and 10° 35'' N. and 78° 55' and 79° 32' E., with an area of 906 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 295,894, compared with 271,626 in 
1891, showing an increase in the decade of nearly 9 per cent., due to 
the influx of labourers for the extension of the District board railway 
recently under construction. Pattukkottai Town, the head-quarters, 
has a population of 7,504, and Adirampatnam, a small port, 10,494. 
The number of villages is 792. The demand for land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,97,000. In several ways it forms 
a striking contrast to the other taluks of the District, since practically 
no part of it is within reach of the Cauvery. The greater portion is 
' dry ' land, the small ' wet ' area within it being watered by tanks and 
wells ; and the soil is nearly all of a red ferruginous variety which 
forms arable land of inferior quality. Four-fifths of the total area is 
either zammddri or indm, a further point of contrast to the rest of the 
District ; but in the remainder the percentage of unoccupied land is 
higher, and the incidence of the assessment per head and the rent 
of the average holding are lower, than in any other taluk. Pattuk- 
kottai is the most backward tract in Tanjore in point of education, 
and, though the largest of the taluks, is the least densely peopled. 

Pattukkottai Town.— Head-quarters of the tCiluk of the same 

VOL. XX. ?■ 


name in Tanjore District, Madras, situated in io° 26' N. and 
79° 19' E., with a station on the District board railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 7,504. An inscription in the ruined fort relates that 
this building was erected by Vanaji Panditar in honour of Shahji 
Maharaja in a.d. 1686-7. I" the western part of the town is an 
elaborately sculptured and ancient Siva temple of considerable size, 
containing many inscriptions. In 181 5 Sarabhoji, the Raja of Tan- 
jore, erected a miniature fort and column, with an inscription in 
English to commemorate the triumph of the British arms and the 
downfall of Bonaparte. Brass vessels, mats, and coarse cotton cloths 
are manufactured. 

Patuakhali Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Backer- 
gunge District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 21° 49' and 
22° 36' N. and 89° 59' and 90° 40'' E., with an area of 1,231 square 
miles. The subdivision is a fertile deltaic tract, merging to the south 
in the Sundarbans, where there are extensive areas of waste land 
covered with forest. The population in 1901 was 522,658, compared 
with 496,735 in 1891. It contains one town, Patuakhali (population, 
5,003), the head-quarters, and 1,051 villages, and is the most sparsely 
populated subdivision in the District, supporting only 425 persons per 
square mile, the density being lowest towards the south where the 
Sundarbans have been only partially reclaimed. 

Patuakhali Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Backergunge District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
22° 22' N. and 90° 22' E., on the Patuakhali river. Population (1901), 
5,003. Patuakhali was constituted a municipality in 1892. The 
income and expenditure during the decade ending 190 1-2 both 
averaged Rs. 3,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,000, half of 
which was derived from a property tax ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 4,000. 

Patiir. — Town in the Balapur tdliik of Akola District, Berar, situated 
in 20° 27' N. and 76° 59' E. Population (1901), 5,990. In the side 
of a low hill just east of the town are two caves hewn in the rock. 
These are simple vihdras with a veranda. The inscriptions on the 
pillars and architraves have not yet been deciphered, and the caves 
are otherwise unadorned, and contain no images except a portion of 
a seated figure with the legs crossed, which has been held to be a Jain 
saint, but may possibly be Buddhist. 

The town is commonly known as Patur Shaikh Babu from the 
shrine of Shaikh Abdul- Aziz, commonly known as Shaikh Babu, who 
is said to have come to Patur from Delhi in 1378, and to have died 
here eleven years later. According to the legend the saint was highly 
regarded by Muhammad bin Tughlak, whom he cured of fever on one 
occasion, and who built the shrine over his grave. But unfortunately 


for the legend, Muhammad bin Tughlak died thirty-nine years before 
the shrine was built. An inscription in the interior of the shrine con- 
tains a chronogram giving the date of the saint's death, while another 
over the principal gate records the fact that the shrine was repaired in 
1606-7 by Abdur Rahim, Khan-i-Khanan, son of Bairam Khan. A 
Hindu fair is held annually in January-February, lasting upwards of 
a month. A Musalman fair, lasting for three days, is held at the 
shrine of Shaikh Babii. The gates in the walls of the town bear 
some inscriptions, now illegible. 

Pauk Subdivision. — South-western subdivision of Pakokku Dis- 
trict, Upper Ikirma, comprising the Pauk, Saw, and Seikpvu town- 

Pauk Township. — Central township of Pakokku District, Upper 
Burma, lying between 21° 10' and 21° 49' N. and 94° iS' and 
94° 44'' E., with an area of 1,490 square miles. It is a rugged tract, 
bounded on either side by hill ranges, and watered by the Kyaw river, 
a considerable affluent of the Yaw, which flows through its southern 
areas. Along these two streams a considerable amount of rice is 
grown. The population was 36,515 in 1891, and 41,021 in 1901, 
distributed in igo villages. Pauk (population, 1,826), a village near 
the junction of the Kyaw and Yaw streams, about 40 miles west of 
Pakokku, is the head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
42 square miles, and the land revenue and tliathameda amounted to 
Rs. 94,000. 

Paukkaung.— Eastern township of the Prome subdivision of Prome 
District, Lower Burma, lying between 18° 48' and 19° 11' N. and 
95° 2 1'' and 95° 53'' E., with an area of 694 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 29,797, including nearly 5,000 Chins, and in 1891 
was 31,995, so that the decrease has been 7 per cent, in ten years. 
The eastern half of the township is covered by the forests of the 
Pegu Yoma, and the density is low. There are 241 villages, the head- 
quarters being Paukkaung (population, 1,224), which is connected 
with Prome by a good road. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
32 square miles, paying Rs. 15,000 land revenue. The total revenue 
for the same year was Rs. 88,000. 

Pauktaw. — Township of Akyab District, Lower Burma, lying 
between 19° 47" and 20° 24' N. and 92° 56' and 93° 15' E., on the 
eastern bank of the Kaladan river, with an area of 496 square miles, 
the greater part of which is flat country intersected by tidal creeks. 
The population was 40,875 in 1891, and 43,395 in 190 1. There are 
190 villages, but no town. The head-quarters are at Pauktaw (popu- 
lation, 755), on a tidal creek to the east of Akyab town. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 127 square miles, paying Rs. 1,88,000 land 

F 2 


Faumben. — Island and village in Madura District, Madras. See 


Paundravardhana. — Ancient kingdom in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Pundra. 

Paung. — Township in the Thaton District of Lower Burma, lying 
between i6° 28' and 16° 52' N. and 97° 14' and 97° 36' E., with an 
area of 353 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Thaton 
township ; on the east and south by the Donthami and Sahveen rivers ; 
and on the west by the Gulf of Martaban. The township is fertile 
and thickly populated. The population was 46,332 in 1891, and 
55,071 in 1 90 1, inhabiting 142 villages. The head-quarters are at 
Paung, a village of 1,651 inhabitants, on the western slopes of the 
Martaban hills, which run north and south through the centre of 
the township. The ancient site of Martaban lies at its south-eastern 
corner on the Salween, opposite the port of Moulmein. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 224 square miles, paying Rs. 3,23,600 land 

Paungbyin, — Central township of the Upper Chindwin District, 
Upper Burma, extending on either side of the Chindwin river from 
the Yoma to Katha District, between 23^ 48' and 24° 35' N. and 
94° 32'' and 95° 12' E., with an area of 2,719 square miles. Except in 
the valley of the Chindwin, it is a mass of low hills. The population 
was 19,190 in 1891, and 26,409 in 1901, distributed in 268 villages, of 
which the most important is Paungbyin (population, 1,167), the head- 
quarters, on the Chindwin, about 70 miles north of Kindat. The 
area cultivated in 1903-4 was 40 square miles, and the land revenue 
and thathatneda amounted to Rs. 68,000. 

Paungde Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Prome Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, comprising the Paungde and Thegon townships. 

Paungde Township. — South-eastern township of the Paungde 
subdivision of Prome District, I^ower Burma, lying between 18° 26' 
and 18° 52' N. and 95° 23' and 95° 50' E., with an area of 
379 square miles. Except in the neighbourhood of the Pegu Yoma 
in the north-east, the township is flat and thickly populated. The 
population increased from 56,430 in 1891 to 60,604 in 1901. There 
are 250 villages and one town, Paungde (population, 11,105), the 
head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 86 square miles, 
paying Rs. 86,000 land revenue. 

Paungde Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Prome District, Lower Burma, situated in 18° 30' N. and 
95° 31' E., on the Rangoon-Prome railway, 130 miles from Rangoon 
and 32 miles by road from Prome. The population in 1901 was 
11,105, and has steadily increased since 1872. Paungde was con- 
stituted a municipality in 1884. The municipal income and expen- 


diture during the ten years ending 1900 averaged between Rs. 31,000 
and Rs. 32,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 42,000, the chief 
sources of revenue being tolls on markets and slaughter-houses 
(Rs. 26,000), and house tax (Rs. 4,300) ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 37,000, the principal items being roads (Rs. 6,500) and conser- 
vancy (Rs. 4,200). The town contains a jail, a hospital, and a middle 
school. The Provincial reformatory was removed from Paungde to 
Insein in 1896, the premises being converted into a jail, and in 1900 
new jail buildings were erected. The middle school, established in 
1875, has 130 pupils. 

Paunglaung. — River of Burma. See Sittang. 

PaunT. — Town in the District and tahsll of Bhandara, Central 
Provinces, situated in 20° 48' N. and 79° 39' E., on the Wainganga 
river, 32 miles south of Bhandara town by road. Population (1901), 
9,366. Some bathing ghats or flights of stone steps have been con- 
structed on the bank of the AVainganga, and the town contains a fort 
which was stormed by the British in 1818. Pauni was constituted 
a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 4,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,500, 
mainly derived from a house tax. The staple industry of the town is 
the manufacture of silk-bordered cloths, and thread of very fine counts 
is woven. The weavers are, however, not very prosperous. The town 
stands in the fertile black-soil tract called the PaunI Haveli. It 
contains vernacular middle and girls' schools, a school for low-caste 
Dher boys, and an Urdu school, and also a dispensary. 

Pauri. — Head-quarters of Garhwal District, United Provinces, 
situated in 30° 8' N. and 78° 46' E., at an elevation of 5,390 feet 
above sea-level. Population (1901), 486. The village lies on the 
northern slope of the Kandaulia hill, with a magnificent view of 
a long line of snow-clad mountains. Pauri was chosen as the head- 
quarters of the Garhwal subdivision of Kumaun District in 1840. 
Besides the usual offices, it contains a dispensary and a jail. The 
American Methodist Mission has its head-quarters here, and maintains 
a dispensary, a female orphanage, and schools for bo)'S and girls. 

Pavagarh. — Hill fort in the Kalol tdluka of the Panch Mahals 
District, Bombay, situated in 22° 31' N. and 73° 36' E., about 28 miles 
east of Baroda and 11 miles south-east of Champaner Road station on 
the Baroda-Godhra Railway. It stands on an isolated hill surrounded 
by extensive plains, from which it rises abruptly to the height of 
2,500 feet, being about 2,800 feet above the level of the sea. The 
base and lower slopes are thickly covered with rather stunted timber ; 
but its shoulders and centre crest are, on the south, west, and north, 
cliffs of bare trap, too steep for trees. Less uiaccessible, the eastern 
heights are wooded and topped by massive masonry walls and bastions, 


rising with narrowing fronts to the scarped rock that crowns the hill. 
To the east of Pavagarh lie the vast Barya State forests, and the 
hill seems to form the boundary between the wild country to the east 
and the clear open plain that stretches westward to the sea. On the 
east side of the north end of the hill are the remains of many beautiful 
Jain temples ; and on the west side, overlooking a tremendous preci- 
pice, are some Musalman buildings of more modern date, supposed to 
have been used as granaries. The southern extremity is more uneven, 
and from its centre rises an immense peak of solid rock, towering to 
the height of about 250 feet. The ascent to the top of this is by 
a flight of stone steps, and on its summit stands a Hindu temple of 
Kali, with a Mu.salman shrine on its spire. The fortifications include 
the lower fort, a massive stone structure with strong bastions stretching 
across the less precipitous parts of the eastern spur. This line of 
fortification is entered by the Atak Gate, once double, but now with 
its outer gate in ruins. Half a mile farther is the Moti or Great Gate, 
giving entrance to the second line of defence. The path winds up the 
face of the rock through four gates, each commanding the one below 
it. Massive walls connect the gates and sweep up to the fortifications 
that stretch across the crest of the spur. Beyond the Moti Gate, the 
path for about 200 yards lies over level ground with a high ridge on 
the left, crowned by a strong wall running back to the third line of 
defence. This third line of defence is reached through the Sadan 
Shah Gate, a winding passage cut through the solid rock, crowned with 
towering walls and bastions, and crossed by a double Hindu gateway. 

In old inscriptions the name of the hill appears as Pavakgarh or 
' fire hill.' The first historical reference to it is in the writings of the 
bard Chand, twelfth century, who speaks of Ram Gaur the Tuar as 
lord of Pava. The earliest authentic account is about 1300, when it 
was seized by Chauhan Rajputs, who fled from Mewar before the 
forces of Ala-ud-dln KhiljT. The Musalman kings of Ahmadabad more 
than once attempted to take the fort, and failed. In 1484 Sultan 
Mahmud Begara, after a siege of nearly two years, succeeded in 
reducing it. On gaining possession, he added to the defences of the 
upper and lower forts, and for the first time fortified the plateau, 
making it his citadel. In spite of its strength, it was captured through 
treachery in 1535 by the emperor Humayun. In 1573 it fell into 
the hands of Akbar. In 1727 it was surprised by Krishnajl, who 
made it his head-quarters, and conducted many raids into Gujarat. 
Sindhia took the fort about 1761; and Colonel Woodington cap- 
tured it from Sindhia in 1803. In 1804 it was restored to Sindhia, 
with whom it remained until 1853, when the British took over the 
management of the Panch Mahals. 

Pavugada. — North-eastern taluk of Tumkur District, Mysore, 

PA WAY An town 8i 

detached from the rest, and ahiiosl entirely .surrounded by Madras 
territory. It Hes between 13° 53' and 14° 21'' N. and 77° o' and 
77° 31' E., with an area of 524 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 61,241, compared with 53,377 in 1891. The tdh/k contains 
one town, Pavugada (population, 2,840), the head-quarters; and 144 
villages. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 99,000. 
The Penner flows across the east. The west and north of the hiluk 
abound in rocky hills, many crowned with fortifications, among which 
the needle-peak of Nidugal (3,772 feet) is conspicuous from all the 
surrounding country. The separate tract east of the Penner is also 
bounded by hills. The soil is sandy, and contains many talpargis 
or spring-heads. In some parts wells have to be cut through a soft 
porous rock. Some tobacco and cotton are grown. Iron and rice 
are exported. 

Pawapuri {Apdpapuri, the ' sinless town '). — Village in the Bihar 
subdivision of Patna District, Bengal. Population (1901), 311. Maha- 
vlra, the last of the Jain patriarchs, is said to have been buried in the 
village, which possesses three Jain temples and is a great place of 
pilgrimage for the Jains. 

Pawayan Tahsil.— North-eastern tahsil of Shahjahanpur District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Pawayan, Baragaon, 
and Khutar, and lying between 27° 55' and 28° 29' N. and 79° 53' and 
80° 23' E., with an area of 591 square miles. Population fell from 
249,222 in 1891 to 223,359 in 1901, the decrease being the largest 
in the District. There are 653 villages and one town, Pawayan 
(population, 5,408), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,90,000, and for cesses Rs. 46,000. 
The density of population, 378 persons per square mile, is the lowest 
in the District. In the north lies an area of about 52 miles of forest. 
The Gumti, which is here a small stream, crosses the centre of the 
tahsli, and on either bank extends an arid stretch of sandy soil with 
malarious swamps in the low-lying places. The western portion is 
more fertile, and there is some good land between the forest and 
the central tract. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 360 
square miles, of which 114 were irrigated. Wells supply three-quarters 
of the irrigated area, and swamps or Jhlls most of the remainder. 

Pawayan Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Shahjahanpur District, United Provinces, situated in 28° 4' N. and 
80° 5' E., on the steam tramway from Shahjahanpur city to Mailani 
in Kherl District. Population (1901), 5,408. Pawayan was founded 
early in the eighteenth century by a Raja whose descendants still 
own a large estate in the neighbourhood. It contains a fahslli, 
a inunsif'i, a dispensary, and a branch of the American Methodist 
Mission. Pawayan is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 


income of about Rs. i,8oo. The bazar is poor and straggling, but 
there is some trade in sugar and brass vessels. The tahslli school 
has 158 pupils. 

Payagale. — Central township of Pegu District, Lower Burma, lying 
between 17° 15' and 17° 57' N. and 96° \' and 96° 54' E., with an 
area of 1,236 square miles. It contains one town, Pegu (population, 
14,132), the head-quarters of the District; and 242 villages. The 
township head-quarters are at Payagale, a village of 882 inhabitants 
on the railway, about 14 miles north of Pegu. The population was 
69,822 in 1891, and 93,209 in 1901. The western half of the town- 
ship is hilly and sparsely populated, and, though the eastern half is 
a level plain crowded with villages, the average density is only 
75 persons per square mile. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 296 
square miles, paying Rs. 4,73,300 land revenue. 

Payanghat (' below the Ghats ') (r). — The name given by the Musal- 
mans of Bijapur to the low country in the east of the present Mysore 
State, conquered by them from Vijayanagar in the seventeenth century. 

Payanghat (2). — The name given in Berar to the valley of the Purna 
river, the principal affluent of the Tapti. The valley lies between 
the Melghat or Gawllgarh hills on the north and the Ajanta range 
on the south, and varies in breadth from 40 to 50 miles. Except the 
Puma, which is the main artery of the river system, scarcely a stream 
in this tract is perennial. 

Peddapuram Subdivision. — Subdivision of Godavari District, 
Madras, consisting of the PeddapurAiM and Ramachandrapuram 

Peddapuram Taluk. — Inland taluk in Godavari District, Madras, 
lying between 16° 57' and 17° 39' N. and 81° 55' and 82° 20' E., with 
an area of 504 square miles. The population in 1901 was 167,020, 
compared with 161,841 in 1891. It contains one town, Peddapuram 
(population, 12,609), the head-quarters; and 200 villages, of which 
Jaggammapeta is an important local market. The demand on account 
of land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,89,000. The 
taluk has a good system of irrigation from reservoirs, and the Lingam- 
parti tank, the largest in the District, irrigates 5,000 acres. Along the 
Veleru, a perennial stream running through it, is some exceptionally 
fertile soil. The greater part of the taluk, however, is covered with 
hills and jungle. The chief crops are rice, oilseeds, rdgi, pulses, and 
(in the Yeleru valley) sugar-cane. 

Peddapuram Town.— Head-quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Godavari District, Madras, situated in 17° 5' N. and 82° 8' E. 
Population (1901), 12,609. Peddapuram was formerly the head- 
quarters of a large zavunddri ; and the ruins of a fort stand on the 
hill overlooking the town. The place possesses a large weekly market, 



and a high school maintained Ijy the American Evangelical Lutlieran 
Mission. Local affairs are managed by a \}\\\ovi panchdyat. 

Pegu Division. — Division of Lower Burma, lying between 16^^ 19' 
and 19° 11' N. and 94"^ 41' and 96° 54' E., and comprising the greater 
part of the strip of country that stretches between the Irrawaddy and 
the Sittang rivers from 19° N. to the Gulf of Martaban, and, with 
the exception of a single township, w^iolly to the east of the former 
river. It is well watered and, except for the area covered by the 
Pegu Yoma at the northern end, forms one expanse of plain land 
of extraordinary fertility. 

The population of the Division at the last four enumerations was : 
(1872) 848,077, (1881) 1,215,923, (1891) 1,523,022, and (1901) 
1,820,638. Its head-quarters are at Rangoon, and it contains the 
following Districts : — 


Area in 
s>(}uare miles. 


Land revenue, 

. •,903-4, ^ 

in thousands 

of rupees. 

Rangoon City 
Tharrawaddy . 
Prome . 



2,9 '5 

484,8 1 1 






* Exclusive of river areas. 

Of the inhabitants in 1901, 1,541,388 were Buddhists, 65,534 
Musalmans, 152,191 Hindus, 38,274 Christians, and 21,709 Animists, 
the majority of the remainder being Sikhs and Jews. According to 
race, 1,330,816 were Burmans, 103,420 Karens, and 78,576 Takings. 
The density was 139 i)ersons per square mile, or a little over three 
times as great as that of the Province as a whole. In 1901 the 
Division contained 8 towns and 6,817 villages. Of the towns only 
two — Rangoon (234,881), and Promk (27,375) — had a population 
exceeding 20,000. Rangoon lies at the southern end of the Division, 
and there is no other commercial centre. In Prome and Pegu, 
however, it possesses towns of historical interest, once the capitals 
of two dynasties of the past, that of the Pyus in the north and 
that of the Talaings in the south, and both the scene of warlike 
operations during the first and second Burmese Wars. Syriam, close 
to and west of Rangoon, also has a place in the history of Burma 
as a famous emporium of olden days, and one of the first of the 
ports at which the people of the country entered into commercial 
relations with the strangers who were destined centuries later to be 
their conquerors. 


Pegu District. — District in the Pegu Division of Lower Burma, 
lying between i6° 54' and 18° 25' N. and 95° 57' and 96° 54' E., with 
an area of 4,276 square miles. It was formed in 1883 by taking the 
townships of Kyauktan, PaungHn (now Hlegu), Pegu (now Kawa and 
Payagale), and Pagandaung (now Thabyegan) from Hanthawaddy Dis- 
trict. In 1895 the Pyuntaza and Nyaunglebin townships were transferred 
from what was then Shwegyin District to Pegu, and Kyauktan and 
Thabyegan were returned to Hanthawaddy. Pegu is separated on the 
north from Toungoo District by the Kun stream, which rises in 
the Pegu Yoma and flows in an easterly direction into the Sittang 
river, which in its turn constitutes the eastern boundary of the District. 
The Pegu Yoma forms the western boundary ; and on the south the 
District is separated from Hanthawaddy District by an irregularly 
demarcated line drawn along a spur of the Yoma eastward to the 
Gulf of Martaban. 

Portions of the hilly country in the north-west are picturesque, but 

the greater part of the District and more than nine-tenths of the in- 

, habited area have little claim to attention except 

aspects ^'^^"^ ^^^ agricultural or commercial standpoint. East 

of the railway line, as far as the horizon, lies a vast 

almost treeless plain, green in the rains, but very bare during the hot 

months of the year. 

The only rivers of importance are the Pegu river, the Ngamoyeik or 
Pazundaung creek, and the Sittang. The first rises in the Yoma, and 
after flowing past Pegu town in a south-easterly direction, finally enters 
the Rangoon or Hlaing river near its mouth. The second, also rising 
in the Yoma, has a southerly course through the south-west corner 
of the District, and flows into the Rangoon river close to where the 
Pegu river enters it. The Sittang river is navigable by boats of 
shallow draught, but is extremely dangerous in its lower reaches 
owing to an enormous bore, which rushes up it from time to time 
from the Gulf of Martaban. To avoid this, and at the same time to 
facilitate trade with Rangoon, the Pegu-Sittang Canal was constructed. 
This canal extends from Myitkyo, on the Sittang, as far west as Tawa, 
on the Pegu river, and forms one of the most distinctive geographical 
features of the District. Other streams which flow from the Yoma 
eastwards into the Sittang, draining the Nyaunglebin or northern 
subdivision, are the Kyeingyaung, the Yenwe, and the Pagangwe, 
which are perennial, but navigable only during the monsoon. 

The rocks of the Pegu Yoma, which occupies the north-western 
portion of the District, consist of what have been called Pegu groups 
of beds, and are miocene in age. The rest of the District is alluvial, 
the type of alluvium being that common to the whole of the delta. In 
the west, where the land is high, laterite exists in large quantities. 


'J'he forests are of two kinds, evergreen and deciduous. The former 
may be either closed or open in character. The closed evergreen 
forests consist of lofty trees of Sterculia, AUnzzia, Pierocarpus, 
Dlpterocarpus, Parashorea, and Hopea species, under which are 
smaller growths. Among palms are found Livisto/iia, Arenga saccha- 
rifera, Areca, and Calamus. Climbers and creepers are very numerous 
and varied, and the flowering shrubs are beautiful. The open ever- 
green forests are found along the eastern base of the Pegu Yoma 
as far down as Rangoon. They are less damp than the closed forests, 
and contain fewer creepers and climbers. Chief among their con- 
stituents are Dipterocarpiis iaevis, D. alatus, Parashorea stellata^ 
Pentace burinannica, Albizzia lucida, Lagerstroeniia tomentosa, and 
Dillenia parvijlora. The deciduous forests are either open or mixed 
in character. The open are of two kinds, in forests and low forests. 
The former are found chiefly on laterite, and are characterized by in 
{Dipterocarpus iuberciilatus), Dillenia pi/lcherrinia, Shorea leiccobohya, 
Pentacme siamensis, Xylia dolabriforniis, Lagerstroeniia macrocarpa, 
and Strychnos Nux-vomica. The low forests are similar to the /// 
forests, but this tree itself is generally absent, and the ground is 
covered with long stiff grass. The mixed forests are of several kinds. 
The lower mixed forests are not unlike the low forests, but are without 
the dense grass covering and the vegetation characteristic of laterite 
soil ; the upper stretches, typical of the Pegu Yoma, contain teak in 
abundance, and also Xylia dolabriforniis, Dillenia parviflora, three 
species of Sterculia and Terminalia, Lagerstroeniia Flos Reginae, 
L. tomentosa, and Homalium tomentosum. Bordering the rivers are 
savannah forests similar to those described under Hanthawaddv 
District. Orchids abound everywhere'. 

The jungles are the habitat of all the beasts common to Lower 
Burma. In the month of December, before the crops are reaped, 
herds of wild elephants come down from the hills and do great 
damage ; bison, hog, and many kinds of deer are also met with, 
but their numbers annually decrease owing to their destruction by 
man, and they are gradually retiring into the hills fiirther from the 
haunts of civilization. 

The climate of Pegu is very similar to that of Rangoon, but, 
probably owing to its proximity to the hills, the rainfall is heavier. 
The average fall for five years is 119 inches recorded at Pegu town, 
and 114 inches farther north at Nyaunglebin. It is probably rather 
higher in the hilly areas to the west, and lower in the extreme north 
near the Toungoo border. Large tracts of country are unprotected 
by embankments, and on this account are liable to be flooded by 
the overflow of the Sittang. 

' See Kuiz, rrcliininaiy Forest Rcpoi of Pegu ^Calcutta, 1875'. 


Legends relate that the town of Pegu was founded by Thamala 
and Wimala, two sons of the ruler of the Taking kingdom of Thaton 
in A. D. 573, the elder son, Thamala, being conse- 
crated king. From the commencement of the 
historical period Pegu was an important centre of Taking rule, in 
the end taking the place that had been occupied by the ancient 
capital of Thaton, and during the closing years of their independence 
the Takings were generally known as Peguans. Little is known of 
the history of Pegu until the beginning of the fifteenth century. The 
Takings were constantly at war with the Burmans, and for two cen- 
turies and a half were under Burmese dominion. In 1385 Razadirit, 
one of the greatest of the Taking kings, came to the throne. This 
monarch was constantly engaged in hostilities, but it is recorded that 
before his death in 1422 he found time to devote himself to religion 
and good works and to the reorganization of his kingdom. In the 
year 1534 Pegu was besieged by Tabin Shweti, of Toungoo, and 
ultimately captured. Tabin Shweti reigned ten years in Pegu, and 
is entitled to the merit of having built numerous pagodas in the 
District. On his death one of his generals, Bayin Naung, who took 
the name of Sinbyumyashin (* the lord of many white elephants '), 
made himself master of the whole of the Sittang Valley. Cesare de' 
Federici, who visited Pegu in 1569, wrote of this monarch : — 

' The emperor has twenty-six tributary crowned kings and can 
bring into the field a million and a half of men, and, as they will eat 
anything, they only want water and salt, and will go anywhere. For 
people, dominions, gold and silver, he far excels the power of the 
great Turk in treasure and strength.' 

On his death in 1581 Sinbyumyashin's enormous territories, larger than 
any ever ruled over by a monarch in Burma, were left to his successor, 
but with the removal of his controlling hand the empire soon resolved 
itself into a congeries of minor principalities. Pegu fell into the hands 
of the Burmans of Ava at the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
and it was not till 1740 that the Taking dynasty was revived. Seven- 
teen years later the town was once more and finally captured from the 
Takings by the famous Alompra (Akungpaya). The conqueror had 
from the first made the eclipse of Pegu by his newly founded town 
of Rangoon one of the main features of his policy, and with the final 
defeat of the Takings the old capital ceased to play a part of any 
importance in history. 

During the wars with the British, Pegu was the scene of several 
encounters. After the capture of Rangoon in 1824 the Burman 
commander-in-chief retired here, but the inhabitants rose against 
him and handed the place over to the British. During the second 
Burmese War the town was more stubbornly defended. Early in 



June, 1852, the defences were cairit'd by a force under Major Cotton 
and Commander Tarleton, R.N., the granaries were destroyed, and 
the guns carried away. The Talaing inhabitants, however, at whose 
request the expedition had been sent, were unaljle to hold the town 
after the withdrawal of the British, and the Burmans reoccupied the 
pagoda platform and threw up strong defences along the river. In 
November of the same year a force under Brigadier McNeill was 
sent from Rangoon to retake the town, which object it accomplished 
after considerable fighting and with some loss. Most of the troops 
were withdrawn, a garrison of about 500 men with a few guns under 
Major Hill being left. Hardly had the main force retired, however, 
when the Burmans attacked this garrison, which was not ultimately 
relieved till a considerable force had been dispatched against the 
enemy. As the result of the war, the province of Pegu passed to the 
British and became, with the previously acquired provinces of Arakan 
and Tenasserim, the Chief Commissionership of Lower Burma. Ran- 
goon has ever since been the capital of the Province. 

The District contains several interesting pagodas, most of which 
are situated either in or close to the capital. - At Payagyi, 10 miles 
north of Pegu on the railway, is a large pagoda which was first built 
by Nga Ya Gu, the son of a minister of one of the early Peguan 
kings. The building has long been in bad repair, but is now being 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 110,875, 
(1881) 184,815, (1891) 237,594, and (1901) 339,572. These figures 
show a rapid growth, only exceeded in Lower Burma 
by the increase in Myaungmya and Pyapon Districts. 
The distribution according to townships in 1901 is 
following table : — 


shown in the 


Area in square 

Number of 



Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 




Payagale . 
Pynntaza . 

District total 













+ 11 
+ 31 
+ 33 
+ 129 
+ 64 








+ 43 


The great majority of the inhabitants are rural. The District con- 
tains one municipal town, Pegu, its head-quarters, and one other 
urban area containing more than 5,000 inhabitants, Nyaunglebin, 
administered by a town committee. As is the case everywhere in 


Burma, Buddhists (305,500) form the majority, but the number of 
Hindus (18,600) is not insignificant. The latter are for the most 
part Tamil-speaking cultivators from Madras. The number of Chris- 
tians is 9,000, and of Musalmans 4,800. Burmese is the language 
of 83 per cent, of the population. Karen is freely spoken, but only 
a small proportion of the Talaings use their ancestral tongue. 

The Burmans, with a total of 223,500, outnumber all other nationali- 
ties. The Talaings are, however, about 45,000, and the Karens about 
33,000 in number. In 1901 no less than 68 per cent, of the total 
population were directly supported by agriculture. Of these, 4,580 
were dependent on taungya (shifting hill cultivation) alone. 

There are 8,885 native Christians. The American Baptist Mission 
works among the Karens, the chief centres of Christian population 
being Pado, in the neighbourhood of Nyaunglebin, and Intagaw, in the 
Kawa township ; but the Pwo Karens near Hlegu and the Sgaws in 
the Payagale township continue as a rule in the Buddhist faith. There 
is a Roman Catholic mission at Nyaunglebin, with a good brick church. 
In 1901, 6,982 persons were returned as belonging to the Baptist 
communion, the number of Roman Catholics being only 257. It is 
probable that a good many of the Roman Catholics of the District 
omitted to give their denomination at the Census, and thus were 
included in the total of those whose sects were not returned. 

Pegu consists for the most part of a vast alluvial plain, formed by 
the deposits of the Sittang and Pegu rivers and their tributaries. The 
soil is a rich loam, and generally fertile. In the 
north of the District, where cultivation is com- 
paratively recent, the crops are particularly plentiful ; but in the 
southern townships of Hlegu and Kawa the soil is beginning to show 
signs of exhaustion, and fallows are not infrequent. The easternmost 
part of the Kawa township has been quite recently formed by fresh 
deposits of the Sittang, and the soil here is so impregnated with salt 
that cultivation is not on the whole very profitable. To the advantages 
of a fertile soil are added those of a plentiful supply of rain. In fact 
cultivation sometimes suffers from an excess of water ; and owing to 
the uniform flatness of most of the District, when a flood does occur 
its effects are apt to be very far-reaching. 

There is little that calls for special note in connexion with the 
systems of cultivation in the District. In growing rice the ordinary 
methods obtaining in Lower Burma are followed. Ploughing is begun 
in June, shortly after the beginning of the rains, and transplanting, 
where in vogue, is generally completed by the end of August. In 
most parts, however, transplantation is not largely adopted. Sowing 
broadcast is much cheaper ; and under favourable conditions of soil 
and rainfall this method is found to produce a sufficiently good crop, 



so that, as a rule, transplanting from nurseries is undertaken only in 
order to fill up gaps where sowing has not proved successful. The 
practice of pruning the rice by cutting off the tops of the blades before 
the plant comes into ear seems to be not uncommon. Reaping is 
begun in December, and the harvest is generally completed by the end 
of January. 

The following are the main agricultural statistics for 1903-4, in 
square miles : — 


Total area. Cultivated. 


Hlegii .... 
Kawa .... 







- 2,557 




In 1903-4 rice occupied 1,133 square miles, out of a total cultivated 
area of 1,160 square miles, or as much as 98 per cent. Several 
varieties are produced, that known as figaseiti being the commonest 
in all parts, but the preference for any particular kind seems to depend 
on little else than custom or the whim of the cultivator. After rice, 
the principal food-crops are mangoes, plantains, and jack-fruit. Nearly 
11,000 acres are under orchards, about a quarter of this being given 
up to plantains. Some maize and tobacco and a little sesamum are 
grown, but these products are of no great importance. 

In most parts of the District the area under cultivation is being 
rapidly extended. It stood at 908 square miles in 1891, 1,141 square 
miles in 190 1, and 1,160 square miles in 1904. It has, in fact, been 
found necessary of late to depute several officers for the sole purpose 
of making grants of land. The new ground on the bank of the Sittang 
furnishes the most important field for their work. Farther north, too, 
lie large tracts of hitherto unoccupied jungle land, which are being 
taken up and cleared for cultivation. Apart from the increase in area, 
cultivation does not seem to be very progressive. Little or no improve- 
ment can be noted in the quality of the seed, nor have attempts to 
introduce new varieties met with any success. The working of the 
Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts is said to be not 
altogether successful in Pegu. In spite of the precautions that are 
taken to prevent large areas of land from falling into the hands of 
speculators, the annual statistics show a large increase in the landlord 

Cattle-breeding is not carried on to any great extent. Most of the 
cattle used by cultivators are imported from the Shan States or Upper 
Burma. There are, however, in the north a few low-lying tracts where 


the ground is too deeply flooded for cultivation, and here buffalo- 
breeding becomes an occupation of some importance. In the Pyuntaza, 
Nyaunglebin, and Hlegu townships no difficulty is experienced in feed- 
ing cattle. In the Payagale and Kawa townships, however, where 
cultivation has practically monopolized the whole available area, more 
grazing grounds are urgently wanted. From the Nyaunglebin sub- 
division herds of buffaloes have to be sent after the ploughing season 
to other parts of the District, where they can be more conveniently fed 
till the following rains. There is no sheep or goat breeding. 

The District is so well provided with water that no system of irriga- 
tion is necessary. There are over a hundred fisheries in different parts, 
especially in the flooded tracts of Pyuntaza and Kawa, which are leased 
annually for sums ranging from Rs. loo to Rs. 5,000; but the fishing 
industry nowhere assumes the importance that it does in the Irrawaddy 

With the exception of a few areas reserved for fuel-supply in the 
middle of the cultivated plains, the whole of the forest system lies to 
the west of the railway, covering the broken and hilly 
country on the slopes of the Pegu Yoma. South of 
the Kodugwe stream is an extensive evergreen tract, which is one 
of the most remarkable and beautiful features of the District, but it 
produces only the pyinma {Lagerstroeinia Flos Reginae) and t hit si 
{Melanorrhoea usitaid) among trees which have a marketable value. 
In the deciduous forests are found teak, pyingado {Xylia do/abriformis), 
kanyijibyu {Dipterocarpus alati/s), kokko {Albizzia Lebbek), and in 
{Dipterocarpus ti/bera/lafus), together with other trees, many with 
gorgeous flowers and luxuriant foliage. Savannah forests are still to 
be found near the mouth of the Sittang, but they are fast disappearing, 
to give place to cultivation. The few patches of scrub jungle east of 
the railway line contain large quantities of a creeper {Fara^nerin 
glandiiliferd) which yields a good quality of rubber. Minor products 
of more importance commercially, however, are wood-oil, shaw fibre 
{Sterci/lia), bamboo, and cane. A quantity of timber is floated down 
the Sittang, and thence, through the Pegu-Sittang Canal, into the Pegu 
river. Of the whole area of 4,276 square miles comprised within the 
District of Pegu, 2,057 square miles are included in 'reserved' forests, 
and about 500 square miles are classed as ' unprotected ' forest land. 
The gross forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to 2 lakhs. 

Very few minerals are known to exist. A prospecting licence to 
search for gold in the bed of the Sittang river has recently been 
granted to a European firm, who have large interests in the petroleum 
trade in Upper Burma. It remains to be seen whether their operations 
will have any result in that portion of the stream that skirts Pegu 
District. Laterite is plentiful in the west, and clay is extensively used 


for pottery work at Pegu and Tawa, and for the manufacture of bricks, 
of which a large and constant supply is required for pagoda building. 

In a District so largely devoted to rice cultivation, only domestic 
industries or those ancillary to agriculture provide employment for 
any considerable number of the people. Pegu was 
in former days famed for its pottery, but the article connnunicatfons. 
well-known throughout the country as the ' Pegu jar ' 
is not now manufactured to any extent in the District. The industry 
is still carried on, however, in Pazunmyaung, on the bank of the 
Sittang, and in the town of Pegu itself. Here, in the dry season, pots 
of the ordinary domestic kinds are made in large quantities for local 
use, the glazing material being brought from the hills east of the 
Sittang ; but the ceramic art is no longer practised with the skill and 
assiduity of former days. 

Mention must be made of the silver-work of Pegu. There is nothing 
peculiar in the methods of the silversmiths ; but special care and 
dexterity appear to be applied to the work, and prizes have been won 
by local artificers at exhibitions. In parts of the Hlegu township, 
where the thinbyu reed is readily obtainable, mat-making is practised. 
Carts and agricultural tools are made in quantities, but only for the 
local market. In spite of the vast quantity of paddy produced, the 
rice-milling industry is practically non-existent. There are two small 
mills at Pegu and one at Nyaunglebin, but the rice-mills of Rangoon 
are so easily and quickly reached that the profits of local millers are 
barely sufficient to make it worth their while to work regularly. 
Timber-sawing affords employment for some of the inhabitants of the 
western part of the District, and there are steam saw-mills at Pegu, 
at Nyaunglebin, and at Madauk on the Sittang river. 

The enormous plain which occupies the eastern portion of the 
District is entirely given up to the cultivation of rice, which finds its 
market in Rangoon. During the months of January and February the 
resources of the railway are severely strained to convey the mountains 
of paddy that are stacked at the stations north of Pyinbongyi. The 
ceaseless roll of carts, the volumes of dust, and the babel of voices 
make existence intolerable in any of these so-called railway towns 
during the busy season. The rice from the southern part of the 
District is generally conveyed by the numerous waterways that con- 
verge at Rangoon. On the east side the canal south of Minywa is 
alive with traffic at this time; and the lock at Tawa, where boats 
congregate to await the tide in the Pegu river, presents at night an 
animated and striking scene. On the south-western side of the District 
the Pazundaung creek, which flows into the Hlaing at Rangoon, carries 
down almost all the rice from the Hlegu township. The great majority 
of the population are engaged in some way in agriculture, even traders 



and others striving hard to get possession of land. The monopoly of 
commerce is practically in the hands of Chinamen and natives of India, 
though in the large bazars of the District are to be found numbers of 
Burman silk- and cloth-dealers. 

The main railway line connecting Rangoon with Mandalay runs 
through the heart of the District, making a parabolic curve eastward, 
with its vertex at Nyaunglebin. There are at present nineteen railway 
stations in the District. A railway from Pegu to Martaban is in 
process of construction. The road from Pegu to Rangoon runs almost 
parallel to the railway, but inclines more to the west, until it reaches 
the Prome road at Taukkyan, in Hanthawaddy District, where it turns 
south. The road to Toungoo in the north runs more or less parallel 
to the railway, and numerous cross and feeder roads connect the main 
lines of communication, such as the Dabein-Hlegu, the Nyaunglebin- 
Pazunmyaung, the Pegu-Thanatpin, and the Payagyi-Payabyo roads. 
The most important highways are maintained from Provincial funds. 
Embankments are plentiful in the low-lying parts of the country. In 
the south-eastern portion of the District communications are far from 
perfect, for, with the exception of two short highways in the Kawa 
township, there are absolutely no means of reaching in the rains an 
enormous area which is being brought under cultivation west of the 
mouth of the Sittang, a great deal being new land formed from deposits 
swept by the river from the eastern or Thaton bank. The lengths of 
metalled and unmetalled roads are, respectively, 140 and 68 miles. 
Further means of communication are provided by the Pegu-Sittang 
Canal, which runs from Myitkyo on the Sittang to Tawa on the Pegu 
river, and by a branch running through the Thanatpin lake into the 
old town moat of Pegu. Along this canal ply a number of launches. 

The District is divided into two subdivisions, Pegu and Nyaung- 
lebin, of which the former consists of three townships, Hlegu, Kawa, 

, , . . and Payagale, and the latter of two, Nyaunglebin 
Administration. , „ _ r^y ^r , , • uj- • • 

and Pyuntaza. 1 he Nyaunglebm subdivision is 

ordinarily in charge of an Assistant Commissioner, while the Pegu 
subdivision and each of the five townships are administered by Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners or viyo-oks. There are still eleven circle 
thugyis in the District, the remnant of the old revenue-collecting 
agency. These petty revenue officials have, however, for the most 
part been superseded by ynvathugyis (village headmen). The village 
headmen number 531 ; and on their efforts in helping the police, 
collecting the revenue, and generally assisting District officers prac- 
tically depends the success of the administration. Except where there 
is a circle thiigyi., village headmen are paid by commission on the 
amount of revenue they collect, and they are also authorized to take 
fees in petty cases which they are empowered to decide. At head- 


quarters are a treasury officer, an akunzvun (in charge of the revenue), 
and a superintendent of land records, with a staff of 6 inspectors and 
51 surveyors. The District forms a Public Works division, with sub- 
divisional officers at Pegu, Nyaunglebin, and Thanatpin ; it is also 
conterminous with the Pegu Forest division. 

Till recently the administration of justice in the District, as in the 
Pegu and Irrawaddy Divisions generally, was in a transitional stage. 
The Commissioner was Sessions Judge and the Deputy-Commissioner 
was District Judge, but the greater part of their judicial work was done 
by Additional Judges. The Pegu and Toungoo Districts now, how- 
ever, form the charge of a whole-time District Judge with head- 
quarters at Pegu, and Pegu with Hanthawaddy forms the charge of 
the Hanthawaddy Divisional and Sessions Judge, whose head-quarters 
are at Rangoon. There are no whole-time subdivisional judges ; but 
the township courts of Hlegu and Kawa are presided over by a judge 
at Kawa, the Nyaunglebin and Pyuntaza township courts by a judge at 
Nyaunglebin, and the township court of Payagale by a judge at Pegu, 
who also exercises Small Cause Court powers in Pegu town. As might 
be expected, where the country is so fast coming under cultivation, the 
majority of civil cases are brought on assignments of land. In spite 
of the elaborate precautions taken to prevent large areas from falling 
into the hands of adventurers and speculators, the annual statistics 
prove that the landlord class has obtained a firm hold. The large 
number of undefended suits is an index of the hopelessness of resis- 
tance to the mortgagee's claims, and on the survey maps it is easy to 
trace the huge holdings that have passed into the hands of cosmo- 
politan capitalists. Chinamen and Chettis, Chulias and Coringhis, 
generally clothed with an innocent alias, apply, and often success- 
fully, for large grants of land, which others are hired to clear and 
cultivate. Thus, not only old, but large portions of new, land have 
already passed into the possession of absentee landlords. 

Violent crime is not so common in Pegu as in the neighbouring 
Districts of Hanthawaddy and Tharrawaddy. Freedom from this 
form of criminality is said to be due to the fact that there are prac- 
tically no toddy-trees in the District, and that liquor is not so readily 
procurable as in some localities. During the year 1902, with a popu- 
lation of nearly half a million, not a single murder was reported. 
Dacoity is rare, and in the cases that do occur the accused are often 
found to belong to other Districts. Catde-theft is undoubtedly com- 
mon, though the statistics compare favourably with those of the sur- 
rounding areas ; but the presence of cattle-thieves is not surprising, 
when one considers the completely unprotected state in which cattle 
are allowed to roam for months at a time, before and after they are 
wanted for ploughing. 

G 2 



Up to 1883 Pegu formed part of Hanthawaddy (or Rangoon) 
District. The southern portion of the present District, including the 
whole of the Pegu subdivision and a further area subsequently trans- 
ferred to Hanthawaddy, was cadastrally surveyed in the years 188 1-3, 
and was brought under settlement in 1882-4. Ii"^ 1^95 the District 
boundaries were altered ; Kyauktan and Thabyegan in the south were 
relinquished to Hanthawaddy, and the Pyuntaza (now called the 
Nyaunglebin) subdivision was added in the north. The settlement 
of the southern areas was for a period of fifteen years, and had there- 
fore to be revised during 1898— 1900. This resulted in a net increase 
in revenue of Rs. 3,00,000, or nearly 26 per cent. The northern sub- 
division, with the exception of the Bawni circle, was settled in the year 
1897-8. The highest rate of land revenue at present paid is Rs. 4 per 
acre. This is levied in about 38 villages in the Kawa township, in the 
middle of the large plain east of the railway line, which is not reached 
by the tidal waters of the Sittang. In some of the circles which lie 
farther east, and in the Hlegu and Payagale townships, the rates vary 
between Rs. 3-8 and Rs. 2, though in the newly cleared and hilly lands 
west of the railway line they are as low as Rs. 1-4. In the northern 
subdivision, too, the prevailing rates are between Rs. 2 and Rs. 3-8, 
but on the whole the average assessment there is lower, in consequence 
of the distance from the Rangoon market. The overflow of the Sit- 
tang and the vagaries of the hill streams, especially in the vicinity 
of Pyuntaza village, are responsible for the low rates fixed in some of 
the northern circles. It was originally intended that the Bawni circle, 
which lies in the township of Pyuntaza, should be settled along with 
the rest of the Nyaunglebin subdivision in the season 1897-8. Owing, 
however, to the extraordinarily rapid extension of cultivation, it was 
discovered that the cadastral maps were already out of date by the 
time the Settlement officer arrived, and it was decided to postpone 
the settlement till a resurvey had been effected. The rate assessed 
on garden land is generally Rs. 2-8 per acre in the southern sub- 
division, and Rs. 2 in the northern ; but somewhat higher charges are 
made on land under tobacco, dani palm, or miscellaneous cultivation. 
The average assessment on land under cultivation of all kinds is a 
fraction over Rs. 2 per acre, and the average size of a holding is 
26-6 acres. 

The following table shows the growth of the revenue in recent years, 
in thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue 
Total revenue 






The other main items besides land revenue in 1903-4 were capitation 
tax (Rs. 3,49,000), excise (Rs. 4,14,000), and fisheries (Rs. 2,10,000). 

The District cess fund, administered by the Deputy-Commissioner 
for the provision of various local needs, yielded an income of 
Rs. 2,39,000 in 1903-4; and the expenditure was Rs. 2,42,000, of 
which about half was devoted to public works. The only munici- 
pality in the District is Pegu, but Nyaunglebin is administered by 
a town committee. 

The police are under the control of the District Superintendent. 
Each subdivision is in charge of an Assistant Superintendent, and 
each township has an inspector. The subordinate civil police force 
consists of 8 head-constables, 40 sergeants, and 249 constables. The 
military police force numbers 3 native officers, 26 non-commissioned 
officers, and 196 sepoys, who are employed to escort prisoners and 
treasure and to patrol the District in the dry season. The number 
of headmen is 531, and these, with a large number of 'ten-house' 
gaungs, constitute the rural police. There are sixteen police stations 
and one outpost. Military police are posted at the subdivisional and 
township head-quarters, and at two other outlying police stations. 
There is no jail in the District. Convicts are sent to the Rangoon 
Central jail to serve out their sentences. 

The proportion of literate persons is high. It amounted in 1901 
to 45 per cent, in the case of males and 9-2 per cent, in the case 
of females, or 28-5 per cent, for both sexes together. The number 
of pupils was 8,740 in 1891, 16,446 in 1901, and 18,361 in 1903-4, of 
whom 3,705 were girls. In the last year there were 20 secondary, 
281 primary, and 363 elementary (private) schools in the District. 
These figures include both lay and monastic seminaries. The public 
institutions are under the supervision of three deputy-inspectors of 
schools. The work of one of these is confined to the Karen schools. 
The Burman schools were till recently under the charge of a single 
deputy-inspector, but a second officer of this class has been appointed 
recently. The Karen schools form a considerable proportion of the 
total. The only institution worthy of special note is the Pegu muni- 
cipal school. Local fund expenditure on education amounted, in 
1903-4, to Rs. 43,800, of which Rs. 37,600 came from the District 
cess fund, and Rs. 6,200 from municipal funds. The Provincial 
expenditure was Rs. 5,100. 

The District contains two hospitals with 52 beds, and three dis- 
pensaries. Excluding the figures for two of the latter, 24,316 cases 
were treated in 1903, of whom 2,120 were in-patients, and 1,121 opera- 
tions were performed. Of a total income of Rs. 13,500, municipal 
funds provided Rs. 6,700, the District cess fund Rs. 1,500, and town 
funds Rs. 2,800. 


Vaccination is compulsory only within municipal limits. In 1903-4 
the number of successful vaccinations was 10,167, representing 30 per 
1,000 of the population. 

[H. Des Voeux, Settlement Report (1899); W. E. Lowry, Settle- 
ment Reports (1900 and 1901); W. V. Wallace. Settlement Report 

Pegu Subdivision. — Subdivision of Pegu District, Lower Burma, 
consisting of the Hlegu, Kawa, and Payagale townships. 

Pegu Town. — Head-quarters of Pegu District, in the Pegu Division 
of Lower Burma, situated in 17° 20'' N. and 96° 29' E., on the railway, 
47 miles north-east of Rangoon. The town stands on the banks of 
a river bearing the same name, and partly on a ridge which forms the 
extremity of a long spur of the Pegu Yoma. Its population at each of 
the last four enumerations was: (1872) 4,416, (1881) 5,891, (1891) 
10,762, and (1901) 14,132. Its increase during the past thirty years 
has been steady, though it seems probable that it will in the future owe 
its reputation rather to its antiquity and historical associations than 
to its commercial importance. The majority of the inhabitants are 
Buddhists. Pegu, doubtless, originally derived its importance from the 
fact that it was situated at the highest navigable point of a perennial 
river, which is easily reached from all points of the rich rice plain 
on the east, and which flows directly past Rangoon, the principal 
port of the country. In far distant times the rising ground where 
the town now stands was almost certainly situated on the sea-coast ; 
and the legend goes that Hanthawaddy {a term originally applied 
to a considerable tract of country in the neighbourhood of Pegu) 
was the name given to the spot where the geese {hintha), like the 
ark on Mount Ararat, first settled after the retirement of the 

Pegu has for centuries been connected with the Talaings or Peguans, 
who from the commencement of the historical period till comparatively 
modern times were the dominant nationality in the southern portion of 
what is now Burma. Thaton was the earliest known Talaing capital. 
It is said to have been in a.d. 573 that the Peguans established them- 
selves in Pegu. The town first became known to the outside world, 
however, in the days when the Toungoo dynasty of Burmese kings 
ruled in it. It is described by European travellers in the sixteenth 
century as of great size and magnificence. Cesare de' Federici, who 
visited it in the latter portion of the sixteenth century while it was 
the capital of the Toungoo kings, has given a detailed description of its 
glories. When Alaungpaya overran and conquered Pegu in the middle 
of the eighteenth century, he employed every means to efface all traces 
of Talaing nationality, destroying every house in the town and dis- 
persing the inhabitants. His fifth son Bodawpaya, who succeeded in 


1 78 1, pursued a different policy, and in his time the seat of the local 
government was for some time transferred from Rangoon to Pegu. The 
town figured in both the first and second Burmese Wars. In the 
second War it was twice captured, and was the scene of a good deal of 

The present town consists of two portions, the areas within and with- 
out the four walls by which the old town was encompassed. In general 
plan and configuration it may be compared more closely to Ava than to 
any of the other royal residences. On the top of the walls, which are 
about 40 feet wide, are built the residences of the European oflicials, 
and under the shade of the mango and other fruit trees which stud 
the slopes there is a delightful retreat from the surrounding heat and 
glare. Between the western face of the old fortifications and the river 
are the bazar and main portion of the native town, while in the centre 
of the enclosure, towering to a height of 324 feet, is the golden cone of 
the Shwemawdaw pagoda, one of the most remarkable buildings in 
Burma, and an object of greater veneration to the Takings than even 
the Shwedagon pagoda at Rangoon. The shrine owes nothing to its 
site, but in symmetry of design and beauty of structure it is perhaps 
unrivalled. Along the roads in this part of the town are the principal 
Government buildings and private houses, the courthouses, municipal 
office, circuit-house, and school, while across the river stretches an iron 
double-girder bridge. This was originally intended for Akyab town, but 
fortunately for Pegu it was found too short for the purpose for which 
it was required there. Farther to the west, beyond the railway, and 
about a mile from the river, is a gigantic recumbent image of Buddha 
called the Shinbinthalyaung, one of the most interesting monuments 
in the Province. 

The management of the town has, since 1883, been vested in a 
municipal committee. Between 1890 and 1900 the income of the 
municipality averaged Rs. 48,000 yearly. In 1903-4 it was Rs. 1,14,000. 
Fees from bazars and slaughter-houses yield about half of the receipts, 
while direct taxation, including levies on account of conservancy 
and lighting, produces nearly Rs. 20,000. The expenditure, which 
during the decade averaged Rs. 51,000, amounted to Rs. 1,01,000 in 
1903-4. The chief objects on which money is expended are edu- 
cation (Rs. 4,000), conservancy (Rs. 16,000), public works (Rs. 22,000), 
hospital (Rs. 20,000), and general establishment (Rs. 8,000). The 
principal problems that the committee has to solve are the provision 
of a water-supply, the setting on foot of an adequate scheme of con- 
servancy, and the improvement of the drainage system. The first of 
these is very difficult. The water of the river is not fit for drinking 
purposes, and that obtained from shallow wells, sunk in different places, 
has, on analysis, been found impregnated with noxious germs. An 


attempt was made to form a reservoir in a portion of the old moat, 
and to this end several houses were expropriated from sites on its 
banks ; but this scheme was doomed to failure, owing to the discovery 
of impurities in the moat water. The town, which has in many parts 
a subsoil of laterite, and slopes gently down to the banks of the river, 
has a good natural drainage, but this requires much artificial assistance 
in the congested portions near the bazar. The masonry drains at 
present existing are inadequate, and a considerable outlay will be 
needed for their extension and improvement. 

The bazar claims notice as being the hive round which the native 
inhabitants swarm from the first break of dawn until long after midday. 
The main portion of the building consists of five sheds, with brick walls 
and shingle roof of little architectural value. It is perhaps due to their 
proximity to the river that these buildings have escaped for so many 
years destruction by fire. Next to the bazar the favourite rendezvous 
is the bank of the canal which has been constructed to join the main 
Sittang Canal near Thanatpin. The traffic along this waterway is so 
great that, in their efforts to crush competition and continue a mono- 
poly, the principal launch-owners have even conveyed passengers 
without charge. In the carrying trade by steam-launch, by Chinese 
sampan, and by the long Chittagong boat, which is now so popular 
in the delta, the Burman has practically ceased to compete. The 
town possesses no industries of importance. Pottery and silver-work 
are turned out, and two small rice-mills are at work. By no means 
the least important institution in the town is the hospital, with 36 
beds. It is built in three blocks, one for the public generally, a 
second for the offices and storerooms, and a third for members of 
the military police. 

Pegu River. — River of Burma, rising in the north-west corner 
of Pegu District on the eastern slopes of the Pegu Yoma, and flowing 
into the Rangoon River immediately east of the city of Rangoon, 
about 180 miles from its source. For the first two-thirds of its course 
it runs in a south-easterly, and for the last third in a south-westerly 
direction. The only town of importance on its banks is Pegu, one 
of the ancient capitals of the Talaing kingdom, now the head-quarters 
of a District, where the stream is crossed by a substantial iron bridge. 
Below Pegu the river is connected with the Sittang river on the east by 
the Pegu-Sittang Canal, a navigation channel constructed to facilitate 
communication between Rangoon and the Sittang. From Pegu to 
Rangoon the stream flows through a dead level in a winding channel 
of no great breadth. At its mouth the river is about a mile wide. 
Here it separates the eastern portion of the city of Rangoon from 
Syriam, which was once fiimous as a trading centre and has of late 
shown signs of regaining a portion of its lost commercial importance. 


The Pegu river is navigable for light-draught steamers as high as Pegu 
during the rainy season. 

Pegu-Sittang Canal. — A navigable canal in Pegu District, Lower 
Burma, running generally north-east and south-west and connecting 
the Pegu and Sittang rivers. The canal was originally begun in 
1873-4, and consisted in the first instance of the length from Tawa, a 
few miles due south of the town of Pegu, to a village called Minywa. 
This section joined the Paingkyun and Kyasu creeks ; and, as the 
former flows into the Pegu river and the latter into the Sittang, these 
rivers were thus connected. In 1878 a lock was built at Tawa, while 
the Kyasu creek was closed and the canal was extended to Myitkyo, 
a village in Pegu District on the Sittang, where another lock was 
built. A branch running from Pegu south-eastwards into the main 
canal at Pagannyaungbin was dug in 1883. The length of the canal 
from Tawa to Myitkyo is 38 miles, and the length of the branch is 
8 miles. Tolls are levied for the use of the canal by boats or rafts, 
yielding about a lakh in 1903-4. The total capital expenditure on 
the work has been about 44 lakhs. A lock at Minywa, 14^ miles 
from Tawa, is under construction, which, when completed, will esta- 
blish communication with the Sittang 47 miles below Myitkyo. In 
the construction of the canal advantage was taken of the numerous 
natural channels which existed. The canal is consequently very 
irregular in trace and in bed-width. There are four escapes, at Kyaik- 
padaing, at Pagannyaungbin, at Minywa, and at Abya. The canal is 
protected from the floods of the Sittang by the Pagaing embankment, 
which extends from Myitkyo to Tazon, and from the floods of the 
Pegu river by the Pegu river embankment. A third barrier, from 
Zwebat to Moyingyi on the Pagaing embankment, forms a reservoir 
which will serve to feed the canal in the dry season. The Pagaing 
embankment incidentally renders cultivation of a large area of land 
possible, and the Zwebat-Moyingyi embankment will bring further 
areas under the plough. 

Pegu Yoma. — A chain of hills in Burma, to the east of the 
Irrawaddy, running north and south and forming the watershed be- 
tween the Irrawaddy and the vSittang, from about 17° 20' to 20° N. 
Like the last-named river, its northern end is situated in the District 
of Yamethin and its southerly limit lies a little to the north of 
Rangoon ; in fact it may be said to extend, in the shape of undu- 
lating ridges, into Rangoon itself, one of its final mounds being 
crowned by the great golden Shwedagon pagoda, which lies to the 
north of the city. The total length of the chain is about 200 miles ; 
and its crests separate the Districts of Magwe, Thayetmyo, Prome, 
Tharrawaddy, and Hanthawaddy on the west from those of Yamethin, 
Toungoo, and Pegu on the east. From its eastern slopes flow the Pegu 


river and several of the tributaries of the Sittang, while to the west it 
sends down no stream of importance, but its more southerly hills hold 
the springs of the various watercourses that swell the volume of the 
Myitmaka or Hlaing river, upon the banks of which Rangoon is built. 
The Yoma is of no great height, its loftiest peak being only about 
2,000 feet above the level of the sea, but it is steep and rugged. Its 
geological structure is simple. The beds composing it have been 
thrown into gentle broad synclines and anticlines, and their sands and 
shales probably overlie conformably the Nummulitics on the eastern 
slopes of the Arakan Yoma. A portion of the range is no doubt 
of miocene age, but it is probable that representatives of other geo- 
logical groups are present in it. The forests are rich in teak and other 
valuable timber, the bulk of which is floated down the Myitmaka to 
Rangoon. The inhabitants of the Yoma are for the most part Karens ; 
but in the north, on the borders of Prome, Magwe, Toungoo, and 
Thayetmyo Districts, there are a few villages of Chins, the only known 
representatives of the race in any strength to the east of the Irrawaddy. 
They appear to have come from the Arakan Yoma, but the date of 
their migration is doubtful. 

Pehowa. — Ancient town and place of pilgrimage in the Kaithal 
tahsll of Karnal District, Punjab, situated in 29° 59' N. and 76° 35' E., 
on the sacred SaraswatI river, 16 miles west of Thanesar. It lies 
in Kuruksh?:tra, and its name is a corruption of the Sanskrit 
Prithudaka, the ' pool of Prithu,' the son of Raja Vena. Two inscrip- 
tions dating from the end of the ninth century a.d., found at Pehowa, 
show that it was then included in the dominions of Bhoja and his son 
Mehendrapala, kings of Kanauj. The more important inscription 
records the erection of a triple temple to Vishnu by a Tomar family ; 
but no traces of ancient buildings remain, the modern shrines having 
been erected within the last century. After the rise of the Sikhs to 
power Pehowa came into the possession of the Bhais of Kaithal, whose 
palace is now used as a resthouse ; but with Kaithal it lapsed to the 
British Government, and has since lost its importance, the population 
having decreased from 3,408 in 1881 to 2,080 in 1901. It is still, 
however, a place of pilgrimage ; and close to it are the temples of 
Pirthudakeshwar or Pirthuveshwar, built by the Marathas during their 
supremacy in honour of the goddess Saraswati (Sarsuti) and of Swami 
Kartik. The latter is said to have been originally founded before 
the war of the Mahabharata in honour of the war-god Kartaya. The 
town has a dispensary. 

Peikthano (or Paikthado). — Ancient capital in Upper Burma. 
See Magwe District. 

Feint. — Formerly a Native State, and now a tdhika of Nasik Dis- 
trict, Bombay, lying between 20° \' and 20° 32' N. and 73° 15' and 


73° 39' E., with an area of 432 square miles. There are 227 villages, 
but no town. The head-quarters are at Peint. The population in 
1901 was 53,392, compared with 59,601 in 1891. The density, 124 
persons per square mile, is below the District average. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 37,000, and for cesses Rs. 2,500. 
In both climate and appearance the tdluka resembles the Konkan. 
A maze of hill and valley, except for some rice-fields and patches 
of rough hill-side cultivation, Peint is covered over its whole area 
with timber, brushwood, and grass. Towards the north, a prominent 
range of hills passing westwards at right angles to the main line 
of the Western Ghats gives a distinct character to the landscape. 
But over the rest of the country ranges of small hills starting up 
on all sides crowd together in the wildest confusion, with a general 
south-westerly direction, to within 20 miles of the sea-coast, and 
divide the valleys of the Daman and Par rivers. The heavy rainfall, 
which averages 87 inches annually, the thick forest vegetation, great 
variations of temperature, and a certain heaviness of the atmosphere 
combine to make the tract unhealthy. The prevailing diseases are 
fever and ague. The population consists almost entirely of forest 
and hill tribes, nominally Hindus, poor and ignorant, unsettled in 
their habits, and much given to the use of intoxicating spirits. Their 
language is a corrupt Marathi, with a large mixture of Gujarat! words. 
A large part of Peint is well suited for grazing, and considerable 
numbers of cattle and sheep are exported. The chief products are 
timber of various kinds (including bamboos), rice, ndchni, oilseeds, 
beeswax, honey, stag-horn, and hides. 

The ruling family, by descent Rajputs of the Puar tribe, adopted 
many generations back the family name of Dalvi. A branch of the 
family embraced Islam in the time of Aurangzeb. During the Maratha 
supremacy the Peint estates were for a long period placed under 
attachment by the Peshwas. In reward for services rendered in 
1 818, the family were reinstated in their former position by the 
British Government. The last chief, Abdul Momin alias Lakshadir 
Dalpat Rao III, died in 1837, leaving only a legitimate daughter, 
Begam Nur Jahan. The State was placed under British management 
on the death of the last male chief, but the Begam was allowed a life 
pension of Rs. 6,000 a year, in addition to one-third of the surplus 
revenues of the State. On her death in 1878, the State finally lapsed 
to the British Government. Harsul, the former place of residence 
of the Begam, is situated in 20° 9' N. and 73° 30' E. 

Pempa La. — Pass in the State of Bhutan, situated in 2 7°39'N. and 

89° 15' E. 

Pen Taluka.— North-eastern tahtka of Kolaba District, Bombay, 
lying between 18° 28' and 18° 50' N. and 73° and 73° 22' E., with 


an area of 293 square miles, including the petty subdivision {petha) 
of Nagothana. It contains one town, Pen (population, 9,229), its 
head-quarters; and 198 villages. The population in 1901 was 76,559, 
compared with 74,516 in 1891. The density, 261 persons per square 
mile, is below the District average. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was 1-22 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The chief 
river is the Amba, of which the water is sweet and drinkable from 
June until September. The prevailing soils are reddish and black. 
A large area of tidal swamp is used as salt-pans. The climate is 
generally healthy. The annual rainfall averages 121 inches. 

Pen Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name in 
Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18° 44' N. and 73° 6' E., 
16 miles east-by-north of Alibag. Population (1901), 9,229. It has 
been a municipality since 1865, having an average income during' 
the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 14,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 15,500. Pen is connected with the Deccan by the Konkan road 
and the Bor Pass. Steamers from Bombay call daily at Dharamtar 
ferry on the Amba river, 5 miles distant ; and cargo boats up to 
50 tons burden come to Antora or Pen bandar, a mile and a half 
distant, at spring tides. The neap tide port. Bang bandar, is 4 miles 
below Pen. In 1903-4 the exports amounted to 3-2 1 lakhs and the 
imports to 3-70 lakhs. Pen is one of the two ports forming the Sakse 
(Sankshi) customs division. The water-works were constructed in 1876 
at a cost of Rs. 28,000. Pen contains a dispensary, a middle school, 
and five other schools. 

Pendhat. — Village in the Mustafabad tahsll of Mainpurl District, 
United Provinces, situated in 27° 21' N. and 78° 36' E., 29 miles 
north-west of Mainpurl town. Population (1901), 2,423. It is noted 
for the worship of Jokhaiya, a deity believed by the lower classes 
in the Doab to have great powers. Jokhaiya was a BhangT, who, 
according to tradition, fell in the war between PrithvvT Raj of Delhi 
and Jai Chand of Kanauj. The shrine is visited annually by thou- 
sands of pilgrims in the hope of obtaining offspring or an easy 

Pendur. — Town in the Malvan taluka of Ratnagiri District, Bom- 
bay, situated in r6° 3' N. and 73° 42' E. Population (1901), 5,364. 

Penganga. — River of Berar, having its source in the hills beyond 
Deulghat, on the western border of Buldana District, in 20° 31' N. and 
76° 2' E. After flowing in a south-easterly direction through this 
District and a portion of Akola, it forms the southern boundary of 
Berar, joining the Wardha which forms the eastern boundary of the 
province, at Jugad, in the south-eastern corner of Yeotmal District 
(19° 52' N. and 79° \\' E.). The course of the Penganga, from 
its source to the point where it joins the Wardha, exceeds 200 


miles in length ; and its principal tributaries are the Pus, the Arna 
and Aran, which unite before they flow into it, the Chandrabhaga, 
the Waghari, which displays on its banks a curious laminated forma- 
tion of Purana sandstone, and the Vaidarbha, which is the adjec- 
tival form of the name of the old kingdom of heroic times. All 
these tributaries flow into the Penganga from the north. 

Pennahobilam. — Village in the Gooty taluk of Anantapur District, 
Madras, situated in 14° 52^ N. and 77° 19' E. Population (1901), 
only three persons. It stands on the bank of the Penner river just 
where this turns eastwards for the first time. The channel at this 
point is narrow and rocky. The village is a sacred place of pilgrimage, 
as it contains a famous temple to Narasimha, the man-lion incarnation 
of Vishnu. This building is not architecturally remarkable, much of 
it being made only of plaster ; but it is most picturesquely situated 
on rising ground among fine trees, under which stand a crowd of 
buildings for the accommodatiom of pilgrims. 

Penner {Uttara Pindkini ox Northern Pennar). — River of Southern 
India which rises on Channarayan-betta, to the north-west of Nandi- 
droog in the Kolar District of Mysore, and running north-west past 
Goribidnur, enters the Anantapur District of Madras, at one point 
again crossing Mysore in a projecting part of the Pavugada taluk 
(Tumkur District). Some distance north of Anantapur it turns to the 
east, and passing through Cuddapah and Nellore Districts, falls into 
the sea below Nellore town. Its tributaries from Mysore are the 
Jayamangali, Chitravati, and Papaghni. 

In Anantapur District the Penner runs for the most part in a wide 
and sandy bed. It comes down in sudden freshes (generally in 
October and November) for two or three days at a time, and then 
as quickly dries up again. In Cuddapah it is joined on its right bank 
by the Chitravati, and the two streams have forced a passage for them- 
selves through the picturesque gorge of Gandikota, about a mile 
long and 300 feet deep. Lower down the Papaghni flows into it, and 
thereafter, as it winds through the Eastern Ghats, its course again 
becomes wild and beautiful. 

The river enters Nellore District through a narrow gap in the Ghats 
near Somasila, and thenceforward is for the first time rendered useful 
for irrigation. From Somasila to Sangam, a distance of 25 miles, 
it waters about 5,000 acres from inundation channels. At Sangam 
it is crossed by a dam, built in 1886, which is 4,072 feet long. On 
the left bank of the river this dam supplies the great Kanigiri reservoir, 
and thus irrigates 86,000 acres ; and a channel is being constructed 
from it on the right bank, which will fill the Nellore reservoir and 
water 10,000 more. Lower down the river, at Nellore town, a dam 
constructed in 1855 was repaired and brought into its present shape 


by Sir A. Cotton in 1858. The channels from it supply 64,000 acres 
of land on the right bank. Altogether the river irrigates 155,000 acres 
in this District, yielding a revenue of 31 lakhs, or about 5^ per cent, 
upon the capital of 61 lakhs which has been invested. The great 
Tungabhadra Project now in contemplation proposes to turn much 
of the surplus water of the Tungabhadra into the Penner, and this 
water would be utilized in Nellore District by constructing a high 
dam across the narrow gap at Somasila and forming a huge reservoir 
there. It is calculated that channels from this on both sides of the 
river would command 500,000 acres. 

The Penner is crossed by the Madras Railway at Penner u in 
Anantapur District, and by the East Coast section of the same rail- 
way at Nellore, near its mouth. 

Penukonda Subdivision. — Subdivision of Anantapur District, 
Madras, consisting of the Penukonda, Dharmavaram, MadakasTra, 
and HiNDUPUR taluks. 

Penukonda Taluk. — Southern taluk of Anantapur District, Madras, 
lying between 13° 54' and 14° 22' N. and 77° 20' and 78° 2' E., with 
an area of 677 square miles. The population in 1901 was 92,482, 
compared with 81,104 in 1891. The taluk contains 96 villages and 
one town, Penukonda ('big hill') (population, 6,806), the head- 
quarters, situated at the base of a large hill from which it takes its 
name. It is a place of historical importance, having become the 
capital of the fallen Vijayanagar monarch after his overthrow in 1565 
at the battle of Talikota. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,56,000. It is the most hilly tdhik in the 
District, and much of it is consequently quite unfit for cultivation. 
There is no black soil, and red and gravelly soils predominate. The 
unirrigated crops are cholam and horse-gram, and the irrigated staples 
are rice, sugar-cane, and some rdgi. The Penner river flows along its 
western and the Chitravati along its eastern boundary. At Bukka- 
patnam the latter river has been dammed up and a very large tank 
formed ; but the Penner is at present little utilized for irrigation, 
though a project for damming it has been proposed. Seven other 
tanks irrigate an area of more than 300 acres each. 

Penukonda Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and taluk 
of the same name in Anantapur District, Madras, situated in 14° 5' N. 
and 77° 36' E. Population (1901), 6,806. It is picturesquely placed 
at the foot of a steep, rugged, and strongly fortified hill over 3,000 feet 
in height, on the edge of an uneven plain which is flanked and crossed 
by smaller elevations of manifold shapes and sizes. From the hill, and 
connected with it at both ends, a semicircular line of massive fortifica- 
tions stretches out for some distance into the plain, and is washed on 
its southern side by a considerable tank. Partly within and partly 


outside this line is the present town ; and the remains of the ancient 
buildings on the lower ground, the towers and ?/iantapams on the 
slopes of the hill, and the trees and the green crops of the cultivated 
patches combine to make a very pleasant picture, while an air of 
departed greatness is afforded by the numerous ruins and fragments 
of carved stone which lie about on every side. The view of the town 
and its surroundings from the top of the hill is well worth the climb. 
According to tradition, it was founded by one Kriyasakti Udaiyar. 
The earliest inscription, on the northern gate of the fort, says that 
king Bukka I of Vijayanagar entrusted the province of Penukonda to 
his son Vira Virupanna Udaiyar, in whose time the fort was built. 
Thus at the very beginning of the rule of the Vijayanagar dynasty the 
place was the residence of one of its princes. It evidently continued 
for many years to be one of the chief strongholds of the line ; and 
Krishna Deva, the greatest of its kings, is declared to have made it 
his residence for a period. When the Vijayanagar power was over- 
thrown by the Musalmans at the battle of Talikota, it was to Penu- 
konda that the king fled, taking with him a few followers and the 
treasures of his palace. The place then became the head-quarters 
of what remained of the fallen empire. In 1585 the king moved to 
Chandragiri in North Arcot, and then Penukonda was ruled by local 
governors. In 1577 the Sultan of Bijapur blockaded it closely, but 
a part of his troops were bought off and the siege failed. In 1589 the 
Sultan of Golconda made another attempt on it, but it was most 
heroically defended by Jagadeva Raya, and the Musalmans eventually 
retreated. It fell at last to the Sultan of Bijapur in 1652, the governor, 
so says tradition, being bought over. About a century later it became 
part of the possessions of Morari Rao, and from him it was taken 
by Haidar All in 1762. It remained a Mysore possession, with some 
slight interruptions, until the death of Tipu in 1799. 

Of the many buildings in and about the town the most handsome 
is the Sher Khan mosque, which is constructed of dark green granite 
with black hornblende mouldings, and contains some excellent carving. 
Both this and another mosque in the fort have clearly been at one 
time Hindu temples. Babayya's dargdh is another well-known Muham- 
madan institution. Babayya, says the legend, was a prince who turned 
fakir. His spiritual guide gave him a twig, and told him to plant it 
wherever he stopped and to take up his residence at the place at which 
it budded. It budded at Penukonda, and the fakir and his following 
accordingly established themselves in the chief Hindu temple there. 
News of the sacrilege having been brought to the ruler of the place, 
he put the fakir and the priest of the temple through several tests 
to see which of them was the more holy man. In all of these the 
fakir was victorious, and the king accordingly allowed him to remain 


in the temple. The dargdh is now a great place of pilgrimage for 
Musalmans and the centre of an organization oi fakirs which extends 
throughout the Presidency. 

The chief Hindu building in Penukonda is the Gagana Mahal or 
palace. It is a handsome two-storeyed erection, possessing a tower 
from which a good view of the town is obtained. It is built in the 
same Hindu-Saracenic style which was also adopted in the palace 
buildings at Vijayanagar. 

Penukonda now contains the offices usual to the head-quarters of 
a subdivision and a taluk, and is the station of a District Munsif. 
It is also of some importance from a commercial point of view, and 
takes the lead in all intellectual matters in the South of the District. 

Perambakkam. — Village in the Conjeeveram taluk of Chingleput 
District, Madras, situated in 12° 51' N. and 79° 35' E., about 14 miles 
north-west of Conjeeveram town. Population (1901), 1,117. Near 
here occurred, in 1780, the defeat of Colonel Baillie's force by Haidar 
All, one of the most severe reverses that ever befell the British arms 
in India. Sir Hector Munro, the Madras Commander-in-Chief, had 
directed Baillie, who had 2,800 men with him, to meet him at Con- 
jeeveram. Haidar received intelligence of the plan and set out to 
intercept the force. Baillie thereupon sent to Sir Hector for reinforce- 
ments, and a detachment was dispatched to him which increased his 
strength to 3,700 men. Baillie, however, delayed too long in setting 
out, and was caught by the whole of Haidar's army in a defile studded 
with palmyra palms. Here his force was subjected to a cross-fire from 
fifty guns. Baillie and most of his officers were soon w^ounded, and 
eventually the blowing up of two tumbrils of gunpowder in the middle 
of the square in which the troops were formed started a panic. The 
British, however, concentrated the small remnant of their men on 
a little eminence, and repulsed thirteen attacks of the enemy during 
another hour and a half. Baillie then surrendered, and indiscriminate 
slaughter of the prisoners was prevented by French officers serving in 
Haidar's army. In the Darya Daulat, Haidar's garden-house on the 
island of Seringapatam, is a fresco depicting this defeat in quaint 
native fashion, an exploding tumbril being given a prominent place 
in the composition. This has been renovated and is in excellent 

[A full account of the battle is to be found in Lives of the Lindsays 
(vol. iii, pp. 250-60), contributed by the Hon. John Lindsay, who was 
one of those taken prisoners to Seringapatam.] 

Perambalur. — Northern taluk of Trichinopoly District, Madras, 
lying between 10° 55' and 11° 32' N. and 78° 40' and 79° 10' E., to 
the south of the Vellar river, with an area of 674 square miles. The 
head-quarters are at the village of the same name. The population in 


1901 was 204,257, compared with 195,006 in 1891. The number of 
villages is 128. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 4,01,000. The general aspect of the taluk is flat, 
except in the north-west, where the Pachaimalais, which separate it 
from Musiri, run for a short distance into it. From these hills, up to 
and along the banks of the Vellar, stretches a continuous plain of black 
cotton soil in which are large tracts of stiff black clay. In the southern 
portion the country is rocky, and the soil as a rule poor. Channels 
from the Vellar and its t\To affluents the Kallar and Chinnar irrigate 
a part of the taluk, but otherwise the irrigated crops depend upon tanks 
and wells. The annual rainfall is usually the highest in the District, 
averaging 39 inches. The area still available for cultivation is large, 
being nearly two-fifths of the total unoccupied area in the District. 

Perambur. — Suburb of Madras City. 

Periakulam. — Tdink and town in Madura District, Madras. See 

Periapatam. — Village in Mysore District, Mysore. Sec Piriya- 


Perim (i). — Island in Ahmadabad District, Bombay. See Piram. 

Perim (2). — Island in the narrowest part of the Straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb, situated in 12° 40' N. and 43° 23' E., distant from the 
Arabian coast nearly \\ miles, and from the African coast 11 miles; 
greatest length, 3^ miles ; average width, about i^ miles ; circumference 
(following the sinuosities of the coast-line), probably more than 30 miles ; 
area, 5 square miles. The island is administered along with Aden ; and 
the following account of it is taken from Captain F. M. Hunter's 
Statistical Account of Adeti (1877), pp. 17 1-2: — 

' Perim is called by the author of the Periplus the island of Diodorus, 
and is known among the Arabs as Mayoon. The formation is purely 
volcanic, and consists of long, low, and gradually sloping ranges of 
hills, surrounding a capacious harbour, about a mile and a half in 
length, half a mile in breadth, and with a varying depth of from 4 to 6 
fathoms in the best anchorages. The hills were formerly intersected 
by bays and indentations, which in the course of time have been filled 
up with coral and sand, and are now low plains, scantily covered with 
salsola, sea-lavender, wild mignonette, and other {)lants which delight 
in a soft sandy soil. These plains occupy about one-fourth of the 
island, and occur principally on the north side. *■ The rocks, which are 
all igneous, are nowhere exposed, save where they dip perpendicularly 
into the sea ; they are covered with a layer of volcanic mud of from 
two to six feet in depth, above which is another layer of loose boulders, 
or masses of black vesicular lava, in some places so thickly set as to 
resemble a rude pavement. The highest point of the island is 245 feet 
above the level of the sea. All endeavours to find water have failed, 
and but a scanty supply is procurable from the adjacent coasts. Water- 
tanks were constructed, which used to be chiefly supplied from Aden, 


io8 PERIM 

and it was proposed to erect reservoirs to collect the rain ; but, as at 
Aden, a condensing apparatus was found more suitable. 

' Perim has never been permanently occupied by any nation save the 
British. Albuquerque landed upon it in 15 13 on his return from 
the Red Sea, and, having erected a high cross on an eminence, called 
the island Vera Cruz. It wajs again occupied for a short time by the 
pirates who frequented the mouth of the Red Sea, and who amassed 
considerable booty by plundering the native vessels engaged in the 
Indian trade. They formed a project of settling here and erecting 
strong fortifications ; but having with much labour dug through the 
solid rock to a depth of fifteen fathoms in a fruitless search for water, 
they abandoned their design, and removed to Mary's Island, on the 
east side of Madagascar. 

' In 1799 Perim was taken possession of by the East India Company ; 
and a force under Lieutenant-Colonel Murray was sent from Bombay 
to garrison it, with the view of preventing the French troops, then 
engaged in the occupation of Egypt, from proceeding to India to effect 
a junction with Tipu Sultan. But it was deemed untenable as a military 
position, and the Straits were too . broad to be commanded by any 
batteries on the shore ; the troops were accordingly withdrawn. 

' In consequence of increasing steam navigation in the Red Sea, 
the attention of the Indian Government was directed to the necessity 
of a lighthouse to facilitate the navigation of the Straits. Perim was 
consequently reoccupied in the beginning of 1857. The lighthouse 
was completed in 1861, and quarters were also built for a detachment 
of native infantry, 50 strong, who garrison the island. The detachment 
is relieved every two months when practicable.' 

The garrison is still maintained on the island, which has a population 
(1901) of 1,236, and is provided with a police force of 10 men. The 
island contains a coal depot, a condenser producing annually 170,000 
gallons of water, and two lighthouses. An Assistant Resident with 
first-class magisterial powers is stationed here. 

[J. S. King, Description a?id History of the British Outpost of Perim 

Periyakulam Taluk. —Taluk in the Dindigul subdivision of 
Madura District, Madras, lying in the south-west corner of the Dis- 
trict, between 9° 32'' and 10° 15' N. and 77° ii' and 77° 51' E., with 
an area of 1,520 square miles. The population in 1901 was 320,098, 
compared with 263,253 in 1891. The taluk contains three towns, 
Periyakulam (population, 17,960), the head-quarters, Bodinayak- 
KANUR (22,209), ^'""d Uttamapalaiyam (10,009); and 83 villages. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 3,75,000, 2C(\^ peshkash from zaminddri estates to Rs. 32,000. The 
taluk, compared with other parts of the District, is sparsely populated. 
Through it flow the Vaigai and Suruli rivers, the latter of which receives 
the water of the Periyar Project, and the tributary rivers Teni and Vara- 
hanadl. On three sides it is hemmed in by hills — on the west by the 


Western Ghats, on the north by the Pahii Hills, and on the south 
by the smaller Andipatti range, A large valley running up into the 
Western Ghats, known as the Kambam Valley, is one of the pleasantest 
parts of the District. 

Periyakulam Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Madura District, Madras, situated in 10° 7' N. and 77° t^t^' E., 
on the banks of the Varahanadl, about 45 miles west of Madura city 
and 35 miles south-west of Dindigul. Population (1901), 17,960. 
The town was created a municipality in 1886. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 15,600 
and Rs. 15,400 respectively. In 1903-4 the income, most of which 
was derived from tolls and the taxes on land and houses, was 
Rs. 19,800; and the expenditure was Rs. 20,500. A scheme for 
supplying water is under consideration. The town is an important 
centre for the trade of the Kambam Valley, and, being distant only 
5 miles from the foot of the ghat by which the ascent is made to 
Kodaikanal, has a considerable trade in grain and fruit with that 
place and the adjoining hill villages. 

