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Notes on Transliteration 


a has the sound of a in ' woman.' 

a has the sound of a in ' father.' 

e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 

i has the sound of/ in 'pin.' 

I has the sound of / in ' poUce.' 

o has the sound of <? in ' bone.' 

u has the sound of « in ' bull.' 

u has the sound of u in * flute.' 

ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 

au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 


Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, t, r, &c., marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
th in ' this ' or ' thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse ' 
and ' boathook.' 

A 2 


Burmese Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in 'law.' 
o and vi are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like j in ' jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in 

w after a consonant has the force of mv. Thus, yiva and pive 
are disyllahles, pronounced as '\{ \;n\.\.Q\\ ymva and />if7e>e. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2S.^ or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 


the exchange value of the rupee to \s. ^d., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. 4^. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
Por the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — ^ = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Lxirge numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 'ift^r 1S99 ; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i^d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to \d. The 
anna is again subdivided into 1 2 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer =16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 


same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an Enghsh reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted — based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at i^. 4^. : i seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2S. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the b'lgha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 



Samadhiala (i). — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Samadhiala (Chabharia) (2). — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Samadhiala (Charan) (3). — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Samaguting. — Village on the lower slopes of the Naga Hills 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° 47' N. and 93° 47' E. 
It was occupied in 1866 by Lieutenant Gregory, in the hope that an 
outpost in the hills would put a stop to Naga raids, and remained the 
head-quarters of the Naga Hills District till 1878, when it was aban- 
doned in favour of Kohima, which is situated in the centre of the 
AngamI country. 

Samalkot {Chdmarlakota). — Town in the Cocanada taluk of Go- 
davari District, Madras, situated in 17° 3' N. and 82° 10' E., 7 miles 
north of Cocanada, on the main line of the East Coast Railway, 
391 miles from Madras city, and on the Samalkot canal. Samalkot 
is a rapidly growing town in the Pithapuram estate. The population 
in 1 90 1 was 16,015, compared with 4,961 in 1881. A sugar refinery 
and distillery, employing 520 hands daily, was opened here in 1S99. 
A Government experimental agricultural farm has also been started. 
Samalkot was formerly a military station, but was abandoned in 1869. 
Troops were again stationed here from 1879 to 1893. 

Samana Range. — A rugged range of hills in the North-West 
Frontier Province, running east and west about 33° 34' N. and between 
70° 56' and 71° 51' E., and separating the Mlranzai valley in the Thai 
subdivision of Kohat District from the Khanki valley of Tirah. The 
range has an elevation of 5,000 to 6,500 feet; and its crest is held 
by a line of forts, including Fort Lockhart, Saragarhi, and Fort 
Cavagnari or Gulistan. 

Samana. — Town in the Bhawanigarh tahs'il, Karmgarh nizdmaf, 
Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 30° 9' N. and 76° 15' E., 17 miles 
south-west of Patiala town, with which it is connected by a metalled 
road. Population (1901), 10,209. I^ '^ ^ well-built town, with many 
handsome houses. Samana is a place of considerable antiquity, and 

2 S.lA/JX.l 

tradition ascribes its foundation to llic fu^iiivcs of the Samanid dynu^,ty 
of Persia, on tlie site of ;i slill older Naranjan Khera or Ratangarh. 
Frequently mentioned in the Muhammadan historians as a fief of 
Delhi, it surrendered, with Sarsuti, Kuhrani, and Hansi, to Muhammad 
of Ghor after his defeat of Prithwl Raj in 1192, and became an apanage 
of Kutb-ud-din Aibak. Under Muhammad bin Tughlak we read that 
the tribes round Samana, driven to despair by his exactions, fled to 
the woods. But under the beneficent rule of Firoz Shah III the tract 
recovered its prosperity, and became the scene of important events in 
subsequent reigns. Under Jahangir it possessed a thriving colony of 
weavers who sui)plied the emperor with fine cloth, and whose descen- 
dants still own part of the town \ Banda Bairagi sacked the place in 
1 70S. It has now few manufactures, but contains an Anglo-vernacular 
middle school, a police station, and a dispensary. 

Samaro. — Old name of the Jamesabad Al/uka of Thar and Parkar 
District, Sind, Bombay. See Jamesabad. 

Samastipur Subdivision. — Southern subdivision of Darbhanga 
District, Bengal, lying between 25° 28' and 26° 5' N. and 85° 31' and 
86° i' E., with an area of 778 square miles. The population rose from 
738,449 in 1891 to 752,637 in 1901, when there were 967 persons per 
square mile, or more than in any other subdivision of the District. 
^\■ith the exception of part of the dodd between the Baghmati and 
Burhl Gandak rivers, the subdivision consists of a large block of 
upland, interspersed with a few chains or marshes. It is the richest 
and most fertile part of the District, producing all the most valuable 
rabi and bhadoi crops, and it is also the centre of the indigo industry. 
It contains one town, Samastipur (population, 9^1 01), the head-quarters: 
and 843 villages. Samastipur town is an important railway junction 
and contains workshops of the Bengal and North-"\Vestern Railway. 
The Government estate at Pusa has recently been made over to the 
Government of India as the site for an Imperial agricultural college 
and research laboratory, and portions of the estate are being utilized 
as an experimental farm for cultivation and cattle-breeding. 

Samastipur Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in Darbhanga District, Bengal, situated in 25° 52' N. 
and 85° 48' E., on the south bank of the Burhi Gandak river. Popu- 
lation (1901), 9,101. Samastipur is an important junction on the 
Bengal and North-Western Railway, and the site of railway workshops 
which employ 1,000 hands. It is also a large trading centre. It was 
constituted a municipality in 1897. The income during the five years 
ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 8,000, and the expenditure Rs. 7,600. 

' As early as 1621 llie East India Coinj)aiiy sent faclois to Samana to purchrse 
cilicoes known by the name of 'semianoci,' at tlic price of from Rs. 2| to Rs. 4I 
per piece (W. Foster, The Early Fadories in India (1906)). 


In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,500, of which Rs. 4,000 was derived 
from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 8,600. The town contains the usual public offices, &c. ; the sub- 
jail has accommodation for 23 prisoners. 

Samatata. — Ancient name for the deltaic tract of Bengal and 
Eastern Bengal. See Banga. 

Samayapuram. — Village in the District and taluk of Trichinopoly, 
Madras, situated in 10° 56' N. and 78° 45' E., on the high road about 
8 miles north of Trichinopoly city. Poi)ulation (1901), 1,213. Adjoin- 
ing it on the south is the village of Kannanur (population, 2,026). The 
ground covered by the two villages is of much historical interest. It is 
called Samiavaram in Orme's History and Kannanur in ancient stone 

In 1752, when the French army under Law had retreated from the 
south of the Cauvery to the island of Srirangam, Major Lawrence, at 
Clive's suggestion, determined to divide his army into two divisions, 
and to send one of them to the north of Trichinopoly, with the view 
of getting possession of the enemy's posts in that part of the country 
and intercepting any reinforcements which might be sent from 
Pondicherry. This expedition was entrusted to Clive, who on iVpril 7 
took possession of the village of Samayapuram. There are two 
temples in this village and in Kannanur about a quarter of a mile 
apart : namely, the Bhojeswara shrine on the west, and the Mariamman 
temple on the east, of the old high road leading to Madras, which 
then ran a few hundred yards to the east of the present road. The 
Europeans and sepoys were placed inside these buildings, while the 
Marathas and Tanjore troops encamped outside. A detachment sent 
by Dupleix from Pondicherry under D'Auteuil reached Uttattur on 
April 14; and, in order to intercept this body while on the march, 
Clive advanced from Samayapuram towards Uttattur, on which 
D'Auteuil, who had already started for Trichinopoly, retraced his 
steps to the latter village. Clive then fell back on his former position. 
Law, who was commanding at Srirangam, heard of Clive's departure 
but not of his return, and determined to surprise and cut off whatever 
force might have been left behind by him. With this object he 
dispatched a force of 80 Europeans (of whom 40 were English 
deserters) and 200 sepoys. In the skirmish which ensued, and which 
is graphically described by Orme, Clive had more than one narrow 
escape. The French force arrived near the English camp in Samaya- 
puram about midnight ; and the English deserters persuaded the 
native sentries that they had been sent by Major Lawrence to reinforce 
Clive, and with all their following were allowed to enter the camp. 
They reached unchallenged the smaller of tlic two temples. When 
challenged there, they answered by a volley and entered the building, 


putting to the sword every person they met. CUve, who had been 
sleeping in a neighbouring resthouse, thought the firing was that of 
his own men who had taken some false alarm, and fetched 200 of the 
European troops from the other temple. On regaining the smaller 
shrine, he found a large body of sepoys firing at random. Still mis- 
taking them for his own troops he went among them, ordering the 
firing to cease, upbraiding some for their supposed panic and even 
striking others. One of the French sepoys recognized that he was 
English, and attacked and wounded him in two places with his sword 
and then ran away to the temple. Clive, furious at this supposed 
insolence on the part of one of his own men, pursued him to the gate 
and there, to his great surprise, was accosted by six Frenchmen. 
\Vith characteristic composure he told the Frenchmen that he had 
come to offer them terms, and that if they did not accept them he 
would surround them with his whole force and give them no quarter. 
Three of the Frenchmen ran into the pagoda to carry the intelligence, 
vihile the other three surrendered and followed Clive towards the 
resthouse, whither he now hastened with the intention of attacking 
the sepoys there, whom he now knew to be enemies ; but they had 
already discovered the danger of their situation and marched off. 
Clive then stormed the temple where he had been challenged by the 
six Frenchmen ; but the English deserters fought desperately and 
killed an officer and fifteen men of Clive's force, and the attack 
was accordingly ordered to cease. At daybreak the officer com- 
manding the French, seeing the danger of his situation, made a sally 
at the head of his men ; but he was received with a heavy fire which 
killed him and the twelve others who first came out of the gateway. 
The rest ran back into the temple. Clive then advanced into the 
porch of the gate to parley with the enemy and, weak with loss of 
blood and fatigue, stood with his back to the wall of the porch 
leaning forward on the shoulders of two sergeants. The officer of the 
English deserters conducted himself with great insolence, told Clive 
in abusive language that he would shoot him, raised his musket and 
fired. The ball missed Clive, but the two sergeants fell mortally 
wounded. The Frenchmen, who had hitherto defended the temple 
with the English deserters, thought it necessary to disavow an outrage 
which would probably exclude them from any pretensions to quarter, 
and immediately surrendered. 

It appears from an inscription in the Jambukeswaram temple on 
Srirangam island that the Bhojeswara temple in Samayapuram was 
founded by a Hoysala Ballala king; and Kannanur is itself identified 
as the site of \'ikianuipura, the Hoysala capital in the Chola country 
in the thirteenth century. The name Bhojeswara is considered to be 
a corruption of the original Poysaleswara (or Hoysaleswara), which 


owes its origin to a confusion between the long-forgotten Hoysala 
king and the better-known king Bhoja of the Paramaras in Central 
Tnclia, who never had any connexion with this country. In the 
Jambukeswaram inscription king Vira Someswara mentions ' [the 
image of] the Lord Poysaleswara which we have set up in Kannanur, 
alias Vikramapuram ' ; and the south wall of the Kannaniir temple 
bears an inscription of the Hoysala king Vira Ramanatha Deva (son 
of Someswara) in which the temple is called Poysaleswara, ' the Iswara 
[temple] of the Poysala [king].' There is also a copperplate edict of 
Vira Someswara in the Bangalore Museum which was issued on 
March i, a.d. 1253, the day of an eclipse of the sun, 'while [the 
king] was residing in the great capital named Vikramapura, which 
had been built in order to amuse his mind in the Chola country, 
which he had conquered by the power of his arm.' 

Sambalpur District. — District of the Orissa Division, Bengal, 
lying between 20° 45' and 21° 57' N. and 82° 38' and 84° 26' E., with 
an area of 3,773 square miles. Up to 1905 the District formed part 
of the Chhattlsgarh Division of the Central Provinces ; and on its 
transfer to Bengal, the Phuljhar zamindari and the Chandarpur- 
Padampur and Malkhurda estates, with an area of 1,175 square miles 
and a population (1901) of 189,455 persons were separated from it, 
and attached to the Raipur and Bilaspur Districts of the Central 
Provinces. It is bounded on the north by the Gangpur State of 
Bengal ; on the east by the States of Bamra and Rairakhol ; on the 
south by Patna, Sonpur, and Rairakhol States ; and on the west by 
the Raipur and Bilaspur Districts of the Central Provinces. Sambalpur 
consists of a core of tolerably open country, surrounded on three sides 
by hills and forests, but continuing on the south into 
the Feudatory States of Patna and Sonpur and aspects 

forming the middle basin of the Mahanadl. It is 
separated from the Chhattlsgarh plain on the west by a range of hills 
carrying a broad strip of jungle, and running north and south through 
the Raigarh and Sarangarh States ; and this range marks roughly the 
boundary between the Chhattlsgarh and Oriya tracts in respect of 
population and language. Speaking broadly, the plain country con- 
stitutes the khdlsa, that is, the area held by village headmen direct 
from Government, while the wilder tracts on the west, north, and east 
are in the possession of intermediary proprietors known locally as 
zaminddrs. But this description cannot be accepted as entirely 
accurate, as some of the zamhiddri estates lie in the open plain, while 
the khdlsa area includes to the north the wild mass of hills known as 
the Barapahar. 

The Mahanadl river traverses Sambalpur from north to south-east 
for a distance of nearly 90 miles. Its width extends to a mile or more 


in flood-time, and its bed is rocky and Ijroken by rapids over portions 
of its course. The jirincipal tributary is the lb, which enters the 
District from the Gangpur State, and flowing south and west joins 
the Mahanadi about 12 miles above Sambalpur. The Kelo, another 
tributary, passes Raigarh and enters the Mahanadi near Padampur. 
The Ong rises in Khariar and passing through Borasambar flows into 
the Mahanadi near Sonpur. Other tributary streams are the jTra, 
Borai, and Mand. The Barapahar hills form a compact block 
16 miles square in the north-west of the District, and throw out a spur 
to the south-west for a distance of 30 miles, crossed by the Raipur- 
Sambalpur road at the Singhora pass. Their highest point is Debrlgarh, 
at an altitude of 2,276 feet. Another range of importance is that of 
Jharghati, which is crossed by the railway at Rengali station. To the 
southward, and running parallel with the Mahanadi, a succession of 
broken chains extends for some 30 miles. The range, however, attains 
its greatest altitude of about 3,000 feet in the Borasambar zaniinddri 
in the south-west, where the Narsinghnath plateau is situated. Isolated 
peaks rising abruptly from the plain are also frequent ; but the flat- 
topped trap hills, so common a feature in most Districts to the north 
and west, are absent. The elevation of the plains falls from nearly 
750 feet in the north to 497 at Sambalpur town. The surface of 
the open country is undulating, and is intersected in every direction 
by drainage channels leading from the hills to the Mahanadi. A con- 
siderable portion of the area consists of ground which is too broken by 
ravines to be banked up into rice-fields, or of broad sandy ridges which 
are agriculturally of very little value. The configuration of the country 
is exceedingly well adapted for tank-making, and the number of village 
tanks is one of the most prominent local features. 

The Barapahar hills belong to the Lower Vindhyan sandstone forma- 
tion, which covers so large an area in Raipur and Bilaspur. Shales, 
sandstones, and limestones are the prevalent rocks. In the Barapahar 
group coal-bearing sandstones are found. The rest of the District 
is mainly occupied by metamorphic or crystalline rocks. Laterite is 
found more or less abundantly resting upon the older formations in all 
parts of the area. 

Blocks of 'reserved' forest clothe the Barapahar hills in the north 
and the other ranges to the east and south-east, while many of the 
zam'inddri estates are also covered with jungle over the greater part 
of their area. The forest vegetation of Sambalpur is included in the 
great sal belt. Other important trees are the beautiful A?iogeissus 
acuminata, sdj {Terminalia tomentosa), Injasdl {Pterocarpus Marsupium), 
and shisham {Dalbergia Sissoo). The light sandy soil is admirably fitted 
for the growth of trees, and the abundance of mango groves and 
clumps of palms gives the village scenery a distinct charm. The semul 


or cotton-tree {Bo7>ibax vialaharicum) is also common in the open 

The usual wild animals occur. Bufii^loes, though rare, are found in 
the denser forests of the west, and bison on several of the hill ranges. 
Sdvibar are fairly plentiful. Chltal or spotted deer, mouse deer, ' ravine 
deer' (gazelle), and the four-horned antelope are also found. Tigers 
were formerly numerous, but their numbers have greatly decreased in 
recent years. Leopards are common, especially in the low hills close to 
villages. The comparatively rare brown flying scjuirrcl {P/croniys oral) 
is found in Sambalpur. It is a large squirrel with folds of skin 
which can be spread out like a small parachute. Duck and teal are 
plentiful on the tanks in the cold season, and snipe in the stretches 
of irrigated rice-fields below the tanks. Flocks of demoiselle cranes 
frequent the sandy stretches of the Mahanadl at this time. Fish of 
many kinds, including mahseer, abound in the Mahanadl and other 
rivers. Poisonous snakes are very common. 

The climate of Sambalpur is moist and unhealthy. The ordinary 
temperature is not excessive, but the heat is aggravated at Sambalpur 
town during the summer months by radiation from the sandy bed 
of the Mahanadl. During breaks in the rains the weather at once 
becomes hot and oppressive, and though the cold season is pleasant 
it is of short duration. Malarial fever of a virulent type prevails in 
the autumn months, and diseases of the spleen are common in the 
forest tracts. 

The annual rainfall at Sambalpur town averages 59 inches ; that 
of Bargarh is much lighter, being only 49 inches. Taking the District 
as a whole, the monsoon is generally regular. Sambalpur is in the 
track of cyclonic storms from the Bay of Bengal, and this may possibly 
be assigned as the reason. 

The earliest authentic records show Sambalpur as one of a cluster 
of States held by Chauhan Rajputs, who are supposed to have come 
from Mainpurl in the United Provinces. In 1797 
the District was conquered and annexed by the 
Marathas ; but owing to British influence the Raja was restored in 
181 7, and placed under the political control of the Bengal Govern- 
ment. On the death of a successor without heirs in 1849 the District 
was annexed as an escheat, and was administered by the Bengal 
Government till 1862, when it was transferred to the Central Provinces. 
During the Mutiny and the five years which followed it, the condition 
of Sambalpur was exceedingly unsatisfactory, owing to disturbances led 
by Surendra Sah, a pretender to the State, who had been imprisoned 
in the Ranch! jail for murder, but was set free by the mutineers. He 
returned to Sambalpur and instigated a revolt against the British 
Government, wb ich he prosecuted by harassing the people with dacoities. 



He was joined by many of the zaminddrs, and it is not too much to 
say that for five years the District was in a state of anarchy. Surendra 
Sah was deported in 1864 and tranquilHty restored. 

The archaeological remains are not very important. There are 
temples at Barpali, Gaisama 25 miles south-west of Sambalpur, Padam- 
pur in Borasambar, Garh-Phuljhar, and Sason, which are ascribed to 
ancestors of the Sambalpur dynasty and of the respective zaniinddrs. 
The Narsinghnath plateau in the south of the Borasambar zaminddri 
is locally celebrated for its temple and the waterfall called Sahasra 
Dhara or ' thousand streams,' which is extremely picturesque. Huma 
on the MahanadT, 15 miles below Sambalpur town, is another place 
of pilgrimage. It is situated at the junction of a small stream, called 
the Jholjir, with the Mahanadi, and contains a well-known temple of 

The population of the District at the three enumerations was as 
follows: (1881) 693,499, (1891) 796,413, and (1901) 829,698. On 
the transfer of territory in 1905 the population was 
reduced to 640,243 persons. Between 1881 and 
1 89 1 the increase was nearly 15 per cent., the greater part of which 
occurred in the zaml?iddns, and must be attributed to greater 
efficiency of enumeration. The District had a half crop in 1897 and 
there was practically no distress; but in 1900 it was severely affected, 
and the mortality was augmented by a large influx of starving wanderers 
from native territory. The District furnishes coolies for Assam, and it 
is estimated that nearly 12,000 persons emigrated during the decade. 
There is only one town, Sambalpur, and 1,938 inhabited villages. 

The principal statistics of population, based on the Census of 1901, 
are given below : — 







Number of 





0. V 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 









Sambalpur . 

District total 






+ 7-6 
-I- 0.1 






+ 3-2 


The figures for religion show that nearly 583,000 persons, or 91 per 
cent, of the population, are Hindus, and 54,000, or 8 per cent., 
Animists. Muhammadans number only about 3,000. Oriya is the 
vernacular of 89 per cent, of the population. A number of tribal 
dialects are also found, the principal being Oraon with nearly 25,000 
speakers, Kol with 11,000, and Kharia with 5,000. 


The principal castes are Gonds (constituting 8 per cent, of the popu- 
lation), Koltas (II per cent.), Savaras (9 per cent.), Gahras or Ahirs 
(11 per cent.), and Gandas (13 per cent.). Of the sixteen zamindari 
estates, ten are held by Raj Gonds; two, Rajpur and Barpali, by 
Chauhan Rajijuts ; one, Rampur, by another Raj[)ut ; two, Borasambar 
and Ghens, by Binjhals; and one, Bijepur, by a Kolta. The Gond 
families are ancient ; and their numbers seem to indicate that previous 
to the Oriya immigration they held i)osscssion of the country, subduing 
the Munda tribes who were probably there before them. A trace of 
the older domination of these is to be found in the fact that the 
Binjhfil zamindar of Borasambar still afifixes the tlka to the Maharaja 
of Patna on his accession. Koltas are the great cultivating caste, and 
have the usual characteristics of frugality, industry, hunger for land, 
and readiness to resort to any degree of litigation rather than relincjuish 
a supposed right to it. They strongly appreciate the advantages of 
irrigation, and show considerable public spirit in constructing tanks 
which will benefit the lands of their tenants as well as their own. 
The Savaras or Saonrs of Sambalpur, though a Dravidian tribe, live 
principally in the open country and have adopted Hindu usages. 
They are considered the best farm-servants and are very laborious, 
but rarely acquire any property. Brahmans (28,000), though not very 
numerous, are distinctly the leading caste in the District. The Binjhals 
(39,000) are probably Hinduized Baigas, and live principally in the 
forest tracts. Kewats (38,000), or boatmen and fishermen, are a numer- 
ous caste. The Gandas (105,000), a Dravidian tribe now performing 
the menial duties of the village or engaging in cotton-weaving, have 
strong criminal propensities which have recently called for special 
measures of repression. About 78 per cent, of the population of the 
District are returned as dependent on agriculture. A noticeable feature 
of the rural life of Sambalpur is that ihe.Jhd?tkar, or village priest, is 
a universal and recognized village servant of fairly high status. He is 
nearly always a member of one of the Dravidian tribes, and his business 
is to conduct the worship of the local deities of the soil, crops, forests, 
and hills. He generally has a substantial holding, rent free, containing 
some of the best land in the village. It is said locally that thejhdnkar 
is looked on as the founder of the village, and the representative of 
the old owners who were ousted by the Hindus. He worships on 
their behalf the indigenous deities, with whom he naturally possesses 
a more intimate acquaintance than the later immigrants ; while the 
gods of these latter cannot be relied on to exercise a sufficient control 
over the works of nature in the foreign land to which they have 
been imported, or to ensure that the earth and the seasons will 
regularly perform their necessary functions in producing sustenance 
for mankind. 


Christians number 722, including 575 natives, of whom the majority 
are Lutherans and Baptists. A station of the Baptist Mission is main- 
tained at Sambalpur town. 

The black soil which forms so marked a feature in the adjoining 
Central Provinces is almost unknown in Sambalpur. It occurs in 
the north-west of the District, beyond the cross 
range of Vindhyan sandstone which shuts off the 
Ambabhona pargana, and across the Mahanadi towards the Bilaspur 
border. Tlie soil which covers the greater part of the country is 
apparently derived from underlying crystalline rocks, and the differ- 
ences found in it are due mainly to the elimination and trans- 
portation effected by surface drainage. The finer particles have 
been carried into the low-lying areas along drainage lines, rendering 
the soil there of a clayey texture, and leaving the uplands light and 
sandy. The land round Sambalpur town, and a strip running along 
the north bank of the Mahanadi to the confines of Bilaspur District, 
is the most productive, being fairly level, while the country over the 
greater part of the Bargarh tahs'il has a very decided slope, and is 
much cut up by ravines and watercourses. Nearly all the rice 
is sown broadcast, only about 4 per cent, of the total area being 
transplanted. For thinning the crop and taking out weeds, the fields 
are ploughed up when the young plants are a few inches high, as in 
Chhattisgarh. A considerable proportion of the area under culti- 
vation, consisting of high land which grows crops other than rice, 
is annually left fallow, as the soil is so poor that it requires periodical 

' No less than 235 square miles are held revenue free or on low quit- 
rents, these grants being either for the maintenance of temples or gifts 
to Brahmans, or assignments for the support of relatives of the late 
ruling family. The zamindarl estates cover 48 per cent, of the total 
area of the District, 109 acres are held ryottvdri, and the balance on 
the tenures described below (p. 15). In 1903-4, 396 square miles, 
or 9 per cent, of the total area, were included in Government forests; 
290 square miles, or 7 per cent., were classed as not available for culti- 
vation; and 1,102 square miles, or 26 per cent., as cultivable waste other 
than fallow. The remaining area, amounting to about 2,443 square 
miles, or nearly 64 per cent, of that of the District, excluding Govern- 
ment forests, was occupied for cultivation. In the more level parts 
of the open country cultivation is close, but elsewhere there seems 
to be still some room for expansion. Rice is the staple crop of 
Sambalpur, covering 1,355 square miles in 1903-4. Other crops are 

' The figures in this paragraph refer to the area of the District as it stood before 
the transfer of Phiiljhar, Chandarpur, and Malkhurda, revised statistics of cultivation 
not being available. 


ill or sesamum (158 square miles), the pulse iirad (145), and kodon 
(94). Nearly 12,000 acres are under cotton and 4,400 under sugar- 
cane. The pulses are raised on the inferior high-lying land without 
manure, the out-turn in consequence being usually very small. The 
pulse kiiltJii {Dolichos unijiorus) covers 56 square miles. Cotton and 
til a.xc also grown on this inferior land. Sugar-cane was formerly a crop 
of some importance ; but its cultivation has decreased in recent years, 
owing to the local product being unable to compete in price with that 
imported from Northern India. 

The harvests have usually been favourable in recent years, and the 
cropped area steadily expanded up to 1899, when the famine of 1900 
caused a temporary decline. New tanks have also been constructed 
for irrigation, and manure is now utilized to a larger extent. During 
the decade ending 1904, a total of Rs. 77,000 was advanced under 
the Land Improvement Loans Act, and Rs. 68,000 under the Agricul- 
turists' Loans Act. 

In 1903-4 the irrigated area was only 31 square miles, but in 
the previous year it had been over 196, being the maximum recorded. 
With the exception of 12 square miles under sugar-cane and garden' 
produce, the only crop irrigated is rice. The suitability of the District 
for tank-making has already been mentioned, and it is not too much 
to say that the very existence of villages over a large portion of the 
area is dependent on the tanks which have been constructed near them. 
There are 9,500 irrigation tanks, or between three and four to every 
village in the District on an average. The ordinary Sambalpur tank 
is constructed by throwing a strong embankment across a drainage line, 
so as to hold up an irregularly shaped sheet of water. Below the 
embankment a four-sided tank is excavated, which constitutes the 
drinking supply of the village. Irrigation is generally effected by 
leading channels from the ends of the embankment, but in years 
of short rainfall the centre of the tank is sometimes cut through. 
Embankments of small size are frequently thrown across drainage 
channels by tenants for the benefit of their individual holdings. The 
Jambor and Sarsutia nullahs near Machida are perennial streams, and 
the water is diverted from them by temporary dams and carried into the 
fields. In certain tracts near the Mahanadi, where water is very close to 
the surface, temporary wells are also sometimes constructed for the irri- 
gation of rice. Irrigation from permanent wells is insignificant. Several 
projects for new tanks have been prepared by the Irrigation department. 

The cattle of the District are miserably poor, and no care is exercised 
in breeding. As the soil is light and sandy, however, strong cattle are 
not so requisite here as elsewhere. For draught purposes larger animals 
are imported from Berar. Buffaloes are largely used for cultivation. 
They are not as a rule bred locally, but imported from the northern 



Districts tliiough Hilaspur and Surguja. Those reared in the District 
are distinctly inferior. Buffaloes are frequently also used for draught, 
and for pressing oil and sugar-cane. Only a few small ponies are bred 
in the District for riding. Goats and sheep are kept by the lower castes 
for food only. Their manure is also sometimes used, but docs not 
command a price. There are no professional shepherds, and no use 
is made of the wool of sheep. 

The area of 'reserved' forest is 396 square miles. It is situated 
on the Barapahar hills in the north of the Bargarh iahsll, and on the 
ranges in the west and south-west of the Sambalpur 
tahslL There are two types of forest, the first con- 
sisting of the sal tree interspersed with bamboos and other trees, and 
the second or mixed forest of bamboos and inferior species. Sal forest 
occupies all the hills and valleys of the vSambalpur range, and the prin- 
cipal valleys of the Barapahar range, or an area of about 238 square 
miles. It thrives best on well-drained slopes of sandy loam. The 
mixed forest is situated on the rocky dry hills of the Barapahar range, 
where sal will not grow, and covers 155 square miles. The revenue 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,000, of which about Rs. 12,000 was realized from 
the sale of bamboos, Rs. 10,000 from timber, Rs. 3,600 from grazing 
dues, and Rs. 5,000 from firewood. 

The Rampur coal-field is situated within the District. Recent 
exploration has resulted in the discovery of one seam of good steam 
coal and two of rather inferior quality within easy 
reach of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The former, 
known as the lb Bridge seam, contains coal more than 7 feet in thick- 
ness. Two samples which have been analysed yielded 52 and 55 per 
cent, respectively of fixed carbon. Iron ores occur in most of the hilly 
country on the borders of the District, particularly in the Borasambar, 
Phuljhar \ Kolabira, and Rampur zamlnddris. Some of them are 
of good quality, but they are worked by indigenous methods only. 
There are 160 native furnaces, which produce about 1,120 cwt. of iron 
annually. When Sambalpur was under native rule diamonds were 
obtained in the island of Hirakud ('diamond island') in the Mahanadi. 
The Jharias or diamond-seekers were rewarded with grants of land 
in exchange for the stones found by them. The right to exploit the 
diauKjnds, which are of very poor quality, was leased by the British 
Government for Rs. 200, but the lessee subsecjuently relinquished it. 
Gold in minute quantities is obtained by sand-washing in the lb river. 
Lead ores have been found in Talpatia, Jhunan, and Padampur -, and 
antimony in Junani opposite Huakud. Mica exists, but the plates are 
too small to be of any commercial value. 

' Xow in Raipur District, Central Province?. 
''■ Now in Bilaspur Diatiict, Central Provinces. 


Tasar silk-weaving is an important industry in Sanibalpur. The 
cocoons are at present not cultivated locally, but are imi)orled fr(jm 
Chota Nagpur and the adjoining States. Plain and 
drilled cloth is woven. Remenda, Barpali, Chan- communications, 
darpur \ and Sambalpur are the i)rincipal centres. 
A little cloth is sent to Ganjam, but the greater part is sold locally. 
Cloths of cotton with silk borders, or intermixed with silk, are also 
largely woven. IJhulias and Koshtas are the castes engaged, the former 
weaving only the prepared thread, but the latter also spinning it. 
Cotton cloth of a coarse te-xture, but of considerable taste in colour 
and variety of pattern, is also woven in large quantities, imported 
thread being used almost exclusively. It is generally worn by people 
of the District in preference to mill-woven cloth. A large bell-metal 
industry exists at Tukra near Kadobahal, and a number of artisans 
are also found at Remenda, Barpali, and Bijepur. Brass cooking 
and water pots are usually imported from Orissa. The iron obtained 
locally is used for the manufacture of all agricultural implements e.xcept 
cart-wheel tires. Smaller industries include the manufacture of metal 
beads, saddles, and drums. 

Rice is the staple export of Sambalpur, being sent princii)ally to 
Calcutta, but also to Bombay and Berar. Other exports include oil- 
seeds, sleepers, dried meat, and 5a«-hemp. Salt comes principally from 
Ganjam, and is now brought by rail instead of river as formerly. 
Sugar is obtained from Mirzapur and the Mauritius, and gu/" or 
unrefined sugar from Bengal. Kerosene oil is brought from Calcutta, 
and cotton cloth and yarn from Calcutta and the Nagpur mills. Silk 
is imported from Berhampur. Wheat, gram, and the pulse arhar are 
also imported,, as they are not grown locally in sufficient quantities 
to meet the demand. The weekly markets at Sambalpur and Bargarh 
are the most important in the District. Bhukta, near Ambabhona, 
is the largest cattle fair ; and after it rank those of Bargarh, Saraipali, 
and Talpatia. Jamurla is a large mart for oilseeds ; Dhama is a timber 
market ; and Bhikhampur and Talpatia are centres for the sale of 
country iron implements. A certain amount of trade in grain and 
household utensils is transacted at the annual fairs of Narsinghnath 
and Huma. 

The main line of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway passes for a short 
distance through the north-east of the District, with a length of nearly 
30 miles and three stations. From Jharsugra junction a branch line 
runs to Sambalpur town, 30 miles distant, with three intervening 
stations. The most important trade route is the Raipur-Sambalpur 
road, which passes through the centre of the Bargarh tahsil. Next 
to this come the Cuttack road down to Sonpur, and the Sambalpur- 
' Now in Bilaspur District, Ce;.tral Provinces, 
i; 2 


Bilaspur road. None of these is metalled throughout, but the Raipur- 
Sambalpur road is embanked and gravelled. The District lias 27 miles 
of metalled and 185 of unmetalled roads, and the expenditure on main- 
tenance is Rs. 24,000. The Public Works department is in charge 
of 115 miles and the District council of 97 miles of road. There 
are avenues on 68 miles. The Mahanadi river was formerly the great 
outlet for the District trade. Boat transport is still carried on as far 
as Sonpur, but since the opening of the railway trade with Cuttack 
by this route has almost entirely ceased. Boats can ascend the 
Mahanadi as far as Arang in Raipur, but this route is also little 
used owing to the dangerous character of the navigation. 

Sambalpur is recorded as having suffered from partial failures of crops 
in 1834, 1845, 1874, and 1877-8, but there was nothing more than 
slight distress in any of those years. In 1896 the 
rice crop failed over a small part of the District, prin- 
cipally in the Chandarpur zatnlnddri^ and some relief was administered 
here. The numbers, however, never rose to 3,000, while in the rest 
of the District agriculturists made large profits from the high prices 
prevailing for rice. The year 1900 was the first in which there is any 
record of serious famine. Owing to the short rainfall in 1899, a com- 
plete failure of the rice crop occurred over large tracts of the District, 
principally in the north and west. Relief operations extended over 
a whole year, the highest number relieved being 93,000 in August, 
1900, or 12 per cent, of the population; and the total expenditure was 
8 lakhs. 

The Deputy-Commissioner has a staff of three Assistant or Deputy- 
Collectors, and a Sub-Deputy-Collector. For administrative purposes 
. . . the District is divided into two tahslls, Sambalpur 
and Bargarh, each having a tahs'ilddr and Bargarh 
also a naib-tahsllddr. The Forest officer is generally a member of 
the Provincial service. 

The civil judicial staff consists of a District and two Subordinate 
Judges and a Munsif at each tahsil. Sambalpur is included in the 
Sessions Division of Cuttack. The civil litigation has greatly increased 
in recent years, and is now very heavy. Transactions attempting to 
evade the restrictions of the Central Provinces Tenancy Act on the 
transfer of immovable property are a common feature of litigation, as 
also are easement suits for water. The crime of the District is not 
usually heavy, but the recent famine produced an organized outbreak 
of dacoity and house-breaking. 

Under native rule the village headmen, or gao>i/ias, were responsible 
for the payment of a lump sum assessed on the village for a period 
of years, according to a lease which was periodically revised and re- 
newed. The amount of the assessment was recovered from the 


cultivators, and the headmen were remunerated by holding part of the 
village area free of revenue. The headmen were occasionally ejected 
for default in the payment of revenue, and the grant of a new lease 
was often made an opportunity for imposing a fme which the gaontid 
paid in great part from his own profits, and did not recover from the 
cultivators. The cultivators were seldom ejected except for default 
in the payment of revenue, but they rendered to their gaontids a 
variety of miscellaneous services known as hlieil bii^dri. Taxation 
under native rule appears to have been light. When the District 
escheated to the British (lovernment, the total land revenue of the 
khdlsa area was about a lakh of rupees, nearly a ([uarter 'of which was 
alienated. Short-term settlements were made in the years succeeding 
the annexation, till on the transfer of the District to the Central Pro- 
vinces in 1862 a ])roclamation was issued stating that a regular long-term 
settlement would be made, at which the gaontids or hereditary managers 
and rent-collectors of villages would receive proprietary rights. The 
protracted disturbances caused by the adherents of Surendra Sah, how- 
ever, prevented any real progress being made with the survey ; and this 
gave time for the expression of an opinion by the local officers that the 
system of settlement followed in other Districts was not suited to the 
circumstances of Sambalpur. After considerable discussion, the inci- 
dents of land tenures were considerably modified in 1872. Thegao/if/ds 
or hereditary managers received proprietary rights only in their bhog}-d 
or home-farm land, which was granted to them free of revenue in lieu 
of any share or drawback on the rental paid by tenants. Waste lands 
and forests remained the property of Government ; but the gaontils 
enjoy the rental on lands newly broken up during the currency of 
settlement. A sufficiency of forest land to meet the necessities of 
the villagers was allotted for their use, and in cases where the area 
was in excess of this it was demarcated and set apart as a fuel and 
fodder reserve. Occupancy right was conferred on all tenants except 
sub-tenants o^ bhogrd. The system w'as intended to restrict the power 
of alienation of land, the grant of which had led to the expropriation of 
the agricultural by the money-lending castes, and the same policy has 
recently received expression in the Central Provinces Tenancy Act of 
1898. A settlement was made for twelve years in 1876, by which 
the revenue demand was raised to i-i6 lakhs, the net revenue, exclud- 
ing assignments, being Rs. 93,000. On the expiry of this settlement, 
the District was again settled between 1885 and 1889, and the assess- 
ment was raised to 1-59 lakhs, or by 38 per cent. The revenue incidence 
per acre was still extremely low, falling at only R. 0-3-1 1 (maximum 
R. 0-8-10, minimum R. 0-2) excluding the zaml7idCiris. The term (.f 
this settlement varied from fourteen to fifteen years. It expired in 1902 
and the District is again under settlement. 



The collections of land revenue and total revenue have varied as 
shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 




1900-1. 1 1903-4. 

Lnnd revenue 
Total revenue 






The management of local affairs, outside the municipal area of 
Samralpur Town, is entrusted to a District council and four local 
boards, one each for the northern and southern zatnindari estates, 
and one for the remaining area of each tahs'il. The income of the 
District council in 1903-4 was Rs. 55,000, while the expenditure on 
education was Rs. 24,000. 

The police force consists of 492 officers and men, including a special 
reserve of 25, and 3 mounted constables, besides 2,765 watchmen 
for 2,692 inhabited towns and villages. The District Superintendent 
sometimes has an Assistant. Special measures have recently been 
taken to improve the efficiency of the police force, by the importation 
of subordinate otificers from other Districts. Sambalpur has a District 
jail with accommodation for 187 prisoners, including 24 females. The 
daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 141. 

In respect of education the District is very backward. Only 3-3 per 
cent, of the male population were able to read and write in 1901, and 
but 400 females were returned as literate. The proportion of children 
under instruction to those of school-going age is 6 per cent. Statistics 
of the number of pupils under instruction are as follows: (1S80-1) 
3,266, (1890-1) 7,145, (1900-1) 4,244, (1903-4) 9,376. The last figure 
includes 2,366 girls, a noticeable increase having lately been made. 
The educational institutions comprise a high school at Sambalpur town, 
an English middle school, 6 vernacular middle schools, and 120 primary 
schools. Primary classes and masters are attached to two of the middle 
schools. There are six (Government girls' schools in the District. A 
small school for the depressed tribes has been opened by missionaries. 
Oriya is taught in all the schools. The District is now making progress 
in respect of education, a number of new schools having been opened 
recently. The total expenditure in 1903-4 was Rs. 40,000, of which 
Rs. 35,000 was provided from Provincial and Local funds and Rs. 4,700 
by fees. 

The District has seven dispensaries, with accommodation for 62 in- 
patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 85,840, of whom 
83C were in-patients, and 1,999 operations were performed. The total 
expenditure was Rs. 10,700. 

Vaccination is compulsory in the municipal town of Sambalpur. 
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 45 per 
1,000 of the District population. 


[J. B. Fuller, Settlement Report (1891). A District Gazetteer is being 

Sambalpur Tahsil. — Eastern /^/w/ of the District of the same name, 
Bengal, lying between 21° 8' and 21° 57' N. and 83° 26' and 84° 26' E., 
with an area, in 1901, of 1,822 square miles. '\ he population in that year 
was 362,622, compared witlf 344,391 in 1891. In 1905 the Chandar- 
pur-Padampur and Malkhurda estates, with an area of 333 square miles 
and a population of 87,320, were transferred to the Bilaspur District 
of the Central Provinces, and the revised figures of area and popula- 
tion of the tahsil arc 1,489 square miles and 275,302 persons. The 
density is 185 persons per square mile. The tahsil contains one town, 
Sambalpur (population, 12,870), the District and tahsil head-quarters; 
and 766 inhabited villages. Excluding 190 square miles of Government 
forest, 56 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. If 
the zamindCiri estates be also excluded, the percentage is 68. The culti- 
vated area in 1903-4 was 851 square miles. The demand for land revenue 
in the same year was Rs. 68,000, and for cesses Rs. 14,000. The tahsil 
consists of a strip of open country along the left bank of the Mahanadf 
river, flanked to the east and south by hills. It contains seven zamln- 
dCxri estates, with a total area of 614 square miles. 

Sambalpur Town.— Head-quarters of the District of the same 
name, Bengal, situated in 21° 28' N. and 83° 58' E. It is the terminus 
of a branch line of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 30 miles from 
Jharsugra junction, and 349 from Calcutta. The town lies along the 
left bank of the MahanadT, and is very picturesquely situated, com- 
manding a beautiful view of the river for several miles, with wooded 
hills in the background. In flood-time the width of the Mahanadi 
is more than a mile, and portions of the town have been submerged on 
one or two occasions, but during most of the year there is only a stream 
40 or 50 yards wide. During the open season a pontoon bridge over 
the Mahanadi is maintained by the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, giving 
place to a ferry in the monsoon months. The population in 1901 was 
12,870, and has risen by more than 30 per cent, since 1891. The 
town derives its name from the Somlai Devi, its tutelary deity. There 
are no buildings of importance ; but the Brahmapura temple of 
Jagannath has a great reputation for sanctity, and many civil suits are 
decided by the oaths of parties taken at this shrine. Sambalpur was 
constituted a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts and 
e\[)enditure during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 28,000 
and Rs. 29,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income had risen to 
Rs. 48,000, mainly derived from octroi. A wing of a native infantry 
regiment was stationed here until 1902. Sambalpur is the commercial 
centre for most of the District, and also the States of Sonpur, Patna, 
and Rairakhol. It contains a depot for cooly emigrants to Assam, 


The principal industries are the weaving of tasar silk and cotton cloth 
by hand. A printing press with Oriya and English type was established 
in 1902, to celebrate the restoration of Oriya as the court language of 
Sambalpur. 'J'he town possesses a high school with a boarding-house 
and 33 pupils, a girls' school, and Oriya and Hindi branch schools. 
It also has a main dispensary and a police hospital. 

Sambhal Tahsil. — South-central fahsll of Moriidabad District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 28"" 20' and 28° 49' N. and 78° 24' and 78° 44' E., with 
an area of 469 square miles. Population increased from 245,619 in 
1891 to 245,886 in 1901. There are 466 villages and three towns: 
Sambhal (population, 39,715), the iahsll head-quarters, Solah Sarai 
(10,623), ^'^'^^ SiRsI (5,894). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was Rs. 3,55,000, and for cesses Rs. 61,000. The density of popula- 
tion, 524 persons per square mile, is about the District average. In 
the east of the tahsil the soil is sandy, and agriculture is precarious ; 
but the rest consists of fertile loam, including some of the best villages 
in the District. The Sot or Yar-i-Wafadar drains the central portion, 
and smaller channels cross the south. Wheat and sugar-cane are the 
most important crops. In 1902-3 the area under cultivation was 
399 square miles, of which 25 were irrigated, mostly from wells. 

Sambhal Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Moradabad District, United Provinces, situated in 28° 35' N. and 
78° 34' E., 23 miles south-west of Moradabad city by a metalled road. 
Population (1901), 39,715. The town is believed by the Hindus to 
have existed in the three epochs (jv/^rt) preceding the present or Kali 
Yuga, at the end of which the tenth incarnation of Vishnu will appear 
in Sambhal. Many ancient mounds exist in the neighbourhood, but 
have not been explored. Tradition relates that Prithwi Raj of Delhi 
finally defeated Jai Chand of Kanauj close to Sambhal, and an earlier 
battle is said to have taken place between the Raja, of Delhi and 
Saiyid Salar. Kutb-ud-dTn Aibak reduced the neighbourhood for a 
time ; but the turbulent Katehriyas repeatedly engaged the attention 
of the early Muhammadan kings, who posted a governor here. In 
1346 the governor revolted, but was speedily crushed. Firoz Shah III 
appointed an Afghan to Sambhal in 1380, with orders to invade 
Katehr every year and ravage the whole country till Khargu, the Hindu 
chief, who had murdered some Saiyids, was given up. In the fifteenth 
century Sambhal was the subject of contest between the sovereigns of 
Delhi and the kings of Jaunpur, and on the fall of the latter Sikandar 
Lodl held his court here for some years. Babar appointed his son, 
Humayun, to be governor of the place, and is said to have visited 
it himself. Under Akbar Sambhal was the head-quarters of a sarkar, 
but in the reign of Shah Jahan its importance began to wane and 


Moradabad took its place. In the eighteenth century Sambhal was 
chiefly celebrated as the birthplace of the Pindari, Amir Khan, who 
raided Rohilkhand in 1805 and afterwards founded the State of Tonk. 

The town site is scattered over a considerable area, and contains 
a mound marking the ruins of the old fort. No building stands on this 
except a mosque, claimed by the Hindus as a Vaishnava temple, but 
in reality a specimen of early Pathan architecture in which Hindu 
materials were probably used. The mosque contains an inscription 
recording that it was raised by Babar ; but doubts have been cast 
on the authenticity of this. There are many Hindu temples and 
sacred spots in the neighbourhood. The town contains a fahslll, 
a /iiit/isift, a dispensary, and a branch of the American Methodist 
Mission. It has been a municipality since 1871. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 21,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 30,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 23,000); 
and the expenditure was Rs. 29,000. Refined sugar is the chief article 
of manufticture and of trade, but other places nearer the railway have 
drawn away part of its former commerce. Wheat and other grain and 
g/i'i are also exported, and there is some trade in hides. Combs of 
buffalo horn are manufactured. The tahsili school has 142 pupils, 
and the municipality manages two schools and aids seven others with 
349 pupils. 

Sambhar Lake. — A famous salt lake in Rajputana, on the borders 
of the Jodhpur and Jaipur States, lying between 26° 53' and 27° \' N. 
and 74° 54' and 75° 14' E., and distant, by railway, 53 miles north-east 
of Ajmer, and 230 miles south-west of Delhi. The lake is situated 
nearly r,2oo feet above sea-level, and when full is about 20 miles in 
length (from south-east to north-west), from 2 to 7 miles in breadth, 
and covers an area of about 90 square miles. In the hot months its 
bed is generally quite dry, but, after exceptionally heavy rains, it con- 
tains water throughout the year. It is dependent for its supply on 
three rivers which empty themselves into it ; of these, two come from 
the spurs of the Aravalli Hills to the west, and the third from the 
country to the north. The annual rainfall at the town of Sambhar 
averages nearly 20 inches, and at Nawa about 17 inches. The 
surrounding country is sandy and sterile, but the view of the lake in 
the hot season is very striking. Standing on the low sandy ridges to 
the south, one sees what looks like a great sheet of glittering snow, 
with sometimes a pool of water here and there, and a network of 
narrow paths ; but what appears to be frozen snow is a white crisp 
efflorescence of salt. According to Icjcal tradition, the goddess 
Sakambari (the consort of Siva), in return for some service done her, 
converted a dense forest into a plain of silver, and subsequently, at 
the request of the inhabitants, who dreaded the cupidity and strife 


which such a possession would excite, transformed it into the present 
salt lake, which was named Sambhar (a corruption of Sakambar) after 
her. This is supposed to have happened in the sixth century. To 
determine the origin of the salt, a special investigation has recently 
been conducted by the Geological Survey of India. Borings made in 
the lake-bed at three places show that the thickness of the silt varies 
from 61 feet at the eastern end to 70 feet near the centre and 76 feet 
at the north-western end, and that the rocks below this silt are, in each 
case, schists of the kind cropping up around the edges of the lake, and 
forming the hills belonging to the Aravalli series in the neighbourhood. 
It is therefore considered that the salt resources of Sambhar are 
confined to this body of silt filling in a depression of the Aravalli 
schists and gneisses, and that the soluble compounds of sodium stored 
in the silt have accumulated by the evaporation of the water brought 
in every year by the rivers which are in flood after heavy rains. The 
concentration of common salt and of the other less abundant sodium- 
compounds associated with it has been effected in a manner common 
to areas of internal closed drainage in all arid regions. There is 
nothing to show a past inroad of the ocean, and no rock-salt beds exist 
in the geological formation of the area. 

The Sambhar Lake is said to have been worked by the imperial 
administration of Akbar and his successors up to the time of Ahmad 
Shah (1748-54), when it came into the hands of its present owners, the 
chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur. The western half belongs entirely to 
the former, and the eastern half, including the town of Sambhar, is 
owned by the two States jointly. The lake is said to have passed for 
a time into the possession of the Marathas and Amir Khan, while from 
about 1835 to 1843 the British Government, in order to repay itself 
a portion of the expenses incurred in restoring order in Shekhawati and 
the neighbouring districts, took the salt-making into its own hands. 
Finally in 1870 the lake was leased to Government for an annual 
payment of 7 lakhs — 4^ lakhs to Jodhpur and 2| lakhs to Jaipur — on 
the condition that, if the sales of salt exceeded 1,725,000 maunds 
(about 63,400 tons) in any year, 40 per cent, of the sale price of such 
excess would be paid to the States as royalty. Under arrangements 
made in 1884, Jodhpur receives five-eighths and Jaipur three-eighths of 
the total royalty payable. '^I'hese States also receive a certain quantity 
(Jodhpur 14,000 maunds and Jaipur 7,000 maunds) of salt free of all 
charges yearly. Including about 74,000 tons taken over when the 
lease was executed, the quantity of salt manufactured to the end of 
March, 1904, exceeded 4,300,000 tons, or a yearly average of about 
126,600 tons. The quantity disposed of during the same period, 
including that delivered free of cost under treaty arrangements, 
wastage, &c., was about 4,240,000 tons. The receipts from sale of 


salt have been 326 lakhs, and the expenditure, including all treaty 
and royalty payments, 294 lakhs, leaving a credit balance on April i, 
1904, of 32 lakhs, or a little over £212,000. Tlie average cost of 
extraction and storage has been rather more than 7 pies (or one 
halfpenny) per maund, or about one rupee per ton. Duty was first 
levied at the lake on October r, 1878, when the customs line was 
abolished. Between April i, 1879, and March 31, 1904, the gross 
receipts from all sources have been 2452 lakhs and the total ex- 
penditure 261 lakhs, leaving a surplus of 2 191 lakhs (over 14^ million 
pounds sterling). The average yearly net receipts have thus been 
nearly 88 lakhs, or about £584,340. 

Salt is obtained by three methods : namely, from permanent salt- 
works constructed in the bed of the lake, called kyars ; from shallow 
solar evaporation pans of a temporary nature constructed on the lake- 
shore ; and from enclosed sections of the bed on which salt forms, so 
to speak, spontaneously. In 1903-4 (when only about one-fourth of 
the usual quantity of salt was manufactured) 24,000 labourers of both 
sexes were employed on the extraction and storage of kyar salt and the 
storage of pan salt, and the average daily earnings were about 5^ annas 
per head. The castes employed are Balais, Barars, Gujars, Jats, Kasais 
(butchers), Khatiks, Kumhars, Malis, Mughals, Pathans, and Regars ; 
and nearly all permanently reside in the neighbourhood. There are 
three railway stations on the lake — at Sambhar, Gudha, and Kuchawan 
Road or Nawa — and the line runs into all the principal manufacturing 
works or walled enclosures. The salt is stored close to the line and 
loaded direct into the railway wagons; it is largely consumed in Raj- 
putana, Central India, the United Provinces, and in the Punjab south 
of Karnal, and it also finds its way into the Central Provinces and 
Nepal. The lake has been observed to furnish diminished quantities 
of salt during the last few years ; but samples of mud, taken at depths 
of from 4 to 12 feet below the surface, have recently been found 
on analysis to contain 6 per cent, of salt, and from this fact it is esti- 
mated that, in the upper 12 feet of the lake-silt, the accumulated 
salt amounts to just one million tons per square mile. As the total 
quantity removed by artificial means since the commencement of the 
British lease in 1870 has been only about four million tons, the 
system of manufacture has resulted in but a small inroad into the 
total stocks. 

[F. Ashton, 'Salt Industry of Rajputana' in \.\\q Joi/r/ia/ of hidimi 
Art and Industry, vol. ix.] 

Sambhar Town. —Town within the joint jurisdiction of the 
States of Jodhpur and Jaipur, in Rajputana, situated in 26° 55' N. 
and 75° 11" E., at the south-eastern extremity of the Sami'.har Lake 
on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Po[)ulation (1901), 10,873. I" 


the town are a post and telegraph office, several schools, including 
one for girls kept up by the United Free Church of Scotland Mission, 
and a couple of hos[)itals, one of which is maintained by the British 
Government for the benefit of those employed on the salt lake. Sam- 
bhar is a very ancient town. It was the first capital of the Chauhan 
Rajputs when they came to Rajputana from the Ganges about the 
middle of the eighth century ; and the last Hindu king of Delhi, 
PrithwT Raj Chauhan, who died in 1192, was proud to be styled 
Sambhari Rao or lord of Sambhar. It appears to have been held 
by the Muhammadan kings and emperors of Delhi from the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century till about 1708, when it was taken, with 
the sixty villages attached to it, by the chiefs of Jodhpur and Jai[)ur. 
Subsequently first one State and then the other, taking advantage of 
any temporary weakness in its neighbour, appropriated the outlying 
villages till only twelve, besides the town of Sambhar, remained in 
joint possession. 

Sambhuganj.— Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Mymen- 
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 46' N. and 
90° 27' E., 3 miles east of Nasirabad. Population (1901), 500. It is 
one of the busiest marts in the District for country produce of all 
kinds, exporting large quantities of jute, and also of rice and mustard 

Sameswari. — River in the Garo Hills, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Samka (Burmese, Saga). — State in the central division of the 
Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 19° 56' and 20° 25' N. 
and 96° 48' and 97° 10' E., with an area (including the small depen- 
dency of Pongmu on the north) of 357 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by Yawnghwe ; on the east by Hsahtung ; on the south 
by Namtok and Sakoi ; and on the west by Loilong. Samka consists 
of a strip of the Pilu valley, 30 miles long, shut in by high ranges on 
either side, the higher slopes of which belong to the adjoining States. 
Rice is grown both in the valleys and in tatmgyas on the hills, and 
garden crops and ground-nuts are extensively cultivated. The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 17,643, distributed in 241 villages. Classified accord- 
ing to language, 7,698 of the inhabitants were Shans, 5,187 Taungthus, 
and 4,385 Inthas. All but 350 persons were returned as Buddhists. 
The head-quarters of the Myoza are at Samka (population, 1,899), 
in the centre of the State on the bank of the Pilu. The revenue in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 17,000, the main source being thathanieda ; 
and the expenditure included Rs. 10,000 tribute to the British Govern- 
ment, Rs. 4,300 allotted to the privy purse, Rs. 1,500 spent on public 
works, and Rs. r,6oo on the pay of officials. 

Samla. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 


Sampgaon. — South-eastern tdluka of Bclgaurn District, Bombay 
lying between 15° 28' and 15° 59' N. and 74° 38' and 74*^ 59' Iv, 
with an area of 409 square miles. It contains 123 villages, including 
HoNGAL (population, 8,675). The head-quarters are at Sampgaon, 
a small village. The population in 1901 was 132,448, compared with 
132,632 in i8gi. The density, 324 persons per square mile, is above 
the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 21,000. Sami)gaon has a great variety of 
soil and surface. From the hilly west the country gradually sinks east- 
wards into a great plain of black cotton soil. In the south-west, ranges 
of quartz and ironstone, about 150 feet high and a quarter to half a 
mile apart, run nearly north and south. The Malprabha river crosses 
the middle of the tdluka from west to east. Sampgaon lies in the 
transition tract between the hills and plains, and enjoys a fair immunity 
from famine. A portion is also protected by a supply of water from 
the Gadekeri tank. The annual rainfall averages about 30 inches. 

Sampla Tahsil. — 7a//^/7 of Rohtak District, Punjab, lying between 
28'' 35' and 29° \' N. and 76° 35' and 76° 58' E., with an area of 
409 square miles. The population in 1901 was 162,423, compared 
with 149,818 in 1891. It contains the towns of Bahadurgarh 
(population, 5,974) and Kharkhauda (3,765); and 122 villages, includ- 
ing the ' notified area ' of Sampla, its head-quarters. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-1 lakhs. The greater part of the 
tahsil is an arid upland plain, the northern portion of which is now 
watered by the Western Jumna Canal. In the extreme south-east is a 
small lowland tract, irrigated by countless water-lifts. 

Samrala Tahsil. — Tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab, lying on 
the south bank of the Sutlej, between 30° 37' and 30° 59' N. and 
76° 2' and 76° 24' E., with an area of 291 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 154,995, compared with 158,770 in 1891. It con- 
tains the two towns of Khaxna (population, 3,838) and jM.\chhI\vara 
(5,588) ; and 263 villages, of which Samrala is the head-quarters. The 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-5 lakhs. 

Samthar State. — Treaty State in Central India, under the Bundel- 
khand Political Agency, lying between 25° 43' and 25° 57' N. and 
78° 48' and 79° 7' E., with an area of about 178 square miles. The 
name is most probably a corruption of Shamshergarh, by which the 
capital is still known. It is bounded on the north and east by 
the Jalaun District of the United Provinces; on the south by Jhansi 
District ; and on the west by the Bhander pargana of the Gwalior 
State and by Jhansi District. The territory consists of an almost 
unbrcjkcn level plain, s[)arsely covered with trees. The soil is only 
moderately fertile, and, though traversed by the Pahuj and Betwa, 
both large streams, is entirely dependent on the rainfall for its pro- 


ductivity. Geologically, the State consists of Bundelkhand gneiss and 
allied rocks, in great part concealed by alluvium. The climate is 
generally temperate, though h(jtter than that of Malwa. The rainfall, 
as shown by a ten )ears' record, averages 30 inches. 

On the death of Maharaja Ram Chandra of Datia in 1733, a dispute 
arose regarding the succession to that State. In his ccjntest with rival 
claimants Indrajit, who succeeded, had been assisted by various petty 
chiefs, among whom was Naune Sah Gujar, a son of a man in the 
service of the Datia State. On his accession to power Indrajit rewarded 
Naune Sah's son, Madan Singh, with the title of Rajdhar and the 
governorship of Samthar fort, a jdglr of five villages being later on 
granted to his son Devi Singh. The latter was succeeded by his son 
Ranjlt Singh. During the disturbances caused by the Maratha inva- 
sion, Ranjit Singh became independent and received the title of Raja 
from the Marathas. On the establishment of the British supremacy, 
he requested to be taken under protection, and a treaty was concluded 
in 1817, confirming him in possession of the territory he then held. 
In 1827 Ranjlt Singh died and was succeeded by his son Hindupat, 
who, however, became of unsound mind, the administration being 
entrusted to his Ram. In 1862 an adoption sa;/ad \\a.H granted to the 
chief, the obligation to pay succession dues being remitted (1877) in 
the case of a direct successor. In 1864 the eldest son Chhatar Singh 
asserted his claim to rule the State, which was recognized by Govern- 
ment, the pargana of Amargarh (Amra) being assigned for the main- 
tenance of the ex-chief, his Rani, and a younger son, Arjun Singh {a/ias 
All Bahadur). In 1883 this arrangement was changed, a cash allowance 
being given in lieu of the pargana. Hindupat died in 1890; and 
Government, in consideration of the length of time Chhatar Singh had 
been actual ruler, decided that no formal recognition of his succession 
was needed. Chhatar Singh was a good administrator and improved 
the condition of the State considerably. During his rule a salt con- 
vention was made with the British Government (1879), by which the 
State received Rs. 1,450 as compensation for dues formerly levied; 
and land was ceded for the Betwa Canal (1882) and for a railway 
(1884). In 1877 Chhatar Singh received the title of Maharaja as 
a personal distinction. He died in 1896, and was succeeded by his 
son Bir Singh Deo, the present ruler, who received the title of Maha- 
raja as a personal distinction in 1898. The chief bears the hereditary 
titles of His Highness and Raja, and receives a salute of 1 1 guns. 

The population of the State has been : (1881) 38,633, (1891) 40,541, 
and (1901) 33,472. It decreased by 17 per cent, during the last 
decade, owing to famine. Hindus number 31,211, or 93 per cent., 
and Musalnians 2,229, or 7 per cent. The density in 1901 was 1S8 
persons per square mile. The principal castes are Chamars, 4,300, 


or 13 per cent.; Brahmans, 3,800, or 11 per cent.; Lodhis, 3,000, or 
9 per cent. ; Kaclihis and Gujars, 2,000 each, or 7 per cent. ; (ladariis, 
1,700, or 5 per cent. The State contains 90 villages and one town, 
Samthar (population, 8,286), the capital. For a Hindu State in this 
part of India the percentage of Musalmans is unusually high. Tlie 
Muhammadan element also takes a considerable part in the adminis- 
tration. The prevailing form of speech is Bundelkhandi. About 
T,T, per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture and 1 7 per 
cent, by general labour. 

The soil is for the most part poor, and the country is singularly 
devoid of tanks, which are fairly common in the rest of Bundelkhand. 
The principal soils are mar, an inferior black soil ; kdbar, a grey soil ; 
parua, a yellowish red soil, which is the most prevalent ; and rd/ikar, 
a stony soil, strewn with boulders of gneiss, and of very little agricultural 
value. Of the total area, 85 square miles, or 42 per cent., are culti- 
vated, of which only 519 acres are irrigable; 49 square miles, or 25 per 
cent., are cultivable but not cultivated ; and the rest is jungle and 
waste. Of the cropped area, jowdr occupies 30 square miles, or 
35 per cent. ; wheat, 20 square miles, or 23 per cent. ; gram, 19 square 
miles, or 22 per cent. ; and cotton, 5 square miles. 

The only metalled road in the State is 8 miles in length, and leads 
to Moth, on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The opening of 
the railway in 1888 has greatly facilitated the export of grain, for which 
there was formerly no market. Saltpetre is exported in some quantity, 
mainly to Bhopal. 

The administration is carried on by the chief, assisted by his wazlr 
(minister). The State is divided into {o\xx parganas, with head-quarters 
at Shamshergarh, Amargarh, Maharajganj, and Lohargarh, each under 
a tahsilddr. In all general administrative matters the wazlr has full 
powers. The chief exercises plenary criminal jurisdiction, and is the 
final court of reference in other matters. 

The revenues of the State, before its territories were reduced by the 
Marathas, are said to have amounted to 12 lakhs. The annual receipts 
are now 1-5 lakhs, mostly derived from land. The expenditure is 
about the same. 

A regular settlement was made in 1895 by Maharaja Chhatar Singh, 
under which the land is farmed out and the revenue collected in cash 
from the patta (lease) holders, in two instalments. The incidence of 
the land revenue demand is Rs. 5 per acre of the cultivated area. 
No land is alienated in jdg'irs. Until Maharaja Chhatar Singh's time, 
when the British rupee was made legal tender, the currency consisted 
of the Nana shdhi rupee of Jhansi and the Datia coin. 

The troops consist of the chiefs body-guard of 12 horsemen and 
40 footmen, and an irregular force employed as police, which numbers 


200 horse- and 500 footmen. There are also six guns manned by 50 
gunners. A jail, a post office, a hospital, and five schools with 190 
pupils are maintained in the State. 

Samthar Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in Cen- 
tral India, situated in 25° 50' N. and 78° 55' E., about 8 miles from the 
Moth statical on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population 
(1901), 8,286. The town, which is often called Shamshergarh, was 
built in the seventeenth century, and was subsecjuently reconstructed 
by Chhatar Singh. It contains the Raja's palace, a jail, a post office, 
and a hospital. 

Samulcottah. — Town in Godavari District, Madras. See Samal- 

Samundri. — Tahsll of the new Lyallpur District, Punjab, lying 
between 30° 50' and 31° 20' N. and 72° 39' and 73° 21' E., with an 
area of 1,309 square miles. The population in 1906 was 266,277. 
It contains 495 villages, including Samundri (population, 765), the 
head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1905-6 amounted to 
6-7 lakhs. The tahsil consists of a level plain sloping gently towards 
the Ravi and the Deg on the south, and is now wholly irrigated by the 
Chenab Canal, except for a few scattered plots in the Ravi lowlands 
which still depend on wells. The soil generally is a fine loam. The 
boundaries of the tahsll were somewhat modified at the time of the 
formation of the new District. 

Sanala. — Petty State in Kathiawak, Bombay. 

Sanand Taluka. — Central tdluka of Ahmadabad District, Bombay, 
lying between 22° 47' and 23° 7' N. and 72° 5' and 72° 32' E., with an 
area of 361 square miles. It contains one town, Sanand (population, 
6,783), its head-quarters ; and 83 villages. The population in 1901 was 
63,053, compared with 81,363 in 1891. The density, 175 persons 
per square mile, is less than the District average. Land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 exceeded 2 lakhs. Except for an undulating strip of 
land on the west, Sanand forms the centre of a rich plain of light soil 
with well-wooded fields ; in the south and west is a bare stretch of 
black soil. 

Sanand Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated in 23° N. and 72° 23' E., 
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 18 miles from 
Ahmadabad. Population (1901), 6,783. It was formerly one of the 
capitals of the house of Koth. The municipality, established in 1885, 
had an average income during the decade ending 1901 of about 
Rs. 8,000. The income in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 8,500. The 
town contains three schools, two for boys and one for girls, attended 
respectively by 310 and 128 pupils, and including an English middle 
school with 25 pupils. 

SAAT//I 2 7 

Sanauda. — T/inkitrat m the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Sanaur. — Town in the Patiala fa/isl/, Karmgarh nizdmai, Patiala 
State, Punjab, situated in 30° 18' N. and 76° 31'' E., 4 miles south-east 
of Patiala town. Population (1901), 8,580. It is a place of some 
antiquity ; and in the reign of Bal)ar, Malik Baha-ud-din, the Khokhar, 
became the chief of Sanaur with 84 circumjacent villages, whence the 
parga?m was known as the Chaurasi. In 1748 it was conquered by 
Ala Singh, Raja of Patiala, who founded his new capital of Patiala 
in the neighbourhood. It has a considerable trade in agricultural 
produce, but is decaying owing to the vicinity of Patiala town. Sanaur 
has an Anglo-vernacular middle school and a police station. 

Sanawan Tahsil. — Northernmost tahsii of Muzaffargarh I )istrict, 
Punjab, lying between 30° 5' and 30° 47' N. and 70° 44' and 71° 47' E., 
with an area of 1,321 square miles. Its western border rests on the 
Indus. The country along the banks is low-lying and is only protected 
from floods by embankments. The eastern portion of the hi/isi/ lies 
in the high sandy Thai. The population in 1901 was 100,091, com- 
pared with 94,245 in 1891. It contains 140 villages, including Sana- 
wan, the head-quarters. Daira Din Panah is a place of some religious 
interest. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to i-8 

Sanchi. — Ancient site in the Bhopal State, Central India, situated 
in 23° 29' N. and 77° 45' E., 5^ miles from Bhilsa, on the Midland 
section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The country between 
Sanchi and IMiTlsa is famous as the site of the most extensive Buddhist 
remains now known in India, though, as Fergusson has pointed out, they 
may not have possessed the same importance in Buddhist times, and 
owe their survival to their situation in a remote and thinly-peopled 
country. The present village of Sanchi stands at the foot of a small 
flat-topped hill of sandstone rising 300 feet above the plain. On the 
centre of the level summit, and on a narrow belt leading down the 
western slope of the hill, stand the principal remains, which consist 
of the great stupa, a smaller one, a chaitya hall, and some ruined 

The great stupa, the chief object of interest, stands conspicuously 
in the centre of the hill. This building forms a segment of a sphere, 
solid throughout, and built of red sandstone blocks, with a diameter 
of I to feet at the base. A berm 15 feet high, sloping outwards at the 
base, forms a raised pathway 5^ feet wide round the stupa, giving it 
a total diameter of 121 feet 6 inches. The top of the mound is flat 
and originally supported a stone railing and the usual pinnacle. This 
railing was still standing in 1819. A\'hen complete, the full height 
must have been 77^ feet. The stupa is enclosed by a massive stone 
railing, with monolithic uprights ri feet high, which is pierced by four 

VOL. xxii. c 

28 SANCHl 

gates covered with carving both ilkistrative and decorative. To the 
north and south originally stood two monoliths, which may have borne 
edicts of Asoka, one of which near the east gate was still entire in 
1862 and measured 15 feet 2 inches in height. Just inside each 
gate is a nearly life-size figure of one of the Dhyani Buddhas ; but 
unfortunately they have been moved, and no longer occupy their 
original positions. The carved gates are the most striking features 
of the edifice. They stand facing the four cardinal points, and 
measure 28 feet 5 inches to the top of the third architrave, and with 
the ornarnentation above, 32 feet 11 inches. They are cut in a white 
sandstone rather softer than the red stone used in the mound, and are 
profusely carved with scenes from the Jataka stories and other legends. 
It is noteworthy that Buddha himself is nowhere delineated. Bodhl 
trees or footprints alone represent him ; of the meditating or preaching 
figures common in later Buddhist sculpture there is no trace. 

The construction of the mound is assigned to 250 B.C., and it was 
probably erected by Asoka. The gates, judging from the inscriptions 
upon them, are slightly earlier than the beginning of the Christian era. 
Of the history of Sanchl we know nothing. Neither of the Chinese 
pilgrims, Fa Hian or Hiuen Tsiang, makes any mention of the place, 
while the Mahavamso merely narrates a tale of how Asoka, when sent 
as a young man to be governor of Ujjain, married the daughter of 
the Sreshtin or headman of Chaitiyagiri or Vasanta-nagar, of which 
the ruins, now known as Beshnagar, may be seen near BhIlsa, but no 
mention is made of this stupa. 

Close by are the ruins of a small temple, built in Gupta style, and 
probably of the fourth century a. n. Beside it stand the ruins of a 
chaitya hall or Buddhist church, which is of great importance archi- 
tecturally, being the only structural building of its kind known to us, 
the other examples of chaitya halls being rock-cut. All that remains 
are a series of lofty pillars and the foundations of the wall, which show 
that it was terminated by a solid apse. To the north-east of the great 
stupa formerly stood a smaller one, which is now a heap of bricks with 
a carved gateway before it. To the east on a kind of terrace are several 
shrines with colossal figures of Buddha. On the western slope of the 
hill, down which a rough flight of steps leads, is the smaller stupa, 
surrounded by a railing without gates. 

Several relic caskets and more than four hundred epigraphical records 
have been discovered, the last being cut on the railings and gates. 
A fraf^ment of an edict pillar of the emperor Asoka, carrying a record 
similar to that on the Allahabad pillar and the pillar lately discovered 
at Sarnath, has also been unearthed here. The record is addressed 
to the Maha matra in charge of Mfdwa, and appears to refer to the up- 
keep of a road leading to or round the stupa. Great interest attaches 


to the numerous inscriptions on the gates and railings. Some are 
from corporate bodies, as from the guild of ivory-workers of Vidisha 
(Bhilsa), and from private individuals of all classes, landholders, alder- 
men (Sethi), traders, royal scribes, and troopers, shcnving how strong 
a hold Buddhism had obtained on all classes of the people. No 
different sects are mentioned, such as are met witli in Buddhist cave 
records, but the presence of Saiva and Vaishnava names proves the 
existence of these forms of belief at this period. The donors live 
at various places, Eran (Eranika), Pushkara (Pokhara), Ujjain (Ujeni), 
and elsewhere. The records run from the first or second century B.C. 
to the ninth and tenth a.d., and include some of unusual interest. One 
assigns the gift of an upper architrave on the south gate to Rano Sari 
SatakarnT, one of the Andhra kings, in characters which fix the date 
of its erection in the first half of the second century n. c. Two records 
dated (in the CJupta era) in a.d. 412 and 450 record grants of money 
for the feeding of beggars and lighting of lamps in the great vihara 
(monastery) of Kakanadabota. Another record appears to refer to 
a Kushan king, probably Jushka or Vasudeva. In these records the 
name of the place is written Kakaniida, or in Pali Kakanava, the name 
Sanch! nowhere occurring. 

The stupa was first discovered by General Taylor in 1S18, and was 
described by Captain Fell in 18 19. It has since been the subject of 
accounts by various writers, besides forming the basis of three books : 
A. Cunningham, B/ilisa Topes (1854); J. Fergusson, Tree and Serpent- 
Worship (1868 and 1873); and F. C. Maisey, Sdnclu and Us Remains 

In 1828 Mr. Maddock, Political Agent at Bhopal, and Captain 
Johnson, his Assistant, injured the two stupas by a careless examina- 
tion. Though then well-known, the place was practically neglected 
till iSSr-2, when the breach in the great stupa was filled in and the 
fallen gates were re-erected. The site is now in charge of the Director- 
General of Archaeology, the Bhopal Darbar giving a yearly grant 
towards its upkeep. In 1868 the emperor Napoleon III wrote to 
the Begam asking for one of the gates as a gift. The Government 
of India, however, refused to allow it to be removed, and instead 
plaster casts were taken and sent to Paris ; there are also casts at 
the South Kensington Museum in London, at Dublin, Edinburgh, 
and elsewhere. 

[J. Burgess, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1903), p. 323 
(gives a summary of SanchI literature) ; Epigraphia Indica, vol. viii, 
p. 166.] 

Sandakphu. — One of the principal peaks in the Singalila spur of 
the Himalayas, in the head-quarters subdivision of Darjeeling Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 27° 6' N. and 88*^ o' E. The height above 

c 2 


sea-level is 11,930 feet. It commands an unequalled view not only 
of the Sikkim snows, but also of the Nepal mountains, including 
Everest. The Nepal frontier road runs over the hill, and there is a 
staging bungalow which is available to travellers on application to 
the Deputy-Commissioner of Darjeeling. 

Sandarbans. — Government estate in the Twenty-four Parganas and 
Khulna Districts, Bengal, and Backergunge District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. See Sundarbans. 

Sandeman, Fort. — Subdivision, tahsti, and town in Zhob District* 
Baluchistan. See Fort Sandeman. 

Sandi. — Town in the Bilgram fahsJ/ of Hardo! District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 18' N. and 79° 58' E., at the termination 
of a metalled road from Hardoi town. Population (1901), 9,072. The 
name is said to be derived from Raja Santan, a Somavansi of JhusI, who 
expelled the Thatheras and founded a fort. Sandl was subsequently ac- 
quired by Saiyids, who held it for many years. It is surrounded by fine 
groves of mangoes, and north-east lies the great Dakar Lake. Sandi 
was a municipality from 1877 to 1904, when it was constituted a 
'notified area.' During the ten years ending 1901 the income and 
expenditure averaged Rs. 4,200, and in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 9,000. 
There is an important market, and the town produces blankets and 
small cotton carpets and cloth. There are two schools with 200 pupils, 
and a branch of the American Methodist Mission is maintained here. 

Sandila Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil of Hardoi District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Sandila, Kalyanmal, Gundwa, 
and Balamau, and lying between 26° 53' and 27° 21' N. and 80° 16' 
and 80° 49' E., with an area of 558 square miles. Population fell from 
277,359 i^"" ^^9"^ to 266,195 in 1 90 1, the rate of decrease being the 
highest in the District. There are 415 villages and only one town, 
Sandila (population, 16,843), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,28,000, and for cesses Rs. 68,000. 
The density of population, 477 persons per square mile, is slightly above 
the District average. The tahsil lies between the Gumtl on the north- 
east and the Sai on the south-west. Near the rivers inferior sandy 
tracts are found, the banks of the GumtT being especially poor. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 338 square miles, of which 116 
were irrigated. Wells and tanks are almost equally important as a 
source of supply, and the liability of the latter to fail in dry seasons 
renders the tract very insecure. 

Sandila Town. — Head-quarters of the tahs'il of the same name, 
Hardoi District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 4' N. and 80^30' E., 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 16,843. 
The town is said to have been founded by Arakhs, who were ex- 
pelled towards the end of the fourteenth century by the Musalmans. 


It was visited by Firoz Shah Tughlak, who built a mosque, now in 
ruins. Other mosques are of later date ; and a remarkable building 
called the Bara Khambha or ' twelve pillars,' which contains a tomb, 
was erected in Akbar's reign. Siindila possesses male and female 
hospitals and a town hall, besides the usual offices. It has been admin- 
istered as a municipality since 1868. During the ten years ending 
1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 12,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 8,000); and the 
expenditure was Rs. 14,000. A market is held twice a week, and 
there is a large export trade in firewood to Lucknow. The town also 
exports pdfiy g/ii, and sweetmeats. Manufactures include art pottery, 
cotton curtains, and tablecloths which bear artistic designs in large 
checks. There are three schools for boys and two for girls, with a 
total of 430 pupils, and the American Methodist Mission has a branch 

Sandoway District (Burmese, Thandive). — A coast District in the 
Arakan Division of Lower Burma, formed by a narrow strip of sea-board 
lying between 17° 15'^nd 19° 32' N. and 94° o' and 94° 52' E., with an 
extreme length of 179 miles and an extreme breadth of 48 miles, and 
an area of 3,784 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Ma-i 
river, which separates it from Kyaukpyu District ; on the east by the 
Arakan Voma, which divides it from Thayetmyo, Prome, Henzada, and 
Bassein ; on the south by the Kyaukchun stream and the Kyadaung 
hills ; and on the west by the Bay of Bengal. The southern boun- 
dary was formerly the Gwa river, but in 1893 a small tract to the south 
of that stream was added from Bassein District. 

The District is mountainous. The spurs of the Arakan Voma reach 
almost to the coast, so that not more than one-eighteenth of the area is 
level. Except in this plain, and on the sides of the 
hills where taungya clearings have been made, the asoects 

District is covered with dense jungle of considerable 
variety, which adds much to its beauty. The main range of the 
Arakan Voma has in the north a direction south-east-by-south ; but 
it gradually curves towards the west, and at the source of the Gwa, 
where it crosses the border into Bassein District, it runs nearly due 
north and south. In the north some of the peaks attain an elevation 
little short of 5,000 feet, which falls to 3,200 feet at Shaukbin, where the 
Taungup pass crosses the range. South of 18° 21' X. the height rapidly 
diminishes, and at the sources of the Gwa is only about 890 feet. From 
the mouth of the Sandoway river northwards the coast is indented with 
intercommunicating tidal creeks : southwards it presents a rugged and 
rocky barrier to the ocean. An uninhabited island, known as Foul 
Island, and called by the Burmans Nanthakyun, lies off the coast. The 
name is derived from a mud volcano, which gives the island its conical 


appearance, and at times pours out a strongly smelling torrent of hot 
mud bubbling with marsh gas. 

Most of the rivers draining the District are but mountain torrents to 
within a few miles of the coast. The most important streams, all of which 
rise in the western slopes of the Arakan Yoma, are the Ma-i and the 
Tanlwe, falling into the arm of the sea which divides the island of Ram- 
ree from the mainland ; the Taungup, entering the Bay of Bengal a little 
farther down the coast near the village of the same name ; the Sandoway, 
a tidal river navigable by large boats as far as Sandoway town, but un- 
fortunate in its roadstead, which is exposed and dangerous ; and the 
Gwa, which falls into the Bay of Bengal at 1 7° 36' N., and forms a good 
anchorage for steamers and vessels drawing from 9 to 10 feet of water. 

The rocks of the District are mostly Cretaceous. The Ma-i river has 
given its name to a group of beds of the Arakan Yoma, which occupies 
a large part of the ground, the remainder being taken up by beds of 
eocene age (Nummulitic). The Ma-i beds comprise limestone, shales, 
and greyish-green sandstone, while shales, sandstone, and some lime- 
stones make up the strata of the Nummulitic group. 

Almost the whole face of the country is covered with forest, varying 
in kind according to the elevation of the land, whether low, slightly 
hilly, or high. The lowest ground, within tidal limits, is covered with 
dense mangrove jungle. - Above this, interspersed among the rice 
plains, trees such as the pyinma {Lagersfroe/nia Flos Heginae) and the 
kanyinbyic {Dipterocarpus alatiis) are found in some numbers ; and as 
soon as the ground rises, dry forest appears and forms a belt along the 
lower hill slopes. The most important and characteristic trees here 
are the pyingado {Xylia dolabriformis), the in {Dipteracarpi/s tuber- 
ciilatus), the pyini/ia, the ka/iyinbyii, the thingan {Hopea odorata), the 
zinbyun {Dilktiia pefiiagyna), and the inyaiikchaw {Hojnaliinn tomen- 
tosiim). Various kinds of palm are common, especially the dani (^Nipa 

The fauna is very rich and varied, including elephants, tigers, 
rhinoceros, leopards, wild cats, bears, bison, wild hog, deer, monkeys, 
and crocodiles. The jackal is pressing in on the north, and has now 
become quite common in the neighbourhood of Taungup. Game-birds 
are plentiful. 

The climate of Sandoway is generally considered to be more pleasant 
and healthy than that of any other part of Arakan. As throughout 
Burma, the year falls into three seasons : the cold season, from 
November to February ; the hot season, from February to May ; and 
the wet season, from May to October, The mean monthly maximum 
and minimum temperatures are 90° in June and 72° in January. 

The rainfall is very heavy. During the three years ending 1904 it 
averaged 189 inches over the District, ranging from 15S inches at Gwa 


to 20 1 at Taungup, and amounting to 198 inches at Sandoway town. 

July is the rainiest month of the year. Floods are not uncommon in 

the Sandoway township. The creeks being narrow, the su^)erfluous 

water received during heavy rains causes them to overflow their banks, 

and in some cases to damage cultivated fields, though in other cases 

the loam deposited helps to enrich the soil. 

The origin of the name of the District is obscure. The following 

is one of the most imaginative of the derivations assigned to it in 

the palm-leaf chronicles. There reigned in Benares, 

1 11 r I ir History, 

at a tmie when the duration of human life was 90 

millions of years, a descendant of the first Buddha of the present 
epoch, one of whose sons received as his portion the country now 
forming Sandoway District. For him the nats or spirits built a city, 
Dwarawadi, near the modern Sandoway. Many ages later a branch of 
another lienares house overthrew the ruling dynasty and started a line 
of their own in Dwarawadi, During the reign of the last of these 
monarchs the country was attacked by the grandsons of a king who 
ruled in Mogaung. Arriving at the mouth of the Thandwe river, the 
invaders failed in their attempts to find the city, owing to the devices 
of its guardian nat, or, as some say, to its miraculous power of soaring 
above the earth in times of danger. At length the guardian withdrew 
her protection, and the brothers then bound the city to the earth with 
an iron chain and divided their conquest into ten shares, making 
Thandwe ('iron-bound') their capital. The legend of the rule in 
Sandoway of princely houses from Benares rests probably on no oasis 
of fact ; but that there has been at least one Shan invasion of Arakan 
is certain, and there seems no reason to doubt that at one time 
Sandoway was the capital of the kingdom of Arakan. In later years 
Sandoway appears only as a province of the Arakan kingdom, until the 
conquest of Arakan by the Burmans in 1784. It was then formed into 
a governorship, and its tvun or governor was one of the commanders 
of the Burmese army which invaded Bengal at the beginning of the 
first Burmese War. The country was ceded to the British with the rest 
of Arakan by the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, and was at first garrisoned 
by a regiment of native infantry. A few years later the military head- 
quarters were transferred to Kyaukpyu. In 1S90 Sandoway town was 
attacked by a band of fanatics headed by certain pongyis. The 
insurgents succeeded in setting fire to the courthouse, but dispersed 
when fired upon by the police, and since then the District has enjoyed 
uninterrupted quiet. 

Sandoway does not boast of many antiquities ; but it possesses three 
features of archaeological interest in the pagodas known as the Sandaw, 
Andaw, and Nandaw, on the hills near Sandoway town. These 
pagodas are said to have been erected by the old Arakanese kings in 



tlie years .\.i). 761-84, to cover respectively a hair, a tooth, and a rib 
of Gautama. 'I'hrcc limes a year pilgrims res(jrl lo these pagodas, 
remaining one day at each shrine. Ancient silver coins are sometimes 
found, struck by kings of Arakan, some of which bear dates and names 
in Burmese cliaracters, and others in Persian or varieties of Nagari. 
Stones inscribed in Sanskrit, of the eighth century, have been dis- 
covered near the Sandoway river. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872)55,325, 

(i88r) 65,182, (1891) 78,509, and (1901) 90,927. 

The principal statistics of area and pcjpulation in 
1901 are given in the following table: — 



Area in s(]uare 

Number of 


Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and IQOI. 


»J — 





persons ab 

read an 





District total 







+ >3 
+ 16 

+ 20 









+ 16 


For Lower Burma the rate of growth during the past thirty years has 
been slow, though the population has increased more rapidly than in 
the adjacent District of Kyaukpyu. The density is still, however, 
below that of Kyaukpyu, and in view of the large proportion of hill 
country is never likely to be much enhanced. In 1901, 79,400 persons 
(or 87 per cent, of the population) were Buddhists, 6,500 (7 per cent.) 
Animists, and 3,900 (4 per cent.) Musalmans. The tide of Muham- 
madan immigration, which has flooded the northern portion of the 
coasts of Arakan, can hardly be said to have yet penetrated as far 
south as Sandoway. In 1901 the Hindus numbered only 558. 
Burmese was spoken by 54,300 persons, Arakanese by 28,100, and 
Chin by 7,100. 

The number of Arakanese in the District in 1901 was 29,400; but, 
unlike Akyab and Kyaukpyu, Sandoway possesses more Burmans than 
Arakanese, the total of the former being 49,700. The only other 
indigenous race of importance are the Chins, inhabiting the eastern 
hill areas, who numbered 6,800 in 1901. The number of those engaged 
in or dependent upon agriculture in 1901 was 71,800, or nearly 79 per 
cent, of the total population, a very high proportion. Of the total, 
about 11,000 were returned as dependent upon tau//g)a cultivation 

There were 528 Christians in 1901, of whom 477 were natives, mostly 
Baptists. The American Baptist Union has established a church at 


Sanduway town, and a school for Chin children. The mission has a 
good many converts among the Chins and a few among Burmans. 

The prevalent soils are loams, more or less sandy. Owing to the 
hilly conformation of the surface, there are no large homogeneous 
tracts. In the low-lying lands which receive the 
drainage from the surrounding hills, the soil may be 
excellent, while that on neighbouring slopes may be poor. A tract 
classification was, however, made at the settlement of 1897-8, as 
follows. The best land includes the greater portion of the Taungup 
township, a belt of land on both banks of the Sandoway river, an open 
space surrounded by hills in the Sandoway township, and a few 
scattered areas of excellent crop-bearing land in the Gwa township. 
A second tract consists of the lighter and inferior soils found in the 
vicinity of Taungup, and some scattered stretches near the sea-coast 
and on the slopes of the hills in the Sandoway and Gwa townships. 
The last division is a sandy ridge along the coast of the Bay of Bengal, 
stretching from Padin to Gwachaung, where the soil is very much 
exhausted and inferior to that in the two other areas. 

Taungya or hill clearings are worked chiefly for sugarcane, plan- 
tains, cotton, and maize, while rice, tobacco, and sesamum are grown 
in the plains and valleys. Different systems of cultivation are followed 
in different parts of the District. In the Taungup and Sandoway 
townships, where the rainfall is exceedingly heavy, an ordinary plough 
is used to turn the soil soon after the beginning of the rains; but in the 
Gwa township the surface of the land is simply scraped with harrows 
before the seed is sown. 

The occupations of the people are almost exclusively agriculture and 
fishing. Rice holdings as a rule are too small to support a family, 
and rice cultivators engage also in the cultivation of miscellaneous 
crops, as well as in fishing and cattle-breeding. 