Periyar Project, The. — The Periyar ('big river') is a river of 
Southern India which rises on the western side of the range of the 
Western Ghats, and flows down to the Arabian Sea through the 
Native State of Travancore. The area through which it passes is 
within the zone of the heaviest rainfall in the south of India, and 
the crops there are grown by the aid of rain alone and without 
irrigation. Consequently the water of the Periyar ran uselessly to 
the sea. The great project to which the river has given its name 
consists in the construction of a huge masonry dam across the upper 
waters of the river, in Travancore territory, forming a great lake, and 
taking the water of this lake through a tunnel in the Western Ghats 
across to the opposite, or eastern, slope of that range to supply the 
arid areas which lie immediately below it on that side. In short, 
a great river which formerly ran down one side of a mountain range 
has been bidden to turn back and flow down the other side of it. 
The lake has an area of 8,000 acres in Travancore territory, which 
land has been rented from that State for Rs. 40,000 per annum. The 
height of the dam, which is situated in 9° 32' N. and 77^^ 7'' E., is 
173 feet, and it is made of solid masonry throughout. The tunnel 
through the Ghats is 5,704 feet long, and the open cutting or 
debouchure on the northern side which leads to it from the lake 
adds 500 feet to its length. The tunnel proper has an entrance 
sluice 12 feet wide by 7^ feet high and a gradient of i in 75, and 
is drilled through hard granite. The bed of the Vaigai river is 
utilized for some distance to carry the water to places where it 
is wanted, and the scheme includes in addition 36 miles of main 

H 2 


canal and 190 miles of distributaries. Up to 1904 the total capital 
cost of the Project had been 92 lakhs. 

The scheme was suggested as early as the commencement of last 
century, but was at first thought to be chimerical. It was revived 
in 1862, but it was not until 1882 that a beginning was seriously 
made with the preparation of estimates for the Project. The success 
of the work was mainly due to the efforts of Colonel Pennycuick, 
R.E., CLE., Chief Engineer to the Madras Government. It was 
carried to completion in the face of enormous difficulties, the country 
being entirely uninhabited and most inaccessible, the climate infected 
with deadly malaria, the difficulty of getting labour and transport 
immense ; and many of the technical problems involved in the work 
were of an entirely new description. The foundations of the dam 
were carried away time after time before they had proceeded suffi- 
ciently to be out of the reach of floods, and unforeseen difficulties 
and trials had constantly to be met and overcome. The official 
History of the Project, by Mr. A. T. Mackenzie, one of the staff of 
engineers who carried it to completion, gives a full account of the 
undertaking and the manner in which it was effected. 

It is too soon as yet to judge of the financial result of the Project, 
as the whole of the land commanded has not yet been prepared for 
' wet ' cultivation by the ryots and so cannot be supplied with water. 
At the end of 1903-4 the total area of land irrigated, including 
second-crop cultivation, was 142,000 acres, and the net revenue was 
Rs, 3,55,000, giving a profit of 3-86 per cent, on the capital outlay. 
The total cultivable area commanded by the main canal and its twelve 
branches is 121,000 acres, including land of all classes. The supply 
available is probably sufficient for only about 111,000 acres; and the 
most important problem that now remains is concerned with the 
extension of the system, by forming a second reservoir in which to 
store the surplus water which still runs to waste. 

Peruah. — Ruins in Malda District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
See Pandua. 

Perur. — Village in the District and taluk of Coimbatore, Madras, 
situated in 10° 58' N, and 76° 56' E,, 4 miles from Coimbatore city. 
Population (1901), 1,636. It is sometimes called Chidambaram, the 
prefix Mel (western) being added to distinguish it from Kll (eastern) 
Chidambaram in South Arcot. It contains a remarkable Hindu 
temple of great sanctity, which enjoys the distinction, shared by few 
others, that Tipii spared both its buildings and its lands. Fergusson 
considers' the date of the erection to be about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, as a figure of a soldier carrying a matchlock is 
sculptured in the porch in front of the shrine, and his costume and 
^ History of Indian Architecture (1876), pp, 370-2. 


the shape of his weapon are exactly those found in contemporary 
pictures of the wars of Aurangzeb or the early Marathas. He thinks 
that its completion was probably interrupted by the Musalman usurpa- 
tion in Mysore. The inner shrine is no doubt much older, as Perur 
is a place of ancient sanctity. The modern portion of the temple is 
richly sculptured, but in a coarse and clumsy fashion in rough material. 
For this reason the effect is disappointing, though the labour bestowed 
upon the building must have been immense. The priests declare 
that the principal portion of the temple was built by Alagadri Naik, 
brother-in-law of Tirumala Naik of Madura (1623-59). An annual 
festival in the Tamil month of Margali (December-January) is very 
largely attended by the people of this District and of Malabar. 

Peshawar District. — District in the North-West Frontier Province, 
and the most north-western of the regularly administered Districts in 
the Indian Empire. It lies between 33° 43' and 34° 32' N. and 
71° 22' and 72° 45' E., with an area of 2,611 square miles. It is 
bounded on the east by the Indus, which separates it from the Punjab 
District of Attock and from Hazara. On all other sides it is encircled 
by mountains, at the foot of which, except on the south-east, the 
administrative border runs. These hills are inhabited by independent 
tribes, whose territories lie in the following order, beginning from the 
north-east corner, where the boundary leaves the river. The Utmanzai, 
Gadun, Khudu Khel, and Salarzai clans are hamsdyas of the Bunerwals ; 
north of Mardan lies a small piece of Utman Khel country, west of 
which is Sam Ranizai sloping up to the Malakand pass ; beyond Sam 
Ranizai comes the main Utman Khel country, which stretches as far 
as Abazai on the Swat river ; the country between the Swat and Kabul 
rivers belongs to the B urban Khel, Halimzai, and Tarakzai Mohmands ; 
from the Kabul river to Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass is 
Mullagori country ; the hills between the Khyber and the Kohat Pass 
are the abode of the Malikdin and Aka Khel Afridis ; on both sides of 
the Kohat Pass live the tribes known as the Pass Afridis, beyond whom 
on the south side of the District live the Jowakis, whose territory runs 
nearly as far as Cherat. East of Cherat the range is inhabited by 
Khattaks, and forms, except for the Khwarra and Zira forest on the 
banks of the Indus, part of Kohat District. 

To the north-east great spurs, separated by intricate lateral valleys, 

run into the District, the Mora, Shakot, and Malakand passes leading 

through them into Swat. From the north-west out- 

lying ranges of the Hindu Kush run down the aspects. 

western border, loftily isolated peaks to the north 

merging in the confused and precipitous heights on the south bank of 

the Kabul river. South of the Khyber, the range sinks to a mean level 

of 4,000 feet, and at the point where the Kohat pass leads out of the 


District turns sharp to the east, and runs along the south border of the 
District to the Indus. On this side the highest points are Cherat, 
with an elevation of nearly 4,500 feet, and the Ghaibana Sir, 5,136 feet 
above sea-level. The shape of the District is an almost perfect ellipse, 
the greatest length of which is 86 miles, its greatest width being 
54 miles. 

Viewed from a height it appears a vast plateau, whose vivid expanse 
of green is in abrupt contrast with the grey precipitous slopes of the 
hills which rise sharply from its edge ; but its true formation is that 
of a huge basin into which flow the waters from the surrounding hills. 
This basin is drained by the Kabul river, which traverses the valley 
eastwards from its debouchure through a deep ravine north of the 
Khyber Pass until it falls into the Indus above Attock, Throughout 
its course the Kabul is joined by countless tributaries, of which the 
principal is the Swat ; and before they unite below Prang (Charsadda), 
about 24 miles from the hills, these two rivers cover the central part of 
the western plain with a perfect network of streams, as each divides 
into several channels. The Bara, flowing from the south-west, also 
enters the Kabul near its junction with the Swat ; and the united 
stream, now known as the Landai, or 'short river,' flows for 12 miles 
in a wide bed as far as Naushahra, and thence for 24 miles in a deep 
channel to the Indus. Other streams are the Budni, a branch of the 
Kabul ; and the KalpanI or Chalpani, the * deceitful water,' which, 
rising beyond the Mora pass, receives the drainage of the Yusufzai 
plain and falls into the Landai below Naushahra. 

Peshawar has not been geologically surveyed, but the general struc- 
ture of the District appears to be a continuation westwards of that 
of Hazara. Judging from partial traverses and from information of 
various kinds, one may say that its northern portions, including the- 
hiUs on the northern border, are composed, like Hazara, of meta- 
morphic schists and gneissose rocks. Much of the flat plain of 
Peshawar and Naushahra and the northern slopes of the Cherat 
hills consist of a great slate series with minor limestone and marble 
bands, some of which are worked for ornamental purposes. South 
of the axis of the Cherat range, the rest of the District is apparently 
composed of a medley of folded representatives of Jurassic, Cretaceous, 
and Nummulitic formations. They consist of limestones, shales, and 
sandstones of marine origin, the general strike of the rock bands 
being east and west across the Indus in the direction of Hazara and 
Rawalpindi. Much of the valley of Peshawar is covered with sur- 
face gravels and alluvium, the deposit of the streams joining the Kabul 
river on its way to the Indus ^ 

^ VV. Waagen, ' Section along the Indus from the Peshawar Valley to the Salt 
Range,' Records, Geological Survey of hidia, vol. xvii, pt. iii. 


The District, wherever irrigated, abounds in trees, of which the 
mulberry, skiska/fi, willow, tamarisk, and tallow-tree are the most 
common. In the drier parts scrub jungle grows freely, but trees are 
scarce, the palosi or bcr being the most frequent. The more common 
plants are Flacourtia sapida, F. sepiaria, several species of Greivia, 
Zizyphus nummtiiaria, Acaci'a Jacquemontii, A. leucophloea, Alhagi 
camelonoii, Crotalaria Burhia, Prosopis spicigera, several species of 
Tamarix, Akriitfji odoriim, Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, Peri- 
ploca aphy/Ia, Tecoma undulata, Lycmm europaeum, Wiiha?iia coagu- 
lanSy W. somnifera, Nafinoiiwps Ritchieana^ Pagonia, Trihdus, Peganum 
Harmala, Calligojium polygonoides. Polygonum aviculare, P. plebeju??i, 
Ritmex vesicaritis, Chrozophora plicata, species of Aristida, Anthi- 
stt'ria, Cenchrits, and Peufiisetum. 

The fauna is meagre. Mdrkhor are found on the Pajja spurs which 
jut out from the hills north of Mardan, and occasionally near Cherat, 
where uridl are also seen. Wolves and hyenas are now not numerous, 
but leopards are still met with, though rarely. The game-birds are 
those of the Northern Punjab ; and though hawking and snaring are 
favourite amusements of the people and many possess firearms, wild- 
fowl of all the migratory aquatic species, including sometimes wild 
swans, abound in the winter. Non-migratory species are decreasing 
as cultivation extends. The Peshawar Vale Hunt maintains an excel- 
lent pack of hounds, the only one in Northern India, and affords 
capital sport to the large garrison of Peshawar. There is fishing in 
many of the streams near the hills. 

The best time of the year is the spring, February to April being the 
months when the air, though cold, is bracing. December and January 
are the coldest months, when the temperature sometimes falls below 30° 
and the nights are intensely cold. During the hot season, from May 
to July, the air is full of dust-haze. Dust-storms are frequent, but, 
though thunderstorms occur on the surrounding hills, rain seldom falls 
in the plains. This season is, however, healthy, in contrast to the next 
months, August to October, when the hot-season rains fall and the 
air is stagnant and oppressive. After a fall of rain the atmosphere 
becomes steamy and fever is common. In November the days are 
hot owing to the clear atmosphere, but the nights are cold. Showers 
are usual during winter. Inflammatory diseases of the lungs and 
bowels and malarial fever are prevalent at this season. The principal 
disease from which the valley, and especially the western half of it, 
suffers is malarial fever, which in years of heavy rainfall assumes a 
very deadly form, death often supervening in a few hours. 

The annual rainfall varies from 11 inches at Charsadda to 17^ at 
Mardan. Of the total at Mardan, 11 inches fall in the summer and 
6i in the winter. The heaviest rainfall during the last twenty years 


was 35 inches at Mardan in 1882-3, and the Hghtest 3 inches at 
Katlang in 1883-4. 

The ancient Hindu name for the valley of Peshawar as it appears 
in Sanskrit literature is Gandhara, corresponding to the Gandarites 
of Strabo and the country of the Gandarae described 
^^ by Ptolemy, though Arrian speaks of the people 

who held the valley against Alexander as Assakenoi. Its capital, Peu- 
kelaotis (or Pushkalavati), is mentioned by Arrian as a large and 
populous city, captured by Hephaistion, the general of Alexander, 
after the death of its chieftain Astes. The site of Pushkalavati has 
been identified with Charsadda, where extensive mounds of ancient 
debris are still to be seen. The Peshawar and Kabul valleys were 
ceded by Seleucus to Chandragupta in 303 B.C., and the rock edicts 
of Asoka at Mansehra and Shahbazgarhi show that Buddhism had 
become the state religion fifty years later. The Peshawar valley was 
annexed by the Graeco-Bactrian king Eucratides in the second cen- 
tury, and about the beginning of the Christian era fell under the rule 
of the Kushans. It is to the intercourse between the Greeks and the 
Buddhists of this part of India that we owe the school of art known as 
Graeco-Buddhist, which in turn served as the source of much that is 
fundamental in the ecclesiastical art of Tibet, China, and Farther Asia 
generally. For it was in this District that the Mahayana school of 
Buddhism arose, and from it that it spread over the Asiatic continent. 
Buddhism was still the dominant religion when Fa Hian passed 
through in the fifth century a.d. Sung Yun, who visited Peshawar 
in 520, mentions that the Ephthalite king of Gandhara was at war 
with the king of Kabul ; but at the time of Hiuen Tsiang's visit in 
630 Gandhara was a dependency of Kabul. Buddhism was then 
falling into decay. 

Until the middle of the seventh century, epigraphic evidence shows 
that the population remained entirely Indian, and Hinduized rulers 
of Indo-Scythian and Turkish descent retained possession of Peshawar 
itself and of the Hashtnagar and Yusufzai plains. They were suc- 
ceeded by the so-called Hindu Shahis of Kabul or Ohind. In 979 
one of these, Jaipal, advanced from Peshawar to attack Sabuktagin, 
governor of Khorasan under the titular sway of the Samani princes ; 
but peace was effected and he retired. Nine years later Jaipal was 
utterly defeated at Laghman, and Sabuktagin took possession of 
Peshawar, which he garrisoned with 10,000 horse. On his death in 
998, his son Mahmud succeeded to his dominions, and, throwing off 
his nominal allegiance to the Samani dynasty, assumed the title of 
Sultan in 999. In 1006 Mahmud again invaded the Punjab; and 
on his return Jaipal's son and successor, Anandpal, attempted to 
intercept him, but was defeated near Peshawar and driven into 


Kashmir. But he was able to organize further resistance, for in 
1009 he again encountered Mahniud, probably at Bhatinda, on the 
Indus, where he met with his final overthrow. The Ghaznivid 
monarchy in turn fell before Muhammad of Ghor in 1181 ; and after 
his death in 1206 the provincial governors declared their indepen- 
dence, making the Indus their western boundary, so that the Pesh- 
awar valley was again cut off from the eastern kingdom. In 1221 the 
Mongols under Chingiz Khan established a loose supremacy over it. 
About the close of the fifteenth century, a great tide of Afghan immi- 
gration flowed into the District. Before Timur's invasion the Dilazaks 
had been settled in the Peshawar valley, in alliance with the Shalmanis, 
a Tajik race, subjects of the rulers of Swat. The Khakhai (Khashi) 
Afghans, a body of roving adventurers, w-ho first come into notice in 
the time of Timur, were treacherously expelled from Kabul by his 
descendant Ulugh Beg, whereupon they entered the Peshawar valley 
in three main clans — the Yusufzai, Gigianis, and Muhammadzai — and 
obtained permission from the Dilazaks to settle on a portion of their 
waste lands. But the new immigrants soon picked a quarrel with 
their hosts, whom they attacked. 

In 15 19 Babar, with the aid of the Dilazaks, inflicted severe punish- 
ment on the Yusufzai clans to the north of the District ; but before his 
death (1530) they had regained their independence, and the Dilazaks 
even dared to burn his fort at Peshawar. The fort was rebuilt in 1553 
by Babar's successor, Humayun, after defeating his brother Mirza 
Kamran, who had been supported against Humayun by the Ghorai 
Khel tribes (Khallls, Daudzai, and Mohmands), now first heard of in 
connexion with Peshawar. After his victory Humayun returned to 
Hindustan. On his departure the Ghorai Khel entered into alliance 
with the Khakhai Khel, and their united forces routed the Dilazaks 
and drove them out of the District across the Indus. The Ghorai 
Khel and Khakhai Khel then divided the valley and settled in the 
portions of it still occupied by them, no later tribal immigration 
occurring to dispossess them. 

The Khallls and a branch of the Mohmands took the south-west 
corner of the District; to the north of them settled the Daudzai; the 
remaining Mohmands for the most part stayed in the hills, but settlers 
gradually took possession of the triangle of land between the hills and 
the Swat and Kabul rivers ; the east portion of the District fell to the 
Khakhai Khel : namely, to the Gigianis and Muhammadzai, Hasht- 
nagar; and to the Yusufzai and Mandanrs^, Mardan and Swabi and 
the hill country adjoining. 

In the next century the Mandanrs were driven from the hills by the 
Yusufzai, and concentrated in the east portion of the Peshawar valley, 
whence they in turn expelled the Yusufzai. Peshawar was included in 


the Mughal empire dunng the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah 
Jahan ; but under Aurangzeb a national insurrection was successful in 
freeing the Afghan tribes from the Mughal supremacy. 

In 1738 the District fell into the hands of Nadir Shah; and, under 
his successors, Peshawar was often the seat of the Durrani court. On 
the death of Timur Shah in 1793, Peshawar shared the general dis- 
organization of the Afghan kingdom ; and the Sikhs, who were then in 
the first fierce outburst of revenge upon their Muhammadan enemies, 
advanced into the valley in 1818, and overran the whole country to the 
foot of the hills. In 1823 Azim Khan made a last desperate attempt 
to turn the tide of Sikh victories, and marched upon Peshawar from 
Kabul ; but he was utterly defeated by Ranjit Singh, and the whole 
District lay at the mercy of the conquerors. The Sikhs, however, did 
not take actual possession of the land, contenting themselves with the 
exaction of a tribute, whose punctual payment they ensured or ac- 
celerated by frequent devastating raids. After a period of renewed 
struggle and intrigue, Peshawar was reoccupied in 1834 by the Sikhs, 
who appointed General Avitabile as governor, and ruled with their 
usual fiscal severity. 

In 1848 the Peshawar valley came into the possession of the British, 
and was occupied almost without opposition from either within or 
without the border. During the Mutiny the Hindustani regiments 
stationed at Peshawar showed signs of disaffection, and were accord- 
ingly disarmed with some little difficulty in May, 1857. But the 
55th Native Infantry, stationed at Naushahra and Hoti Mardan, rose 
in open rebellion; and on a force being dispatched against them, 
marched off towards the Swat hills across the frontier. Nicholson 
was soon in pursuit, and scattered the rebels with a loss of 120 killed 
and 150 prisoners. The remainder sought refuge in the hills and 
defiles across the border, but were hunted down by the clans, till they 
perished of hunger or exposure, or were brought in as prisoners and 
hanged or blown away from guns. This stern but necessary example 
prevented any further act of rebellion in the District. 

Peshawar District contains 7 towns and 793 villages. The popu- 
lation at each of the last three enumerations was: (1881) 599,452, 

Population. ^^^91) 7ii,795> and (1901) 788,707- It increased 
by nearly 11 per cent, during the last decade, the 
increase being greatest in the Mardan tahs'il, and least in that of Nau- 
shahra. The District is divided into five tahslls, the chief statistics 
of which are given in the table on the next page. 

The head-quarters of each fahsll is at the place from which it is 
named. The chief towns are the municipality of Peshawar, the 
administrative head-quarters of the District and capital of the Pro- 
vince, Naushahra, Charsadda, Tangi, and Mardan. Muham- 



niadans number 732,870, or more than 92 per cent, of the total; 
Hindus, 40,183; and Sikhs, 11,318. The language of the people is 




w S 

Number of 





Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 




Pesliawar . 
Mardan . 

District total 












+ 9-7 
+ 7-4 
+ 20.5 
+ I0.6 
+ 7-3 







+ 10.8 


Peshawar is as much the home of the Afghans as Kabul, and hence 
we find that of the total population of the District 402,000, or 51 per 
cent., are Pathans. They are almost entirely dependent on agriculture. 
Their distribution is as above described. The Khattaks are the prin- 
cipal tribe in the Naushahra tahsil. Among these fanatical Pathans, 
the Saiyids, descendants of the Prophet, who occupy a position of 
great influence, number 24,000. In the popular phraseology of the 
District, all tribes who are not Pathans are Hindkis, the most 
numerous being the Awans (111,000). They are found only in the 
Peshawar and Naushahra tahstls, and besides being very fair culti- 
vators are petty traders as well. Gujars (16,000) and Baghbans 
(9,000) are other Hindkl agriculturists. These tribes are all Muham- 
madans. Of the trading classes, Aroras (17,000) and Khattris (13,000) 
are the most important, and the Parachas (carriers and pedlars, 7,000) 
come next. Of the artisan classes, Julahas (weavers, 19,000), Tar- 
khans (carpenters, 16,000), Lobars (blacksmiths, 8,000), Kumhars 
(potters, 8,000), and Mochis (shoemakers and leather-workers, 5,000) 
are the most numerous. The Kashmiris, immigrants from Kashmir, 
number 9,000. Of the menial classes, the most important are 
Nais (barbers, 9,000), Dhobis (washermen, 8,000), and Chuhras and 
Musallis (sweepers, 8,000). I'he MirasTs (4,000), village minstrels 
and bards, and the Ghulams (300), who are chiefly engaged in domestic 
service and appear only in this District, are also worth mentioning. 
Agriculture supports 60 per cent, of the population. 

The Church Missionary Society established its mission to the 
Afghans at Peshawar in 1855, ^"^ '""O^^ ^'^s branches at Naushahra 
and Mardan. It organized a medical mission in 1884, and in 1894 
founded the Duchess of Connaught Hospital. The Zanana Mission 
has a staff of five English ladies, whose work is partly medical and 
partly evangelistic and educational. The Edwardes Collegiate (Mission) 




School, founded in 1855, is now a high school with a collegiate de- 
partment attached. 

With the exception of the stony tracts lying immediately below the 
hills, the District displays a remarkable uniformity of soil : on the 
surface, light and porous earth with a greater or less 
intermixture of sand ; and below, a substratum of 
strong retentive clay. The only varieties of soil are due to variations 
in the depth of the surface earth, or in the proportion of sand mixed 
with it ; and with irrigation the whole valley is capable, almost without 
exception, of producing the richest crops. Sandy and barren tracts 
occur in some few localities, but they are of small extent, and bear an 
insignificant proportion to the total area. The spring harvest, which 
in 1903-4 occupied 70 per cent, of the total area cropped, is sown 
chiefly from the end of September to the end of January, and the 
autumn harvest chiefly in June, July, and August, though sugar and 
cotton are sown as early as March. 

The District is held almost entirely by communities of small peasant 
proprietors, large estates covering only about 153 square miles. The 
following table shows the statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, in square 
miles : — ■ 






Not available 



Mardan . 





















The chief food-crops are wheat (555 square miles), barley (287), and 
maize (231). Sugar-cane (32) and cotton (26) are also of some 
importance. The neighbourhood of Peshawar produces apricots, 
peaches, pomegranates, quinces, and other fruits in great abundance; 
and 8-62 square miles were under fruits and vegetables in 1903-4. 

The area cultivated at the .settlement of 1895-6 showed an increase 
of 7 per cent, in the previous twenty years, largely due to the extension 
of canal-irrigation in the Naushahra and Peshawar tahsils. Since 
1895-6 there has been a slight decrease in the cultivated area, which 
seems to show that the limits of the resources of the District in this 
respect have been reached. Little has yet been done towards improving 
the quality of the crops grown. Loans for the construction of wells and 
the purchase of plough cattle are readily appreciated by the people, 
and during the five years ending 1902-3 an average of Rs. 9,100 was 


advanced. In 1903-4 Rs. 6,460 was advanced under the Land 
Improvements Acts, and Rs. 5,420 under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

Wheeled carriages are common throughout the District, though there 
is much pack traffic mainly carried on bullocks, which are fine strong 
animals, much superior to those used in agriculture. Horses are not 
extensively reared in the valley. The Civil Veterinary department 
maintains a horse and seven donkey stallions, and the District board 
three pony and two donkey stallions. Large flocks of sheep and goats 
are owned by the border villages, which have extensive grazing rights 
on the stony plains at the foot of the hills. 

Of the total cultivated area of the District in 1903-4, 531 square 
miles or 40 per cent, were irrigated. Of these, 71 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, 453 from canals, and 7 from streams and tanks. 
In addition, 26-5 square miles, or 2 per cent., are subject to inundation. 
Well-irrigation is resorted to in the eastern half of the District wherever 
the depth of the spring-level allows. The District contains 6,389 
masonry wells worked with Persian wheels by bullocks, besides 5,121 
unbricked wells, lever wells, and water-lifts. The most important 
canals of the District are the Swat, Kabul, and Bara River Canals. 
The two first are under the management of the Canal department, the 
last named is in charge of the Deputy-Commissioner. The Michni- 
Dilazak canal, taking off from the left bank of the Kabul river, and the 
Shabkadar branch canal from the right bank of the Swat river, belong 
to the District board. The District also contains a large number of 
private canals, which are managed by the Deputy-Commissioner under 
the Peshawar Canals Regulation of 1898. 

There is ample historical evidence that in ancient times the District 
was far better wooded than it is now, and the early Chinese pilgrims 
often refer to the luxuriant growth of trees on hill-slopes now practically 
bare. The only forest at present is a square mile of military ' reserved ' 
forest ; but large areas of waste, in which the people and Government 
are jointly interested, have been declared ' protected ' forests. Of these, 
the most important is that known as the Khwarra-Zira forest in the 
south-east corner of the District. Fruit gardens and orchards are 
numerous, especially near Peshawar city. 

The District contains quarries of slate and marble, and kafikar is 
found in considerable quantities. Gold is washed in the Indus above 
Attock and in the Kabul river, but the yield is very small. 

Peshawar is noted for its turbans, woven either of silk or of cotton, 
with silk edges and fringes ; and a great deal of cotton cloth is pro- 
duced. Cotton fabrics, adorned with coloured wax, 
and known as ' Afrldi waxcloth,' are now turned out cnmmunkadons 
in large quantities for the European market. The 
principal woollen manufactures are felted mats and saddle-cloths, and 


blankets ; glazed earthenware of considerable excellence is made, and 
a considerable manufacture of ornamental leather-work exists. Copper- 
ware is largely turned out. Matting, baskets, and fans are made of the 

The main trade of the District passes through the city of Peshawar, 
and, though of varied and not uninteresting nature, is less extensive 
than might perhaps have been expected. In 1903-4 the value of the 
trade as registered was 182-5 lakhs, of which 68 lakhs were imports. 
The bulk of Indian commerce with Northern Afghanistan and the 
countries beyond (of which Bokhara is the most important), Dir, Swat, 
Chitral, Bajaur, and Buner, passes through Peshawar. The independent 
tribes whose territories adjoin the District are also supplied from it 
with those commodities which they need. Besides Peshawar city, there 
are bazars in which a certain amount of trade is done at Naushahra, 
Kalan, Hoti Mardan, Shankargarh, Tangi, Charsadda (Prang), and 
Rustam. The chief exports in 1903-4 were European and Indian 
cotton piece-goods, raw cotton, yarn, indigo, turmeric, wheat, leathern 
articles, manufactured articles of brass, copper and iron, salt, spices, 
sugar, tea, tobacco, and silver. 

The transactions of the Peshawar market, however, are insignificant 
when compared with the stream of through traffic from the direction of 
Kabul and Bokhara which passes on, without stopping at Peshawar, 
into the Punjab and Northern India. 

The main line of the North-Western Railway enters the District by 
the Attock bridge over the Indus, and has its terminus at Peshawar, 
whence an extension runs to Fort Jamrud. A branch line also runs 
from Naushahra through Mardan to Dargai. The District possesses 
157 miles of metalled roads, of which 40 are Imperial military, 93 Im- 
perial civil, 17 belong to the District board, and 7 to cantonments. 
There are 672 miles of unmetalled roads (23 Imperial military, 123 
Imperial civil, and 516 District board). The grand trunk road runs 
parallel with the railway to Peshawar and thence to Jamrud at the 
mouth of the Khyber Pass, and a metalled road from Naushahra 
via Mardan crosses the border from the Malakand pass into Swat. 
Other important roads connect Peshawar with Kohat, with Abazai, 
with Michni, with the Bara fort, and with Cherat. The Khyber Pass 
is the great highway of the trade with Kabul and Central Asia, and is 
guarded two days a week for the passage of caravans. The Indus, 
Swat, and Kabul rivers are navigable at all seasons, but are not much 
used for traffic. The Indus is crossed by the Attock railway bridge, 
which has a subway for wheeled traffic, and by three ferries. There 
are four bridges of boats and six ferries on the Kabul river and its 
branches, two bridges of boats and six ferries on the Landai, and three 
bridges of boats and twelve ferries on the Swat river and its branches. 


The District is divided for administrative purposes into five tahsih^ 
each under a tahsllddr and naih-tahsildar, except Peshawar, where 
there are a tahsllddr and two tiaibs. The tahsils 
of Mardan and Swabi form the Yusufzai subdivision, 
in charge of an Assistant Commissioner whose head-quarters are at 
Mardan, the home of the famous Corps of Guides. This officer is 
entrusted, under the orders of the Deputy-Commissioner, with the 
political supervision of Buner and the Yusufzai border. European 
officers with the powers of subdivisional officers are in charge of 
Peshawar city, and of the Charsadda and Naushahra tahsils. The 
Deputy-Commissioner is further assisted by an Assistant Commissioner, 
who is in command of the border military police. There are also three 
Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one of whom has charge of the District 
treasury. The District Judge and the Assistant Commissioner at 
Mardan have the powers of Additional District Magistrates. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
the criminal work of the District ; civil judicial work is under a District 
Judge, and both are supervised by the Divisional and Sessions Judge 
of the Peshawar Civil Division. The Assistant Commissioner, Mardan, 
has the powers of a Subordinate Judge, and in his civil capacity is 
under the District Judge, as also are two Munsifs, one at head-quarters 
and one at Mardan. There is one honorary Munsif at Peshawar. 
The Cantonment Magistrate at Peshawar is Small Cause Court Judge 
for petty civil cases within cantonment limits. The criminal work 
of the District is extremely heavy, serious crime being common. The 
Frontier Crimes Regulation is in force, and many cases are referred to 
the decision of councils of elders. Civil litigation is not abnormally 
frequent. Important disputes between Pathan families of note are, 
when possible, settled out of court by councils of elders under the 
control of the Deputy-Commissioner, The commonest type of civil 
suit is based on the claim of reversionary heirs to annul alienations of 
lands made by widows and daughters of deceased sonless proprietors, 
as being contrary to custom. 

The plain south of the Kabul river and the rich dodb between 
the Kabul and Swat rivers have always been under the control of 
the central government of the time, while the Khattak hills and the 
great plain north of the Swat and Kabul rivers have generally been 

In 1834 the Sikhs finally gained a firm hold on the doab and the 
tract south of the Kabul river. They imposed a full assessment and 
collected it through the leading men, to whom considerable grants 
were made. The Sikh collections averaged (>\ lakhs from 1836 to 
1842, compared with 5-I lakhs under the Durranis. These figures 
exclude the revenues of Yusufzai and Hashtnagar, which are also 


excluded from the first summary settlement, made in 1849-50, when 
the demand was 10 lakhs. Yusufzai was settled summarily in 1847 
and Hashtnagar in 1850. 

In 1855 a new settlement was made for the whole District. It gave 
liberal reductions in Peshawar, the dodl), Daudzai, and Naushahra, 
where the summary assessment, based on the Sikh demands, had been 
very high, while the revenue in Yusufzai was enhanced. The net 
result was a demand of less than 8 lakhs. This assessment was treated 
as a summary one, and a regular settlement was carried out between 
1869 and 1875, raising the revenue to 8 lakhs. The settlement worked 
well, particularly in those villages where a considerable enhancement 
was made, the high assessment acting as a stimulus to increased effort 
on the part of the cultivators. The revenue, however, was recovered 
with the greatest difficulty ; and the history of the settlement has been 
described as one continuous struggle on the part of the tahsilddr to 
recover as much, and on the part of the landowners to pay as little, of 
the revenue demand as possible. This was due to the character and 
history of the people, and does not reflect at all on the pitch of the 
assessment. The latest revision began in 1892 and was finished in 
1896. The chief new factors in the situation were the opening of the 
Swat and the Kabul River Canals, the development of communications 
in 1882 by means of the railway, the rise in prices, and the increase in 
prosperity due to internal security. Assessed at half the net ' assets ', 
the demand would have amounted to 23I lakhs, or Rs. 2-7-7 P^r 
cultivated acre. The revenue actually imposed was slightly more than 
II lakhs, an increase of about 2\ lakhs, or 28 per cent., on the former 
demand. Of the total revenue Rs. 1,89,000 is assigned, compared 
with Rs. 1,76,000 at the regular settlement. The incidence per culti- 
vated acre varies from Rs. 1-11-4 in Charsadda to R. 0-8-8 in 

Frontier remissions are a special feature of the revenue administra- 
tion. A portion of the total assessment of a border estate is remitted, 
in consideration of the responsibility of the proprietors for the watch 
and ward of the border. The remissions are continued during the 
pleasure of Government, on condition of service and good conduct. 

The collections of total revenue and of land revenue alone are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 


1 890-1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue . 





Peshawar City is the only municipality. Outside this local affairs 
are managed by a District board, whose income is mainly derived from 


a local rate. In 1903-4 the income of the board was Rs. 1,15,600, 
and the expenditure Rs. 1,21,000, public works forming the largest 

The regular pcjlice numbers 1,265 <^^f ^"^ ranks, of whom 210 are 
cantonment and 277 municipal police. There are 27 police stations 
and 20 road-posts. The police force is under the control of a Super- 
intendent, who is assisted by three European Assistant Superintendents ; 
one of these is in special charge of Peshawar city, while another is 
stationed at Mardan. 

The border military police numbers 544 men, under a commandant 
who is directly subordinate to the Deputy-Commissioner. They are 
entirely distinct from the regular police. The posts are placed at 
convenient distances along the frontier ; and the duty of the men is 
to patrol and prevent raids, to go into the hills as spies and ascertain 
generally what is going forward. The system is not in force on the 
Yusufzai border, as the tribes on that side give little or no trouble. 
The District jail at head-quarters can accommodate 500 prisoners. 

Since 1891 the population has actually gone back in literacy, and 
in 1 901 only 4 per cent. (6-5 males and o-i females) could read and 
wriie. The reason is that indigenous institutions are decreasing in 
number every year owing to the lack of support, while public in- 
struction at the hands of Government has failed as yet to become 
popular. The influence of the Mullas, though less powerful than it 
used to be, is still sufficient to prevent the attendance of their co- 
religionists at Government schools. The education of women has, 
however, made some progress. This is due in a large measure to 
the exertions of lady missionaries, who visit the zandnas and teach 
the younger women to read Urdii, Persian, and even English. The 
number of pupils under instruction was 1,833 in 1880-1, 10,655 ''"^ 
1890-1, 9,242 in 1900-1, and 10,036 in 1903-4. In the latest year 
there were 10 secondary and 78 primary (public) schools, and 
30 advanced and 208 elementary (private) schools, with 64 girls 
in public and 755 in private institutions. Peshawar city contains an 
unaided Arts college and four high schools. The total expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 61,000, to which District funds 
contributed Rs. 25,000, the Peshawar municipality Rs. 6,400, and 
fees Rs. 14,700. 

Besides the Egerton Civil Hospital and fcjur dispensaries in 
Peshawar city, the District has five outlying dispensaries. In these 
institutions there are 133 beds for in-patients. In 1904 the number 
of cases treated was 202,793, including 2,980 in-patients, and 9,290 
operations were performed. The income amounted to Rs. 27,600, 
which was contributed by municipal funds and by the District board 
equally. The Church Missionary Society maintains a Zanana Hospital, 



named after the Duchess of Connaught, which is in charge of a 
qualified European lady. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 24,000, 
representing 33 per 1,000 of the population. 

[J. G. Lorimer, District Gazetteer (1897-8).] 

Peshawar Tahsil. —Head-quarters tahsil of Peshawar District, 
North-West Frontier Province, lying between 33° 43' and 34° 13' N. 
and 71° 22' and 71° 45' E., with an area of 451 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 248,060, compared with 226,113 in 1891. The 
tahsil consists of two distinct tracts. The first is a low-lying riverain 
basin, through which flow the branches of the Kabul river north of 
Peshawar city ; this tract comprises the old Daudzai tappa, which is 
low-lying and swampy, and that of Khalsa, which also contains a good 
deal of marshy ground, especially near Dilazak and Muhammadzai. 
The second tract consists of uplands which rise gradually to the 
Afridi hills ; it comprises the Khalil and Mohmand tappas, so named 
from the Pathan tribes which hold them. The tahsil is intersected by 
the Kabul River Canal. It contains the city and cantonment of 
Peshawar (population, 95,147), its head-cjuarters, and 259 villages. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to a little more than 
Rs. 5,00,000. 

Peshawar City. — Capital of the North-West Frontier Province, 
and head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the same name, situated 
in 34° i' N. and 71° 35' E. The cantonment is situated on a ridge 
overlooking the surrounding plain and the city, which lies near the 
left bank of the Bara stream, 13^ miles south-east of the junction of 
the Swat and Kabul rivers, and 10^ miles from Jamrud fort near the 
entrance of the Khyber Pass. It is distant by rail from Calcutta 
1,552 miles, and from Bombay 1,579 miles, and by road from Kabul 
190 miles. It is the terminus of the grand trunk road, but a branch 
of the North-Western Railway runs on to Jjiinrud. The population 
was 79,982 in 1881, 54,191 in 1891, and 95,147 in 1901, consisting 
of 68,352 Muhammadans, 18,552 Hindus, 5,144 Sikhs, and 3,063 
Christians. Of the total population, 21,804 live in cantonments. 

Peshawar was in the time of Fa Hian the capital of the Gandhara 
province, and is historically important at all later periods. (^1?^ 
Peshawar District.) It was famous during the early centuries of 
the Christian era as containing the begging-pot of the Buddha, a holy 
plpalAxt.^ whose branches are said to have given shade to the Master, 
and an enormous stiipa built by Kanishka. Buddhist remains still 
mark its early greatness. The name is not improbably derived from 
Parashawara or Purushai)ura, the seal of a king named Purush ; and 
the present form Peshawar is referred to the emperor Akbar, whose 
fondness for innovation is said to have led him to change the name, 


of whose meaning he was ignorant, to I'eshawar, the ' hontier town.' 
In 1552 Huniayun found the fortress in ruins, but had it repaired 
and entrusted it to a governor, wlio successfully defended it against 
the Afghans under Khan Kaju. The town appears to have been 
refounded by Balgrani, a contemporary of Akbar, and was much 
enlarged by General Avitabile, its governor under the Sikhs. It 
became the head-quarters of a British District in 1849, and the capital 
of the North-West Frontier Province in 1901. 

The modern city has but slight architectural pretensions, the houses, 
though lofty, being chiefly built of small bricks or mud, held together 
by a wooden framework. It is surrounded by a mud wall, built by 
General Avitabile, which is gradually being replaced by a wall of 
brick. The city has sixteen gates. The main street, known as the 
Kissa kahani, which is entered from the Kabul Gate (re-erected as 
a memorial to Sir Herbert Edwardes), is a broad roadway 50 feet 
in width, consisting of two double rows of shops, the upper rooms of 
which are generally let out as lodgings ; the street is well paved, and 
at busy times presents a very picturesque sight. The remainder of 
the city proper consists of squares and markets, with narrow and 
irregular streets and lanes. A masonry canal runs through the centre 
of the city, which is, however, only used to carry off drain-water and 
sewage. Drinking-water is brought down in pipes from the water- 
works, for which the municipal committee pays a yearly rental. Wells 
are used only in the hot season to supply colder water than the pipes 
afford. The sanitary and conservancy arrangements are very good, 
and all the drains are paved. There are now very few old houses of 
architectural importance, most of them having been destroyed at the 
time of the capture of the city by the Sikhs from the Durranis. 
Several handsome mosques ornament the city ; and a large build- 
ing, known as the Gorkhattri, once a Buddhist monastery, and sub- 
sequently formed into a Hindu temple, is now used as the tahsili. 
Just without the wall, on the north-western side, a quadrilateral fort, 
the Bala Hisar, crowns a small eminence completely dominating the 
city. Its walls of sun-dried brick rise to a height of 92 feet above 
the ground, with a fausse-braye of 30 feet ; bastions stand at each 
corner and on three of the faces, while an armament of guns and 
mortars is mounted above. 

South-west of the city, stretching from just outside the walls, are 
the suburbs of Bhana Mari and Deri Baghbanan, where there are 
gardens noted for their fruit, producing quinces, pomegranates, plums, 
limes, peaches, and apples in abundance. These gardens, especially 
a public garden called the Wazir Bagh, form a favourite pleasure- 
ground of the people ; north of the city is another public pleasure- 
ground, the Shahi Bagh or ' royal garden.' 

I 2 


Two miles west of the city lie the cantonments, where the civil 
offices are also situated. The cantonments were occupied by British 
troops soon after annexation in 1848-9. The garrison has been much 
reduced and consists at present of one battery of field artillery, two 
regiments of British and three of Native infantry, one regiment of 
Native cavalry, and one company each of sappers and miners, bearer 
corps, and army hospital native corps. The garrison forms part of 
the Peshawar military division of the Northern Command, and the 
head-quarters of the division are situated here. 

The municipality was constituted in 1867. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 2-3 and 
2-15 lakhs respectively. In 1903-4 the income was 2-8 lakhs, of 
which more than 2 lakhs were derived from octroi, while the 
expenditure amounted to 2-9 lakhs, the chief heads of charge being 
conservancy (Rs. 26,000), education (Rs. 12,000), hospitals and 
dispensaries (Rs. 18,000), public safety (Rs. 46,000), and administra- 
tion (Rs. 36,000). The income and expenditure of cantonment funds 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 53,000 and 
Rs. 52,500 respectively; in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 69,000, and 
the expenditure Rs. 70,000. 

The main trade of the District passes through the city of Peshawar. 
Though of a varied and not uninteresting nature, it is less extensive 
than might perhaps have been expected, but its position makes it 
important as an entrepot for Central Asia. The principal foreign 
markets having dealings with Peshawar are Kabul and Bokhara. From 
the former place are imported raw silk, worsted, cochineal, jalap, 
asafoetida, saffron, resin, simples, and fruits, both fresh and dried, 
principally for re-exportation to the Punjab and Hindustan, whence 
are received in return English piece-goods, cambrics, silk, indigo, 
sugar, tea, salt, and spices. Bokhara supplies gold coins, gold and 
silver thread and lace, principally for re-exportation to Kashmir, whence 
the return trade is shawls. Iron from Bajaur, skins, fibres and mats 
made of the dwarf-palm {mazri), are the only remaining items of 
importance coming from beyond the border. 

The city possesses an unaided Arts college attached to the Mission 
high school, and four high schools : namely, the municipal and 
Edwardes Mission Anglo-vernacular high schools, and two unaided 
Anglo-vernacular high schools. It also contains a civil hospital and 
four dispensaries. Another institution is the Martin Lecture Hall 
and Institute, with its reading-room and library, also maintained by 
the Peshawar Mission. 

Peth. — Former head-quarters of the Valva tdlnka of Satara District, 
Bombay, situated in 17° 3' N. and 74° 14' E., 45 miles south-east of 
Satara town. Population (1901), 6,820. Peth is a local trade centre. 

PH AG WAN A TAHSir. 127 

the chief articles of trade being grain and cattle. A yearly fair attended 
by about 5,000 people is held in February. 

Pethapur State. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Pethapur Town. — Chief town of the State of the same name in 
the MahT Kantha Agency, Bombay, situated in 23° 13' N. and 
72° 2il' E., on the west bank of the Sabarmatl. Population (1901), 
5,616. The town is noted for the brilliancy of its dyes and for the 
manufacture of cutlery, but the latter industry is declining. Consider- 
able quantities of cloth are brought into the town to be coloured, and 
are then exported to Siam. 

Petlad Taluka. — Tdluka in the Baroda prdnt^ Baroda State, lying 
to the north of the river MahT, intersected by parts of Kaira District, 
with an area of 181 square miles. The population fell from 157,786 
in 1891 to 134,558 in 1901. It contains 7 towns, Petlad (population, 
15,282), the head-quarters, Sojitra (10,578), Vaso (8,765), Nar 
(6,525), PiHij (5,282), Dharmaj (4,827), and Bhadran (4,761); and 
68 villages. The tdluka consists mostly of a level plain, without rivers 
and woods, but with numerous trees lining the fields or clustering 
about the villages. About one-fourth of the soil is black, one-half 
is light red or gordt, and the remainder a mixture of these called besdr. 
The tdluka is specially known for its excellent tobacco. In 1904-5 
the land revenue was Rs. 4,83,000. 

Petlad Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name, 
Baroda prdnt, Baroda State, situated in 22° 29'' N. and 72° 50' E., 
on a broad-gauge line from Anand on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway to Cambay. Population (1901), 15,282. Petlad 
contains a naib-subah'' s office, a civil court, a jail, Anglo-vernacular and 
vernacular schools, a dispensary, a library, and numerous dharmsdlas 
and temples. It is administered as a municipality, with an annual 
grant from the State of Rs. 3,100. Being the centre of a tobacco- 
producing tract, a prosperous trade is carried on in that product ; 
and there is in addition a considerable manufacture of cloth, brass 
and copper pots, and locks. 

Phagwara Tahsil. — Tahsll of Kapfuthala State, Punjab, lying 
between 31° 9' and 31° 23' N. and 75° 44' and 75° 59' E., with an 
area of 118 square miles. The population increased from 63,549 
in 1891 to 69,837 in 1901. It contains one town, Phagwara 
(population, 14,108), and 88 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-1 lakhs. The tahsll, which lies in the 
great plain of the l^oab, is fertile everywhere. It is divided into 
three tracts known as Sirwal, Manjkl, and Dhak. The characteristic 
of the Sirwal is a soft blackish sandy soil, containing moisture, and 
generally capable of producing sugar-cane and rice without inunda- 
tion. The Manjkl has a hard red soil, productive of good crops with 


timely rainfall or sufficient irrigation. The Dhak has a soil of fertile 
blackish clay. 

Phagwara Town. — Town in the Phagwara tahsll, Kapurthala 
State, Punjab, situated in 31° 14' N. and 75° 47' E., on the North- 
western Railway. Population (1901), 14,108. The town is growing 
rapidly in population and commercial importance, as the exemption of 
its market from octroi enables it to compete on favourable terms with 
neighbouring towns in British territory. It is now the largest mart in 
the JuUundur Doab, and possesses a high school and a dispensary. 

Phalakata. — Village in JalpaigurT District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Falakata. 

Phalalum. — Peak in Darjeeling District, Bengal. See Phalut. 

Phalauda. — Town in the Mawana tahs'il of Meerut District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29° 11' N. and 77° 51' E., 17 miles north of 
Meerut city. Population (1901), 5,214. It is said to have been 
founded by a Tomar named Phalgu, whose descendants were dis- 
possessed by Mir Surkh, a Persian from Mazandaran. The town 
is a poor place, with narrow dirty streets, but has fine mango groves 
surrounding it. There is a dargdh of a saint called Kutb Shah, where 
a religious fair is held annually ; and the Church Missionary Society 
has a branch here. Phalauda is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 1,300. It contains a primary school with 
75 pupils in 1904. 

Phalia. — Tahsil of Gujrat District, Punjab, lying between 32° lo' 
and 32° 44' N. and 73° 17' and 73° 53' E., with an area of 722 square 
miles. The Jhelum bounds it on the north-west and the Chenab on 
the south-east. The plateau which occupies most of the northern 
portion of the tahsil is separated from the riverain tracts to the north 
and south by a high bank, below which the country slopes gradually 
towards the rivers. The population in 1901 was 197,974, compared 
with 203,938 in 1891. The tahsil contains 311 villages, including 
Phalia, the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 3-2 lakhs. Chilianwala, the scene of Lord Cough's 
battle with the Sikhs in 1849, is in this tahsil, and the Jhelum Canal 
has its head-works at Mong Rasul. The village of Sadullapur 
is of some historical interest. 

Phalodi. — Head-quarters of a district of the .same name in the 
State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 27° 8' N. and 72° 22' E., 
about 70 miles north by north-west of Jodhpur city. Population 
(1901), 13,924. It is a large and flourishing town, the home of many 
enterprising merchants trading, in some cases, beyond the borders 
of India ; and it possesses several fine houses with beautifully carved 
sandstone fronts. The town contains a post office, an Anglo-vernacular 
school, and a small hospital. The principal manufactures are metal 


utensils and mats of camel hair. Phalodi is said to have been founded 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, and, along with the district, 
was taken by Rao Maldeo nearly loo years later. It was granted 
to the chief of Jaisalmer by Akbar, and was subsequently included 
for a short time in Bikaner. The fort, a large and well-built one, with 
walls over 40 feet high, has a capacious reservoir for water and some 
fine palaces. About 10 miles to the north is a large depression 
(5 miles in length and 3 in breadth) called the Phalodi salt source. 
It was leased to the British Government in 1878 and worked till 1892, 
when it was closed, as the manufacture was found to be unprofitable 
owing to the distance from the railway. 

Phaltan State. — Petty State in the Satara Political Agency, 
Bombay. See Satara Agency. 

Phaltan Town.— Chief town of the State of Phaltan, Bombay, 
situated in 17° 59' N. and 74° 28' E., 37 miles north-east of Satara. 
Population (1901), 9,512. The town was founded by Nimbraji in the 
fourteenth century. The streets are well kept and clean, and the road 
round the town is well shaded by trees. The municipality, established 
in 1868, had an income of over Rs. 14,000 in 1903-4. Gujarat VanTs 
carry on a brisk trade between the roast and the interior. The town 
contains a dispensary. 

Phalut. — One of the loftiest peaks in the Singalila spur of the Him- 
alayas, in the head-quarters subdivision of Darjeeling District, Bengal, 
with a height of 11,811 feet, situated in 27° 13' N. and 88^3' E. The 
view of the great northern snowy mountains from this hill is one of 
indescribable grandeur. A jagged line of snow connecting the two 
highest known mountains in the world, Everest and Kinchinjunga, 
dazzles the eye ; and, while the deep silence around impresses itself 
upon the spectator, the thick clumps of pine forest with their wide- 
spreading arms add a weird solemnity to the scene. The Nepal frontier 
road passes by this hill, and there is a staging bungalow which is avail- 
able to travellers on application to the Deputy-Commissioner of Dar- 

Phaphund. — Town in the Auraiya tahstl of Etawah District, United 
Provinces, situated in 26° 36' N. and 79° 28' E. 36 miles south-east of 
Etawah town. Population (1901), 7,605. The town was a place of 
some importance before British rule, but it declined during the eigh- 
teenth century. It was formerly the head-quarters of a tahsll^ and is 
still the residence of a Munsif, and contains a dispensary. The tomb 
and mosque of a celebrated saint, Shah Bukhari, who died in 1549, 
attract about 10,000 pilgrims annually. Phaphund is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,000. There is 
little trade. The town school has about 200 pupils, and a girls' school 
about 30. 

130 PHENI 

Pheni. — River of Eastern Bengal, and also subdivision and village 
in Noakhali District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. See Fenny. 

Phillaur Tahsil.— 7a>^jJ/ of Jullundur District, Punjab, lying on 
the north bank of the Sutlej, between 30*^ 57' and 31° 13' N. and 75° 
31'' and 75° 58' E., with an area of 291 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 192,860, compared with 189,578 in 1891, The head- 
quarters are at the town of Phillaur (population, 6,986) ; and it also 
contains the towns of Nurmahal (8,706) and Jandiala (6,620), 
with 222 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 4-2 lakhs. The Sutlej forms the southern boundary of the ta/isl/, 
and along the right bank is a narrow strip of low-lying alluvial land 
about i-| miles in width. The uplands which form the greater part 
of the iahsil are an unbroken plain with a loam soil. 

Phillaur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name 
in Jullundur District, Punjab, situated in 31° \' N. and 75° 48' E., on 
the north bank of the Sutlej, on the North-Western Railway and the 
grand trunk road. Population (1901), 6,986. The town was founded 
by Shah Jahan, who built a royal sarai here, converted by Ranjit 
Singh into a fort in consequence of the British occupation of Ludhi- 
ana. A cantonment was established here after the first Sikh War, 
but the native troops mutinied in 1857 and it was not reoccupied. 
The fort was made over in 1891 to the Police department, and is now 
occupied by the Police Training School and the central bureau of 
the Criminal Identification Department. The chief commercial im- 
portance of the place is as a timber market. Its only manufacture 
is that of cotton cloth. The Sutlej is crossed here by a railway bridge 
5,193 feet long, completed in 1870. There is no foot-bridge, but ferry 
trains are run at frequent intervals. The municipality was created in 
1867. The income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 9,400. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 11,000, chiefly 
from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. ir,ooo. The town has an 
Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, and 
a Government dispensary. 

Phul Nizamat. — A nizdmat or administrative district of the Nabha 
State, Punjab, lying between 30° 8' and 30° 39' N. and 74° 50' and 
75° 50' E., with an area of 394 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 111,441, compared with 101,245 in 1891. It contains two 
towns, Phul (population, 4,964), the head-quarters, and Dhanaula 
(7,443) ; and 96 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 4-3 lakhs. The iuzdmat includes five separate areas 
interspersed with the territories of Faridkot, Patiala, and jTnd States, 
and with the British Districts of Ferozepore and Ludhiana. Its main 
block is the territory round the towns of Phul and Dhanaula, which has 
an area of 289 square miles, Jaito and Lohat Baddi pargatias com- 


prising most of the rest. It is divided into the five poh'ce circles of 
Dyalpur, Phul, Dhanaula, Jaito, and Lohat Baddi. The nizdmat lies 
wholly in the great natural tract known as the Jangal, which is dry 
and healthy, possessing a sandy soil of considerable fertility where 
water is available. The spring-level is too far below the surface for 
well-irrigation, but the fuzdmat is now commanded by the .Sirhind 

Phul Town. — Head-quarters of the Phul iihdmat of Nabha State, 
Punjab, situated in 30° 20' N. and 75° 18' E. Population (1901), 
4,964. The town was founded by Chaudhri Phul, the ancestor of the 
Phulkian houses, who in 1627 left Mahraj and founded a village, to 
which he gave his own name, 5 miles east of that place. It contains 
a vernacular middle school, a police station, and a dispensary. Ram- 
pur, a station on the Rajpura-Bhatinda branch of the North-Western 
Railway, 3 miles from Phul, possesses a large grain market ; and 
Chotian, a large village 2 miles distant, has an Anglo-vernacular 
middle school for Sikhs. 

Phulbani. — Head-quarters of the Khondmals subdivision of Angul 
District, Bengal, situated in 20° 29' N. and 84° 16' E. Population 
(1901), 475. Phulbani contains the usual public offices; the sub-jail 
has accommodation for 14 prisoners. 

Phulchari. — Village in the Gaibanda subdivision of Rangpur Dis- 
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° 12' N. and 89° 37' E., 
on the right bank of the Brahmaputra river. Population (1901), 2,782. 
It is the terminus of the Brahmaputra-Sultanpur Branch Railway, and 
a large jute-exporting centre. 

Phuljhur. — River of Eastern Bengal and Assam, formed by the 
union of the Karatoya and Halhalia in Bogra District, in 24° 38' N. 
and 89° 29" E. It is subsequently joined by the Hurasagar, an offshoot 
of the Jamuna (3) ; and the united stream, after being further aug- 
mented by the Baral and IcHAi\rATi (i) near Bera in Pabna District, 
flows into the Jamuna (3). 

Phulkian States. — The three Native States of Patiala, Jind, and 
Nabha in the Punjab are collectively known as the Phulkian States. 
They are the most important of the Cis-Sutlej States, having a total 
area of 7,599 ^ square miles, with a population (1901) of 2,176,644 and 
a gross revenue of 97-5 lakhs. The main area of this group of States 
contains 5,611 square miles, and lies between 74° 10' and 77° 3' E. 
and 29° 4' and 30° 54' N. It is bounded on the north by the District 
of Ludhiana ; on the east by Ambala and Karnal ; on the south by 
Rohtak and Hissar ; and on the west by Ferozepore and the State of 

' These figures do not agree with the area given in the article on the Pinjab, 
which is the area returned in 1901, the year of the latest Census. They are taken 
from more recent returns. 


Faridkot. This area is the ancestral possession of the Phulkian houses. 
It lies mainly in the great natural tract called the Jangal (desert or 
forest), but stretches north-east into that known as the Pawadh and 
southwards across the Ghaggar into the Nardak, while its southernmost 
tract, round the ancient town of jTnd, claims to lie within the sacred 
limits of KuRUKSHETRA. This vast tract is not, however, the exclusive 
property of the States ; for in it lie several islands of British territory, 
and the State of Maler Kotla enters the centre of its northern border. 
On the other hand, the States hold many outlying villages surrounded 
by British territory. While the three States, as a group, form a com- 
paratively continuous area, individually each resembles Brunswick or 
the county of Cromarty, its territory being scattered and inextricably 
intermingled with that of the other States. Besides its share in the 
ancestral possessions of the Phulkian houses, Patiala holds a consider- 
able area in the Simla Hills, acquired in 1815. In addition to these 
possessions, the three States hold a fairly compact block of outlying 
territory in the south-east of the Punjab, between 75° 58' and 76° 27' E. 
and 27° 48' and 28° 27' N. The area of this tract is 1,534 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Hissar ; on the east by Rohtak 
and Gurgaon ; and on the south and west by Rajputana. Each of the 
States received a part of this territory as a reward for services in the 

The ruling families are descended from Phvil, their eponym, from 
whom are also sprung the great feudal, but not ruling, families of 
Bhadaur and Malaud, and many others of less importance. Collaterally 
again the descendants of Phul are connected with the rulers of Faridkot, 
the extinct Kaithal family, and the feudatories of Arnauli, Jhamba, 
Siddhuwal, and, north of the Sutlej, Atari. These numerous branches 
of a vigorous stock belong to the great Siddhu-Barar tribe, the most 
powerful Jat clan south of the Sutlej, and claim descent from Jaisal, 
a Bhati Rajput, who, having founded the State of Jaisalmer in 1156, 
was driven from his kingdom by a rebellion and settled near Hissar. 
Hemhel, his son, sacked that town and overran the country up to 
Delhi, but was repulsed by Shams-ud-din Altamsh. Subsequently, in 
1 212, that ruler made him governor of the Sirsa and Bhatinda country. 
But his great-grandson Mangal Rao, having rebelled against the 
Aluhammadan sovereign of Delhi, was beheaded at Jaisalmer. His 
grandson, Khivva, sank to the status of a Jat by contracting a marriage 
with a woman of that class ; and though the great Siddhu-Barar tribe 
in the following centuries spread itself far and wide over the Mai,\v.\ 
country up to and even beyond the Sutlej, the descendants of Khiwa 
fell into poverty and obscurity, until one of them, Sanghar, entered 
the service of the emperor Babar with a few followers. Sanghar 
himself fell at Panlpat in 1526 ; but the emperor rewarded his devotion 


by granting his son Baryani the chaudhraynt or intendancy of the 
waste country south-west of Delhi, and thus restored the fortunes of 
the family. The grant was confirnied by Huniayun ; but in 1560 
Baryam fell fighting against the Muhammadan Bhattis, at once the 
kinsmen and hereditary foes of the Siddhu tribe. Baryam was 
succeeded as chaiidJiri by his son Mahraj and his grandson Mohan, 
who were both engaged in constant warfare with the Bhattis, until 
Mohan was compelled to flee to Hansi and Hissar, whence he returned 
with a considerable force of his tribesmen, defeated the Bhattis at 
Bhedowal, and on the advice of the Sikh Guru Har Gobind founded 
Mahraj in Ferozepore District. But the contest with the Bhattis was 
soon renewed, and Mohan and his son Rup Chand were killed by 
them in a skirmish about 16 18. His second son Kala succeeded to 
.the chaudhrayat and became the guardian of Phul and Sandali, the 
sons of Rup Chand. Phul left six sons, of whom Tiloka was the eldest, 
and from him are descended the families of Jind and Nabha. From 
Rama, the second son, sprang the greatest of the PhTilkian houses, that 
of Patiala. The other four sons succeeded to only a small share of 
their father's possessions. 

In 1627 Phul founded and gave his name to a village which is now 
an important town in the State of Nabha. His two eldest sons 
founded Bhai Rilpa, still held jointly by the three States, while Rama 
also built Rampur. The last named successfully raided the Bhattis 
and other enemies of his line. He then obtained from the Muham- 
madan governor of Sirhind the intendancy of the Jangal tract. His 
cousin Chain Singh was associated with him in the office ; but Rama 
could brook no rival and caused his cousin to be assassinated, only to 
fall in turn a victim to the vengeance of Chain Singh's sons. The 
blood-feud was duly carried on by Ala Singh, Rama's third son, who 
killed all but one of the sons of Chain Singh. 

Ala Singh, now quit of his nearest enemies, established a post at 
Sanghera, to protect its people against the chiefs of Kot and Jagraon. 
In 17 18 he entrusted Bhadaur to his brother, and rebuilt Barnala, 
where he took up his residence. Shortly afterwards his son Sardul 
Singh attacked and destroyed Mina, the possession of a Rajput who 
was related to the powerful Rai Kalha of Kot. This roused the Rai 
to a determined attempt to destroy the rising power of Ala Singh ; and 
collecting a large force led by the Rajput chiefs of Halwara, Malsin, 
Thattar, and Talwandi, and the famous Jamal Khan, Rais of Maler 
Kotla, and strengthened by an imperial contingent under Saiyid Asad 
All Khan, general of the JuUundur Doab, he attacked the Sikhs outside 
Barnala. The imperial general fell early in the day and his men 
abandoned the field. The troops of Maler Kotla and Kot followed 
-their example, and the Sikhs obtained a complete victory, routing the 


Muhammadan forces and taking many prisoners and much booty. 
This victory raised Ala Singh to the position of an independent chief, 
and the Sikhs flocked to his standard. But the next ten years were 
consumed in desultory warfare with the Bhattis, and Ala Singh allied 
himself with the imperial governor of Sirhind against the chief of Kot, 
who was forced to abandon his principality. Ala Singh, however, soon 
quarrelled with his ally, and was in consequence thrown by him into 
prison, where he would have perished but for the self-sacrifice of 
a follower, a relative of Chain Singh, his hereditary foe. Thus freed, 
Ala Singh built the fort of Bhawanigarh, 22 miles west of the town 
of Patiala. Three years later his general, Gurbakhsh Singh, Kaleka, 
subdued the territory of Sanaur or Chaurasi, in which the town of 
Patiala lies, and fortified the latter place to hold the conquered territory 
in check. Meanwhile the Dlwan of Samand Khan, governor of Sirhind, 
had fled for protection to Ala Singh, who refused to surrender him. 
Samand Khan thereupon marched on Sanaur, only to meet with a 
severe defeat. Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh, the founder of the Kaithal 
family, next invoked the aid of Ala Singh in subduing the country 
round Bhatinda, which was then held by Sardar Jodh Singh. Ala 
Singh dispatched a considerable force against this chief, but effected 
nothing until the Sikhs from the north of the Sutlej came to his aid, 
overran the country, and placed Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh in possession 
of it. Ala Singh then turned his arms against two neighbouring chiefs, 
who, having called in vain upon the Bhattis for help, were slain with 
several hundred followers and their territories annexed. With his son 
Lai Singh, Ala Singh now proceeded to overrun the country of the 
Bhatti chiefs, who summoned the imperial governor of Hissar to their 
aid ; but in spite of his co-operation they were driven from the field. 
This campaign terminated in 1759 with the victory of Dharsul, which 
consolidated Ala Singh's power and greatly raised his reputation. 
Ahmad Shah Durrani on his invasion of India in 1761 had appointed 
Zain Khan governor of Sirhind ; but the moment he turned his face 
homewards, the Sikhs, who had remained neutral during his campaigns 
against the Mughal and Maratha powers, attacked Sirhind, which was 
with difficulty relieved by Jamal Khan of Maler Kotla and Rai Kalha 
of Kot. In 1762 Ahmad Shah Durrani determined to punish the 
Sikhs for this attempt on Sirhind ; and though a great confederacy of 
the Phulkian chiefs and other Sikh leaders was formed and opposed his 
advance near Barnala, the Durrani inflicted on them a crushing defeat, 
their loss being estimated at 20,000 men. Ala Singh himself was 
taken prisoner and Barnala occupied by the Afghans. The chiefs 
ransom of 4 lakhs was paid with difficulty, and he was released ; but 
Ahmad Shah, in pursuance of his policy of employing the Sikhs 
against the Mughal power, gave Ala Singh a robe of honour with the 


title of Raja and authority to coin money in his own name, thus 
founding the Patiala State. These gifts, however, raised the suspicions 
of the Sikhs : and Ala Singh only recovered his position in their eyes 
when, in 1763, he headed the great force of confederated Sikhs which 
took Sirhind, after Zain Khan had been defeated and slain outside 
its walls. In this battle the nascent State of Jind was represented 
by Alam Singh, a grandson of Tiloka, and that of Nabha by Hamir 
Singh, his great-grandson. After the victory, the old Mughal district 
of Sirhind was divided among its conquerors. Sirhind itself, with its 
surrounding country, fell to Ala Singh, Amloh to Nabha, and a con- 
siderable area to Jind. In this year jTnd and Nabha may be deemed 
to have come into being as ruling States, and henceforward their 
histories diverge. 

The right of adoption was granted to the chiefs of Patiala, Jind, and 
Nabha in i860, together with the further concession that, in the event 
of the chief of any one State dying without male issue and without 
adopting a successor, the chiefs of the other two, in concert with the 
Political Agent, should choose a successor from among the Phulkian 
family. Succession in these cases is subject to the payment to the 
British Government of a nazardna or fine equal to one-third of the 
gross revenue of the State. The Political Agent for the Phulkian 
States and Bahawalpur resides at Patiala. 

Phulpur Tahsil. — Zh/^w/ of Allahabad District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Sikandra and Jhusi, and lying between 
25° 18' and 25° 45' N. and 80° 53' and 82° 10' E., on the north bank 
of the Ganges, with an area of 286 square miles. Population fell from 
176,851 in 1891 to 171,653 in 1901. There are 486 villages and two 
towns, including Phulpur (population, 7,611), the /«//5// head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,04,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 49,000. The density of population, 600 persons per square 
mile, is above the District average. Stretches of alluvial land border 
part of the course of the Ganges, but most of the tahs'il lies in the 
fertile uplands. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 172 square 
miles, of which 65 were irrigated. Wells supply a rather larger area 
than tanks ox Jhl/s, and no other sources are important. 

Phulpur Town. — Head-quarters of the fahsil of the same name in 
Allahabad District, situated in 25° 2>z' N. and 82° 6' E., on the 
metalled road from Allahabad city to Jaunpur. Population (1901), 
7,611. The place is said to have been founded in the seventeenth 
century, but has no history. Besides the usual offices, it contains 
a dispensary, a police station, and a post office. Phulpur is admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,300. 
The market is of some importance, and there is a considerable trade 
in cloth, cotton, and metal vessels. Sugar was formerly an important 


article of trade, but is so no longer. A little cotton cloth is made. 
The tahs'di school has about 90 pupils. 

Phultala. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Khulna 
District, Bengal, situated in 22"^ 58' N. and 89° 29' E., on the Bhairab 
river. Population (1901), 3,911. It has a brisk sugar manufacture 
and a large trade in rice, betel-leaves, &c. Phultala is a station on the 
Eastern Bengal State Railway, and is also connected with Khulna town 
by a good road. 

Phulwari. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Palna Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 25° 34' N. and 85° 5' E. Population (1901), 


Pigeon Island (also known as Netrani or Nitran). — Island 10 miles 
off the coast of North Kanara District, Bombay, situated in 14° \' N. 
and 74° 16' E., about 15 miles north-west of Bhatkal. The island is 
about 300 feet high and half a mile broad. It is well wooded, and 
has a good landing on the west side. In clear weather it is visible 
25 miles off. Its shores abound in white coral and lime, which are 
taken by boats to the mainland. The number of pigeons that haunt 
its caves have given the island its name. Besides pigeons, the island 
is frequented by the swiftlet {Collocalia unicolor)^ whose nests the 
Chinese esteem a delicacy. It also contains one of the largest known 
colonies of the white-bellied sea-eagle. 

Pihani.— Town in the Shahabad tahsil of Hardoi District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 37' N. and 80° 12' E., 16 miles north of 
Hardoi town. Population (1901), 7,616. The Hindus trace the foun- 
dation of the town to a settlement of Brahmans, while the Musalmans 
claim that it was founded by Saiyid Abdul Ghafur, Kazi of Kanauj, 
who remained faithful to Humayun after his defeat by Sher Shah. 
Several of his descendants attained high rank, while his nephew 
became chief mufti under Akbar, with the title of Sadr Jahan. His 
tomb and mosque are the chief adornments of the town. Pihani was 
administered as a municipality from 1877 to 1904, when it was con- 
stituted a 'notified area.' During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure averaged Rs. 4,000. In 1903-4 the income 
and expenditure were Rs. 7,000. Pihani was formerly noted for the 
manufacture of sword-blades of the finest temper, and of woven 
turbans ; but both of these arts have declined. There are three 
schools, including one for girls, attended in all by 250 pupils, and 
the American Methodist Mission has a branch here. 

Pihewa. — Ancient town in Karnal District, Punjab. See Pehowa. 

Pihij. — Town in the Petlad td/uka, Baroda prant, Baroda State, 
situated in 22° 40' N. and 72° 49' E. Population (1901), 5,282. The 
town possesses a vernacular school. 

Pilibhit District. — North-eastern District of the Bareilly Division, 


United Provinces, lying between 28^^ 6' and 28' 53' N. and 79° 37' and 
80° 27' E., with an area of 1,350 square miles. On the north it is 
bounded by Naini Tal ; on the north-east and east by the State of 
Nepal and Kheri District ; on the south by Kherl and Shahjahanpur ; 
and on the west by Bareilly. Though se[)arated only by a short 
distance from the outer ranges of the Himalayas, Pilibhit consists 
entirely of a level plain, containing depressions but 
no hills, and intersected by several streams. The snects 

largest river is the Sarda, which, after a long course 
through the Himalayas and across the boulder-strewn tract known 
as the Bhabar, becomes an ordinary river of the plains at the north- 
east corner of the District. It then flows south-east, sometimes 
dividing Pilibhit from Nepal, and often giving off smaller channels. 
A few miles south-west of the Sarda is an affluent called the Chauka, 
which flows in what was probably an old bed of the main river. 
In the centre of the District a long swamp, called the Mala, lies 
north and south, dividing it into two distinct portions. The eastern 
tahstl of Puranpur contains a large area of forest land, and is remark- 
able for its unhealthy climate, the poverty of its inhabitants, and 
the instability of cultivation. The river Gumti rises in the centre 
of this tract, but has a badly-defined bed, consisting of a series of 
swamps. ^V^est of the Mala conditions are better, and the country 
gradually assumes the prosperous appearance of the plains of Rohil- 
khand. The Khanaut, Katna, and Deoha are the principal rivers 
in this tract. 

The District consists almost entirely of alluvium, though the bed 
of the Sarda contains gravel and small boulders. 

The flora of the District presents no peculiarity. In the north 
and east a large forest area is found, consisting chiefly of sal, 
which gives place to the ordinary trees of the plains in the south 
and west. 

In the wilder parts of Puranpur tigers and leopards are numerous, 
but elsewhere scarce. Wild hog and deer of various kinds are found 
in many parts, and do much damage to the crops. The jackal and 
wolf are also common. Black and grey partridge, quail, sand-grouse, 
jungle-fowl, peafowl, geese, ducks, and snipe are the commonest 
game-birds. The mahseer is found in the Sarda, and fish are 'com- 
mon everywhere. 

Fever is endemic throughout the District, and is especially viru-^ 
lent in the swamps near the forests in Puranpur. Except for fever, 
Pilibhit is fairly healthy, and its proximity to the hills causes a 
more even temperature and cool climate than in the Districts farther 

The same cause ensures a copious rainfall, the annual amount 


averaging more than 49 inches. The two northern tahsils receive 
52 inches and Bisalpur in the south about 44. Damage is occasionally 
caused both by excess and by deficiency of rain. 

At the end of the tenth century a line of princes of the Chhinda 
family ruled in the north of the District ; nothing is known of them 
but their names, recorded in an inscription found 
near Dewal, and the fact that they made a canal. 
Local history commences with the rise of the Rohilla power in the 
eighteenth century, when Pillbhlt fell into the hands of Hafiz Rahmat 
Khan, the great leader of the Rohillas after the death of Ali Muham- 
mad. He resided for a time at Pilibhit, which is indebted to him for 
its mosque and walls, some of its markets, and all that distinguished 
it before the advent of British rule. Rahmat Khan was killed in the 
battle near Katra in 1774, fought between the Rohillas and the 
Nawab of Oudh, who was aided by a British force lent by Warren 
Hastings. Pilibhit was occupied without resistance, and became part 
of the new dominions added to Oudh. In 1801, with the rest of 
Rohilkhand, it passed to the British, being ceded in lieu of the 
payment of tribute. 

At the time of the Mutiny, in 1857, part of the present District 
was included in a subdivision of Bareill}'. News of the rising of the 
troops at Bareilly reached Pilibhit on June i, and tumults at once 
broke out among the population. The Joint-Magistrate was forced 
lo retire to Naini Tal ; and while the surrounding villages remained 
a prey to the rapacity and extortions of rival zamindars, the city 
nominally submitted to the authority of Khan Bahadur Khan, the 
rebel Nawab of Bareilly, a grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Order 
was restored in 1858, and has since then only been seriously disturbed 
in 1871, when a riot, which was not suppressed without bloodshed, 
occurred between Hindus and Muhammadans on the occasion of 
a Hindu festival. 

Besides the ruins near Dewal several extensive mounds are situated 
in various parts of the District, which have not been explored. Local 
tradition connects them with the mythical Raja Vena. 

There are five towns and 1,056 villages. Population has fluctuated 
considerably, owing to the unhealthy nature of a great part of the 
. District, and the facility with which its inhabitants 

migrate. The numbers at the four enumerations 
were as follows: (1872) 492,098, (1881) 451,601, (1891) 485,108, and 
(1901) 470,339. The famine of 1877-8 and the fever epidemic of 
1879 had serious effects on population. There are three tahs'ils — BIsal- 
PUK, Pilibhit, and Puranpur — each named from its head-quarters. 
The principal towns are the municipalities of Pilibhit and BIsalpur. 
The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 





Number of 




Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 




Blsalpur . 
Plllbhit . 
Puranpur , 

District total 










-1- 2.9 

- 6.4 








- 3-0 


Hindus form 82 per cent, of the total and Musalmans more than 
17 per cent. The density is below the Provincial average, owing to the 
large area of forest and waste in Puranpur. Almost the entire popula- 
tion speak ^Vestern Hindi, Kanaujia being the prevailing dialect. 

Among Hindus the most numerous castes are : Kisans (cultivators), 
54,000 ; Kurmis (agriculturists), 47,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 35,000 ; 
Chamars (leather-workers and labourers), 31,000 ; Brahmans, 25,000 ; 
and Muraos (market-gardeners), 25,000. The chief Muhammadan 
tribes and castes are: Julahas (weavers), 15,000; Pathans, 13,000; 
Shaikhs, 12,000; Behnas (cotton-carders), 6,000; Banjaras (grain- 
carriers and agriculturists), 5,000 ; and Rains (cultivators), 5,000. The 
Kisans and Lodhas are found chiefly in the Bareilly and Agra Divisions, 
the Kurmis in the centre of the Province, and the Banjaras in the sub- 
montane tracts. About 69 per cent, of the population are supported by 
agriculture — a high proportion ; 6 per cent, by general labour, and 
2 per cent, by weaving. 

Out of 1,283 native Christians in 1901, 1,138 were Methodists. The 
American Methodist Mission has worked in this District since 1861. 

In the north-western tahs'il of Pilibhlt, with its clay soil and heavy 
rainfall, rice forms the most important crop ; wheat and gram are 
also grown, and the cultivation of sugar-cane has 
extended considerably. Puranpur produces rice and 
wheat, but barley and oilseeds are grown to a larger extent than in 
Plllbhit, as the soil is lighter. In the south of the District rice is 
also an important crop, but sugar-cane is more valuable, and wheat 
and gram cover a larger area than in the north-west. The standard 
of cultivation varies considerably. In the south and west it will bear 
comparison with the best of the Rohilkhand Districts ; but in the 
north-east and east, where the energies of the cultivator are devoted 
to protecting his crops from the depredations of wild beasts, tillage is 
slovenly and irrigation rare. 

The ordinary tenures of the United Provinces are found ; but the 
District is remarkable for the extent to which zamtndari mahdh have 
remained undivided, especially in the two northern tahstls. Out of 





1,493 i>i<^^i5Is in these, only 30 :ixe pattiddri, while in the Blsalpur tahsl/ 
617 tuahdls :ire paf/lddri ax\d 371 za??iJ}iddri. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles : — 




















Rice covered 186 square miles, or 28 per cent, of the net cultivated 
area, and wheat 194 square miles, or 29 per cent. ; gram, barley, and 
hdjra are the next most important food-crops. Sugar-cane was grown 
on 58, and oilseeds on 23 square miles. Hemp {sdn), though it 
covered only 11 square miles, is increasing in importance. 

There has been no permanent increase in cultivation during recent 
years, and fluctuations are considerable, owing to climatic reasons. A 
rise is, however, noticeable in the area sown with the more valuable 
crops, rice and sugar-cane. Wheat sown alone has been replaced by 
barley or by mixed crops, and there has been an increase in the area 
double cropped. Except in adverse seasons, loans from Government 
are rarely taken. No advances were made from 1890 to 1894 ; and 
though Rs. 97,000 was lent during the next ten years, Rs. 53,000 of 
this amount was advanced in 1896-7. 

The District contains large stretches of grazing ground, especially 
in the Puranpur tahsil, and a special breed of cattle is found here, 
called panwdr ; the bullocks are of average size, quick movers, and 
fiery tempered. Some Hansi bulls were once imported, but were not 
a success. Very few ponies or horses are kept, and the sheep and 
goats are generally inferior. 

There is great divergence between the different tahslh in the 
methods of irrigation, and the need and facilities for supplying water. 
In 1803-4 wells supplied 64 square miles, lakes and swamps 37, 
rivers 19, and Government canals 19 square miles. The canals, which 
are situated entirely in the western part of the Pilibhit tahsil, consist of 
two systems, drawn from the Bahgul and Kailas, both of which are small 
streams. In ordinary years irrigation is not necessary, and small tem- 
porary wells can be made wherever required, except in the sandy tracts 
of Puranpur. In the Bisalpur tahsil the supply from wells is regularly 
supplemented by a defective and wasteful private arrangement of dams 
on the small streams which traverse that area, especially on the Mala 
swamp. The minor rivers are similarly used in the Pllibhit and 
Puranpur tahs'ils in seasons of drought. Water is generally raised 


in earthen pots suspended from a lever {dlwukn), as the spring-level 
is high. 

The 'reserved' forests of Pilibhit District cover 149 square miles, 
and are included, with some forest lying in NainI Tal District, in the 
Pilibhit Forest division. They lie on both sides of the Mala swamp 
and south-west of the Chauka, forming an area shaped like a horse- 
shoe. The forests are the poorest in the Province, and are chiefly 
valuable for the grazing they afford, and the products used by the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood. Sal {Shorea robiistd) and haldu 
{Adina cordifolid) are the most valuable trees ; but many years must 
elapse before timber of value is produced. About 64 miles are occupied 
by similar forests belonging to private persons in the Puranpur iahsil, 
and 44 miles in the south of Blsalpur are covered with jungle, chiefly 
dhdk {Buteaf?-07idosa). 

Sugar-refining is the most important industry. Boat-building and 
wood-carving were formerly carried on largely ; but 
the carpenters have now turned their attention to communications. 
cart-making. There is a small manufacture of 
hempen bags and metal vessels, and cotton-weaving is carried on, 
but chiefly for local supply. Catechu is prepared in the north of 
the District. 

The staple exports are wheat, sugar, and rice. In the last few years 
an export trade in ^a;/-hemp has sprung up. The finer varieties 
of rice grown in the rich lowlands of Nepal are exported through this 
District, and there is also a considerable trade in hill produce, such as 
borax, pepper, and ginger. Neoria, Bisalpur, and Puranpur are the 
principal trade centres, outside Pilibhit town. 

The Lucknow-Sitapur-Bareilly metre-gauge railway passes across the 
centre of the District, and a branch is contemplated from Pilibhit town 
to Tanakpur, the mart at the foot of the Kumaun hills. The District 
is very badly provided with roads, and the northern and eastern parts 
are almost impassable, except by elephants, during the rainy season. 
There are 13 miles of metalled roads from Pilibhit towards Bareilly, 
and 299 miles of unmetalled roads. The absence of kankar or nodular 
limestone is the chief cause of the want of better roads. Avenues of 
trees are maintained along 84 miles. 

The natural moisture of the soil is generally sufficient to protect the 
District from the extremity of famine, and excessive rain is more to 
be feared than drought. In the sandy tracts in the 
east and south, however, where wells cannot be made, 
drought affects the people. Large remissions of revenue were made in 
1825-6, and the famine of 1837-8 was felt. Details of later famines 
are not available till that of 1868-9, when Rs. 43,000 was spent on 
relief, and large advances were made for seed and bullocks. The 

K. 2 


famine of 1877-8 caused some distress and the revenue demand was 
reduced. In 1896-7 scarcity was again felt, but liberal advances were 
made and the District recovered rapidly. 

The Collector is ordinarily assisted by two Deputy-Collectors re- 
cruited in India, and a tahsilddr resides at the head- 
quarters of each tahs'ii. An officer of the Forest 
department is stationed at Pilibhit, while the canals are part of the 
Rohilkhand Canals under an officer at Bareilly. 

Pilibhit is included in the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of Bareilly, 
and there is one District Munsif. Crime is usually light. 

At annexation, in 1801, Pilibhit was included in the large District of 
Bareilly. From 1833 to 1842 part of the area now forming Pilibhit was 
included with other taJislh in a District called North Bareilly. A sub- 
division was then created, consisting of Pilibhit, Puranpur, and other 
territory, which became a separate District in 1879. In 1880 the 
Baherl iahsll was restored to Bareilly, and the Bisalpur tahs'ii added 
to Pilibhit, The early settlements were thus made as part of Bareilly 
District, to which reference may be made for the methods followed. 
The demand fixed at the first regular settlement, under Regulation IX 
of 1833, on the present area was 5-9 lakhs. At the next settlement, 
between 1865 and 1872, the Bisalpur tahstJ was treated as part of 
Bareilly District, and the Pilibhit and Puranpur tahs'ih were settled 
separately. The total revenue was raised to 7-2 lakhs; but a succession 
of bad years caused reductions to be made, and part of the District 
has since been under a system of short settlements. The Bisalpur 
tahs'ii was again settled in 1902 together with Bareilly District, the 
revenue being raised from 3-1 to 3-3 lakhs; but the revision of settle- 
ment in the other two tahslls has been postponed for ten years. In 
1902-3 the incidence of revenue was R. r per acre, varying from 
5 annas in Puranpur to Rs. 1-5 in Pilibhit. 

The total collections on account of land revenue and revenue from 
all sources have been, in thousands of rupees : — 

1880-1. ; 1890-1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 

7,18 7,01 
9,24 9,81 



There are two municipalities, Pilibhit and Bisalpur, and three 
towns are administered under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the limits of 
these, local affairs are managed by the District board, which had an 
income of Rs. 72,000 in 1903-4, chiefly derived from rates. The 
ex])enditure was Rs. 79,000, including Rs. 40,000 on roads and 

The District Superintendent of police has a force of 3 inspectors, 


55 subordinate officers, and 221 men, distributed in 9 police stations. 
There are also 109 municipal and town police, and 1,066 village and 
road police. Up to 1902 convicts were sent to the Bareilly District 
jail ; but a jail has now been built, which contained a daily average of 
48 prisoners in 1903. 

Pilibhit occupies a medium place as regards the literacy of its popu- 
lation, of whom 2-3 per cent. (4 males and 0-2 females) could read and 
write in 1901. The number of public schools rose from 62 with 2,124 
pupils in 1880-1 to 77 with 3,066 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there 
were 107 public schools with 4,289 pupils, of whom 238 were girls, 
besides 45 private schools with 667 pupils, including 46 girls. Three 
of the schools were managed by Government, and 87 by the District 
and municipal boards. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was Rs. 27,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

There are 5 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
66 in-patients. About 52,000 cases were treated in 1903, of whom 
777 were in-patients, and 1,100 operations were performed. The 
expenditure was Rs. 10,000, chiefly from Local funds. 

In 1903-4, 21,000 persons were vaccinated, giving the high pro- 
portion of 45 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory 
only in the municipalities. 

{Settlement Report of Pilibhit (1873) ; Bareilly District Gazetteer 
(1879, under revision); Assessment Report^ Tahsll Bisalpiir {i()02).\ 

Pilibhit Tahsil. — North-western tahsil of Pilibhit District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Pilibhit and Jahanabad, and 
lying between 28° 29' and 28° 53' N. and 79° 37' and 80° 3' E., with 
an area of 474 square miles. Population fell from 199,039 in 1891 to 
184,922 in 1901. There are 390 villages and three towns, including 
PilIbhit (population, 33,490), the District and tahsil head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,03,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 50,000. The density of population, 390 persons per square 
mile, is considerably above the District average. The Deoha and 
Katna and many smaller streams traverse the tahsil, and in the west 
two canals from the Bahgul and Kailas irrigate a small area. A long 
swamp, called the Mala, forms the eastern boundary, fringed by a sal 
forest. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 240 square miles, 
of which 37 were irrigated. In dry years temporary wells can be made 
readily, and the rivers are also used. 

Pilibhit Town, — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the 
same name. United Provinces, situated in 28° 38' N. and 79° 48' E., 
on the Lucknow-Sitapur-Bareilly Railway. Population (1901), 33,490. 
The name is derived from Periya, the title of a Banjara clan, and l?hif, 
a ' wall' or ' mound.' It has no history till the middle of the eighteenth 
century, when it became ihe residence of Hafi/ Rahmal Khan, the 


Rohilla leader. In 1763 he surrounded it with a mud wall, and six 
years later with a brick wall. For a time Pilibhit was called Hafizabad, 
after the title of the great soldier. The town never rose to the 
importance of Bareilly ; and after the defeat and death of Hafiz 
Rahmat Khan in 1774 it declined under the rule of Oudh, and under 
the British, to whom it was ceded in 1801. At the time of the Mutiny 
in 1857, Pilibhit, though it had been the capital of a District from 
1833 to 1842, was the head-quarters of a subdivision. The Joint- 
Magistrate was compelled to retire to Naini Tal, and the town was the 
scene of constant disturbances, though nominally subject to the rebel 
governor of Bareilly. 

Pilibhit is almost surrounded by water. It lies between the Ueoha 
and Kakra, which were formerly connected by ditches still forming 
drainage channels, though not constantly filled. A fine mosque built 
by Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in imitation of the Jama Masjid at Delhi, 
is the chief ornament of the town. The public buildings include 
the District courts, male and female dispensaries, a clock-tower, 
a Sanskrit school, and a Turkish bath. The houses are largely built 
of brick, and there are several good market-places lined with shops. 
Besides the ordinary District staff, a Forest officer resides at Pilibhit, 
and there is a branch of the American Methodist Mission. The 
municipality was constituted in 1865. During the ten years ending 
1 90 1 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 46,000 and Rs. 45,000 
respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 76,000, including octroi 
(Rs. 35,000) and rents (Rs. 22,000); and the expenditure was 
Rs. 71,000. A revised drainage scheme has lately been carried out. 
The trade of the town is largely concerned with the agricultural 
produce of the District, wheat, rice, sugar, and .s■^;^hemp forming 
the chief exports. In addition, Pilibhit is an important depot for the 
produce of Nepal and the Himalayas. Carts and bedsteads are 
largely made and exported. The municipality maintains eight schools 
and aids four others, attended by 724 pupils. 

Pilkhana. — Town in the Sikandra Rao tahsll of Allgarh District, 
United Provinces, situated in 27° 51' N. and 78° 17' E., 11 miles 
south-east of Aligarh town. Population (1901), 5,109. The town is 
old, and gave its name ^o a tabika farmed to Daya Ram of Hathras at 
the beginning of British rule. It is administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,200. There is a primary school 
with 60 pupils. 

Pilkhua. — Town in the Ghaziabad tahsll o[ Meerut District, United 
Provinces, situated in 28° 43'' N. and 77° 40' E., 19 miles south of 
Meerut city on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, and on the metalled 
road from Delhi to Moradabad. Population (1901), 5,859. The town 
is badly drained and surrounded by stagnant pools, though a small 


drainage cut has been made. It contains branches of the Church 
Missionary Society and the American Methodist Missions. From 
1872 to 1904 it was administered as a municipality, with an income 
and expenditure averaging about Rs. 3,000, but it has now been 
declared a 'notified area.' The chief manufacture is country cloth, 
which is especially noted for a peculiar pattern made by dyeing. There 
is also a considerable trade in leather and shoemaking, and the pro- 
ducts are exported as far as Calcutta and Bombay. In 1904 there was 
an aided primary school with 35 pupils. 

Pimpalner. — Tdhika of West Khandesh District, Bombay, lying 
partly above and partly below the Western Ghats, between 20° 50' and 
21° 16' N. and 73° 51' and 74° t^t^' E., with an area of 933 square miles. 
There are 151 villages, but no town. The head-quarters are at Sakri. 
The population in 1901 was 56,638, compared with 59,278 in 1891. 
The density, 61 persons per square mile, is about two-fifths of the 
average for the District. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
1-3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. The plains are intersected by 
abrupt mountain ranges, of which the range of the Selbari hills is 
the most considerable. The tract below the Western Ghats is com- 
posed of steep hill ranges, clothed with forest and inhabited by Bhils. 
The climate is unhealthy, especially to Europeans and natives of the 
Deccan. There is a fair water-supply, the rivers being utilized for 
irrigation by means of masonry dams. The annual rainfall averages 
21 inches. 

Pimpladevi. — Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay. 

Pimpri.— Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay. 

Pinahat. — Former name of a tahsil in Agra District, United Pro- 
vinces. See Bah. 

Pinakini, Northern and Southern. — Two rivers of Southern 
India. See Penner and Ponnaiyar. 

Pindari. — Glacier in the District and tahstl of Almora, United 
Provinces, situated between 30° 16'' and 30° 17' N. and 80° and 
80° 3' E. The glacier is fed by the snow from the lofty peak of 
Nanda Kot and other mountains lying north of it, and is the source 
of the Pindar river, a tributary of the Alaknanda, which flows into 
the Ganges. 

Pind Dadan Khan Tahsil.— Southern subdivision and tahsil 
of Jhelum District, Punjab, lying between 32° 27' and 32° 50' N. and 
72° 32'' and 73° 29' E., with an area of 875 square miles. It is bounded 
on the south-east by the Jhelum river, and is traversed in its northern 
portion by the Salt Range. The hills consist of two roughly parallel 
ranges about 6 miles apart, with a strip of richly cultivated and fairly 
level uplands between. The southern slopes of the hills are steep 
and barren. The rest of the tahsil consists of a belt of alluvial plain. 


a portion of which is much affected by saline deposits. The population 
in 1 90 1 was 170,130, compared with 173,071 in 1891. It contains the 
town of Find Dadan Khan (population, 13,770), the head-quarters; 
and 207 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 2-8 lakhs. Katas and Malot are places of considerable archaeo- 
logical interest, the village of Jalalpur possesses historical importance, 
and the Mayo Mine at Khewra is one of the chief sources of the 
supply of salt in India. 

Find Dadan Khan Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision 
and tahsll of the same name in Jhelum District, Punjab, situated in 
32° 36' N. and 73° 4' E., on the right bank of the Jhelum river, and on 
the Sind-Sagar branch of the North-Western Railway. Population 
(1901), 13,770. It was formerly the depot to which salt was brought 
from the Mayo Mine, and from which it was carried across the river 
to the railway ; but the bridging of the Jhelum at Haranpur, and 
the extension of the railway to Khewra, have ruined this trade. Brass 
vessels are made in the town, which also has a considerable weaving 
industry, while its embroidered lungls are often sold at high prices. 
Boat-building is largely carried on, and river boats of Pind Dadan 
Khan make are in request throughout the whole course of the Jhelum. 
Unglazed pottery of a deep red colour, ornamented with black patterns 
and remarkably strong and good in quality, is a speciality of the town, 
as also are stout leathern riding-whips made after English patterns. 
The municipality was created in 1867. During the ten years ending 
1902-3 the receipts averaged Rs. 28,700, and the expenditure 
Rs. 28,100. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,300, chiefly from 
octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 27,000. The town has a high 
school, maintained by the municipality. There is also a Government 

Pindi Bhattian. —Village in the Hafizabad tahsll of Gujranwala 
District, Punjab, situated in 31° 54' N. and 73° 19' E. It is a strong- 
hold of the Bhatti Rajputs, from whom it takes its name, having been 
founded by them in the time of Akbar. The Bhatti chiefs were 
expelled by Ranjit Singh, but were reinstated by the British Govern- 
ment, to whom they had rendered considerable assistance in the 
Sikh ^Vars. They also did good service in the Mutiny. The town has 
some trade in ghi, thread, grain, and Kabul fruits, and good saddles 
are made. It contains a wealthy community of Arora merchants, and 
formerly had a municipal committee which was abolished in 1890. 
It has prospered greatly since the construction of the Chenab Canal, 
the population having risen from 3,674 in 1891 to 6,145 ^•'' ^9°^ j ^'""d 
it is now administered as a ' notified area.' 

Pindi Gheb Subdivision. — Subdivision of Attock District, Punjab, 
consisting of the Pindi Gheb and Talagang tahsils. 


Pindi Gheb Tahsil. — 7}?/w// of Attock District, Punjab, lying 
between 33° o' and 2it Al' N. and 71"^ 42' and 72° 40' E., with an area 
of 1,499 square miles. The Indus bounds it on the north-west. Its 
highest point lies in the Kala-Chitt.\ range. The tahs'il is mainly 
a bleak, dry, undulating and often stony tract, broken by ravines, and 
sloping from east to west : a country of rough scenery, sparse popula- 
tion, and scanty rainfall, ^\'est along the Indus are the ravines and 
pebble ridges which surround Makhad. Only near Pindi Gheb town 
does the broad bed of the Sil river show a bright oasis of cultivation 
among the dreary uplands which compose the rest of the tahsll. The 
population in 1901 was 106,437, compared with 99,350 in 1891. It 
contains the town of Pindi Gheb (population, 8,452), the head-quarters ; 
and 134 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
i'9 lakhs. 

Pindi Gheb Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsll 
of the same name in Attock District, Punjab, situated in 33° 14' N. 
and 72° 16' E., 21 miles from Jand station on the North-Western 
Railway. Population (1901), 8,452. Formerly known as Pindi 
Malika-i-Shahryar or Malika-i-Auliya, or 'queen of the saints,' it 
derives its modern name from the Gheba tribe of Jats, and is now the 
ancestral home of the Jodhra Maliks, who founded it in the thirteenth 
century. The municipality was created in 1873. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 4,400. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,200, chiefly from octroi; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 5,800. A vernacular middle school is maintained 
by the municipality, and a dispensary by Government. 

Pinjaur Nizamat. — A nizdmat or administrative district of the 
Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30"^^ 4' and 31° 11' N. and 76" 29' 
and 77° 22' E., with an area of 784 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 212,866, compared with 226,379 in 1891, dwelling in one 
town, Banur, and 1,588 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 6-5 lakhs. The nizdmat forms the north- 
eastern part of the State, and is divided into four tahsils — Rajpura, 
Banur, Pinjaur, and Ghanauh. Of these, the first lies in the 
Himalayan area, and the other three in the Pawadh. The country 
is scarred by torrent-beds, and is characterized by a peculiar subsoil 
which makes irrigation from wells difficult. The head-quarters are at 
Rajpura. Pinjaur Village is a place of some antiquity. 

Pinjaur Tahsil. — North-eastern tahsll of the Pinjaur nizdmat, 
Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30° 41' and 31° ii' N. and 
76° 50' and 77° 22' E., with an area of 294 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 55,731, compared with 56,745 in 1891. The 
tahsll contains 1,136 villages, of which Pinjaur is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 84,000. 


Pinjaur Village. — Head-quarters of the Pinjaur nizdmat and tahsil, 
Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 30° 48' N. and 76° 59' E., 3 miles 
from Kalka on the Simla road, at the confluence of the Koshallia and 
Jhajhra, two tributaries of the Ghaggar. Population (1901), 812. The 
name is a corruption of Panchapura, and the place is of considerable 
antiquity, being mentioned by Abu Rihan in 1030. In 1254 it 
formed part of the territory of Sirmur, which was ravaged by Nasir-ud- 
dln Mahmiid, king of Delhi. It was the fief of Fidai Khan, foster- 
brother of Aurangzeb, and the Raja of Sirmur recovered it in 1675 
from the son of its former holder, a Hindu. Fidai Khan laid out 
the beautiful gardens, which still remain. Wrested from the Muham- 
madans by a Hindu official who made himself master of Mani Majra, 
it was taken by Patiala in 1769 after a desperate siege, in which the 
attacking force, though reinforced from Hindur, Kahlur, and Sirmur, 
suffered severely. There are extensive Hindu remains and fragments 
of an ancient Sanskrit inscription in the village. Bourquin, Sindhia's 
partisan leader, dismantled the fort about 1793. The village has 
a dispensary and a police station, and is famous for its sacred tank, 
Dharamandal or Dharachettra. 

Pinlebu. — South-w^estern township of Katha District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 23° 40' and 24° 22' N. and 95° 6' and 95° 48' E., on 
either side of the Mu stream, with an area of 1,367 square miles. It 
was, together with the rest of the State of Wuntho, annexed in 1891. 
The population in 1901 was 29,321, distributed in 362 villages. The 
head-quarters are at Pinlebu (population, 617), on the Mu, in the 
centre of the township. The surveyed area under cultivation in 
1903-4 was 35 square miles, and the land revenue and thaihameda 
amounted to Rs. 75,700. 

Pipar. — Town in the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 
26° 23' N. and 73° 33' E., on the left bank of the Jojri river (a tributary 
of the Luni), about 32 miles east of Jodhpur city, and 7 miles south- 
east of Pipar Road station on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. Popu- 
lation (1901), 6,785. The town is of some commercial importance, 
and is noted for its dyed cloths. Tradition assigns the foundation of 
Pipar either to a king of the Paramara Rajputs prior to the Christian 
era, or to a Paliwal Brahman named Pipa. 

Piplia. — Thakurdt in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Piplianagar. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Piploda. — One of the mediatized chiefships of the Central India 
Agency, in the Malwa Political Charge. It has an area of about 
60 square miles. 

The ancestors of the present chief were Doria Rajputs, who migrated 
from Kathiawar, one Kaluji seizing the fort of Sabalgarh, 7 miles from 
the present town of Piploda, in 1285. In 1547 Shardul Singh, sixth 

rjR.iAf 149 

in descent from KalujT, greatly extended his possessions and founded 
the town of Piploda. The estate was reduced to its present dimensions 
by the inroads of the INIarathas, the Thakur becoming subject to Amir 
Khan. When independence was guaranteed to Jaora in 1 818 by the 
twelfth article of the Treaty of Mandasor, the question of the status of 
Piploda arose. Through the mediation of Sir John Malcolm, the 
Nawab of Jaora agreed in 182 1 to allow the Thakur to hold his lands 
on paying Rs. 28,000 a year as tribute, and surrendering half the 
sdyar dues of the holding. In 1844 a fresh agreement was made, 
without the cognizance of the Government of India, in which the 
Thakur's position was more carefully defined. During the Mutiny 
Thakur Shiv Singh furnished cavalry and men to the British authorities 
at Mandasor. The present chief, Thakur Kesri Singh, succeeded in 
1887, having been educated at the Daly College at Indore. 

The estate has a population (1901) of 11,441, of whom Hindus 
form 84 per cent. There are 28 villages in the thaki/rdf, the 
revenue of five of v,hich is assigned to Panth-Piploda {see Malwa 
Agency). About 72 per cent, of the population speak the Malwi 
dialect, and 90 per cent, are agriculturists, the principal caste supported 
by it being the Kunbi. 

The land is for the most part highly fertile, being chiefly black 
cotton, producing excellent crops of all the ordinary grains and of 
poppy. Of the total area, 33 square miles, or 55 per cent., are 
under cultivation, 3 square miles of this being irrigable. About 
30 square miles produce cereals, 3 poppy, and one cotton. There 
are two metalled roads in the estate, one leading to Rankoda, the 
other to Puniakherl. 

The Thakur administers the estate with the assistance of a kdmddr, 
and has limited judicial powers, all heinous cases being referred to the 
Political Agent. The total revenue is Rs. 95,000, of which Rs. 90,000 
is derived from the land. The Thakur receives small yearly idnkas 
(cash payments) from the States of Dewas (Rs. 253) and Jaora 
(Rs. 1,000). Revenue from irrigated land is collected in cash, from 
unirrigated in kind. The incidence of the revenue demand is 
Rs. 3-3 per acre of cultivated area. 

Piploda, the capital of the estate, is situated in 23° 36' N. and 
74° 57' E., II miles from Jaora, with which it is connected by 
a metalled road. Its population in 1901 was 3,282. A ^a/^-bungalow, 
a British post office, a hospital, a jail, and a school are situated in the 
town. Seven miles away stands the old fort of Sabalgarh, the first 
capital of the holding. 

Piram {Perim). — Island in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated 
in 21"^ 36' N. and 72° 21' E., in the Gulf of Cambay, 4-^- miles 
south of Gogha, and 2\ from the nearest part of the Kathiawar shore. 


Piram is a reef of rock covered in part by brown sand, its dimensions 
at high water being one mile by about half a mile. It is included in 
the estate of the Gogha Kasbdtis^ to whom it was assigned by one of 
the Delhi emperors. Except on the south, it is surrounded by rocky 
reefs rising to the surface from a depth of from 60 to 70 feet. Past 
the island the tide runs with extreme force. To avoid the chopping 
sea and sunken reefs, boats crossing from Gogha to Piram stand out 
as if making for Dehej Bara at the mouth of the Narbada. In the 
east of the island millet is grown and the low sand-hills are covered by 
asclepias. Beyond these are some nlm trees {Melia Azadirachtd) and 
a fringe of mangrove bushes. The island is uninhabited in the rains, 
but contains a few families of husbandmen and fishermen in the fair 
season. On the ruins of an old bastion there is a dioptric light of 
the fourth order, visible for 17 miles. 

Piram is the Baiones Island of the Periplus. Till the fourteenth 
century it would seem to have remained in the hands of Bariya Kolis. 
Then under their leader Mokharji, the Gohel Rajputs, who about 
a century and a half earlier had retired from Marwar to Gujarat, 
passed south from Ranpur near Dhandhuka and took Gogha and 
Piram. Strengthening himself in his island fortress, Mokharji became 
a great pirate chief; but his power was short lived. About the year 
1300 complaints of his piracies were laid before Muhammad bin 
Tughlak, who was then in Gujarat quelling a revolt. Advancing in 
person he attacked Piram, slew Mokharji, and took his fort. The 
island was then deserted, and an attempt to colonize and fortify it 
failed. The Hindu seamen of the Gulf of Cambay still cherish 
Mokharji's memory, seldom passing Piram without making him an 
offering. Of his stronghold there remains, skirting the shore, a ruined 
wall, with, below high-tide level, a gateway ornamented by two rock- 
cut elephants 10 feet long and 8 or 9 feet high. No further attempt 
would seem to have been made to fortify Piram, till, on the decay of 
Mughal power, about the middle of the eighteenth century, the 
ambitious Surat merchant MuUa Muhammad All built a fort on the 
island and tried to establish himself as an independent chief. Afraid 
of the climate his people forsook him, and the Mulla, giving up Piram, 
built a fort at Athva on the Tapti, a few miles below Surat. The lines 
of the MuUa's fortress, from whose ruins the lighthouse tower was 
built, may be seen near the centre of the island stretching across its 
entire breadth. Besides traces of fortifications there are remains of 
temples, one of them with a rudely cut sitting figure of Buddha. The 
local story that Mokharji built a mole from the mainland to Piram 
has, perhaps, no better foundation than the half-sunk wall and gate- 
way and the reefs that, at low water, stand out like a giant's causeway. 

Its large store of fossils gives a special interest to Piram. Besides 


masses of petrified wood, lart;,e quantities of animal remains were found 
in 1836. Almost all were embedded in the rock in the south-east 
corner of the island, where the sea washes bare the lower conglomerate. 
The remains are the same as those of Upper Sind and of the Siwalik 
Hills. Besides two titanic ruminants, apparently with no living types, 
named the Bramatherium and the Sivatherium, there are species of 
elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, antelope, several forms 
of crocodile, fresh-water tortoises, and fishes of gigantic size. 

Pirawa District. — One of the Central India pargafias of the State 
of Tonk, Rajputana. It is for certain purposes included in the charge 
of the Political Agent, Malwa. It has an area of 248 square miles, 
and lies between 24° i' and 24° 24'' N. and 75° 51' and 76° 11' R., 
being bounded on the north by Indore, on the west by Indore and 
Jhalawar, and on the south and east by Gwalior. A group of Indore 
villages almost divides the northern from the southern half. The 
country is undulating in character, the uplands being chiefly reserved 
for grass, while the rich black soil in the valleys yields fine crops. 
The population in 1901 was 25,286, compared with 40,806 in 1891. 
There are 126 villages and one town, the head-quarters of the district. 
The principal castes are Sondhias, Mlnas, Dangis, and Chamars, 
forming respectively about 20, 14, 9, and 8 per cent, of the total. 
Nothing is known of the history of the district prior to the time 
of Akbar, when it formed part of the Kotrl-Pirawa sarkar of the 
Subah of Malwa. It was included in the territory bestowed on Ratan 
Singh of Ratlam by Shah Jahan, but when Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh 
of Jaipur was Subahdar of Malwa it was transferred to Bajl Rao 
Peshwa. Subsequently, Holkar took possession ; and in 1806 Jaswant 
Rao Holkar made it over to Amir Khan, the grant being confirmed 
by the British Government under the treaty of 181 7. Of the total 
area, 210 square miles, or 84 per cent., are khdlsa, paying revenue 
direct to the Tonk Darbar, and the khdlsa area available for cultivation 
is about 166 square miles. Of the latter, about 59 square miles, or 
35 per cent., were cultivated in 1903-4, the irrigated area being nearly 
6 square miles. Of the area cropped, joivdr occupied 58 per cent., 
cotton 9, maize 8, and poppy 6 per cent. The revenue from all 
sources is about 1-4 lakhs, of which four-fifths is derived from the 
land. The town of Pirawa is situated in 24° 9' N. and 76° 3' E., 
about 140 miles almost due south of Tonk city. Its population in 
190 1 was 4,771, Hindus forming nearly 50 per cent., Musalmans 31, 
and Jains about 19 per cent. The town, which, from the inscrii)tions 
in its Jain temples, appears to date from the eleventh century, contains 
a picturesque fort of no great age, a post and telegraph office, a small 
jail, a vernacular school, and a dispensary for out-patients. 

Piriyapatna. — Town in the Hunsur tdhtk of Mysore District, 


Mysore, situated in 12° 20' N. and 76° 6' E., 13 miles from Hunsur. 
Population (1901), 3,872. Its original name was Singapattana, but 
the king who built the fort of stone and extended the place in the 
sixteenth century named it after himself. It was in the possession 
of the Changalva kings of Nanjarajpatna (in Coorg) till 1644, when 
it was taken by Mysore. The Coorg Raja was confined here in the 
time of Tipu Sultan, but the fort was dismantled by the British on 
their advance against Seringapatam in 1791. The town is inhabited 
chiefly by traders, who export cotton, tobacco, and other commodities 
to Coorg, Cannanore, &:c. A pack of hounds is maintained in the 
neighbourhood, which is regularly hunted by planters from Coorg and 
others. The municipality dates from 1898. The receipts and expen- 
diture during the three years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 1,100 and 
Rs. 900. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 2,100 and Rs, 1,700. 

Pir Mangho. — Hot springs in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay. 
See Maoar Talao. 

Firmed. — Hill station on the Firmed range of hills, forming the 
southern portion of the Cardamom Hills, Travancore State, Madras, 
situated in 9° 33' N. and 76° 59' E. Population (1901), 9,932. Its 
general elevation is from 3,000 to 3,500 feet. Around it are thirty 
tea estates owned by Europeans, containing about 8,000 acres under 
crop. Roads connect the station with Changanacheri, Kottayani, 
Trivandrum, and other important places on the west, and with Madura 
District on the east. It is the head-quarters of the first-class magis- 
trate and Assistant to the Superintendent and District Magistrate of 
the Cardamom Hills, and contains postal and telegraph offices. Pirmed 
is supposed to be an abridgement of Plr-medi{ (' Plr's hill '), and to 
have been so called because a Musalman saint named Pir Muhammad 
once lived here in seclusion. 

Pirojpur Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Backergunge Dis- 
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 22° i' and 22° 54' N. 
and 89° 52'' and 90° 14' E., with an area of 692 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 553,494, compared with 519,603 in 1891. 
It contains one town, Pirojpur (population, 14,1 19), the head-quarters, 
and 1,066 villages, and supports 800 persons per square mile, the 
density being greatest in the north and centre. In the extreme north 
it is covered with great swamps like the adjoining parts of Farldpur 
District, while in the south in the Matbari thdna, where the density 
is only 480 persons per square mile, it merges in the Sundarbans. 

Pirojpur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Backergunge District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated 
in 22° 35' N. and 89° 59" E., on the Baleswar river. Population 
(1901), 14,119. Pirojpur was constituted a municipality in 1885. The 
income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 6,300, and 


the expenditure Rs. 6,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,000, 
of which Rs. 5,000 was derived from a property tax ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs. 8,000. 

Pirpainti. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Bhagalpur 
District, Bengal, situated in 25° 18' N. and 87° 25' E., on the East 
Indian Railway. Population (1901), 2,741. There is a considerable 
export of country produce. Stone is quarried in the neighbourhood. 

Pishin. — Subdivision and tahsil covering the centre of the Quetta- 
PJshin District, Baluchistan, lying between 30° \' and 31° 12' N. and 
66° 21' and 67° 48' E. It consists of the southern slopes of the Toba 
hills and the basin of the Pishin Lora, the latter being a plain lying 
about 5,000 feet above sea-level. The area of the tahsil is 2,717 
square miles; its population in 1901 was 51,753, showing an increase 
of 14,573 since 1891. Pishin, the head-quarters, which has sprung 
up since the British occupation, is 6 miles from Yaru Karez rail- 
way station. The villages number 271, and the land revenue in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 80,700. Large revenue-free grants, a relic 
of Afghan rule, are held chiefly by Saiyids. The tahsil contains two 
irrigation works, the Shebo canal and the Khushdil Khan reservoir. 

Pishin Lora'. — River in Baluchistan, having its source in the 
western slopes of the Kand mountain of the Toba-Kakar range and 
terminating in the Hamun-i-Lora. Its total length is about 250 miles. 
The principal affluents meet near Shadlzai in Pishin. In addition 
to the Barshor Lora or main stream, they consist of the Kakar Lora, 
the Surkhab, and the Shorarud. Below the confluence of the upper 
tributaries the bed is 200 yards wide, and lies between scarped banks 
about 20 feet high. The running stream, however, is usually not more 
than a few yards wide and quite shallow. On entering the hills west 
of Shorarud the course becomes deep and narrow, until it debouches 
into the Shorawak plain (30° 22' N,, 66° 22' E.). Here it becomes 
dissipated into several channels which find their way through Nushki. 
The area drained includes the west of the Sarawan country, Quetta- 
Pishln, and Nushki in Baluchistan, besides Shorawak in Afghanistan. 
For purposes of irrigation, water is taken off wherever it can be made 
available. The Shebo canal and the Khushdil Khan reservoir in 
Pishin are dependent on it for their supply; and in 1903 an embank- 
ment for irrigation was constructed in the north of the Nushki tahsil 
across the Bur channel. 

Pithapuram Estate. — A permanently settled zamlnddri estate in 
Godavari District, Madras, with an area of 383 square miles, of which 
the greater part lies in the zamlnddri tahsil of Pithapuram and the 
Cocanada taluk. The estate contains 168 towns and villages, and has 

* Lora is a Pashtfi word signifying a channel carrying flood-water, as distinguished 
from rnd, a perennial stream. 


a population (1901) of 280,317. The total demand on account of land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 4 lakhs. 

After the subjugation of the present Godavari District by the 
Sultan of Golconda {circa 1572), \\-\c parganas of Selapaka, Cocanada, 
and Prolunadu (as the country round Pithapuram was then called) 
were constituted a revenue farm. These parganas were the nucleus 
of the existing Pithapuram estate. In 1647 they were transferred, 
apparently because the holder had fallen into arrears, to Ravu 
Chandra Rayanam, a court favourite. This Rayanam was of the 
Velama caste, and from him the family still holding the estate traces 
its descent. As a special mark of favour he was allowed to repair 
and occupy the fort at Pithapuram, which henceforward became the 
residence of the family. 

For the next few years the history of the estate was uneventful ; but, 
like its neighbours, Pithapuram took advantage of the struggle for 
power in the Deccan to withhold the peshkash, or tribute. It shared 
their fate when Asaf Jah, Nizam-ul-mulk, proved victorious (1724); 
and under the stern rule of his Sarlashkar, Rustam Khan, the recal- 
citrant zam'mddrs were ousted and their estates brought under direct 
management. After Rustam Khan's death his successors for some 
time pursued the same policy, but about 1742 the estates were 
restored to the families of the former owners. 

Pithapuram took little part in the conflict between the French and 
the English. Some acts of hostility in conjunction with the neigh- 
bouring zaminddr of Peddapuram led, however, to the seizure and 
occupation of Samalkot fort by the Company's troops in 1764, Other- 
wise the estate emerged intact from this troubled period, and in 1787 
was described as one of the most fruitful and best cultivated zam'in- 
ddris under the Company. The zaminddr collected the land customs, 
and also claimed the sole right of manufacturing and vending salt in 
the Rajahmundry sdrkar. The military force maintained was small 
and merely sufficed for the collection of the revenue, which was paid 
almost entirely in cash — an unusual circumstance. 

In 1802 the estate was permanently settled, when the revenue was 
estimated at about 4 lakhs and d^ peshkash of 2-6 lakhs was imposed. 
Up to 1827 considerable additions were made. In that year, owing 
to the minority of the holder, it came under the Court of Wards and, 
in common with similar estates in Godavari District, passed through 
a period of depression. In 1844 it was heavily in arrears. To 
restore the financial position most of the recently acquired portions 
were relinquished, and the ancient za??middri was handed over free 
of encumbrances to the proprietor. The estate is now again under 
the management of the Court of Wards, owing to the minority of the 
present holder. 


The zaminddri is very fertile. Much of it is watered by the Go- 
davari irrigation system, while the remainder is supplied by the small 
river Yeleru or by tanks. An engineering establishment is maintained 
to supervise the estate works in connexion with the Yeleru irrigation, 
which are numerous. The chief crops, as elsewhere in the District, are 
rice, other cereals, and oilseeds. Until quite recently the prevailing 
system of land tenure was the vantu varadi. Under this, each village 
was assessed for a term of years in a lump sum. The amount to be 
levied from each holding was then settled by a committee of the ryots 
themselves. Any person dissatisfied with the assessment imposed on 
his holding had the right to challenge the owner of a similar holding 
which he considered under-assessed. The latter had then to submit 
to an enhancement of his assessment, in which case the challenger 
received a corresponding diminution, or to exchange holdings. This 
system, owing to its manifold disadvantages, has now been generally 
abandoned, and in most cases the highest rent offered is assumed to 
be the proper rent of a holding, the leases being sold by auction. 
A field survey, to be followed by a regular settlement, is in progress, 
and the revenue system will probably in course of time be assimilated 
to that in Government land. The average rates paid for ' wet ' and 
'dry' land are Rs. 7-0-2 and Rs. 3-15 per acre respectively. The 
total income of the estate is 10^ lakhs, of which the land revenue 
brings in 9^ lakhs. 

Among the places of importance within the zaminddri are the 
towns of CocANADA, the District head-quarters, Samalkot, and 
PiTHAPURAM. CoRiNGA, which also bclongs to it, was once a well- 
known port, but its trade has now altogether disappeared. 

Pithapuram Tahsil. — Zaminddri tahsll in Godavari District, 
Madras, lying between 17° 3' and 17° 19' N. and 82° 10'' and 
82° 32' E., with an area of 191 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 84,089, compared with 83,824 in 1891. It contains one 
town, Pithapuram (population, 13,220), the head-quarters; and 
48 villages. The demand on account of land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,90,000. The tahsil lies on the coast 
to the north of the delta of the Godavari, and receives a low rainfall. 
It would be an infertile area were it not for the excellent irrigation 
from the Yeleru river. 

Pithapuram Town. — Head-quarters of the za?nlnddri tahsil of 
the same name in Godavari District, Madras, situated in 17° 7' N. 
and 82° 15" E., 10 miles from Cocanada by road and 398 miles from 
Madras by rail. Population (1901), 13,220. The weekly cattle market 
is an important institution, and there is a small local industry in the 
manufacture of bell-metal ware. Pithapuram with its hamlets consti- 
tutes a Union, and the town contains the residence of the zafnlnddrs 



of the estate of the same name. The principal temple has some 
inscriptions of importance ; and in front of it is a pond called Pada 
Gaya, to which Pithapuram owes its reputation as a place of pil- 

Pithoro. — Recently formed tiiluka of Thar and Parkar District, 
Sind, Bombw-y, lying between 25° and 25° 35' N. and 69° 15' and 
69° 40' E., with an area of 481 square miles. The population (1901) 
was about 37,713, and the tdluka contains 128 villages, Samaro being 
the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
more than 2 lakhs. The Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway traverses the tdluka^ 
which is irrigated by the Mithrao, Jamrao, and Hiral Canals. The 
chief crops are rice and cotton. 

Plassey (from palds, the Butea frondosd). — Village in the head- 
quarters subdivision of Nadia District, Bengal, situated in 23° 47' N. 
and 88° 16' E., on the left bank of the Bhagirathi river. It is famous 
as the scene of Clive's victory over Siraj-ud-daula, Nawab of Bengal, 
on June 23, 1757. After the capture of Calcutta by Siraj-ud-daula in 
June, 1756, Clive was dispatched with reinforcements from Madras to 
re-establish the British factories in Bengal, and he recaptured Calcutta 
in January, 1757. After prolonged negotiations he succeeded in gain- 
ing over Mir Jafar, the Nawab's general, whom he promised to install 
as Nawab in place of Siraj-ud-daula. In March Chandernagore was 
taken from the French, and on June 13 a fresh advance was made; 
Katwa was captured on the 18th, and on the 22nd the troops marched 
to Plassey, where Siraj-ud-daula was encamped with an army of 50,000 
foot, 18,000 horse, and 50 pieces of cannon, mostly 24-pounders and 
32-pounders drawn by bullocks. To oppose this army Clive had a 
force of 900 Europeans, of whom 100 were artillerymen and 50 sailors, 
100 topasses or Portuguese half-castes, and 2,100 sepoys; the artillery 
consisted of 8 six-pounders and 2 howitzers. Clive encamped in a 
mango grove, which has since been washed away by the Bhagirathi, 
and the enemy were entrenched on the river bank to the north of him. 
At daybreak on the 23rd the enemy advanced to the attack, enveloping 
his right, Mir Jafar being on the extreme left of the line. Both sides 
maintained a vigorous cannonade until 2 o'clock, when Siraj-ud-daula 
drew off and returned to his entrenchments. At this, Mir Jafar 
lingered behind on the left and eventually joined the British. Clive 
advanced and cannonaded the Nawab's entrenchment, and entered his 
camp at 5 o'clock after a slight resistance, Siraj-ud-daula having already 
fled to Murshidabad. This decisive victory was won with only a small 
loss, but it made the British masters of Bengal. A monument marks 
the scene of the battle-field. 

Pochamcherla.— r<7////^ in Nalgonda District, Hyderabad State. 
It was formed in 1905 from the Kodar %\x\)-tdluk of Warangal Dis. 

POINT 157 

trict, and 15 and 35 villages taken from the Suriapet and Mirialguda 
taluks of this District. Pochamcherla (population, 1,899) '^ the head- 
quarters, and the taluk consists of 100 khdlsa villages, its land revenue 
being 2-77 lakhs. Rice is extensively cultivated by tank-irrigation. 

Podanur. — Village in the District and taluk of Coimbatore, 
Madras, situated in 10° 58' N. and 77° o' E., 4 miles from Coim- 
batore city. Population (1901), 6,568. It is the junction of the 
Nilgiri branch of the Madras Railway with the main line, and the 
site of considerable railway workshops. It enjoys a cool and healthy 
climate. A sugar manufactory has recently been opened. 

Podili Tahsil. — Zamindari tahsll in the north-west of Nellore 
District, Madras, lying between 15° 23' and 15° 45' N. and 79° 12' and 
79** 49' E., with an area of 564 square miles. The population in igoi 
was 58,937, compared with 68,400 in 1891. It contains in villages, 
of which Podili is the head-quarters. The tahsil is a part of the 
Venkatagiri Estate. There is a temple on the Velikonda hills near 
Garladinne, where a largely attended festival is held annually. These 
hills run through the west of the tahsil. Of other scattered eleva- 
tions, the most conspicuous is a fine range some miles south of Podili 
village. Two rivers, the Musi and Gundlakamma, run through the 
tahsil and empty themselves into the Bay of Bengal. 

Poicha. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Poila (or Pwela ; Burmese, Piaehla). — State in the Myelat division 
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20° 43' and 20° 55' N. 
and 96° 38' and 96° 46' E., with an area of 102 square miles. It is 
bounded on the north by Pangtara ; on the south by Hsamonghkam ; 
on the east by Mawson and Yawnghwe ; and on the west by Kyong 
and Kyawkku. Two circles are detached and border on the Meiktila 
District of Upper Burma. The State consists of open rolling downs ; 
there are no perennial streams, and the country is dry. The population 
in 1901 was 7,866 (distributed in 62 villages), about half of whom were 
Taungyos. The greater part of the remainder is made up of Danus 
and a few Taungthus. The residence of the Myoza is Poila (population, 
1,247), a village near the centre of the State boasting a large bazar. 
The revenue in 1904-5 amounted to Rs. 8,100, and the tribute to the 
British Government is Rs. 4,500. 

Poini. — River of North Arcot District, Madras, which rises in the 
hills of the Chandragiri taluk in 13'' 34' N. and 79° 6' E. It flows 
almost due south, and after receiving the waters of numerous smaller 
streams finally joins the Palar not far from Arcot, after a course of 
about 45 miles. Its waters are largely used for irrigation, and it is 
crossed by a dam, 792 feet in length from wing to wing, which was 
built in 1853. The dam was much damaged in 1874 by the same 
flood which breached the Palar dam, and was subsequently recon- 

L 2 

158 POINI 

structed. During the south-west monsoon the Poini has a more 
regular supply of water than the Palar. The area commanded by 
the dam is 26,500 acres, of which 22,000 acres were irrigated in 
1903-4. The supply might be further increased during the north- 
east monsoon if the storage capacity of the reservoirs which are fed 
by it were enlarged ; but during the south-west monsoon all the surplus 
water running over this dam has to be sent down to the Palar barrage, 
where the supply is often deficient. 

Point Calimere. — Headland in Tanjore District, Madras. See 
Calimere, Point. 

Point Divi. — Headland in Kistna District, Madras. See Divi, 

Point, False. — Headland and lighthouse in Cuttack District, 
Bengal. See False Point. 

Pokaran. — Head-quarters of a jdgir estate of the same name in 
the Sankra district of the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated 
in 26° 55' N. and 71° 55' E., about 85 miles north-west of Jodhpur 
city. Population (1901), 7,125. It has a post office, a vernacular 
school, and a dispensary. The town is on low ground closed in by 
hills to the north, south, and west, and water is plentiful. The small 
fort is well built and strong in appearance, but is commanded by 
the adjacent hills. About 2 miles away are the ruins of Satalmer, 
a village founded by Satal, the eldest son of Rao Jodha, about the end 
of the fifteenth century, but dismantled by Rao Maldeo (1532-69) to 
find material for the Pokaran fort. The site of Satalmer is still marked 
by a conspicuous Jain temple and the monuments raised to the memory 
of the deceased members of the Thakur's family. Close to the town 
of Pokaran is a salt marsh about 4 miles in length and 2 in breadth, 
where salt was formerly manufactured. The estate of Pokaran consists 
of 100 villages, yielding a revenue of about a lakh. The Thakurs of 
Pokaran are the head of the Champawat sept of the Rathors, and are 
descended from Champa, a brother of Rao Jodha. They enjoy the 
privilege of attesting all grants of land or villages made by the Darbar, 
and are entitled to a seat just behind the Maharaja of Jodhpur on an 
elephant, from which, on state occasions, they flourish the itiorchal, or 
peacock feather fly-whisk, over their chief's head. The present Thakur 
of Pokaran (Mangal Singh), besides being the pradhdti or premier 
noble, is a member of the council and a Rao Bahadur. 

Pol. — Petty State in Mah! Kantha, Bombay. 

Polavaram Subdivision. — Subdivision of Godavari District, 
Madras, consisting of the minor taluks of Polavaram, Chodavaram, 
and Yellavaram. 

Polavaram Taluk. — Minor taluk in the Agency tract of Godavari 
District, Madras, lying between 17° 7' and 17° 28' N. and 81° 5' and 


81'^ 37' K., with an area of 564 square miles. ^Fhe population in 1901 
was 58,274. It contains 292 villages, Polavarani being the head- 
quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 64,000. The taluk is situated on the right bank of the Go- 
davari river. At the point where the river enters stands Bison Hill, 
which belongs to the Papikonda range, running the whole length of the 
taluk. There are extensive forests in Polavaram, the Government 
Reserves extending over 112 square miles. About 20 per cent, of 
the inhabitants belong to the hill tribe of Koyis. The picturesque 
island of Pattisima, a little below Polavaram village, is the scene of 
a large yearly festival ; and another festival is held at Taduvayi in the 

Pollachi Subdivision. — Subdivision of Coimbatore District, 
Madras, consisting of the taluks of Pollachi, Palladam, and 

Pollachi Taluk. — South-west taluk of Coimbatore District, Madras, 
lying between 10° 15' and 10° 55' N. and 76° 49' and 77° 16' E., with 
an area of 710 square miles. The population increased from 183,669 
in 1 89 1 to 195,608 in 1 90 1. It contains one town, Pollachi (popu- 
lation, 8,958), the head-quarters; and 158 villages. The demand for 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,04,000. The north of 
the taluk consists of an undulating plain, but the southern portion 
is covered by the great Anaimalai Hills and their dense forests. The 
former faces the Palghat Gap in the Western Ghats, and consequently 
receives some of the south-west monsoon which is prevented by this 
range from reaching the east of the District, and so has an early 
cultivation season. The taluk contains less irrigated land than any 
other except KoUegal, but its ' dry ' land is usually good and includes 
some black loam on the extreme east. Nearly half the small extent of 
zamlnddri land in the District lies in this taluk. 

Pollachi Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
the south-west corner of Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 
10° 39' N. and 77° V E. Population (1901), 8,958. Standing on the 
highway from the east to the west coast, it must always have been 
an important market town. Evidence of its early importance was dis- 
covered in 1800, in a hoard of silver coins of ttie emperors Augustus 
and Tiberius. It has, however, no industry except agriculture. 'l"he 
divisional officer is stationed here. The hospital at Pollachi has 
accommodation for 36 in-patients and a maternity ward. It was 
founded in 1858, the building being erected by private subscrip- 
tion, and has an endowment of Rs. 17,700. In the vicinity of the 
village are a number of interesting dolmens and rude stone circles, 
which are termed by the people 'graves of the dead.' Several of them 
have been opened, and have been found to be arranged in circles 


of diameters ranging from lo to 45 feet, and to contain fragments 
of human skulls and bones, and occasionally broken pieces of earthen- 
ware and a few implements and ornaments. These objects were 
usually met with at a depth of from 5 to 7 feet below the surface. 
Three bronze images of male and female figures were found ; and 
that these are of non-Aryan origin is to be inferred from the position 
of the woman, who is seated at the right side of her husband, instead 
of the left side as in all Brahmanical rites. 

Polur Tahsil (or Sulurpet).^Zfl?/««^«?-/ tahstl in the southern 
corner of Nellore District, Madras, lying between 13° 30" and 13° 59' N. 
and 79" 51' and 80° 9' E., and bounded on the east by the Bay of 
Bengal. Its area is 355 square mile.s, and the population in 1901 
was 74,512, compared with 69,593 i^^ 1891. It contains 139 villages, 
the head-quarters being Sulurpet. There is only one river of im- 
portance, the Swarnamukhi, which supplies some of the tanks. The 
soil is generally sandy or gravelly, and the principal crop is rice, 
though rdgi and cambu are also grown. Irrigation is mostly from 
rain-fed tanks. 

Polur Taluk.— Southern taluk of North Arcot District, Madras, 
lying between \2° 20' and 12° 45'' N. and 78° 51' and 79° 22' E. 
Area, 596 square miles; population in 1901, 155,673, compared with 
i39>7°i iri 1891. The taluk contains 170 villages and one town, 
Polur (population, 9,206), the head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,02,000. The taluk 
is essentially a mountainous area, a large part of it being occupied by 
the Javadi Hills. The forests have great potential value, and yield 
a considerable amount of timber and other produce. 

Polur Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
North Arcot District, Madras, situated in 12° 31' N. and 79° 7' E. 
Population (1901), 9,206. It stands about 2 miles from the northern 
bank of the Cheyyar, and east of some hills. Between these is built 
the embankment of the Poliir reservoir, which is fed by the waters of 
the Manjalar. The Sampatgiri hill near by is topped by a holy temple, 
and there is another shrine in the town. A small ruined fort, without 
any history, stands not far off. The town is poorly built, with narrow 
and ill-arranged streets, but has a brisk trade in grain. 

Ponabalia Shamrail. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision 
of Backergunge District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on the 
bank of the Sundha or Shugandha, 5 miles from Jhalakati. Population 
(1901), 498. Ram Bhadra Rai, zatnlnddr of Ponabalia, is said to have 
defeated the Maratha army here in 1748. The village contains a temple 
of Siva, which is one of the fifty-one places of Hindu pilgrimage, 
scattered over India, where tradition relates that a limb or some por- 
tion of the body of the goddess Sati fell, while her husband Siva was 


perambulating the whole earth with her corpse on his shoulders. The 
nose of the goddess is said to have fallen at this place. 

Ponani. — Taluk and town in Malabar District, Madras. See 


Pondicherry {Fuducheri, Pulcheri). — The chief of the French 
Settlements in India, the capital of which, a town of the same name, 
is the head-quarters of their Governor. The town is situated on the 
Coromandel coast in 1 1° 56'' N. and 79° 49' E., about 12 miles north of 
Cuddalore. It lies on the road leading from Madras to Cuddalore, and 
is the terminus of the Villupuram-Pondicherry branch of the South 
Indian Railway. The distance from Madras to Pondicherry is 122 miles 
by rail and 105 by road. The area of the Settlement is 115 square 
miles, and its population in 1901 numbered 174,456. It consists of 
the four communes of Pondicherry, Oulgaret, Villenour, and Bahur. 
The population of the town of Pondicherry in the same year was 
27,448, of whom 12,904 were males and 14,544 females. Hindus 
numbered 14,544 and Christians 7,247, most of the latter being 
Roman Catholics. The history of the place is given in the article on 
the French Possessions. The Settlement was founded in 1674 under 
Francois Martin. In 1693 it was captured by the Dutch, but was 
restored in 1699. It was besieged four times by The first 
siege under Admiral Boscawen in 1748 was unsuccessful. The second, 
under Eyre Coote in 1761, resulted in the capture of the place, which 
was restored in 1765. It was again besieged and captured in 1778 
by Sir Hector Munro, and the fortifications were demolished in 1779. 
The place was again restored in 1785 under the Treaty of Versailles of 
1783. It was captured a fourth time by Colonel Braithwaite in 1793, 
and finally restored in 18 16. 

The Settlement comprises a number of isolated pieces of territory 
which are cut off from the main part and surrounded by the British 
District of South Arcot, except where they border on the sea. This fact 
occasions considerable difficulty in questions connected with crime, land 
customs, and excise. The Collector of South Arcot is empowered to 
deal with ordinary correspondence with the French authorities on these 
and kindred matters, and in this capacity is styled the Special Agent. 
At Pondicherry itself is a British Consular Agent accredited to the 
French Government, who is usually an officer of the Indian Army. The 
town is compact, neat, and clean, and is divided by a canal into two 
parts, the Ville blanche and the Ville noire. The Ville blanche has 
a European appearance, the streets being laid at right angles to one 
another, with trees along their margins reminding the visitor of conti- 
nental boulevards, and the houses being constructed with courtyards 
and embellished with green Venetians. All the cross streets lead down 
to the shore, where a wide promenade facing the sea is again different 


from anything of its kind in British India. In the middle is a 
■ screw-pile pier which serves, when ships touch at the port, as a point 
for the landing of cargo and, on holidays, as a general promenade for 
the population. There is no real harbour at Pondicherry ; ships lie at 
a distance of about a mile from the shore, and communication with 
them is conducted by the usual masnia boats of this coast. Facing the 
shore end of the pier is a statue of the great Dupleix, to whom the place 
and the French name owed so much. It is surrounded by a group of 
carved stone columns which are said to have been brought from the 
ruins of the celebrated fort of Gingee. Behind is the Place Dupleix 
(or Place de la Republique) with a band-stand ; and west again of this 
the Place du Gouvernement, a wide extent of grass with a fountain in 
the middle of it, round which stand the chief buildings of the town, 
including Government House, the Hotel de Ville, the High Court, and 
the barracks. Other erections in the town are the Secretariat, the 
Cathedral of Notre Dame des Anges, the college of the Missions 
Etrangeres, the Calve college, two clock-towers, a lighthouse, the 
hospital, and the jail. The town also contains a public library of 
about 16,000 volumes, and public gardens with a small collection of 
wild animals and birds. 

Pondicherry was made a municipality in 1880, with a mayor and 
a council of eighteen members. The receipts and expenditure of this 
body during the ten years ending 1902 averaged Rs. 47,000. There 
is no drainage system ; but the water-supply is excellent, being derived 
from a series of artesian wells, which are one of the features of the 
place. Until they were discovered, about the middle of last century, the 
only source of supply was from ordinary wells sunk within the town. 
The best of the present artesian sources is at Mudrapalaiyam, from 
which pipes have been taken to reservoirs in the market and the Place 
du Gouvernement. The roads of the town are kept in excellent order. 
The ordinary means of locomotion is the well-known ' push-push,' which 
is pushed and pulled by two men. The chief educational institutions are 
a college belonging to the Missions Etrangeres, which teaches up to the 
B.A. standard in French, and the Calve college, a non-denominational 
institution in which both Europeans and natives receive instruction up 
to the Matriculation. The latter is affiliated to the Madras University. 
The industries of Pondicherry consist chiefly of weaving. The Patnul- 
karans, a Gujarati caste of weavers, make a kind of zephyr fabric which 
is much used locally and is also exported largely to Singapore. Cotton 
stuffs are also woven by machinery in the Rodier, Savana, and Gaebele 
mills. A new industry is the manufacture of cocotine, a substitute for 
ghl^ at the Sainte Elisabeth factory. The total value of the imports by 
sea in 1904 was £179,000, and of the exports £1,102,000, of which 
£27,000 and £435,000 respectively were brought from and sent to 


France or French colonies. The principal imports are wines and spirits 
and areca-nuts, but the total is made up of a number of items of which 
none is individually important. The exports mainly consist of ground- 
nut kernels and oil ; but cotton fabrics, coco-nut oil, and rice are also 
items of importance. The boats of the Messageries Maritimes Company 
call regularly at the port. 

Ponmudi. — A picturesque hill in the north-east of the Nedumangad 
idluk uf Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 44' N. and if \o' E., at 
the head of the basin of the Vamanapuram river. It is about 3,000 feet 
high and contains a sanitarium which is largely visited. Tea is exten- 
sively grown in the neighbourhood, and a company called the Ponmudi 
Tea Company has been formed. 

Ponnagyun. — Central township of Akyab District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 20° 11' and 21° N. and 92° 48' and 93° 6' E., with an 
area of 704 square miles. The township is long and narrow, and com- 
prises a considerable portion of the country lying between the Kaladan 
and Mayu rivers. In the south, where it borders on the Akyab town- 
ship, it is a network of tidal creeks ; in the north it is hilly. The popu- 
lation increased from 44,700 in 1891 to 49,555 in 1901. It contains 
290 villages, and the head-quarters are at Ponnagyun (population, 565), 
among the southern creeks. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
106 square miles, paying Rs. 1,62,000 land revenue. 

Ponnaiyar (or Ponniar; the Dakslmia Pindkini or Southern 
Pennar). — River of Southern India, which rises on Channarayan- 
betta, north-east of Nandidroog in the Kolar District of Mysore, and 
runs through the east of Bangalore District, forming the large Jangam- 
kote and Hoskote tanks. Leaving Mysore to the east of Sarjapur, it 
flows south-east through the Salem District of Madras (where it is 
crossed by the Madras Railway), and, some distance north of Dhar- 
mapuri, turns east to South Arcot District, and falls into the sea to the 
north of Cuddalore. Its length in Mysore is about 50 miles, where 
about 86 per cent, of its water is stored for agricultural purposes. It 
flows through the Madras Presidency for about 200 miles, and the area 
of its drainage basin is 6,200 square miles. The river is bridged near 
Cuddalore, and also at the point (near Panruti) where it is crossed by 
the South Indian Railway. Its only considerable tributary is the 
Pambar, which joins it on the left bank in .Salem District. In South 
Arcot the Ponnaiyar runs in a wide sandy bed between low banks. At 
one time it seems to have flowed down the Malattar (' barren river '), 
which is now merely a small branch into which it occasionally spills at 
high floods ; for ancient Tamil works speak of Tiruvennanallur, which 
is now on the southern bank of the Malattar, as lying on the southern 
edge of the Ponnaiyar. The river is very liable to sudden high freshes, 
and serious floods occurred in 1874, 1S84, and 1898, those of 1884 


being the worst. The Ponnaiyar and the neighbouring Gadilam river 
overflowed and joined, and for twenty-four hours their combined waters 
rushed through Cuddalore New Town to the sea. Thirteen arches of 
the bridge over the Ponnaiyar were swept away and much other 
damage was done. 

The river is not at present utiUzed for irrigation on any consider- 
able scale until near the end of its course. The dam near Tiruk- 
koyilur in South Arcot waters about 24,000 acres, from which the 
total revenue is Rs. 93,000. Of this, about Rs. 11,000 is due to the 
improvements made, representing an interest of over 4 per cent, on 
the capital outlay. The construction of a dam higher up the river, 
to supply a large area in two of the upland taluks of the same Dis- 
trict, has been suggested. 

Like other large rivers, the Ponnaiyar is sacred. It is deemed 
especially so in the first five days of the Tamil month of Tai, when 
the Ganges is said to flow into it by underground ways. Festivals 
are then celebrated at many of the important villages along its 

Ponnani Taluk. — Southernmost coast taluk of Malabar District, 
Madras, lying between 10° 15' and 11° 3' N. and 75° 52' and 76° 13' E., 
with an area of 426 square miles. It contains 73 amsiuns, or parishes. 
The population increased from 449,290 in 1891 to 478,376 in 1901, 
giving a density of 1,123 persons per square mile. It is the most 
populous taluk in the District, and the density is greater than in any 
other in the Presidency. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 5,19,000. The head-quarters are at the seaport of 
Ponnani (population, 10,562), situated at the mouth of the river of 
the same name. In comparison with the other taluks of the District, 
Ponnani is flat and uninteresting, especially along the coast. Inland, 
however, are some small ranges of low hills, clothed with scrub or 
rough grass ; and between these, as usual in Malabar, wind green rice- 
fields fringed with groves of trees. 

Ponnani Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Malabar District, Madras, situated in 10° 48'' N. and 75° 56' E., 
at the mouth of the Ponnani river. Population (1901), 10,562, mostly 
Mappillas. It is a busy port \ at which in 1903-4 the imports were 
valued at 8 lakhs and the exports at 6 lakhs. Kerosene oil and salt are 
the chief imports, and coco-nuts, coir, and copra the chief exports. The 
Ponnani Tangal, or Mappilla priest, is the chief of his sect, and the 
town is the centre of Muhammadan education on the coast, possessing 
a religious college. There are 27 mosques, the principal of which, the 

' Some English ships, under Captain Bonner, visited Ponnani (Ponana) in 1619, and 
unsuccessfully attempted to purchase pepper from the Zamorin, who was then residing 
there (W. Foster, The English Faciories in India, p. 71 \ 


Janiath Masjid, is supposed t(i have been built in 1510. Besides the 
usual taluk offices, the town contains a District Munsifs court. 

The Ponnani river, which is the longest in Malabar, rises in the 
Anaimalais and flows through the Palghat Gap due west, with a total 
course of about 150 miles. The bed of the stream, unlike that of 
most of the Malabar rivers, is shallow and usually contains little water; 
but during the rainy months it is navigable for a considerable distance 
inland, and is used for floating down timber from the hills near Palghat. 
At its mouth it is connected by backwater with Tirur station on the 
north, and by canal with the Viyattil lake and the line of backwater 
which extends to Trivandrum on the south. 

Ponne. — River in North Arcot District, Madras. See Poini. 

Ponneri. — Northern taluk of Chingleput District, Madras, lying 
between 13° 11' and 13° 34' N. and 80° 2' and 80° 21' E., on the 
shore of the Bay of Bengal, with an area of 347 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 136,597, compared with 122,418 in 1891. It 
contains the town of Pulicat (population, 5,448) aad 240 villages 
(including the head-quarters, Ponneri). The demand on account of 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,70,000. The 
Korttalaiyar and Araniya Nadi flow through the taluk, which is an 
uninteresting tract of nearly level land sloping towards the sea. The 
coast is fringed with a line of hillocks of blown sand, inside which 
are a series of backwaters connecting Ennore with the Pulicat Lake. 
The annual rainfall is 47 inches, or slightly more than the District 

Poodoocottah. — Native State in Madras. See Pudukkottai. 

Poona Agency, The. — Political Charge, consisting of the State of 
Bhor in the south-west of Poona District, Bombay. See Bhor. 

Poona District (P////^?).— District in the Central Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 17° 54' and 19° 24' N. and 73° 19' 
and 75° 10' E., with an area of 5,349 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the District of Ahmadnagar ; on the east by Ahmad- 
nagar and Sholapur ; on the south by the Nira river, separating it from 
Satara and the estate of the chief of Phaltan ; and on the west by 
Kolaba. Two isolated blocks of the Bhor State, one in the west and 
the other in the south, are included within the limits of Poona 

Towards the west the country is undulating and intersected by 
numerous spurs of the Western Ghats, which break off in a south- 
easterly direction, becoming lower as they pass . 
eastwards, and in the end sinking to the general aspects. 
level of the plain. On the extreme western border 
the land is so rugged and cut up by valleys and ravines that on the 
slopes and sides of the hills a system of spade tillage takes the place 


of ordinary cultivation by ploughs and bullocks. Along the western 
border of the District the Western Ghats form a barrier inaccessible, 
except by a few difficult passes or ghats. Of these, the Borghat, 
traversed by both a road and a railway, is the only line fitted for 
wheeled vehicles. The ridges, which form the main line of the moun- 
tains, have the flat tops and steep sides common to basaltic hills. 
Within the limits of the District not a few of the hills have had their 
sides hewn into rock temples, or their summits crowned with fortresses. 
Many streams rise in the Western Ghats, and flow eastwards, until they 
join the Bhima river, which passes through the District from north- 
west to south-east. The main tributaries are, on the left the Vel 
and Ghod, and on the right the Bhama, Indrayani, Mula, and 
Nira. The water of the rivers is good for all purposes, and all of 
them are sources of supply to the many villages along their banks. 
Poona is well supplied with water from six artificial lakes, of which 
the chief is the Kharakvasla lake, lo miles south-west of Poona city, 
with an area of 5^ square miles. 

Almost the whole rock of Poona is stratified trap. In many parts 
of the hilly portion of the District the hill-tops are crowned with 
collars of trap resembling the walls of a fortress. Beds of basalt and 
amygdaloid alternate, their upper and lower planes being strikingly 
parallel with each other and apparently with the horizon. 

Poona District, lying as it does partly on the Western Ghats, pos- 
sesses a varied flora, of the Konkan or Ghats type on the west, pass- 
ing into the Deccan type in the east. The chief plants of the Konkan 
type are Ciemaiis hedysarifolia, Dillenia pentagyiia, Bocagea Dalzellii, 
Cocculus ffiacrocarpus, Capparis Moonii, Garciiiia indica, Thespesia 
Lampas, Kydia ca/ycina, Sterculia colorafa, Erinocarpus Nimmoanus, 
Linum inysore?ise, Impatiens, Heynea trijiiga, Gyinnosporia Rothiana, 
Sfuithia, Desmodhim, Mucuna, Careya, Casearia, and Begonia. Of the 
Deccan type the following are a few familiar examples : Clematis 
triloba, Fumaria, Capparis, Flacourtia, Ahutilon muticuDi, Triumfetta 
rhomboidea, Tribulus terrestris, Allan thus excelsa, Balanites Roxburghii, 
Boswellia serraia, Heylandia latebrosa, Taverniera Nunwiularia, Dichro- 
stachys cinerea, Mimosa hamata. Acacia arabica, Anagallis arvensis, and 
Caralluma fimbriata. The commonest road-side trees are the pipal 
{Ficiis religiosa), vada {Ficus bengalensis), nandruk {Ficiis retiisa), 
pipri {Ficus Tsiela), mnbar {Ficus glomerata\ karanj, tamarind, mango, 
jdmlml {Eugenia Jambolana), and babul. Oranges, limes, grapes, figs, 
plantains, and guavas are grown and are of good quality. 

The spread of tillage and the increase of population have greatly 
reduced the number of wild animals. Tigers, ieopards, and bears are 
found only in the Western Ghats, and even there in small numbers. 
The sambar and the spotted deer are rare, and bison is. now unknown. 


The wolf is found in small numbers over the whole District. AVild 
hog abound in the babul groves on the banks of the Bhima and (Ihod, 
in the western hill forests, and, since the opening of the Mutha canal 
(1873), in the neighbourhood of Poona. The antelope and the Indian 
gazelle, and sometimes the hog deer, are found in the hills. The Dis- 
trict is poorly supplied with game-birds. Except for quail, and on rare 
occasions for duck and snipe, no large bags are made in the District. 
Snakes are numerous but mostly harmless. The rivers and streams are 
fairly stocked with fish, about thirty kinds being offered for sale in the 
Poona market. During the rains, and still more towards their close, 
when the waters of the streams dwindle into chains of pools, fish are 
caught in nets and traps by the chief fishing classes, the Maratha 
and Koli Bhois. 

The height of the Poona plateau (1,800 feet), its freedom from 
alluvial deposits, and the prevalence of westerly breezes, make its dry, 
invigorating air better suited to Europeans than any climate in Western 
India. The air is lighter, the heat less oppressive, and the cold more 
bracing than in almost any other District of the Presidency. November 
to February form the Poona cold season, March to June the hot, and 
June to October the wet. During the cold season cool land winds 
prevail, with sea-breezes mostly after sundown. The hot winds, the 
chief characteristic of the hot season, are over by the middle of May. 
During the hot season the air is occasionally cooled by severe thunder- 
storms, bringing heavy rain and occasionally hail. The temperature 
falls to 48° in November and rises to 107° in May. The south-west 
monsoon begins about the middle of June and lasts till the end of 
September. The rainfall varies considerably in different parts of the 
District. In the western parts of the Junnar, Khed, Haveli, and Maval 
tdhikas it is heavy and regular ; in the central belt it is moderate ; and 
in the Bhimthadi and Indapur talukas on the east it is very irregular. 
At Lonauli on the Ghats it averages over 185 inches annually. In 
Poona city 32 is the average, while farther east it does not exceed 
20 inches in places. 

In prehistoric times Poona District is said to have formed part 
of the Datidakdranya or Dandaka forest of the Ramayana, infested 
by wild men. In very early times it was crossed by 
important trade routes, which led to the Konkan by 
such passes as the Borghat and the Nana pass. Ample evidence on 
these points is to be found in the rock-cut inscriptions at Bhaja, Bedsa, 
Karli, and the Nana pass. The history of the District commences 
with that of the town of Junnar, 56 miles north-west of Poona, and 
16 from the rock-cut steps which lead down the Nana pass into the 
Konkan. A century before Christ the town was ruled by an Andhra 
king. In the succeeding two centuries Buddhism established itself 


at Junnar, and the circle of hills round the town became honeycombed 
with caves for the monks of this religion. At Bedsa an inscription 
of this period furnishes one of the earliest known notices of the 
Marathas. Until 1290 no further evidence is forthcoming regarding 
the fortunes of the District ; but it seems probable that it passed 
successively under the dominion of the early and Western Chalukyas 
(550-760), the Rashtrakutas (760-973), the Western Chalukyas (973- 
1184), and the Deogiri Yadavas. Under the latter, it was divided 
between petty Maratha or Koli hill chiefs. With the fall of the 
Deogiri Yadavas, Poona came under the dominion of Delhi, and 
Muhammad bin Tughlak marched against Kondana, the present Sinh- 
garh fort, in 1340. The Bahmani dynasty incorporated Poona in its 
possessions, and held it at the time of the Durga-devi famine (1396- 
1407). An interesting account of Poona under the Bahmanis has 
been recorded by the Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin (1468-74). 
The founder of the Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar, MaUk Ahmad, 
made Junnar his head-quarters for a time. One of his successors con- 
ferred Poona as a jaglr on Maloji Bhonsla, the grandfather of Sivaji, 
who was born at Shivner fort, close to Junnar, in 1627. The emperor 
Shah Jahan about this period penetrated into the Deccan and recovered 
for the Mughals the northern portions of the District. With the rise 
of Sivaji, Poona became the scene of conflict between the Marathas 
and the Delhi emperors, the former holding the forts and passes in the 
hills and the latter the open country. To this period belongs one 
of Sivaji's most famous exploits, the capture of Sinhgarh. An expedi- 
tion of Aurangzeb into the Deccan led to the capture and death of 
Sivaji's son Sambhaji, and the temporary re-establishment of the 
Mughals. SambhajT's son Sahu recovered the District from Aurangzeb, 
and thenceforward it remained under the rule of the Peshwas, of whom 
the first, Balajl, was Sahu's minister. For the next hundred years 
(1714-1817) Poona was the seat of the Peshwas, the heads of the 
great Maratha confederacy. Baji Rao Ballal, second Peshwa, insti- 
tuted the dakshina or money gifts to learned Brahmans that led to the 
foundation of the Deccan College. His successor Balajl Baji Rao 
brought the Maratha power to its zenith, though destined to witness, 
at the close of his rule, the disastrous defeat of Panlpat (1761). The 
subsequent years are full of stirring events, when the Peshwas first 
opposed the Nizam and Haidar All, and subsequently allied them- 
selves with different members of the Maratha confederacy in the 
hope of raising a barrier against the advancing power of the British. 
In these intrigues they were ably assisted by the famous minister 
Nana Farnavis. Alternately the ally of Sindhia and Holkar, both 
of whom in turn plundered Poona city (1798 and 1802), Baji Rao 
Peshwa was finally brought into conflict with the British owing to 


the murder of Gangadhar Shastri, the minister of the Gaikwar of 
Baroda, whose safety they had guaranteed. In the Treaty of Poona 
an attempt was made by Bajl Rao Peshwa to conciHate the British 
power ; but a subsequent resort to force led to the battle of Kirkee on 
November 5,1817, and to the end of Maratha rule in the District. After 
annexation the District was managed by Mr. Elphinstone, the former 
Resident at the court of the Peshwa. In 1826 the Ramosis rose 
in revolt, and were joined by the Kolis from the hilly western tracts. 
This rising and a similar one in 1844 were quelled without much 
difficulty. Since then, the most notable chapter in the history of the 
District is connected with the disaffection that arose in Poona city 
in 1897 over the measures taken to check the spread of the plague. 
Discontent was rife, and ended in the murder of the special plague 
officer, Mr. Walter Rand of the Civil Service. The subsequent depor- 
tation and imprisonment of certain leading citizens, together with the 
establishment of a strong punitive police post, put an end to acts 
of violence ; and the peace of the District has since remained un- 

The earliest historical remains are the caves of Junnar. The 
inscriptions in these caves and at the Nana pass in the vicinity are 
of special interest, being the oldest known Brahmanical inscriptions 
yet discovered. Later in date are the Buddhist caves at Karli, 
Bhaja, Bedsa, and Shelarwadi, probably all dating from the first 
and second centuries after Christ. Later Hindu dynasties have left 
the Saivite rock temple at Bhambhurda, 2 miles west of Poona, 
and scattered Hemadpanti remains varying from the tenth to the 
thirteenth century, which it is customary to attribute to the Gauli-raj, 
or Deogiri Yadavas. The chief Hemadpanti remains are the Kuka- 
deshwar temple at Pur 10 miles north-west of Junnar, the tanks of 
Belhe 21 miles north-east of Junnar, and Pabal 21 miles north-east 
of Poona ; transformed mosques at Poona, Junnar, and Sasvad ; and 
the Ganga and Jumna rock-cut reservoirs on the top of Shivner fort 
in Junnar. 

The number of towns and villages in the District is 1,189. ^^^ 
population at each of the last four enumerations was: (1872) 922,439, 
(1881) 901,828, (1891) 1,067,800, and (1901) 995.330. p^ ulation 
The decHne in 1881 was due to the famine of 1876-7, 
while the decrease in 1901 is chiefly due to the famine of 1900 and to 
plague. In both famines the eastern portion of the District suffered 

The distribution of the population by tdlukas in 1901 is shown in 
the table on the next page. 

The chief towns are : Poona City, Kirkee, Junnar, Baramati, 
SiRUR, LoNAULi, Sasvad, Indapur, Talegaon-Dabhade, Khed, and 



Alandi. The villages with population exceeding 5,000 are Talegaon- 
Dhamdere, Otur, Ghod, Manchar, and Pandare. Of the total 
population, 93 per cent, are Hindus, 5 per cent. Musalmans, 10,703 
Tains, and 14,484 Christians. Marathi is the chief language, being 
spoken by 90 per cent, of the population. 






Number of 


centage o 
riation in 
ulation be 
/een i8gi 
nd 1901. 

umber of 
ons able ti 
ead and 













+ I 


Khed . . I 

„ Ambegaon pctha \ 


i 2 



j 179 

i- 5 


) ... 



\ - 2 


Sirfir .... 






- 23 








- 3 




i 2 



i ,^97 

\- ' 


„ '\\\\\i\\\ petha •'. 




i - 9 


Purandhar . 






- 18 


Bhimthadi . . J 


\ I 



j 119 

\ ■" '^ 


,, Dhondpef/ia \ 

( ... 






District total 






- 6 







- 7 


* According to the latest returns of the Agricultural department, the number of villages is 1,205. 

The Hindu population is largely composed of Marathas and allied 
castes, of which a description will be found in the article on the 
Bombay PRESinENCV. The local Brahman sub-caste is the Deshasth, 
who form 60 per cent, of the total number. Next to Deshasths in 
importance are the Chitpavans or Konkanasths (14,000), a sub-caste 
that came from the Konkan, and rose to a position of great power 
in the days of the Peshwas, who themselves belonged to this sub-caste. 
Many Brahmans are money-lenders, general traders, and landholders. 
The Marathas of the old fighting class number 333,000, or one-third 
of the total population ; while Maratha Kunbis, who are closely allied 
to them though socially inferior, number 98,000. An important cul- 
tivating caste is the Mali or gardener (61,000). In the hilly western 
portion of the District the land is for the most part in the hands 
of Kolls (46,000). Dhangars or shepherds number 42,000. Mahars 
(82,000) and Mangs (22,000), the depressed classes, who probably 
represent primitive tribes dispossessed by the Aryans, are numerous, 
a few families being found in almost every village, where they occupy 
a hamlet apart from the houses of their better caste neighbours. 
The vicinity of Bombay city induces many of the labouring classes to 
seek work in that place during the busy season. The emigrants are 
chiefly drawn from the Ghats villages, where the peasants are much 
involved in debt, and are known in Bombay as ghdtis. Ramosis or 
professional watchmen (22,000), widely distributed throughout the 


District, once formed part of the Maratha fighting forces. Chamars 
or leather-workers number 18,000. Musalmans (46,000) are chiefly 
Shaikhs (27,000), a term loosely used to designate either converts 
from Hinduism or descendants from Arab invaders. In Junnar they 
are an indication of the former predominance of the Musalman king- 
dom of Ahmadnagar. Agriculture supports 57 per cent, of the popula- 
tion, and industries and commerce 15 and 2 per cent, respectively. 

In 1 90 1 the native Christians, who numbered about 8,000, included 
3,765 Roman Catholics, 1,131 of the Anglican communion, 117 
Presbyterians, and 243 Methodists. The Church of England Mission 
has a branch known as the Panch Houd Mission in Poona city and 
another small branch in the Haveli tdii/ka, which perform social, 
educational, and religious work among both sexes. The Church 
Missionary Society carries on evangelistic work in seven stations and 
maintains in Poona city a divinity school, where natives are trained 
as catechists. Closely connected with it is the Zanana Bible Medical 
Mission, working among women. The Church of Scotland Presby- 
terian Mission, with its head-quarters in Poona cantonments, maintains 
a hospital in Poona city, a boarding-house, orphanage, and 23 schools, 
of which 1 1 are for girls. The United Free Church of Scotland 
Mission, established in 1882, has branches at Lonauli and Sasvad; 
and the Methodist Episcopal Mission, established in 1873, maintains 
a home for Eurasian boys and girls and four boys' schools in Poona 
city. The American Marathi Mission, established in 1855 at Sirur, 
maintains two orphanages, and several schools for low-caste children, 
in which special attention is paid to industrial training. An energetic 
Brahman lady, Pandita Rama Bai, established in the Bhimthadi 
tdluka in 1896 the undenominational Mukti Mission, which comprises 
a church, school, printing press, and a large boarding establishment, 
costing Rs. 80,000 a year and financed from Great Britain, Australia, 
and America. The Poona Village and Indian Mission, styled inter- 
denominational and embracing all the Protestant sects, was established 
in 1895; it has three stations in the Bhor State and maintains a hos- 
pital, two orphanages, and a school. Among minor establishments 
are the Zanana Training Home at Wanowri, a Boys' Christian Home 
at Dhond, the St. Vincent of Paul Society for the relief of the poor, 
and the St. Anthony's bread guild which provides clothing and rations 
for the destitute. The Salvation Army has branches at Sirur and 

In Poona all arable land comes under one or other of three 

great heads — 'dry-crop' land, watered land, rice land. The khartf ox 

early crops are brought to maturity by the rains of the . . ,^ 

/u . L 7 •• J J Agriculture. 

south-west monsoon ; the rain or spnng crops depend 

on dews, on irrigation, and on the small cold-season showers which 




occasionally fall between November and March. The principal khar'if 
crops are spiked millet {bdjra), mixed with the hardy iio; and joivdr. 
These are sown late in May or in June, and are reaped in September 
and October or November. In the wet and hilly west the chief har- 
vest is the kharif, which here consists of rice and hill millets, such as 
rdgi and vari. The rati crops are sown in October and November, 
and ripen in February and March. They are chiefly the cold-season 
Indian millets, such as shdlu, tdmbdi, and dudhmogra, and wheat, 
together with gram, lentils {masur), kulith, and other pulses. As in 
other parts of the Deccan, the chief kinds of soil are black, red, 
and barad or stony. The black soil, found generally near rivers, 
is by far the richest of these. The red soil is almost always shallow, 
and coarser than the black. The stony soil is found on the slopes 
of hills. It is merely trap rock in the first stage of disintegration ; but, 
if favoured by plentiful and frequent rains, it repays the scanty labour 
which its tillage requires. With four bullocks, a Kunbi can till some 
60 acres of light soil. The same area of shallowish black soil re- 
quires six or eight bullocks. Eight bullocks can till 50 acres of deep 
black soil. Many husbandmen possess less than the proper number 
of cattle, and have to join with their neighbours for ploughing. 

The District is mostly ryotwdri, only about 15 per cent, of the 
total area being indm or jdglr estates. The chief statistics of cultiva- 
tion in 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles: — 







Junnar . 
Khed . 
Maval . 
Haveli . 






























* Statistics are not available for 89 square miles of this area, which is based on 
the latest information. 

The chief crops are bdjra (i,ioo square miles) and jowdr (885), 
grown almost entirely in the eastern portion of the District. Bdjra 
is sown on light lands whenever the early rains suffice. Rice occupies 
no square miles, and is grown mainly in the western portion known as 
the Maval. Inferior hill millets, with wheat, peas, beans, and gram as 
second crops after rice, are grown in the Maval when the moisture 
is sufficient. The central belt grows a variety of products. Its cereal 
is bdjra, and the chief oilseeds are niger-seeds and ground-nuts. 
Safflower covers 92 square miles. Wheat (126 square miles) is grown 


as a 'dry crop' in a considerable area in the Maval and in the central 
portions of the District. Of pulses, which occupy about 352 square 
miles, the most largely grown are gram, tiir, ??iath, ku/it/i, and miig. 
Sugar-cane is extensively grown (20 square miles in 1903-4), chiefly 
under irrigation. Vegetables form an important market-garden crop 
near Poona, as also do grapes, figs, papayas, guavas, oranges, and (jther 
favourite fruits. Among special crops, the grape-vine ( Vitis vinifera) 
is occasionally grown in the best garden land on the border of the 
western belt and in the neighbourhood of Poona city. The vine is 
grown from cuttings, which are ready for planting in six or eight months. 
It begins to bear in the third year, and is in full fruit in the sixth or 
seventh. With care, a vine goes on bearing for sixty, or even, it is 
said, for a hundred years. The vine is trained on a stout upright, 
often a growing stump which is pruned to a pollard-like shape about 
five feet high ; this mode is said to be most remunerative. Or a strong 
open trellis roof is thrown over the vineyard about six feet from the 
ground, and the vines are trained horizontally on it ; this mode is 
preferred by the rich for its appearance and shade, and is said to 
encourage growth to a greater age. The vine yields sweet grapes 
from January to March, and sour grapes in August. The sour grapes 
are very abundant, but are not encouraged ; the sweet grape is tended 
in every possible way, but is apt to suffer from disease. After each 
crop the vine is pruned, and salt, sheep's droppings, and dried fish are 
applied as manure to each vine after the sour crop is over. Vines 
are flooded once a year for five or six days, the earth being previously 
loosened round the roots. Blight attacks them when the buds first 
appear, and is removed by shaking the branches over a cloth, into 
which the blight falls, and is then carried to a distance and destroyed. 
This operation is performed three times a day until the buds are 
an inch long. 

The cultivation of sugar-cane and other valuable crops has greatly 
increased of late years, owing to the construction by Government 
of irrigation canals, as also has the use of new manures. English 
ploughs are used in a few places, and iron sugar-cane mills are seen 
everywhere. The Poona Experimental Farm, which is situated about 
2 miles from the city in Bopudi village, originated in a small piece of 
land taken for the agricultural class at the College of Science in 1879. 
In 1888 it was handed over to the Agricultural department, which 
since that date has superintended the raising of hybrids of cotton, 
wheat, and Jowdr, the growing of forage crops for the use of the model 
dairy attached to the farm, the testing of new crops, the trial of new 
agricultural implements, and the distribution of seed both to agricul- 
turists and, for scientific purposes, to experimental farms at Pusa 
and elsewhere. The farm is used for educational purposes by the 

u 2 


students of the College of Science, by junior civilians, and by visitors 
and agriculturists ; and it is furnished with an increasing collection of 
soils, manures, seeds, fibres, botanical specimens, and indigenous and 
imported implements. A portion of the land, which measures 66 acres, 
is annually reserved for growing small plots of all important varieties 
of typical crops. A second farm at Manjri, occupying about 45 acres, 
and 8 miles distant from Poona, is devoted to experiments in sugar- 
cane cultivation. Since 1894 attention has been directed to the 
system of manuring sugar-cane, to testing several methods of culti- 
vation, to the acclimatization of imported varieties of cane, and to 
studying the most profitable methods of utilizing bone manure. 
Botanical experiments in cotton and wheat are also carried out. 
A sewage-farm, on which sugar-cane, fodder, ground-nuts, maize, and 
sweet potatoes are grown, forms part of the Manjri Farm. The model 
dairy farm at Kirkee contains 68 cows and 53 cow-buffaloes, and sells 
dairy produce of an annual value of about Rs. 24,000. The gardens at 
Ganeshkhind are maintained for botanical and experimental purposes, 
and are in charge of the Economic Botanist. They contain excellent 
mango orchards. Advances to agriculturists under the Land Improve- 
ment and Agriculturists' Loans Acts amounted during the decade 
ending 1904 to 2i'4 lakhs. Of this sum, 11 lakhs was advanced in 
the three years 1899-1900, 1900-1, and 1901— 2. 

The District has ten breeds of cattle, of which the khildri, or herd- 
cattle from West Khandesh, are the most valuable draught animals in 
the Deccan. Buffaloes are common in all parts and are of eleven 
kinds, but the best breeds are imported from Sind, Cutch, and 
Gujarat. For rice-field work the Poona cultivator prefers the buffalo 
to the bullock, and the cow-buffaloes supply most of the milk used 
in the District. Poona has long been famous for its horses, and there 
are few villages in east Poona without one or two brood-mares. Of 
eight breeds of horses the local or deshi variety, bred on the banks 
of the Bhlma and Nira, was most esteemed by the Marathas. The 
Dhangar pony, thick -set, short-legged, and strong, very unlike the 
ordinary village pony, is of the same breed as the Nira pony. Horse- 
breeding is carried on by the Army Remount department, which 
maintains eight horse stallions and four pony stallions at Sirur, Bara- 
mati, Dhond, and Indapur. Donkeys are used as load-carriers by 
stonecutters, limeburners, potters, and washermen. Mules, chiefly 
cast commissariat animals, are used by charcoal-burners for carrying 
loads and drawing carts. Flocks of sheep are found in most large 
villages, and goats are common. Fowls are reared everywhere, 
while turkeys, geese, and ducks are found in the towns, where also 
many Musalmans and some Hindus breed pigeons for amusement 
or profit. 


Of the total cultivated area, 145-5 -'^Huare miles, or 4 per cent., were 
irrigated in 1903-4. The areas under the various classes of irrigation 
sources were : Government canals, 56 square miles ; private canals, 
7 square miles ; tanks, 6 square miles ; wells, 75 ; and other sources, 
one square mile. The chief water-works made or repaired by Govern- 
ment are the Nlra and Mutha Canals, and the Shetphal, Matoba, 
Kasurdi, Sirsuphal, and Bhadalwadi tanks. The Mutha Canals, 
completed in 1878, and the reservoir from which they are fed, Lake 
Fife, command r6,8oo acres; while the NIra Canal, fed by Lake 
Whiting, completed in 1886, commands 113,000 acres. The former 
supplied 7,000 and the latter 31,000 acres in 1903-4. Well-irrigation 
is of great importance in Indapur and other drought-stricken parts of 
the east. Wells are circular, 8 to ro feet across and 20 to 50 feet 
deep. Water is raised in a leathern bag. Near Poona city good crops 
are raised by well-irrigation for the Bombay and Poona markets, 
and many additional wells have been constructed out of Government 
loans during recent years. The District contains 22,177 wells and 
27 tanks, used for irrigation purposes. 

The forest lands may be roughly grouped into three classes : hill, 
river-bank, and upland Reserves. Except in the Sinhgarh range the 
hill Reserves, consisting of mixed evergreen woods and teak coppice, 
are found in the west. The evergreen woods yield little timber, but 
the teak coppices, chiefly on the slopes and terraces of the easterly 
spurs, furnish a valuable revenue. The groves found along the banks 
of almost all" the larger rivers consist mostly of well-grown babul. The 
third class of forest lands, the upland or mdl Reserves, are found in 
every subdivision, but chiefly in Sirur, Bhimthadi, and Indapur. The 
chief forest trees are : the mango, the ain, the nana and the bondara 
{Lagers troemia lanceolata and L. parvifoHa, two closely allied species), 
the hedu {Naucka cordifolia), the kalamb {Nauc/ea parvifo/ia), the asan 
{Bridelia retusa), the savi (Botnbax ma/abariaim), the dhaura {Cono- 
carpus latifolta), the teak, the jdmbiil {Eugenia Janibolana), the yela 
{Terminalia be/erica), the dhaman {Greivia tiltaefo/ia), the myrabolam, 
and the bamboo. The Forest department is in charge of about 
500 square miles of ' reserved ' forest in the District, and the Revenue 
department manages 210 square miles of fodder reserves and pasture 
lands. In 1903-4 the forest revenue amounted to Rs. 60,000. 