Only 106 square miles were cultivated in 1903-4, but this represents 
an increase of nearly 50 per cent, since 1 880-1. The principal crops 
grown in 1903-4 were: rice, 92 square miles; tobacco, 1,900 acres; 
and sugar-cane. The staple food-grain is rice ; other food-crops are 
chillies, plantains, coco-nuts, and a little maize. Of garden fruits, 
mangoes, pine-apple, and jack are grown throughout the District, but 
are of inferior qualit). The area under garden cultivation is 1,900 
acres. The dani palm covers 3,100 acres, for the most part in the 
Taungup township, while tobacco is grown mainly in the Sandoway 

Agricultural loans amounting to a few hundred rupees yearly are 
given under the Agriculturists' Loans Act; but nothing is advanced 
under the Land Improvement Loans Act, and very little is done by 
the people themselves to improve their agricultural methods. 


No systematic cattle-breeding is carried on, but the stock employed 
is mainlv home-bred. Ponies are scarce, and would be of little use in 
this country of hill ridges and tidal creeks. The grazing problem is not 
acute, for abundant fodder is to be had on the hills, and almost every 
village has grazing grounds sufficient for its need. A little difficulty is, 
however, sometimes experienced near the sea beach, where the grass 
is apt to dry up by the end of the dry season. Cattle-disease is rare. 
This has been ascribed to the industry of the cultivators in supplying 
their cattle with water from wells during the hot season, instead of 
allowing them to drink from the tanks in which they bathe. 

The District has no system of irrigation ; cultivation is dependent 
upon the annual rainfall, which fortunately is on the whole regular. 
Unseasonable rain or breaks in the monsoon sometimes cause local 
scarcity owing to the deficiency of communications, but widespread 
distress is unknown. The only important leased fisheries are the 
Maungdauk and Migyaungye turtle-banks, which fetch about Rs. 800 
annually. Net licences are issued by township officers and circle thugyis. 
The number of fishermen and their dependents in 1901 was 1,404- 

A description of the forests has been given under the head of 
Botany. From an economic point of view, the three most valuable 
trees are the pyingado {Xylia dolabriformis) or iron- 
wood, a timber almost equal to teak in hardness, and 
much used for house-building, railway sleepers, and furniture ; the in 
{Dipterocarpus tiiberne/atics), a useful timber from which a thick resin 
is extracted ; and the kanyinhyu {Dipterocarpus alatus), a large tree 
which yields an inflammable oil, much used in making torches. It is 
only recently that the Forest department has extended its operations 
regularly into the District. There is a teak plantation of i\ acres near 
Sandoway town. Teak-trees exist also near Taungup and on the upper 
waters of the Thade river. The forest receipts in 1903-4 were slightl}' 
in excess of Rs. 7,000. 

There are no minerals of any importance, so far as is known. Car- 
bonaceous deposits have from time to time been reported in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sandoway town, but it is not probable that the coal is 
of value. Limestone is burnt in certain circles. Salt-boiling is carried 
on in a few villages near the coast. Salt is manufactured in two ways, 
known locally as sitpo and lebo (the ' straining ' and the ' field ' pro- 
cesses). By the first method the saline crusts are gathered after ebb- 
tide, the salt contained in them is dissolved and the solution boiled. 
In the second the salt water is evaporated on the fields and the process 
repeated till the brine is sufficiently concentrated, when it is drained off 
into a tank. In boiling, iron cauldrons and earthen pots are used — 
the former exclusively in the Sandowa}-, and the latter in the Taungup 


The manufactures as a whole are few and unimi)ortant. Bricks are 
burnt in the neighbourhood of Sandoway. Pots (unglazed) of the usual 
kind are made at Kinmaw and Natmaw. Rough 
mat-plaiting and thatch-making are universal. Silk- communications, 
and cotton-weaving are common in the villages, where 
the women work on hand-looms to supply the local demand. 'I'he 
Chins weave and embroider shawls of good quality and artistic design. 
Sugar-cane mills worked by cattle are common. The juice obtained 
is boiled down into jaggery, which is exported to Akyab in large 
quantities, the total produce being estimated at over r,6oo tons a year. 
There is a steam saw-mill at Gyiwa, half-way between Sandoway town 
and Taungup. 

The commerce of Sandoway is not extensive or important. It con- 
sists chiefly of a small coasting trade in salted fish, rice, and vegetables 
with Akyab and Kyaukpyu along the tidal creeks, and of a land trade 
with the Pegu and Irrawaddy Divisions over the Arakan Yoma by way 
of several passes : namely, the old military road from Taungup to 
Prome, and four smaller routes starting from the Gwa township and 
known as the Ponsogyi, Lekkok, Bawmi, and Thitkauk routes. The 
Gwa township also carries on a small trade by sea during the favourable 
season with parts of Bassein District. The merchandise, consisting 
chiefly of fish, rice, hides, and jaggery, is transported in thanpans, 
native-built boats of English design, often over 50 feet in length. 
The principal exports are salted fish and ngapi (fish-paste), rice, timber, 
cattle, horns, hides, tamarinds, chillies, jaggery, and coco-nuts. These 
go to Akyab, Kyaukpyu, Bassein, Rangoon, and Prome. Railway 
sleepers are sent as far as Chittagong. The imports are cotton twist, 
silk and other apparel, oils, and iron ; large quantities of tobacco and 
betel-nuts are also imported into the Gwa township. 

The means of communication are as yet very imperfect. There 
are no railway lines, and only three metalled roads of short length, 
maintained by the Public Works department — one from Sandoway 
town southwards to Padegaw, about 9 miles, now being continued to 
Kyeintali ; another from Sandoway westwards to Lintha on the coast, 
6 miles ; and a third of 5 miles ' from Sandoway north-westwards to 
Kinmaw. The roads from village to village are mere foot-tracks without 
any banking or formation. The new road from Sandoway to Kyeintali 
will eventually be extended to Gwa, and will facilitate communication 
between the northern parts of the District and the Irrawaddy delta. 
The only means of communication eastwards are the passes over the 
Arakan Yoma mentioned above. The chief of these connects the 
village of Taungup in the north with Padaung on the Irrawaddy, in 
Prome District. This is an old route which was followed by the 
Burmans in their invasion of Arakan in 1784, and again by the British 


in 1825, though it was then pronounced to be unfit for troops or laden 
cattle. The road has since been considerably widened and rendered 
practicable for cart traffic, and has recently been surveyed for a railway 
line. Its value as a trade route is not, however, very great, for it is 
not metalled and cannot be used by carts during the rains. The other 
passes are not much used. 

In the 'laungup and Sandoway townships travelling by water is 
practicable during most of the year, as from the mouth of the Sando- 
way river northwards the coast is indented with navigable tidal creeks, 
by means of which communications can be kept up. Southwards the 
coast is rugged and rock)', with few available harbours. The steamers 
of the British India Company call weekly each way at the mouth of the 
Sandoway river, communication between the roadstead and the town 
of Sandoway, 15 miles off, being maintained by launch. Only small 
steamers of 19 or 20 tons can ascend the river as far as Sandoway 
town, and in the dry season even these are detained till the tide 
serves. This is the cause of much delay and inconvenience, both 
in the delivery of mails and in the expedition of merchandise. 

Foul Island has been surveyed with a view to the building of a 
lighthouse. At present no portion of the coast of the District is 

The District is divided into three townships : Taungup in the north, 

Sandoway in the centre, and Gwa in the south. There are no sub- 

.... . divisions. The head-quarters magistrate is in charge 
Administration, r .x . c ^ , 1 

of the treasury at Sandoway town ; where also are 

an akunwun in charge of the revenue and a superintendent of land 
records, under whom are 2 inspectors and ro surveyors. The excise 
staff is under the District Superintendent of police, subject to the con- 
trol of the Deputy-Commissioner. The District forms a subdivision 
of the Arakan Public ^^'orks division, which is conterminous with the 
civil Division. 

The northern township, where the system of revenue collection by 
the agency of village headmen has as yet been introduced only to a 
small extent, has six circle thugyis ; the central four ; and the southern 
none. The total number of village headmen in the District is 233, 
of whom 106 are revenue collectors, remunerated by commission at 
6 and 7 per cent, in the northern and central townships, and at 10 
per cent, in the southern township. 

The Deputy-Conmiissioner and the township officers are magistrates 
and judges for their respective charges, and the treasury officer is 
additional judge of the Sandoway township court. He does all the 
civil work of that court, and also tries criminal cases when the town- 
ship officer is on tour. Fifteen of the village headmen have been 
empowered to try certain classes of petty civil suits, and two have 



special criminal powers under the Village Act. There are benches of 
honorary magistrates at Sandoway town and Taungup. 

Under native rule revenue from land in Sandoway was taken in the 
shape of a plough tax. Five baskets of paddy were levied for each 
pair of buffaloes used in ploughing, half a basket being claimed by the 
keeper of the royal granary as wastage. A poll tax and transit dues 
were also collected. In 1828, shortly after the annexation of Arakan, 
it was calculated that every head of a family paid Rs. 17 per annum 
in the shape of revenue to Government. In 1865-6 a partial settle- 
ment was carried out by the Deputy-Commissioner, resulting in a few 
reductions of rates on account of the alleged exhaustion of the soil 
and a desire to encourage the cultivation of waste land, and there 
were further settlement operations in 1 890-1 ; but practically there may 
be said to have been a uniform rate of Rs. i-io per acre throughout 
the District until 1897-8, when an area of 148 square miles which had 
been cadastrally surveyed in 1892-3, and brought under supplementary 
survey in 1894-5, was classified according to the fertility of the soil 
and regularly settled. The average rate for rice land over the whole 
District is now Rs. 1-9-1 per acre, and, in the settled areas, ranges 
from 14 annas to Rs. 2-8. Garden cultivation is assessed at a uni- 
form rate of Rs. 1-12, and miscellaneous cultivation at Rs. 2 to 
Rs. 4. Over the unsettled area the rates vary from 4 annas to 
Rs. r-io. A further area of about 120 square miles w^as surveyed 
in 19G1-2, and summarily settled in 1903-4. The average extent 
of a holding in the settled tract is 2-8 acres, and in the unsettled 
tract 2-5 acres. A grant of 452 acres under the old waste-land grant 
rules of 1865 still exists at Indainggyi. The capitation tax rates 
are Rs. 4 on married couples and Rs. 2 on single persons, except 
in a few Chin villages, where lower rates of Rs. 2 and R. i are in 

The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the growth in 
the revenue since 1 880-1 : — 





Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 






The total revenue for 1903-4 includes excise (Rs. 62,000) and capi- 
tation tax (Rs. 72,000). The excise receipts include Rs. 49,500 from 
opium, Rs. 4,000 from /'^/'/(made from the juice of the ^<7;//palm), and 
Rs. 4,000 from country spirit. Four shops are licensed for the sale of 
kajifig, a favourite liquor among the Chins and an important adjunct 
at their //^/-worshipping festivals. 

The District cess fund, the income of which is derived mainly from 


a rate of lo per cent, on the total land revenue, is administered by the 
Deputy-Commissioner for the maintenance and construction of roads 
and other local necessities. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 14,000. 
The only municipality is Sandoway Town, which was constituted in 

The District contains nine police stations and one outpost. The 
District Superintendent is assisted by 2 inspectors ; and the force con- 
sists of 3 head constables and 138 sergeants and constables, besides 
1,259 rural police. There are 75 military police, stationed at Sando- 
way town, Taungup, Lamu, Kyeintali, and Gwa. The District jail has 
accommodation for 84 prisoners. Mat-making, cane-work, coir-work, 
gardening, and carpentry are carried on by the prisoners. 

The standard of education in Sandoway is not high. At the same 
time, though below the Provincial mean, the proportion of literate 
males in every 1,000 (343) is higher than in any of the other Dis- 
tricts of the Arakan Division. For females the corresponding figure 
is 32, and for both sexes together 189. The total number of pupils 
was 650 in 1880-T, 1,034 in 1890-1, and 1,586 in 1900-1. In 1903-4 
there were 6 secondary, 48 primary, and 60 elementary (private) schools, 
with 2,329 male and 276 female pupils. The most important schools 
are the Sandoway municipal Anglo-vernacular school, and the American 
Baptist Anglo-vernacular Chin school, also in Sandoway town. The 
American Baptist Union have opened a number of small schools for 
Chins in the rural areas. The majority of these, however, have not 
come under the Educational department and draw no results-grants. 
The expenditure on education in 1903-4 from municipal funds was 
Rs. 2,800 ; from Provincial funds, Rs. 600 ; and from the District cess 
fund, Rs. 1,900. Receipts from fees at the municipal school yielded 
Rs. 3,200. 

There are two hospitals, with accommodation for 20 in-patients. 
During 1903 the number of in-patients treated was 31 8, and that of 
out-patients 18,677, '"^'id 257 operations were performed. The expen- 
diture in the same year was Rs. 4,000, chiefly borne by Local and 
municipal funds. 

Vaccination is compulsory in Sandoway municipality, but not in the 
interior of the District. The proportion of the inhabitants protected 
is, however, said to be fairly high. In 1903-4 the number of persons 
successfully vaccinated was 1,735, representing 19 per r,ooo of popu- 

[B. Houghton, Settlement Report {i?>^2) ; Maung Pan Hla, Settkmejit 
Report {iZ()()).'] 

Sandoway Township. — Township of Sandoway District, Lower 
Burma, lying between 18° 2' and 18° 46' N. and 94° 13' and 
94° 52' E., with an area of r,oio square miles. It occupies the 


central portion of the District. The po[)ulation in 1901 was 39,542, 
compared with 34,090 in 189 1. It contains one town, Sandoway 
(population, 2,845), the hend-quarters of the District and township ; 
and 231 villages. It has a fairly large number of Chin inhabitants in 
the hilly country which forms the greater part of its area, but not so 
many as the Taungup township, and Indians outnumber the Chin 
population. It is full of tidal creeks, and there is a little plain land 
along the valley of the Sandoway river. The area cultivated in 1903-4 
was 47 s(|uare miles, paying Rs. 48,700 and revenue. 

Sando'way To"wn. — Head-quarters of the District of the .same 
name in Lower Burma, situated in 18° 28' N. and 94° 21' E., on 
the left bank of the Sandoway river, 15 miles to the south-east of its 
mouth and between 4 and 5 miles due east of the sea-coast in a direct 
line. The town lies in a hollow, about 12 miles long by i broad, 
which is cultivated with rice and surrounded by hills. The greater 
part of it slopes gently from the river bank to the Zi chaung, which 
flows into the river at the west end of the town. The native town 
is backed by a low hill, on which stands the civil station occupied by 
the European officials. The officers' residences are in a semicircle 
overlooking the jail. The courthouse is some little distance off, nearer 
the river. 

It is probable that Dwarawadi, the earliest known capital of the 
kingdom of Arakan, was, if not identical with Sandoway, at any rate 
in its neighbourhood. Sandoway was a town of some note at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century. It was occupied without 
resistance in the first Burmese NVar, and was subsequently for some 
time the head-quarters of the garrison of Arakan. Its growth of late 
has not been rapid, and it is still little more than a large village. The 
population in 1901 was 2,845, ^'^ whom 1,640 were Buddhists, 967 
Musalmans, and 238 of other beliefs. Sandoway was constituted a 
municipality in 1885, and is the smallest municipality in Burma. The 
receipts of the municipal fund during the ten years ending 190 1 
averaged Rs. 8,300, and the expenditure Rs. 7,500. In 1903-4 the 
receipts were Rs. 11,000, and the expenditure Rs. 9,000. House and 
lighting taxes are levied, but market tolls are the most substantial item 
of revenue, yielding Rs. 6,000. Sandoway, though in direct communi- 
cation with a roadstead where ocean steamers call, can be reached only 
by craft of very light draught, and has not been declared a port under 
the Ports Act. Its trade is registered by the Customs department, but 
is very small, and its foreign commerce is insignificant. The imports 
by coasting trade in 1903-4 were valued at Rs. 2,39,000, and the 
exports at Rs. 26,000. The imports are almost entirely from other 
ports in Burma. A considerable portion of the export trade of the 
District does not pass through Sandoway town. It contains a small 

42 S/IJVD0U',1V TOn\Y 

jail, with accommodation for 84 prisoners, a hospital, and several 
schools. One of the most important of these is the municipal Anglo- 
vernacular school, with an attendance of about 120. There is also 
a mission school for Chins, managed by the American Baptist Union, 
with 70 Chin pupils in 1903, of whom 24 were girls. 

Sandur. — The smallest and least populous of the five Native States 
in direct political relations with the Government of Madras. It is sur- 
rounded by the District of Bellary, the Collector of which is the Politi- 
cal Agent, and lies between 14° 58' and 15° 14' N. and 76° 25' and 
76° 42' E. In shape it is like a torpedo, with its longer axis running 
from north-west to south-east, and it is 24 miles long and, at the 
broadest part, 13 wide. The State is i6t square miles in area, con- 
tains 20 villages, and has a population (1901) of 11,200, of whom 
between one-third and one-half live in Sandur town. It consists of 
a long, narrow valley, shut in by two nearly parallel 
Pnysica enclosing walls of hills covered with long grass and 

forest. These hills are formed of Dharwar rocks, 
which were deposited upon the older granites and then, as the earth's 
surface cooled, were, with the granites, subjected to enormous lateral 
pressure, and so crumpled up into huge wrinkles. The Sandur valley 
is the hollow of one of these wrinkles, and the hills surrounding it are 
the sides of a huge trough into which the rocks have been squeezed. 
The strata in them stand on edge, curve gradually below the valley, 
and reappear, again on edge, on the other side. 

The two enclosing lines of hill are smooth in outline, flat-topped, 
and very level along their summits, so that from outside the State they 
resemble long lines of wall shutting it in. Their highest point is at the 
south-east corner, above the Kumaraswami temple referred to later, 
where they run up to 3,400 feet. Ramanmalai, in the centre of the 
southern of the two lines, just above Ramandrug hill station, is 
3,256 feet above the sea. At right angles to the longer axis of the 
valley, and through both the walls of hill which enclose it, runs the 
Narihalla, draining almost the whole of it. The beautiful little gorges 
in the two lines of hills, by which the stream first enters and then 
leaves the State, are among the most striking features of the country. 
That on the western side, by which it enters, called the Obalagandi, 
lies about 2^ miles from Sandur town. At the bottom, where the 
river runs, it is only some 15 yards wide. On either hand the dark 
purple and deep red hematite rocks which form the sides of this 
natural gate rise precipitously to a height of 180 feet, gradually near- 
ing one another as they ascend. The bed of the stream is strewn with 
masses of rock which appear to have fallen from the sides of the gate, 
and their rich colours form a fine contrast to the green of the woods 
with which the sides of the hills are here clothed. The Bhimagandi, 


as the eastern gorge by which the Narihalla leaves the valley is called, 
is wider, but equally picturesque. 

Among the game of the State may be mentioned occasional tigers, 
numerous wild hog, and not a few sanibar. Peafowl are plentiful, but 
are held sacred to the god Kumaraswami., 

The valley is cooler than the neighbouring District of Bellary and 
receives more rain than any part of it, the average fall approaching 
30 inches annually. It is singularly free from malaria, considering its 

Sandur has an interesting history. In 1728 it was seized by an 
ancestor of the present Raja, a Maratha named Siddoji Rao. He 
belonged to a family called the Ghorpades, which 
name was earned, according to tradition, by one of 
them who scaled a precipitous fort by clinging to an iguana (ghorpad) 
which was crawling up it. Siddoji Rao's grandfather had been in the 
service of the Sultan of Bijapur, and his three sons joined in the 
Maratha revolt against that king and prospered in consequence. 
The second of them, Siddoji's father, earned the hereditary titles of 
Hindu Rao and Mamalikat (Mamlukat) Madar ('centre of the State'), 
which are still used by the Rajas of Sandur. Siddoji's eldest son was 
the famous Morari Rao of Gootv, who followed his father as ruler 
of the State. In the campaign of 1775-6 Haidar All, after getting 
possession of Bellary, took Gooty from him, and sent him to 
Kabbaldurga hill in Mysore, where he died soon afterwards. Haidar 
annexed the whole territory, including Sandur, and began the fort of 
Krishnanagar which is still standing there. It was finished and 
garrisoned by his son Tipu. 

Morari Rao had two sons, but they both died in childhood ; and he 
adopted a distant cousin named Siva Rao, who fell about 1785 in a 
vain attempt to turn Tipti's troops out of Sandur, and was succeeded 
by his son Siddoji, then two years old. Siddoji was put under the 
guardianship of his uncle Venkata Rao, who in 1790, on his ward's 
behalf, attacked and drove out Tipu's garrison, and gained possession 
of the place. After the peace with Tipu in 1792 the Ghorpades were 
allowed to retain Sandur as part of the ancient inheritance of the 
family, but none of them ventured to reside there as long as Tipu 
was alive. Siddoji died in 1796, aged thirteen, and his widow 
adopted a cousin called Siva Rao. On the death of Tipu at the 
fall of Seringapatam in 1799, Siva Rao went with Venkata Rao to 
Sandur, and he was jagirddr there when Bellary District was ceded 
to the Company. 

About this time the Peshwa, Baji Rao, granted the estate to one 
Jaswant Rao, a distinguished officer in Sindhia's army. No pro- 
minence was given to this grant, and Siva Rao continued to hold the 



estate. The Peshwa, however, regarded him as a rebelHous vassal, 
and in 1815 endeavoured to gain possession of Sandur by marching 
thither with troops, under the pretence of a pilgrimage to the shrine 
of Kumaraswami. Siva Rao blocked the passes, and Baji Rao was 
only allowed to go to the temple with a few attendants by the foot- 
paths over the hills. 

The Treaty of Bassein, however, bound the Company to assist the 
Peshwa in reducing refractory vassals, and BajT Rao accordingly asked 
that the British would take Sandur from Siva Rao. Munro was 
therefore detached from Dharwar with a force to demand the sur- 
render of the valley. Siva Rao resigned possession without opposi- 
tion and in a dignified manner, and obtained in exchange an estate 
in Bellary District. Almost immediately afterwards, however, the 
Peshwa threw ofif the mask of friendship to the British he had been 
wearing, and provoked the war which ended in 1818 in the downfall 
of his power. Munro then recommended that Sandur should be 
restored to Siva Rao, and Government agreed to the proposal. In 
1826 a formal sanad (title-deed) for the State was granted to Siva Rao 
by the Madras Government. He died in 1840, and was followed by 
his nephew Venkata Rao, whom he had adopted. The latter died in 
1 86 1, and was succeeded by his son Sivashanmukha Rao. In 1876 
he received the title of Raja as an hereditary distinction. At his death 
two years later his brother Ramachandra Vitthala Rao succeeded, who 
was made a C.I.E. in July, 1892, but died in the same year. Rama- 
chandra's son, the present Raja, is a minor and is being educated at 

The chief buildings of antiquarian interest in the State are the fort 
of Krishnanagar already mentioned, the ancient fortress at Ramaxdrug 
referred to in the account of that place, and the temple of Kumara- 
swami, which is picturesquely situated in a natural amphitheatre of 
wooded slopes near the top of the hills 7 miles south of Sandur town. 
Kumaraswami, the Mars of the Hindu pantheon, was the child of Siva 
and ParvatT. The legend runs that a ferocious demon named Tarak- 
asura, who dwelt in this part of the Sandur hills, so harassed the Devas 
that they entreated Siva to send his warrior son to rid them of the 
monster. Kumaraswami came and slew him and cut off his head. 
The foundation of the temple commemorates the happy event. In- 
scriptions in the building show that it was in existence as long ago as 
A.D. 950, but architecturally it is disappointing. 

The population of Sandur in 1871 was 14,996. The famine of 

1876-8 was severely felt, and in 1881 the inhabitants numbered only 

io,t:t2. In 1891 the total was 11,388, and in 
Population. ^^ ,, , r .1! 1 

1901, 11,200. More than 2,000 of the people are 

Musalmans, a high proportion. Of the Hindus, the most numerous 


communities are the sect of the Lingayats and the Bedars, the old 
fighting-caste of this part of the country, both of whom are over 2,000 
strong. Next come the Marathas, who number 1,000; then the agricul- 
turist Sadars and Madigas and the shepherd Kurubas ; and after them 
the Brahmans, who are more than usually numerous and hold consider- 
able grants of land. Kanarese is the prevalent vernacular. 

The soil of the State is a rich heavy loam, which compares favourably 
with that of the adjoining areas. There is practically no black cotton 

soil, and consequently no late crops, such as cotton, . . , 

T^ c , ■ , • Agriculture, 

are grown. By tar the most miportant staple is 

cholam {Sorghum vulgare), which is followed by korra {Sehiria italica) 

and sajja {Pennisetum iyphoideum). Pulses, oilseeds, betel-leaf, and 

tobacco are also grown. The two last and a few other garden crops are 

irrigated from wells, there being at present no irrigation by direct flow 

from either tanks or channels anywhere in Sandur. About 150 of 

these wells are worked, most being temporary affairs without proper 

lining ; and the area supplied is 400 acres, on most of which two crops 

are raised annually. Sugar-cane used to be a profitable crop, but it 

is now rarely grown, as it cannot compete with that cultivated under 

the TuxGABHADRA channels. ' Dry crops ' are sown from the early 

part of June to the middle of July and reaped in October. If the 

rains are late and sowing cannot be carried out until the end of July, 

the out-turn is invariably inferior. Only one crop is usually obtained 

from ' dry ' land, though if good rain falls in November or December 

a second crop of Bengal gram is sometimes raised. The systems of 

cultivation are similar to those followed in Bellary District, though 

perhaps manuring is more common. The agricultural implements 

employed are also the same. Cattle are chiefly bought, as in that 

District, from drovers from Nellore on the instalment system. 

The forests of Sandur are 87,000 acres, or about 136 square miles, 
in extent. Of this area, 40,000 acres have been leased to the Madras 
Government for twenty-five years from 1882 at an 
annual rental of Rs. 10,000, and are administered by 
the Forest department of Bellary District. These leased forests, as 
they are usually called, comprise the growth on the whole of the 
two ranges which run along each side of the valley and also some 
part of that on the plateaux south of Sandur town. They contain 
no really heavy growth, but the supply of Hardivickia will eventually 
be considerable, and there is some teak and sandal-wood. The 
thick grass is, however, of great value to cattle in times of scarcity. 
The chief difficulty in reproducing the growth is the constant occur- 
rence of fires. 

The minerals of the State possess unusual interest. The hematites 
tound in it are probably the richest ore in India. An outcrop near 

D 2 


the southern boundary by tlie village of Kummataravu forms 
the crest of a ridge 150 feet in height, which apparently consists 
entirely of pure steel-grey crystalline hematite (specu- 
lar iron) of intense hardness. Some of the softer ores 
used t(j be smelted by the natives, but the industry has been killed by 
the cheaper English iron. Manganese deposits have also been found 
in three places, the ore from one of them showing on analysis 
43 per cent, of manganese dioxide. There are alscj traces of an old 
gold-mine. Jasper rocks of great beauty and a wide range of colours, 
and many different tints of ochreous mineral pigments, are also found 
in large quantities. The pigments are excavated and used for colour- 
washing houses, and might probably be exploited to commercial 

Except that the shepherd caste of the Kurubas weave coarse woollen 
blankets from the fleeces of the sheep of the country, 
there are no manufactures in the State. Nor is any 
considerable trade carried on in or through it. 

The administration is conducted by a Diwan, subject to the general 
authority of the Collector of Bellary, who is ex-qfficio Political Agent 
for the State. The Diwan has the powers of a 
divisional officer, first-class magistrate, Additional 
Sessions Judge, and District Munsif, while the original, appellate, and 
revisional powers of a Collector, District Magistrate, and District and 
Sessions Judge vest, in matters relating to the State, in the Political 
Agent. No legislation is undertaken in Sandur. Such of the Acts 
of the Legislative Councils of the Governments of India and Madras 
as appear to the administration to be suited to the State are brought 
into force by the simple process of publicly notifying that they have 
been adopted. Many of the executive powers exercised have no other 
basis than old custom held to have the force of law. 

The gross income of the State averages rather more than Rs. 50,000, 
of which about Rs. 20,000 is derived from land revenue and the 
mohtarfa (an old-established tax levied according to no very fixed 
principles on professions, trades, and, in some cases, on houses) ; 
Rs. 14,000 from contracts for excise, minor forest produce, &c. ; 
and Rs. 10,000 from the forests leased to the Madras Government. 
On the expenditure side the chief items are the Raja's civil list, 
Rs. 14,000; the charges of administration, Rs. 13,000; and a sum 
of Rs. 7,576 which since 1885-6 has been set aside yearly for the 
repayment of the principal and interest of the debts incurred by 
former Rajas. 

Of the 160 square miles of which the State consists, only about 
19 scjuare miles, or 12,500 acres, are cultivable, the rest being forest or 
unfit for tillage. About 15 square miles (9,500 acres) are cropped at 


present, the remainder, often owing to its distance from the villages, 
being waste. A field survey under the direction of the Madras Survey 
department is in progress. When it has been completed, a settlement 
on the general principles followed in British territory will be carried 
out. Formerly the accounts showed the fields by their namc^s and 
their dimensions in /n/ggas or 'ropes,' but the length of the ' roi)e ' 
was nowhere laid down. Between 1865 and 187 1 a rough survey was 
carried out with the aid of the village accountants, and the records 
so obtained are the existing guides. They do not, however, show 
particulars of assessment. 

Until very recently the assessment payable was fixed on a rack- 
renting system, each field being put up to auction and leased for five 
(or sometimes ten) years to the highest bidder. At the end of this 
lease the field was again put up to auction, and its former tenant was 
thus often ousted. The uncertainty which this system involved checked 
any effort to improve the land permanently by fencing it, constructing 
wells, planting trees, and so on ; and consequently it is in contempla- 
tion, as soon as the survey and settlement have been completed and 
the rates of assessment in accordance with them have been prescribed, 
to give the ryots the same occupancy rights as in British territory. 
Meanwhile they are allowed to go on holding their fields at the rates 
fixed by the last auction held, and are not disturbed in their occupation 
by fresh auctions. 

The State contains no natural salt or salt-earth, and therefore no 
complications arise with the Salt department in British territory. It 
grows no opium, and the little gdnj'a which is raised is cultivated and 
harvested under ofificial supervision. The system for the supply of 
liquor is simple. The exclusive right of manufacturing and selling 
both spirits and toddy (palm liquor) is sold to the same person. He 
distils spirit in Sandur from imported jaggery (coarse sugar), and 
imports from elsewhere such toddy as is required, there being hardly 
any palm-trees in the State. 

Both short- and long-term prisoners are confined in the jail. The 
average number of convicts is about 15, and is thus too small to allow 
of the organization of jail manufactures ; so the prisoners are usually 
employed in repairing the roads. The police force consists of an 
inspector, 4 head constables, and 25 constables ; and there are 4 police 
stations. Under the terms on which the State is held, sentences of 
death cannot be passed without the sanction of the Government 
of Madras. Special rules regarding criminal jurisdiction are in force 
in the sanitarium of Ramandrug. Extradition from the State is 
arranged through the Political Agent, and is usually sanctioned only 
when the offence is of a minor description. In the case of more 
serious crimes triable only by a Court of Session, the Political Agent 


proceeds against the offender as though the offence had been committed 
in British India. 

Sandur possesses a lower secondary school, seven primary schools, 
and a girls' school. The first of these was opened at the end of 1882, 
but the present building was erected in 1887-8, and the institution 
is consequently known as the Jubilee School. Neither the Muham- 
madans nor the Lingayats of Sandur place much value on education, 
and progress is slow. At the Census of 1901 only 109 males and 
5 females in every 1,000 could read and write. The girls' school was 
started by the London Mission in 1898-9, and is still managed by 
that body. 

The Sandur dispensary was opened in 1881 and is very popular, 
many patients coming to it from adjoining villages in British territory. 

[Further particulars regarding Sandur will be found in the Bellary 
District Gazetteer (1904), and its geology and minerals are referred to 
at length in Mr. Bruce Foote's account of the geology of that District 
in Memoirs, Geological Survey, vol. xxv. j 

Sandwip. — Island off the coast of Noakhali District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam, lying between 22° 23' and 22° 37' N. and 91'' 21' and 
91° ■Tf'^' E., and probably formed by the deposit of silt from the 
Meghna. The area is 258 square miles, and the population in 1901 
was 115,127, dwelling in 59 villages. 

The island has an interesting history. Cesare de' Federici, the 
Venetian traveller, writing in 1565, described it as densely populated 
and well cultivated; he added that 200 ships were laden yearly with 
salt, and that such was the abundance of materials for ship-building 
that the Sultan of Constantinople found it cheaper to have his vessels 
built here than at Alexandria. In 1609 the island was captured from 
the Muhammadans by a number of Portuguese who had been expelled 
from the employ of the Raja of Arakan. Headed by one Gonzales, 
these pirates established themselves in force on the island and seized 
Shahbazpur and Patelbanga, with an army of 1,000 Portuguese, 2,000 
sepoys, and 200 cavalry, and a navy of 80 armed vessels. In 16 10 they 
allied themselves with the Raja of Arakan in an attempt to invade 
Bengal, but after some successes they were routed by the Mughal 
troops. In 16 1 5 an attack upon Arakan was made by Gonzales with 
the help of Portuguese troops from Goa, but this foiled ; and in the 
following year the Raja of Arakan invaded Sandwip, defeated Gonzales, 
and took possession of the island. For the next fifty years Sandwip 
was a nest of Portuguese and Arakanese pirates who devastated the 
neighbouring coasts of Bengal, but in 1664 the Nawab Shaista Khan 
determined to put an end to their depredations. By dint of promises 
and cajolery he induced the Portuguese to desert to his side, and 
used them in an attack upon Sandwip in 1665 which was entirely 


successful. The island, however, long remained an Alsatia for all ihe 
bad characters of Eastern Bengal, and its administration was a constant 
cause of trouble in the early years of British rule. The last pirate of 
note was Dilal Raja. He is remembered for his attempts to produce 
a high physical type among the islanders by compelling members of 
different castes to intermarry. The result has been a confusion of 
castes upon the island, which has given it a sinister reputation on the 
mainland. Until 1822 Sandwip formed part of Chittagong District, 
but in that year it was made over to the newly formed District of 
Noakhali. A Sub-Dcputy-Magistrate-Collector and a Munsif are 
stationed there. 

From its low-lying position SandwTp is peculiarly exposed to in- 
undation from storm-waves, and it suffered severely in loss of life 
and property by the cyclones of 1864 and 1876. The number of 
deaths cau.sed by the latter was estimated at 40,000, or nearly half the 
population, and its effects were aggravated by a terrible epidemic 
of cholera which immediately followed. Since this disaster the popu- 
lation has rapidly increased, as it was returned at only 72,467 in 1881 ; 
the density is now 446 persons per square mile. 

Sangameshwar Taluka,— Inland /d/u^a of Ratnagiri District, 
Bombay, lying between 16° 49' and 17® 20' N. and 73° 25' and 73° 
50' E., with an area of 576 square miles. There are 190 villages, 
but no town. The head-quarters since 1878 have been at the village 
of Devrukh. The population in 1901 was 129,412, compared with 
126,700 in 1891. The density, 225 persons per square mile, is below 
the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 89,000, and for cesses Rs. 6,000. The chief river is the Shastri, 
which cuts the tdhika nearly in half. North of the river, the country 
is hilly and becomes rugged at the foot of the Western Ghats, which 
are crossed by three passes. A fair amount of alluvial soil is found 
in the river valleys, yielding good crops of rice and pulse. Almost 
all the rest of the tdhika is crumbled trap. Several hot springs of 
varying temperature occur. The annual rainfall is heavy, averaging 
143 inches. 

Sangameshwar Town. — Former head-quarters of the tdluka of 
the same name in Ratnagiri District, Bombay, situated in 17° 16' N. 
and 73° 33' E., on the Shastri river, at the confluence of the Alkanda 
and Varuna, about 20 miles from the coast. Population (1901), 3,233. 
It is a place of some sanctity and antiquity. The river, which thirty- 
five years ago was navigable by the largest vessels to the Sangameshwar 
quay, is now impassable 6 miles lower down. There is, however, some 
trade in grain, piece-goods, and salt fish. During the famine of 1877-S, 
about 1,440 tons of grain were forwarded from Bombay through 
Sangameshwar to the Deccan. Early in 187S, 55 houses were burnt; 


and a few weeks later (March t6) a disastrous conflagration completely 
destroyed the tdluka offices and 75 private houses. On the destruction 
of the public offices, the head-quarters of the tdluka were moved to the 
more central and convenient village of Devkukh. 

According to the Sdhyddri khanda, Sangameshwar, originally called 
Ramakshctra, possessed temples built by Parasu Rama or Bhargava 
Rama. In the seventh century it was the capital of a Chalukyan king, 
Kama, who built temples and a fortress. Of these temples, one called 
Karneshvara remains. But the shrine of the Sangameshwar temple 
is said to be older, dating from Parasu Rama's time. In the fourteenth 
century it was for long the residence of Basava, the founder of the 
Lingayat sect. Every year in January-February a fair is held. At the 
confluence of the rivers are several sacred places {tlrihas), among them 
one known as ' cleanser of sins ' {phutapdp). It was here that SambhajT, 
son of Sivaji, was taken prisoner by the Mughals and afterwards put to 
death in 1689. Sangameshwar contains five schools with 325 pupils. 

Sangamner Taluka. — Tdluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, 
lying between 19° 12' and 19° 47' N. and 74° \' and 74° 31' E., with 
an area of 704 square miles. It contains one town, Sangamner 
(population, 13,801), the head-quarters; and 151 villages. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 90,381, compared with 82,936 in 1891. The 
presence of 5,000 immigrants on relief works accounts mainly for 
the increase. The density, 128 persons per square mile, is almost 
equal to the District average. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 11,000. The tdluka is 
divided into three distinct portions by the two mountain ranges which 
traverse it in a parallel direction. The chief rivers are the Pravara 
and the Mula. The Pravara flows in the valley between the two 
mountain ranges. With the exception of irrigation from the Ojhar 
canal, garden cultivation is carried on chiefly by means of wells. 

Sangamner Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same 
name in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, situated in 19° 34' N. and 
74° 13' E., 49 miles north-west of Ahmadnagar city. Population 
(1901), 13,801, including a hamlet of 2,790. The municipality, estab- 
lished in i860, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 
of Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,500. The town has 
much trade in yarn, millet, gram, metal, groceries, salt, rice, and silk ; 
and a number of looms are at work. It contains a Sub-Judge's court, 
a dispensary, and an English school. 

Sanganer. — Town in the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 
26° 48' N. and 75° 47" E., on the Aman-i-Shah river, 7 miles south 
of Jaipur city, and 3 miles south-west of Sanganer station on the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population (1901), 3,972. The old palace, 
said to have been once occupied by Akbar, is now used as a hospital. 


The town, which is walled, possesses a post office, an upper primary 
school attended by 44 boys, and several Jain temples, one of which, 
constructed of marble and sandstone, is of considerable size and said 
to be 950 years old. The place is famous for its dyed and stamped 
chintzes, the waters of the Aman-i-Shah being held to possess some 
peculiar properties favourable to the dyeing process ; the industry has, 
however, suffered owing to cheap foreign imitations. Country paper 
also is manufactured here. 

Sangareddipet. — Head-quarters of Medak District, and of the 
Kalabgur taluk, Hyderabad State, situated in 17° 38' X. and 78° 5' E., 
34 miles north-west of Hyderabad city, and 14 miles north of Shankar- 
palli station on the Nizam's State Railway. Population (1901), 4,809. 
The offices of the First and Third Talukdars, the irrigation Engineer, 
the Police Superintendent, a District civil court, a District jail and dis- 
pensary, and two schools with 201 pupils are located here. Six private 
schools have 85 pupils. Two miles to the west of the town is the 
Rajampet State stud farm. 

Sangarh Tahsil, — Northernmost tahs'il of Dera Ghazi Khan Dis- 
trict, Punjab, lying between 30° 27' and 31° 20' N. and 70° 24' and 
70° 50' E., with an area of 1,065 square miles. It is bounded on the 
east by the Indus, and on the west by independent territory. A narrow 
strip along the river is irrigated by floods, wells, and inundation canals. 
A considerable portion is sandy and barren, and water is scarce in 
many parts. The tahsil is intersected by a number of torrent-beds, the 
principal of which are the Vihowa and Sangarh, from which it takes 
its name. The population in 1901 was 86,482, compared with 76,888 
in 1 89 1. It contains 169 ' villages, including Taunsa (population, 5,200), 
the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to one lakh. 

Sanghar. — Taluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 25° 40' and 26° 15' N. and 68° 51' and 69° 25' E. 
In I go I it had an area of 1,050 square miles, and the number of 
villages was 63. The present area is 830 square miles, the reduction 
being due to the creation of new talukas. The population in 1901 was 
40,341, compared with 41,265 in 1891. The density, 49 persons per 
square mile, is considerably above the District average. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1-3 lakhs. The head- 
quarters are at Sanghar. The taluka is mainly irrigated by the 
Mithrao Canal, rice being the principal crop. 

Sanghi. — Village in the District and tahsil of Rohtak, Punjab, 
situated in 29° i' N. and 76° 41' E. Population (1901), 5,126. 
It is administered as a ' notified area.' 

' Since the Census of 1901, one village with a population of 16 persons has been 
transferred to the Dera Ismail Khan District of the North-Weist Frontier Province. 



Sangla. — \'illage in llie Khangah Dogran fa/isi/ of Gujranwala Dis- 
trict, Vunjah, situated in 31° 43' N. and 73° 27' E. Population (1901), 
982. With the colonization of the Sandal Bar (see Chenab Colony), 
it has rapidly developed into a place of some importance. It is 
administered as a 'notified area,' and now contains three cotton- 
ginning factories, which in 1904 gave employment to 192 persons. 
Trade will probably increase largely when the railway to Shahdara 
has been opened. 

Apart from its recent commercial development, Sangla is chiefly 
of interest in connexion with the theories woven round the ruins 
crowning the rocky hill known as Sanglawala Tibba, which General 
Cunningham identified with the Sakala of the Brahmans, the Sagal 
of Buddhism, and the Sangala of Alexander's historians. Modern 
authorities, however, have declined to accept the identification as 
correct ; and the Sangala of Alexander is now located in Ciurdaspur, 
while it is possible that Shahkot, a village in Gujranwala District, 
II miles south-east of Sangla, represents the Sakala which was the 
capital of Mihirakula, the White Hun, in the early part of the sixth 
century a.d., and the ruins of which were visited by Hiuen Tsiang. 
If this identification be correct, we probably have in Shahkot the 
site of the Sakala of the Mahabharata and the Sagal of Buddhist 
legend. But the task of identification is beset with dififtculties ; and 
it is by no means certain that Chiniot in Jhang is not the modern 
representative of Sakala, which has also recently been identified with 
Sialkot. The hill of Sanglawala Tibba rises to a height of 215 feet 
above the surrounding plain on its north side, and slopes southward 
till it ends in an abrupt bank only 32 feet in height, crowned in early 
times by a brick wall, traces of which still exist. The whole inter- 
vening area is strewn with large antique bricks, great quantities of 
which have been removed during recent years. An extensive swamp 
covers the approach on the south and east, the least defensible 
quarters, with a general depth of 3 feet in the rains, but dry during 
the summer. This must have once been a large lake, which has 
since silted up by detritus from the hill above. On the north-east 
side of the hill. General Cunningham found the remains of two con- 
siderable buildings, with bricks of enormous size. Close by stands 
an old well, lately cleared out by wandering tribes. 

[C. J. Rodgers, Report on Sangla Tibba (1896).] 

Sangli State. — State under the Political Agent of Kolhapur and 
the Southern Maratha JagTrs, Bombay, consisting of six separate 
divisions : a group of villages near the valley of the Kistna ; a second 
group between Kolhapur territory on the west and Jamkhandi State ; 
a third group in Sholapur District, near the junction of the Man 
and Bhima rivers ; a fourth in 1 )harwar District ; a fifth just north 


of the town of Belgaum ; and the last to the south of the Mal- 
prabha river and to the north-east of Kittur in Belgaum. The State 
contains a total area of 1,112 square miles, of which about 93 square 
miles are forest. The population in 1901 was 226,128, residing in six 
towns, of which the chief is Sanoi.i (population, 16,829), the head- 
quarters ; and 307^ villages. Hindus number 196,718 ; Muhanimadans, 
15,940; and Jains, 13,226. 

The portion of the State watered by the Kistna is flat and the soil 
particularly rich. The remaining divisions are plains surrounded by 
undulating lands and occasionally intersected by ridges of hills. The 
prevailing soil is black. Irrigation is carried on from rivers, wells, and 
tanks. The climate is the same as that of the Deccan generally, the 
air being very dry, especially when east winds prevail. The chief crops 
are millet, rice, wheat, gram, and cotton ; and the manufactures are 
coarse cotton cloth and native articles of apparel. 

The chief of Sangli is a member of the Patvardhan family, whose 
founder Haribhat, a Konkanasth Brahman, was the family priest of the 
chief of IchalkaranjI. On the occasion of the marriage of the chiefs 
son with the daughter of the first Peshwa, Haribhat was brought to the 
notice of the Peshwa, one of whose successors, Madhav Rao, granted 
\}c\G.jagir to Haribhat's son Govind Rao and two grandsons. In 1772 
theyJ^r, which included Mir.^j, descended to Chintaman Rao, grand- 
son of Govind Rao, the original grantee. Chintaman Rao being a 
child of six years, the State was managed during his minority by his 
uncle Gangadhar Rao. When the minor came of age, he quarrelled 
with his uncle, who attempted to keep him out of his rights. Even- 
tually the estate was divided between them, the uncle retaining Miraj 
and Chintaman Rao taking Sangli. The revenue of Sangli exceeded 
6 lakhs and that of Miraj was nearly 5 lakhs, the estates being respec- 
tively subject to a service of 1,920 and 1,219 horse. Chintaman Rao, 
the grandfather of the present chief of Sangli, became a feudatory of 
the British Government on the downfall of the Peshwa in 181 8. In 
1846 the East India Company presented him with a sword in testi- 
mony of their respect for his high character, and in acknowledge- 
ment of his loyalty. (Chintaman Rao died in 1851. The chief ot 
Sangli does not now pay any contribution on account of military 
service, having ceded lands of the annual value of over i^ lakhs in 
lieu thereof. The family holds a sanad authorizing adoption. The 
rule of primogeniture is not strictly followed in the matter of 

The chief ranks as a first-class Sardar in the Southern Maratha 

' This figure difters from thnt given in the Ceums Report^ being based on more 
recent information, and also by the inclusion of hnmlets and unpopulated village-;. 
At the Census of 1901 there were 239 towns and inhabited villages. 


Country, and has power to try capital offences in the rase of his own 
subjects. He enjoys an estimated revenue of 15 lakhs, and maintains 
a police force of 497 men, of whom 54 are mounted, 323 are unarmed, 
and 120 are armed. In 1903-4 there were 89 schools, including nine 
girls' schools, one high school, and three Anglo-vernacular schools; 
the number of pupils was 3,997. The State contains six munici- 
palities ; the largest are Sangtj with an income of Rs. 13,500, and 
Shahapur with Rs. 12,900. In the one jail and eight lock-ups of 
the State 208 prisoners were confined in 1903-4. There are seven 
dispensaries, attended by about 44,000 patients in 1903-4. In the 
same year about 6,000 persons were vaccinated. 

Sangli Town.— Capital of the State of Sangli, Southern Maratha 
Jaglrs, Bombay, situated in 16° 52' N. and 74° 36' E., on the Kistna 
river, a little north of the confluence of the Varna. Population 
(1901), 16,829. The income of the municipality in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 13,500. The fort, in which are the chief's palace and most of 
the public offices, was built about' a hundred years ago. The new- 
town is well laid out with broad streets, and is chiefly occupied by 
bankers, merchants, and the principal officers of the State. It contains 
a high school and a dispensary. 

Sangod. — Head-quarters of the district of the same name in the 
State of Kotah, Rajputana, situated in 24° 55' N. and 76° 17' E., on 
the right bank of the Ujar, a tributary of the Kali Sind, about 
34 miles south-east of Kotah city. Population (1901), 4,369. Sangod 
possesses a post office, a vernacular school, and a hospital with accom- 
modation for 6 in-patients. 

Sangola Taluka. — South-western tdhika of Sholapur District, 
Bombay, lying between 17° 8' and 17° 40' N. and 74° 54' and 
75° 27' E., with an area of 654 square miles. It contains one town, 
Sangola (population, 4,763), the head-quarters; and 75 villages. The 
population in 1901 was 82,634, compared with 78,420 in 1891. 
The density, 127 persons per square mile, is much below the Dis- 
trict average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was i-i lakhs, 
and for cesses Rs. 8,000. Sangola is a level plain, with a few treeless 
hillocks fringing its southern border. It is mostly bare of trees. 
Villages are three or four miles apart. The chief river is the Man, 
which drains the taluka from west to north-east for about 35 miles. 
Most of the soil is stony and barren, and much of it fit only for 
grazing. The climate is hot. 

Sangola Town. — Head-quarters of the tdbika of the same name 
in Sholapur District, Bombay, situated in 17° 26' N. and 75° 12' E., 
19 miles south-west of Pandharpur. Population (1901), 4,763. The 
fort, which is now occupied by the fahika offices, is said to have been 
built by a Bijapur king; and so prosperous was the town which grew 


up round it that, until it was plundered by Holkar's I'athans in 1802, 
it was locally called the Golden Sangola. The munici[)ality, estab- 
lished in 1855, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 
of Rs. 5,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,400. The town con- 
tains a Subordinate Judge's court, a school, and a dispensary. 

Sangri. — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between 
31° 16' and 31° 22' N. and 77° 22' and 77° 28' E., on the south bank 
of the Sutlej, with an area of 16 square miles. Population (1901), 
2,774. Formerly a dependency of Kulu, it was seized by the (lurkhas 
in 1803 and restored to the Kulu Raja in 1815 by the British. In 
1840 Raja Ajit Singh of Kulu took refuge in Sangri from the Sikhs, 
and Kulu was lost to his branch of the family, which retained Sangri 
under British protection. The present chief, Rai Hira Singh, suc- 
ceeded in 1876. The State has a revenue of Rs. 2,400. 

Sangriar Nizamat. — Head-quarters nizdmat or administrative 
district and tahsil of Jind State, Punjab, lying between 30° 6' and 
30° 21' N. and 75° 48' and 76" 2' E., with an area of 252 square 
miles. It comprises several scattered pieces of territory, of which the 
principal pargana, Sangrur, is bounded on the north and west by 
Patiala and Nabha, and on the east and south by Patiala. It also 
includes the i/dkas of Kularan, Balanwali, and Bazidpur, which are 
broken up into six detached areas. The population in 1901 was 
64,681, compared with 59,521 in 1891. The nizdmat contains two 
towns, Sangrur (population, 11,852), the head-quarters and capital 
of the State, and Balanwali (2,298); and 95 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-2 lakhs. It lies in the 
great natural tract known as the Jangal. 

Sangrur Town. — Modern capital of the Jind State, Punjab, 
situated in 30° 15' N. and 75° 59' E., 48 miles south of Ludhiana, 
on the Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal Railway. Population (1901), 11,852. 
Founded about 300 years ago, it remained a mere village until Raja 
Sangat Singh in 1827 transferred his capital from Jind, which he con- 
sidered as being too far from Patiala and Nabha. Raja Raghubir 
Singh, the successor of Sarup Singh, adorned it with many public 
offices and other buildings. It is administered as a municipality, with 
an income of about Rs. 3,900, chiefly derived from octroi, and has 
a considerable local trade. The principal manufactures are leathern 
goods and furniture. It contains the Diamond Jubilee College, com- 
pleted in 1902, a high school, the Victoria Golden Jubilee Hospital, 
and a Zanana hospital. 

Sangu. — River of Eastern Bengal and Assam. Rising in the range 
of hills which divides Arakan from the Chittagong Hill Tracts, in 
21° 13' N. and 92° 37' E,, it pursues a generally northerly course over 
a rocky bed to Bandarban, from which place it takes a tortuous 


westerly direction through Chittagong District, and finally empties 
itself into the Bay of Bengal, in 22° 6' N. and i;i° 51' E., after a 
course of 168 miles. The Sangu is tidal as far as Bandarban, where 
its bed is sandy. Though shallow in ordinary times, during the rains 
it becomes deep, dangerous, and rapid. In its upper reaches it is 
called by the hillmen the Rigray Khyoung, and lower down the Sabak 
Khyoung. It is navigable by large cargo boats for a distance of 
30 miles throughout the year. The principal tributaries are the Dolu 
and Chandkhali, and the chief river-side village is Bandarban. 

Sanjan. — Village in the Dahanu tdluka of Thana District, Bombay, 
situated in 20° 12' N. and 72° 51^ E., with a station on the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway. Sanjan was in former times a 
trading town of considerable importance, and according to tradition 
was founded by one Raja Gaddhe Singh. It covered so large an area 
that it earned the name of Navteri Nagari, or the city which measured 
9 kos by 13. Although some authorities suppose that the Sanjan in 
which the Pars! refugees from Persia settled about 720 was a town 
of that name in Cutch, there are better grounds for believing that it 
was Sanjan in Thana District, which is mentioned under the name 
of Hamjaman in three Silahara land grants of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. By the Arab geographers of the same period the town is 
repeatedly spoken of, under the name of Sindan, as one of the chief 
ports of ^Vestern India. In 915 it was described as a great city with 
a Jama Masjid, and as famous for the export of a fine emerald, known 
as the Mecca emerald owing to its having been brought from Arabia. 
Al Idrisi speaks of it in the twelfth century as peopled with industrious 
and very intelligent inhabitants, large, rich, and warlike, and enjoying 
a great export and import trade : and it doubtless maintained its wealth 
and importance till the beginning of the fourteenth century, when it 
was attacked and after a fierce resistance stormed by Alaf Khan, 
general of Ala-ud-din Khilji. Its Pars! citizens were killed, enslaved, 
or driven to the hills, and most of those who escaped settled at 
Nargol, about four miles away, which is still one of the largest Parsi 
villages on the coast. From that date little is heard of Sanjan until 
1534, when it was captured by the Portuguese. Pyrard de Laval and 
Sir T. Herbert both mention it during the early years of the seven- 
teenth century as subject to Portugal ; and the latter writer terms 
the place St. John (i.e. Sanjan) de Vacas, which is identical with 
the St. John or St. John's Peak known to English navigators of that 
period. Sanjan had by this time lost much of its former importance, 
and yielded through its customs-house a revenue of only £23 (620 
pardaos). It was guarded by a fort built in 161 3 by the Portuguese 
and described by a writer of that nation in 1634 as a round fort with 
six bastions, enclosing a very handsome well and two ponds, some 


houses, an arsenal, and a church. The i)opulation of the fort then 
consisted of a commandant and twenty soldiers, a clerk, an inspector, 
a priest, and forty-two families of Portuguese and native Christians. 
The garrison was accustomed to add to its pay by cultivation. 
Dr. Hove, the Polish savant, visited the town in 1787. 

Sanjan at the present day contains the remains of several large 
ponds and lakes, which are filled with silt and are utilized for culti- 
vation. Bricks of an antique type lie scattered over the surrounding 
fields and form the walls of most of the ruined buildings. Apart 
from these, the antitjuities of Sanjan consist of some carved slabs, the 
remains of a ParsI 'tower of silence' (i 300-1 500), the ruins of the 
Portuguese fort mentioned above, and two inscribed slabs, one bearing 
Hindu characters and dated 1432, and the other KQfic characters of 
eight centuries ago. The latter was probably erected originally over 
the grave of one of the Arab merchants whose descendants, the 
Navaits, still form a separate class in the coast towns of Thana Dis- 
trict. Sanjan also contains two European graves of unknown date. 

Sanjari. — Southern fa/isi/ of the new Drug District, Central 
Provinces, which was constituted in 1906 from portions of Raipur and 
Bilaspur. The fa/isi/ lies between 20° 23' and 21° 1' N. and 80° 48' 
and 81° 31' E. It was formed by taking 373 square miles from the 
former Drug tahs'il^ and 944 square miles from the former Dhamtari 
tahsil of Raipur. It thus has an area of 1,317 square miles, the 
population of which in 1901 was 198,399, compared with 239,721 in 
1891. The density is 1 5 1 persons per square mile, and there are 690 
inhabited villages. The head-quarters have been fixed at Balod, a 
village of 1,228 inhabitants, 55 miles from Drug town by road ; but 
the tahsil was named after another village, Sanjari, to prevent confusion 
with the Baloda Bazar tahsil of Raipur. The tahsil contains 164 
square miles of Government forest. It includes the crtw/«^<zr/ estates 
of Khujji, Dondi-Lohara, and Gundardehl, which have an area of 
426 square miles and a population of 51,493 persons, and contain 
more than 200 square miles of forest. The north of the tahsil is 
an open black-soil plain, while tracts of hill and forest extend to the 
south and west. 

Sanjawi. — Sub-Za/w/ of Loralai District, Baluchistan, lying between 
30° 9' and 30° 28' N. and 67° 49' and 68° 35' E., with an area 
of 446 square miles and population (1901) of 6,866, an increase of 
1,334 since 1891. The head-ciuarters station, which bears the same 
name as the tahsil, consists of a military fort occupied by the revenue 
establishment and local levies. Villages number 37. The land 
revenue, which is fixed in the case of irrigated lands, in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 16,000. The Pechi Saiyids, who own lands in Pui, are 
exempted from payment of land revenue on certain conditions. Much 


of the tahsll lies at an elevation of 6,000 feet above sea-level. Its 
glens, orchards, and gardens are very picturesque, and at Smallan fine 
myrtle groves of great age are to be seen. 

Sanjeli. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Sankala. — Ruins in Oujranwala District, Punjab. See Saxgla. 

Sankaranayinarkovil Taluk. — Tdlnk in Tinnevelly l^istrict, 
Madras, lying between 8° 55' and 9° 25' N. and 77° 14' and 77'^ 52' E., 
at the foot of the Western Ghats, with an area of 717 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 232,980, compared with 213,799 in 
1891 ; the density is 325 persons per square mile. It contains two 
towns, SivAGiRi (population, 18,150) and Sankaranayinarkovil 
(16,775), the head-quarters; and 123 villages. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,02,000. There are 
a considerable number of zanunddris in the tdluk^ the largest of which 
is the Si VAGI Ri Estate. It contains soils of both the red and black 
classes, and depends for its cultivation chiefly on the north-east 
monsoon, the rainfall during the earlier or south-west monsoon being 
trifling and uncertain. 

Sankaranayinarkovil Town. — Head-quarters of the tdliik of the 
same name in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 9° 10' N. and 
77*^ 32' E. It is a Union, with a population (1901) of 16,775. ^ ^^^^^ 
temple is dedicated to both Vishnu and Siva, a combination which is 
uncommon. A large cattle fair is held annually in August. 

Sankaridrug. — -Village in the Tiruchengodu taluk of Salem Dis- 
trict, Madras, situated in 11° 29' N. and 77° 52' E., 2 miles from the 
station of the same name on the Madras Railway. Population (1901)) 
2,046. The place is built just under the Sankaridrug hill, which 
rises to a height of 2,343 feet, and is terraced with fortifications. 
These point to the vicissitudes of South Indian history, some of them 
dating from the time of the Hindu chieftains, others from Tipu Sultan's 
days, and yet others being of British origin. The hill is well worth 
climbing. Past a Hindu temple, the door of which is riddled with 
bullets, the traveller toils up a flight of steep steps, and half-way along 
the ascent reaches a snowy mosque erected in honour of a Musalman 
saint, which nestles among the green foliage that clothes the hill like 
a pearl set among emeralds. Leaving this, the path winds among 
remains of modern fortifications and the houses of the garrison, now 
overgrown with shrubs and prickly pear, and at length reaches a plateau 
at the top of the hill. Here is a fount of pure and cold water, supposed 
to be possessed of medicinal virtues; and the remains of the old Hindu 
fort, its granary and the subterranean cell into which condemned 
prisoners were thrown, come into view. Crowning all are the temples 
of Vishnu, the lights of which twinkle in the evenings in the surround- 
ing darkness. The village is very healthy, and was a favourite camping- 


place for the District officers till Yercaud rose into prominence. The 
public bungalow, one of the finest in the District, is {)icturesquely 
situated on a rock just under the hill. 

Sankeshwar (more correctly Shank/ieswar, or ' the conch god '). — ■ 
Village in the Chikodi ia/uka of Belgaum District, Bombay, situated 
in i6° 15' N. and 74° 29" E., 27 miles north-by-west of Belgaum town. 
Population (1901), 5,639. Sankeshwar has a large traffic in cotton, 
dry coco-nuts, dates, spices, and curry-stuff. The ordinary industry 
is the weaving of waist-cloths, women's saris, and blankets. The village 
contains an old temple of Shankarling and a monastery, which is the 
seat of one of the Sankaracharyas of the Smarth sect of Hindus. In 
1488 Bahadur Clilani, the Bahmani governor of the Konkan, broke 
into rebellion and established his head-quarters here, but subsequently 
submitted to Mahmud II. In 1659 Sankeshwar fell to Sivaji. The town 
contains a boys' school with 177 pupils and a girls' school with 57. 

Sankhatra.— Village in the Zafarwal tahstl of Sialkot District, 
Punjab, situated in 32° 13' N. and 74° 56' E., about 39 miles from 
Sialkot town. Population (1901), 2,233. It is said to have been 
founded by Hemraj, a KhattrT, who gave it the name of Hemnagar, by 
which it was known for upwards of a century. In the time of Akbar 
a famous fakir, by name Sankhatra, a Deo Jat, settled here, and the 
place was renamed after him. His tomb still exists near the village. 
Although of no commercial importance, Sankhatra is the residence of 
a number of wealthy merchants, and possesses larger and finer 
mansions than any minor town in the District. In 1901 it was the 
scene of a plague riot, when the naib-iahsllddr in charge of the plague 
camp was burnt to death. It has a vernacular middle school maintained 
by the District board. 

Sankheda. — Town in the taluka of the same name, Baroda prCxnt, 
Baroda State, situated in 22° 9' N. and 73° 37' E., on the left bank of 
the Orsang river. Population (1901), 4,296. The town possesses 
Munsifs and magistrate's courts, other local offices, a dispensary, and a 
vernacular school. It is administered as a municipality, with an annual 
grant from the State of Rs. 800. The only object of interest is an old 
fort, which surrendered to a small British force in 1802. The calico- 
printing, lacquer-work, dyeing, and wood-carving of Sankheda have a local 
celebrity. There is also an export trade in seeds and 7nahud flowers. 

Sankisa. — Village in the District and tahsll of Farrukhabad, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 20' N. and 79° 16' E., near the East Kali 
Nadi. Population (1901), 951. The village is also called Sankisa 
Basantpur, and is chiefly celebrated for the ruins situated in it. These 
were identified by Cunningham with the site of the capital of the 
country called Sankasya by Fa Hian and Kapitha by Hiuen Tsiang. 
This town was said to be the place at which Gautama Buddha de- 



scendcd from heaven, accompanied l)y Indra and JJrahma. The iden- 
tification depends chiefly on measurements and directions which are 
not perfectly definite, and its correctness has been doubted'. The 
existing village is perched on a mound of ruins, locally known as * the 
fort,' 41 feet high, with a superficial extent of 1,500 feet by 1,000. 
A quarter of a mile southward is another mound, composed of solid 
brickwork, and surmounted by a temple dedicated to Bisari Devi. 
Near the temple mound Cunningham found the capital of an ancient 
pillar, bearing an erect figure of an elephant, which he considered to 
belong to the pillar of Asoka mentioned by the Chinese pilgrims. 
The latter describe the pillar as surmounted by a lion — a discrepancy 
explained away by supposing that the trunk had been broken at an 
early date, and the animal could not be distinguished at a height of 
50 feet. Other smaller mounds containing masses of brickwork sur- 
round those mentioned, and there are the remains of an earthen 
rampart upwards of 3-| miles in circumference. This place has been 
very imperfectly explored, but ancient coins and clay seals bearing 
the Buddhist confession of faith are frequently found here. 

[Cunningham, Archaeological Sien'ey Reports of Norther ?i India, 
vol. i, p. 271, and vol. xi, p. 22.] 

Sankosh. — A large river which rises in Bhutan, and at the point 
where it debouches on the plains forms the boundary between the 
Districts of Goalpara in Assam and Jalpaiguri in Eastern Bengal. It 
then flows along the western boundary of the Ripu Duar, and at 
Maktaigaon divides into two branches. The western arm retains the 
name of the original river, and, after flowing through Jalpaiguri and 
Cooch Behar, rejoins the eastern branch, which is called the Gangadhar, 
near Patamari. The combined stream is then known as the Dudh- 
kumar and falls into the Brahmaputra below Dhubri. For the greater 
part of its course it flows through jungle larud ; but it serves as a trade 
route, down which timber, thatching grass, and other forest products 
are.brought. The river is nowhere bridged in Goalpara, but is crossed 
by ten ferries. The total length is about 200 miles. 

Sankrail. — Village in Howrah District, Bengal, situated in 22° 34" N. 
and 88° 14' E., on the right bank of the Hooghly. It contains jute- 
mills and cement works, and pottery of some local repute is also manu- 
factured. The Sankrail Khal, which here enters the Hooghly river, 
forms a means of communication with the interior of Hooghly District. 

Sanosra.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Santal Parganas. — Southern District of the Bhagalpur Division, 

Bengal, lying between 23° 48' and 25° 18' N. and 86° 28' and 87° 57' E., 

with an area of 5,470 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 

Districts of Bhagalpur and Purnea ; on the east by Malda, Murshid- 

' V. A. Smith in xhe Joitmal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1898, p. 508, note. 


abad, and Birbhum ; on the south by IJurdwan and Manbhum ; and 

on the west by Hazaribagli, iMonghyr, and Hhagalpur. 

The general aspect of the District is undulating or hilly ; to the 

north-east, however, it abuts on the Gangetic plain, and a narrow strip 

of alluvial land about 6150 square miles in area thus 

- - Physical 

falls within it. The Rajmahal Hills, which cover asoects 

1,366 scjuare miles, here rise steeply from the plain, 
but are nowhere higher than 2,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
their average elevation being considerably less. Among the highest 
ridges are Mori and Sendgarsa. The major portion of these hills falls 
within the Daman-i-koh Government estate, which has an area of 
1,351 square miles. Among the highest ridges outside the Daman-i-koh 
are the NunI, Sankara, Ramgarh, Kulanga, Sarbar, Sundardihi, I^aksh- 
manpur, and Sapchala hills. East and south of these hilly tracts the 
country falls away in undulations, broken by isolated hills and ridges 
of gneiss of sharp and fantastic outline. The Ganges forms the 
northern and part of the eastern boundary, and all the rivers of the 
District eventually flow either into it or into the Bhagirathi. The chief 
of these are the Gumani, the Maral, the Bansloi, the BrahmanT, the 
Mor or Morakhi with its tributary the Naubil, the Ajay, and the Bara- 
kar. None of them is navigable throughout the year. 

Archaean gneiss and Gondwana rocks constitute the greater portion 
of the Santal Parganas, the latter represented principally by the vol- 
canic rocks of the Rajmahal Hills, which occupy an elevated strip of 
land along the eastern border, while to the west the undulating area 
that constitutes the greater part of the District consists of Bengal 
gneiss, which is remarkable for the great variety of crystalline rocks 
which it contains. The Gondwana division consists of the Talcher, 
Damodar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal groups. The Talcher and Damo- 
dar belong to the Lower Gondwanas, and the other two groups to the 
Upper. The volcanic rocks of the Rajmahal group are the predomi- 
nant member of the series, and they constitute the greatest portion 
of the hills of that name. They are basic lavas resembling those of 
the Deccan trap, and vary in their coarser types from a dolerite to 
a compact basalt in the finer-grained varieties. A trachytic intrusion 
situated in the Hura coal-field, about 22 miles south-east of Colgong, 
although petrologically quite different from the basic basalts and dole- 
rites, may nevertheless belong to the same volcanic series. Sedimen- 
tary beds, consisting principally of hard white shales, sometimes also 
of hard quartzose grits or carbonaceous black shales, occur frequently 
intercalated between successive flows ; and these are of great interest 
on account of the beautifully preserved fossil plants which they contain. 
They are mostly cycadaceous plants together with some ferns and 
conifers, and are identical with those found in the Upper Gondwana 

£ 2 


at Jubbulporc, in Cutch and various other places, and have been of 
great assistance to geologists in determining the age of the series. 
In the Rajniahal Hills, the Gondwana groups underlying the volcanic 
group are found principally along the western border of the range. 
The outcrops are very discontinuous, owing partly to the faulted 
nature of the western boundary, and partly to the overlaps between 
the different members, which in the case of the Barakars, Dubrajpur, 
and Rajmahal amount to a well-marked unconformity. 'l"he Talcliers 
are very poorly represented. They consist of the usual greenish silts 
and sandstones, with only a local development of the well-known 
boulder bed. These rocks are supposed to be of glacial origin. The 
next group is the most important from an economic point of view, as 
it contains the coal-measures. Along the western border of the hills, 
it constitutes several coal-fields, which, enumerated from north to south, 
are: the Hura coal-field, a tract about 15 miles long from north to 
south, commencing about 13 miles south-east of Colgong ; the Chu- 
parbhita coal-field, about 10 miles farther south in the valley of the 
Gumani ; the Pachwara field, in the Bansloi valley ; and the Brahmani 
coal-field, in the valley of the river from which it is named. In the 
three southern fields the Damodar rocks are lithologically similar to 
the Barakar beds of the Raniganj coal-field, consisting of alternations 
of grit, sandstone, and shale, with occasional beds of inferior coal. 
The coal-measures of the Hura field are lithologically different ; they 
consist of friable felspathic grits and soft white shales, with a few 
thick seams of inferior coal, and correspond possibly with the Rani- 
ganj group of the Damodar coal-fields. The Dubrajpur group, which 
either intervenes between the Damodar and volcanic rocks or rests 
directly on the gneiss, to be overlapped in its turn by the volcanic 
rocks themselves, consists of coarse grits and conglomerates, often 
ferruginous, containing quartz and gneiss pebbles, with occasionally 
hard and dark ferruginous bands. 

The south-western portion of the District contains the small Deogarh 
coal-fields and the northern edge of the Raniganj coal-field. The 
Talcher and Barakar are the groups represented. The boundaries 
of these coal-fields are often faulted. There are numerous dikes and 
intrusive masses of mica peridotite and augite dolerite, the underground 
representatives of the Rajmahal flows. These intrusions occur in pro- 
fusion in the surrounding gneiss. The coal in the Deogarh fields is 
neither plentiful nor of good quality. In the north of the District 
the locks disappear beneath the Gangetic alluvium ^ 

The narrower valleys are often terraced for rice cultivation, and the 

^ Metnoirs, Geological Swvey of India, vols, vii and xiii, pt. ii, and Records, 
Geological Sm-vcy of India, vol. xxvii, pt. ii. Tlie above account was contributed 
by Mr. E. \'redenburg, Deputy-Superintendent, Geological Survey of India. 


rice-fields and their margins abound in marsh and water plants. The 
surface of the plateau land between the valleys, where level, is often 
bare and rocky, but where undulating, is usually clothed with a dense 
scrub jungle, in which Dendrocalamus strictus is prominent. Through- 
out the District the principal tree is the sal {Shorea rol>us/a), but all 
trees characteristic of rough and rocky soil are found in the jungles. 
Such are the palds {Bufea frondosa), tun {Cedrela Toond), asan {Ter- 
minalia tomentosd), baherd {Terminalia Chebuld), haritaki {Terminalia 
kiericd), arjun {Tennitialia Arju/ia), Phyllanthus Emblica, jdmun 
{Eui:;ema Jamboland), babul {Acacia arabica), khair {Acacia Catechu), 
mahua {Bassia la/ if alia), bakul {Mimusops Elengi), Mallotus philip- 
piueusis, kdntiil {Artocarpus iuki^ri folia), Artocarpus Lakoocha, Lager- 
stroemia pan'iflora, Auogeissus latifolia, gamhdr {Gmelitia arborea), 
kusum {Schleichera trijuga), and dbniis {Diospyros melanoxylon). 

Outside the Government estates, where forest is protected, the jungle 
is being gradually destroyed and big game has almost disappeared. 
The last elephant was shot in 1893; a few bears, leopards, hyenas, 
and spotted deer survive, but the Santal is as destructive of game as 
of jungle. \Vild duck, snipe, and quail abound in the alluvial tract. 
Partridges are also fairly common, and partridge taming is a favourite 
amusement of the Santals. Peafowl and jungle-fowl are still to be found 
in the Daman-i-koh and in the hills to the south and east of Dumka. 

The alluvial strip of country above alluded to has the damp heat 
and moist soil characteristic of Bengal, while the undulating and hilly 
portions of the District are swept by the hot westerly winds of Bihar, 
and resemble in their rapid drainage and dry subsoil the lower plateau 
of Chota Nagpur. In this undulating country the winter months are 
very cool and the rains not oppressive, but the heat from the end of 
March to the middle of June is great. Mean temperature rises from 
64° in December and January to 88° in April and May. The mean 
maximum is highest (100°) in April; but after May it drops rapidly, 
chiefly owing to the fall in night temperature, and from July to October 
remains almost constant at 88° and 89°. The mean minimum is lowest 
(51°) in December and January. The annual rainfall averages 52 inches, 
of which 8-8 inches fall in June, 13-2 in July, ii'4 in August, and g-2 
in September. 

Owing to the completeness of the natural drainage and the custom 
of accumulating excess rain-water by dams, floods seldom cause mucii 
damage. The only destructive flood within recent years occurred on 
the night of September 23, 1899, in the north-west of the Godda sub- 
division.. The storm began in the afternoon, and by 8 a.m. next morning 
lO'i inches of rain had been registered at Godda. The natural water- 
courses were insufficient to carry away the water, and a disastrous 
inundation ensued. It was estimated that 881 lives were lost, while 


upwards f)f 6,000 cattle perished and 12,000 houses were destroyed. 
The villages in the submerged area were afterwards visited by a some- 
what severe epidemic of cholera, probably due to the contamination 
of the water-supply. 

Until the formation of the District in 1855, the northern half formed 
part of Bhagalpur, while the southern and western portions belonged 
to Blrbhum. The Rajmahal Hills lay within Bhagal- 
'^ pur close to the line of communication between 

Bengal and Bihar, and the Paharias ('hillmen') who inhabited them 
lived by outlawry and soon forced themselves on the attention of the 
East India Company. The Muhammadan rulers had attempted to 
confine the Paharias within a ring fence by granting zam'tndaris and 
jagirs for the maintenance of a local police to repel incursions into the 
plains ; but little control was exercised, and in the political unrest of 
the middle of the eighteenth century these defensive arrangements 
broke down. Repressive measures were at first attempted with little 
effect, but between 1779 and 1784 Augustus Clevland succeeded by 
gentler means in winning the confidence of the Paharias and reducing 
them to order. He allotted stipends to the tribal headmen, established 
a corps of hill-rangers recruited among the Paharias, and founded 
special tribunals presided over by tribal chiefs; his rules were eventually 
incorporated in Regulation I of 1796. To pacify the country. Govern- 
ment had to take practical possession of the Paharia hills to the ex- 
clusion of the zaminddrs who had previously been their nominal owners. 
The tract was therefore not dealt with at the Permanent Settlement ; 
and finally in 1823 Government asserted its rights over the hills and 
the fringe of uncultivated country, the Daman-i-koh or 'skirts of the 
hills,' lying at their feet. An officer was appointed to demarcate the 
limits of the Government possessions, and the rights of i\\e Jagirddrs 
over the central valley of jSIanjhua were finally resumed in 1837. 
A Superintendent of the Daman was appointed in 1835 ; and he 
encouraged the Santals, who had begun to enter the country about 
1820, to clear the jungle and bring the valleys under cultivation. The 
Paharias, pacified and in receipt of stipends from Government, clung 
to the tops and slopes of the hills, where they practised shifting culti- 
vation. The valleys offered a virgin jungle to the axes of the Santals 
who swarmed in from Hazaribagh and Manbhum. On the heels of 
the Santals came the Bihari and the Bengali mahdjans (money-lenders). 
The Santal was simple and improvident, the mahdjan extortionate. 
The Santals found the lands which they had recently reclaimed passing 
into the hands of others owing to the action of law courts ; and in 
1855, starting with the desire to revenge themselves on the Hindu 
money-lenders, they found themselves arrayed in arms against the 
British Government. The insurrection was not repressed without 



bloodshed, but on its conclusion a careful inquiry was held into the 
grievances of the Santals and a new form of administration was intro- 
duced. Regulation XXXVII of 1855 removed the area of the present 
District from the operation of the general Regulations and placed the 
administration in the hands of special officers under the control of 
the Lieutenant-Governor. The jurisdiction of the ordinary courts was 
suspended, and the regular police were removed. Five districts (col- 
lectively named the Santal Parganas) were formed and placed under 
the control of a Deputy and four Assistant Commissioners, each of 
whom had a sub-assistant and was posted with his sub-assistant at 
a central point of his district. These ten officers were intended 
simply for the purpose of doing justice to the common people, and 
tried civil and criminal cases and did police work ; revenue work and 
the trial of civil suits valued above Rs. 1,000 were carried on by the 
District staff of Birbhum and Bhagalpur. 

Under this system the Deputy-Commissioner lived at Bhagalpur, 
and of the officers left in the districts, three were on the loop and 
three on the chord line of rail, while only two were posted in the 
important districts of Dumka and Codda, which contained nearly half 
the population of the Parganas. In course of time, however, the 
Santal Parganas were more or less brought under the ordinary law and 
procedure of the ' regulation ' Districts, and the Deputy-Commissioner 
was practically transformed into a Judge. Accordingly, when in 1872 
an agitation again began among the Santals, directed chiefly against 
the oppression of the zamlnddrs, and attended by acts of violence, 
it was felt that this tract required a simpler form of administration 
than other parts of Bengal, and a special Regulation (III of 1872) was 
passed for the peace and good government of the Santal Parganas. 
Under its provisions, a revenue ' non-regulation ' District was formed ; 
the Deputy-Commissioner was appointed to be the District officer, 
with head-quarters at Dumka instead of Bhagalpur, and the three 
tracts of Deogarh, Rajmahal, and Godda were reduced to the status 
of subdivisions. The areas now composing the subdivisions of Pakaur 
and Jamtara were at the same time attached as outposts to Dumka, 
and that part of the police district of Deogarh which is included in the 
Jamtara subdivision and in the Tasaria and Gumro ia/uks was withdrawn 
from the jurisdiction of the regular police and included in the non-police 
area. These changes completed the autonomy of the District. 

Population increased from 1,259,185 in 1872 to 1,567,966 in i88r, 
to 1,753,775 in 1891, and to 1,809,737 in 1901 : the increases in 1881 
and 1 89 1 were largely due to greater accuracy in 
enumeration. The District is on the whole healthy, 
but malarial fever prevails in the low-lying country bordering on the 
Ganges, and also in parts of the hills. 


The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below:- 


J, ■ 




Number of 


Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and iqoi. 

Number of 

persons able to 

reail and 









Rajmahal . 



District total 











+ 4-7 
+ 1-4 
+ 3-6 
+ 0.1 

+ 3-1 
+ 9-2 










+ 3.2 


The three towns are Madhupur, Deogarh, and Sahibganj; Dumka, 
the District head-quarters, was constituted a municipality in 1903. The 
population is most dense in the low and level country on the north-east 
and north-west ; the Daman-i-koh in the centre of the District is a 
typical part of Chota Nagpur and is sparsely inhabited, and the popu- 
lation is stationary or decadent, except in the Rajmahal subdivision, 
where the collection of sadai grass (Isc/ioemum angustifolium) for the 
paper-mills gives profitable employment. Elsewhere emigration has 
been busily at work, especially among the Santals, who chafe under 
the restrictions imposed by the Forest department on the indiscriminate 
felling of timber. Outside the Daman-i-koh the only tracts that show 
a decline are Rajmahal, Sahibganj, and Poreya. In the tract first 
mentioned the decrease is due to migration across the Ganges, while in 
Sahibganj it is attributed to an outbreak of plague at the time of the 
Census. Poreya is a poor and barren tract and, like the Daman-i-koh, 
has lost by emigration. The smallness of the net increase for the 
whole District during the decade ending 1901 is due to the large 
scale on which emigration is taking place. It is, in fact, estimated 
that about 182,000 persons must have left the District during that 
period, and that the natural increase of the population was at least 
10 per cent. The most striking features of the migration are : firstly, 
its great volume ; and secondly, the strong tendency of the people to 
move eastwards. There is a large influx from all the adjoining Districts 
west of a line drawn approximately north and south through the centre 
of the District, i.e. from Bhagalpur, Monghyr, Hazaribagh, and Man- 
bhOm ; but the movement is still stronger in the direction of the Dis- 
tricts east of this line, i.e. Purnea, Malda, Murshidabad, Birbhum, and 
Burdwan. The immigrants from the west exceed 83,000, while the 
emigrants to the east number close on 117,000. The great migration 
of the Santals to this District from the south and west took place 
during the middle part of the nineteenth century, and many of the 


immigrants enumerated in the last Census are probably the survivors 
of those who took part in the movement. The tribe is still spreading 
east and north ; and the full effect of the movement is not exhausted 
in the Districts that adjoin the Santal Parganas, but makes itself felt 
even farther away in those parts of Dinajpur, Rajshahi, and Bogra 
which share with Malda the elevated tract of quasi-laterite known as 
the Barind. Of emigration to more distant places the most noticeable 
feature is the exodus to the Assam tea gardens, where more than 31,000 
natives of this District were enumerated in 1901, and to Jalpaigurl, 
where they numbered more than 10,000. A large variety of dialects 
are used in the District. Bengali, spoken by 13-5 per cent, of the 
population, includes the Rarhi boli^ or classical Western Bengali, and 
Malpaharia or the broken Bengali spoken by converted aborigines in 
the centre of the District. Bihari is .spoken by 46 per cent. ; the main 
dialect is Maithill, which includes a sub-dialect known as Chhika 
Chikki bolt, but a dialect of MagadhT, which has been affected by its 
contact with Bengali, is also largely used ; this is called by Dr. Grierson 
Eastern Magadhi, and is locally known as Karmall or Khotta or even 
as Khotta Bangala. Santall itself, which is spoken by 649,000 persons, 
is a dialect of the Munda family, while Malto belongs to the Dravidian 
group. Hindus constitute 56-1 per cent, of the total population, 
Animists 34-9 per cent., and Muhammadans 8-4 per cent. 

The Santals are now the distinctive caste of the District, and in 1901 
numbered 663,000, of whom 74,000 were returned as Hindus and 
589,000 as Animists. They are a typical race of aboriginal stock, 
and are akin to the Bhumijs, Hos, and Mundas. Their complexion 
varies from very dark brown to an almost charcoal black, and their 
features are negritic. The original habitat of the race is not known, 
but there is no doubt that from a comparatively remote period they 
have been settled on the Hazaribagh table-land ; and it is noticeable 
that the I^amodar river, by which its southern face is drained, is the 
terrestrial object most venerated by them. Within the last few cen- 
turies they have worked eastwards, and are numerous in the eastern 
half of the Chota Nagpur plateau and in Midnapore ; and, as has been 
already related, they are now emigrating to North Bengal and Assam. 
They worship various deities, of which the chief is the Marang Burn, 
who is credited with far-reaching power, in virtue of which he associates 
both with the gods and with demons. Each Santal family has also 
two special gods of its own, the Orak bonga or household god and 
the Abjcbonga or secret god. Their principal festival is the Sohrai 
or harvest festival, celebrated after the chief rice crop of the year has 
been reaped. Public sacrifices of fowls are offered by the priest in 
the sacred grove ; pigs, goats, and fowls are sacrificed by private 
families, and a general saturnalia of drunkenness and sexual licence 


prevails. Chastity is in abeyance for the time, and all unmarried 
persons may indulge in promiscuous intercourse. Next in importance 
is the Bahapuja, held in Phalgun (February-March) when the sal 
tree comes into flower. Tribal and family sacrifices are held, many 
victims are slain and eaten by the worshippers, every one entertains 
his friends, and dancing goes on day and night. 

The communal f)rganization of the Santals is singularly complete. 
The whole number of villages comprising a local settlement of the 
tribe is divided into certain large groups, each under the superin- 
tendence (jf a fiargaiiait or circle headman. This official is the head 
of the social system of the inhabitants of his circle ; his permission 
has to be obtained for every marriage, and, in consultation with 
a panchdyat of village headmen, he expels or fines persons who 
infringe the tribal standard of propriety. He is remunerated by 
a commission on the fines levied, and by a tribute in kind of one 
leg of the goat or animal cooked at the dinner which the culprits 
are obliged to give. Each village has, or is supposed to have, an 
establishment of officials holding rent-free land. The chief of these 
is the mdnjhi or headman, who is usually also ijdraddr where the 
village is held on lease under a zamtnddr ; he collects rents, and 
allots land among the ryots, being paid for this by the proceeds of 
the mdn land which he holds free of rent. He receives R. i at each 
wedding, giving in return a full bowl of rice-beer. The prdmdm'k, 
or assistant headman, also holds some tiidn land. The Jog-tndnjhi 
and the Jog-prdmdnik are executive officers of the mdnjhi and the 
prdmdnik, who, as the Santals describe it, 'sit and give orders' which 
the jog-mdnjhi and jog-prdmdnik carry out. The naiki is the village 
priest of the aboriginal deities, and the kudam naiki is the assistant 
priest, whose peculiar function it is to propitiate the spirits (bhuts) 
of the hills and jungles by scratching his arms till they bleed, mixing 
the blood with rice, and placing it in spots frequented by the bhiits. 
The gorait or village messenger holds mdn land and acts as peon 
to the headman, and is also to some extent a servant of the zamtnddr- 
His chief duty within the village is to bring to the )ndt}J/iia.x\d prdmdnik 
any ryot they want. Girls are married as adults mostly to men of their 
own choice. Sexual intercourse before marriage is tacitly recognized, 
it being understood that if the girl becomes pregnant the young man 
is bound to marry her. Should he attempt to evade this obligation, 
he is severely beaten by the Jog-mdnJhi, and, in addition to this, his 
father is required to pay a heavy fine. 

Other castes are Bhuiyas (119,000), identified by Mr. Oldham with 
the Mais, whom In many respects they closely resemble ; Musahars 
(28,000), whom Mr. Risley considers to be akin to the Bhuiyas ; Male 
Sauria Paharias (47,000) and Mai Paharias (26,000), two Dravidian 


tribes of the Rajmahal Hills, the former of whom are closely akin to 
the Oraons. The Muhammadans are chiefly Shaikhs (77,000) and 
Jolahas (63,000). Agriculture supports 8r per cent, of the population, 
industries 7 per cent., commerce o-6 per cent., and the professions 
0-8 per cent. 

Christians number 9,875, of whom 9,463 are natives, including 7,064 
Santcils. The largest numbers are to be found in the head-quarters 
subdivision, where the Scandinavian Lutheran Mission, called the 
Indian Home Mission, has been at work for over forty years and 
maintains 29 mission stations and 9 schools ; it has also a colony 
in Assam, where it owns a tea garden. The Church Missionary 
Society, which works in the Godda and Rajmahal subdivisions, has 
similarly established an emigrating colony for its converts in the 
Western Duars. Several Baptist missionaries work in the Jamtara 
subdivision, one of whom has established two branches of his mission 
in the head-quarters subdivision. Other missions are the Christian 
Women's Board of Missions and the Methodist Episcopalian Mission, 
the latter of which works chiefly among Hindus and Muhammadans ; 
it maintains a boarding-school, with an industrial branch in which 
boys and girls are taught poultry-keeping, gardening, fruit-farming, 
and carpentry. 

The soil varies with the nature of the surrounding hills : where 
basalt or felspar or red gneiss prevails, the soil is rich ; but where 

the hills are of grey gneiss or of granite in which . , 

., .^. ^ ^ .• , I T-u Agriculture, 

quartz prevails, it is comparatively barren. 1 he pro- 
ductiveness of the land is mainly dependent on its situation and its 
capability of retaining moisture. Where the surface is level and 
capable of retaining water coming from a higher elevation, it is not 
affected even by shortness or early cessation of rainfall, and good 
crops of rice are obtained. If, however, the slope is too steep, the 
rush of water often brings with it drifts of sand, which spoil the fields 
for rice cultivation and damage the growing crops. In the alluvial 
tract the system of cultivation differs in no way from that in vogue 
throughout the plains of Bihar. On the hill-sides level terraces are 
cut for rice cultivation, and these are flooded as soon as possible 
after the rains set in, small banks being left round the edge of each 
plot to hold in the water. Shifting cultivation is now restricted to the 
Saurias of the hills in the Rajmahal and Godda subdivisions, and 
to certain defined areas in Pakaur. Land under cultivation is divided 
into two main classes, bdri or high land forming about 53 per cent, 
of the cultivated area, and jam'in or rice-fields the rest. The former, 
being uneven and wanting in organic matter, is ordinarily ill-suited 
for cultivation : but in the immediate vicinity of villages, where the 
surface is fairly level and rich in organic matter, bari land produces 



valuable crops such as mai/e, mustard, the larger variety of cotton 
{/>ar/id/'ds), tobacco, castor, and Irhijdls and other vegetables. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1 903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 






Deogarh . 
Pakaur . 
Rajmahal . 
Jamtara . 






