Except iron, which occurs in various places as hematite associated 
with laterite, or as magnetic grains in stream beds, the District 
produces no metallic ores. The trap rock yields good building stone 
and road-metal almost everywhere, boulders being preferred to quarried 
stone. A variety of compact dark-blue basalt, capable of high polish, 
is worked into idols and pedestals for wooden pillars. Quartz occurs 
throughout the trap in various forms, either crystalline or amorphous 


in the form of agate, jasper, and heliotrope. Stilbitc, and its associate 
the still finer apophylite, though less common than quart/, are by no 
means rare. One magnificent variety consists of large salmon-coloured 
crystals 2 or 3 inches long. The other mineral products are common 
salt, carbonate of soda, sand for mortar, and limestone. 

The chief manufactures are silk robes, coarse cotton cloth, and 
blankets. The Poona cotton and silk-embroidered /fl-^r/^ have a wide- 
spread reputation, and the brass- and silver-work 

^^^^..^;^o+;^»,^ f''^ the same place is much admired. Among other 
communications. . > ° 

special manufactures may be mentioned toys, small 
rlay figures carefully dressed, and ornaments, baskets, fans, &c., of 
khaskhas grass, decked with beetles' wings. The manufacture of 
paper by hand, formerly of some importance, has of late years 
practically ceased. A few Musalman papermakers are still to be 
found in Junnar town. 

Among the factories of the district are two cotton-spinning and 
weaving mills, a paper-mill, a flour-mill, and a brewery. In 1904 the 
cotton-mills contained 308 looms and 13,924 sjoindles, employed 
1,069 hands, and produced i-6 million pounds of yarn and 700,000 
pounds of cloth. A Government gun-carriage factory and an arms 
and ammunition factory at Poona and Kirkee employ about 2,100 
hands. 'J'here are also railway workshops at Lonauli. 

Of late years, except the development caused by cheap and rapid 
carriage of goods, there has been no marked change in the trade of 
the District. It is, generally speaking, small. The increased demand 
for raw sugar has led to a larger production. The raw sugar goes 
mostly to Bombay and Gujarat, 'i'he chief exports are grain, raw 
sugar, cotton cloth, vegetables, fruits, brass-ware, and silk cloth. The 
chief imports are rice brought from Ahmadnagar and Thana, wheat, 
.salt, and cojjper and brass sheets. The chief agencies for spreading 
imports and gathering exports are trade centres, markets, fairs, village 
shops, and pedlars' packs. The leading merchants are Marwar VanTs, 
Gujarat YanTs, Bohras, Parsis, and Brahmans. 

Besides about 222 miles of metalled and 913 miles u{ unmetalled 
roads, 112 miles of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway traverse the 
District from west to east, and this section is joined at Dhond by 
the north to south cross connexion from Manmad. The Southero 
Mahratta Railway runs from Poona southwards ff;r a distance of 
about 48 miles within the District, and has nine stations in that 
length. Metalled roads {)lace the District in communication with 
Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Sholapur, Belgaum,, and Kolaba Districts. 
\Vith the exception of 341 miles of unmetalled roads, all the roads are 
maintained by the Public Works department. The chief of them 
are the Bombay-Poona mail road to the foot of the Borghat, the 


Poona-Aliiii.'idiiagar road, the Poona-Sholapur road, and the Poona- 
Nasik road ; while of nmds niainlainrd by the local authorities the 
chief are those from Manchar to Amhegaon, from Khcd to Phorgiri, 
from Sirfir to Nira bridge, from Junnar to Pelhe, and from IJaramati 
to Patas. 

With much of its rainfall cut off hy the \v(!stcrn hills, large tracts 
in the cast of the District have a very uncertain water su])ply. During 
the last five hundred years there is either traditional 
or historical mention of at least twenty-five famines. 
The first was the dread calamity known as the Durgii-dcvT famine. 
Other famines are recorded in T422, 1460 (i)amaji-])ant's)-, 1473, ^S^o, 
1630, r787, 1792, 1793, 1802-3 (ravages of Ilolkar's troops), 1820, 
1823, 1824, 1825, 1832-8, 1844-6, 1862-7, 1876-7, 1896-7, and 
1 899-1 902. In the year 1792-3 no rain whatever fell till October, 
and the price of grain rose to 8 seers for the rupee. In 1802, owing 
to the devastation of the country by Ilolkar's troops, the price of grain 
is said to have risen to 4 seers for the rupee. In 1824-5 and 
1845-6 failure of rain caused great scarcity. In 1866 7 more than 
Rs. 80,000 of land revenue was remitted, and Rs. 20,000 was spent on 
relief to the destitute. Poona was specially affected by the famine 
of 1876-7. In 1896-7 the whole l^istrict suffered. At the height of 
the famine in May, 1897, there were 22,223 persons and 3,345 <^lcpcn- 
dents on relief works and 6,566 in receipt of gratuitous relief. 'I'he 
number gratuitously relieved reached a maximum of 23,998 in 
September and October, 1897. In 1899 the practical cessation of 
the rain from the middle of September onward resulted in widespread 
failure of crops, the Dhond pctha suffering most. As early as 
December the number on relief works and of those gratuitously 
relieved exceeded it,ooo. It advanced steadily till May, when it 
was 65,717, in addition to 17,236 dependents on relief works and 
13,237 in receipt of gratuitous relief. The latter figure rose to 
28,536 in September. The relief works were kei)t open till October, 
T902, when the daily average attendance was about t,ooo, just lowered 
from 2,000 in the previous month. It is calculated that over 20,000 
persons died from the effects of famine and 120,000 cattle perished. 
Including remissions of advances to agriculturists and land revenue, 
more than 45 lakhs was spent in the District in the last famine. The 
advances made to cultivators exceeded 10 lakhs. 

The District is divided into eight tdlukas as follows: BuTmthadi, 
Havkli, Indapur, Junnar, Kukd, Mavaf,, Purandiiar, and Sikuk. 
The Collector is assisted by two Assistant Collectors y^^njinistration. 
and a Personal Assistant. The petty subdivisions 
(ficfhns) of Dhond, Anibcgaon, and Mulshi are incUidcd in the 
Bhimthadi, Khed, and llaveli /d/ukns respectively. The Collector 


is Political Agent for the Bhor State, which is included in the District 
for some administrative purposes. 

The District and Sessions Judge, who is also Agent for the Deccan 
Sardars, is assisted by a Small Cause Court Judge, a Special Judge 
under the Dekkhan Agriculturists' Relief Act, and six Sub-Judges. 
There are thirty-eight ofificers to administer criminal justice in the 
District. The city of Poona forms a separate magisterial charge under 
a City Magistrate. There are also two benches of magistrates to assist 
him in criminal work. There is a Cantonment Magistrate for Poona 
cantonment, and another at Kirkee. The commonest forms of crime 
are theft and housebreaking. 

The earliest revenue system of which traces remained at the 
beginning of British rule was the Jatha, that is, the family estate, or 
the thai, that is, the settlement system, under which the whole arable 
land of each village was divided among a certain number of families. 
The lands occupied by each family were distinguished by the original 
occupant's surname, even when none of his descendants remained. 
These holdings were called jathas or family estates. The head of 
the family was held responsible for any land revenue due for the lands 
belonging to the family, and was styled viukaddam. In theory the 
leading family estate and its head were responsible for the whole 
rental of the village, and were bound to make good the failures of 
minor family estates. This responsibility, however, could not be 
enforced, and the Government was frequently content to accept less 
than the full rental. Malik Ambar's settlement was introduced between 
1605 and 1626. It was based on a correct knowledge of the area 
of the land tilled and of the money value of the crop, coupled with 
a determination to limit the state demand to a small share of the 
actual money value of the crop. It is generally thought that, under 
Malik Ambar's survey, areas were fixed by an estimate or nazar-pdhdni. 
The rates were intended to be permanent and were therefore moderate. 
Between 1662 and 1666 a more correct measurement of the land was 
made ; but owing to the state of the country, which had su.lfered from 
war and pestilence, Malik Ambar's system had to be discontinued. 
In 1664 in its stead a crop division was introduced. In 1669, when 
Sivaji reconquered Poona, he introduced a cash rental instead of 
payment in kind. The settlement was by village, or mauzawdr. The 
village had therefore to make good a lump sum, and the villagers were 
left free to arrange for the recovery of the state dues on land which 
had fallen waste. Land deserted by its owner became the joint 
property of the village, which either divided it or cultivated it jointly. 
Under this system Sivaji's rental was uncertain, as individual property 
in land had a tendency to vanish, and this led to Malik Ambar's 
system of a fixed money rent for the whole village being restored in 



1674. The rise in the price of produce greatly reduced the state 
share in the out-turn of the land, and to make good this loss special 
cesses were levied on several occasions and under various names. This 
system continued till 1758, when, under the rule of Peshwa Balaji 
BajT Rao, a new and very elaborate measurement and settlement were 
introduced. In the times of the Peshwas the government collected 
its revenues through its own agents ; the maximum of the land tax 
was fixed and only charged on lands actually under tillage, while 
remissions were made in bad seasons. The revenues fluctuated 
according to the prosperity of the country. Between 1772 and 1800, 
the years of the administration of Nana Farnavis, the management of 
the Peshwa's land revenue was perhaps more efficient than at any 
other time. In the reign of Bajl Rao II the practice of farming the 
revenue for short terms to the highest bidder was introduced. The 
charges involved by this system aggravated the evils of its predecessor. 
Much hardship resulted from the exactions of these temporary revenue 

The assessment introduced at the beginning of British rule when 
prices were high pressed heavily on landholders in seasons either of 
bad crops or of low prices. Consequently the leading features of the 
revenue system before 1856 were high assessment and large remissions. 
About 1825, when distress was acute, Mr. Pringle was appointed to 
survey the District and revise the assessment. His survey settlement 
was introduced over the whole District between 1829 and 1831. 
The measure proved a failure, partly from the heaviness and in- 
equality of the assessment in a period of bad seasons and partly from 
the malpractices of Mr. Pringle's establishment. The defects were 
early foreseen and the new rates were soon discontinued. The first 
settlement confirmed for thirty years was introduced into the Dis- 
trict between 1836 and 1854. About 1855 a regular revenue survey 
was undertaken. A revision survey was made and introduced between 
1874 and 1901. This survey found an increase in the cultivaljle area 
of 6 per cent., and the settlement enhanced the total revenue from 
about 6 lakhs to 12 lakhs. The average assessment per acre of 'dry' 
land is 9 annas, rice land Rs. 2-7, and of garden land Rs. 2. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
revenue from all sources, in thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue 
Total revenue . 






The District has twelve municipalities : namely, Poona City and 
Poona Suburban, Sasvad, Jejuri, Baramati, Indapur, Sirur, Tale- 


gaon-Dabhade, Lonauli, Khed, Alandi, and Junnar. The total 
income of these municipalities averages about 4^ lakhs. Outside the 
municipalities, local affairs are managed by the District board and eight 
tdluka boards. The receipts of these in 1903-4 were Rs. 2,25,000, 
the chief source of their income being the local cess. The expenditure 
in the same year amounted to Rs. 2,09,000, including Rs. 87,000 spent 
on the construction and maintenance of roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is aided by an Assistant and 
3 inspectors. In 1903-4 there were 18 police stations, with 16 chief 
constables, 3 European constables, 231 head constables, and 988 con- 
stables. The mounted police numbered 28, under 4 European constables 
and 6 daffaddrs. The Yeraoda Central jail, intended for the confine- 
ment of all classes of prisoners, as well as for relieving District jails 
throughout the Presidency, is situated 3 miles north of Poona city. It 
has accommodation for 1,580 prisoners, and in 1904 the average daily 
number of prisoners was 1,452, of whom 40 were females. The present 
structure was built altogether by convict labour. The prisoners are 
employed outside the walls in gardens, and are hired out to contractors 
for unskilled labour. Inside the prison various industries are carried 
on, including weaving, carpet-making, coir-work, cane-work, and car- 
pentry. A printing press has recently been established. There are 10 
subsidiary jails and 12 lock-ups, with accommodation for 125 and 181 
prisoners respectively. A reformatory school for juvenile offenders at 
Yeraoda is under the supervision of the Educational department. 

Poona stands seventh as regards literacy among the twenty-four Dis- 
tricts of the Presidency. In 1901, 6-6 per cent, of the population 
(ii'7 males and 1-5 females) could read and write. Education has 
made much progress of late years. In 1855-6 there were only 
95 schools, with a total of 4,206 pupils in the District. In 1881 the 
number of pupils rose to 15,246, in 1891 to 30,370, and in 1901 
was 25,963. In 1903-4 there were 411 schools with 24,801 pupils, of 
whom more than 4,400 were females. These schools include 22 pri- 
vate schools with 417 pupils. Among the public institutions are 2 Arts 
colleges (the Deccan and Fergusson), one professional college, the 
College of Science, 14 high schools, 21 middle schools, 341 primary 
schools, and 10 special schools, including a training college for male 
and 2 for female teachers, one workshop, and a medical class at the 
Bassoon Hospital. The College of Science includes engineering classes, 
agricultural classes, a workshop, and a forestry class. The Deccan 
College has a law class attached to it. Out of 389 public institu- 
tions, 14 are supported by Government, 201 by local boards, 50 by 
municipal boards, 119 schools are aided, and 5 are unaided. The 
total expenditure on education in 1903-4 exceeded 6| lakhs, of which 
nearly i^ lakhs was recovered as fees and Rs. 52,000 was contributed 


by local and municipal boards. Of the total, 25 per cent, was expended 
on primary schools. 

In 1904 the District contained 4 hospitals and 20 dispensaries, pro- 
viding accommodation for 252 in-patients. About 145,000 patients, 
including 3,573 in-patients, were treated in these, and 5,520 opera- 
tions were performed. The total expenditure, excluding the cost of 
two of the hospitals and five of the dispensaries, which are maintained 
from private funds, was Rs. 1,47,165, of which Rs. 11,617 ^^^ P^^'d 
from local and municipal funds. A lunatic asylum at Poona contained 
146 inmates in 1904. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 27,000, 
representing a proportion of 27 per 1,000 of population, which is much 
above the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xviii (1885) ; W. W. Loch, 
Historical Account of the Poo?ia, Sdtdra, and SholdpJir Districts {1877).] 

Poona City {Puna). — Head-quarters of Poona District, Bombay, 
situated in 18° 31' N. and 73° 51' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, 119 miles south-east of Bombay, and a terminus of the 
Southern Mahratta Railway ; 1,850 feet above the level of the sea, 
and, in a straight line, about 63 miles from the coast. The name 
seems to be derived from the Sanskrit punyapur, or 'cleanser,' pro- 
bably referring to the holy meeting of the Mutha and Mula rivers. 
It is the military capital of the Deccan, and from June to October the 
seat of the Government of Bombay. 

During the last fifty years Poona has been steadily growing in size. 
In 1851 its population was returned at 73,209; by 1863 it was sup- 
posed to have risen to about 80,000. At the next three enumerations 
it was : (1872) 118,886, (1881) 129,751, and (1891) 161,390. In 1901 
it was returned at 111,381, exclusive of 41,939 in the cantonment and 
suburbs; total, 153,320. Hindus numbered 122,393; Muhammadans, 
18,165; Christians, 8,474; Parsis, 1,900; and Jains, 1,473. 

With the heat of April and May tempered by a sea-breeze, a 
moderate rainfall, and strong cool winds, the climate is agreeable, but 
of late years it has not been reputed to be healthy. The annual rain- 
fall for 1891-1901 averaged 28 inches. The mean temperature in 
1901 was 70°; maximum ito° (in May), minimum 43° (in December). 
Poona has suffered severely from the plague, which first gained a foot- 
hold in the city in January, 1897. In 1899 the mortality rose to 125 
per week, or an annual death-rate of 207 per 1,000. Severe repressive 
measures in 1897 failed to eradicate the epidemic. 

The first mention of Poona in history seems to be in 1604, when it 
was granted by the Sultan of Ahmadnagar to MalojT, the grandfather 
of SivajT. In 1637 the grant was confirmed in favour of Shahji, father 
of Sivaji. In 1663, during the operations conducted against Sivaji by 


order of Aurangzeb, the imperial viceroy Shaista Khan took possession 
of the open town, from which, when surprised a few days afterwards by 
Sivajl, he had great difficulty in making his escape. His son and most 
of his guard were cut to pieces, and he himself wounded. A powerful 
force, however, immediately reinstated the discomfited commander. 
In 1667 Aurangzeb restored Poona to Sivajl; but under the sway of 
his successor Sanibhaji, it was occupied by Khan Jahan, an officer 
of the emperor. On the Peshwa obtaining supremacy in the Maratha 
confederacy, the chief seat of government was removed from Satara 
to Poona. In 1763 Nizam All of Hyderabad sacked the city and 
burned such parts of it as were not ransomed. In the struggle between 
the successive Peshwas and their nominal subordinates Sindhia and 
Holkar, Poona suffered many vicissitudes, until in 1802, by the provi- 
sions of the Treaty of Bassein, the Peshwa allowed a British subsi- 
diary force to be stationed here. 

The final defeat of the Peshwa Baji Rao, and the capture of Poona 
in 1 81 8, were the results of three engagements. In the battle of 
KiRKEE (November 5, 181 7) the British forces, commanded by 
Colonel Burr, defeated a vastly superior force under Bapu Gokhale. 
The battle of Yeraoda (November 16 and 17, 1817) occurred near 
where the present Fitzgerald Bridge now stands, the British guns on 
' Picket Hill ' commanding the position. The British troops were com- 
manded by Brigadier-General Lionel Smith. The result was the flight 
of the Peshwa's army and the immediate occupation of the city by the 
British. The third battle, that of Koregaon (January i, 18 18), was 
fought 2 miles distant from Loni, on the right bank of the Bhima, and 
16 miles from Poona. After the deposition of the Peshwa Baji Rao II 
(181 8), the city became the head-quarters of a British District as well 
as the principal cantonment in the Deccan. 

The city stands on the right bank of the Mutha river. Much of the 
country round is barren and rocky, and to the east stretches an open 
plain. Not much high ground is seen to the north and west, but to the 
south extends a line of hills ending in the bold square rock of Sinh- 
garh. Close at hand, on the north, is the confluence of the streams 
of the Mutha and Mula ; through the heart of the city, the line 
of the Kharakvasla canal, and on the south the lake and temple- 
crowned peak of Parvati are objects of interest. The Katraj aqueduct 
was built by an ancient Maratha family. This duct, together with 
three other private aqueducts, supplies the city in ordinary years with 
about half the required supply of drinking-water. The other half is 
derived from the Mutha Right Bank Canal at three places. The main 
near the Parvati bank supplements the supply from the Katraj aqueduct. 
The municipality draws from the canal about 750,000 gallons a day, 
for which it pays Rs. 10,000 to Government. Any amount drawn in 


excess of this is paid for at the rate of 3 annas per 1,000 gallons. 
The old water-works owe their existence to the liberality of Sir Jamsetji 
Jijibhoy of Bombay, who contributed Rs. 1,75,000 towards the entire 
cost of Rs. 2,00,000. The new water-works for the Poona cantonment 
and suburbs were constructed in 1873-4, and were furnished with 
new settling-tanks and filter-beds in 1894-5. The maximum daily 
consumption from these works is 1,700,000 gallons. The pumping 
station is situated to the east of St. Mary's Church, the power being 
passed from a Poncelet wheel to three centrifugal pumps on the right 
bank of the canal and to a Worthington water engine on the left bank. 
There are five settling-tanks, with a total capacity equivalent to three 
days' consumption, and four filter-beds with an area of 45,000 square 
feet. Water is pumped from the canal into the settling-tanks and 
thence into the filter-beds by means of centrifugal pumps. Two 
reservoirs supply the cantonments and suburbs, the charge for water 
by meter varying from 6 to 8 annas per 1,000 gallons, according as 
the cost of pipes and connexions is borne by the householder or not. 
For three or four months in the hot season very little water is available, 
and pumping has to be performed almost entirely by steam-power. 
Gardens on every side, and groves of acacia along the banks of 
the rivers, give much of the neighbourhood a green, well-clothed 

The city proper extends along the Mutha for about \\ miles in- 
land, varying in height from 30 to 70 feet above the river. Its length 
is about 2 miles from east to west, and its breadth about i| miles, 
the total area being 2\ square miles. For police and other purposes 
the city is divided among eighteen wards ox peths. Under the Peshwas 
it was divided into seven quarters, named after the days of the week. 
The ruined palace of the Peshwas stands in the Shanwar quarter, 
or Saturday ward. The palace was burned down in 1827, and all that 
now remains is the fortified wall. The chief streets run north and 
south. Though broad in parts they are all more or less crooked, 
none of them offering an easy carriage-way from one end to the other. 
From east to west the only thoroughfiire is by lanes, narrow, short, and 
interrupted. One of these was set apart for the execution of criminals, 
who, in the time of the Peshwas, were here trampled to death by 
elephants. Most of the houses are of more than one storey, their 
walls built of a framework of wood filled in with brick or mud, and 
with roofs of tile. 

East of the city is the military station, with an area of 4^ square 
miles and a population of 32,777. Within cantonment limits, north- 
wards to the Mutha-Mula river and for 2 miles along the road leading 
west to the cantonment of Kirkee, are the houses of the greater part 
of the European population. The remaining European quarter or 


Civil Lines was made a suburban municipality in 1884. In area it 
covers \\ square miles, and had in 1903-4 an income and expenditure 
of Rs. 31,000 and Rs. 33,000 respectively, the former chiefly derived 
from a house tax and octroi. The first Residency was built where 
the present Judge's house now stands, at the Sangam or junction of 
the Mula and Mutha rivers. The compound included the site of the 
present Science College and the English burial-ground close to the 
present Sangam Lodge. The Resident's quarters contained five houses, 
besides out-offices for guard and escort parties. The entire block was 
destroyed on November 5, 18 17, immediately upon the departure of 
Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone to join the British forces drawn up for 
battle at Kirkee. There have been five European cemeteries open 
since the Maratha possession of Poona — one near the old Residency, 
the second near the present church of St. Paul, the third in East 
Street, one near the rifle butts, and one on the left of the Sholapur 
road. A new Residency was built near the present site of St. Paul's 
Church in 1819, and was accidentally burnt down in 1863. The 
Sangam Bridge was first built on piles in 1829, at a cost of Rs. 95,000. 
Sir John Malcolm opened it in 1830, under the name of the Wellesley 
Bridge, after the Duke of Wellington. It was rebuilt with stone in 
1875, at a cost of Rs. 90,000. Holkar's Bridge was built by Madhu 
Rao Peshwa, and so named because Holkar was accustomed to pitch 
his tents in its vicinity. Close by is ' Holkar's tomb,' so called, being 
a Saiva temple erected in memory of Vithoji Holkar and his wife, 
who was a satt. 

As a civil station, Poona is the residence of the usual District officers 
and the head-quarters of the Commissioner of the Central Division. 
It is also the monsoon head-quarters of the Bombay Government. 
The garrison generally consists of European and Native infantry, 
artillery, and cavalry. There is a branch of the Bank of Bombay. 

In addition to the Peshwa's palace, already referred to, the city contains 
numerous palaces and temples from one to three hundred years old, 
of which the chief are : Belbag, built by Nana Farnavis about a century 
ago ; the Faraskhana, the remains of the Budhwar palace which was 
burnt down in 1879 ; Ganpati's temple; the new market, built by the 
Poona city municipality ; the temple of Omkiireshwar ; the Vishrambag 
palace, now used as a Government high school. Other chief objects 
of interest, outside the Poona city municipal limits, are : the arsenal, 
built in 1882 ; the Bund gardens on the right bank of the Mula-Mutha 
river ; the Saiva caves of Bhamburda, the oldest remains in Poona ; 
Chatarshingi hill with a temple of a devt, where a large fair is held 
annually in September-October ; the Western India club ; the council 
hall ; Government House, Ganeshkhind ; the Poona gymkhana ; 
Yeraoda Central jail, intended for all classes of prisoners, as well as 


for relieving the overcrowding of the several 1 )istrict jails ; the Sassoon 
Hospital ; the Jewish synagogue ; the office of the City Magistrate, 
formerly the jail ; the Native General Library ; the General Post and 
Telegraph office ; the Record office or Poona Daftar ; and the Empress 
Gardens at Wanowri. The total number of in-patients treated at the 
Sassoon Hospital in 1903-4 was 2,585, in addition to 12,110 out- 
patients. Other medical institutions are the Roman (.'atholic school 
hospital, the St. Margaret Hospital, St. John's Hospital, and six dispen- 
saries, treating annually about 40,000 patients. 

The city municipality, established in 1857, had an average income 
during the decade ending 1901 of 3^ lakhs. In 1903-4 the income was 
also 3^ lakhs. The chief items of income are octroi (\\ lakhs) and 
conservancy tax (Rs. 39,000), while the expenditure, which amounted 
to 3 lakhs in 1903-4, is chiefly devoted to conservancy (i lakh) and 
establishment charges (Rs. 44,000). The income and the expenditure 
of the cantonment fund in 1903 4 were nearly i-8 lakhs and 1-5 lakhs 

Though Poona is no longer so great a centre of trade and industry 
as under the Peshwas, there are still many handlooms for the weaving 
of fabrics of silk and cotton ; and articles of brass, copper, iron, and 
clay are made in the city. Throughout Western India Poona workers 
have earned a reputation lor tlie manufacture of cloth, silver and gold 
jewellery, combs, dice, and other small articles of ivory, of fans, baskets, 
and trays of khas-khas grass ornamented with peacocks' feathers and 
beetles' wings, and of small, carefully dressed clay figures representing 
the natives of India. There are now several important factories in the 
city and its immediate vicinity. Chief of these are the gun-carriage 
factory ' and arsenal in cantonments, and the small arms and ammuni- 
tion factories at Kirkee. At Dapuri there is a large brewery. In 
addition there are two cotton-mills, some iron and brass foundries, and 
a paper-mill. 

Besides a female normal school, an unaided normal class for mis- 
tresses, and a training college for preparing teachers for vernacular 
and Anglo-vernacular schools, and several Government and private 
vernacular, Anglo-vernacular, and English schools, Poona has twelve 
high schools and three colleges— the Deccan and Fergusson Colleges 
teaching up to the degrees of B.A. and first LL.B., and the College 
of Science with special training for civil engineers and agricultural 
specialists. There is a medical school attached to the Sassoon Hospital, 
a forest class at the College of Science, a municipal technical school, 
and a reformatory at Yeraoda. The total number of schools is 78 for 
boys with 7,205 pupils, and 4 for girls with 3,318 pupils. The city 
contains 2 Subordinate Judges' courts, in addition to the chief revenue, 

' The gun-carriage factory was closed in 1907. 


judicial, and other public offices. Besides the purely European clubs, 
Poona contains the Deccan Club, to which both Europeans and natives 
can belong; two native clubs, the Sarvajanik Sabha and the Deccan 
Sabha; and a newly opened club for ladies. The most important 
library is the Native General Library in Budhwar Peth. 

Poonamallee. — Town and cantonment in the Saidapet taluk of 
Chingleput District, Madras, situated in 13° 3' N. and 80° 1' E., on 
the western trunk road, 13 miles west of Madras city and 5 miles north 
of St, Thomas's Mount. It contains a population (1901) of 15,323 
persons, and is the head-quarters of a ^t^vA^j-tahsllddr and a District 
Munsif. The place was formerly a convalescent depot for the troops 
of the Madras Command, a purpose for which it was well suited by its 
good drainage and general salubrity. It still contains barracks which 
could accommodate 500 men, but is now only a sanitarium for con- 
valescent European troops. Four hundred yards to the east of the 
cantonment, which is about half a mile square, is the old fort of Poona- 
mallee, now occupied principally by warehouses, storerooms, and the 
hospital. It is a Muhammadan work, 175 yards long and 142 broad, 
surrounded by a rampart 18 feet high. It was of considerable service 
in holding the country, towards both Madras and Conjeeveram, during 
the ^Vars of the Carnatic. 

Pooree.— District, subdivision, and town in Bengal. See PurI. 

Popa. — An extinct volcano, situated in 20° 56' N. and 95" 16' E., 
towards the south of Myingyan District, Upper Burma, 4,961 feet 
above the sea. It is an isolated hill mass rising up from undulating 
sandy country, and has acquired a more than local notoriety as the 
reputed abode of certain powerful nats or spirits. Popa is more or 
less conical in shape ; its summit is bare, but its lower slopes are 
covered partly with thick jungle and partly with garden land, which 
receives a liberal rainfall and bears excellent crops. The crater at its 
summit is about a mile across, and forms a punch-bowl 2,000 feet in 
depth. A Government bungalow has been built near the summit, but 
no regular use has as yet been made of the hill as a sanitarium. 

Porahat.— Estate in the north-west of Singhbhum District, Bengal, 
lying between 22*^ 15'' and 22° 54'' N. and 85' 5' and 85° 46' E., with a 
total area of 813 square miles, or 514 square miles if its dependencies 
be excluded. It is for the most part hilly and is largely covered with 
forest. A fairly open belt of country runs from the north-east to the 
south-west ; this has been opened up by the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 
and is healthier and more extensively cultivated than the remainder of 
the estate. 

In former times the whole of Singhbhum proper was ruled by 
a family of Rathor Rajputs, claiming descent from an officer of Raja 
Man Singh's army which was sent to Bengal at the time of Daud 


Khan's rebellion. The States of Saraikela and Kharsawan were carved 
out of the original State for junior members of the Raja's family ; and the 
chief of Saraikela gradually extended his power and dominions until 
he became a serious rival to the head of the family, who was now 
known as the Raja of Porahat. The country was saved by its rocky 
boundaries and sterile soil from conquest by the Marathiis, and was 
still independent when, in 1818, Raja Ghanasyam Singh Deo tendered 
his allegiance to the British Government. His chief objects were to 
secure a recognition of his supremacy over the Rajas of Saraikela and 
Kharsawan, and to obtain aid in reducing the refractory tribe of Larka 
Kols or Hos. The British Government disallowed his claim to supre- 
macy over his kinsmen of Saraikela and Kharsawan, but accepted 
merely a nominal tribute of Rs. loi, and refrained from interfering 
in any way with the internal administration of the State. An engage- 
ment embodying these conditions was taken from him in 1820. It 
was intended that similar agreements should be entered into by the 
chiefs of Saraikela and Kharsawan ; but the matter appears to have 
been overlooked, and those chiefs have never paid tribute, though 
they have frequently been called upon to furnish contingents of armed 
men to aid in suppressing disturbances. The Porahat family gradually 
sank into poverty ; and in 1837 the Raja received a pension of Rs. 500 
as a compassionate allowance, in compensation for any losses he might 
have sustained in consequence of our assumption of the direct man- 
agement of the Kolhan. In 1857 Arjun Singh, who was then Raja, 
after delivering up to Government the Chaibasa mutineers, rebelled 
himself. He was captured and deported to Benares, and his State 
was confiscated. Some portions of it were given to the chiefs of Sarai- 
kela and Kharsawan, and one or two other persons who had helped 
the Government during the Mutiny ; and the rest, on Arjun Singh's 
death, was regranted in 1895 to his son Natpat Singh 'to be held 
by him and his lineal male heirs according to the custom of lineal 
primogeniture (the eldest male of the eldest branch being preferred) 
as an inalienable and impartible revenue-free zamlnddri.' Anandpur 
and Kera were formerly khorposhs or maintenance grants made by the 
Raja of Porahat to junior members of the family, and their holders 
paid quit-rents to him ; these were remitted by Government after the 
Mutiny, and Narpat Singh has now no right to receive rents from or 
to interfere with them, but he has a reversionary right of succession 
in the event of extinction of male heirs. Bandgaon and Chainpur are 
under-tenures, the rent of which has been fixed in perpetuity. The 
forests of the Porahat estate are managed for the Raja's benefit by the 
Forest department. 

The estate (excluding the dependencies) is divided into ten groups 
of villages or pirs. Two of these, which lie in the more open part 



of the country, are known as the Sadant pirs, and the remainder as 
the Kolhan pirs. The estate has recently been resettled for fifteen 
years from 1903. In Porahat proper 159 square miles are cultivated, 
and 73 square miles are cultivable waste, 38 square miles are un- 
cultivable, and 244 square miles are under forest. The chief crop is 
rice, but some millets and pulses are also grown, especially in the 
more hilly Kolhan ptrs. The rates for the best rice land vary from 
R. 0-12-7 per acre in the Kolhan to Rs. 1-9-2 in the Sadant plrs ; 
and the total rental fixed at the settlement was Rs. 38,000, rising to 
Rs. 42,000 after five years. 

Porakad {Fona). — Town in the Ambalapulai idluk of Travancore 
State, Madras, situated in 9° 22'' N. and 76° 22' E. Population (1901), 
2,264. Formerly the head-quarters of the Chempakasseri Rajas, it 
passed to Travancore in 1748. It was once a notable port, but 
declined with the rise of Alleppey. The Portuguese, and after them 
the Dutch, had settlements here. 

Porali. — River in Baluchistan, draining the south of the Jhalawan 
country and the Las Bela State. It rises near Wad in 20° 33' N. and 
66° 23' E., and enters the Pab range by a tortuous but picturesque 
channel. A course of 175 miles carries it to the sea at Miani Hor. 
The principal affluents are the Kud, which drains the valley of Ornach, 
the Tibbi, and the Lohendav. About five miles north of Sheh in Las 
Bela the Porali bifurcates, and most of its flood-water is carried off by 
the Titian, which enters the Siranda lake. Within the hills many flats 
are irrigated from this river, and the nidbat of Welpat in Las Bela is 
also dependent on it. Temporary dams have been erected near Sheh 
and on the Titian for purposes of cultivation. The Porali has been 
identified with the ancient Arabis or Arabius. 

Porbandar State. — Native State in the Kathiawar Political 
Agency, Bombay, lying between 21° 14^ and 21° 56' N. and 69° 28' 
and 70° E., with an area of 636 square miles. It is situated in the 
west of the peninsula of Kathiawar, and consists of a strip along the 
shore of the Arabian Sea, nowhere more than 24 miles broad. 

The Porbandar State may be described roughly as a plain sloping 
from the Barda hills to the sea, drained by many rivers, the largest 
of which, the Bhadar, Sorti, Vartu, Minsar, and Ojat, contain water 
throughout the year. Towards the coast lie tracts of marsh land 
called gher, formed by the rainfall. On some of these, which are 
penetrated by salt water, only grass and reeds can flourish ; but on 
the rest rice, gram, udid, mug, and other crops are grown. The largest 
gher is the Modhwara, about 6 miles long by 4 miles broad, con- 
nected with the sea by the Kindari creek. This marsh, though fed 
by no large stream, receives all the drainage of the Barda hills. When 
it fills during the rainy season, the villagers dig away the sand with 


which the sea annually closes the mouth of the creek, the water flows 
into the sea, while the sea-water enters the marsh during very high 
tides. The Gangajal is a large fresh-water marsh situated not far 
from the Kindari creek, about 2 miles in circumference, but unless 
the rains are heavy does not hold water for more than eight months 
in the year. The climate is healthy ; the annual rainfall averages 
25 to 30 inches. 

The chief is a Hindu of the Jethwa clan of Rajputs and belongs to 
one of the oldest races in Western India, whose advent is approxi- 
mately set down at from a.d, 900 to 1000. They held Barda and 
occupied much of the adjacent coast region of Halar. After the cap- 
ture and sack of Ghumli, the Jethwas retired to Ranpur, where they 
remained for many years, but were finally driven to Chhaya. While 
there they acquired Porbandar and Navi from the Mughal government, 
and reconquered much of their adjacent possessions from the Jiidejas. 
In 1785 Sultanji transferred his seat of rule to Porbandar, which has 
ever since been the Jethwa capital and given a name to the chiefship. 
The ruler executed the usual engagements in 1807. He is entitled to 
a salute of 11 guns. The family follow the rule of primogeniture in 
point of succession, and hold a satiad authorizing adoption. The 
chief's title is Rana of Porbandar. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 72,077, 
(i88i) 71,072, (1891) 85,785, and (1901) 82,640, showing a decrease 
of 4 per cent, during the last decade, owing to the famine of 1899- 
1900. In 1901 Hindus numbered 71,642, Musalmans 9,741, and 
Jains 1,158. The capital is Porbandar Town, and there are 96 vil- 
lages. The style of house-building is peculiar. No mortar is used, 
but the limestone, of which better-class houses are built, is accurately 
squared and fitted ; and it is asserted that the quality of the limestone 
is such that when once the rain has fallen on a wall thus built, the 
joints coalesce and the wall becomes one solid block. 

The soil is as a rule an excellent black soil, though a less fertile red 
soil occurs in places. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 295 square 
miles, of which 59 were irrigated. The principal crops are joivar, 
bdjra, wheat, cotton, &c. ; and the principal products of the sea are 
fish of different kinds. Turtles of large size abound along the coast, 
but are not captured. Oysters are found, but do not produce pearls 
like those of the Gulf of Cutch. The limestone, known as Porbandar 
stone, found over almost the whole of the State, is chiefly quarried in 
the Barda hills, notably at the Adatiana quarry, and is largely exported 
to Bombay. Iron is also found, but is not smelted. Silk of good 
quality and cotton cloth are manufactured. In 1903-4 concessions 
were granted for the erection of a cotton-press. The Malik hill is 
the only portion of the elevated country that is fairly wooded. The 

N 2 


forest revenue, derived chiefly from the sale of grass and wood, was 
Rs. 33,000 in 1903-4. 

Much of the trade of the State has been absorbed by Bombay, but 
large quantities of timber are still imported from the Malabar ports. 
Cotton seed and tobacco are imported from Broach, embroideries 
from Surat, and raw sugar from Gandevi and Navsari. Grain is im- 
ported from Karachi. All the exports go to Bombay. Heavy port 
dues, the competition of Veraval and Bhaunagar, and insufficient com- 
munications account for the decline of the State as a trading centre. 
In 1 88 1 a British Superintendent of customs was appointed under the 
local administration, but has now yielded place to a State official. 
The total value of the sea-borne trade in 1903-4 was 44 lakhs. The 
chief harbours are Porbandar, Madhavpur, Miani, and Navibandar. 
The Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar Railway passes through 
the State; and the net income of the State from the line in 1903-4 
was Rs. 79,570. 

Porbandar ranked as a State of the first class in Kathiawar until 
1869, and was restored to this rank again in 1886, during the period 
of Government administration. First-class powers were given to the 
present ruler in 1900, with certain restrictions, which have recently 
been removed. The chief has power to try persons for capital offences, 
the trial of British subjects for such offences, however, requiring the 
previous permission of the Agent to the Governor. He enjoys a 
gross revenue of about 9I lakhs (1903-4), chiefly derived from land 
(3 lakhs). The State pays a tribute of Rs. 48,504 jointly to the 
British Government, the Gaikwar of Baroda, and the Nawab of 
Junagarh. The police force numbered 299 men in 1905. There 
are one jail and four lock-ups, with a daily average (1903-4) of 29 
prisoners. The number of schools is 38, with a total (1903-4) of 
pupils. The municipality at Porbandar had an income of Rs. 26,000 
in 1903-4. I'he State has one hospital and three dispensaries, afford- 
ing relief to about 123,000 patients in 1903-4. In the same year 
about 1,700 persons were vaccinated. A horse-breeding farm is main- 
tained by the State. 

Porbandar Town. — Chief town and port of the State of the same 
name in Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 21° 37' N. and 69° 48' E., 
on the shore of the Arabian Sea, and the terminus of the railway from 
Rajkot. Population (1901), 24,620, including Hindus, 17,862; Musal- 
mans, 5,566; and Jains, 1,113. Though a bar prevents the entrance 
of ships of any great size into the port, it is much frequented by craft 
of from 1 2 to 80 tons burden. In spite of the levy of heavy customs 
dues, and the competition of other ports, commerce is considerable, 
including, besides a local traffic with the Konkan and Malabar coast, 
a brisk trade with the ports of Sind, Baluchistan, the Persian Gulf, 


Arabia, and the cast coast of Africa. In 1903-4 the imports were 
valued at 17^ lakhs and the exports at 25 lakhs. At a little cost the 
port might be made one of the most secure on the Kathiawar sea- 
board. The town is entirely built of stone, and was surrounded by 
a fort which was demolished during British administration. It is said 
to have been called in ancient times Sudamapuri, and it has been 
Jethwa capital since about 1785. Telephonic connexions are laid 
throughout the town, which contains nine public gardens, the chief 
of which is the Rajwadi with an income of Rs. 3,000. The sea-face 
is provided with a lighthouse 90 feet high, showing a dioptric light 
of the fourth class, visible for 15 miles at sea. The town possesses 
several fine public buildings. 

Port Blair. — A Penal Settlement in the Andaman Islands, Bay of 
Bengal, which consists of the South Andaman and the islets attached 
thereto, covering an area of 473 square miles. Of this total, 327 
square miles are in actual occupation. The unoccupied area consists 
of the densest jungle. The occupied area is partly 
cleared for cultivation, grazing, and habitation, and sn^cts 

partly afforested. A great part of the unoccupied 
area is in the hands of the hostile Jarawas ; but they are gradually 
retreating northwards under pressure of the forest operations, which 
are extending over the whole area of the Penal Settlement. 

The South Andaman Island has a very deeply indented coast-line, 
comprising the following harbours : on the east coast, Port Meadows 
and Port Blair ; on the south coast, Macpherson's Strait ; on the west 
coast. Port Mouat, Port Campbell, and Port Anson. Vessels of large 
draught can anchor and trade with safety in these in any weather and 
at all seasons. If Baratang be reckoned with the South Andaman as 
a natural apanage, Elphinstone Harbour must be added to the list. 
Smaller vessels also find the following places safe for shelter and most 
convenient for work : on the east coast, Colebrooke Passage, Kotara 
Anchorage, and Shoal Bay ; on the west coast, Elphinstone Passage 
in the Labyrinth Islands, and in some seasons Constance Bay ; in 
Ritchie's Archipelago, Kwangtung Strait and Tadma Juru, and in 
some seasons Outram Harbour. 

For forest trade, the staple commerce of the islands, a more con- 
venient natural arrangement is hardly imaginable. Port Mouat is only 
2 miles distant from Port Blair, over an easy rise ; Shoal Bay is 7 miles, 
with an easy gradient from Port Blair, and runs into Kotara Anchorage ; 
and Port Meadows is but a mile from Kotara Anchorage. Creeks 
navigable by large steam-launches run into Port Blair from some dis- 
tance inland. Five straits surround the island : two, Macpherson's 
Strait and Elphinstone Passage, navigable by ships ; and the rest. 
Middle Strait, Colebrooke Passage, and Homfray's Strait, navigable 


by large steam-launches. Diligent Strait, practicable for the largest 
ships, and only 4 miles across at the narrowest point, separates 
Ritchie's Archipelago from the main islands ; and the archipelago is 
itself intersected everywhere by straits and narrows, which are mostly 

The whole of the Settlement area consists of hills separated by 
narrow valleys, rendering road-making and rapid land communication 
difificult. The main ranges are the Mount Harriett Range, up to 
1,500 feet; the Cholunga Range, up to 1,000 feet; and the West 
Coast Range, up to 700 feet. These run almost parallel, north and 
south, down the centre of the island. To the north, the Cholunga 
Range breaks up into a number of more or less parallel ridges. To 
the south, below Port Blair Harbour, the country is a maze of hills 
rising to 850 feet, and tending to form ridges running north and 

No stream in the island could be called a river, and on the east 
coast perennial streams are not common. On the west and north, 
however, more surface water is found, and perennial streams running 
chiefly from south to north are fairly numerous. Fresh water is, how- 
ever, everywhere obtained without much difficulty from wells, and 
rain-water reservoirs (tanks) could be formed in all parts. Navigable 
salt-water creeks are numerous, and are of much assistance in water- 

The old settlement at the Andamans, established by the well-known 
Marine Surveyor Archibald Blair in 1789, was not a penal settlement 
at all. It was formed on the lines of several then 
in existence, e.g. at Penang and Bencoolen, to put 
down piracy and the murder of shipwrecked crews. Convicts from 
India were sent incidentally to help in its development, precisely as 
they were sent to Bencoolen, and afterwards to Penang, Malacca, 
Singapore, Moulmein, and the Tenasserim province. Everything that 
Blair did was performed with ability ; and his arrangements for estab- 
lishing the settlement in what he named Port Cornwallis (now Port 
Blair) were excellent, as were his selection of the site and his surveys 
of parts of the coast, several of which are still in use. The settlement 
flourished under Blair; but unfortunately, on the advice of Commodore 
Cornwallis, brother of the Governor-General, the site was changed for 
strategical reasons to North-East Harbour, now Port Cornwallis, where 
it flourished at first, but subsequently suffered much from sickness. 
Here it was under Colonel Alexander Kyd, an engineer officer, and 
a man of considerable powers and resource. On the abandonment 
of the settlement in 1796, on account of sickness, it contained 270 
convicts and 550 free Bengali settlers. The convicts were transferred 
to Penang and the settlers taken to Bengal. After that the islands 


remained unoccupied by the Indian Government till 1856, the present 
Penal Settlement being formed two years later. 

Since its foundation, the history of the Penal Settlement is merely 
one of continuous official development from March, 1858 (when 
Dr. P. J. Walker, an experienced Indian Jail Superintendent, arrived 
with 4 European officials and 773 convicts, and commenced clearings 
in Port Blair Harbour), to the present day. 

The penal system in force at the Andamans is sui generis, has grown 
up on its own lines, and has been gradually adapted to the require- 
ments of the present complex conditions. The system has always 
been independent of, and was never at any time based on, the Indian 
prison system, and has been continuously under development from 
its inception by Sir Stamford Raffles for about a hundred years. The 
fundamental principles on which it is founded are still substantially 
what they were originally, and have stood the criticism, the repeated 
examination, and the modifications in detail of a century without 
material alteration. The classification of the convicts, the titles of 
those who are selected to assist in controlling the general body, the 
distinguishing marks on their costume, the modes of employing 
them, and their local privileges are virtually now as they were at 
the beginning. 

The first temporary Superintendent of the Andamans was Captain 
(afterwards General) Henry Man, who had long been Superintendent 
of the Penal Settlements in the Straits. In January, 1858, he was 
authorized by the Government of India to follow generally the system 
in force in the Straits Settlements, and received powers under the 
Mutineers Acts, XIV and XVII of 1857 (since repealed). Captain 
Man was succeeded in March, 1858, by Dr. P. J. Walker, who drew up 
rules, sanctioned by the Government of India, which were based on 
instructions identical with those given to Captain Man. These were 
followed by the Port Blair and Andamans Act, XXVII of 1861 (since 
repealed), and by modifications in the rules made by successive 
Superintendents and by Lord Napier of Magdala, as the result of an 
official inspection of the Settlement in 1863. In 1868, when General 
Man became permanent Superintendent, he embodied in the Andaman 
system the Straits Settlements Penal Regulations, and thus brought the 
system still more closely into line with that of the Straits Settlements. 
These modifications still affect almost every part of it. A formal 
Regulation was drafted in 187 1, and after discussion by Sir Donald 
Stewart, Chief Commissioner and Superintendent, Mr. (Justice) Scarlett 
Campbell, and Sir Henry Norman, became the Andaman and Nicobar 
Regulation, 1874, supplemented by rules passed by the Governor- 
General-in-Council and the Chief Commissioner. In 1876 a new 
Andaman and Nicobar Regulation was drawn up, but the rules under 


the Regulation of 1874 were continued. These rules, together with 
the Superintendent's by-laws (Settlement Standing Orders) passed 
under them, and modified from time to time by the Government 
of India and by the Commission of Sir C. J. Lyall and Sir A. Leth- 
bridge in 1890, form the still-growing penal system of the present 

The methods employed were originally a new departure in the treat- 
ment of prisoners, the salient features being the employment of con- 
victs on every kind of labour necessary to a self-supporting community, 
and their control by convicts selected from among them. Permission 
to marry and settle down is given after a certain period, when the 
convict is called a 'self-supporter.' Indian convicts were first trans- 
ported in 1787 to Bencoolen in Sumatra to develop that place, then 
under the Indian Government. The Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Stamford 
Raffles, drew up a dispatch in 18 18, explaining the principles he had 
already successfully adopted for their management; and in 1823 he 
sent the Government a copy of his Regulations. In 1825 Bencoolen 
was ceded to the Dutch, and the convicts were transferred to Penang 
and Singapore. Penang had been occupied in 1785, and convicts 
were sent there in 1796. When the Bencoolen convicts arrived, they 
remained under the Regulations of Sir Stamford Raffles, and in 1827 
the Penang Rules were adapted from these. When Malacca was 
occupied in 1824, convicts were sent there from Penang, and shortly 
afterwards they too were placed under the Penang Rules. Singapore 
had been founded by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819; and in 1825 
convicts arrived there from Bencoolen and India, and in 1826 from 
Penang. The Bencoolen Rules, and later the Penang Rules, were 
in force at Singapore, with modifications, for many years, until Regu- 
lations for the management of Indian convicts were drawn up in 1845 
by Colonel Butterworth, the Governor of Singapore, known as the 
Butterworth Rules. They were modified by Major McNair, Superin- 
tendent of the convicts, in 1858. The Butterworth Rules were founded 
on the principles laid down by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1818 and on his 
Bencoolen Rules. A leading part in the drafting and working of these 
was taken by General Man, to whom it fell to start the Andaman Penal 
Settlement in 1858. He carried them with him to Moulmein and the 
Tenasserim province, to which places Indian convicts were also trans- 
ported ; and when he was appointed permanent Superintendent of the 
Andaman Penal Settlement in 1868 he embodied the Regulations for 
Tenasserim in the rules and orders he found already existing. The 
intimate connexion of the Andamans with the original penal system 
from the beginning is further illustrated by the fact that, when the 
old settlement at Port Cornwallis was broken up in 1 796, the convicts 
were transferred to Penang. 



The Penal Settlement is administered by the Chief Commissioner, 

Andamans and Nicobars, as Superintendent, with a Deputy and a staff 

of Assistant Superintendents and overseers, who are .... 

, ,, ^ ^ J , , Administration. 

almost all Europeans, and sub-overseers, who are 

natives of India. The petty supervising establishments are staffed 
by convicts. There are, besides, special departments — Police, Medi- 
cal, Commissariat, Forests, Tea, Marine, &c., of the usual type in 
India, except that all civil officers are invested with special powers 
over convicts. Civil and criminal justice is administered by a series 
of courts under the Chief Commissioner and the Deputy-Super- 
intendent, as the principal courts of original and appellate juris- 
diction. The Chief Commissioner is also the chief revenue and 
financial authority. 

The Penal Settlement centres round the harbour of Port Blair, the 
administrative head-quarters being on Ross Island, an islet of less than 
a quarter of a square mile, across the entrance of the harbour. For 
administrative purposes it is divided into two Districts and four sub- 
divisions. The subdivisions remain constant, but their distribution 
between the Districts has varied from time to time. At present they 
are as follows : Eastern District (head-quarters, Aberdeen) — Ross, 
Haddo ; Western District (head-quarters, Viper Island) — Viper, Wim- 
berley Ganj. 

Within the subdivisions are stations, places where labouring convicts 
are kept, and villages, where either ' free ' settlers or ' self-supporters ' 
dwell. As these stations and villages enter largely into the life and 
description of the place, a list is given here. 


North Bay. 
Mount Harriett. 


Ross Subdivision 


North Corbyn's 


Middle Point. 
Rutland Island. 

South Point. 



Phoenix Bay. 

Tea Garden, Navy 

Haddo Subdivision 



Minnie Bay. 



Phoenix Bay. 
Birch Ganj. 


School Line. 

Lamba Line. 
Dudh Line. 

Viper Lsland. 
Dundas Point. 

Mitha Khari. 


Viper Subdivision 


Port Mouat. 
Elephant Point. 


Port Mouat. 
Dhani Khari. 
Horn fray Ganj. 







Shore Point. 



Goplakabang (includ- 



ing Middle Straits). 


Bamboo Flat. 



Stewart Ganj. 



Wimberley Ganj. 

Cadell Ganj. 

Temple Ganj 





Persons transported to Port Blair by the Government of India are 
either murderers who for some reason have escaped the death penalty, 
or perpetrators of the more heinous offences against the person and 
property. Their sentences are chiefly for life ; but some, varying from 
very few to a considerable number, with long-term sentences, are also 
sent from time to time. Except under special circumstances, con- 
victs are not received under eighteen years of age, nor over forty, and 
they must be certified as medically fit for hard labour before trans- 
portation. Youths between eighteen and twenty are kept in the boys' 
gang under special conditions. Girls of about sixteen are occasionally 



received ; but as all women locally unmarried are kept in the female 
jail, a large enclosure consisting of separate sleeping wards and work- 
sheds, there are no special rules for them. 

The following table shows that murder and heinous offences against 
the person, dacoity (gang robbery with murder or preparation for 
murder), and other heinous offences against property, make up nearly 
the whole total : — 








1874 . 




























1905-6 . 







These figures illustrate clearly the violent character of the convicts, 
and it is of value to examine their behaviour under continuous restraint. 
Between 1890 and 1900, the average proportion of convicts who com- 
mitted or attempted murder was 0-12 per cent., the figures rising to 
0-154 in 1894. Neither the nature of the labour nor the discipline 
enforced appears to have any effect on the tendency to murder, and 
the motives traced are similar to those disclosed among an ordinary 
population, while murderous assaults are usually committed quite sud- 
denly on opportunity and cause arising. 

The full penal system, as at present worked, is as follows. Life- 
convicts are confined in the cellular jail for six months, where the 
discipline is severe but the work is not hard. They are then put 
to hard gang labour in outdoor work for \\ years, and are locked 
up at night in barracks. For his labour during this period the convict 
receives no rew^ard, but his capabilities are studied. During the next 
five years he remains a labouring convict, but is eligible for the petty 
posts of supervision and the easier forms of labour: he also gets 
a very small allowance for little luxuries, or to deposit in the special 
savings bank. He has now completed ten years in transportation, and 
can receive a ticket-of-Ieave, being termed a 'self-supporter.' In this 
condition he earns his own living in a village ; he can farm, keep 
cattle, and marry or send for his family. But he is not free, has no 
civil rights, and cannot leave the Settlement or be idle. After twenty 
to twenty-five years spent in the Settlement with approved conduct, 
he may be released either absolutely or, in certain cases, under con- 
ditions as to place of residence and police surveillance. While a ' self- 
supporter,' he is at first assisted with house, food, and tools, and pays 
no taxes or cesses ; but after three to four years, according to certain 


conditions, he receives no assistance, and is charged with every public 
payment which would be demanded of him were he a free man. 

The women life-convicts are similarly dealt with, but less rigorously. 
The general principle is to divide them into two main classes : those 
in, and those out of, the female jail. Every woman must remain in the 
female jail unless in domestic employ by permission, or married and 
living with her husband. Women are eligible for marriage or domestic 
employ after five years in the Settlement, and if married they may 
leave the Settlement after fifteen years with their husbands ; but all 
married couples have to wait till the expiry of both their sentences, 
and they must leave together. If unmarried, women remain twenty 
years in the jail. They rise from class to class, and can become petty 
officers on terms similar to those for the men. 

Term-convicts are treated on the same general lines, except that they 
cannot become 'self-supporters,' and are released at once on the expiry 
of their sentences. 

Convict marriages, which are described below under Caste, are 
carefully controlled to prevent degeneration into concubinage or 
irregular alliances ; and the special local savings bank has proved 
of great value in inducing a faith on the part of the convicts in 
the honesty of the Government, besides its value in causing habits 
of thrift and diminishing the temptation to violence for the sake of 
money hoarded privately. 

The whole aim of the treatment is to educate for useful citizenship, 
by the insistence on continuous practice in self-help and self-restraint, 
leading to profit. Efforts to behave well and submission to control 
alone guide the convict's upward promotion ; every lapse retards it. 
And when he becomes a ' self-supporter,' the convict can provide 
money out of his own earnings as a steady member of society, to 
afford a sufficient competence on release. The incorrigible are kept 
till death, the slow till they mend their ways, and only those who 
are proved to have good in them return to their homes. The argument 
on which the system is based is that the acts of the convict spring from 
a constitutional want of self-control. 

All civil officers in the Settlement are Magistrates and Civil Judges, 
with the ordinary powers exercised in India ; and if a term-convict 
misbehaves seriously, his case can be tried magisterially and an addi- 
tional punishment inflicted. In the case of a life-convict, any sentence 
of * chain gang ' that may be imposed is added to the twenty (or 
twenty-five) years that he must, in any case, remain. Any offence 
under the Indian Penal Code or other law is punishable executively as 
a 'convict offence,' except an offence involving a capital sentence, 
which is tried at Sessions in the ordinary manner. ' Convict offences,' 
though punishable executively, are all tried, however trivial, by a fixed 


quasi-judicial procedure, including record and appeal, so that the con- 
vict is made to feel that justice is as secure to him as to the free. 

The convicts, while in the Settlement, are divided in several ways. 
The great economic division for both sexes is into labouring convicts 
and 'self-supporters'; the former perform all the labour of the place, 
skilled and unskilled, and the latter are chiefly engaged in agriculture 
and food supplies. The commissariat division is into ' rationed ' and 
' not rationed ' ; in the former class are nearly all the labouring convicts, 
and in the latter all the 'self-supporters' and some of the labouring 
convicts. The financial division is into classes indicating those with 
and those without allowances, with numerous subdivisions according to 
the scale of allowances. 

There are also disciplinary gangs, involving degradation either on 
account of bad character on arrival, or while in the Settlement. These 
are known as Cellular Jail Prisoner, Chain Gang, Viper Jail Prisoner, 
Habitual Criminal Gang, Viper Island Disciplinary, Unnatural Crime 
Gang, Chatham Island Disciplinary, ' D ' (for ' doubtful ') ticket men. 
The ' D ' ticket may be explained as follows. Prisoners in the third 
class are obliged to wear wooden neck tickets, bearing full particulars 
of their position. On the ticket is the convict's number, the section of 
the Indian Penal Code under which he was convicted, the date 
of his sentence, and the date his release is due. For a convict of 
* doubtful ' character the ticket has a D ; for one of a gang of criminals 
convicted together it has a star, and the presence or absence of A 
shows the class of ration ; for a life-prisoner it has L. 

There is a class of ' connected ' convicts. Prisoners convicted in the 
same case, marked by a star on the neck ticket, are all specially noted 
and never kept in the same station or working gang. These special 
arrangements sometimes involve considerable care and organization, as 
a gang of dangerous dacoits may arrive in Port Blair forty strong. 

The Settlement is divided into what are known as the 'free' and 
'convict' portions, by which the free settlers living in villages are 
separated from the ' self-supporters ' who also live in villages. Every 
effort is made to prevent unauthorized communication between these 
two divisions. No adult person can enter the Settlement without 
permission, or reside there without an annual licence ; and certain 
other necessary restrictions are imposed on him as to his movements 
among and his dealings with the convicts, on pain of being expelled or 
punished. The 'free' subdivisions are Ross, Aberdeen, Haddo, and 
Garacherama. The 'convict' subdivisions are Viper and Wimberley 

A large proportion of the free settlers are descendants of convicts 
(known in Port Blair as the 'local-born') and permanent residents. 
Like every other population the 'local-born' comprise every kind of 


personal character. Taken as a class they may, however, be described 
thus. As children they are bright, intelligent, and unusually healthy. 
It is the rule, not the exception, for the whole of a ' local-born ' family 
to be reared. On the score of intelligence they do not fail throughout 
life. As young people they do not exhibit any unusual degree of 
violence or inclination to theft, but their general morality is distinctly 
low. Among the girls, even when quite young, there is a painful 
amount of prostitution, open and veiled : the result partly of temptation 
in a population in which the males very greatly preponderate, but 
chiefly due to bad early associations, convict mothers not being a class 
likely to bring up their girls to a high morality. The boys, and some- 
times the girls, exhibit much defiant pride of position, in being free 
as opposed to the convict, combined with a certain mental smartness, 
idleness, dislike of manual labour, and disrespect for age and authority 
that stand much in their way in life. Their defiant attitude is probably 
due to the indeterminate nature of their social status, as has been 
observed of classes unhappily situated socially elsewhere. Heredity 
seems to show itself in both sexes rather in a tendency towards the 
meaner qualities than towards violence of temperament. The adult 
villagers are quarrelsome and as litigious as the courts will permit them 
to be. They borrow all the money they can, do not get as much out of 
the land as they might, and spend too much time in attempting to get 
the better of neighbours. At the same time, it would be an entire 
error to suppose that the better elements in human nature are not 
exhibited, and many convicts' descendants have shown themselves 
upright, capable, hardworking, honest, and self-respecting. On the 
whole, considering their parentage, the 'local-born' population is of 
a much higher type than might be expected, though there is too great 
a tendency on the part of the w'hole population to lean on the 
Government, the result probably of the minute supervision necessary 
in the conditions of the Settlement. 

The population of the Penal Settlement consists of convicts, their 
guards, the supervising, clerical, and departmental staff, with the 

_ , . families of the latter, and a limited number of ex- 

Population. . , ,. , ,,...,. 

convict and tradmg settlers and their families. 

Detailed statistics have been maintained since 1874, and are shown 
in the tables on the next page ; but it must be remembered that 
in intervening years the numbers of the convicts may vary con- 

The mother tongues of the population are as numerous as in the 

parts of India and Burma from which it is derived ; but the lingua 

Jranca of the Settlement is Urdu (Hindustani), spoken in every 

possible variety of corruption, and with every variety of accent. 

All convicts learn it to an extent sufficient for their daily wants, 


and the understanding of orders and directions. It is also the ver- 
nacular of the 'local-born,' whatever their descent. The small extent 
to which many absolute strangers, such as the Burnians, the inhabitants 
of Madras, and others, master it, is one of the safeguards of the Settle- 
ment, as it makes it impossible for any general plot to be hatched. In 
barracks, in boats, and on works where men have to be congregated, 
every care is taken to split up nationalities, with the result that, except 
on matters of daily common concern, the convicts are unable to con- 
verse confidentially together. The Urdu of Port Blair is thus not only 
exceedingly corrupt from natural causes, but it is filled with technicali- 
ties arising out of local conditions and the special requirements of 
convict life. Even the vernacular of the 'local-born' is loaded with 
them. These technicalities are partly derived from English, and are 
partly specialized applications to new uses of pure or corrupted Urdu 
words. As opportunity has arisen, some of these have been collected 
and printed from time to time in the India?i Afiiiqt/ary. The most 
prominent grammatical characteristic of this dialect appears in the 
numerals, which are everywhere Urdu, but are not spoken correctly. 

Free resident population, 

Administrative establishment. 

including children and 


conditionally released. 1 









1874 . 




































1905-6 . 










Convict population. 

Total population. 











1874 . 
1905-6 . 

10,3 • 5 
















The conditions under which the people live are so artificial and 
so unlike those of an ordinary community that it is impossible to 
describe them on the usual lines. There are hardly any natural 
movements to observe and report. The following remarks aim at 
a description of the social state of the convicts and of the unofficial 
population in the regulated conditions of life imposed on them. 


The restrictions under which the free residents live have a distinct 
effect on the characters of those subjected to them from childhood 
to death, an effect which will become more and more apparent 
as generation after generation of convicts' descendants come under 
their pressure. They include Government establishments introduced 
from India, traders from India and Burma, domestic servants who have 
accompanied their masters, very few settlers from outside, and the 
descendants of convicts who have settled in the Penal Settlement 
after their release. 

General convict statistics for a series of years are given below : — 


Number of convicts re- 

Number of life-convicts . 

Number of term-con victs 

Number of convicts re- 

Admissions into hospital 

Number died 

Number escaped and not 

Number executed . 

Female . 
Male . 
Female . 
Female . 
Female . 
Female . 
Female . 
Female . 
Female . 











































































* Medical statistics are for 1900. 

In this table the 'escaped' are those who have not been heard of 
again. As a matter of fact, such unfortunates, as a rule, die in the 
jungles or are drowned at sea. Very rarely does a convict escape 
to the mainland. 

At the Census of 190 1 the population of Port Blair was distributed 
over an occupied area of 327 square miles in 29 'stations,' or places 
where labouring convicts are kept, and 34 ' villages,' or places where 
free residents or ticket-of-leave convicts (' self-supporters ') reside. The 
population then numbered 16,256, including 150 persons — 114 males 
and 36 females — on the mail steamer. Details of the population on 
March 31, 1906, are shown in the table on the next page. 

Every religion in India is represented among the convicts, but it 
was impossible to classify Hindus by sect. The Sikhs are represented 
chiefly in the military police battalion, the Buddhists by the Burman 
convicts, and the Christians by the British infantry garrison and the 
officials. It may be noticed that not one person was returned as a Jew 
among all the convicts. 

The necessary work of the Settlement is all performed by convicts. 


Omitting those employed as [)ublic servants, the ex-convict and free 

unofficial poi)ulation is chiefly supported by agriculture, which was 
recorded as the means of subsistence of 57 per cent. 




















Military . 

Marine . 

Police . 

Free residents 


released con- 
victs . 

Children of all 
ranks . 


















































As the maintenance of caste among natives of India involves the 
maintenance of respectability, and as the aim of the penal system is 
the resuscitation of respectability among the convicts, nothing is per- 
mitted that would tend to destroy the caste feeling among them. The 
tendency as usual is to raise their caste wherever that is possible, and 
occasionally some crafty scoundrel is convicted of illegitimate associa- 
tion with fellow Hindus. Two Mehtars (sweepers) were some time ago 
detected in successfully managing this : one, a ' self-supporter,' masque- 
raded for years in his village as a Rajput (Rajvansi), and another 
for years was cook to a respectable Hindu free family on the ground 
of being a Brahman. It is also not at all uncommon for low-caste 
ex-convict settlers to adopt a mode of dress and life which would be 
quite inadmissible if they were to return to their native villages. In 
Port Blair, as elsewhere, the great resort of those desiring to raise their 
social status is the adoption of Islam. On the other hand, instances 
have occurred in which men who were not so by caste have volunteered 
to become Mehtars, debasing their social status in order to adopt what 
they regarded as a less arduous mode of life than cooly labour. 

Considerable ethnographic interest attaches to the descendants of 
convicts, as a marked difference is maintained at present between the 
free introduced from India and the free with the taint of convict blood. 
In certain cases the barrier is broken down socially, but entry by 
marriage into a ' local-born ' family is regarded as degrading to an 
immigrant from India. How long this will last, and in what direc- 
tions the barrier will be habitually broken through, is worth watching. 
At present there is much greater sympathy on the part of the im- 
migrants, temporary or permanent, with the actual convicts than with 
their descendants. 

VOL. XX. o 


Although the ' self-supporter ' is entitled to send for his family from 
India, he very seldom does so, or it may be that the families are seldom 
willing to join convicts ; and the result is that the ' local-born ' are 
nearly all the descendants of convict marriages. Any ' self-supporter ' 
may marry a convict woman from the female jail, if he has the permis- 
sion of the Settlement authorities and the marriage is in accordance with 
the social custom of the contracting parties. In practice, an inquiry 
ensues on every application, covering the eligibility of the parties to 
marry under convict rules, the capacity of the man to support a family, 
and the respective social conditions in India of both parties. A Hindu 
would not be allowed to marry a Muhammadan woman, while an un- 
divorced Muhammadan woman with a husband living in India would 
not be allowed to marry at all, and so on. When the preliminaries 
have been settled, often after prolonged inquiry, permission is registered 
by the Superintendent, who then calls upon the parties to appear before 
him and certify, on a given date, that they have been actually married 
according to their particular rite. The marriage is registered by the 
Superintendent and becomes legal. Owing to the enormous variety of 
marriage rites in India, the statement of the parties that the appropriate 
ceremonies have been performed is accepted. In carrying out this prac- 
tice there is no difficulty as regards Christians, Muhammadans, and 
Buddhists, endogamy within their group being easily ensured ; but some 
difficulty has arisen as regards Hindus. Customs among Hindus differ 
indefinitely, not only in every caste but with every locality ; and as the 
convicts come from various castes and localities, in the strict view of the 
question hardly any Hindu marriage contracted in Port Blair could be in 
accordance with custom, which, be it noted, is a different question from 
legality. In the Settlement, however, the knot has been cut since 1881 
by recognizing only the four main divisions {vania) of Hindus as 
separate castes, within which there must be endogamy among the 
Hindu convicts : namely, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras. 
Before 1881, under pressure of the dominating conditions, the rule 
was merely Hindu to Hindu, Muhammadan to Muhammadan, Chris- 
tian to Christian ; Buddhists and others hardly came into consideration. 

The birth and growth of caste among convicts' descendants is thus a 
question of the growth and formation of new or special local Hindu 
castes, which can be studied obscurely in every part of India, and 
clearly enough in all regions where a Hindu propaganda is being 
carried among indigenous and animistic populations in the course of 
the natural spread of civilization along new lines of communication. 
In Port Blair the caste feeling exists as distinctly, within limits, among 
the ' local-born ' Hindus, as it does elsewhere among the natives of 
India ; and the interest of the question lies in observing how the people 
have settled the relative social status of the descendants of what, in 



India, would be looked on as the offspring of mixed castes ; f(jr fond as 
they are of talking of their caste and claiming it, the ' local-born ' have 
but hazy ideas on the subject as it is understood in the localities from 
which their parents came. They take into consideration only the caste 
of the father, as they understand it, that of the mother being ignored. 
Having introduced this great innovation into custom, they divide them- 
selves into high and low castes ; the children of Brahman, Kshattriya, 
and Vaisya fathers holding themselves, so far as they can, to be of 
high caste and apart from the whole of the innumerable castes coming 
under the head of Sudra or low caste. Then a ' local-born ' man marries, 
if possible, the daughter of a man of the same caste as his own father. 
Thus is a full caste system like that of India being developed among 
the descendants of the convicts. 

The present customs connected with marriage among the ' local-born' 
show clearly that there is as yet no notion of hypergamy, and that under 
pressure of surrounding conditions caste has to be set aside in marriages, 
and can only be maintained by ignoring the caste of the mothers. There 
is, however, a strong desire to marry into the same caste, and wherever 
practicable this is no doubt done. It is probable that caste mainte- 
nance in its strictness will commence in the isogamy which, in India, 
is so merged in hypergamy that it was left out of consideration in 
the last Census Reports. That in time caste will rule marriages and 
social relations in the Penal Settlement in all its accustomed force, 
there appears to be little doubt. 

The following table gives statistics of civil conditions in 1901 : — 




Married . 













Sickness and mortality are always matters of great consideration 
among a convict population ; but the conditions are also artificial, 
owing to the conflict between efficiency in discipline and labour, and 
the maintenance of a low sick-rate and death-rate by regulations and 
direct measures. The tendency on one side is to err in the direction of 
penality and economy, and on the other to secure health by leniency 
and extravagance. Port Blair has had no exceptional experience of 
this struggle, which is perpetually maintained wherever prisoners are 
congregated in civilized countries. All convict sickness and mortality 
tables must be considered with these qualifications. While the annual 
rainfall does not bear any real relation to either sickness or death-rate, 
the monthly rainfall has a decided effect on the sick-rate, which rises 

o 2 



regularly every year during the rains (June-September). The following 
tables compare sickness and mortality in the Settlement for a series of 
recent years, mostly corresponding with census years : — 


Average daily strength. 

Daily average 


Deaths in and out 
of hospital. 










I goo 













Ratio per 1,000 of Average Strength 


Of admissions to hospital. 

Of daily number of sick. 

Of deaths. 















2,036-3 1 







1 6-4 1 


Statistics for isolated years are, however, illusory, as from some causes 
not yet reported the sickness and mortality appear to rise and fall in 
successions of years, as shown in the following abstract : — 

Cycles of Health 



Average death- 
rate per 1,000. 

Four years ending 1874 



Seven years ending 1881 . 



Six years ending 1887 



Five years ending 1892 



Si.x years ending 1S9S 



Two years ending 1900 



Five years ending 1905 



The worst year on record was 1878-9, with a death-rate of 67-30. 
Sickness and death-rates for any given period or year are really due to 
a combination of causes, which are very difficult to determine, but an 
elaborate inquiry made in 1902 showed that the highest rates are among 
the latest arrivals. The inference is that the health statistics for any 
given period depend largely on the number of new arrivals and convicts 
of short residence present ; and it is possible, for example, that the high 
rate in 1878-9 was due to the weakness caused by the prevalence of 
famine in India. 



The following figures may be taken as approximately exhibiting the 
relative importance of prevalent diseases : — 


the sick. 

Malarial fever (47 per cent.), and dysentery conse- 
quent tliereon (7 per cent.) .... 

Ulcers and injuries ...... 


All other diseases, including dysentery other than 
malarial (7 per cent.) 







Ulcers and injuries are classed together, as they are both ordinarily 
caused by outdoor work, and are largely due to the carelessness of the 
convicts. The organization of a mosquito brigade and other apparatus 
for reducing mosquitoes will perhaps largely reduce the importance of 
malaria. After fever, dysentery (caused by malaria and otherwise) is 
the chief disease, and is being combated by improved cooking, milk, 
and diet. Phthisis (with tuberculosis), as an infectious preventible 
disease likely to spread if unchecked, is being treated in a special 
ho.spital, and by other preventive measures. 

Only about 6 per cent, of the labouring convicts are employed as 
agriculturists, and those chiefly to supply special articles of food for the 
convicts and staff, such as vegetables, tea, coffee, and . 

cocoa. But agriculture is the main source of livelihood 
among the ' self-supporters,' whose labours have contributed to the solid 
progress of the Settlement. The area of cleared land has increased 
from 10,421 acres in 1881 to 25,189 in 1905, and that of cultiva- 
tion from 6,775 to 10,364 acres. Although the working of the regu- 
lations has very largely reduced the number of ' self-supporters ' in 
the last decade, the result of steady agricultural labour for many years 
is shown by increased productive capacity in the land, and a rise in 
the prosperity of the 'self-supporters.' The value of supplies pur- 
chased from these rose from £1,913 in 1874 to £3,260 in 1881, 
£3,572 in 1891, and £7,116 in 1901. 

All the land in the Penal Settlement is vested in the Crown, and all 
rights in it are subject to the orders of the Government of India. Prac- 
tically the land is held at a fixed rent under licence 
from the Chief Commissioner, on conditions which, system. 

ififer alia, subject devolution and transfer to his con- 
sent, and determine the occupation on compensation of a year's notice 
or on breach of the conditions. The working of the rules, framed 
primarily to meet the requirements of the ' self-supporter ' convicts, is 


in the hands of the District officers, through amlns or native revenue 
officials. Village revenue papers like those maintained in India are 
kept up, and fixed survey fees are demanded. 

House sites, except those of cultivators which are free, are divided 
into four classes, and a tax is levied varying from Rs. 2 to Rs. 25 
according to the net annual income of the holders. 

Land for cultivation is divided into valley and hill land, the rent 
being fixed according to quality with a maximum of Rs. 4-8 per 
acre for the valley and Rs. 2-4 for the hill land. Licences are given 
for five years, and may be surrendered on three months' notice. They 
are subject to special conditions for each holding, and to general con- 
ditions, among which are that the land may not be surrendered or 
transferred without permission, and that 5 per cent, of the amount 
paid by the transferee is paid to the Government as a fine. Similar 
conditions are attached to licences for house sites. Grazing fees are 
levied by licence for the use of the Government (common) lands for 
grazing or cutting grass for cattle, at the rate of Rs. 2 per annum per 
animal, and in the case of goats 8 annas per annum each ; but culti- 
vators may graze two bullocks free for each 5 to 15 highas (if to 5 acres) 
of land held by them. 

' Self-supporters,' subject to good behaviour, can hold land on, inter 
alia, the following general terms : free rations and free use of village 
servants for six months ; free grant of an axe, hoe, and da ; rent, tax, 
and cess free for three to four years, with a limit of 5 b'lghas if the land 
is uncleared jungle, or for one to two years with a limit of 10 highas if 
the land is already cleared. Double holdings are permitted up to two 
years. ' Self-supporters ' must not sublet or alienate their holdings, 
must occupy them effectively, must assist in making village tanks, 
roads, and fences, and must keep houses and villages clean and in 
good repair. Their houses may be sublet, with permission, but only 
to other ' self-supporters,' as free men and convicts may -not live 
together in villages. 

The following cesses and fees are levied : educational cess, collected 
with the revenue on house sites and land, according to grade, from 
Rs. 3 to 6 annas per annum ; village conservancy fees, from 4 to 
2 annas per house per mensem, collected monthly ; chauhiddri (vil- 
lage officials) fees, 4 annas per house or lodger per mensem, collected 
monthly ; sdlutri (veterinary) fees, raised from possessors of cattle to 
provide for veterinary care and inspection of village cattle, at about 
half the educational cess. 

The village officials, who receive fixed salaries, are the chaudhri 
(headman) and the chauklddr (watchman). The chaudhri is the head 
of the village, responsible for its peace and discipline, and for assis- 
tance in the suppression of crime. He is the village tax collector. 


auctioneer, and assistant land revenue official. The chaukiddr is his 

Generally speaking a ' self-supporter ' has an income of from Rs. 7 
a month Upwards, and an agricultural ' self-supporter ' can calculate on 
a net income of not less than Rs. 10 a month. As the peasantry of 
India go, the ' self-supporter ' is well off. The free resident popula- 
tion are probably not in so good circumstances, so far as it depends on 
the land. 

The forests are worked by officers of the Indian Forest department 
as nearly as may be on Indian lines, and the Settlement is divided into 
afforested and unafforested lands. The * reserved ' 
forest areas amount to about 156 square miles. As 
little change as possible is made in these, but the growing condition 
of the Settlement makes it sometimes imperative to effect small altera- 
tions in area. The Forest department superintends the extraction of 
timber and firewood, and the construction of tramways ; but the con- 
version of timber at the steam saw-mill on Chatham Island is done by 
the Public Works department. In 1904-5 the Forest department 
employed 1,102 men. Elephants are used to drag logs from the 
forests to tramways or the sea, and rafts are towed by steamers to 
Port Blair. This is a comparatively new department for utilizing 
convict labour, and is now the chief source of revenue in cash. The 
earnings under this head have increased from i-6 lakhs in 1891 and 
2-8 lakhs in 1901 to 6-2 lakhs in 1904-5. In the last year the total 
charges amounted to 3-4 lakhs. 

Although the ' self-supporters ' and the free residents follow occupa- 
tions other than agriculture and Government service, the numbers so 
employed have but a comparatively small effect on 
the industries of the Settlement, and practically all manufactures, 
the labour available is found by the labouring con- 
victs. There is an unlimited variety of work, as can be seen from the 
following list of objects on which they are employed : forestry, land 
reclamation, cultivation, fishing, cooking, making domestic utensils, 
breeding and tending animals and poultry, fuel, salt, porterage by land 
and sea, ship-building, house-building, furniture, joinery, metal-work, 
carpentry, masonry, stone-work, quarrying, road-making, earthwork, 
pottery, lime, bricks, sawing, plumbing, glazing, painting, rope-making, 
basket-work, tanning, spinning, weaving, clothing, driving machinery 
of many kinds and other superior work, signalling, tide-gauging, 
designing, carving, metal-hammering, electric-lighting, clerical work 
and accounting, hospital compounding, statistics, bookbinding, print- 
ing, domestic and messenger service, scavenging, cleaning, petty super- 
vision. The machinery is large and important, and some of the works 
are on a large scale. 



The general heads of employments of labouring convicts appear 
from the following abstract of the labour statement on December 21, 
1906 : — 


Ineffective (excluding 


establishment (ex- 

Fixed establishments, 

departments), 2,256. 

employ, 3,081 

cluding departments), 


Sick and weakly 1,355 

Commissariat 727 

Petty officers . 969 

Boats . .259 

Lunatics . .219 

Marine . . 448 

Private service 205 

Lepers . -53 

Medical .316 


In jails . . 572 

Forest . r,i2 2 

service -153 

Others . . 57 

Tea . .317 

Station service 892 

Other depart- 

Supplies .453 

ments .151 

Conservancy . 141 


Others . . 499 

Fixed works, 

Artificer corps. 





labour, 995. 


Workshops. 413 

Artificers . 448 

At disposal of 

Jail labour . 348 

Quarries . . 61 

Coolies. . 401 

officers for 

Potteries . . 4 

repairs . 995 

Brickfields . . 590 

Jail buildings . 448 

In the Phoenix Bay workshops a great variety of work is performed, 
under the heads of supervision, general, machinery, wood, iron, leather, 
silver, brass, copper, tin ; and attached to the shops are a foundry, 
a tannery, and a limekiln. This department is always growing. The 
whole of the out-turn is absorbed locally, and no export trade is under- 
taken. The work done has nearly all to be taught to the convicts 
employed, and is performed partly by hand and partly by machinery. 
By hand they are taught to make cane-work of all sort.s, plain and 
fancy rope-making, matting, fishing-nets, and wire-netting. They do 
painting and lettering of all descriptions. They repair boilers, pumps, 
machinery of all sorts, watches and clocks. In iron, copper, and tin, 
they learn fitting, tinning, lamp-making, forging, and hammering of all 
kinds. In brass and iron they perform casting in large and small sizes, 
plain and fancy, and hammering. In wood they turn out all sorts of 
carpentry, carriage-building, and carving ; and in leather they make 
boots, shoes, harness, and belts. They tan leather and burn lime. By 
machinery, in iron and brass, they perform punching, drilling, boring, 
shearing, planing, shaping, turning, welding, and screw-cutting. In 
wood they learn sawing, planing, tonguing, grooving, moulding, shaping, 
and turning ; and in wheel-making they do the spoke-tenoning and 
mortising. Machinery is continually being added, in order to relieve 
labour for forestry and agriculture, the two descriptions of employ- 
ment which are best calculated to make the Settlement completely 
self-supporting. Machinery will make it industrially, and forestry and 


agriculture financially, independent : points that are never lost sight of 
and control the labour distribution. 

The work of the Marine department about Phoenix Bay is chiefly 
connected with the building, equipment, and working of the steam- 
launches, barges, lighters, boats, and buoys maintained. 

In the female jail women are employed on the supply of clothing, 
but they also do everything else necessary for themselves ; and the 
only two men allowed to work inside the jail are the Hospital 
Assistant and the jail carpenter. 

The bulk of the exports consist of timber, empties belonging to the 
Commissariat department, canes and other articles of jungle produce, 
edible birds'-nests, and trepang. The imports consist chiefly of Govern- 
ment stores of various kinds, private provisions, articles of clothing, 
and luxuries. 

The means of communication are good, and may be grouped as by 

water about the harbour, by road, and by tram (animal and steam 

haulage). Eight large and two small steam-launches, _ 

J -jii 1 rii 1 1 Communications, 

and a considerable number of lighters, barges, and 

boats of all sizes are maintained. Sailing boats, except for the amuse- 
ment of officers, are, for obvious reasons, not permitted. Several 
ferries ply at frequent intervals across the harbour. The roads are 
metalled practically everywhere, and are unusually numerc;us. Where 
convicts are concerned, it is a matter of importance to be able to move 
about quickly at very short notice. The roads include about no miles 
of metalled and about 50 of unmetalled routes. The tram-lines by 
animals are chiefly forest, and their situation varies from time to time 
according to work. The steam tram-lines are from Settlement Brick- 
fields to South Quarries and Firewood area, 5 miles ; North Bay to 
North Quarries^ 2 miles ; Forest ^\'imberley Ganj to Shoal Bay, 
7 miles ; Bajajagda to Constance Bay and Port Mouat, 6 miles. 
Short lines are maintained at a number of other places. 

The harbour of Port Blair is well supplied with buoys and lights. 
The lighthouse on Ross Island is visible for 19 miles, and running-in 
lights, visible 8 miles from both entrances to the harbour, are fixed on 
the Cellular Jail at Aberdeen and on South Point. There is also 
a complete system of signalling (semagraph) by day and night on the 
Morse system, worked by the police. Local posts are frequent, but 
the foreign mails are irregular. Wireless telegraphy between Port 
Blair and Diamond Island off the coast of Burma has been worked 
successfully since 1905, and the various portions of the Settlement are 
connected by telephone. 

The external postal service is effected by the Port Blair post office, 
which is under the control of the Postmaster-General, Burma. The 
Chief Commissioner, however, regulates the relations of the post 



office with convicts. The following table gives statistics of the 
postal business : — 




Number of post offices .... 
Total number of postal articles de- 
livered : — 




Newspapers ..... 

Parcels ...... 

Value of stamps sold to the public Rs. 
Value of money orders issued . Rs. 
Savings bank deposits by convicts . Rs. 







4,. 305 



















* Including unregistered newspapers. 

t Registered as newspapers in the Post Office. 

t The figures are included in those given for Bengal. 

§ No returns issued. 

The penal system is primarily one of discipline, financial considera- 
tions giving way to this all-important point. The labour of the convicts 
is firstly disciplinary ; secondly, it provides for the 
wants of the Settlement so far as these can be sup- 
plied locally ; thirdly, it is expended on objects directly remunerative. 
All necessary expenditure in cash is granted directly by the Govern- 
ment of India, and against this are set off the earnings of the convicts 
in money. The following table gives the total receipts and expendi- 
ture for a series of years, in thousands of rupees, but a considerable 
variation occurs from year to year : — 




Receipts, total .... 
Fxpenditure, total . 
Net cost of Settlement 
,, ,, per convict .• Rs. 




69-10- 1 1 





The value of convict labour expended on local work and supplies is 
not included. 

The net cash cost of the convict at any given period depends on 
how far convict labour is em[)loyed on objects returning a cash profit, 
and also on the number of ' self-supporters,' who supply local products 
at a far smaller cost than those procured from places outside the Settle- 
ment. Since 1891, very large jails and subsidiary buildings have been 
under construction, absorbing labour which could otherwise have been 
employed in the forests and on other objects remunerative in cash, 
while the number of ' self-supporters ' has been greatly reduced by 
a change in the regulations, resulting in a reduction of agricultural 
holdings and the amount of jungle cleared annually. Both of these 



arrangements are disciplinary, and illustrate the dependence of cost 
on general policy. 

The following table shows the progress of the principal sources of 
revenue and expenditure, in thousands of rui)ees : — 

Land revenue 


Other heads ..... 

Total revenue 

Salaries, establishment, and contin- 
gencies ...... 

Tea cultivation ..... 

Education ..... 

Medical ...... 

Ecclesi xstical . . . . . 

Commissariat establishment and sup- 
plies ...... 

Marine ...... 


Police ...... 

Subsistence money to convicts . 

Forest establishment and supplies 

Clothing for convicts and police 

Public works ..... 

Purchase of stores .... 

Passage money and freight on stores . 

Other charges ..... 

Total expenditure 








I, .^7 

































' 58 



The public works are constructed and maintained in all branches 

by the artificer corps, an institution going back historically long 

beyond the foundation of Port Blair in the Indian ^ ^,. , 

, , ,^ , Public works, 

penal settlement system. Men who were artisans 

before conviction, and men found capable after arrival, are formed 

into the artificer corps, which is divided into craftsmen, learners, and 

coolies. This corps is an organization apart, has .special privileges 

and petty officers of its own, known as foreman petty officers, who 

labour with their own hands, and also supervise the work of small 

gangs and teach learners. 

The total strength of the British and Native army stationed in the 
islands in 1905 was 444, of whom 140 were British. The Andaman 
Islands now belong to the Burma division. The military station. 
Port Blair, is attached to Rangoon, and is usually garrisoned by 
British and Native infantry. Port Blair is also the head-quarters of 
the South Andaman Volunteer Rifles, whose strength is about 30. 

The police are organized as a military battalion 701 strong. Their 
duties are both military and civil, and they are distributed all over the 


Settlement in stations and guards. They protect the jails, the civil 
officials, and convict parties working in the jungles, but do not exercise 
any direct control over the convicts. 

The ' local-born ' population is better educated than is the rule in 
India, as elementary education is compulsory for all male children of 
'self-supporters.' The sons of the 'local-born' and 
of the free settlers are also freely sent to the schools, 
but not the daughters ; fear of contamination in the latter case being 
a ruling consideration, in addition to the usual conservatism in such 
matters. A fair proportion acquire a sufficient knowledge of English 
for clerkships. Provision is also made for mechanical training to 
those desiring it, though it is not largely in request, except in tailoring ; 
and there is a fixed system of physical training for the boys. Native 
employes of Government use the local schools for the primary 
education of their children. Six schools are maintained, of which 
one includes an Anglo-vernacular course, while the others are primary 
schools. In 1904-5 these contained 152 boys and 2 girls of free 
parents, and 55 boys and 40 girls of convict parents ; and the total 
expenditure was Rs. 5,360. Owing to mistakes in enumeration, the 
census returns for literacy are of no value. 

There are four district and three jail hospitals in charge of four 
medical officers, under the supervision of a senior officer of the Indian 
Medical Service. Medical aid is given free to the 
whole population, and to Government officials under 
the usual Indian rules. The convicts unfit for hard labour are classed 
as — sick and detained in hospital, convalescents, light labour invalids, 
lepers, and lunatics. For each of these classes there are special rules 
and methods of treatment under direct medical aid. Practically every 
child born in the Settlement is vaccinated. 

Port Canning. — Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
Bengal. See Canning, Port. 

Porto Novo. — Town and port in the Chidambaram idliik of South 
Arcot District, Madras, situated in 11° 30' N. and 79° 46' E., at the 
mouth of the Vellar river. Population (1901), 13,712, more than 
a fourth of whom are Musalmans. It is known in Tamil as Parangi- 
pettai, or ' Europeans' town,' and is one of the two ports of the District. 
The Portuguese founded here, during the latter part of the sixteenth 
century, the first European settlement on the Coromandel coast 
within the limits of the Gingee country. An English settlement was 
established in 1683. In 1780 the town was plundered by Haidar All, 
and in July of the following year was fought in its vicinity the famous 
battle between Sir Eyre Coote and Haidar, in which the former won 
a signal victory. The battle was one of the most decisive of all those 
fought with Haidar's troops, for had the British retreated the whole 



Carnatic would have been at Haidar's mercy. The place was twice 
captured by the French and was finally restored to the British in 1785. 
Porto Novo is a Union under the Local Boards Act and contains 
a salt factory. It had once a considerable trade with Ceylon and 
Achin, but this has declined. The value of the exports and imports 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 12,50,000 and Rs. 59,000 respectively. The only 
special manufacture is a species of mat made from the leaves of the 
screw-pine. The Porto Novo ironworks attained much notoriety in 
the early years of the last century. Their melancholy history is 
referred to in the account of South Arcot District. 

Portuguese Possessions. — These consist of the territories of 
Goa, Daman, and Diu, lying wholly within the limits of the Bombay 
Presidency, and governed by a Governor-General of Portuguese India, 
resident at Goa city. They cover a total area of 1,470 square miles 
and contain a population (1900) of 531,798, distributed as follows : — 



Goa .... 
Daman .... 
Diu .... 





Their total revenue in 1903-4 was 23 lakhs. A description and 
history of these possessions will be found under the articles Go.\, 
Daman, and Diu. 

Porumamilla. — Town in the Badvel taluk of Cuddapah District, 
Madras, situated in 15° \' N. and 79° E. Population (1901), 5,522. 
It possesses a fine tank. There are the ruins of an old fort to the 
north of the town, and the place was formerly the seat of a local 
chieftain. An inscription on stone in front of the temple of Bhairava, 
which stands on an eminence close to the tank, is dated a. d. 1369, 
and records that Bukka Bhupati's son Bhaskara Bhupati, who reigned 
at Udayagiri, constructed the tank. The date corresponds with that of 
the reign of Bukka I of Vijayanagar ; and if this be the chief men- 
tioned, the inscription is of importance. There is a very old temple 
of Lakshmlkantaswami in the town, which is said to have been re- 
paired by the above-mentioned Bhaskara Bhupati. To the west of the 
place, on the bank of the Sagileru river, are some stone cromlechs. 

Pothanur.— Village and railway junction in Coimbatore District, 
Madras. See Podanur. 

Pottangi.— Za;;/J;?^ar/ tahsil in the Agency tract of Vizagapatam 
District, Madras. It is situated on both slopes of the Eastern 
Ghats, and so is hilly in character and for the most part covered 
with jungle, though a great quantity of this has been destroyed. The 
main road to the Jeypore estate from the low country passes through 


it. Area, 625 square miles; population (1901), 73,013 (chiefly hill 
tribes), compared with 77,641 in 1891 ; number of villages, 920. The 
head-quarters are at Pottangi. The tahsll is entirely zaminddri land, 
belonging to the Jeypore and Pachipenta estates. 

Pragjyotisha. — Subsequently called Kamarupa, the name of an 
ancient kingdom which at the time of the Mahabharata comprised 
Assam and a great part of Northern and Eastern Bengal. It stretched 
westwards as far as the Karatoya river, and included a portion of 
Rangpur District. It was ruled by a succession of princes of Mon- 
goloid stock. 

Prakasha. — Town in the Shahada tdluka of West Khandesh District, 
Bombay, situated in 21° 31' N. and 74° 25' E., 45 miles north-west of 
Dhulia at the junction of the Tapti river with two of its tributaries. 
Population (1901), 3,687. East of the town stands an old temple of 
Gautameshwar Mahadeo, in whose honour a great Hindu fair is held 
every twelve years, when the planet Jupiter enters the constellation 
Leo. There are several other interesting temples in the neighbourhood. 
The municipality, established in 1870, has recently been abolished. 
The town contains a boys' school with 165 pupils. 

Prang. — Town in the Charsadda tahsll of Peshawar District, North- 
West Frontier Province, situated in 34° 8' N. and 71° 49' E., above 
the junction of the Swat and Kabul rivers, 16 miles north-east of 
Peshawar. It is practically a portion of the town of Charsadda. The 
population, apart from Charsadda, in 1901 was 10,235, consisting chiefly 
of Muhammadzai Pathans. 

Pranhita ('helpful to life'). — River in the Central Provinces, 
formed by the united streams of the ^VARDHA and Wainganga, whose 
junction is at SeonI in Chanda District (19° 36' N. and 79° 49' E.). 
From here the river has a course of 72 miles, until it joins the Godavari 
above Sironcha. Throughout its length the Pranhita is the western 
boundary of Chanda District and of the Central Provinces, which it 
separates from the Hyderabad State. Its bed is broad and sandy, 
with the exception of a long stretch of rock below the confluence at 

Pratapgarh. — State and capital thereof in Rajputana ; and also Dis- 
trict, tahsll, and town in the United Provinces. See Partabgarh. 

Pratapgarh. — Fortress in the Javli tdluka of Satara District, 
Bombay, situated in 17° 55' N. and 73° 35' E., 8 miles south-west of 
Mahabaleshwar, on a summit of the Western Ghats commanding the 
Par ghdt, and dividing one of the sources of the Savitrl from the Koyna, 
an affluent of the Kistna. The fort, 3,543 feet above sea-level, looks 
from a distance like a round-topped hill, the walls of the lower fort 
forming a sort of band or crown round the brow. The western and 
northern sides are gigantic cliffs, with an almost vertical drop in many 



places of 700 or 800 feet. The towers and bastions on the south and 
east are often 30 to 40 feet high, while there is in most places a scarp 
of naked black rock not much lower. In 1656 SivajT, the founder of 
the Maratha power, selected this almost impregnable position as orie 
of his principal forts. Pratapgarh was the scene of his treacherous 
murder of the Muhammadan general Afzal Khan, who had been sent 
against him by the Sultan of Bijapur. In 1659 Sivajl decoyed Afzal 
Khan to a personal interview by a pretended submission, the two 
leaders being each attended by a single armed follower. Sivaji stabbed 
the Musalman general, and gave the signal to his ambushed army to 
attack the Muhammadan troops, who, bewildered by the loss of their 
chief, were utterly routed. In the Maratha ^\^ar of 18 18 Pratapgarh 
was surrendered to the British by private negotiation, though it was an 
important stronghold and was held by a large garrison. 

Prempur. — Petty State in MahI Kanth.n, Bombay. 

Presidency Division. — Commissionership of Bengal, extending 
from the Ganges on the north to the Bay of Bengal on the south, and 
lying between 21° 31' and 24° 52' N. and %f 49' and 89° 58' E. The 
head-quarters of the Commissioner are at Calcutta, and the Division 
includes six Districts with area, population, and revenue as shown 
below : — 


Area in square 



Land revenue 
and cesses, 

. '903-4. 
in thousands 
of rupees. 

Twenty- four Paignnas 

Calcutta . 







2, '43 

1, 333, '84 





Note.— Calcutta is not strictly speaking a District of the Presidency Division, 
l)ut it is usual and convenient to treat it as such. In th(- Census Report of 
igoi the area of the Twenty-four Parganas was sliown as 2,108 square miles, 
excluding the Sundarbans; the area given above, supplied by the Surveyor- 
General, includes 2,941 square miles in the Sundarbans. The area of Khulna 
similarly includes 2,688 square miles in the Sundarbans. 

The population was 7,427,343 in 1872 and 8,211,986 in 1881 ; in 
1891 it had grown to 8,535,126 and in 1901 to 8,993,028. The 
average density is 514 persons per square mile, compared with 474 for 
Bengal as a whole. Fifty per cent, of the population are Hindus and 
49 per cent. Musalmans ; the remaining i per cent, includes 62,416 
Christians, of whom 30,993 are natives, 12,842 Animists, 3,005 Bud- 
dhists, 2,245 Jains, and 1,938 Brahmos. The area of the Division, 
which is known as Central Bengal, corresponds approximately to the 


old kingdom of Banga or Samatata, and to Ballal Sen's division of 
Bagri (or Bagdi). The Division is bounded on the west by the 
Bhagirathi river and on the east by the MadhumatT, and forms the 
western extremity of the Ganges delta. Its northern Districts have 
been gradually raised above flood-level ; and the great rivers, which 
formerly flowed through them, have shrunk to insignificance, and no 
longer fulfil their old functions of depositing silt and supplying good 
drinking-water. Their head-waters have been silted up and their 
channels are often so high that they are no longer able to carry off 
the drainage of the surrounding country, which has thus become far 
less healthy and fertile than it was formerly. The District of Khulna 
is an exception to these conditions and still forms part of the true 
delta. Along the sea-coast, in the south of the Twenty-four Parganas 
and Khulna District, the Sundarbans extend over an area of 5,629 
square miles. This tract is a region of low-lying islands, intersected 
by a network of rivers and cross channels. In the north it is being 
gradually reclaimed for cultivation, while in the south it is covered with 
valuable forests, and on the sea-board the process of land-making is still 
going on. Central Bengal possesses few distinctive ethnical features \ 
but its southern portion is the main habitat of the Pods, who are 
closely allied to the Chandals, and who with them are probably the 
descendants of the first of the Mongolian invaders from the north-east. 
The Kaibarttas and Bagdis have overflowed from Western Bengal, and 
the Chandals from the east. 

The Division contains 46 towns and 20,496 villages. The urban 
population forms 16 per cent, of the whole; the greater part of it is 
found in Calcutta and in its great industrial suburbs on the banks 
of the Hooghly river. The principal industries in these towns are the 
manufacture of gunny-bags, the baling of jute for export, paper-making, 
and cotton-spinning. Murshidabad District is one of the seats of the 
silk industry. The largest towns are Calcutta (847,796), with its 
suburbs Cossipore-Chitpur (40,750), Maniktala (32,387), Garden 
Reach (28,211), South Suburbs (26,374) and Baranagar (25,432); 
Santipur (26,898), Krishnagar (24,547), Berhampore (24,397). 
Naihati (13,604), and Bhatpara (21,540). Among its other towns 
may be mentioned NabadwIp, an ancient capital of the Sen kings of 
Bengal ; and Murshidabad, for many years the seat of the Muham- 
madan Nawabs. The early history of Calcutta is intimately associated 
with the beginning of British rule in India. 

Proddatur Taluk.— Northern taluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, 
lying between 14° 36' and 15° 2' N. and 78° 26' and 78° 53' E., with 
an area of 478 square miles. The Nallamalai Hills form a natural 
frontier on the east, while in the south the tract is bounded by the 
Cuddapah taluk and the Penner river. The population in 1901 was 

rJWME l)J STRICT 2 1.; 

10 J, 5 70, compared with 98,418 in 1891. It contains one town, 
Proddatur (population, 14,370^, the head-quarters; and 86 villages. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2,58,000. Owing to its fertile black soil, I'roddatiir is the most 
densely peopled tdluk in the District, its population, who are mainly 
Telugus, numbering 2x5 per square mile, compared with an average of 
148 for the District as a whole. 'Cuddapah slabs' are much used for 
building. About one-fourth consists of ' reserved ' forest, most of 
which lies on the Nallamalais. 'I'he Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal 
traverses it. Cotton is the principal product. There are no manu- 
factures except indigo. 

Proddatur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and taluk 
of the same name in Cuddapah District, Madras, situated in 14° 44' N. 
and 78° 2>2) E. Population (1901), 14,370. It contains a District 
Munsifs court, and two cotton-presses which work during the cotton 

Prome District. — District in the Pegu Division of Lower Burma, 
stretching across the valley of the Irrawaddy between 18° 18' and 
19° 11' N. and 94° 41' and 95° 53' E., with an area of 2,915 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Thayetmyo District ; on the 
east by the Pegu Yoma ; on the south by Henzada and Tharrawaddy 
Districts ; and on the west by the Arakan Yoma. The Irrawaddy flows 
through the District from north to south, dividing 
it into two portions, differing considerably in area, asoects 

appearance, and fertility. To the west of the 
river lies the Padaung township, constituting about one-third of the 
total area of the District. Here the country is broken up by thickly 
wooded spurs from the Arakan Yoma into small valleys, drained by 
short and unimportant tributaries of the Irrawaddy, and but little 
cultivated. The remaining six townships lie to the east of the Irra- 
waddy. North and north-east 'of Prome town the country resembles 
that on the Padaung side ; for the forest-covered spurs of the Pegu 
Yoma forni numerous valleys and ravines, stretching as far as the 
Irrawaddy, and watered by torrents \shich, as they proceed south-west 
towards level country, eventually unite into one large stream called the 
Nawin, spanned by a wooden bridge to the north of Prome. The 
south and south-west consist of a large and well-cultivated plain, inter- 
sected by low ranges with a general north and south direction, the 
chief of which are called the Prome hills. Towards the east and 
south-east this fertile tract is drained by streams, shut out from the 
Irrawaddy by the Prome hills, and sending their waters into the Inma 
Lake, from which the Myitmaka (known farther south as the Hlaing) 
flows seawards in a line parallel to that of the Irrawaddy. The 
Inma, the only lake of any size, is ro miles long and 4 wide in the 



broadest part. It is 12 feet deep during the rains, but practically 
dries up in the dry season. 

The hills that bound the District, the Pegu Yoma on the east and 
the Arakan Yoma on the west, are geologically dissimilar. The eastern 
range, in common with the whole country lying between the Irrawaddy 
and Sittang rivers (with the exception of an outlier or two of crystalline 
rocks near Toungoo), is composed of beds none of which is older 
than the miocene or Middle Tertiary period, while the western range 
consists of two groups of beds, a newer of eocene or Early Tertiary 
age, and an older group of (probably) Triassic age, with here and there 
scattered outcrops of serpentine. The Pegu group, made up of the 
Pegu range and the greater part of the District east of the Irrawadd}', 
as well as a tract to the west of that stream, may be divided into three 
parts — lower, middle, and upper. The lower division consists mainly 
of a series of beds of blue clay, which seem entirely devoid of fossils, 
and may, it is conjectured, have a thickness of 400 feet. The middle 
division is represented by a considerable thickness of massive argilla- 
ceous sandstone grits and shales, the latter predominating towards 
the base. These beds are generally devoid of fossils, and can be seen 
to the best advantage in the gorge above Prome. The upper division, 
not less than 600 feet thick, contains shales and sandstones^ and is 
extremely rich in fossils, apparently of Middle Tertiar)- age. The bed 
at the base of this division forms the river bank nearly oi)positc Prome. 

The vegetation is mainly composed of deciduous forests, which 
can be divided into in forests, upper mixed forests, dry forests, and 
savannah forests. The in forests are mainly characterized by in 
{Dipterocarpus ti(berculatiis), and are similar to those described under 
Pegu District, as also are the upper mixed forests, in which teak 
is abundant. The dry forests are characteristic, and contain among 
their chief constituents Dalbergia cultrata, Diospyros burmannica, 
Buchanania /atifo/ia, and Crataeva re/igiosa, and among shrubs 
Thespesia Lampas, Barleria cristata, B. dichotonia, Calotropis, Clero- 
dendron infortunatum, and Bambitsa Tiilda and B. stricta. In certain 
areas sha {Acacia Catechu) forms a conspicuous part of the \egetation. 
The river is bordered with savannah forests (described under Hantha- 
WADDY District) and many widespread weeds — Amaranf/ii/s, Rumex 
maritiviits, Polygonum, Rani/ncit/i/s scelerati/s, and others. 

The fauna is of the usual type. One of the most characteristic 
wild animals of Burma, the thaniin or brow-antlered deer, abounds in 
the high grounds to the east of Prome. The elephant and the rhino- 
ceros are found, but only in the Arakan Yoma. 

The climate of Prome is much drier than that of the rest of the 
Pegu Division, and its temperature has a wider range, from about 
60^ in January to loo*^ in June. The District has a lighter rainfall 


than any other District of Lower Hiiriua, except Thayetmyo ; it is 
fairly regular and well distributed, the average for the last decade being 
48 inches for the whole District, 43 inches at Prome, 48 inches at 
Shwedaung, and 53 inches at Paungde. 

The Burmese name for Prome is Pyi; and according to tradition 
the once-flourishing kingdom of Prome was founded by a king named 
Dutabaung, of the Pyu tribe, who with the Arakanese 
and other tribes constituted the Burman race in the 
remote past. Early accounts place the foundation of Thareklieilra, the 
old capital, in the year after the second great Buddhist Council, held 
in 443 B. c. Of this ancient city only a few embankments and pagodas 
remain in marshy ground 5 or 6 miles from Prome. Later on, we hear 
of a reigning house founded by one Tepa, which, as there is no record 
of a subsequent line, probably lasted till the first break-up of the 
kingdom of Prome. There is little of historical value in the ancient 
Prome chronicles ; but these seem to point to the conclusion that 
the Pyus were members of the Burman race, who, cutting themselves 
off" at an early date from the parent stock, then concentrated at 
Tagaung, and struck off down the Irrawaddy valley till they were 
brought up by the Taking dominion on the edge of the delta, where 
they halted and formed a principality of their own. Little credence 
can be given to the stories of the early kings, but it seems clear 
that during the early centuries of the Christian era the Pyus suffered 
defeat at the hands of the Takings, The year 104 b.e. (a. d. 742) 
is given as the date of the destruction of Prome by the Peguans. 
\Vith the overthrow of the Pyu dynasty the reigning house is said 
to have withdrawn north again, and founded a new kingdom at 
Pagan ; and it seems probable that the sack of Prome in the eighth 
century was more or less connected with one of the movements 
which culminated in the glories of mediaeval Pagan. The Takings 
never had a firm hold over Prome. We hear later of an independent 
kingdom ; and it was in the neighbourhood of Prome that the forces 
of Prome, Ava, and Arakan were defeated b)' a Toungoo army in 1542. 
In the middle of the eighteenth, century Prome was, however, held b\ 
the Takings, and the town was the scene of much carnage during tlic 
operations which ended in the overthrow of the Peguans by tlic 
Burmese conqueror Alaungpaya. Prome played a not incons[)icuous 
part in the first Burmese War, for the investment of the town by 
a Burman army of 60,000 men in 1825, and the defeat of this force 
by Sir A. Campbell, constituted one of the most decisive features 
of the campaign. The town was temporarily occupied in the second 
Burmese War by a small force under Commander Tarleton, and the 
subsequent defeat of the Burman leader by (General Godwin confirmed 
its possession by the British in 1852. The timely rebellion of Mindon 

1' 2 


PR OME niS TR K ' T 

Islin caused the withdrawal of the Buniian troops from the District 
during the rest of the war, and there has been no serious trouble since 
its annexation in 1852. 

The chief objects of archaeological interest are two pagodas, the 
Shwesandaw and the Shwenattaung. The former is 80 feet high and 
stands, its gilded cone conspicuous from afar, on a platform of stone 
on a hill in Prome town. Various tales describe its foundation, and 
it is supposed to contain four hairs from Gautama's head. It has been 
repaired and enlarged from time to time, and the festival in November 
is numerously attended. The Shwenattaung pagoda lies in the Shwe- 
daung township, 14 miles south of Prome, and tradition makes the 
wife of Dutabaung its foundress. It is said to be the repository of 
certain relics of Gautama, and its eight-day festival in March is 
attended by thousands. 

The population of the District at the last four enumerations was : 
{1872) 280,288, (1881) 328,905, (1891) 368,977, and 
(1901) 365,804. The distribution according to town- 
ships in 1 90 1 is shown in the following table : — 


a . 

Number of 



age of 
on in 
on be- 

er of 
able to 

1 ,/ 









and I 

s q v 











- 9 









Hmawza . 





- '3 


Paungde . 





+ 7 







+ 15 







+ I 


Padaung . 

District total 





— I 






— I 


The rural population (excluding Prome, Paungde, and Shwedaung 
towns) is 316,537, distributed in 1,761 villages, giving a density of 109 
persons per square mile. Away from the Irrawaddy valley, in the 
forest areas of the Paukkaung and Padaung townships, the population 
is sparse. Prome is one of the very few Districts of Burma which 
returned a smaller population in 1901 than in 1891. The decrease 
is due to the emigration of Burmans from Prome town and the 
neighbouring country, and from the hill tracts in the east and west 
of the District, to the more generous rice-bearing areas of the delta. 
The other portions of the District, especially the townships of Thegon 
and Paungde, lying on either side of the railway, have increased in 
population. The people are nearly all Buddhists, the total professing 
the faith of Gautama numbering 351,000 in 1901. Hindus and 



MulKimniadans are confined to the towns, and nunil)er only 2,600 
each ; and the total of Animists is 8,600. Burmese is the language 
of 94 per cent, of the people, but Karen and Chin are spoken in 
the hilly areas. 

Burmans form 93 per cent, of the population, and are found every- 
where except in the hills. There are 4,200 Karens, who nearly all 
retain their dialect, and 1,200 Shans, of whom ratlier more than half 
still talk their own vernacular. The Chins, living for the most part 
to the west of the Irrawaddy, number 11,600, and about 60 per cent, 
speak the Chin language. They are said all to profess Buddhism 
(though the census figures do not bear out this assertion), and those 
near the Burmese villages have adopted Burmese dress and dropped 
their own language. The number of people dependent on agriculture 
in 1901 was 251,300, or less by 7 per cent, than the corresponding 
total in 1 89 1. Of these, 17,600 were supported by tainigya or shifting 

There are only 481 Christians, half of whom are Baptists. The 
American Baptist Mission started work at Prome town in 1854, and 
now has centres at Prome, Paungde, and Inma. The Anglican and 
Roman Catholic Churches are also represented at Prome. 

The rainfall, though light, can on the whole be depended upon. 
The principal rice-tracts are in the Hmawza township, the middle 
of the Thegon and Paungde townships, and the 
Shwedaung township. In the rest of the District 
taungya, or shifting hill cultivation, is prevalent ; in fact, the percentage 
of taungya cultivation is higher in Prome than in any other District 
in the Pegu and Irrawaddy Divisions. Field-work begins in the hot 
season with the carrying of manure to the ground. The custom of 
stabling the cattle provides the husbandman with a large supply 
of cow-dung, which is mixed with paddy husk before use. It is now 
usual to manure both nurseries and fields. The nurseries are sown 
broadcast and the rice is transplanted, not sown broadcast on the 
fields, as in Pegu District. For transplantation, and frequently for 
reaping, the able-bodied women work in gangs under chosen leaders. 
The custom of hiring a number of men for a fixed sum to reap the 
whole crop is unknown ; in fact the rates of pay would not attract 
Burmans or natives of India from other Districts. The threshing 
is done in the villages, an arrangement which dispenses with the 
necessity for huts in the fields. Owing to the scarcity of cultivable 
waste, the rent paid by tenants is exceptionally high ; in certain parts 
of the District as much as one-half of the crop is given to the land- 
lord, who pays the revenue. Famine is unknown, in spite of the 
comparative dryness of the climate. 

The cultivated area has increased from 372 square miles in 1 880-1 



to 437 square miles in 1891, and 500 square miles in 1903-4. The 
main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, in square 
miles ; — 


Total area. 










•^ i 

Hmawza , 




Paungde . 




*- 2,005 









Padaxing . 









More than a hundred varieties of rice are recognized, and this crop 
covered 428 square miles in 1903-4. Besides the ordinary cold-season 
crop a certain amount of viayin, or hot-season rice, is grown. The 
area under rice has increased by nearly 40 per cent, in the twenty years 
ending 1903. In 1903-4 gardens covered 33 square miles, and 3,700 
acres were cultivated with tobacco on the banks and islands of the 
Irrawaddy. During the same year cotton was grown on the hills on 
1,600 acres, as compared with 3,000 acres in 1882. Prome is famous 
for custard-apples, which are planted largely on the hill-slopes facing 
Prome town. 

No improvements in cultivation are noted. Havana tobacco was 
experimentally introduced in 1903, but beyond this no new crops 
of importance have been tried. Without being actually prosperous, 
the cultivators are, on the whole, fairly well-to-do, and till recently 
have not resorted to Government for loans. No agricultural advances 
were granted during the ten years ending 1900, but a beginning was 
made with loans to the extent of Rs. 1,400 in 1901-2, and Rs. 7.440 
in 1903-4. 

There are plenty of cattle for ploughing, which are bred and trained 
in the District. Ponies, sheep, and goats are not bred locally. The 
cattle are kept under the houses and stall-fed. It has been found 
that there is little need for grazing grounds, and such as exist are but 
little used. This accounts for the unusually healthy state of the cattle, 
for there is little doubt that large grazing grounds tend to spread 

No large irrigation works have been constructed, but a few minor 
works exist in the Padaung and Paukkaung townships. The Inma 
Lake, an important fishery, is the only large natural reservoir. In 
all, 61 square miles were irrigated in 1903-4, of which nearly 
9 were supplied from private canals. Of the total, about 38 square 
miles are situated in the Hmawza township. The fisheries are 

TA'.U)K .LY/) CO}fMrXJrA77()XS 225 

comparatively uninipoitaiU, producing a revenue of Rs. 38,000 in 

The forest tracts fall naturally into two groups : those to the west 
of the Irrawaddy on the Arakan \'onia, and those to the east of the 
river on the Pegu Vonia. The latter can be sub- 
divided again into two groups : those lying in the 
drainage of the Nawin in the north, and those in the drainage of 
the Shwele in the south. The former were worked to excess by 
the Burmans, but natural obstructions near the mouth of the Shwele 
fortunately preserved the Shwele forests from the indigenous methods 
of timber extraction. The Shwele has now been cleared, and the 
timber is worked departmentally by the Forest officials. The hill- 
slopes contain, besides teak, other valuable timbers, such as pyingado 
[Xylia dolabriformis)^ padauk {Pterocarptts indka), and pyinma {I.ager- 
siroemia Flos Reginae). Between the hills and the river are large 
stretches of in and cutch forests, containing, in addition to these trees 
{Dlpferocarpus tiiberculatus and Acacia Catechu), useful growths such 
as ihitya {Shorea obUisa), thitsi {Melatiorr/ioea iisitata), and ingyin 
iyPentacnie siafiieiisis). The total area of ' reserved ' forests is 538 
square miles, and an area of 169 square miles is under settlement 
with a view to reservation. The forest receipts in 1903-4 were 9-7 
lakhs. There are 1,467 square miles of ' unclassed ' state forest. 

No discoveries of metal or precious stones have so far been made. 
Large quantities of laterite and stone ballast are extracted from a hill 
near Hmawza by the Burma Railways Company, and small outcrops 
of coal have been met with in the Padaung township. Prospecting 
licences have been taken out for petroleum, but there has been no 
success so far. 

Cotton- and silk-weaving are carried on throughout the District, the 
former for the most part as a subsidiary occupation. Silk-weaving 
is mainly pursued in the town of Shwedaung and 
in the neighbouring circles, where, in fact, every communl/aUons. 
other house has a loom. The census returns in 
190T showed that there were more silk-weavers in Prome than in any 
other District of Burma, with the single exception of Mandalay. Cotton 
looms are plentiful throughout the country, and in most cases the 
family loom provides the members of the household with clothing. 
The only exceptional industry is sericulture, which was probably 
imported from China. It is carried on largely by the Yabein tribe, 
who live apart in their own villages, their occupation being offensive 
to the strict Buddhist. The method of manufacture is crude in the 
extreme. The eggs are hatched in a coarse cloth, and the worms 
swept into a tray and fed on mulberry leaves. After 30 days or so 
the larvae begin to spin, and when ready to commence this process, 


are picked out with the hand, and thrown on to the cocooning tray, 
on which a plaited bamboo ribbon, about two inches wide, is coiled. 
To this ribbon the larvae attach their cocoons, and these, when ready, 
are torn off and put to simmer in a common pot. The filaments are 
then picked up with a fork and reeled on a bamboo reel suspended 
over the pot. The thread thus produced is coarse and dirty, and 
mixed with pupae and other refuse. The price of raw silk at the 
river-side markets is Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 a pound. Other manufactures 
are ornamental boxes for keeping palm-leaf books, coarse brown sugar, 
and cutch from the forest-covered townships. The Acacia Catechu 
is common, and in 1901 Prome returned a larger number of cutch- 
workers than any other District of Burma. In Prome town there is 
a steam rice-mill, employing 60 hands, and a steam saw-mill, employ- 
ing 47 ; but on the whole, factory industries are poorly represented. 

The main exports are paddy and timber. Paddy is sent by the 
railway to the south, and by the Irrawaddy steamers to Mandalay 
and intermediate towns, while teak from the Pegu Yoma is floated 
down the river in large quantities to Rangoon. A small amount of 
cotton is exported to Rangoon after a partial cleaning at Prome. 

The principal imports are piece-goods, hardware, European goods, 
ngapi, and salted fish from Rangoon and other parts of the delta. 
The trade of Prome has declined somewhat since the opening of the 
Toungoo-Mandalay railway, as, previous to this, goods for Upper 
Burma were sent largely by rail to Prome town, and thence by steamer. 
This is still the route, however, for the passenger and mail traffic 
between Rangoon and a number of up-river stations, so that there 
is still a certain amount of transhipment business at Prome. 

The Rangoon-Prome railway enters the District 5 miles from 
Paungde in the south, and runs through the middle of the Paungde, 
Thegon, and Hmawza townships to Prome, the terminus of the line. 
It has stations at Paungde, Padigon, Thegon, Sinmizwe, and Hmawza. 

The Irrawaddy, flowing from north to south through the District, 
gives access to the Hmawza, Shwedaung, and Padaung townships ; 
and an excellent system of metalled roads connects the remoter places 
in the District with the landing-places on the river or the stations on 
the railway. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company's steamers provide a 
daily service from Prome to Thayetmyo, and from Prome to Henzada, 
and a tri-weekly service from Prome to Rangoon, and from Prome to 
Mandalay, stopping at river-side stations. 

There are 91 miles of metalled and 116 miles of unmetalled roads 
maintained from Provincial funds. The main routes are the Prome- 
Rangoon road (mile 177 to mile 140) through Shwedaung and 
Paungde, and the road from Prome to Paukkaung, both of which 
are metalled and bridged. Unmetalled roads lead northwards into 


Thayetmyo District, and westwards over ilie Arakan NOnia to 'laung- 
up in Sandoway District. A number of footpaths are bridged and 
embanked, but are not available for wheel-traffic. The most impor- 
tant of these is from Shwedaung to Nyaungzaye on the Irrawaddy. 
Roads maintained from Local funds connect the more important 
villages. Of the District cess fund roads, 7 miles are metalled and 
84^ unmetalled. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions : T'rome, containing 
the townships of Prome, Paukkauno, and Hmawza ; Paungde, con- 
taining the townships of Paungde and Thegon ; 
and Shwedaung, containing the townships of Shwe- 
daung and Padaung. The executive staff is of the usual kind, the 
Paungde subdivision being generally in charge of an Assistant Com- 
missioner. There are 669 village headmen. At head-quarters there 
are, besides the Deputy-Commissioner, a treasury officer, an akunwiin 
(in charge of the revenue), and a superintendent of land records, with 
a staff of 4 inspectors and 34 surveyors. The District forms a sub- 
division of the Tharrawaddy Public Works division, and a Forest 
division with a subdivisional officer at Paungde. 

Prome, with Tharrawaddy, forms the jurisdiction of a Divisional as 
well as of a District Judge : the District Judge has his head-quarters at 
Tharrawaddy, the Divisional Judge at Prome. There are, besides the 
Divisional and District Judges, two civil judges, one at Prome, pre- 
siding over the Prome and Hmawza township courts, the other at 
Paungde, presiding over the Paungde and Thegon township courts. 
These judges have Small Cause Court jurisdiction up to Rs. 50 in the 
Prome and Paungde municipalities respectively. The other township 
courts are presided over by the township officers. In addition to the 
District, subdivisional, and township magistrates, there is an additional 
magistrate at Paungde. The District is noted for cattle-thefts ; but this 
form of crime is decreasing slowly, though in 1901 the number of con- 
victions was as large as 411. Cattle-theft is kept down as much as 
possible by active co-operation between the village headmen, the 
magistrates, and the police, and by the patrolling by military ])olice 
of the roads most used by cattle-thieves. 

Previous to the British occupation the principal sources of revenue 
were land tax and a form of income tax. The latter was assessed by 
the local officers, who were guided mainly by the property of the 
person assessed, but no fixed rates were laid down. It would appear 
that in portions of the District half the produce was demanded from 
the cultivators. After annexation efforts were made to distribute tlie 
land tax properly, and acreage rates were introduced in 1862 for rice 
lands. There was a settlement of the richest portion of the District in 
1867-8, and again in 1.S84-5 : and in 1900-1 a revision of the rates 


fixed in 1884-5 produced an inrrease of over a lakh, or nearly 30 per 
cent. The present rates on rice land vary from 6 annas to Rs. 2-6 
an acre, and on gardens from 6 annas to Rs. 3. The average area of 
a holding at present is 5^ acres, compared with 7 acres in i88t. 

The steady growth of the revenue during the past twenty years may 
be gathered from the table below, which gives the figures in thousands 
of rupees. The total for 1903-4 includes 3 lakhs from capitation tax 
and 3'8 lakhs from excise. 

1880-1. t 1890-1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 

2,88 1 3,16 
7,44 1 9,06 



There is a District cess fund, administered by the Deputy-Com- 
missioner for the upkeep of roads and other local necessities. Its 
income (composed for the most part of a cess of 10 per cent, on the 
total land revenue) was Rs. 71,600 in 1903-4, and its expenditure 
Rs. 64,000, of which nearly one-third was devoted to public works. 
There are two municipalities: that of Prome, constituted in 1874, and 
that of Paungde, in 1884. Shwedaung has a town committee, which 
was formed in 1882. 

The strength of the police is 406 of all ranks, under the orders of 
the District Superintendent. An Assistant Superintendent is in charge 
of the police in the Paungde subdivision. The force consists of 
3 inspectors, 2 chief head constables, 6 head constables, 41 sergeants, 
and 352 constables, distributed in 14 police stations and 4 out- 
posts. The military police number 166 of all ranks, 66 being 
stationed at Prome town, the rest distributed in the other six town- 
ships. The District possesses two jails, at Prome and Paungde, with 
accommodation for 325 and 177 prisoners respectively. The Paungde 
jail was built in 1900, taking the place of the old reformatory school, 
which had been used as a jail since 1896. 

The percentage of literate persons in 1901 was 45 in the case of 
males, 4 in that of females, and 24 in the case of the two sexes 
together. The number of pupils was 8,946 in 1881, 8,851 in 1891, 
ro,2oi in 1901, and 10,166 in 1903-4, including 1,093 girls. In the 
last year there were 19 secondary, 126 primary, and 428 elementary 
(private) schools in the District. The most important institutions are 
the schools at Prome and Paungde. Judging from the attendance and 
from the passes obtained, female education is making a steady advance. 
The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 44,600, muni- 
cipal funds contributing Rs. 12,900 and Provincial funds Rs. 8,800, 
while Local funds provided Rs. 10,000 and fees Rs. 12,900. 

The District contains hospitals at Prome, Paungde, and Shwedaung, 

rROMF. TOWN 2jg 

with 78 bt^ds. In 1903 the number of rases ireatt'tl was 30,179, inchid- 
ing 1,011 in-patients, and 559 operations were performed. Towards 
a total expenditure of Rs. 13,800, municipal funds contributed 
Rs. 7,600 and Local funds Rs. 4,900. 

Vaccination is compulsory only wathin municipalitie.s, but the esti- 
mated percentage of protected persons in the District as a whole 
is fairly high. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vac- 
cinated was 17,490, representing 48 per 1,000 of population. At one 
time small-pox was a scourge of particular virulence in Prome town, 
but vaccination has done much to reduce the ravages of this disease. 

[W. E. T>ovvry, Settlement Report {\()02).'\ 

Prome Subdivision. — North-eastern subdivision of Prome Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, containing three townships : Promp:, Hmawza, 
and Paukkauxg. 

Prome Township. — Township of Prome District, Lower Burma, 
consisting wholly of the municipality of Prome, with an area of 
9 square miles. The non-municipal revenue raised in the township 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,42,000, the greater part being excise. 
Land tax, levied in lieu of capitation tax, contributed Rs. 4,000. The 
cultivated area within the limits of the township fell from 3 square 
miles in 1890-1 to 2 square miles in 1903-4, and the agricultural 
population from 10,600 to 2,100 between the years 1891 and 1901. 

Prome Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Lower Burma, situated in 18° 49' N. and 95° 13' E., on the eastern 
bank of the Irrawaddy, at the mouth of the Nawin, 161 miles by 
railway from Rangoon. The populaticm, according to the last four 
enumerations, was as follows: (1872) 31,157, (i88i) 28,813, (1891) 
30,022, .and (1901) 27,375. Of the population in 1901, Buddhists 
numbered 24,200, and Musalmans and Hindus about 1,400 each. 
The number of Buddhists was approximately 3,000 lower than in 
1891, whereas that of the Lidian religions was about the same. It 
will thus be seen that the diminution in the past decade, for which 
various reasons have been assigned, is confined to the indigenous 
population. The town is well laid out, having been almost entirely 
destroyed in 1862; and is divided into several quarters, Xawin on the 
north, Ywabe on the east, .Sinzu on the south, and Shweku and San- 
daw in the centre. In a line skirting the high river bank are the 
municipal school, the courthouses, the church, and the telegraph 
office. The Strand road traverses the town from nortli to south, and 
from it well-laid roads run eastwards into the urban areas. North of 
Sinzu is the famous Shwesandaw pagoda, and in the Nawin quarter 
are the markets. The municipal water- works, opened in r885, supply 
the town with water from the river. 

The date of the foundation is not known. The original cai)ital of 


the kingdom of I'rome was 'J'harekhettra, 5 or 6 miles inland. This 
was the ancient city, no doubt, which the early histories state was 
destroyed by the Talaings in the eighth century ; and it was probably 
after the reigning dynasty had gone northwards to retrieve their shat- 
tered fortunes in Pagan that the remnant of the Pyus chose as their 
capital the existing town of Prome, destined in after time to be one 
of the chief centres round which the early peoples of the country 
struggled for the mastery in Burma. Prome was the scene of warlike 
operations in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, and its occupation 
and defence and the subsequent defeat of the Burmans near the town 
by the British in 1825 were among the conspicuous incidents of the 
first Burmese War. In the second Burmese War it was captured and 
occupied temporarily by Commander Tarleton, and three months later 
in the same year (1852) General Godwin's advance up the river placed 
the town in the occupation of the British, out of whose hands it has 
not passed since. 

The principal industries are the manufacture of silk cloth, large gilt 
boxes for palm-leaf books, and lacquer-ware. A saw-mill and a rice- 
mill are at work in the town, but no other factories. Cotton, both 
local produce and imported from Upper Burma, is partially cleaned 
at Prome before export to Rangoon. The through trade has decreased 
since the opening of the Toungoo-Mandalay railway, goods being no 
longer sent for transhipment to the same extent as formerly. 

Prome was constituted a municipality in 1874. The income during 
the ten years ending 1900 averaged Rs. 1,23,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 1,20,000. In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 1,48,000, the chief 
sources being tolls on markets and slaughter-houses (Rs. 63,000), house 
and land tax (Rs. 12,000), and water rate (Rs. 17,000). The expendi- 
ture in the same year was Rs. 2,43,000, the chief heads being drainage 
(Rs. 16,000), conservancy (Rs. 40,000), and roads (Rs. 19,000). The 
amount devoted to the water-works was Rs. 82,000. 

The municipality maintains a high school with 360 pupils, and in 
1900 new school buildings were erected at a cost of Rs. 32,000. The 
annual municipal contribution towards education is Rs. 7,000. The 
hospital, maintained largely from municipal funds, has accommodation 
for 42 in-patients. Four beds are specially set apart for eye-diseases, 
which are exceptionally prevalent in Prome. 

Pubna. — District, subdivision, and town in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Pabna. 

Pudukkottai State. — The third most important of the five Native 
States in political relations with the Government of Madras. It lies 
on the eastern side of the Presidency, between 10° 7' and 10° 44' N. 
and 78° 25' and 79° 12' E., and is bounded on the north and west 
by Trichinopoly District, the ('ollcctor of which is ex-officio Political 


Agenl for the Stale, on the south by Madura, and on tlic cast by 
Tanjore. It comprises an area of r,ioo square miles, and measures 
50 miles from east to west and 40 miles from north to south. It is 
called after its chief town, the name meaning ' new fort." The State 
was formerly known as the 'I'ondiman's country, from the family name 
of the ruling chief. 

Pudukkottai resembles in its physical as|)ects the upland parts of 
the east coast of the Presidency, and consists for the most i)art of an 
undulating plain of barren or sparsely-culti\ated land 
interspersed with small but picturesque rocky hills, as^e'^s 

some of which are crowned by ancient forts and 
temples. These hills are most numerous in the south-west portion, 
where the country is extremely wild and rugged, and here also are 
the thickest forests. In these are found antelope, spotted deer, wild 
hog, and some wild cattle, which appear to have originally been village 
cattle of the ordinary type but are now larger and stronger than the 
usual plough bullocks. Four small rivers drain the country from west 
to east. 

The climate resembles that of the surrounding Districts and is fairly 
healthy. Temperatures have not been officially recorded ; but Puduk- 
kottai is probably cooler than Trichinopoly in the hot season, as it 
is more open and nearer the sea. Malaria is rare. Guinea-worm used 
to be very common, but is now less prevalent. The annual rainfall 
averages 35 inches. 

During the last quarter of a century there have been three cyclones, 
wdiich occurred in 1884, 1890, and 1893, all during the north-east 
monsoon. In the first two the rainfall amounted to about i\ inches, 
and in the last it was from 12 to 27 inches in different parts of the 
State, but no serious damage occurred. 

In early times the northern part of the present Pudukkottai Stale 
belonged to the Chola kings, whose capital was at UraiyOr near 
Trichinopoly, and the southern part to the Pandva 
kings of Madura. About the middle of the sixteenth 
century Madura passed to the Naik dynasty, and its kings acquired the 
whole of the territory which makes up the present State, ruling it through 
a poligar or feudatory chief. In the seventeenth century the country 
came into the possession of the Setupati of Ramnad, who had been a 
vassal of the Naiks but had thrown off his allegiance. It was temporarily 
recovered about 1664 by Chokkanatha, the Naik ruler of Trichinopoly, 
but soon afterwards came again into the possession of Ramnad ; and 
about 1680 the Setupati, Raghunatha Kilavan, appointed Raghunatha 
Tondiman as chief of the district of Pudukkottai. This latter is said to 
have been the brother of a girl of the Kalian caste whom the Ramnad 
chief had married. From him the present Rajas trace their descent. 


The relations i^'i the EngHsh with the State began during the Carnatic 
wars of the eighteenth century. During the siege of Trichinopoly by 
the French in 1752 and 1753 the Tondiman of the time did good ser- 
vice to the Company's cause by sending them provisions, although his 
own country was on at least one occasion ravaged as a consequence of 
his fidelity to the English. In 1756 he sent some of his troops to assist 
Muhammad Yusuf, the Company's sepoy commandant, in settling the 
Madura and Tinnevelly countries. Subsequently, he was of much ser- 
vice in the wars with Haidar Ali, and in the operations against the 
rebellious poligars of Sivaganga and Panjalamkurichi in Madura and 
Tinnevelly Districts respectively, capturing the latter and handing him 
over to the English. In 1803 he solicited, as a reward for his services, 
the favourable consideration of his claim to the fort and district of 
Kilanelli, near Arantangi in the south of Tanjore. He based his claim 
on a grant made by Pratap Singh, Raja of Tanjore, and on engagements 
subsequently entered into by Colonel Braithwaite, Sir Eyre Coote, and 
Lord Macartney, on the faith of which he had retaken the fort from 
Haidar Ali. The Madras Government, after a very complimentary re- 
view of his services, complied with his request ; and the grant was con- 
firmed in 1806 by the Court of Directors, subject to the condition that 
the district should not be alienated, and that it should revert to the 
British Government upon satisfactory proof that the inhabitants were 
subjected to any oppressive system of management. The grant was 
further made subject to the yearly tribute of an elephant ; but this was 
never insisted upon, and in 1836 was formally remitted. Beyond this 
grant, there is no treaty or arrangement with the Raja. A sanad per- 
mitting adoption in accordance with Hindu law was conferred on him 
in 1862. At first the political charge of the State was entrusted to the 
Resident at Tanjore. A\'hen this office was abolished in 1841, the duty 
was transferred to the Collector of Madura. From 1865 to 1874 the 
Political Agent was the Collector of Tanjore, and from 1874 up to the 
present time the Collector of Trichinopoly has carried on the duties of 
the post. 

The present Raja, His Highness Raja Sri Martanda Bhairava Tondi- 
man Bahadur, who was born on November 27, 1875, succeeded his 
grandfather in 1886 as a minor. He is the grandson of Raja Rama- 
chandra Tondiman Bahadur (fifth in descent from Raghunatha) by his 
eldest daughter, and was adopted by the late Raja in 1877. During his 
minority the late Sir A. Seshayya Sastri, K.C.S.I., was Diwan Regent. 
The Raja, who had been for some years under the private tuition 
of an English gentleman, was installed on November 27, 1894. He 
has a privy purse of Rs. 1,24,000 a year, and is entitled to a salute 
of II guns. 

No systematic examination of the archaeological remains in ihe State 


has been nidde. Near Xartamalai. in a cluster of low rocky hills 9 miles 
north west of Pudukkottai town and to the west of the road from 
Trichinopoly, are ancient rock-cuttings consisting of caves with pillar 
supports to the roof and carvings, which are probably of Jain origin. 
The most interesting antiquities so far discovered consist of coins. 
Roman auni have been found, and also some curious native copper 
coins which are believed to be about a hundred years old. The latter 
are lumps of copper without edgings, but the designs on some of them 
are well executed. The coins being very small the legends are imper- 
fect, but they are believed to have been struck by Raja ^'i)aya Raghu- 
natha (1807-25). Some curious old chain armour has been found near 
Tirumayam. The inscriptions on some of the temples are believed to 
be of interest, but have not been deciphered. 

The State contains one town, its capital Pudukkottai, the inhabi- 
tants of which numbered 20,347 in 1901 ; and 377 villages. The largest 
of the villages are Tirumayam and Karambakudi, the 
population of each of which is over 3,500. The popu- 
lation of the State was 316,695 in 1871, 302,127 in i88r (the decline 
being due to the great famine of 1876-8), 373,096 in 1891, and 380,440 
in 1 90 1. The density in 1901 was 346 persons per square mile, which 
is considerably less than in the neighbouring Districts of Tanjore and 
Trichinopoly, but slightly above the density in Madura. In the same 
year Hindus numbered 353,723, or 93 per cent, of the total; Muham- 
madans, 12,268, or 3-2 per cent.; and Christians, 14,449, or 3-8 per cent. 
The most numerous caste among the Hindus is the Valaiyans (52,890), 
formerly shikaris but now largely agriculturists : next come the Kalians 
(47,462), the Paraiyans (32,550), and the Pallans (27,381), who are 
chiefly cultivators and farm labourers; and then the Idaiyans (26,479), 
who are shepherds. As elsewhere in Southern India, the great majority 
of the people subsist by the land. 

The Christian missions working in the State are the Roman Catholic 
(Jesuit and Goanese) and the Protestant (Leipzig Lutheran, and AVes- 
leyan). Aviir, a village 12 miles to the south of Trichinopoly, is the 
centre of the Catholic missions. Of the Christians in the State in 1901, 
14,406 were natives, and of these 14,051 were Roman Catholics, 233 
Lutherans, and 17 Methodists. 

Vital statistics are registered by the village otificers, as in British 
territory. The recorded birth- and death-rates in 1903-4 were 9-28 
and 8-75 respectively per 1,000 of the population. These figures 
show that registration is by no means complete, and steps are being 
taken to improve matters. Regulation I of 1903 has made regis- 
tration compulsor}' in Pudukkottai town, and Regulation II of the 
same year gives the Darbar power to make it compulsory in rural 
tracts also. 


The general agricultural conditions of the State, the soils and seasons 

and the methods of cultivation, resemble those in the adjoining areas 

. , in Trichinopoly and Madura. Out of the total area 

Agriculture. ^ ., ,, 

of 1,100 square miles or 704,000 acres, 271,879 

acres are held on the usual ryotii<dri or indm (favourable rate) 
tenures; 157,417 acres are occupied \))' jdgirs (estates), or relate to 
t7idms the tenure of which has been inquired into but in respect of 
which title-deeds have not yet been issued ,; 50,070 acres represent 
unoccupied lands fit for cultivation ; and the rest is waste, such as 
hills, forest, village-sites, t&c, which is not fit for cultivation. Among 
the lands held on indfn and other favourable tenures is the Manovarti 
'dglr, which is held by the Raja himself. This class of land also in- 
cludes many villages and minor indms granted at lenient rates of assess- 
ment by former Rajas to Brahmans and the old militia. An inquiry 
into the terms on which these are held has recently been conducted 
and is now practically complete. Of the area occupied on the ryotwdri 
or ' minor ' indm tenures, all but 118 acres pays money rents. The re- 
mainder is held on what is called the amdni system, under which the 
Darbar takes as the land revenue one-half of the net produce on ' wet ' 
lands and one-third of that on 'dry' lands, after first deducting the 
swatantranis or fees due to village officers and servants. The reasons 
which have caused such a large area as 50,070 acres of arable land 
to remain unoccupied are being investigated. 

The principal food-crops are rice, cainbu {Pennisetu/n typhoideiini), rdgi 
{Eleusine coracana), cholain {Sorghum vu/gare), and varagu {Faspa/um 
scrobiculatum). Other important crops are horse-gram, ground-nuts 
{Arai/iis hvpogaea), and black gram. The proportion of the cultivated 
area to the land available for cultivation has gradually increased during 
the past eight years from 66 to 84 per cent. The extent of ' wet ' 
(irrigated) land under occupation in 1903-4 was 108,000 acres, and that 
of ' dry ' (unirrigated) land, 1 70,500 acres. The irrigation sources of the 
State are 4 rivers, 62 dams, 7,356 artificial reservoirs, 190 channels, 
3,927 jungle streams, and 18,452 wells. Of these, the reservoirs are 
the most important. The country is dotted with them and some are of 
considerable size. 

The forests contain only small timber. No law regarding forests has 
been enacted, but sixty blocks of jungle have been marked out and 
' reserved.' They cover about one-seventh of the area of the State, and 
some are reserved for the Raja to shoot over. Wild cattle are occasion- 
ally caught in them and broken in and used as draught animals, as they 
are remarkable for their strength and endurance. Their capture has 
lately, however, been prohibited. Several plantations have been made 
near the streams and rivers ; and these contain 245,000 casuarina trees, 
the wood of which makes excellent fuel. The principal sources of forest 


revenue are the sale of fuel and minor produce such as gums, tanning 
barks, &c., the lease of the right to collect leaves for manure, tanning 
bark, Nux vomica, and red ochre, seigniorage fees on granite and laterite 
removed, licence fees for stone-quarrying, stone-masons' licences, and 
a tax on brick-moulds. The total forest revenue in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 35,000. 

Minerals are few. Iron ore is found in places, but is not mined. 
Red ochre is procurable in abundance and is extracted in large quan 
tities. Granite and laterite are used for building. The laterite is a very 
hard variety, and the old fort of Kilvellikkottai is built entirely of it. 

There are no large industries in the State. Silk fabrics are made at 

Pudukkottai town, the number of silk-weavers' houses being about 200. 

Cotton stuffs are woven there and at Karambakudi, 

and black woollen blankets at Sellukudi. Rush mats '^''^'^^. ^"? 


and also bell- metal vessels are made in and about 
Karambakudi. These are much in demand both within and outside 
the State. Bangles are made at Vaittur. Perfumes are manufactured 
at Pudukkottai and exported to some extent, being much appreciated 
among Hindus. 

The other chief articles of export are ground-nuts, Niix vomica seeds, 
dvdram bark used for tanning leather, and acacia bark employed in 
distilleries. The chief imports are salt, rice, European piece-goods, and 
tobacco. The Chettis conduct the greater part of the trade, and there 
are also a considerable number of I^abbais, an enterprising body of 
mixed Musalman descent. 

The State is well provided with roads, which are kept in good condi- 
tion. Pudukkottai town is connected with Trichinopoly by two routes, 
one running direct through Kiranur and the other passing through 
Iluppur and Viralimalai on the Madura trunk road. It is also con- 
nected by road with Tanjore, Budalur, Gandarvakottai, Pudukkottai, and 
Arantangi in Tanjore District, and with Melur in Madura. There are in 
addition several smaller lines within the State. The total length of all the 
roads is 272 miles, and the outlay on them in 1903-4 was Rs. 45,000. 
Light spring carts drawn by ponies (known as jatkas) ply from Tanjore 
and Trichinopoly to Pudukkottai, the distances being 36 and n 
miles respectively. There is no railway in the State ; but the Darbar 
has been asked whether it is prepared to finance that portion of a line 
from Trichinopoly to Pudukkottai town which would run through the 
territory of the Raja, and another proposal contemplates the con- 
struction of a line from Madura District, through this State, to Tanjore. 
The chief town and seven other places are connected with Trichinopoly 
by telegraph. There are 28 post offices. Both the post and telegraph 
ofifices are under the management of the Government of India Postal 
and Telegraph departments. 

VOL. XX. g 


The State suffered severely in the famine of 1876-8, when relief works 
were opened and gratuitous relief was distributed. The country is en- 
tirely dependent upon timely local rainfall, but actual 
famines are of rare occurrence. In 1894-5, owing 
to the failure of rain in both monsoons, distress was felt in the northern 
part. The Raja visited the affected tracts, and ordered the suspension 
of the collection of the land revenue and the opening of relief works. 

The administration of the State is in the hands of a council, consisting 
of the Raja, the Diwan (formerly called the Sirkele), and a (!ouncillor. 

Orders are passed and correspondence carried on in 
Administration. , ^ ^, T-k- - • r^ 1 n^u cl. ^ 

the name of the Diwan-m-Council. 1 he State is 

guided in all important matters by the advice and counsel of the British 
Government, represented by the Political Agent, the Collector of Tri- 
chinopoly. Since 1902, an assembly of representatives has been con- 
stituted on the lines of the Mysore Assembly. It is composed of 30 
persons, chosen by the State as representative of the various classes of 
the community, nominations being made by the heads of departments 
and by public institutions. The assembly meets once a year. The 
results of the preceding year's administration and the budget for the 
ensuing year are placed before it, and its members are allowed the 
privilege of interpellation on all matters connected with the adminis- 

The immediate control of the revenue and magisterial departments 
is in the hands of the Diwan Peshkar, who is also the chief magistrate 
and is invested with first-class magisterial powers. The salt, excise, 
and forest departments are under the control of the Superintendent 
of salt, ilbkari, and separate revenue. The Superintendent of police in 
Trichinopoly District is ex-officio Superintendent of the force within the 
State. The country is divided for administrative purposes into three 
taluks : Kolattiir, the head-quarters of which is at Kiranur, and Alangudi 
and Tirumayam, the head-quarters of which are the places after which 
they are named. In each of these is stationed a tahslldar^ who is 
responsible for land revenue ; an inspector of salt, abkdri, and separate 
revenue ; a sub-magistrate, and an inspector of police. 

Legislative measures are enacted by the Dlwan-in-Council, and, as 
in the case of the other Native States subject to the Madras Govern- 
ment, are forwarded to that Government for approval before being 
passed into law. 

Civil justice is administered by the Chief Court at Pudukkottai, 
which consists of three judges and a registrar who has Small Cause 
jurisdiction. There are also ten Small Cause Courts for rural areas, 
sub-registrars of assurances being invested with the powers of Small 
Cause judges to about the same extent as Village Munsifs in British 
territory. All appeals are disposed of by the Chief Court. 



The criminal courts arc the Sessions court, presided over by the 
judges of the Chief Court sitting singly by turns ; and the courts of the 
chief magistrate, who has first-class powers ; the special magistrate, 
Pudukkottai, with first- or second-class powers ; the town second-class 
magistrate ; three tdhtk magistrates and three stationary magistrates 
with second-class powers; and six sub-registrars invested with third- 
class powers. All appeals lie to the Chief Court. Serious offences, 
such as dacoity or robbery, are rare, the greater part of the crime 
consisting of house-breaking and thefts. Sentences of rigorous im- 
prisonment for life and forfeiture of property, the former of which, 
under the law of the State, takes the place of capital punishment, are 
subject to the confirmation of the Raja. The criminal courts have no 
jurisdiction over European British subjects, and any offenders of this 
class are handed over for trial to the Political Agent, who is Justice of 
the Peace for the State. The receipts under Law and Justice amounted 
in 1903-4 to Rs. 61,000, and the charges to Rs. 40,000. 

The Regulation of the State dealing with the registration of assur- 
ances differs but little from the Indian Registration Act, the chief point 
of divergence being that under the former registration is compulsory in 
the case of several kinds of documents regarding which it is optional 
under the latter. There are twelve registry oftices, including that of 
the head of the department, who is called the Registrar of xA.ssurances. 
The cost of the department is Rs. 18,000. 

The total revenue of the State in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 11,28,000, 
and the total expenditure to Rs. 10,21,000. The chief items are shown 
in the following table : — 





Land revenue 


Palace .... 


Salt .... 




Excise on spirits and 

Religious and charitable 







Public works 


Assessed taxes 


Registration . 


The ordinary currency of the State is the British Indian coinage, but 
a small round copper coin, worth one-twentieth of an anna and called 
amman-kasu, is also current. This is minted for the State, and bears 
on one side the word vijaya (' victory ') in Telugu, and on the other 
a representation of the Raja's tutelary goddess Bruhadamba. This 
deity is the consort of the god Gokarnaswami, and a temple to them 
stands in Tirugokarnam, a suburb of Pudukkottai town. To this 
the Rajas are wont to go on occasions of public worship. 

The land revenue consists of the assessment on land held on the 
ryotwari tenure, quit-rents on certain classes of iniims, a small tax on 

g 2 


jciifirs, and the value of the Slate's share of the produce of land held 
under the amani system above referred to. The rates of assessment on 
'wet' land on ryolwdri tenure vary from Rs. 4 to Rs. 10 per acre, and 
those on 'dry ' land from 6^ annas to Rs. 1-8. There are also special 
rates for ' dry ' land on which rice is grown. 

The history of the land revenue possesses some interest. In 1878, 
when Mr. (afterwards Sir) A. Seshayya Sastri became Diwan, about 
16,000 acres were held on a tenure under which the cultivator and 
the State shared the produce. The Diwan substituted for the State's 
share a money assessment based upon the average out-turn for the five 
years from 1871 to 1875 and the average selling price of grain during 
those years. No remissions of the assessment so arrived at. were to 
be allowed on account of bad seasons. The village accountants' fees 
(formerly payable in kind) were commuted into a cess of 6 pies per 
rupee of assessment. 

It had long been customary to give a paper to each ryot every year, 
which specified the fields which happened to be in his possession and 
were to be cultivated by him in that year. The ryots were not, however, 
considered to possess any occupancy rights in their land or any power of 
transfer. Their status has now been changed from that of tenants-at- 
will into that of proprietors ; and owners of land are now able to 
mortgage, transfer, or sell it, proceedings which would have been 
void at law under the previous system. These reforms, however, 
quickly showed very clearly the necessity for a regular survey and 
settlement. The cadastral survey of the State is now in progress. On 
its completion, the settlement will be taken in hand. 

Revenue used to be derived from the earth-salt manufactured from 
saline soils as a State monopoly ; but in 1887 the Madras Government 
arranged with the Darbar for the suppression of this manufacture, and 
entered into a convention (still in force) by which it agreed to pay 
the Darbar Rs. 38,000 annually as compensation, imposing at the same 
time the obligation of maintaining a preventive staff costing about 
Rs. 10,000. 

The system of collection of the excise revenue is almost the .same 
as that in the Madras Presidency. A State distillery is maintained 
for the manufacture of country spirit, and rents are collected on licences 
for retail shops and on palm-trees permitted to be tapped for their 
juice. Still-head duty is collected on the liquor issued from the dis- 
tillery at rates nearly equal to those obtaining in the Madras Presidency. 
There are 108 arrack (spirit) and 233 toddy (fermented palm-juice) 
shops, one foreign liquor shop, and also one shop in the chief town 
for the sale of opium and gafija. The cost of the excise department 
is Rs. 8,000. 

Under the head of assessed taxes among the sources of revenue given 


above is included the mo/i/affa, which consists of a tax on huuscs and 
trades. Terraced houses are assessed at R. i per annum, tiled houses 
at 8 annas, thatched houses at 4 annas, and huts at 6 pies. Shops 
and bazars are charged at the rate of Rs. 3, Rs. 2, R. r, and 8 annas, 
according to their importance. Silk looms pay R. i each, other looms 
12 annas, and oil-mills Rs. 2 per annum. 

Tolls are levied in Pudukkottai town and at eight other gates. The 
proceeds amount to Rs. 30,000. A revenue of about Rs. 20,000 is 
derived from market fees, cart-stand fees, and rent of public buildings. 
There is no stamp law in the State. (Jourt fees are levied in cash. 

The Public Works department is under the control of an Engineer, 
aided by two Assistant Engineers and a subordinate staff. The care of 
the State buildings and the maintenance and construction of irrigation 
works form the principal part of its business. 

The military force now maintained consists of 22 officers, 90 privates 
(of whom 6 are gunners), and 16 troopers, who are known as tlie Raja's 
body-guard and are under the immediate control of an officer called 
the commandant. 

The strength of the police force is one chief inspector, 5 inspectors, 
28 head constables, and 229 constables. There are 2^ police stations. 
As has already been mentioned, the force is in charge of the District 
Superintendent of Trichinopoly. The annual cost of the department 
is Rs. 35,000. 

The seven prisons include the Central jail at Pudukkottai town and 
six subsidiary jails. The convicts in the former are employed in making 
wicker baskets, ropes, cloths, bell-metal vessels, and net bags, in garden- 
ing, and in pressing gingelly oil. They are also emplo\ed in the con- 
servancy of the town. The value of the labour done both within and 
without the jail by them in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,200. There were 50 con- 
victs in jail at the end of 1903-4 (8 of whom were life-convicts) and 15 
under-trial prisoners, besides 5 civil prisoners, all of whom were lunatics. 
The cellular system is not in force, but arrangements have been made 
to introduce it. The cost of the department is about Rs. 7,000. 

According to the Census of 1901 Pudukkottai, if it had been a 

British District, would have taken the fifth place among the twenty-two 

Districts of the Madras Presidency as regards the „. 

, ■ , ,11 Education, 

education of its male population, but would have 

ranked last as regards the education of its girls, the actual percen- 
tages of the literate of each sex to the total population of that sex 
being 15-6 and 0-4 respectively. At the end of 1903-4, there were 
35 State, 146 aided, and 96 unaided educational institutions. Of these, 
255 were primary, 13 secondary, and 6 special schools. Altogether, 
8,397 boys and 846 girls were under instruction. Pudukkottai town 
possesses a second-grade college, teaching up to the F.A. examination, 


which at the close of 1903-4 contained 36 students in the college 
department. Provision has been made in the institution for the 
religious instruction of Hindu boys, and physical development also 
receives special attention. A school called the Vani Vilasa Veda 
Sastra Pathsala teaches Sanskrit on Oriental lines. The staff consists 
of eight pandits : three for the Vedas, one each for Tarka (logic) and 
Vedanta (metaphysics), one for Mimamsa (a school of philosophy), 
and two for Kavya (poetry). The library contains over a thousand 
volumes on paper and cadjan (palm-leaves). About half the students 
get daily allowances in kind from the assignments made to religious 
and charitable institutions. The town State girls' school teaches up to 
the lower secondary standard. There is an industrial school at Puduk- 
kottai under the control of the Engineer. The State also endeavours to 
spread general elementary education. Girls of all castes and Muham- 
niadans and Panchania boys are taught free. In the lower classes 
non-Brahman Hindus form the majority of the pupils. Of the girls, 
the most numerous are those of the Muhammadan community. In 
1903-4 the receipts from fees, &c., amounted to Rs. 14,000 and the 
gross expenditure was Rs. 40,000, the net cost to the State being 
Rs. 26,000. Of the total outlay, Rs. 15,000 was devoted to primary 
education. The control of the Educational department is vested in the 
principal of the College, Mr. Radhakrishna Ayyar, a gentleman known 
even in Europe for his works on arithmetic. 

Pudukkottai town possesses a well-equipped hospital, with 28 beds for 
males and 4 for females, and also a dispensary for women and children, 
while 7 other dispensaries have been opened in the 
rural parts. The dispensary for women and children 
is in charge of a lady apothecary, and the other institutions are under 
the control of the chief medical and sanitary officer. In 1903-4, 440 
in-patients and 85,700 out-patients were treated, and the number of 
operations performed was 1,800. 

The vaccination staff, consisting of one inspector and ten vaccinators, 
works under the supervision of the chief medical and sanitary officer. 
About 26 per 1,000 of the population were successfully vaccinated in 
1903-4. Vaccination is compulsory only in Pudukkottai town. 

The conservancy of this town is controlled by a sanitary board, with 
a full-time secretary as its chief executive officer. Conservancy in other 
parts is attended to by the revenue staff, acting upon the advice and 
suggestions of the chief medical and sanitary officer. The total 
annual cost of the Medical department, including vaccination, is about 
Rs. 26,000. 

[For further particulars of the State see its Annual Administration 
Reports and the Trichinopo/y District JManual (1878).] 

Pudukkottai Town. Capital of the State of Pudukkollai, Madras, 

rune AT TOWN 241 

situated in 10° 23' N. and 78° 49' E., i}^ miles by road from Trichi- 
nopoly. Population in 1901, 20,347, compared with 16,885 i" 1891 
and 15,384 in 188:. Hindus number 18,459; Musalmans, 1,344; 
and Christians, 544. It is an unusually clean, airy, and well-built town, 
possessing many fine public buildings. At the suggestion of Sir W. 
Blackburne, the Political Agent, Raja Vijaya Raghunatha Raja Bahadur, 
who died in 1825, pulled down the whole of the old town, which was 
built with narrow and tortuous lanes, and rebuilt it in regular streets, 
a large number of the houses being tiled. The place was further 
improved in the time of Sir A. Seshayya Sastri, K.C.S.I., who was 
Diwan-Regent for some years while the present Raja was a minor. The 
fine public buildings outside the town were erected by him. The chief 
of these are the new palace, the public offices, the hospital, the jail, the 
college, the Residency, and the summer villa. The old palace, which 
contains the Raja's Darbar room, is in the heart of the town. This 
building is not used except on state occasions and is somewhat out of 
repair. Two large drinking-water tanks in the town (Pallavankulam 
and Pudukulam) and several others were also improved at considerable 
cost, but with the most beneficial results, during Sir A. Seshayya 
Sastri's administration. Particulars of the educational and medical 
institutions in the town will be found in the article on the State. 

Pukhrayan. — Another name of the BhognIpur Tahsil, Cawnpore 
District, United Provinces. 

Pulgaon. — Town in the District and tahsll of Wardha, Central 
Provinces, situated in 20° 44' N. and 78° 19' E., on the Great Indian 
I'eninsula Railway, 19 miles from Wardha town and 452 from 
Bombay. Population (1901), 4,710. Pulgaon is quite a new town, 
and originally consisted of a collection of huts of the workmen who 
built the railway bridge over the Wardha river close b)', the name 
meaning 'bridge village.' It was constituted a municipality in 1901. 
The receipts and expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. ir,ooo and Rs. 7,000 
respectively. The income is derived principally from road tolls and 
rents of land. Pulgaon is an important centre of the cotton trade, 
receiving the produce of nearly the whole of the Arvi tahsll. The 
Pulgaon Spinning Mills were opened in 1892 with a capital of 5 lakhs, 
and have nearly 15,000 spindles. The out-turn of yarn in 1904 was 
21,300 cwt., valued at more than 10 lakhs. A weaving department 
containing 165 looms was added in 1902 at an additional cost of 
3i lakhs. There are also 5 cotton-ginning factories and 3 pressing 
factories, with a total capital of 4^ lakhs, and containing 146 gins and 
3 presses. Pulgaon has a primary school and a dispensary. 

Pulicat Town.— Town in the Ponneri taluk of Chingleput District, 
Madras, situated in 13" 25' N. and 80° 19' E., on the southern extremity 
of an island which separates the sea from the Pli.icat Lake, 2-^ miles 


north of Madras city. Population (1901), 5,448. Pulicat was the site 
of the earliest settlement of the Dutch on the mainland of India. In 
1609 they built a fort here and called it Geldria, and in 16 19 the 
English obtained from the chiefs a permission to share in the pepper 
trade of Java. Later, it was the chief Dutch settlement on the Coro- 
mandel coast. It was taken by the English in 1781 ; restored in 1785 
to Holland under the treaty of 1784, and again surrendered by the 
Dutch in 1795. In 181 8 Pulicat was handed back to Holland by 
the East India Company under the Convention of the Allied Powers 
in 1814; in 1825 it was finally ceded to Great Britain by the treaty 
of March, 1824. The only relics of Dutch authority now remaining 
are the curious and elaborate tombs in their old cemetery, which are 
maintained at Government expense. The town was formerly a centre 
of trade with Penang and the Straits, but this has now ceased. It was 
also once a sanitarium much frequented by residents of Madras, but 
the prevalence of malarial fever put it out of favour. The place is now 
comparatively deserted, and is inhabited chiefly by the Muhammadan 
trading community of Labbais. The only trade now carried on is 
managed by these people. It consists chiefly of the export of woven 
cloth, dried fish, and prawns. The Hindus of the town are for the 
most part very poor and earn their livelihood by fishing and daily 
labour. The old Roman Catholic church here attracts large crowds 
from Madras and elsewhere to one of its annual feasts. 

Pulicat Lake. — A shallow salt-water lagoon, about 37 miles in 
length and from 3 to 1 1 in breadth, lying along the shore of the Bay 
of Bengal in Nellore District, Madras, between 13° 24' and 13° 47' N. 
and 80° 2' and 80° 16' E. It is separated from the sea by the long, 
narrow, sandy island of SrIharikota, and by the spit of sand on which 
stands the town of Pulicat, after which it is named. Like the Chilka 
Lake, it was probably formed by the antagonism between the sand- 
bearing currents of the Bay and the silt-laden streams which flow into 
it. There is shoal-water for some distance to seaward, and this shoal 
probably grew gradually into a long sand-bar which checked the flow 
of the land streams. The lake contains several islands (on which 
much lime is made from the shells found upon them), and is connected 
with the sea by openings north of Pulicat and elsewhere, and so is 
influenced by the tide. It is seldom more than 6 feet deep in the dry 
season. About thirty years ago a dam was built across the middle 
of it from SrIharikota through the island of Venad to the mainland, in 
order to reduce its extent and thus check the smuggling of the natural 
salt which forms along its shores. This has turned the northern half 
into a sandy waste. The Buckingham Canal enters the lake south 
of Pulicat and utilizes it for about 6 miles. 

Pulivendla.— North-western taluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, 

ruxcii 243 

lying between 14- 10' and 14° 44' N. and if 57' and 78° 38' E., with 
an area of 701 square miles. It is bounded on the south by the 
Palkonda Hills and on the north by the Erranialas, while to the east 
runs the Papaghni river. The population in 1901 was 103,396, com- 
pared with 105,843 in 1891. It contains one town, Vempalli-: (popula- 
tion, 10,793), ^t^d 1 01 villages, including Pulivendla (1,894), the 
head-quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 2,38,000. The greater part is unirrigated, there being 
no river of any size in it. An estimate for Rs. 19,000 has recently 
been sanctioned for the construction of a tank, commanding 750 acres 
in Vemula. Irrigation from wells is, however, general ; and in favoured 
situations, such as the eastern portion, where the subsoil water lies at 
no great depth, the ground so tilled becomes most productive. The 
chief, and indeed almost the sole, industry is agriculture. Cotton and 
cholant divide the greater part of the land between them. 

Pullampet. — South-eastern taluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, 
lying between 13° 44' and 14'^ 25' N. and 78° 59' and 79° 29' E., with 
an area of 979 square miles. The \'elikondas, which are a section of 
the Eastern Ghats, and the Palkonda (or Seshachalam) Hills bound it 
on three sides. The population in 1901 was 143,521, compared with 
149,109 in 1 89 1. It contains one town, Razampeta (population, 
15,287), the head-quarters; and 127 villages. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,62,000. Unlike the 
rest of Cuddapah, Pullampet benefits considerably from the north-east 
monsoon, and its annual rainfall (35 inches) is the heaviest in the 
District. More than one-third of the taluk consists of ' reserved ' 
forests, most of which lie on the Palkonda Hills. Cultivation is 
principally carried on in two valleys. One of these, the Cheyyeru 
valley, which formerly constituted the petty chiefship of Chitvel, is 
most fertile and productive. 

Pulney. — 7^7///-^ and town in Madura District, Madras. See Palm. 

Punadra.— Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Punaka. — AN'inter capital of the State of Bhutan, situated in 2f 35' N. 
and 89° 51' E., on the left bank of the Bugni river, 96 miles east-north- 
east of Darjeeling. Punaka is a place of great natural strength. 

Punalur. — Head-quarters of the Pattanapuram taluk in Travancore 
State, Madras, situated in 9° \' N. and 76° 59' E. Population (1901), 
2,826. It is a station on the Tinnevelly-Quilon Railway, and the 
neighbouring forests yield excellent fibre which is made into paper. 

Punamallee.— Town in Chingleput District, Madras. See Poona- 


Punch.— Principal place in the jdgir of the same name, Kashmir 
State, situated in 33° 45' N. and 74° 9' l^-> ^t an elevation of 3,300 
feet above sea-level. It lies on sloping ground above the right bank 

244 PUNCH 

of the Tawi. Population (1901), 8,215. The town is oblong in shape, 
and is unwalled, with narrow streets. There are about 750 houses, 
generally single-storeyed with flat mud roofs. The fort, in which the 
Raja resides, stands on a mound about 300 yards from the south-west 
corner of the town. Punch is well supplied with water brought by 
channels from the neighbouring streams. The climate is hot in the 
summer, and the rice-fields in the neighbourhood are probably one of 
the causes of the prevalence of fever. During the five hot months 
it is the custom to migrate to the summer camping-ground in the hills 
known as Dhoks. There is a flourishing market and a large trade is 
done in grain and ghi, in spite of the fact that there are no roads in 
the jdgir fit for cart traffic. A good 6-ft. road for pack transport 
has nearly been completed from the town to Uri on the Jhelum, and 
there is a project for a road to Rawalpindi, with a suspension bridge 
over the Jhelum at Lachman Patau. Other important tracks lead to 
Gulmarg and Tosh Maidan in Kashmir, and to Jhelum. The ancient 
name was Parnotsa, and the place is often mentioned in the chronicles. 
The Kashmiris always speak of Punch as Prunts. 

Pundra. — Ancient kingdom in Eastern Bengal, which, according to 
Sir A. Cunningham, has given its name to Pabna District. It was 
bounded on the north-east by Pragjyotisha or Kamarupa, on the west 
by the Mahananda river, on the east by the Karatoya, and on the 
south by the kingdom of Banga ; and it comprised parts of the modern 
Districts of Rangpur, Dinajpur, Purnea, Malda, Rajshahi, Bogra, and 
Pabna. The capital may have been at Mahasthan or Pandua (i). 
This kingdom was in existence in the third century B.C., and Asoka's 
brother found shelter there in the guise of a Buddhist monk. It was 
still flourishing in the seventh century, when Hiuen Tsiang travelled in 
India; and it is mentioned as a powerful kingdom in the eighth century, 
and as a place of pilgrimage in the eleventh. King Ballal Sen gave it 
the name of Barcndra, and it is the traditional home of the Pod caste. 

Pundri. — Town in the Kaithal tahsll of Karnal District, Punjab, 
situated in 29° 46' N. and 76^^ 34' E., on the bank of a great tank 
called the Pundrak tank. Population (1901), 5,834. It was formerly 
one of the strongholds of the Pundirs, a Rajput tribe who held 
Thanesar and the Nardak. It has a vernacular middle school. 

Punganuru Tahsil and Zamindari. — Estate situated above the 
Ghats in the north-west corner of North Arcot District, Madras, lying 
between 13° 10' and 13° 40' N. and 78° 22' and 79° E., and adjoining 
Mysore. It extends over 648 square miles, and forms a tahsll in 
charge of a di^^w'v^-iahstlddr and sub-magistrate. The population in 
1901 was 96,852, compared with 92,023 in 1891. It contains 564 
villages and one town, PunganIjru (population, 6,353), ^^^ head- 
<iuarters and residence of \\\it zamlndar. ")l\\q pcshkash and land cess 


in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 81,000. The estate runs up to the 
Mysore plateau, and its temperature is thus considerably lower than 
that of the rest of the District. Large game is abundant, and twenty- 
five years ago elephants were found. An excellent breed of cattle is 
maintained, and sugar-cane is largely cultivated. The family of the 
present zaminddr is said to have settled in the country as far back 
as the thirteenth century, and its members have a long local history. 
During the Mysore Wars the zaminddr assisted I^ord Cornwallis with 
transport and provisions, and he and his successors managed the 
estate for many years as lessees for the British. In 1832 the owner 
died without issue and a series of disputes arose. The estate 
eventually i)assed to his brother. A permanent sonad (grant) was 
bestowed by Government in 186 1. The zainhuidr belongs to the 
sect of Lingayats. 

Punganuru Town. — Head-quarters of the /«/?,«/ and zamlnddri o{ 
the same name in North Arcot District, Madras, situated in 13° 22' N. 
and 78° 35' E., on a plateau 2,000 feet above sea-level. Population 
(1901), 6,353. i'^'ic town is prosperous, and owing to its elevation its 
temperature is much less torrid than that of the lower parts of the 
District. A large cattle fair is held in April. The zaminddr has set 
aside a portion of his palace for the use of European travellers, and 
the building possesses a museum containing a curious collection of 
life-size models representing natives of various castes in their usual 
costumes. A mile from the town are the ruins of a large Roman 
Catholic chapel bearing the date 1780. 

Punjab {Panjdb). — In its strict etymological sense the Punjab, or 
' land of the five rivers,' is the country enclosed and watered by the 
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and .Sutlej ; but the Province as now 
constituted includes also the table-land of Sirhind between the Sutlej 
and the Jumna to the south of the former river, the Sind-Sagar Doab 
or wedge of country between the Jhelum and the Indus, and west of 
the latter river the two tracts which form Dera Ghazi Khan and part 
of Mianwali District. The Province lies between 27° 39' and 34° 2' N. 
and 69° 23' and 79° 2' E., and with its Native States has an area of 
133,741 square miles, being larger by one-tenth than the British Isles, 
and comprising a tenth of the area of the Indian Empire. Of the total 
area, 36,532 square miles belong to Native States under the political 
control of the Punjab Government, and the rest is British territory. 
The population in 1901 was 24,754,737 (of whom 4,424,398 were in 
the Native States), or 8-4 per cent, of the whole population of the 
Indian Empire. 

On the north the Himalayan ranges divide the Punjab from Kashmir 
and the North-West Frontier Province. On the west the Indus forms 
its main boundary with the latter Province, except that the Punjab 


includes the strip of riverain which forms the Isa Khel tahsll of 
Mianwali District, west of that river. Its south-western extremity 
also lies west of the Indus and forms the large District of Dera Ghazi 
Khan, thereby extending its frontier to the Sulaiman range, which 
divides it from Baluchistan. On the extreme south-west the Province 
adjoins Sind, and the Rajputana desert forms its southern border. 
On the east, the Jumna and its tributary the Tons divide it from the 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, its frontier north of the sources 
of the latter river being contiguous with Chinese Tibet. 

The Province falls into five main physical divisions. Three of 

these — the Himalayan region, the Himalayan submontane which 

stretches from the Jumna to the Salt Range, and 

Physical ^j^^ ^j.j^ plateaux of that range — are small in area, 

but the submontane is the most fertile and wealthiest 

in the Punjab. The other two are the arid south-western plains, and 

the western portion of the Indo-Gangetic Plain ^^'est which extends as 

far westward as Lahore. Both these divisions are of vast extent, but 

infertile towards the south, where they encroach on the plains of Sind 

and Rajputana. 

The Punjab proper comprises five doabs^ or tracts lying between 
two rivers. These received their names from the emperor Akbar, 
who formed them by combining the first letters of the names of the 
rivers between which they lie. They are: the Bist Jullundur, also 
called the Saharwal Doab, lying between the Beas and the Sutlej ; the 
Bari, between the old bed of the Beas and the Ravi ; the Rechna 
(Rachin-ab, or Rachin-ao), between the Ravi and the Chenab ; the 
Chinhath, between the Chenab and the Bihat (another name for 
the Jhelum), also called the Chaj ; and the Sind-Sagar, between the 
Indus and the Jhelum or Bihat. 