Rice, which covers 1,213 square miles, forms the staple food-grain, 
winter rice being the principal crop. It is largely grown in the alluvial 
strip along the eastern boundary and the lower slopes of the ridges ; 
the undulating parts of the District, as well as the swampy ground 
between these ridges, are also sown with rice. Among the other crops 
are maize (262 square miles), various pulses (437 square miles), oil- 
seeds (360 square miles), millets, wheat and barley, sugar-cane, and 
cotton. Indigo was grown till recently on a small scale, but its cultiva- 
tion is now extinct. 

Settlement figures show that within twenty years cultivation has 
extended by about 30 per cent, in the Daman-i-koh and by about 
60 per cent, in the rest of the District. There is much waste land 
still available for cultivation, and rents are light. For several years 
past efforts have been made to stimulate the improvement of means 
of irrigation by loans under the Land Improvement Loans Act, and 
in 1901— 2 Rs. 12,000 was thus advanced. Rs. 15,000 was also 
advanced under the Agriculturists' Loans Act at the close of the 
famine of 1896-7, and Rs. 6,000 in consequence of the disastrous 
floods of 1 899- 1 900. 

There is scarcity of fodder in the dry months, and the cattle are 
generally poor ; animals of a better (juality are, however, found in 
the Godda subdivision, and good milking cattle are imported from 
Bhagalpur. Pigs are largely kept for food by Santals, Paharias,'and 
low-caste Hindus. 

Besides the methods of supplying water to the rice crop which have 
been already described, the system of irrigation as practised in the 
Godda subdivision consists in the construction of water channels 
leading from reservoirs made by throwing embankments across streams. 
These channels frequently pass through several villages, each village 
assisting in their construction and sharing in the benefits derived from 


a network of distributaries. There is but little irrigation from wells ; 
kachchd wells are sometimes dug for only one season to irrigate the 
sugar-cane crop from February to May, and tobacco is also grown 
in small patches by the aid of well-water. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the District was mostly 
covered \vith jungle. About 1820 the Santals began to flock into it and 
betook themselves to the congenial occupation of 
jungle clearing; while the construction of the loop 
railway in 1854 and of the chord-line in 1866 hastened the process. 
In 1875 Government instituted inquiries with a view to bringing under 
scientific management the Government forests in the Daman-i-koh, and 
in 1876 an area of 35 square miles was set aside for special reservation. 
This area was formally constituted a ' reserved ' forest, and the forest 
lands in the southern half of the Daman-i-koh were constituted ' open ' 
forests, the management being left in the hands of the Deputy-Com- 
missioner. In 1894 all Government land which had not been settled 
with cultivators was constituted ' protected ' forests under the Indian 
Forest Act (VII of 1878), and in 1895 the forests were placed in charge 
of the Forest department. The departmental system of management 
was, however, found not to be sufficiently elastic ; and in December, 
1900, the forests in the Rajmahal subdivision and part of those in 
the Godda subdivision were restored to the control of the Deputy- 
Gonmiissioner. The hills in this tract are inhabited by Male Sauria 
Paharias, who are allowed the right of shifting cultivation, which 
renders scientific forestry impossible. 

The chief tree is the sal {Shorea robusta), and its distribution is 
general throughout the District, except where the forest has been 
destroyed, as is largely the case in the north of the Daman-i-koh, 
by shifting cultivation and the cultivation of sabai grass. In the plains 
and valleys the forest is usually of pure sal, the other principal trees 
being pidr {Buchanania latifolia), Setnecarpits anacardium, and dsati 
{Terminaiia tomentosa). On the lower slopes of the hills other species 
appear in considerable variety ; among these are Zizyphus xylopyra, 
Anogeissus latifolia, Diospyros, Stereospennum, and Bauhinia. iVs the 
hills are ascended, different species are met with, such as bamboos 
{Dendrocalamus sfric/iis), bijdsdl {Fierocarpiis Marsiipium), sitsdl {Dal- 
bergia latifolia), gamhdr {Gmelina arborea), Kydia calycina, and Grewia 
tiliaefolia, the proportion of sal gradually getting less, till on the upper 
plateau it almost disappears, and on the old cleared lands gives place 
to a dense growth of shrubby trees, chief among which are Nyctanthes 
Arbor-tristis, Wendlandia, Gardenia, Flacourtia, Woodfordia, and Atio- 
^eissus. At present most of the sal trees are mere shoots from stumps 
2 to 3 feet high, which, when they grow to a large size, are always 
unsound at the base. Cultivating tenants of Government are allowed 



to remove free of charge all limber of the unreserved species and such 
minor products as are required for their domestic consumption. 

The area under the Forest department is 292 square miles ; and in 
1903-4 the revenue under its control was Rs. 42,000. Besides this, 
143 square miles are managed by the Deputy-Commissioner. The 
chief sources of revenue are timber, bamboos, and sabai grass, while 
minor items are fuel, coal, stone, and tasar silk cocoons. Other 
jungle products are lac, found on the palas [Butea frondosa), ber 
{Zizyphus /ujiida), and p'lpai {Ficus religiosa) trees ; beeswax, catechu, 
honey, konjtu Siwd Jombdr (two creepers used for making rope), and also 
a variety of edible products. The use of jungle products as a means 
of subsistence is confined for the most part to Paharias, Santals, and 

Stone is quarried on the hills bordering the loop-line of the East 
Indian Railway from Murarai to Sahibganj ; the stone quarried is for 

the most part supplied as ballast to the railway, the 

Calcutta municipality, and certain District boards. 
In 1903 coal-mines were worked at Bhalki, Domanpur, Ghatchora, 
and Sarsabad in the Dumka subdivision, and at Sultanpur and 
Palasthol mines in the Jamtara subdivision. The average daily number 
of persons employed was 79, and the output of coal was 2,361 tons. 
The Jamtara mines, which lie in the Damodar coal-field, produce good 
coal, but are only worked on a small scale for want of access to the 
railway ; elsewhere the coal is limited in extent and inferior in quality, 
and is generally fit only for brick-burning. Hand labour is employed 
as a rule in digging out the coal, the wages paid being Rs. 1-4 to 
Rs. 1-8 per 100 cubic feet of coal lifted. Copper ores exist at 
BeherakI in the Deogarh subdivision, and lead ores (principally 
argentiferous galena) occur in the Sankara hills and at Turipahar, 
BeherakI, and Panchpahar. At Beheraki 29 oz. 8 dwt. of silver have 
been obtained per ton of lead, and at Lakshmipur near Naya Dumka 
50 oz. 3 grs. of silver per ton of lead. A considerable area, especially 
in the Rajmahal Hills, is occupied by laterite, often constituting 
an excellent iron ore. Siliceous white clays belonging to the coal- 
measures at Lohandia in the Hura coal-field are suitable for the 

The arts and manufactures are of a primitive character and of little 
importance. The manufacture of mattocks, picks, ploughs, hooks, 

knives, axes, spears, arrows, and shields is carried 
communications. °" ^^ ^ village industry. The iron was formerly 

smelted from native ore by Kol settlers ; but with 
the destruction of jungle and the greater facility that now exists for 
obtaining old scrap-iron cheap from Deogarh and Rampur Hat, the 
Marayeahs or blacksmiths of the District no longer use locally smelted 


iron or steel. Bais or measuring cups of a pretty though stereotyped 
pattern are made on a limited scale by Thatheris and Jadapetias 
(braziers). Mochis and Chamars carry on a fairly extensive industry 
in tanning leather and making shoes ; Doms, Haris, and Santals cure 
skins for exportation; Mahlis make baskets, bamboo mats, and screens; 
Tatwas and Jolahas weave coarse cotton cloths ; and Kumhars make 
tiles, pots, and pans. I'he manufacture of gh'i, oil {i/iahiid, sarguja, 
and mustard), and gi/r or coarse sugar is carried on as a domestic 
industry. Tasar cocoons are grown throughout the District, and 
spinning and weaving are also carried on. The lac insect is reared on 
paids trees on a fairly large scale ; a Marwari at Dumka manufactures 
about 700 maunds of shellac per annum for export, and there are 
other factories in the neighbourhood of Dumka and at Pakaur, while 
lacquered bangles are manufactured at Nunihat and a few other places. 
\'illage carpenters are numerous, and wood-carving is carried on to 
a very small extent. Silver and pewter ornaments are also made. 
Indigo was till recently manufactured in a few European and native 
factories, but the industry is now extinct. Brick- making on European 
methods has been carried on at Maharajpur for the last few years. 

The chief imports are rice, gunny-bags, raw cotton, sugar refined and 
unrefined, molasses, European and Bombay piece-goods, salt, kerosene 
oil, coal and coke. The chief exports are food-grains, linseed and 
mustard seed, sabai grass, road-metal, hides, raw fibres, and tobacco. 
Trade is carried on at markets, and is almost exclusively in the hands 
of traders from Bihar and Marwari merchants. The principal entrepot 
is Sahibganj. About 200,000 maunds of sabai grass are exported to 
the paper-mills near Calcutta, the approximate value of the export 
being 4 lakhs. Road-metal is exported chiefly to Calcutta, Hooghly, 
and Burdwan. The trade in hides is chiefly carried on in the head- 
quarters and Pakaur subdivisions. 

The District is traversed on the east by the loop-line and on the 
west by the chord-line of the East Indian Railway. The Giridih 
branch leaves the chord-line at Madhupur within the District, and 
there is also a short branch connecting Rajmahal on the Ganges with 
the loop-line. A small branch line from Baidyanath junction to 
Deogarh is worked by a private company. The construction of a line 
from Bhagalpur to Hansdiha by a private syndicate was sanctioned, 
but the concession lapsed before the necessary capital was raised. 
There are also projects for the construction of lines from Bhagalpur to 
Deogarh, from Ahmadpur to Baidyanath, and from Mangalpur via Suri 
to Dumka. The District possesses good roads by which its produce is 
carted to the railway; 848^ miles being maintained by the District road 
committee, in addition to village roads and roads in Government 
estates. The chief roads are the Bhagalpur-Suri road passing through 


Dunika, the Siiri-Monghyr road passing through Deogarh, the roads 
from Dumka to Rampur Hat and to the different subdivisional head- 
quarters, the road from Murshidabad along the Ganges through 
Rajmahal and Sahibganj to Bhagalpur, as well as several connecting 
cross-roads and feeder roads to the railway stations. The Ganges, 
which skirts the north-east of the District, forms an important channel 
of communication, but the other streams of the District are of no 
commercial importance. 

The District has thrice suffered from famine within the last fifty 
years. On occasions of scarcity the inahud and the mango trees 
afford food for large numbers; but in 1865-6, when 
there was great scarcity and distress, the people were 
compelled by hunger to eat the mangoes while still unripe, and thou- 
sands of deaths from cholera resulted. In 1874 relief was afforded by 
Government on a lavish scale, the fruit was allowed to ripen before 
being plucked, and there was no outbreak of disease. In 1896-7 part 
of the Jamtara subdivision and the whole of the Deogarh subdivision 
were declared affected. Relief works were opened in Jamtara and in 
Deogarh ; but the highest average daily attendance in Jamtara was only 
3,258, in the third week of May, 1897, and in Deogarh 1,647, towards 
the end of June. The works were finally closed on August 15, after an 
expenditure of Rs. 29,000 on works and Rs. 25,000 on gratuitous relief. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into six sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Dumka, Deogarh, Godda, Raj- 
. . . MAHAL, Pakaur, and Jamtara. A Joint-Magistrate 

Admmistration. ^^ Deputy-Magistrate-Collector is usually in charge 
of the Rajmahal subdivision, and a Deputy-Magistrate-Collector of 
each of the other subdivisions ; in addition, three Deputy-Magistrate- 
Collectors and a Sub-Deputy-Magistrate-Collector are stationed at 
Dumka, and one Deputy-Magistrate-Collector and one Sub-Deputy- 
Magistrate -Collector at Rajmahal, Deogarh, and Godda, and one 
Sub- Deputy -Magistrate -Collector at Jamtara and Pakaur. These 
ofificers have civil and criminal jurisdiction as detailed in the follow- 
ing paragraph. The Deputy-Commissioner is vested ex officio with the 
powers of a Settlement ofificer under the Santal Parganas Regulation 
III of 1872, and is also Conservator of forests. An Assistant Con- 
servator of forests is stationed in the District. 

The civil and criminal courts are constituted under Regulation V 
of 1893, as amended by Regulation III of 1899. The Sessions Judge 
of Birbhum is Sessions Judge of the Santal Parganas and holds his 
court at Dumka. Appeals against his decisions lie to the High Court 
of Calcutta. The Deputy-Commissioner exercises powers under sec- 
tion 34 of the Criminal Procedure Code and also hears appeals from 
all Deputy-Magistrates. In all criminal matters, except in regard to 


cases committed to the Court of Sessions and proceedings against Euro- 
pean British subjects, the Commissioner of Bhagalpur exercises the 
powers of a High Court. Suits of a value exceeding Rs. r,ooo are 
tried by the Deputy-Commissioner as District Judge, or by subdivi- 
sional officers vested with powers as Subordinate Judges. These 
courts are estabHshed under Act XII of 1887, and are subordinate to 
the High Court of Calcutta. Suits valued at less than Rs. 500 are 
tried by Deputy- and Sub-Deputy-Collectors sitting as courts under 
Act XXXVII of 1855, an appeal lying to the subdivisional officer. 
That officer can try all suits cognizable by courts established under 
Act XXX\TI of 1855, and an appeal against his decision lies to the 
Deputy-Commissioner. There is no second appeal where the appellate 
court has upheld the original decree ; if, however, the decree has been 
reversed, a second appeal lies to the Commissioner of the Division. 
The Deputy-Commissioner and Commissioner have powers of revision. 
These courts follow a special procedure, thirty-eight simple rules re- 
placing the Code of Civil Procedure. A decree is barred after three 
years; imprisonment for debt is not allowed; compound interest may 
not be decreed, nor may interest be decreed to an amount exceeding the 
principal debt, ^^'hen any area is brought under settlement, the juris- 
diction of the courts under Act XII of 1887 is ousted in regard to 
all suits connected with land, and such suits are tried by the Settle- 
ment officer and his assistants or by the courts established under 
Act XXXVII of 1855 ; the findings of a Settlement court have the 
force of a decree. The District is peaceful, and riots are almost 
unknown. Persons suspected of witchcraft are sometimes murdered ; 
cattle-theft is perhaps the most common form of serious crime. 

The current land revenue demand in 1903-4 was 3-84 lakhs, of 
which I -16 lakhs was payable by 449 permanently settled estates, 
Rs. 1,600 by 5 temporarily settled estates, and 2-66 lakhs by 9 estates 
held under direct management by Government. Of the latter class, the 
Dam.\n-i-koh is the most important. 

Under Regulation III of 1872 a Settlement officer made a settle- 
ment of the whole District between the years 1873 and 1879, defining 
and recording the rights and duties of landlord and tenants, and where 
necessary fixing fair rents. One of the results of this settlement was to 
preserve the Santal village community system, under which the village 
community as a whole holds the village lands and has collective rights 
over the village waste ; these rights, which have failed to secure recog- 
nition elsewhere in Bengal, were recorded and saved from encroach- 
ment. As regards villages not held by a community, the custom 
prevailed of leasing them to mustajirs, a system which led to great 
abuses, and there was also a tendency for the zamindar to treat the 
Santal mdnjhi as though he were but a lessee or mustajir. By the 



police rules of 1856 a mandal or headman was elected for each village 
where the zamt/idar's mustajir was wcX approved by the Magistrate 
and villagers, his duties consisting of the free performance of police 
and other public duties. As, however, it was unsatisfactory to have 
two heads to a village, the zamlfiddr's mustajir and the ryot mandal 
gradually merged into one, with the result that a mustajir, when 
appointed, had to secure the approval of the Magistrate, zamhiddrs, 
and villagers. The position of the headman thus developed was 
defined at the settlement : he has duties towards the zamlnddr, the 
ryots, and the Magistrate ; he may be dismissed by the last-named 
personage on his own motion or on the complaint of the za?iilnddr 
or ryots ; and the stability of tenure secured by Regulation III of 
1872 prevents the zajninddr from ousting him. The rights of a head- 
man are not usually transferable, but in the Deogarh subdivision some 
headmen known as mul-ryots are allowed to sell their interest in a vil- 
lage. In 1887 Government passed orders to prevent the sale of ryots' 
holdings being recognized by the courts in areas in which no custom 
of sale had been proved. In 1888 the revision of the settlement of 
1873-9 ^^ certain estates was undertaken, and the work is being 
gradually extended throughout the District. 

Prominent among the unusual tenures of the District are the gMt- 
wdlis of tappd Sarath Deogarh, which cover almost the whole Deogarh 
subdivision and are also found in Jamtara and Dumka. These are 
police tenures, originally established by the Muhammadan government 
to protect the frontier of Bengal against the Marathas. 

Cultivable land is divided generally into five classes : three kinds of 
dhdni or rice land, and two kinds of bdri or high land. Dhdtii lands 
are classified according to the degree by which they are protected from 
drought, and the average rates or rent may be said to be for the first 
class Rs. 3, for the second Rs. 2, and for the third R. i. First-class 
bdri land is the well-manured land near the homesteads, averaging 
R. I ; while second-class bdri lands include the remainder of the cul- 
tivation on the dry uplands, and average 4 annas. Rates vary widely 
and the averages are only an approximation. In the recent settlement, 
the average rent for dhdfii land over 600 acres of typical zaml/iddri 
country was Rs. i-ii per acre, and for bdri land 6 annas, and the 
corresponding figures for the Daman-i-koh were Rs. 1-9 and R. 0-5-4. 
Ryots have, however, been allowed abatements in the settlement 
actually concluded, and the settled rents do not average more than 
Rs. 1-8 an acre for dhani lands, and 8 annas for bdri land. In the 
Daman-i-koh the average holding of a cultivator is 9^ acres, of which 
4| acres are dhdni land ; the total average rent rate is Rs. 8-14, but the 
average rent settled is only Rs. 6-1 per holding. In private settled 
estates the rents payable are somewhat higher. 



The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees, for a 
series of years : — 





Land revenne 
Total revenue 





Until 1901 the roads were managed by a Government grant adminis- 
tered by the Deputy-Commissioner ; but in that year the Cess Act 
was introduced and a road cess committee was constituted, with the 
Deputy-Commissioner as chairman, which maintains the roads outside 
the municipal areas of Dumka, Deogarh, and Sahibganj. 

The drainage of a marsh near Rajmahal was undertaken in 1898 
under the provisions of the Drainage Act, and the work is now 
nearly completed. 

The District contains 13 police stations or t/uuias and 5 outposts. 
The District Superintendent has jurisdiction in Dumka town, the 
Deogarh subdivision, and the parts of Pakaur, Rajmahal, and Godda 
outside the Daman-i-koh. The force subordinate to him in 1903 
consisted of 6 inspectors, 28 sub-inspectors, 2>:^ head constables, and 
335 constables. In addition to these, a company of military police, 
100 strong, is stationed at Dumka. The remainder of the District is 
excluded from the jurisdiction of the regular police ; and police duties 
are performed under the police rules of 1856 by the village headman, 
a number of villages being grouped together under a parganatt, ghdt- 
'U'd/, or sardilr, who corresponds to a ihdfia otificer. The pargatiait is 
the Santal tribal chief, the ghdhval a police service-tenure holder, and 
the sardar a Paharia tribal chief. As these indigenous police officials 
did not satisfactorily cover the whole non-police area. Regulation III 
of 1900 was passed, under which stipendiary sarddrs are appointed 
to groups of villages, where there is no existing and properly remuner- 
ated officer, and are paid by a cess on the villagers. There are in the 
Daman-i-koh n pcirganaifs and 20 hill sardars. Excluding these, 
there are in the Dumka subdivision 55 stipendiary sarddrs, 4 ghdt 
sarddrs remunerated by holdings of land, and 819 chauklddrs ; and 
in the Jamtara subdivision 2 ghdtwd/s, 27 sarddrs, and 523 chauklddrs. 
In all, chauklddrs number 3,965. A District jail at Dumka has accom- 
modation for 140 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Deogarh, Godda, 
Rajmahal, Jamtara, and Pakaur for 116. 

Education is very backward, only 2-5 per cent, of the population 
(4-7 males and 0-2 females) being able to read and write in 1901 ; but 
progress has been made since 1891, when only 2-8 per cent, of the 
males were literate. The number of pupils under instruction increased 

F 2 


from about 17,000 in 1883 to 18,650 in 1892-3, to 22,755 in 1900-1, 
and to 27,284 in 1903-4, of whom 1,314 were females. In that year, 
9-3 per cent, of the boys and 0-95 per cent, of the girls of school- 
going age were at school. The educational institutions consisted of 
26 secondary, 912 primary, and 90 special schools, among which may 
be mentioned a training school for gurus at Taljhari under the Church 
Missionary Society, a training school at Benagaria under the Lutheran 
Mission, and the Madhupur industrial school maintained by the East 
Indian Railway Company. A special grant of Rs. 9,500 is annually 
made by Government to encourage primary education among the 
Santals, and 5,555 aborigines were at school in 1900. The total 
expenditure on education in 1903-4 was i-8r lakhs, of which 
Rs. 78,000 was contributed from Provincial revenues, Rs. 1,100 from 
municipal funds, and Rs. 45,000 from fees. 

In 1903 the District contained 10 dispensaries, of which 7 had 
accommodation for 89 in-patients. The cases of 60,000 out-patients 
and 800 in-patients were treated, and 2,686 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, of which Rs. 5,000 was met from 
Government contributions, Rs. 1,000 from Local and Rs. 2,300 from 
municipal funds, and Rs. 6,000 from subscriptions. Two of the dis- 
pensaries in the Daman-i-koh are maintained by an annual subscrip- 
tion among the Santals of an anna per house, Government providing 
the services of a civil Hospital Assistant. In addition, the various 
missionary societies all maintain private dispensaries. The Raj 
Kumari Leper asylum, a well-endowed institution with substantial 
buildings, is managed by a committee of which the Deputy-Commis- 
sioner is chairman. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In 1903-4 
the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 76,000, or 42-5 
per 1,000. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xv (1877), 
din6. Annals of Rural Bengal {i2>62>) ; W. B, Oldham, Santdl Parganas 
Manual (Calcutta, 1898); H. H. Heard, Ghdtwdli and Mul-ryoti 
Tenures as found in Deogarh (Calcutta, 1900); F. B. Bradley-Birt, 
The Story of an Indian Upland (1905).] 

Santalpur (with Chadchat).— Petty State in the Political Agency 
of Palanpur, Bombay. See Palanpur Agency. 

Santals. — Tribe in Bengal. See Santal Parganas. 

Santapilly. — Village in the Bimlipatam tahsll of Vizagapatam 
District, Madras, situated in 18° 4' N. and 83° 37' E. In 1847 a 
lighthouse was erected on the summit of a small hill here, to warn 
coasting vessels making for Bimlipatam off the Santapilly rocks, 
distant about 6^ miles, the lighthouse bearing south-east half east 
and being distant about 17^ miles north-east of Bimlipatam. The 


light is visible 14 miles seaward. There is a safe passage in clear 
weather between the rocks and the shore, the channel being 6 miles 

Sante Benniir.— Town in the Channagiri taluk of Shimoga Dis- 
trict, Mysore, situated in 14° 10" N. and 76° o' IC, 8 miles west of 
Sasaki railway station. Population (1901), 1,613. ^^ ^^'^•'' founded 
by a chief of the Basavapatna fiimily, probably in the sixteenth century. 
A palace was built by Hanumappa Naik, and an ornamental honda or 
reservoir made in front of the temple, with pavilions at the angles and 
in the centre. When Basavapatna was taken by the Bijapur forces, 
the Musalmans destroyed the temple here and built a mosque on 
a large scale in its place, further erecting elegant upper storeys to the 
pavilions at the honda. The chief, who had been forced to retire to 
Tarikere, slew the Musalman governor and desecrated the mosque in 
revenge. The Chitaldroog chief took the place early in the seven- 
teenth century ; but in 17 17 it was captured by Bednur, which held it 
till it fell into the hands of Haidar All in 1761. The Marathas under 
Parasuram Bhao sacked the town in 1791. The mosque, never used 
since its desecration, and the honda, with its ruinous but graceful 
pavilions, are the only features of interest now left. 

Santhal. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Santipur. — Town in the Ranaghat subdivision of Nadia District, 
Bengal, situated in 23° 15'' N. and 88° 27' E., on the Hooghly river. 
Population (1901), 26,898, having declined from 30,437 in 1891 ; but 
it is still the most populous town in the District. Hindus number 
i8,2iy, Muhammadans 8,672, and Christians 6. Santipur was con- 
stituted a municipality in 1865. The income during the decade 
ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 28,000, and the expenditure Rs. 25,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 31,000, including Rs. 16,000 derived 
from a tax on houses and lands, and Rs. 7,000 obtained from muni- 
cipal property ; and the expenditure was Rs. 26,000. Santipur was 
once the centre of a flourishing weaving industry, and its muslins had 
a European reputation, the town being the site of a (Commercial Resi- 
dency and the centre of large factories under the East India Com- 
pany. Owing to the competition of machine-made goods, however, 
the weavers are no longer prosperous. There was at one time a con- 
siderable trade in date-sugar, but this too is becoming less profitable. 
The earthquake of 1897 destroyed many of the largest buildings, and 
the impoverished owners have been unable to replace them. There 
is still, however, a considerable local trade. The Rash Jatra festival 
in honour of Krishna, celebrated on the day of the full moon in Kartik 
(October-November), is attended by about 10,000 persons; Santipur is 
also a celebrated bathing-place. The Zanana Mission has a school 
and dispensary here. 


Santopilly. — Village and lighthouse in \'izagapatam District, 
Madras. See Santai'II.i.v. 

Saoner. — Town in the District and tahs'il of Nagpur, Central Pro- 
vinces, situated in 21° 23' N. and 78° 55' E., 23 miles north-west of 
Nagpur city on the Chhindwara road. The town is built on both 
sides of the Kolar river, the people on the northern bank consisting 
of Marathas, and those on the southern of Lodhis, Kirars, and other 
immigrants from Northern India. The present name is a corruption 
of the old one of Saraswatpur or ' the city of Saraswati,' the goddess 
of wisdom. Population (1901), 5,281. The town contains an old 
temple constructed of large blocks of stone without mortar, and the 
ruins of a fort ascribed to the Gaolis. Saoner was constituted a muni- 
cipality in 1867. The municipal receipts during the decade ending 
1901 averaged Rs. 2,800, In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,000, 
derived mainly from a house tax, market dues, and rents of land. 
The town is an important cotton mart, and possesses three ginning 
factories containing 108 cotton-gins, two of which are combined with 
cotton-presses. The aggregate capital of these factories is about 
4^ lakhs, and two of them have . been opened since 1900. The 
Saoner ginning factory, started in 1883, was the first in the District. 
A hand-dyeing industry is also carried on, in connexion with which 
dl {Mori?ida citrifolid) was formerly cultivated round the town. A few 
trees are still left. A large weekly cattle market is held, and there are 
an English middle school and branch schools. A dispensary is main- 
tained by the mission of the Scottish Free Church. 

Saptagram. — Ruined town in Hooghly District, Bengal. See 

Saptashring (' the seven-horned,' otherwise, but wrongly, called 
Chattar-singh or ' the four-peaked '). — One of the highest points in 
the Chandor range, Nasik District, Bombay, situated in 20° 23' N. and 
73° 55' E., 4,659 feet above sea-level. It rises about the centre of the 
range, 15 miles north of Dindori. The highest point towers 900 feet 
above the plateau, and the rock is perpendicular on all sides but one, 
where it has crumbled away and grass has grown in the crevices. The 
rock has more peaks than one, but it seems to have no claim to the 
title 'seven-horned.' The hill may be climbed from three sides: by 
a good but steep bridle-road from the north ; by a very steep sixty-step 
path on the east, formerly the only road used by pilgrims, but now 
abandoned ; and on the south by a steep footpath for part of the way 
which ends in a flight of 350 steps carved in the face of the rock. 
This last is the road now commonly used by the pilgrims and other 
visitors. On the steps figures of Rama, Hanuman, Radha, and Krishna, 
and in one or two places a tortoise, are carved at intervals. These 
steps were made in 1768-99 by three brothers, Konher, RudrajT, and 

SARA 8 1 

Krishnajl of Nasik. At intervals five inscriptions have been carved 
on and near the steps. One of the inscriptions is in Sanskrit, the 
others in MarathT. They give the names of the three bnjthers and 
of Girmaji their father. At the foot of the steps the three brothers 
built a temple of Devi and a resthouse, and at the top a temple of 
Ganpati and a pond called Ramtirth. These steps lead to the plateau, 
and from the plateau a farther flight of 472 steps leads to the shrine 
of Saptashringanivasini Devi. The 472 steps to the upper hill-top 
were built about 1710, before the lower steps, by Uma Bai, wife of 
Khande Rao Dabhade, the hereditary general of the Maratha army. 

The shrine of the goddess, known as Mahishasur Mardini or Sapta- 
shringanivasini, is in a cave at the base of a sheer scarp, the summit 
of which is the highest point of the hill. Something like a portico 
was added to the shrine of the goddess at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century by the Satara commander-in-chief, and the present 
plain structure has been recently built by the chief of Vinchur. At 
the foot of the steps leading to the shrine is a small stone reservoir 
dedicated to Siva and called Sivalya-tTrth, which is said to have been 
built by Uma lUii. On one side of the pond stands a Hemadpanti 
temple of Siddhcshwar Mahadeo, mostly in ruins but with the dome 
still standing, with some rather elaborate stone-carving. Under the 
dome stands the lingam, and outside in front of it a carved bull. 
Not far from the bathing-place is a precipice known as the Sit Kadc, 
which overhangs the valley about 1,200 feet; from this rock human 
sacrifices are said to have been formerly hurled ; a kid is now the 
usual victim. 

A large fair lasting for a week, and attended by about 15,000 pil- 
grims, is held on the full moon of Chaitra (April). On the occasion 
of the fair the steps leading to the shrine are crowded with the sick 
and maimed, who are carried up the hill in hopes of a cure. Barren 
women also go in numbers to make vows and gain the gift of a child. 
Like the top of Mahalakshmi in Dahanu, the top of Saptashring is 
said to be inaccessible to ordinary mortals. The headman of the 
village of Burigaon alone climbs up on the April full moon, and next 
morning at sunrise is seen planting a flag. How he climbs and how- 
he gets down is a mystery, any attempt to pry into which, says the 
tradition, is attended by loss of sight. 

Sara. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Pabna District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 6' N. and 89° 3' E., on the 
north bank of the Padma. Population (1901), 3,011, including 2,004 
persons enumerated within railway limits. Sara is the terminus of the 
Eastern Bengal State Railway (northern section), and is connected by 
a steam ferry with Damukdia on the south bank of the river, and is 
consequently an important trade centre. It is proposed that the 

82 SAJ?A 

Ganges should here be bridged, to bring the tract north of the Padma 
into direct raihvay communication with Calcutta without transhipment. 

Saragarhi. — Village on the crest of the Samana range, Kohat 
District, North-A\'est Frontier Province, situated in 33° 55' N. and 
70° 45' E, It is held by the Babi Khel, a section of the Rabia Khel 
Orakzai. During the Mlranzai expedition of 1891, the village was 
destroyed after severe fighting and an outpost was built. In 1897 
this post, then held by 21 men of the 36th Sikhs, was attacked by 
several thousand Orakzais, who overwhelmed the little garrison after 
a heroic defence and massacred the Sikhs to a man on September 12. 
A monument at Fort Lockhart commemorates the gallantry of the 
defence, while other memorials have been erected at Amritsar and 
Ferozepore in the Punjab. 

Saraikela. — Feudatory State in Chota Nagpur, Bengal, lying 
between 22° 29' and 22° 54' N. and 85° 50' and 86*^ 11' E., with an 
area of 449 ' square miles. It is bounded on the north by Manbhum 
District ; on the east and west by Singhbhum ; and on the south by 
the State of Mayurbhanj. It consists chiefly of an undulating plain 
dotted with small rocky hills ; towards the east it is more hilly, and the 
higher ranges in the extreme north-east still contain valuable timber. 
The scenery throughout is wild and romantic in places. The forests 
altogether cover about 50 square miles, the chief tree being the sd/ 
{Shorea 7-vbusta) ; sahai grass {Ischoernuvi angustifoliuvi) grows in the 
forests. The State is drained by five streams : the Kharkai, the Sanjai, 
the Sonai, the Asuya, and the Bhangbanga. The largest of these, the 
Kharkai, rises from a hill in Mayurbhanj and flows northwards past 
Saraikela village, which it skirts on its southern side, eventually joining 
the Sanjai, a tributary of the Subarnarekha. 

The first ruler of Saraikela was Bikram Singh, a younger son of the 
Porahat Raj family. Obtaining part of what is now the Saraikela 
State as a fief, he quickly made himself independent. He and his 
descendants enlarged their dominions from time to time, and gradu- 
ally eclipsed the parent family of Porahat in power and importance. 
Saraikela first came under the notice of the British in 1793, when, in 
consequence of disturbances on the frontier of the old Jungle Mahals, 
its chief was compelled to enter into engagements relating to fugitive 
rebels. Ten years later. Lord Wellesley, the Governor-General, invited 
Kunwar Abhiram Singh, an ancestor of the present Raja, to render 
assistance in the war against RaghujT Bhonsla of Nagpur. In 1856 the 
Kunwar of Saraikela received the personal title of Raja Bahadur ; and 
his services during the Mutiny were rewarded by a khilai and a rent- 
free grant in perpetuity of the sub-estate of Karaikela, a portion of the 

^ This figure, which differs from the area shown in the Census Report of 1901, was 
supplied by the Surveyor-General. 



escheated territory of the rebel Raja of Porahat. The present chief 
of Saraikela, Raja Udit Narayan Singh Deo Bahadur, rendered assis- 
tance to the British Government in the Bonai and Kconjhar risings 
of 1888 and 1S91 ; the title of Raja liahadur was conferred on him 
in 1884 as a personal distinction. Within the Saraikela State are 
included the estates of Dugnl, Banksai, and Icha, which were originally 
maintenance grants to members of the ruling family. They pay no 
rent, but are subordinate to the chief. The administration is con- 
ducted by the chief, who exercises judicial and executive powers sub- 
ject to the control of the Deputy-Commissioner of Singhbhum and the 
Commissioner of the Chota Nagpur Division. He is empowered to 
pass sentences of imprisonment up to five years and of fine to the 
extent of Rs. 200, but sentences for more than two years' imprisonment 
require the confirmation of the Commissioner. Heinous offences 
requiring heavier punishment are dealt with by the Deputy-Com- 
missioner. The present sanad of the chief was granted to him in 

The population increased from 93,839 in 1891 to 104,539 in 1901, 
the density being 233 persons per square mile. The number of vil- 
lages in the State is 816, the most important of which are Saraikela 
(population, 3,711), the head-quarters, which is administered as a 
municipality, and Sini, a junction on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 
Hindus number 63,650 and Animists 39,956, the most numerous 
castes or tribes being the Hos (21,000), Santals (20,000), and 
Kurmis (15,000). Most of the inhabitants are supported by agricul- 
ture; rice is the staple food-grain, other crops raised being maize, 
pulses, and oilseeds. 

Copper and iron are found, and nodular limestone is abundant. 
Slabs of rock, locally called viakrdsa, which occur in some parts of the 
State, serve for building purposes. Copper-smelting by native methods 
was carried on twenty-five years ago on a comparatively large scale, but 
has now been abandoned. Soapstone, slate, and mica are found in 
places. Cotton and iasar cloth, gold, silver and brass ornaments, 
copper trumpets, bell-metal cups and bowls, iron ploughshares, axes, 
vices, spades, shovels, knives, and locks are manufactured. The chief 
imports are cotton cloths, salt, kerosene oil, and spices ; and the chief 
exports are rice, ropes, cotton, tamarind, sal>ai grass {Ischoemum angusii- 
foliuvi) and timber. The Bengal-Nagpur Railway line runs from east 
to west across the north of the State. It is joined by the branch 
line to Asansol at Sini, where large iron and steel works are projected, 
to utilize ore from the Mayurbhanj State. The State is traversed by 
the roads from Chaibasa to Midnapore and Purulia, which are kept 
up by the Singhbhum road-cess committee ; and a metalled road 
from Sini to Saraikela is maintained by the chief. The total revenue 


of the State is Rs. 92,000, of which Rs. 72,000 is derived from the 
land. There is a poHce force of 11 officers and 25 men, and a jail 
with accommodation for 32 prisoners. The State also maintains a 
dispensary, 2 middle luiglish, 3 u[)per primary, and 8 lower primary 

Saraj Tahsil. — Tahsil in the Kulu subdivision of Kangra District, 
Punjab, lying between 31° 21' and 31° 50' N. and 77° 17' and 77°47'E., 
with an area of 289 square miles. It is bounded on the north-east by 
Spiti ; on the east and south by Bashahr and the Simla Hill States ; and 
on the west by Suket and Mandl. The population in 1901 was 50,631, 
compared with 50,551 in 1891. It contains 25 villages, including Ban- 
jar, the head-quarters. The tahsil is divided into the two waziris (jr 
cantons of Inner and Outer Saraj, separated from each other by the 
Jalori ridge, which has an average elevation of 12,000 feet. Inner 
Saraj lies in the Beas basin, and in physical aspects resembles the 
Kulu Tahsil. Outer Saraj belongs to the Sutlej valley, and the 
country slopes down from the Jalori ridge to the river, which is here 
only 3,000 feet above the sea. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 46,000. 

Saralbhanga. — River of Assam, which rises in Bhutan and flows 
in a tortuous southerly course through Goalpara District, till it falls 
into the Brahmaputra. Its principal tributary is the Gaurang, which 
gives its name to the lower reaches of the river. Through the greater 
part of its course it flows through jungle land, but it is one of the 
recognized trade routes of the District by which timber and other 
forest produce are exported. During the rainy season, boats of 4 tons 
burden can proceed as far as Patgaon, north of the trunk road. The 
total length of the Saralbhanga is about 81 miles. 

Saran District. — District in the Patna Division of Bengal, lying 
between 25° 39' and 26° 39' N. and 83° 54' and 85° 12' E., with an 
area of 2,674^ square miles. The name is said to be derived from the 
Sanskrit Saratia, meaning ' refuge ' ; and there is a legend that some 
demons converted here by Buddha sought the ' refuge ' of the Buddhist 
triad, Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. The District is a wedge of allu- 
vial soil, between the Ganges and the Gandak rivers, with its apex 
pointing south-eastwards towards Patna city. The Gandak separates 
it on the east from Muzaffarpur and Champaran, and on the south 
the Ganges forms the boundary dividing Saran from Patna and Shah- 
abad. The western boundary marches with the United Provinces. 
The Gogra, running parallel with the Gandak, meets the Ganges 
opposite the head-quarters station of Chapra and forms the south- 
west boundary between Saran and Ballia District, while an irregular 

' This area, which diffeis from that given in the Census Report of 1901 (2,656 
square miles), is that ascertained in the recent survey operations. 


base-line drawn north-east from the Gogra to the Gandak constitutes 
the western boundary with Gorakhpur. 

Saran is a beautifully wooded plain, highly cultivated and densely 
populated, without a hill and hardly any elevations except those 
which mark the site of some old fortress or deserted 
village. It is very fertile, and is intersected by asoects 

numerous water-channels which flow in a south- 
easterly direction. The Ganges, Gandak, and Gogra are described 
elsewhere. The Daha or Sandi, Gandaki, Dhanai, and Ghangri 
were originally spill-channels from the Gandak, with which, however, 
their connexion has been severed by the Gandak embankment ; 
they form the system known as the Saran Canals. Similar streams 
are the Khanua, Jharahi, and Khatsa, which ultimately fall into the 
Gogra or Ganges. The channels of the Ganges, Gandak, and Gogra 
are perpetually oscillating ; and sandbanks form in the beds of the 
rivers one year, only to be swept away the next, so that frequent changes 
in jurisdiction are necessary. 

The soil consists of alluvial deposits, the basis of which belongs to 
an older alluvial formation composed of massive argillaceous beds, 
disseminated throughout which occur kankar and pisolitic ferruginous 
concretions. These clay soils, locally known as bhat, are exposed in 
marshy depressions called chaurs, which are scattered over the District. 
Elsewhere they are overlaid with more recent sandy deposits known as 

Though the District contains no forests, it is well timbered, the most 
cons[)icuous trees being the sissu {Dalbergia Si'ssoo), red cotton-tree 
{Bombax malabaricutn), and tamarind. The village sites are embedded 
in groves of the palmyra palm {Borassus flabellifer), the date palm 
{Phoenix sylvesiris), and other semi-spontaneous and more or less useful 
species. The groves of mango-trees planted in beautifully regular lines 
are a marked feature of the landscape. The surface is highly cultivated ; 
but the banks of streams and patches of waste land are covered by a dry 
scrub jungle of shrubs of the order of Euphorbiaceae, Butea and other 
legununous trees, and species of Fkiis, Schkickera, Wendlandia, and 

Nilgai and wild hog are common in the low scrub jungle which is 
met with on the alluvial islands, and are very destructive to crops. 
Wolves carry off a considerable number of infants, snakes are very 
numerous, and crocodiles infest the large rivers. 

The winter months are delightfully cool, but the dry heat is intense 
in May and June. The mean temperature varies from 62° in January 
to 89° in May, and the maximum from 73° in January to 100° in April 
and May, while the mean minimum ranges from 50° in January to 79° 
in June to August. Saran is one of the driest Districts in Bengal, the 


average annual rainfall being only 45 inches. The monsoon com- 
mences in June, when 6-9 inches fall, and the maximum monthly fall 
of 1 2-1 inches is reached in July. The average fall fcjr August is 
II inches and for September 7-6 inches. Humidity ranges from 57 per 
cent, in A[)ril to 88 j)er cent, in August. The rainfall is capricious, and 
during the decade ending 1901 it varied from 24 inches in 1896-7 
(the lowest on record) to 65 inches in 1899- 1900. 

The District has always been liable to floods, which occur when the 
waters of the smaller rivers are banked up by high floods in the great 
rivers into which they flow. An embankment constructed along the 
right bank of the Gandak for a distance of 99 miles now protects the 
north-east of the District, but the south-west and south are still exposed 
to inundation from the Gogra and Ganges. 

At the dawn of history Saran formed the eastern limit of the ancient 
kingdom of the Kosalas, whose head-quarters were in Oudh and who 
were separated by the Gandak river from the eastern 
kingdom of Mithila. Very little is known of it, and 
the absence of any reference in the early Vedic literature and the 
paucity of Buddhist remains render it probable that it maintained 
its character as a vast jungle for a much longer period than either 
of the adjoining Districts of Muzaffarpur or Champaran. Indeed, the 
earliest authentic relic which has been found in Saran is an inscribed 
copperplate preserved in the village of Dighwa Dubaulia, about 34 miles 
north-east of Chapra, which Dr. Rajendralala Mitra declares to be a 
counterpart of a similar plate found by Colonel Stacy near Benares, 
dealing with the grant of a village by Raja Bhoja Deva, paramount 
sovereign of Gwalior about a.d. 876. The mediaeval history of the 
District is connected with the fortunes of the Hathwa family, whose 
head-quarters were at Husepur. Siwan and Manjhi were fortified seats 
of turbulent Musalman freebooters, while Manjha, Parsa, Mirzapur, 
Paterha, and Cherand were during the same period the head-quarters 
of powerful Hindu chieftains. 

The recorded population increased from 2,076,640 in 1872 to 
2,295,207 in 1881, and to 2,465,007 in 1891, but fell to 2,409,509 

, . in 1 90 1. The increases of io4 per cent, between 

Population. o 1 00 AC \ 1 ■ *i ir 

1872 and 1881 and of 7-4 per cent, durmg the next 

decade are partly attributable to improved enumeration. Several 

causes contributed towards the decrease of 2-2 per cent, during the 

last decade. The District already contained a larger population than 

it can support and the volume of emigration sensibly increased. The 

famine of 1897 told severely on the people, and, though it caused no 

direct mortality, reduced their vitality and lowered the birth-rate. 

Plague also assumed epidemic proportions during the winter of 




The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : — 


Siwan . 

District total 


Number of 




•2 '5 



rt - 

















Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8qi 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 


972,718, 92S 
635,047 806 

^01,744 1 957 

- 5-5 
+ 0.1 

+ O-I 



2,409,509 901 

— 2-2 


The four towns are Chapra, Siwan, Rkvelganj, and Mirganj. 
The villages are small, and their average population is only 397, as 
compared with 602 in North Bihar as a whole. The density of popu- 
lation is surpassed in only two Bengal Districts. It is very evenly 
distributed throughout the District, and only one ihdna has less than 
800 persons per square mile. Saran sends out a greater proportion 
of emigrants than any other District in Bengal outside Chota Nagpur, 
and in 1901 more than a tenth of the District-born population were 
enumerated away from home ; about one-fifth of the absentees were 
found in contiguous District.s, but the remainder had gone farther 
afield and were enumerated in large numbers in Rangpur, Calcutta, 
and the Twenty-four Parganas. Owing to this emigration, the pro- 
portion of females to males (6 to 5) is the highest in Bengal. Infant 
marriage is much less common than in other parts of Bihar ; and there 
has been a' marked falling off during the last two decades in the 
proportion of married persons, and also in the number of children, 
which points to preventive checks on the growth of population. The 
language spoken is the Bhojpuri dialect of Hindi, but Muhammadans 
and Kayasths generally speak Awadhi. Seven-eighths of the population 
are Hindus (2,124,64:), and practically all the rest are Muhammadans 


The Aryan castes are strongly represented, as Saran lay in their 
line of march eastwards. Brahmans number 184,000, Rajputs 259,000, 
Babhans 106,000, Kayasths 49,000, and Ahirs 290,000, more than 
a third of the population belonging to these five castes. Those 
excellent husbandmen, the Koiris and Kurmis, are numerous, as also 
are Chamars (leather-dressers), Kandus (grain-parchers), Nunias (.salt- 
petre manufacturers), Dosadhs, and the common Bihar functional 
castes. Among the Muhammadan tribes, 18,500 Pathans and 6,000 
Saiyids are probably descendaiits of foreigners, but the ancestors of 
97,oco Jolahas and 63,000 Shaikhs were doubtless local converts to 
Islam. Of every 100 persons, 81 are agriculturists, 9 are engaged in 
industry, one belongs to the professional classes, 4 are general labourers. 




and the remainder follow other occupations. The proportion of agri- 
culturists is the highest in Bihar. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran Mission, which has been at work 
at Chapra since 1840, claims to have baptized 500 persons, most of 
whom were i)robably abandoned children or orphans. A Roman 
Catholic mission has recently been started at Chapra, and a branch 
of the ' Regions Beyond ' Missionary Union at Siwan. The number 
of native Christians in 1901 was only 78. 

The hard clay in the low swamps {chaurs) produces only a somewhat 
precarious crop of winter rice, and, being dependent on the rainfall, 
is the first to suffer from drought. On the light 
sandy uplands an autumn rice crop is obtained, which 
is generally followed by a spring crop of poppy, indigo, barley, wheat, 
sugar-cane, pulses, or oilseeds. The most fertile soil is a rich loam 
known as kachh ; and the finest yield is obtained from the lands round 
the village sites, which are highly manured, and are reserved for such 
lucrative crops as poppy, wheat, vegetables, and condiments. A season- 
able rainfall is of special importance in a District where the normal 
precipitation is small, and where only 15 per cent, of the cultivated 
area is protected by irrigation. The crucial period when rain is 
urgently needed is the last fortnight of September, and during the 
hathiyd asterism at the beginning of October. A drought during this 
period not only ruins the winter rice, but deprives the soil of the 
moisture necessary for the subsequent spring crops. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 





Chapra .... 


Siwan .... 









Rice is the most important crop, covering an area of 516 square 
miles, or a quarter of the cultivated area ; 16 per cent, of it is harvested 
in the autumn and the remainder in the winter. Barley and maize 
cover 19 and 15 per cent, respectively of the cultivated area. Khesdri 
pulse, which is sown extensively as a catch-crop in winter rice lands, 
may be called the poor man's food. The most extensive non-food 
crops are oilseeds, linseed occupying 124 square miles, and rape and 
mustard 17 square miles. Sugar-cane, which is being largely substituted 
for indigo, occupies 3 per cent, of the cultivated area. Indigo in 1903-4 
covered only 19,300 acres, or less than half the area sown five years 


before. Saran is the premier opium District in Bengal, and the out- 
turn in the same year was 282 tons. 

(Ailtivation has long ago reached its utmost limit, and tliere is no 
room for expansion. Little advantage is taken of Government loans ; 
the only considerable advances made were in the famine year 1897, 
when 2-31 lakhs was lent under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

The cattle are generally poor ; the best come from north Muzaffarpur 
and Darbhanga and from the United Provinces. Pasturage is in- 
sufficient, and in the cold season large herds are grazed in ('hamparan. 
The Hathwa Raj has recently established a cattle-breeding farm at 
Sripur. Most of the horses and ponies come from Ballia and elsewhere 
in the United Provinces, but a few are bred in Saran. The most 
important fair in Bengal is held at Sonpur, where large numbers ot 
elephants, ponies, and cattle are sold. 

Of the cultivated area, 15 per cent, is irrigated, and of every 100 acres 
irrigated 72 are watered from wells, 18 from tanks and reservoirs, 
3 from private channels, and the remainder from other sources. The 
number of wells is 30,000, of which 27,000 are of masonry. The only 
Government irrigation works are the Saran Canals, which derive their 
water-supply from the Gandak. In addition to the main canal with 
a length of 6i- miles and a branch of 12^ miles, certain natural channels 
are used to convey the water. There is no weir across the river ; and, 
owing to the uncertainty of the water-supply and other causes, the 
scheme has been a failure, and the canals were closed in 1898. They 
have, however, occasionally been reopened in especially dry years. In 
1902, for instance, 3,000 acres were irrigated during the rabi season 
free of charge. 

The only minerals are .salt (in very small quantities), saltpetre, 
Glauber's salt, potter's clay, and nodular limestone {kankar). 

A little coarse cloth is woven, but the industry is declining. Cloth 

is printed with Mirzapur stamps, or stamped with gold- and silver-leaf 

ornamentation. Siwan brassware has more than 

a local reputation, which is well deserved, as the radeand 

. ^ , , , • communications. 

materials are good and the workmanship excellent. 

A little black and red and glazed pottery is also made at Siwan. Salt- 
petre was an important item in the exports from India until the end 
of the French Wars, and considerable quantities still find their way 
to Europe. The crude saltpetre is extracted from saliferous earth by 
a rough process of lixiviation ; this is refined by boiling and is then 
ready for the market. In 1903-4, 10,533 tons of saltpetre were pro- 
duced, of which 2,582 tons were refined and 7,846 tons crude salt- 
petre, and 105 tons were sulphate of soda. 'I'he industry is in the 
hands of the Nunia caste. In 1903, 27 indigo factories were at 
work in the District. The industry is declining rapidly owing to the 


competition of tlie artificial dye; and several factories have already 
been closed, while others are reducing the scale of their operations. 
The reported out-turn for 1903-4 was 95 tons, valued at 3-27 lakhs. 
A sugar factory has recently been erected at Barhoga, where the cane 
is crushed and the juice boiled and clarified and manufactured into 
sugar by imported machinery. Various indigo concerns are following 
the example, and a good deal of sugar is also prepared in native 
refineries. Shellac is manufactured, and 8 factories were at work in 
1 90 1 with an out-turn valued at over 3 lakhs. 

Saran never produces sufficient food for its own consumption, and 
imports largely exceed exports, the cost of the surplus imports being 
met from the earnings of natives of the District employed elsewhere, 
who make large remittances for the support of their families. The 
principal imports are rice and other food-grains from Muzaffarpur, 
Darbhanga, and Bhagalpur, cotton piece-goods, salt, and kerosene oil 
from Calcutta, and coal from Burdwan and Chota Nagpur. The 
exports are opium, sugar, indigo, saltpetre, shellac, molasses, linseed, 
mustard seed, gram, pulses, and other food-grains. Most of the 
exports go to Calcutta, but the sugar finds a market in the United 
Provinces. The bulk of the traffic now goes by railway; and the 
principal marts are Chapra, Revelganj, Siwan, Maharajganj, 
MiRGANj, Dighwara, Sonpur, and Mairwa. 

The main line of the Bengal and North-AV' estern Railway traverses 
the District from Sonpur at the south-east corner to Mairwa on the 
western boundary. A branch line connects Chapra via Revelganj with 
Manjhi, where the Gogra is crossed by a steam ferry. A fine bridge 
spans the Gandak between Sonpur in Saran and HajTpur in Muzaffar- 
pur, and effects a junction with the Tirhut State Railway system, now 
worked by the Bengal and North-Western Railway Company, and via 
Katihar with the northern section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway. 
The Bengal and North-Western Railway is connected with the East 
Indian Railway by a steam ferry from Paleza Ghat, near Sonpur, to 
Digha Ghat on the opposite bank. The chief lines of road run from 
north to south, originally connecting the Gandak with the Gogra (and 
now with the railway), and following the old trade routes from Nepal 
through Champaran and Muzaffarpur. From Chapra important roads 
lead to Rewah Ghat, Sattar Ghat, and Sallmpur Ghat, all on the 
Gandak. Other roads also converge on these points, such as the road 
from Doranda railway station to Maharajganj, and thence northwards 
to Barauli and Sallmpur Ghat. The road from Siwan to Mirganj and 
thence to Gopalganj and through Batardah to the Champaran border 
is also of importance. In 1903-4 the District contained 1,219 miles 
of roads maintained by the District board, of which 137 were metalled 
and T,o82 unmetalled, besides 1,428 miles of village tracks. 


The India General Steam Navigation Company has a daily steamer 
service on the Ganges and Gogra from Oigha Ghat in Patna District, 
nearly opposite Sonpur, to Ajodhya in Oudh. These steamers connect 
at Digha Ghat with the Goalundo line, and are often crowded with 
coolies on their way going to or returning from Eastern Bengal. 
Numerous important ferries cross the Ganges, Gandak, and Gogra 

Saran is less liable to famine than the neighbouring Districts, as it 

is protected both by the number and variety of its crops, and by the 

distribution of its harvests throughout the year. _ 

.r ■ . ^ • • , J Famine. 

Nevertheless fannne or scarcity has occurred on 

several occasions, notably in 1769, 1783, 1866, 1874, and 1897. Little 
is known of the first two calamities. In 1866, the year of the Orissa 
famine, the winter rice failed and the spring crops were extremely 
poor ; the relief afforded was inadequate, and over 8,000 persons died 
of starvation and disease. In 1874 famine was caused by the failure 
of nine-tenths of the winter rice crop. Relief on this occasion was 
given on an extravagant scale, and ncj deaths occurred from starvation ; 
the number on relief works exceeded a quarter of a million in June 
1874. No less than 40,000 tons of grain were imported by Govern- 
ment, and the expenditure was 24 lakhs. In 1896 the rainfall was 
very deficient, amounting to only 23 inches, and the autumn crop 
yielded less than half and the winter rice only one-sixteenth of the 
normal out-turn. In spite of tliis, the famine was much less severe 
than in the neiglibouring Districts, and the maximum number on relief 
works was only 24,000 in May, 1897. The cost of relief was 9 lakhs. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Ch.^pra, Sivvan, and Gop.alganj. 

The staff at head-quarters consists of the Magistrate- . , . . 
^ .. ..' >,• ,rf\. Administration. 

Collector, an Assistant Magistrate, and five Deputy- 
Magistrates, besides officers employed specially on partition and excise 
work. Each of the outlying subdivisions is in charge of a subdivisional 
officer, assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Collector. 

Subordinate to the District Judge are two Sub-Judges and four 
Munsifs at Chapra, one Munsif at Siwan and another at Gopalganj. 
The Sub-Judges hear appeals from the Champaran civil courts also. 
Since the completion of the survey and record-of-rights the number 
of rent suits has greatly increased. Criminal justice is administered 
by the Sessions Judge, an .•Xssistant Sessions Judge, the District Magis- 
trate, and the above-mentioned stipendiary magistrates. Burglary and 
petty theft are common and riots are frequent, but there is very little 
heinous crime. 

In Todar Mai's settlement of 1582 Saran was assessed at 4 lakhs, 
the area measured being 415 square miles. In 1685 the revenue was 




raised to 8 lakhs, and in 1750 to 9^ lakhs, of which half a lakh was 
remitted. In 1773, eight years after the British assumed the financial 
administration, the revenue was 936 lakhs, and in 1793 the Permanent 
Settlement was concluded for 10-27 lakhs. A number of estates held 
free of revenue under invalid titles have since been resumed, and the 
demand in 1903-4 was 12-63 lakhs, payable by 5,506 estates. Almost 
the entire District is permanently settled ; but 78 estates paying 
Rs. 15,000 are settled temporarily, and 28 estates with a revenue 
of Rs. 12,000 are managed direct by (Government. It is noteworthy 
that, whereas the allowance fixed for the zam'inddrs at the Permanent 
Settlement was one-tenth of the 'assets,' the Saran landlords now retain 
no less than 78 per cent. As the result of a very careful calculation 
by the Settlement officer, the gross annual produce of the soil is valued 
at 425 lakhs, of which sum the revenue represents less than 3. per cent, 
and the rental 1 2 per cent. The District was surveyed and a record-of- 
rights was prepared between 1893 and 1901. The average area culti- 
vated by a family is estimated at 3-8 acres. Cash rents are almost 
universal, only 4 per cent, of the holdings of settled and occupancy 
ryots paying produce rents. The average rates of rent per acre vary 
for the different classes of ryots : those holding at fixed rates pay 
Rs. 3-4-9 ; settled or occupancy ryots, Rs. 4-5-4 ; non-occupancy 
ryots, Rs. 5-0-6 ; and under-ryots, Rs. 5-2-8. Lower rents rule 
in the north than in the south, where the pressure of population 
is greatest and cultivation more advanced. Of the occupied area 
90 per cent, is held by ryots, and practically all of them have 
a right of occupancy, only 15,000 acres being held by non-occupancy 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and 
of total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 

1880 I. 


1 900-1. 


Land revenue . . 12,55 
Total revenue . . 20,22 





Outside the municipalities of Chapra, Siwan, and Revelganj, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local boards 
at Siwan and Gopalganj. As many as 1 9 Europeans, principally indigo 
planters, have seats upon the board. In 1903-4 its income was 
Rs. 2,44,000, of which Rs. 1,54,000 was derived from rates; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 2,43,000, including Rs. 1,27,000 spent on public 
works and Rs. 42,000 on education. 

The District contains 10 police stations and 16 outposts. The force 
at the disposal of the District Superintendent in 1903 numbered 4 
inspectors, 40 sub-inspectors, 37 head-constables, and 508 constables. 



The rural police consisted of 340 daffaddrs and 3,971 chaukidars. An 
inspector with a special guard is in charge of the settlements of the 
criminal tribe known as the Magahiyil Doms, who in 1901 numbered 
1,048 persons. The District jail at Chapra has accommodation for 
305 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at the other subdivisional head- 
quarters for 50. 

Education is backward, and only 3-5 per cent, of the population 
(7-3 males and 0-2 females) were literate in 1901. The number of 
pupils under instruction rose from about 18,000 in 1883-4 to 24,088 
in 1892-3, but fell to 23,683 in 1900-1. In 1903-4, 23,643 boys and 
1,326 girls were at school, being respectively 16-9 and 069 per cent, 
of the children of school-going age. The number of educational 
institutions, public and private, in that year was 949, including 20 
secondary, 687 primary, and 242 special schools. The expenditure 
on education was Rs. 1,19,000, of which Rs. 12,000 was derived from 
Provincial funds, Rs. 41,000 from District funds, Rs. 3,500 from muni- 
cipal funds and Rs. 40,000 from fees. The schools include 1 2 night 
schools for bona fide agriculturists and day-labourers, and 3 schools for 
Doms, Chamars, and other depressed castes. 

In 1903 the District contained 12 dispensaries, of which 4 had 
accommodation for 135 in-patients. The cases of 145,000 out-patients 
and 1,356 in-patients were treated, and 6,645 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 1,54,000, of which Rs. 1,000 
was met from Government contributions, Rs. 6,000 each from Local 
and from municipal funds, and Rs. 1,37,000 from subscriptions. 
These figures include a sum of Rs. 1,33,000 subscribed for the 
Hathwa Victoria Hospital, of which Rs. 1,24,000 was spent on the 

\'accination is compulsory only in the municipal towns, outside 
which it is backward. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully 
vaccinated was 54,000, representing 23-2 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. \\ . Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xi (1877) ; 
J. H. Kerr, Settlement Report (Calcutta, 1904).] 

Saran Subdivision.— Subdivision of Saran District, Bengal. See 

Saranda. — Hill range in the extreme south-west corner of Singh- 
bhum District, Bengal, lying between 22° i' and 22° 28' N. and 85° o' 
and 85"^ 26' E., bordering on the Gangpur State. It consists of a mass 
of mountains, rising to the height of 3,500 feet. The population 
inhabiting this region is scattered over a few poor hamlets nestling 
in deep valleys, and belongs for the most part to the Ho and other 
aboriginal tribes. 

Sarangarh State.— Feudatory State in the Central Provinces, lying 
between 21^ 21' and 21° 45' N. and 82° 56' and 83° 26' E., with an 

G 2 


area of 540 square miles. It is situated betwern Bilaspur and Sambal- 
pur Districts on the west and east, while the MahanadT river divides 
it from the Raigarh State and the ('handarpur zammddri on the north. 
The head-quarters, Sarangarh, is 32 miles from Raigarh station on the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The country is generally level ; but a chain 
of hills runs from north to south across the centre of the State dividing 
the Sarangarh and '^ts.x'x^ par-ganas, and another range extends along the 
southern border adjoining the Phuljhar zamlnddri of Raipur. The 
ruling family are Raj Gonds, who, according to their own traditions, 
migrated from Bhandara many generations ago. Sarangarh was at first 
a dependency of the Ratanpur kingdom, and afterwards became one 
of the eighteen Garhjat States subordinate to Sambalpur. It has been 
under Government management since 1878, in consequence of the 
deaths of two chiefs at short intervals. The present chief, Lai Jawahir 
Singh, was born in 1886 and is now being educated at the Raj- 
kumar College, Raipur. During his minority Sarangarh is adminis- 
tered by the Political Agent for the Chhattisgarh Feudatory States. 
The population in 1901 was 79,900, having decreased by 4 per cent, 
during the previous decade. There are 455 inhabited villages and one 
town, Sarangarh (population, 5,227); and the density of population 
is 147 persons per square mile. About three-fourths of the population 
speak the ChhattTsgarhT dialect of Hindi, and the remainder the Oriya 
language, and these statistics indicate the proportions in which the 
population has been recruited from Chhattisgarh and Orissa. The 
forest tribes are not found in large numbers, and the principal castes 
are Gandas, Rawats or Gahras, Chamars, and Koltas. 

The soil is generally light and sandy and of inferior quality ; but the 
cultivators are industrious, and supplement its deficiencies by manure 
and irrigation. In 1904 the area occupied for cultivation amounted 
to 254 square miles, or 47 per cent, of the total area, having increased 
by 26 per cent, since the last revenue settlement in 1888. The cropped 
area was 212 square miles, of which rice occupied 163 square miles, 
itrad 8,000 acres, and kodo?i 6,000. There are about 790 tanks 
and 600 wells, from which about 10,000 acres can be irrigated under 
normal circumstances. The forests occur in patches all over the open 
country, and are not extensive or valuable. There is a small quantity 
of sd/ {Shorea rohusta\ but the bulk of the forests are composed of 
inferior trees. Iron ore is found in small quantities in two or three 
localities. Tasar silk and coarse cotton cloth are the only manu- 
factures. The State contains 57 miles of gravelled and 40 miles of 
embanked roads. The principal outlet for produce is the Sarangarh- 
Raigarh road. There is also some traffic from Seraipali to Sarangarh, 
and from Saria to Raigarh. 
. The total revenue of the State in 1904 was Rs. 80,000, of which 


Rs. 50,000 was derived from land, Rs. 8,000 from forests, and Rs. 9,000 
from excise. The village areas have been cadastrally surveyed, and 
a regular settlement on the system followed in British territory was 
effected in 1904. 'I"he land revenue was raised by Rs. 9,000 or 
21 per cent., the incidence being about 5 annas per cultivated acre. 
The total expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 67,000, the principal items 
being Government tribute (Rs. 3,500), allowances to the chief's family 
(Rs. 11,000), general administration (Rs. 8,800), police (Rs. 4,600), 
and public works (Rs. 14,000). The tribute is liable to periodical 
revision. During eleven years since 1893 a sum of 1-74 lakhs has 
been spent on public works, under the supervision of the Engineer 
of the Chhattisgarh States division. In addition to the roads already 
mentioned, various buildings have been constructed for public offices. 
The educational institutions comprise 18 schools with 1,472 pupils, 
including 2 vernacular middle schools and a girls' school. In 190 1 
the number of persons returned as literate was 2,426, the proportion 
of the males able to read and write being 6 per cent. These results 
compare not unfavourably witli the average for neighbouring British 
Districts. The expenditure on education in 1904 was Rs. 4,500. A 
dispensary is maintained at Sarangarh town, at which 16,000 patients 
were treated in 1904. 

Sarangarh Town. — Head-quarters of the Feudatory State of the 
same name, Central Provinces, situated in 21° 35' N. and 83" 5' E., 
32 miles by road from Raigarh railway station. Population (1901), 
5,227. Within the town is a large tank with a row of temples on the 
northern bank, the oldest temple being that of Somleswari Devi, built 
200 years ago by a dlwdn of the State. The only important industry 
is the weaving of tasar silk cloth, in which about fifty families are 
engaged. Sarangarh possesses a vernacular middle school, a girls' 
school, and a dispensary. 

Sarangpur. — Town in Dewas State, Central India, situated on the 
east bank of the Kali Sind, in 23^ 34' N. and 76° 29' E., 30 miles 
from Maksi station on the Ujjain-Bhopal Railway, and 74 miles from 
Indore on the Bombay-Agra road. Population (1901), 6,339. The 
site is very old, but the town as it now stands does not date back 
earlier than the days of the Muhammadan kings of Malwa (fifteenth 
century), and is entirel)' Muhammadan in character. That it was 
a place of importance in Hindu times is shown by the discovery of 
old coins of the punch-marked Ujjain type, while many fragments 
of Hindu and Jain temples are to be seen built into walls. The place 
first became important under Sarang Singh Khichl in 1298, from whom 
it received its present name. During the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies it rose to great importance, and is constantly mentioned by the 
Muhammadan historians ; while the wide area covered by the ruins of 


the old town shows that it was then a large and flourishing place. In 
1526 it was wrested from Mahmud Khilji II of Malwa by Rana Sanga 
of Chitor ; but during the confusion caused by Babar's invasion it fell 
to one Mallu Khan, who attempted to assume independence in Malwa, 
but was soon after subdued by Sher Shah. It was then included 
in the governorship of Shujaat Khan, and on the fall of the Suri 
dynasty passed to his son BayazTd, better known as Baz Bahadur, 
who assumed independence and struck coins, of which a few have 
been found. Sarangpur is best known as the scene of the death of the 
beautiful Rupmati, the famous Hindu wife of Baz Bahadur. She was 
renowned throughout Malwa for her singing and composition of songs, 
many of which are still sung. Her lover is described by Muhammadan 
writers as the most accomplished man of his day in the science of 
music and in Hindi song, and many tales of their love are current in 
the legends of Sarangpur and Mandu. In 1562 Akbar sent a force 
to Sarangpur under Adham Khan. Baz Bahadur, taken by surprise 
and deserted by his troops, was forced to fly, and Rupmati and the 
rest of his wives and all his treasures fell into the hands of Adham 
Khan. Various accounts of Rupmati's end are current, but the most 
probable relates that she took poison to escape falling into the hands 
of the conqueror. Baz Bahadur, after various vicissitudes, finally 
presented himself at Delhi, and was graciously received and raised 
to rank and honour. He died in 1588, and lies buried at Ujjain, 
according to tradition, beside the remains of Rupmati. Sarangpur 
was from this time incorporated in the Subah of Malwa, and be- 
came the chief town of the Sarangpur sarkar. In 1734 it fell to 
the Marathas, and was held at different times by the chiefs of 
Dewas, Indore, and Gwalior, and the Pindari leader Karim Khan. 
In 18 18 it was restored to Dewas under the treaty made in that 

Sarangpur was in former days famous for its fine muslins. The 
industry has decayed since 1875, and, though it still lingers, is gradu- 
ally dying out. There are few buildings of any note now standing, 
and those which remain are in a dilapidated state. One is known as 
Rupmati kd Gumbaz, or ' Rupmati's hall ' ; but from its absolute simi- 
larity to the buildings near it, this title would appear to be an invention 
of later days. Another similar domed building bears an inscription of 
1496, stating that it was erected in the time of Ghiyas-ud-din of Malwa. 
A Jama Masjid, once a building of some pretensions, bears a record 
dated in 1640. There was formerly a fort, but all that now remains 
are portions of the wall and a gateway with an inscription referring to 
its repair in 1578. A mosque, called the Mr Jd?i k'l Bhati, is a pic- 
turesque building now in a dilapidated state. Among the numerous 
Hindu and Jain remains, one statue of a Tirthankar has been found 

SA/^A JVAiV 97 

which was erected in a. d. 1121. Up to 1889 the two branches of the 
State exercised a joint control ; but in that year the town was divided 
into two equal shares, each section being controlled by a kamasddr 
with a separate establishment. A joint school and sarai, an inspection 
bungalow, and a combined post and telegraph office are maintained 
in the town. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Report of Northern India, 
vol. ii, p. 288.] 

Saraspur (or Siddheswar Hills). — A range projecting from the 
Lushai system into the Surma Valley, Assam. The hills run north 
and south between 24° 26' and 24° 52' N. and 92° 30' and 92° 35' E., 
forming the boundary between Syliiet and Cachar. The height varies 
from 600 feet to 2,000 feet above sea-level ; the slopes of the hills are 
steep and covered with tree forest, and are composed of sandstones 
and shales of Tertiary origin. 

Saraswati (i). — River of the Punjab, rising in Sirmur State close 
to the borders of Ambala District. It debouches on the plains at Adh 
Badri, a place held sacred by all Hindus. A few miles farther on it 
disappears in the sand, but comes up again about three miles to the 
south at the village of Bhawanipur. At Balchhapar it again vanishes 
for a short distance, but emerges once more and flows on in a south- 
westerly direction across Karnal, until it joins the Ghaggar in Patiala 
territory after a course of about no miles. A District canal takes off 
from it near Pehowa in Karnal District. The word Saraswati, the 
feminine of Saraswat, is the Sanskrit form of the Zend Haragaiti 
(Arachosia) and means 'rich in lakes.' The name was probably 
given to the river by the Aryan invaders in memory of the Haragaiti 
of Arachosia, the modern Helmand in Seistan. 

Saras"wati (2). — A small but holy river of Western India, rising at the 
south-west end of the Aravalli range near the shrine of Amba Bhawani, 
and flowing south-westwards for about no miles, through the lands of 
Palanpur, Radhanpur, MahT Kantha, and Baroda, and past the ancient 
cities of Patan, Anhilvada, and Sidhpur, into the Lesser Rann of Cutch, 
near Anvarpur. West of Patan its course is underground for some 
miles, and its stream is small, except in the rains. The river is visited 
by Hindus, especially those who have lost their mothers. Sidhpur is 
considered an especially appropriate place at which to perform rites in 
honour of a deceased mother. 

Sarath Deogarh. — Subdivision and town in the Santal Parganas 
T^istrict, Bengal. See Deooarh. 

Sarawan. — The northern of the two great highland divisions of 
the Kalat State, Baluchistan, as distinguished from the southern or 
Jhalawan division. It lies between 28° 57' and 30° 8' N. and 66° 14' 
and 67° 31' E., and is bounded on the east by Kachhi ; on the west 

qS SARA wan 

by the Garr hills, a continuation of the Khwaja Amran ; on the north 
by the Quetta-l'ishin, liolan Pass, and Sibi Districts ;. and on the 
south by the Jhalawan country. The total area of the country is 
4)339 sciuare miles. It consists of a series of parallel mountain 
ranges running north and south and enclosing valleys, sometimes 
of considerable extent, which lie at an elevation of 
Physical ^^ ';,ooo to 6,;oo feet above sea-level. Reckoning 
from east to west, the principal mountain ranges 
are the Nagau, Bhaur, and Zamuri hills, which border on Kachhi ; and 
the Bangulzai hills, with the peaks of Moro and Dilband. Southward 
of these lies the fine Harboi range, about 9,000 feet high. \Vest- 
ward again the Koh-i-maran (10,730 feet) forms another parallel ridge. 
Next, the Zahri-ghat ridge commences fron) the Chiltan hill and skirts 
the Mastung valley to the east, while two more minor ranges separate 
it from the westernmost ridge, the Garr hills. Most of these moun- 
tains are bleak, bare, and barren, but the Harboi and Koh-i-maran 
contain juniper trees and some picturesque scenery. The drainage 
of the country is carried off northward by the Shirinab and Sarawan 
rivers. Except in flood time, each contains only a small supply 
of water, disappearing and reappearing throughout its course. The 
Shirinab rises to the south-east of Kalat. It is joined by the Mobi 
and Gurgina streams, and eventually falls into the Pishin Lor a under 
the name of the Shorarud or Shar-rod. The Sarawan river rises in 
the Harboi hills and joins the Bolan near Bibl Xani. 

The principal peaks of the country consist of massive limestone : 
and Cretaceous beds of dark, white, and variegated limestone, some- 
times compact, .sometimes shaly in character, occur. Sandstones, 
clays, and conglomerates of Siwalik nature have also been found. 
The botany of Sarawan resembles that of the Quetta-Pishm Dis- 
trict. Orchards, containing mulberry, apricots, peaches, pears, apples, 
almonds, and grapes, abound in the valleys. Poplars and willows 
grow wherever there is water, and tamarisk is abundant in the river- 
beds. In the spring many plants of a bulbous nature appear, includ- 
ing tulips and irises. The hill-sides are covered with southernwood 
{Artemisia) and many species of Astragali. Mountain sheep and Sind 
ibex occur in small numbers. Foxes are trapped for their skins, and 
hares afford coursing to local sportsmen. 

From April to September the climate is dry, bright, bracing, and 
healthy. The winter, especially round Kalat, which receives heavy 
falls of snow, is severe. Except in the east, near Barari, the heat in 
summer is nowhere intense. The rain- and snowfall generally occur 
in winter, from January to March. The annual rainfall averages 
about 7^ inches, of which 6 inches are received in winter and li in 


The Sarawan country formed part (jf the Ghaznivid and Ghorid 
empires, and fell into the hands of the Arghuns towards the end of 
the fifteenth century. From them it passed to the History. 

Mughals until, towards the end of tlie seventeenth 
century, Mir Ahmad of Kalat accjuired Mastung from Agha Jafar, the 
Mughal governor. Henceforth Mastung remained under Kalat and 
was the scene of an engagement between Ahmad Shah Durrani and 
Nasir Khan I in 1758, in which the Afghans were at first defeated, hul 
Ahmad Shah afterwards advanced and assaulted Kalat. During the 
first Afghan War, the country was one of the districts assigned by the 
British in 1840 to Shah Shuja-ul-mulk, but it was restored t(j Kalat in 
1842. During 1840 the Sarawan tribesmen revolted and placed Nasir 
Khan II on the throne. In 1871 another rebellion occurred, and the 
Brahuis received a crushing defeat from Mir Khudadad Khan at Khad 
near Mastung. In 1876 the latter place was the scene of the memor- 
able settlement effected by Sir Robert Sandeman between Khudadad 
Khan and his rebellious chiefs. 

Curious mounds situated in the centre of the valleys occur through- 
out the country. Two of the largest are Sampur in Mastung and 
Karbukha in Mungachar. They are artificial, being composed of 
layers of soil, ashes, and broken pottery. 

Kalat Town, and Mastung, the head-quarters of the Political Agent, 
are the only towns. The country possesses 298 permanent villages. 
'I'he population in 1901 was 65,549 Most of the population. 
people make their way to Kachhi in the winter. 
The centre of the country is inhabited by the cultivating classes 
known as Dehwars, Khorasanis, and Johanis, most of whom are sub- 
jects of the Khan of Kalat. In the surrounding hills and vales live 
the tribesmen composing the Sarawan division of the Brahui con- 
federacy. They include the Lahris (5,400), Bangulzais (9,000), 
Kurds (3,100), Shahwanis (6,300), Muhammad Shahis (2,800), Rai- 
sanis (2,400), and Sarparras (900), all of whom are cultivators and 
flock-owners. In this category must also be included the numerous 
Langav cultivators of Mungachar (17,000). All the Muhammadans 
are of the Sunni sect. A few Hindu traders are scattered here and 
there. Most of the wealthier men possess servile dependants. Artisans' 
work is done by Loris. The prevailing language is Brahui ; but the 
Langavs, some of the Bangulzais, and a few other clans speak Baluchi, 
and the Dehwars a corrupted form of Persian. 

Cultivation is carried on in the centre of the valleys, which possess 

flat plains of a reddish clay soil, highly fertile when irrigated. This is the 

best soil and is known as inait, matindl. or hanaina. . . ,^ 
IX , , • , . , - r^^ Agriculture. 

Dark loam is known as siyahzamin. The greater part 

of the cultivable area is ' dry crop ' (kJiusIikalHi). Owing to the scant) 


rainfcill, it seldom produces a full out-turn oftener than once in four or 
five years. The principal 'dry-crop ' areas are Narmuk, Gwanden, the 
Bhalla Dasht or Dasht-i-bedaulat, Kabo, Kuak, Khad, the Chhappar 
valley, and Gurglna. Kalat, Mungachar, Mastung, and Johan are the 
best irrigated areas. Irrigation is derived from underground water- 
channels {/x'drez), which number 247, from springs, and from streams. 
Many of the /idrez are dry at present. Fine springs occur at Kahnak 
in Mastung, at Kalat, Dudran near Chhappar, and Iskalku ; and the 
Sarawan and Shlrinab rivers afford a small amount of irrigation. The 
principal crop is wheat, the flour of which is the best in Baluchistan. 
In ' wet-crop ' areas lucerne, tobacco, and melons are produced in large 
quantities. Johan tobacco is famous. The cultivation of onions and 
potatoes is increasing. Fine orchards are to be seen at Mastung and 
Kalat ; and in the former place, where mulberries abound, experiments 
are being made in the introduction of sericulture. 

The sheep are of the fat-tailed variety, and goats and camels are 
numerous. The best of the latter are to be found in Mungachar. 
Fine horses are bred, the principal breeders being the Shahwanis, 
Garrani Bangulzais, Muhammad Shahis, and some Langavs. The 
number of branded mares is 179, and 12 Government stallions are 
at stud in summer. Mungachar donkeys are of large size. The 
bullocks are short and thick-set. 

The chief forest tract is the Harboi range, which is well covered 
with juniper. Pistachio forests also occur here and there. Tribal 
rights exist in most of the forests, and portions are occasionally re- 
served for fodder. No systematic reservation is attempted by the 
State. Great care of pistachio-trees is taken by the people when the 
fruit is ripening. Coal is worked in the Sor range, and traces of the 
same mineral have been found near Mastung. Ferrous sulphate exists 
in the Melabi mountain. 

The wool of sheep and goats, of which there is a large production 
in the country, is utilized in the manufacture of felts {thappur), rugs in 
the dari stitch {kont and shifi), saddle-bags [khurjln), 
comm^lcTtfons. ^"^ overcoats {zor and shdl). The best rugs are 
manufactured by the Badduzai clan of the Bangul- 
zais. All women do excellent needlework. Embroidered shoes and 
sandals, which are made at Kalat and Mastung, are popular. 

The chief trading centres are Mastung and Kalat. The exports 
consist chiefly of wool, ghl, wheat, tobacco, melons, carbonate of soda, 
sheep, and medicinal drugs ; and the imports of cotton cloth, salt, iron, 
sugar, dates, and green tea. Caravans carry tobacco, wheat, and cloth 
to Panjgur in Makran, and return laden with dates. 

The Mushkaf-Bolan section of the North- Western Railway touches 
the country, and the Quetta-Nushki line traverses its northern end. 


A metalled road, 88-| miles long, built in 1897 and since slightly im- 
proved at a total cost of 3 J lakhs of rupees, runs from Quetta to Kalat. 
Communications from north to south are easy. From west to east the 
tracks follow two main lines : from Kardgap through the Mastung valley 
and over the Nishpa pass to the Bolan, and through Mungachar and 
Johan to Narniuk and to Bibl Nani in the Bolan Pass. Communica- 
tions with the Mastung valley are being improved by the construction 
of tracks over several of the passes. 

The country is liable to frequent scarcity, but owing to the number 
of karez it is the best-protected part of the State. The nomadic 

habits of the people afford a safeguard against 

f • A ■ u • r 11 •• ,1: Famine, 

lamme ; and, even m years when ramfall is msutti- 

cient for 'dry-crop' cultivation, they manage to subsist on the pro- 
duce of their flocks, supplemented by a small quantity of grain. 

For purposes of administration the people, rather than the area, 
may be divided into two sections : namely, those subject to the direct 

jurisdiction of the Khan of Kalat, and those belong- . , . . 

^ ., , ,,„ • • , .-. .• Administration. 

mg to tribal groups. 1 he principal groups constituting 

each section have been named above. The areas subject to the Khan 
are divided into the two nidbats of Mastung and Kalat. The Mastung 
iiidbat forms the charge of a jfii/sfaufi, who is assisted by a nail? and a 
'd-tiasht/i. Kalat is in charge of a naib. The Brahui tribesmen are 
subject to the control of their chiefs, who in their turn are supervised 
by the Political Agent through the Native Assistant for the Sarawan 
country and the Political Adviser to the Khan. For this purpose thdna- 
ddrs, recruited from the Brahuis, are posted at Alu, Mastung, and 
Mungachar. In the Khan's nidbats the various officials deal with both 
civil and criminal cases, subject to the supervision of the Political 
Adviser to the Khan. Cases among the tribesmen, or cases occurring 
between subjects of the Khan and the tribesmen, are disposed of by 
the Political Agent or his staff, and are generally referred to jirgas. 
Cases for the possession of land or of inheritance are sometimes deter- 
mined by local kdzis according to Muhammadan law. 

Mastung and Kalat-i-Nichara, i.e. Kalat and the neighbourhood, are 
mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbarl as paying revenue in kind and furnishing 
militia to Akbar. The only part of the country which has been sur- 
veyed is Kahnak, where, owing to disputes between the Rustamzai clan 
of the Raisani tribe and the chief section, a record-of-rights was made 
in 1899. The land is vested in a body of cultivating proprietors, who 
either pay revenue or hold revenue free. The rate of revenue varies 
from one-fourth to one-tenth of the produce, and is generally taken 
either by appraisement or by an actual share. Of the areas subject to the 
Khan, the revenue of Johan with Gazg is leased for an annual payment 
in kind, and the same system is followed in other scattered tracts. In 


the Kalat nidbai, revenue is paid by the cultivators either in kind or in 
personal service as horsemen, footmen, labourers, and messengers. In 
Mastung the land revenue is recovered both in kind and at a fixed 
rate in cash and kind {zarri and ka/ang). In the case of many of 
the karez in the Mastung and Kalat nidbats^ the State, to avoid the 
trouble of collecting the produce revenue at each harvest, has acquired 
a proportion of the land and water supplied by a kdrez in perpetuity 
and converted them into crown property, leaving the remainder of the 
land and water free of assessment. In 1903 the revenue of each nidbat 
was as follows : Mastung, Rs. 92,800 ; Kalat, Rs. 32,700 ; Johan with 
(iazg, Rs. 1,200 ; total, Rs. 1,26,700. 

Kalat Town is the head-quarters of the Khan's military forces, 
and a regiment of cavalry, 95 sabres strong, is stationed at Mastung. 
Tribal levies, 32 in number, are posted at Mastung, Alu, and Munga- 
char. Irregular levies, to the number of 86, maintained by the Khan 
for the collection of revenue and keeping the peace in his own 
nidbats, are stationed at Kalat. There is a small jail at Mastung and 
a lock-up at Alu. 

During the second Afghan War, the Sarawan chiefs rendered good 
service in guarding communications and providing supplies, in recogni- 
tion of which the British Government granted personal allowances to 
some of them. These payments have since been continued, to assist 
the sarddrs in maintaining their prestige and in keeping order among 
their tribesmen, and amount to Rs. 22,800 per annum. 

Education is neglected. A few persons of the better class keep 
mullds to teach their sons, and a school, which promises to be well 
attended, is about to be opened at Mastung. Two dispensaries are 
maintained, one by the British Government and the other by the Kalat 
State. The total number of patients in 1903 was 8,919, and the total 
cost Rs. 5,300. Inoculation is practised by Saiyids, who generally get 
fees at the rate of eight annas for a boy and four annas for a girl. 

Sarda. — The name given to part of a river-system flowing from the 
Himalayas through north-western Oudh. Two streams, the Kuthi 
Yankti and Kalapani, rising in the lofty Panch Chulhl mountains in 
the north-east corner of Kumaun close to the Tibet frontier, unite 
after a few miles to form the Kali river or Kali Ganga, which divides 
Nepal from Kumaun. At a distance of 106 miles from its source, the 
Kali receives the Sarju or Ramganga (East) at Pacheswar. The Sarju 
and its tributary, the Ramganga (East), rise in a lofty range leading 
south from the peak of Nanda Kot, and unite at Rameswar, from which 
point the combined stream is called indifferently by either name. From 
the junction at Pacheswar the name Kali is gradually lost and the river 
is known as Sarju or as Sarda. At Barmdeo the waters descend on the 
plains in a series of rapids, the course to this point being that of a 


mountain stream over a steep rocky bed. The Sarda now divides into 
several channels, which reunite again after a few miles at Mundia Ghat 
(ferry), where the last rapids occur, and the bed ceases to be composed 
of boulders and shingle. From this point the river forms the boundary 
between Nepal and Plllbhlt I )istrict of the United Provinces for a short 
distance, and then cuts across and enters Kheri District. In Pilibhit 
it is joined on the right bank by the Chauka, which is now a river of 
the plains, rising in the tarai, but may have been originally formed as 
an old channel of the Sarda. The river is at first called both Sfirda and 
(liauka in Kheri, and its description is rendered difficult by the many 
changes which have taken place in its course. I'our distinct channels 
may be recognized, which are, from south to north, the Ul, the Sarda 
or Chauka, the Dahawar, and the Suhell. The first of these is a small 
stream which joins the Chauka again. The name Sarda is occasionally 
applied to the second branch in its lower course through Sita[)ur, but 
this is more commonly called Chauka. After a long meandering course 
it falls into the Gogra at Bahramghat. This channel appears to have 
been the principal bed from the middle of the eighteenth to the middle 
of the nineteenth century. The largest volume of water is, however, at 
present brought down by the Dahawar, which leaves the Chauka in 
pargana Dhanrahra. The SuhelT brings down little water and joins 
the Kauriala (afterwards called the Gogra). 

Sardargarh. — Chief place in an estate of the same name in the 
State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25° 14' N. and 74° E., on the 
right bank of the Chandrabhaga river, a tributary of the Banas, about 
50 miles north- by-north-east of Udaipur city. Population (1901), 1,865. 
The old name of the place was Lawa, but it has been called Sardargarh 
since 1738. A strong fort, surrounded by a double wall, stands on 
a hill to the north. The estate, which consists of 26 villages, yields an 
income of about Rs. 24,000, and pays a tribute of Rs. 1,390 to the 
Darbar. The Thakurs of Sardargarh are Rajputs of the Dodia clan, 
and are descended from one Dhawal who came to Mewar from Gujarat 
at the end of the fourteenth century. 

Sardarpur. — Civil and military station in the Amjhera district ol 
Gwalior State, Central India, being the head-quarters of the Political 
Agent in Bhopawar and of the Malwa Bhil Corps. It is situated on 
the edge of the Vindhyan scarp, in 22° 40' N. and 74° 59' E., on the 
right bank of the Mahl river, 58 miles by metalled road from Mhow. 
Population (1901), 2,783. The station derives its name from its ori- 
ginal owner, Sardar Singh Rathor, a near relation of the Amjhera chief 
who was executed in 1857. He was a famous freebooter, notorious for 
his cruelty, of which tales are still current in the neighbourhood. The 
Malwa Bhil Corps had its origin in some irregular levies raised about 
1837 by Captain Stockley. The men were collected at certain points 


under their own headmen, and in harvest time used to return home, 
their wives answering for them at muster, A few years later they were 
regularly organized, and stationed at Depalpur in Indore territory and 
Dilaura in Dhar, Between 1840 and 1845 ^^e corps was moved to 
Sardarpur, more regularly equipped and drilled, and employed locally 
on police and escort duties, a military officer being put in command. 
In 1857 the corps was called into Indore to protect the Residency, and 
assisted to escort Colonel Durand in his retreat to Sehore. Sardarpur 
was at this time sacked by the Afghan and Rohilla levies of the Dhar 
State, and the detachment there was forced to retire. After order had 
been restored, the corps was reconstituted at Mandleshwar, being 
subsequently sent back to Sardarpur and put under the Political Agent. 
Since 1883 it has been regularly officered and disciplined, and was 
lately rearmed with the magazine rifle. On the reorganization of the 
Indian Army in 1905, it was again converted into a military police 
battalion ; and in 1907 it was moved to Indore. A school, a combined 
British post and telegraph office, a hospital, and an inspection bungalow 
are situated in the station. 

Sardarshahr. — Head-quarters of the tahsii of the same name in 
the Sujangarh tiizdmat of the State of Bikaner, Rajputana, situated in 
28" 27' N. and 74° 30' E., about 76 miles north-east of Bikaner city. 
Population (1901), 10,052. Maharaja Sardar Singh, before his acces- 
sion to the chiefship (1851), built a fort here and called the town which 
grew up round it Sardarshahr. In the town are a combined post and 
telegraph office, an Anglo-vernacular school attended by 82 boys, and 
a hospital with accommodation for 7 in-patients. The fahsJl, which 
used to be called Bharutia from the quantity of bharut grass found 
here, contains 187 villages, in which Jats and Brahmans preponderate. 

Sardhana Tahsil. — Tahsil of Meerut District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Sardhana and Barnawa, and lying between 
29° \' and 29° r6' N. and 77° 19' and 77° 43' E., with an area of 
250 square miles. The population rose from 168,692 in 1891 to 
180,141 in 1 90 1. There are 124 villages and only one town, Sar- 
dhana (population, 12,467), the tahsil head-quarters. In 1903-4 the 
demand for land revenue was Rs. 3,70,000, and for cesses Rs. 59,000. 
The tahsil is thickly populated, supporting 721 persons per square 
mile. It lies in the north of the uplands of the District, and its two 
parganas are separated by the river Hindan, which is also joined by 
the Krishni. Both these rivers are fringed with ravines ; but the 
tahsil is a fertile tract, well irrigated by the Upper Ganges and Eastern 
Jumna Canals. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 201 square 
miles, of which 82 were irrigated. 

Sardhana Estate. — An important estate in Meerut District, 
United Provinces. The area of the estate is about 28 square miles. 


The total demand for rent and other dues in 1904 was 1-3 lakhs, while 
the Government land revenue and cesses amounted to Rs. 53,000. 
The head-quarters of the estate are at Sardhana Town. It belongs 
to a family of MuswT Saiyids, who claim descent from Ali Musa Raza, 
the eighth Imam. These Saiyids resided at Paghman near Kabul, but 
were expelled on account of services rendered to Sir Alexander Burnes 
in his Kabul mission, and subsequently to the British in the retreat 
from Kabul. A pension of Rs. 1,000 a month was given to the family, 
which settled at Sardhana. During the Mutiny Saiyid Muhammad 
Jan Fishan Khan, the head of the family, raised a body of horse and 
did good service both in Meerut District and before Delhi. As 
a reward the title of Nawab Bahadur, and confiscated estates assessed 
at Rs. 10,000 per annum, were conferred on Jan Fishan Khan, with 
concessions as to the revenue assessed. The pension was also made 
permanent. During the lifetime of the first Nawab, and for some 
time after, the family added largely to the estate, but speculations 
in indigo and personal extravagance caused losses. The estate was 
taken under the Court of Wards in 1895, and in 1901 the debts, 
amounting to 10 lakhs, were paid off by a loan from Government. 
The present Nawab, Saiyid Ahmad Shah, and his two predecessors 
were sons of Jan Fishan Khan, who died in 1864. 

Sardhana Town. — Head-quarters of the iahsil of the same 
name in Meerut District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 9'' N. and 
77° 38' E., on a metalled road 12 miles north-west of Meerut city and 
6 miles from Sardhana station on the North-Western Railway. The 
population rose from 12,059 in 1891 to 12,467 in 1901. 

The place is now of small importance, but it was once famous as 
the residence of the Begam Sumru. According to tradition, the town 
was founded by a Raja Sarkat, whose family ruled till their expulsion 
by the Musalmans. The place became the property of Dhusars and 
Bishnols, who were driven out by Tagas in the eighth century. Walter 
Reinhardt, better known by the sobriquet of Sombre or Sumru, was 
a butcher by profession, and a native of Luxemburg. He came to 
India as a soldier in the French army, and deserting that service, 
took employment with the British, where he attained the rank of 
sergeant. Deserting again, he rejoined the French service at Chander- 
nagore, and on the surrender of that settlement accompanied M. Law 
in his wanderings throughout India from 1757 to 1760. In the 
latter year Law's party joined the army of Shah Alam in Bengal, 
and remained with the emperor until his final defeat near Gaya by 
Colonel Carnac. Sumru next entered the service of Mir Kasim, by 
whom he was employed to murder the English prisoners at Patna 
(Patna District) in October, 1763. He succeeded in escaping into 
Oudh, and afterwards served several native chiefs, until in 1777 he 


entered the service of Mirza Najaf Khan, the general and minister of 
Shah Alam II, and received the pargana of Sardhana in fief, as an 
assignment for the support of his battalions. He died here in the 
following year, and was succeeded by his widow, the Begam Sumru, 
who continued to maintain the military force. This remarkable 
woman, the illegitimate daughter of a Musalman of Arab descent, 
and the mistress of Reinhardt before becoming his wife, assumed the 
entire management of the estate, and the personal command of the 
troops, which numbered five battalions of sepoys, about 300 European 
officers and gunners, with 50 pieces f)f cannon, and a body of irregular 

In 1 781 the Begam was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, 
under the name of Johanna. Her troops rendered excellent service 
to the Delhi emperor in the battle of Gokulgarh in 1788, where 
a charge of Sardhana troops, personally led by the Begam and the 
celebrated adventurer George Thomas, saved the fortunes of the day at 
a critical moment. In 1792 the Begam married Levassoult, a French- 
man in command of her artillery. In 1795 her European officers 
became disaffected, and an illegitimate son of Reinhardt, known as 
Zafaryab Khan, put himself at their head. The Begam and her 
husband were forced to fly. In the flight the Begam's palanquin was 
overtaken by the rebels, and she stabbed herself to prevent falling alive 
into their hands ; whereupon Levassoult shot himself, in pursuance of 
a vow that if one of them was killed the other would commit suicide. 
The Begam's wound, however, was but a slight one, and she was 
brought back to Sardhana. Another account is that the Begam had 
become tired of her husband, and that her self-inflicted wound was 
only a device to get rid of him. However, all her power passed tem- 
porarily into the hands of Zafaryab Khan, and she was treated with 
great personal indignity, till she was restored to power some months 
later by George Thomas. Henceforth the Begam remained in undis- 
turbed possession of her estates till her death in 1836. 

After the battle of Delhi, and the British conquest of the Upper 
Doab in 1803, the Begam submitted to the new rulers, and ever after 
remained distinguished for her loyalty. Her possessions were nume- 
rous, and included several considerable towns, such as Sardhana, 
Baraut, Barnawa, and Dankaur, lying in the immediate neighbourhood 
of great marts like Meerut, Delhi, Khurja, and Baghpat. Her in- 
come from her estates in Meerut District alone amounted to £56,721. 
She kept up a considerable army, and had places of residence at 
Khirwa-Jalalpur, Meerut, and Delhi, besides her palace at Sardhana. 
She endowed with large sums the Catholic Churches at Madras, Cal- 
cutta, Agra, and Bombay, the Sardhana Cathedral, the Sardhana poor- 
house, St. John's Roman Catholic College, where natives are trained 


for the priesthood, and the Meerut Catholic Chapel. She also made 
over a lakh of rupees to the Bishop of Calcutta for charitable purposes, 
and subscribed liberally to Hindu and Musalman institutions. 

Zafaryab Khan, the son of Sumru, died in 1802, leaving one 
daughter, whom the Begam married to Mr. Dyce, an officer in her 
service. David Ouchterlony Dyce Sombre, the issue of this marriage, 
died in Paris, July, 185 1, and the Sardhana estates passed to his widow, 
the Hon. Mary Ann Forester, daughter of Viscount St. Vincent. The 
palace and adjoining property have since been purchased by the 
Roman Catholic Mission, and the former is used as an orphanage. 

The town itself lies low, and has a poor and deca)ed aj^pcarance. 
Immediately to the north is a wide parade-ground, beyond which is 
the quarter called I^ashkarganj, founded by the Begam as a cantonment 
for her troops, and the old fort now in ruins. East of the town lies 
the Begam's palace, a fine house with a magnificent flight of steps at 
the entrance and extensive grounds. It formerly contained a valuable 
collection of paintings, but these have been sold ; some of them are 
now in the Indian Museum, and others in Government House, Allah- 
abad. The Roman Catholic Cathedral is an imposing building. The 
public offices include the iahs'i/i, post office, and police station. In 
addition to the Roman Catholic Mission, the American Methodists 
have a branch here. 

Sardhana was constituted a municipality in 1883. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. ri,ooo. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 15,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 10,500) ; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 13,000. The trade is entirely local, except 
for the export of grain. The town contains a middle school with 183 
pupils, and six primary schools with 280 pupils. 

[H. G. Keene, Calcutta Revieiv, January and April, 1880.] 

Sargodha Tahsil. — lahsti of Shahpur District, Punjab, lying be- 
tween 31° 40' and 32° 20' N. and 72° 28' and 73° 2' E., with an area, 
approximately, of 751 square miles and an estimated population of 
3,000 in 1 90 1, but the population has largely increased since the 
Census. The formation of the tahsil in 1906 out of portions of the 
Shahpur and Bhera tahsils of Shahpur District and the Chinot tahsil 
of J hang was necessitated by the colonization of the Bar {see Jhelum 
Colony). The tahsil contains 267 villages, including Sarcodha, the 
head-(|uarters. The only cultivation is carried on by means of irrigation 
from the Lower Jhelum Canal. In the south the soil is a deep and 
fertile loam ; in the north there is a preponderance of sand and clay ; 
in the centre are the Kirana hills, low outcrops of rock resembling 
those at Sangla and Chiniot. 

Sargodha Town. — Head-quarters of the new tahsil of the same 
name in Shahpur District, Punjab, situated in 32° 4' N. and 72" 43' E. 



'I'he construclion of the town only coiiinienced in 1903, and the 
estimated population is 4,000. Sargodha is the capital of the Jhelum 
Colony, and is connected by the new Jech Doab branch of the North- 
western Railway with Malakwal on the Sind-Sagar line, and also with 
iShorkot Road on the AN'azirabad-Khanewal branch of that railway. 
The town possesses an Anglo-vernacular middle school and a civil 
hospital maintained by the District board. 

Sarguja. — Native State in the Central Provinces. See Surguja. 

Sarh Salempur. — Former name of the Narwal tahsii, Cawnpore 
District, United Provinces. 

Sarila. — Petty sanad State in Central India, under the Bundel- 
khand .Vgency, with an area of about 2)i ^<4uarc miles, and entirely 
surrounded by the Hamirpur District of the United Provinces. The 
Sarila holding was founded in 1765, when Aman Singh Bundela, 
a son of Pahar Singh and great-grandson of Maharaja Chhatarsal of 
Panna, obtained the jaglr. Tej Singh, who succeeded, was dis- 
possessed by All Bahadur of Banda, but was restored to part of his 
land through the mediation of Himmat Bahadur. On the establish- 
ment of British supremacy, Tej Singh held nothing but the fort and 
village of Sarila. In recognition of his influence in the neighbourhood 
and his profession of allegiance, he received a cash payment of 
Rs. 1,000 a month, until a suitable provision of land could be 
made. In 1807 a grant of eleven villages was made to him and the 
allowance stopped. The present Raja, Mahipal Singh, succeeded in 
1898 as an infant, the State being under administration during his 

The population at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 5,014, 
(1891) 5,622, and (1901) 6,298, giving a density of 191 persons 
per square mile. Hindus number 5,892, or 94 per cent., and Musal- 
mans 406. The State contains ten villages. Of the total area, 
14 square miles, or 42 per cent., are cultivated; 17 square miles, or 
52 per cent., are cultivable; and the rest waste. The chief being 
a minor, the administration is conducted by his mother, assisted b\- 
a kdmddr. \\'hen not a minor the chief exercises limited powers. 
The revenue amounts to Rs. 59,000, of which Rs. 42,000, or 
71 per cent., is derived from land. \ metalled road is under con- 
struction, which will connect Sarila with KalpI station on the Jhansi- 
Cawnpore section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, a distance 
of nearly 30 miles. The State has been surveyed and settled on the 
methods followed in adjoining British territory. The chief town of 
Sarila is situated in 25° 46' N. and 79^ 42' E., and contains a jail, 
a hospital, and a school. Population (1901), 3,290. 

Sarispur.^Hill range between Sylhet and Cachar Districts, East- 
ern Bengal and Assam. See Saraspur. 


Sarjapur. — Town in the Anekal (d/iik of Bangalore District, 
Mysore, situated in 12° 51' N. and 77° 47" E., 18 miles south-east of 
Bangalore city. Population (1901), 3,056. With eighteen other 
villages, this was formerly a Jogtr held from the Mughals on condition 
of maintaining a military force for the service of the emperor. The 
jagir was confirmed by the succeeding rulers, the Marathas, Haidar 
All, and the British, but was cancelled in the time of Diwan Purnaiya, 
who, finding that the jdglrdar wanted to sell his villages, bought him 
out. Cotton cloths, carpets, and tape are made here. Formerly fine 
muslins were woven. The municipality dates from 1870. The receipts 
and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 1,200. 
In 1903-4 they were Rs. 1,400 and Rs. 2,000. 

Sarju. — The name applied to parts of two rivers in the United 
Provinces. See Gogra and Tons (Eastern). 

Sarnath. — Ancient remains in the District and tahsll of Benares, 
United Provinces, situated in 25° 23' N. and 83^ 2' E., about 3-| miles 
north of Benares city. The most imposing building is a large stone 
stupa, 93 feet in diameter at the base and no feet high above the 
surrounding ruins, which are themselves 18 feet above the general 
level of the country. The lower part has eight projecting faces, all 
but one of which are richly carved ; the upper portion is built of 
bricks and was probably plastered. Half a mile away is another stupa 
composed of bricks, which is now surmounted by a tower with an 
in.scription recording its ascent by the emperor Humayun. The space 
between the two stiipas is thickly strewn with brick and stone debris. 
E.xcavations have shown that these ruins mark the site of a large 
monastery. In 1905 new inscriptions of Asoka and Kanishka were 
discovered. A Jain temple now stands close to the stone stupa, and 
a short distance away is a lake with a Hindu temple on its bank. 
Sarnath is identified with the Mrigadava or deer-park, in which 
Gautama Buddha first preached his doctrines, and near which was 
situated the Isipattana monastery. 

[Rev. M. A. Sherring, The Sacred City of the Hindus, chap, xviii.] 

Sarsa. — Town in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, 
situated in 22° n' N. and 73° 4' E. Population (1901), 5,113. 
Sarsa contains two old wells dating from 1044, and a temple of 
Vaijanath built in 1156, the supposed year of the foundation of the 
town. There are two schools, one for boys and one for girls, attended 
by 230 and 74 j)upils respectively. 

Sarsawa. — Ancient town in the Xakur tahsil of Saharanpur 
District, United Provinces, situated in 30° \' N. and 77° 25" E., near 
a station of the same name on the North-Western Railway, and on 
the old road from Saharanpur to the Punjab. The poj)ulation fell 
from 3,827 in 1891 to 3,439 in 1901. The town takes its name from 

H 2 


Siras Pal, who was attacked and defeated by Nasir-ud-din of Ghazni, 
and it is also said to have been plundered by Mahmud of Ghazni. In 
Babar's time the mound was still a strong brick fort, and the town 
and fort are mentioned as important places in the Ain-i-Aklmri. 
According to one version, Sarsawa was the birthplace of the celebrated 
saint Guga or Zahir, who is reverenced by both Hindus and Muham- 
madans all over Northern India ^ 

Sarsuti. — River in the Punjab. See Saraswati (i). 

Saru. — Hill in the Gumla subdivision of Ranchi District, Bengal, 
situated in 23° 30' N. and 84° 28' E. It is 3,615 feet above sea-level, 
and is the highest peak on the Chota Nagpur plateau. 

Sarvasiddhi. — Coast ta/uk in the south of Vizagapatam District, 
Madras, lying between 17° 15' and 17° 40' N. and 82*^ 31' and 
83° 1' E., with an area of 341 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 160,761, compared with 154,966 in 1891 ; number of villages, 152. 
The head-quarters are at Yellamanchili (population, 6,536), the 
only other place of interest being Upmaka. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,60,000. The greater 
part of the taluk is zaminddri, but it contains about 83,000 acres of 
ryotivdri \diV\di. Of this, 15,000 acres, chiefly small hills lying near the 
coast, have been constituted forest Reserves ; but as most of this had 
been stripped bare by charcoal-burners, firewood-gatherers, and goats 
before reservation, it will be some little time before the growth is of 
much value. The soils are fertile, chiefly red and black loams, and 
irrigation is available from the Varaha and Sarada rivers and Konda- 
kirla Ava. Historically, the ryotivdri portion of the tdhik consists of 
a number of petty estates purchased by Government between 1831 
and 1844 for arrears of revenue or other causes. The zaminddri 
portion belongs partly to the Vizianagram and Melupaka estates, and 
partly to the Gode family. 

Sarwahi {Seorai, Snorae). — Ancient site in the Ahmadpur Lamma 
tahstl of Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 28° 10' N. and 
70° 2' E., 8 miles north-east of Kot Sabzal. It was identified by 
Sir A. Cunningham with the Sodrai or Sogdoi of the Greek historians. 
It was one of the six forts repaired by Rai Sahasi of Sind in the sixth 
century, and was destroyed by Shah Husain Arghun in 1525. It is 
still a place of considerable sanctity to Muhammadans. 

Sarwan. — Thakurdt in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Sa^^va^. — Head-quarters of a district of the same name in the 
south of the State of Kishangarh, Rajputana, situated in 26° 4' N. 
and 75° 2' E., close to the NasTrabad-Deoli road, and about 40 miles 
south of Kishangarh town. Population (1901), 4,520. The town 
possesses a combined post and telegraph office ; a steam hydraulic 

» W. Crooke, Popular Religion of Northern India, p. 133. 


cotton-press; a small jail with accommodation for lo prisoners; 
a vernacular middle school, attended by about 70 boys ; and a dis- 
pensary for out-patients. A municipal committee of seven members 
attends to the lighting and conservancy of the place. In the vicinity 
are garnet quarries which have been worked regularly since 1887-8, 
and produce perhaps the best garnets in India. The value of the 
yearly out-turn is estimated at about Rs. 50,000. The quarries consist 
usually of shallow pits, and are worked by a large colony of Jogis and 
Malis. The Darbar takes one-half, or sometimes three-fifths, of the 
crude out-turn as royalty. 

Sasaram Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Shahabad 
District, Bengal, lying between 24° 31' and 25° 22' N. and 83° 30' 
and 84° 27' E., with an area of 1,490 square miles. Its population 
in 1901 was 539,635, compared with 533,356 in 1891, the density 
being 362 persons per square mile. The subdivision comprises two 
distinct tracts, that to the north being an alluvial fiat extensively 
irrigated by canals, while the southern portion is occupied by the 
Kaimur Hills, an undulating plateau covered with jungle. These hills 
afford little space for cultivation, and this part of the subdivision 
suffered severely in the famine of 1896-7. The subdivision contains 
one town, Sasaram, its head-quarters (population, 23,644); and 1,906 
villages. The head-works of the Son Canals system are at DehrI. 
There are old forts at Shergarh and Rohtasgarh, and Sasaram 
and TiLOTHU also contain antiquities of interest. 

Sasaram Town {Sahsardm). — Head-quarters of the subdivision of 
the same name in Shahabad District, Bengal, situated in 24° 57' N. 
and 84° i' E., on the Mughal Saiai-Gaya section of the East Indian 
Railway, 406 miles from Calcutta. Population (1901), 23,644, of 
whom 13,647 were Hindus and 9,994 Musalmans. The name Sasaram 
signifies ' one thousand toys ' : a certain Asura or demon is said to have 
lived here who had a thousand arms, each holding a separate play- 
thing. The town is noted as containing the tomb of the Afghan 
Sher Shah, who defeated Humayun, and subsequently became em- 
peror of Delhi. His mausoleum is at the west end of the town, within 
a large tank, the excavated earth of which has been thrown into un- 
shapely banks some distance off. The tomb itself consists of an 
octagonal hall surrounded by an arcade, which forms a gallery; and 
the roof is supported by four Gothic arches. The tomb of Sher 
Shah's father, Hasan Shah Suri, is similar but less imposing. To the 
east of the town, near the summit of a spur of the Kaimur range on 
which the tomb of Hazrat Chandan Shahid pir is now venerated, 
there is an important Asoka inscription. Sasaram was constituted a 
municipality in 1869. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 
averaged Rs. 16,000, and the expenditure Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the 


income was Rs. 17,000, mainly derived from a tax on persons (or 
property tax) and the receipts from a large municipal market ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 16,000. 

[M. Martin (Buchanan-Hamilton), Eastern I/idia, vol. i, pp. 423-30 
{1838); Archaeological Si/rvey Reports, vol. ix, pp. 132-9.] 

Sasvad. - Head-quarters of the Purandhar taliika of Poona District, 
]5ombay, situated in 18° 2\' N. and 74° 2' E., on the left bank of the 
Karha river, 16 miles south-east of Poona city. Population (1901), 
6,294. Sasvad was the original Deccan home of the Peshwa's family. 
Beyond the town, across the Karha river, stands the old palace of the 
Peshwa, now used as the Collector's office. Near the junction of 
the Karha and one of its minor tributaries is a walled building, the 
palace of the great Brahman family I'urandhare of Purandhar, whose 
fortunes for upwards of a century were closely connected with those of 
the Peshwas. This latter palace was formerly strongly fortified, and in 
1 81 8 was garrisoned and held out for ten days against a detachment of 
British troops. About 1840 the Mirs of Sind were confined in Sasvad. 
There is a mosque built entirely of Hemadpanti pillars and remains. 
The municipality, which was established in 1869, had during the 
decade ending 1901 an average income of Rs. 5,900. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 6,700. The town contains a Sub-Judge's court, 
a dispensary, and four schools with 440 pupils, one of which is for girls 
with an attendance of 60. Sasvad is a station of the United Free 
Church of Scotland Mission, which works in the surrounding villages 
and supports one school. 

Sataisgarh. — Ruins in Malda District, Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
See Pandua. 

Satana. — Tdluka in Nasik District, Bombay. See Baolan. 

Sata-no-nes. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Satara Agency. — Political Charge in Satara District, Bombay, 
comprising the two jagirs of Aundh, lying between t6° 24' and 
17° 47' N. and 74° 6' and 75° 42' E., with an area of 447 square miles; 
and Phaltan, lying between 17° 55' and 18° 6' N. and 74° T2' and 
74° 44' E., with an area of 397 square miles, under the political 
superintendence of the Collector of Satara. Phaltan lies to the north 
of the Mahadeo range, which drains into the Nua, between Poona and 
Satara District ; Aundh is scattered within the limits of Satara District, 
the considerable block of the Atpadi tdlttka lying to the north-east of 
Khanapur in that District. The surface of both Phaltan and Aundh 
is cliiefly flat ; lines of stony hills divide the former from Satara 
District. The NTra runs in the north of Phaltan, and the Man flows 
north and south in the Atpadi tdluka of Aundh. Both States lie 
within the area of Deccan trap. The climate is hot, and the rainfall 
scanty and uncertain. The annual rainfall averages 20 inches at Phaltan 


1 1 

and 22 inches at .Aundli. The temperature at Phaltan rises to 104° 
in May and falls to 50° in January. 

Formerly the group of Native States comprising Akalkot, Aundh, 
Bhor, Daphlapur, Jath, and Phaltan was recognized as the Satara 
jdgirs, once feudatory to the Raja of Satara. In 1S49 five of them 
were placed under the Collector of Satara, and Akalkot under the 
Collector of Sholapur. Subsequently, ihejdgir of Bhor was transferred 
to the Collector of Poona, and Jath and Daphlapur to the Southern 
Maratha Country. The last two are now under the Collector of liijapur. 
The present chief of Aundh is a Hindu of Brahman caste, with the 
title of Pant Pratinidhi. The family is descended from 'I'rimbak Krishna, 
accountant of Kinhai village in the Koregaon tdliika of Satara District. 
In 1690 Rajaram, SivajI's younger son, raised Trimbak's son Parasu- 
ram Pant to the rank of Sardar, and in 1698 he conferred on him the 
title of Pratinidhi or 'viceroy.' In 1713 tiie office became hereditary 
in the family. The chief ranks as a first-class Sardar of the Deccan. 

The chief of Phaltan is a Maratha of the Ponwar clan. One Podaka 
Jagdeo entered the service of the emperor of Delhi, and was slain in 
battle in 1327, whereu[)on the emperor gave the title of Nayak and 
a jdgir to his son NimbrajT. In 1825 the State was attached by the 
Raja of Satara, who permitted Banaji Xayak to succeed in 1827 on 
payment of a nazardna or succession fee of Rs. 30,000. On his death 
in the following year Phaltan was again attached by the Satara govern- 
ment until 1 84 1, when the widow of the deceased chief was permitted 
to adopt a son. The chief is styled Nimbalkar and ranks as a first- 
class Sardar of the Deccan. 

The chiefs of Aundh and I'haltan became tributaries of the British 
Government on the lapse of the Satara territory. Both families hold 
safiads authorizing adoption, and in matters of succession follow the 
custom of primogeniture. Aundh pays no tribute now, while Phaltan 
pays Rs. 9,600 in lieu of a small mounted contingent. 

The population of the Agency in 1901 was 109,660, dwelling in one 
town and 142 villages, compared with 131,529 in 1S91, the decrease 
being due to the famines of 1896-7 and 1899-1900. It is distributed 
between the two States as under : — 


Area in square 

Number of 





Percentage of 
Tariation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and 1901. 



Phaltnn . 

Agency totnl 






— 2 






~ / 


Hindus numbered 104,376, Musalmans 4,118, and Jains 1,166. The 
principal castes are Brahmans (5,000), Dhangars (14,000), Kunbis 
(29,000), Mahars (8,000), Malls (6,000), Marathas (11,000), and 
Ramoshis (5,000). More than half of the population are supported 
by agriculture. 

The soil is of two kinds, black and red, an intermediate variety 
being found in Aundh. Of the total area, 25 square miles are under 
forest, and 76 square miles are not cultivable. 'J"he area of cultivable 
land is 708 square miles, of which 697 square miles were cultivated 
in 1903-4, and 34 square miles were irrigated. Indian miWei, Jowd7; 
wheat, cotton, sugar-cane, and gram are the chief crops. Garden land 
is mostly watered from wells. Building timber, extensive sheep-grazing 
lands, and salt are the chief natural resources ; the weaving of cotton 
and silk goods and the carving of stone idols are the only manufactures 
of importance in Phaltan. The main exports are cotton, molasses, 
oil, and clarified butter; imports include piece-goods, metals, and 
miscellaneous European goods. In the town of Phaltan a number of 
Gujarati VanTs carry on a brisk trade between the coast and the 

The Agency suffered severely from famine in 1876-7, 1896-7, and 
1899-1900, when a good deal of land fell waste. In 1896-7 the 
maximum number of persons on relief works exceeded 1,500, while 
in 1899-1900 it was nearly 4,000, and more than Rs. 40,000 was spent 
on famine relief in that year. The States were first visited by plague 
in 1896, and 4,400 persons fell victims up to the end of 1903 : namely, 
4,000 in Aundh and 400 in Phaltan. 

The Collector of Satara is Political Agent for both States. When 
the States became tributaries of the British Government in 1849, the 
jdgirddrs retained all their former rights and privileges, with the excep- 
tion of the power of life and death and of adjudication upon serious 
criminal cases. Their administration is conducted on the principles 
of British law. Criminal and civil justice is administered by the 
chiefs themselves, with the aid of subordinate courts. Heinous 
offences requiring capital punishment or transportation for life are 
tried by the Political Agent, assisted by two assessors, the preliminary 
proceedings being conducted by the jdgirddrs. The gross annual 
revenue of the Agency is about 4^ lakhs : Phaltan 2 lakhs, and Aundh 
2\ lakhs. The chief sources of revenue are : land, 3 lakhs ; forest and 
excise, Rs. 21,000. The excise and salt arrangements are in the hands 
of Government. Survey operations were commenced in 1869, and 
a revision settlement was introduced in 1894-5 in both States. In 
Aundh the rates vary per acre from Rs. 1-2 to Rs. 4-0 on ' dry ' land, 
and from Rs. 3 to Rs. 10 in the case of garden lands, while on rice 
land the maximum rate is Rs. 8. In Phaltan the assessment rates vary 



from Rs, 1-4 to Rs. 2-8 per acre. The regular police in Phaltan 
number 95 and in Aundh 83, in addition to irregular police for guard 
and escort purposes, numbering 32 in Phaltan and 87 in Aundh. 
There were 33 schools with 1,287 pupils in Phaltan, and 27 with 1,117 
in Aundh, in 1903-4. About 3,000 persons are annually vaccinated 
in the Agency. The number of dispensaries is three, one at Phaltan 
treating annually 9,000 patients, and two in Aundh treating 8,100 

Satara Jagirs. — A group of States in the Bombay Presidency 
under the political superintendence of the Collectors of Poona, Satara, 
Sholapur, and Bijapur, comprising Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Akalkot, 
Jath, and Daphlapur, with a total area of 3,247 square miles. Of 
these, Bhor lies in the north-west of Satara District, Phaltan in the 
north, Aundh in the east, Jath in the extreme south-east, Daphlapur 
also in the south-east, and Akalkot in the south-east of Sholapur. The 
Satara jCigin were feudatory to the Raja of Satara, and became tribu- 
taries of the British Government on the lapse of that State in 1849. 
The Jdgirddrs retain all their former rights and privileges, with the 
exception of the power of life and death and of adjudication upon 
serious criminal cases. Their administration is now conducted on the 
principles of British law. Criminal and civil justice is administered 
by the chiefs themselves, with the aid of subordinate courts. In 
criminal cases, heinous offences requiring capital punishment or trans- 
portation for life are tried by the Political Agents, assisted by two, the preliminary proceedings being conducted by the jdgirddrs. 
Such cases are committed by the ordinary magisterial courts of the 
States, whether the court concerned be presided over by the chief 
himself or by an otticer with committal powers. In the latter case the 
proceedings are forwarded through the chief. No appeal lies to the 
Political Agents against the decisions of the chief in criminal matters. 

Details of Satara Jagirs 



Title of chief. 

Area in 


of towns 

villages. -t 




in 1903-4. 

in which 

i Phaltan 
Bhor . 
Akalkot . 
Jath . 1 
Daphlapur \ 

Pant Pratinidhi 
Pant Sachiv 
Raj Hhonsla . 













3,2 7..30o 

) Satara 
\ District. 



1 Bijapur. 






• The figures for area in this column differ from those in the Census Report for 1901, being 
based upon more recint information. 

+ At the Census of ipoi thi-re were 71, 484, and 103 villages respectively in .'\undh, Bhor, and 
Akalkot, the rest being uninhabited. 


The charges are now permanent, though tlie Bombay Government 
had occasion to effect transfers in the past. Originally the jdglrs, 
with the exception of Akalkot, were placed under the political control 
of the Collector of Satara. In 1874 Jath and its dependency Daphla- 
pur, which had been mismanaged, were placed in charge of the Political 
Agent, Kolhapur and Southern Maratha Country, but were later trans- 
ferred to the control of the Collector of Bijapur. Bhor was transferred 
from the Satara to the Poona Agency in 1887. The present chief 
of Bhor has a personal salute of nine guns. 

Satara District. — District in the Central Division of the Bombay 
Presidency, lying between 16*^ 48' and 18° 11' N. and 73° 36' and 
74° 58' E., with an area of 4,825 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by the States of Bhor and Phaltan and the Nira river, separat- 
ing it from Poona ; on the east by Sholapur District and the States 
of Aundh and Jath ; on the south by the river Varna, separating it 
from the States of Kolhapur and Sangli, and by a few villages of 
Belgaum District ; and on the west, along the Western Ghats, by 
the Districts of Kolaba and Ratnagiri. 

From Mahabaleshwar in the north-west corner of the District, 4,717 

feet above the sea, start two hill ranges of equal height and nearly 

at right angles to each other — one the main range 

■^^'^^ of the Western Ghats running towards the south 

aspects. ° 

for sixty miles, and the other the Mahadeo range 

of hills, which, going first in an easterly and then in a south-easterly 
direction, extends towards the eastern boundary, where it sinks gradually 
into the plain. These hills throw out numerous spurs over the District, 
forming the valleys of the several streams which make up the head- 
waters of the KiSTNA, one of the largest rivers in Southern India. 
Except near Mahabaleshwar, and in the valley of the Koyna, the hills 
of the District are very low and have a strikingly bare and rugged 
aspect. The Mahadeo range, even in the rainy season, is but scantily 
covered with verdure. The hills are bold and abrupt, presenting in 
many cases bare scarps of black rock and looking at a distance like 
so many fortresses. The highest point of the Western Ghats in 
the District is Mahabaleshwar. The crest of the range is guarded 
by five forts : Pratapoarh the northernmost, Makarandgarh 7 miles 
south, Jangli-Jaigarh 30 miles south of Makarandgarh, Bhairavgarh 
10 miles south of Jangli-Jaigarh, and Prachitgarh about 7 miles 
south of Bhairavgarh. 

Within Satara limits are two river systems : the Bhima system in 
a small part of the north- east, and the Kistna system throughout 
the rest of the District. A narrow belt beyond the Mahadeo hills 
drains north into the Nlra, and the north-east corner of the District 
drains south-east along the Man. The total area of the Bhima system, 


including part of the Wai fa/i/ka, the whole of Phaltan, and the tdluka 
of Man, is probably about i,ioo miles, while the area of the Kistna 
system is 4,000. Of the Kistna's total leni,'th of 800 miles, 150 are 
within this District. It rises on the eastern brow of the Mahabaleshwar 
plateau. The six feeders on the right l)ank of the Kistna are the 
Kudali, Vena, Urmodi, Tarli, Koyna, and Varna ; the two on the left 
are the Vasna and Yerla. Of the Bhima river system, the chief Satara 
representatives are the Nlra in the north and the Man in the north-east. 
The Nira rises within the limits of the State of Bhor, and running 
through Wai, I'haltan, and Malsiras in Sholapur, after a total length 
of 130 miles, fixlls into the Bhima. The Man river rises in the hills 
in the north-west of the Man taluka, and, after a course of 100 miles 
through that taliika and the Atpadi mahal of Aundh State and through 
Sangola and Pandharpur in Sholapur, joins the Bhima at Sarkoli, 10 
miles south-east of Pandharpur. 

The whole of Satara lies within the Deccan trap area. As in other 
parts of the Western Deccan, the hills are layers of soft or amygdaloid 
trap, separated by flows of hard basalt and capped by laterite or iron- 

The botanical features of Satara are similar to those of adjacent 
Deccan Districts. The spurs and slopes that branch east from the 
Western Ghats are covered by teak mixed with brush-wood. As is 
usual in the Deccan, the cultivated parts have but few trees, though 
mango groves are common near towns and villages. Most of the 
roadsides are well shaded with avenues of banian and mango. Several 
types of flowering plant are found on the hills, notably the Capparis, 
Hidiscus, Impafieus^ Croialaria^ I>idigofera, Smithia, Kala)icJioe, Am- 
mania, Se/iecio, Lobelia, Jasminutn, as well as fine examples of the 
orchid family. Oranges, limes, figs, and pomegranates are widely 
grown ; but an attempt to introduce European fruit trees at Panchgani 
has met with indifferent success. Mahabaleshwar strawberries have 
gained a well-deserved reputation. 

In the west near the Sahyadris, chiefly in the Koyna valley and the 
Mala pass hills, are found the tiger, leopard, bear, and a few sdmbar 
and small deer. In the east antelope or black buck, and the chirikara 
or Indian gazelle, are met with in certain sparsely populated tracts. 
Common to both east and west are the hare, monkey, and hog. 
The Vena, Kistna, Koyna, and Varna rivers are fairly stocked with fish. 
Game-birds are not numerous, the chief being the common sand- 
grouse, the painted partridge, common grey partridge, quail, and snipe. 
From December to March the demoiselle crane is to be found in flocks 
on some of the rivers and reservoirs. Herons and egrets are common. 
Of the ibis four species, and of duck seven species, are to be seen 
on the larger rivers. 


According to the height above, and distance from, the sea, the 
chmate varies in different parts of the District. In the east, especially 
in the months of April and May, the heat is considerable. But near 
the Ghats it is much more moderate, being tempered by the sea-breeze. 
The temperature falls as low as 58° in January and reaches 100° and 
over in May. During the south-west monsoon the fresh westerly breeze 
makes the climate agreeable. Again, while few parts of India have 
a heavier and more continuous rainfall than the western slope of the 
Western Ghats, in some of the eastern talukas the supply is very 
scanty. The average annual rainfall at Mahabaleshwar is nearly 
300 inches, while in Satara town it is only 41 inches, and in some 
places farther east it is as little as 20 inches. The west of the Dis- 
trict draws almost its whole rain-supply from the south-west monsoon 
between June and October. Some of the eastern talukas, however, 
have a share in the north-east monsoon, and rain falls there in Novem- 
ber and December. The May or ' mango ' showers, as they are called, 
also influence the cultivator's prospects. 

It seems probable that, as in the rest of the Bombay Deccan and 
Konkan, the Andhra or Satavahana kings (200 b.c.-a. d. 218), and 
probably their Kolhapur branch, held Satara till the 
third or fourth century after Christ. For the nine 
hundred years ending early in the fourteenth century with the Muham- 
madan overthrow of the Deogiri Yadavas, no historical information 
regarding Satara is available ; and most of the Devanagari and Kanarese 
inscriptions which have been found on old temples have not yet been 
translated. Still, as inscribed stones and copperplates have been found 
in the neighbouring Districts of Ratnagiri and Belgaum and the State 
of Kolhapur, it is probable that the early and Western Chalukyas held 
Satara District from about 550 to 750; the Rashtrakutas to 973; the 
Western Chalukyas, and under them the Kolhapur Silaharas, to about 
1 190; and the Deogiri Yadavas till the Muhammadan conquest of the 
Deccan about 1300. 

The first Muhammadan invasion took place in 1294, and the 
Yadava dynasty was overthrown in 1318. The Muhammadan power 
was then fairly established, and in 1347 the Bahmani dynasty rose to 
power. On the fall of the Bahmanis towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, each chief set up for himself; the Bijapur Sultans finally 
asserted themselves, and under them the Marathas arose. Satara, 
with the adjacent Districts of Poona and Sholapur, formed the centre 
of the Maratha power. It was in this District and in the adjacent 
tracts of the Konkan that many of the most famous acts in Maratha 
history occurred. Sivaji first became prominent by the murder of the 
Raja of Javli close to Mahabaleshwar, and by the capture of the strong 
fort of Vasota and the conquest of Javli. He then built the stronghold 


of Pratapgarh (1656), against which the Bijapur Sultan directed a large 
force under Afzal Khan with the object of subduing his rebellious 
vassal. Sivaji met Afzal Khan in a conference underneath the walls 
of Pratapgarh, slew him with the famous vdgh-fiak (steel tiger's claw), 
and routed his army in the confusion which ensued. Numerous accjui- 
sitions of territory followed, including the capture of Satara in 1673 ) 
and Sivaji shortly found himself in a position to organize an indepen- 
dent government, placing his capital at Raigarh, where he was crowned 
in 1674. On the death of Sivaji in 1680 the fortune of the Marathas 
was temporarily overshadowed. Dissensions occurred between his 
sons Rajarani and Sambhaji ; and though the latter, as the elder, estab- 
lished his claim to succeed, he was surprised and captured by the 
Mughals under Aurangzeb in 1689, and put to death. Rajaram was 
equally unable to stay the advance of the emperor, and in 1700 the 
capture of Satara crowned the efforts of Aurangzeb to reassert his 
power in the Maratha territory. In 1707 Aurangzeb died, and Sam- 
bhaji's son Sahu was released. Aided by his minister Balaji Viswanath, 
the first of the Peshwas, he secured Sivaji's possessions in the face 
of the opposition of Tara Bai, Rajaram's widow. The remainder of 
Sahu's reign was devoted to freeing himself from the power of Delhi, 
and asserting his right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in outlying 
portions of the Deccan. He was gradually superseded in authority by 
his able minister the Peshwa, who, on his death in 1749, removed the 
Maratha capital to Poona. Titular kings continued to reside at Satara 
until the power of the Peshwa was broken in 181 8. 

The territory was thereupon annexed ; but the British, with a politic 
g^enerosity, freed the titular Maratha Raja (the descendant of Sivaji) 
from the Peshwa's control, and assigned to him the principality of 
Satara. Captain Grant Duff was appointed his tutor until he should 
gain some experience in rule. In April, 1822, the Satara territory was 
formally handed over to the Raja, and thenceforward was managed by 
him entirely. After a time he became impatient of the control exer- 
cised by the British Government ; and as he persisted in intriguing 
and holding communications with other princes, in contravention of 
his engagements, he was deposed in 1839, and sent as a state prisoner 
to Benares, and his brother Shahji was placed on the throne. This 
prince, who did much for the improvement of his people, died in 1848 
without male heirs ; and after long deliberation it was decided that the 
State should be resumed by the British Government. Liberal pen- 
sions were granted to the Raja's three widows, and they were allowed 
to live in the palace at Satara. The survivor of these ladies died in 
1874. During the Mutiny a widespread conspiracy was discovered at 
Satara to restore the Maratha power with assistance from the North ; 
but the movement was suppressed with only trifling disturbances. 



Besides the Buddhist caves near Karad and Wai there are groups 
of caves and cells, both Buddhist and Brahmanical, at Bhosa in Tas- 
gaon, Malavdi in the Man /dli/ka, Kundal in the State of Aundh, 
Patan in Patan, and Pateshwar in Satara. AVai is locally believed 
to be Vairatnagari, the scene of the thirteenth year of exile of the 
Pandavas. Satara, Chandan, and Vandan forts, situated lo miles 
north-east of Satara, were built by the Panhala kings about 1 1 90. 

Except the Jama Masjid at Karad and a mosque in Rahimatpur the 
District has no Musalman remains. Sivaji built a few forts in Satara 
to guard the frontiers. The best known of these are the Mahiman- 
garh fort in Man to guard the eastern frontier, Pratapgarh in Javli to 
secure access to his possessions on the banks of the Nira and the 
Koyna and to strengthen the defences of the Par pass, and Vardhan- 
garh. The District has a number of Hindu temples recently built at 
places of great sanctity, e.g. Mahuli, Wai, and Mahabaleshwar. 

'Phe number of towns and villages in the District is 1,343. Its 

population at each of the last four enumerations has fluctuated as 

Population. ^"^'o^^'^- (^872) 1,062,121, (1881) 1,062,350, {1891) 

1,225,989, and (1901) 1,146,559. The decrease in 

1901 was due to famine, and also to plague. The distribution of the 

population by tdhtkas in 1901 is shown below: — 

Number of 



U ~ _ 0\w 

MC £ SO 
rt 0.2 " o> 

er of 
able to 






nd I 






2: £ ^ 



Wai . 

{ 391 



1 241 

\ "*■ 5 


„ Khandala petha . 



( - 13 


Man .... 





+ 3 


Javli .... 

j 4-3 





\ - IX 


,, Malcolmptth/ty/za 




I 'OS 

\ + 12 


Satara .... 





- 9 


Koiegaoa . 





- 9 


Khanapur . 





- 13 


Patan .... 





- 23 


Karad .... 





- 13 








+ I 


Valva .... 

j 545 




> . „ 

\ + 6 


,, isihira.\a />e//ia 



j 359 

(- 7 



District ti)tal 






— I 




I, '46,559 

- 6 


* The Agricultural department's returns give the total number of villages as l,^S^■ 

The towns are Satara, the head-tjuarters, Wai, Ashta, Islampuk, 
Karad, Tasgaon, Mhasvad, and Mahabaleshwar. The average den- 
sity of population is 238 persons per square mile ; but the Man /d/uka, 
which is the most precarious, has only 103 persons per square mile. 


Maralhi is tlie prevailing vernacular, being spoken by 95 [)er cent, of 
the people. Hindus include 95 per cent, of the total and Musalmans 
3 per cent., the proportion of the latter being lower than in any other 
District in the Presidency. Tlie Jains, who number 18,483, are met 
with chiefly in the villages in the south of the Valva and Tasgaon 
talukas. They bear the reputation of being laborious agriculturists, 
and contrast favourably with llieir neighbours the Marathas and 
Maratha Kunbis. They represent a survival of the early Jainism, 
which was once the religion of tlie rulers of the kingdoms of the 

Of the Hindu population, 584,000, or 54 per cent., arc Marathas or 
Maratha Kunbis ; 92,000, or 8 per cent., are Mahars ; 46,000, or 4 per 
cent., Brahmans ; and 45,000, or 4 j)cr cent., Dhangars, or shepherds, 
who are mostly to be found in the hilly tract. Of the remainder, the 
following castes are of importance : Chamars or leather-workers ( 1 7,000), 
Kumhars or potters (12,000), Lingayats (29,000), Malis or gardeners 
(28,000), Mangs (26,000), Nha\ is or barbers (15,000), Ramoshis (21,000), 
and Sutars or carpenters (11,000). The Marathas or Maratha Kunbis, 
during the period of the Maratha ascendancy (1674- 181 7), furnished 
the majority of the fighting men. The Mavlas, Sivaji's best soldiers, 
were drawn from the ghatmatlia (' hill-toi) ') portion of the District. 
During the last half-century they have become quiet and orderly, living 
almost entirely by agriculture. Dark-skinned, and as a rule small, 
they are active and capable of enduring much fatigue. Brahmans, 
largely employed as [)riests or government servants, are found in 
large numbers in the towns of Satara and AV'ai. Agriculture is the 
main occupation of the people, supporting 73 per cent, of the total ; 
12 per cent, are supported by industry, and i per cent, by commerce. 

In 1901, 975 native Christians were enumerated, chiefly in Javli, 
Koregaon, Satara, and ^\'ai. The American Mission began \vork 
in the District in 1834, when a girls' school was opened at Maha- 
baleshwar. Till 1849 the school was removed to Satara every year 
during the rainy season. Since 1849 Satara has had resident mis- 

The soils belong to three main classes : red in the hills and black 
and light in the plains. The black soil, which is generally found near 
the river banks, is most widely distributed in the . 

Kistna valley, making it the richest garden and 'dry- 
crop ' land in the District. Near the heads of the streams which issue 
from the Western Ghats, the red soil of the valleys yields most of the 
rice grown in the District. 

Satara is mostl}- notwdri, about one-fifth of the total area being 
inam ox Jdg'ir land. The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are 
shown in the following table, in square miles : — 














Wai . 
Man . 
Javli . 
Koregaon . 
Khana])ur . 
Tasgaon . 





























• This figure is based on the most recent information. Statistics are not available 
for 335 square miles of this area. 

Joivdr axidi bdjra, the staple food of the people, occupy 1,479 square 
miles in almost equal proportions. Rice-fields (69) are found in the 
valleys of the Ghats, especially along the Koyna river. Wheat occupies 
77 square miles. In the west, ragi (69) and vari (69) are the chief 
crops. Pulses occupy 478 square miles, chiefly gram, tur, kulith, udid, 
mug, and math. In the Kistna valley sugar-cane and ground-nuts are 
extensively cultivated. Chillies occupy 14 square miles, and cotton 
covers 28 square miles in the east of the District. At Mahabaleshwar 
and Panchgani potatoes and strawberries are grown for the Poona 
and Bombay markets. Tobacco is an important crop in Satara, 
occupying 8,000 acres. 

In i860 an experiment was made in the cultivation of imphi {Hokus 
saccharatiis) or Chinese sugar-cane. The crop reached a height 
of 8 feet and was much appreciated. During the ten years ending 
1904, more than 16 lakhs was advanced to the cultivators under 
the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts. Of this sum, 
9 lakhs was advanced during the three years ending 1 901-2. 

Satara has two breeds of cattle, the local and the khildri, which is 
said to come from the east. Though larger and more muscular, the 
khilCiri is somewhat more delicate and short-lived than the local cattle. 
The valley of the Man used to be famous for its horses. All interest 
in horse-breeding has now died out, and, except in the case of the 
chiefs and wealthy landowners, the animals ridden are seldom 
more than ponies. Sheep and goats are bred locally, few of them 
either coming into the District or leaving it. Goats are valued chiefly 
for their milk. One breed of goats whose long hair is twisted into 
ropes is kept by Dhangars. Surat goats are occasionally imported. 
Pigs are reared by Vadars and Kaikadis, and donkeys as pack-animals 
by Lamanis, Kumbars, and Vadars. Mules are used as pack-animals 
sparingly, and camels are rarely seen. 



A total area of 154I square miles, or 6 per cent., was irrigated in 
1903-4, the principal sources of su[)ply being Government canals and 
channels (11 square miles), tanks and wells (88), other sources (55^). 
The chief irrigation works are : the Kistna, Chikhli, and Rewari canals, 
the Verla and Man river works, and the lakes at Mhasvad and Mayni. 
The Kistna canal, which has its head-works 2 miles above Karad, has 
an unfailing supply of water, and irrigates 6 square miles in the tdlukas 
of Karad, Valva, and Tasgaon. The works, which cost 8 lakhs, were 
opened in 1868, and can supply 12,000 acres. The Chikhli, Rewari, 
and Gondoli canals cost respectively Rs. 57,000, Rs. 59,000, and 
4 lakhs, and can supply 1,500, 1,900, and 2,000 acres. The Yerla 
river works, begun in 1867 and finished in 1868, the right-bank canal 
being 9 and the left Z\ miles long, are supplemented by the Nehra 
lake, finished in 1880-1, with a capacity of 523,000,000 cubic feet. 
The whole scheme involved a cost of nearly 8 lakhs up to 1903-4, and 
commands an irrigable area of 5,000 acres. The Mhasvad lake, having 
a catchment area of 480 square miles and a full supply depth of 67 feet, 
completed at a cost of nearly 21 lakhs, covers an area of 6 square miles 
and can hold 2,633,000,000 cubic feet of water. It includes a large 
lake on the river Man in the Man ta/uka, and also a high-level canal 
(13 miles long) commanding the area between the Man and the 
Bhima. The Mayni lake, on a tributary of the Yerla, cost about 
4I lakhs, and commands 4,800 acres. 

The water-supply in the west is plentiful, but there is much scarcity 
in the east during the hot season. The supply comes partly from rivers 
and partly from numerous ponds and wells. It is estimated that there 
are 32,600 wells in the District, of which 27,000 are used for irrigation. 
The cost of building wells varies greatly. They are of every description, 
from holes sunk in the rock or soil to carefully built wells faced with 

Forests cover an area of 702 square miles (including one square mile 

of protected forest), of which 616 square miles in charge of the Forest 

department are administered by a divisional and a 

subdivisional officer. The forests are scattered over 

the District, and are much broken by private and cultivated land. In 

the west, the belt of evergreen forest along the line of the ^Vestern 

Ghats is divided into six fairly compact ranges with little cultivated 

land between. The seven eastern ranges are bare hills, with here and 

there a little scrub and teak. The forests of the western idlukas have 

a large store of timber and firewood. Jdmbul, gela ( Va/igi/eria spi/iosa), 

and peslia {Cylicodaphne Wightiana) grow on the main ridge of the 

\\'estern Ghats, and small teak on the eastern slopes. Sandal-wood 

is occasionally found, and the mango, jack, and guava are often grown 

for their fruit. Patches of bamboo sometimes occur. A cinchona 



plantation, established in Lingmala near Mahabaleshwar, has proved a 
failure. In 1903-4 the forest revenue amounted to Rs. 46,000. 

Iron is found in abundance on the Mahabaleshwar and Mahadeo 
hills, and was formerly worked by the Musalman tribe of Dhavads. 

Owing, however, to the fall in the value of iron and 

the rise in the price of fuel, smelting is now no longer 
carried on. Manganese occurs embedded in laterite in the neighbour- 
hood of Mahabaleshwar. The other mineral products are building stone 
(trap in the plains and laterite on the hills), road-metal, and limestone. 

Cotton is spun by women of the Kunbl, Mahar, and Mang castes. 
The yarn thus prepared is made up by Hindu weavers of the Sali 

or Koshti caste, and by Muhammadans, into cloth, 
communications. ^^P^' ^""^ ropes. Blankets {ka>fiblis), which command 

a large sale, are woven by men of the Dhangar caste. 
Satara brass dishes and Shirala lamps are well-known throughout the 
Deccan. Notwithstanding the great number of carpenters, wheels and 
axles for cart-making have to be brought from Chiplun in Ratnagiri. 
Paper is manufactured to some extent. 

The District exports grain and oilseeds, a certain number of blankets, 
a small quantity of coarse cotton cloth, chillies, giir (unrefined sugar), 
and a little raw cotton. The chief imports are cotton piece-goods, 
hardware, and salt. The Southern Mahratta Railway has largely in- 
creased the trade with Poona and Belgaum, and at the same time has 
diminished the road traffic between those places. The road-borne 
traffic with Chiplun in Ratnagiri District is, however, still consider- 
able, the exports being unrefined sugar, blankets, and cloth, and the 
imports spices, salt, coco-nuts, and sheets of corrugated iron, ^^'eekly 
or bi-weekly markets are held in large villages and towns, such as 
Mhasvad, which is famous for its blankets, and Belavdi for its cattle. 
The trade-centres are Wai, Satara, Karad, Tasgaon, and Islampur. 

The Southern Mahratta Railway traverses the centre of the District 
for 115 miles from north to south. The total length of roads is 433 
metalled, and 284 unmetalled. Of these, 159 miles of metalled and 
264 miles of unmetalled road are maintained by the local authorities, 
the remainder being in charge of the Public Works department. There 
are avenues of trees on about 400 miles. The Poona and Bangalore 
road, crossing the District from north to south near the railway, and 
bridged and metalled throughout, is the most important. A first-class 
road is maintained from Wathar station via Wai to Panchgani and Maha- 
baleshwar, whence it passes by the Fitzgerald ghat to Mahad in Kolaba, 
and another runs from Karad westwards to Chiplun in Ratnagiri and 
eastwards to Bijapur. An alternative route to Mahabaleshwar runs 
through Satara town, and there are numerous feeder roads for the 


The uncertain and scanty rainfall makes eastern Satara one of the 
parts of the Bombay Presidency most liable to suffer from failure of 
crops. The earliest recorded is the famous famine 
known as Durga-devi, which, beginning in 1396, is said 
to have lasted twelve years, and to have spread over all India south of 
the Narbada. Whole Districts were emptied of their inhabitants ; and 
for upwards of thirty years a very scanty revenue was obtained from the 
territory between the Godavari and the Kistna. In 1520, mainly owing 
to military disturbances, the crops in the Deccan were destroyed and 
a famine followed. In 1629-30 severe famine raged throughout the 
Deccan. The rains failed for two years in succession, causing great 
loss of life. According to local tradition, the famine of 1 791-2 was the 
worst ever known. It seems to have come after a series of bad years, 
when the evils of scanty rainfall were aggravated by disturbances and 
war. The native governments granted large remissions of revenue, 
the export of grain was forbidden, and a sale price was fixed. Rice 
was imported into Bombay from Bengal. The famine of 1802-3 
ranks next in severity. It was most felt in Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, 
Sholapur, Bijapur and Dharwar ; but it also pressed severely on Bel- 
gaum, Satara, Poona, Surat, and Cutch. This scarcity was mainly 
due to the ravages of Jaswant Rao Holkar and his Pindaris, wlio 
destroyed the early crops as they were coming to maturity and pre- 
vented the late crops being sown. This scarcity was followed by the 
failure of the late rains in 1803. The pressure was greatest in July and 
August, 1804, and was so grievous that, according to tradition, men 
lived on human flesh. Grain is said to have been sold at a shilling 
the pound. In 1824-5 a failure of the early rains caused consider- 
able and widespread scarcity. In 1862 there was again distress on 
account of scanty rainfall. 

The early rains of 1876 were deficient and badly distributed, and 
the crops failed, distress amounting to famine over about one-half of 
the District, the east and south-east portions suffering most. This was 
followed by a partial failure of the rains in September and October, 
when only a small area of late crops could be sown, ^^'ith high prices, 
millet at 8| instead of 17^ seers per rupee, and no demand for field 
work, the poorer classes fell into distress. The need for Government 
help began about the beginning of October. The long period of dry 
weather in July and August, 1877, forced prices still higher, and caused 
much suffering ; but the plentiful and timely rainfall of September and 
October removed all cause of anxiety. By the close of November the 
demand for special Government help had ceased. On May 19, 1877, 
when famine pressure was general and severe, 46,000 labourers were 
on relief works. The total cost of the famine was estimated at about 
12 lakhs. In the eastern ialiikas the number of cattle decreased from 


994,000 in 1876-7 to 775,000 in 1877-8. In 1878 the cultivated 
area fell short of that in 1876 by about 18,400 acres. 

In the famine of 1896-7 the District again suffered severely. In 
December, 1896, the number on relief works was 6,700. It rose to 
27,000 in April, 1897, and then began to fall. The number on chari- 
table relief was 5,000 in September, 1897. The last scarcity occurred 
in 1899-1900, when the late rains failed. The drought was specially 
marked in the region east of the Kistna river. Relief works were 
necessary in 1899. By May, 1900, 47,000 persons were on works, 
excluding 8,000 dependents and 2,000 in receipt of gratuitous relief. 
The latter number rose to 17,000 in September. The distress con- 
tinued till October, 1901, owing to the capricious rainfall of 1900. 
The total cost of the famine was estimated at 16 lakhs, and the 
advances to agriculturists and remissions of land revenue amounted 
to 18 lakhs. It is calculated that there was a mortality of nearly 
30,000 in excess of the normal during the period, and that 200,000 
cattle died. 

The Collector's staff usually includes three Assistants or Deputies. 
The District is divided into eleven tabikas : namely, Karad, Valva, 
. . . Satara, Wai, Javli, Khanapur, Koregaox, Patan, 
Man, Kh.\tao, andTASGAON. The /d/u^as of Yaha. 
and Wai include the petty divisions {pethds) of Shirala and Khandala, 
and Javli includes Malcolmpeth. The Collector is Political Agent for 
the Aundh and Phaltan States. 

The District and Sessions Judge is assisted for civil business by 
an Assistant Judge, one Subordinate Judge under the Deccan Agri- 
culturists' Relief Act, and eight other Subordinate Judges. There are 
usually 34 magistrates to administer criminal justice. The usual forms 
of crime are hurt, theft, and mischief. Dacoity is common in the 
southern portion of the District. 

Before the rise of the Marathas and during their supremacy many 
surveys were made of parts or the whole of the Satara territory, appa- 
rently with the object of readjusting rather than of altering the assess- 
ment, which, under the name of kamdl or rack rental, had remained the 
same for years. No accurate account of the Bijapur survey remains, 
but the standard of assessment was continued in some villages to the 
end of the Peshwas' rule (1818). When Sivaji took the country (1655) 
he made a new but imperfect survey on the model of Malik Ambar's, 
fixing two-fifths of the produce or its equivalent in money as the 
government share. The Mughals introduced the system of Todar 
Mai, fixing the assessment, not by measurement as in the districts 
conquered earlier, but by the average produce or its equivalent in 
money. In some cases Aurangzeb raised the rents for a few years 
as high as he could, and this amount was ever afterwards entered in 



the accounts as the kamal or rack rental. In the time of BalajT Baji 
Rao some villages in Wai, Valva, Khanapur, and Karad were measured, 
but do not seem to have been assessed. BajT Rao II introduced the 
farming or contract system, for both revenue and expenditure. The 
contractors usually had civil and criminal jurisdiction, and treated the 
landholders with the greatest harshness. The result of the excessive 
bids made by the contractors to please Baji Rao was that most vil- 
lages were burdened with a heavy debt incurred on the responsibility 
of the headman and on behalf of the village. The first step after the 
establishment of the Satara Raja in 18 18 was to abolish the con- 
tract system and to revert to a strictly personal or ryohvar settlement ; 
but the old and very heavy assessment remained. About 1822 the 
rates returned for good land varied from Rs. 18 to Rs. 1-2 per acre; 
for mixed land from Rs. 9 to 13^ annas ; and for uplands from Rs. 2-4 
to 4^ annas. The rate for garden land varied from Rs. 28 to Rs. 1-2. 
Between 182 1 and 1829 (\aptain Adams surveyed all the lands of 
the State. The arable area was divided into numbers or fields, and 
the areas of all holdings and grants or inams were fixed. When in 
1848 the District was resumed by the British Government, the revenue 
survey was introduced, beginning with Tasgaon in 1852-3, and com- 
prising the whole of the District before 1883. A revision between 1888 
and 1897 di.sclosed an increase in cultivation of 7,000 acres. The 
revised .settlement raised the total land revenue from ii^ lakhs to 
nearly 17 lakhs. Under the current survey .settlement the average 
rate of assessment for 'dry' land is 15 annas, for rice land Rs. 3-14, 
and for garden land Rs. 3-9. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 

1880-1. i8yo-l. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 





There are twelve municipalities in the District: Satara Citv, Wai, 
Kahimatpur, Karad, Islampur, Ashta, Tasgaon, Vita, Mayni, 
Mhasvad, Malcolmpeth, and Satara Suburban, with an aggregate 
income of \\ lakhs. Local affairs outside these are managed by the 
District board and 11 local boards. The total receipts of these 
boards in 1903-4 was more than 2\ lakhs, the principal source of in- 
come being the local fund cess ; and the expenditure was a little less 
than that sum. Of the total expenditure, nearly one lakh, or 40 per 
cent., was laid out on roads and buildings in 1903-4. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by an Assistant 


Superintendent and two inspectors. 'J'here are 17 police stations and 
a total police force of 966, of which 16 are chief constables, 196 head 
constables, and 754 constables. The mounted police number 7, under 
one daffaddr. The District contains 19 subsidiary jails, with accom- 
modation for 424 prisoners. The daily average number of prisoners 
during 1904 was 89, of whom 5 were females. 

vSatara stands nineteenth among the Iwcnty-four Districts of the 
Presidency in the literacy of its population, of whom 4 per cent 
(8 per cent, males and 0-3 females) could read and write in 1901. In 
1865 there were 104 schools and 6,100 pupils. The number of pupils 
rose to 12,851 in 1881 and to 23,168 in 1891, but fell in 1901 to 22,146. 
In 1903-4 there were 352 public schools with 16,962 pupils, of whom 
1,519 were girls, besides 47 private schools with 878 pupils. Of the 
352 institutions classed as public, one is managed by Government, 
282 by the local boards, and 36 by the municipal boards, 31 are aided 
and 2 unaided. The public schools include 3 high, 7 middle, and 
342 primary schools. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was more than r|- lakhs. Of this. Local funds contributed Rs. 50,000, 
municipalities Rs. 10,000, and fees Rs. 25,000. About 74 per cent, 
of the total was devoted to primary schools. 

In 1904 the District possessed 2 hospitals and 9 dispensaries and 
7 other medical institutions, with accommodation for 124 in-patients. 
About 106,960 persons were treated, including 818 in-patients, and 
3,609 operations were performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 19,770, 
of which Rs. 11,370 was met from municipal and local board funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was nearly 
28,000, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000 of population, which 
is almost equal to the average of the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xix (1885) : W. W. Loch, 
Historical Account of the Poona, Sdtdra, and Sholaptir Districts (1877).] 

Satara Taluka. — Tdluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between 
17° 30' and 17° 50' N. and 73° 48' and 74° 10' E., with an area of 
339 square miles. It contains one town, Satara (population, 26,022), 
the District and tdluka head-quarters; and 152 villages. The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 128,391, compared with 139,892 in 1891. The 
density, 379 persons per square mile, is the highest in the District. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was more than 1-9 lakhs, and 
for cesses Rs. 19,000. Satara includes the three valleys of the Kistna, 
Vena, and Urmodi rivers, which are open and slope gently towards the 
base of steep and bare hills. Clumps of mangoes stud the valleys, and 
babul grows plentifully on the banks of the Kistna. The soil near the 
rivers is rich and black, but grows gradually grey and poorer towards 
the hills. The climate is healthy, and the rainfall, averaging 40 inches, 
is higher than in most other tdlukas. 


Satara City. —Head-quarters of Satara District, Bombay, situated 
in 17° 41' N. and 74° E., 10 miles from Satiira Road station on the 
Southern Mahratta Raihvay, near the confluence of the Kistna and the 
Vena. The strong fort of Satara is perched on the summit of a small, 
steep, rocky hill. It takes its name from the seventeen {satara) walls, 
towers, and gates which it is supposed to have possessed. At the close 
of the war with the Peshwa in 18 18, it fell, after a short resistance, into 
the hands of the British, but was restored with the adjacent territory 
to the representative of Sivaji's line, who, during the Peshwa's ascen- 
dancy, had lived there as a State prisoner. In 1848, on the death 
of the last Raja, the principality escheated to the British. The town, 
lying at the foot of the hill fortress, consisted in 1820 of one long 
street of tiled houses, built partly of stone and partly of brick. After 
the breaking up of the Raja's court, the population considerably 
decreased. But Satara is still a large place, with a population in 
1901 of 26,022, including 2,917 in suburban and 990 in cantonment 
limits. Hindus numiiered 21,795, Muhammadans 3,275, Jains 253, 
and Christians 599. The municipality, established in 1853, had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 69,000. In 
^903-4 the income was Rs. 60,000. The suburban municipality, estab- 
lished in 1890, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 
of Rs. 7,400. In 1903-4 the income Avas Rs. 8,000. Satara has few 
large or ornamental buildings, with the exception of the Raja's palace 
now used as the Judge's court. On account of its high position, 
2,320 feet above sea-level, the climate is unusually pleasant. The 
water-supply is obtained by aqueducts and pipes from the Kas lake 
in the hills, 16 miles from the city. A civil hospital is situated here. 

Satgaon. — Ruined town in Hooghly District, Bengal, situated in 
22° 58' N. and 88° 23' E., to the north-west of Hooghly town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 153. Satgaon was the mercantile capital of Bengal from 
the days of Hindu rule until the foundation of Hooghly by the Portu- 
guese. Its decay dates from the silting-up of the channel of the 
SaraswatT; and nothing now remains to indicate its former grandeur 
except a ruined mosque, the modern village consisting of a few miser- 
able huts. Satgaon is said to have been one of the resting-places of 
Bhaglrathi. De Barros writes that it was * less frequented than Chitta- 
gong, on account of the port not being so convenient for the entrance 
and the departure of ships.' Purchas states it to be 'a fair citie for 
a citie of the Moores, and very plentiful, but sometimes subject to 
Patnaw.' In 1632, when Hooghly was declared a royal port, all the 
public offices were withdrawn from Satgaon, which rapidly fell into 

Sathalli. — Village in the Hassan taluk of Hassan District, Mysore, 
situated 10 miles south-west of Hassan town. Population (1901), 105. 


It is of interest as the centre of a ('hristian agricultural community, 
which had its origin in the labours of the well-known Abbe Dubois. 
There is a group of twelve villages, almost entirely inhabited by 
Christians, who follow their original customs in all matters not con- 
cerned with religion. 

Sathamba. — Petty State in Mah! Kantha, Bombay. 

Satkhira Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Khulna District, 
Bengal, lying between 21° 38' and 22° 57' N. and 88° 54' and 89° 23' E., 
with an area of 749 square miles. The northern i)art of the subdivision 
resembles in its general physical characteristics the adjoining thdnas of 
Jessore ; the drainage is bad and there are numerous swamps. The 
southern portion includes a large area in the Sundarbans, where there 
is much fertile land awaiting reclamation. The population in 1901 was 
488,217, compared with 495,600 in 1891, the density being 652 persons 
per square mile. It contains two towns, Satkhira (population, 8,356), 
the head-quarters, and Debhata (5,454) ; and 1,467 villages. IswarI- 
PUR was the old capital of Raja Pratapaditya. Debhata and KalIganj 
are trading centres. 

Satkhira Town, — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Khulna District, Bengal, situated in 22° 43' N. and 89° 5' E., 
on a khal or channel connected with the IchamatT river. Population 
(1901), 8,356. Satkhira was constituted a municipality in 1869. The 
income during the decade ending 190T-2 averaged Rs. 4,600, and 
the expenditure Rs. 4,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,500, 
mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 6,500. The town contains the usual public ofifices, a sub-jail 
with accommodation for 12 prisoners, as well as many Hindu temples. 

Satlasna. — Petty State in Mah! Kantha, Bombay. 

Satmala.— Range of hills in Bombay, Berar, and the Hyderabad 
State, which also bears the names of the Ajanta, Chandor, and 
Indhyadri hills, and Sahyadriparbat. 

Satna (or Raghurajnagar). — Town in the Rewah State, Central India, 
situated in 24° 34' N. and 80° 50'' E., on the Jubbulpore- Allahabad 
section of the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 7,471. Satna 
is the head-quarters of the Political Agent in Baghelkhand and of the 
Raghurajnagar tahsil of Rewah. It is a place of considerable com- 
mercial importance and the principal centre of trade in the State, the 
value of exports and imports passing through the. town being about 
4 lakhs a year. The principal exports are wheat, rice, linseed, and ghl ; 
and the imports, kerosene oil, cotton, cloth, and sugar. The town is 
clean and well built, with many good houses. To the west and across 
the railway lie the Agency limits, containing the residence of the 
Political Agent, offices, and other buildings. Satna was selected as 
the head-quarters in 1872, before which date the Political officer lived 


at Nagod. The Agency limits occupy 95 acres, witli a population 
(1901) of 382. A high school, a Government </f /-^-bungalow, a combined 
post and telegraph office, and an Agency hospital and State dispensary 
are situated iti the town. 

Satodad-Vavdi. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Satpuras (or Satpuras). — A range of hills in the centre of India. 
The name, which is modern, originally belonged only to the hills which 
divide the Narbada and Tapti valleys in Nimar (Central Provinces), 
and which were styled the satpufra or ' seven sons ' of the Vindhyan 
mountains. Another derivation is from saipura (' sevenfolds '), referring 
to the numerous parallel ridges of the range. The term Satpuras is 
now, however, customarily applied to the whole range which, com- 
mencing at Amarkantak in Rewah, Central India (22° 41" N. and 
8r** 48' E.), runs south of the Narbada river nearly down to the 
western coast. The Satpuras are sometimes, but incorrectly, included 
under the Vindhva range. Taking Amarkantak as the eastern 
boundary, the Satpuras extend from east to west for about 600 miles, 
and in their greatest width, where they stretch down to Berar, exceed 
100 miles from north to south. The shape of the range is almost 
triangular. f>om Amarkantak an outer ridge {see Maikala) runs 
south-west for about 100 miles to the Saletekri hills in Balaghat 
District (Central Provinces), thus forming as it were the head of the 
range which, shrinking as it proceeds westward from a broad table-land 
to two parallel ridges, ends, so far as the Central Provinces are con- 
cerned, at the famous hill fortress of Asirgarh. Beyond this point 
the RnjpTpla hills, which separate the valley of the Narbada from that 
of the Tapti, complete the chain as far as the Western Ghats. On 
the table-land comprised between the northern and southern faces 
of the range are situated the Central Provinces District of Mandla, 
and part of Balaghat, SeonI, Chhindwara, and Betul. 

The superficial stratum covering the main Satpura range is trappean ; 
but in parts of the Central Provinces crystalline rocks are uppermost, 
and over the Pachmarhi hills sandstone is also uncovered. In Mandla 
the higher peaks are capped with laterite. On the north and south 
the approaches to the Satpuras are marked as far west as Turanmal 
by low lines of foot-hills. These are succeeded by the steep slopes 
leading up to the summit of the plateau, traversed in all directions 
by narrow deep ravines, hollowed out by the action of the streams and 
rivers, and covered throughout their extent with forest. 

Portions of the Satpura plateau consist, as in Mandla and the north 
of Chhindwara, of a rugged mass of hills hurled together by volcanic 
action. But the greater part is an undulating table-land, a succession 
of bare stony ridges and narrow fertile valleys, into which the soil has 
been deposited by drainage. In a few level tracts, as in the valleys 


of the Afaclina and Sanipna near Betul, and tlie open [)lain between 
Seonl and Chhindwara, there are extensive areas of productive land. 
Scattered over the plateau, isolated flat-topped hills rise abruptly from 
the plain. The scenery of the northern and southern hills, as observed 
from the roads which traverse them, is of remarkable beauty. The 
drainage of the Satpuras is carried off on the north by the Narbada, 
and on the south by the Wainganga, Wardha, and Tapti, all of which 
have their source in these hills. 

The highest peaks are contained in the northern range, rising 
abruptly from the valley of the Narbada, and generally sloping d(jwn 
to the plateau, but towards the west the southern range has the greater 
elevation. Another noticeable feature is a number of small table-lands 
lying among the hills at a greater height than the bulk of the plateau. 
Of these, PachmarhI (3,530 feet) and Chikalda in Berar (3,664 feet) 
have been formed into hill stations : while Raigarh (2,200 feet) in 
Balaghat District and Khamla in Betul (3,800 feet) are famous grazing 
and breeding grounds for cattle. Dhupgarh (4,454 feet) is the highest 
point on the range, and there are a few others of over 4,000 feet. 
Among the peaks that rise from 3,000 to 3,800 feet above sea-level, 
the grandest is Turanmal (Bombay Presidency), a long, rather narrow 
table-land 3,300 feet above the sea and about 16 square miles in area. 
West of this the mountainous land presents a wall-like appearance 
towards both the Narbada on the north and the Tapti on the south. 
On the eastern side the Tasdin Vali (Central India) commands 
a magnificent view of the surrounding country. The general height 
of the plateau is about 2,000 feet. 

The hills and slopes are clothed with forest extending over some 
thousands of square miles ; but much of this is of little value, owing 
to unrestricted fellings prior to the adoption of a system of conservancy, 
and to the shifting cultivation practised by the aboriginal tribes, which 
led to patches being annually cleared and burnt down. The most 
valuable forests are those of sal {Shorea rohustd) on the eastern hills, 
and teak on the west. 

The Satpura Hills have formed in the past a refuge for aboriginal 
or Dravidian tribes driven out of the plains by the advance of Hindu 
civilization. Here they retired, and occupied the stony and barren 
slopes which the new settlers, with the rich lowlands at their disposal, 
disdained to cultivate ; and here they still rear their light rains crops 
of millets which are scarcely more than grass, barely tickling the soil 
with the plough, and eking out a scanty subsistence with the roots and 
fruits of the forests, and the pursuit of game. The Baigas, the wildest 
of these tribes, have even now scarcely attained to the rudiments of 
cultivation ; but the Gonds, the Korkus, and the BhIls have made 
some progress by contact with their Hindu neighbours. 


The open {)lateau has for two or three centuries been peopled by 
Hindu immigrants; but it is only in the last fifty years that travelling 
has been rendered safe and easy, by the construction of metalled roads 
winding uj) the stee[) passes and enabling wheeled traffic to pass over 
the heavy land of the valleys. Till then such trade as existed was 
conducted by nomad Banjaras on pack-bullocks. The first railway 
across the Satpura plateau, a narrow-gauge extension of the Bengal- 
Nagpur line from Gondia to Jubbulporc, has recently been opened. 
The Great Indian Peninsula Railway, from Bombay to Julibulporc, 
runs through a breach in the range just east of Asirgarh, while the 
Bombay-Agra road crosses farther to the west. 

Satpuras, East. — The eastern extension of the Satpura Hills of 
Central India, lying east and south of the Son. In the United 
Provinces they form a wilderness of parallel ridges of low rocky hills, 
extending over 1,700 square miles in the south of Mirzapur, and 
covered with jungle, with the exception of a large basin in tapj>a 
Singrauli and a smaller area in DudhI where the soil is alluvial and 
allows cultivation. Coal has been found in Singrauli, and an attempt 
was made in 1896 to work it. The few inhabitants are chiefly jungle 
tribes, Kols, &c., resembling those in Chota Nagpur. 

Sattanapalle. — Taluk in the north of Guntur District, Madras, 
lying between 16° 15' and 16° 49' N. and 79° 51' and 80° 26' E., with 
an area of 714 square miles. The po{)ulation in 1901 was 159,645, 
compared with 138,617 in 1891. It contains 168 villages, of which 
Sattanapalle is the head-quarters. The demand on account of land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,49,000. A wide 
extent of black cotton soil produces heavy crops of cotton, the staple 
product. There is practically only one main road, with two or three 
subsidiary branches ; and in wet weather the black soil and the water- 
courses with their treacherous beds become almost impassable. 

Sattankulam. — Town in the Srivaikuntam idluk of Tinnevelly 
District, Madras, situated in 8° 27' N. and 77° 55' E. It derives its 
importance from its situation on the border of the great palmyra forest 
in the south-east of the District. Jaggery (coarse sugar) goes from 
here to Palamcottah in large quantities. It is a Union, with a popu- 
lation (1901) of 6,953, and is the head-quarters of a Roman Catholic 
mission which possesses a church and some schools. Two miles to 
the east is Mudalur, one of the chief Christian villages in Tinnevelly 
District, with a fine Gothic church. 

SatthAva. — South-eastern township of Magwe District, Upper 
Burma, lying between 19° 39' and 20° 9' N. and 95° 19' and 
95° 51' E., with an area of 469 square miles. The township is one 
of the great rice-producing areas of Upper Burma, being low-lying and 
fairly well watered. Near Kokkogwa, on the Yabe stream, is the old 

134 SATT/nVA 

capital of Paikthado, the walls of three sides of which remain. The 
l)opulation was 53,216 in 1 891, and 53,424 in 1901, distributed in 
one town, TAUNcnwiNf.Yi (population, 5,041), and 223 villages. 
There were about 1,800 Chins in the township in 1901. The head- 
quarters are at Satthwa (population, 288), a village due south of 
Taungdwingyi, where there is an important bazar. In 1903-4 the 
area cultivated was 127 square miles, and the land revenue and 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 86,000. 

Sattur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Tinnevelly District, Madras, 
consisting of the taluks of Sattur and Srivilt,iputtur. 

Sattur Taluk. — Northernmost taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, 
lying between 9° 2' and 9° 43' N. and 77° 43' and 78° 9' E., with an 
area of 560 square miles. The taluk is comparatively sparsely peopled, 
the total population in 1901 being 186,694, compared with 184,329 in 
1891, or a little more than 330 persons per square mile. It contains 
three towns, Virudupatti (population, 16,837), Sivakasi (13,021), 
and Sattur (7,870), the head-quarters; and 206 villages. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2,68,000. The northern and eastern villages are chiefly black 
cotton soil, while the southern and south-western portions consist of 
red loam and sand. The only river is the Vaippar, which is not of 
much use for irrigation. Cotton is the staple product, but cantbu is 
also largely grown. There is a good deal of careful cultivation of 
garden crops with well-irrigation, but the area of ' wet ' lands is small. 
The taluk includes a considerable number of zamlnddri and indvi 
villages, none of which, however, is very large. 

Sattiir Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 9° 22' N. and 77° 55' E., with 
a station on the South Indian Railway. Sattur is also the head- 
quarters of the officer in charge of the subdivision comprising the 
Sattur and Srivilliputtur taluks. It is a Union, with a population 
(1901) of 7,870, and has a Local fund hospital. There are two cotton- 
pressing and ginning factories, which employ in the aggregate 200 

Satwas.— Head-quarters of the Nemawar district of Indore State, 
Central India, situated in 22° 32' N. and 76° 43' E., between the 
Chankeshar and Datum rivers, in the Narbada valley. Population 
(1901), 1,743. The village is an old one, and from the numerous 
remains which it contains must have been a place of considerable 
importance under the Mughals, when it was the head-quarters of 
a mahal in the sarkar of Hindia in the STibah of Malwa. A fort 
stands in the centre of the village. Three miles south-east is a fine 
old dam across the Datun! river, now much out of repair. In 1801 
a severe encounter took place at Satwas between Jaswant Rao Holkar 


and Major Brovvnrigg, who was commanding a force of Sindhia's 
troops. A little later the notorious Pindari leader Chitu obtained 
land in this district, and made Satwas and Nemawar his two principal 
places of residence. From 1844 it remained in the hands of the 
British authorities till 1861, when it passed to Holkar. Besides the 
district offices, the village contains a State post office, a school, and 
an inspection bungalow. 

Satyabadi. — \'illage in the Khurda subdivision of Purl District, 
Bengal, situated in 19° 57' N. and 85° 4c/ E. Population (1901), 
1,547. It contains a shrine dedicated to Sakhl Gopal, an incarnation 
of Krishna, which is visited by all pilgrims going to Purl. 

Satyamangalam Taluk. — North-west taluk of Coimbatore District, 
Madras, lying between 11° 15' and ii°49'N. and 76° 50' and 77°35''E., 
with an area of 1,177 square miles. The population increased from 
184,017 in 1891 to 214,101 in 1901, or by 16 per cent. Besides 
GopiCHETTiPALAiVAM (population, 10,227), the head-quarters, it contains 
175 villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 4,42,000. Almost half the taluk, its northern and eastern portions, 
is covered by hills which contain excellent forests. Of the cultivable 
area about 13 per cent, is usually irrigated, and this contains a large 
proportion of the best classes of land in the District. It is fed mainly 
from the Bhavaxi river, which traverses the taluk from west to east, 
and the area watered by channels is larger than in any other taluk. 
On the 'dry' land cavibu is by far the most common crop. The 
rainfiiU averages 27 inches annually. The tract which lies below the 
hills is well supplied with roads, but there are no railways or tele- 
graphs in any portion of it. After KoUegal it is the most sparsely 
peopled taluk in the District. 

Satyamangalam Town. — Till recently the head-quarters of the 
taluk of the same name in Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 
ii°3o'N. and 77° 15' E., on the Bhavani river at the foot of the 
northern Coimbatore hills. Population (1901), 3,680. Though 
apparently never strongly fortified, it derived some strategical impor- 
tance from the fact that it lies near the southern end of the Gazalhatti 
Pass, which was the ordinary route from Mysore to this District. 
Under the Naik dynasty of Madura it was the residence of a deputy- 
governor. In the beginning of the seventeenth century it was the 
local head-quarters of the Jesuits. It fell into the hands of the Mysore 
kings in 1653, was held by the British for some time after Colonel 
Wood's sudden but short occupation of the District in 1768, arnd was 
abandoned before Haidar's advance at the end of the same year. 
A ruined mud fort in the neighbouring pass was bravely but un- 
successfully defended in this campaign by Lieutenant Andrews, who 
was killed by the besiegers. The town was occupied by a division 



under Colonel Floyd during Clencral Medows's campaign in this 
District in 1790, preparatory to a general advance into Mysore by the 
Gazalhatti Pass. But Tipu descended the pass in September of that 
year, crossed the Bhavani above Satyamangalam, and fought two 
engagements with the British on the same day. In the first of these, 
a cavalry fight, the British were completely successful, and in the 
second, an artillery duel, they held their ground though they suffered 
severely. It was, however, decided not to risk a general encounter, 
and the place was abandoned by Colonel Floyd on the following 
morning. Satyamangalam is now the head-quarters of a deputy- 
tahs'ildar and stationary sub-magistrate. It is an ordinary market 
town without special features. 

Saugor District {Sdgar). — District of the Jubbulpore Division in 
the extreme north-west of the Central Provinces, lying between 23° 9' 
and 24° 27' N. and 78° 4' and 79° 22' E., with an area of 3,962 square 
miles. It forms with Damoh an extension of the great Malwa plateau, 
and consists of a fiat open black-soil tract about i ,000 feet above the 
level of the Narbada valley, from which it is separated by the steep 
escarpment of the Vindhyan Hills. It is bounded on the north by the 
Jhansi District of the United Provinces and by the Native States of 
Panna, Bijawar, and Charkharl; on the east by Panna and Damoh 
District ; on the south by Narsinghpur District and the Native State 
of Bhopal ; and on the west by the States of Bhopal and Gwalior. 
The District is narrowest at its south-eastern corner, 
cts ^'^^ slopes towards the north-east, gradually extend- 

ing in width until it culminates in the heights over- 
looking the Bundelkhand plain. The country generally is undulating, 
with numerous isolated hills. The most open parts are the plain 
forming the Khurai fahsll on the north-west, and that which consists 
of the Garhakota, Rehll, and Deori parga?ias on the south-east. East 
of the Khurai tahsll, which is separated from Saugor and Banda by 
a low range of hills, the character of the country is very broken, low 
flat-topped hills rising from the plain in all directions, some covered 
with trees, others stony and barren. On the south-east and north-east 
of the District lie thick belts of forest. The drainage of the country 
is almost entirely to the north and east, the watershed of the Narbada 
commencing only from the summit of the range immediately over- 
looking it. The principal rivers are the Sonar, the Bewas, the 
Dhasan, the Bina, and the Betwa. Of these, the Sonar, Bewas, and 
Dhasan flow from south-west to north-east, the course of the last 
named being more northerly than that of the other two. The Bina 
flows through the extreme west of the District, and the Betwa marks 
for some distance the border separating the northern portion of the 
Khurai tahs'il from the State of Gwalior. Two small streams, the 


Biranj and Sindhor, take their rise in the Deori pargana ctf the Rehll 
iahsil and flow south to the Narbada. 

The greater part of the District is covered by the Deccan trap; but 
there are two great inUers of Vindhyan sandstone, one to the north 
running down nearly as far as Saugor, and the other to the east extend- 
ing from near Garhakota to beyond Surkhl. To the east or south-east 
of Saugor the infra-trappean or Lameta hmestone is largely developed. 
Calcareous inter-trappean bands with fossilized shells and plants also 
occur largely near Saugor. 

The \'indhyan Hills are generally poorly wooded. Saugor contains 
some almost pure teak forest in the west near Jaisinghnagar and 
Rahatgarh, and teak mixed with other species elsewhere. Sandal- 
wood is found in small areas, and bamboos occupy the slopes of most 
of the hills. The bamboo is fairly well reproduced by seed, but the 
forests are full of dead trees, and are in poor condition for the most 
part. Belts of chiuld ox palas {Biitea frondosd) are found in the rich 
black soil of the open plateaux, and of plains at the foot of the hills, 
such as those near Saugor. The cultivated portions of the District 
are marked by the presence near villages of scattered trees or groves 
of mango, tamarind, fnahud (Bassia latifolia), and ptpal. 

Among wild animals, sdmbar, filigai, and spotted deer are numerous, 
and hog are still more common. Four-horned deer, barking-deer, and 
mouse deer are occasionally met with. Herds of antelope are found 
all over the open country, especially in the Khurai tahsil. Game-birds, 
such as peafowl, spur-fowl, sand-grouse, partridges, and green pigeons, 
are fairly numerous; but water-fowl are not plentiful, owing to the 
absence of tanks. Mahseer of small size are numerous in most of 
the rivers, and miirrel [Opkiocephaius siriaius) are caught in every 

The climate of the District is pleasant considering the latitude. 
The minimum temperature is about 41° in the cold season, and the 
maximum summer heat about 112°. The District is healthy during 
the greater part of the year. The annual rainfall averages 47 inches. 
Failures of crops appear on the whole to have been caused in equal 
degree by deficiency and by excess of rainfall. 