The whole Central Punjab is a vast alluvial plain ; but the north- 
east of the Province is formed of a section of the Himalavas, 
stretching up to and beyond the great central ranges so as to include 
the Tibetan cantons of Lahul and Spiti. The Salt Range, with the 
plateaux which lie to the north between it and the Indus, forms its 
north-western angle, and the Sulaiman Range forms the southern half 
of the western frontier of the Province. These are the only mountain 
systems of importance ; but a few insignificant outliers of the Aravalli 
system traverse Gurgaon District in the extreme south-east, and 
terminate in the historic Ridge at Delhi. 

All the seven great rivers of the Punjab rise in the Himalayas, and 
after long courses, sometimes of several hundred miles, amid snow- 
clad ranges, they debouch on the plains. The slope of the low country 
is to the south and south-west, and is very gradual, seldom exceeding 
2 feet in a mile ; and this determines the course of the rivers. In the 

rnVSlCAI. AS/'ECTS 247 

process of time each stream has cut for itself a wide valley, which lies 
well below the level of the plain, and whose banks mark the extreme 
limits of the course on either side. Within this valley the river 
meanders in a narrow but ill-defined and ever-shifting channel. In 
the winter the stream is comparatively small ; but as the mountain 
snows melt at the approach of the hot season, the waters rise and 
overflow the surrounding country, often to a distance of several miles 
on either side. At the close of the rainy season the waters recede, 
leaving wide expanses of fertile loam or less fertile sand. 

Of these seven rivers, the Indus is the greatest. Already a mighty 
stream when it emerges from the Hazara hills, it flows almost due 
south past Attock. Here it enters a deep gorge, terminating at 
Kalabagh, where it pierces the Salt Range. Thus far it forms the 
western boundary ; but south of Kalabagh it enters the Province, and 
divides the Isa Khel tahsll of Mianwali from the rest of that District. 
Farther south again it forms the western boundary until it re-enters 
Punjab territory near Bhakkar, and divides Dera Ghazi Khan from 
Mianwali and Muzaffargarh Districts and from the State of Bahawalpur. 
The Jhelum enters the Punjab east of the Salt Range, flowing south 
between this and the Pabbi hills, which terminate at Mong Rasul. 
Thence the river flows west and then south until it is joined by the 
Chenab near Jhang. The Chenae rises in the Himalayan canton of 
Lahul within the Province, and after traversing the Chamba State and 
the Jammu province of Kashmir debouches on the plains east of the 
Jhelum, into which it falls about 225 miles from the hills. The Ravi, 
rising in Chamba, reaches the plain below Dalhousie, and joins the 
combined waters of the Jhelum and Chenab 50 miles south of Jhang. 
The united streams of these three rivers form the Trimab. The Beas, 
rising on the south of the Rhotang pass on the opposite side of the 
Central Himalayas to the Ravi, traverses the Kulii valley southward, 
and then bends suddenly westward, through the Mandi State and 
Kangra District, until it turns the northern flank of the Siwaliks, and 
enters the plains within a few miles of the Ravi. Thence its course is 
more southerly, and it falls into the Sutlej about 70 miles from its 
debouchure. The Sutlej, rising near the source of the Indus in Tibet, 
enters the Province near the Shipki Pass, traverses Bashahr and other 
States of the Simla Hills, and pierces the Siwaliks near Rupar. 
'I'hence it runs almost due west to its junction with the Beas near 
Sobraon, where it takes a more southerly course for 270 miles, and 
falls into the Trimab 9 miles north of Uch. Below this confluence 
the waters of the Jhelum, Chenab and Ravi, Sutlej and Beas form the 
Panjnad, or 'five rivers," which fall into the Indus at Mithankot. 
Lastly, the Jumna, the only one of the great rivers of the Province 
which ultimately drains into the Bay of Bengal, rises in Tehri State 


in the United Provinces, and from its junction with the Tons at the 
eastern extremity of Sirmur territory forms the boundary between 
the Punjab and the United Provinces for a distance of over 200 

The Province presents great varieties of scenery, from the snow 
peaks and glaciers of the Upper Himalayas to the deserts of shifting 
sand in the Sind-Sagar Doab and Bahawalpur. The scenery of the 
Himalayas has often been described. In the Salt Range it is 
picturesque and even grand in places, and in the interior of the range 
the slopes are everywhere green with box and bog-myrtle. The 
southern face exhibits a very rugged and broken appearance, but 
on the north the contours of the hills are for the most part smooth 
and undulating. Between the Salt Range and the Himalayas the 
aspect of the country varies greatly, from the deep, shaly, and infertile 
ravines of Jhelum to the rich uplands of Gujar Khan. The Siwaliks 
and the Pabbi hills are much tamer than the Salt Range, and the 
vegetation which clothes them is coarser and scantier, though the 
Jaswan Dun in Hoshiarpur is not lacking in richness and beauty. 
But the characteristic scenery of the Punjab is that of the plains, and 
tlie contrast between their appearance before and after the crops have 
been cut is most striking. As harvest approaches, the traveller, 
especially in the irrigated tracts, rides through an endless expanse of 
waving crops of different shades of colour, out of which the villages 
seem to rise like islets in an ocean of green. After the harvest all is 
changed ; and the dull brown of the fields is relieved only by the trees, 
solitary or in groves and avenues, and by the hamlets and village 
ponds. The lowlands through which the great rivers work their way 
retain some of their verdure throughout the year, and, especially in 
the east of the Province, are studded with groves and gardens. But 
in the plateaux between the rivers, and in the great sandy plains of 
the south, where cultivation is impossible without the aid of artificial 
irrigation, the scanty vegetation takes a more sober hue, and the only 
relief the eye can find from the stretches of bare soil is afforded by 
stunted and infrequent bushes. 

' Geologically the Punjab falls into three natural divisions : the 
plains, the Salt Range, and the Himalayas. The plains consist 
almost entirely of the Indo-Gangetic alluvium, but contains beds of 
sedimentary rocks of Peninsular type. These comprise a small area 
of rocks of a transition age, which form a series of outliers of the 
Aravalli rocks at Delhi and to the south and south-east, whence they 
are known as the Delhi system -. They are composed of a lower 
group of slates and limestones, and an upper and much thicker group 

' Condensed from a note b)' Mr. H. H. Ilayden, Geological Survey of India. 
* Manual of tlie Geology of India, p. 69 (' The Delhi System '). 


of quartzites ; the upper beds, known as the Alwar quartziies, arc- 
exposed on the Ridge at Delhi. Two small outliers, also referred to 
the Delhi system, are found near the Chenab, at Chiniot and Kirana, 
within 35 miles of the beds of extra-Peninsular type found in the 
Salt Range. From the strong contrast they afford in petrological 
and dynamic conditions, they are almost certainly older than the 
oldest rocks of that range and in all probability pre-Cambrian. 

In the north of the Province the Salt Range stretches from 
the Jhelum valley on the east to the Indus on the west, and crops 
up again beyond that river. Its geological features are particularly 
interesting, and the age of the salt which gives its name to the 
hills is still uncertain. The lowest beds to which a definite period 
can be assigned are shales, yielding trilobites. obolus, and hyolit/ies, 
and regarded as Lower Cambrian. They are underlain, w^ith apparent 
conformity, by purple sandstone, which may also be Cambrian. From 
its apparent position below this sandstone the salt marl has been 
classed as Lower Cambrian or pre-Cambrian, but it also occurs at 
various horizons of higher levels. It has no appearance of stratifica- 
tion, but is a soft, structureless mass, showing no signs of sedimentary 
origin. In it are found immense masses of rock-salt, and bands and 
strings of gypsum, with disintegrated patches of dolomite. Magnesian 
sandstone appears to lie conformably on the obolus shales, but has 
yielded only fragmentary fossils. It is, however, probable that this, 
together with the overlying salt pseudomorph sandstone, belongs to 
the Cambrian system. 

A great break then occurs, representing the Silurian and Devonian 
and part of the Carboniferous epochs ; and the next formation, 
a boulder-bed, lies unconformably on all the older deposits. It con- 
sists of faceted and striated boulders embedded in a fine matrix, 
giving evidence of a glacial origin ; a few fossils are found, including 
Conularia, and the series is regarded as Lower Permian, of the same 
age as the Talcher boulder-bed. The Upper Permian is represented 
by olive and speckled sandstones and lavender clay, containing Coiii/- 
laria and other fossils, and the Froductus beds which yield Xenaspis and 
Cyclolobus. Over these are found Lower Triassic beds of limestone, 
sandstone, and marl, containing ammonites, and termed ceratite beds. 
The Middle and Upper Trias appear to be wanting, the ceratites being 
overlain by sandstones, oolites, and shales, in the upper beds of which 
have been found ammonites and belemnites of Upper Jurassic age. 
They are followed by pisolitic sandstones, containing at the Chichali 
pass a rich Lower Cretaceous (neocomian) flora, and overlain uncon- 
formably by shales and sandstones with coal seams passing into 
Nummulitic limestone, the coal and limestone being of Lower 
Tertiary (eocene) age. Above the limestone is another unconformity. 


followed by a great mass of sandstone, with beds of red clay similar to 
the Nahan beds of the Himalayas ; this in turn is overlain by typical 
Siwalik sandstones. 

The Himalayas fall into three broad divisions : a northern, a central, 
and a southern. The northern, known as the Tibetan zone, extends 
through Kanawar and Spiti into Lahul, and affords an almost unbroken 
sequence of sedimentary deposits ranging from Cambrian to Creta- 
ceous. The oldest beds are slates and quartzites, for the most part 
unfossiliferous, but containing in the higher beds trilobites and other 
fossils of Middle and Upper Cambrian age. These are overlain, 
unconformably, by conglomerate, followed by a great mass of red 
quartzite, believed to be of Lower Silurian age, and passing up into 
limestone and marl with Silurian fossils (trilobites, corals, &c.). The 
limestone gradually gives place to a white quartzite, which is one of the 
most characteristic horizons of the Himalayas. Except in Kanawar 
and Upper Spiti the quartzite is usually overlain by beds of Upper 
Permian age, but near Lis in Kanawar a great thickness of limestone 
and shale is found ; the limestone contains a rich fauna of Lower 
Carboniferous age, and the shales have yielded Upper Carboniferous 
brachiopods and bryozoa. Next in order is a conglomerate of variable 
thickness, overlain by calcareous sandstone and a bed of dark mica- 
ceous shale representing the Permian. The uppermost bed, known as 
the Frodi/ctus shales, is found throughout the Himalayas, and contains 
Upper Permian brachiopods and ammonites. The latter are especially 
interesting, as they are closely allied to species {Xenaspis carbonaria 
and Cydolobus oldhami) from the upper Produdus limestone of the 
Salt Range. Above these shales is a thin shaly band with ammonites, 
known as the Otoceras beds, which passes into a vast thickness of 
limestone, intercalated by shale, and representing the whole of the 
Trias, and the Lower and probably Middle Jurassic. Fossils are 
numerous throughout, and representatives of all subdivisions in the 
Alpine Trias have been recognized. The limestones are succeeded by 
the well-known Spiti shales, famous for their ammonites. They are of 
Upper Jurassic age, and are overlain by the Giumal sandstone and 
Chikkim limestone and shales representing the Cretaceous system. 

A broad zone of metamorphic, crystalline, and unfossiliferous rocks 
forms the axis of the Himalayas. The crystallines are partly intrusive, 
and partly the result of contact with the metamorphism of the Cam- 
brian slates in the northern zone. South of the metamorphics, however, 
the unfossiliferous sedimentary rocks extend from Chamba through 
Kangra and the Simla Hill States to Garhwal. They consist chiefly 
of limestones, slates, quartzites, and conglomerates of unknown age, 
and have been divided into three systems. The Jaunsar system, 
regarded as liie oldest, consists of grey slates overlain by blue lime- 


stones, followed by red slates and quartzites exposed near Chakriila. 
In Jaunsar-Bawar and the east of Sirmur the quart/ites are overlain by 
a considerable thickness of trap and volcanic ash. Above the Jaunsar 
system a great development of limestones forms most of the higlier 
parts of the mountains running north from Deoban, and is known as 
the Deoban system. It is also seen in Sirmur, and in the Shali peak 
north of Simla. Above this follows the carbonaceous system, covering 
the greatest part of the Lower Himalayas. At the base is a great 
thickness of grey slate, with beds of grit and quartzite, resembling the 
Cambrian slates of the Tibetan zone. 'I'he slates, which are known as 
the infra-Blaini or Simla slates, are overlain by a characteristic series 
of conglomerates or boulder-slate and pink dolomitic limestone, which 
has been recognized in many parts of the Simla Hill States, while 
similar beds occur near Mussoorie on the east and in ("hamba to 
the north-west. These are overlain by carbonaceous shale, followed 
by a quartzite bed of variable thickness, the two being included in 
the infra-Krol group, while the overlying Krol beds consist of limestone 
with subordinate bands of carbonaceous shale, the limestone attaining 
a great thickness in the Krol mountain near Solon. The age of the 
Jaunsar and Deoban systems is quite unknown ; the carbonaceous 
system has been referred in part to the Permian and in part (the Krol 
limestone) to the Trias, but this classification is not final. 

The sub-Himalayan zone consists entirely of Tertiary beds, as a rule 
abutting against the pre-Tertiary rocks of the central and lower zone. 
These are comparatively narrow on the east, but gradually widen, till 
on the north-west they spread over the plains, forming a continuous 
mantle covering Jhelum and Rawalpindi Districts, and extending to 
the northern parts of the Salt Range. The lowest or Sabathu group 
consists of grey and red gypseous shales, with subordinate bands of 
limestone. It is overlain conformably by the 1 )agshai group, composed 
of a great thickness of grey sandstones, with bright red nodular clays. 
These are followed by bright red or purple clays, overlain by sand- 
stones which constitute the Kasauli group. The Sabathu group yields 
fossils of Nummulitic age, while no recognizable fossils have been 
found in the Dagshai, and only plant remains in the Kasauli group ; 
but it is probable that the two last represent the oligocene and 
lower miocene of Europe. I'he Upper Tertiary or Siwalik series 
is separated from all the older beds by one of the most marked 
structural features of the Himalayas, the main boundary fault, a great 
dislocation which can be traced for long distances along the lower 
parts of the range. Sandstones and red clay form the lowest group, 
being well seen at Nahan. They are succeeded, often unconformably, 
by many thousand feet of very soft grey sandstone, with bands of clay. 
These are overlain by conglomerates which constitute the uppermost 

vor.. XX. K 


portion of the Siwalik series. In the Siwalik Hills the thickness 
of the series is at least 15,000 feet. The two upper groups contain 
great quantities of mammaUan remains of pliocene age. 

The flora falls naturally into four primary divisions : the Himalayas, 
the submontane belt from the Jumna to the Ravi, the plain proper, 
and the Salt Range on both sides of the Indus with connected country 
in the north-west of the Province. 

The Himalayan tract includes the basin of the Sutlej, from the 
Tibetan border at Shipki to the hill station of Kasauli in Ambala 
District ; the basins of the Beas and Ravi, from their sources to the 
submontane tracts of Kangra and Gurdaspur ; the basins of the 
Chandra and Bhaga, which unite to form the Chenab, from the high 
watershed that divides their sources from the Indus valley to the 
eastern borders of Kashmir and Jammu ; and a promontory bounding 
the Kashmir valley on the south, and culminating in the station of 
Murree about 6,500 feet above sea-level. 

The vSutlej basin is again divided into two well-marked portions, 
of which the outer includes Simla District and adjoining Hill States, 
with Kasauli. The trees and shrubs of this portion, to about 6,000 feet, 
are mainly subtropical. But above this is a temperate belt which 
begins, roughly speaking, at Simla, and is rich in familiar pAiropean 
forest trees, such as yew, pines, oak and holly, elm, a horse-chestnut, 
several sorts of spindle-tree and buckthorn ; and, among humbler 
growths, crowfoots, columbines, anemones, cresses, violets, stitchworts, 
cranesbills and St. John's worts, brambles, roses, spiraeas and wild 
strawberries, woodbines, guelder-rose and ivy, bell-flowers, gentians, 
Solomon's seal, meadow-rush, and herb-paris. The Flora Simlensis 
of the late Sir Henry CoUett (edited by Mr. \V. B. Hemsley) takes in 
only a part of the Simla Hills, but it describes 1,236 species ot 
flowering plants, a number somewhat less than that of the native 
plants of the British Islands. The component elements, however, 
differ materially from those of any European flora, for, apart from 
the subtropical contingent, the Outer Himalayas preserve many forms 
allied to the plants of North-Eastern Asia (e.g. Hydrangea), as well as 
Indo-Malayan types. The deodar, which flourishes near Simla, is 
related to the cedars of the Lebanon and the Atlas. East of Simla 
the rivers drain into the Jumna, and not towards the Sutlej, but as 
a matter of convenience certain petty States south-east of Bashahr 
and the territories of Sirmur are grouped with the Simla area. In 
this tract the Chaur mountain, rising almost from the plains to over 
12,000 feet, shows successive zones of vegetation, from the almost 
tropical valleys at its southern base to birch forest and subalpine 
pastures near its summit. 

The upper portion of the Sutlej basin within Indian limits — that 


is to say, Kanawar and the Spiti valley, with Lahul and Pangi, both 
drained by the Chenab — constitutes a mainly alpine field of huge 
extent and great elevation. The flora is most closely linked with the 
vegetation of Western Tibet and Middle Asia, and includes few trees 
and very little forest. A pine, which is also found in the mountains 
of Afghanistan, extends to the lower levels of the inner Chenab basin ; 
but, except in Pangi, a small pencil-cedar, stunted junipers, a few scat- 
tered birches, with pollard willows grown from saplings planted by the 
watercourses, complete the list of trees for this portion of the Punjab 

Crossing outwards again to the basins of the Beas and Riivi, the 
Kulu valley and the higher glens of Chamba present a far more varied 
and luxuriant aspect to the forester or botanist. The trees are mainly 
those of the Simla country ; but certain shrubs and herbs reappear 
that are rare or absent in the Sutlej valley, owing doubtless to its 
greater indraught from the heated sands of the Punjab and Northern 
Rajputana. On the other hand, some West Asian types — for example, 
the wild olive and the Oriental clematis — are found in the drier parts 
of Kulu more abundantly than to the eastward, while a few European 
forms — e.g. the great spearwort and the purple loosestrife — have 
their eastern limit in the Beas valley. The hill stations of Dalhousie 
and Dharmsala come within this area. Epiphytic orchids, which are 
missing from the Simla country except very locally, reappear near 
Dharmsala, but do not pass west of the spurs that divide the Kangra 
ranges from the basin of the Ravi. 

The Murree hills, which are separated from the Ravi country by 
a long stretch of the Outer Himalayas lying within Jammu territory, 
differ considerably owing to the presence of a stronger West Asian 
element in their flora. 

The submontane belt is practically restricted to the Districts of 
Ambala (with its adjoining States), Hoshiarpur, and Kangra. 'i'he 
sal tree, which is not found elsewhere to the west of the Jumna, 
survives in a single dfin (or strath) connected with the Kangra valley 
but actually within the northern border of Hoshiarpur District. The 
Kiarda Dun in Sirmur State and the Kalesar forest in Ambala shelter 
a number of species that are characteristic or abundant in the Siwalik 
tract east of the Jumna, though unknown or rare farther westward. 

The plain also has its subdivisions, which are, on the whole, even 
better marked than those of the Himalayas, an important influence 
being exercised by the climate of the Great Indian Desert which 
borders the whole southern limit of the Province, and sends out two 
arms which embrace the actual country of the five' rivers. That 

1 The Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus. The Sutlej is included in Hindu- 
stan, of which at the same time it forms the traditional boundary. 

R 2 


on the east takes in a great part of the Thulkian States, its apex 
being near the town of Ludhiana, on an ancient bed of the Sutlej. 
The western arm (locally known as the Thai) extends from the Sind 
border up the Indus valley to the south-west angle of the Salt Range. 
The eastern chain of sandhills and alternating barriers has of late, 
however, lost much of its desert character through canal extensions. 
From Ludhiana to the Jumna valley, and along the Jumna to the 
neighbourhood of Delhi, the country is substantially a portion of the 
great Gangetic plain, though some interesting peculiarities present 
themselves : a crowfoot (best known from North-Eastern America) 
occurs, also a rose which is elsewhere most abundant in the swamps 
of Eastern Bengal, and a kind of scurvy-grass {Coch/earia), a genus 
usually partial to far colder latitudes. The south-east portions of the 
Province, and the upland tract skirting the western valley of the Jumna, 
present certain features of the Deccan flora, merging ultimately in the 
Aravalli system. Trees in the extreme south-east are few, and mostly 
of Arabian or North African affinity. Similar forms, though seldom 
reaching the dimensions of a tree, characterize the southern fringe 
of the Punjab ; but towards the Indus, a ^^'est Asian or indeed Euro- 
pean element becomes prominent, in the case especially of those field 
annuals which come up each winter with the crops of the season : such 
as poppy, fumitory, rockets, catchfly, spurrey, chickweed, vetches and 
trefoils, thistles, blue pimpernel, bindweed, toadflax and veronicas, 
broomrape, goosefoots, milkspurges, asphodel and others. 

Between the desert and the Indus the dodbs bounded by the great 
rivers presented formerly a succession of alkaline wastes, often covered 
with low bushes of the saltwort tribe, or untilled expanses dotted with 
a scrub of thorny bushes of the acacia family and of va?i {Salvadora, 
a desert representative of the olive), with an occasional row of tamarisks 
near a creek or waterhole, relieved in the autumn by a short-lived flush 
of climbing plants, and in good seasons by an abundant crop of 
grasses, which afforded coarse but invaluable pasture to the cattle 
of the nomad population. Canal extension and systematic state 
colonization are now changing all this rapidly, and the flora is ap- 
proximating to the general spring and autumn series of agrestal species 
of Northern India, though a strong West Asian admixture maintains 
itself. Beyond the Indus, in Dera Ghazi Khan District, this 'Oriental'* 
element begins to predominate, even as regards shrubs and perennials ; 
and it continues northwards to the Salt Range and the hills near 
Attock, where several types common to the Orient and the Medi- 
terranean — e.g. pinks and larkspurs — may be gathered at less than 
2,000 feet above sea-level. 

^ The region from the Mediterranean to the Indus, and between the Red Sea and 
Ihe Steppes, is thus termed by botanists. 


Himalayan forms are still prevalent in the Salt Range, especially 
at the higher levels. On the north face of the culminating summit 
(Sakesar), at about 4,800 feet above the sea, there are a few oaks, 
of a common North-\\'est Himalayan species, while herbaceous plants 
of the same region intermingle with trans-Indus representatives ; but 
the slopes abound with box-trees, olives, and other Western forms. 
The herbs and grasses, moreover, although Indian forms abound, 
include a decided proportion of more Western types ; but, owing to the 
dryness of the climate, these are usually such as characterize the arid 
zone that extends on the west through Africa to the Atlantic Islands. 

Until the beginning of the nineteenth century both lions and tigers 
appear to have been common, and the Nardak of the Eastern Punjab 
was a favourite hunting ground of the Mughal emperors. As late 
as 1827 Major Archer says that lions were sometimes seen within 
20 miles of Karnal, while tigers were exceedingly numerous in its 
inunediate vicinity ; and in the neighbourhood of Sirsa and in other 
parts of the Punjab tigers were abundant until past the middle of the 
nineteenth century. Lions are now entirely extinct and tigers practi- 
cally so, though occasionally a straggler from the Aravalli Hills is found 
in the South-East Punjab, or one from the eastern tarai in Nahan 
or Ambala. Another animal practically extinct in the Punjab is the 
wild elephant, though it is occasionally met with in Nahan and Ambala. 
The only common representatives of the feline tribe are the leopard, 
the hunting leopard, and the wild cat, with the lynx, along the southern 
border \ the leopard is chiefly found in the hills. Two kinds of bear, 
the black and the brown, are found in the hills ; hyenas and wolves 
are seen in most Districts, but are not common ; jackals and foxes 
on the other hand abound. Ibex and bharal are found in the Higher 
Himalayas, and lower down musk deer, barking-deer, and wild goats ; 
in the Salt Range the urial {Ovis vignei) is not uncommon. In the 
plains antelope are plentiful, especially in the east and south of the 
Province, and nilgai, 'ravine deer' {chinkdra), and hog deer {par ha) 
are common in places. The wild hog, badger, porcupine, and hare 
are found in most parts. The grey ape {langur) lives in the hills, 
and monkeys abound, both in the hills and in the canal-irrigated 
Districts. The otter and river porpoise are found in all the rivers. 

Peafowl are plentiful, and so is the lesser bustard ; the great bustard 
is less common. Flocks of sand-grouse (imperial painted, pallas, and 
pintail) are frequently seen in the dry tracts. The grey partridge 
is found everywhere, and the black partridge is occasionally met with ; 
in the hills the chikor {Caccabis chukor) and slsi {Anwioperdix bonhami) 
partridges are common, and the snow partridge is found at high eleva- 
tions. All the Indian pheasants are found in the Himalayas, including 
the argus, monal, koklas, chir, and white-crested pheasant. Bush-quail 


and rain-quail are found in the plains, and the common grey quail 
comes in hosts at the ripening of the wheat. In the winter large 
numbers of water-fowl visit the rivers and jhils. The most common 
ducks are the sealing-wax bill, pintail, mallard, pinkhead, shoveller, 
teal, and goose teal ; geese, cranes, flamingoes, pelicans, ibises, herons, 
bitterns, snipe are all also more or less plentiful. The crow, vulture, 
and kite are ubiquitous, and the adjutant bird is occasionally met with. 
Hawks of various species are found, and often fetch high prices for 
sporting purposes. Green parrots fill the air with their screeching 
in the irrigated tracts, the golden oriole sometimes flashes through 
the trees, and the blue jay and woodpecker lend a frequent note 
of colour to the scene. Immense flocks of rosy pastors visit the 
plains in the hot season, and the maina is common everywhere in 
the neighbourhood of houses. 

The sharp-nosed or fish-eating crocodile {ghariyal) is found in all 
the great rivers, and the blunt-nosed crocodile or magar {Crocodihts 
palustris) is also met with in the lower reaches. The poisonous snakes 
are the karait, cobra, Echis carinafa {kappa), and, in the east of tiie 
Province, Russell's viper. Lizards of various kinds are common. The 
commonest fish are the rohu {Labeo rohita) and mahseer, the latter of 
which runs up to 50 lb. 

Locusts sometimes arrive in swarms, chiefly from the south-west, and 
do considerable damage. White ants attack timber and garnered grain, 
which is also much subject to injury from weevils. Mosquitoes abound, 
and with sandflies combine to make life a burden in the hot season ; 
and house-flies swarm, especially towards the beginning and ending 
of winter. Scorpions and centipedes are numerous, but not much 
seen. The honey-bee, hornet, and wasp are common, and the firefly's 
flashing light is to be seen wherever there is irrigation. 

Over the greater part of the Punjab the climate is of the most pro- 
nounced continental character, extreme summer heat alternating with 
great winter cold ; but its diversified surface, including montane, sub- 
montane, and plains zones, modifies very largely the temperature, 
weather, and climate in different parts of the Province. The Punjab 
has accordingly been divided into four natural divisions, in each of 
which the general meteorological conditions are believed to be fairly 
homogeneous. These are the Himalayan (stations, Simla and Murree), 
the sub-Himalayan (stations, Ambala, Ludhiana, Sialkot, and Rawal- 
pindi), the Indo-fiangetic Plain West (stations, Delhi and Lahore), and 
the soutli-west dry area (stations, Khushab, Montgomery, Multan, 
and Sirsa). 

As a whole, the Punjab has in normal years two well-defined rainy 
seasons. The first or period of the north-east monsoon includes the 
' Christmas rains,' as they are called, which fall between the end of 


December and the end of February or the middle of March. The 
second rainfall period is that of the south-west monsoon, from the 
end of June to the middle of September. The rainfall is naturally 
heaviest in the Himalayas. The highest average received is 126 inches 
at Dharmsala, and the average of the Himalayas is nowhere less than 
36. In the plains the rainfall decreases rapidly away from the hills. 
I'he submontane zone, which skirts the foot of the hills, and of which 
Rawalpindi and Sialkot may be taken as typical stations, has an annual 
fall of 30 to 40 inches. The eastern plains from Delhi to Lahore belong 
to the West Gangetic plain, and have a mean rainfall of about 24 inches, 
the valley of the Jumna having a higher rainfall than the rest. To the 
west and south-west lies the dry area, characterized by an extremely 
light and variable rainfall, and a heat and dryness in the hot season 
extreme even for the Punjab. The ordinary south-west monsoon winds 
from the Sind and Kathiawar coasts encircle but do not blow into this 
area, which therefore gets very little rain from this source, though it 
occasionally receives heavy cyclonic downpours from storms that have 
travelled westward from the head of the Bay. Montgomery and Multan 
are typical stations of this tract. 

The plains, owing to their arid nature and remoteness from the sea, 
are subject to extreme vicissitudes of climate. In the winter the cold 
exceeds anything met with elsewhere in the plains of India. In January 
and February the night temperature commonly falls below freezing- 
point, while by day the thermometer does not as a rule rise above 75° ; 
and for four months of the year nothing can be more perfect than the 
Punjab climate, with its bright sun and keen invigorating air. In 
summer, on the other hand, the fierce dry heat is surpassed only in 
Sind. In June the thermometer commonly reaches 115° to 121°, while 
the night temperature averages from 79° to 83°. 

About the end of December the weather conditions ordinarily become 
disturbed ; rain falls in the plains and snow on the hills. The rainfall 
of this season is almost exclusively due to cold-season storms or 
cyclones, which follow each other at varying intervals, averaging 
about ten days, from the end of December to about the middle of 
March. Important features of these storms are the rapid changes of 
weather which accompany them. Their approach is preceded by the 
appearance of a bank of cirrus cloud, which gradually overspreads the 
whole .sky. Under this canopy the heat rapidly increases, more par- 
ticularly at night, and temperatures from 5° to 15° higher than usual 
are registered. In the rear of the disturbance a rapid change lakes 
place, accompanying the clearing of the skies and the change of wind. 
The thermometer falls with great rapidity, sharp frost on the ground 
is experienced, and air temperatures of 18° or 19° are occasionally 
recorded at the hill stations. This fall of temperature appears to be 


directly related to the snowfall on the hills, and is proportional to 
the amount of the snowfall and to the lowness of the elevation to 
which it descends. As the rainfall of this period accompanies the 
march of cyclonic storms from west to east across Northern India, it 
is ordinarily heaviest at the northern and Indus valley stations, and 
usually diminishes to a very small amount over the south and south- 

The mean temperature in most parts increases from February to 
May at about the rate of io° a month, and by the end of March or 
beginning of April the hot season is in most years fairly established. 
From April till near the end of June there is, as a rule, no rain of im- 
portance, though occasional thunder- and hailstorms afford temporary 
relief from the great heat. A desiccating, scorching west wind blows 
during the greater part of this period, and the thermometer ranges from 
about 95° in the early morning to about 115° in the heat of the day. 
These westerly winds commence to drop towards the end of June, and 
for a few days calm, sweltering heat succeeds the scorching blasts ol 
the hot winds. About the end of June south and east winds bring 
up heavy cumulus clouds, and in favourable years the monsoon rains 
arc then ushered in with violent thunderstorms and heavy showers. The 
rainfall is generally very variable and irregular in its advance, and is 
ordinarily brought up by the approach to the south-east of the Province 
of a cyclonic storm from the Bay of Bengal. This carries with it the 
moist south-east air-currents from the Bay, and at the same time induces 
an inrush of moist air from the north of the Arabian Sea across the 
Sind and Kathiawar coasts and eastern and central Rajputana into the 
South and East Punjab. The rainfall of the monsoon season is seldom 
steady or continuous, nor does it, as a rule, extend over the whole 
Province, as in the west and south the fall is both scanty and uncertain. 
For two or three days in succession heavy, fairly general rain may fall ; 
but this is succeeded by intervals of oppressively hot and sultry weather, 
when the rain ceases or only falls as scattered showers. These condi- 
tions continue with greater or less intensity till the second or third week 
of September, when, with not infrequently a second outburst of violent 
thunderstorms, the rains cease and fine weather commences. 

Severe cyclonic storms are practically unknown in the Punjab. Hail- 
storms are fairly frequent, especially in March and April, and often 
cause considerable damage to the crops. 

Although the Province is traversed or bounded by seven large rivers, 
it is not to any .serious extent subject to inundations from them, and it 
is only in the comparatively narrow riverain belts bordering the channels 
of the rivers that floods do serious harm. An exception to this gene- 
ralization is to be found in the extreme south-west, where parts of 
the Districts of Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, and Multan, border- 


ing on the Chenab and Indus, are low enough to be subject to frequent 
inundations even during the passage of normal floods. Protection is 
afforded by the erection of dikes, but they are not always sufficiently 
strong to resist a heavy spate. Nearly all the high floods of which 
records exist have occurred in July or August, when the summer mon- 
soon is at its height. The earliest of these was in 1849, when the town 
and civil station of Shahpur were washed away by the Jhelum. In 1856 
and in 1878 the Indus rose very high, and on both occasions the towns 
of Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan were flooded out and large 
portions of the Districts submerged. In 1892, 1893, and 1905 the 
Chenab and the Jhelum were heavily flooded, and in the second of 
these years the Kohala suspension bridge on the Kashmir road was 
carried away. The great Indus flood of 1878 is said to have been 
in part the result of heavy landslips in the hills. 

Throughout the period over which authentic records of Indian 
earthquakes extend, the Punjab has repeatedly suffered from the 
effects of seismic disturbances of greater or less intensity. This is 
due to the presence of important lines of weakness in the earths 
crust, caused by the stresses involved in the folding of the Himalayas 
and resulting in the development of faults. The most important of 
these is that known as the ' main boundary fault,' which runs through 
the Lower Himalayas from end to end of the Punjab. Along these 
lines readjustments of the equilibrium of the crust are constantly taking 
place, and when these readjustments are irregular or spasmodic the 
movement results in an earthquake. Such earthquakes as are due to 
this cause are naturally most severe in the neighbourhood of the fault. 
A striking exemplification is to be found in the Kangra earthquake of 
1905. About 20,000 human beings perished in this catastrophe, which 
ranks as one of the most disastrous of modern times. The loss of life 
occurred principally in the Kangra valley, Dharmsala, Mandi, and Kulu, 
but the shock was perceptible to the unaided sense throughout an area 
of some 1,625,000 square miles. Although this most recent catastrophe 
dwarfs all earthquakes jjreviously recorded in the Province, those of 
1803, 1827, 1842, and 1865 were of considerable severity. 

The Punjab was undoubtedly the seat of the earliest Aryan settle- 
ments in India, and the RigA'eda was probably composed within its 
borders. In one of its finest hymns the Vipasa 
(Beas) and Sutudri (Sutlej) are invoked by the sage 
Visvamitra to allow the host of the Bharatas to cross them dryshod. 
And in the later Vedic period the centre of Aryan civilization lay 
farther to the south-east, between the Sutlej and the Jumna, in the 
still sacred land of Kurukshetra round Thanesar, the battle-field 
of the Mahabharata, while Indrapat near Delhi still preserves at least 
the name of Yudhishthira's capital, Indraprastha. For a brief period 


after 500 b. c. part of the Punjab may have formed a Persian province, 
the Indian satrapy conquered by Darius, which stretched from Kala- 
bagh to the sea, and paid a tribute of fully a million sterling. 

In invading the territories east of the Indus Alexander yielded to 
mere lust of conquest, for they no longer owed allegiance to the 
Persian empire. In 326 B.C. he crossed the river at Ohind or Und, 
invading thereby a dependency of Porus (Paurava), whose kingdom lay 
in the Chaj Doab. The capital of this dependency was Taxila (San- 
skrit, Takshasila), now the ruins of Shahdheri, but then a great and 
flourishing city, which lay three marches from the Indus. Its governor, 
Omphis (Ambhi) or Taxiles, was in revolt against Porus, and received 
the Macedonians hospitably. Leaving Philippus as satrap at Taxila, 
Alexander, reinforced by 5,000 Indians under Taxiles, marched to the 
Jhelum (Hydaspes), where he found Porus prepared to dispute his 
passage of the river, probably near Jhelum town. Alexander, however, 
turned his enemy's right flank by crossing higher up, and defeated him 
with great loss. Porus himself was captured, but soon admitted to 
alliance with the Macedonians and granted the country between the 
upper reaches of the Jhelum and Chenab (Bhimbar and Rajauri). 
His nephew, also named Porus, ruler of Gandaris (possibly the modern 
Gondal Bar, between the Chenab and the Ravi), had already tendered 
his surrender ; but the Macedonians crossed the Chenab and drove 
him across the Ravi. Here, in the modern District of Amritsar or 
Gurdaspur, Pimprama, the capital of the Adraistoi, surrendered to 
Alexander, and he then invested vSangala, the capital of the Kathaioi. 
Having taken it by assault he advanced to the Beas ; but his 
soldiers being reluctant to cross that river, he erected twelve massive 
altars on its bank to mark the eastern limits of his invasion, and re- 
turned to the Jhelum, making Porus governor of all the conquered 
country west of the Beas. 

At his newly founded city of Bucephala (? Jhelum), Alexander now 
prepared a flotilla to sail down the Jhelum and the Indus to the sea. 
Starting late in October, 326 B.C., the Macedonians marched in two 
divisions, one on either side of the river, Alexander himself with some 
of the troops sailing in the fleet, which numbered nearly 2,000 vessels, 
great and small. At the capital of Sophytes (probably Bhera) he was 
joined by Philippus, and thence hastened to invade the territories of 
the Malloi and Oxydrakoi, two powerful tribes which held the country 
south of the confluence of the Jhelum with the Chenab. The strong- 
holds of the former soon fell, as did a Brahman city (? Atari or Shor- 
kot) ; but the capital of the Malloi offered a desperate resistance, and 
had to be carried by assault, in which Alexander himself was wounded. 
The Malloi and Oxydrakoi now submitted, and the satrapy of Philip- 
pus was extended to the confluence of the Chenab with the Indus, 


including the Xatliroi and Ossadioi tribes. At the confluence of these 
rivers Alexander founded a city, possibly the modern Uch Sharif, and 
thence sailed on down the Indus to the capital of the Sogdoi, where he 
fortified another city, constructed dockyards, and repaired his ships. 
His voyage now lay through the kingdom of Mousicanus, correspond- 
ing to the modern Sind. 

Alexander thus made no attempt to hold the I'unjah east of the 
Jhelum. That country he designed to make a dependent kingdom 
under Porus, while Philippus governed the Sind-Sagar Doab as satrap. 
This arrangement, however, did not endure. In 324 Philippus was 
murdered by his mercenaries, and no successor was apjwinted, Euda- 
mus and Taxiles being ordered to carry on the adnnnistration. After 
Alexander's death Porus ousted Peithon from Sind, and in revenge 
Eudamus decoyed him into his power, and murdered him six^ years 
later. His execution was the signal for a national revolt against the 
Macedonian power. Eudamus withdrew with his Greek garrison, and 
Chandragupta (Sandrocottus), the Mauryan, made himself master of 
the Punjab and the lower Indus valley. Himself a native of the 
Punjab, Chandragupta organized the predatory tribes of the north- 
west frontier against the Greeks. His mastery of the Punjab enabled 
him to conquer Magadha : and when, about sixteen years later, in 
305 u.c, Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, marched into India to 
recover Alexander's Indian conquests, he was content to cede to 
Chandragupta even the territory west of the Indus, and to give him 
a daughter in marriage. Under his son Bindusara and his grandson 
Asoka, Buddhism became the state religion of the Punjab, as is shown 
by the pillar erected at Topra and by the Buddhist remains at Sui 
Vehar, in the Bahawalpur State, and in the Kangra valley. Under 
the Mauryan dynasty Taxila remained the capital of the great vice- 
royalty, which extended from the Sutlej to the Hindu Kush, and 
probably included Sind. After Asoka's death Euthydemus, who had 
usurped the Graeco-Bactrian throne, extended the Greek power in 
India. In 205 or 206 Antiochus III of Syria acknowledged his inde- 
pendence, and then crossed the Paropamisus into India and made 
a treaty with Sophagasenas (Subhagasena), returning to Syria in the 
following year. Ten years later, in 195 li.c, Demetrius, son of Euthy- 
demus, reduced the Punjab, rebuilt Sagala, which he renamed Euthy- 
demia, and extended his conquests so far that Justin calls him ' King 
of the Indians.' But while engaged in conquests he lost Bactria, 
and his successors appear to have ruled only over the Western Punjab 
and the Kabul valley ; but little is known about them until Menander 
raised the Graeco-Bactrian power to its zenith in India. According to 
Plutarch, Menander's territories extended to the Narbada and Indus 
delta. But this great kingdom was doomed, as we shall so often find 


its successors were doomed, to fall before barbarian invasion from 
the west. 

By loo i;.c. Maues or Moga, king of the Sakas, a tribe expelled 
from Sogdiana by the Yueh-chi, founded a kingdom in the North- 
west Punjab, with its capital at Taxila, which endured for about 
seventy years. This kingdom was overrun by Kozula Kadphises, the 
chief of the Kushan tribe of the Yueh-chi. He also destroyed the last 
Greek principality in India, and his son Wemo Kadphises (Hima- 
kapisa) had extended his sway all over North-Western India by a. d. io'. 
About A.I). 25, however, we find a Parthian satrapy established in 
Afghanistan and Northern India, with Gondophares, the Gundoferus 
of St. Thomas's mission, as its founder. The Parthian power was 
short-lived, for by a. d. 78 the Kushans had recovered their supre- 
macy in the person of Kanishka, under whom the so-called Scythian 
power reached its zenith. He was succeeded by Hushka (Huvishka) 
and Jushka (Vasudeva). Under the latter the Kushan dominions 
shrank to the Indus valley and Afghanistan ; and the dynasty was then 
supplanted by Ki-to-lo, chief of the Little Yueh-chi, and he in turn by 
the Ephthalites or White Huns about the middle of the fifth century. 
Under Toramana and his son Mihirakula these Huns held Northern 
India, Sagala being their capital. The latter is doubtless the great 
Mihirakula of the Rdjataranginl, who lost his empire in Central India 
and gained the kingdom of Kashmir, retaining probably the Punjab 
until his final overthrow at Karor in 544, after the Ephthalite power 
had endured for a century. Space precludes any detailed account of 
the religious history of the Punjab after Asoka made Buddhism its 
state religion ; but the coins of the Kushan kings bear effigies of 
Zoroastrian, Greek, and Hindu divinities, while Mihirakula's perse- 
cution of the Buddhists was terrible in its severity, a policy which 
probably contributed to his downfall. At all events. Buddhism was 
now on the decline. 

In the latter half of the sixth century arose the great kingdom of 
Thanesar. This, however, included only the Punjab east of the 
Jhelum river ; for in the middle of the seventh century Hiuen Tsiang, 
the Chinese pilgrim, found Taxila and Singhapura in the Salt Range 
dependent on Kashmir, while the Central Punjab from the Indus to 
the Beas formed the kingdom of Tseh-kia, whose capital lay near 
Sakala, and to which Multan was a subject principality. Early in the 
eighth century Thanesar ceased to exist as a great kingdom, and the 
Tomar dynasty of Kanauj established itself in the South-East Punjab, 
where it held Hansi and founded Delhi. After a century's dominion, 
the Tomars were supplanted by the Chauhans of Ajmer in 1 151. 

The Muhammadan conquerors of India invaded the Punjab by two 
' The date of the Kushans is still in dispute. 


distinct routes. As early as the year 38 of the Hijra the Khalila Ali 
had appointed governors to the frontiers of Hind, and six years later, 
in A.D. 664, a Muhammadan general penetrated to Multan. This 
inroad, however, resulted in no permanent conquest ; and the first 
real invasion occurred in 712, when Muhammad bin Kasim, another 
of the Khalifa's generals, conquered Sind and took Multan, which then 
lay on the north bank of the Ravi, in the dominions of Dahir, ruler of 
Sind. He made Multan the base of further inroads, and garrisoned 
Bramhapur on the Jhelum, the modern Shorkot, Ajtahad, and Karor : 
and afterwards, with 50,000 men, he marched via Dipalpur to the foot 
of the Himalayas near Jhelum. But his ill-deserved execution pre- 
vented a farther advance ; and it was not till some years later that the 
whole province of Multan was reduced, and the part of the Punjab 
dependent on Kashmir subdued. 

By 871 the power of the Khalifat was on the decline, and Multan 
became an independent and prosperous kingdom under an Arab 
dynasty. The rest of the Punjab was divided among Hindu kings, 
the Brahman dynasty of Ohind probably holding the Salt Range, while 
as early as 804 Jalandhara or Trigarta was an established kingdom. 

More than a century elapsed before the Muhammadan advance was 
resumed, and Ghazni now becomes its base. In 979 Jaipa', king of 
Lahore, advanced on Ghazni to encounter Sabuktagin, its Amir, at 
Laghman, but effected a treaty and retired, only to be defeated there 
nine years later, in 988. Jaipal was then in alliance with the kings 
of Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Kanauj ; and his defeat was decisive, 
as he had to surrender four strongholds towards Ghazni. Sabuk- 
tagin occupied the country up to the Indus ; and Shaikh Hamid, the 
Afghan governor of Multan, also did homage to him. Sabuktagin was 
succeeded by the renowned Mahmud of Ghazni, who in looi com- 
menced a series of inroads into India. In the first, Jaipal was 
defeated near Peshawar, and, having burnt himself to death, was 
succeeded by his son Anand Pal. The latter allied himself with 
the governor of Multan, Abul Fateh Lodi, but was also defeated at 
Peshawar in 1006, whereupon Multan was reduced. In 1009 Anand 
Pal, who had formed a great coalition of Hindu rulers, including those 
of Ujjain and Gwalior, met with his second defeat near Peshawar, 
after which Mahmud .sacked Nagarkot or Kangra. Nevertheless in 
loio Mahmud had again to subdue Multan, where the Karmatian 
heretics had revolted, and deport its Lodi governor. In 10 14 he 
reduced Nandana, a fastness in the Salt Range, driving 'I'rilochan Pal, 
Anand Pal's son and successor, to seek an asylum in Kashmir ; and in 
the same year he plundered Thanesar. The subjugation of the greater 
part of the Punjab was hardly completed before 1021, when Trilochan 
Pal was defeated again and slain. It was left, however, to Masud, son 


of Mahmud, to reduce Hansi, the old capital of Siwalik, in 1036. But 
the Ghaznivids were already destined to succumb to a stronger power, 
and as early as 1041 Masud was compelled by the Seljuk Turks to 
retreat into the Punjab. Nevertheless Ghazni remained the centre 
of their authority ; and it was only as the Turkish power in Central 
Asia increased that they gradually withdrew into the Punjab, until their 
kingdom was virtually confined to that province. 

P'inally, in 11 81, Khusru, who significantly bore only the title of 
Malik, not that (jf Shah, surrendered Lahore to the invader, usually 
called Shahab-ud-din, but more correctly Muizz-ud-din, Muhammad 
of Ghor. Muhammad was governor of Ghazni under his brother, 
the Sultan of Ghor, when in 11 75-6 he took Multan from the Kar- 
matians and laid siege to Uch, which was betrayed by its queen. In 
1 1 79 he captured Peshawar. Meanwhile the Kashmir ruler had 
invoked his aid against Khusru, who was endeavouring to consolidate 
his power in the Punjab, with the result already related. In 1191 
Muhammad of Ghor made his first great expedition into the South- 
East Punjab. After conquering Sirhind, which he garrisoned, he 
advanced to meet PrithwT Raj of Ajmer, who, with his brother, the 
ruler of Delhi, and all the chiefs of Hind, encountered him at Talawari, 
near Thanesar. Muhammad was defeated and wounded. In the 
following year, however, he returned and, though too late to relieve 
Sirhind, overwhelmed Prithwl Raj, whom he captured, and whose 
brother, Rai Govind of Delhi, fell in the battle, which was fought on 
the scene of Muhammad's former defeat. By this victory Ajmer with 
all the Siwalik territory, including Hansi, fell into his hands ; and his 
slave and lieutenant Kutb-ud-din Aibak completed his work, taking 
Delhi in the following year (1193). The tribes of the Salt Range, 
however, made the communications between Ghazni and Lahore 
precarious ; and, though he suppressed them with ruthless severity, 
Muhammad was in 1206 assassinated by them on his way to Ghazni. 

On Muhammad's death Kutb-ud-dTn established himself as an 
independent ruler at Lahore, another slave, Taj-ud-din, obtaining 
Ghazni. Taj-ud-dln soon ousted Nasir-ud-din Kubacha from Lahore, 
which he held for Kutb-ud-din, but the latter, advancing from Delhi, 
drove him back to Kirman in the Kurram valley, and for six weeks 
occupied Ghazni. On his death in 12 10 his slave Shams-ud-din 
Altamsh was raised to the throne at Delhi, while Nasir-ud-din secured 
most of the Punjab. But Taj-ud-din, driven from Central Asia by the 
Khwarizmis, retreated into the Punjab, wrested Lahore from Nasir-ud- 
dln, and attacked Altamsh, only to be defeated and taken prisoner at 
Talawari. Altamsh then seized Lahore, and thus became master of 
the Punjab, though Nasir-ud-dIn maintained himself at Uch. Mean- 
while, the Khwarizmis themselves had had to yield to the invading 

/riSTORV 265 

Mongol hordes, and in r22i their Sultan Jalal-ud-din fled into the 
Punjab, pursued to the west bank of the Indus by Chingiz Khan. 
Escaping from his pursuer with'a handful of followers, Jalfd-ud-dln 
defeated an army of Altamsh, but fearing to attack Lahore turned 
south towards Multan and Uch, overthrew Nasir-ud-din, and returned 
to summer in the Salt Range. These events led to the first Mongol 
invasion of the Punjab. Alarmed by Jaliil-ud-dln's successes, Chingiz 
Khan had dispatched against him a force which captured Nandana 
and invested Multan. In the following year (1223) another Mongol 
army compelled Jalal-ud-din to evacuate the Punjab, after burning L'ch 
in his retreat. 

Five years later Altamsh defeated Nasir-ud-din and annexed Multan 
and Uch, with Sind. His authority, thus extending over nearly the 
whole Punjab, was confirmed in 1229 by a diploma of investiture from 
the Abbassid KhalTfa of Baghdad. He failed, however, to extend his 
frontier beyond the Salt Range, and an unsuccessful expedition against 
the Mongols in that quarter was followed by his death in 1236. Under 
the influence of 'the Forty,' a corps of Turkish Mamluks which he had 
formed, his dynasty rapidly decayed. His daughter Razia, the only 
Muhammadan queen who ever ruled at Delhi (1236-40), had to face 
religious disaffection within the city, where a Karmatian rising was 
suppressed after much bloodshed. Her feudatories of Lahore, Hansi, 
and Multan also rebelled, though unsuccessfully ; but such was the 
weakness of the kingdom in 1241 that a Mongol army sacked Lahore. 
Uch, with Sind, became independent, and the Turkish Amirs deposed 
Razia's successor, Bahram Shah, a degenerate son of Altamsh, in the 
following year. The reign of the next king, Ala-ud-dln Masud, was 
chiefly noteworthy for the rise of Balban, one of ' the Forty ' who in 
1246 compelled the Mongols to raise the siege of Uch. For the next 
twenty years, Balban and his cousin, Sher Khan, feudatory of Lahore, 
kept the Mongols and Karlugh Turks at bay. Under Balban's stern 
rule the disaffection, which had brought rapine to the very gates of 
Delhi, was checked. More than once he had to ravage the Mewat, 
while the Mongols made good their footing in the Indus valley, and, 
aided by a disloyal vassal at Uch, placed an intendant at Multan. 
In 1266 Balban was placed on the throne of Delhi, and devoted his 
whole reign to organizing resistance to the Mongol encroachments. 
The power of ' the Forty ' was broken. Sher Khan died, not without 
suspicion of poison. Balban's son Nusrat-ud-din Muhammad, the 
patron of the poet Amir Khusru, bid fair to continue his father's work, 
but in 1285 fell in battle with the Mongols near Dipalpur, and earned 
his title of 'the Martyr Prince.' 

Two years later Balban died, and was succeeded by the Khilji line 
of Sultans in 1290. Its founder, Firo/ Shah 11, had to contend with 


religious disaffection, and in 1296 was assassinated by Ala-ud-dln 
Muhammad Shah, his nephew and son-in-law, who usurped the throne. 
Ala-ud-din's ambition led him to attempt conquests in Southern India, 
while from 1296 to 1305 the Mongols overran the Punjab. In 1298, 
with 200,000 men, they penetrated to Delhi, but met with severe 
defeat under its walls. In 1303 they beleaguered the Sultan within 
the city, and, though compelled to retreat after a few months' siege, 
invaded Hindustan in the following year. Ala-ud-dln now reorganized 
his forces, and rebuilt the frontier towns of Samana and Dipalpur, but 
failed to protect Multan and the Siwaliks from the Mongol inroads. 
In 1304, however, Ghazi Beg Tughlak, governor of the Punjab, routed 
their retreating forces and secured a respite from their inroads until 
Muhammad Shah's death in 1316. Four years of anarchy followed, 
but eventually Ghazi Beg seized Delhi and established the Tughlak 
dynasty. Like his Khiljl predecessor, the founder was assassinated by 
his eldest son, Muhammad, who in 1325 caused a pavilion to fall on 
him, and ascended his throne. Muhammad bin Tughlak is the most 
striking figure in mediaeval Indian history. Though his father had built 
the great fortress of Tughlakabad, now a cyclopean ruin, near Delhi, 
he endeavoured to transplant his capital to Deogiri in the Deccan. 
While unable to withstand the Mongols, who in 1327 ravaged Multan 
and had to be paid a vast ransom to spare Delhi, he planned the 
conquest of China, Khorasan, and trans-Oxiana. A scholar, a poet, 
and a patron of letters, he was as a ruler ruthlessly severe. His 
economic measures included the introduction of a token currency, 
and led to frightful disorders and distress. In and around Delhi 
a terrible famine, caused by his exactions, raged for years ; but the 
Sultan took vigorous measures to restore prosperity, and organized 
a system of loans to the starving peasantr)-. He obtained a formal 
recognition from the Abbassid Khalifa of distant Egypt, though he 
ruled an independent kingdom as wide as that of Aurangzeb. Never- 
theless his power was built on sand. 'l"he Afghans, who now appear 
for the first time on the north-west frontier, overwhelmed Multan in 
1343. Even the country round Sunam and Samana was in open 
revolt, and the Gakhars seized Lahore. Eventually Muhammad bin 
Tughlak died of fever in 1351 while on an expedition in Sind, leaving 
the kingdom to his cousin the noble Firoz Shah III. With this king's 
accession the modern history of the Punjab begins to take shape. He 
dug canals, notably that from the Jumna, and founded Hissar. Sirhind 
was colonized and became a separate government. Nagarkot (Kangra) 
was taken, and Sirmur and the hills north of Ambala were subdued. 

Firoz Shah reigned for thirty-seven years and was succeeded, after 
the usual interlude of anarchy, by Muhammad Shah III in 1390. 
Mewat, however, was in revolt and the Khokhars under Shaikha seized 


Lahore. Prince lluinayun was about Lu inarch against thcni, when 
his father's death recalled him to the throne, and the rebellion had 
to be put down by Sarang Khan, feudatory of Dipalpur, in a regular 
campaign in 1394. By 1395 the empire had fallen into chaos. Rival 
puppet Sultans waged war on one another from their opposing capitals 
at Delhi, while Sarang Khan attacked Multan on his own account. 
On this scene of disunion the Mongols reappeared in force. In 
1397 Pir Muhammad laid siege to Uch, Sarang Khan's fief, defeating 
a relieving force, and also invested Multan, which surrendered in 1398, 
and thus paved the way for Timur's great inroad of that year. Crossing 
the Indus south of the Salt Range, Timur plundered Talamba in 
September, and advanced via Ajodhan to Bhatner. Thence his 
march lay through Fatehabad, Tohana, across the Ghaggar, through 
Kaithal and Panipat to Delhi, which he sacked on December 26. 
Crossing the Jumna he attacked Hardwar, and recrossing the river 
in January, 1399, defeated Ratn Sain (probably the Raja of Sirmur) 
in the Kiarda Dun, advanced through the Siwaliks, took Nagarkot 
and Jammu, and encamped at Bannu early in March. In this 
incredible march Timur massacred men, women, and children by 
tens of thousands, and reduced the country along his route to ruin. 
It is, however, a consolation to read that he killed some thousands 
of Jats near Tohana because they were given to robbing travellers. 
The only immediate result of his inroad was to reinstate Khizr Khan 
in possession of Multan, which Sarang Khan had wrested from him. 
On his departure the struggle for Delhi recommenced, with tlie added 
miseries of pestilence and famine. The Punjab fiefs remained virtually 
independent, and indeed Delhi never regained her ascendancy until 
Babar founded the Mughal dynasty. 

Eventually in 14 14 Khizr Khan, who had been practically master, 
not only of Multan, but of the whole Punjab since Tuiiur's departure, 
took Delhi and founded the Saiyid dynasty, which owned a nominal 
allegiance to the Mongols. But the four Saiyid rulers were as weak 
as those whom they had supplanted. The Mongol governor of Kabul 
exercised a fitful control over the Punjab, which was in constant revolt 
under its Turk and Khokhar feudatories. Again, the necessity for 
a strong warden of the marches compelled Muhammad Shah IV to 
entrust Dipalpur and Lahore to Bahlol, a LodI Afghan, in 144 1 ; but 
Bahlol soon patched up a peace with the Khokhars, and in 1451 took 
Delhi and founded the first Afghan or Pathan dynasty. Multan had 
become an independent kingdom in 1443. Under the Lodis the 
Punjab enjoyed such peace as a country no longer worth plundering 
might enjoy. The period is remarkable for a popular religious revival, 
for it produced Nanak (1469-1538), the founder of Sikhism. 

In 1526 Babar, a fugitive king of Samarkand, defeated Ibrahim, the 



Lodi king of Delhi, at Panlpat, and thus estabUshed the Indian empire 
of the Mughals. As usual, disunion and disaffection had led to the 
ruin of the Afghan domination. Daulat Khan, himself a Lodi, governor 
of the Punjab, sought the aid of Babar, then king of Kabul, against 
his kinsman, and enabled him to seize Lahore in 1524, when he estab- 
lished Ala-ud-din, Daulat Khan's uncle, as 'Sultan" at Dipalpur. Daulat 
Khan, now alarmed for his own safety, raised a force to oppose Babar, 
who had returned to recruit fresh troops in Kabul, but offered little 
resistance ; and Babar, having seized his stronghold in the Siwaliks, 
marched down the Jaswan Dun, crossed the Sutlej, and overthrew 
Ibrahim at Panlpat in April, 1526. Babar spent the last years of his 
life in establishing his rule in India from the capital at Agra, and, on 
his death at the age of forty-eight, Humayun succeeded him in 1530. 
But Kamran, Babar's second son, promptly annexed the Punjab, and, 
though the Afghan power was still far from crushed, Humayun frittered 
away his power in a futile conquest of Gujarat. In 1540 Sher Shah 
drove him out of India, through the Punjab and into the desert country 
near Uch, whence he fled to Persia. Sher Shah held effective control 
of the Punjab, building Rohtas in Jhelum District to overawe the 
Gakhars of the Salt Range, who had long been vassals or allies of 
the Mughals. Aided by the Shah of Persia, Humayun expelled 
Kamran from Kabul in 1547, and eight years later he overthrew 
Sikandar Sfiri, who had seized the Punjab, defeating him at Sirhind 
in 1555. Sikandar retreated to the Kangra hills, and Akbar was press- 
ing in pursuit of him when he received news of Humayun's death at 
Delhi in 1556. 

AVith Akbar's accession a new era began. The Mughal empire was 
finally and firmly established, and the Punjab, after twenty years of 
incessant war, enjoyed comparative peace. Sikandar was indeed 
intrenched at Mankot, and Himu, a shopkeeper of Rewari, who had 
risen to be "Wazir of the last of the Afghan emperors, seized Delhi 
and proclaimed himself ruler of India under the title of Mkramajit. 
In 1556, however, Akbar routed him at Panlpat. Mankot surrendered 
after an eight months' siege, and only a difficult campaign was required 
to secure the north-west frontier in 1586. ^^'ith the rest of India, the 
Punjab benefited by Akbar's reforms and owes to him the foundations 
of its modern revenue system. 

The accession of Jahanglr in 1605 was followed almost immediately 
by the revolt of his son Khusru, who escaped from Agra and laid siege 
to Lahore. The rebellion was suppressed by the emperor in person, 
and the adherents of the defeated prince were punished with fearful 
severity. In 161 1 Jahangir married Nur Jahan, who during the 
remaining years of his reign dominated his policy and his fortunes. 
Her influence at fir^t was for good ; but later she involved the emperor 

J U STORY 269 

in conflicts with his son, Khurram (Shah Jahan), and hi,-, faniou-. 
general, Mahabat Khan, who in 1626 seized the emperor in his camp 
on the Jhelum. After making a spirited attempt to rescue him, the 
empress consented to share his brief captivity. Jahangir did not long 
survive his release. He died in 1627 at Bhimbar, and was buried 
at Shahdara near Lahore. His widow raised a splendid mausoleum 
over his remains, and herself lived in retirement at Lahore for eigh- 
teen years after his death. 

Shah Jahan was proclaimed at Agra early in 1628, but his younger 
brother, Shahryar, had already set up his standard at Lahore. He was 
speedily overthrown by the energy of Asaf Khan, the father-in-law 
of the emperor, and the ill-starred enterprise terminated with the 
execution of the pretender and his principal adherents. During the 
last five years of Jahangir's reign, Lahore had been the capital of 
the empire ; but Shah Jahan determined to build for himself a new 
capital on the banks of the Jumna at Delhi. His reign was the 
most prosperous period of Mughal rule, a period of profovmd internal 
peace and inmiunity from foreign invasion ; but it was, none the less, 
marked by military activity beyond the frontiers. Kandahar was seized 
in 1639, only to be lost again ten years later ; and the great expeditions 
of 1652, commanded by the princes Aurangzeb anil Dara Shikoh, 
failed to recover it. The successes of the imj)erial army in Balkh 
and Badakhshan in 1644 were neutralized by the disastrous retreat 
conducted by Aurangzeb through the passes of the Hindu Kush, 
but the expedition against Baltistan in 165 1 was crowned by the 
capture (jf Skardo. A dangerous illness which j^rostrated the emperor 
in 1657 was the signal for the outbreak of strife among his sons. 
After his defeat near Agra, Dara fled to llie Punjab, trusting to his 
popularity with the people of the province to gain him adherents, 
hi this he was not altogether disappointed ; but the restless activity 
of his brother compelled him to fly, and in the following year he 
was captured and put to death at Delhi. 

The reign of Aurangzeb dates from June, 165S, though iiis father 
survived in confinement at Agra till 1666. It was one long struggle 
against the powers of the South. In the Punjab the profound peace 
which the province had known under Shah Jahan continued for half 
a century under his successor, broken only by the march of the 
iniperial armies through the province in 1673-5 ^^^ crush the Afghan 
revolt, and by the insurrection of the Satnamis of Narnaul in 1676. 
The war with the Afghan tribes dragged on for two years, and was 
only brought to a close by a treacherous massacre at Peshawar. The 
insurrection of the Satnamis infected the Hindu i)opulation of Agra 
and Ajmer. Detachments of the imperial army were defeated, and 
the insurgents advanced on Delhi. A panic spread throughout the 

ij 2 

2 70 PUNJAB 

army, and it was with difficulty that the suldiers could be brought to 
face the enemy. Confidence was restored by the personal exertions 
of the emperor, and a crushing defeat was inflicted on the insurgents. 
In the closing years of Aurangzeb's reign signs were already visible 
that the downfall of the empire was not far distant, and the century 
after his death in 1 707 saw the rise of a new power in the Punjab. 

This power was the Sikhs, originally a mere religious sect, founded 
by Baba Nanak, who was born near Lahore in the latter half of the 
fifteenth century, and who died at Dera Nanak, on the Ravi, in 1538. 
A full account of the sect will be found in Prinsep's History of the 
Punjab (2 vols., 1846) and Cunningham's History of the Sikhs (second 
edition, 1853), to which works the reader is referred for a complete 
or detailed narrative. Baba Nanak was a disciple of Kabir, and 
preached as a new religion a pure form of monotheism, eagerly 
accepted by the peasantry of his neighbourhood. He maintained 
that devotion was due to God, but that forms were immaterial, and 
that Hindu and Muhammadan worships were the same in the sight 
of the Deity. His tenets were handed down by a succession of Gurus 
or spiritual leaders, under whom the new doctrine made steady but 
peaceful progress. Ram Das, the fourth Guru, obtained from Akbar 
a grant of land on the spot now occupied by the city of Amritsak, 
the metropolis of the Sikh faith. Here he dug a holy tank, and 
commenced the erection of a temple in its midst. His son and suc- 
cessor, Arjun Mai, completed the temple, and lived in great wealth 
and magnificence, besides widely increasing the numbers of his sect, 
and thus exciting the jealousy of the Mughal government. Becoming 
involved in a quarrel with the imperial governor of Lahore, Arjun 
was imprisoned in that city, where he died, his followers asserting 
that he had been cruelly put to death. 

' This act of tyranny,' writes Elphinstone, ' changed the Sikhs from 
inoffensive quietists into fanatical warriors. They took up arms under 
Har Govind, the son of their martyred pontiff, who inspired them with 
his own spirit of revenge and of hatred to their oppressors. Being now 
open enemies of the government, the Sikhs were expelled from the 
neighbourhood of Lahore, which had hitherto been their seat, and were 
constrained to take refuge in the northern mountains. Notwithstanding 
dissensions which broke out among themselves, they continued their 
animosity to the Musalmans, and confirmed their martial habits until 
the accession, in 1675, of Guru Govind, the grandson of Har Govind, 
and the tenth spiritual chief from Nanak. This leader first conceived 
the idea of forming the Sikhs into a religious and military common- 
wealth, and executed his design with the systematic spirit of a Grecian 

But their numbers were inadequate to accomplish their plans of 
resistance and revenge. After a long struggle. Guru Govind saw his 


strongholds taken, his mother and his children massacred, and his 
followers slain, mutilated, or dispersed. He was himself murdered in 
1 708 by a private enemy at Nander in the Deccan. The severities of 
the Musalmans only exalted the fanaticism of the Sikhs, and inspired 
a spirit of vengeance, which soon broke out into fury. Under Guru 
Govind's principal disciple, Banda, who had been bred a religious 
ascetic, and who combined a most sanguinary disposition with bold 
and daring counsels, they broke from their retreat, and overran the 
east of the Punjab, committing unheard-of cruelties wherever they 
directed their steps. The mosques were destroyed and the Mullas 
killed ; but the rage of the Sikhs was not restrained by any con- 
siderations of religion, or by any mercy for age or sex. AV^hole towns 
were massacred with wanton barbarity, and even the bodies of the 
dead were dug up and thrown out to the birds and beasts f)f 
prey. The principal scene of these atrocities was Sirhind, which the 
Sikhs occupied, after defeating the governor in a pitched battle ; but 
the same horrors marked their route through the country eastward of the 
Sutlej and Jumna, mto which they penetrated as far as Saharanpur. 
They at length received a check from the local authorities, and retired 
to the country on the upper course of the Sutlej, between Ludhiana and 
the mountains. This seems at that time to have been their principal 
seat ; and it was well suited to their condition, as they had a near 
and easy retreat when forced to leave the open country. Their retire- 
ment on the present occasion was of no long continuance ; and in 
their next incursions they ravaged the country as far as the neighbour- 
hood of Lahore on the one side and of Delhi itself on the other. 

The emperor, Bahadur Shah, was compelled to return from the 
Deccan in order to proceed against the Sikhs in person. He shut 
them up in their hill fort at Daber, which he captured after a desperate 
siege ; the leader Banda and a few of his principal followers succeeded 
by a desperate sally in effecting their escape to the mountains. The 
death of Bahadur Shah in 1 7 1 2 probably prevented the extermination 
of the sect. During the dissensions and confusion which followed that 
event the Sikhs were allowed to recruit their strength, and they again 
issued from their mountain fastnesses and ravaged the country. In 
1 7 16, however, Abdus Samad Khan, governor of Kashmir, was dis- 
patched against them at the head of a large army by the emperor 
Farrukh Siyar. He completely defeated the Sikhs in several actions, 
took Banda prisoner, and sent him to Delhi, where he was barbarously 
put to death along with several other of the Sikh chieftains. An active 
persecution ensued, and for some time afterwards history narrates little 
of the new sectaries. 

In 1738 Nadir Shah's invading host swept over the Punjab like 
a flooded river, defeated the Mughal army at Karnfd in 1739, ^"•l 


sacked the imperial city of Delhi. Though Nndir retired from India 
in a few months with his plunder, he had given the death-blow to 
the weak and divided empire. The Sikhs once more gathered fresh 
courage to rebel ; and though again defeated and massacred in large 
numbers, the religion gathered new strength from the blood of the 
martyrs. The next great disaster of the Sikhs was in 1762, when 
Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan conqueror of the Marathas at Pani- 
pat in the preceding year, routed their forces completely, and pur- 
sued them across the Sutlej. On his homeward march he destroyed 
the town of Amritsar, blew up the temple, filled the sacred tank 
with mud, and defiled the holy place by the slaughter of cows. But, 
true to their faith, the Sikhs rose once more as their conquerors 
withdrew, and they now initiated a final struggle which resulted in 
the secure establishment of their independence. 

By this time the religion had come to present very different features 
from those of Baba Nanak's peaceful theocracy. It had grown into 
a loose military organization, divided among several tnish or con- 
federacies, with a common meeting-place at the holy city of Amrit- 
sar. The Mughals had nominally ceded the Punjab to Ahmad Shah ; 
but the Durrani kings never really extended their rule to the eastern 
portion, where the Sikhs established their authority not long after 1763. 
The Afghan revolution in 1809 facilitated the rise of RanjTt Singh, 
a Sikh adventurer, who had obtained a grant of Lahore from Zaman 
Shah, the Durrani ruler of Kabul, in 1799. Gradually this able 
chieftain spread his power over the greater part of the Punjab, and 
even in 1808 attacked the small Sikh principalities on the east or left 
bank of the Sutlej. {^See Cis-Sutlej Statks.) These sought the pro- 
tection of the British, now masters of the North- Western Provinces with 
a protectorate over the Mughal emperor at Delhi ; and an agreement 
was effected in 1809 by which Ranjit Singh engaged to preserve friend- 
ship with the British Government, and not to encroach on the left bank 
of the Sutlej, on condition of his sovereignty being recognized over all 
his conquests north of that river, a treaty which he scrupulously 
respected till the close of his life. In 1818 RanjTt Singh stormed 
Multan, and extended his dominions to the extreme south of the 
Punjab ; and in the same year he crossed the Indus, and conquered 
Peshawar, to which shortly after he added the Derajat, as well as Kash- 
mir. He had thus succeeded during his own lifetime in building up 
a splendid power, embracing almost the whole of the present Province, 
together with the Native State of Kashmir. 

On his death in 1839, his son Kharak Singh succeeded to the throne 
of Lahore, but died, not without suspicion of poison, in the following 
year. A state of anarchy ensued, during which the Sikhs committed 
depredations on British territory, resulting in what is known as the first 


Sikh War. The Sikh leaders liuving resolved on war, iheir army, 
60,000 strong, with 150 guns, advanced towards the British frontier, and 
crossed the Sutlej in December, 1845. The details of the campaign 
are sufficiently known. On December 18 the first action was fought at 
Mudki, in which the Sikhs attacked the troops in position, but were 
defeated with heavy loss. Three days afterwards followed the toughly 
contested battle of Ferozeshah ; on January 22, 1846, the Sikhs were 
again defeated at Allwal ; and finally, on February 10, the campaign was 
ended by the capture of the Sikh entrenched position at Sobraon. The 
British army marched unopposed to Lahore, which was occupied on 
February 22, and terms of peace were dictated. I'hese were, briefly, 
the cession in full sovereignty to the British Government of the territory 
lying between the Sutlej and the Beas rivers, and a war indenuiity of 
\\ millions sterling. As the Lahore Darbar was unable to pay the 
whole of this sum, or even to give satisfactory security for the payment 
of one million, the cession was arranged of all the hill country between 
the Beas and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara ; arrangements 
were made for the payment of the remaining half-million of war indem- 
nity, for the disbandment of the Lahore army, and its reorganization 
on a reduced scale. The other terms included the cession of the 
control of both banks of the Sutlej ; the recognition of the independent 
sovereignty of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu ; a free passage through 
Sikh territory for British troops ; and the establishment of a British 
Resident at Lahore. In addition, at the request of the Lahore Govern- 
ment, it was settled that a British force should remain at Lahore for 
a time to assist in the reconstitution of a satisfactory administration. 
Simultaneously, a treaty was executed with Maharaja Gulab Singh by 
which the English made over to him in sovereignty the Kashmir 
territory ceded by the Lahore government, in consideration of a pay- 
ment of three-quarters of a million sterling. Shortly afterwards diffi- 
culties arose regarding the transfer of Kashmir, which the Sikh governor, 
instigated by Lai Singh, the chief of the Lahore Darbar, resisted by 
force of arms. Lai Singh was deposed and exiled to British India ; 
and in December, 1846, a fresh treaty was concluded, by which the 
affairs of the State were to be carried on by a Council of Regency, 
under the direction and control of the British Resident, during the 
minority of the young Maharaja Dalip Singh. 

For a time the work of reorganizing the shattered government of the 
country proceeded quietly and with every prospect of success. Bui 
besides many minor causes of discontent among the people, such as 
the withdrawal of the prohibition against the killing of kine, and the 
restored liberty of the much-hated and formerly persecuted Muham- 
madans, the villages were filled with the disbanded soldiery of the old 
Sikh army, who were only waiting for a signal and a leader to rise and 

2 74 PUNJAB 

strike another blow for the power they had lost. At length, in April, 

1848, the rebellion of the ex-Diwan Mulraj at Multan, and the murder 
of two British officers in that city, roused a general revolt throughout 
the Punjab. Multan city was invested by hastily raised frontier levies, 
assisted afterwards by British troops under General Whish ; the siege, 
however, had to be temporarily raised in September, owing to the rapid 
spread of disaffection among the Sikh troops. The two rebellious Sar- 
dars, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh, invoked the aid of the Amir of 
Kabul, Dost Muhammad, who responded by seizing Peshawar, and 
sending an Afghan contingent to assist the Sikhs. In October, 1848, 
the British army, under Lord Gough, assumed the offensive, and 
crossed the Sutlej. Proceeding from Ferozepore across the Punjab 
at an angle to the Sikh line of march, it came up with Sher Singh at 
Ramnagar, and there inflicted on him a severe check. The Sikh army, 
consisting of 30,000 men and 60 guns, made a stand at Chilianwala, 
where an indecisive and sanguinary battle was fought on January 13, 

1849. Two or three days after the action, Sher Singh was joined by 
his father Chattar Singh, bringing with him Sikh reinforcements, and 
1,000 Afghan horse. Lord Gough awaited the arrival of the column 
under General Whish (set free by the fall of Multan on January 28), 
and then followed up the Sikhs from Chilianwala to Gujrat, where the 
last and decisive battle was fought on February 22, the Sikhs being 
totally defeated with the loss of 60 guns. The Afghan garrison of 
Peshawar were chased back to their hills, the Amir Dost Muhammad 
himself narrowly escaping capture. The remnants of the Sikh army 
and the rebel Sardars surrendered at Rawalpindi on March 14, and 
henceforth the entire Punjab became a Province of British India. 
The formal annexation was proclaimed at Lahore on March 29, 1849, 
on which day terms were offered to, and accepted by, the young Maha- 
raja Dallp Singh, who received an annuity of £50,000 a year and 
resigned for himself, his heirs, and his successors, all right, title, and 
claim to the sovereignty of the Punjab, or to any sovereign power 
whatever. He resided till his death in England, where he purchased 
estates, married, and settled down as an English nobleman. 

The Punjab, after being annexed in 1849, was governed by a Board 
of Administration. It was subsequently made a Chief Commissioner- 
ship, the first Chief Commissioner being Sir John Lawrence, who 
afterwards became the first Lieutenant-Governor. 

At the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857 there were in the Punjab 
the following troops : Hindustanis, 35,000 ; Punjabi Irregulars, 13,000 ; 
Europeans, 10,000 ; there were also 9,000 military police. The Euro- 
peans consisted of twelve regiments, of whom no less than seven were 
either at Peshawar or in the hills north of Ambala, leaving only five 
regiments to hold the country from the Indus to the Sutlej. The news 

Hf STONY 275 

of the massacre at Delhi roac^hed Lahore on May 12. There had not 
been wanting premonitory signs that the Hindustani sepoys were dis- 
affected and Hkely to rise; and, accordingly, on May 13, 3,000 native 
troops were successfully disarmed at Mian Mir. At the same time 
European troops were thrown into the forts of Govindgarh and I'hil- 
laur, the first important as commanding Amritsar, the second as con- 
taining a large arsenal which subsequently supplied the munitions of 
war for the siege of Delhi. On May 14 the arsenal at Ferozepore was 
secured ; the sepoys here mutinied on the following day, and escaped 
without punishment. On the 21st of the same month the 55th Native 
Infantry rose at Mardan and fled to independent territory ; many were 
killed in pursuit, and the remainder were captured by the hillmen. 
On June 7 and 8 the native troo{)s at Jullundur broke and escaped to 
Delhi. In the first week of July the sepoys at Jhelum and Sialkot 
mutinied ; they were destroyed, as were the 26th Native Infantry, 
who mutinied at Peshawar on August 28. 

Simultaneous with the vigorous suppression of open mutiny, 13,000 
sepoys were disarmed without resistance during June and July. While 
the Hindustani troops were thus disposed of, the dispatch of rein- 
forcements to Delhi, an object of paramount importance, proceeded 
without a break. About May 17 it had become apparent that the 
Punjab did not sympathize with the movement in Hindustan, and 
that a good spirit prevailed in the Punjabi troops. It was therefore 
safe to augment them ; and eighteen new regiments were raised in the 
Province during the later months of the year. As these forces were 
being enrolled to supply the place of those who marched down to 
Delhi, the stream of reinforcements was steadily maintained. Four 
regiments from the European garrison of the Punjab formed the 
greater portion of the force that first marched upon Delhi. Next 
followed two wings of European regiments of infantry. Then a con- 
siderable force of native troops was dispatched, including the (luides, 
two regiments of Punjab cavalry, a body of Punjab horse, two regi- 
ments of Punjab infantry, and a body of 1,200 pioneers raised from 
the Mazbi Sikhs ; 7,000 men, forming the contingent of the Cis-Sutlej 
chiefs of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha, accompanied the regular troops to 
the siege. An irregular force of 1,000 men was also detached to clear 
the western part of the Delhi territory. \\'agon trains were organized 
from Multan and Ferozepore via Ambala to Delhi. Siege trains, 
treasure, stores, and transport animals were poured down from the 
Punjab for the besieging force. Finally, in August, one last effort 
had to be made to send reinforcements, in spite of the risk run in 
denuding the Province of Europeans and loyal troops. The need for 
aiding the force at Delhi was, however, imperative ; it was therefore 
resolved to send Brigadier-General Nicholson with the movable 

2 76 PUNJAB 

column and every European who could be spared. Two half- 
regiments of European infantry, the 52nd Foot, and three regiments of 
Punjab infantry were dispatched. These were followed by a siege train 
from Ferozepore, a wing of the ist Baloch Regiment from Sind, and a 
contingent 2,000 strong from the Maharaja of Kashmir. There then 
remained only 4,500 Europeans (including sick) to hold the Punjab. 

The crisis had now come. If Delhi were taken speedily, all was 
well ; if otherwise, there would be a struggle for European dominion 
and existence in the Punjab itself. The next few weeks after the 
departure of Nicholson's column were weeks of anxious suspense, in 
which all eyes were turned to Delhi. Symptoms of the wavering faith 
of the people in the British power appeared in local outbreaks at 
Murree in the north, and in the wild and barren tracts south of 
Lahore, between the Ravi and Sutlej. Both were, however, soon 
suppressed, and the fall of Delhi on September 14 put an end to all 
further cause for apprehension. The first sign that the mass of the 
inhabitants had regained confidence was that the Sikhs of the Manjha, 
or the tract between the Ravi and the Sutlej rivers, who had hitherto 
held aloof, came forward for enlistment in the new levies. 

The loyal action of the chiefs had an important bearing on keeping 
the population steady during the crisis. The Raja of jTnd was actually 
the first man, European or native, who took the field against the muti- 
neers ; and his contingent collected supplies in advance for the British 
troops marching upon Delhi, besides rendering excellent service during 
the siege. The Rajas of Patiala and Nabha also sent contingents for 
field service ; and with the exception of the Nawab of Bahawalpur, 
who did not stir, every chief in the Punjab, so far as he could, aided 
the English in preserving order and in suppressing rebellion. Rewards 
in the shape of grants of territory were made to the chiefs of Patiala, 
Jind, and Nabha, and a large iaiukdari estate in Oudh was conferred 
upon the Raja of Kapurthala. 

Since the Mutiny, the Punjab has made rapid progress in com- 
mercial and industrial wealth. In 1858 the Delhi territory lying on 
the right bank of the Jumna, together with the confiscated territory 
which had formerly belonged to the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadur- 
garh, was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab. 
The territory thus transferred included the present Districts of Delhi, 
Rohtak, and Clurgaon, almost the whole of Hissar, and portions of 
Karnal and Ferozepore. The year after the suppression of the rebel- 
lion is remarkable for the commencement of the first line of railway in 
the Punjab, from Amritsar to Multan (February, 1859), and for the 
admission of water into the Bari Doab Canal. With the exception 
of punitive military expeditions against marauding hill tribes, the 
history of the Province has been one of uninterrupted progress. 

HfSTOA'Y ?77 

Canals have spread Irrigation over its thirsty fields ; railways have 
opened new means of communication for its surplus produce ; and 
British superintendence, together with the security afforded by a firm 
rule, has developed its resources with astonishing rapidity. In October, 
1901, the North-West Frontier Province was formed. It comprises all 
the territories formerly administered or controlled by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Punjab which lie to the west of the Indus, except the 
trans-Indus portion of the Isa Khel tahsil of Mianwali District, the 
District of Dera Ghazi Khan, and the territory occupied by the pro- 
tected tribes on its western border and known as the Baloch Trans- 
frontier. It also includes the District of Ha/ara, east of the Indus. 

Though the Punjab was the earliest seat of \'edic civilization, 
archaeology has hitherto failed to discover any monuments or traces 
of the epic period. Not a single relic of the Macedonian invasion has 
been brought to light, and, as in the rest of India, the oldest archaeo- 
logical monuments in the Punjab are the Asoka inscriptions. Of these, 
two were inscribed on pillars which now stand at Delhi, where they 
were re-erected by Firoz Shah in about 1362, one having been origin- 
ally erected at Topra at the foot of the Siwalik Hills in the Ambala 
District of this Province, and the other near Meerut in the United 
Provinces. Both the inscriptions are in the ancient Brahmi script, 
which is found in all the Asoka inscriptions excepting those at Shah- 
bazgarhi and Mansehra in the North-West Frontier Province. The 
vast ruins of Takshasila (Taxila), now known as Shahdheri, in Rawal- 
pindi District, remain to show the extent of the capital of the great 
Mauryan province which comprised the modern Punjab and the North- 
West Frontier Province. South-east of Takshasila is the tope of Manik- 
yala, identified by General Sir Alexander (Cunningham as one of the 
four great stupas mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian. It is 
the largest stupa in Northern India, and is believed to have been l)uili 
to commemorate the sacrifice of the Bodhisattva, who gave his body to 
feed a starving tigress. Near this great stupa is a smaller one, which 
contained a slab with a KharoshthI inscription recording its erection 
during the reign of Kanishka early in the Christian era. 

In Kangra District a few remains testify to the prevalence of 
Buddhism in the Himalayan valleys of the north-east Punjab. Close 
to Pathvar, 6 miles south-east of Kanhiara (? Krishna-vihara), a votive 
inscription of a primitive type in both Brahmi and KharoshthI has 
been found ; and at Kanhiara itself an inscription, also in both 
characters, records the foundation of a monastery, and indicates the 
existence of Buddhism in that locality during the second century a.d. 
A much later inscription at Chari contained the formula of the 
Buddhist faith. The existence of Buddhism in the south west of 
the Punjab is demonstrated l)y the ruined stupa and inscription at 

2 78 PUNJAB 

Sui Vehar in the modern State of Bahawalpur, and by a similar ruin 
at Naushahra, loo miles south-west of Sui Vehar. 

The Punjab can show but few Hindu antiquities. To some extent 
this is due to the destructive action of the great rivers on whose banks 
the ancient cities lay, but the iconoclasm of the Moslem invaders was 
even more destructive. Thus the Arabic inscriptions on the Jama 
Masjid or Kuwwat-ul-Islam at Delhi record that material for the 
building was obtained by demolishing twenty-seven idol-houses of 
the Hindus, and their profusely carved but partially defaced pillars 
are still to be seen in its colonnades. But the early Muhammadans 
often preserved the ancient Hindu monuments which were free from 
the taint of idolatry, for in this very mosque stands the iron pillar 
erected by Raja Chandra, probably Chandra Gupta H, an early king 
of the Gupta dynasty (a.d. 375-413). The Inner Himalayas, however, 
mostly escaped the Muhammadan inroads, and some ancient Hindu 
shrines have survived ; but owing to the style of construction prevalent 
in the hills, in which wood enters largely, the remains are few and not 
of very great antiquity. Stone temples exist at Baijnath, where there 
is an inscription of 1239, and at Nurpur. Those in the Kangra fort 
were destroyed by the earthquake of April, 1905. In Kulu the stone 
lingam temple at Bajaura contains some sculptures of great age, and the 
temple of Parasu Rama at Nirmand on the Sutlej possesses a copper- 
plate of Raja Samudra Sena of unknown date. The temple of Hidimba 
Devi at Manali, which bears an inscription cut among profuse wood- 
carving, recording its erection in the sixteenth century, and that at 
Nagar have conical wooden roofs presenting a type peculiar to the 
hills. All these places lie in Kangra District. In the Chamba State 
the Devi temples at Barmaur and Chitradi date from the eighth 
century a.d. They are of a different style from the two Kulu temples 
last mentioned, and their wood-carving is superior to that found at 
Manali. The temple at Triloknath in the Mandi State contains 
a Sarada inscription. The temples at Malot and Kathwar in the 
Salt Range are built in the Kashmir style. 

The Muhammadan period inaugurated a new architectural era, 
nowhere in India better exemplified than in the Punjab. The early 
Pathan period (1193-1320) is represented by the Kuwwat-ul-Islam, 
the Kutb Minar, the tomb of Altamsh, the gateway of Ala-ud-dln, and 
the Jamaat-khana mosque at Delhi. Another noteworthy monument 
is the tomb of Altamsh's eldest son at Malikpur. The Tughlak or 
middle Pathan period (1320-1414) is represented by the vast ruins 
of Tughlakabad and of Firozabad near Delhi, with the Kalan mosque 
and other monuments in and around that cit}-. The later Pathan 
period (141 4-1556) produced the Moth-ki-masjid near Mubarakpur 
with its glazed tile decoration, and the impressive Kila i Kohna mosque 

rOPUf.ATlON 279 

of Sher Shah at Indrapat, with other monuments round Delhi. The 
Mughals revived the splendours of Muhanimadan architecture. At 
Delhi Akbar built the tomb of Humayun and the tomb of Azam 
Khan, which dates from 1566, in which year Adham Khan's tomb at 
Mihrauli was also erected. Jahangir's reign saw the construction of 
the Nila Burj (in 1624) and the mausoleum of the Khan-i-Khanan. 
He also built the first of the three Moti Masjids or ' pearl mosques ' 
in the Punjab at Lahore in 161 7-8. Shah Jahan founded the modern 
city of Delhi and called it Shahjahanabad. In it he erected the Red 
Fort, in which were built the Diwan-i-am and the matchless Diwan-i- 
khas. Opposite the Red Fort rose the imposing Jama Masjid, and 
in the midst of the city the smaller Fatehpuri and Sirhindi mosques. 
^^'azlr Khan, Shah Jahan's minister, built the mosque still known by 
his name in Lahore, and his engineer All Mardan made the Shalimar 
garden near that city. The zealot Aurangzeb added little to the 
architectural monuments of his predecessors, but his reign produced 
the great Badshahi mo.sque at Lahore and the beautiful Moti Masjid 
in the Red Fort at Delhi. His daughter built the Zinat-ul-masajid <ir 
' ornament of mosques ' at Delhi. After Aurangzeb's death ensued 
a period of decay, which produced the Moti Masjid at Mihrauli, the 
Fakhr-ul-masajid, and the tomb of Safdar Jang at Delhi. A feature 
of this period is the mosque with gilded domes, hence called ' Sunahri,' 
of which type one was built at Lahore and three at Delhi. 

The south-west of the Punjab has developed an architectural style 
of its own, distinguished by a blue and white tile decoration, cjuite 
distinct from the kdshi tile-work of Lahore and Delhi. This style is 
exemplified by the tomb of the saint Rukn-ud-din at Multan, and 
that of the Nahar ruler, Tahir Khan, at SItpuk. The tomb of the 
famous saint Baha-ulT-fakk, the grandfather of Rukn-ud-din, dates 
from the thirteenth century ; but it was injured at the siege of Multan 
in 1848, and has been entirely renewed. Lastly may be mentioned 
the Jahazi Mahal with its remarkable frescoes at Shujabad, built by 
Muzaffar Khan in 1808. 

The total population of the Punjab in 1901 was 24,754,737, including 
the Baloch tribes on the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District. The 
density of the population was 185 persons per square 
mile, as compared with 174 in 1891 and 158 in 1881. 
In British territory alone it is 209, compared with 121 in the Native 
States. The density is greatest in the natural division called the Indo- 
Gangetic Plain West, where it rises to 314 persons per square mile, 
and in the Districts of Jullundur and Amritsar in this area to 641 and 
639 respectively. The sub-Himalayan tracts, with 300 persons per 
square mile, are nearly as densely populated, Sialkot rising to 544 and 
thus ranking as the third most densely populated District in the 


Frovince. In marked contrast to these two areas are the north-west 
dry area with 96, and the Himalayan with 77 persons per square 
mile. In the latter, Chamba State, with only 40 persons per square 
mile, is the most sparsely inhabited tract in the Province. 

The Punjab contained, in 1901, three cities — Delhi, Lahore, and 
Amritsar — with more than 100,000 inhabitants, 53 towns with more 
than 10,000, and 99 with more than 5,000. The principal towns are: 
Rawalpindi (population, 87,688), Multan (87,394), Ambala (78,638), 
JuLLUNDUR (67,735), Sialkot (57,956), and Patiala (53,545)- All of 
these include large cantonments. Villages numbered 43,660, of which 
14,127 contained 500 inhabitants or more. In the Punjab plains the 
village is as a rule a compact group of dwellings ; but in the south- 
west and the hill tracts it comprises a number of scattered settle- 
ments or hamlets, grouped together under the charge of a single 
headman for fiscal and administrative convenience. 

During the ten years ending 1891 the total population of the Punjab 
rose from 21,136,177 to 23,272,623, an increase of lo-i per cent. In 
the next decade the rate of increase was not so rapid, owing partly 
to the famines of that period, and partly to emigration to other 
Provinces in India and beyond the seas. During the twenty years 
since 1881 the population has risen by 17 per cent. The enumerations 
of 1854 and 1868 were not extended to the Native States, and even 
in British Districts were imperfect. Since 1854, however, the increase 
of the population in British territory may be safely estimated to exceed 
45 per cent. Migration plays an important part in the movement of 
the population. The Punjabi is free from that disinclination to emigrate 
which is so strongly felt in other parts of India ; and Uganda, Hong- 
Kong, the Straits Settlements, Borneo, and other countries attract 
large numbers for military and other service. More than 25,000 
Punjabis are believed to have been resident in Uganda in 1901 ; and 
though no precise estimate of the total number of emigrants out of 
India can be made, it must have largely exceeded the number of immi- 
grants. According to the Census the emigrants to the rest of India 
numbered more than 500,000, exceeding the immigrants by over 
200,000. Immigration is mainly from the contiguous United Provinces 
and Rajputana, but Kashmir also supplies a large number. Emigration 
is mainly to the same territories, but service in the army and military 
police takes more than 20,000 persons to Burma and many to other 
distant places. Within the Province the foundation of the Chenab 
Colony has led to an extensive movement of the population from the 
congested submontane I )istricts to the virgin soil of the new colony. 

In 1 89 1 the mean age of the population was 22-8 years for males 
and 224 years for females. Ten years later the figures were 25 and 
249, excluding the North-West Frontier Province. Judged by 

rorrr.Ariox rSi 

European standards, this mean is low ; but it is higher than that of 
any other Province in India, and, allowing for the general inaccuracy 
of the age-return, indicates a longevity above the Indian average. It 
is held luckier to understate rather than overstate one's age in the 
Punjab : and the number of children in proportion to adults is high, 
as the following tabic, which gives the distribution o\er five main 
age-periods of every :;o,ooo of the populatitjn, shows : — 

1891. 1901. 
lOid riovincf.) ■ (N'ftw Province.) 

O lO 




40 and over 

I,v6i -'.3,^0 
.1974 lA^i 
4.5(>' 4.47S 
?.:.^73 4-4^4 


JOjOGO 20,000 

The discrepancies in this return are due to the fact that in i8gi 
the current year of age was returned, whereas in 1901 the completed 
3'ear was recorded, as it was, in 1881 ; and comparisons with the 
figures of that year show that the mean age of males was the same 
in 1901 as in 1881, while that of females had only risen by a tenth 
of a year. The figures, however, are affected by migration and various 
other factors, so that no conclusions of \aluc can be drawn from 
them. Famine, causing a diminution in the number of children, had 
in 1901 appreciably affected the figures in the Districts of Ilissar, 
Rohtak, and Jhelum. 

In rural areas the village watchman is entrusted, under the super- 
vision of the village headman and the higher revenue officials, with 
the duty of registering births and deaths. Though almost invariably 
illiterate, this agency is so closely supervised in British Districts that 
the registration is, in the mass, exceedingly accurate, and its results 
are in close agreement with the census returns. In munici|)alities 
and cantonments registration is in the hands of the local authorities 
and is often defective. The system of compilation is anomalous. 
The cantonment returns are excluded from those of the Province 
altogether, as are those of such Native States as register births and 
deaths. Municipal returns go direct to the Civil Surgeon, but those 
from rural areas are compiled by the Superintendent of police, and 
forwarded by him to the Civil Surgeon, who sends both the municipal 
and rural returns to the Sanitary Commissioner. In each Division the 
inspector of vaccination is also charged with the duty of inspecting 
the birth and death registers, and his supervision has greatly improved 
the accuracy of the returns. The following table shows the principal 
vital statistics for the Province : — 





Ratio of 

per 1,000. 

Ratio of 

per 1,000. 

Deaths per 1,000 from 



Bowel 1 
Fevers, com- 

1881 . 
189I . 
1901 . 
1904 . 








19-39 0-95 
21.72 0.62 

25-26 ; 0.73 
18.82 j 0.60 

In the first three quinquennia of the period from 1881 to 1901 the 
birth-rate averaged a Httle over 39 per 1,000, but in the last quin- 
quennium it rose to 43, pointing to better registration. The fewest 
births occur in May, after which the rate rises gradually till July and 
is high in August and September, reaching its zenith in October. It 
then falls gradually until it drops suddenly in March. The mean 
death-rate for the five years ending 1900 was 33-7 per 1,000; but it 
rose in 1901 to 36, in 1902 to 44, and in 1903 to 49 per 1,000, plague 
alone accounting for 10-22 per 1,000, or more than a fifth of the deaths 
in the last year. The unhealthy season in the Punjab is the autumn, 
and the deaths in October corresponded to an average annual rate of 
51 per 1,000 in the ten years 1891-1900. March and April are by 
far the healthiest months. The number of deaths from fever fluc- 
tuates greatly from year to year, according as the autumnal months 
are unhealthy or the reverse. The deaths from cholera, small-pox, 
and bowel complaints are relatively very few. Under the last head 
only deaths from dysentery and diarrhoea have been registered since 

In so far as specific infirmities are concerned, the figures of the 
latest Census showed a marked improvement on those of 1881 only 
421 persons in every 100,000 of the population being returned as 
infirm, compared with 743 in the latter year. Lepers now number 
only 19 in every 100,000 as compared with 26 in 1891 and 45 in 
1881 ; and the blind 305, compared with 349 in 1891 and 528 in 
1 88 1. Insanity shows an apparent increase to 35 per 100,000 in 1901 
from 29 in 1891 ; but this infirmity is often confused with deaf-mutism, 
which shows a marked decrease to 80 per 100,000 in 1901 from 
97 in 1891. 

The disease returned in the Punjab as most fatal to life is fever. 
In this malady the people vaguely include most disorders accompanied 
by abnormally high temperature; but making all due allowances for 
this fact, malarial fever is unquestionably the most fatal disease 
throughout the Province. The death-rate fluctuates greatly. In 1892 
the rate was 34-8 per 1,000, and 33-4 in 1900 ; but in 1899 it was only 
i8-6. In the two former years heavy monsoon rains caused extensive 


floods and an unhoahln aulumii. .Nfalaiial fever is most prevalent 
in the riverain valleys. This is especially marked in the tract west 
of the Jumna, which is naturally waterlogged, and where the faulty 
ah'gnment of the old Western Jumna ("anal used to obstruct the 
natural drainage lines. Much has been done by realigning the canal 
and constructing drainage channels to remedy this evil, but the tract 
remains the most unhealthy in the Province. 

Cholera is hardly endemic, though a year seldom passes without an 
outbreak, and occasionally a local epidemic. Epidemic cholera caused 
65,000 deaths in 1892 and 25,000 in 1900. Small-pox is endemic, 
but owing to the wide extension of vaccination it is not very fatal to 
life, the mortality during the ten years ending 1903 never having 
exceeded 3 per 1,000. Vaccination is compulsory only in twenty-three 
of the more advanced towns, and small-pox is most fatal in towns where 
it is not enforced. 

The first outbreak of plague occurred in October, 1897, in a village 
of JuUundur District, but infection had probably been imported from 
Hardwar in the previous May. For three years the disease was almost 
entirely confined to the adjacent parts of Jullundur and Hoshiarpur 
Districts, but in November, 1900, it broke out in Gurdaspur and soon 
spread to the neighbouring District of Sialkot. In 1901 outbreaks 
occurred in several Districts ; since then the disease has spread widely, 
and the Province has never been completely free from it. The 
number of deaths was comparatively small till 1901, when 20,998 
were recorded. In the following year mortality increased more than 
tenfold, and the epidemic still continues. The deaths from plague 
in 1905 numbered 390,233, or 15-8 per 1,000 of the population. The 
usual measures have been adopted for dealing with outbreaks of plague 
and with the object of preventing its spread, including the isolation of 
plague patients and the segregation of persons who had been exposed 
to infection, the evacuation of infected houses and villages, and the 
disinfection of houses and effects. Medical treatment and anti-plague 
inoculation have always been freely offered ; but the people have 
usually preferred native medicines, and the attempts which have been 
made to eradicate or diminish plague by means of inoculation have 
not proved successful. Until May, 1901, most of the precautions, 
with the exception of medical treatment and inoculation, were com- 
pulsory; but since then compulsion has been gradually abandoned. 
and is now chiefly restricted to the reporting of plague occurrences, 
and the inspection or detention of persons travelling either by road or 
railway to certain hill stations. 

Judged by English standards infant mortality is extremely high, 
especially in the case of girls. This will be clear from the following 
table :— 







in 1901. 

Number of 

deaths under 

one year. 

Deaths per 1,000 

of infant 


Number of 


Deaths per 1,000 














\ 401,640 

372,471 -j 













The births registered show a marked excess of male births, 1 1 1 boys 
being born to every loo girls. This initial deficiency in the number 
of females is accentuated, especially in the first year of life, by the 
heavy mortality among girls and women up to the age of 40. Of the 
24,754,737 persons enumerated in 1901, 13,552,514 were males and 
11,402,223 females, so that 53-9 per cent, of the population were 
males and 46- 1 per cent, females. In other words, for every 1,000 
males there were 854 females in 1901, compared with 851 in 1891 
and 845 in 1881. These figures show that the number of females in 
the Punjab is increasing more rapidly than the number of males, 
though improved enumeration probably accounts to some extent for 
the higher ratios of 1891 and 1901. The proportion of females 
in the Punjab as a whole is probably not affected by migration. In 
different parts of the Province the ratio varies, being lowest in the 
central Districts and highest in the Himalayan and submontane. 
These variations are not explicable by differences in the position of 
women. The Sikhs, whose women are comparatively well educated 
and enjoy more liberty than those of either Muhammadans or Hindus, 
return a very low ratio of females, the figures for 1901 being Sikhs 778, 
Hindus 844, and Muhammadans 877 per t,ooo males. 

Among Muhammadans marriage is a civil contract. Among Hindus, 
Sikhs, and Jains it is in theory a sacrament, indissoluble save by 
death, and not even by death as far as the wife is concerned. But 
practice does not always follow precept ; and among the lower Hindu 
and Sikh castes remarriage {karewa) is allowed, while in the Himalayas 
women are sold from hand to hand, and a system of temporary 
marriage prevails. On the other hand, the prejudice against widow 
marriage is almost as strong among Muhammadans of the superior 
classes as it is among orthodox Hindus. All castes view marriage 
as desirable for a boy and indispensable for a girl, an unmarried 
maiden who has attained puberty being a social stigma on her family, 
especially among the Rajputs. Betrothal is, as a rule, arranged at 
a very early age, and the wedding takes place while the bride is still 
a child, though she does not go to live with her husband till a later 
period. Infant marriage is, however, by no means universal, and 
4'5 per cent, of the girls and 26 per cent, of the boys over fifteen are 



unmarried. Early marriages are commonest among Hindus and in 
the east of the Province. The ceremonies connected with marriage 
are of infinite variety, the wedding especially being made an occasion 
for much costly hospitality and display. In general, Hindus and Sikhs 
observe the rule of exogamy which forbids marriage within the tribe, 
and that of endogamy which permits it only within the caste ; but 
a third social rule, which has been called the law of hypergamy, also 
exists. By this a father must bestow his daughter on a husband of 
higher social status than his own, though he may seek a bride for his 
son in a lower grade. This rule renders it difficult and costly for the 
middle classes to find husbands for their daughters, or brides for their 
sons, as the lower grades have no scruple in exacting money for a girl. 
Among the Hindu agriculturists in the extreme east of the Province, 
the seven circuits round the sacred fire, prescribed by Hindu law, 
form the essential part of the marriage ritual, and the strict Hindus of 
the towns everywhere observe the same usage. Farther west among 
the agriculturists the number is reduced to four, while in the south- 
western Districts the important part of the ceremony is the sir me/ or 
joining of the heads of the parties. The Muhammadan form of 
marriage, simple in itself, has almost everywhere been coloured by the 
Hindu ritual. 

The following table gives statistics of civil condition as recorded in 
1891 and 1901 : — 










Married . 
Widowed . 






3,880,435111,241,255 7,027,895 
5,310,222 11,062,125 1 5,459,012 
1,509,532 2,427,270 852,148 


Polygamy is not at all common, and is largely a question of means. 
Among Hindus and Sikhs only 6 per r,ooo of the married males have 
more than one wife, and among Muhammadans only ir. Many of 
the agricultural and menial castes allow the marriage of widows, 
preferably to the brother of the deceased husband ; and it is among 
them that polygamy is commonest. It is rare among high-caste 
Hindus, who do not recognize remarriage. The ceremonies of re- 
marriage are much simpler than those of marriage, and the woman 
never acquires the status she had in the house of her first husband, 
though the children of the second marriage are regarded as legitimate. 
Avowed polyandry is confined to the Himalayan tracts, though the 
practice is not unknown among some socially inferior castes in the 
plains. In the hills it usually exists in the Tibetan form, in which 
the husbands are all brothers. Indications of succession through 


females among tlie polyandious tribes are few and obscure, and the 
general rule is that sons succeed as the children of the brotherhood 
which owns their mother. Divorce is not common, even among 
Muhammadans, though their law recognizes a husband's right to put 
away his wife without assigning a reason. Among the Hindu agri- 
cultural tribes of the plains it is extremely rare, though the custom 
is not unknown among the inferior castes and among the Jats of the 
central Districts. It is only in the Eastern Himalayas, within the 
limits of Kangra and Simla Districts and the Hill States, where 
the marriage tie is notoriously loose, that the power of divorce belongs 
by custom to the wife as well as to the husband. The joint-family 
system of Hindu law is almost unknown to the peasantry of the 
Province. It prevails only among the Brahmans and the clerical 
and commercial classes, and even among them it hardly exists outside 
the towns of the Delhi Division. Among the agricultural tribes of the 
plains, sons by different mothers usually inherit in equal shares ; but 
the chundawand rule, by which they inherit per stirpes^ is not un- 
common among both Hindus and Muhammadans, especially in the 
centre and west of the Province. 

With the exception of Tibeto-Burman, spoken in its pure form only 
in the Himalayan canton of Spiti and in a debased form in Lahul and 
Upper Kanawar, the vernaculars of the Punjab belong entirely to the 
Aryan family of languages. Of this family the Indian branch greatly 
predominates, the Iranian being represented only by 52,837 persons 
speaking Pashtu, 40,520 speaking Baluchi, and 3,074 speaking Persian. 
Pashtu is confined to the Pathan tribes setded in Attock District and 
in the Isa Khel tahsll of Mianwali on the banks of the Indus, and 
to Pathan immigrants. Baluchi is virtually confined to Dera Ghazi 
Khan District and the adjacent State of Bahawalpur. Persian is 
spoken only by immigrant families and refugees from Persia and 

Western Punjabi is spoken in the Indus valley and east of it as far as 
the valley of the Chenab in Gujranwala, whence its boundary is a line 
through Montgomery District and the State of Bahawalpur. East of it 
Eastern Punjabi is spoken as far as the meridian passing through 
Sirhind. East again of that line Western Hindi is the dominant 
speech. These languages are divided into numerous dialects. The 
Western Punjabi (also called Jatkl, ' the Jats' speech,' and Multani) 
comprises the Hindko, Pothwari, Chibhall, Dhundl, Ghebl, and 
Awankarl. Eastern Punjabi has two main dialects : the standard 
of the Manjha, or central part of the Bari Doab, spoken round 
Amritsar ; and that of the Malwa, the tract south of the Sutlej. 
Western Hindi comprises Hariani (the dialect of Hariana), Bangaru 
(that of the Bangar), Jatu (the Jat speech), and AhirwatI (the Ahir 


s[)eech). To these three languages must be added the maze of 
Sanskritic dialects spoken in the hills, and hence called generically 
Paharl. These resemble RajasthanI rather than Punjabi, and merge 
into the Tibeto-Burman in Lahul and Kanawar. The GQjarl, or Gujar 
speech, likewise deserves mention as a tongue spoken in the Hima- 
layas, and also closely resembling RajasthanI. 

The following table shows the numbers returned in 1901 as speaking 
the chief languages : — 

Western Punjabi ...... 2,755,463 

I'unjabi I5;34^>,175 

RajasthanI ....... 603.747 

\\'estern Hindi ...... 4,164,373 

Western Pahari . ..... 1,554,072 

.\s an institution, caste plays a far less important part in the social 
life of the people than in other parts of India. Its bonds are stronger 
in the east than in the west, and generally in the towns than in the 
villages, so that in the rural areas of the Western Punjab society is 
organized on a tribal basis, and caste hardly exists. Ethnically, if the 
Buddhists of the Himalayan tracts of Lahul, Spiti, and Kanawar be 
excluded, the mass of the population is Aryan, other elements, such as 
the Mongolian and the Semitic (Saiyids, Kureshis, and other sacred 
Muhammadan tribes), having by intermarriage with Indian converts to 
Islam lost nearly all traces of their foreign origin. Socially the landed 
classes stand high, and of these the Jats (4,942,000) are the most 
important. The Jat, or Jat as he is termed in the south-east of the 
Province, is essentially a landholder {zamindar\ and when asked his 
caste usually replies 'Jat zaminddr.^ The Jats are divided into 
numerous tribes and septs, and many of these hold considerable 
areas which are divided among village communities. By religion they 
are essentially Hindus, 1,595,000 being so returned in 1901 ; and they 
also comprise the great mass of the Sikhs, 1,390,000 being of that 
creed. The Sikh Jats are mainly confined to the central Districts 
of the Punjab. Large numbers of Jats have from time to time been 
converted to Islam, and the Muhammadan Jats number 1,957,000. 
As cultivators the Hindu or Sikh Jats rank higher than any other 
class in the Province, and they make enterprising colonists and 
excellent soldiers, the Sikh holding a marked pre- eminence in these 
respects. The Muhammadan Jat lacks the energy of his Hindu and 
Sikh kinsman, but he is not far behind him as a cultivator. Next 
in importance are the Rajputs (1,798,000). The majority of them are 
Muhammadans (1,347,000). They do not rank high as cultivators, 
but furnish many recruits to the Indian army under the general 
designation of Punjabi Muhammadans. The Hindu Rajputs are 
found mainly in the north-east corner of the Province, and in the 


Himalayan and submontane tracts, the Rajput tribes of the plains 
having for the most part accepted Islam. As a body the Rajputs 
stand higher than the Jats in the social system, and this has prevented 
their adherence to the levelling doctrines of Sikhism. Below these 
castes, both socially and numerically, stand the Muhammadan Arains 
(1,007,000), the Hindu and Sikh Sainis (127,000), and the Kambohs 
(174,000), who live by petite culture and rarely enlist as soldiers. In 
the south-east of the Province the Ahirs (205,000) hold a position 
little if at all inferior to the Jats. In the Himalayas of the North-East 
Punjab, the Kanets (390,000) and Ghiraths (170,000) form great 
cultivating classes under Rajput overlords. 

In the north-west the Gakhars (26,000), Khokhars (108,000), and 
Awans (421,000), and farther west and south the Pathans (264,000), 
take the position held by Rajputs elsewhere. In the south-west, 
especially in Dera Ghazi Khan District west of the Indus, the Baloch 
(468,000) form a dominant race of undoubted Iranian descent. Essen- 
tially pastoral tribes are the Gujars, or cowherds (632,000), found 
mainly in the Lower Himalayas, and the Gaddis, or shepherds (26,000), 
in the Stale of Chamba and Kangra District. 

The trading castes in the villages occupy a lower position than 
the landowning classes, but in the towns they rank higher. The most 
important are the Banias (452,000) in the south-east, the KhattrTs 
(436,000) in the centre and north-west, and the Aroras (653,000) in the 
south-west. All these are Hindus or, rarely, Sikhs. The principal 
Muhammadan trading classes are the Shaikhs (321,000) and Khojas 
(99,000). Attached to these classes by a system of clientship, which 
is a curious combination of social dependence and spiritual authority, 
are the various priestly castes, the Brahmans (1,112,000) ministering 
to Hindus, and the Saiyids (238,000) to Muhammadans. Both these 
classes, however, often follow secular occupations, or combine them 
with religious functions ; and similar functions are exercised by count- 
less other religious tribes and orders. 

The ethnical type in the Punjab is distinctly Aryan, there being 
few traces of aboriginal or foreign blood, if the Tibetan element in 
the extreme north-east be excluded. The typical Punjabi is tall, 
spare but muscular, broad-shouldered, with full dark eyes and an 
ample beard. The hair is invariably black, but the complexion 
varies from a deep olive-brown to wheat-coloured. As a rule the 
lower classes are darker than the upper, and the complexion is fairer 
in the north-west than in the south-east. The Jats of the Manjha 
and Malwa exhibit a splendid physique, and the peasantry of the 
plains are generally a fine people ; but in the riverain valleys there 
is a marked falling-off, and in the south-east of the Province the type 
approximates to that of Hindustan. In marked contrast to the plains 


people are those of the Himalayas. Among these the higher or Rajput 
class is slight, high-bred, and clean-limbed, but sometimes over-refined, 
while owing to immorality the lower classes are often weakly and 
under-sized. Nothing is more striking than the influence of hereditary 
occupation and town life on physique ; and the urban and trading 
populations are markedly inferior physically, though not intellectually, 
to the peasantry. 

The Punjab by religion is more Muhammadan than Hindu. Of the 
total population enumerated in 1901, 12,183,345 persons, or 49 per 
cent., were Muhammadans. In the west and in the submontane 
tracts Islam is the dominant religion, its followers forming four-fifths 
of the population in the north-west dry area ; but the Hindus are 
more numerous in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and in the Himalayas they 
form 95 per cent, of the population. In the south-west, Multan and 
Uch were the earliest strongholds of the Moslem faith, and the popu- 
lation is deeply imbued with Muhammadan ideas, Hinduism being 
confined to the trading, landless castes, who are socially despised by 
their Muhammadan neighbours. The early Sultans made Delhi a great 
centre of Muhammadan influence, but they and their successors appear 
to have left the Hindus of the Punjab unmolested in religious matters 
until the Mughal empire was firmly established. Akbar's policy of 
religious toleration lessened the gulf between the two creeds, but many 
Muhammadan tribes ascribe their conversion to the zeal of Aurangzeb. 
Islam in the Punjab is as a rule free from fanaticism, but among the 
more ignorant classes it has retained many Hindu ideas and super- 
stitions. Though the great mass of its followers profess the orthodox 
Sunni creed, the reverence paid to Saiyids as descendants of All, the 
Prophet's son-in-law, is unusually great ; and popularly Islam consists 
in the abandonment of many Hindu usages and the substitution of 
a Muhammadan saint's shrine for a Hindu temple. A very important 
ftictor in Muhammadan religious life is the Sufi influence which, 
originating in Persia, was brought into the Punjab by the early Sultans 
of Ghor. Its first great exponent was the saint Kutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar, 
in whose honour the Kutb Minar at Delhi was erected. His disciple 
Baba Farid-ud-din, Shakar-ganj, of Pakpattan in Montgomery District, 
is perhaps the most widely reverenced saint in the Punjab ; and the 
shrine of his disciple Khwaja Nizam-ud-din, Aulia, near Delhi, is also 
a place of great sanctity. Spiritual descendants of these saints founded 
shrines at Maharan in the Bahawalpur State, at Taunsa Sharif in Dera 
Ghazi Khan District, and elsewhere. Thus the Province is studded 
with Sufi shrines. 

Hinduism in the Punjab is a singularly comprehensive creed. As 
the Province can boast no great centres of Hindu thought or learning, 
the Punjabi Hindu looks to Hardwar on the Ganges as the centre 


of his faith. But Hardwar is accessible only to the eastern Districts, 
so elsewhere i)ilgrimages are made to countless minor temples and 
shrines, even those of Muhammadan saints. \^ishnu is worshipped 
chiefly by the Banias of the south-east and by the Rajputs, but 
Sivdiwalas or temples to Siva are nearly as common as Thakurdwaras 
or temples of Vishnu (Thakur). Far more popular than these are 
the widely spread cults of Ck'iga, the snake-god, and Sakhi Sarwar, 
the benevolent fertilizing earth-god, whose shrine in Dera Ghazi Khan 
is the object of regularly organized pilgrimages. Guga's legend also 
makes him a Rajput prince converted to Islam, and Sakhi Sarwar 
has been metamorphosed into a Muhammadan saint. There are 
countless minor cults, such as that of Sitla, the 'cool one,' the small- 
pox goddess, and those of the siddhs or ' pure ones.' Ancestor-worship 
is very common among the Jats. 

In the Himalayas Vishnu and Siva have many devotees, the Rajputs 
especially worshipping the former ; but underlying these orthodox cults 
are those of the innumerable deotds (gods or spirits), devis (goddesses), 
and Mrs (heroes), which are probably more ancient than Hinduism. 
The principal religious orders are the Sanyasis and Jogis, who follow 
in theory the philosophical system of Sankaracharya and Patanjali. 
There are also Muhammadan Jogis, whose mysticism has much in 
common with the practices of the Hindu ascetics. The Bairagis, a 
\^aishnava order founded by Ramanand in the fourteenth century, are 
likewise numerous. 

The Arya Samaj was founded by Pandit Dayanand Saraswati, 
a Brahman of Kathiawar, about 1875. Dui'ing his lifetime the "doc- 
trine spread rapidly; but since his death in 1883, the growth of the 
Samaj has been comparatively slow, and in 1901 only 9,105 males 
over 15 returned themselves as Aryas. The movement has been 
well described as being 'primarily the outcome of the solvent action 
of natural science on modern Hinduism.' The Samaj finds its sole 
revelation in the Vedas, which, rightly interpreted, prove that those 
who were inspired to write them were acquainted with the truths which 
modern science is slowly rediscovering. It attaches no merit to pil- 
grimages or to most of the rites of popular Hinduism. The liberal 
social programme of the Aryas is the outcome of their religious views, 
and includes the spread of education, the remarriage of widows, and 
the raising of the age for marriage. They are drawn, as a rule, from 
the best-educated classes of the community, Khattris, Aroras, and 
Brahmans ; and the doctrines they preach have met with acceptance 
chiefly in the progressive tracts north and east of the capital. At 
Lahore they maintain a college. Since 1893 the Samaj has been 
divided into two parties. The cause of the schism was the question 
of the lawfulness of meat as an article of diet. Those in favour 


of it are known as the ' cultured ' or ' college ' party, and those against 
it as the iiiahdinia party. 

Religious architecture still maintains the tradition of each sect or 
community, with few deviations from the old plans which were designed 
mainly with a view to the needs of each religion. Ablution is an 
essential feature of every sect, so that a tank of water, with other 
necessary facilities, is found in a prominent position in all buildings. 
Mosques, now usually built of brick, consist of an open courtyard, 
with the mihrdb on the west, surmounted by a dome flanked with 
miliars or pillars. The Hindus enclose their temples in a walled 
courtyard, containing the shrine for the deity to which the temple 
is dedicated. Over this is a pyramidal tower, surmounted by a metal 
finial shaped to represent the emblem of the divinity enshrined. The 
temples of the Sikhs are usually designed on an orthodox square plan 
consisting of nine parts, known as the naukara. The general arrange- 
ment is a courtyard, in which is situated a tank of water for washing 
and a central open construction {l)dradari) for the reading of the 
' Granth.' Over this is a dome, which may be distinguished from that 
of a mosque by being generally fluted or foliated in design. The 
modern Sikhs being adepts in wood-carving, the doors and other details 
are not infrequently freely decorated. Jain temples are built on a 
somewhat similar plan to those of the Hindus, except that more than 
one shrine is often found in the enclosure and pillared verandas are 
a feature. In modern examples, however, this latter characteristic is 
frequently omitted. 

Excluding the Jesuits at the Mughal court, the first Christian nu's- 
sionary to the Punjab was a Baptist preacher who visited Delhi early 
in the nineteenth century. Delhi and Simla are the only stations now 
occupied by this mission. The first great missionary movement in the 
Punjab proper was the establishment of the American Presbyterian 
Mission at Ludhiana in 1834. The Ludhiana Mission, as it thus came 
to be called, occupies a number of stations in the Central Punjab 
south of the Ravi, and maintains the Forman Christian College at 
Lahore, with a printing press at Ludhiana. The Church Missionary 
Society began operations in the Punjab in 185 1. Its stations com- 
prise a group round Amritsar and Lahore, and a long line of frontier 
stations stretching from Simla to Karachi in Sind. It has a college 
in Lahore which prepares natives of India for holy orders, and the 
Church of England Zanana Mission works in many of its stations. 
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began work in Delhi 
in 1852. In 1877 it was reinforced by the Cambridge Mission, which 
maintains the St. Stephen's College at Delhi. Other missions are the 
Methodist Episcopal, the Church of Scotland, the Moravian, the 
American United Presbyterian, the Zanana Bible and Medical Mis- 


sions, and the Salvation Army, besides the missionary work conducted 
by various Roman CathoUc orders. 

The following table gives statistics of religion as recorded in 1891 
and 1901 : — 















Zoroastrians . .... 



Muhammadans .... 



,-., . ,. \ European and Eurasian 
Christians j ^^^.1^ . . . 



Jews and unspecified 



Of the total population, at least 56 per cent, are supported by agri- 
culture. Next in importance is the artisan section of the community, 
which numbers 4,898,080, or i9-8 per cent, of the population. Of 
these, cotton-weaving, spinning, &c., supports 1,012,314, and leather- 
working 742,034, while potters number 269,869, carpenters 263,717, 
and iron-workers 164,814. The making of tools and implements 
supports 135,786, and building 121,153; goldsmiths number 120,755, 
and tailors 108,963, but the figures for these smaller groups are subject 
to several qualifications. Commerce supports only 2-8, and the pro- 
fessions 2-2 per cent., of the population, while public service maintains 
2 per cent. The residue is composed of general labourers (812,584 
in number), personal domestic servants (1,771,944), and 827,289 
persons whose subsistence was independent of occupation. In spite 
of the caste system, the division of labour has not been pushed very 
far in the Punjab. The carpenter is often an ironsmith, the shopkeeper 
a money-lender, the agriculturist a trader, and so on. 

The staple food consists of the grain grown in the locality. Well-to- 
do people eat wheat and rice, while the ordinary peasant's food consists 
chiefly of wheat, barley, and gram in summer, and maize in winter. 
The poorer classes use inferior grains, such as china (^Panicum inilia- 
ceum), mandua {Eleusine coracana), jowdr (great millet), &c. In the 
hill, submontane, and canal-irrigated tracts, where rice is largely grown, 
it forms the principal diet of the people in general ; but elsewhere 
it is eaten only on festive occasions. In the west and south-west 
bajra (spiked millet) is mostly consumed in the winter. Pulses and 
vegetables are eaten with bread by prosperous zamindars and towns- 
people ; but the poorer classes, who cannot always afford them, merely 
mix salt in their bread and, if possible, eat it with buttermilk. Peasants 
are especially fond of curds, buttermilk, and green mustard {sarson) 
as relishes with bread Gh'i is used only by those who can afford 


it. Meat is seldom eaten, except by the better classes, and by them 
only on occasions of rejoicing or by way of hospitality. The common 
beverages are buttermilk, water mixed with milk and sugar, country 
sherbets, and sardai, a cooling drink made by bruising certain 
moistened ingredients in a mortar ; but the use of the two latter 
is almost entirely confined to the townsfolk. Aerated waters are 
coming rapidly into use. Hemp {bhang) is ordinarily drunk by the 
religious mendicants {fakirs), both Hindu and Muhammadan. In 
towns cow's milk is used, but in rural tracts buffalo's is preferred, 
as being richer. In the camel-breeding tract camel's milk is also 

The dress of the people is of the simplest kind and, in the plains, 
made entirely of cotton cloth. A turban, a loin-cloth, a loose wrap 
thrown round the body like a plaid, and, in the cold season, a vest 
or jacket of some kind, are the usual garments. White is the usual 
colour, but dyed stuffs are often worn, especially on festive occasions. 
As a rule Muhammadans avoid red, while Saiyids and others claiming 
descent from the Prophet favour green. Hindus similarly avoid blue, 
but it is the characteristic dress of Sikh zealots, like the Akalis. 
Minor variations in dress are innumerable, and fashion tends to 
adopt European clothes, often with most incongruous results, among 
the men. 

^^'omen are far more conservative ; but the influence of Islam has 
brought about the adoption of the trouser instead of the Hindu skirt, 
which is only general in the south-east. Here again local and tribal 
customs vary. Thus Rajput women, Hindu as well as Muhammadan, 
wear the trouser, and Gujars the petticoat, while many Sikh and Hindu 
J at women wear both. In the wilder parts of the central area the skirt 
was little more than a kilt, but the more elaborate garment is coming 
into fashion. The tight bodice is essentially a Hindu woman's garment, 
the looser skirt a Muhammadan characteristic. The wrap or chadar 
is universally worn ; and \.he />ardd system compels most INIuhammadan 
and many Hindu and Sikh ladies of the better classes to wear, when 
compelled to leave the house, -an ungainly and uncomfortable veil 
{hurka) which covers the whole form. 

The ordinary peasant's house is not uncomfortable, though hardly 
attractive. Built of mud, with a flat roof, and rarely decorated, it is 
cooler in summer and warmer in winter than a house of brick or stone. 
In the large villages of the Central and South-East Punjab the dwellings 
are close and confined, but in the south-west a ruder and more spacious 
type is found. Houses of stone are found mainly in the hills, and slate 
roofs only in the Himalayas. Brick (pakkd) houses in the villages are 
rapidly increasing in numbers, but in comfort are hardly an improve- 
ment on the old. In the cities such houses have long been the rule : 


but to secure privacy and additional room they are built or rebuilt to 
several storeys, rendering sanitation an insoluble problem. The furni- 
ture of an ordinary house is cheap and simple, comprising a few string 
beds, stools, boxes, spinning-wheels, and cooking utensils, with a grain- 
receptacle of mud. 

Muhammadans bury their dead, while Hindus and Sikhs, with some 
exceptions, burn them. The casteless people, such as the Chuhras 
and Chamars, who stand outside the pale of Hinduism, imitate which- 
ever religion happens to be dominant in their neighbourhood. Hindus 
collect the bones from the ashes of the funeral pyre and send them to 
be thrown into the Ganges, or, if they cannot afford that, cast them 
into an adjacent stream. 

Games are singularly few, especially among children ; and this 
perhaps explains why cricket, and to a lesser extent football, have 
become popular in the schools. In the villages a kind of prisoner's 
base, clubs, quoit-throwing (among the Sikhs), tent-pegging, especially 
in the Salt Range and western plains, and camel racing on the Bikaner 
border, are fairly popular. Otherwise athletics are a growth of British 
rule. Wrestling is virtually confined to professionals. Sport is often 
keenly followed, hawking, coursing, a.nd shooting being favourite 
pastimes of the well-to-do in many rural tracts. In the towns quail- 
fighting is the form of sport most actively pursued. The drama hardly 
exists, except in a few rude plays {sivdngs), acted by the professional 
castes. Folk-songs are fairly numerous, but the music is singularly 
rude and barbarous. The monotony of village life is rendered bearable 
by the numerous and costly ceremonies which a birth, a wedding, or 
a funeral demand. 

Pilgrimages offer great distractions, and are regularly organized to 
shrines like that of Sakhi Sarwar. Fairs also afford excuse for 
numberless holidays, which are mostly spent in harmless though aim- 
less amusements. 

The principal Hindu holidays are : — the Basant Panchmi, or feast 
of SaraswatI, goddess of learning ; the Sivaratri, or feast of Siva ; the 
Holi, or the great spring festival and Saturnalia of Northern India ; 
the Baisakhi, or Hindu New Year ; the Salono, or day when amulets 
against evil are solemnly put on ; the Janm Ashtmi, or birthday of 
Krishna ; the Dasehra, which recalls Rama's conquest of Ravana ; and 
the Dewali, the Hindu feast of lanterns. Instead of the Holi, Sikhs 
observe a kindred festival called Hola Mohalla, held the day after, and 
also Guru Nanak's birthday. 

The chief Muhammadan holidays are, in the Punjab as elsewhere : — 
the Id-ul-Fitr or day after Ramzan, the Id-uz-Zuha, the Muharram, 
liara AN'afat, Juma-ul-wida, and Shab-i-barat. Besides these, every 
localitv has a succession of minor fairs and festivals of its own. 


The personal name generally consists of two words, which are 
selected from a variety of causes, astrological, religious, and super- 
stitious. The father's name is rarely, if ever, given to the son, and 
there is seldom anything like a surname, persons being distinguished 
only by the variety of names employed. Among Hindus it is essential 
that the religious name given at birth should never be known or used, 
and the name by which a man is known is more or less a nickname ; 
while among botli Hindus and Muhammadans it is often not easy to 
say what a man's real name is, as a man who is known among his 
friends as Gotra or Mujjan will on occasions of state entitle himself 
Govardhan Das or Murtaza Khan. The second name among Hindus 
is often in a sense honorific, and originally had a religious meaning. 
Ram and Lai distinguishing Brahmans, Singh Kshattriyas, and Mai, 
Rai, and Lai Vaisyas ; but these distinctions do not now hold good. 
All Sikhs indeed have names ending in Singh, but the title is not 
confined to them ; and as to the others, a man who one year is 
called Parsil will, if things prosper with him, call himself Parasurama 
the next. 

Muhammadan names generally consist of two words, the alam or 
name and lakab or honorary title, such as Muhammad Din, though, 
as above mentioned, the villager will as often as not be known by an 
abbreviation such as Mamdu. A combination of one of the 'comely' 
names of God with r?^^ ('servant ') is also common, such as Abdullah, 
or Abdul Ghafur. About half the proper names of Muhammadans are 
of religious origin, and the rest differ in no way from those of Hindus. 

Besides the two regular personal names, both afifixes and prefixes are 
found. Affixes generally denote the caste or clan, such as Ahluwalia, 
Ramgarhia, Seth, or Varma (a purely Khattri appellation), or are 
honorific, such as the Muhammadan ' Khan.' This affix sometimes, 
but rarely, tends to harden into a surname. Prefixes are honorific and 
answer to the European Mr. or Monsieur : such are, among Hindus, 
Baba, Lala, SodhT, Raja, and Pandit ; and among Muhammadans, 
Munshi, Fakir, Wazirzada, and Makhdum. In addition a man may 
bear honorific titles, many of which, such as Rai Bahadur and Khan 
Bahadur, are given by Government, so that a Muhammadan's full style 
and title may run Makhdum Abdul Aziz Khan Shams-ul-Ulama Khan 
Bahadur, or a Hindu's Baba Raghunath Singh Rai Bahadur Diwan 

The most common endings for place names in the Punjab are the 
Arabic -dbdd ('abode') and -shdhr ('city') and the Hindu -///;-, -mxgar, 
and -2vdra, all meaning ' town ' or ' place,' and -kot and -garh meaning 
' fort.' Many are in the genitive, meaning, like Mukerian or Fazilka, 
the place of a certain tribe or people ; while the termination -tvdia, 
meaning ' belonging to,' is one of the most common. 

2 96 PUNJAB 

Excluding the Himalayan and other hill tracts and the ravines of 
Rawalpindi, Attock, and Jhelum Districts, the vast alluvial plain is 
broken only by the wide valleys of its rivers. Its 
soil is a sandy loam, interspersed with patches of clay 
and tracts of pure sand. The soils of the Himalayan and lower ranges 
resemble those of the plains ; but both sand and clay are rarer, and 
the stony area is considerable. The quality of the soil is, however, 
of comparatively little importance, facilities for irrigation, natural or 
artificial, being the primary factor. The monsoon current extends 
only to the extreme south-eastern Districts. The rainfall is fairly 
sufficient for agricultural purposes in the hills and in the submontane 
tracts, but diminishes rapidly as the distance from the hills increases, 
being as little as 5 and 7 inches in Muzaffargarh and Multan. It is 
only in or near the Himalayas that unirrigated cultivation can be said 
to be fairly secure. 

The Punjab has two harvests : the rabi ijiari) or spring, sown 
mostly in October-November and reaped mostly in x\pril-May ; and 
the khartf {sdivani) or autumn, sown in June-August and reaped from 
early September to the end of December. Both sugar-cane and cotton, 
though planted earlier, are autumn crops. The spring sowings follow 
quickly on the autumn harvesting. To the spring succeeds the extra 
{zaid) harvest, chiefly tobacco, melons, and similar crops, harvested 
late in June. Speaking generally, the tendency, as irrigation develops, 
is for intensive cultivation in the rabi to replace the extensive cultiva- 
tion of the khar'if. 

The advantages of frequent ploughing are thoroughly recognized, 
especially for wheat and sugar-cane, for which a fine seed-bed is 
essential. The plough used is an implement of simple construction, 
made of wood with an iron or iron-pointed share, and drawn by 
a single yoke of bullocks. When the soil has been reduced to a fairly 
fine tilth, a heavy log of wood roughly squared, called sohdga, is used 
to supply the place of a light roller. • It breaks up any remaining clods, 
and also compacts and levels the surface. 

There are three methods of sowing : by scattering the seed broad- 
cast on the surface, by dropping it into the furrows by hand, or by 
drilling through a tube attached to the plough handle. The last 
method, if skilfully used, deposits the seed in the bottom of the furrow, 
and is employed when the surface is dry. The second is employed in 
moderately moist, and the first in thoroughly moist soils. 

Land near a town or village is heavily manured, as also is land near 
a well, since it can be easily irrigated and valuable crops grown on it. 
Sugar-cane, maize, tobacco, and vegetables are always manured. Wheat, 
cotton, barley, and melons are manured only when manure is readily 
available. Spiked millet, gram, tdm ?ntra, and other inferior crops are 


never manured. Tliorough manuring costs from Rs, 60 to Rs. 80 an 
acre, and is most common in the vicinity of the larger towns, tlic 
municipal boards of which make a considerable income by sales of 
refuse. In such localities two to four very rich crops a year are grown. 
Irrigated land is manured much more generally than unirrigated. 
Besides the sweepings of villages, night-soil, the dung of sheep, goats, 
and camels, the ashes of cow-dung, and nitrous earth are used for 
manure. The two last are applied as a top-dressing, especially for 
vegetables and tobacco. The others are spread over the land after 
the rabi has been harvested, and ploughed in before the monsoon rains 
set in. A top-dressing of thoroughly decomposed manure is often 
applied to sugar-cane after the cuttings have struck, the soil being 
then hoed by hand and irrigated. Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels 
are often folded in the fields for the sake of their manure, and in the 
hills shepherds derive much profit by lending their flocks for this 
purpose. The practice of using cow-dung for fuel seriously diminishes 
the natural supply of manure. 

Weeding and hoeing are resorted to only for the more valuable 
crops. The crops are cut entirely by hand, and harvesting employs 
all the menials of a village. Grain is mostly trodden out by cattle. 
The implements in use, of a primitive type and simple construction, 
are well adapted to the cultivator's needs, but are capable of improve- 
ment. The iron sugar-press has now almost ousted the old cumbrous 
wooden press. 

Agriculture affords the main means of subsistence to 13,917,000 
persons, or 56 per cent, of the population, exclusive of 214,000 par- 
tially supported by it. The Punjab is essentially a country of peasant 
proprietors, landholders and tenants numbering, with their families, 
13,452,000 persons. Of the total number supported by agriculture, 
36 per cent, are actual cultivators, only 184,000 being rent-receivers. 

The principal crops in spring are wheat, gram, and barley. Wheat 
is the staple crop grown for sale. The development of canals in the 
past ten or fifteen years has led to a great expansion of the area under 
spring crops, especially wheat, which ordinarily covers about 10,000 
square miles. In good years, such as 1894, 1895, and 1901, it covered 
more than 10,900, but in the famine years of 1897 and 1900 only about 
7,800 square miles. Though best sown between the middle of October 
and the middle of November, it can be put in later ; and in the North- 
ern Punjab, if the winter rains are late, it may be sown up to the first 
week in January. There are many indigenous varieties, both red and 
white, bearded and beardless. Rather more than half the area under 
wheat is irrigated. The out-turn per acre varies from 4 to 1 2 rwt. on 
irrigated, and from 4 to 7 cwt. on unirrigated land. 

Next to wheat comes gram, which usually covers more than 3,100 


square miles, but the area fluctuates with the rainfall. Sown as a rule 
earlier than wheat and mainly in the poorer unirrigated lands, it is 
generally harvested a fortnight earlier, but is not infrequently sown and 
harvested with it. The yield per acre is about 4 to 9 cwt. on unirri- 
gated land, but may rise to 11 cwt. under irrigation. 

Barley is often sown mixed with wheat and gram, as it matures even 
if the rainfall be not sufificient for the wheat. It is also useful as a catch- 
crop, since it can be sown later than wheat. It is grown extensively for 
the breweries and as fodder. Barley ordinarily covers about 1,600 
square miles. On irrigated land the out-turn per acre is from 5 to 
II cwt., compared with 3 to 9 cwt. on unirrigated land. 

The staple cereals in autumn are maize, great millet {Jo'u<dr), spiked 
millet {Inijra), and rice. Of these, maize is the principal food-grain of 
the montane, submontane, and central tracts, and is cultivated exten- 
sively in all three. In 1904 it covered about 1,900 square miles. It is 
sown from the middle of June to the middle of August, and harvested 
between the middle of September and the middle of November. Maize 
yields from 4 to 11 cwt. per acre on land dependent on rainfall, and 
from 7 to 13 cwt. where irrigation is available. 

In the Rawalpindi and Delhi Divisions spiked millet is the chief 
crop, but it is also grown throughout the Province. It ordinarily 
covers more than 2,500 square miles, but in years of good rainfall 
more than 3,100 square miles. It requires less moisture than great 
millet, but its stalks are of inferior value as fodder. The yield per acre 
varies from 2^ to 10 cwt. 

Great millet, grown throughout the Province, ordinarily covers 
3,000 square miles. This also is chiefly sown on unirrigated land. 
When sown as a food-crop, it still yields from 120 to 180 cwt. of 
fodder per acre. Sown only as a fodder-crop it is called chari. The 
out-turn of grain per acre is from 3 to 5 cwt., increased by i or 2 
cwt. if irrigated. 

Rice is grown chiefly in Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Karnal, and Ambala 
Districts, and throughout the Lahore and Multan Divisions. It ordi- 
narily covers more than 1,100 square miles. There are many recog- 
nized varieties. Sowings extend from March to August, and the 
crop is harvested in September and October. 

Other important autumn cereals are rdgi or mandivi {Ekusi/ie 
coracana), china {Faniciim miliaceuni), and kang7u or Italian millet 
{Setaria italicd). In 1904 these covered more than 300 square miles. 

Cotton is increasing rapidly in importance as an export staple. The 
area sown now amounts to over 1,600 square miles. The crop is gene- 
rally irrigated, except in the Delhi Division. Sown from March to 
July, it is picked from October to December. Ginning mills are spring- 
ing up in the chief cotton tracts. A hundred p(junds of uncleaned 

A GRIC UL TL ^RE 2 99 

cotlon gives about 30 pounds of clean lint. The cotton is of the short- 
stapled variety known as ' Bengals,' but is in brisk demand. 

Oilseeds are ordinarily sown on 1,000 to 1,300 square miles, but the 
area varies with the rainfall. The principal kind is sarson or rape-seed 
(Brassica cainpesiris), sown from August to December on unirrigated 
land and ripening in March. Another kind, ioria, is sown on irrigated 
land in August, and cut in November or December. Sesamum or /// 
{Sesamtfi?i oriefiiale) is an autumn crop, and a little linseed or a/si 
{Linutn usitatissimuiii) is grown in the spring. 

Indian hemp or san is only grown sparsely for the local manufacture 
of rope. It covered 77 square miles in 1904. 

Spices covered more than 40 square miles in 1904, generally on 
manured and irrigated lands close to the villages. Chillies are the 
most important crop of this class ; ginger is grown chiefly in the 

Sugar-cane is an important and valuable crop in Rohtak, Delhi, 
Karnal, JuUundur, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujran- 
wala, and Jhang Districts. It ordinarily covers about 520 square miles, 
of which more than 80 per cent, is irrigated and the rest moist land. 
Usually propagated from sets laid down from the middle of February 
to the middle of April, the crop is seldom cut till December or even 
later, thus occupying the land for nearly a year. 

The poppy is a spring crop sown from September to January, the 
juice being extracted in April and May. In 1904 it covered more 
than 14 square miles. 

Tobacco is grown more or less in every District as an 'extra' spring 
crop, sown in March or April and picked in June. In 1904 it covered 
a little more than 80 square miles, mostly manured lands near the 

Tea is grown only in Kangra District, the States of Mandl and Sir- 
mur, and on a small area in Simla. In Kangra there are 112 tea 
estates (15-5 square miles), of which 2i7) (with 3,500 acres) are owned 
by European planters. The out-turn in the latter varies from 150 to 
250 lb. per acre, and the total output exceeds 1,000,000 lb. annually'. 

The area under indigo has greatly decreased of recent years, owing 
to competition with chemical indigo. The area in 1903-4 was a little 
more than 8a square miles, of which about 30 square miles were in 
Muzaffargarh District and 25 in Multan. 

Highly manured land near villages grows turnips, carrots, and simi- 
lar produce, which occupy 578 square miles. Potatoes, already a 
valuable crop in the Kangra and Simla Hills, are increasing in impor- 
tance. Mangoes are a paying fruit-crop in Hoshiarpur, JuUundur, 

1 This was written before the earthquake of 1905, which had disastrous effects on 
the tea industry. 



Multan, and Muzaffkrgarh ; and in the two latter Districts and in Dera 
Ghazi Khan the date-pahii flourishes, there being nearly 1,500,000 
female trees which produce about 33,000 tons of fruit annually. It 
is consumed entirely in Northern India. There is some export of 
pears, apples, and other European fruit from the Kulu valley, but in- 
accessibility hinders the development of the industry. 

The crop rotations shown below are generally recognized, but all 
depends on climatic conditions, soils, the means of irrigation, and the 
system of agriculture followed in any given tract : maize, indigo, or 
hemp, followed by wheat ; great millet, followed by masTir and gram ; 
rice, followed by barle}', masFir, and peas ; turnips or cotton, followed 
by maize ; cotton or maize, followed by senji ; senji, followed by melons. 
Since annexation, the potato, tea, and English fruits and vegetables 
have been introduced. The first named is so important that the people 
call it 'the hillman's sugar-cane.' Attempts made to acclimatize 
American maize have succeeded only in the hills, and even there 
the stock has deteriorated. It requires nearly five months to mature, 
and the heat of the plains ripens it too rapidly. In 1901 an experi- 
mental farm of 55 acres w^as started at Lyallpur in the Chenab Colony. 
A 500-acre seed farm has also been opened in the Jhelum Colony. 

A combined Agricultural College and Research Institute is to be 
established at Lyallpur, with a staff which will include a Principal, 
a Professor of Agriculture, an Agricultural Chemist, an Economic 
Botanist, an Entomologist, and a Mycologist. The college will train 
men for the Agricultural department, and also as teachers of agriculture 
in normal schools. The present experimental farm at Lyallpur will be 
largely increased in size, and it is intended to establish similar farms 
on a smaller scale in localities selected as characteristic of the main 
divisions of the Province. As the scheme develops, it is hoped that 
an Agricultural Assistant will be appointed for each District. The 
Veterinary department is a part of the Agricultural department, under 
the control of the Director of Agriculture. 

The working of the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans 
Acts varies from District to District. In some, borrowing from Govern- 
ment is unpopular, the cultivators preferring to take loans from the 
village banker, because, though the rates of interest charged by 
Government are low, it general!}' insists on punctual and regular re- 
payment in fixed instalments, whereas the village bankers do not require 
punctual repayment, and often accept grain or cattle in lieu of cash. 
Moreover, the official formalities necessary before the cash reaches 
the cultivator's hands often deter him from applying for a loan from 

During the decade ending 1900 about 2^ lakhs a year was advanced 
under the Land Imi)rovement Loans Act, 3-4 lakhs being advanced in 


1 900- 1 and r-5 lakhs in 1903-4. Loans are made at 6i per cent, per 
annum interest, and on the security of the borrower's holding. They 
are seldom misapplied, and are mostly taken for sinking irrigation 
wells, the number of which rose from 211,000 in 1890-1 to 276,000 
in 1903-4. Allowing for the wells which fell out of use, more than 
100,000 wells must have been sunk or renewed in this period, and 
of these a large proportion were made with the aid of loans from 
Government. Advances under the Agriculturists' T.oans Act are made 
on the personal security of the cultivator, and practically only in or 
after drought, to enable him to replace cattle that have died and to 
purchase seed. Between 1891 and 1900 about 4-5 lakhs was advanced 
annually, 2 lakhs being advanced in 1900-1 and i lakh in 1903-4. 

The indebtedness of the cultivators has long engaged the attention 
of Government, and the extent of the evil was illustrated by a special 
investigation into the conditions of certain tracts in Sialkot, Gujran- 
wala, and Shahpur Districts. The measures taken to cope with reck- 
less alienation of land are described below, under Land Revenue. The 
creditors are in the great majority of cases small Hindu shopkeepers. 
Agriculturist money-lenders are found in parts of the Punjab, such as 
Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Ferozepore, and Ludhiana, where the Sikh, 'half 
agriculturist, half soldier, and wholly Bania,' predominates; and they 
are said to be even more exacting than the trading classes. The 
ordinary rate of interest varies from 21 to 25 per cent., except in the 
case of loans on jewels, which are given at about 12 per cent. 
A Registrar of Co-operative Credit .Societies has been appointed in the 
Punjab. The number of registered societies on March 31, 1906, was 
151, of which 108 were in the Districts of Gurdaspur and JuUundur. 

The yak is found within the geographical limits of the Punjab, but 
only in the Northern Kangra hills. In summer it finds pasturage up 
to 17,000 feet, but in winter grazes below 8,000 feet. In the Higher 
Himalayas it is used for ploughing and pack-carriage. At lower eleva- 
tions it is crossed with the ordinary cattle of the hills. 

The Punjab kine are of the humped Indian type. In the Himalayas 
the mountain or Pahari breed is dark in colour, becoming black or red 
as the elevation increases. The Dhanni or Salt Range breed is similar 
in size but lighter, tending to white, in colour. In the plains there are 
several breeds, the principal being those of Montgomery, the Malwa, 
and Hariana, and that of the Kachi, the country between the Chenab 
and the Thai steppe. The best animals are reared in the southern 
Districts— Hissar, Delhi, Rohtak, Gurgaon, and Karnal. Bulls and 
bullocks are used for ploughing throughout the Province. 

Wild buffaloes are no longer found in the Punjab, but the domesti- 
cated variety is common and highly prized. A good cow-buffalo yields 
from 25 to 30 seers of a white insipid milk, rich in fat, from which large 

U 2 


quantities of ghi (clarified butter) are made. The protit from ghl is in 
some Districts very large. Hides are an important article of com- 
merce, and bones are largely exported. 

The most prevalent cattle diseases are foot-and-mouth disease, 
haemorrhagic septicaemia, rinderpest, black-quarter, and anthrax. 
Sheep and goats also suffer from the first named. Though it is very 
common, the losses from it are slight, as only 2 or 3 per cent, of 
the animals attacked die. Septicaemia is also prevalent, especially 
during the rains, and the mortality is usually 90 per cent. Buffaloes 
are its chief victims, but it also attacks kine. Rinderpest is common, 
more especially in the hills, where it assumes a virulent form, killing 
80 or 90 per cent, of the animals attacked. Cattle, sheep, goats, and 
even camels are subject to this pest. Inoculation, segregation, and 
other measures for combating cattle diseases are controlled by the 
qualified assistants who work under the Superintendent of the Civil 
Veterinary department and the Deputy-Commissioner. The prices 
of cattle vary considerably. A good milch buffalo fetches Rs. 100 or 
even Rs. 150. A pair of young Hariana plough bullocks cost Rs. 120 
or Rs. 140, and a cow from Rs. 50 to Rs. 70 ; but as a rule inferior and 
cheaper cattle are in demand. 

The Baloch and Dhanni breeds of horses are the best known in the 
Punjab. Generally the Punjab stock has immensely improved during 
the last thirty years from the infusion of the English and Arab blood 
of thoroughbred stallions. Large horse-fairs are held at Sargodha (in 
Shahpur), Dera Ghazi Khan, Rawalpindi, Gujrat, Amritsar, Multan, 
and Jalalabad (in Ferozepore). 

Sheep are important in the South-W^est Punjab, where wool is a 
staple product. The dinnba or fat-tailed sheep is found in the Salt 
Range, but does not flourish east of it. In the Himalayas the variety 
found resembles that of Dartmoor or Exmoor, the khddu being the 
best breed. Goats are kept chiefly for milk and meat, but the hair 
is also largely utilized. 

Camels are found generally throughout the plains and in the Lower 
Himalayas, but the south and south-west supply the largest numbers. 
Mostly used as a pack-animal, the camel is also employed for draught, 
riding, and even ploughing in those parts. Camel fairs are held at 
Abohar and Bhiwani (in Hissar). 

Donkeys are miserable creatures in the I^unjab, except in Rawal 
pindi and the Districts west of the Chenab. Mule-breeding from 
imported donkey stallions supplied by the Army Remount depart- 
ment is carried on in ten Districts and in both the canal colonies, 
and elsewhere by the Civil Veterinary department. 

Cattle are largely stall-fed. Every village has its grazing grounds ; 
but the grass is never abundant and fails entirely in years of scanty 


rainfall, when the cattle are driven off in large nimibers to find pasture 
along the rivers and below the hills. 

The principal cattle fairs are those held at Amritsar, Jahazgarh 
(in Rohtak), Gulu Shah (in Sialkot), and Hissar. 

The extent to which cultivation is dependent on irrigation may be 
gauged from the fact that 41 per cent, of the cultivated area is irrigated, 
mainly from wells and canals, and that 7 per cent, more is subject to 
inundation from the rivers. Hence only 52 per cent, of the cultivated 
area is wholly dependent on the rainfall. Of the 41 per cent, irrigated, 
22 per cent, is irrigated from canals, 14 from wells, 4 from wells and 
canals combined, and i from streams and tanks. 

The necessity and demand for irrigation vary with the climatic and 
physical conditions. Speaking generally, the necessity for perennial 
irrigation varies inversely with the amount of the rainfall, being there- 
fore greatest in the south-west and least in the north-east submontane 
tracts. The two principal means of irrigation are canals and wells, the 
latter including various indigenous kinds of lift, and the area in which 
each can be used is determined by the depth of the spring-level. 
Perennial canals are beneficial where the spring-level is not less than 
20 feet below the surface ; but where it is higher, wells are used in the 
cold season and the canal is reserved for irrigating the autumn crop 
during the summer months, to prevent the soil from becoming water- 

Native rulers were not blind to the possibilities of irrigation in the 
Punjab ; but, at annexation, the only canals open in the Province, as it 
stood before the addition of the Delhi territory after the Mutiny, were 
the Hasli (since merged in the Bari Doab Canal) and a good many 
inundation canals in the south-western Districts. Thus the present 
canals are almost entirely the creation of British rule. These canals 
fall into two classes : (i) the perennial canals, with permanent head- 
works ; and (2) the inundation canals which run only in the flood 
season, and irrigate the lowlands along the rivers. Of the former 
class there are now six canals : the Western Jumna, Sirhind, B.\ri 
Doab, Chenab, Jhelum, and Sidhnai, though there is seldom enough 
water in the river for a cold-season supply to the last named. I'hese 
great canals serve four-fifths of the total area irrigated from Govern- 
ment works. There are six series of inundation canals : the Upper 
and Lower Sutlej, Chenab, Indus (right bank), Muzaffargarii 
(from the left bank of the Indus and right bank of the Chenab), Shah- 
pur, and Ghaggar. Besides these, numerous small inundation canals 
are owned by private individuals or District boards. Of these, the 
Grey Canals in Ferozepore are the chief. The total length of main 
channels and branches in 1S90-1, 1900-T, and 1903-4 was 3,813, 
4,644, and 4,744 miles respectively. 


■ Canal revenue is direct or indirect. The former is paid by the 
cultivator according to occupier's rates fixed for different crops. It 
is assessed on all the great perennial canals by the canal officers, and 
the rules provide liberal remissions for failed crops. The indirect 
charges (owner's or water-advantage rate) aim at taxing the landowner 
for the rent or profits derived by him from the canal. The gross 
receipts averaged 50 lakhs between 1881 and 1890, 102 lakhs between 
1891 and 1900, and amounted to 162 lakhs in 1900-1 and 200 lakhs 
in 1903-4. In the same periods the expenditure (excluding capital 
account) was 26 lakhs, 42 lakhs, 60 lakhs, and 66 lakhs. The net 
profits in 1903-4 were 134 lakhs, and, deducting interest on capital 
expenditure, 94 lakhs, or 8-7 per cent. The most profitable canal was 
the Chenab Canal, which yielded 19-6 per cent. The return on capital 
has decreased greatly in the case of ' minor ' works. This is due to 
the expenditure of 10 lakhs of capital during the ten years ending 1890 
on protective works, which produced no direct return. The returns 
from inundation canals fluctuate enormously. For example, on the 
Upper Sutlej Canals the dividend was only 1-95 per cent, in 1 900-1 
and as much as 43-2 per cent, in 1901-2. 

The efficient distribution of the water depends largely on the tele- 
graph system by which canal officers are kept in constant touch with 
the gauge stations. Control of the distribution is secured by a sys- 
tematic devolution of responsibility. The Chief Engineer receives 
a weekly report on the state of the crops, and is thus enabled to 
supervise the general distribution of the water throughout the Province; 
the Superintending Engineer controls its distribution among the divi- 
sions of his canal, and so on. Within the village the policy is to leave 
the distribution of the water in the hands of the cultivators, who see 
that it is divided in accordance with the share lists based on the area 
to be irrigated in each holding. On inundation canals the supply 
depends on the rise of the rivers, and these rarely do more than supply 
water for sowing a spring crop, which has to be matured by well- 

A vast irrigation scheme was sanctioned in 1905. It will comprise 
three new canals : the Upper Jhelum, Upper Chenab, and Lower Bari 
Doab. Of these, the first will take off from the Jhelum in Kashmir 
territory, 18 miles from the British border, and, skirting the Pabbi hills, 
pass close to Gujrat town and tail in above the head-works of the 
existing Chenab Canal. It will have only one branch ; but its dis- 
tributaries, 562 miles in length, will irrigate the southern part of Gujrat 
and a part of Shahpur District, which is not supplied by the Jhelum 
Canal. The Upper Chenab Canal will take off from the Chenab river 
opposite Sialkot, and will irrigate a large part of Gujranwala and Lahore 
Districts and a little of Sialkot ; then, crossing the Ravi river by 



a siphon t6 miles below Lahore, it will feed ihc tliird eanal in the 
series. This, the Lower Bari Doab Canal, will run parallel with the 
Ravi river through the whole length of Montgomery District and end 
in Multan District, the northern portion of which it will also irrigate. 
These projects are estimated to cost 782 lakhs, and will take nine 
years to complete, provided that sutificient labour is forthcoming. The 
total length of the three canals will be 230 miles, with 2,714 miles 
of distributaries. 

The only navigable canals are portions of the Western Jumna and 
Sirhind systems. The former is navigable from its head to Delhi ; 
a portion of the Hansi branch is also navigable, the total length 
of navigable channels being 207 miles. The Sirhind Canal is navi- 
gable for 180 miles from its head at Rupar, and from the town of 
Patiala to Ferozepore, where it connects with the river Sutlej, whence 
there is a continuous water-way to Karachi. The boat traffic is insig- 
nificant, the boat tolls on both together amounting to less than 
Rs. 5,000 per annum ; but there is a considerable raft traffic, &c., 
particularly on the Western Jumna Canal, where the dues average 
about Rs. 40,000 per annum. The rafts consist principally of timber, 
sleepers, scantlings, and bamboos, which are floated down the hills 
to the canal head, and are thence passed into the canals. 

Almost all the irrigation carried on by indigenous methods is from 
wells. In 1903-4 the Punjab contained over 276,000 masonry wells 
and 38,000 unlined and lever wells and water-lifts. In that year 
the total area of the crops matured under well-irrigation was about 
5,400 square miles. Masonry wells are worked by bullocks, the Persian 
wheel or a rope and bucket being used. Unlined wells are chietly 
found in riverain lands, but small unlined wells are also used in 
submontane tracts with a high spring-level. They are mostly worked 
by a lever. Masonry wells cost from Rs. 150 to Rs. 750 or more 
according to depth. Unlined wells cost only about R. r per foot, 
but seldom last more than three years. 

In the Salt Range and the hilly tracts of Gurgaon and Dera Ghazi 
Khan, torrents are embanked and the water is spread over the fields 
as required. In the hills and submontane tracts a considerable area, 
chiefly under rice, is irrigated by small channels {kuhls) taken out 
of a river or stream and often carried along the hill-sides. 

Fish are plentiful in most of the rivers and canals of the Province. 
In certain Districts the fisheries are leased by Government to con- 
tractors, and in 1904-5 the total income from this source was Rs. 4,342. 
In accordance with the provisions of the Indian Fisheries Act (IV 
of 1897), certain methods of fishing, such as the use of the drag-net, 
have been prohibited in some of the streams of Rawalpindi District, 
and in the Jumna for a mile above and a mile below the Okhla weir 


at the head of the Agra Canal, while in Sirmur and the hill-country 

of Patiala the fish in the Giri and other streams are strictly preserved 

in the interests of anglers. 

The state under native rule took all, or nearly all, the produce of the 

land which was not required for the subsistence of 

Rents, wages, and ^^^^ cultivators, and it is only since the value of land 
prices. . ' •' . 

has risen under the more lenient British assessments 

that anything in the shape of a margin leviable as rent has been in any 

general way available for the owners of land. 

The assessment on land, which under Sikh rule was usually taken 
direct from the cultivator in kind, is now always taken from the owner 
in cash, and the latter recovers from the tenant, in kind or in cash, 
an amount which ordinarily ranges from twice to three times the value 
of the assessment. The usual practice is to take rent in kind at a share 
of the produce, and 57 per cent, of the rented area of the Province 
is now subject to some form of kind rent ; but where crops difficult to 
divide are grown, and in the neighbourhood of towns, or on lands held 
by occupancy tenants, or in tracts, such as the south-east of the Punjab, 
where the custom is of some standing, it is not unusual to find rents 
paid in cash. The exact rate at which a rent in kind is paid is largely 
a matter of custom ; and such rents, while varying considerably from 
soil to soil, do not change much from time to time. Cash rents, on 
the other hand, have necessarily increased with the increase in the 
prices of agricultural produce ; and the average incidence of such 
rents has risen from Rs. 1-13-2 per acre in 1 880-1, to Rs. 2-6-5 
in 1890-1, and Rs. 4-6 in 1900-1. 

As nearly one-half of the land in the Punjab is cultivated by the 
owners themselves, and a fair portion of the rest by owners who pay 
rent to co-sharers or other owners, the tenant class is neither so large 
nor so distinctively marked as in the rest of Northern India, and the 
law affords much less elaborate protection to the tenant than is usual 
in the United Provinces or in Bengal. A limited number of the 
tenant class, amounting to nearly one-fifth of the whole, have been 
marked off by the legislature on certain historical grounds as entitled 
to rights of occupancy, and the rents of this class cannot be enhanced 
to a standard higher than 12^ to 75 per cent, (according to circum- 
stances) in excess of the land revenue. In the case of the remaining 
tenants, who hold at will, no limit is fixed to the discretion of the 
landlord in the matter of enhancement ; but the procedure to be 
followed in ejectment and the grant of compensation for improvements 
legally executed are provided for by the law in respect of both classes 
of tenants. 

The figures given in the following table are of interest as showing 
the direction in which rents are developing : — 









Average area held per proprietor . 



1 17-8 1 


Average area of tenant's holding . 
Percentage of total cultivated area held 





by tenants 

Percentage of tenant area held by occu- 





pancy tenants ..... 

Percentage of grain-rented to total 

rented area 







These statistics are subject to a good many reservations which need 
not be entered into here ; but they are sufficient to disprove the usual 
impression that the increase of the landowning population entails 
a withdrawal of land from tenants, and that with the development 
of the country the practice of kind rents is disappearing. 

With normal prices, the sum required for the food of a labouring 
family may be taken to be about Rs. 4^ a month, and to this Rs. i| 
a month must be added for a reasonable amount of furniture, clothing, 
and other necessaries. The ordinary unskilled labourer, therefore, 
looks to get about Rs. 6 a month or its value, and this may be 
taken as the ordinary rate roughly prevailing. The labourer in a town 
is usually paid entirely in cash ; in the country he is paid either wholly 
or partially in kind. The country labourer needs a little more food 
than the town labourer ; but whereas the latter has house-rent to pay, 
the former generally obtains his house at little or no expense to himself. 
The cultivator who rents but does not own land lives at a standard 
of comfort very little higher than the landless labourer. As his expen- 
diture, like his income, is almost entirely in grain, and a large part 
of his food and clothing is produced by himself, it is difficult to 
estimate his receipts in money ; but it would probably be fair to say 
that, when the ordinary day labourer receives Rs. 6 a month, the 
receipts of the cultivator after paying his rent would be represented 
by something Hke Rs. 7 or Rs. 8, while if the cultivator were also 
an owner of land his average income, after payment of Government 
dues, might be put at Rs. 10, or more. Skilled labourers, such as 
blacksmiths or masons, get about Rs. 16 a month or its equivalent, 
and carpenters still more. The ordinary vernacular clerk in a com- 
mercial or Government office will as a rule get something between 
Rs. 15 and Rs. 20, but on this he has to maintain a better style 
of dress and living than men who work with their hands. Wages 
are now twice or thrice as high as they were in Sikh times, and 
there has been a progressive rise in recent years. So far as the 
labourer's food is concerned, its money value has in the last twenty 
years increased by 30 to 35 per cent., while the other items of his 
expenditure have decreased in price ; and it would probably be correct 


to say that during the same period the labourer's wages have risen 
from 20 to 25 per cent. With artisans the increase has been larger, 
or from 25 to 30 per cent. 

Although there are large piece-goods and other marts at places like 
Delhi and Amritsar, no official statistics are maintained regarding the 
prices of any but agricultural staples. For these, three classes of data 
are available : the prices obtained by agriculturists at harvest time at 
a fair number of towns and large villages in each District ; the whole- 
sale prices prevailing at the end of each fortnight in six representative 
cities of the Province ; and the retail prices prevailing at the end of 
each fortnight at the head-quarters of each District. The differences 
between the figures obtained under the first and second of these heads 
,are due partly to the cost of carriage, and partly also to the want of 
capital among agriculturists, which necessitates their selling while the 
market is still low. To illustrate the difference which prevails between 
the three classes, an example may be taken from one of the central 
Districts in 1904, when wheat sold at the country markets at harvest 
time for Rs. 19-5 per ten maunds, whereas at the head-quarters the 
average wholesale price for the year was Rs. 2 1 and the average retail 
price Rs. 22. In making rough calculations for assessment purposes, 
it is usual to assume that the agriculturist gets 4 annas per maund of 
82 lb. less than the recorded average retail prices of the year. The 
rise of prices in the Province at large is best studied in the retail 
figures, which are available in greater completeness than the others. 
Table V at the end of this article (p. 383) shows prices for a series 
of years at Delhi, Amritsar, and Rawalpindi. In wheat, which is the 
main staple of the Province, the average rate of increase in the three 
markets noted is 36-7 per cent, for the period 1880-1900; and if 
wheat, gram, Joivdr, and Inyra are dealt with in the proportion in 
which they are grown, the average joint increase is 35-4 per cent. 
The mileage of railways within the Province has more than quad- 
rupled in the same period, and the large rise in prices is doubtless 
due in the main to this improvement in communication, accompanied 
by the opening of foreign markets. 

Village life is still simple and possesses few luxuries. All the articles 
that the people require, except matches, lamps, and kerosene oil, and, 
most important of all, piece-goods, are made locally, and are much the 
same as they were before British rule. The wealth which is being 
accumulated by the people is hoarded, commonly in ornaments, and 
less usually in cash. The circulation of Punjab circle currency notes 
rose from 134 lakhs in 1891-2 to 263 in 1903-4, and the deposits in 
the Postal savings banks increased from 63 to 80 lakhs in the same 
period. The peasantry, especially the landowners, have a much higher 
standard of living than they had forty years ago, their increased means 


enabling them to travel more, cat better food, wear better elothing, 
and own more horses, utensils, and jewels. The Sikh Districts of the 
C'entral Punjab and the submontane and Himalayan tracts are per- 
haps the most prosperous. Among the landless labouring classes the 
increase in general comfort has been marked, owing to the extension 
of canal-irrigation and the foundation of the Chenab Colony, which 
has attracted large numbers of labourers from nearly every part of the 
Province. In the towns cheap European luxuries, such as German 
watches, patent leather shoes, and bicycles, find a considerable sale, 
as do American drugs and cigarettes. Round most of the larger towns 
suburbs are springing up containing villas built in pAiropean style with 
gardens, to which the wealthier classes resort as a change from their 
close ill-ventilated homes within the ancient walls. 

The forests may be divided into two main classes, those of the hills 
and those of the plains. For the most part the forests of the plains 

are of the class known as dry forests, growing in 

tracts of scanty rainfall and poor, sandy, and often 

salt-impregnated soil. The characteristic trees are the tamarisk or 
farash {Tamarix articiilafa), the leafless caper or karil {Capparis 
aphyi/a), the Jand {Prosopis spicigera), the vaft {Salvadora oleoides), 
and a few acacias of the species known as klkar in the Punjab and 
Imbul in the rest of Northern India {Acacia arabica). Forests of this 
type, interspersed with large treeless wastes, occupy extensive areas 
in the Lahore, Montgomery, Multan, Chenab, Jhelum, and Shahpur 
Forest divisions, where they are estimated to cover an area of about 
4,000 square miles. In the Central Punjab large tracts covered with 
the dhdk {Butea frondosa) are common. As they approach the hills 
these forests become richer in species, and gradually blend with the 
deciduous forests of the Lower Himalayas, while to the south and west 
they give place to the deserts of Rajputana and Sind. On the banks 
and islands of rivers, and indeed wherever water is near the surface, 
the sh'isham {Dalbergia Sissod) often becomes gregarious, and is of 
some importance ; and many other species, such as acacias and the 
black mulberry, are found. The avenues of shlsham and other trees 
planted along roads and canals are an important feature in the scenery 
of the Province. 

The sal tree (Shorea robi/sta) is found in the small submontane 
forest of Kalesar in Ambala, in the adjoining State of Sirmur, and in 
a few scattered areas in Kangra District. This is, however, the 
extreme western limit of its growth, and it can never be expected to 
attain any great dimensions. The rocky hills of the Salt Range and 
Kala-Chitta are in parts covered with an open forest, in which the 
olive {Olea cuspidata) and the phulahl {Acacia ?nodesta) are the prin- 
cipal trees. 


The hill forests fall into groups classified by their elevation. Below 
3,000 feet they are composed of scrub and bamboo {Dendrocalamus 
strictus). The bamboo forests are most important in Kangra, where 
they cover an area of 14,000 acres ; the scrub forests survive in good 
condition only in places where they have been protected by closure 
from grazing. Between 2,500 and 5,000 feet of elevation the chil pine 
(PiuHS lofigifo/ia) is the principal tree. Forests of this tree are found 
throughout Kangra proper, in the Murree and Kahilta tahs'ih of Rawal- 
pindi, and in the lower portions of the valleys of Kulu, Bashahr, and 
Sirmur. Between 5,000 and 8,000 feet occurs the true zone of the 
valuable deodar {Cedrus Deodara\ which grows either in pure forests 
or mixed with the blue pine {Pinus excelsa), the silver fir {Abies Web- 
bia?ia), the spruce {Picea Morinda), and trees of various deciduous 
species. The principal deodar forests are found in the Parbati valley, 
and around the head-waters and side streams running into the Beas in 
Kulu, on either side of the Ravi in Chamba and the Chenab in Pangi, 
in the valleys of the Sutlej and the tributaries of the Jumna in Bashahr, 
and in Jubbal. In this zone extensive forests of blue pine, pure or 
mixed with deodar, also occur, principally in Kulu and Bashahr. Above 
8,000 feet, extensive areas, especially in the zone between 9,500 and 
12,500 feet, are covered with silver fir, spruce, and trees of various 
deciduous species. Approaching 12,500 feet, which is about the 
limit of tree growth, rhododendron, birch, and juniper are found. 
The grassy slopes which extend from the limit of tree growth to the 
line of perpetual snow afford pasturage, and shepherds and herdsmen 
migrate thither annually with their flocks and cattle. 

The administration of all the more important forests is controlled by 
the Forest department, under a Conservator. There are twelve Forest 
divisions, including those of the Bashahr and Chamba States, the 
forests of which are leased by the Punjab Government. The forests 
of the Simla Hill States are under the general care of the Simla 
Forest officer, who advises the chiefs. In 1904 the land under the 
Forest department amounted to 9,278 square miles, of which 1,916 
were completely 'reserved,' 4,909 'protected,' 1,914 'unclassed,' or 
given over with some restrictions to the use of the public, and 539 
' leased.' There were also 1 1 2 square miles of ' reserved ' forest, and 
square miles of ' unclassed,' under the Military department ; and other 
civil departments had charge of 4 miles of 'reserved,' 10 acres of 
' protected,' and 7,033 square miles of ' unclassed ' forests, the last 
being chiefly waste land in the charge of Deputy-Commissioners. 

All deodar forests of commercial importance are worked in accor- 
dance with working-plans, prepared by the Forest department and 
sanctioned by the Local Government. Under their prescriptions 
7,140 deodar trees are allowed to be cut annually, and the annual 

FORESTS 3 1 1 

yield of deodar timber from the forests under the control of the 
department is estimated at 659,000 cubie feet. This timber, together 
with a certain amount of blue pine and r////, is floated down the various 
rivers to the plains, where it is sold to railways for sleepers, or to the 
public. Efforts are now being made to introduce exploitation by 
private enterprise. The chll forests of Murree and Kahuta are also 
under a working-plan, and for those of Kangra a plan is in prepara- 
tion. In the Kangra forests the chil trees are systematically tapped 
for resin. The spruce and fir forests are for the present principally of 
value as grazing grounds, and for supplying local requirements in forest 
produce. They hold, however, enormous stocks of timber, which may 
eventually become of commercial value. The scrub forests below 
2,500 feet and much of the plains forests are managed as grazing 
grounds. The bamboo forests of Kangra form a valuable property, 
yielding an annual surplus revenue of about Rs. 20,000. 