The early history of Saugor is mainly a matter of tradition. The 
old capital, Garhpahra, 7 miles north of the present city, is supposed 
lo have been founded by a Gond dynasty. The 
Gonds were succeeded by a tribe of Ahirs called '^ °^^' 

the Fauladia, to whom is attributed the foundation of the fort at Rehli. 
Some Ahir landowners still claim to be their descendants and bear the 
title of Rao. About 1023 the AhIrs were supplanted by one Nihalsha, 
a Rajput of Jalaun, who took possession of Saugor and the surround- 
ing country. Nihalsha's descendants retained possession for about 


600 years, but are said to have been defeated by the Chandels of 
Mahoba and suljjected to tribute. The two Banaphar warriors of the 
Chandel Rajas, Alha and Udal, are popular heroes, and their fifty-two 
battles are celebrated in song. Alha is still supposed to live in the 
forests of Orchha, and nightly to kindle the lamp in a temple of Devi 
on a hill in the forest. Saugor itself was founded in 1660 by Udan 
Sha, a Dangi chief, said to be one of Nihalsha's descendants, who built 
a small fort on the site of the present one and settled the village of 
Parkota, which is now part of the town. The grandson of Udan Sha, 
PrithwTpat, a man of weak intellect, was dispossessed by Chhatarsal, 
the famous Bundela Raja. He was restored by the Raja of Jaipur, but 
was again ousted by the Muhammadan chief of Kurwai, and retired 
to Bilehra, which with four other villages is still held free of revenue by 
his descendants. In 1735 Saugor was taken by a nephew of Bajl Rao, 
the Maratha Peshwa, who left his lieutenant, Govind Rao Pandit, in 
charge of the conquered territory. Govind Rao paid great attention 
to the improvement of the town and surrounding country. The fort 
of Saugor as it now stands was built by him, and the town grew into 
a city under his administration and became the capital of this part of 
the country. He was killed in 1761 at the battle of PanTpat, and the 
Peshwa gave Saugor and the surrounding country revenue free to his 
descendants, who continued to hold possession until it was ceded to 
the British. During their rule the city was sacked three times : twice 
by Amir Khan, Pindari, and once by Sindhia after a long siege in 181 4. 
In 1818 Saugor was ceded to the British by the Peshwa, and became 
part of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, which were for a time 
attached to the North-Western Provinces. In March, 1842, occurred 
what is known as the Bundela insurrection. Two Bundela landholders, 
who had been served with civil court decrees, rose in rebellion and 
sacked several towns. They were joined by a Gond chief, and dis- 
affection extended into the adjoining District of Narsinghpur. In the 
following year the revolt was put down, but the District had suffered 
severely and the land revenue was realized with difficulty for several 

In 1857 the garrison of Saugor consisted of two regiments of native 
infantry and one of cavalry, with a few European gunners. Shortly 
after the commencement of the Mutiny the European residents moved 
into the fort. The sepoys remained in their lines for a short time, when 
the 42nd Regiment and the 3rd Irregular Cavalry mutinied, the 31st 
Regiment remaining faithful. The two mutinous regiments moved off 
towards Shahgarh, a Native State to the north ; the Rajas of Shahgarh 
and Banpur then entered the District and took possession of the 
greater part of it. At the same time the Nawab of Garhi Amapani, 
a place now in Bhopal, occupied Rahatgarh. The whole District was 


thus in the hands of the rebels, the Europeans holding only the town 
and fort of Saugor. This state of things continued for about eight 
months, during which time three indecisive engagements were fought. 
In February, 1858, Sir Hugh Rose arrived at Rahatgarh with the 
Central India Field Force, defeated the rebels, and took the fort. 
Thence he passed on to Barodia Naunagar, about 10 miles from 
Rahatgarh, where he met and defeated the troops of the Raja of 
Banpur, and then came into Saugor. All the rebels about Rahatgarh 
and Khurai now fled. Passing through Saugor Sir Hugh Rose went 
on to Garhakota, where he met and defeated the Raja of Shahgarh's 
troops, and took the fort, in which the rebels had left a large quantity 
of treasure and property of all kinds. He then came back to Saugor 
and marched towards Jhansi, meeting the remainder of the Shahgarh 
Raja's troops at Madanpur and defeating them with great slaughter. 
By the beginning of March, 1858, a regular administration was restored, 
and the police and revenue offices re-established. The dominions of 
the Shahgarh Raja were confiscated, and a part of them was added 
to Saugor District. 

Dhamoni, 29 miles north of Saugor, contains a large fort almost in 
ruins and surrounded by jungle. At Khimlasa, 42 miles north-west of 
Saugor, and the old head-quarters of the Khurai tahs'il, are situated 
a fort and a Muhammadan tomb, the walls of the latter being of per- 
forated screen-work. Of the numerous other forts in the District, the 
largest is that at Rahatgarh, 25 miles west of Saugor, which is ascribed 
to the Muhammadan rulers of Bhopal. The outer walls consist of 26 
enormous round towers, some of which were used as dwellings, con- 
nected by curtain walls and enclosing a space of 66 acres. Within is 
a palace called the Badal Mahal, or 'cloud palace,' from its great 
height. There are also forts at Rehli, Garhakot.\, Khurai, DeorI, 
and Jaisinghnagar, with masonry walls protected by massive towers ; 
but these are now for the most part in ruins. 

At the Census of 1901, Saugor contained 5 towns — Saugor, Garha- 
kota, Etawa, Khurai, and DeorI — and 1,924 villages. The popu- 
lation at the last three enumerations has been as 
follows : (r88i) 564,950 ; (1891) 591,743 ; and (1901) PoP^^^tion. 
471,046. Both in 1 88 1 and 1891 the rate of increase was far below 
that of the Province as a whole, owing to a long succession of partially 
unfavourable seasons, which retarded the natural increase of population 
and also caused a certain amount of emigration to Central India. 
Between 1891 and 1901 Saugor with Damoh suffered from a more 
disastrous succession of failures of crops than any other part of the 
Province. In 1902 a tract of 11 villages with some Government forest 
was transferred from Saugor to Narsinghpur, and the corrected totals of 
area and population are 3,962 square miles and 469,479 persons. The 




statistics ul population in kjoi given bel<nv have been adjusted on 
account of this transfer : — 





Number of 





1 = 




Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and looi. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 








Sanger . 




District total 








- 19.8 

- 25-6 

- 16.5 









— 20-4 


About 87 per cent, of the population are Hindus, and 4 per cent. 
Animists, the latter proportion being very low in comparison with that for 
the Province as a whole. Muhammadans number 23,215, or 5 per cent, 
of the population, but 13,000 of these live in towns. There are more 
than 15,000 Jains in the District, or nearly a third of the total number 
in the Province. The language of Saugor is the Bundeli dialect of 
Western Hindi, which is spoken by almost the whole population. Only 
3,800 persons speak Urdu and 6,500 Marathi. It is noticeable that the 
Marathl spoken in Saugor is the pure form of the language belonging 
to Poona, and not the Nagpur dialect. The forest tribes have entirely 
abandoned their own languages. 

The principal landholding castes in the District are Brahmans, Dan- 
gis, Lodhls, Kurmis, and Bundela Rajputs. Brahmans (41,000), who 
constitute nearly 9 per cent, of the population, have come from the 
north and west of India. The north country Brahmans have been in 
the District longest, and the Marathas immigrated at the time when it 
came under their rule. The Dangis (21,000) were formerly a dominant 
caste, and Saugor was sometimes called Dangiwara after them. They 
are principally malgiizdrs (landholders) and tenants, rarely labourers. 
Lodhls (39,000) constitute 8 per cent, of the population. They had the 
reputation of being quarrelsome and fond of display, but are now losing 
these characteristics. Kurmis (22,000) are quiet and industrious culti- 
vators, and averse to litigation. The Bundela Rajputs were a renowned 
freebooting tribe. They are proud and penurious to the last degree, 
and quick to resent the smallest slight. Even now it is said that no 
Bania dare go past a Bundela's house without getting down from his pony 
and folding up his umbrella. There are only one or two Muhammadan 
landowners of any importance. Of the forest tribes Gonds number 
22,000, or about 4^ per cent, of the population, and Savaras 13,000, or 
rather less than 3 per cent. The Gond Raja of Pitehra was formerly a 
feudatory of the Mandla dynasty, holding a considerable portion of the 



south of llic District. Both Gonds and Savaras in this District are 
comparatively civilized, and iiave partially adopted Hindu usages. 
About 65 per cent, of the total population are supported by agriculture. 

Christians number 1,357, of whom 665 are Roman Catholics, 230 
Lutherans, and 443 belong to the ('hurch of England. Of the total 
number, 768 are natives. There are Swedish Lutheran and Roman 
Catholic missions, of which the former is located at .Saugor and Khurai 
and the latter at Shyampura. ICtawa contains a station of the Christian 
Mission, a body with no sectarian tenets. 

The prevalent soil is a dark-coloured loam of varying depth, which 
has been formed partly by lacustrine deposit and partly by the disinte- 
gration of the trap rock, the loose particles of which . 
are washed off the hills into the depressions below. 
This soil is locally known as niund, and is much prized because it is 
easily workable, and not so favourable to the growth of rank grass as the 
more clayey soil found in other parts. It covers 56 per cent, of the area 
under cultivation. Kabar, or good black soil, covers 2 per cent., and 
raiydn, or thin black soil, 10 per cent, of the area under cultivation. 
The other soils are inferior and unsuitable for wheat. The .soil of the 
Khurai /^/w/ contains a large admixture of clay, and hence is somewhat 
stiffer and more difficult to work than that of Saugor and the open part 
of Rehll. The most serious obstacle to cultivation in Saugor District 
is the coarse kdus grass [Saccharum sponfanei/m) ; this rapidly invades 
black soil when left fallow, and, when once it has obtained a hold, 
covers the whole field with a network of roots, and can scarcely be 
eradicated by the ordinary country plough. Kans flourishes particularly 
in the clayey soil of the Khurai (aksi/, and during the period of adverse 
seasons has overrun large areas of fertile land. Attempts are now being 
made to eradicate it by means of embankments which will keep the 
fields under water during the rains. 

About 2^ square miles of land taken from Government forests are 
held on ryohvdri tenure ; 14 square miles by revenue-free grantees ; and 
the balance on the ordinary proprietary {fudlguzdri) tenure. The main 
agricultural stati.stics for 1903-4 are given below, areas being in sc[uare 
miles : — 











435 3 
238 1 

443 \ 
227 4 





1,343 8^ 



Formerly the wheat crop in Saugor District far exceeded any other. 

K 2 


In iSyi-2 the area under wheat was 805 square miles, but it then began 
to decline owing to a succession of bad seasons, and fell to 153 square 
miles in 1896-7. There has now been some recovery, and the figures 
for 1903-4 show 466 square miles under wheat, or 37 per cent, of the 
cropped area. Gram has been steadily growing in i)opularity, both 
because it has a recuperative effect on the soil, and because it is a less 
expensive crop to cultivate. It occupies 146 square miles, or 12 percent, 
of the cropped area. Linseed has been affected by the unfavourable 
seasons no less than wheat, and now occupies 56 square miles, or 4^ per 
cent, of the cropped area. Jowdr has in recent years increased greatly 
in popularity, as it is a cheap food-crop, and very little seed is required 
for it. At present the area under it is 171 square miles, or 14 per cent, 
of the total. Kodon covers 70 square miles, or more than 5 per cent. 
There are 20 square miles under cotton and 26 under rice. Til and 
ramtilli (Gidzotia abyssifiica) occupy 72 square miles. Betel-vine gar- 
dens are found in Saugor, Baleh, Sahajpur, and Jaisinghnagar, and the 
leaf of Baleh has some reputation. 

At the time of settlement (1892-3) the cropped area amounted to 
about 1,600 square miles, but the prolonged agricultural depression 
reduced this in 1905 to about 1,250 square miles. It may be antici- 
pated that with good harvests the more valuable spring crops will con- 
tinue to recover the ground lost. During the recent bad seasons large 
agricultural loans have been made, the total advances between 187 1 
and 1904 amounting to more than 8 lakhs. Of this total, about 
Rs. 50,000 has been remitted. Loans for the improvement of land 
have been taken to a much smaller extent, but over Rs. 50,000 was 
advanced between 1891 and 1904 for the construction of embankments 
for wheat-fields. 

Most of the cattle in the District are bred locally, and are small but 
hardy, though no care is exercised in breeding, and special bulls are 
not kept for this purpose. Superior plough-cattle are imported from 
Malwa and Gwalior, but not in large numbers. Buffaloes are not used 
for cultivation, but they are kept for the manufacture of ght, and the 
young bulls are taken by road to Chhattlsgarh and sold there. Ponies 
are bred in the District, but not to so large an extent as formerly. They 
are of very small size, and are used both for riding and pack-carriage. 
Since the extension of metalled roads the people prefer to travel in 
bullock-carts. Mules are bred in small numbers for sale to the Military 
department. Donkeys are used only as pack-animals by the lowest 

Only 5,500 acres, or i per cent, of the total under cultivation, were 
irrigated in 1903-4, and this area consists principally of rice or garden 
crops. Irrigation from temporary wells is common in the north of the 
Banda tahsJl, where the light soils respond more readily to it. The 


embanking of fields to hokl up moisture for wheat cultivation is scarcely 
practised at all in this District, but a few banks have been erected to 
prevent surface scouring on uneven land. Some of the leading land- 
holders have, however, now adopted the practice of embanking their 
fields, and exi)eri mental embankments have been constructed by 

Government forests cover 755 square miles, or rather less than 19 i)er 
cent, of the area of the District. There arc large forests in tlu- hills of 

the north and south, and a series of scattered blocks 

... I rorcsts, &c. 

on the range running hom north-east to south-west. 

Teak, sdj ( Terminalia lomciitosa), cinuld or palds {Jhtfca frotiJosa), and 

bamboos are the principal trees. Teak is fairly common, but the timber 

is inferior. The pa/ds scrub forest, found in the plains, is of an open 

nature, and the trees are freely propagated by seed, but the seedlings are 

often destroyed by the winter frosts and by fires in the hot season. 

.\mong minor products may be noticed charcoal, which is sold to the 

iron-workers of 'I'endukheda in Narsinghpur, and the rFisa tikdri grass 

{.Indropogon Sc/iocna/it/iiis), used in the manufacture of scent. The 

forests of Banda are rich in mahud trees, which are of great value in 

times of scarcity. The forest revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 47,000. 

Iron is found in the north of the District in Hirapur and other 
\ illages of the Shahgarh pargana, and is still smelted by native methods, 
but the industry has greatly declined. Sandstone quarries occur in 
several places, from which building stone of a good (juality is obtained, 
the best being at Rahatgarh and Maswasi, just north of Saugor. The 
earthen vessels made of red clay in Shahgarh have a local reputation. 

Weaving and dyeing are carried on principally at Saugor, RehlT, 
Deorl, Gourjhamar, and Garhakota ; brass-working at DeorT, Khurai, 
and Malthone ; iron-work at Rahatgarh ; and the 
manufacture of glass bangles at Garhakota, Pithoria, ^o Jmi^lSfons. 
and Rahatgarh. At Pithoria glass beads and rude 
phials for holding scent are also made. Gold and silver work is pro- 
duced at Saugor, Khurai, and Etawa, but many of the Sonars (gold- 
smiths) have fallen back on the manufiicture of ornaments from bell- 
metal. The local industries are generally, as elsewhere in the Province, 
in a depressed condition. There are no factories in the District. 

The principal exports consist of food-grains, and until lately those of 
wheat were of far greater importance than all others combined. But in 
recent years the exports of wheat have declined almost to vanishing 
point, though with fiivourable harvests they will probably soon recover. 
At present the most important articles of exports are the oilseeds, 
/// and linseed. Cotton and hemp (sati) are exported to some extent ; 
also ghi in large quantities, dried meat (to Burma), hides, horns and 
bones, and forest produce. Betel-leaves are sent to the United 


Provinces, and the skins and horns of antelope are sold for ornamental 
purposes. The imi)orts arc ])rincipally cotton piece-goods, kerosene oil, 
metals, all minor articles of hardware, groceries, and spices. Country 
cloth comes principally from the Bombay mills ; unrefined sugar is im- 
ported from the United Provinces, refined sugar from Bombay and 
Cawnpore, and tobacco from Cawnpore and Bengal. Nearly all the salt 
used comes from the Pachbhadra salt marshes in Jodhpur. 

Before the opening of the railway from Bina to Katni nearly the 
whole trade of Saugor District went to Karell station in Narsinghpur 
District by the Saugor-Karell road, crossing the Narbada at Barmhan ; 
but at present the bulk of the trade of the District is concentrated 
at Saugor station. The three southern parganas of the Rehli tahsil— 
Naharmow, Gourjhamar, and Deorl — still send their exports to Karell, 
while the Shahgarh pargana in the north of the Banda tahsil has 
a certain amount of trafific with Cawnpore by road. The branch 
line from Bina, on the Indian Midland section of the Great Indian 
Peninsula, to KatnT, on the East Indian Railway, passes through the 
centre of Saugor I )istrict. The length of this railway within the Dis- 
trict is 71 miles, and there are seven stations, of which Bina, Khurai, 
Saugor, and Shahpur are trade centres. The main line of the Indian 
Midland Railway from Itarsi to Cawnpore also runs through the 
north-west of the Khurai tahsil for 17 miles, and the stations of 
Bamora, Bina, Agasode, and Karonda are situated on it, while another 
branch leads from Bina to Baran. The principal roads are those 
leading from Saugor to Karell, Rahatgarh, and Rehli, to Cawnpore 
through Banda, to Damoh through Garhakota, and to Jhansi through 
Malthone. Of these, the Karell and Rahatgarh roads are metalled 
throughout, the Rehli road for most of its length, and the Cawnpore 
and Jhansi roads for a few miles out of Saugor town. The importance 
of the Karell road has now largely decreased. The total length of 
metalled roads in the District is 117 miles, and of unmetalled roads 
162 miles; the annual expenditure on maintenance is about Rs. 50,000. 
A few minor roads are maintained by the District council, but all others 
are in charge of the Public Works department. The length of avenues 
of trees is 185 miles. 

Little is on record concerning the agricultural history of the District 
prior to the thirty years' settlement of 1867, but severe failures of crops 
. are known to have occurred more than once during 

the first half of the century and also in the years 
1854-56. In 1868-9 the autumn harvest failed entirely owing 
to drought, and some distress was felt by the poorer classes. In 1878, 
1889, and 1890 the harvests were poor, and there was again a certain 
amount of privation. The spring crops were below the average in 
1S92-3, and in 1893-4 and 1894-5 they failed almost entirely from 


excessive winter rains. Relief works were opened in 1894, hul ilie 
people did not resort to them in large numbers. Tii 1895-6 both 
crops were again seriously injured by drought, and in 1896-7 an 
almost complete failure caused severe famine. Relief operations were 
in progress during the whole of 1897. The total e.xpenditure exceeded 
12 lakhs, and the maximum daily number of persons on relief was 
58,000 in May, 1897. In 1898-9 Saugor had a poor spring crop, 
and in 1899-1900 the autumn crops failed entirely, though the spring 
crops gave an average out-turn, '{"here was again famine in this year, 
though far less severe in Saugor than over most of the I'rovince. 
Nearly 11 lakhs was spent on relief, and the numbers relieved rose 
to 87,000 in August, 1900. It will thus be seen that the District has 
lately passed through a most severe and protracted period of agricul- 
tural depression. 

The executive head of the District is the Deputy-Commissioner, who 
is also District Magistrate, with three Assistants. For administrative 

puri)oses the District is divided into four tahstis, each . . 

* ' . .,,,,_ Administration. 

of which has a /a/is'i/dor and a fiaio-fa/isi/dar, except 

Banda, which has only a tahsildar. An Executive Engineer and 

a Forest officer are stationed at Saugor. 

The civil judicial staff consists of a District and a Subordinate 
Judge, with a Munsif at each tahs'tl. The Divisional and Sessions 
Judge of Jubbulpore has superior civil and criminal jurisdiction. The 
crime of the District is somewhat heavy as compared with other parts 
of the Province. Robberies and dacoities are comparatively frequent, 
and cattle-stealing and simple theft are also common offences. Opium 
smuggling from the adjoining Native .States is prevalent. 

Under the Maratha revenue system villages were farmed out to the 
highest bidder, and any rights or consideration which the village head- 
men may have enjoyed in the past were almost entirely effaced. No 
legal status was given to tenants, and the older cultivators were pro- 
tected only by custom, which enjoined that, so long as the annual rent 
demand was paid, their tenure should be hereditary and continuous. 
The land revenue history of the District during the period following 
the cession in i8r8 consists of a series of abortive attempts to raise 
a revenue equal to or exceeding that of the Maratha government, when 
the people had become impoverished by the exactions of that govern- 
ment during the last period of its rule, and by the depredations of the 
rindaris. The demand at cession was a little short of 6 lakhs. A series 
of annual and short-term settlements ensued till 1835, when a twenty 
years' settlement was made, and the revenue fixed at Rs. 6,27,000. 
This settlement did not work well, and the disturbances of 1842 
seriously injured the District, necessitating a general reduction of 
revenue varying from 10 to 20 per cent. Large remissions of the 



ordinary demand were also frequently made during the currency of 
this settlement. In 1854 a revision of settlement was commenced, 
but owing to the Mutiny and other causes was not completed through- 
out the District until 1867. The effect of this settlement was to reduce 
the revenue to Rs. 4,64,000. On this occasion the village headmen 
received, according to the general policy of the Central Provinces 
Administration, proprietary and transferable rights in their \illages. 
The settlement was for the term of thirty years, and the District 
prospered, the cropped area increasing from 1,040 to 1,250 square 
miles. In 1891, after a preliminary cadastral survey had been com- 
pleted, a new settlement conmienced, but owing to interruptions caused 
by famine it was not completed till 1897. The revenue then fixed 
amounted to nearly Rs. 6,96,000. In spite of the enhanced revenue, 
the share of the ' assets ' left to the proprietors was considerably larger 
than at the former settlement. But the successive failures of crops 
have so greatly reduced both the area under cultivation and the value 
of the crops grown that the District has been unable to pay the revised 
demand, and successive reductions have been made. The revenue 
as now fixed is Rs. 5,00,000, the incidence per acre being R. 0-10-3 
(maximum R. 0-13-7, minimum R. o 15-11); while the incidence of 
the rental is Rs. 1-1-6 (maximum Rs. 1-7, minimum R. o-io-io). 

The land revenue and total revenue receipts in the District have 
varied, as shown below (in thousands of rupees) : — 

1 880- 1. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue 


4,. '52 




The management of local affairs outside municipal areas is entrusted 
to a District council, under which are four local boards each having 
jurisdiction over a single tahsil. The income of the District council 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 74,000. The main items of expenditure were: 
education (Rs. 20,000), public works (Rs. 18,000), and medical relief 
(Rs. 9,000). Saugor, Deori, and Khurai are municipal towns. 

The sanctioned strength of the police force is 653 of all ranks. 
This includes a special reserve of 2 officers and 23 men, 7 mounted 
constables, and cantonment police numbering 31. In proportion to 
area and population the police force is stronger in .Saugor than in 
any other District of the Central Provinces, owing to the fact that it 
is surrounded by Native States, and thieves and dacoits find it easy 
to escape across the border. There are 1,523 village watchmen for 
1,929 inhabited towns and villages. Saugor has a first-class District 
jail, with accommodation for 145 male and 22 female prisoners. The 
average daily number of prisoners in 1904 was 91. 


In respect of education Saugor stands sixth among the Districts 
of the Central Provinces, 7-7 per cent, of its male population being 
able to read and write. Only 919 females were returned as literate 
in 1901 : but this is probably an understatement, as the people object 
to admitting that their women can read and write. Statistics of the 
number of pupils under instruction are as follows : (1880-1) 5,255 ; 
(1890-1) 5,959 ; (1900-1) 6,339; and (1903-4) 8,401, of whom 1,331 
were girls. Owing to the prevalence of famine in 1 900-1 the numbers 
were reduced, but a great advance has been made since. The educa- 
tional institutions comprise a (lOvernment high school at Saugor town, 
20 middle and 113 primary schools. Notwithstanding the small num- 
ber of its women shown by the Census as literate, Saugor is one of the 
most advanced Districts in the Province in respect of female education. 
The expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 74,000, of which 
Rs. 67,000 was provided from Provincial and Local funds and 
Rs. 7,000 by fees. 

The District has 8 dispensaries, with accommodation for 97 in- 
patients. The total attendance at all of them in 1904 was 71,166 
persons, including 653 in-patients, and 2,549 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, chiefly derived from Local 
funds ; and they possess Rs. 6,800 invested capital. 

\'accination is compulsory only in the municipal towns of Saugor, 
Khurai, and Deorl. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully 
vaccinated was 34 per 1,000 of the population of the District. 

[E. A. De Brett, Settlement Report (1901); E. V. Russell, District 
Gazetteer (1907).] 

Saugor Tahsil. — Head-quarters tahsil of Saugor District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 23° 31' and 24° \' N. and 78° 14' and 
79° 6' E., with an area of 1,064 square miles. The population 
decreased from 207,456 in 1891 to 166,399 '" \^o\. The density 
in the latter year was 156 persons per square mile, or considerably 
above the District average. The tahsil contains one town, Saugor 
(population, 42,330), the District and /«//«/ head-quarters ; and 525 
inhabited villages. Excluding 1 24 square miles of Government forest, 
57 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The 
cultivated area in 1903-4 was 435 square miles. The demand for 
land revenue in the same year was Rs. 185,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 19,000. The lie of the country is undulating, and stretches 
of good cultivable land alternate with small hills and patches of 

Saugor Town.— Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the 
same name in the Central Provinces, situated in 23*" 51' N. and 
78° 45' E., with a station on the Blna-Katni connexion of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway, 654 miles from Bombay and 760 from 


Calcutta. Its population (lyoi) is 42,330, including the cantonment 
(10,918), and it is the third largest town in the Province. The popu- 
lation in 1901 included 32,038 Hindus, 8,286 Muhammadans, 1,027 
Jains, and 762 C'hristians, of whom 406 were Europeans and Eura- 
sians. The population in 1872 was 45,655 ; in 1881, 44,461 ; and in 
1891, 44,676. The garrison consists of one Native cavalry and one 
Native infantry regiment, a detachment of British infantry, and a field 

Saugor is supposed to be the Sageda of Ptolemy. The name is 
derived from sagar, 'a lake,' after the large lake round which it is 
built. 'I'he town is picturesquely situated on spurs of the Vindhyan 
Hills, which surround the lake on three sides and reach an elevation 
of about 2,000 feet. Saugor has an old fort extending over an area 
of six acres, which was built by the Marathas, and which the European 
residents held for several months in 1857, controlling the town while 
the surrounding country was in the hands of the rebels. A munici- 
pality was constituted in 1867. The municipal receipts during the 
decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 77,600. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 75,000, the main head of receipt being octroi, while water-supply 
and conservancy form the largest items of expenditure, which amounted 
to Rs. 73,000 in the same year. The receipts of the cantonment fund 
in 1903-4 were Rs. 26,000. Saugor is not a growing town, and each 
Census has shown its population as either stationary or slowly declining. 
It has no factories ; and the industries of weaving, brass-working, oil- 
pressing, and the manufacture of gold and silver ornaments, which 
formerly contributed substantially to its wealth, are now declining. 
There is a printing press with Hindi type. The high school at 
Saugor was established in 1828 by Captain Paton of the Bengal 
Artillery from his private funds, and supported by a Maratha gentle- 
man, Rao Krishna Rao. Lord William Bentinck on his visit to Saugor 
was so struck by the public spirit displayed by the latter gentleman 
that he invited him to Calcutta and presented him with a gold medal 
and an estate of the value of Rs. 1,000 a year. The school was subse- 
quently removed to Jubbulpore, but was re-established at Saugor in 
1885. The town contains various branch and mission schools, three 
dispensaries, and a veterinary dispensary. A station of the Swedish 
Lutheran Mission has been established here. 

Saugor Island. — Island at the mouth of the Hooghly river, 
Bengal. See Sagar. 

Saundatti-Yellamma. — A joint municipality in Belgaum District, 
Bombay, including the town Saundatti {Siigaiidhavarfi, ' the sweet- 
smelling'), the head-quarters of the Parasgad taluka, situated in 
15° 46' N. and 75° Y E., and Yellamma, a famous hill of pilgrimage 
5^ miles south-east of the former. Population (1901), 9,525. Saun- 


datti is an important centre of trade. The town is commanded by 
an old fort in tolerable repair. About 2 miles to the south are the 
ruins of an extensive hill fort called Farasgad, from which the taltika 
derives its name. The municipality, established in 1876, had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 12,400. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,600. The town was formerly the strong- 
hold of the Ratta chiefs (875-1250). It contains a Subordinate Judge's 
court, a dispensary, and a municipal middle school, besides five other 
boys' schools with 363 pupils and a girls' school with 55. 

Vellamma hill takes its name from a shrine of the goddess Yellamma 
which is held in great veneration throughout the Bombay Carnalic. 
About 100,000 pilgrims risit the shrine annually, women predomi- 
nating, and many of them come from great distances. On their way to 
the hill they give utterance repeatedly to a long-drawn cry, '■Ai Yel- 
hmmo — oh ! ' which resounds along the high roads for miles as it is 
taken up by successive bands of pilgrims. The shrine is built in the 
bed of the Saraswati stream, a tributary of the Malprabha. Though 
locally said to be about two thousand years old, the temple, exclud- 
ing the sanctuary, appears to have been built in the seventeenth or 
eighteenth century, on the site of an older building dating from the 
thirteenth. The temple stands in the middle of a courtyard sur- 
rounded by arcades of pointed arches. Fairs are held in honour of 
the goddess at the full moon of April-May and November-December. 
A tax of half an anna is levied from each pilgrim, bringing in a revenue 
of about Rs. 5,000 to the municipality. In the early days of British 
rule women came to the shrine naked to pray for children or for the 
cure of skin disease. Hook-swinging was commonly practised at the 
shrine, and 175 persons were swung in 1834. Both of these prac- 
tices have been discontinued. Nothing is known of the origin of the 

Saurath. — Village in the MadhubanI subdivision of Darbhanga 
District, Bengal, situated in 26° 24' N. and 86° 3' E. Population 
(1901), 2,062. It is famous for the 7nela (religious fair) which takes 
place annually in June or July, when large numbers of Brahmans 
assemble to settle their children's marriages. A fine temple to 
Mahadeo was built in 1845 by the Darbhanga Raj. 

Sausar Tahsil. — Southern tahs'il of Chhindwara District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 21° 28' and 21° 55' N. and 78° 20' and 
79° 16' E., with an area of 1,103 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 121,148, compared with 120,451 in 1891. The density 
is no persons per square mile. The tahs'il contains three towns — 
Sausar (population, 4,785), the head-quarters, Mohgaox (5,730), 
and Pandhurna (8,904) — and 383 inhabited villages. Excluding 
331 square miles of Government forest, 62 per cent, of the available 


area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903 4 was 
437 square miles. The demand for land revenue in the same year 
was Rs. 1,25,000, and for cesses Rs. 14,000. The tahs'tl consists of 
a tract of undulating country lying below the Satpura range, covered 
with light shallow soil, and is one of the chief cotton-growing areas 
of the Province. 

Sausar Town. — Head-quarters of the tahs'il of the same name, 
Chhindwara District, Central Provinces, situated in 21° 40' N. and 
78° 48' E., on the Chhindwara-Nagpur road, t^i miles from Chhind- 
wara town and 46 from Nagpur. Population (1901), 4,785. Sausar 
was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts during 
the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 1,700. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 2,000, principally derived from a house tax. Cotton hand- 
weaving is the only industry. Sausar possesses an English middle 
school and 'a dispensary. A weekly cattle-fair is held at BerdI, a mile 
from the town. 

Savali. — Town in the Baroda prdnt, Baroda State. See Savli. 

Savandurga. — A conspicuous fortified hill, 4,024 feet high, in 
the west of Bangalore District, Mysore, situated in 12° 55' N. and 
77° 18' E. It is an enormous bare dome-shaped mass of granite, the 
summit consisting of two peaks separated by a chasm, each well sup- 
plied with water. It was first fortified in 1543 by an officer of the 
Vijayanagar kings. The chief of Bangalore next acquired it, with 
Magadi, about 1570, and in his family it remained till taken by 
Mysore in 1728. Its capture by the British under Lord Cornwallis 
in 1 791 was a memorable exploit. It is now deserted, and surrounded 
on all sides with heavy forest. 

Savantvadi State (or Sawantwari). — State in Bombay, lying 
between 15° 38' and 16° 14' N. and 73° 37' and 74° 23' E., with 
an area of 925 square miles. It is bounded on the north and west 
by the British District of Ratnagiri ; on the east by the Western 
Ghats; and on the south by the Portuguese territory of Goa. The 
general aspect of the country is strikingly picturesque. From the sea- 

^. . , coast to the foot of the Ghats, a distance varying 

Physical . j ^ 

aspects ^'^^"^ 20 to 25 miles, are densely wooded hills, and, 

in the valleys, gardens and groves of coco-nut and 
areca-nut palms. Spurs and isolated peaks rising from 300 to 3,000 
feet above the plain form strong natural fastnesses, some of which, 
like Manohar and Mansantosh, are said to have been fortified many 
centuries ago. The chief streams are the Karli on the north and the 
Terekhol on the south, which open out into creeks. Both are navi- 
gable for small native craft — the Terekhol for about 15 and the Karli 
for about 14 miles. 

The Savantvadi State is composed for the most part of metamorphic 


rocks, but at the northern part a considerable quantity of trap is found, 
and on the west a narrow band of laterite. These with the Ghats on 
the east form physical features which serve as a sort of natural boun- 
dary to the country. The great metamorphic spurs which run out 
west from under the mural termination of the Deccan trap at the 
Ghats extend to varying distances, and either end abruptly or break 
into clusters of lower hills. The intervening country is low and 
covered with thicker soil than is usually the case in the Konkan : 
this renders Savantvadi more open to cultivation than the barren 
laterite plateau to the west and north. There are a few insignificant 
outliers of the Kaladgi (Cuddapah) series. 

Tigers, leopards, bears, bison, deer, wild hog, wild dogs, jackals, 
foxes, and hyenas are found. Snakes are common. In the Ghat 
tracts the State contains good teak ; and black-wood, aifi, kher, and 
Jamba are common. Near the sea, jack-wood, mango, bhiratid {Gar- 
d/iia ifidica), coconut palms, and cashew-nut are i)lentiful. 

The climate is humid and relaxing, with a heavy rainfall, the average 
annual fall being 150 inches. April is the hottest month in the year; 
in May a strong sea-breeze, the precursor of the south-west monsoon, 
tempers the heat. The temperature rises to 100° in May and falls to 
62° in January. 

Early inscriptions show that from the sixth to the eighth centuries 
the Chalukyas ruled over Savantvadi. In the tenth century the rulers 

were Yadavas. In the thirteenth century the Cha- ,,. ^ 

11 • • » 1 , r 1 r History, 

lukyas were agam m power. At the close ot the four- 
teenth century Savantvadi was under an officer of the Vijayanagar 
dynasty. About the middle of the fifteenth century it formed part 
of a powerful Brahman dynasty. On the establishment of the Bijapur 
power at the close of the fifteenth century, Savantvadi became part of 
the territory of these kings. In about 1554 one Mang Savant of the 
Bhonsia family revolted from Bijapur, and making Hodowra, a small 
village 9 miles from Vadi, his head-quarters, defeated the troops sent 
against him, and maintained his independence during his lifetime. 
After his death his successors again became feudatories of the Bijapur 

The chief who finally freed his country from the Muhammadan 
yoke was Khem Savant Bhonsia, who ruled from 1627 to 1640. He 
was succeeded by his son Som Savant, who, after ruling for eighteen 
months, was succeeded by his brother, Lakham Savant. When the 
power of Sivaji seemed in the ascendant (1650), Lakham Savant 
tendered him allegiance, and was confirmed as Sar Desai of the 
whole Southern Konkan. Dying in 1665, I>akham was succeeded by 
his brother, Phond Savant, who, after ruling for ten years, was 
succeeded by his son, Khem Savant II. This chief, by aiding the 


Mughals in ihcir struggles with Sivaji, and making frequent raids 
across tlic (loa frontier, added considerably to his territory; and sub- 
sequently, having supported SivajI's grandson Sahil in his contest 
with the Raja of Kolhapur, he was confirmed in his possessions. It 
was during the time of Khem's successor (1709-37) that the Savant- 
vadi State first entered into relations with the British Government. 
A treaty was concluded between them against the piratical chieftain, 
Kanhoji Angria of Kolaba. 

The chief, who ruled from 1755 to 1803 under the name of Khem 
Savant the Great, married in 1763 the daughter of JayajT Sindhia ; and 
consequently the title of Raja Bahadur was conferred upon him by the 
emperor of Delhi. The Raja of Kolhapur, envious of this honour, 
made a descent on Vadi, and captured several hill fortresses, which 
were, however, through Sindhia's influence, subsequently restored. 
The rule of Khem Savant, who, not content with wars on land, also 
took to piracy, was one long contest against Kolhapur, the Peshwa, 
the Portuguese, and the British. Khem Savant died childless in 1803 ; 
and the contest for the succession was not decided till 1805, when 
Khem Savant's widow Lakshml Bai adopted a child, Ramchandra 
Savant, alias Bhau Sahib. This child lived for three years, and was 
then strangled in bed. Phond Savant, a minor, was chosen to 
fill his place. During these years of disorder the ports swarmed with 
pirates. So severely did British commerce suffer, that in 18 12 Phond 
Savant was forced to enter into a treaty ceding the port of Vengurla 
to the British, and engaging to give up all his vessels of war. Soon 
after the conclusion of this treaty, Phond Savant III died, and was 
succeeded by his son Khem Savant IV, a child of eight. This 
chief, when he came of age, proved unable to manage his State, and, 
after several revolutions and much disturbance, at last in 1838 agreed 
to make over the administration to the British Government. After 
this, rebellion twice broke out (in 1839 and 1844), but the disturbances 
were soon suppressed, and the country has since remained quiet. The 
State was eventually restored in 1861, on the chief undertaking to 
defray the cost (5^ lakhs) of the last rebellion, to pay a succession fee 
of one year's revenue, to protect his subjects, and to meet the expense 
of a British Resident and his establishment. 

The chief, a Maratha by caste and styled Sar Desai, is entitled to 
a salute of 9 guns. His family holds a sanad authorizing adoption, 
and in point of succession follows the rule of primogeniture. 

The population numbered 190,814 in 1872; i74j433 i" 1881 ; 

192,948 in 1891 ; and 217,732 in 1901. The State contains one town, 

Vadi, and 226 villages ; and the density is 235 

Popu ation. persons per square mile. Hindus form 94 per cent. 

of the total, and there are 5,634 Musalmans and 5,400 Christians. 


Among Hindus the chief castes are Brahmans (14,000), who are of the 

Karhade, Kudaldeskar, and Shenvi subcastes ; Bhandaris, or toddy 

drawers (25,000); Marathas (117,000), who are largely cultivators; 

Vanis, or traders (12,000); and Mahars, or low-caste watchmen and 

labourers (12,000). The Musalmans describe themselves as Shaikhs 

(4,000). Native Christians are almost entirely Roman Catholics, the 

only mission in the State being the Portuguese Catholic Mission. 

They have increased from 2,000 to 5,400 in the last fifty years. The 

common language is the Konkani dialect of Marathl. The sturdy 

and docile Marathas of the State are favourite recruits for the Indian 

army. They also supply much of the immigrant labour in the adjacent 

British Districts during the cultivating season. Of the total population, 

74 per cent, are supported by agriculture. 

The soil is chiefly light, and mixed with stone and gravel, and not 

suitable for the better class of crops. Of the total area of arable land, 

594 scjuare miles, 221 square miles were cultivated 

, • -I J Agriculture, 

ni 1903-4 : namely, nee 97 square miles, garden 

land 10 square miles, and varkas or hill crops 114 square miles. The 

staple crop is rice ; but the quantity grown is not sufficient for the 

wants of the people, and a good deal is imported. Excepting rice, 

none but the coarsest grains and pulses are raised. A species of 

oilseed, ///, 5«7//-hemp, and black and red pepper, are also grown, but 

neither cotton nor tobacco. Both soil and climate are against the 

cultivation of wheat and other superior grains. P'or these, the people 

have to look to the country east of the Ghats, whence during the fair 

season, from October to June, large supplies are received. 

Savantvadi, with an area of 54 square miles of forest lands, is rich 
in valuable teak. Iron ore of fair quality is found in the neighbourhood 
of the Ram ghat and also near Danoli in the Western Ghats. It is 
worked on a very small scale, which does not suffice even for the local 
demand. The Aker stone, a slate-coloured talc-schist, extremely hard, 
compact, and heavy, is unrivalled for building purposes. Laterite is 
quarried in many places. Talc of inferior quality is found at Kudawal 
and in other parts of the State. 

Salt of an inferior kind was once manufactured, but the salt works 

have been abolished. The principal industries of the State consist of 

gold and silver embroidery work on both leather and 

cloth ; fans, baskets, and boxes of khas-khas grass, Trade and 

' , • , , , , , ,1 , , • communications, 

ornamented with gold thread and beetles wings ; 

lacquered toys, and playing-cards : and drawing-room ornaments carved 

from the horn of the buffalo and bison. A pottery establishment for 

the manufacture of tiles is now at work in the State, and in 1903-4 

a factory was established in the jail for extracting plantain and aloe 

fibre. Before the construction of the Southern Mahratta Railway 


a considerable transit trade existed between Belgaum and Vengurla. 
The trade is now purely local, the imports being valued at 5^ lakhs 
and the exports at Rs. 2,500. 

There are no railways ; but an excellent trunk road from the seaport 
of Vengurla passes through the State, leading by an easy gradient over 
the Western Ghats to Belgaum. The other chief lines of communica- 
tion with the Deccan are the Ram ghat, the Talkat ghat, and the 
Phonda^/^J/. In 1904 a branch road to Malewad was constructed to 
facilitate the sea-borne trade via Araonda. 

In 1 791 the rain failed shortly after the country had been plundered 
by the Raja of Kolhapur, and scarcity ensued. In 1821 excessive 
rain destroyed the crops. The State is liable to local floods caused 
by the rapid falling and overflowing of its mountain streams. In 
1883-4 some damage to the crops was done by locusts, and again in 
1902-3 and 1903-4. 

For administrative purposes the area of the State is divided into 

the three subdivisions of Vadi, Banda, and Kudal. Under the super- 

. ^ . . ^ . vision of the Political Agent, who is aided by an 

Administration. , . t^ ,• • , . , , ... 

Assistant Political Agent, the revenue and magisterial 

charge of each of these fiscal subdivisions is placed in the hands of an 
officer styled Kamdvisddr. Appeals in revenue matters lie from the 
Political Agent to the Commissioner, Southern Division, Land is 
divided into four classes : namely, State, alienated, rented, and ryottvdri. 
State lands are either crown lands or private lands, the latter being the 
personal property of the chief. Both classes are managed by the 
revenue officials, and are let to the highest bidder for a fixed term of 
years. Alienated lands are classed as indm, held free either in per- 
petuity or during the lifetime of the holder ; dastibad, which are rare 
and are liable only to the payment of certain cesses ; and devsu, or 
religious lands, the produce of which is devoted to temples. Rented 
or khoti lands are tilled or sublet to others by the khot, who pays 
a certain fixed sum to the State, and in turn receives a certain share 
of the produce from his sub-tenants. Ryotwdri or peasant-held 
lands pay a fixed assessment, as in British territory. The State 
has been surveyed and a regular settlement introduced since 1877. 
By its completion in 1895-6, the land revenue was increased from 
I -8 to 2-7 lakhs. The rates per acre vary from i anna to 6 annas for 
'dry' land, Rs. 5 to Rs. 14 for garden land, and Rs. 4 to Rs. 7 for 
rice land. 

There are 5 civil courts exercising original jurisdiction, of which 
3 are permanent and 2 are temporary. The Desai of Parma presides 
over an honorary court of Small Causes ; the fifth court is that of the 
Registrar of the Small Cause Court. The Chief Judge has appellate 
jurisdiction, and the Political Agent exercises the powers of a High 


Court. There are nine criminal courts, the Political Agent having the 
powers of a Sessions Judge. 

The revenue of the State in 1903-4 was about 4-3 lakhs, chiefly 
derived from land (about 2-7 lakhs), dbkari and sayer (nearly 
Rs. 60,000), forests (Rs. 35,000), and stamps (over Rs. 33,000) The 
expenditure was nearly 4-8 lakhs, of which about i-| lakhs is spent as 
darbdr and pdga (stud and cattle-breeding) grants, and fixed assign- 
ments amounting to Rs. 50,000. The State spends about Rs. 50,000 
annually on public works, and contributed Rs. 28,000 in 1903-4 
towards the salaries of the Political Agent and his establishment. U[) 
to 1839 the pirkhdni rupee, first struck by the Bijapur minister, was 
the standard coin. Since then it has been replaced by the British 

The Savantvadi State maintains a local corps, consisting in 1904 of 
327 men of all ranks under a European officer, which is to be reduced 
to 250; and an unarmed police force of 137, of whom 126 belonged 
to the permanent force and the rest were detailed from the local 
corps. The State has one jail, with a daily average of 43 prisoners 
in 1903-4. In that year the State contained 155 schools with 6,389 
pupils. Of these, one is an English school with 261 pupils. Of the 
total population, 6-6 per cent. (12-8 males and o-8 females) were 
returned as literate in 1901. One hospital and 3 dispensaries are 
maintained, in which 21,000 patients were treated in 1903-4. There 
is a lunatic asylum with 14 inmates, and a leper asylum with 77 in- 
mates. In the same year about 6,300 persons were vaccinated. 

Savanur State. — Native State within the limits of Dharwar District, 
Bombay, lying between 14° 57' and 15° 2' N. and 75° 22" and 75°25'E., 
with an estimated area of 70 square miles. The State is for the most 
part flat and treeless. In climate and fauna it does not differ from 
the adjacent portions of Dharwar District. The annual rainfall averages 
27 inches. Plague broke out in 1898, and has since caused the death 
of over 4,000 persons, of whom one-quarter fell victims in the year 
1902-3. The town of .Savanur alone lost 1,600. 

The reigning family are Musalmans of Pathan origin. The founder 
of the family, Abdul Rauf Khan, obtained in 1680 from the emperor 
Aurangzeb the grant of a jdglr comprising Bankapur, Torgal, and 
Azamnagar or Belgaum, with a command of 7,000 horse. In 1730 
the family, as deputies of the Nizam, received additional territory, 
which the Peshwa seized in 1747. In 1786 Tipii Sultan, with whom 
the Nawab was connected by marriage, stripped him of much territory : 
but allying himself with the Marathas, the Nawab regained some part 
of it, and obtained from the Peshwa a pension of Rs. 10,000 a month. 
At the close of the last Maratha War the Nawab, whose conduct had 
been exceptionally loyal, was confirmed in his original possessions by 

VOL. x.xii. L 


the British Government, and received during his lifetime an additional 
yearly grant of Rs. 6,000. The State pays no tribute. The family 
holds a sanad authorizing adoption, and the succession follows the 
rule of primogeniture. 

The population in 1901 was 18,446, compared with 16,976 in 1891, 
residing in one town, Savanur, and 22 villages. Hindus number 
13,000, Musalmans 5,000. Of the Hindus, nearly one-half (6,000) are 
Lingayats. The Musalmans describe themselves as Shaikhs (3,000) 
and Pathans (1,000), with a few Arabs and Saiyids. About two-thirds 
of the population are supported by agriculture. 

The soil of the northern, eastern, and southern villages is both red 
and black, and that of the western villages is red. The principal 
crops are cotton, joivar, kiilith, tiir, pan, wheat, gram, plantains, and 
sugar-cane. Of the total area of 70 square miles, about 2 square miles 
are under forest, and 6 square miles are uncultivable. The area of 
cultivable land is 62 square miles, of which 51 square miles were 
cropped in 1903-4, about 3 square miles being irrigated. The betel-leaf 
grown in the Savanur gardens is celebrated for its superior quality, and 
has been exported in greater quantity since the opening of the Southern 
Mahratta Railway. Cotton cloths, such as sdrls, dhotis, &c., are 
manufactured to a small extent, and there is some trade in grain and 
raw cotton. The State escaped the severity of the famine of 1899- 
J900, only two villages being affected. 

The Collector of Dharwar is Political Agent for the State, his Senior 
Assistant being Assistant Political Agent. There are two criminal 
courts and one civil court, and the Political Agent has the powers ot 
a District Judge. The State laws are modelled on those of British 

The revenue is about one lakh, chiefly derived from land. The 
State levies no customs or transit duties. A Local fund cess of one 
anna is levied from all landholders. The survey settlement introduced 
in 1870-1 was revised in 1895, and the revised rates were levied in 
1896-7. The original revenue demand of Rs. 75,320 was increased 
to Rs. 90,463. The actual demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 61,991, in- 
cluding a quit-rent of Rs. 6,803, but excluding the assessment on 
indm, waste, and forest lands. The rates per acre vary from 4 annas 
to Rs. 5-5 for 'dry' land, R. i to Rs. 12 for rice land, and Rs. 3 to 
Rs. 24 for garden land. The police force consists of 48 men. The 
State contains 1 1 schools with 548 pupils. The dispensary at Savanur 
treated 12,000 persons in 1903-4, and 502 persons were vaccinated in 
the same year. 

Savanur Town. — Capital of the State of Savanur, Bombay, 
40 miles south-east of Dharwar, situated in 14° 58' N. and 75° 23' E. 
Population (1901), 9,796. The town covers an area of three-quarters 

SAV/J 157 

of a mile and is enclosed by a ditch, with eight gates, now falling into 
ruins. Between 1868 and 1S76 the town was greatly improved, the 
roads widened and metalled, and many old wells and ponds repaired. 
The municipal income is about Rs. 3,700. Tiiere are 5 schools with 
403 pupils, including ri6 girls, and a class for drawing and carpentry. 
The town contains a dispensary. The chief objects of interest are the 
Nawab's palace, numerous mosques, a Vaishnava religious establish- 
ment, and the i/iath of Sri Satya Bodhaswami. 

Savda. — Town in the Raver tCxIuka of East Khandesh District, 
Bombay, situated in 21° 9' N. and 75° 53'' E., on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, Population (1901), 8,720. Savda was finally 
ceded by the Nizam to the Peshwa in 1763, and was shortly afterwards 
bestowed on Sardar Raste, whose daughter was given in marriage to 
the Peshwa. In 1852, in connexion with the introduction of the 
revenue survey, a serious disturbance occurred at Savda. From 10,000 
to 15,000 malcontents gathered, and were not dis[)ersed till a detach- 
ment of troops arrived and arrested 59 of the ringleaders. The 
municipality, established in 1883, had an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 9,500. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 9,700. The chief trade is in cotton, gram, linseed, and wheat. 
At the weekly market, valuable Nimar and Berar cattle are offered for 
sale. The town contains two cotton-ginning factories, a dispensary, 
and four schools, with 520 pupils, of which one, with 36 pupils, is 
for girls. 

Savdi.— Village in the Ron tdluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, 
situated in 15° 39' N. and 75° 45' E., about 5 miles south-west of Ron 
town. Population (1901), 5,202. It contains temples of Brahma- 
deo and Narayandeo, each with an inscription ; and two schools, of 
which one is for girls. 

Savli. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name, Baroda 
prdnt, Baroda State, situated in 22° 34' N. and 73° 15' E. Population 
(1901), 4,687. It possesses Munsifs and magistrate's courts, a verna- 
cular school, a dispensary, and local ofifices, and is administered as a 
municipality, receiving an annual grant from the State of Rs. 1,000. 
A considerable trade in grain and cattle is carried on, and the town is 
the commercial centre of a wide grou[) of villages In the immediate 
neighbourhood are large tanks, shady trees, and truitful fields ; at no 
great distance is the wild inch-ivdsi country of ravines and jungles 
bordering the Main. At one corner of the Suvli tank stand two 
temples which commemorate the names of Damaji Gaikwar and his 
father Pilaji. The latter was assassinated at Dakor in 1732, but his 
body was carried away from that place by his folU)wers, and the last 
honours were hurriedly paid it at Savli. The treacherous murder, the 
invasion of Abhai Singh, and the hasty funeral of the founder of the 

1. 2 


Gaikwar's house mark a crisis in the history of the Maratha conquest, 
and give something of historic dignity to the unpretending temple 
of Pilaji. 

Saw. — South-western township of Pakokku District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 20" 48' and 21** 37' N. and 94° o' and 94" 20' E., along 
the eastern edge of the Chin Hills, with an area of 1,200 square miles. 
The greater part of the township lies in the basin of the Yaw, but the 
southern portion is watered by the Maw, which rises near Mount 
Victoria. The population was 22,339 i'^ 1891, and 19,868 in 1901, 
distributed in 117 villages. The majority of the inhabitants are 
Burmans, but Chins and Taungthas are also numerous. Saw (popu- 
lation, 742), at the foot of the hills, is the head-quarters. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was about 23 square miles, and the land revenue 
and thathameda amounted to Rs. 47,000. 

Sawai Madhopur.— Head-quarters of the nizdmat and tahs'il of 
the same name in the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 26° N. 
and 76° 23' E., about 76 miles south-east of Jaipur city. It is con- 
nected with the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Daosa station by a road 
running via Lalsot, and will be the terminus of the Jaipur-Sawai 
Madhopur branch now under construction. Population (i 901), 10,328. 
The town, which is walled, takes its name from Madho Singh, chief of 
Jaipur from 1751 to 1768, by whom it was laid out somewhat on the 
plan of the capital. There are numerous schools, including a verna- 
cular middle, a Jain pdthsala, and 6 indigenous schools attended by 
about 300 boys, besides a hospital with accommodation for 4 in- 
patients. Copper and brass vessels are largely manufactured and 
exported southwards ; and there is a brisk trade in lacquered wooden 
articles, round playing-cards, and the scent extracted from the khas-khas 
grass {Atidropogon nwricatus). 

Sawantwari. — State and town in Bombay. See Savantvadi and 
Vadi respectively. 

Say la State. — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 21° 26' and 22° 51' N. and 71° 12' and 71° 34' E., with 
an area of 222 square miles. The population in 1901 was 11,661, 
residing in one town and 38 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 66,000, and 59 square miles were cultivated. The State ranks as 
a third-class State in Kathiawar. Sayla is mentioned as a pargana 
of Jhalawar in the Ain-i-Akbari, but by the eighteenth century it had 
fallen into the hands of the Kathis. Sheshabhai, the son of the 
Halavad chief, took possession of Sayla in 1751, and added it to the 
girCis of Narichana and Liya, which he had obtained in his struggle 
for the possession of Dhrangadhra. He was succeeded by Kakobhai, 
also called Vikmatsingh (1794-1813), in whose time a permanent 
settlement of tribute was made with the British Government. His 


family now rules over the State. The title is Thakiir ; but the present 
chief bears the title of Thakur Sahib, conferred on him as a personal 

Sayla Town.— Chief town of the State of the same name in 
Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 22° 32' N. and 71° 32' E., 16 miles 
from the Chuda railway station, 18 miles south-west of VVadhwan, on 
the bank of a large tank called Manasarowar, the excavation and 
building of which is popularly attributed to Sidhraj Jai-Singh, the 
celebrated sovereign of Anhilvada. Population (1901), 5,367. Sayla 
is famous for the temple of Ramchandra, built by Lala Bhagat, a 
Bania saint who flourished in the beginning of the last century. Food 
is distributed daily to travellers, ascetics, and others. There is a brisk 
trade in cotton and grain. 

Sayyidpore. — Town in Rangpur District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See S.mdpuk. 

Scinde. — Division of the Bombay Presidency. See Sind. 

Sealdah. — A quarter of Calcutta, Bengal. See Calcutta. 

Sealkote. — District, fahsll, and town in the Lahore Division, 
Punjab. See Sialkot. 

Secunderabad {Sikaiidaralmd). — British cantonment in the Hyder- 
abad State, situated in 17° 27'' N. and 78° 30' E., 6 miles north-east 
of Hyderabad city. The population of Secunderabad in 1901 was 
83,550, and the population of Bolarum and Trimulgherry 12,888. 

Secunderabad, named after the Nizam Sikandar Jah, is one of the 
largest military stations in India. The British troops stationed here 
were formerly known as the Subsidiary Force, and were paid from 
the revenues of the districts ceded by the Nizam for this purpose 
under the treaty of 1800. The Nizam also agreed to maintain a Con- 
tingent to act with the Subsidiary Force in case of necessity. This 
Contingent, for the payment of which Berar was assigned to the British 
Government by the treaty of 1853, modified by the treaty of i860, had 
its head-quarters at Bolarum, other stations being Ellichpur in Berar, 
and five towns in the Hyderabad State : namely, Aurangabad, Hingoli, 
Jalna, Amba (Mominabad), and Raichur. During the Mutiny of 1857 
an unsuccessful attempt was made to tamper with the fidelity of the 
troops at Secunderabad. An attack on the Residency was repulsed, and 
during the troubled times of 1857-8 much good service was rendered 
by both the Subsidiary Force and the Hyderabad Contingent. By an 
agreement entered into in 1902, the Contingent ceased to exist as a 
separate force, and was incorporated in the Indian army. The can- 
tonments, except Aurangabad, were vacated, and Bolarum was merged 
in Secunderabad. The garrison of Secunderabad and Bolarum con- 
sisted in 1904 of one regiment of British and two of Native cavalry; 
one battery of horse and three of field artillery, with ammunition 


columns; two baltalioiis of British and six regiments of Native infantry; 
a company of sappers and miners, wiili a proportion of mule corps and 
transport bearers. 'J"he combined cantonment comprises the areas of 
Secundcrabad, Chilkalguda, Bowanpalli, Begampett, 'l>imulgherry, 
North Trimulgherry, and Bolarum. 

Up to 1850 the cantonment of Secunderabad consisted of a line of 
barracks and huts, extending for a distance of three miles from east 
to west, with the artillery in front and on the left flank, and the in- 
fantry on the right. Since that date, however, the cantonment boun- 
daries have been extended so as to include the areas already mentioned, 
covering 22 square miles, including many interspersed villages. New 
double-storeyed barracks have been erected for the European troops, 
and improved quarters for the Native troops. 

'I'he country for miles round Secunderabad undulates into hum- 
mocks, with outcrops of underlying rock, crossed from east to west by 
greenstone dikes. East of the cantonment are two large outcrops of 
granite and a hill of some size, known as Maula All, and near it another 
called Kadam Rasul from a legend that it bears an impress of the 
Prophet's foot. Shady trees line the roads of the cantonment, and here 
and there are clusters of date and palmyra palms ; but otherwise the 
face of the country is bare, with but little depth of soil on the more 
elevated spots. Rice is cultivated in the dips and villages, in most of 
which tanks have been constructed. The water-supply from wells is 
not abundant ; and of late years the Jidimatla tank, which has not been 
an unqualified success, has been constructed for the purpose of pro- 
viding an adequate supply of water for the troops and civil population 
of Secunderabad. 

The climate of Secunderabad is generally healthy, though at the 
latter end of the rainy season, in September, fever is somewhat preva- 
lent. The rainfall varies considerably ; during the twenty-five years 
ending 1903 it averaged ^^2) inches. 

Seebsaugar. — District, subdivision, and town, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Sibsagar. 

Seepra. — River in Malwa. See Sipra. 

Seetamau. — State and town in Central India. See Sitamau. 

Segowlie. — Village in Champaran District, Bengal. See Sagauli. 

Sehore (5///^^).— British military station and head-quarters of a State 
tahsll and of the Bhopal Agency, situated in the Nizamat-i-Maghrib or 
western district of Bhopal State, Central India, in 23° 12' N. and 
77° 5' E., on the Ujjain-Bhopal Railway, 1,750 feet above sea-level. 
Population (1901), 16,864, of whom 5,109 inhabited the native town, 
and 11,755 tbe military station, the two portions forming one continu- 
ous site, near the junction of the Siwan and Lotia streams, which have 
been dannned to give an ample water-sujjply. 

SEHORE 16 1 

A mo.s(iue erected in 1332 shows that Sehore was even at that 
time a place of some ini[)ortance. In 1814 it was the scene of the 
famous fight between Sindliia's generals, Jaswant Rao and Jean Baptiste 
Filose, which practically saved the city of Bhopal from capture. The 
real importance, however, of Sehore dates from 1818, when, after the 
treaty made with the Bhopal State, it was selected as the head-quarters 
of the Political officer and the newly raised local contingent. Up to 
1842 the Political officer ranked as an Agent to the Governor-Cieneral, 
but then became a Political Agent. Sehore is also the head-ciuarters of 
the Agency Surgeon. 

In 1818, after the treaty concluded with the Nawab in the previous 
year, the contingent force which the Bhopal State had agreed to main- 
tain was quartered at Sehore. The Bhopal Contingent, as it was 
designated, was supplied from the Bhopal State army, deficiencies be- 
ing made good by drafting men from the State regiments. There were 
no British officers with the corps, which was directl) under the orders 
of the Political officer. These State levies, however, objected to wearing 
uniform or undergoing proper discipline : and in 1824 the Contingent 
was reorganized and a British officer attached as commandant, the force 
then consisting of 20 gunners, 302 cavalry, and 674 infantry, the last 
being rearmed with muskets in place of matchlocks. The troops were 
employed to police the district and furnish escorts. Several reorganiza- 
tions took place at different periods, the number of British officers 
being raised to 3 in 1847. In 1857 the force consisted of 72 gunners, 
255 cavalry, and 712 infentry. Most of the men were then recruited 
in Northern India, Sikhs being enlisted in both the cavalry and in- 
fantry. The regiment showed sym{)toms of unrest at this period, but 
never mutinied in force, and assisted in |)rotecting the Agent to the 
Governor-General at Indore, and also escorted the Political Agent and 
European residents of Sehore to Iloshangabad, to which place they 
retired at the request of the Begam. The artillery served as a complete 
unit under Sir Hugh Rose throughout the campaign. In 1859 the force 
was reconstituted as an infantry battalion and became the Bhopal Levy. 
In 1865 it was again reconstituted as the Bhopal Battalion, and in 1878 
was employed in the Afghan campaign on the lines of communication. 
In 1897 it was brought under the orders of the Commander-in-Chief, 
and the station was included in the Nerbudda district instead of being, 
as hitherto, a political corps, directly under the Governor-General. In 
1903 it was reconstituted in four double companies of Sikhs, Muham- 
madans, Rajputs, and Brahmans, with 8 British officers and 896 rank 
and file, and delocalized, receiving the title of the 9th Bhopal Infantry ; 
and in the following year, for the first time since its creation, it was 
moved from Sehore on relief, being reiilaced by a regiment of the 
regular army. The Bhopal State contributes towards the upkeep of 

1 62 SFJ/OA'E 

the force. The contribution, originally fixed at 1-3 lakhs, was finally 
raised in 1849 to i-6 lakhs. 

The station is directly under the control of a Superintendent, 
acting under the Political officer. He exercises the powers of a first- 
class Magistrate and Small Cause Court judge. An income of about 
Rs. 60,000 is derived from taxes on houses and lands and other mis- 
cellaneous sources, which is spent on drainage, water-supply, lighting, 
education, and hospitals. The station has increased considerably of 
late years, and is now an important trading centre, the yearly fair called 
the Hardaul Lala mela, held in the last week of December, being 
attended by merchants from Cawnpore, Agra, and Saugor. A high 
school, opened in 1839, and a girls' school, opened in 1865, both 
largely supported by the chiefs of the Agency, are maintained in the 
station, besides a charitable hospital, a leper asylum, a <fa,^- bungalow 
for Europeans, two sarais for native travellers, a Protestant church, and 
a Government post and telegraph office. The native town contains a 
school, a State post office, and a sarai. 

Sehwan Subdivision. — Subdivision of Larkana District, Sind, 
Bombay, composed of the Dadu, Johi, and Sehw^an tdlukas. 

Sehwan Taluka. — Tdluka of Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 25° 53' and 26° 39' N. and 67° 29' and 67° 58' E., 
with an area of 1,272 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
54,779, compared with 53,574 in 1891. The tdbika contains two 
towns — Sehwan (population, 5,244), the head-quarters, and Bubak 
(3,300) — and 65 villages. Owing to its physical features this tdluka, 
with a density of only 43 persons per square mile, is less thickly popu- 
lated than any other. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to i-6 lakhs. Sehwan is the most picturesque tdluka in the 
District, for the hills curve south-west almost up to the Indus, while 
the Manchhar Lake forms its north-western boundary. The lands 
round the lake are irrigated by its overflow and produce excellent 
wheat, but south of them there is little regular cultivation. The 
Chitawah, a meandering stream, which enters the tdluka from the 
north and winds towards the Indus, is the chief source of irrigation 
in the north-east. The riparian lands of the Indus are irrigated by 
small watercourses which debouch from and again flow into the river. 

Sehwan Town.— Head-quarters of the tdbika of the same name 
in Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 26° 26' N, and 
67"" 54' E., on a branch of the North-Western Railway, and on the 
main road from Kotri to Shikarpur via Larkana, 84 miles north-north- 
west of Kotri, and 95 miles south-south-west of Larkana; elevation 
above sea-level 117 feet. Population (1901), 5,244. The river Indus, 
which formerly flowed close to the town, has now quite deserted it. 
A few miles south of Sehwan, the Lakhi hills terminate abruptly, form- 


ing a characteristic feature of this portion of the taluka. The Muham- 
inadan inhabitants are for the most part engaged in fishing ; tlic 
Hindus in trade. A large section of the people are professional 
mendicants, sui)ported by the offerings of pilgrims at the shrine of 
Lai Shahbaz. The tomb containing the remains of this saint is 
enclosed in a quadrangular edifice, covered with a dome and lantern, 
said to have been built in 1356, and having beautiful encaustic tiles 
with Arabic inscriptions. Mirza Janl, of the Tarkhan dynasty, built 
a still larger tomb to this saint, which was completed in 1639. The 
gate and balustrade are said to have been of hammered silver, the 
gift of Mir Karani All Khan, Tal[)ur, who also crowned the domes 
with silver spires. The chief object, however, of antiquarian interest 
in Sehwan is the fort, ascribed to Alexander the Great. This is an 
artificial mound So or 90 feet high, measuring round the summit 
1,500 by 800 feet, and surrounded by a broken wall. The interior 
is strewn with broken pottery and tiles. The mound is evidently an 
artificial structure, and the remains of several towers are visible. The 
fortifications are now in disrepair. An old Christian graveyard below 
the fort contains a few tombs dating from the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. Sehwan is undoubtedly a place of great antiquity. 
Tradition asserts that the town was in existence at the time of the 
first Muhammadan invasion of Sind by Muhammad bin Kasim vSafiki, 
about A. D. 711; and it is believed to be the place which submitted to 
his arms after the conquest of Nerankot, the modern Hyderabad. 

The town was constituted a municipality in 1854, and had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 12,200. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,000. The transit trade is mainly in 
wheat and rice ; and the local conmierce in cloth and grain. The 
manufactures comprise carpets, coarse cloth, and pottery. The art 
of seal-engraving, which was formerly much practised, is now extinct. 
The town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, and 
a middle school. 

Seikpyu.— Southern township of Pakokku District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 20° 50' and 21° 21' N. and 94° 20' and 94*^ 48' E., with 
an area of 559 square miles. 'l"he level of the country rises on all 
sides towards the centre, from which spring numerous streams drain- 
ing into the Yaw river, which sweeps round the township, first in 
a north-easterly and then in a southerly course. The inhabitants are 
confined to the valleys of the Yaw and its tributary, the Sada-on, which 
drains the south. The hilly centre is uninhabited. The population 
was 47,502 in 1891, and 31,100 in 1901, distributed in 152 villages, 
Seikpyu (population, 1,195) on the Irrawaddy being the head-quarters. 
The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 107 square miles, and the land 
revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 72,000. 


Sejakpur. I'etty State in Kathiawak, Bombay. 

Sembiem. -Town in the Saidapet taluk of Chinglepul District, 
Madras, situated in 13° 7' N. and 80° 16' E. Population (1901), 
1 7,567. It lies near the Perambur railway station of the Madras 
Railway and just beyond the limits of the Madras municipality, and 
within it are the Perambur railway workshops, which employ 4,500 
hands. It is consequently almost a suburb of Madras, and being 
a healthy locality, with good water, is growing rapidly in population. 
There is a considerable Eurasian community in the place. It contains 
ten small paper-making establishments, which give employment to 
about a dozen hands apiece. 

Sendamangalam. — Town in the Namakkal taluk of Salem District, 
Madras, situated in 1 1° 17' N. and 78° 15' E. Population (1901), 13,584. 
It is the third largest town in the District, but the occupations of the 
people are purely agricultural, and it is of little other interest. 

Sendurjana. — Town in the Morsi taluk of AmraotI District, Berar, 
situated in 21° N. and 78° 6' E. Population (1901), 6,860. The town 
has declined in importance since 1872, but a large bazar is held here 
once a week. 

Seohara {Siuhdrd). — ^Town in the Dhampur tahsll of Bijnor Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 29° 13' N. and 78° 35' E., on the 
main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 
10,062. The town contains a police station and a handsome mosque, 
and also a branch of the American Methodist Mission. It is adminis-' 
tered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 3,000. Its 
trade is of some importance. A primary school has 63 and five aided 
schools have 182 pupils. 

Seondha {Seora). — Head-quarters of a pargana in the Datia State, 
Central India, situated in 26° 10' N. and 78° 47' E., on the east bank 
of the Sind river, 36 miles from Datia town. Population (1901), 5,542. 
The town has been steadily declining in importance of late years. It 
is of old foundation, the remains of the earlier settlement lying close 
to the modern town. Seondha was a flourishing place in the fifteenth 
century, and the fort is supposed to have been of importance some 
centuries before. It may possibly be the Sarua fort taken by Mahmud 
of Ghazni in the eleventh century when in pursuit of Chand Rai. At 
the beginning of the nineteenth century Raja Parichhat of Datia 
gave asylum at Seondha to the mother of Daulat Rao Sindhia, who 
had fled from Gwalior; and the fort was unsuccessfully attacked on 
Sindhia's behalf by Raghunath Rao and General Perron. A school and 
a combined British and State post office are situated in the town. 

Seoni District. — District in the Jubbulpore Division of the Central 
Provinces, consisting of a long narrow section of the Satpura plateau 
overlooking the Narbada valley on the north and the Nagpur plain on 


the south, .ind lying between 21° 36' and 22*^ 57' N. and 79° 19' and 
So** 17' E., with an area of 3,206 scjuarc miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Narsinghpur and Jubbulpore Districts; on the east by 
Mandla, Balaghat, and Bhandara ; on the south by Nagpur ; and on 
the west by Chhindwara. All round the north and north-west (jf the 
District the border hills of the Snt[)ura range, thickly 
fringed with forest and overlooking the Narbada, aspects 

separate SeonI from Jubbulpore and Narsinghpur, 
except along a strip to the north-east, where the Narbada itself is the 
boundary towards Mandla, and 44 villages lying below the hills are 
included in the District. In the extreme north-west also a few villages 
below the hills belong to SeonI. South of the northern passes lies the 
Lukhnadon plateau, a rolling country of alternate ridges and hollows, 
terminating in another belt of hill and forest which leads down to the 
Wainganga. Except to the east where an open plain stretches to the 
Mandla border, and along part of the western boundary, the Lakh- 
nadon plateau is surrounded by jungle. The Sher river flows through 
the centre of the plateau from east to west, and passes into Narsingh- 
pur to join the Narbada. The Temur and Soner are other tributaries 
of the Narbada rising in the south. To the south-west of the District, 
and separated from the Lakhnadon plateau by the Thel and \Vain- 
ganga rivers, lies the SeonI Haveli, a level tract of the most fertile 
black soil in the District, extending from the line of hills east of Seoni 
town to the Chhindwara border. In this plateau the Wainganga rises 
at Partabpur, a few miles south of SeonI, and flows for some distance 
to the north until it is joined by the Thel from Chhindwara, and then 
across the District to the east, crossing the Nagpur-Jubbulpore road 
at Chhapara. On the south-west the Pench separates Seoni from 
Chhindwara. The heights of the Seoni and Lakhnadon plateaux are 
about 2,000 feet above sea-level, but the peak of Manorl on the western 
border of the District rises to 2,749 feet, and that of Kariapahar near 
Seoni to 2,379 feet. East of SeonI a line of hills runs from south to 
north ; and beyond this lies another open tract, about 200 feet lower 
than the Seoni plain, constituting the valleys of the Sagar and Hirri 
rivers, and containing the tracts of Ghansor and Parghat. Another 
line of hills separates the Ghansor plain from the valley of the Wain- 
ganga, which, after crossing the District from west to east, turns south 
at the point where it is joined by the Thanwar river from Mandla, 
and forms the boundary of SeonI for some miles until it diverges into 
Balaghat. The valley of the Wainganga, at first stony and broken and 
confined by hills as it winds round the northern spurs of the Seoni 
plateau, becomes afterwards an alternation of rich alluvial basins and 
narrow gorges, until just before reaching the eastern border of the 
District it conmiences its descent to the lower country, passing over 


a series of rapid and deep slony channels, overhung by walls of granite 
200 feet high. The falls of the Wainganga and its course for the last 
six miles, before its junction with the Thanwar on the border of the 
District, may perhaps rank next to the Bheraghat gorge of the Nar- 
bada for beauty of river scenery. The lower valley of the ^V'ainganga 
is about 400 feet below the Ghansor plain, from which it is separated 
by another line of forest-clad hills, and a narrow rice-growing strip 
along its western bank, called the UglT tract, is included in Seonl. 
In the extreme south of the Seoni /ahsll a small area of submontane 
land, forming the Dongartal or Kurai tract, and largely covered with 
forest, is the residence of numbers of Gaolis, who are professional 
cattle-breeders. The Bawanthari river rises in the southern hills, and, 
receiving the waters of numerous small streams, carries the drainage of 
this area into Nagpur District on its way to join the Wainganga. 

The District is covered by the Deccan trap, except on the southern 
and south-eastern borders, where gneissic rocks prevail. 

The forests are extensive, forming a thick belt along the northern 
and southern hills, with numerous isolated patches in the interior. In 
tlie north they are stunted and scanty, and the open country is bare 
of trees, and presents a bleak appearance, the villages consisting of 
squalid-looking collections of mud huts perched generally on a bare 
ridge. In the rice tracts, on the other hand, the vegetation is luxu- 
riant, and fruit trees are scattered over the open country and round 
the villages. Owing to the abundance of wood the houses are large 
and well-built, and surrounded by bamboo fences enclosing small 
garden plots. The northern forests have much teak, but usually of 
small size, and there is also teak along the Wainganga river ; the forests 
in the south-east are principally composed of bamboos. The open 
country in the south is wooded with trees and groves of mahud {Bas- 
sia latifo/ia), tendu or ebony {Diospyros ioviefitosa), achdr {Buchanania 
/atifolia), and fruit trees, such as mango and tamarind. 

Tigers and leopards are not very common ; but deer are found in 
considerable numbers, and both land and water birds are fairly fre- 
quent in different parts of the District. 

The climate is cool and pleasant, excessive heat being rarely felt 
even in the summer months. 

The annual rainfall averages 53 inches. During the thirty years 
previous to 1896 the rainfall was only once less than 30 inches, in 
1867-8. Irregular distribution is, however, not uncommon. 

From the inscription on a copperplate found in Seonl combined 

with others in the Ajanta caves, it has been inferred that a line of 

princes, the Vakataka dynasty, was ruling on the 

Satpura plateau from the third century a. d., the 

name of the perhaps mythical hero who founded it being given as 


Vindhyasakti, Little is known of this dynasty except the names 
of ten princes, and the fact that they contracted alliances with better- 
known ruling houses. The architectural remains at Deogarh and 
Lakhnadon may, however, be attributed to them or their successors, 
as they could not have been constructed by the (lOnds. History is 
then a blank until the sixteenth century, when Seoni fell under the 
dominion of the rising Gond dynasty of Garha-Mandla. Ghansor, 
Chauri, and Dongartal were three of the fifty-two forts included in the 
possessions of Raja Sangram Sah in 1530, and the territories attached 
to these made up the bulk of the present District. A century and 
a half afterwards the Mandla Raja was obliged to call in the help 
of Bakht Buland, the Deogarh prince, to assist in the suppression of 
a revolt of two Pathan adventurers, and in return for this ceded to 
him the territories now constituting Seoni. Bakht Buland came 
to take possession of his new dominions, and was engaged one day 
in a hunting expedition near Seoni, when he was attacked by a 
wounded bear. An unknown Pathan adventurer, Taj Khan, came to 
his assistance and killed the bear ; and Bakht Buland was so pleased 
with his dexterous courage that he made him governor of the Dongartal 
taluka^ then in a very unsettled condition. AVhen Seoni, with the rest 
of the Deogarh kingdom, was seized by Raghuji Bhonsla, Muhammad 
Khan, the son of Taj Khan, held out in Dongartal for three years 
on behalf of his old master ; and Raghuji finally, in admiration of his 
fidelity, appointed him governor of Seoni-('hhapara with the title 
of Dlwan, and his descendants continued to administer the District 
until shortly before the cession. In the beginning of the nineteenth 
century Chhapara, at that period a flourishing town with 2,000 Pathan 
fighting men, was sacked by the Pindaris during the absence of the 
garrison at Nagpur and utterly ruined. A tombstone near the W'ain- 
ganga bridge still marks the site where 40,000 persons are said to have 
been buried in a common grave '. 

Seoni became British territory in 181 8, being ceded by the treaty 
which followed the battle of Sitabaldi. During the Mutiny the tran- 
quillity of the District was disturbed only by the revolt of a LodhI 
landholder in the north, who joined the rebels of Jubbulpore and 
Narsinghpur. They established themselves on some hills overlooking 
the Jubbulpore road near Sukri, from which they made excursions 
to bum and plunder villages. The rebels were dispersed and the 
country pacified on the arrival of the Nagpur Irregulars at the end 
of 1857. The representative of the Dlwan family firmly supported 
the British Government. In 1873 the greater part of the old Katangi 
tahsll (A Seoni was transferred to Balaghat, and 51 villages below the 

' According to another account, the 40,000 perished in a battle between the rulers 
of Seoni and Mandla. 



hills to Nagpur, while SeonI received accessions of 122 villages, : 
including the Adegaon ta/uka from Chhindwara, and 8 villages from 
Mandla. ^ 

The archaeological remains are of little importance. At Ghansor 
in the Seoni tahsU are the ruins of numerous Jain temples, now only [ 
heaps of cut and broken stone, and several tanks. Ashta, 28 miles 
from SeonI in the Barghat tract, contains three temples built of cut ' 
stone without cement. There are three similar temples in Lakhnadon \^ 
and some sculptures in the tahs'i/. Bisapur near Kurai has an old 
temple which is said to have been built by Sena Rani, widow of the 
Gond Raja Bhopat, and a favourite popular heroine. The ruins of her 
palace and an old fort are also to be seen at Amodagarh near Ugll 
on the Hirri river. Along the southern spurs of the Satpuras, the 
remains of a number of other Gond forts are visible at Umargarh, ; 
Bhain.sagarh, Partabgarh, and Kohwagarh. 

The population of SeonI at the last three enumerations was as 
follows: (1881) 335,997; (1891) 370.767; and (1901)327,709. Be- 
tween 1 88 1 and 1891 the District prospered, and the 
opuation. ^^^^ ^^ increase was about the same as that for 
the Province as a whole. The decrease of more than 11 per cent, 
during the last decade was due to bad seasons and emigration to > 
Assam. The principal statistics in 1901 are shown below: — 


Area in square 

Number of 




Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 





District total 











- 12-3 

- 10.7 






7,151 I 

The statistics of religion show that 55 per cent, of the population 
are Hindus, 40 per cent. Animists, and about 4^ per cent. Muham- 
madans. There are some large Muhammadan landlords, the principal 
being the representative of the Diwan's family, who holds a con- 
siderable estate, the Gondi tdluka, on quit-rent tenure. The people ' 
are for the most part immigrants from the north-west, and rather 
more than half speak tlie Bundeli dialect of Western Hindi. Urdu 
is the language of nearly 11,000 of the Muhammadans and Kayasths, 
and about 20,000 persons in the south-east of the District below the 
hills speak Marathl. The Ponwars have a dialect of their own akin 
to Rajasthani ; and Gondl is spoken by 102,000 persons, or rather 
more than three-fourths of the number of Gonds in the District. 

Gonds number 130,000, or 40 per cent, of the population. They 



have lost many of their villages, but the important estates of Sarekha 
and Dhuma still belong to Oond landlords. Ahirs number 31,000, 
Malls 10,000, and the menial caste of Mehras (weavers and labourers) 
19,000. Lodhls (5,000) and Kurmis (8,000) are important cultivating 
castes. Banias (3,000) have now acquired over 100 villages. Another 
landholding caste are the Bagri Rajputs, who possess between 60 and 
70 villages and are fairly prosperous. The Ponwars (16,000) are the 
landowners in the rice tracts of Barghat and Ugli. They are indus- 
trious, skilled in irrigation, and take an interest in cattle-breeding. 
About 70 per cent, of the whole population were shown as dependent 
on agriculture in 1901. 

Christians number 183, of whom 165 are natives. A mission 
of the original Free Church of Scotland is maintained in the town 
of Seoni. 

Over the greater part of the District the soil is formed from the 
decomposition of trap rock. The best black soil is very rare, covering 
only one per cent, of the cultivated area ; and the 
greater part of the land on the plateaux or in the 
valleys is black and brown soil, mixed to a greater or less extent with 
sand or limestone grit, which covers 49 per cent, of the cultivated area. 
There is a large quantity of inferior red and stony land, on which only 
the minor millets and /// can be grown. Lastly, in the rice tracts 
of SeonI is found light sandy soil, not itself of any great fertility, but 
responding readily to manure and irrigation. The land of the Seoni 
Uxhs'il is generally superior to that of Lakhnadon. 

About 236 square miles are held wholly or partially free of revenue, 
the greater part of this area being comprised in the large Gondi tdluka 
which belongs to the Diwan family. Nearly 7,000 acres have been 
sold outright under the Waste Land Rules; and 180 square miles, 
consisting partly of land which was formerly Government forest and 
partly of villages of escheated estates, are being settled on the ryotwdri 
system. The remaining area is held on the ordinary mdlguzdri tenure. 
The principal agricultural statistics in 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 






















The principal crops are wheat, kodo?i, and rice. AVheat occupied 
365 square miles, or about 32 per cent, of the cropped area, the greater 
part being in the Haveli and Ghansor tracts. Only 3 per cent, of the 


fields classed as fit to grow wheat are embanked. Kodon and kutki, 
the light autumn millets, were sown in 195 square miles, or 17 per 
cent, of the cropped area. Rice occupied about 114 square miles, 
or 8 per cent, of the cropped area. It has decreased in popularity 
during the last few years, owing to the distribution of the rainfall 
having been generally unfavourable, and the area under it at present 
is about 50 square miles less than at the time of settlement. Rice 
is generally transplanted, only about 20 per cent, of the total area 
being sown broadcast in normal years. Linseed, /// and other oilseeds, 
gram, lentils, tiurd, Joivdr, and cotton are the other crops. Jowar and 
cotton have lately increased in popularity, while the area under linseed 
has greatly fallen off. 

A great deal of new land has been broken up since the settlement 
of 1864-5, the increase in cultivated area up to the last settlement 
(1894-6) amounting to 50 per cent. A considerable proportion of the 
new land is of inferior quality and requires periodical resting fallows. 
The three-coultered sowing drill and weeding harrow used by culti- 
vators of the Deccan iox jowdr have lately been introduced into Seoni. 
.S'd!;/-hemp is a profitable minor crop, which has recently come into 
favour. No considerable sums have been taken under the Land 
Improvement Act, the total amount borrowed between 1894 and 
1904 being Rs. 29,000 ; but nearly 2\ lakhs has been advanced in 
agricultural loans. 

Cattle are bred principally in the Kurai tract and in the north 
of the Lakhnadon tahsil. The Gaolis and Golars in Kurai are pro- 
fessional cattle-breeders, and keep bulls. Large white bullocks are' 
reared, and sold in Nagpur and Berar, where they fetch Rs. 50 on 
Rs. 60 a pair as yearlings. The Lakhnadon bullocks are smaller, and 
the majority are of a grey colour. Frequently no special bulls are kept, 
and the immature males are allowed to mix with the cows before 
castration. Gonds and poor Muhammadans sometimes use cows for 
ploughing, especially when they are barren. In the rice tracts buffaloes 
are used for cultivation. Small ponies are bred and are used for riding ■ 
in the Haveli, especially during the rains. Sheep are not numerous, 1 
but considerable numbers of goats are bred by ordinary agriculturists Jj 
both for food and for religious offerings. Lakhnadon has an especially l| 
good breed of goats. 

About 46 square miles of rice land and 2,000 acres of sugar-canei 
and garden crop land are classed as irrigable, and this area was shown 
as irrigated in the year of settlement. In 1903-4 the irrigated area 
was only 6 square miles, owing to the unfavourable rainfall, which was' 
insufficient to fill the tanks. About 18 square miles are irrigated from 
tanks and 4,000 acres from wells and other sources in a good year.; 
Rice is watered from tanks, both by percolation and by cutting the' 


emhankiiicnts. Sugar-cane and garden crops are supplied from wells. 
'Inhere are about 650 tanks and 1,300 wells. 

The Government forests cover an area of 828 scjuare miles, of which 
ri have been demarcated for disforestation and settlement on ryotwdri 
tenure. They are well distributed in all parts of the 

' \\ (\^ f^ etc 

District. Teak and saj {Terniina/ia tomentosd) are 
the chief timber trees, the best teak growing in the Kurai range, where 
there are three plantations. Bamboos are also plentiful. Mahud and 
lac are the most important minor products. The forest revenue in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 63,000. 

Iron is found in the Kurai range in the soutii of the District and was 
formerly smelted by native methods, but has now been displaced by 
Knglish iron. Other deposits occur in the valley 
of the HirrI river. In Khaira on tlie Sagar river, 
23 miles from Seoni towards Mandla, coal has been discovered, and 
a prospecting licence granted. The sands of the Pachdhar and Bawan- 
thari rivers have long been washed for gold in insignificant cjuantities. 
An inferior kind of mica has been met witli in Riikhar on the Seoni- 
Nagpur road and the hills near it. A smooth greyish-white chalk is 
obtained near Chhapara on the north bank of the Wainganga. Light- 
coloured amethysts and topazes are found among the rocks in the 
Adegaon tract. A good hard stone is obtained from quarries in the 
hills and in the villages of Chakkl-Khamaria, Janawarkheda, and Khan- 
kara, from which grindstones, rolling-slabs, and mortars are made, and 
sold all over Seoni and the adjoining Districts of Chhindwara and 

The weaving of coarse cotton ch^th is carried on in several villages, 

principally at Seoni, Bargiiat, and Chhapara. Tasar silk cloth was 

formerly woven at Seoni, but the industry is nearly 

extinct. Cotton cloth is dyed at Mungwani, Chha- "^""^^.^ ^°^ 

„,..,, .„ °. communications, 

para, Kahani, and other villages, dl (Indian madder) 

being still used, though it has to a large extent been supplanted by the 

imported German dye. At Adegaon the amohwd cloths are dyed green 

with a mixture of madder and myrabolams. Glass bangles are made 

from imported glass at Chaonrl, IMtan, and Chhapara ; and lac bangles 

at Seoni, Chhapara, Bakhari, and Lakhnadon. Earthen vessels are 

made in several villages, those of Kaniwara and Pachdhar having 

a special ieputati(;n. These are universally used for water, and also 

tor the storage of such articles as grain and ghi, while Muhammadans 

and Gonds employ them as cooking vessels. Iron implements are 

made at Piparwani in the Kurai tract from English scrap iron, and 

are used throughout the south of the District, the I^ikhnadon tahsll 

obtaining its supplies from Narsinghpur and Jubbulpore. Skins are 

tanned and leather-work is done at Khawasa. 



Wheat is the principal export] but rice is exported to Chhindwara 
and the Narbada valley, and san-haxw^ fibre is sent to Calcutta, often 
to the value of four or five lakhs annually. Gram and oilseeds are 
exported to some extent, and also the oil of the kasdr plant, a variety 
of safflower, which is very prickly and is sown on the borders of wheat- 
lields to keep out cattle. The exports of forest produce are teak, sdj, 
bljdsdl {Pterocarpus Marsupiuni) and bamboos for building, mahud oil, 
lac, chironjl (the fruit of Buchanania latifolia), and myrabolams. Ghi, 
cotton, and hides and horns are also exported. Salt comes principally 
from the n)arshes near Ahmadabad and to a less extent from Bombay. 
Both sugar and gur are obtained from the United Provinces, and the 
latter also from Chhindwara. Mill-made piece-goods, from both Bombay 
and Calcutta, are now generally worn by the better classes, in place of 
hand-made cloth. Betel-leaves, turmeric, and catechu are imported 
from surrounding Districts. Superior country-made shoes come from 
Calcutta and Delhi. The trade in grain and ghi is principally in the 
hands of Agarwal and Parwar Banias, and there are one or two shops 
of Cutchi Muhammadans. The centre of the timber trade is at Kurai, 
Lo which wholesale dealers come from Kamptee to make purchases. 
Barghat is the most important weekly market, and after it Gopalganj, 
Kaniwara, and Keolari. 

The narrow-gauge Satpura extension of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway 
has recently been constructed. A branch line runs from Nainpur 
junction in Mandla through Seoni to Chhindwara, following closely 
the direction of the Seoni-Mandla and Seoni-Chhindwara roads ; the 
length of line in the District is 55 miles. The main connecting line 
between Gondia and Jubbulpore also crosses the north-eastern portion 
of the Lakhnadon hihsil, with stations at Ghansor, Binaiki, and Shikara ; 
the length of line in the District is 20 miles. The great northern road 
from Nagpur to Jubbulpore, metalled and bridged throughout, except 
at the Narbada, passes from south to north of the District. The trade 
of Seoni has hitherto been almost entirely along this road, that of the 
portion south from Chhapara going to Kamptee, and that of the north- 
ern part of the Lakhnadon tahsl/ to Jubbulpore. Roads have also 
been constructed from Seoni to Chhindwara, Mandla, Balaghat, and 
Katangi, along which produce is brought from the interior. From 
the hilly country in the east and west of the Lakhnadon tahsll car- 
riage has hitherto been by pack-bullocks, and over all the rest of 
the District by carts. The length ot metalled roads is 133 miles and 
of unmetalled roads 116 miles, all maintained by the Public \\'orks 
department. The maintenance charges in 1903-4 were Rs. 64,000. 
Avenues of trees exist for short and broken lengths on the principal 

From 1823 to 1827 the District suffered from a succession of short 


crops due to floods, hail, and blight, resulting in the desertion of many 
villages. In 1833-4 the autumn rains failed and a part of the spring- 
crop area was left unsown. Grain was imported by „ 
r. f / 1 1 1 'ni_ • • Famine. 
Uovernmcnt from C hhattisgarn. 1 he wmter ranis 

were excessive in 1854-5, and the spring crops were totally destroyed 
by rust. In 1868 the monsoon failed in August, and the year's rainfall 
was only about half the normal, but a heavy storm in September saved 
a portion of the crops. Distress was not severe in SeonI, and the 
j)eoplc made great use of forest produce. PVom 1893 to 1895 ^^ 
winter rains were abnormally heavy and the spring crops were damaged 
by rust; and this was followed in 1895 and 1896 by early cessation 
of the rains. In the former year the autumn crops failed partially, 
and in the latter year completely, while in 1896 a considerable portion 
of the spring-crop area could not be sown owing to the dryness of the 
land. There was severe famine during the year 1897, when 44 lakhs 
was expended on relief, the numbers relieved rising to 19,000, or 5 per 
cent, of ihe population, in September. In 1899- 1900 Seoni had a very 
bad autumn harvest and a moderate spring harvest. The distress was 
considerable but not acute, the numbers on relief rising to 45,000, 
or \2 per cent, of the population, and the total expenditure being 
6-6 lakhs. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by one Extra-Assistant Commis- 
sioner. For administrative purposes the District is divided into two 
hi/isi/s, each of which has a tahsllddr and a naib- 
tahslldar. The District staff includes a Forest officer, 
but public works are in charge of the Executive Engineer of Jubbul- 

The civil judicial staff consists of a District and a Subordinate Judge, 
and a Munsif at each tahsil. The Divisional and Sessions Judge of 
the Jubbulpore Division has jurisdiction in SeonI. The crime of the 
District is light. 

Neither the Gond nor Maratha governments recognized any kind of 
right in land, and the cultivators were protected only by the strong 
custom enjoining hereditary tenure. The rule (jf the Gonds was never 
oppressive, but the policy of the Marathas was latterly directed to the 
extortion of the largest possible revenue. Rents were generally col- 
lected direct, and leases of villages were granted only for very short 
terms. The measure, however, which contributed most largely towards 
the impoverishment of the country was the levy of the revenue before 
the crops on which it was charged could be cut and sold. In 18 10, 
eight years before coming under British rule, it was reported that Seoni 
had i)aid a revenue of more than three lakhs ; but in the interval the 
exactions of the last Maratha ruler, Appa Sahib, and the depredations 
of the I'indaris, had caused the annual realizations to shrink to less 

.M 2 



than lialf this sum. The period of short-term settlements, which 
followed the commencement of British administration, constituted in 
Seoni, as elsewhere in the Central Provinces, a series of attempts to 
realize a revenue equal to, or higher than, that nominally paid to the 
Marathas, from a District whose condition had seriously deteriorated. 
Three years after cession the demand rose to 1-76 lakhs. This revenue, 
however, could not be realized, and in 1835 a settlement for twenty 
years reduced the demand to 1-34 lakhs. Even under this greatly 
decreased assessment some portions of the District suffered, and the 
revenue was revised. The rise of prices beginning about 1861, how- 
ever, restored prosperity, and revived the demand for land, and at the 
next revision a large enhancement was made. The completion of the 
settlement was retarded for ten years owing to the disturbances conse- 
quent on the Mutiny, and it took effect from 1864-5. The revised 
revenue amounted to 2-27 lakhs on the District as it then stood, or to 
1-62 lakhs on the area now constituting Seoni, and was fixed for thirty 
years. During its currency the seasons were generally favourable, 
prices rose, and cultivation extended. When records were ' attested ' 
for revision in 1894-5, it was found that the cultivated area had 
increased by 50 per cent, since the preceding settlement, and that 
the prices of agricultural produce had doubled. The new assessment 
took effect from the )ears 1896-8, and was made for a term of 
eleven to twehe years, a shorter period than the usual twenty years 
being adopted in order to produce a regular rotation of District settle- 
ments. Under it the revenue was enhanced to 2-93 lakhs, or by 
78 per cent. The new revenue absorbs 48 per cent, of the 'assets,' 
and the average incidence per cultivated acre is R. 0-5-9 (maximum 
R. 0-9-4, minimum R. 0-2-4), while the corresponding figure for 
rental is R. o-io-io (maximum R. 0-15-9, minimum R. 0-6-6). 

The revenue receipts from land and all sources have been, in 
thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue 
Total revenue 

I, .54 






Local affairs outside the municipal area of Seoni are entrusted to 
a District council and two local boards. The income of the District 
council in 1903-4 was Rs. 50,000. The expenditure on public works 
was Rs. 10,000, on education Rs. 15,000, and on medical relief 
Rs. 5,000. 

The police force consists of 278 officers and men, including 3 
mounted constables, under a District Superintendent, and 1,552 watch- 
men in 1,390 inhabited towns and villages. Seoni town has a District 

sEoxr Toirx 


jail with accommodation for r62 i)iisoners, including i6 females. The 
daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 53. 

In respect of education the District stands eleventh in the Province, 
4«3 per cent, of the male population being able to read and write in 
T901, while only 335 females were returned as literate. The percentage 
of children under instruction to those of school-going age is 8. Statis- 
tics of the number of pupils under instruction are as follows : (i88o-i) 
1,786 ; (1890-1) 2,564 ; (1900-1) 3,420 ; and (1903-4) 4,344, including 
337 gi'"^'^- "^^^ educational institutions comprise a high school at 
SeonT supported by the Scottish Free Church Mission ; 2 English 
middle schools, 4 vernacular middle, and 60 primary schools, of 
which 5 are girls' schools. The expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was Rs. 36,000, of which Rs. 20,000 was derived from Provincial and 
Local funds nnd Rs. 3,000 from fees. 

The District has 5 dispensaries, with accommodation for 56 in- 
patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 25,774, of whom 
383 were in-patients, and 611 operations were performed. The expen- 
diture was Rs. 8,000, the greater part of which was provided from 
Provincial and Local funds. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipality of Seonl. The 
number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 51 per 
1,000 of the District population, a very favourable result. 

[Khan Bahadur Aulad Husain, Settlement Rep07-t (1899); R. A. 
Sterndale, Seo/iee, or Camp Life on the Satpura Range (1877) ; R. V. 
Russell, District Gazetteer (1907).] 

Seoni Tahsil. — Southern tahsll of Seonl District, Central Provinces, 
lying between 21° 36' and 22° 24' N. and 79° 19' and 80° (^ E., with 
an area of 1,648 scjuare miles. The population decreased from 219,284 
in 1891 to 192,364 in 1901. The density in the latter year was 117 
persons per square mile. The tahsll contains one town, Seoni (popu- 
lation, 11,864), the head-quarters of the District and tahsll; and 
677 villages. Excluding 468 square miles of Government forest, 60 
per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The culti- 
vated area in 1903-4 was 712 square miles. The demand for land 
revenue in the same year was Rs. 1,69,000, and for cesses Rs. 21,000. 
The western portion of the tahsll towards Chhindwara consists of a 
fertile black-soil plain, while on the south and east there are tracts of 
rice country. The remainder is hilly and undulating. 

Seoni Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsll cX the same 
name, Central Provinces, situated in 22° 5' N. and 79° TtZ' E., on the 
road from Nagpur to Jubbulpore, 79 miles from the former town and 
86 from the latter. A branch line of the Satpura narrow-gauge railway 
runs from Nainpur junction through Seonl to Chhindwara. Population 
(1901), 11,864, including nearly 3,000 Muhammadans. Seonl was 

fje S/^OA^f TOWN 

founded in 1774 by the Pathan governor of ('hhapara, who removed 
his head-quarters here, and built a fort in which his descendant still 
resides. It was created a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts 
during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 25,000. In 1903-4 the 
receipts were Rs. 39,000, of which Rs. 29,000 was derived from octroi. 
SeonT is the principal commercial town on the Satpura plateau, and 
has a cotton hand-weaving industry. The water-supply is obtained 
from the Bubaria tank, 2\ miles distant, from which pipes have been 
carried to the town. The large ornamental Dalsagar tank in the town 
is kept filled from the same source. SeonT contains a high school 
with 2)Z pupils, and boys' and girls' schools, supported by the Scottish 
Free Church Mission, besides municipal English middle and branch 
schools. The medical institutions comprise three dispensaries, including 
a police hospital and a veterinary dispensary. 

Seoni-Malwa Tahsil. — Tahstl of Hoshangabad District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 22° 13' and 22° 39'' N. and 77° 13' and 
77° 44' E., with an area of 490 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 66,793, compared with 75>90i i" 1891. The density is 136 persons 
per square mile. The tahsil has one town, Seoni-Malwa (population, 
7,531), the head-quarters; and 196 inhabited villages. Excluding 
126 .square miles of Government forest, 75 per cent, of the available 
area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 
232 square miles. The demand for land revenue in the same year 
was Rs. 1,29,000, and for cesses Rs. 12,000. The tahsil., which is 
a very small one, consists of a highly fertile black-soil plain adjoining 
the Narbada and a strip of hilly country to the south. 

Seoni-Malwa Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same 
name in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces, situated in 22° 27' N. 
and 77° 29' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 443 miles 
from Bombay. Population (1901), 7,531. The town was created 
a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 9,000, 
derived mainly from octroi. Seoni-Malwa was formerly the most 
important trading town in the District, but it has been supplanted 
in recent years by Harda and Itarsi. A number of betel-vine gardens 
are situated near the town, in which a special variety of leaf is grown. 
Seoni-Malwa possesses an English middle school and a dispensary. 

Seorai. — Ancient site in Bahawalpur State, Punjab. See Sarwahi. 

Seoraj. — Tahsil \\\ Kangra District, Punjab. See Saraj. 

Serajgunge. — Subdivision and town in Pabna District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See Sirajganj. 

Seram Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Gulbarga District, Hyderabad 
State. The population in 1901, including Jdgirs, was 82,349, com- 
pared with 54,106 in 1891 ; the area was 404 square miles. Up to 



T905 the taluk contained one town, Skram (population, 5,503), the 
headquarters ; and 1 1 7 villages, of which 45 were Jaglr. The land 
revenue in 1901 was i-8 lakhs. In 1905, 21 villages from Gurmatkal 
were added to Seram. Rice is grown in the fahik by tank-irrigation. 
The paigdh taluk of Chita pur, with a population (1901) of 28,930 and 
38 villages, lies to the east of this taluk, and has an area of about 
121 square miles. 

Seram Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 1 7" 1 1' N. and 77° 1 8' E., 
on the Nizam's State Railway. Population (1901), 5,503. Seram 
contains many old temples and mosques, notable among them being 
the old Jama Masjid, constructed in the pillar and lintel style, and the 
temple of Panchalinga, the pillars of which are richly carved, while the 
ceilings are well decorated. It has a ginning factory also. 

Serampore Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Hooghly 
District, Bengal, lying between 22° 40' and 22° 55' N. and 87° 59' and 
88° 22' E., with an area of 343 square miles. The subdivision consists 
of a level .strip of land bounded on the east by the Hooghly river, 
and exhibits all the features of a thickly peopled deltaic tract. The 
population in 1901 was 413,178, compared with 399,987 in 1891. It 
contains five towns, Serampore (population, 44,451), the head-quarters, 
Uttarpara (7,036), Baidvabati (17,174), Bhadreswar (15,150), 
and KoTRANG (5,944) ; and 783 villages. The towns, which are all 
situated along the bank of the Hooghly, contain a large industrial 
population, and the subdivision is more thickly populated than the rest 
of the District, there being no fewer than 1,205 persons per square 
mile. A shrine at Tarakeswar is largely resorted to by pilgrims. 

Serampore Town {Srirampur) . — Head-quarters of the subdivision 
of the same name in Hooghly District, Bengal, situated in 22° 45' N. 
and 88° 21' E., on the right bank of the Hooghly river, opposite 
Barrackpore. The population increased from 24,440 in 1872 to 
25,559 in 1881, to 35,952 in 1891, and to 44,451 in 1901, the progress 
being due to the important mills which it contains. Of the total, 
80 per cent, are Hindus and 19 per cent. Musalmans, while of the 
remainder 405 are Christians. 

Serampore was originally a settlement of the Danes, who remained 
here until 1845, when by a treaty with the King of Denmark all the 
Danish possessions in India, consisting of the towns of Tranquebar 
and Serampore (or Frederiksnagar, as it was called) and a small piece 
of ground at Balasore, formerly occupied as a Danish factory, were sold 
to the East India Company for 1 2-| lakhs of rupees. Serampore was 
the scene of the labours of the famous Baptist missionaries, Carey, 
Marshman, and Ward ; and the mission, in connexion with which its 
founder established a church, school, and library, still flourishes. Two 


great melas, the Snanjatra and the Rathjatra, are annually held in the 
Mahesh and Ballabhpiir suburbs of the town. At the first the image 
of Jagannath is brought from his temple at Mahesh and bathed ; at 
the second and more important the image is dragged to the temple 
of a brother god, Radhaballabh, and brought back after an eight days' 
visit. 1 )uring these days an important fair is held at Mahesh, which 
is very largely attended, as many as 50,000 persons being present on 
the first and last days of the festival. The town contains several 
important mills, and silk- and cotton-weaving by hand is also largely 
carried on ; other industries are silk-dyeing, brick-making, pottery, and 

Serampore was constituted a municipality in 1865. The income 
during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 55,000, and the 
expenditure Rs. 53,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 60,000, 
including Rs. 29,000 derived from a tax on houses and lands, 
Rs. 16,000 from a conservancy rate, Rs. 5,000 from tolls, Rs. 1,600 
from a tax on vehicles, Rs. 1,500 from a tax on professions, &:c., and 
Rs. 2,000 from the municipal market, which is held in a corrugated 
iron building. The incidence of taxation was Rs. 1-3-5 P^"" head of 
the population. In the same year the expenditure was Rs. 54,000, 
the chief items being Rs. 3,000 spent on lighting, Rs. 9,000 on 
drainage, Rs. 19,000 on conservancy, Rs. 7,000 on medical relief, 
Rs. 4,000 on roads, and Rs. 2,000 on education. The town contains 
37 miles of metalled and 18 miles of unmetalled roads. 

The chief buildings are the courts, which occupy the site of the 
old Danish Government House, the school (late the college), the 
Danish (now the English) church built by subscription in 1805, 
the Mission chapel, the Roman Catholic chapel, a sub-jail with 
accommodation for 28 prisoners, which was formerly the Danish 
courthouse, a dispensary with 42 beds, and the temples of Radha- 
ballabh at Ballabhpur and of Jagannath at Mahesh. The former 
college, which was founded by the three Serampore missionaries, is 
now a high school. It possesses a fine library in which are several 
historic pictures, and had 312 boys on the rolls in 1902 ; attached 
to it is a training school for native pastors of the Baptist Church. 
There are 3 other high schools, 6 middle vernacular schools, and 
15 primary schools, of which 4 are for girls. A public library is 
maintained by subscriptions. 

Seringapatam Taluk. — Central taluk of Mysore District, Mysore 
State, including the French Rocks sub-A?///^, and lying between 12*' 18' 
and 12° 44' N. and 76° 32' and 76° 55' E., with an area of 274 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 88,691, compared with 85,242 in 
1 89 1. The taluk contains four towns, Seringapatam (population, 
8,584), the head-quarters, Melukote (3,129), French Rocks (1,936), 


and Pnlhalli (1,793); ^'^'^'^ 210 villages. The land revenue demand in 
1903-4 was Rs. 2,07,000. The Cauvery flows through the south from 
west to east, receiving the Lokapavani from the north. A line of hills 
runs north from the Cauvery, the prominent peaks of which are Kari- 
ghatta (2,697 feet), French Rocks (2,882 feet), and Yadugiri (3,579 feet) 
at Melukote. The country, rising gradually on both sides of the 
Cauvery, is naturally fertile, and is irrigated hy fine channels from 
the river, taken off from five or six dams. Rice and sugar-cane are 
generally grown. In the north-east are a few poorly populated wild 
tracts. The best gardens are those supplied by the channels. 

Seringapatam To'wn (properly Sinrangapattana).— Head-quarters 
of the taluk of the same name in Mysore District, Mysore, situated in 
12° 25' N. and 76^ 42' E., on an island in the Cauvery, 10 miles north- 
east of Mysore city. The population fell from 12,553 in 1891 to 8,584 
in 1901, chiefly owing to plague. The island on which the town stands 
is about 3 miles long and about i in breadth. 

In the earliest ages Gautama Rishi is said to have had a hermi- 
tage here, and worshi[)ped the god Ranganatha, whose temple is the 
principal building in the fort. The Gautama kshetra is a small island 
west of Seringapatam, where the river divides. Under two large boul- 
ders is the Rishi's cave, now closed up. In 894, during the reign of 
the Ganga kings, one Tirumalayya appears to have founded the temples 
of Ranganatha and Tirumala on the island, then overrun with jungle, 
and, enclosing them with a wall, called the place SrI-Rangapura. About 
II 1 7 the country on both sides of the Cauvery was bestowed by the 
Hoysala king on the reformer Ramanuja, who formed the Ashtaorama 
or ' eight townships ' there, appointing over them his own agents under 
the designation of Prabhus and Hebbars. In 1454 the Hebbar of 
Xagamangala, descended from one of these, obtained permission from 
the ^'ijayanagar king to erect a fort, and was appointed governor of the 
district, with the title of Danayak. His descendants held it till 1495, 
when it passed into the direct possession of the Vijayanagar kings, 
who made it the seat of a viceroy known as the Sri Ranga Rayal. 
In 1 610 the Vijayanagar viceroy was ousted by the Raja of Mysore, 
who made Seringapatam his capital. It was besieged on a number 
of occasions, but without success, the enemy being either repulsed or 
bought off. The most memorable of these sieges were: in 1638 by 
the Bijapurarmy ; in 1646 by Sivappa Naik of P>ednur ; in 1697 by the 
Marathas ; in 1732 by the Nawab of Arcot ; in 1755 by the Subahdar 
of the Deccan ; and in 1757 and 1759 by the Marathas. Ilaidar took 
possession in 1761, and it was again besieged by the Marathas in 1771. 
In 1792 and 1799 took place the two sieges by the British, previous to 
which the fort had been greatly strengthened and extended. On the 
former occasion Tipfi Sultan submitted to the terms imposed ; but in 


1799 he prolonged resistance till the place was stormed, losing his life 
during the assault. By this victory Seringapatam became the property 
of the British, who leased it to Mysore for Rs. 50,000 a year. At the 
rendition in 1881 it was given up to Mysore, the Bangalore cantonment 
being taken over instead as an 'assigned tract.' 

The historical interest of the place continues to attract many visitors, 
who view the site of the breach, the ramparts, the dungeons in which 
British prisoners were chained, and other parts in the fort itself. Out- 
side the fort, on the east, is the Darya Daulat, a pleasure garden, with 
a lavishly painted summer palace of Tipfi Sultan's time, afterwards 
occupied by Colonel Wellesley (the future Duke of Wellington). On 
the walls are elaborate panoramic paintings of the defeat of Colonel 
Baillie at PoUilore in 1780, Haidar and Tipu in processions, and 
numerous representations of Rajas and other notabilities. Farther 
east is the suburb of Ganjam or Shahr Ganjam, to populate which 
Tipu forcibly deported 12,000 families from Sira. East again of this 
is the Gumbaz or mausoleum of Haidar and Tipu, situated in what 
was the Lai Bagh, another pleasure garden with a palace of which 
nothing now remains. The island is watered by a canal which is 
carried across the south branch of the river by an aqueduct constructed 
by Tipu. In 1804 the Wellesley Bridge was built across the eastern 
branch by the Diwan Purnaiya, and named after the Governor-General. 
It is an interesting specimen of native architecture, being supported 
on rough stone pillars let into the rock in the bed of the river. 

Since 1882 the railway has run through Seringapatam, the fort walls 
being pierced in two places for it. Several new buildings for office 
purposes have been erected, with a new bathing ghaf as a memorial 
to the late Maharaja. These, and various municipal improvements, 
have given the place a more prosperous look than it had worn since 
the removal of the British garrison in 1809. The municipality dates 
from 187 1. The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 
1 901 averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 8,400 and 
Rs. 14,600 respectively. 

Seringham. — Island and town in Trichinopoly District, Madras. 
See Srirangam. 

Sermadevi Subdivision. — Subdivision of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, consisting of the Ambasamudram, Tenkasi, and Nangu- 
NERi taluks. 

Sermadevi Town. — Town in the Ambasamudram fdh/k of Tinne- 
velly District, Madras, situated in 8° 41' N. and 77° 34' E. It is a 
Union, with a population (1901) of 13,474. Sermadevi is the head- 
quarters of the divisional officer in charge of the Nanguneri, Amba- 
samudram, and Tenkasi taluks, and a station on the recently opened 
Tinnevelly-Quilon branch of the South Indian Railway. The fields in 


the neighbourhood are very fertile, and the population is entirely 
agricultural. Three miles distant is Pattamadai, where mats of fine 
texture are manufactured from reeds by a few Musalman families. 
Seronj. — Pargana and town in Tonk State, Central India. See 


Seshachalam. — Mountain range in Cuddapah District, Madras. 
See Palkonda. 

Set Mahet. — A vast collection of ruins lying partly in the Gonda 
and partly in the Bahraich District of Oudh, United Provinces, in 
27° 31' N. and 82" \' E., on the south bank of the Raptl. The ruins 
were examined by General Cunningham, and excavated more com- 
pletely by Dr. W. Hoey in 1884-5. They include two mounds, the 
larger of which is known as Mahet and the smaller as Set or Sahet. 
These cover the remains of an ancient city, with many temples and 
other buildings. In the course of the excavations a number of interest- 
ing sculptures and terra-cotta figures were found, specimens of which 
are now in the Provincial Museum at Lucknow. A noteworthy inscrip- 
tion, dated in 1176 or 1276 Samvat (a.d. 1119 or 1219), records the 
survival of Buddhism to that date. For many years it was held that 
Set Mahet was the site of the ancient city of SravastT. At the death 
of Rama, according to the Hindu sacred writing.s, the northern part 
of the kingdom of Kosala was ruled by his son, Lava, from this city. 
Throughout the Buddhist period references to SravastT are frequent, 
and Gautama Buddha spent many periods of retreat in the Jetavana 
garden there. When Fa Hian visited the place in the fifth cen- 
tury A. n., it was inhabited by only 200 families; and Hiuen Tsiang, 
a couple of centuries later, found it completely deserted. The recent 
discoveries of the approximate site of Kapilavastu increased doubts 
which had been before felt as to the correctness of the identification, 
and it has now been suggested that SravastT must be sought for on the 
upper course of the RaptT within Nepal territory. The word SravastT 
occurs on the pedestal of an image dug up at Set Mahet ; but this fact 
is not conclusive. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports^ vol. i, p, 30, and vol. 
xi, p. 78; \\*. Hoey, Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1892, extra 
number; V. A. %xm\}a. Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, 1898, p. 520, 
and 1900, p. I ; J. Bloch, Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1898, 
p. 274; T. W, Rhys Davids, /Buddhist India, passim.'] 

Settur. — Chief town of the zamlnddri of the same name in the 
south-west corner of the SrTvilliputtur taluk of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, situated in 9° 24' N. and 77° 20' E. It is a Union, with 
a population (1901) of 14,328. The zamlnddr is of the Mara van 
caste, and is descended from an old family of poligdrs. The estate 
is irrigated bv the streams flowing down from the Western Ghats. 

tR2 sfjf.x pa god. is 

Seven Pagodas. — \''illage in the District and td/itk of Chingleput, 
Madras, situated in 12° 37' N. and 80° 12' E., 35 miles south of 
Madras city, on the Buckingham Canal, between it and the sea. 
Population (1901), 1,229. '^^e vernacular name is variously spelt 
as Mahabalipur, Mahavellipur, Mavallipur, Mamalaipur, Mamallapur, 
and MallapOr. The disputations regarding its form are discussed in 
Major M. W. Carr's book regarding it and in Mr. Crole's Manna/ of 
the District. 

The village itself is insignificant, but near it are some of the most 
interesting and, to archaeologists, the most important architectural 
remains in Southern India. These antiquities may be divided into 
three groups : the five so-called rat/is (monolithic temples) to the 
south of the village, belonging perhaps to the latest Buddhist period ; 
the cave-temples, monolithic figures, carvings, and sculptures, west 
of the village, perhaps of the sixth or seventh century, which contain 
some marvellous reliefs, ranking with those of Ellora and Elephanta ; 
the more modern temples of Vishnu and Siva, the latter being washed 
by the sea. To these last two, with five other pagodas buried (accord- 
ing to tradition) under the sea, the place owes its English name. Who 
were the authors of the older of these constructions is a question which 
cannot be considered to be definitely set at rest. Mr. Sewell, after 
examining the question in its different aspects, concludes by observing 
that exactly at the period when, according to the style of architecture, 
as judged by the best authorities, we find a northern race temporarily 
residing at or near this place, sculpturing these wonderful relics and 
suddenly departing, leaving them unfinished, inscriptions give us the 
Chalukyas from the north conquering the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi, 
temporarily residing there and then driven out of the country, after 
a struggle, permanently and for ever. Everything, therefore, would 
seem to point to the Chalukyas of Kalyanapura as being the sculp- 
tors of the Seven Pagodas. Mr. Crole describes the antiquities as 
follows ; — 

' The best, and by far the most important, of its class is the pastoral 
group in the Krishna manfapam, as it is called. The fact is, that it 
represents Indra, the god of the sky, supporting the clouds ' with his 
left hand, to protect the cattle of Bala from the fury of the Maruts or 
tempest demons. Near him, the cattle are being tended and milked. 
To the right, a young bull is seen, with head slightly turned and fore- 
foot extended, as if suddenly startled. This is one of the most spirited 
and lifelike pieces of sculpture to be seen anywhere. 

' A little to the north of this is the great bas-relief which goes by the 
name of " Arjuna's Penance." It covers a mass of rock 96 feet in 
length and 43 feet in height, and is described by Fergusson as " the 
most remarkable thing of its class in India." "Now," says he, "that 

^ i\Tore correctly, Krishna supporting a hill ; !:ee (IiRi Raj. 


it is known to be wholly devoted to serpent-worship, it acquires an 
interest it had not before, and opens a new chapter in Indian myth- 
ology. There seems nothing to enable us to fix its age with absolute 
certainty ; it can hardly, however, be doubted that it is anterior to the 
tenth century, and may be a couple of centuries earlier." 

'Near the stone choultry by the side of the road, and a little to the 
north of the rock last described, stands a well-executed group lately 
exhumed, representing a couple of monkeys catching fleas on each 
other after the manner of their kind, while a young one is extracting 
nourishment from the female. 

' Near this point, a .spectator, looking southwards, may see, formed 
by the ridges on which the caves are cut, the recumbent figure of 
a man with his hands in the attitude of prayer or meditation. This 
figure measures at least 1,500 feet long, the partly natural resemblance 
having been assisted by the rolling away of rocks and boulders. On 
the spot, this is called the "Giant Raja Bali," but it is no doubt the 
work of Jains. 

'The whole of this ridge is pitted with caves and temples. 'I'here 
are fourteen or fifteen Rishi caves in it, and much carving and figuring 
of a later period. 'I'hese are distinguished b)' the marked transition 
from the representations of scenes of peace to scenes of battle, treading 
down of opposition and destruction, the too truthful emblems of the 
dark centuries of religious strife which preceded and followed the 
final expulsion of the Buddhists. Their age is not more than 600 
or 700 years ; and the art is poor, and shows as great a decadence 
in matter as in religion. The representations are too often gross and 
disgusting, and the carving stiff and unnatural — entirely wanting in 
ease and grace and truth to nature. 

' Behind this ridge, and near the canal, are two more of the mono- 
lithic ruths., and one similar in form, but built of large blocks of 

'The last period is represented by the Shore Temple, the Varaha- 
swami Temple in the village, and by some of the remains in a hamlet 
called Salewankuppen, 2 miles to the northward. In the two former 
there is little distinguishable in construction and general plan from 
similar buildings to be found everywhere in the South.' 

Mr. Fergusson discusses the architectural aspects as follows : — 

'The oldest and most interesting group of monuments are the so- 
called five raths^ or monolithic temples, standing on the sea-shore. 
One of these, that with the apsidal termination, stands a little detached 
from the rest. The other four stand in a line north and south, and 
look as if they had been carved out of a single stone or rock, which 
originally, if that were so, must have been between 35 feet and 40 feet 
high at its southern end, sinking to half that height at its northern 
extremity, and its width diminishing in a like proportion. 

' The first on the north is a mere pansala or cell, 1 1 feet square 
externally and 16 feet high. It is the only one, too, that seems 
finished or nearly so, but it has no throne or image internally, from 
which we might guess its destination. 

'The next is a small copy of the last to the southward, and measures 



II feet by 16 feet in plan, and 20 feet in height. The third is very 
remarkable ; it is an oblong building with a curvilinear-shaped roof 
with a straight ridge. Its dimensions are 42 feet long, 25 feet wide, 
and 25 feet high. Externally it seems to have been completely carved, 
but internally only partially excavated, the work being apparently 
stopped by an accident. It is cracked completely through, so that 
daylight can be seen through it, and several masses of the rock have 
fallen to the ground. This has been ascribed to an earthquake and 
other causes. My impression is that the explanation is not far to 
seek, but arose from unskilfulness on the part of workmen employed in 
a first attempt. Having completed the exterior, they set to work to 
excavate the interior, so as to make it resemble a structural building 
of the same class, leaving only such pillars and supports as were 
sufficient to support a wooden roof of the ordinary construction. In 
this instance, it was a mass of sohd granite which, had the excavation 
been completed, would certainly have crushed the lower storey to 
powder. As it was, the builders seem to have taken the hint of the 
crack, and stopped the further progress of the work. 

' The last, however, is the most interesting of the .series. Its dimen- 
sions are 27 feet by 25 feet in plan, 34 feet in height. Its upper part 
is entirely finished with its sculptures, the lower merely blocked out. 
It may be that, frightened by the crack in the last-named rath, or from 
some other cause, they desisted, and it still remains in an unfinished 

' The materials for fixing the age of this rath are, first, the palaeo- 
graphic form of the characters used in the numerous inscriptions with 
which it is covered. Comparing these with Prinsep's alphabets, 
allowing for difference of locality, they seem certainly to be anterior 
to the seventh century. The language, too, is Sanskrit, while all the 
Chola inscriptions of the tenth and subsequent centuries are in Tamil, 
and in very much more modern characters. Another proof of 
antiquity is the character of the sculpture. We have on this rath 
most of the Hindu Pantheon, such as Brahma and Vishnu ; Siva, too, 
appears in most of his characters, but all in forms more subdued than 
to be found elsewhere. The one extravagance is that the gods have 
generally four arms— never more — to distinguish them from mortals; 
but none of the combinations or extravagances we find in the caves 
here, as at Ellora or Elephanta. It is the soberest and most reason- 
able version of the Hindu Pantheon yet discovered, and consequently 
one of the most interesting, as well, probably, as the earliest. 

* None of the inscriptions on the raths have dates ; but from the 
mention of the Pallavas in connexion with this place, I see no reason 
for doubting the inference drawn by Sir Walter Elliot from their 
inscriptions — "that the excavations could not well have been made 
later than the sixth century." Add to all this, that these raths Axa 
certainly very like Buddhist buildings, and it seems hardly to admit of 
doubt that we have here petrifactions of the last forms of Buddhist 
architecture, and the first forms of that of the Dravidian. 

' The want of interiors in these raths makes it sometimes difficult to 
make this as clear as it might be. We cannot, for instance, tell 
whether the apsidal rath was meant to reproduce a chaitya hall, or 


a vihdra. From its being in several storeys, I would infer the latter ; 
but the whole is so conventionalized by transplantation to the South, 
and by the different uses to which they are ai)plied for the purposes of 
a different religion, that we must not stretch analogies too far. 

'There is one other rath, at some distance from the others, called 
" Arjuna's Rath," which, strange to say, is fmished, or nearly so, and 
gives a fair idea of the form their oblong temples took before we have 
any structural buildings of the class. This temple, though entered in 
the side, was never intended to be pierced through, but ahva)s lo 
contain a cell. The large oblong rath, on the contrary, was intended 
to be open all round ; and whether, consequently, we should consider 
it as a choultry or a gopuram is not (juite clear. One thing, at all 
events, seems certain — and it is what interests us most here that the 
square raths are copies of Buddhist vihdras, and are the originals from 
which all the vimdnas in Southern India were copied, and continued 
to be copied nearly unchanged to a very late period. . . . On the 
other hand, the oblong raths were halls or porticoes with the 
Buddhists, and became the gopurams or gateways which are frequently, 
indeed generally, more important parts of Dravidian temples than the 
vimdnas themselves. They, too, like the vimdnas, retain their original 
, features very little changed to the present day. 

'The other antiquities at Mahabalipur, though very interesting in 
themselves, are not nearly so important as the raths just described. 
The caves are generally small, and fail architecturally, from the feeble- 
ness and tenuity of their supports. The Southern cave-diggers had 
evidently not been grounded in the art like their Northern compeers, 
the Buddhists. The long experience of the latter in the art taught 
them that ponderous masses were not only necessary to support their 
roofs, but for architectural effect ; and neither they nor the Hindus 
who succeeded them in the North ever hesitated to use pillars of two 
or three diameters in height, or to crowd them together to any required 
extent. In the South, on the contrary, the cave-diggers tried to copy 
literally the structural pillar used to support wooden roofs. Hence, 
I believe, the accident to the long rath ; and hence certainly the poor 
and modern look of all the Southern caves, which has hitherto proved 
such a stumbling-block to all who have tried to guess their age. Their 
sculpture is better, and some of their best designs rank with those of 
Kllora and Elephanta, with which they were, in all probability, con- 
temporary. Now, however, that we know that the sculptures in 
Cave No. 3 at Badami were executed in the sixth century (a.d. 579), 
we are enabled to approximate to the date of those in the Mahabalipur 
caves with very tolerable certainty. The Badami sculptures are so 
similar in style with the best examples there, that they cannot be far 
distant in date ; and if placed in the following century it will not, 
probably, be far from the truth.' 

A number of coins of all ages have been found in the neighbour- 
hood, among others Roman, Chinese, and Persian. A Roman coin, 
damaged, but believed to be of Theodosius (a.d. 393), formed part of 
Colonel Mackenzie's collection. Others have been found on the sand- 
hills along the shore south of Madras city. 

1 86 


Sewan. — Subdivision and town in Saran District, Bengal. See 


Shabkadar.— Fort in the Charsadda tahsil of Peshawar District, 
North-West Frontier Province, situated in 34° 13' N. and 71° 34' E., 
17 miles north-west of Peshawar city, with which it is connected by 
a good road leading to Abazai across three branches of the Kai)ul 
river. Originally built by the Sikhs, and by them called Shankargarh, 
the fort lies 2 miles from the village of Shabkadar ; but a town has 
now sprung up round it, which is a local centre of trade with the 
adjoining Mohmand hills, and which in 1901 had a population of 
2,373. The fort is a strong one, and used to be garrisoned by regular 
troops; but in 1885 it was made over to the border military police, 
who now hold it with 28 men. In August, 1897, it was suddenly 
attacked by a force of Mohmands, who succeeded in plundering the 
town and burning the Hindu shops and houses, but the small police 
garrison was able to hold the fort itself. On August 9 the Mohmands 
were defeated with loss by a small force under General Elles, an 
engagement signalized by a brilliant charge of two squadrons of the 
13th Duke of Connaught's Lancers. 

Shadiwal. — Village in the District and iahsll of Gujrat, Punjab, 
situated in 32° 31' N. and 74° 6' E. Population (1901), 7,445- I^ i^ 
administered as a ' notified area.' 

Shahabad District.— -District in the Patna Division of Bengal, 
lying between 24° 31' and 25° 46' N. and 83° 19' and 84° 51' E., with 
an area of 4,373 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
Districts of Ghazipur and Baliia in the United Provinces and by 
the Bengal District of Saran ; on the east by Patna and Gaya Districts ; 
on the south by Palamau ; and on the west by the Districts of Mirzapur 
and Benares in the United Provinces. The Karamnasa river forms 
part of the western boundary. 

Shahabad consists of two distinct tracts differing in climate, scenery, 
and productions. The northern portion, comprising about three- 
fourths of the whole, presents the ordinary flat 
appearance common to the valley of the Ganges in 
the sub-province of Bihar ; but it has a barer aspect 
than the trans-Gangetic Districts of Saran, Darbhanga, and Muzaffarpur. 
This tract is entirely under cultivation, and is dotted over with clumps 
of trees. The south of the District is occupied by the Kaimur Hills, 
a branch of the great Vindhyan range. The Son and the Ganges may 
be called the chief rivers of Shahabad, although neither of them any- 
where crosses the boundary. The District lies in the angle formed by 
the junction of these two rivers, and is watered by several minor 
streams, all of which rise among the Kaimur Hills and flow northwards 
towards the Ganges. The most noteworthy of these is the Karamnasa, 



the accursed stream of Hindu mythology, which rises on the south- 
ern ridge of the Kaimur plateau, and flows north-west, crossing into 
Mirzapur District near Kuluhii. After a course of 15 miles in that 
District, it again touches Shahabad, which it separates from Benares ; 
finally, it foils into the Ganges near Chausa. The Dhoba or Kao rises 
on the plateau, and flowing north, forms a fine waterfall and enters the 
plains at the Tarrachandi pass, 2 miles south-east of Sasaram. Here 
it bifurcates — one branch, the Kudra, turning to the west and ulti- 
mately joining the DurgautI : while the other, preserving the name 
of Kao, flows north and falls into the Ganges near Gaighat. The 
DurgautI rises on the southern ridge of the plateau and, after flowing 
north for 9 miles, rushes over a precipice 300 feet high into the deep 
glen of Kadhar Kho ; eventually it joins the Karamnasa. It contains 
water all the year round, and during the rains boats of i^ tons burden 
can sail up-stream 50 or 60 miles from its mouth. Its chief tributaries 
are the Sura, Kora, Gonhua, and Kudra. 

The northern portion of the District is covered with alluvium. The 
Kaimur Hills in the south are formed of limestones, shales, and red 
sandstones belonging to the Vindhyan system. 

Near the Ganges the rice-fields have the usual weeds of such locali- 
ties. Near villages there are often considerable groves (jf mangoes and 
palniNTiis {Bonxssus Jiabellifer), some date palms {Phoenix sylvestris), 
and numerous isolated examples of Tamarindiis and similar more or 
less useful species. Farther from the river the country is more diversi- 
fied, and sometimes a dry scrub jungle is met with, the constituent 
species of which are shrubs of the order of Eiiphorbiaceae, Butea and 
other leguminous trees, species of Bici/s, Sch/eic/iera, Weudlaiuiia^ and 
Gmelina. The grasses that clothe the drier parts are generally of 
a coarse character. There are no Government forests, but the 
northern face of the Kaimur Hills is overgrown with a stunted 
jungle of various species, while their southern slopes are covered 
with bamboos. 

Large game abounds in the Kaimur Hills. Tigers, bears, and 
leopards are common ; five or six kinds of deer are found : and 
among other animals wild hog, jackals, hyenas, and foxes are also met 

Owing to its distance from the sea, Shahabad has greater extremes 
of climate than the south and east of Bengal. The mean temperature 
varies from 62° in January to 90° in May, the average maximum rising 
to 102° in the latter month. Owing to the hot and dry westerly winds 
which prevail in March and April, the humidity at this season is only 
52 per cent. With the approach of the monsoon the humidity steadily 
increases ; it remains steady at 88° throughout July and August, and 
then falls to 79° in November. The annual rainfall averages 43 inches, 


1 88 SHAHABAD district 

of which 5-5 fall in June, 11-7 in July, 12-3 in August, and 6-8 in 

Floods are occasionally caused by the river Son overflowing its 
banks. In recent times the highest floods occurred in 1876 and 
1901 ; in the latter year the water rose 1-2 feet above any previously 
recorded level, and it is stated that the river was at one point 1 7 miles 
wide. Owing to the cutting of an embankment at Darara by some 
villagers, the flood found its way into Arrah town and caused con- 
siderable damage to house property. 

Shahabad was comprised within the ancient kingdom of Magadha, 
whose capital was at Rajgir in Patna District, and its general history 
is outlined in the articles on Magadha and Bihar, 
in which Magadha was eventually merged. It may 
be added that, when the country relapsed into anarchy on the decline 
of the Gupta dynasty, Shahabad came under the sway of a number 
of petty aboriginal chiefs and had a very small Aryan population. The 
ruling tribe at this period was the Chero, and the District was till 
a comparatively recent period in a great degree owned by the Cheros 
and governed by their chieftains. They were subsequently conquered 
by Rajput immigrants, and few of them are now found in Shahabad> 
though they still number several thousands in the adjoining District 
of Palamau. Under the Muhammadans Shahabad formed part of the 
Subah of Bihar, and in the sixteenth century was the scene of part 
of the struggles which made Sher Shah emperor of Delhi. Sher Shah, 
after establishing himself at Chunar in the United Provinces, was 
engaged on the conquest of Bengal. In 1537 Humayun advanced 
against him, and after a siege of six months reduced his fortress of 
Chunar and marched into Bengal. Sher Shah then shut himself up 
in Rohtasgarh, which he had captured by a stratagem, and made 
no effort to oppose his advance. Humayun spent six months in 
dissipation in Bengal ; but then, finding that Sher Shah had cut off" his 
communications and that his brother at Delhi would not come to 
his assistance, he retraced his steps and was defeated at Chausa near 
Buxar. Buxar is also famous as the scene of the defeat in 1764 
by Sir Hector Munro of Mir Kasim, in the battle which finally won 
the Lower Provinces of Bengal for the British. Since then the only 
event of historical interest is the defence of the Judge's house at 
Arrah in the Mutiny of 1857. 

Among Hindu remains may be mentioned the temple on the 
MuNDESWARi Hill dating from the sixth or seventh century. The 
short reign of Sher Shah is still borne witness to by one of the 
finest specimens of Muhammadan sepulchral architecture, his own 
tomb at Sasaram, which he originally held as his jaglr. His father's 
Ifjuib in the same town and the tomb of Bakhtyar Khan, near Chain- 



I)ur, in tlie Bhabua subdivision, are similar but less imposing. The 
small hill fort of Shergarh, 26 miles south-west of Sasaram, dates 
from Sher Shah's time, but at Rohtasgarh itself few traces of this 
period remain ; the palace at this place is attributed to Man Singh, 
Akbar's Hindu general. Other places of interest in Shahiibad are the 
Chainpur fort with several interesting monuments and tombs ; Ram- 
garh with a fort, and DarautI and Baidyanath with ruins attributed 
to the Savaras or Suars ; Masar, the Mo-ho-so-lo of Hiuen Tsiang ; 
TiLOTHU, near which are a fine waterfall and a very ancient Chero 
image ; Patana, once the capital of a Hindu Raja of the Suar tribe ; 
and Deo-Barunark and Deo-AIarkandeya, villages which contain several 
old temples and other remains, including an elaborately carved mono- 
lith at the former place. The sacred cave of Gupteswar lies in a valley 
in the Kaimur Hills, 7 or 8 miles from Shergarh. 

The population increased from 1,710,471 in 1872 to 1,940,900 in 
i88r, and to 2,060,579 in 1891, but fell again to 1,962,696 in 1901. 

The increase in the first two decades was largely due „ , . 

- , . . ■ . u ■ Population, 

to the extension of cultivation, owing to the opening 

of the irrigation canals. 'J'he climate of the northern part of the Dis- 
trict is said to be steadily deteriorating. The surface is so flat and low 
that there is no outlet for the water which accumulates, while the intro- 
duction of the canals is said to have raised the water-level and made 
the drainage even worse than before. Fever began to make its ravages 
felt in 1879, and from that time the epidemic grew steadily worse until 
1886, when the District was stigmatized as the worst in Bengal in 
respect of fever mortality. 

At the Census of 1891 a decrease was averted only by a large gain 
from immigration. From 1892 to 1900 the vital statistics showed an 
excess of deaths over births amounting to 25,000, and in 1894 the 
death-rate exceeded 53 per 1,000. After fever, the principal diseases 
are dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, and small-pox. Blindness is very 
common. Plague broke out at Arrah just before the Census of 1901. 
The number of deaths reported was small, but the alarm which the 
epidemic created sufficed to drive to their homes most of the tem- 
porary settlers from other Districts. 

The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown in the table 
on the next page. 

The principal towns are Arrah, the head-quarters, SASARA^r, Dum- 
RAON, and BuxAR. With the exception of Sasaram, all the towns seem 
to be decadent. The population is densest in the north and east of 
the District, on the banks of the Ganges and Son, and decreases 
rapidly towards the south and south-east, where the Kaimur Hills 
afford but small space for cultivation. The Bhabua l/idna, with 18 r 
persons per square mile, has the scantiest populatiun of any tract in 

N 2 



South Bihar. The native.s of this District are in demand all over 
Bengal as zainlnddrs' peons and club men ; they are especially 
numerous in Purnea, Nortli Bengal, Dacca, and in and near Calcutta, 
and a large number hnd their way to Assam. Many also emigrate 
to the colonies. The vernacular is the Bhojpuri dialect of Biharl, but 
the Muhammadans and Kayasths mostly speak Awadlii Hindi, in 
1901 Hindus numbered 1,819,641, or no less than 92-7 per cent, 
of the total, and Mu.salmans 142,213, or nearly 7-3 per cent.; there 
were 449 Jains and 375 Christians. 


Area in square 

Number ol 




Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween iSqi 
and looi. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 








Arrah . . ' 913 
Buxar , . 669 
Sasaraiii . . 1,490 
Bhabua . .1,301 







- 5-9 

- 5-0 

-f 1-2 

- 1 1-2 



8,185 1 

Districl total 




449 ' - 4-7 


The most numerous castes are Ahirs or Goalas (256,000), Brahmans 
and Raj[)uts (each numbering 207,000), Koiris (155,000), Chamars 
(121,000), Dosadhs (87,000), Babhans (82,000), Kahars (70,000), 
Kurmis (66,000), Kandus (63,000), and Telis (51,000); and, among 
Muhammadans, Jolahas (53,000). Agriculture supports 64-8 j)er cent, 
of the population, industries 17-7 per cent., commerce 0-5, and the 
professions 1-9 per cent. 

The only Christian mission is a branch of the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission, whose head-quarters are at Ranchi. The number 
of native Christians in 1901 was 72. 

Clay is the predominating soil, but in parts it is more or less mixed 
with sand. The clay soils, known as kamil, kewal, matiydr, and 
i^urwaf, are suitable for all kinds of grain, and the 
level of the land and the possibility of irrigaticjii are 
here the main factors in determining what crop shall be cultivated. 
Doras is a rich loam containing both clay and .sand, and is suited 
for sugar-cane, poppy, mustard, and linseed. Sandy soil is known 
as balinat, and when it is of very loose texture as dlius. The alluvial 
tract in the north is extensively irrigated by canals and is entirely 
under cultivation. The low-lying land in the neighbourhood of the 
Ganges, locally known as kadai, is annually inundated so that rice 
cannot be grown, but it jnoduces fine cold-season crops. Along the 
west bank of the Son within about 3 miles from the river the soil 
is sandy, and reciuircs continuous irrigation to produce good crops- 




To the west of this the prevalent soil south of the grand trunk road 
is dorns, which is annually flooded and fertilized by the hill streams. 
In the Sasaram subdivision karail soil is most common and grows 
excellent 7-abi crops. The undulating plateau of the Kaimur Hills 
in the south is unprotected by irrigation and yields jioor and precarious 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, areas 
being in square miles : — 




from canals. 

Bhafma . 

9' 3 













There are altogether about 311 square miles of cultivable waste, 
statistics for each subdivision not being available ; and it is estimated 
that ri2 square miles are twice cropped. 

The staple food-crop of the District is rice, grown on 1,307 square 
miles, of which 1,112 square miles are under aghani or winter rice. 
This crop is transplanted in June and July (except in very low lands, 
where it is sometimes sown broadcast), and the water is retained in the 
rice-fields by ridges till the middle of September, when it is allowed 
to drain off. The fields are left to dry for 12 to 14 days, after which 
the crop again needs water, for which it depends on the hathiya rain, 
or failing this, on irrigation. These late rains are the most important 
in the year, as they are required not only to bring the winter crop 
to maturity, but also to provide moisture for the sowing of the rabi 
crops. Boro, or spring rice, is grown in river-beds and on the edge 
of marshes ; it is sown in January and February, transplanted after 
a month, and cut in April and >ray. Of the other crops of the rainy 
season, the principal are maize or inakai, ntania, jowar, and bajra ; 
these are grown on well-drained high lands. The 7-abi crops con- 
sist of cereals and pulses. The chief cereals are wheat (188 square 
miles\ barley (81 square miles), and oats. They are sown in October 
and November, and harvested between the last week of February and 
the middle of A])ril. The pulses include peas, gram, and linseed : 
gram and linseed are grown as a second crop, being sown in the 
standing aghaiii rice about a fortnight before it is cut. Other impor- 
tant crops are poppy (25 square miles) and sugar-cane (54 square miles). 

The opening of the Son (lanals has resulted in a considerable 
increase in the cultivated area. An experimental farm is maintained 
at Dumraon, but even in the adjoining villages the cultivators are slow 


to profit by its lessons. Little advantage has been taken of the Land 
Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, except in the famine 
years 1896-8, when Rs. 75,000 was advanced under the latter Act. 

The cattle are for the most part poor, but good bulls are kept at the 
Buxar Central jail, and their offspring find a ready sale. I'asture is 
scarce except in the Kaimur Hills, where numerous herds are sent 
to graze during the rains. A large cattle fair is held at Barahpur, at 
which agricultural stock and produce are exhibited for prizes. 

'J'he District is served by the Son Canals system, receiving about 
80 per cent, of the total quantity of water supplied by it. ^^'ells 
and ahars, or reservoirs, are also maintained all over the District for 
the purposes of irrigation. \\\ 1901 it was estimated that 4S9 square 
miles were irrigated from the canals, 364 square miles from wells, and 
937 square miles from ahars. The extent to which an artificial water- 
supply is used depends on the variations in the rainfall ; in 1903-4 the 
area irrigated from the Government canals was 623 square miles. 

Red sandstone from the Kaimur Hills is used extensively for build- 
ing purposes, for which it is admirably adapted. Limestone, which 
is obtained from the same locality, is commonly dark grey or blackish, 
and burns into a very good white lime. Kankar or nodular lime- 
stone is found in almost all parts of the plains, and especially in the 
beds of rivers and along the banks of the Son ; it is used for metalling 
roads and is also burnt to make lime. A small quantity of alum was 
formerly manufactured in the area north of Rohtasgarh from slates be- 
longing to the Kaimur group of the Vindhyan series. Copperas or iron 
sulphate is found in the same region. 

Sugar is manufactured throughout the District, the principal centres 

of the industry being at Nasriganj and Jagdispur. Iron sugar-cane 

mills, manufactured at Bihiya, are now in general use 

Trade and ^^^^ j. ^^ Northern India. Carpets and 

communications. ° ^ . ,. . , 

pottery are made at Sasaram ; the speciality of the 

pottery consists in its being painted with lac and overlaid with mercury 
and gilt. Blankets and cotton cloth are woven throughout the District. 
A small quantity of hand-made paper is produced at Hariharganj. 
Saltpetre is manufactured in small quantities, the out-turn in 1903-4 
being 5,000 maunds. 

The principal imports are rice, gram, and other food-grains from the 
neighbouring Districts, European cotton piece-goods and kerosene oil 
from Calcutta, and coal and coke from Hazaribagh and Palamau. The 
exports include wheat, gram, pulses, and oilseeds, chiefly to Calcutta, 
and raw sugar and giir to the United Provinces and elsewhere. The 
chief centres of trade are Arrah, Dumraon, Buxar, and Chausa on the 
East Indian Railway, Sasaram and Dehrl on the Mughal Sarai-Gaya 
branch, and Nasriganj on the Son. The main lines of communication 


arc the railways, the Ganges and Son rivers, and the Son Canals, to 
which goods arc brought by bullock carts and pack-bullocks. 

The main line of the East Indian Railway runs for 60 miles from 
east to west through the north of the District, and the Mughal Sarai- 
Gaya section opened in 1900 traverses the south. In addition to 
58 miles of the grand trunk road from Calcutta to Benares, which 
passes through Dehri-on-Son, Sasaram, and Jahanabiid, and is main- 
tained from Provincial funds, the District contains 186 miles of metalled 
and 532 miles of unmetalled roads under the control of the District 
board; there are also 1,218 miles of village tracks. The principal 
local roads are those which connect Arrah with Buxar and Sasaram, 
Feeder roads connect the main roads with the stations on the railway 
and with the principal places on the rivers. 

The Ganges is navigable throughout the year, and a tri-weekly 
steamer service for passengers and goods traffic plies as far as Benares, 
touching at Buxar and Chausa in this District. Navigation on the 
Son is intermittent and of little commercial importance. In the dry 
season the small depth of water prevents boats of more than 20 maunds 
proceeding up-stream, while in the rains the violent floods greatly 
impede navigation, though boats of 500 or 600 maunds occasionally 
sail up. Of the other rivers the Karamnasa, the Dhoba, or Kao, the 
Durgauti, and the Sura are navigable only during the rainy season. 
The main canals of the Son Canals system are navigable ; a bi- 
weekly service of steamers runs from Dehri to Arrah. But here, as 
elsewhere, most of the water-borne traffic is carried in country boats, 
some of which have a capacity of as much as 1,000 maunds. The 
canal-borne traffic used to be considerable, but has suffered greatly from 
competition with the Mughal Sarai-Gaya branch of the East Indian 
Railway. The only ferries of any importance are those across the 

The District has frequently suffered from famine. The famine of 1866, 

having been preceded by two years of bad harvests, caused great distress. 

The Government relief measures were supplemented 

,.,,., ^ , , r • Famme. 

by private liberality, but 3,161 deaths from starvation 

were reported. There was another, but less severe, famine in 1869. 

In 1873 more than three-fourths of the rice crop was destroyed by 

very heavy floods and the subsequent complete absence of rain ; the 

loss would have been even greater had not the Son water been turned 

into the unfinished canals and freely distributed. Relief works, in 

the shape of road repairs, were opened in December, and a sum 

of i-i8 lakhs was spent in wages, in addition to Rs. 30,000 paid to 

non-workers, and Rs. r,6oo advanced to cultivators for the purchase of 

seed-grain. In the famine of 1896-7 the distressed area comprised the 

whole of the Bhabua and the southern portion of the Sasaram sub- 


division. Relief works were started in October, 1896, and were not 
finally closed till July, 1897, during which period 560,031 days' wages 
were paid to adult males employed on piece-work, and 175,105 to those 
on a daily wage, the aggregate payments amounting to Rs. 74,000. 
Gratuitous relief by means of grain doles was also given, and poor- 
houses and kitchens were opened. The cost of gratuitous relief was 
rather less than 2 lakhs, and the total cost of the famine operations 
was 3-36 lakhs, of which Rs. 30,000 was paid from District and 
the balance from Provincial funds. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into 4 subdivi- 
sions, with head-quarters at Arrah, Buxar, Sasaram, and Bhabua. 
. . . Subordinate to the District Magistrate-Collector at 
Arrah, the District head-quarters, is a staff consist- 
ing of an Assistant Magistrate-Collector, six Deputy-Magistrate-Collec- 
tors, and two Sub-Deputy-Collectors. The subdivisions of Sasaram and 
Buxar are each in the charge of an Assistant Collector aided by a 
Sub-Deputy-Collector, and the Bhabua subdivision is under a Deputy- 
Magistrate-Collector. The Executive Engineer of the Arrah division 
is stationed at Arrah ; an Assistant Engineer resides at Koath and the 
Executive Engineer of the Buxar division at Buxar. 

The permanent civil judicial staff consists of a District Judge, who is 
also Sessions Judge, two Subordinate Judges and three Munsifs at Arrah, 
one Munsif at Sasaram and another at Buxar. For the disposal of 
criminal work, there are the courts of the Sessions Judge, District 
]\Iagistrate, and the above-mentioned Assistant, Deputy, and Sub- 
Deputy-Magistrates. The District was formerly notorious for the 
number of its dacoits and for the boldness of their depredations ; 
but this crime is no longer common. The crimes now most preva- 
lent are burglary, cattle-theft, and rioting, the last being due to disputes 
about land and irrigation. 

During the reign of Akb'ar, Shahabad formed a part oi sarkdr Rohtas, 
lying for the most part between the rivers Son and Karamnasa. Half 
of it, comprising the zaminddri of Bhojpur, was subsequently formed 
into a separate sarkdr called Shahabad. The land revenue demand of 
these two sarkdrs, which was fixed at 10-22 lakhs by Todar Mai in 
1582, had risen to 13-66 lakhs at the time of the settlement under All 
A'ardi Khan in 1750, but it had again fallen to 10-38 lakhs at the time 
of the Decennial Settlement which was concluded in 1790 and declared 
to be permanent in 1793. The demand gradually rose to 13-55 lakhs 
in 1843 and 1672 lakhs in 1862, the increase being due to the revenue 
survey which took place in 1846. In 1903-4 the total demand was 
17-27 lakhs payable by 10,147 estates, of which 9,463 with a demand 
of 14-98 lakhs were permanently settled, 544 with a demand of 1-38 lakhs 
were temporarily settled, while the remainder were held direct by Govern- 



ment. The incidence of land revenue is R. 0-13-9 per cultivated acre, 
being about 22 per cent, of the estimated rental. Rents vary with the 
class of soil, and for very good land suitable for poppy as much as 
R.S. 30 per acre is occasionally paid. Rent is generally paid in kind, 
especially in the Bhabua and Sasaram subdivisions. The average hold- 
ing of a ryot is estimated at 5| acres. The only unusual tenure is the 
guzasthd, which connotes not only a right to hold at a fixed rate in 
perpetuity but an hereditary and transferable interest in the land. The 
true guzasthd tenure is confined mainly to the Bhojpur fargana, but 
the term is used elsewhere to indicate the existence of occupancy rights. 
The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 

Land revenue 
Total revenue 









Outside the municipalities of Arrah, JaodIspur, Buxar, Dumraon, 
Bhabua, and Sasaram, local affairs are managed by the District board 
willi subordinate local boards in each subdivision. In 1903-4 its 
income was Rs. 2,63,000, of which Rs. 2,03,000 was derived from 
rates ; and the expenditure was Rs. 2,89,000, the chief item being 
Rs. 2,15,000 expended on public works. 

In 1903 the District contained 11 police stations and 18 outposts. 
The force subordinate to the District Superintendent in that year 
consisted of 4 inspectors, 43 sub-inspectors, 46 head constables, and 
526 constables; there was also a rural police force of 301 daffadars 
and 4,254 chaiikidars. In addition to the District jail at Arrah with 
accommodation for 278 prisoners, there is a Central jail at Buxar with 
accommodation for 1,391, while subsidiary jails at Sasaram, Buxar, and 
Bhabua can hold 69. The prisoners in the Central jail are chiefly 
employed in weaving and tent-making. 

Of" the population in 1901, 4-3 per cent. (8-6 males and 03 females) 
could read and write. The total number of pupils under instruction 
fell from 20,883 '•'' 1883-4 to 16,922 in 1892-3, but increased again to 
23,032 in 1900-1. In 1903-4, 26,218 boys and 445 girls were at school, 
being respectively i8-6 and 0-28 per cent, of the children of school-going 
age. The number of educational institutions, public and private, in 
that year was 1,004, including 23 secondary, 623 primary, and 358 
special schools. Two small schools for aborigines are maintained at 
Rehal and Dahar. The expenditure on education was 1-36 lakhs, of 
which Rs. 17,000 was paid from Provincial funds, Rs. 40,000 from 
District funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 59,000 from 

T96 SHAHABAD district 

In 1903 the District contained 12 dispensaries, of which 7 had accom- 
modation for 115 in-patients. The cases of 81,000 out-patients and 
2,300 in-patients were treated, and 8,000 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 35,000, of which Rs. 5,000 was derived from 
Government contributions, Rs. 7,000 from Local and Rs. 10,000 from 
municipal funds, and Rs. 10,000 from subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In 1903-4 the 
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 48,000, or 25-8 per 
1,000 of the population. 

[L. S. S. O'Malley, District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1906) ; M. Martin 
(Buchanan-Hamilton), Eastern India ^ vol. i (1838).] 

Shahabad Taluk.—' Crown ' taluk in the south of the Atraf-i-balda 
District, Hyderabad State, also known as the Juniihi or ' southern 
tdli/k,'' with an area, including /(Tg-J/-^, of 654 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 76,905, compared with 73,245 in 1891. The taluk 
contains 168 villages, of which 103 are jagir^ and Shahabad (3,955) is 
the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was i-i lakhs. The 
paigdh taluk of Vikarabad with 25 villages, a population of 11,270 and 
an area of about 82 square miles, is situated to the north-west of 

Shahabad Tahsil (i). — Northern tahsll oi Hardol District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Alamnagar, Shahabad, Sarah 
(North), Pandarwa, Saromannagar, Pachhoha, Pali, and IMansurnagar, 
and lying between 27° 25' and 27° 47' N. and 79° 41' and 80° 19' E., 
with an area of 542 square miles. Population increased from 248,034 
in 1891 to 250,533 in 1901. There are 518 villages and three towns, 
Shahabad (population, 20,036), the tahsll head-quarters, and Pihani 
(7,616) being the largest. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 3,31,000, and for cesses Rs. 53,000. The density of population, 462 
persons per square mile, is almost equal to the District average. Shah- 
abad is a poor tahsil, containing large areas of sandy soil. It lies 
between the Sendha, a tributary of the Ramganga, on the west, and the 
Gumtl on the east, and is also crossed by the Garra and its tributary the 
Sukheta, and by the Sai. In 190 1-2 the area under cultivation was 
365 square miles, of which 69 were irrigated. Wells supply two-thirds 
of the irrigated area, and tanks and small streams the remainder. 

Shahabad Town (i). — Head-quarters of the tahsll oii\\Q same name 
in Hardol District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 38' N. and 79° 57'' 
E., on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 20,036. 
The town was founded in 1677 by Nawab Diler Khan, an Afghan 
officer of Shah Jahan, who was sent to suppress a rising in Shahjahan- 
pur. Diler Khan built a large palace called the Bar! Deorhl, and 
filled the town with his kinsmen and troops. Shahabad rose to con- 
siderable importance during Mughal rule, but declined under the 


Nawahs of Oudh. It was still a considerable town when visited by 
Tieffenthaler in 1770, but Tennant found it an expanse of ruins in 
1799. In 1824 Bishop Heber described it as a considerable town or 
almost city, with the remains of fortifications and many large houses. 
The inhabitants have obtained notoriety for the ill-feeling which exists 
between Hindus and Musalmans, and serious riots took place in 1850 
and 1868. Nothing is left of the Barl Deorhi but two fine gateways, 
and Diler Khan's tomb is also in ruins. The fine Jiima Masjid erected 
by the same noble is still used. Shahabad contains the usual tahsili 
offices and also a munsif'i, a dispensary, and a branch of the American 
Methodist Mission. It has been administered as a municipality since 
1872. During the ten years ending 1901 the income and exi)enditure 
averaged Rs. 11,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 17,000, chiefly 
derived from taxes on houses and professions and trades, and from 
rents and market dues, while the expenditure was also Rs. 17,000. 
A daily market is held, and grain and sugar are exported. The town 
is noted for the vegetables and fruit produced in the neighbourhood. 
Fine cotton cloth used to be woven here, but the manufacture is 
extinct. There are three schools for boys and one for girls, with 
a total of 400 pupils. 

Shahabad Tahsil (2).— Southern tahsil in the State of Rampur, 
United Provinces, lying between 28° 25' and 28° 43' N. and 78° 52' 
and 79° 5' E., with an area of 166 square miles. Population (1901), 
82,716. There are 197 villages and one town, Shahab.\d (population, 
7*338), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 3,56,000, and for cesses Rs. 43,000. The density of 
population, 498 persons per square mile, is below the State average. 
The tahsil lies on both banks of the Ramganga, and is less protected 
by canals than other parts of the State. In 1903-4 the area under 
cultivation was no square miles, of which 8 were irrigated, chiefly 
from wells. 

Shahabad Town (2).— Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same 
name in the State of Rampur, United Provinces, situated in 28° 34' N. 
and 79° 2' E. Population (1901), 7,338. The town stands on rising 
ground and is considered the healthiest place in the State. The 
Nawab has a summer residence here, built on the ruins of an old 
fort; it is about 100 feet higher than the surrounding country and 
commands a fine view for miles round. The old name of the town 
was Lakhnor, and it has been suggested that this was the ancient 
capital of the Katehriya Rajas of Rohilkhand. There are dispen- 
saries for treatment by both European and indigenous methods, and 
also a tahs'iU school. The town is noted for its sugar. 

Shahabad Town (3).— Town in the pan:::dh taluk of Firozabad, 
Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in \f 8' N. and 76° 56' E. 


I'opulation (1901), 5,105. Laminated limestone, known as Shahahad 
stone, is largely quarried in the vicinity, and takes its name from the 
town. It is an important station on the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway. An elegant masonry enclosure in the centre of the town is 
supposed to be the wall of a royal palace, and encloses a large mosque 
and a well. The town contains two post offices, British and Nizam's, 
a police station, a dispensary, and three vernacular primary schools. 

Shahabad Town (4). — Town in the Thanesar tahsll of Karnal 
District, Punjab, situated in 30° 10' N. and 76° 52' E., on the Delhi- 
Umballa-Kalka Railway, 16 miles south of Ambala. Population 
(1901), 11,009. The town was founded by one of the followers of 
Muhammad of (ihor at the end of the twelfth century. It is of no 
commercial importance. The municipality was created in 1867-8. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 10,900, 
and the expenditure Rs. 10,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,300, 
chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,200. The 
town has a vernacular middle school and a dispensary. 

Shahada Taluka. — Tdluka of West Khandesh District, Bombay, 
lying between 21° 24' and 21° 48' N. and 74° 24' and 74° 47' E., with 
an area of 479 square miles. It contains two towns, Shahada (popu- 
lation, 5,399), the head-quarters, being the larger ; and 155 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 59,758, compared with 64,733 i'"* 1891. 
This is the most thinly populated tCihika in the District, the density 
being only 125 persons per square mile. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was nearly 3 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 21,000. Although 
Shahada possesses two perennial streams, the Tapti and its tributary 
the Gomi, it is on the whole scantily provided with surface water. 
The prevailing soil is a rich loam resting on a yellowish subsoil. The 
annual rainfall averages 24 inches. 

Shahada To'wn. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in AVest Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 21° 33' N. and 
74° 28' E., 48 miles north-west of Dhulia. Together with Kukdel, 
it contained in 1901 a population of 5,399. A municipality was con- 
stituted in 1869. The income during the ten years ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 7,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,500. The 
town contains three cotton-ginning factories, a dispensary, and four 
schools, with 262 pupils, of which one, with 21 pupils, is for girls. 

Shahapur Taluka. — Eastern taluka of Thana District, Bombay, 
lying between \if 18' and 19° 44' N. and 73° 10' and 73° 43' E., with 
an area of 610 square miles. It contains 197 villages, Shahapur being 
the head-quarters. The population in 190 1 was 83,881, compared 
with 92,029 in 1891. It is the most thinly populated taluka in the 
District, and the density, 138 persons per square mile, is much below 
the District average. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 



to 1-4 lakh.s. The country, which was formerly known .is Kolvan, is 
for the most part wild, broken by hills and covered with large forests. 
In the south there are wide tracts of rice lands. The soil is mostly red 
and stony, and the climate unhealth\-, except in the rains. There are 
li\e factories for husking rice in Shahapur. 

Shahapur Town. ^Head-quarters of tlie subdivision of the same 
name in the State of Sangli, Bombay, situated in is*" 50' N. and 
74° 34' E., close to the town of Belgaum. Population (1901), 9,056. 
Shahapur is the most important trading place in Sangli State. The 
dyeing of cotton and silk yarn and the weaving of cotton and silk cloth 
are largely carried on. The population is chiefly composed of bankers, 
traders, and weavers. The town is governed by a municipal body, 
with an income of nearly Rs. 13,000. Besides Hindu temples, Shaha- 
pur has a Protestant church and a Roman Catholic chapel. INlethodist 
Episcopal and Catholic missions arc both at work in Shahapur. There 
is alscj a dispensary. 

Shahbandar Subdivision. — Subdivision of Karachi District, Sind, 
Bombay, composed of the MIkpur Batoko, Sujawal, Jati, and 
Shahhandak tdlukas. 

Shahbandar Taluka.— 7(?///>i^ of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 23° 41' and 24° 25' N. and 67° 32' and 68° 26' E., with 
an area of 1,388 square miles. Population increased from 28,246 in 
1891 to 33,609 in 1901. The number of villages is 104, of which 
Eadiun is the head-quarters, but the most important place is Shah- 
bandar. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
i-i lakhs. The taluka contains large tracts of kalar lands and salt 
deposits. The soil is the usual alluvial loam, mixed with sand ; but 
in the south, where the Indus outflow meets the incoming tide, 
a deposit of soft mud, locally known as bhal, appears. The taluka 
is irrigated by more than ten canals ; and the chief crops are joivar, 
bdjra^ rice, barley, and mung. 

Shahbandar Village. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24° 10' N. and 
67° 56' E., in the delta of the Indus. Population (1901), 7^5- ^liah- 
bandar stood formerly on the east bank of the Malir, one of the 
.mouths of the Indus, but it is at present 10 miles distant from the 
nearest point (jf the river. A great salt waste conunenccs about 
a mile to the south-east of the town, and on its westward side are 
extensive jungles of long bin grass. It was to Shahbandar that the 
English factory was removed from Aurangbandar when the latter 
place was deserted by the Indus ; and previous to the abandonment 
of the factory in 1775, it supported an establishment of fourteen vessels 
for the navigation of the river. The disastrous flood which occurred 
about 1819 caused material changes in the lower part of the Indus, 


iuid hastened the decay of Sliahtxxndar, which is now an insignificant 
village. Carless states that the native rulers of Sind had a fleet (jf 
fifteen ships stationed here. Vessels entered by the Richal, the only 
accessible mouth, and, passing into the Hajamro through what is now 
the Khedewari creek, ascended that stream to about lo miles above 
Ghorabari, where it joined the Malir. 

Shahdadpur Taluka {\).— TdIi/ka of Hyderabad District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 25° 42' and 26° 16' N. and 68° 2 7' and 69°o'E., 
with an area of 644 square miles. The population in igoi was 
73,504, compared with 58,720 in 1891. The density, 114 persons 
per square mile, is a little less than the District average. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to about i-8 lakhs. The 
number of villages is 102, of which Shahdadpur is the head-quarters. 
The tdhika stands at a high level and is therefore devoid of grass ; 
but it produces the best cotton in the District, and also good bdjra 
and tobacco crops. 

Shahdadpur Taluka (2). — Taluka of the Upper Sind Frontier Dis- 
trict, Sind, Bombay, lying between 27° 40' and 28° 3' N. and 67^ 22' 
and 68° 11' E., with an area of 622 square miles. It contains 62 
villages, of which Shahdadpur is the head-quarters. The population 
in 1901 was 32,385, compared with 27,380 in 1891. It is the most 
thinly populated taluka in the District, with a density of only 52 persons 
per square mile. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 1-8 lakhs. Portions of the Begari, Ghar, and Sukkur canals irrigate 
the taluka^ and a certain amount of cultivation is usually carried out 
in the neighbourhood of hill torrents. 

Shahdara. — Town in the Ghaziabad fahsil of Meerut District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28° 40' N. and 77° 18' E., on the East 
Indian Railway, 5 miles from Delhi. A light railway to Saharanpur 
is being constructed. Population (1901), 5,540. It was founded by 
Shah Jahan as a market, and was sacked in the eighteenth century 
by Suraj Mai, the Jat Raja of Bharatpur, and plundered by the soldiers 
of Ahmad Shah Durrani just before the battle of Panipat. It is badly 
drained, and drinking-water is obtained from a distance. The American 
Methodist and Reformed Presbyterian Missions have branches here. 
From 1872 to 1904 Shahdara was a municipality, with an income and 
expenditure averaging about Rs. 3,000. It is now administered as 
a 'notified area.' The trade of the place has fallen away, and it is 
chiefly celebrated for sweetmeats ; but there is still a small manufacture 
of shoes and leather, and a little sugar-refining. In 1904 there was 
a primary school with 75 pupils. 

Shahdheri {Dheri Shdhdn, 'the kings' mound'). — Village in the 
District and tahsll of Rawalpindi, Punjab, situated in 2>^ 17' N. and 
72° 49' E., 8 miles south-east of Hassan Abdal. To the north-east lie 


extensive and well-preserved ruins, identified by Sir Alexander Cunning- 
ham as those of Takshasila, the Taxila of the Greek historians. These 
ruins lie in six distinct sites — Bir, Hatial, Sir-Kap-ka-kot, Kacha Kot, 
Babarkhana, and Sir-Sukh-ka-kot. Of these, the mound at Bir rises 
above the banks of the Tapra Nala, the Tiber-nabon of the Pseudo- 
Kullisthenes. Hatial, a fortified spur of the Mar-gala ('beheaded') 
range, was probably the ancient citadel. Sir-Kap, or the fort of ' the 
beheaded,' was a fortified city, united to the citadel by a wall of circum- 
vallation. The remaining three sites appear to be more modern ; but 
near Babarkhana lie the ruins called Siri-ki-pind, which would appear 
to be the great Sirsha-danam or ' head-offering ' stfipa of Buddha built 
by Asoka and mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang. Takshasila, the Sanskrit 
form of the name, means ' the hewn rock,' or more probably ' the rock 
of Takshaka,' the great Naga king. At the Macedonian invasion, 
and for many centuries later, Taxila was a rich and flourishing city. 
Alexander found it ruled by Omphis (Sanskrit, Ambhi), generally 
known by his dynastic title of Taxiles, who resigned his kingdom to 
the invader. About eighty years later it was taken by Asoka, and 
from it he governed the Punjab before his accession to the throne 
of Magadha. About 200 B.C. it became a Graeco-Bactrian dependency, 
and rather more than half a century later passed to the Indo-Parthians, 
from whom it was wrested by the Kushans at the end of the first 
century a.d. About a. u. 50 Apollonius of Tyana visited it, and says 
it was the capital of Phraates, whose dominions corresponded with 
the ancient kingdom of Porus, and describes its beautiful temple of 
porphyry. It was also visited by Fa Hian in a.d. 400, and by Hiuen 
Tsiang in 630 and 643. Both these pilgrims describe it as a place of 
great sanctity and the scene of Buddha's sacrifice of his head. After 
this Taxila disappears from history. 

Shahganj. — Head-quarters of the Khutahan tahs'il of Jaunpur 
District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 3' N. and 82° 42' E., at the 
junction of a branch of the Bengal and North-Western Railway from 
Azamgarh with the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 
6,430. The town was founded by Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh, 
who built a market-place, a bdraddrl, and a dargdh, or tomb, in honour 
of Shah Hazrat All. Shahganj is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 6,000. It is a thriving mart, second only 
to Jaunpur city, and is the centre of the sugar-refining industry, besides 
being a depot for the export of grain and the distribution of imported 
cotton. The town contains a dispensary, a branch of the Wesleyan 
Mission, and two schools with 113 pupils. 

Shahjahanpur District. — Southern District of the Bareilly Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 27° 35' and 28° 29' N. and 79° 20' 
and 80'' 23' E., with an area of 1,727 square miles. It is bounded on 


the north by Ikreilly and i'ilibhit ; on the east by Kheri ; on the south 
by Hardoi and Farrukhabad ; and on the west by Budaun. The 
District consists of a narrow alluvial tract, running north-east from 
the river Ganges towards the Himalayas. It is crossed 
Physical nearly at right angles by the river system of South 
Rohilkhand, and its natural features thus depend 
almost entirely upon the various streams which have cut deep channels 
through the alluvial soil of the (iangetic basin. The principal rivers are 
the Ramganga, the Deoha or Garra, and the Gumti. Near the Ganges 
is a stretch of wild khddar, from which an area of stiff clay, drained 
by the Sot or Yar-i-Wafadar, reaches to the Ramganga. The channel 
of the latter river shifts from side to side of a broad valley to an 
extraordinary extent. Between the Ramganga and the Garra lies an 
extensive tract of sandy soil, which changes east of the Garai to clay 
and then to a fertile loam extending north-east of the Garra. The 
loam tract is crossed by the Khanaut, a tributary of the Garra, beyond 
which another sandy area is found, gradually changing to a forest tract 
on the border of the damp sub-Himalayan Districts. 

Shahjahan[)ur is situated entirely in the Gangetic alluvium, and 
kankar or nodular limestone is the only stone found in it. 

The District is fairly well wooded, and contains nearly 50 square 
miles of groves. Mango, bamboo, babul {Acacia arabica), sliisham 
{Dalbergia Sissoo), tun {Cedrela Toona), and, in the north, sill {Shorea 
robusfd) are the chief timber trees. 

Leopards are sometimes seen in the jungles in the north of the 
1 )istrict, and the tiger and lynx have been shot there, but not recently. 
Spotted deer frequent the same tract, and nilgai and wild hog are 
common everywhere, especially near the rivers. Antelope are found 
near the Gumti and Ganges. Hares, partridges, quail, sand-grouse, 
and peafowl are included in the smaller game, while the large ponds 
and marshes abound in the cold season with geese, duck, and teal. 

The climate is nioister than in the Doab, though drier than in the 
more northern Districts of Rohilkhand. The central portion is healthy ; 
but in the north bad fever and ague are prevalent, and in the south the 
neighbourliood of the Sot is also unhealthy. 

The annual rainfall averages about 37 inches, varying from ^il "^ 
tile south-west of the District to 40 inches at Shahjahanpur city. 
In 1895-6 the fall was only 23 inches, and in 1893-4 as nmch as 
57 inches. 

In ancient times this District must have been included in the 
kingdom of Panchala, and during the early Muhammadan period 
it formed part of the tract known as Katehr. Shah- 
jahanpur city was founded in the reign of Shah Jahan 
by.Xawab Bahadur Khan, who named it in' honour of the emperor. 


Early in the eighteenth century part of the south of the District was 
included in the territory of Muhammad Khan, Nawab of Farrukhabad ; 
but the central portions were acquired by All Muhammad, the Rohilla 
chief. On the cast the Katehriyas retained their independence, and 
the land held by them formed a debatable ground between Oudh 
and RoHiLKHAND. In 1774, after the defeat of the Rohillas by the 
allied forces of Oudh and the British, the two provinces became 
united; and in 1801 this District, with other territory, was ceded to 
the British. 

Thenceforward order was never seriously disturbed until the Mutiny, 
although the District bordered upon the most turbulent part of Oudh. 
In 1857, however, Shahjahanpur became the scene of open rebellion. 
The news of the Meerut outbreak arrived on May 15 ; but all remained 
quiet till the 25th, when the sepoys informed their officers that the 
mob intended to plunder the treasury. Precautions were taken against 
such an attempt; but on the 31st, while most of the ofificers, civil and 
military, were at church, some of the sepoys forced their way into the 
building and attacked them. Three Europeans were shot down at 
once; the remainder were joined by the other officers, and the whole 
party escaped first to Pawayan, and afterwards to Muhamdi in Kherl 
District. The mutineers burnt the station, plundered the treasury, and 
made their way to the centre of local disaffection at Bareilly. A rebel 
government under Kadir All Khan was proclaimed on June i. On 
the 18th Ghulam Kadir Khan, the hereditary Nawab of Shahjahanpur, 
passed through on his way to Bareilly, where he was appointed Nazim 
of Shahjahanpur by Khan Bahadur Khan. On the 23rd the Nawab 
returned to his titular post, and superseded Kadir All. He remained 
in power from June, 1857, till January, 1858, when British troops 
reoccupied Fatehgarh. The Nawab of Fatehgarh and Firoz Shah then 
hastened to Shahjahanpur and on to Bareilly. After the fall of Luck- 
now, the Nana Sahib also fled through Shahjahanpur to Bareilly. In 
January the Nawab put to death Hamid Hasan Khan, Deputy-Collector, 
and Muhammad Hasan, Subordinate Judge, for corresponding with the 
British. On April 30, 1858, the British force, under Sir Colin Campbell, 
reached Shahjahanpur. The rebels fled to Muhamdi and Sir Colin 
went on to Bareilly on May 2, leaving only a small detachment to 
guard the station. The rebels then assembled once more, and besieged 
the detachment for nine days ; but Brigadier Jones's colunm relieved 
them on the 12th, and authority was then finally re-established. 

The District contains a few ancient sites which have not been 
explored, the largest being Gola and MatI in the Pawayan tahstl. 
A copperplate grant by Harsha of Kanauj, dated a.d. 628, was found 
at Banskhera\ There are no Muhammadan buildings of importance. 

' Epigraphia Indica, vol. iv, p. 208. 



TIic District contains 6 towns and 2,034 villages. The population 
has fluctuated during the last thirty years. The numbers at the four 

„ . . enumerations were as follows : (1872)951,006,(1881) 

Population. o r r 1 ^ \ o 1 / \ u 

856,94^5, (i«9') 918,551, and (1901) 921,535. Be- 
tween 1872 and 1881 the District suffered severely in the famine of 
1877-8 and the fever epidemic of 1879. There are four tahsils — 
Shahjahanpur, Jai.alar.^d, Tilhar, and Pawayan— each of which is 
named after its head-quarters. The principal towns are the municipali- 
ties of Sh.^hjahanpijr City, the District head-quarters, and Tilhar. 
The following table gives the chief stati.stics of population in 1901 : — 

i I 

3 . 

Number of 


Population per 
scjuare mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8gi 
and 1901. 

U.2 ' 


J alixil. c ~ 






persons al 

read ai 


Shahjahanpur . . 394 
Jalalabad . . . ^ ^24 
Tilhar ... 418 
Pawayan . . . 591 







- 2.8 
-t- 10-6 
+ 8.3 

— 104 



District total 1,727 





+ 0.3 



About 85 per cent, of the total are Hindus and more than 14 per 
cent. Musalmans. The Arya Samaj, though its members number only 
1,646, is increasing in importance. More than 99 per cent, of the 
people speak Western Hindi, the prevailing dialect being Kanaujia. 

Chamars (leather-dressers and cultivators), 98,000, are the most 
numerous Hindu caste. The other large castes are Kisans (cultivators), 
79,000; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 71,000; Rajputs, 68,000; 
Brahmans, 61,000; Kahars (fishermen and cultivators), 40,000; Kachhis 
(cultivators), 34,000; Muraos (market-gardeners), 31,000; and Kurmis 
(agriculturists), 27,000. Among Musalmans, Pathans number 41,000^ 
followed by Shaikhs, 24,000, and Julahas (weavers), 18,000. The 
proportion of the population supported by agriculture is 69 per cent. — 
a high figure. Personal services support 5 per cent., general labour 
4 per cent., and cotton-weaving 2 per cent. Rajputs and Brahmans 
are the chief holders of land ; and Rajputs, Kachhis, Muraos, Ahirs, 
and Chamars are the principal cultivators. 

Out of 1,739 native Christians in 1901, 1,495 ^vere Methodists. The 
American Methodist Mission opened work in the District in 1859, and 
has seven stations, besides two in Oudh. 

Agricultural conditions are exceedingly complex, owing to the varied 

character of the soil and of the facilities for irrigation. The Ganges 

khadar is either sand or light loam, and suffers from 

drought, though it is also liable to disastrous floods. 

The clay tract adjoining it produces rice in the autumn, and requires 




constant irrigation for wheat and po[)py, the i)rinci[)al spring crf)ps. 
This is the only part of the District where sugar-cane is not grown. 
Along the Ramganga irrigation is easy, but the autumn crops are liable 
to great damage from flooding. East of this river the sandy tract 
produces bajra and wheat of medium quality. Another clay tract is 
found between the Garai and the (iarra, which is liable to suffer in dry 
years. The most fertile tract is the loam area in the centre of the 
District, which ])roduces much sugar-cane and other valuable crops. 
Northeast of this the soil deteriorates and becomes sandy ; there is 
a good deal of jungle, and wild animals damage the crops, while the 
drinking-water is bad in places. Some better land is found in the 
extreme north-east, but its value depends largely on its distance from 
tiie forests on the border, and on its immunity from wild beasts. 

The ordinary tenures of the United Provinces are found. Zamlndari 
mahals include 56 per cent, of the total area, and pattldCu-i viahdls 
44 per cent. The main agritniltural statistics for 1903-4 are sho\ni 
liclow, in square miles : — 

Tahsil. Total. 

Cultivated, j Irrigated. 


Tilhar . 




292 84 
225 65 
330 84 
360 114 



1,727 1,207 347 



The chief food-crops, with the area under each in square miles in 
1903-4, are: wheat (444), rice (106), gram (159), and bdjra (173). 
Sugar-cane covered 56 square mile.s, and poppy 27. Of the un- 
cultivated area, about 52 miles are occupied by the forests in the 
north-east of the District, and an equal amount by swamps and sandy 
tracts near the GumtT. 

There have been no improvements in the means of irrigation, and 
no expansion of cultivation in recent years. On the other hand, a rise 
is noticeable in the area bearing a double crop, and the valuable crops 
are being more largely sown. Thus rice has taken the place of bajra 
and jmcar, and the area under poppy and sugar-cane has increased. 
Considerable advances were made under the Agriculturists' Loans Act 
during the ten years ending 1900, amounting to t-6 lakhs, but a quarter 
of this was lent in the famine year 1896-7. Only small sums have 
been advanced in later years, and the loans granted under the Land 
Improvement Act have been insignificant, except in 1896-7. 

In the north of the District the bdngar breed of cattle is found, the 
bullocks being hardy and quick-moving. In 1S66 and 1867 attempts 
were made to introduce a better strain near Shahjahanpur ; but the 

o 2 

2o6 shahjahaxpur district 

climate did not suit the animals imported. The ordinary breed of 
horses is also poor ; stallions have been kept by Government for some 
years, and two are now at stud. The sheep and goats are inferior. 

In 1903-4, out of 347 square miles irrigated, wells supplied 207 
square miles, tanks ox jh'ils 86, and other sources 54. The spring-level 
is high, and in ordinary years irrigation is not required for many crops, 
or can be supplied easily by temporary wells lastin^for a single harvest. 
In two tracts a deficiency of water is experienced in dry years. The 
.sandy area along the Gumtl is unprotected, while the clay tract in the 
south of the District depends on the numerous small channels which 
intersect it, and which are dammed at the end of the rains, to supply 
water for the spring harvest. 

There are no ' reserved ' or ' protected ' forests the property of 
Government ; but in the north-east of the District are some tracts 
of unreclaimed forest, chiefly sal, which, with a few exceptions, do not 
now contain any large timber, but supply poles for use in house- 
building. Their total area is about 52 square miles. 

KaJikar or nodular limestone is the only mineral product, and is 
used for metalling roads and for burning into lime. 

Sugar-refining is by far the most important industry in the District. 

Indigo was once manufactured, but has now become a minor product. 

The matting made from a jungle grass called baib 

communications. '^ largely exported. Coarse cotton cloth, chintz, and 

brass vessels are made in various places for local use, 

and there are small manufactures of ironware inlaid with gold and 

silver, and of lacquered goods. The Rosa sugar and rum factory near 

Shahjahanpur city is one of the largest in India, and employed 632 

hands in 1903. 

The grain trade is of ordinary dimensions, and sugar is the principal 
article of export, the Shahjahanpur production being celebrated 
throughout India. It is largely exported to Rajputana and the Punjab. 
There is also a considerable trade in oilseeds at Tilhar. European 
goods, metals, and .salt are the principal imports. Forest produce is 
floated down the rivers from Pillbhit ; but the spread of railways has 
largely decreased the river traffic, which was formerly important. 
Tilhar and Shahjahanpur are the chief trade centres, though markets 
are held at many smaller places. 

The Oudh and Rohilkhand main line crosses the centre of the 
District and is the chief trade route ; but a little traffic is carried by 
the Lucknow-Sitapur-Bareilly State Railway, which traverses the north- 
east corner. The two lines are connected by a steam tramway or 
light railway, 40 miles long, from Shahjahanpur city to Mailanl in 
Kher! District. The District is well supplied with roads, except in the 
tract south-west of the Ramganga. Of these, ir8 miles are metalled. 


and are maintained by the Public Works department, but the cost of 
46 miles is charged to Local funds. The remaining 326 miles are 
unmetalled. Avenues of trees are maintained on 222 miles, 'i'he 
principal routes comprise the branch of the grand trunk road from 
Fatehgarh which divides at Jalalabad, one line going to Bareilly and 
one to Shahjahanpur city ; the road from JJareilly through Tilhar and 
Shahjahanpur to Sltapur and Lucknow ; and the road from Shahjahanpur 
through the north of the District. 