All closed forest areas in the lower hills and in the plains may be 
regarded as fuel and fodder reserves. In times of drought such areas 
are opened to grazing, and if necessary to lopping, so as to enable the 
people to keep their cattle alive until the occurrence of more favour- 
able seasons. The area of forest land in the plains is rapidly decreasing 
as colonization schemes are extended, and the consequent contraction 
of fuel and fodder-producing areas may be felt in the future. 

Changa Manga in Lahore District contains a plantation of 8,872 
acres fully stocked with s/ilsham and mulberry, and there are smaller 
shlsham plantations at Shahdara in the same District, and at Jullundur, 
Ludhiana, and Jagadhri. Efforts have been made for many years past 
to increase the stock of deodar in the hill forests by artificial sowings 
and plantings, which have been to a certain extent successful. 

The wants of the people are fully provided for by the various forest 
settlements, which record their rights to timber, fuel, grazing, &c., in 
the Government forests ; and in some places the inhabitants have the 
first option of taking grazing leases, and buying the grass from the 
adjoining forests. The relations of the department with the people 
are satisfactory, and offences against the forest laws are usually trivial 
and are becoming less numerous. 

Attempts are made to protect all the more valuable forests from fire. 
Fortunately the valuable deodar forests are but little exposed to this 
danger, but the ^A// forests become highly inflammable in the hot season. 
The local population at first resented the restrictions imposed by fire 
conservancy, and many cases of wilful firing of forests used to occur ; 
but such occurrences are now happily less frequent, and the people 
often give willing help in extinguishing fires in Government forests. 

The financial results of the working of the department are shown 
in the following table : — 



1880-1 to 


I 890- I to 

1 899- 1 900 1 900- 1 . 1903-4. 


Revenue . . , 7,74,362 
Expenditure 5,49,045 
Surplus . . 2,25,317 



Rs. Rs. 1 
12,60,234 16,51,077 

8,35.299 9.55.918 
4.24.935 6,95,159 

Mines and 

Saltpetre is 

Forest revenue is principally realized from the sale of deodar timber, 
which produces about 6 lakhs annually, sales of other timber amount- 
ing to only Rs. 60,000. The other chief items are sale of fuel 
(Rs. 4,60,000), and grazing and grass (Rs. 1,64,000). 

The Punjab is not rich in minerals ; and nearly all its mineral 
wealth is found in the hills, the only products of 
the alluvium being kankar or nodular limestone, salt- 
petre, carbonate of soda, and sal-ammoniac, 
found on the sites of used and disused habitations, 
generally associated with the chlorides of sodium, magnesium, or 
potassium, and the sulphates of sodium, potassium, or calcium. The 
initial process of manufacture, which consists in allowing water to per- 
colate slowly through the nitrous earth, results in a solution not merely 
of nitre but of all the associated salts. The separation of the nitre from 
the rest is the work of the refiner. Refineries exist all over the Province 
and pay an annual licence fee of Rs. 50, while for the initial process the 
fee is Rs. 2. Saltpetre is exported to Europe, and is also largely used 
in India in the manufacture of fireworks and gunpowder for blasting. 
In 1903-4 there were 35 refineries in the Punjab. These produced 
73,917 cwt. of refined saltpetre, the out-turn being nearly 41 per cent, 
of the crude substance. Impure salt {sittd) to the amount of 58,322 cwt. 
was also educed, the out-turn being over 32 per cent, of the saltpetre so 
utilized. Of this amount, only 4,091 cwt. were e.xcised at Rs. 1-5-9 
per cwt. (R. i a maund), 54,496 cwt. being destroyed. Pure salt is not 
educed. A large saltpetre refinery exists at Okara in Montgomery 

The only other important mineral product of the plains is kankar, 
or conglomerated nodules of limestone, used for metalling roads, which 
is found in most parts. Carbonate of soda (barilla) is made from the 
ashes of various wild plants, chiefly in the west and south-west of the 
Province. Sal-ammoniac is manufactured in Karnal, by burning bricks 
made of the clay found in ponds and heating the greyish substance 
which exudes from them in closed retorts. 

The most valuable mineral is rock-salt, which, with gypsum, forms 
immense beds in the Salt Range. It is worked in that range at Khewka 
and NiJKi'UK in Jhelum District, at Kalahagh in Mianwali, and at 
Wakcha in Shahpur. Salt is also manufactured at Sultanpur, in (lurgaon 


District, by evaporation of the saline subsoil water. Salt, dark in colour 
and containing a large proportion of earth and other impurities, is 
quarried at Drang and Gunia in the State of Mandl. 'J'he total amount 
of salt made and sold in the Punjab rose from 79,295 t(jns in i88o-r to 
84>338 tons in 1890-1, 94,824 tons in 1900-1, and 105,163 tons in 
1903-4. The average output of the Salt Range and Mandi mines in 
the six years 1898-1903 was 93,698 tons, of which 89,023 came from 
the Salt Range ; the output of the Salt Range in 1904 was 99,192 tons. 
Large deposits of gypsum occur in Spiti and Kanawar, but too inac- 
cessible to be at present of any economic value. 

Although the existence of coal at numerous points throughout the 
Salt Range had long been recognized, no attempts were made to 
work it until recentl)-, except at the large colliery near Dandot 
in Jhelum District. Within the last few years, however, prospecting 
licences have been taken out at Kalabagh on the Indus in Mianwali 
District, a few other places in Jhelum, and Sandral in Shah pur ; and 
great hopes are entertained that the coal will prove to be of a paying 
quality. The Dandot Mines have been worked since 1884 by the North- 
western Railway. There is only one seam of coal, which outcrops at 
various points along the hill-side at a mean distance of 300 feet below 
the limestone scarp, which here rises 2,300 feet above sea-level. The 
seam averages 2 feet 9 inches in thicknes.s, and is worked on the long- 
wall system, all the coal being taken out in one operation. The mines 
are entered by level or inclined tunnels from the hill-side, the longest 
stretching 900 yards under the hill. From the mouth of each tunnel the 
coal is conveyed on an inclined tramway to the edge of the hill, whence 
a funicular railway runs down the cliff to the North-Western terminus 
at Dandot. The coal is classed as a bituminous lignite, and, though low 
in fixed carbon, has a relatively high calorific value. About 1,500 men 
are employed on the mines, at a daily wage of 8 annas for a miner 
and 3^ or 4^ annas for a cooly. 'i'he workers are chiefly agriculturists, 
who leave the mines when their fields claim all their time, to return to 
them again when the crops need less attention. Very few can really 
be called miners. Makranis were at one time imported from Karachi, 
but the experiment was not a success. In 1891 the out-turn was 
60,703 tons, in 1901 67,730, and in 1904 45,594 tons. In 1901 it 
was estimated that three million tons remained to be worked. 

There are no gold-mines in the Punjab, but gold-washing is curried 
on at various places in the ui)per reaches of most of the rivers. The 
industry is not remunerative, a hard day's work producing gold to the 
value of only 2 or 4 annas'. The total recorded output in 1904 was 
370 oz. 

Iron is found in Kangra District at several points along the Dhaola 
' Punjab JVodiicts, by Baden Powell, pp. 12, 13. 


Dhar, in the form of crystals of magnetic oxide of iron imljedded in 
decomposed and friable mica schists. The supply is practically inex- 
haustible, and the quality of the ore is equal to the best Swedish iron. 
The remoteness of the tract, combined with difficulties of carriage and 
absence of fuel, have hitherto prevented smelting on a large scale. 
Besides iron, antimony ore is found. Iron mines are also worked at 
Kot Khai in Simla, and in the Hill States of Jubbal, Bashahr, Mandi, 
and Suket. Sirmur State possesses several iron mines, but they are 
not worked owing to their inaccessibility and the poor quality of 
the ore. 

Copper was formerly smelted in considerable quantities in various 
parts of the Outer Himalayas in Kulu, where a killas-like rock persists 
along the whole range, and is known to be copper-bearing. Veins 
of galena and of copper pyrites occur in the Lower Himalayas, in 
Kulu, and in the Simla Hill States ; and stibnite is found at Shigri in 
the valley of the Chandra river in Lahul. 

There are quarries at Bakhli in the State of Mandi, near Kanhiara 
in Kangra District, and throughout Kulu, which turn out a good quality 
of slate. A quarry at Kund in the Rewari tahsil of Gurgaon is worked 
under European management, but the slate and flake are not of good 

Petroleum springs occur in Attock District, and in the hills to the 
south-east, but the average recorded output during the six years ending 
1903 was only 1,674 gallons. In 1904 the output was 1,658 gallons. 

Near Kalabagh in Mianwali District, on the Indus, considerable 
quantities of a pyritous shale are extracted for the production of alum, 
but the mining is carried on in an irregular and fitful way. The output 
was estimated in 1898 to amount to 750 tons, and to only 129 tons 
in 1904. 

Cotton-spinning is the great domestic industry of the Province, coarse 

cotton cloth being woven by hand in almost every village. In 1901 the 

number of persons returned as supported by cotton- 

manufa^"ures. weaving in British territory was 778,947, of whom 
322,944 were actual workers and 456,003 dependents. 
The coarse country cloth is strongly woven and wears well, and is not 
likely to be entirely displaced by the machine-made article for some 
time to come. Finer qualities are also manufactured, but these in- 
clude only longcloths and damasks, white or coloured, with woven 
patterns. Muslin {ta/izeb) is made in small quantities at Delhi and 
Rohtak. The longcloths, when checked and of thick material, are 
called khes, and when striped are termed sfisi, the latter being made 
of machine-spun yarn with sometimes a few silk threads in the warp. 
The lungl or pagri is a long narrow strip of cotton cloth worn by men 
round the head as a turban or as a band round the waist. Beautiful 


khes are madf in ihe Soulh-AVesi and Central Punjab. The ga/n-f/ns of 
Ludhiana closely resemble similar goods made in Europe, and its /i/zigls, 
imitations of those made in Peshawar, are famous. The /ungts of 
Shahpur and Multan are more ornate. A special cloth made of a 
mixture of cotton and wool called garbi hi is woven in Gurdaspur 
District and exported all over India. The glazed fabrics of Jul- 
lundur, especially the diaper called ghdti or hdbulchashm or 'nightin- 
gale's eye,' are also famous. Cotton rugs, ddris or shatranjis, are turned 
out at Lahore and Ambala. Cotton-pile carpets are made at Multan, 
but recent productions indicate that a crude scheme of colours has 
ruined the beauty of this manufacture. Cotton-printing is carried on 
in many parts of the Punjab, and the productions of Kot Kamalia, 
Sultanpur, and Lahore are especially famous. The printing is done 
by hand by means of small wooden blocks. Within recent years fairly 
large quantities have been exported to Europe and America, but the 
trade is declining owing to the fashion having changed. 

Sheep's wool is largely produced in the plains, and is woven or 
felted into blankets and rugs. Dera Ghazi Khan and Bhera produce 
coloured felts {iia?>idds) in considerable quantities. The finest wool 
is that of Hissar, and the western Districts also produce a fair quality. 
Some of the wool worked up in the Province is imported from 
Australia, most of this being utilized by the power-loom mills at 
Dhariwal. Of greater interest, however, are the manufactures of 
pashm, the fine hair of the Tibetan goat. This is imported through 
Kashmir, Kulu, and Bashahr, and supplies Ludhiana, Simla, Kangra, 
Amritsar, and Gujrat, the chief seats of artistic woollen manufacture. 
The industry dates from early in the nineteenth century, when famine 
drove numbers of artisans from Kashmir to seek a home in the Punjab. 
Real Kashmir shawls continued to be made until the Franco-German 
War, when the demand ceased ; and the manufacture of pashtnnia, 
or piece-goods made from pashm, is now confined to ahvdns or serges, 
curtains, and ordinary shawls. In many Districts sacking, coarse 
blankets, and rugs are made of goats' and camels' hair. 

Practically the whole of the silk used in the Punjab is imported 
from China. It is woven in most parts, the chief centres being 
Amritsar, Lahore, Patiala, Batala, Multan, Bahawalpur, Delhi, and 
Jullundur, where both spinning and weaving are fairly important 
industries. The articles manufactured may be divided into three 
classes : woven fabrics of pure silk, woven fabrics of silk and cotton, 
and netted fabrics of silk or silk and cotton, of which the second are 
being turned out in largely increasing quantities. Turbans and waist- 
bands {iif/igis) of cotton cloth with silk borders woven on to them are 
also very largely made. Netted silk is made in the form of fringes, 
tassels, gvcdXt^, patjdma strings, &c. 



Many kinds of wearing apparel are decorated with embroidery. 
The wraps called phulkaris (' flower-work ') are in most Districts 
embroidered with silk, and the industry has grown from a purely 
domestic one into a considerable trade, large numbers being exported 
to Europe for table-covers and hangings. Very similar are the orhnds 
of Hissar, which are embroidered in wool or cotton. Delhi is the 
centre of the trade in embroideries, in which gold and silver wire, 
as well as silk thread, is largely used, on silk, satin, and velvet. The 
purity of the manufacture is guaranteed by the municipality, which 
supervises the manufacture, fees being paid by the artisans to cover 
expenses. This practice, a relic of native rule, is highly popular among 
the workmen, who thereby get a guarantee for the purity of their wares. 
The embroidery is applied chiefly to caps, shoes, belts, uniforms, 
turbans, elephant trappings and the like, besides table covers and 
similar articles of European use. 

The carpet- weaving of Amritsar is a flourishing and important indus- 
try, and its products are exported to all parts of the world. Pashm 
is used for the finest carpets, and the work is all done by hand. 
Woollen carpets used to be made at Multan, but owing to the com- 
petition of Amritsar the industry is now confined to the manufacture 
of mats. Felt mats called namdds are made of unspun wool and 

Ornaments are universally worn, and Punjabi women display 
jewellery as lavishly as those in any other part of the plains of 
India. It has been estimated that Amritsar city alone contains 
jewels to the value of two millions sterling, and the workers in 
precious metals in the Province considerably outnumber those in 
iron and steel. Gold is mainly confined to the wealthier classes, 
and is not largely worn by them except on special occasions ; whereas 
silver ornaments are in daily use by all but the poorer classes. The 
late Mr. Baden Powell ' gave a list of ninety-nine names for ornaments 
used in the Punjab, and the list is by no means exhaustive ; it includes 
ornaments for the head, forehead, ears, nose, neck, arms, and waist, 
with bracelets, anklets, and rings for the toes and fingers in great 
variety. The general character of the gold- and silver-work is rough 
and unfinished. Superior work is turned out at Amritsar and Delhi, 
and at the latter place a good deal of jewellery is made for the 
European market. 

Iron is largely smelted in Kangra and Simla Districts, but the out- 
turn is insignificant compared with the amount imported into the 
Punjab. Lahore used to be famous for the manufacture of weapons, 
but the industry is now extinct. In Gujranwala and at Bhera in 
Shahpur District cutlery is made, but the production is irregular. 
' Pttnjah Maiuifai lures, pp. 181-4. 


The finish of these articles, thcnigh not perfect, is better than the 
quaHty of the steel, which is tough but deficient in hardness. Dama- 
scening or inlaying small articles of iron with gold wire is carried on 
in Sialkot and Gujrat Districts. Agricultural implements are made 
by village blacksmiths, who are also often carpenters. In Lahore 
ironwork has been considerably improved under the influence of the 
North-Western Railway workshops. 

All the brass and copper used is, in the first instance, imported, 
chiefly from Europe. Formerly copper was obtained from Kabul, 
but the import has entirely ceased. Various copper and zinc ores, 
found in the Kulu hills and other parts of the Himalayas, used to 
be mined, but the imported metals are so cheap that there is no 
immediate likelihood of the mines being reopened. European spelter, 
chiefly German, has long since driven the Chinese zinc out of the 
market. Both yellow and grey brass (or bell metal) are manufactured 
in the Punjab. Brass- ware is either hammered or cast ; copper-ware 
is either cast or made of sheet copper soldered together. The industry 
is limited to the manufacture of domestic utensils, which are only 
roughly ornamented. The chief centres of the manufacture are the 
towns of Rewari, Delhi, Jagadhri, Panlpat, Gujranwala, Amritsar, Find 
Dadan Khan, and various places in Sialkot District. 

Rough unglazed pottery is made in nearly every village, the potters 
being generally village menials who supply the villagers' requirements 
in return for a fixed share of the harvest. Unglazed pottery of a rather 
better kind is made at Jhajjar, and thin or ' paper ' pottery at Panlpat, 
Jhajjar, Jullundur, Tanda, and a few other places. Glazed pottery is 
made at Multan. Originally confined to the manufacture of tiles, 
there is now a large trade in flower-pots, plaques, vases, &c. The 
predominant colours are light and dark blue, brown, and green. 
Porcelain of disintegrated felspathic earth, mixed with gum, is made 
at Delhi. China clay is found near Delhi and in the Himalayas, but 
has not hitherto been utilized. The manufacture of glass is mainly 
confined to the production of glass bangles. Bottles, glasses, mirrors, 
lamps, lamp-chimneys, and other articles are made at Karnal, Kangra, 
Hoshiarpur, Lahore, and Delhi. 

Wood-carving as an indigenous art is almost entirely architectural, 
being devoted to doors and doorways, balconies and bow windows. 
Apart from the hill work, which has a character of its own, the wood- 
carving of the Punjab may be divided into three styles : the earliest or 
Hindu, the Muhammadan, and the modern Sikh style. Examples of 
the Hindu work are to be seen principally in the large towns, particu- 
larly at Lahore. The forms used are fantastic, tassel shapes, pendants, 
and bosses being predominant ; but the style, except for a very recent 
revival, may be said to be extinct. With the Muhammadans came the 

X 2 


development of lattice-work or pi>ij?-a, which is to this day the charac- 
teristic feature of Punjab wood decoration. Most of the old doorways 
and bukhdrchds to be seen in frequent profusion in the old towns 
belong, broadly speaking, to this style of work. The Sikh style, the 
work of the present day, may be said to be a modern adaptation of 
the Muhammadan, with occasional Hindu influence underlying it. 
It is characterized by clear-cut carving, broad treatment, and as 
a rule fairly good joinery. The best wood-carvers are to be found 
at Amritsar, Bhera, Chiniot, and Batala, Of late years the European 
demand has led to this handicraft being largely applied to small articles 
of decorative furniture. 

Inlaid work is also of Muhammadan origin, and was probably intro- 
duced from Arabia. The chief centres are Hoshiarpur and Chiniot. 
The wood inlay-work of Hoshiarpur has a high local reputation, and 
is capable of considerable development. For many years pen-cases, 
walking-sticks, mirror-cases, and the low chauki, or octagonal table, 
common in the Punjab and probably of Arab introduction, have been 
made here in s/itsham wood, inlaid with ivory and brass. Since 1880 
tables, cabinets, and other objects have also been made, and a trade 
has sprung up which seems likely to expand. 

Turned wood ornamented with lac in various combinations of 
colours is produced in almost every village. Pakpattan has more 
than a local reputation for this work, while a family in Ferozepore 
produces a superior quality. 

Furniture after European patterns is made in every station and 
cantonment, the best-known centres being Gujrat and Kartarpur in 
Jullundur District. Gujrat is known for its wooden chairs, chiefly made 
of shishani, the supply of which is abundant. 

Ivory-carving is practically confined to the cities of Amritsar, Delhi, 
and Patiala ; but at the latter place it has greatly declined. Combs, 
essential to the attire of an orthodox Sikh, are made in large quantities 
at Amritsar, where paper-cutters and card-cases ornamented with geo- 
metrical open-work patterns, of some delicacy of execution but no great 
interest of design, are also made. The ivory-carving of Delhi is of 
a high order of excellence, and miniature painting on ivory is also 
carried on. Ivory bangles are turned in several Districts, the chief 
being Amritsar, Dera Ghazi Khan, Gujranwala, Multan, and Lahore. 
Billiard-balls are made at Ludhiana. 

The manufacture of paper is now confined almost entirely to the 
jails. Sialkot was famous in Mughal and Sikh times for its paper, 
but the industry has greatly declined owing to the competition of jail- 
made and mill-made paper ; and this is also the case at Multan. 
Gunny-bags, matting, rope, baskets, blinds, and the like are largely 
made of various fibrous plants all over the Province. 



The decade ending 1900 witnessed a striking extension of industrial 
enterprise. In the cotton industry there were, in 1904, 114 steam 
factories for ginning and pressing cotton, compared with 12 in 1891, 
and 6 in 1881. The produce of these factories is still for the most 
part exported abroad, or to other Provinces in India. The Punjab 
contains eight cotton-spinning and weaving mills, of which six ha^•e 
been started since 1891, and a good deal of the Punjab-grown cotton 
is utilized in the Province. The following table shows their recent 
development : — 

Number of 



of hands 





1 900-1 . 

1903-4 . 






These mills have a nominal capital of 60 lakhs. The out-turn of yarn 
has steadily increased since 1895-6, but that of woven goods shows 
a tendency to decrease, as appears from the following figures, which 
give the out-turn in pounds : — 

1895-6. I 1899-igOO. ! 1900- 

Yam spun . 14,361,000 17,601,863 75235,843 
Goods woven. 91,254 j 705,408 404,258 



1903-4. I 


The commonest counts spun are 13's, ii's, 15's, i6'.s, and 12's, in 
the order given, and these amounted to 8^ of the 9-6 million pounds 
spun in 190 1-2. The goods woven are almost all grey. The esti- 
mated out-turn of cleaned cotton in 1903 was 104,496,400 lb., of which 
more than one-fourth was exported. While the Punjab is of consider- 
able importance as a cotton-producing Province, the staple is short, 
varying from -^ to -| of an inch, and occupies a low position in the 

The Egerton Woollen Mills, established at Dharlwal in 1880, are 
the only woollen mills in the Province. The company has a nomi- 
nal capital of Rs. 12,00,000. Its progress is shown by the following 
figures : — 




Number of looms 

,, spindles 

,, hands employed 








In 1903-4 the mills turned out broadcloths, blankets, greatcoats, 
serges, flannels, tweeds, iois and shawls, travelling rugs, knitting yarns, 


braids, Berlin wool, socks, caps, gloves, and other kinds of knitted 
goods to the amount of 572,061 lb., valued at Rs. 7,30,118. The native 
shawl-weaving industry and manufacture oi pattu and blankets have not 
been much affected by foreign imports. 

The Province contains eight breweries, from which nearly 2,000,000 
gallons of malt liquors were issued in 1903-4. In 1904 there were 
15 ice factories worked by steam, compared with 4 in 1891. The 
number of indigo factories decreased from 27 to 12. There were, in 
1 89 1, two distilleries for the manufacture of spirits according to the 
European method, but the number has now risen to six. In 1903-4, 
273,102 gallons (London proof) of spirits were issued from these. 
Most of the spirit is made from sugar, but some is whisky distilled 
from barley malt. 

There were 5 private iron foundries in 1904 : namely, three at Delhi, 
one at Lahore, and one at Sialkot. Steel trunks and boxes are made 
in large numbers at Multan, Lahore, and Sialkot. At the place last 
mentioned surgical instruments are made by an enterprising firm. The 
most important iron-works, however, are the North-Western Railway 
workshops at Lahore. 

Factory operatives are protected by the Indian Factories Act, revised 
rules under which were promulgated in 1892. The orders of the In- 
spectors have been enforced without difficulty, and very few prosecutions 
under the Act have been necessary. In 1892 there were 34 factories 
in which steam-power was used. The number has now risen to 175. 
While the conditions of labour of the mill operatives has been de- 
cidedly improved, it does not appear that there has been any tendency 
for wages either to rise or fall during the last ten years. The highest 
rates are paid in the Government workshops on the North-Western 
Railway, where many skilled mechanics are employed. The ordinary 
rates in private factories are 3 annas to 5 annas a day for male 
operatives ; 2 annas to 4 annas for women and children ; and from 
Rs. 30 to Rs. 60 a month for skilled mechanics. 

The condition of skilled artisans in the indigenous industries of the 
Punjab, such as carpet-weavers, leather-workers, brass-workers, is not 
favourable. The capitalists in some cities formerly safeguarded their 
interests by a trade practice, according to which, when a workman left 
one employer for another, the second employer was held to be liable to 
the first to the extent of all advances received, and the thraldom of the 
artisan to the second employer was maintained. This trade practice 
has recently been declared illegal by several decisions of the Chief 
Court, and the growing competition among capitalists for the service 
of workmen is beginning to have its natural effect in strengthening the 
position of the artisan. The present transitional stage from the guild or 
caste system to the system of free competition between capital and labour 


is one of much interest to the student of sociology. The change is, 
however, as yet only in its initial stages, and has scarcely affected the 
village artisans, who still receive their customary dues in kind, and are 
almost as much dependent on the nature of the harvests as the agri- 
culturists themselves. In towns also the hereditary nature of many 
caste industries, and the tradition of preserving the trade secrets within 
the trade caste, still continue. The freedom to learn where and what 
one wills has not yet been obtained, but is being gradually brought 
about by the competition of capital for labour, by the industrial schools, 
and by the introduction of steam-power and factory labour, which, 
having no caste tradition, is open to all. 

Prior to annexation the Punjab proper had practically no trade with 
the rest of India. It had no surplus agricultural produce to export, 
and the anarchy which ensued on the decay of the 
Mughal empire was an effectual barrier to commercial trade 

enterprise. Ranjit Singh's policy aimed at excluding 
British traders from his kingdom, while the earliest efforts of the British 
Government were directed to opening up the water-way of the Indus. 
Since annexation the security afforded to person and property, the 
improvement of communications, and above all the extension of 
canal-irrigation, have vastly developed the agricultural resources of 
the Province. 

The main source of the wealth of the Punjab lies in its export of 
wheat, of which the largest amounts exported were 550,911 tons in 
1891-2,457,991 in 1894-5,493,826 in 1898-9 \ 623,745 in 1901-2, 
536,374 in 1902-3, and 877,022 in 1903-4. Next to wheat, raw cotton 
is the principal export, and besides wheat inferior grains are exported 
on a large scale, chiefly to Southern Europe. During the ten years 
ending 1900 the value of the agricultural produce exported exceeded 
that of the amount imported by an average of nearly 438 lakhs a year, 
a sum which considerably exceeds the total land revenue, with cesses 
and irrigation rates, levied in the Province. 

Among imports, cotton piece-goods, European and Indian, stand 
first. The imports of the former fluctuate greatly. Valued at 218 lakhs 
in 1890-1, they had fallen to 190 lakhs in 1900-1, but rose to 253 lakhs 
in 1901-2, falling again to 231 lakhs in 1903-4. Indian-made piece- 
goods, however, tend to oust the European, the imports of the former 
having increased threefold in value between 1891 and 1904. In the 
case of twist and yarn this tendency is even more marked. The other 
considerable imports are iron and steel, sugar, wool (manufactured), 

^ All figures for years prior to 1900-1 on pp. 321-3 include the trade of the 
North- West Frontier Province, whether internal or external 'j.e. within India or with 
other Asiatic countries, including Kashmir^ and those for the subsequent years its 
internal trade alone. 

32 2 PUNJAB 

gunny-bags and cloth, dyes and tans, and liquors. Wheat and gram are 
also imported in times of scarcity. The well-to-do classes in the Punjab 
consume wheaten bread, even when wheat is at famine prices, and are 
not content with a cheaper grain. Hence the imports of wheat vary 
inversely with the out-turn of the local wheat harvest. In the pros- 
perous year 1898-9 the value of the wheat imported was only 6 lakhs : 
the poor harvest of 1 899-1 900 raised it to 29 lakhs, and, the scarcity 
continuing into 1 900-1, to over 41 lakhs in the latter year. Good 
harvests in 1901-2 and 1903-4 reduced it to 8 and 10 lakhs respec- 
tively. The import statistics of the coarser and cheaper food-grains, 
such as gram and pulse, are an index to the purchasing power of the 
poorer classes. Less than 8^ lakhs in value in 1898-9, the imports 
of these grains exceeded 87 lakhs in 1 899-1 900, falling to 39 lakhs 
in 1900-1 and 5^ in 1903-4. The figures show that in periods of 
acute distress the poorer classes are compelled to fall back on inferior 
grains, until better harvests and lower prices permit them to resume 
their wheaten diet. 

The development of the export trade in wheat has created new 
centres of trade, in places favourably situated on the lines of com- 
munication, especially on the Southern Punjab Railway and on the 
line from Wazirabad through the Chenab Colony. Along the former 
large grain markets have been established at Rohtak, Kaithal, Bha- 
tinda, and Abohar. The last named, ten years ago a petty agricul- 
tural village, has now become a considerable trade centre, and has 
attracted much of the wheat trade from Fazilka. In the Chenab 
Colony important trade marts have been established at Gojra, Lyallpur, 
Sangla, Chiniot Road, and Toba Tek Singh. Kasur in Lahore District 
has likewise benefited at the expense of Ferozepore. Imports are distri- 
buted chiefly through the cities and larger towns, such as Delhi, Lahore, 
Amritsar, and Multan. A Punjab Chamber of Commerce, with its 
head-quarters at Delhi, has recently been established. 

The trading castes are the Khattris in the centre and north, the 
Banias in the east, and the Aroras in the west. The village trader 
is the collecting and distributing agent, but he almost always combines 
money-lending with shopkeeping. Nearly every cultivator is his client, 
and to him nmch of the agricultural produce of the village is handed 
over at a low price, to liquidate debts which have sometimes accumu- 
lated for generations. To this, however, there are notable exceptions, 
the Sikh and Hindu Jats being often themselves keen traders. More- 
over, in the case of wheat, the exporter often deals direct with the 
cultivator, and in the east of the Province many cultivators in the 
slack season fill their carts with produce and set out to sell it in 
the best market they can find. Most towns are centres for the 
collection of agricultural produce, and, as mentioned above, many 


large grain markets have been established along the lines of rail. 
These usually have the advantage of being free from municipal octroi 
duties which, in spite of the system of refunds and bonded warehouses 
for goods in transit, more or less hamper commerce. No statistics are 
available to show the volume of this internal trade. 

The trade outside the Province is almost entirely with other Pro- 
vinces and States in India, the amount that comes over the passes 
from Central Asia being relatively insignificant. More than 90 per 
cent, of the recorded exports and a still higher proportion of the 
imports are carried by rail, the remainder being borne partly by rail 
and partly by boat on the Indus to and from Sind and Karachi. The 
bulk of the trade of the Province is with Karachi, which in 1903-4 
sent 37 per cent, of the imports and received 54 per cent, of the 
exports. Bombay and Calcutta together accounted for 27 per cent, of 
the imports and 14 per cent, of the exports, and the. United Provinces 
for 23 per cent, of the imports and 19 per cent, of the exports. Wheat, 
raw cotton, oilseeds, hides, raw wool, and a certain amount of inferior 
grains go to Karachi, in exchange for cotton and woollen piece-goods, 
sugar, metals, and railway plant and rolling stock. The trade with 
the other seaport towns is on the same lines. Bombay takes a large 
amount of raw cotton, and sends silk, tea, and tobacco. Hides and 
skins, leather, dyes, and tans go largely to Calcutta, whence comes 
a great deal of the wearing apparel, jute, and woollen piece-goods 
imported. Cotton and woollen manufactured goods are exported to 
the United Provinces, which send sugar, coal and coke (from Bengal), 
ghl^ gram, and pulse. 

The trade with Kashmir is partly by the Jammu-Kashmir Railway, 
and partly by the roads leading into the Districts of Gurdaspur, Sialkot, 
Gujrat, Jhelum, and Rawalpindi in the Punjab and Hazara in the 
North-West Frontier Province. In Table VH attached to this article 
(p. 385) the figures for 1903-4 exclude the trade through Hazara, now 
a District of the North-West Frontier Province. The trade with 
Ladakh passes either through Kashmir or over the Bara Lacha (pass) 
into the Kulu subdivision of Kangra. The chief imports from Kashmir 
are rice and other grains, ghi^ timber, oilseeds, manufactured wool, 
raw silk, hides and skins, and fruits ; and the chief exports to Kashmir 
are cotton piece-goods, wheat, metals, tea, sugar, salt, and tobacco. 
C/iaras, borax, and ponies are the principal imports from Ladakh, 
and metals and piece-goods are the chief exports thither. 

The direct trade with countries beyond India is small, being confined 
to that with Chinese Tibet, and an insignificant trade with Kabul 
through Dera Ghazi Khan. Trade from Chinese Tibet either comes 
down the Hindustan-Tibet road to Simla, or enters Kulu from Ladakh 
or through Spiti. The chief imports arc raw wool and borax, and the 


chief exports are cotton piece-goods and metals. The chief imports 
from Kabul are fruit, ghl, and raw wool ; the chief exports are piece- 
goods, rice, leather, and sugar. The trade with Kabul, which passes 
down the main trade routes, as well as that with Tirah, Swat, Dir, 
Bajaur, and Buner, is registered in the North-West Frontier Province ; 
much, however, passes through to the Punjab, and beyond it to the 
Lower Provinces of India. 

The Punjab is well provided with railways. Karachi, its natural 
port near the mouths of the Indus in Sind, is directly connected with 

the Punjab by the broad-gaucre North-Western State 
Communications. „ ., ' \ , ^ °. . 

Railway from Lahore. Delhi is in direct communi- 
cation with Karachi by another line passing through Rewari and Merta 
Road Junctions, and also by the Southern Punjab Railway, which runs 
along the southern border of the Province to join the Karachi line at 
Samasata. Karachi has recently been brought into closer contact with 
Ludhiana by the new branch of the Southern Punjab Railway from 
Ludhiana via Ferozepore and M^Leodganj Road. The north-west 
corner of the Province is directly connected with Karachi by the 
branches of the North-Western Railway, which leave the main line 
at Campbellpur, Golra, and Lala Musa and converge at Kundian, 
whence the Sind-Sagar branch follows the east bank of the Indus 
and joins the Karachi branch at Sher Shah. The new VVazTrabad- 
Khanewal line taps the fertile Chenab Colony in the Rechna Doab 
and also connects with Karachi via Multan. The Jech Doab line 
commences from Malakwal, a station on the Sind-Sagar branch of 
the North-^Vestern Railway, and ends at the Shorkot Road station 
of the WazTrabad-Khanewal branch. Another small line is under 
construction from Shahdara, 3 miles north of Lahore, to Sangla Hill 
on the Wazirabad-Khanewal Railway. It will serve as an outlet to the 
immense grain traffic in the interior of the Chenab Colony. 

In the east of the Province the country is covered with a network of 
branch lines, of which the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka, Simla-Kalka, Rajpura- 
Bhatinda, Bhatinda-Ferozepore, and Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal are the 
most important. The Rewari-Bhatinda-Fazilka (metre-gauge) State 
Railway links up the important junction of Bhatinda with the Raj- 
putana-Malwa line, which also connects with Delhi. The Delhi-Agra 
branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway has recently been 
opened. In the centre of the Province a branch of the North-Western 
Railway, recently opened, connects Amritsar with Patti, a town in 
Lahore District. 

The oldest railway is that from Amritsar to Lahore, opened in 1862. 
That from Multan to Lahore linked up the capital with the Indus 
F'lotilla in 1865; but it was not till 1878 that its extension north- 
westwards began, and only in 1883 was through communication from 


Peshawar to Calcutta and Bombay established. Meanwhile Amritsar 
and Rewari had been linked with Delhi in 1870 and 1873 respectively; 
and, though no farther extensions were made till 1883, progress was 
rapid after that year. In 1891 the Province contained 2,189 I'^iles of 
railway, which increased to 3,086 in 1901 and 3,325 miles in 1904. 
In the latest year the total was distributed under — broad gauge, 
2,757 niiles ; metre gauge, 380; and narrow gauge, 198 miles. 

The greater portion of the railways in the Punjab is worked by 
the North- Western State Railway, which included 2,585 miles on 
the broad gauge, and 138 on narrow gauges in 1904. In January, 
1886, when the contract of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway 
Company expired, Government took over that line and amalgamated 
it with the Indus Valley, the Punjab Northern State Railways, and 
the Sind-Sagar branch into one imperial system called the North- 
western State Railway. The Amritsar-Pathankot Railway, which 
originally belonged to the Local Government, was transferred to the 
North-Western Railway in 1892. The Rajpura-Bhatinda, Ludhiana- 
Dhuri-Jakhal, and Jammu-Kashmir Railways were built respectively 
by the Patiala, the Maler Kotla and Jind, and the Kashmir States, 
but are worked by the North-Western Railway, with which has also 
been amalgamated the Southern Punjab Railway. The management 
of the Kalka-Simla Railway was taken over by the North-^^^estern 
Railway on January i, 1907. 

The railways in the Punjab may be classed under two heads, com- 
mercial and military. The commercial section of the North-Western 
Railway cost on an average Rs. 1,32,000 per mile to construct, inclusive 
of the worked lines and the Amritsar-Pathankot Railway. The worked 
lines cost on an average Rs. 55,000 per mile to construct, and the 
Amritsar-Pathankot Railway Rs. 82,000 per mile. In 1904 the Punjab 
had one mile of rail to every 40 square miles of territory. The only 
Districts not yet traversed by a railway are Dera Ghazi Khan, Kangra, 
and Hoshiarpur. The strategical value of the railway system lies 
chiefly in the facilities it offers for the transport of troops to the 
north-west frontier of India ; the commercial value lies mainly in 
the export of cotton, grain (especially wheat), and oilseeds to Karachi. 
Combined with the canals the railways have revolutionized economic 
conditions, the former inducing the production of wheat on a vast 
scale, and the latter placing it on the world's markets. Further, their 
combined effect renders the Province, as a whole, secure from serious 
food-famines. In 1899- 1900 the canal-irrigated tracts formed a granary 
whence grain was distributed by the railways. The railways also tend 
to equalize prices in all parts of the Province and from year to year, 
but it may be doubted whether by themselves they have raised prices 
generally. It is, however, true that they are tending to erase local 


variations in speech, dress, manners, and customs, and to obliterate 
the few restrictions which the caste system in the Punjab imposes 
on the ordinary intercourse of daily life. 

The chief road is a continuation of the grand trunk road, which, 
starting at Calcutta, runs through Northern India to Delhi. Thence, 
in the Punjab, it passes through Karnal, Ambala, Ludhiana, Jullundur, 
Amritsar, Lahore, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, and Attock, where it enters the 
North-\Vest Frontier Province and ends at Peshawar, with a total 
length of 587 miles, metalled and bridged throughout. The section 
from Karnal to Ludhiana was made in 1852, but that from Phillaur to 
the Beas was only completed in 1 860-1. From the Beas to Lahore 
the road was opened in 1853, and thence to Peshawar in 1863-4. It 
runs alongside the railway, and still continues to carry a certain amount 
of slow traffic. The other roads are mainly important as feeders to the 
railway system. On the north the chief routes are the Hindustan-Tibet 
road, which runs from the Shipki Pass on the frontier of the Chinese 
empire to the railway termini at Simla and Kalka ; the Kangra Valley 
cart-road, which brings down tea and other hill products to Pathankot ; 
the Dalhousie-Pathankot road ; and the Murree-Rawalpindi road, which 
now forms the main route from Kashmir. All these, except the Dal- 
housie road, are metalled, and all are practicable for wheeled traffic, 
except that part of the Tibet road which lies north of Simla. In the 
centre of the Province a metalled road runs in a loop from Lahore via 
Kasur and Ferozepore to Ludhiana, where it rejoins the grand trunk 
road. The other metalled roads are merely short feeders of local 
importance connecting outlying towns, such as Hoshiarpur and Kapur- 
thala, with the railways. As feeders and for local traffic unmetalled 
roads suffice for the requirements of the people, and the construction 
of metalled roads has accordingly been of recent years subordinated to 
that of railways, at least in the plains. Thus in 1880-1 the Province 
contained 1,381 miles of metalled roads; and though in 1900-1 the 
mileage had risen to 1,916, in 1903-4 it was only 2,054, compared 
with 20,874 of unmetalled roads. All roads, except 147 miles of 
strategic roads in Dera Ghazi Khan District, are maintained from 
Provincial or District funds. Most of the important metalled roads 
are Provincial, while unmetalled roads are maintained by District 
boards, their metalled roads being often made over to the Public 
Works department for maintenance. The total annual expenditure 
on land communications is about 4 lakhs for original works, and 10 to 
12 lakhs for repairs. 

The chief means of transport of goods by road is the bullock-cart. 
This is a heavy substantial vehicle without springs or tires, and made 
by any village carpenter. It is drawn by a pair of bullocks at the rate 
of 2 miles an hour, and 10 to 15 miles are reckoned a fair day's 

COAfAfUXrCA 770. VS t, 2 7 

journey. It will stand the roughest usage and the worst roads, and 
only in the hills and in the sandy tracts does its weight render its use 
impossible. In the sandy deserts bordering on the Bikaner desert, and 
in the Sind-Sagar Doab, including the Salt Range, the camel is the 
chief means of transport of merchandise, while in the Himalayas goods 
are carried on mules or by bearers. For passengers by road the light 
springless cart known as the e^a is the almost universal means of 
locomotion ; it will carry four to six passengers, and go at the average 
rate of 5 miles an hour. On metalled roads, the ' tumtum,' a vehicle 
with springs not unlike a dog-cart, is much in use. On the important 
cart-roads to the hills regular passenger services are maintained by 
means of a two-wheeled carriage called a ' tonga,' drawn by two ponies ; 
at every 4 miles there are stages at which ponies are changed, and 
journeys are performed at the rate of about 8 miles an hour. Regular 
services of bullock-carts are also maintained on these roads. 

All the great rivers are navigable in the rains ; and the Indus and 
the lower reaches of the Jhelum, Chenab, and Sutlej are navigable 
throughout the year. Except on the Indus, timber is the most impor- 
tant article of commerce transported by this means. There is a con- 
siderable trade on the Indus with Sind. Navigation on all rivers is 
entirely by means of rude country craft, the Indus Steam Navigation 
Flotilla having ceased to exist some twenty years ago. The grand 
trunk road crosses the Ravi, Jhelum, and Indus by roadways attached 
to the railway bridges, and the Chenab by a footway ; and roadways 
cross the Sutlej between Lahore and Ferozepore, and the Chenab 
between Multan and Muzaffargarh. There is a bridge of boats on the 
Ravi near Lahore ; and the Indus is crossed by bridges of boats at 
Khushalgarh, Dera Ismail Khan, and Dera Ghazi Khan, the two latter 
replaced by steam ferries in the summer. All the rivers are provided 
with ferries at frequent intervals, which are generally managed by the 
District boards. 

The Districts and States of the Punjab (except the States of 
Chamba, Jind, Nabha, and Patiala, which have their own postal 
arrangements) form, together with the North-West Frontier Province 
and Kashmir, one postal circle under the Postmaster-General of the 
Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. It is divided into seventeen 
postal divisions. The table on the next page shows the advance in postal 
business in the Punjab during the two decades since 1880, giving also 
the figures for 1903-4. The figures exclude the North-West Frontier 
Province and also (for the most part) Kashmir. 

These figures include both the imperial and the local or District 
post. The latter system was a substitute for the posts which land- 
owners were in early days bound to maintain for the conveyance of 
official correspondence in each District. As the District came under 



settlement, this personal obligation was replaced by a cess levied on 
the land revenue, and eventually in 1883 the cess was merged in and 
became part of the local rate. The expenditure on the District post 
averaged Rs. 1,50,274 during the five years ending 1902-3, and 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,42,253. In 1906 the cess was abolished, 
and the system was amalgamated with the imperial post. The value 
of the money orders paid during the year 1903-4 amounted to 
329 lakhs, or nearly 102 lakhs more than the value of those issued. 

1 880- 1. 


I goo- 1. 


Number of post offices 

and letter-boxes 





Number of miles of 

postal communica- 






Total number of postal 

articles delivered — 

Letters . 












891,4.=) 3 



Newspapers . 





Parcels . 





Value of slamps sold 

to the public . Rs. 





Value of money orders 

issued . . Rs. 





Total amount of sav- 

ings bank deposits Rs. 





* Including unregistered newspapers. + Registered as newspapers in the Post Office. 
\ Including Kashmir. 

The Punjab contains two main tracts which are not secure against 
drought : one in the south-east comprising most of the plains Districts 
of the Delhi Division and that of Ferozepore ; the 
other, the Districts of Gujrat, Jhelum, and Rawal- 
pindi in the north-west. The north-west of Gurdaspur and the 
Sharakpur and Ajnala tahs'ils (in Lahore and Amrit.sar Districts 
respectively) are also insecure. But hitherto famines have been fre- 
quent and severe only in the south-eastern tract, of which Hissar is 
the centre. This area lies on the edge of the sphere of influence of 
the south-eastern monsoon, and any deflexion of its currents leaves it 
almost rainless ; but the Western Jumna and Sirhind Canals, especially 
the former, have greatly circumscribed the area liable to famine. In 
the north-west the rainfall, though liable to fail, is much less capricious 
than in the south-east, and here scarcity has never deepened into 
serious famine. Well-irrigation in the insecure tracts is largely impos- 
sible or unprofitable, owing to the depth of the water below the 

Generally speaking, the autumn crops used to provide the agri- 
cultural population in the Punjab with their staple food and most 


of the fodder for the cattle, the spring crops being grown only for 
profit. To a great extent this still holds good, especially as regards 
fodder; but of late years the area under spring crops has greatly 
increased, and now, even in the insecure tracts, it almost equals that 
under autumn crops. The loss of a single harvest, or even of both the 
annual harvests, does not in itself necessitate measures of relief. Such 
measures are required only after a succession of lean years, and thus 
the point when ftiilure of the monsoon spells famine can, as a rule, be 
accurately gauged. Besides a rise in prices, not always a very trust- 
worthy sign, indications of the necessity for measures of relief are 
usually afforded by the contraction of private charity and credit, 
activity in the grain trade, increase in crime, and aimless wandering 
in search of employment or food. 

The first famine in the Punjab of which any information exists oc- 
curred in 1783-4 (Samvat 1840), and is popularly called the chdllsa 
kdl, or ' famine of the year 40.' It affected the whole country 
from the Sutlej to Allahabad, and was acute in the neighbour- 
hood of Delhi. Hariana was desolated and the people perished or 
emigrated. The mortality must have been very great, and few villages 
now existing in this area boast a history anterior to the famine. 
Famine again occurred in 1833-4, 1837-8, 1860-1, 1868-9, 1877-8, 
1896-7, and in 1 899-1 900. In 1833-4 the conditions were those 
of severe scarcity rather than of famine ; and though there was 
suffering in Hissar and Rohtak Districts and the Fazilka ta/isi/, no 
relief, beyond large suspensions of revenue, was given. The scarcity 
was, however, the precursor of serious famine in 1837-8, when the 
tract between Allahabad and Delhi was most seriously affected, but 
Hissar, Rohtak, and Fazilka also suffered. Relief works were opened 
for the able-bodied, but the relief of the infirm and helpless was left to 
private charity. The main features of this famine were the prevalence 
of aimless wandering and the extraordinary amount of violent crime. 

The famine of 1 860-1 affected only the Districts between the 
Jumna and the Sutlej, and was the result partly of the Mutiny, and 
partly of deficient rainfall in the two preceding years, followed by 
a failure of the monsoon in i860. The principles adopted in 1833-4 
were again followed. Gratuitous relief was given mainly in the form 
of cooked food. 

Practically the same tract was again affected in 1868-9, but the 
great influx of famine-stricken immigrants from Rajputana exhausted 
the resources of private charity. The principle that it was the duty 
of the people to relieve the infirm and weak had to be abandoned, and 
Government acknowledged its liability to supplement charitable aid. 
Large works under professional control and minor works under civil 
officers were also utilized for affording relief. The excess mortality in 


Rajputana and the Punjab was estimated at 1,300,000. About 3 lakhs 
of revenue was remitted in the Punjab. 

The great famine of 1877-8 hardly reached this Province, in which 
only scarcity existed. Fazilka and the Districts of the Delhi Division, 
which were not protected by irrigation, suffered most. 

After 1878, in spite of occasional short harvests, the Punjab had 
a respite from actual scarcity till 1896-7. In 1895 the monsoon 
ceased early in August, and a poor autumn harvest was followed by 
a deficient spring crop in 1896. In the latter year failure of the mon- 
soon caused widespread scarcity in the Punjab, as in other parts of 
India. The whole of the Delhi Division, except Simla, and parts 
of the Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions were affected. A total of 
22^ million day-units were relieved, of whom half were in Hissar. 
Relief cost 22^ lakhs, 22 lakhs of land revenue was suspended, and 
at the close of the famine \\\ lakhs was advanced for the purchase of 
seed and cattle. After one good year the monsoon failed again in 
1898 and 1899, and famine supervened in the same tracts. The 
scarcity of fodder caused immense mortality among cattle, and the 
distress among the people was intense. Relief was afforded to 
52 million day-units at a cost of 48 lakhs. In addition, 44 lakhs of 
land revenue was suspended, and 19 lakhs granted for the purchase 
of seed and cattle as soon as favourable rain fell in the autumn of 
1900. The Charitable Relief Fund also allotted 12 lakhs to the 
Punjab. Hissar was again the most deeply affected tract, account- 
ing for two-thirds of the numbers relieved. 

Of recent years the immediate effects of scarcity on the population 
of the Province have been practically negligible. The famine of 1899- 
1900, the most severe since annexation, affected the health of the 
people, so that many were unable to withstand disease which under 
more favourable circumstances might not have proved fatal. It might 
have been anticipated that the two famines of the decade ending 1900 
would have appreciably affected the population in Hissar and Rohtak 
Districts, but the Census of 1901 showed an increase of nearly 10 per 
cent, in the latter. Generally speaking, as regards mortality, the after- 
effects of famine are almost more potent than famine itself. Practi- 
cally no deaths from actual starvation were recorded in the Punjab in 
the recent famines. During famine cholera is most to be feared ; but 
when famine ceases, after a plentiful monsoon, malaria, acting on a 
people whose vitality has been reduced by privation, claims a long tale 
of victims. At such seasons the mortality is naturally greatest among 
the very old and the very young. This is shown by the fact that, at 
the recent Census, Hissar returned only 999 children under five in 
every 10,000 of its population, compared with the Provincial ratio 
of 1,340. This paucity of children, however, is to some extent due 


to a diminished birth-rale. The famine of 1899-1900 lasted exactly 
thirteen months from September, 1899. Up to December the birth- 
rate was fairly normal, but after that month it rapidly declined until the 
close of the famine. In July, 1900, it was only 22'3 per 1,000, as com- 
pared with 40-5, the annual average for the month in the five years 
1 89 1 -5. On the other hand, the re-establishment of normal con- 
ditions, after famine, is followed by an abnormally high birth-rate. 
Thus, in Hissar, famine ended in August, 1897. Up to July, 1898, 
the birth-rate remained low ; but it then rose rapidly and remained 
well above the average until September, 1899, the highest figures 
occurring in October and November, 1898, when they reached 81-7 
and 76-7 per r,ooo, as compared with 57 and 50-8 respectively, the 
averages for those two months in 189 1-5. 

Whether it will ever be possible to render the Punjab free frcnu 
liability to famine is a difficult question at present to answer. The 
two great remedies are the extension of railways and irrigation. As 
to the former, from the point of view of famine protection, the Pro- 
vince is as a whole well off, and further schemes are in hand for 
facilitating distribution of the immense surplus stocks produced in 
the large canal colonies. As to the latter, much has been done and 
much more is in contemplation. The Chenab and Jhelum Canals, by 
rendering cultivable vast areas of waste, have been of incalculable help 
in reducing the pressure on the soil in the most thickly populated 
Districts, and in increasing the productive power of the Province ; 
but, until the insecure tracts themselves are rendered safe by the 
extension to them of irrigation, scarcity and famine nmst be appre- 
hended. The new Upper Jhelum, Upper Chenab, and Lower Bari 
Doab Canals have been described above (pp. 304-5). 

On the annexation of the Punjab in March, 1849, a Board of 
Administration was constituted for its government. The Board was 
abolished in February, 1853, its powers and func- a j • • + *• 
tions being vested in a Chief Commissioner, assisted 
by a Judicial and a Financial Commissioner. After the transfer 
of the Delhi territory from, the North-Western (now the United) 
Provinces, the Punjab and its dependencies were formed into a 
Lieutenant-Governorship, Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Com- 
missioner, being appointed Lieutenant-Governor on January 1, 1859. 
In this office he was succeeded by Sir Robert Montgomery (1859), 
Sir Donald M^Leod (1865), Sir Henry Durand (1870), Sir Henry 
Davies (187 1), Sir Robert Egerton (1877), Sir Charles Aitchison 
(1882), Sir James Lyall (1887), Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick (1892), Sir Mack- 
worth Young (1897), Sir Charles Rivaz (1902), Sir Denzil Ibbetson 
(1907), and Sir Louis Dane (1908). 

In 1866 the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court. 



A Settlement Commissioner was shortly afterwards appointed to super- 
vise the land revenue settlements; but this otifice was abolished in 1884, 
and a Second Financial Commissioner appointed. In 1897, however, 
the old arrangement was reverted to, a Settlement Commissioner re- 
placing the Second Financial Commissioner. 

The direct administrative functions of Government are performed by 
the Lieutenant-Governor through the medium of a Secretariat, which 
comprises a chief secretary, a secretary, and two under-secretaries. 
These are usually members of the Indian Civil Service. The following 
are the principal heads of departments : the Financial ('ommissioner, 
the Inspector-General of Police, the Director of Public Instruction, 
the Inspector-General of Prisons, the Inspector-General of Civil 
Hospitals, the Sanitary Commissioner, the Conservator of Forests, the 
Accountant-General, and the Postmaster-General. The last two repre- 
sent Imperial departments under the Government of India. The 
heads of the two branches (Irrigation, and Roads and Buildings) 
of the Public Works department are also ex-officio secretaries to 
Government, and the heads of the Police and Educational departments 
are similarly under-secretaries in their respective departments. The 
Financial Commissioner, who has a senior, a junior, and an assistant 
secretary, controls the Settlement Commissioner, the Commissioner 
of Excise (also Superintendent of Stamps), the Director of Agriculture, 
the Director of Land Records (also Inspector-General of Registration), 
and the Conservator of Forests. He is also the Court of Wards for 
the Province. 

The civil administration is carried on by the Punjab Commission, a 
body of officers now recruited exclusively from the Indian Civil Service, 
though prior to the constitution of the North-West Frontier Province 
one-fourth of the cadre was drawn from the Indian Staff Corps. The 
Commission is supplemented by the Provincial Civil Service, which is 
recruited in the Province either by nomination, or by examination, or by 
a combination of the two, and is almost entirely of Punjabi origin. 
With a few exceptions, the higher appointments in the administration 
are held exclusively by members of the Punjab Commission, while mem- 
bers of the Provincial service, who are graded as Extra or as Extra- 
judicial Assistant Commissioners, perform the functions of District 
judges, magistrates, and revenue officials. The minor posts in the 
administration are held by the Subordinate services, which are recruited 
entirely from natives of the Province. 

The territories under the control of the Lieutenant-Governor consist 
of 29 Districts, grouped into 5 Divisions, and 43 Native States. Each 
District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, who is subordinate 
to the Commissioner in charge of the Division. A District is divided 
into sub-collcctoralcs called tahsils, varying in number as a rule from 


three to seven, each under a talmlddr with a naih {(i\:\iw\.'^)-tahsilddr . 
Of the 29 Districts, Kangra, with an area of 9,978 square miles, is the 
largest, and Simla, in area less than the county of London, the smallest. 
The average 1 )i8trict corresponds in si/x with one of the larger English 
counties. In population Lahore, with 1,162,109, ^s the largest, and 
Simla, with 40,351, again the smallest District. The average population 
of a District is 701,046. Particulars regarding each Division, District, 
and State will be found in Table III on pp. 380-1. For purposes of 
criminal, civil, and revenue jurisdiction, the District is the unit of ad- 
ministration. The Deputy-Commissioner (as the officer in charge of a 
District is designated, the Punjab being a non-Regulation Province) is 
Collector, with judicial powers in revenue suits, and also District Magis- 
trate, being usually invested as such with power to try all offences not 
punishable with death. The District staff includes a District Judge, 
whose work is almost entirely civil, though he is also ordinarily invested 
with magisterial powers, which he exercises in subordination to the 
District Magistrate. It also includes from three to seven Assistant or 
Extra-Assistant Commissioners, with criminal, civil, and revenue 
powers, of whom one is in charge of the treasury. It further includes 
one or more Munsifs or civil judges. The tahsllddrs are invested with 
revenue, criminal, and civil powers, and their assistants, the naib-iahsll- 
ddrs, with revenue and criminal powers. In ten Districts there are 
subdivisions, each consisting of one or two outlying ta/isl/s, in charge of 
an Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioner, who resides at the head- 
quarters of his jurisdiction. Lahore city also forms a subdivision, and 
subdivisional officers are posted to the hill stations of Murree and 
Dalhousie during the hot season. As a rule, however, there is no inter- 
mediate link between the District and the tahsll. In two tahsils a sub- 
tahsil exists in charge of a naib-tahsllddr. The tahsildar has under 
him from two to five field kdnii/igos, each of whom supervises twenty to 
thirty /rt/'z£'a;7i' or revenue accountants, in charge of the revenue records 
of a group of villages. Each village has one or more headmen, who 
collect the revenue, and chaukiddrs or watchmen. In most Districts 
the villages are grouped into circles or zails^ each under a non-official 
{zai/ddr) of local influence, whose duty it is to render general assistance 
to all Government officials. Commissioners of Divisions now exercise 
judicial powers only in revenue appeals, their civil and criminal jurisdic- 
tion having been transferred to the Divisional and Sessions Judges. 

The Native States under the control of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Punjab are 43 in number, comprising an area of 36,532 square 
miles, and a population in 1901 of 4,424,398 persons, as shown in 
Table III on pp. 380-1, with a total revenue of 155 lakhs. Kashmir, 
formerly included among the Punjab States, was placed under the direct 
political control of the Government of India in 1877. Of the 43 Stales, 

Y 2 


the three Phulkian States (Paliala, Jind, and Nabha) and Bahawalpur 
are in charge of a Political Agent under the direct control of the 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab ; Chamba is under the Commis- 
sioner of Lahore ; Kapurthala, Faridkot, Maler Kotla, Mandi, and Suket 
are under the Commissioner of JuUundur ; Sirmur, Kalsia, Dujana, 
Pataudi, and Loharu are under the Commissioner of Delhi ; and the 
28 Simla States are under the control of the Deputy-Commissioner of 
Simla, as ex-officio Superintendent, Simla Hill States. 
. The relations of the British Government with Bahawalpur are regu- 
lated by treaty ; those with the other States by sanads or charters from 
the Governor-General. The States of Patiala, Bahawalpur, Jind, 
Nabha, Kapurthala, Sirmur, Faridkot, and Maler Kotla maintain 
Imperial Service troops. The other States and also Kapurthala pay a 
money tribute, amounting in 1903-4 to a total of Rs. 2,66,434. The 
States of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha are ruled by members of the Phulkian 
family ; and should there be a failure of direct heirs in any of them, the 
sanads provide for the selection of a collateral as successor by the chiefs 
of the other two States. A nazardna or relief is payable to the British 
Government by the collateral who succeeds. The Phulkian chiefs, and 
also the Raja of Faridkot, are bound by sanad to execute justice and to 
promote the welfare of their people ; to prevent satl^ slavery, and female 
infanticide ; to co-operate with the British Government against an 
enemy, and to furnish supplies to troops ; and to grant, free of expense, 
land required for railways and imperial lines of road. On the other 
hand, the British Government has guaranteed them full and unreserved 
possession of their territories. They, with Bahawalpur and Kapurthala, 
differ from the remaining feudatories in the fact that they possess power 
to inflict capital punishment upon their subjects. The treaties with 
Bahawalpur define the supreme position of the British Government, and 
bind the Nawab to act in accordance with its wishes, while in turn the 
British Government engages to protect the State. Sanads of varying 
import are also possessed by the minor feudatories. 

Of the chiefs, those of Bahawalpur, Maler Kotla, Pataudi, Loharu, 
and Dujana are Muhammadans ; those of Patiala, jTnd, Nabha, Kapur- 
thala, Faridkot, and Kalsia are Sikhs ; and the rest are Hindus. Of 
the Muhammadan chiefs, the Nawab of Bahawalpur is head of the 
Daudputra tribe, being a descendant of Bahawal Khan, who acquired 
independence during the collapse of the Sadozai dynasty of Afghani- 
stan early in the nineteenth century. The Nawab of Maler Kotla is 
a member of an Afghan family which came from Kabul about the time 
of the rise of the Mughal empire ; his ancestors held offices of im- 
portance under the Delhi kings and became independent as the 
Mughal dynasty sank into decay. The chiefs of Pataudi and Dujana 
are descended from Afghan adventurers, and the Nawab of Loharu 


from a Mughal soldier of fortune, upon whom estates were conferred 
by the British (Government as a reward for services rendered to Lord 
Lake in the beginning of the ninetecntli century. 

With one exxeption (Kapurthala), the Sikh chiefs belong to the Jat 
race. Chaudhri Phul, the ancestor of the Phulkian houses (Patiala, 
Jind, and Nabha), died in 1652. His descendants took advantage of 
the break-up of the Mughal empire in the eighteenth century, and of 
the confusion which attended the successive Persian, Afghan, and 
Maratha invasions of Delhi, to establish themselves, at the head of 
marauding bands of Sikh horsemen, in the Mughal province of Sirhind, 
and eventually rose to be independent chiefs. The Raja of Kapur- 
thala claims Rajput origin, and his ancestor, Jassa Singh, took rank 
among the Sikh Sardars about 1750. The founder of the Faridkot 
family, a Barar Jat by tribe, rose to prominence in the service of the 
emperor Babar, Jodh Singh founded the Kalsia State about the same 
time. The remaining chiefs, whose territories lie among the Outer 
Himalayan hill ranges, are principally of Rajput descent, claiming 
a very ancient lineage. 

The rulers of Patiala, Faridkot, Jubbal, Baghal, Kanethi, Mailog, 
Kunihar, Bija, Madhan, Dhadi, Tharoch, and Kuthar were minors 
in 1906^. The chiefs of Maler Kotla and Kumharsain are of unsound 
mind, the Raja of Bashahr is of weak intellect, and the Raja of Bilas- 
pur was in 1903-4 temporarily deprived of his powers as a ruling chief 
for misconduct. The State of Patiala is administered by a council of 
regency, composed of a president and two members ; and an English 
guardian and tutor supervises the education of the Maharaja. The 
administration of Faridkot is conducted by a council, presided over 
by an Extra-Assistant Commissioner deputed by Government. Maler 
Kotla is administered by the heir apparent. In Bija, Kunihar, Mailog, 
and Madhan the administration is carried on by councils of State 
oflficials ; in Dhadi it is in the hands of a relative of the chief, and 
in Tharoch in those of the tvazlr. Bilaspur, Jubbal, Bashahr, Kum- 
harsain, and Kanethi are administered by native officials of the British 
service deputed by Government. In Baghal the council consists of a 
brother of the late chief and an official deputed by Government, while 
in Kuthar the manager is a member of the ruling family of Suket. 

By the Punjab Laws Act of 1872 custom governs all questions 
regarding succession, betrothal, marriage, divorce, the separate pro- 
perty of women, dower, wills, gifts, partitions, family 

1 .• 1 J .• 1 r u- 1 Legislation 

relations such as adoption and guardianship, and ^^^ justice. 

religious usages or institutions, provided that the 

custom be not contrary to justice, equity, or good conscience. On 

1 1 he Nawab of Bahawalpur died at sea in February, 190;, while returning from 
a pilgrimage to Mecca. lie left a son two years of age. 


these subjects the Muhammadan or Hindu law is applied only in the 
absence of custom, 

A Legislative Council was created for the Punjab in May, 1897, 
consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor and not more than nine 
members nominated by him, of whom five were non-officials in 
1904. The members do not as yet possess the rights of interpella- 
tion and of discussing the Provincial budget, which have been granted 
to the Councils of the older Provinces. The following are the chief 
legislative measures specially affecting the Punjab which have been 
passed since 18S0 : — 

Arts of t lie Gm<ernor-General iv (Legislative) Council. 
The Punjab University Act, XIX of 1882. 
The District Boards Act, XX of 1883. 

The Punjab Municipal Acts, XIIT of 1884 and XX of 1890. 

The Punjab Courts Act, XVIII of 18S4 (as amended by Acts XIII of 1888, XIX 
of 1895, and XXV of iSpg). 

The Punjab Tenancy and Land Revenue Acts, XVI and XVII of 1889. 
The Government Tenants Punjab Act, III of 1893. 
The Punjab Land Alienation Act. XIII of 1900. 

Regulations of the Governor-General in {Executive^ Council. 
The Frontier Crimes Regulations, IV of 1887, IV of 1889, and III of 1901. 
The Frontier Murderous Outrages Regulation, IV of 190T. 

Acts of the Punjab Legislative Council. 
The Pimjab General Clauses Act, I of 189S. 
The Punjab Riverain Boundaries Act, I of 1899. 
The Punjab Land Preservation {Chos") Act, II of 1900. 
The Punjab Descent o^ Jdgirs Act, IV of 1900. 
The Sind-Sagar Doab Colonization Act, I of 1902. 
The Punjab Steam Boilers and Prime Movers Act, II of 1902. 
The Punjab Military Transport Animals Act, I of 1903. 
The Punjab Court of Wards Act, II of 1903. 
The Punjab Pre-emption Act, II of 1905. 
The Punjab Minor Canals Act, III of 190?. 

The supreme civil and criminal court is the Chief Court, whicli 
consists of five Judges, of whom one at least must, under section 4 
of the Punjab Courts Act, XVIII of 1884, be a barrister of not less 
than five years' standing. The Court has from time to time been 
strengthened by the appointment of temporary Additional Judges, 
who numbered four in 1906. Of the five permanent judges, three 
are members of the Indian Civil Service, one is an English barrister, 
and one an Indian pleader. 

Subordinate to the Chief Court are the Divisional and Sessions 
Judges, each exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction in a Civil and 
Sessions division comprising one or more Districts. As Divisional 
Judges, these officers try most of the appeals in civil suits from the 


courts of first instance. As Sessions Judges, tliey tr\- sessions cases, 
with the aid of assessors, and hear criminal appeals. Thus the 
Divisional and Sessions Judges in the Punjab fulfil the functions of 
District and Sessions Judges in the Regulation Provinces. Appeals 
in minor civil suits from the Munsifs' courts are heard by the District 
Judge, whose court is also the principal court of original jurisdiction in 
the District. The Divisional and Sessions courts are established under 
Act XVIII of 1884, which also provides for the appointment of Sub- 
ordinate Judges (exercising unlimited civil jurisdiction) and Munsifs. 
The latter are of three grades, the jurisdiction of a first-grade Munsif 
being limited to suits not exceeding Rs. 1,000 in value. There are 
Small Cause Courts at Lahore, Amritsar, Delhi, and Simla, and many 
Munsifs are invested with the powers of such courts under Act IX 
of 1887. 

Relatively to the population, the Punjab may be called the most 
litigious Province in India. In 1901 the number of suits instituted 
was rr'4 per 1,000 of the population, the next highest figure being 9-6 
in Bombay. During the last few years, however, the annual number 
of suits has declined considerably, from 227,284 in 1900 to 156,354 in 
1905. In the year 1904-5 alone there was a decline of no less than 
26 per cent., due mainly to an amendment in the law which extended 
the period of limitation in suits for the recovery of money lent from 
three to six years. The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900 has 
also had a considerable effect in checking litigation between money- 
lenders and agriculturists. Suits of this class show a falling-off of 
nearly 42 per cent, in the first five years (1901-5) during which the 
Act was in force. The question of codifying the customary law has 
of late years attracted some attention. An attempt has been made to 
codify the custom as to pre-emption in the Pre-emption Act II of 1905, 
but it is not possible to say at present what the ultimate effect of that 
Act will be. During its first year it stimulated litigation to some 

The District Magistrate is ordinarily (and Additional District and 
subdivisional magistrates and other magistrates with full powers are 
occasionally) invested with power to try all offences not punishable 
with death, and to inflict sentences up to seven years' imprisonment. 
Further, in the frontier District of Dera Ghazi Khan and in Mian- 
wali an offender may be tried by a council of elders under the Frontier 
Crimes Regulation, and in accordance with its finding the Deputy- 
Commissioner may pass any sentence of imprisonment not exceeding 
fourteen years ; but sentences exceeding seven years require the confir- 
mation of the Commissioner, who has also a revisional jurisdiction in 
all cases. 

The litigious spirit of the people is illustrated by their readiness to 


drag their petty disputes into the criminal courts. About one-third of 
the charges preferred are ultimately found to be false. In a normal 
year the number of true cases is about 5 per 1,000 of the population, 
but this figure naturally fluctuates from year to year. A season of 
agricultural depression will cause an increase in crime against property 
and a decline in the number of petty assault cases, the prosecution of 
which is a luxury reserved for times of prosperity. The commonest 
form of crime is cattle-lifting, which is rife in the South-Western Pun- 
jab and in those Districts of the Eastern Punjab which border on the 
United Provinces and Rajputana. Crimes of violence, generally arising 
out of quarrels connected with women or land, are commonest among 
the Jat Sikhs of the Central Punjab and the Musalman cultivators of 
the northern Districts. Offences relating to marriage have increased 
during the last five years, probably owing to the ravages of plague, 
which has caused a proportionately higher mortality among females 
than among males, and has thus enhanced the value of the surviving 
women. The same cause has led to an increase in civil suits relating 
to women. In an average year about 250,000 persons are brought to 
trial, about 27 per cent, being convicted. 

All sentences imposed by magistrates of the second and third 
classes are appealable to the District Magistrate; and in 1904, out 
of 28,564 persons sentenced by them, 34 per cent, appealed and 

36 per cent, of these appeals were successful. Sentences imposed 
by District Magistrates and magistrates of the first class are, as a rule, 
appealable to a Sessions Judge; and in 1904, out of 21,336 persons 
sentenced by those courts, 32 per cent, appealed, and of these appeals 

37 per cent, were successful. Sentences imposed by Courts of Sessions, 
and those exceeding four years passed by District Magistrates, are 
appealable to the Chief Court; and in 1904, out of 1,799 persons 
so sentenced, 61 per cent, appealed, with success in 28 per cent, of 
the appeals. 

Of the 6,618 civil appeals filed in the courts of District Judges in 
1904, 38 per cent., and of the 9,591 filed in the Divisional Courts, 
26 per cent, were successful ; but of the 2,374 filed in the Chief Court, 
only 9 per cent, succeeded. 

The revenue courts established under the Punjab Tenancy Act are 
those of the Financial Commissioner, Collector (Deputy-Commis- 
sioner), and Assistant Collectors of the first grade (Assistant or Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners), and Assistant Collectors, second grade 
{Jahstlda?-s and naib-tahsilddrs). These courts decide all suits regard- 
ing tenant-right, rent, and divers cognate matters, in which the civil 
courts have no jurisdiction. Appeals from Assistant Collectors ordi- 
narily lie to the Collector, from him to the Commissioner, and from the 
Commissioner to the Financial Commissioner, with certain limitations. 



The Registration Act was extended to the Punjab in 1868. All 
Deputy-Commissioners are ex-officio registrars and all tahfilddrs are sub- 
registrars under the Act, but most of the registrations are performed 
by non-official sub-registrars, remunerated by a percentage of fees. 
General control over them is exercised by the Inspector-General of 
Registration. The figures below are for the old Province up to 
1 900- 1 ; those for 1904 are for the Province as now constituted. 





I 890- I 


1 899-1900 




Number of offices 
Number of documents 







Under Sikh rule revenue was realized from all known sources of 
taxation, direct and indirect. Land, houses, persons, manufactures, 
imports and exports, alike contributed to the income 
of the Khalsa under Ranjit Singh. The outlying 
provinces, in which revenue could be levied only by a military force, 
were farmed out to men of wealth and influence, who exercised powers 
of life and death without interference from the court of Lahore, so 
long as their remittances to the royal treasury were made regularly. 
The revenue from districts nearer Lahore and more completely under 
control was collected by local tax-gatherers, called kdrddrs, whose 
more important proceedings were hable to review by the ministers 
of the Maharaja. The salt revenue was realized by a sale of the 

Under this system the country was, on the whole, wonderfully 
prosperous. Every Jat village sent recruits to the Sikh army, who 
remitted their savings to their homes ; and many a heavily assessed 
village thus paid half its land revenue from its military pay. Money 
circulated freely, manufactures and commodities were in brisk demand, 
and commerce flourished despite the burden of taxation. From land 
revenue Ranjit Singh raised 165 lakhs, partly in cash and partly, 
or mostly, in kind. From excise he realized 2 lakhs. In the Province 
generally the dual system of realizing the land revenue remained in 
force till 1847, and to a much later period in the Native States and 
great jaglrs. During the regency, however, from 1845 to 1849, 
summary revenue settlements were made ; and on annexation the 
assessments thereby imposed were maintained as a temporary measure, 
quinquennial settlements being made in tracts which had not been 
assessed. The customs and excise systems were also reformed, and 
in the year after annexation coin of British mintage replaced the 
old currency, 50 lakhs of which were withdrawn from circulation. 


The estimated revenue for tiS49-5o was as follows : land revenue 
(including grazing tax, income from forests, gold-washing, iron mines, 
and rents of lands), 152 lakhs; excise (on salt, liquors, and drugs), 
including stamps and canal water rate, 26 lakhs; tributes, 5 lakhs; 
post office, 3I lakhs ; and miscellaneous receipts, 3^ lakhs — a total 
of 190 lakhs. After the Mutiny of 1857 the Delhi and Hissar 
Divisions were added to the Punjab, increasing its revenue by 66-2 

All items of revenue other than those derived from purely local 
sources, such as District and municipal funds, fall into one or other 
of two classes. They may be treated as Provincial, in which case 
they are at the disposal of the Local Government, or as Imperial, 
in which case a portion returns into the Province in the form of 
payments, the balance being absorbed into the Imperial exchequer 
(see chapter on Finance, Vol. IV, ch. vi). Since 187 1 the financial 
relations of the Local and Supreme Governments have been regulated 
by periodical settlements. This arrangement consists in the assign- 
ment for Provincial uses of the entire income under certain heads 
of revenue and a fixed proportion of income under others, termed 
' shared heads.' 

Under the first Provincial settlement the total receipts rose from 
284-44 lakhs (Provincial share 5i'39) to 335'Oi lakhs in 1882 (Pro- 
vincial share 80-25), owing to the rapid growth of stamps and excise 
revenue. In the same period expenditure rose from 179-14 to 216-06 
lakhs (the Provincial share rising from 116-57 to 133-85 lakhs), owing 
to the development of the departments transferred to Provincial control. 
The Provincial income and expenditure during the quinquennium 
averaged 65-13 and 129-31 lakhs respectively, compared with 49*22 
and I20-II lakhs estimated in the contract. The Provincial balance 
was 29-63 lakhs in 1882. Under the second settlement Provincial 
received 40-7193 per cent, of the land revenue, and was made liable 
for the same proportion of the cost of settlement and survey operations, 
and refunds of land revenue. Half the receipts and expenditure under 
forests became Provincial, and the same division was made of stamps, 
excise, and registration, formerly wholly Provincial, while half the 
licence tax collections also became Provincial. On the other hand, 
the pay of Civil Surgeons and other charges devolved on Provincial. 
Under this settlement the receipts rose from 344-37 to 351-54 lakhs 
(Provincial from i40'35 to 150-68 lakhs), while expenditure fell from 
237-03 to 2 1 8- 1 2 lakhs, but the Provincial share of this rose from 
146-36 to 155-77 lakhs. The Provincial income and expenditure 
averaged 146-84 and 152-98 lakhs respectively, as compared with 
the estimates of 144-90 and 144-94 lakhs, leaving the balance at 
17-36 lakhs, or 7-36 more than the minimum reserve prescribed in 


1887. The settlement was renewed on the same terms for tlie tliird 
quinquennium, during which the income rose from 361-03 to 414-50 
lakhs (Provincial from 151-93 to 168-30 lakhs), and the expenditure 
from 224-53 to 245-19 lakhs (Provincial from 153-04 to 175-17 lakhs). 
The Provincial income and expenditure averaged 160-66 and 162-05 
lakhs respectively, compared with the estimates of 144-90 and 144-94 
lakhs, while the Provincial balance rose to 27-71 lakhs. The cost of 
certain measures, of which the most important was the reorganization 
of the Punjab Commission at a cost of 2-27 lakhs a year, was met by 
assignments from Imperial. 

Under the fourth settlement the Provincial shares were fixed as 
follows : land revenue 25, stamps 75, and excise 25 per cent. Half 
the income tax, hitherto wholly Imperial, also became Provincial. 
The income rose from 421-92 to 473-10 lakhs (Provincial from 134-91 
to 142-27 lakhs), chiefly under land revenue (9-43 lakhs), stamps 
(2-88), excise (r-86), income tax (o-8o), registration (0-95), and irri- 
gation (2-20), to take the annual averages. Expenditure increased 
from 248-22 to 284-20 lakhs (Provincial from 180-39 to 185-34 lakhs), 
owing to larger outlay on public works, maintenance of canals, salaries 
and expenditure of civil and political departments, and famine relief. 
Survey and settlement charges, hitherto shared, became Provincial, 
raising the total of expenditure. The Provincial income and expen- 
diture averaged 139-49 and 179-41 lakhs respectively, as compared 
with the contract figures of 13219 and 167-24 lakhs; but the settle- 
ment affected the finances of the Province adversely, and the quin- 
quennium closed with a balance of 5-23 lakhs, or hardly more than 
half the prescribed minimum. 

The fifth settlement made in 1897 was afterwards extended to 
1904-5. It was modified in details in consequence of the separation 
of the North-West Frontier Province in 1901, but the general terms 
remained unaltered. Famine (which commenced in November, 1896) 
and plague (which broke out early in 1897) led to diminished receipts 
and larger outlay, resulting in a complete collapse of the Provincial 
finances, which had to be supported by special grants from Imperial 
funds. Famine cost 54-70 lakhs and plague 6-58 lakhs during the quin- 
quennium 1 897-1 90 1. Mianwali District was created, and the Chenab 
and Jhelum Colonies extended. In 1902-3 arrears of land revenue, 
aggregating 39-30 lakhs, \vere remitted, and loans to agriculturists, 
amounting to 9-06 lakhs, were written off in that and the following 
year. In 1902-3 the Supreme Government contributed 3-80 lakhs 
for extensive measures against plague, over and above the ordinary 
plague expenditure from Provincial funds. In that year the income 
was 519-36 lakhs, and the expenditure 299-65 lakhs (Provincial 219-23 
and 208-94 lakhs respectively). Financially, the conditions in the 


Punjab since 1897 have been so abnormal that analysis of the figures 
for 1 89 7- 1 903 would serve no useful purpose. 

From April i, 1905, the new Provincial settlement came into effect. 
Its noticeable features are : — 

(i) Permanency — leaving the Province to enjoy the fruits of its 
economy, unless grave problems of Imperial interest call for assistance 
from Local Governments ; (2) in the case of ' shared heads ' the expen- 
diture is divided between Imperial and Provincial in the same pro- 
portion as in the case of corresponding heads of income, except land 
revenue, the expenditure (31 '04 lakhs) under which is entirely Pro- 
vincial, while the Provincial share of the income is three-eighths (95-58 
lakhs) ; (3) the Local Government obtains, for the first time, a direct 
financial interest in ' major ' irrigation works, three-eighths of the 
income (62-89 lakhs) and expenditure (37-74 lakhs), which includes 
interest on capital outlay 15-62 lakhs, having been assigned subject 
to a guarantee of a net income of 28 lakhs per annum. 

Since the settlement was sanctioned the famine cess (Provincial 
rates) has been abolished, and a compensatory assignment of 6^ lakhs 
per annum given to Provincial. Recoveries from District funds on 
account of District Post charges were waived and the Patwari cess 
abolished from April i, 1906, and the cantonment police provincialized 
from April i, 1905, lump assignments aggregating 17-83 lakhs being 
given as compensation. Famine expenditure did not enter into the 
Provincial settlement, and the question of its distribution is now under 

Prior to annexation, the character of the land tenures throughout 

the Punjab was very indefinite and varied considerably from place 

to place. Usually, however, cultivation was carried 
Land revenue. , u r • j j ^ c 

on by a number of mdependent groups 01 persons 

scattered at uncertain intervals throughout the cultivable area of the 
country. Each of these groups was, or believed itself to be, sprung 
from a common stock, and the area it cultivated was known as 
a village or mauza, while the cultivators lived together on a common 
village site. When the crops were cut, a part of the produce was 
handed over to the village menials in payment for their services, and 
the rest was divided between the state and the cultivator. In many 
cases the state share was taken by some magnate or court ofificial 
to whom it had been assigned ; and there would often be some 
man of local influence who, from his character or traditional claims, 
was in a position to attend at the division of the grain heap and 
demand a small share for himself. When an assignee or intermediary 
claimant was strong enough, he would break up the waste, settle culti- 
vators, and otherwise interfere in the village arrangements ; but he 
seldom, if ever, ousted the cultivator so long as the latter tilled his 


land and paid his dues. The land itself was very rarely transferred, 
and when a transfer did take place it was almost always to some 
relation or member of the village community. 

On annexation the three duties which fell on the land revenue 
officials were the determination and record of rights in the land, 
the assessment of the land, and the collection of the revenue ; and 
the same duties continue to constitute the main features of the land 
revenue administration at the present day. 

A great deal of time and anxiety were expended in the early days 
of British rule over the determination of the various parties who had 
rights to the soil, and more particularly over the question of ownership, 
the persons recorded as owners being as a rule made responsible for 
the revenue. In many cases, more especially in the south and west 
of the Province, intermediaries of the kind above noticed were 
admitted to have superior claims to the proprietary right ; but in 
most instances the cultivators were held to be the owners of the 
village lands, either jointly or in severalty. 

In the Punjab, as in the United Provinces, the ordinary landholder 
is known as za/nhidar, the term being applied irrespective of the size 
of the holding. A distinction used to be made in revenue records 
between zaminddri and patilddri tenures on the one hand, and bhaiyd- 
chdrd tenures on the other — the former referring to estates held as 
a single unit or portions representing fractions of a single original 
share, and the latter to estates held in separate portions representing 
no fractional parts of the whole. The former classes of tenure are, 
however, less common than formerly, and the distinction is now of 
little practical importance. The zainlnddrs in an estate are technically 
bound by a common responsibility towards Government, each being 
responsible for any balance of revenue due from other zamlnddrs 
in the village ; but here too the tendency is towards individualism, 
and with lighter and more elastic assessments the enforcement of 
collective responsibility has become practically obsolete. In practice, 
the owner or owners of each holding are assessed separately to revenue 
and are responsible to Government for the revenue so assessed. The 
revenue in each village is collected from the owners by one or more 
headmen or lambarddrs, who pay the proceeds into the Government 
treasury and receive a percentage on the collections as their remuneration. 

The persons recorded as owners, while undertaking the responsi- 
bility for the Government revenue, obtained a very much fuller right of 
property over their lands than had been usual in Sikh times. The 
right of transfer remained at first under some control and was little 
used ; but as the revenue became lighter and land more valuable, the 
owners began to alienate, and within thirty years after annexation land 
had already begun to pass freely into the hands of money-lenders. 


This evil grew more and more marked, until in 1901 the Go\ernment 
was compelled to place considerable restrictions on the powers of 
alienation enjoyed by agricultural tribes, in order to prevent their 
being completely ousted from their lands. 

The initial examination of rights in land which occupied the first 
twenty )ears or so after annexation was a part of the process known 
as the regular settlement of the various Districts, and was accompanied 
by measurement of the land and by the preparation of a complete 
cadastral map and record of titles. The arrangement originally 
contemplated was to undertake a revision of the record of each 
District only when the District came under reassessment, that is to 
say, at intervals of twenty or thirty years. But since 1885, when the 
whole record system was reformed, it has been the practice to enter 
all changes as they occur in a supplementary register and to rewrite 
the record of titles once every four years ; and this record is in law 
presumed to be true until the contrary is proved. In the same way, 
instead of making a fresh cadastral measurement of the District at 
each settlement, it is now becoming more usual to note changes in 
field boundaries as they occur, and to provide a fresh map at resettle- 
ment from the data thus available instead of by complete remeasure- 

The cadastral record, though it also shows all rights to land, was 
primarily meant to be a fiscal record indicating the persons liable to 
pay the land revenue. Having determined the persons thus liable, 
the next point is to decide the manner in which the assessment should 
be taken. The Sikh government most frequently took its revenue (as 
above described) in the form of a share of the crop, an arrangement 
which proportioned the assessment very satisfactorily to the quality of 
the harvest, but was attended by much friction and dishonesty. To 
avoid these disadvantages, and to maintain the tradition imported 
from the North-Western (now United) Provinces, the British revenue 
was levied in the form of a fixed cash assessment, payable from year 
to year independently of the character of the harvests. This form of 
revenue was, in most parts of the country, a considerable relief to the 
people after the harassment of the Sikh system, and it has ever since 
remained the predominant form of assessment in the Province. It 
subsequently, however, became clear that, in dealing with a people 
who save little from one year to another, an assessment of a fixed 
character caused a good deal of hardship where the harvests varied 
greatly in charact