In a large part of the District the effects of drought can be mitigated 
as long as the cultivators are able to make temporary wells ; but 
elsewhere a failure of the rains is disastrous, and 
Shahjahanpur has often suffered severely. The great 
famine of 1783-4 did not press so heavily here as in the tracts south 
of the Ganges. In 1803-4, two years after cession, rain completely 
failed for the autumn harvest. In 1825-6 drought again occurred, but 
hardly caused famine. The autumn rains failed in 1837-8, but a slight 
fall in February saved the spring harvests. The famine of 1860-1 was 
severely felt throughout Rohilkhand, though Shahjahanpur escaped 
more lightly than the contiguous District of Budaun. In 1868-9 the 
period of pressure was severe, but only lasted for seven weeks. The 
famine of 1877-8 was the worst since the commencement of British 
rule. A series of bad harvests had followed the previous scarcity 
of 1868-9, and prices had risen owing to the demand for grain in 
Southern India. On August 17, 1877, the Collector reported 'roaring 
hot winds, and not a vestige of green anywhere.' The autumn harvest, 
which provides the chief food-grains for the lower classes, was a 
complete failure. Rain early in October enabled the sowings for the 
rabi or spring crop to be made, and advances were given for seed. 
Relief works were opened in December ; but the people refused to 
come on them, and large numbers succumbed in the cold season. The 
after-effects of the famine were severely felt when an epidemic of fever 
broke out in 1879. The registered death-rate rose from 29-37 per 
1,000 in 1877 to 57-04 in 1878, and stood at 53-59 in 1879. 1'"^ ^^95 
the rains ceased prematurely, and distress was felt in the north of the 
District by May, 1896. The monsoon of 1896 closed even earlier than 
in 1895, and the sugar-cane and rice were seriously damaged, besides 
the ordinary food-crops. Great use was made of river water, so that 
a fair spring harvest was secured, and the relief works opened were not 
resorted to by any large number. 

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil 

Service, and by four Deputy-Collectors recruited in ... . 

T J. K . 1 ,, ■ , , , , Administration. 

India. A iahs'ilaar is stationed at the head-quarters 

of each tahsll. Two officers cf the Opium department are posted to 

this District. 



There are three regular District Munsifs, and a scheme for village 
iMunsifs was introduciKl in 1894. The District Ji-Klge and .Sub-Judge 
exercise civil jurisdiction over the neighbouring District of Budaun : 
but the former hears sessions cases from Shahjahanpur alone. Crime 
is heavy, the more serious forms of offences against life and limb, 
with robbery and dacoity, being common. Female infanticide was 
formerly suspected: but in 1904 only 154 persons remained under 

At cession in 1801 the present area formed part of Bareilly ; but a 
separate District of Shahjahanpur was constituted in 1813-4. Early 
settlements were for short periods, being based as usual on the previous 
collections coupled with a system of competition. The first regular 
settlement under Regulation IX of 1833 was carried out in 1838-9. 
The District had been over-assessed, and considerable reductions, 
amounting to about 12 per cent., were made, the demand being 
fixed at 9-8 lakhs. Villages were grouped according to their capa- 
bilities of soil and irrigation, and revenue rates fixed per acre (jf 
cultivation. Another revision took place thirty years later, and the 
new settlement was based on rates selected from the rents actually 
])aid, with some regard to prospective increases. The result was an 
assessment of 11 -8 lakhs, which was subsequently reduced by Rs. iS,ooo. 
The latest revision was made between 1896 and 1900. In this settle- 
ment prospective increases in the rental value of villages were altogether 
disregarded, except where the rents were found to be totall)- inadequate. 
About four-fifths of the area assessed was held b}- tenants, cash rents 
being paid in the greater part. The assessment amounted to 11-7 lakhs, 
or 48-6 per cent, of the accepted 'assets,' and the operations chiefly 
resulted in a redistribution of the demand. The incidence per acre is 
Rs. 1-2, varying from R. 0-5 in the north of the District to Rs. 1-7 in 
the fertile central tract. 

The total collections on account of land revenue and revenue from 
all sources have been, in thousands of rupees : — 




1903 4. j 

Land revenue 
Total revenue 






There are two municipalities, Shahj.\hanpur and Tilhar, and 
four towns are administered under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the 
limits of these places local affairs are managed by the District board, 
which has an income and expenditure of more than a lakh. In 1903-4 
the expenditure on roads and buildings amounted to Rs. 46,000. 

The District .Superintendent of police commands a force of 3 inspec- 




lurs, 89 .suburdinale officers, and 365 cuustubles, besides 302 municipal 
and town police, and 2,097 rural and road police. There are 19 police 
.stations. The District jail contained a daily average of 316 prisoners 
in 1903. 

The population of Shalijahanpur is not conspicuous for literacy, and 
in 1901 only 2-6 per cent. (4 males and 0-3 females) could read and 
write. The number of public schools, however, increased from 149 in 
1880-1 to 184 in 1900-1, and the number of pupils from 4,324 to 
8,796. In 1903-4 there were 186 public schools with 8,744 pupils, of 
whom 514 were girls, and 60 private schools with 667 pupils. Four 
of the public schools are managed by Government and 124 by the 
District and municipal boards. Out of a total expenditure on education, 
of Rs. 52,000, Local funds provided Rs. 41,000 and fees Rs. 10,000. 

The District possesses 1 1 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommo- 
dation for 130 in-patients. About 85,000 cases were treated in 1903, 
of whom 1,400 were in-patients, and 3,000 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 16,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

In 1903-4, 30,000 persons were vaccinated, representing a proportion 
of 32 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory only in the 
two municipalities. 

^District Gazetteer (1883, under revision) ; \\'. A. ^\'. Last, Settlement 
Report (1901).] 

Shahjahanpur Tahsil. — Head-tjuarters talisil of Shalijahanpur 
District, United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Shahjahanpur, 
Jamaur, and Kant, and lying between 27° 39' and 28° i' N. and 
79° 36' '^'^^ S°° 5' I^'j ^^ith an area of 394 square miles. Population 
fell from 273,146 in 1891 to 265,467 in 1901. There are 463 villages 
and only one town, Shahjahanpur City (population, 76,458), the 
District and tahsil head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 3,00,000, and for cesses Rs. 49,000. The density of 
population, 674 persons per square mile, is considerably above the 
District average, owing to the inclusion of the city. Through the 
centre of the tahsil flows the Garra, with a narrow belt of rich alluvial 
soil on either bank, while several smaller streams act as drainage 
channels. The eastern portion has a good loam soil ; but the centre 
is clay, and the western tract is sandy and liable to periods of 
depression. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 293 square 
miles, of which 84 were irrigated, mostly from wells. 

Shahjahanpur City. — Administrative head-quarters of Shahjahan- 
pur District and tahsil, with cantonment, United Provinces, situated 
in 27° 53'' N. and 79° 54' E., on the left bank of the Deoha or Garra 
river, crowning the high ground just above its junction with the 
Khanaut, with a station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 
768 -miles by rail from Calcutta and 987 from Bombay. Population 



lias fluctuated. The numbers at the four enumerations were as 
follows: (1872) 72,136, (1881) 77,404, (1891) 78,522, and (1901) 
76,458, of whom 73,544 resided in the municipality and 2,914 in 
cantonments. Hindus numbered 35,636 in 1901 and Muhammadans 

The date usually assigned to the foundation of the city is 1647, after 
the defeat of the Raj[)uts in this neighbourhood by Diler Khan and 
Bahadur Khan, and a mosque was built here by the latter in that year. 
The city has no history apart from that of the District, which has 
already been related. There are few buildings of any interest. The 
old fort was completely destroyed after the Mutiny ; and the mosque 
referred to above and a few tombs, including that of Bahadur Khan, 
one of the founders of the city, are the only memorials of the former 
rulers. The principal public buildings, besides the ordinary District 
offices, are the municipal hall, the District school, and the male and 
female dispensaries. 'I'he American Methodist Mission has its head- 
cjuarters here, and possesses several churches and an or[)hanage. 
A new meeting-house has recently been built by the Arya Samaj. 
Shahjahanpur is the head-quarters of an officer of the Opium depart- 
ment. The municipality was constituted in 1864. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 74,000 
and Rs. 72,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was 1-4 lakhs, 
including octroi (Rs. 58,000), rents of municipal markets (Rs. 27,000), 
and sale of refuse (Rs. 23,000). The municipality also has Rs. 30,000 
invested. The expenditure amounted to 1-3 lakhs, including con- 
servancy (Rs. 39,000), roads and buildings (Rs. 13,000), public safety 
(Rs. 24,000), and administration (Rs. 18,000). Shahjahanpur is 
remarkable for the excellence of its drainage and general sanitation. 
British troops form the usual garrison of the cantonment, and in 
1 90 1-2 Boer prisoners were encamped here. The income and 
expenditure of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 were Rs. 15,000 and 
Rs. 18,000. The trade of Shahjahanpur is small compared with its 
population. Sugar is the chief article of manufacture and commerce. 
The Rosa (Rausar) factory, which lies two miles south of the city, is 
the only establishment managed by Europeans. It deals with about 
10 or 12 per cent, of the sugar produced in the District, and employed 
632 hands in 1903. Raw sugar was formerly purchased for refining, 
but cane-crushing machinery has recently been erected, to supplement 
the supply. Rum is also manufactured and exported to many parts of 
India. The District high school has 188 pupils, and the tahsili school 
214, while the municipality maintains 4 schools and aids 17 others, 
with 1,452 pupils. 

Shah-ki-Dheri. — Milage and ruins in Rawalpindi District, Punjab. 
See Shahdheki. 


Shahpur District'. — District in the Rawalpindi Division of the 
Punjab, lying between 31° 32' and 32° 42' N. and 71° 37' and 
73° 23' E., witli an area of 4,840 square miles. It adjoins the Districts 
of Attock and Jhclum on the north, Clujrat on the east, Gujranwala on 
the south-east, Jhang on the soutli, and Mianwilli on the west. 

The Jhclum river divides Shahpur into two parts, nearly equal in 
area. P^ntering the District at its north-east corner, the river flows 
almost due west for 60 miles, and tlien near . 

Khushab turns southward, its width increasing from aspects. 

2 to 15 miles during its course through the District. 
The tendency of the river to move westward has caused it to cut in 
under its right bank, receding from the eastern bank, under which 
deposits of silt have formed a fertile stretch of low-lying land densely 
populated by prosperous cultivators. The Jhelum valley, though it 
comprises at most a fourth of the area of the whole I )istrict, contains 
more than a half of its ])opulati()n and all its towns. 

East of the Jhelum, the District includes that part of the Chaj Doab, 
or country between the Chenab and Jhelum, which is called the Bar, 
consisting of a level uncultivated upland covered with brushwood. 
Its climate is dry and healthy. The character of this tract is, however, 
being rapidly changed by the Jhelum Canal. As the network of 
irrigation spreads, trees and bushes are cut down, and the country 
cleared for cultivation. Metalled roads are being built, and colonists 
imported from the congested Districts of the Province, while the Jech 
Doab branch of the North-Western Railway has been extended to 
Sargodha, the head-quarters of the new Jhelum Colony. 

\\'est of the Jhelum stretches an undulating waste of sandhills 
known as the Thai, extending to the border of Mianwali. Broken 
only by an occasional well, and stretching on three .sides to the 
horizon, the Thai from Nurpur offers a dreary spectacle of rolling 
sandhills and stunted bushes, relieved only by the Salt Range which 
rises to the north. Good rain will produce a plentiful crop of grass, 
but a failure of the rains, which is more usual, means starvation for 
men and cattle. North of the Thai runs the Salt Range. Rising 
abruptly from the plains, these hills run east and west, turning sharply 
to the north into Jhelum District at one end and Mianwali at the 
other. The general height of the range is 2,500 feet, rising frequently 
to over 3,000 feet and culminating in the little hill station of Sakcsar 
(5,010 feet). The mirage is very common where the Salt Range drops 
into the Thai. 

' Throughout this article the information given relates to the District as it was 
before ihe formation of the Sargodha tahstl \\\ 1906. Urief notices of liie new tahsU 
and its head-ciuarters will be found in the articles on .Sakgodha TaiisTl and Sar- 
godha Town. 


The greater part of the District Hes on the alluvium, but the central 
portion of the Salt Range, lying to the north of the Jhelum river, is of 
interest. The chief feature of this portion of the range is the great 
development attained by the Productus limestone, with its wealth of 
Permian fossils. It is overlain by the Triassic ceratite beds, which are 
also highly fossiliferous. Here, too, upper mesozoic beds first begin to 
appear ; they consist of a series of variegated sandstones with Jurassic 
fossils, and are unconformably overlain by Nummulitic limestone and 
other Tertiary beds. The lower part of the palaeozoic group is less 
extensively developed than in the eastern part of the range, but the 
salt marl, with its accompanying rock-salt, is still a constant feature 
in most sections. Salt of great purity is excavated at the village of 
Warcha \ 

East of the Jhelum the flora is that of the Western Punjab, with an 
admixture of Oriental and desert species ; but recent canal extensions 
tend to destroy some of the characteristic forms, notably the saltworts 
(species of Haloxylon, Saiicornia, and Salsola), which in the south- 
east of the District often constitute almost the sole vegetation. The 
Thai steppe, west of the Jhelum, is a prolongation northwards of the 
Indian desert, and its flora is very similar to that of Western Rajputana. 
In the Salt Range a good many Himalayan species are found, but the 
general aspect of the flora is Oriental. The box {Buxus), a wild olive, 
species of Zizyphits, Sageretia, and Dodonaea are associated with a 
number of herbaceous plants belonging to genera well-known in the 
Levant as well as in the arid North-^^'estern Himalaya, e.g. Dianthus, 
Scorzonem, and Menndera. At higher levels Himalayan forms also 
appear. Trees are unknown in the Thai, and, except Acacia modesta 
and Tecoma undulata, are usually planted ; but the klkar (^Acacia 
arabicd) is naturalized on a large scale on the east bank of the 

' Ravine deer ' (Indian gazelle) are found in the Salt Range, the 
Thai, and the Bar. There are antelope in very small numbers in the 
Shahpur tahsil, while hog are found in the south-east of the District 
and occasionally in the Salt Range. In the Salt Range leopards are 
rare and wolves common. Urial (a kind of moufflon) also live on the 
hills, and jackals are numerous everywhere. 

The town of Khushab and the waterless tracts of the Bar and Thai 
are, in May and June, among the hottest parts of India. The thermo- 
meter rises day after day to 115° or more, and the average daily 
maximum for June is 108°. When the monsoon has once begun, the 
temperature rarely rises above 105°. The Salt Range valleys are 

' Wynne, 'Geology of the Salt Range,' Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, 
vol. xxiv; C. S. MidHlcniis-;, 'Geology of the S.ilt Range,' Records, Geological Survey 
of India, vol. xiv. pt. i. 


generally about io° cooler than the plains, while at Sakesar the 
temperature seldom ranges above go*' or below 70° in the hot months. 
January is the coldest month, 'i'he average minimum at Khushab 
is 39°. The District is comparatively healthy, though it suffers con- 
siderably from fever in the autumn months. The Bar has a better 
climate than the river valleys, but has deteriorated since the oi)ening 
of the Jhelum Canal. 

The rainfiill decreases rapidly as one goes south-west, away from the 
Himalayas. In the Jhelum valley and Salt Range it averages 15 
inches. In the Thai the average is 7 inches. The great flood of 1893 
will be long remembered. On July 20-1 in that year the Chenab dis- 
charged 700,000 cubic feet per second, compared with an average 
discharge of 127,000. 

At the time of Alexander's invasion, the Salt Range between the 
Indus and the Jhelum was ruled by Sophytes, who submitted without 
resistance to Hephaestion and Craterus in the autumn 
of 326 n.c. The capital of his kingdom is possibly 
to be found at Old Bhera. After Alexander left India, the country 
C(Mn[)rised in the present District passed successively, with intervals of 
comparative independence, under the sway of Mauryan, Bactrian, 
Parthian, and Kushan kings, and was included within the limits of 
the Hindu kingdom of Ohind or Kabul. In the seventh and eighth 
centuries, the Salt Range chieftain was a tributary of Kashmir. Bhera 
was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni, and again two centuries later by the 
generals of Chingiz Khan. In 15 19 Babar held it to ransom; and in 
1540 Sher Shah founded a new town, which under Akbar became the 
head-quarters of one of the subdivisions of the Subah of I^hore. In the 
reign of Muhammad Shah, Raja Salamat Rai, a Rajput of the Anand 
tribe, administered Bhera and the surrounding country; while Khushab 
was managed by Nawab Ahmad\ar Khan, and the south-eastern tract 
along the Chenab formed part of the territories under the charge of 
Maharaja Kaura Mai, governor of Multan. At the same time, the Thai 
was included among the dominions of the Baloch families of Dera 
Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan. 

During the anarchic period which succeeded the disruption of the 
Mughal empire, this remote region became the scene of Sikh and 
Afghan incursions. In 1757 a force under Nur-ud-din Bamizai, dis- 
patched by Ahmad Shah Durrani to assist his son Timur Shah in 
repelling the Marathas. crossed the Jhelum at Khushab, marched 
up the left bank of the river, and laid waste the three largest towns 
of the District. Bhera and Miani rose again from their ruins, but only 
the foundations of Chak Sanu now mark its former site. About the 
same time, by the death of Nawab Ahmadyar Khan, Khushab also 
passed into the hands of Raja Salamat Rai. Shortly afterwards Abbas 


Klian, a Khattak, who held Find Dadan Khan and the Salt Range for 
Ahmad Shah, treacherously put the Raja to deatii, and seized Bhera. 
But Abbas Khan was himself thrown into prison as a revenue defaulter; 
and Fateh Singh, nei)hew of Salamat Rai, then recovered his uncle's 

After the final success of the Sikhs against Ahmad Shah in 1763, 
Chattar Singh, of the Sukarchakia misl or confederacy, overran the 
whole Salt Range, while the Bhangi chieftains parcelled out among 
themselves the country between those hills and the Chenab. Mean- 
while, the Muhammadan rulers of Sahiwal, Mitha Tiwana, and Khushab 
had assumed independence, and managed, though hard pressed, to 
resist the encroachments of the Sikhs. The succeeding period was 
one of constant anarchy, checked only by the gradual rise of Mahan 
Singh, and his son, the great Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The former 
made himself master of Miani in 1783, and the latter succeeded in 
annexing Bhera in 1803. Six years later, RanjTt Singh turned his arms 
against the Baloch chieftains of Sahiwal and Khushab, whom he over- 
came by combined force and treachery. At the same time he swallowed 
up certain smaller domains in the same neighbourhood; and in 1810 
he effected the conquest of all the country subject to the Sial chiefs 
of Jhang. In 18 16 the conqueror turned his attention to the Maliks 
of Mitha Tiwana. The Muhammadan chief retired to Niirpur, in the 
heart of the Thai, hoping that scarcity of water and supplies might 
check the Sikh advance. But Ranjit Singh's general sank wells as 
he marched, so that the Tiwanas fled in despair, and wandered about 
for a time as outcasts. The Maharaja, however, after annexing their 
territory, dreaded their influence and invited them to Lahore, where 
he made a liberal provision for their support. On the death of the 
fiimous Hari Singh, to whom the Tiwana estates had been assigned, 
Fateh Khan, the representative of the Tiwana family, obtained a grant 
of the ancestral domains. Thenceforward, Malik Fateh Khan took 
a prominent part in the turbulent politics of the Sikh realm, after the 
rapidly succeeding deaths of Ranjit Singh, his son, and grandson. 
Thrown into prison by the opposite faction, he was released by 
Lieutenant (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes, who sent him to Bannu 
on the outbreak of the Multan rebellion to relieve Lieutenant Reynell 
Taylor. Shortly afterwards the Sikh troops mutinied, and Fateh Khan 
was shot down while boldly challenging the bravest champion of the 
Sikhj to meet him in single combat. His son and a cousin proved 
themselves actively loyal during the revolt, and were rewarded for 
their good service both at this period and after the Mutiny of 1857. 

Shahpur District passed under direct British rule, with the rest of the 
Punjab, at the close of the second Sikh AVar. At that time the greater 
part of the country was peopled only by wild pastoral tribes, without 




fixed abodes. Under the influence of settled government, they began 
to establish themselves in permanent habitations, to cultivate the soil 
in all suitable places, and to acquire a feeling of attachment to their 
regular homes. The Mutiny of 1857 had little influence upon Shah- 
pur. The District remained tramiuil ; and though tiie villages of the 
Bar gave cause for alarm, no outbreak of sepoys took i)lace, and the 
wild tribes of the upland did not revolt even when their brethren 
in the neighbouring Multan Division took up arms. A body of Tiwana 
horse, levied in this District, did excellent service during the Mutiny, 
and was afterwards incorporated in the regiment now known as the 
iSth (Tiwana) Lancers. 

No less than 270 mounds have been counted in the Bar. None 
of them has been excavated, but they serve to recall the ancient 
prosperity of the tract, which is testified to alike by the Greek his- 
torians and by local tradition. The most interesting architectural 
remains are the temples at Amb in the Salt Range, built of block 
kaiikar. The style is Kashmiri, and they date probably from the 
tenth century, the era of the Hindu kings of Ohind. Sher Shah 
in 1540 built the fine mosque at Bhera; and the great stone dam, 
now in ruins, across the Katha torrent at the foot of the Salt Range 
is also attributed to him. 

The population of the District at the last four enumerations was : 
(186S) 368,288, (1881) 421,508, (1891) 493,588, and (1901) 524,259, 
dwelling in 5 towns and 789 villages. It increased 
by 6.2 per cent, during the last decade. The Dis- 
trict is divided into three tahslls — Shahpur, Bhera, and Khushab — 
the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. 
The towns are the municipalities of Shahpur, the administrative head- 
quarters of the District, Miani, S.\hiwal, Khushau, and Bhera. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 
1901 : — 






Number of 


C' = 



Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and :90i. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 






Khushab . 

District total 

2, .536 







+ 14-7 
- 0.6 

4- 6.8 








-h 6-2 


Note.— The figures for the areas of tahsTts are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is tliat given in the Census Report. 

Muhammadans number 442,921, or 84 per cent, of the total; 
Hindus, 68,489; and Sikhs, 12,756. The density of the population 


SHAiiri 'R n TSTR rc T 

is low, as niiglit he cxpcclcd in a District which coniprisL-s so large 
an area of desert. The langtiage spoken is Western Punjabi, or 
Lahnda, with three distinct forms in the Jheluni valley, the Thai, 
and the Salt Range respectively. The last has been held to be the 
oldest form of Punjabi now spoken in the Province. 

The most numerous caste is that of the agricultural Rajputs, who 
number 73,000, or 14 per cent, of the total populati(jn. Ne.xt come 
the Jats (64,000), Awans (55,000), Khokhars (24,000), and Baloch 
(14,000). Arains are few, numbering only 7,000, while the Maliars, 
very closely akin to them, number 4,000. The commercial and money- 
lending castes of numerical importance are the Aroras (43,000) and 
KhattrTs (16,000). The Muhammadan priestly class, the Saiyids, who 
have agriculture as an additional means of livelihood, number 10,000. 
Of the artisan classes, the Julahas (weavers, 25,000), Mochls (leather- 
workers, 19,000), Kumhars (potters, 15,000), and Tarkhans (carpenters, 
14,000) are the most important ; and of the menial classes, the Chuhras 
(sweepers, 34,000), Machhis (fishermen, bakers, and water-carriers, 
14,000), and Nais (barbers, 9,000). Mirasis (village minstrels) number 
10,000. About 48 per cent, of the population are supported by agri- 

The American United Presbyterian Mission has a station at Bhera, 
where work was started in 1884. In 1901 the District contained 
21 native Christians. 

In the valleys of the Jhelum and Chenab, and in the plain between 
them, the soil is chiefly a more or less sandy loam, with patches of clay 
and sand. The Thai consists chiefly of sandhills, 
interspersed with patches of hard level soil and tracts 
of ground impregnated with salts, while in the hills a fertile detritus 
of sandstone and limestone is found. The conditions of agriculture, 
however, depend on the facilities for irrigation and not on soils, 
and the unirrigated cultivation is precarious in the extreme. 

The District is held chiefly on the bhaiydchara SiX\d paiilddri tenures, 
though zamlnddn \2inds cover about 145 square miles and lands leased 
from Government about 5,000 acres. The area for which details are 
available from the revenue records of 1903-4 is 4,735 square miles, 
as shown below : — • 




Cultivated. Irrigated. 



Sliahpur . 
Khushab . 







63 ! 







748 ■ j 

Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, occupying 579 square 


miles in 1903-4. (iiani and barley covered 92 ;ui(l 19 sciuare niiles 
respectively. In the autumn harvest spiked millet {Jnyrix) is \W- \)\'m 
cipal staple, covering 209 square miles ; cotton covered 66 scjuare 
miles, [)ulses 50, and great millet (Joivdr) 56. 

During the ten years ending 1900-r, the area under cultivation 
increased by 19 per cent., and it is still extending with the aid of 
the new Jhelum Canal. There is little prospect of irrigation in the 
Thai, as, although it lies within the scope of the pro[)osed Sind-Sagar 
Canal, the soil is too sterile to make irrigation profitable. Nothing 
has been done to improve the quality of the crops grown. Loans 
for the sinking of wells are appreciated in the tract beneath the hills 
and in the Jhelum valley ; morc^ than Rs. 5,>Soo was advanced under 
the Land Improvement Loans Act during the five years ending 

There are no very distinct breeds of cattle, though th(^ services 
of Hissar bulls are generally appreciated. 'i"he cattle of the Bar are, 
however, larger and stronger than those of the plain.s, and there 
is an excellent breed of peculiarly mottled cattle in the Salt Range. 
A great deal of cattle-breeding is done in the Bar, and a large profit 
is made by the export of ghi. Many buffaloes are kept. The Dis- 
trict is one of the first in the Punjab for horse-breeding, and the 
Shahpur stock is considered to be one of the best stamp of remounts 
to be found in the Province. A considerable number of mules are 
bred. A large horse fair is held annually, and 44 horse and 13 donkey 
stallions are maintained by the Army Remount department and 3 horse 
stallions by the District board. Large areas have been set apart in the 
Jhelum Colony for horse runs, and many grants of land have been 
made on condition that a branded mare is kept for every 2^ acres. 
Camels are bred in the Bar and Thai. A large number of sheep 
are kept, both of the black-faced and of the fat-tailed breed, and goats 
are also kept in large numbers. The donkeys, except in the Jhelum 
and Chenab valleys, are of an inferior breed, but are largely used 
as beasts of burden. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 883 square miles, or 58 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 343 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, and 540 from canals. In addition, 107 square 
miles, or 7 per cent, of the cultivated area, are subject to inundation 
from the Chenab and Jhelum, and much of the land in the hills classed 
as unirrigated receives benefit from the hill torrents. The Lower 
Jhelum C.vnal, which was opened in October, 1901, irrigates the 
uplands of the Bar. The remainder of the canal-irrigation is from 
the inundation canals {see Shahpur Canals), which, with the excep- 
tion of three private canals on the Chenab, all take off from the 
Jhelum. It is intended to supersede them gradually by extensions 

3t8 shah pur district 

of the Lower Jhclum Canal. In 1903-4 the District had 7,545 
masonry wells, worked by cattle with Persian wheels, besides 241 
unbricked wells, lever wells, and water-lifts. Fields in the Salt Range 
are embanked so as to utilize to the utmost the surface drainage of 
the hills, and embankments are thrown across the hill torrents for the 
same purpose. 

In 1903-4 the District contained 775 square miles of 'reserved' 
and 25 of unclassed forest under the Deputy-Conservator of the 
Shahpur Forest division, besides 21 square miles 
of military reserved forest, and 3 square miles of 
'reserved' forest and 692 of waste lands under the Deputy-Com- 
missioner. These forests are for the most part tracts of desert thinly 
covered with scrub, consisting of the van {Salvadora), jand {Frosopis), 
leafless caper and other bushes, which form the characteristic vege- 
tation. The Acacia arabica, s his ham {Dalbergia Sissod), and other 
common trees of the plains are to be found by the rivers, and planted 
along roads and canals and by wells ; but as a whole the District 
is very poorly wooded. The forest revenue from the areas under 
the Forest department in 1903-4 was Rs. 77,000, and from those 
under the Deputy-Commissioner Rs. 59,000. 

Salt is found in large quantities all over the Salt Range, and is 
excavated at the village of Warcha, the average output exceeding 
100,000 maunds a year. Small quantities of lignite have been found 
in the hills south of Sakesar ; gypsum and mica are common in places, 
and traces of iron and lead have been found in the Salt Range. Petro- 
leum also has been noticed on the surface of a spring. Limestone 
is quarried from the hills in large quantities, and a great deal of lime 
is burnt. Crude saltpetre is manufactured to a large extent from the 
earth of deserted village sites, and refined at five licensed distilleries, 
whence it is exported. The manufacture of impure carbonate of soda 
from the ashes of Sa/so/a Griffithii is of some importance. 

Cotton cloth is woven in all parts, and is exported in large quan- 
tities, while silk and mixtures of silk and cotton are woven at 
Khushab, and cotton prints are produced. Felt 

communications. ^"S^ ""'^ ^""^^^ ^^ ^^''^^ ^"^^'^ ^"^ ^^ ^h^'"^' ^^^^"^ 
also turns out a good deal of cutlery, and various 

kinds of serpentine and other stones are used there for the handles 
of knives, caskets, paper weights, &c. The woodwork of Bhera is 
above the average, and good lacquered turnery is made at Sahiwal. 
Gunpowder and fireworks are prepared on a large scale at several 
places. Soap is also manufactured. 

Cotton is exported both raw and manufactured, and there is a large 
export of wheat and other grains, which will increase with the develop- 
ment of the Jhelum Colony. Other exports are wool, gh'i, hides and 

ADAf/yrSTRA TION 2 1 9 

bones, salt, lime, and saltpetre. The chief imports are piece-goods, 
metals, sugar, and rice. 

The Sind-Sagar branch of the North-Western Railway crosses the 
north-eastern corner of the Bhera tahs'il, and, after passing into Jhelum 
District, again enters the District, crossing the Khushab tahsih The 
Jech Doab branch strikes off through the heart of the District, running 
as far as Sargodha, the head-quarters of the Jhelum Colony. There is 
also a short branch to Bhera. A light railway from Dhak to the foot 
of the hills near Katha, a distance of about 10 miles, is under survey, 
in the interests of the coal trade. 

The District is traversed in all directions by good unmetalled roads, 
the most important leading from Lahore to the frontier through Shah- 
pur town and Khushab, and from Shahpur to Jhang and Gujrat. The 
total length of metalled roads is 20 miles, and of unmetalled roads 
838 miles. Of these, 13 miles of metalled and 26 miles of unmetalled 
roads are under the Public Works department and the rest under the 
District board. 

The Jhelum is crossed between Shahpur and Khushab by a bridge 
of boats, dismantled during the rains ; and a footway is attached to 
the railway bridge in the Bhera tahs'il. There are sixteen ferries on 
the Jhelum, those on the Chenab being under the management of the 
authorities of Gujranwala District. A certain amount of traffic is 
carried by the former river, but very little by the latter. 

Prior to annexation, the greater part of Shahpur was a sparsely 
populated tract, in which cultivation was mostly dependent on wells 
and on the floods of the Jhelum river; and although the District has 
been affected by all the famines which have visited the Punjab, it 
is not one in which distress can ever rise to a very high pitch. 
No serious famine has occurred since annexation, and with the con- 
struction of the Lower Jhelum Canal the Chaj Doab may be said to 
be thoroughly protected. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by two 

Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, of whom . . 

, ^ . ^. . . . Administration, 

one is m charge of the District treasury. It is 

divided for administrative purposes into the three tahsih of Sh.xhpur, 

Bhera, and Khushar. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice. Civil judicial work is under a District Judge; and 
both officers are subordinate to the Divisional Judge of the Shahpur 
Civil Division, who is also Se.ssions Judge. There are two Munsifs, 
one at head-quarters and the other at Bhera. The principal crime of 
the District is cattle-lifting, though dacoities and murders are not 
uncommon. In the Salt Range blood-feuds are carried on for 

VOL. xxii. p 



At the beginning of the nineteenth century the tract which now 
forms the District was held by various independent petty chiefs, all 
of whom were subdued by Ranjit Singh between 1803 and 1816. 
Till 1849 it was governed by Sikh kdrddrs, who took leases of the 
land revenue of various blocks of country, exacting all they could and 
paying only what they were obliged. The usual modes of collection 
were by taking a share of the grain produce or by appraisement of the 
standing crops, and the demand was not limited to any fixed share 
of the harvest. On annexation in 1849 the District was assessed 
village by village in cash, the Sikh demand being reduced by 20 per 
cent. ; but even this proved too high. In 1851 the distress found voice, 
and the revenue was reduced in the Kalowal (Chenab) tahsU from 
Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 75,000. In 1852 a summary settlement was carried 
out, giving a reduction of 22 per cent. In 1854 began the regular 
settlement, which lasted twenty years and resulted in a further decrease 
of a quarter of a lakh. A revised settlement was concluded in 1894. 
The average rates of assessment were Rs. 2 (maximum Rs. 3-10, 
minimum 6 annas) on 'wet' land, and R. 0-15-6 (maximum Rs. 1-9, 
minimum 6 annas) on 'dry' land. These rates resulted in an imme- 
diate increase of 38 per cent, in the demand, the incidence per acre of 
cultivation being R. 0-15-9. The average size of a proprietary holding 
is 5 acres. 

The collections of land revenue and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 

1 880- 1. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue 






The District contains five municipalities, Shahpur, Bher.\, Miani, 
Sahiwal, and Khushab. Outside these, local affairs are managed by 
the District board, whose income, derived mainly from a local rate, 
was a lakh in 1903-4, while the expenditure was Rs, 85,000, education 
being the largest item. 

The regular police force consists of 502 of all ranks, including 
100 municipal police, and the Superintendent usually has one Assis- 
tant Superintendent and four inspectors under him. Village watch- 
men number 538. There are 17 police stations and 5 outposts. The 
District jail at head-quarters has accommodation for 280 prisoners. 

Shahpur stands tenth among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the 
proportion of literate persons was 4-2 per cent. (7-5 males and 0-7 
females). The number of pupils under instruction was 2,119 in 
1880-1, 8,560 in 1 890-1, 7,961 in 1900-1, and 8,495 '" ^903 4- 



In the last year there were 7 secondary and 74 primary (public) 
schools, and 11 advanced and 231 elementary (private) schools, with 
696 girls in the public and 293 in the private schools. The District 
possesses two high schools, both at Hhera. It also has twelve girls' 
schools, among which I'andit Dlwan Chand's school at Shahpur is one 
of the best of its kind in the Province. The total expenditure on edu- 
cation in 1903-4 was Rs. 48,000, of which the municipalities contri- 
buted Rs. 5,800, fees Rs. 21,000, endowments Rs. 1,400, Government 
Rs. 4,000, and District funds Rs. 15,600. 

Besides the civil hospital at Shahpur, the District has eight outlying 
dispensaries. At these institutions 109,428 out-patients and 1,463 
in-patients were treated in 1904, and 4,977 operations were performed. 
The income was Rs. 17,000, the greater part of it coming from muni- 
cipal funds. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 12,072, repre- 
senting 23 per 1,000 of the population. 

[J. Wilson, District Gazetteer (1897); Settlement Report (1894); 
Grai/unar and Dictionary of Western Panjabi, as spoken in the Shah- 
pur District [i2>gq); and General Code of Tribal Custom in the Shahpur 
District (x^Cfe)).] 

Shahpur Tahsil. -TTz/zw/ of Shahpur District, Punjab, lying be- 
tween 31° 42' and 32° 27' N. and 72° 12' and 72° 51' E., with an area 
of 1,021 square miles. It is bounded on the west and north-west by 
the Jhelum river. The tract along the river is very fertile, and is 
separated from the hard clay uplands by a well-marked bank. The 
tahstl is well wooded. The population in 1901 was 167,905, com- 
pared with 146,376 in 1891. The head-quarters are at the town of 
Shahpur (population, 9,386) ; and the tahsil also contains the town 
of Sahiwal (9,163) and 289 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 5-3 lakhs. 

Shahpur Inundation Canals. — .\ system of inundation canals in 
the Punjab, fed from the Jhelum river and mainly situated in Shahpur 
District. About sixteen of them are owned by private persons and six 
by Government. Of the latter, three are classed as Imperial and two 
as Provincial, while one, the Pind Dadan Khan Canal in Jhelum Dis- 
trict, has recently been made over to the municipal committee of Pind 
Dadan Khan for management. The three Imperial canals lie wholly 
in the Shahpur tahstl, and are developments of a canal dug in 1864 
by Colonel Sir William Davies, to supply water to the civil station of 
Shahpur. In 1870 Government acquired this canal and added two 
new canals. The Imperial canals command an area of 105 square 
miles and irrigate 50 square miles a year on an average, yielding a net 
revenue of Rs. 50,000, or 24 per cent, on the capital outlay. Of the 
two Provincial canals, the largest is the Ranlwah, an old native canal 

p 2 


which had fallen into disuse and was reopened in 1 870-1. It com- 
mands 72 square miles in the Bhera tahs'il and irrigates 30 square 
miles annually, yielding a net revenue of Rs. 11,000. It has ex- 
tinguished its capital cost and yielded a net profit of 4-1 lakhs to 
Government. The Corbynwah, constructed in 1879, irrigates about 
4,500 acres, mostly grass lands, in the Khushab tahsil on the right 
bank of the Jhelum. 

The Find Dadan Khan Canal does not pay expenses, but it supplies 
the town with sweet water. It performs a small amount of irrigation 
as well, the area irrigated in 1904-5 having been 395 acres. The 
private canals have a total length of about 227 miles and irrigate 
87 square miles. Many of them are old canals which had silted up 
and were re-excavated, under Sir Donald McNabb and other Deputy- 
Commissioners of the District, by owners or lessees to irrigate their 
own lands. They also irrigate the lands of other persons on payment 
of a water rate. As noted in the article on the Lower Jhelum Caxai., 
most of these inundation canals will cease to exist as such when the 
Shahpur branch of the Lower Jhelum Canal has been constructed. 

Shahpur Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of Shah- 
pur, Punjab, situated in 32" 18' N, and 72° 27' E,, on the left bank of 
the Jhelum river. Population (1901), 9,386. The town, founded by 
a colony of Saiyids, and called after their leader, Shah Shams, lies 
3 miles from the civil lines, in which are the District ofifices, jail, and 
church, and 5 miles from Khushab, the nearest railway station on the 
North-Western Railway, The place is of no commercial importance. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income and expenditure 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 1,900. In 1903-4 
the income amounted to Rs, 1,900, chiefly from octroi ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs, 1,800. The town has an Anglo-vernacular middle 
school, maintained by the District board, besides Pandit Dlwan 
Chand's girls' school, one of the best in the Province ; and a civil 

Shahptir State.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Shahpur Taluk. — Taluk in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, 
with an area of 585 square miles, including /Vi^mf. The population in 
1 90 1 was 104,274, compared with 93,210 in 1891, It contains one 
town, S.\GAR (population, 5,445), and 150 villages, of which 40 are 
jagir. Shahpur (population, 3,251) is the head-quarters. The Bhima 
flows along the south-east border. The land revenue in 1901 amounted 
to 1-7 lakhs. The soil is chiefly of the black cotton description. 

Shahpiu^a Chiefship. — Chiefship under the political supervision 
of the Haraoti and Tonk Agency, Rajputana, lying between 25"" 29' 
and 25* 53' N, and 74" 44' and 75° 7' E,, with an area of 405 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north and north-east by the British Dis- 


trict of Ajmer, and on every other bide by the Udaipur State, except in 
ilie north-east corner, where jts border touches that of Kishangarh. 
A small detached tract lies about 5 miles to the west of its south- 
western boundary. The country is for the most part 
flat, open, and treeless, and contains much pasture- aspects, 

land. In the north are two small rivers, the Khari 
and the Mansi, which flow from west to east, unite near Phulia, and 
eventually join the Banas river north of Deoli. 

The northern portion of Shahpura is covered by the alluvium of 
these rivers. A few isolated rocky hills are to be found, formed of the 
schists of the Aravalli system, while in the south a large area is covered 
by the same rocks, traversed by numerous dikes and veins of granite. 

The annual rainfall averages about 26 inches, and has varied from 
over 44 inches in 1892 to about 10 in 1895. 

The Shahpura family belongs to the Sesodia clan of Rajputs, being 
descended from Amar Singh I, Rana of Mewilr about the end of the 
sixteenth century, through his son Suraj Mai. The 
chiefship of Shahpura came into existence about 
1629, when Suraj Mai's son, Sujan Singh, received from the emperor 
Shah Jahan, as a reward for gallant services, a grant of the pargana of 
Phalia out of the crown lands of Ajmer, on condition of performing 
service with 50 horsemen. Sujan Singh at once changed the name of 
this district to Shahpura, after his benefactor, and founded the town 
of the same name ; he was thus the first chief of Shahpura. He was 
killed in 1658 at Fatehabad near Ujjain, when fighting on the side 
of Dara against Aurangzeb. His grandson, Bharat Singh, was the 
third chief, and received from the emperor Aurangzeb the title of Raja. 
The next chief was Umed Singh, who was killed at Ujjain in 1768, 
when fighting for Rana Ari Singh of Mewar against Mahadji Sindhia. 
The seventh chief, Amar Singh (i 796-1827), is said to have received 
from the Maharana of Mewar the title of Raja Dhiraj, which is ac- 
corded to his successors to this day. The eleventh and present chief 
is Raja Dhiraj Nahar Singh, who succeeded by adoption in 1870, 
received full powers in 1876, and was made a K.C.I. E. in 1903. 
Under the sanad of June 27, 1848, the chiefship pays to the British 
Government a tribute of Rs. 10,000, subject to the proviso that, if the 
customs duties levied in Ajmer District be abolished, the chief shall, 
if the Government so wish, also cease to collect such duties, and in 
such a case the tribute shall be reduced to Rs. 2,000 a year. The 
chief has received the right of adoption. In addition to holding Shah- 
pura directly by grant from the British Government, the Raja Dhiraj 
possesses the estate of Kachhola in Udaipur, for which he pays 
tribute and does formal service as a great ncjblc of that Stale. 

The number of towns and villages in Shahpura is 133, and the popu- 


lation at each of the three enumerations was: (1881) 51,750, (1891) 
63,646, and (1901) 42,676. The decline in the last decade was due 
to the famine of 1899-1900, and the severe outbreak 
of malarial fever which followed it. The chicfship 
is divided into the four tahs'ds of Shahpura, Dhikola, Kolhian, and 
I'hiilia, with head quarters at the places from which each is named. 
In 1901 Hindus numbered 38,541, or 90 per cent. ; Musalmans, 2,520, 
or nearly 6 per cent. ; and Jains, 1,543, or 3 per cent. 

The most numerous castes are the Brahmans, Gujars, and Jats, 
almost all of whom are agriculturists ; and the Mahajans, who are 
traders and money-lenders. Nearly 50 per cent, of the population 
are supported by agriculture, and about 20 per cent, are engaged in 
such industries as cotton-weaving and dyeing, pottery, carpentry, boot- 
making, &c. 

The soil is for the most part a fertile loam. The principal crops are 

hdjra^ Jozvar, maize, til, and cotton in the rainy season, and wheat, 

barley, gram, and poppy in the cold season. The 

area said to have been cultivated in 1902-3 was 

247 square miles, or three-fifths of the entire area of the chiefship. 

About 30 square miles were irrigated: namely, 17 from tanks and 13 

from wells. The country is well suited for tanks, and the subject of 

irrigation has been receiving considerable attention during recent years. 

There are no real forests, but extensive grass reserves contain babiil^ 

mill, and other common trees useful for fuel. Surplus grass is regularly 


The principal manufactures are the lacquered tables, shields, and 
toys, which have more than a local reputation ; other arts are cotton- 
weaving of the ordinary kind, printing on fabrics, 

^^ ^ ^^. dyeinu, and the manufacture of bangles from coco- 
communications. •' »' ° 

nut shells. A cotton-press at Shahpura town, the 
proj)erty of the chiefship, gives employment to 80 men during the 
working season, and about 4,500 bales of cotton are pressed yearly. 

The chief exports are cotton and ghi to Bombay, and opium, hides, 
barley, maize, and /// mostly to Beawar. The chief imports are piece- 
goods and sugar from Bombay, salt from Sambhar and Pachbhadra, 
wheat from Cawnpore, rice and tobacco from ^Vjmer, and cattle from 
Marwar and Malwa. 

There is no railway in the chiefship, but the Rajputana-Malwa line 
runs parallel to, and about 12 miles distant from, the western border. 
The proposed Baran-Ajmer-Marwar Railway will, however, pass through 
the territory. The only metalled roads are in the vicinity of Shahpura 
town, and their length is about 2 miles. The only British post office 
is at the capital, where there is also a telegraph office. The chiefship 
maintains a postal system of its own. Letters on Slate service arc 

. 1 DMINIS TRA TION 2 2 5 

carried free, and private letters at ^ anna each. The niail.s are carried 
by runners. 

Of famines prior to 1899-1900 there is very little on record. In 
1869-70 there was severe distress ; 68 per cent, of the cattle are said to 
have perished, about 2,000 persons emigrated, and 
9,000 died, mostly from fever or scurvy. Tiiere was 
scarcity in 1877-8, 1891-2, and 1895-6. The famine of 1899-1900 
was a severe one ; the rainfall was about half the average, and practi- 
cally no rain fell after the middle of July. Relief works were started in 
September, 1899, and continued till August, 1900; 880,000 units were 
relieved on works, and 157,000 gratuitously, at a cost of Rs. 77,600. 
Land revenue was remitted and suspended, advances were made, and 
loans were given to the jdgirdars. Owing to the absence of fodder 
66 per cent, of the cattle died, but among human beings deaths from 
starvation or the immediate effects of insufficient food were compara- 
tively few. 

The chiefship is administered by the Raja Dhiraj, assisted by a 

Kdmdar. Under the latter are a Revenue Collector . 


and tour tahsildars. 

In the administration of justice the courts are guided generally by 
the codes of British India. The lowest courts are those of the 
fa/mhidrs, two of whom have the powers of a third-class magistrate, 
while three decide civil suits not exceeding Rs. 50 in value. Over 
them are the Faiijddri (criminal) and Dnvdni (civil) courts, presided 
over by two officials called hakims. The former can sentence to three 
years' imprisonment and Rs. 500 line, while the latter decides suits 
not exceeding Rs. 3,000 in value. Both hear appeals against the 
decisions of tahsildars. Over them is the Judicial Officer, who has 
the powers of a Court of Session except that he does not hear appeals, 
and decides suits not exceeding Rs. 5,000 in value. Lastly, there is 
the Mahakiiia khds, which is the final aijpellate authority, and disposes 
of all cases beyond the powers of the Judicial Officer, subject to the 
proviso that all cases of heinous crime involving the punishment of 
death or imprisonment for life are reported to the Political Agent and 
disposed of in accordance with his advice. 

The normal revenue of the chiefship is nearly 3 lakhs, the chief 
sources being: land, about 1-7 lakhs; cotton-press, Rs. 29,000; 
customs, Rs. 17,000; and payments hy J dgtrddrs, Rs. 8,500. The 
normal expenditure is about 2-6 lakhs, the chief items being : civil 
and judicial staff, 1-4 lakhs; private and household expenditure, 
Rs. 46,000; troops and police, Rs. 11,000; and tribute, Rs. 10,000. 
These figures relate also to the estate of Kaclihola. 

The coins current in the chiefship are the British, the Chiton of 
Mewar, and the Gydrdh sana or Igdrdh sa/ia. The latter is a local coin 


struck by the Rajas of Shalipura since 1.760 or 1780, but the mint has 
been closed since 1870 under the orders of Government. The Gyardh 
Sana rupee was formerly worth about 10 or 10^ British annas, but now 
exchanges for about 8 annas. 

Of the 132 villages in the chiefship, 64 are khd/sa, 52 Joglr, and 
16 mudfi. Land under the last tenure is held free, while the holders 
oi jdg'ir land have to perform service and pay tribute. In the khdlsa 
area the land revenue is paid in cash on the khar'if or rains crops, 
varying from Rs. 3 to Rs. 8 per acre, while on the rabi or spring crops 
it is levied in kind, varying from one-fourth to one-half of the produce. 
Save in a few cases, the tenants have no proprietary rights, and can be 
dispossessed at any time ; but with the chiefs permission they can 
dispose of, or transfer, tlieir right of cultivation. 

The military force consists of 44 cavalry, 65 armed and 176 general 
infantry, or a total of 285 of all ranks, with 10 serviceable guns. 

The police force consists of 400 men, of whom 42 are mounted and 
130 are chauklddrs. The only jail is at the capital and has accom- 
modation for 29 prisoners; the daily average number in 1904 was 20. 
The jail manufactures are unimportant and on a very small scale, con- 
sisting of cotton carpets, matting, and rope. 

In respect of the literacy of its population, Shahpura stands third 
among the States and chiefships of Rajputana with 5-3 per cent, able 
to read and write : namely, 9-8 per cent, of the males and 0-4 of the 
females. There are only four schools, of which three, including a girls' 
school, are at the capital, and one at Kothian in the north-west. The 
daily average attendance at these four institutions in 1904-5 was 200, 
and the expenditure about Rs. 4,000. 

A hospital is maintained at the capital, which cost Rs. 1,840 in 1904. 
Vaccination is not popular. In 1904-5 the vaccinator successfully 
vaccinated 894 persons, or about 21 per 1,000 of the population. 

Shahpura Town (i). — Capital of the chiefship of the same name 
in Rajputana, founded about 1629 by Sujan Singh, the first chief of 
Shahpura, and named after the emperor Shah Jahan. It is situated 
in 25° 38' N. and 74° 56' E., about 19 miles by unmetalled road east 
of Sareri station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, and 60 miles south- 
by-south-east of Ajmer city. Population (1901), 8,974. The town is 
surrounded by a wall having four gates, and possesses a combined post 
and telegraph ofifice ; a jail with accommodation for 29 prisoners ; an 
Anglo-vernacular school, with boarding-house attached, at which the 
daily average attendance in 1904-5 was 50; a couple of primary 
schools attended by 129 boys and 20 girls; and a hospital with 
accommodation for 20 in-patients. Outside the walls and close to 
the Kund gate stands tlie Ramdwara or monastery of the Ramsanehi 
sect of mendicants. This sect is said tu have been founded about 


150 years agu by one Ram Charan Das, and the mahant or lugli 
priest resides here. The Ranisanehis (or Movers of Ram) have no 
belief in the worship of idols, and their chief tenet is the repealing 
of the name Ram. They shave the head, moustache, and beard 
completely, and usually cover their bodies with an ochrc-coloured 
sheet, though some do not wear more than a simple loin-cloth at any 
season. They live by begging and do not marry, but adopt cheldi or 
disciples from the Brahman, Rajput, and Mahajan castes. 

Shahpura Town (2). — Town in the Sawai Jaipur nizdmat of the 
State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 27° 23' N. and 75° 58' E., 
about 34 miles north-by-north-east of Jaipur city. It belongs to the Rao 
of Manoharpur. Topulation (1901), 5,245. There are 2 elementary 
indigenous schools, attended by 46 boys. 

Shahpuri. — Island in the Naaf estuary in the Coxs Bazar sub- 
division of Chittagong District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
20° 38' N. and 92° 19' E., on the border of Arakan. In 1823 the 
Burmans claimed possession of the island, and overpowered a British 
guard stationed upon it, but they were afterwards driven out. A second 
attempt led to the commencement of the first Burmese War. 

Shahrig. — Subdivision and tahstl of Sibi District, Baluchistan, 
lying between 29° 49' and 30° 37' N. and 67° 14' and 68° 22' E. 
Its area is 1,595 square miles, and the population in 1901 was 16,573, 
showing an increase of only 332 since 1891. The head-quarters are 
at Siiahrig, but the Assistant Political Agent in charge of the sub- 
division generally resides at Zi.\rat or Sibi. The number of villages 
is 93. The land revenue, including grazing tax, in 1903-4 was Rs. 
28,900. All irrigated lands are under a fixed cash assessment for 
a term of ten years, which terminates in 191 1. The incidence per 
irrigated acre ranges from Rs. 2-14-11 to Rs. 2-2-6. Besides the 
Zawar or Harnai valle}-, the tahsil includes a mass of mountainous 
country on the north, intersected by the picturesque Kach-Kawas 
valley leading to Ziarat. It possesses the distinction of having the 
highest recorded rainfall in Baluchistan (ii'67 inches). 

Shaikhawati.— District in Jaipur State, Rajputana. Sec Shekha- 


Shaikh Othman. — Suburb of Aden Settlement. Population (1901), 
6,948. See Aden. 

Shaikhpura. — Town in Monghyr District, Bengal. See Sheikhpura. 

Shajapur Zila (or Shajahanpur). — District in the Malwa division 
of the Gwalior State, Central India, lying between 22° 34' and 24° 19' N. 
and 75° 44' and 77° 6' E., with an area of 3,494 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 361,050, giving a density of 103 persons per 
square mile. The district contains three towns, Smajapur (i)opulation, 
9,953), the head-quarters, Shujalpuk (5,731), 'Uid Agar (including 

2 28 SIIAjArUR /.I I. A 

the military station, 10,442); and 1,393 villages. I'he rountry is 
typical of the Malwa i)latcau, and the soil possesses high fertility. 
It is drained by the Kali Sind, Chambal, and Parbati rivers, with 
the minor tributary streams of the Lakundar and Newaj. .Shajapur 
is divided into si.x parganas, with head-quarters at Shaja[)ur, Shujal- 
jnir, Sonkach, Agar, Susner, and Nalkhera. The land revenue is 
Rs. 14,02,000. Besides these reguXdiV parganas, the Bhainsoda tappa 
is separately administered by a special naib-kamdsddr, and is cut off 
from the rest of the district by intervening portions of the Dhar and 
Indore States. 

Shajapur Town. — Head-quarters of the district and pargami of the 
same name in Gwalior State, Central India, situated in 23° 26' N. and 
76° 17' E., on the left bank of the Lakundar river, a tributary of the 
Kali Sind, 1,480 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 9,953. The 
town was founded by Shah Jahan, who stayed here in 1640 during 
one of his visits to Malwa ; and the present name is corrupted from 
Shahjahanpur. It contains a British post and telegraph office, a State 
post office, a ^<U'-bungalow, a dispensary, and a school. 

Shakargarh. — Ta/w/ of Gurdaspur District, Punjab, lying between 
32'' 2' and 32° 30' N. and 74° 57' and 75° 23' E., with an area of 485 
square miles. The Ravi divides it from the rest of the District to 
the .south, while on the north it touches Jammu territory. West of 
the narrow lowlands along the Ravi, the country is an arid expanse 
of rolling downs intersected by torrent beds. The population in 1901 
was 234,465, compared with 250,336 in 1891. It. contains 703 villages, 
of which Shakargarh is the head-quarters. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,29,000. 

Shakarkhelda. — Village in Buldana District, Berar. See Fath- 


Sham Bazar. —A ijuarter of Calcutta, Bengal. See Calcutta. 

Shamli. — Town in the Kairana fa/isi/ of Muzaffarnagar District, 
United Provinces, situated in 29° 27' N. and 77° 18' E., on the metalled 
road from Muzaffarnagar town to Kairana. Population (1901), 7,478. 
It was originally known as Muhammadpur Zanardar, and formed part 
of the grant made to Mukarrab Khan, ph}sician to Jahanglr and 
Shah Jahan. The town was built later by a follower of Mukarrab 
Khan's called Shyam. In 1794 it was the residence of a Maratha 
commandant, who was suspected of intriguing with the Sikhs. Lakwa 
Dada, the Maratha governor, sent (>eorge Thomas against the town. 
Thomas stormed it, and killed the commandant and his principal 
adherents. In 1804 Colonel Burn was surrounded near this place 
by an overwhelming force of Marathas, who were joined by the inhabi- 
tants, but he was relieved by the opportune advance of Lord Lake. 
During the Mulin\ the lalmldar of Shamli gallantly held the town 


and kept cumiiiunications open for several months, l)ul was defeated 
and slain by the Shaikhziidas of 'I'hana Bhawan in September, 1857. 
The head-quarters of the tahs'il and inunsifi have been removed to 
Kairana, owing to a terrible ei)idemie of fever. The place was once 
a municipality, but decayed, and is now administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,500. Four schools are maintained. 

Shamsabad. — Town in the Kaimganj tahsJl of Farrukhabad Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 27° 32'' N. and 79° 28' E., on an 
unmetalled road 18 miles north-west of Farrukhabad, and also on a 
branch of the metalled road to Kaimganj. Population (1901), 8,375. 
An old town called Khor was founded on the cliff of the Ganges 
three miles away, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, by a 
Rathor descended from Jai Chand, last king of Kanauj. About 1228 
Shams-ud-din Altamsh came down the Ganges, which then flowed 
under the cliff, and expelled the Rathors, founding Shamsabad in his 
own name. The Rathors returned to Khor, however, and later took 
Shamsabad, and often rebelled against Muhammadan rule. In the 
contest between Delhi and Jaunpur the Rajas of Khor or Shamsabad 
supported the emperor and were finally driven out by the Jaunpur 
kings. Only the mound where the fort stood remains of Old Shams- 
abad, and the new town was founded about 1585. In the Mutiny 
of 1857 a European planter lost his life here. The place has now 
decayed, and is divided into scattered groups of houses by patches 
of cultivation. The principal thoroughfi\re is a long paved street, 
with a small grain market opening into a larger market-place. Shams- 
abad is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 1,200. Trade suffered by the alignment of the metalled 
road and railway, which left the town some distance away, and the 
old manufacture of fine cloth has died out. There is, however, a small 
export of potatoes and tobacco. The town school has 177 pupils. 

Shan States, Northern. -A group of Native States lying to the 
east of Upper Burma proper, and for the most part west of the Salween 
river, between 21° 31' and 24° 9' N. and 96° 13' and 99° 45' E. The 
area of the States is about 21,000 square miles ; their shape is roughly 
that of an obtuse-angled triangle, with the obtuse angle pointing north. 
On the north this area is bounded b)' China ; on the east by China 
and the Southern Shan State of Kengtung, from which it is separated 
by the Nam Hka river ; on the south by the Southern Shan States ; and 
on the west by the Mandalay and Ruby Mines Districts and Mongmit. 
A portion of the eastern boundary, from the point where it crosses the 
Nam Ting to where it strikes the Nam Hka (both tributaries of the 
Salween), has not yet been precisely delimited, but it roughly follows 
the watershed between the Salween and Mekong rivers. 

The S.\LWEEN river is one of the most important features of the 


Stales, constituting a formidable natural obstacle between the country 
east and west. It has a general north to south direction, and flows 
from China through the entire length of the States, 
Physical which it roughly divides into two parts. Through- 

out its course it preserves the same appearance 
of a gigantic ditch or railway cutting, scooped through the hills, 
which everywhere rise on either bank 3,000 to 5,000 feet above 
the river. Another important natural feature of the country is the 
fault or rift, which marks a line of great geological disturbance, 
running from the Gokteik pass in Hsipaw State, in a north-easterly 
direction, towards the Kunlong ferry on the Salween, and continuing 
in the same direction far into China along the valley of the Nam 
Ting. It is roughly defined by the valley of the Nam Tu (Myitnge), 
below its junction with the Nam Yao, and by the high range of hills 
called the Loi Hpa Tan, which joins the eminence known as Loi Sak 
(6,000 feet) farther to the east, and divides North from South Hsenwi. 
The greater portion of the Northern Shan States, lying west of the 
Salween and south of this rift, consists of the Shan table-land or plateau, 
stretching from Hsumhsai eastwards, with a mean altitude of about 
3,000 feet. This comparatively flat area embraces the greater por- 
tions of the States of Hsipaw and South Hsenwi. It is, however, 
intersected by many hill masses that rise above the level of the plateau, 
such as Loi Pan in eastern Hsipaw, which attains a height of nearly 
7,000 feet, and Loi Leng in South Hsenwi, nearly 9,000 feet above 
the sea. The intervening and surrounding country consists of grassy 
uplands. North of the Nam Tu and the fault referred to above 
stretches the State of Tawngpeng, a mass of mountains culminating 
north of the capital in a range 7,500 feet high. The northern 
portion of North Hsenwi is a huge stretch of upland affected by the 
fault, which has thrown up a series of parallel ranges extending to the 
Shweli valley in the north-west, without, however, altogether destroying 
the general north and south trend, which is characteristic of the Shan 
hills as a whole. Its large grassy upland plains are sutificiently uniform 
in their altitude (4,000 feet) to be looked upon for all practical pur- 
poses as a plateau. 

The central physical feature of South Hsenwi is the huge mountain 
mass of Loi Leng, referred to above. East of Loi Leng is a range 
comprising eminences known as Loi Maw, Loi Se, and Loi Lan, which 
forms the watershed separating the Nam Pang from the Salween, and 
runs in a north and south direction along the right bank of the latter 
stream. East of the Salween in the north, and separated from the 
hilly district of Mongsi in North Hsenwi by the great gulf of the Sal- 
ween, which flows many thousand feet below, extends the mountainous 
tract of Kokaiig, where many of the i)eaks rise to over 7,000 feet. ASPECTS 231 

South of Kokang, in the Sonmu State, the country becomes a medley 
of hills and valleys, and retains this character throughout the rest of 
the trans-Sal ween portion of the Northern Shan States, rising higher 
and higher towards the eastern range which forms the watershed 
between the Salween and the Mekong. South of this the country 
of East Manglon consists, broadly speaking, of the mountain mass 
which divides the Salween from the upper courses of its tributary, 
the Nam Hka. 

The Northern Shan States are in the drainage area of the Irrawaddy 
and Salween rivers, all the streams on the west of the watershed find- 
ing their way ultimately into the Irrawaddy by way of the Nam Tu 
(Myitnge) or the Nam Mao (Shweli), and those on the east into 
the Salween. The watershed lies at no great distance from the last- 
named river ; and the streams entering its right bank, with the 
exception of the Nam Pang, referred to below, have consequently 
a comparatively short course, with a fall which makes many of them 
sheer mountain torrents. Among the largest are the Nam Nim and 
Nam Kyet. Those entering from the left bank of the Salween are 
of greater length, among the most important being the Nam Ting, 
which flows from the east, rising in the neighbourhood of Shunning Fu 
in China, the Nam Nang of the Mothai country, and the Nam Hka 
which flows through the Wa States. The Nam Pang, although a tribu- 
tary of the Salween, does not join that river in these States. It is the 
most important of all the Salween's affluents in this part of the country. 
Its head-waters are in the hills between Loi Leng and Loi Maw in the 
South Hsenwi State ; and it flows from north to south, parallel to the 
Salween, for more than 100 miles, separated from it by the intervening 
hills of Loi Maw, Loi Se, and Loi Ian, and enters the Salween on its 
right bank four miles below the village of Kenghkam, in the Southern 
Shan States. It has many tributaries, which flow down from Loi 
Leng and Loi Maw, and farther south it is joined by the streams 
which water the circles of Tangyan and Mongyai in South Hsenwi. 
The Nam Pang has recently been bridged by the Sawbwa of South 
Hsenwi at Mankat on the Lashio-Tangyan cart-road, where it has 
a breadth of nearly 200 feet. The Nam Tu or Mvitxoe is, after the 
Salween, the most important river in the Northern Shan States. The 
main stream rises in the Salween-Irrawaddy watershed, east of Hsenwi 
town, and, flowing generally westwards and southwards, is swelled 
above Hsipaw to a considerable river by the Nam Yao, which comes 
down from the Lashio valley, and by the Nam Ma, which winds 
through the South Hsenwi hills from Loi Leng. Farther down it is 
joined by the Nam Hsim on its right and by the Nam Hka on its 
left bank. Ever pursuing its southward and westward course, it runs 
through deep gorges between Hsumhsai and Lawksawk, and finally 


quits the Shan States near the south-west corner of Hsipaw. The 
Nam Kiit, one of its tributaries, which rushes down from the north- 
west, is crossed, not far from where it empties itself into the main 
stream, by the steel girders of the Gokteik viaduct. A cart-bridge 
over the Nam Tu at HsTpaw is in course of construction. The Nam 
Mao or Shweli river (called by the Chinese Lung Kiang) skirts the 
Northern Shan States on their north-western frontier at Namhkam. 
One of its more important tributaries, the Nam Paw, has its entire 
course in North Hsenwi State. There are no lakes worthy of the 
name, except the Nawng Hkeo lake in the Wa country. This sheet 
of water is said to be about half a mile long and 200 yards broad, but 
little is known of its appearance or surroundings. 

The geology of the Northern Shan States has not been entirely 
worked out in detail, but enough has been done to show that the 
rocks for the most part belong to the Palaeozoic period. To the 
north, in contact with the gneiss of the Ruby Mines District, there 
is a broad zone of mica schists, followed to the south by a great series 
of quartzites, slaty shales, and greywackes, which may be of Cambrian 
age. These rocks formed an old land surface, along the borders of 
which a series of rocks ranging from Lower Silurian to Mesozoic times 
is laid down. All these have yielded characteristic fossils. At the 
base there is a great thickness of limestones, calcareous sandstones, 
and shales, in which the detached plates of cystideans are very com- 
mon, especially in the shales. Next follow sandstones with Upper 
Silurian fossils, which frequently overlie the Lower Silurians, and rest 
directly upon the older rocks beneath. These rocks are folded and 
denuded, forming a fresh land surface upon which a great thickness 
of limestone, which has yielded fossils of Devonian type, is laid down. 
This limestone extends over the whole of the Shan plateau, and may 
include strata of Carboniferous as well as Devonian age. To the east 
of Hsipaw thick beds of red sandstone are folded in among the lime- 
stones, and a calcareous band in these has yielded brachiopods and 
other fossils which are probably Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous. About 
5 miles north of Lashio, in the valley of the Nam Yao river, and in the 
valley of the Nam Ma, farther south, are patches of Tertiary clays and 
sandstones, containing workable seams of coal. The fault referred to 
in an earlier paragraph is perhaps the most prominent geological feature 
of the country. 

The wild crab-apple tree is very common, being met with almost 
everywhere above 3,000 feet. Wild pear and cherry trees are much 
in evidence in East Manglon and elsewhere in the States. The giant 
bamboo and other kinds are frequently met with both in the 
jungles and round the villages. They form a most important branch 
of the economic products ; in fact, it is difficult to imagine what the 


Shan would do without plenty of bamboos. Bracken and other ferns 
abound in certain localities ; and these, with the wild violets and wild 
strawberries that are found on some of the higher ridges, recall the 
flora of the temperate zone, and afford a marked contrast to the 
vegetation of the valleys. 

The fauna of the States includes the elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, 
leopard, bear, gaiir, tsine or hsaing {Bos sondaicus), sdmba)\ thamin (or 
brow-antlered deer), hog deer, barking-deer, the serow, the hare, several 
species of monkeys, the Hylobates hoolock or white-browed gibbon, 
hog, and porcupine, with jungle cats, civet cats, foxes, and squirrels. 
The game-birds include peafowl, jungle fowl, (.liinese pheasant, two 
or three kinds of partridges, quail, duck, snipe, geese, teal, and green 
and imperial pigeons. 

The climate of the States as a whole is temperate and salubrious. 
With the exception, perhaps, of the valley of the Salween, the Hsipaw 
valley is the hottest part. The average maximum temperature there 
at the beginning of April is about 96", and tlie minimum at the same 
period about 65°. The rainfall at HsTpaw is less heavy than at Lashio, 
but in the cold season a dense wet mist hangs over the valley for some 
hours after sunrise. The health of the police stationed at Hsipaw 
has always been very bad, owing to the wide range of daily tempera- 
ture in the hot season, and to the drenching fogs of the cold season. 
The climate of North and South Hsenwi is, on the whole, temperate. 
In the uplands frost occurs in January, February, and March, and 
as much as ten degrees of frost has been recorded in Mongyin in 
March. Round Hsenwi town and in the Lashio valley the thermo- 
meter rarely falls to freezing-point, but in the hot season the tem- 
perature never exceeds 90° for any length of time. The annual 
rainfall, except on the higher ranges, seems to average about 
60 inches. In Tawngpeng it is heavier than elsewhere in the States. 
Throughout the whole of West Manglon the climate is unhealthy, as 
the country alternates between storm-swept hills and steamy valleys. 
The .soil, moreover, except in the narrow basins, is distinctly unpro- 
ductive, so that it seems improbable that this State will ever increase 
greatly in prosperity or population. The highest maximum tempera- 
ture recorded in the shade at Lashio is 99°, the lowest being 62°, while 
the highest minimum is 70° and the lowest 41°. The rainfall recorded 
at Lashio for the years 1900-4 was as follows: 1900, 60 inches; 1901, 
62 inches; 1902, 51 inches; 1903, 61 inches; and 1904, 76 inches. 

The Shans are the representatives, within the limits of the Province, 

of a very considerable Tai migration wave which swept over Indo- 

China, from the regions about South-western China, 
1 • .1 -1 r 1 /-.I • • ^u History, 

durmg the sixth century of the Christian era. I he 

Siamese of the south, the Laos of the country east of Lower Burma, 


the Ilkiin and the Lii of Kengtung, and a host of other communities 
in the interior of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, such for instance as the 
Muongs of Tongking, are all the descendants of the primitive hordes 
which swarmed down from the northern uplands in those early ages. 
The Shans proper settled first in the valley of the Shweli or Nam Mao 
in the extreme north of the existing Shan States ; and in course of time 
a powerful Shan kingdom, known as Mong Mao Long, was established 
in this region, with its capital at Selan in the north of North Hsenwi, 
about 13 miles east of Namhkam, where the remains of fortifications 
are still to be seen. From this centre the movement of the people 
was westwards and southwards, so that, in process of time, not only 
had the greater part of the present Southern Shan States been overrun 
by a Tai folk, but Shans had also occupied a considerable portion of 
the country lying between the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin (Hkamti, 
Mogaung, Hsawnghsup, &c.), and had extended into what is now 
Assam. The ancient chronicles relate that the Mao kingdom, estab- 
lished about the seventh century, was a considerable political force 
up to the time of Anawrata, the most distinguished monarch of the 
Pagan dynasty. During the reign of this king the Mao Shan ruler 
appears to have been his vassal, but the suzerainty was temporary. 
The Shans regained their independence later ; and the break-up of the 
Pagan dynasty in the thirteenth century was to a large extent caused 
by a so-called Chinese invasion from the north-east, which, if not 
wholly, was, at any rate, partially Shan. After this the Shans were a 
power in Burma for several centuries, and the early rulers of Sagaing, 
Pinya, and Myinzaing were of Tai descent. But while these monarchs 
were making their mark in Upper Burma, the remnants of cohesion 
among the Tai peoples of the east and north gradually disappeared, 
the Siamese and Lao dependencies broke off from the main body and 
united to form a separate kingdom, and the Shans eventually split up 
into a swarm of petty principalities, which, by the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, had been subjugated by the Burmans and never 
wholly threw off the Burmese yoke. Sir George Scott has observed in 
the Upper Burma Gazetteer that the Tai race came very near to being 
the predominant power in the Farther East. How close they were to 
this achievement will never, probably, be known with any degree of 
precision. \Miat is certain, however, is that on the annexation of 
Upper Burma the British found the Shan States subject to the Bur- 
mese crown, but administered by their own rulers, and decided to 
treat them on their existing footing, and not to bring them under 
direct administration. From the time of the annexation onwards the 
histories of the different Northern Shan States are distinct, and will be 
found in the articles on HsTpaw, North and South Hsenwi, ^L^nc- 
LON, and Tawngpeng. The most important events were the disturb- 


ances in Hsenwi which led, in 1888, to the splitting up uf the State 
into two portions ; the troubles in West Manglon which resulted in its 
incorporation in East Manglon ; the suppression of disaffection among 
the Kachins in the north ; and the visit of the Anglo-Chinese Boun- 
dary Commission. The AVas have given trouble in the east from time 
to time. 

The most famous pagoda is the Mwedaw at Bawgyo on the Nam Tu 
near Hsipaw. The annual festival held there in Tabaung (March) is 
attended by about 50,000 people from all parts of the States. At 
Mongheng in South Hsenwi is an ancient and revered shrine, built on 
a rocky eminence 200 feet high. Several thousand people (including 
A\'as from across the Sahvcen) worship at its annual festival in Tabaung. 
^\t Manwap in the same State is the Kawnghmu Mwedaw Manloi, 
supposed to have been built on the spot where Gautama Buddha 
died in one of his earlier incarnations as a parrot. The pagoda at 
Mongyai contains a brazen image of Suddhodana, father of Gautama 
Buddha. The Kawnghmu Kawmong at Manhpai is popularly sup- 
posed to be illuminated by nats on moonless nights, and another 
enchanted pagoda is the large Homang shrine at Tangyan. The 
I'alaungs particularly revere the Loi Hseng pagoda on one of the 
highest hills in Tawngpeng. Near it stands an ancient tea-tree, said 
to have been grown from the first seed ever introduced into the State. 
.Vt Tawnio in Kokang (trans-Sahveen Hsenwi) is a Chinese 'joss-house' 
consecrated to Kwang Fu Tso, the military god of the Han dynasty. 
Its portals are guarded by statues of mounted soldiers, and within are 
statues of armed foot-soldiers. Other North Hsenwi shrines of impor- 
tance are the Se-u and the Mongyaw pagodas, and the pagoda of the 
^\"hite Tiger at Namhkam. 

The population of the Northern Shan States was not known with any 
accuracy till the Census of 1901. Even then the whole country lying 

east of the Sal ween — Kokang, East Manglon, and ^ , ^. 

1.. .. ,, ,,- ^r 1 Population, 

the Wa States, as well as \\ est Manglon, a moun- 
tainous tract of no great width, extending along the western bank of 
the Salween — was omitted altogether from the operations, while the 
population of portions of North Hsenwi was estimated. The total of 
the estimated and enumerated areas was 321,090 (enumerated 275,963, 
estimated 45,127). That of the omitted areas cannot have been less 
than 50,000 (it was probably well above this figure), so that there is 
reason to believe that, if a complete census could have been taken, the 
total population of the States would have been found to be about 
400,000. The distribution of population for the area covered by the 
Census of 1901 is shown in the table on the next page. 

Religion and language statistics were collected in the enumerated 
areas only. Here 263,985 out of a total population of 275,963 were 




Buddhists, mure than half the remainder being Animists. The distri- 
bution of language follows generally that of race, which is indicated 


North llseiuvi 
Hsipaw . 
Tawngpei)}^ . 
South tisenwi 
Mandalay-K union 
way construction, 



Area in 












tion per 











Number of 

persons able to 

read and 






' Excluding; the estimated area. 

t This number excludes literate peisons a(nong an estimated population of 45,127, most ot whom 
were // 17/- worshippers and illiterate; the literate persons would not exceed 1,200. 

The greater part of the population of the States is made up of Shan.s, 
who numbered 222,200 in 1901 in the enumerated and estimated areas, 
and are described in more detail below. They form nine-tenths of the 
population of Hsipaw, and six-sevenths of that of South Hsenwi. In 
North Hsenwi they have been forced by the Kachins into the valleys of 
the Shweli and the Nam Tu, and there form but three-fifths of the total. 
Besides displacing the Shans in a considerable portion of North Henswi, 
of which State they form one-fourth of the population, the Kachins 
have also spread in recent years into the north of Tawngpeng, and as 
far as the mountainous part of South Hsenwi. In 1901 their total in 
the enumerated and estimated areas of the Northern Shan States was 
34,400. The Falaungs form a considerable portion of the population 
of Monglong and of the Kodaung, a hilly tract in the west and north- 
west of Hsipaw : and Tawngpeng is practically a I'alaung State, two- 
thirds of its inhabitants belonging to that race. Falaungs are also found 
in considerable numbers in the hills of North Hsenwi, and have spread 
into South Hsenwi. In alt, the representatives of the race numbered 
35,600 in 1901. The Burman population at the Census totalled 8,100, 
practically confined to the Hsipaw State and more particularl)- to the 
Hsumhsai sub-State, which is the home of the Danus (numbering 4,800). 
The Chinese were strongly represented (7,300) in 1901, especially in the 
hills of North Hsenwi. In very much smaller numbers are found the 
AVas in the eastern borders of South Hsenwi, the Lisaws in North and 
South Hsenwi, and the Taungthus in Hsipaw. The new railway, which 
was under construction at the time of the Census and was enumerated 
separately, has brought and will continue to bring large numbers of 
natives of India to the country. Those returned in 1901 were either 
navvies on the railway or Government employes at Lashio. Of the 


population in the omitted portion of the Northern Shun Slates that is, 
the trans-Sahveen part of Hsenwi (Kokang, the Wa States, and Mang- 
lon) — nothing but the roughest guess can be hazarded. 'I'hc Kokang 
population is mainly Chinese, with a few Palaungs, Shans, Lisaws, and 
Was ; and much the same conditions prevail in Sonmu, except that Was 
predominate. The \Va States are inhabited by Was. Manglon is 
divided by the Salween into two portions, east and west. The eastern 
part is estimated to have a population of about 6,000 to 7,000, of whom 
5,000 are \\'as ; and it was calculated that the western part in 1892 
contained 12,200 persons, of whom by far the greater number were 
Shans, the other races including Palaungs, Lisaws, and Muhsos. Chris- 
tians numbered 238, of whom 165 were natives. In 1901 the number 
of persons directly dependent upon agriculture was 217,775, O'' 79 P^^ 
cent, of the total enumerated population. Of this total, 107,482 were 
dependent on taungya (shifting) cultivation. The figures do not include 
the 45,127 persons estimated in North Hsenwi, who were nearly all 
cultivators, and mostly taungya-zwW.tx'a. No fewer than i 7,354 persons 
are supported by tea cultivation. 

The Tai have been divided into the following divisions : the north- 
western, the north-eastern, the eastern, and the southern. W ith the 
southern, whose principal representatives are the Siamese and the Laos, 
we have here no inunediate concern. The north-western are found for 
the most part on the west of the Irrawaddy, in the country between that 
stream and Assam ; they include the Hkamti Shans, the Tai inhabitants 
of the now mainly obsolete States of Mogaung, Wuntho, Hsawnghsup, 
and Kale, and of the Districts of the Mandalay and Sagaing Divisions. 
The eastern Tai may be roughly said to inhabit the Southern Shan 
Slates, including the Shans proper of those States, and the Hkiin and 
Lii of Kengtung and Kenghung. The north-eastern division comprises 
the Shan Tayoks or Shan-Chinese of the Chinese border, and the Shans 
of the Northern Shan States. The physical characteristics of the Shans 
differ but little. They are somewhat fairer than the Burmans, their 
features are rather flatter and their eyes often more prominent, but other- 
wise there is little to distinguish them from their neighbours. The north- 
western Shans dress as a rule like the Burmans among whom they live ; 
the eastern and north-eastern Shans, on the other hand, wear, instead 
of the Burmese waistcloth, a pair of loose, very baggy cotton trousers, 
and their head-cloth is fuller and more like the Indian's /rt,^/'/ than the 
V)\xx\\\AX^% gaitngbaung. The men, moreover, are seldom seen without the 
characteristic limp plaited grass hat of the Shan country. The dress of 
the women is much the same as that of the Burmans, with the addition 
of a head-cloth. The men tattoo their legs and body even more freely 
than the Burmans. The Shans are Buddhists, and their yellow-robed 
monks '\x\\\<\\y\\. pongyi-kyaungi similar to those of Burma proper. Shan 

g 2 


is an isolating language, aijounding in tones, liuiinese Shan (s[)okfn in 
the States), Hkamti, and Chinese Shan have been placed in the northern, 
and Hkiin and Lii in the southern subgroup of the Tai group, one of 
the main subdivisions of the Siamese-Chinese subfamily of the Indo- 
("hinese language family. I'he total of Shans of all kinds in the Pro- 
vince in 1 90 1 was approximately 850,000. 

There is nothing peculiar connected with the agricultural conditions 
of the country. The valleys of the States are devoted to low-lying 
irrigated rice (Shan, na\ and the hills to taungya 
(Shan, hai) shifting cultivation. In many parts the 
numerous deserted paddy-fields appear to point to exhaustion of the 
soil. This is especially the case at some distance from the hill-slopes ; 
but nearer the hills, the decayed vegetable matter brought down yearly 
by the torrents after the destructive jungle fires fertilizes the rice lands, 
and maintains their yield. Artificial manures are hardly ever used in 
' wet ' cultivation. In taungya or hai cultivation the selected hill-slope is 
prepared by burning the grass, and ploughing and harrowing the ground. 
The trees are then ringed, the branches lopped off and piled round the 
trunk, and the whole fired just before the first rains are expected. The 
ashes are next distributed in small heaps and loose earth is raked over 
them, the leaves and stubble below are then fired, and the earth is burnt 
and becomes brick- red in colour, after which the heaps are again spread 
out and the seed is sown when the rains begin. A taungya can be 
worked for a term varying in different parts of the country, but rarely 
exceeding three years. It is a ruinous method of cultivation, for the 
organic matter is volatilized, and the ash constituents only are left in a 
highly soluble condition ; the available plant-food is in consequence 
rapidly taken up by the crop, which diminishes each year, and a great 
quantity of the fertilizing matter is carried down the hill-slopes by 
surface drainage. In parts of the South Hsenwi State the land has been 
so thoroughly deforested that little remains but grass, and manure has 
to take the place of wood-ash in the process described above. Carden 
crops are grown on the slopes throughout the States in much the same 
way as tanngyas, but cattle-manure and ashes are always freely used. 
The tea cultivation which affords their chief occupation to the Palaungs 
of Tawngpeng, and to the inhabitants of the hilly Kodaung district of 
Hsipaw and of Namlawk in the W'a State of Kanghso, is deser\ing of 
special mention. In Tawngpeng the dark-brown clayey loam is covered 
with large quantities of decaying vegetable matter, and, as the tea shrub 
luxuriates in the shade, a hill-slope covered with dense forest is usually 
selected. The gardens are not laid out on any system, but at random. 
Seed is collected in November and sown in nurseries in February or 
later. The plants are kept there till they reach a height of 2 feet or so 
(generally in the second year), and are then planted out in the clearings 



in August and September. No manure is used and the trees are never 
pruned, as they are said to die off if this is done. They are first picked 
in the fourth year and continue bearing for ten or twelve years, pro- 
ducing three crops a year between March and October. When the 
yield of leaves begins to get poor, the trees are often cut down. New 
shoots are thrown up from the stool, and these are in turn picked. In 
gardens, where sufficient room is allowed for growth, the trees attain 
a much larger size than where close planting prevails. Trees said to 
be thirty years old and upwards, and still in bearing, are found here. 

The total area under crops in the trans-Salwecn States is approxi- 
mately 312 square miles, of which about three-quarters are under rice. 
Tea covers rather over 12 square miles. In addition to rice and tea, 
poppy, sesamum, ground-nuts, cotton, buckwheat, and maize are 
grown in the iaiitigyas. Poppy is confined for the most part to the 
trans-Salween country, the hilliest portions of North and South Hsenwi, 
and the west of Manglon. Rice taiingyas are sometimes sown with 
sesamum in the second and with cotton in the third year. Maize and 
buckwheat are grown by some of the hill tribes, and peas and beans 
by the Was. In the homestead plots, onions, yams, brinjals, indigo, 
maize, sugar-cane, millet, and beans are cultivated. The orange 
flourishes in many parts along the Salween and some of its tributaries, 
and along the Namma in Hsipaw ; and the Hsipaw Sawbwa possesses 
excellent orange plantations on the banks of the Nam Tu. The indige- 
nous pineapple is good and is freely cultiN-ated in South Hsenwi, the 
valley of the Shweli, and the Hsumhsai sub-State of Hsipaw, where 
also papayas are plentiful. The local mangoes and plantains do not 
compare well with those produced in the plains of Burma ; and the 
crab-apples, wild plums, peaches, and pears are more interesting for 
their associations than for their edible properties. Wild raspberries 
are found in most parts of the country, and walnuts in the Wa States. 

Cattle are bred for pack-work and for sale as draught bullocks to 
Burmans and natives of India, but arc not used for ploughing, 
slaughtering, or even milking. Buffaloes are bred for ploughing, and 
are sometimes used for pressing sugar-cane and sesamum oil. By 
the Was they arc employed for sacrificial purposes. There is a good 
deal of pony-breeding ; but young stallions are allowed to run wild 
with the mares and fillies, and no care whatever is taken in selecting 
suitable mature beasts for propagating the breed. The small animals 
produced are mostly used for pack purposes, or exported to Burma 
for use in hired carriages. Goats and sheep arc imported from China, 
and the latter have done well at I.ashio and Tangyan. Crazing for 
all animals is plentiful throughout the States. 

The area irrigated by means of channels taking off from the streams 
in the valleys is large. No precise data as to its extent are available, 


but in the cis-Salween States the total is probably nearly too square 
miles. Much ingenuity is spent on these canals, and on the embank- 
ments keeping the water in the terraces of paddy-fields, which follow 
the contour of the ground. A considerable amount is spent in some 
States on irrigation works, the actual digging of the waterways being 
often done by Maingthas. In places fields are irrigated by means of 
the Persian water-wheel. 

Teak is found in Hsipaw, Tawngpeng, and North Hsenwi ; but so 
far Reserves of teak have been formed in HsTpaw only, which cover 
i8i square miles, the largest being the Kainggyi 
Reserve (i2t square miles) and the Namma Reserve 
(50 square miles). It is not possible to give even the approximate 
areas of other forest tracts, though there are thousands of square miles 
of virgin forest. The hill-sides are often covered with pines (FtJius 
K/iasya), oaks (of which there are several varieties, including the 
Himalayan species), and chestnuts. The pine forests are very ex- 
tensive and probably cover many hundreds of square miles ; they are 
generally found on the more exposed ridges at an altitude of about 
4,000 feet. Chestnut-trees always form a subordinate feature in the 
forests in which they occur. Ingyhi {Peiitacfue siame?isis) and thitya 
{Shorea ol>fiisa) are found in many parts of the Northern Shan States, 
the latter being very common in both South Hsenwi and Manglon. 
often occurring in the midst of pine and oak forests. Thitsi {Melano- 
rrhoea usifaia), the black varnish tree, grows in Hsipaw, on the northern 
slopes of Loi Leng, and in the Manhsang circle of South Hsenwi. 
The gum or resin that exudes from it is much prized for varnishing 
and for making lacquer-work. The Cedrela Toona is another useful 
tree common in both North and South Hsenwi. The wood has been 
found admirably adapted for da sheaths. The paper mulberry {Brous- 
sonetia papyiiferd) furnishes the raw material used in the manufacture 
of Shan paper ; and the silk cotton-tree {Bombax inalaharicutti) is 
valued for its down, which is employed for stuffing the pillows or pads 
inserted below the pack-saddles of bullocks. Both these latter trees 
are common throughout the States. Bamboos grow freely in the 
vicinity of the villages, and, as elsewhere, are put to almost every 
conceivable household use. The right to the timber in the forests is 
reserved to the British Government. 

Coal has been found along the valley of the Nam Vao in the Lashio 
circle of the North Hsenwi State, and higher up the same stream 
near Mongyaw, as well as along the valleys of the 
Namma and Nam Pawng in South Hsenwi and 
Hsipaw. Analysis has shown the coal found at I^ashio to be of very 
inferior quality. The product of the Namma valley is described as 
bituminous coal, which should i)roperly be called lignite, and is 


believed to be good fuel. A seam of lignite was rerently struck 
in the Nam Pat valley in South Hsenwi State in the course of road- 
making. Tourmaline mines are worked on both sides of the Nam 
Pai north of the town of Monglong in HsTpaw, where well-rounded 
pebbles of black tourmaline are not uncommon, sometimes attaining 
the si/e of a walnut. Rose-pink tourmaline, on the other hand, is 
much rarer, and is comparatively seldom met with. Salt is manufactured 
at Mawhho (Bawgyo) in the Hsipaw State. The Bawgyo salt- well is 
said to have been worked for the last 500 years, and expert opinion 
has pronounced the brine from it to be the richest known in Burma. 
Unfortunately it has a bitter taste, which hinders its sale when other 
salt can be procured, k good deal of the Bawgyo salt is sold, how- 
ever, in the Shan States, in parts where Mandalay salt is too expensive 
and where Yunnan block salt does not penetrate. 

Silver and lead mines were formerly worked at Bawdwingyi in the 

Tawngpeng State, and at Konghka on the northern aspect of Loi 

r.eng in the South Hsenwi State. The Bawdwingyi mines are situated 

in a valley 10 miles south-east of the village of Katlwi, and 5 or 6 miles 

north of Pangyang. Silver, lead, and copper used to be extracted 

from these mines, the last only in small quantities. The hills are 

completely honey-combed with shafts, horizontal and perpendicular, 

in some of which human skeletons in chains have been discovered. 

It is said that 2,000 Chinamen were engaged in mining here ; and 

the ruins of stone houses, extending along the valley, and long rows 

of beehive-shaped smelting ovens and Chinese stone bridges, in perfect 

preservation, speak to the energy with which these mines were exploited 

a generation ago. A prospecting licence for this area was issued to 

a Rangoon firm early in 1902. Silver is said to have been worked 

in South Hsenwi also, and in the Wa country east of Monghka. Lead 

is found in East Manglon, and in the Wa States of Loilon and Santong. 

Iron is extracted at Hsoptung in the sub-State of Mongtung in Hsipaw ; 

and gold occurs near Hopai in the Lantaii circle. South Hsenwi, as 

well as in the streams tributary to the Salween. For years Burmans 

and Shans have cherished the story that gold in dust, nuggets, and 

veins was to be found in the Nam Yang Long, which runs into the 

Nam Hka through the Wa Pet Ken. A visit made to the locality in 

1897 failed to disclose any traces of gold. Gold is, however, certainly 

washed from the .sands of the neighbouring stream ; in fact, gold-dust 

is nowhere a rarity in the Shan States, and washing is regularly carried 

on at many points along the Salween. A mining lease for 3-84 square 

miles in the valley of the Namma, a small tributary of the Salween, has 

been granted to a Rangoon firm. The project is to obtain gold by 

dredging and hydraulic methods. Saltpetre is obtained from bats' 

guano, collected from the limestone caverns common tliroughout the 


States. Many of the Was are said to he adepts at extracting saltpetre, 

which they bring from beyond the Salween for sale at the Tangyan 

bazar and elsewhere. 

The pickling of tea is the chief industry of the Palaungs in Tawng- 

peng and HsTpaw. On the evening of the day they are plucked, the 

tea-leaves are steamed over a cauldron of boiling 

Trade and water. They are then spread on a mat, where they 

communications. •' ' . ■' 

are rolled by hand, after which they are thrown into 

pits and compressed by means of heavy weights. The leaves ferment 

in the pits and become pickled tea. For preparing dry tea the leaves 

are steamed and rolled, after which they are spread out in the sun 

to dry. After about three days water is sprinkled on the leaves, which 

are again rolled and allowed to dry. They are then sifted through 

a bamboo sieve, only such leaves as pass through the sieve being 

accepted. The best quality of pickled tea fetches from Rs. 30 to 

Rs. 45 per 100 viss (365 lb.), and the best dry tea from Rs. 1-4 

to Rs. 2 a viss at the gardens. Pickled tea is exported in conical 

baskets carried by bullocks. Dry tea is packed in gunny-bags for 

mule transport, or is carried by porters to the railway. 

Cotton-spinning and weaving are carried on by the women in nearly 
every household in the States, a good deal of cotton being grown in 
the tau7ig)'as and sold in the bazars. The implements used, the 
spinning-wheel, loom, and other plant, and the methods of cleaning, 
dressing, spinning, and weaving the cotton, are almost identical with 
those of the Burmans. The more expensive skirts and blankets are 
often interwoven with graceful and artistic patterns. Among the Shans 
of North and South Hsenwi curious sleeping webs of cloth are made 
with zigzag and diamond-shaped patterns, woven in black, red, green, 
and yellow, the cross-threads being often of silk. Still more intricate 
is the Kachin work employed in the adornment of shoulder-bags and 
of the female costume. The work is usually dark blue, with longitudinal 
blue stripes, but is sometimes all white or composed of equal stripes 
of red, white, and blue, into which are woven, at intervals, little stars, 
crosses, or squares of various colours and irregular shapes. Raw silk 
is obtained by the Shans from the Wa and Lao States, and finds 
favour in South Hsenwi in the weaving of skirts and blankets. Dyeing 
is practised in most Shan households where weaving is done, and in 
most parts of South Hsenwi State, where the beautiful natural dyes 
-of the country still hold their own against the cruder aniline colours 
of European manufacture. The most common dyes used by the 
■Shans are obtained from the Bi.xa Ore/latm, from stick-lac, from indigo, 
and from the yellow wood of the jack-fruit tree. 

The Shan gold- and silversmiths are clever workers, and occasionally 
■ turn out very good repouss't' work in the shape of gold and silver lime. 


betel, and other boxes, and da and dagger scabbards, gold and silver 
trappings for Sawbwas' ponies, hairpins, rings, jewellery, goblets, and 
other articles. Blacksmiths are common throughout the States. 
Ploughshares are forged, and das, chojipers, s[)ades, and other agri- 
cultural implements are manufactured locally. Many of the Was are 
clever smiths, and Namhkam in North Hsenwi is a great centre for 
local hardware, which is, however, all manufactured by Chinese or 
Maingtha smiths, who set up their forges in the town every year. 
Brass-work is less common, but occasionally large monastery bells 
are cast, as well as the booming bullock bells which swing on the 
necks of the leading beasts of the caravans. Images of Buddha and 
tattooing implements are made at Hsenwi town, also brass buckles 
for belts and betel-nut pounders. 

Pottery, in the shape of clay water-bottles and earthen chatties, is 
manufactured at Tapong and Namhon and other villages in South 
Hsenwi, at Manpan in Mongtung (Hsiixaw), and at Namhkam, Kokang, 
and elsewhere. North and South Hsenwi turn out a certain amount of 
red lacquer-work, the principal articles manufactured being the round 
trays or salvers standing on legs which are used for religious offerings. 
The lacquered goods consist of a framework of woven bamboo, smeared 
over with a mixture of rice ash and black varnish extracted from the 
mai hak or ihitsl tree {Melanorrhoea usitnfa), which, after being dried 
in the sun, receives a coat of red sulphide of mercury. A certain 
amount of wood-carving is done. It generally takes the form of wooden 
images of Gautama and of gilded scroll-work (known as iaumg-Iai-mawk 
to the Shans), used for decorative purposes in the monasteries, and on 
the tazaiifigdaitigs which are placed round or near pagodas. Mat- 
weaving and basket-making are practised generally. (Irass mats are 
woven at Tangyan and Namhkam ; but the ordinary kinds are the 
hsatpyii mats, made from the outer, and hsatnu from the inner part 
of the bamboo. The manufacture of a coarse-textured paper from 
the bark of the paper mulberry {Broussonetia papyiifera) is carried on 
wherever that particular tree is found. 

The means of transport employed in the trade of the Northern Shan 
States now includes the railway from Mandalay to Lashio ; and the 
system of feeder cart-roads connecting the railway with the interior has, 
to some extent, superseded the older means of transport by mules, 
pack-bullocks, and pakondans (petty traders who carry their goods on 
their shoulders). A large trade in surplus rice finds its way by means 
of bullock caravans to Tawngpeng, the great tea-producing area, where 
very little rice is cultivated. In former days the rice was exchanged 
for tea, pickled and dry, which the traders brought down and sold in 
Mandalay. The cash they received for their tea enabled the traders to 
return to the Shan States with salt, >igapi\ salted fish, cotton goods. 


yarn, matches, kerosene oil, and betel-nuts. Since the opening of the 
railway, however, the great bulk of the tea produced is exported, and 
most of the goods for the Shan market are imported, by rail. But few 
caravans now make the through trip to Mandalay. As a means of 
transport the pack-bullock is probably as much used as ever ; but the 
bullock caravans now ply between the tea gardens and the railway, or 
find their profit in bringing rice to the railway and distributing rail- 
borne imports throughout the country. Chinese caravans pass through 
the Northern Shan States every open season on their way to and from 
the Southern Shan States and Northern Siam. They bring iron caul- 
drons, copper cooking pots, straw hats made especially for the Shan 
market, walnuts, persimmons, satin, opium, felted woollen carpets, and 
fine tobacco. The Panthay settlement at Panglong in Sonmu is a large 
trading community which does business with Burma and the trans- 
Sahveen States. The Was cultivate and export to China large quanti- 
ties of opium, and agents from Kengtung come north as far as West 
Manglon and South Hsenwi to purchase the drug. Karenni cutch is 
brought north by Mongnai bullock traders, who also fetch up iron 
agricultural implements from Laihkal. A considerable trade is carried 
on during the winter months in oranges from Nawnghkam (^Vest Mang- 
lon), Namma (Hsipaw), and Hsipaw itself, and during the rains in 
Sal ween betel-leaf from Nawnghkam. Stick-lac is collected to a large 
extent by the Kachins of North Hsenwi, who sell it to Indian dealers 
in the Lashio bazar, whence it is exported to Burma ; and carts from 
Mandalay and Hsipaw now go far afield into South Hsenwi for rice and 
sesamum. There is a busy local trade in the interior in home-grown 
tobacco, fruit, and vegetables ; and the bazars are always well attended. 
The largest marts are those at Namhkam, Hsipaw, Nawnghkio, My- 
aukme, and Namlan. Manchester cotton goods are rapidly supplanting 
home-made stuffs. Imported yarns and twist, aniline dyes, German- 
made pencils, and imitation two-anna-piece buttons are among the 
most noticeable of the imported articles. The value of the imports 
from Burma to the Northern Shan States reached a total of 38 lakhs in 
T 903-4: by the Mandalay- Lashio railway, 22-6 lakhs; by the Maymyo 
road, 5-8 lakhs ; by Namhkam and Bhamo, 5 lakhs ; via the Ruby 
Mines District, 4-7 lakhs. The principal items were European cotton 
piece-goods (valued at 8-4 lakhs), salted fish and ngapi {^••^ lakhs), salt 
(3-2 lakhs), twist and yarn (mostly European) (3-9 lakhs), Indian cotton 
piece-goods, petroleum, cattle, betel-leaf, and tobacco. The exports 
from the States to Burma in the same year were valued at 56I lakhs : 
by the railway, 31-7 lakhs; by the Maymyo road, 6-6 lakhs; by 
Namhkam and Bhamo, 5-7 lakhs ; through the Ruby Mines District, 
4-5 lakhs ; timber and forest produce floated down the Shweli and 
other streams, 8 lakhs. The chief items were pickled tea (22 lakhs). 

. / DAf/AVS TRA TTOX 2 4 5 

other tea (9 lakhs), teak timber (7-5 lakhs), husked rice {2'i lakhs), 
ponies and mules, /// seed, and wax. 

Of prime importance in the economy of the country is the Mandalay- 
I^ashio railway, 180 miles in length, of which 126 miles lie within the 
Northern Shan States. The line is a single track, and was constructed 
in the face of considerable engineering difficulties, of which not the 
least notable was the Gokteik gorge, now spanned by a viaduct. It had 
been proposed to continue the railway about 90 miles farther east to 
the Kunlong, an important ferry over the Salween, and eventually to 
penetrate into Yunnan : but this extension is for the present in abey- 
ance. The railway enters the south-west corner of the UsTpaw State 
from Mandalay District, and traverses the State in a north-easterly 
direction, passing through HsTpaw town and ending at Lashio in North 
Hsenwi. The Sawbwas of HsTpaw and North and South Hsenwi have 
spent large sums in constructing feeder roads through their States to 
the railway. Practically parallel with the railway is the Government 
cart-road from Mandalay to Lashio, bridged but not metalled, running 
for 1 1 1 miles through the States. The principal branch cart-roads, 
connecting with either the railway or the Government cart-road, are : 
Nawnghkio to Tawnghkam (24 miles), Nawnghkio to Kalagwe (35 miles), 
Gokteik to Haikwi and Pongwo(i8 miles), Pyawmggawng to Monglong 
(55 miles), HsTpaw to Mongtung (76 miles), with branches to Kehsi 
Mansam (13 miles) and to the Mongkiing border, connecting with the 
Southern Shan States system, HsTpaw to Tati (7 miles), HsTpaw to 
Mcingyai (6r miles), Mongyai to Mongheng (37 miles), Lashio to 
Tangyan (80 miles), with a branch to Mongyai, Lashio to HsTpaw 
(14 miles), Lashio to Mongyang (21 miles), and Lashio to Kutkai 
(51 miles). Innumerable rapids and rocks limit navigation on the 
rivers to short reaches, and the only boats in use are dug-outs, 
excepting at the ferries. The ferries across the Salween (as we descend 
the river) are the Mongpawn and the Monghawm, connecting the 
Kokang district of North Hsenwi with the cis-Salween country, and 
the Kunlong (near the mouth of the Nam Ting). These lead into 
North Hsenwi. Below them are the Mongnawng (or Hsaileng) and 
the Kawngpong, between South Hsenwi and the Wa country ; the 
Kwipong, the Loihseng, and the Manhsum, used by traders crossing 
from West Manglon to East Manglon, Monglem, and other places east 
of the Salween. 

Five States are controlled by the Superintendent of the Northern 
Shan States, the chief civil officer (a member of the Burma Com- 
mission), who has his head-quarters at Lashio. These 

XT TT • L ,0 TT Administration, 

are: North Hsenwi m the north. South Hsf.nwi 

near the Salween in the east, Manglon in the south-east, HsTpaw in 
the soiuh-west, and in the north-west. The Wa States 


east of the Sahveen can hardly be said to lie under British control. In 
ordinary matters the States are administered by their Sawbwas, who are 
assisted by amats or ministers in various departments. An Assistant 
Superintendent at Hsipaw advises the Sawbwas of HsTpaw and Tawng- 
peng, officers of similar rank at Kutkai and Tangyan supervise the 
affairs of the Sawbwas of North and South Hsenwi and Manglon, and 
an officer of the Subordinate civil service has lately been posted to 
Namhsan to help the Tawngpeng Sawbwa in the administration of his 
charge. The extensive Kachin colony in the North Hsenwi State is 
directly under the civil officer at Kutkai. Lashio itself has been made 
practically part of Burma proper. 

In the Northern Shan States the criminal and civil administration is 
vested in the Sawbwas, subject to the limitations laid down in their 
sanads (deeds of appointment), and to restrictions imposed by the 
extension of enactments and the issue of orders under the Shan States 
Act or the Burma Laws Act. The customary law of these States has 
been modified by a notification which specifies the punishments that 
may be inflicted for offences against the criminal law, limits the inflic- 
tion of certain punishments to the more heinous offences, and pre- 
scribes simple rules of procedure in criminal cases. The Superintendent 
exercises general control over the administration of criminal justice, 
has power to call for cases, and is vested with wide revisionary powers. 
All criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or 
accused is a European or American, or a Government servant, or 
a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the 
chiefs, and vested in the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendents. 
In the cases above mentioned the ordinary criminal law in Upper 
Burma, as modified by the Shan States Laws and Criminal Justice 
Order, 1895, is in force. In such cases the Superintendent exercises 
the powers of a District Magistrate and Sessions Judge, and the Assis- 
tant Superintendents exercise the powers of a District Magistrate 
under sections 30 and 34 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The 
Superintendent and Assistant Superintendents, if European British 
subjects, are also ex-officio justices of the peace in the States. The 
Superintendent has been especially empowered to withdraw from subor- 
dinate magistrates such cases as he thinks fit. He can now also take 
cognizance of any criminal case, and try or refer it to a subordinate 
magistrate for trial. The Superintendent and each Assistant Superin- 
tendent exercise the powers of a magistrate under the Foreign Juris- 
diction and Extradition Act, parts of which are in force in the States. 
In regard to the administration of civil justice, the customary law has 
been modified by a notification of 1900, which confers original appellate 
and re\isional jurisdiction on the Superintendent and Assistant Super- 
intendents, creates local courts, and presciiles a simple judicial pro- 


cedure. Various Acts and Regulations have been extended to tlie 
Northern Shan States, and the GanibHng, Excise, Cattle Trespass, and 
certain other Acts are now in force in the civil station of Lashio. In 
North Hsenwi, the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation has been extended 
to the Kachin area. The most prevalent offences occurring in the 
Northern Shan States are cattle and pony thefts, and (in Hsipaw State) 
opium cases. 

In revenue matters the Sawbwas administer their States in accor- 
dance with local customs, which have been but little modified. 'I'iie 
main source of revenue is thathaineda. In Hsipaw it is levied at the 
rate of Rs. 10 per household; in Tawngpeng, at Rs. 20 on tea-garden 
cultivators, Rs. 10 on cultivators of irrigated land, and Rs. 5 on 
Kachins ; in North Hsenwi, at Rs. 4-8 on Kachin families in the 
Kachin tract, and at Rs. 5 on Shans or other races, whether settled in 
the Kachin tract or in the Shan circles ; in South Hsenwi, at Rs. ro on 
cultivators of low-lying rice land and Rs. 6 on /rt//;/^ra-cutters. Taxes 
on rice and tea cultivation, bringing in Rs. 58,000 in 1903-4, are 
levied in the Hsipaw State, and a tax, yielding Rs. 62,000, is assessed 
on every bullock-load of tea exported from Tawngpeng. A tax on 
opium and liquor is raised by means of licence fees in Hsi'[)aw and 
Tawngpeng, which brought in Rs. 42,000 in 1903-4. The total 
revenue collected in the five cis-Salwecn States in that year amounted 
to Rs. 6,26,000, the Hsii)aw State alone receiving considerably more 
than half. Thathaineda realized Rs. 3,87,000, and the total tribute 
l)aid to the British Government was Rs. 1,20,000, 

The Sawbwas are responsible for the suppression of crime and 
the preservation of order in their States, and some of them maintain 
small irregular police forces. In addition, Government maintains a 
civil police force, which consists of one European Assistant Super- 
intendent of police, who is stationed at Lashio, one Burman head 
constable, and 65 policemen recruited in the Shan States. These 
police are for the most part engaged in the prevention and detection 
of crime in the tract of country directly bordering on the railway. 
There are 3 police stations— at Lashio, Hsipaw, and Nawnghkio. 
The Northern Shan States military police battalion has its head- 
(juarters at Lashio. The force is under a commandant, with one 
assistant commandant, and the total strength of the battalion is 
505 men. The majority of them are stationed at Lashio, and there 
are 100 at Kutkai and 30 each at Hsipaw and Tangyan. 

Hsipaw State maintains a jail of its own, with an average of about 
20 convicts. The prisoners are engaged in outdoor work, and 
keep up the jail garden, which produces vegetables for sale in the 
local bazar. They also undertake repairs on State buildings, the jail 
itself being a product of prison labour. Short-term prisoners in other 


States are kej)! in the State lock-ups. Long-term pri^.oners are sent ti^ 
serve out their sentences in a Burma jail. 

Elementary education is imparted in the pongyi kyaungs of the 
States, but the standard of literacy is low, and in 1901 only y.7 per 
cent, of the male population were able to read and write. American 
Baptist Mission schools are maintained at Hsipaw and Namhkam, 
and the Hsipaw school has 2 masters and about 40 pupils. 

There are civil hospitals at Lashio and Hsipaw, with accommodation 
for 22 in-patients, and a dispensary at Kutkai. In 1903 the number of 
cases treated was 10,336, including 366 in-patients, and 119 oi)erations 
were performed. The income amounted to Rs. 7,800, derived almost 
entirely from Provincial funds. There is a hospital at Hsipaw, managed 
by the American Baptist Mission, with 24 beds. In 1903 the number 
of cases treated at this institution was 1,846, including 20 in-patients. 
Another hospital, under the same agency, is situated at Namhkam. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 7,233. 
representing 23 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Sir J. G. Scott, Upper Burma Gazetteer (5 vols., Rangoon, 1900-1) ,; 
Burma: a Handbook of Practical Information (1906); C. C. Lowis, 
A Note on the Palaungs (Rangoon, 1906).] 

Shan States, Southern, — A group of Native States in Burma, 
under the charge of a Superintendent, lying between 19° 20' and 
22° 16' N. and 96° 13' and 101° 9' E., with an area of about 36,000 
sijuare miles. They are bounded on the north by the Northern Shan 
States, from which they are separated for some distance by the Nam 
Tu or Mjitnge river ; on the east by China ; on the south by China, 
the French Lao territory, Siam, and Karenni ; and on the west by the 
Kyaukse, Meiktila, and Yamethin Districts of Upper Burma, and the 
Toungoo District of Lower Burma. 

With the exception of a tract on the western boundary and the 

eastern half of the Kengtung State towards the China border, the 

States lie in the drainage area of the Salween, which 

Physical roughly bisects them, flowing first in a general 

southerly course, and then south-west into Karenni. 

The eastern part of the Kengtung State drains into the Mekong, of 

which the principal tributaries are the Nam Lwi, the Nam Lin, and 

the Nam Hkok, the last named flowing for the greater part of its course 

in Chinese territory. The most noteworthy tributaries of the Salween 

on 'ts eastern side within the limits of the Southern Shan States are 

the Nam Hka, forming the northern boundary of the trans-Salween 

areas, and the Nam Hsim farther south. Its western tributaries are of 

more importance than its eastern, and their courses are all more or less 

parallel with that of the Salween itself. The Nam Pang rises in South 

Hsenwi in the Northern Shan States, and waters the north-eastern 



cis-Salwecn Slates, joining the Salween in the Kenghkain State after 
a general southerly course.. The Nam Teng rises in the north in 
Mbngkung and flows south into Mongnai ; there it bends eastwards 
till within 13 miles of the Salween, after which it turns south-west, and 
eventually joins the Salween about 15 miles above the Karcnni 
boundary, after a course of about 250 miles. West of the Nam Teng 
is the Nam Pawn. This stream has its source in the hills of I^aihka 
and flows southwards into Karenni, emptying itself finally into the 
Salween after a course of 300 miles. At about 20° N. it is joined 
from the west by the Nam Tamhpak, which rises in the small Hopong 
State and drains the eastern half of the central division, running 
parallel with the Nam Pawn, at a mean distance of 20 miles to the 
west of it. West of the Tamhpak again is the Nam Pilu or Balu 
chaung, which waters several of the small Myelat States, enter.-, the 
Inle Lake, and then leaves it in a southerly direction, draining the 
southern States of the central division. It finally enters Karenni, 
where it disappears underground, its waters flowing in unknown 
channels to the Nam Pawn. A portion of the western States belongs 
to the Irrawaddy drainage. The Nam Tu or Myitnge runs along the 
northern boundary, receiving the waters of the Nam Lang, with its 
tributary the Nam Et, from the south, before entering the Irrawaddy 
valley. The last two rivers water the whole of the extreme north- 
western area except the south-western portion of Lawksawk, which is 
drained by the Zawgyi. This stream has its fountain-head in the 
Myelat, runs north for some distance in the Lawksawk State, then 
bends abruptly south-west, traversing the north of Maw, and finally 
leaves the hills in Kyaukse District to join the Irrawaddy. The 
Paunglaung river rises in the hills that form the boundary between 
Vamelhin and the Myelat, and emerges on the plains in Vamethin 
District, where it is renamed the Sittang. 

The principal hill ranges, like the rivers, run generally north and 
south. Along the western boundary is a lofty range towering over the 
plains of Yamethin and Kyaukse Districts, containing the prominent 
peaks of Sindaung and Myinmati, near Kalaw, and averaging over 
5,000 feet. East of this range lies the Menetaung range in Pangtara, 
a bold block of hills culminating in a peak known as Ashe-myin-anauk- 
myin (7,678 feet); and east of that again the Loi Sang range divides 
the valleys of Yawnghwe and the Tamhpak. Farther east, separating 
the valleys of the Tamhpak and the Nam Pawn, is a long range 
terminating in the north of Karenni, and rising to over 8,000 feet in 
two peaks, Loi Mai and Loi Maw. Beyond the Nam Pawn runs 
a parallel range, twice exceeding 8,000 feet. Eastward of this system 
are no well-defined continuous hill ranges, the country up to the 
Salween consisting of a high plateau cut up by valleys; nor do such 


ridges exist in the trans-Salween States, though the country is for the 
most part very rugged, and lofty hill masses are grouped near the 
frontiers. The Myelat, east of the high range separating it from 
Burma proper, is characterized by open rolling downs, large tracts of 
which are almost treeless and rather dry, the average level of the 
country being at a considerable altitude. Eastwards of the Myelat 
the scenery changes from tropical to alpine, the main features being 
the lateral ranges and intervening valleys described above. The first 
of these tracts of lowland is the well-watered Yawnghwe valley, which 
displays alternate expanses of park-like savannah forest and well-tilled 
land, with the great Inle Lake in its centre. Eastwards of this comes 
the basin of the Tamhpak, where broad plains of irrigated rice land are 
backed by grassy downs sloping up to the hills ; and beyond this lies 
the typical highland strath in which the Nam Pawn runs. Thence to 
the Salween extends a wide plateau, with its rolling prairies well 
limbered in parts, broken up in places by outcrops of detached hills, 
and varied by stretches of picturesque river scenery along the Nam 
Teng and Nam Pang. 

The only large lake in the States is the Inle in Yawnghwe, about 
12 miles long and 6 broad, draining by the Nam Pilu river into the 
Salween. Two smaller lakes are situated in the north-east of Mongnai 
and in Hsahtung. 

Not much is known of the geology of the Southern Shan States, 
except along the section east and west of Taunggyi, where the rocks 
have been classified as follows \ The oldest rocks consist of gneisses 
with veins of syenite and granite, and are exposed only along the 
western edge of the plateau. Beyond these, limestone is the pre- 
vailing rock, the lower portion probably corresponding to the Devonian 
limestone of the Northern Shan States, but it includes also fossiliferous 
beds of Permian age which are found east of Taungg)i. Purple sand- 
stones are either faulted or folded in among the limestones, and may 
represent the Mesozoic sandstones found between Hslpaw and Lashio. 
Sub-recent beds of conglomerate sands and loams occupy longitudinal 
valleys between the ridges of limestone. 

Along the western border runs a belt of tarai forest reaching to 
about 2, coo feet, of which the most conspicuous constituents are 
bamboos, Dipierocarpus, Dillenia^ and climbers like Spaiholobus and 
Cougea lonieiitosa. From 2,500 to 4,000 feet the hills are clad with 
vegetation of a different character and composed of much larger trees, 
comprising such genera as Schima, Saiirauja, Turpinia, Dalbergia^ 
Caesa/pinia, Bauhinia, Terminalia, Lagersfroemia, Strychnos, and 
Quercus. Several arboreous Coiupositae are also to be found in this 

' C. S. Middlemiss, General Report, Geological Stmey of India, 1S99-1900, 

p. Hi. 


belt. There is a plentiful undergrowth of shrubs and herbaceous 
plants; and ferns, mosses, and lichens abound. At an altitude of 
over 4,000 feet the forest gives place to an open rolling plateau of 
rounded grassy hills, with scattered clumps of oaks and pines, the 
vegetation being temperate in character. Species of Ranunculus, 
Clematis, Viola, Folvgala, Hypericum, Primula, and Swertia abound, 
as well as representatives of the more tropical genera, such as Les- 
pedeza, Codonopsis, Ipomaea, and many Labiatae"^. Further particulars 
about the vegetation of the States will be found under the head of 

The elephant, bison, tsine or lisaing {Bos sondaicus), and rhinoceros 
are met with, as well as the tiger, leopard, and other felidae. Sdmbar, 
swamp deer, hog deer, and barking-deer are common ; bears are widely 
distributed ; but the wild dog and the jackal are rare, as also is the 
serow. Hog are found everywhere, and the gibbon and monkeys of 
various kinds are numerous. Among snakes the Russell's viper is the 
commonest, while the hamadryad, cobra, and python are all occa- 
sionally met with. The harrier and kestrel are often seen, and very 
rarely the Himalayan eagle. The cuckoo is a regular visitor, and a 
lark (identical with the English bird) is common. The list of water- 
fowl, both migratory and indigenous, is large, and among the rarer 
visitors may be mentioned the wood-snipe and woodcock. 

Portions of the States, such for instance as the country about the 
town of Kengtung and several of the tarai areas, are very unhealthy, 
but on the whole the climate is fairly temperate and salubrious. In 
the deeper valleys the weather is humid in the rainy season, and very 
hot during March and April ; on the uplands the heat during the day 
in those two months is considerable, but there is always an appreciable 
drop in the temperature at night. In December and January frost is 
quite common, and even in Mawkmai, one of the lowest valleys, the 
thermometer has been known to fall to freezing-point. The head- 
quarters station of Taunggyi has an annual mean temperature of 66°. 
The rainfall throughout is moderate, lessening towards the east. In 
Taunggyi the annual average is about 60 inches, and at Thamakan 
(Hsamonghkam) in the Myelat about 38. 

It cannot be said with certainty who were the original inhabitants 
of the Shan States, but it is probable that the Tai {see Northern 
Sh.\x States) came into a country already occupied 
by Was, Palaungs, Yins, Taungthus, and Karens. History. 

At any rate Burmese authority was undoubtedly brought to bear on 
the Southern Shan States long before permanent control was gained 
over Hsenwi, which was early in the seventeenth century, when the 

' H. CoUett and W. B. Hemsley, 'On a Collection of Plants from Upper Burma 
and the Shan ^i^iits,' Journal of t/ie Unman Society, Botany, vol. xxviii. 


Mao Shan kingdom came to an end. In the remoter parts Burmese 
suzerainty was practically without effect in those early days, but in 
the nearer States it was an active and oppressive reality which slowly 
crept eastward, despite the influence of China. Wasted by internecine 
warfare of the most savage description, and by the rapacity of the Bur- 
mans, the States in time declined in power. The government of Ava 
fostered feuds both between the States and within them, so as to keep 
their rulers too weak for resistance. Risings were put down by calling 
out troops from the surrounding principalities, who were only too ready 
to ravage the rebellious area ; in fact, some of the States are but now 
beginning fully to recover from the effects of those troublous days. 
The chief centre of Burmese administration in the years preceding the 
annexation of Upper Burma was Mongnai, the capital of the most 
powerful chief, where an officer with the title of Bohmiwiintha had his 
head-quarters. Troops were kept here and at Paikong, in Karenni, 
opposite Mongpai, the latter for the purpose of watching the Red 
Karens. Burmese Residents were appointed to the courts of all the 
States, but their counsels received but scant attention across the Sal- 
ween. As at present, the Sawbwas administered their own charges, 
and exercised powers of life and death, and, what was probably more 
important, collected taxes. There was no check on oppression, though 
it was always open to the persecuted subject to remove to another 
State. After the death of king Mindon Min the administration 
collapsed, as it did over all the outlying parts of the Burmese domi- 
nions. The first chief to revolt was the Sawbwa of Kengtung across 
the Salween, who quarrelled with his suzerain over the appointment 
of a new Sawbwa to the neighbouring State of Kenghung (now in 
Chinese territory), massacred the Burmese Resident and staff, and 
burnt Kenghung. King Thlbaw was too weak to retaliate, and the 
powerful chief of Mongnai joined in the revolt, followed by the Saw- 
bwas of Mongnawng and Lawksawk. These more accessible States, 
however, on joining the general rebellion, were overrun by the Bur- 
mese troops, and the three Sawbwas had to take refuge in Kengtung 
in 1884. Here the first attempt was made at a Shan coalition with the 
intention of throwing off the Burmese yoke, and it appears probable 
that only the unexpected annexation of Burma itself by the British 
prevented the formation of a powerful Shan kingdom. A leader was 
selected in the Linbin prince, a nephew of king Mindon, who had 
escaped the wholesale massacre of the royal family by Thlbaw's ser- 
vants, and who arrived at Kengtung at the very time when the British 
expedition was being dispatched to Mandalay. The Burmese troops 
had been withdrawn, and it was a question of forcing on the States, 
some more or less unwilling, the ruler the allies had chosen. The 
Linbin faction crossed the Salween early in 1886 ; Mongnai was 


attacked, and an unfrocked pofii^yi named Twet Nga Lu, wlio had been 
administering the State since the Sawbwa's flight, was driven out ; the 
rightful ruler was restored, and the i.awksawk and Mongnawng chiefs 
regained their dominions. The allies, who were soon joined by the 
south-western and many of the Myelat .States, next set themselves to 
the task of persuading or comi)elling the other States to accept the 
Linbin jjrince as their leader. To this end they turned their atten- 
tion to Kehsi Mansam, Mongkiing, and Laihka, which had furnished 
troops to drive the Mongnai Sawbwa from his kingdom ; the last was 
ravagetl from end to end, and tlie two former fared nearly as badly. 
About the same time Mongpan in the south was raided by the Mawk- 
mai ruler, and the capital was sacked. The Sawbwa of Lawksawk then 
proceeded to avenge himself on Vawnghwe, to which the former State 
had been subordinated by the Burmese government when the Sawbwa 
fled to Kengtung ; but the Sawbwa of Vawnghwe had by this time 
tendered his allegiance to the British (Government, and, with some of 
the Myelat States behind him, was able to maintain himself against the 
Linbin confederacy, which had been pressing on him from the nortli 
and east. It was not, however, until the arrival of an expedition under 
Colonel Stedman in 18S6 that the investment of Vawnghwe and its 
Myelat allies ceased. This expedition started from Hlaingdet in Meik- 
tila District, and encountered some slight opposition from the Lawk- 
sawk forces ; but beyond this there was no resistance. The submission 
of Vawnghwe and the Myelat States was obtained without difficulty, 
and the Superintendent of the Shan States was installed in his charge, 
a post being established at Fort Stedman on the Inle Lake near 
Vawnghwe. The submission of these States was followed by that 
of the south-western States, where there had been trouble with the 
Red Karens ; and the Superintendent then called on the Sawbwas of 
Mongnai and Mongpawn, the most active of the Linbin coalition, to 
submit to the British Government. They, however, merely withdrew 
to their territories. Matters were complicated at this stage by the 
States of Laihka, Mongkiing, and Kehsi Mansam, which had sufTered 
at the hands of the Linbin confederacy, and which took the oppor- 
tunity of making a retaliatory raid on Mongpawn, the Sawbwa of 
which was the Linbin prince's most influential supporter. The Super- 
intendent, accordingly, after driving the hostile Sawbwa of Lawksawk 
out of his State, marched into Mongpawn, and brought about the 
reconciliation of the chiefs and the submission of the Linbin faction. 
The prince himself surrendered and was deported ; and by June, 1887, 
all the cis-Salween Shan States had been brought under British rule 
and were free from disturbance. The Superintendent in 1887-8 made 
a tour throughout the States, and received the personal submission 
of the Sawbwas, settling their relations to the Government and to 

R 2 


each other, without a shot being fired. Some trouble was caused 
by the e.\-po>iQ'i Twet Nga Lu, who in 1888 was able to drive out 
the Mongnai Sawbwa and establish himself in his capital, but he was 
eventually shot in the same year. The column which dealt with 
Twet Nga Lu was called upon to (juell disturbances in the Southern 
Myelat States, which had been brought about by the chief of Yawn- 
ghwe ; and, after it had settled matters in Mongnai, had to turn its 
attention to Mawkmai, which had been invaded and reduced to vas- 
salage by Sawlapaw, the chief of Eastern Karenni, or Gantarawadi. 
Order was re-established in Mawkmai, but in June, 1888, Sawlapaw 
again attacked the State. He was, however, driven back with very 
severe loss ; and as he refused to surrender, a punitive expedition 
entered Sawlon, his capital, in 1889 and, on his flight, Sawlawi, his 
heir, was appointed in his place. Finally, the Kengtung State on the 
farther side of the Sal ween submitted in 1890. Considerable diffi- 
culties arose with Siam about this time concerning certain trans- 
Salween dependencies of Mawkmai, Mongpan, and Karenni. In 
1889-90 an Anglo-Siamese Commission, in which the Siamese govern- 
ment declined to join at the last moment, partitioned these tracts, and 
the Siamese garrisons were withdrawn from so much of the country 
as was found not to belong to Siam. The demarcation of this frontier 
was finally carried out by a joint Commission in 1892-3. The Anglo- 
French boundary was settled in 1894-5, when the State of Kengcheng 
was divided between the two countries, the Mekong forming the boun- 
dary, and the cis-Mekong portion being added to Kengtung. The 
boundary of the Kengtung State and China was settled by the Anglo- 
Chinese Boundary Commission of 1898-9. 

The most important pagodas are those at Angteng and Thandaung 
in Yawnghwe, said to have been built by Dhamma Thawka Min 
(Asoka) and Anawrata ; their annual festivals are largely attended. 
In the Pangtara State is the Shweonhmin pagoda, a richly gilt shrine 
in a grotto in the hill-side. The sides and roof of the cave are crowded 
with statues of Buddha and emblems of the faith. There is a larger 
attendance at its festival than at any other in the Southern Shan States, 
except perhaps that of Mongkiing. In the Poila State is the Tame 
pagoda, covered on the upper half with copper plates and much 
revered. Both the Pangtara and Poila pagodas are said to have 
been built by Asoka and repaired by Anawrata of Pagan. 

Ihe population of the Southern Shan States in 1901 was 770,559. 

Its distribution is given in the table on the next page, which shows 

considerable variation in density of population. The 

small States of Pangmi and Nawngwawn are as 

thickly populated as the delta Districts of Lower Burma. With the 

exception of Yawnghwe, none of the larger Sawbwaships show a high 



figure, and the average for the States is only about half that for the 
Provinee as a whole. 

Area in 



tion per 





tion in 








KengUing .... 

I 2,000 

2,. ^.38 






1 ,09 I 




Central Division. 

Mciiigpai .... 


1 58 




Lawksawk .... 

2. '97 





Samka .... 



> 7,643 









Hsahtung .... 






Wanyin .... 






Hopong .... 






Namhkok .... 






Sakoi ..... 






Eastern Division. 

Mongnai (with Kengtawng) 






Laihka .... 






Mawkmai .... 






Moiigp.nii .... 









'3, '43 









Mongkiing .... 

1 ,643 





Mfiiigsit .... 


1 84 

9,0 '3 



Kehsi Maiisarn . 






Kcnghkam .... 






Monghsu (with Mongsang) . 






Kciiglon .... 






Myelat Division. 

Ilsanionghkain . 






Kyawkku .... 






Kyong .... 






Loi-ai .... 






Loimaw .... 






Ma\\- ..... 






Mawnang .... 






Mawson .... 






Nanihkai .... 






Namtok .... 






Pangmi . * . 






Pangtara .... 





1 ,565 







Yengaii .... 






Loilong .... 











2 7,39ot 

* Including 309 persons enumerated in survey camps in different portions of the States, 
t Including 76 literate persons in the survey camps. 

The predominant race are the Shans {see Northkrn States), 
who numbered 331,300 in 190 1. They inhabit the entire Shan States 
in varying proportions, forming the greater part of the population 
of the eastern division, and being the most numerous of the many 


races inhabiting the Kengtung State across the Salween. In the 

central division they are not in the majority, the Taungthus taking 

their place, and they tend to confine themselves to the valleys, as 

along the Nam Tamhpak. In these States and in Loilong they are, 

however, numerous. In the rest of the Myelat States they are poorly 

represented. Next in importance from a numerical point of view are 

the Taungthus, of whom there were 124,900 in 1901. They abound 

most in the southern States of the central division, forming the entire 

hill population there ; and they are strongly represented in all but 

the Northern Myelat States, gathering most thickly on the mountains 

bordering Burma proper. Considerable numbers of them inhabit 

the western half of the eastern division, but in the Salween valley 

and in the north-eastern States they are practically unknown. The 

Danus, a race of mixed Burman and Shan origin, and to a large 

extent speakers of Burmese, numbered 50,900 in 1901. They are the 

preponderating race in the Northern Myelat States, and are strongly 

represented in the northern States of the central division. The total 

in 1901 of the Inthas (lake-dwellers), who inhabit the valley of the 

Inle Lake and of the Upper Nam Pilu, was 50,500. The Hkiin Shans, 

numbering 41,500, are practically confined to the Kengtung State 

beyond the Salween, where too are found the hill-dwelling Kaws or 

Akhas (26,000), the Lii Shans (16,200), and the Was (23,800). The 

Taungyos (16,500) — a hill tribe, who have been hitherto classified with 

the Taungthus, but who are probably more closely allied with the 

Burmans — are met with in the centre of the Myelat division ; the 

Karens (18,700) live in the southern States of the central and eastern 

divisions bordering on Karknni, and the Muhsos (15,800) — a Tibeto- 

Burman community who appear to be connected with the Lisaws — 

on the highest hills in the east of the Kengtung State. The Palaungs 

in 1901 numbered 11,800. They are nowhere thickly distributed, but 

are spread over all the northern half of the Southern Shan States from 

Burma proper to the Salween, as well as in parts of Kengtung. The 

Padaungs (7,800) — a Karen community, best known to Europeans by 

reason of the brass rings with which their women elongate their necks — 

form a large part of the population of Mongpai, a State in the extreme 

south-western corner, on the Karenni border. Only 12,100 Burmans 

were enumerated in the States in 1901, although 91,700 persons were 

returned as ordinarily speaking Burmese. Less important from a 

numerical point of view are the Riangs or Yins (3,100), a pre-Shan 

tribe of Mon-Anam extraction, inhabiting the north-eastern cis-Salween 

States, and very closely allied with the Palaungs ; and the Zayein 

Karens (4,140) of Loilong, the southernmost State of the Myelat 

division. There were not quite 1,000 Chinese in 1901, most of whom 

were born in the States. According to religion, Buddhists in 1901 


numbered 696,800, and Animists (mainly trans -Salween non-Shan 
tribes) 69,900. Comparatively few MusalmSns and Hindus are found. 
Almost the only natives of India are Government servants and fol- 
lowers. Christians numbered 1,528, of whom 1,483 were natives. 
The American Baptist Mission has stations at Mongnai, in the eastern 
division, and at Kengtung. The population dependent upon agricul- 
ture in 1 90 1 was 524,100, or 68 per cent, of the total; and of this 
total 262,200 persons, or about half, were dependent almost wholly 
on taungya (shifting) cultivation. 

Cultivation in the Southern Shan States may be grouped under three 
heads : irrigated crops, ' dry ' field crops, and garden crops. There are 

no regularly constructed canals ; but advantage is . . , 

y r • , J L Agriculture, 

taken of every stream m the country, and by means 

of weirs and small distribution channels, or water-wheels where the 

banks are high, large areas in the valleys are irrigated. Terraced fields 

also, fed by the waters of mountain brooks, are constructed with great 

labour wherever the ground allows, and the agricultural conditions are 

such that in some of the more favoured localities as many as three 

crops a year are gathered from irrigated land. The 'dry crops,' of 

which the most important is taungya rice, depend upon the rainfall 

for the moisture they require. There is nothing peculiar to the 

Southern Shan States in the methods of taungya cultivation, which 

have been described in the article on the Northern Shan States. 

Irrigation in the case of garden cultivation is effected mainly by hand 

from wells and other sources. 

Rice is the staple food-grain ; wheat is also grown, but chiefly for the 
use of the foreign residents. Potatoes, capsicums, and onions are pro- 
duced in considerable quantities and exported ; and other important 
crops are maize, millet, beans, sugar-cane, and gram. Cotton is culti- 
vated over a large area, sesamum and ground-nuts are grown for the 
oil they produce, and the rhea plant for the sake of its fibre, which 
is in large demand among the local shoe- and sandal-makers. On the 
higher ranges the cultivation of thanat trees, the leaves of which are 
used for cigar-wrappers, is extensive ; and here poppy and indigo are 
also grown. Cinnamon is found in some of the States. Tobacco 
is a universal crop, and the Langhkii variety has a wide reputation. 
The principal garden crops are pineapples, bananas, oranges, limes 
and citrons, custard-apples, guavas, pomegranates, peaches, and plums ; 
and English fruits have been tried with success at Taunggyi. In the 
hotter valleys coco-nut and areca palms flourish. Tea is indigenous, 
though the leaf is of very poor quality, and coffee has been success- 
fully grown in Samka and Hsahtung. 

With the increasing population the area under cultivation is gradually 
extending, but, except in the Myelat, no reliable statistics of the acreage 


under crop now and in the past are available. In the Myelat, exclusive 
of Loilong, about 40 stjuare miles are cultivated, more than one-third 
of which is irrigated. The people are timid in regard to experimental 
cultivation, and in consequence no new varieties have supplanted the 
indigenous staples. 

Cattle-breeding is carried on extensively throughout the States. The 
Taungthus are born cattle and pony breeders ; and in East Yawnghwe 
and the States in the Htamhpak valley, where they predominate, the 
rearing of live-stock is freely carried on. Cows are never milked, the 
calves being allowed to suckle at will; and the village bulls are per- 
mitted to roam about with the herds. Cattle are not used for plough- 
work in the Shan States ; but buffaloes are extensively bred in every 
State for local agricultural work, and in the States of Kehsi Mansam 
and Mongnawng for export also. Ponies are bred largely in the States 
of Mongkung, Kehsi Mansam, Mongnawng, and f2ast Yawnghwe, and 
to a limited extent generally throughout the States ; but unfortunately 
sufficient attention is not given to the selection of sires. The result 
is that the ordinary pony now procurable is a very indifferent animal. 
In some States the chiefs keep Arab stallions, and there is keen com- 
petition for their foals. The smaller animals are exported to Chieng- 
mai, where a diminutive animal is preferred, if showy. Two Persian 
donkey stallions were at one time placed in various parts of the States, 
but mule-breeding did not prove popular, and the experiment was dis- 
continued. An indigenous goat, of a small black variety, is bred in 
the Kengtung State ; but otherwise goat-breeding is in the hands of 
Indian residents, who confine themselves for ihe most part to imported 
varieties. Sheep are not indigenous. Several kinds have been tried, 
but with little success. It seems probable, however, that a hardy breed 
from the hills in India would do well. 

Grazing is abundant both in the rains and in the dry season. At the 
beginning of the wet season cattle-diseases (anthrax, rinderpest, surra, 
glanders, &c.) are nearly always present in some part of the States. 
Occasionally the disease is imported along the Government cart-road 
or by the caravans from China, but much is due to carelessness in the 
grazing of animals on low-lying and swampy ground. Since the engage- 
ment of trained veterinary assistants at the cost of the chiefs, the live- 
stock has been better cared for and the segregation of diseased animals 
is now practised. 

The most important fisheries are in the Inle Lake (Yawnghwe), and 

on the Nam Pilu which drains that piece of water. These fisheries 

are of great value, and yield a considerable revenue 

to the Yawnghwe Sawbwa. Besides supplying the 

local bazars, salted and dried fish are exported to all parts of the States 

from the Yawnghwe fishing area. In the lake a close season is 



observed during the Buddhist Lent. 'Hie spawning- beds are carefully 

preserved and supplied with food, in the shape of rice, ground-nut, 

and sesamuni paste, &c. 

Under native rule the right of the paramount power to the forests 

in the Shan States was always asserted, and the same principle has 

been followed since annexation. The right to the „ 

• 1 , - , • ,. 11 Forests. 

timber extracted from their States is reserved to the 

British Government by the Sawbwas' sanads, and revenue is paid 
whether the trees are extracted by the Sawbwas themselves or by 
private contractors. The distribution of the forests in the Southern 
Shan States is dependent chiefly on the elevation. The average 
height of the Shan plateau is probably between 2,000 and 3,000 feet 
above sea-level ; but the hills frequently exceed 7,000 and sometimes 
8,000 feet. The lower-lying streams are fringed by a very narrow belt 
of evergreen forest. This gives place almost at once, higher up, to a 
dry deciduous forest, frequently of the indaing type. Teak is limited 
to this deciduous belt, and is rarely found above 3,000 feet. Con- 
sequently, as even the minor watersheds generally exceed this elevation, 
teak occurs only in narrow belts parallel to the streams. Other char- 
acteristic trees of the deciduous forest are ; pyingado {Xy/ia dolabri- 
foniiis), padauk {Pterocarpus macrocarpus)^ pyinvia {Lagersiroemia 
Flos Reginae), in {Dipterocarpus tubera/lafus), iiigyin {Fentacine siam- 
e/isis), thitya {Shorea obtusa\ and thitsl {Melanorr/ioea usifaia). At 
from 2,500 to 3,500 feet the deciduous forest may be associated with 
pines {Finns Merkusii). This tree is rare west of the Nam Teng, and 
never forms pure forest. At 3,500 feet Finns Khasya begins to 
appear ; and finally at 4,000 feet the deciduous forest disappears, and 
its place is taken either by i)ure forest of Finns Khasya, or by mixed 
forest of broad-leaved species, characterized by oaks, chestnuts, and 
Schimac. At 6,000 feet the pine or oak forests are generally replaced 
by a dark-foliaged evergreen forest, containing magnolias, Lauriniae, 
and rhododendrons. 

The forests can best be considered in detail with reference to the 
drainage basins. These are five in number, all containing teak and 
other valuable timber. In order of their economic importance they 
may be ranked as follows : the Salween, the Myitnge (or Nam Tu), 
the Mekong, the Nam Pawn, and the Paunglang or Sittang. In the 
Salween basin it is said that Mongnawng once contained teak forests. 
These have now, however, been completely destroyed by reckless 
over-working. Only the States in the lower course of the Salween 
and its tributaries, the Nam Pang and Nam Teng, now possess teak ; 
and working-plans have been prepared for the forests of Kenghkam, 
Mongnai, and Mongpan, where the teak area exceeds 300 square 
miles. Most of tliese forests have been over-worked ; and the forests 


of Mawkmai and of the Mongpu and Monghsat sub-States of Kengtung 
are too exhausted for exploitation at present, though the teak tracts 
are extensive. The timber extracted from these forests is floated down 
the Sahveen to the Kado forest depot above Mouhnein. The teak 
forests in the Nam Tu drainage area are mostly confined to Lawksawk, 
from which timber is extracted by way of the Nam Lang and the Nam 
Tu, to be collected at Ava, where the latter stream, there known as 
the Myitnge, falls into the Irrawaddy. The working of the forests in 
Kengtung in the Mekong drainage area has been taken in hand 
recently, but all the timber from this tract is destined for the French 
market at Saigon. The Nam Pawn drainage area includes the valleys 
of the Nam Pilu and Nam Tamhpak. It contains but little teak, and 
the streams are too full of obstructions to be of use for floating timber. 
The forests of Loilong on the Paunglaung drainage area have been 
reported as not worth exploiting, owing to their small value and their 
remoteness. The minor forest products include lac, turpentine, thitsi, 
thanai leaves, Boehmeria nivea, rubber, Chinese varnish, and canes. 
Cutch-bearing tracts are said to be fairly common, but have for the 
most part been ruined by reckless cutting. Details of the export of 
lac and thifs'i (from the Melanorrhoea usitatd) are given below under 
Commerce and Trade. Turpentine and Chinese varnish (from the 
AkiirHis cordata) could be exported in large quantities, but as yet 
little business has been done in either commodity. Rubber has been 
exported from Kengtung, but the cost of carriage is too great to allow 
of its being sold at a profit. The Boehmeria nivea is said to be 
common near the Sahveen ; it is used locally for the manufacture of 
strong fishing-lines, and is a very valuable product. The wholesale 
girdling of unmarketable teak, the careless logging of the timber, and 
the ruinous tai/ngya system of cultivation have done immeasurable 
damage to the forests of the Shan States, and the ruin brought about 
by the last-named cause increases annually. The cutch forests have 
been nearly destroyed by exxessive and thoughtless working. The 
forest revenue from the Southern Shan States in 1904 was Rs. 87,652, 
to which Kengtung contributed Rs. 34,000, Mawkmai Rs. 18,524, 
Mongpan Rs. 17,736, and Mongnai Rs. 15,344. 

Coal is found in the State of Laihka and in the Myelat, but in 
neither locality is it worked. Reports on its value are, however, 
favourable. Washings for gold are carried on in 
the stream-beds at various localities, but nothmg 
in paying quantity has yet rewarded the washers. Silver, lead, and 
plumbago are mined in a small way in the Myelat, and iron occurs 
in some quantity in Laihka and Samka, in tlie former State giving 
employment to a number of villages. Copper ore, so far as is known, 
occurs only in the Myelat. In the trans Sahveen sub-State of Mongpan, 


and in Nanitok, saltpetre is collected, and mica (of no niarkctahlc 
size) is gathered on the Nam Teng. A few spinels of very poor finality 
have been found in Mawkmai and elsewhere, but rubies have not been 
met with, and neither jade nor amber is known to exist. Fine pottery 
clay is worked in Mongkiing, Yawnghwc, and Samka. Lateritc is 
found everywhere, and limestone has been largely employed in building 
houses and offices in Taunggyi, and is extensively used for metalling 
Government roads. Lime-burning is a common occupation among 
the Shans. 

Cotton-weaving is carried on in practically every house in the States, 
and all articles of wearing apparel among the poorer classes are woven 
on the spot from locally grown cotton. In the 

I f f1 ^\ ^ ^ f1 n 

neighbourhood of the Inle Lake in the Yawnghwe communications. 
State silk-weaving is an important industry, the silks 
having a finish superior to those of the Mandalay looms. Embroidery 
(or more correctly a species of tapestry work) is practised among the 
Taungthus and Taungyos, being applied mostly to curtains {Jiala::;as) 
and women's head-dresses. 

In gold and silver-work the local goldsmiths are but little, if at all, 
behind the artificers of Burma ; but, though deft, they lack individuality, 
for the designs in use are mainly modelled on Burmese originals. The 
iron-work made locally is for the most part confined to articles of 
domestic and agricultural utility, such as ploughshares, hoes, axes, 
choppers, scissors, tongs, and tripods for cooking pots ; and these are 
made mainly in Laihka, where iron is smelted, though das of very 
superior quality are forged in Mongkiing and Kehsi Mansam. Very 
little work is done in brass, wood, or ivory. Pottery is a widespread 
industry. All vessels for domestic use are manuftictured ; and in 
artistic work the potters of Mongkiing, Yawnghwe, and Samka have 
a wide reputation, the glazed work of Hona (Mongkiing) and Kyawk- 
taing (Yawnghwe) being especially popular. 

Mat-weaving is a universal employment during seasons of leisure 
from agricultural operations, but the products are usually rough. 
Lacquer-work has its centres in the States of Laihka and Mongnai. 
In the former the industry gives employment to a large number of 
families near the capital, but the Shan lacquer-work is generally inferior 
to that of Pagan. Basket-weaving is fairly well distributed through 
the country, and umbrellas and hats {kamauks) made of bamboo 
spathes are produced at various towns. In the State of Kengh- 
kam the manufacture of Shan i)aper from the bark of a species of 
mulberry-tree {Broi/ssonetia papyri/era) has assumed considerable 

The chief centres of trade are at Taunggyi, Monghsawk (Fort 
Stcdman), Panglong (in Laihka), Kehsi Mansam, Langhkii (Mawkmai), 



Samka, and Hsahtung. Most of the chiefs are large traders, and 
many (;f their officials follow suit ; at Panglong and Kehsi Mansam 
and ill the Hsahtung State whole communities are entirely dependent 
on trade, and engage in agriculture only to a limited extent. A con- 
siderable portion of the internal trade consists of cart traffic from the 
plains to Taunggyi and Monghsawk. From the former pack-bullocks 
carry merchandise eastwards ; from the latter it is borne southwards 
by river to Karenni. Internal trade is still largely in the hands of 
caravan traders, who employ bullock transport. 

External trade is with Burma on the one hand, and with China and 
Siam on the other. The exports to Burma by all routes in 1903-4 
were valued at 47-6 lakhs. The value of the forest produce exported 
to Moulmein and to Ava down the Salween and Myitnge rivers in 
that year amounted to 10 lakhs, the greater part being teak timber. 
Nearly 12,000 head of cattle, valued at 7 lakhs, and more than 1,000 
ponies and mules, valued at 2 lakhs, were sent down during the year 
to Burma. Other exports included lac (valued at 6 lakhs), potatoes 
(0-4 lakh), and other vegetables and fruits (1-5 lakhs); varnishes, 
provisions of various kinds, Shan paper for umbrellas and ornaments, 
leathern goods, gums and resins (including ihits'i), turmeric, silk piece- 
goods, thaiiatpet (for cigar-wrappers), sesamum and ground-nut oil, 
iron implements, and lacquered boxes and bowls. The imports from 
Burma in the same year were valued at 39-6 lakhs ; the main items 
were European cotton piece-goods (11 lakhs), silk goods (3-9 lakhs), 
dried fish (i-8 lakhs), betel-nuts (1-7 lakhs), salt (1-3 lakhs), cotton 
twist and yarn (1-9 lakhs), petroleum (i lakh), woollen goods (i lakh), 
apparel, metal-work, sugar, wheat, and drugs of various kinds in 
smaller quantities. Most of the trade with Burma, whether carried 
in carts or on bullocks, goes by the Government cart-road from 
Taunggyi to Thazi, although the bullock-tracks through the Natteik 
pass to Myittha in Kyaukse District and through Mongpai to Toungoo 
are also used. A certain amount of trade passes via the Northern 
Shan States to Upper Burma, being registered at Maymyo. To China 
and Siam the exports are much the same as to Burma; from China 
the chief imports are straw hats, copper and iron cooking pots, gold- 
leaf, fur-lined coats, silk, satin, opium-smoking requisites, sulphur, 
camphor, drugs and other articles ; from Siam they include cutch, 
raw silk, betel-nuts, and kerosene oil. The China and Siam trade is 
not registered, and statistics of its volume and value cannot be given. 
The main route of the Chinese trade is through Kengtung and the 
Northern Shan States, that of the Siamese trade through Mongpan. 

There are as yet no railways, but a light railway on the 2 feet 6 inch 
gauge is projected, to connect the main Rangoon-Mandalay line with 
Taunggyi. A few good roads have been constructed. The principal 



land highway is the Thazi-Taunggyi road (105 miles in length). This 
thoroughfare starts from Thazi on the Burma Railway, and the first 
41 miles of it are in Burma. It then passes through the Hsamonghkam 
State for 34 miles, then through the Yawnghwe State for 30 miles, and 
ends at Taunggyi. It is metalled and bridged for its entire length, and 
is very largely used by carts and mule and bullock caravans. A count 
taken at a gi^■en point showed that about forty carts passed that point 
daily. There are ten furnished inspection bungalows at suitable inter- 
vals along the route. The Sinhe-Fort Stedman branch road (14 miles) 
is an unmetallcd cart-road branching off near the 92nd mile of the 
Thazi-Taunggyi road. It has good timber bridges and lies entirely in 
the Yawnghwe State. A furnished inspection bungalow is situated at 
Mawlikhsat, 3 miles from its junction with the Thazi-Taunggyi road, 
and another at Fort Stedman, 107 miles from Thazi. The Taunggyi- 
AVanpong cart-road (69 miles) forms part of the proposed Taunggyi- 
Kengtung cart-road. It is unmetalled but bridged, and the first 
12 miles will probably be metalled shortly. It passes through the 
following States: Yawnghwe (10^ miles), Hopong (i8i miles), Mong- 
pawn {2\\ miles), Laihka (9 miles), and Mongnai (9I miles); and five 
furnished inspection bungalows stand on it. The Wanpong-Takaw cart- 
road as far as Kyusawk (48 miles) is a continuation of the Taunggyi- 
Wanpong cart-road towards Kengtung. It is unmetalled but bridged, 
and has four inspection bungalows. The whole of it is in the Mongnai 
State. The mule-road from Fort Stedman to Kengtung starts from 
near the 105th mile of the Sinhe-Fort Stedman branch road, close to 
Fort Stedman, and 21 miles farther on joins the Taunggyi- Wanpong 
cart-road near Hopong ; it then leaves the latter highway at Mongpawn 
and goes 77 miles to Hsaikao and thence to Kengtung. It passes 
through the following States : Yawnghwe (2o| miles), Hopong (i mile), 
Mongpawn (6 miles), Mongnai (64 miles), and Kenghkam (7 miles) ; 
and five inspection bungalows are situated along it. Feeder roads 
(bridged but not metalled), constructed by the chiefs, connect Lawk- 
sawk, the States in the Nam Tamhpak valley, Karenni, Laihka, Mong- 
kiing, Kehsi Mansam, Mongnai, Mongnawng, and Mawkmai with the 
Government cart-road. Similar tracks travel north and south of the 
Thazi-Taunggyi road through the Myelat States. 

With the exception of the Nam Pilu, none of the rivers of the States 
is navigable for any great distance, the Salween itself being too much 
obstructed by rapids. Country boats navigate the Nam Pilu between 
Loikaw, Fort Stedman (the mart for Karenni), Samka, and Mongpai. 
There are nine ferries across the Salween, three across the Nam Pang, 
four across the Nam Teng, and two across the Nam Pawn. The ferries 
at Hko-ut (on the Nam Teng), Kenghkam (on the Nam Pang), and the 
Ta Kaw (on the Salween) are on the main road to Kengtung, and are 


subsidi7.ed by (iovernment. The other ferries are kept up by the 
chiefs, and small toils are levied. 

A daily i)ostal service plies between Tha/.i, Hsambnghkam, Fort 
Stedman, and Taunggyi, mule transport being used. Weekly services 
are maintained between Fort Stedman and Loikaw in Karenni, and 
between Taunggyi and Loilem, Mongnai, and Kengtung. Letter-boxes 
are placed at several of the chief places throughout the States and their 
contents are collected periodically, this subsidiary postal service being 
maintained by the chiefs. \ 

The rainfall of the States is, on the whole, ample and reliable, the 
population is sparse, and the soil is not infertile. Thus, except for 
a scarcity of food-grains in Laihka, in 1889, caused by the ravages of 
the troops of the Linbin confederacy, when several people died of 
want of food, there has been no famine in the country within recent 

The Southern Shan States are administered by a Superintendent and 

Political officer (a member of the Burma Commission) at Taunggyi, 

. . . with Assistant Superintendents at Kengtung, in charge 

Administration. ^^ ^j^^ Kengtung State ; at Thamakan or Hsamongh- 

kam, in charge of the Myelat division and Yawnghwe (16 States) ; at 
Taunggyi, in charge of the central division (9 States) ; at Loilem, in 
charge of the eastern division (12 States); and at Taunggyi as head- 
quarters Assistant and treasury officer. A sub-treasury officer and 
head-quarters magistrate resides at Kengtung. A certain amount of 
control is exercised by the Superintendent and Political officer over the 
Karenni States, which do not form part of British India and are not 
dealt with in the present article. 

Under the supervision of the Superintendent and Political officer 
and his Assistants, the chiefs — known as Sawbwas, Myozas, and Ngwe- 
gunhmus — control their own States, exercising revenue, civil, and crimi- 
nal jurisdiction therein. There are in all 9 Sawbwas, 18 Myozas, and 
1 1 Ngwegunhmus. 

The system of criminal and civil justice administration in force 
throughout the greater part of the Southern Shan States is the same as 
that obtaining in the Northern Shan States. In the Myelat States 
the administration of criminal justice more resembles that of Burma 
proper. The chiefs have all been appointed first or second class 
magistrates under the Code of Criminal Procedure, and the law in force 
is practically that of Upper Burma. The administration of civil justice 
in Taunggyi, and in the stations of Kengtung and Fort Stedman, is 
vested exclusively in the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendents. 
The Gambling, Excise, Cattle Trespass, and certain other Acts have 
been specially extended to the civil station of Taunggyi. 

Considering the vast area of the Southern Shan States there is 


remarkably little crime ; cattle-theft is the most common offence, 
especially in the northern States of the eastern division and in Western 
Karenni. The civil courts of the chiefs are freely applied to, succession 
cases being numerous, and litigation between timber traders is com- 
mon. Appeals from decisions in the civil courts of the chiefs lie to the 
Superintendent, and to Assistant Superintendents when so empowered 
specially by notification. 

Budgets for the different States are submitted annually for the 
sanction of the Superintendent. These budgets show only purely 
State revenue, and do not include the income from forests in cases 
where chiefs are the lessees under Government. The princijjal source 
of revenue is thatJuimeda. Land tax is collected in many States in 
kind, the rate varying from State to State, and is a cess on the number 
of baskets of seed sown. All near relatives of the chiefs are exempted 
from taxation, as are the majority of the officials, both ministers and 
circle officers, and the headmen of villages. Many families, mostly 
resident near the chief towns, hold land free for services performed for 
the chief, such as tilling the chief's private lands, acting as servants in 
various capacities, liability to be called on to swell the chief's retinue 
as occasion requires, and to serve as local police or as body-guards. 
Many such tenures are hereditary. 

The chiefs control the excise and opium arrangements in their 
charges in accordance with the terms of their sanads ; but they are 
prohibited from permitting opium, spirits, fermented liquor, and other 
articles liable to customs duties or excise to be sent into Burma from 
their States, except in accordance with the rules made by the Govern- 
ment and on payment of the duties prescribed by those rules. 
Cienerally the chiefs administer revenue matters according to local 
rules and customs, which have been modified only to the extent of 
limiting their power to alienate communal lands and to grant land to 
persons who are not natives of the Shan States. 

In 1903-4 the total revenue raised in the various States, apart from 
forest revenue credited to the British Government, amounted to 
7-9 lakhs, made up as follows: from the Myelat division, i-r lakhs; 
from the central division (including Yawnghwe), 3-3 lakhs ; from the 
eastern division, 2-4 lakhs; and from Kengtung, i-i lakhs. The tribute 
to the British Government is fixed for periods of five years. The actual 
collections in 1903-4 were : from the Myelat division, Rs. 60,500 ; from 
the central division (including Yawnghwe), i-a lakhs; from the eastern 
division, i lakh ; and from Kengtung, Rs. 30,000. 

The chiefs are responsible for the maintenance of law and order in 
their States, and the village and circle headmen form the real police 
of the country, assisted by a few retainers. The civil police force 
consists of only 70 men, under an Assistant District Superintendent 


and a head constable. It is recruited locally, and there is no difficulty 
in obtaining men to serve, for the pay is higher than in Burma. The 
men are armed with cut-down Sniders, and 14 of them are mounted. 
Half of the force is stationed at Taunggyi, the rest at Loilem, Thama- 
kan (Hsamonghkam), Loikaw (in Karcnni), and Kengtung. Their 
duties are to investigate such cases as the Superintendent or his 
Assistants may direct, and to furnish escorts and patrols. With the 
preservation of order in the States they are not concerned. A military 
police battalion has recently been formed for the Southern Shan States, 
which has displaced the troops that formerly composed the garrisons at 
Fort Stedman and Kengtung. It consists of ten companies — nine and 
a half companies of Indians (Sikhs, Gurkhas, and Punjabi Musalmans) 
and half a company of Shans. It is officered by a commandant and 
five assistant commandants, and is distributed at all the principal 
stations. There are no jails in the States, only lock-ups at the head- 
quarters, in which short-term convicts are confined. Long-term pri- 
soners are sent to the Meiktila jail to serve out their sentences. 

Education in the States is backward. Considering the large num- 
ber of hill tribes, it is not surprising that the proportion of literate 
persons in 1901 was only 3-6 per cent. (7 males and 3 females). 
Indigenous teaching does, however, exist. To every village of any 
size is attached a Buddhist monastery, and there such smattering of 
letters as the priests can give is imparted. The ordinary peasant is, 
however, for the most part unlettered ; for the period of novitiate 
in the monastery rarely exceeds a single Lent, and, except in the 
more richly endowed pongyi-kyaungs, the monks themselves can 
scarcely be termed literate. Shan is naturally the language taught 
in the religious schools ; but in the Taungthu districts Taungthu is 
the medium, although it does not possess an alphabet of its own. In 
the Western Stales the Burmese characters are adopted, and in the 
Eastern the Shan. Among the Inthas in the Yawnghwe State Bur- 
mese alone is taught ; and at all the chief places in the larger States 
monasteries are managed by pongyis literate in Burmese, who teach 
that language. Very few details regarding the number of monastic 
schools are available, but it has been calculated that there were 294 
in the Myelat in 1903. Lay schools do not exist except in the haws 
(palaces) of several of the wealthier chiefs, where the chief's children 
and relations receive a rudimentary education. 

Schools are maintained in connexion with the American Baptist 
Mission at Mongnai, where Shan is taught in addition to English. 
In 1901 a school for the sons of Shan chiefs was opened by Govern- 
ment at Taunggyi, with a staff of one head master and three assistant- 
masters. Admission to this institution is confined to sons and relatives 
of chiefs, their officials, and respectable commoners. At the begin- 


ning of 1905 the school contained 70 pupils. The education given is 
Anglo-vernacular (Burmese), and Shan is not taught. 

There are hospitals at Taunggyi, Hsamonghkam, Loilem, and 
Kengtung ; and dispensaries at Kuhcing in Mongnai, and at Kalaw 
on the Taunggyi-Thazi road. These contain accommodation for 52 
in-patients, of whom 691 were treated in 1903. The out-patients 
treated during the same year numbered 22,129, and the total of 
operations was 255. The income of these hospitals, derived (with 
the exception of Rs. 473 subscribed at Taunggyi and Hsamonghkam) 
from Provincial funds, amounted to Rs. 11,000. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 6,083, 
representing 7 per 1,000 of population. 

[Sir J. G. Scott, Upper Burma Gazetteer^ 5 vols. (Rangoon, 1900-r).] 

Shankargarh. — Village and fort in Peshawar District, North-West 
Frontier Province. See Shabkadar. 

Shanor. — Petty State in Rew.\ K.\ntha, Bombay. 

Sharakpur Tahsil. — Northern iahsil of Lahore District, Punjab, 
lying between 31° 15' and 31** 54' N. and 73" 38' and 74° 29' E., with 
an area of 887 square miles, of which about three-quarters are almost 
barren waste, and hence the density of population (134 persons per 
square mile) is much below the District average. The western portion 
of the tahsil lies in the upland plateau of the Rechna Doab, and the 
south-western corner is irrigated by the Chenab Canal. The rest lies 
in the lowlands of the Degh river. The population in 1901 was 
118,957, compared with 133,457 in 1891. The head-quarters are at 
the town of Sharakpur (4,474), and the number of villages is 386. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,69,000. 

Sharakpur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same 
name in Lahore District, Punjab, situated in 31° 28' N. and 74° 6' E. 
Population (1901), 4,474. The municipality was created in 1875. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 4,700, 
and the expenditure Rs. 4,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,700, 
chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 3,600. Sha- 
rakpur is the centre of the trade of I^hore District north of the Ravi, 
and is famous for its rice. It has a vernacular middle school, main- 
tained by the municipality, and a dispensary. 

Shegaon. — Town in the Khamgaon taluk of Buldana District, 
Berar, situated in 20° 48' N. and 76° 45' E., with a station on the 
Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 340 miles from 
Bombay and 180 from Nagpur. Population (1901), 15,057. The 
town is an important centre of the cotton trade, and contains 
many presses and ginning factories. The municipality was consti- 
tuted in 1 88 1. The receipts and expenditure during the ten years 
ending 1901 both averaged Rs. 9,000. In 1903-4 the income was 


268 ^H EG AON 

Rs. 14,300, mainly derived from taxes; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 9,000, the y)rincipal heads being conservancy and administration. 

Sheikh Budin. — Hill station on the borders of Bannu and Dera 
Ismail Khan Districts, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 
32° 18' N. and 70° 49' E., at the extremity of the Nila Koh, 40 miles 
north of Dera Ismail Khan and 64 south of Bannu; 4,516 feet above 
sea-level. It was first occupied as a sanitarium in i860. Sheikh 
Budin is now the summer head-quarters of the Derajat Brigade, and 
the civil officers of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan Districts also spend 
part of the hot season here. The sanitarium crowns a bare limestone 
rock, which rises abruptly from the Marwat range, forming its highest 
point. A few stunted wild olives and acacias compose the only vege- 
tation on the shadeless slopes. The heat is frequently excessive, the 
thermometer inside a bungalow ranging from 83° to 94°, though miti- 
gated from June to October by a south-west breeze. Water is scarce, 
and in dry years has to be fetched from the bottom of the hill. 

Sheikhpura {Shaikhpura). — Town in the head-quarters subdivision 
of Monghyr District, Bengal, situated in 25° 8" N. and 85° 51' E. 
Population (1901), 10,135. It is on the South Bihar Railway and 
is an important centre of the grain trade. Tubes for hiikkas are 

Sheinmaga. — South-easternmost township of Shwebo District, 
Upper Burma, extending from the Irrawaddy to the Mu river, and 
lying between 22° 11' and 22° 32' N. and 95° 32' and 96° o' E., with 
an area of 465 square miles. It is very dry and almost perfectly 
level. The population was 32,538 in 1891, and 39,255 in 1901, dis- 
tributed in 120 villages, the head-quarters being at Sheinmaga (popu- 
lation, 1,544), on the right bank of the Irrawaddy about 25 miles 
south-east of Shwebo town. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
43 square miles, and the land revenue and thathanieda amounted to 
Rs. 58,100. 

Shekhawati. — The largest nizamat or district in the State of 
Jaipur, Rajputana, lying between 27° 20' and 28° 34' N. and 74° 41' 
and 76° 6' E. It is bounded on the north and west by Bikaner ; on 
the south-west by Jodhpur ; on the south and east by Jaipur proper ; 
and on the north-east by the States of Patiala and Loharu. The 
area is estimated at about 4,200 square miles. The district contains 
12 towns and 953 villages; and the population in 1901 was 471,961, 
Hindus numbering 413,237, or 87 per cent., and Musalmans 55,251, 
or more than 11 per cent. The principal towns are Sikar, Eateh- 
PUR, Nawalgarh, Jhunjhunu, Ramgarh, Lachmangarh, and Udai- 
PUR. Some of them present a fine appearance, the houses being built 
of blocks of white stiff clay, cut from the kankar beds and allowed to 
dry ; but, on the other hand, the numerous mansions of the wealthy 


bankers, though nearly always palatial, are in many cases gaudy. The 
country is for the most part a mass of rolling sandhills ; the rainfall is 
precarious, averaging from 15 to 18 inches; and there is, speaking 
generally, but one harvest in the year, raised during the rainy season, 
consisting of bajra^ mung, and iiiofh. The mode of cultivation is of 
the rudest description, and the ploughing is frequently done by camels. 
The minerals of Shekhawati used to be important, but the copper- 
mines near Khetri and Singhana and the salt lake of Kachor Rewassa 
(the latter leased to the British Government in 1879) have not been 
worked for many years. Nickel and cobalt are, however, found at 
Babai in the east, and the ore is largely used for enamelling. 

Shekhawati takes its name from Shekhjl, the great-grandson of 
Udaikaran, who was chief of Amber towards the end of the four- 
teenth century. The country was wrested either by Udaikaran or his 
fourth son, Balajl, from the Kaimkhanis, or Musalman descendants 
of converted Chauhan Rajputs, who had been permitted by the 
Delhi kings to hold their estates as a reward for their apostasy. It 
is recorded that Balaji and his son, Mokal, used to pay as tribute 
to the chief of Amber all the colts reared on their land ; but Shekhji 
so enlarged his powers that for some generations the lords of Shekh- 
awati became independent of the parent State. The Shekhawats or 
descendants of Shekhji are a sept of the Kachwaha clan, of which the 
Maharaja of Jaipur is the head, and may be divided into two main 
branches, Raisilots and Sadhanis. The former are descended from 
Raisil, a great-grandson of Shekhji, who, for services rendered to 
the emperor Akbar, was made a mansabddr of 1,250 horse, and 
obtained several districts, such as Khandela, Rewassa, and Udaipur. 
The principal Raisilot chieftains are now the Rao Raja of SIkar, 
the two Rajas of Khandela, and the Rao of Manoharpur. The 
Sadhanis claim descent from Raisil's third son, Bhoj Raj, and take 
their name from one of his descendants called Sadhu : the chief repre- 
sentatives of this branch are the Raja of Khetri and the Thakurs of, Nawalgarh, and Surajgarh. 

The numerous chiefs forming the Shekhawati confederacy were, as 
stated above, for many years practically independent ; but in the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century, Maharaja Jai Singh II, with his 
means as lieutenant of the empire, forced them to become to some 
extent tributary, though their submission was not complete till after 
the Marathas had ravaged the country. In 1836-7, in consequence 
of the disturbed state of the district, it was decided to raise a corps 
of cavalry in order to give employment to the plundering classes. 
Two regiments of infantry and a battery of six guns were subse- 
quently added ; and the whole force formed the Shekhawati Brigade 
under Lieutenant Forster, who received the rank of major from the 

s 3 



Jaipur Darbar. The force attained a high degree of efficiency and 
proved of valuable service on many occasions under the gallant leading 
of its commander and his sons. All plundering was soon repressed, 
and the country enjoyed a degree of freedom from highway robberies 
previously unknown. The brigade was disbanded in 1842 ; one of the 
infantry Regiments was taken over by the British Government, and is 
now represented by the 13th Rajputs (the Shekhawati regiment), of 
which Maharaja Madho Singh, the present chief of Jaipur, was appointed 
honorary colonel in 1904. The tenures of Shekhawati have this pecu- 
liarity, that, excepting two or three of the greater estates, all holdings 
are regularly divided among all the sons on the death of the father. 

Shekhupura Estate. — Estate in the Districts of Gujranwala, Sial- 
kot, Lahore, and Amritsar, Punjab. It comprises 180 villages held in 
idgir^ with 14 square miles of proprietary land, and yields an income 
of about Rs. 1,20,000. Founded by a Brahman of Meerut, the family 
supplied several soldiers and courtiers to the Sikh court, including Raja 
Teja Singh, governor at Peshawar and commander-in-chief of the Sikh 
army in 1845. Raja Kiri Singh, a grandson of Teja Singh, died 
suddenly in 1906. The estate, however, is so heavily in debt that 
it is under the Court of Wards, and likely to remain so for some 
time. The rule of primogeniture prevails in the family. 

Shekhupura Village. — Ancient town in the Khangah Dogran 
iahslliii Gujranwala District, Punjab, situated in 3i°43' N. and 74° \' E., 
on the road between Hafizabad and Lahore, 22 miles from the former 
town. Population (1901), 2,205. I^ contains a ruined fort, built by 
the emperor Jahanglr. Prince Dara Shikoh, grandson of Jahangir, 
from whom the place may derive its name, is said to have connected it 
by a cut with the Aik rivulet ; and this cut now forms the main channel 
of the stream. Under Ranjit Singh Shekhupura became the residence 
of one of his queens, Rani Raj Kauran, better known as Rani Nakayan, 
whose brick palace still remains the most conspicuous object in the 
village. After annexation, the head-quarters of the District were fixed 
for a time at Shekhupura ; but since their removal to Gujranwala, 
it has possessed no importance except as a resort for sportsmen. 
About 2 miles from the village is a large tank surrounded by hand- 
some flights of steps, with a three-storeyed baradarl in the centre. 
The tank, however, is dry, and indeed is said to have never held water. 
.\ lofty watch-tower stands beside it. Both tank and buildings are the 
work of Dara Shikoh. 

Sheila. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, consisting of a confederacy of villages ruled by four officers 
elected by the people. Many lives were lost in the earthquake of 
1897 ; and the population, which was 6,358 in 1891, had fallen to 4,358 
in 1901. The gross revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,172. The principal 


products are pineapples, areca-nuts, and oranges, which prior to the 
earthquake were a source of great wealth to the people, but much 
damage was done to the orange groves by deposits of sand. There 
is also some trade in lime. 

Shencottah.— Head-quarters of the tnliik of the same name in 
Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 59' N. and 77° 15' E., on liie 
high road from Quilon across the Ghats to Tinnevelly, from which 
place it is about 40 miles distant. Population (1901), 9,039, of whom 
90 per cent, are Hindus. The Tinnevelly-Quilon Railway enters Tra- 
vancore through this town. There are several tea and coffee estates in 
the neighbourhood. About 3 miles to the south are the 
waterfalls. It formerly belonged to the Rajas of Ilayatatunad and was 
annexed to Travancore in 1734. 

Shendamangalam. — 1'own in Salem District, Madras. See Srnda- 


Shendurni. — Town in tlie Jamner taluka of East Khandesh District, 
IJombay, situated in 20° 39' N. and 75°36'E., 12 miles east of Pachora 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 6,423- 
Shendurni was a grant made to the family priest of the Peshwa Bajl 
Rao. It contains a ruined Hemadpanti temple. An annual fair is held 
here in honour of the god Trimbak. The town has a cotton-pressing 
fiictory, and two boys' schools with 260 pupils. 

Sheoganj. — Town in the north-east of the State of Sirohi, Rajput- 
ana, situated on the left bank of the Jawai river, and adjoining the 
cantonment of Erinpura, whence it derives such importance as it 
possesses. It takes its name from Rao Sheo Singh, by whom it was 
founded in 1854. Population (1901), 4,361. It possesses an elemen- 
tary indigenous school attended by about 60 boys, and a hospital with 
accommodation for 12 in-patients. 

Sheopur Zila. — District of the Gwalior State, Central India, lying 
between 25° 15' and 26°24'N. and 76° 38' and 77°47'E., with an area 
of 2,862 square miles. The population in 1901 was 214,624, giving 
a density of 75 persons per square mile. The district contains three 
towns, Shk.opur (population, 6,712), Raroda (6,381), and Sai'.ai.oarh 
(6,039), ^^"^ head-quarters; and 729 villages. The south-western and 
north-eastern portions form a level plain, but the rest is much cut 
up by hills. The Chambal and Parbati rivers, and their tributaries 
the Kunu, AhelT, Sip, and Kunwarl, drain the district. The crops are 
of good quality, wheat being largely grown. The district is divided into 
three farganas, with head-quarters at Sheopur, Kijaipur, and Sabal- 
garh, and also contains the estate of Sheopur-Baroda and the jiJgirs 
of Khatauli, Amalda, Balapur, and Iklod. The land revenue is 
Rs. 8,13,000. 

Sheopur Town. — Town in the Sheopur district of Gwalior State, 


Central India, situated in 25° 40' N. and 76*^ 42' E., on the right bank 
of the Sip river, 959 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 6,712. 
The town and fort are said to have been founded in 1537 by Gaur 
Rajputs, and take their name from a Saharia who was sacrificed to 
ensure the permanency of the settlement, and whose descendants still 
hold an hereditary grant of land in the neighbourhood. When Akbar 
was advancing on Chitor in 1567, this fort surrendered to him without 
a blow. In 1808 the country fell to Daulat Rao Sindhia. He granted 
Sheopur and the adjoining tract to his general, Jean Baptiste Filose, 
who at once proceeded to occupy his ^dgir, and invested the fort. 
Though unable to take the latter by assault, he finally starved out 
the Gaurs, who vacated it in 1809, and retired to Baroda Town. The 
fort from that time practically became Jean Baptiste's home ; and in 
1814 it was seized together with his family by Jai Singh Khlchi of 
Raghugarh, whose territory Filose was then engaged in ravaging. After 
the Treaty of Gwalior in 1818, Filose fell into disfavour and was for a 
time imprisoned at Gwalior. On his release he retired to Sheopur, 
which was then his only remaining possession. Sheopur is famous for 
its coloured lacquer-work on wood, bedstead legs being a speciality ; 
playing-cards are another article of local manufacture. Besides the 
pargana ofifices, a school, a hospital, a police station, and a State post 
office are situated in the town. 

Shergarh. — Ruined fort in the Sasaram subdivision of Shahabad 
District, Bengal, situated in 24° 50' N. and 83*^ 44' E., 20 miles south- 
west of Sasaram town. The spot was selected by Sher Shah as the 
site of a fortress soon after he had begun strengthening Rohtasgarh, 
which he abandoned on discovering the superior advantages of Sher- 
garh. The top of the rock is crowned with a rampart strengthened 
by numerous bastions and bulwarks, with a grand ascent to the 
principal gate on the north. The fort itself contains several sub- 
terranean halls. About 7 miles from Shergarh is a cave called the 
Gupteswar cave, containing numerous stalactites, one of which is 
worshipped as the god Mahadeo. The cave has never been thoroughly 

Sherghati. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Gaya Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 24° 33' N. and 84° 48' E., 21 miles south 
of Gaya town, on the right bank of the river Morhar at the point where 
it is crossed by the grand trunk road. Population (1901), 2,641. 
Owing to its position on the grand trunk road, Sherghati was formerly 
a place of great importance, and it was the head-quarters of a sub- 
division which was broken up in 1871. It has since somewhat 
declined. There are still to be found here the descendants of skilled 
artisans, workers in brass, wood, and iron. An interesting fort, said 
to have been built by the Kol Rajas, contains numerous pillars of 


polished granite, which are probably coeval with the later Barabar 

Sherkot. — Town in the Dhampur /ahs'ii of Bijnor District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29° 20' N. and 78° 35' E., 28 miles east of Bijnor 
town. Population (1901), 14,999. Sherkot was founded during the 
reign of Sher .Shfih, and under Akbar it was the chief town of a inahal 
ox par^ana. In 1805 it was sacked by Amir Khan, the Pindari, and 
in the Mutiny of 1857 it became the scene of struggles between loyal 
Hindus and rebel Musalmans. Up to 1844 it was the head-quarters 
of the tahs'il^ and a dispensary is maintained here. Sherkot is adminis- 
tered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 4,000. 
There is a considerable trade in sugar, and embroidered rugs are 
made. A middle school has 135 pupils, and three aided schools 
are attended by 42 boys and 65 girls. 

Shermadevi. — Subdivision and town in Tinnevelly District, Madras. 
See Skrm.\I)F,vi. 

Sherpur Town (i). — Town in Bogra District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, situated in 24° 40' N. and 89° 26' E. Population (1901), 4,104. 
Sherpur is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akban in 1595 as the site of a fort 
called Salimnagar, named in honour of SalTm, the son of Akbar, after- 
wards fiimous as the emperor Jahanglr. It was an important frontier 
post of the Muhammadans before they established their capital at 
Dacca ; and Akbar's Hindu general, Raja Man Singh, is said to have 
built a palace here. It is referred to by old writers as Sherpur Murcha, 
to distinguish it from Sherpur in Mymensingh, and is marked in Van 
Den Broucke's map (1660) as Ceerpoor Mirts. It formerly possessed 
a large number of brick houses, but has suffered severely in recent 
earthquakes. Sherpur was constituted a municipality in 1876. The 
income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 6,800, and 
the expenditure Rs. 6,600. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,500, 
mainly from a tax on persons (or property tax) and a conservancy 
rate ; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,500. 

Sherpur Town (2). — Town in the Jamalpur subdivision of Mymen- 
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° i' N. and 
90° \' E., between the Shirl and Mirghi rivers, about half a mile from 
the former and a mile from the latter, 9 miles north of Jamalpur 
Population (1901), 12,535. There is a considerable river trade, the 
exports being chiefly jute, rice, and mustard-seeds, and the imports 
European piece-goods and betel-nuts. Sherpur was constituted a 
municipality in 1869. The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 7,800, and the expenditure Rs. 7,400. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,700, mainly derived from a property 
tax and a conservancy rate ; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,400. 

Shevaroy Hills {Shervardyar A/a/ai). — A small detached range 


in Salem District, Madras, lying between 1 1° 43' and 11'' 57' N. and 
78° 8' and 78° 27' R., and occupying an area of 150 square miles. 
They are divided into an eastern and a western section by the deep 
valley of the Vaniar stream. The western portion consists of three 
l)lateaux, of which the Green Hills, the highest point of which is 
5,410 feet above the sea, is the largest; and on the southern extremity 
of the eastern portion, at an elevation of 4,500 feet, stands the well- 
known sanitarium of Yercaud. The valley between the two was 
clearly once a deep lake fed by the Vaniar, but the stream gradually 
cut through the iDarrier which held back the water and the lake 
became the bed of the river. 

Geologically, the range consists of Archaean plutonic rocks of the 
charnockite series, and these have weathered into the rugged masses 
characteristic of that family. 

There are three routes up the hills. From the Mallapuram station 
on the Madras Railway a neglected but easy ghat leads for 19 miles 
to Yercaud, and from the Kadiampatti station a steeper way reaches 
the same place in 1 1 miles. But the usual route is up the ghat on the 
side facing Salem town. This begins 5 miles from the town and is 
about 6 miles long. A good cart-road has recently been constructed 
up it. 

The upper levels of the Green Hills plateau are covered with grass, 
and on no part of the Shevaroys is there any considerable growth 
of forest. The rainfall, though nearly double that of the surrounding 
low country, averages only 63 inches annually and is scarcely sufficient 
to support heavy timber. The temperature is most equable, rarely 
exceeding 75° or falling below 60°; and the soil and climate are 
peculiarly favourable to smaller vegetation, which grows with the 
greatest exuberance and adds largely to the natural beauty of this 
picturesque range. Up to 3,000 feet there is a zone of bamboo, and 
on the higher levels some teak, black-wood, and sandal-wood are found. 
Among the imported trees and plants which thrive readily may be 
mentioned the pear, peach, apple, guava, citron, orange, lime, lemon, 
strawberry, and potato ; and the Australian acacias, eucalyptus, and 
casuarina do well. There are 9,000 acres planted with coffee, most 
of it under European management. 

The indigenous inhabitants of the range are the Malaiyalis ('hill 
men') or Vellalas. They are not an aboriginal tribe, but are without 
doubt Tamils from the low country who either emigrated or fled to the 
hills within comparatively recent times, and their customs present few 
points of ethnological interest. Their own tradition is that they came 
from Conjeeveram at the time when the Musalmans became the domi- 
nant power in the South. 'J'hey speak Tamil and are nominally Hindus, 
but have very vague ideas of the principles of their faith. They are 


a timid and harmless people, who now live chiefly by primitive cultiva- 
tion or by working on the coffee estates. 

Shevdivadar. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Shevgaon. — Easternmost tdluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, 
lying ht'tween 19° \' and 19° 2>2) N. and 74° 58' and 75° 32' E., with 
an area of 678 square miles. It contains one town, Pathardi (popula- 
tion, 6,299), ^"d 179 villages. The head-quarters are at Shevgaon. 
The population in 1901 was 92,384, compared with 100,373 ""* 1891. 
The decrease is attributable mainly to emigration to relief works in 
other talukas and to the Nizam's Dominions, consequent upon famine 
conditions. The density, 136 persons per square mile, is slightly above 
the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
2 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 15,000. Shevgaon lies in the valley of the 
Godavari. The average annual rainfall, over 26 inches, is higher than 
in other talukas. \Vith one or two exceptions, the streams which drain 
the tract all rise in the hills on the south and south-east, and flow 
northward into the Godavari. The villages are for the most part well 
supplied with water, which throughout the low grounds is always to be 
found at a moderate depth. Near the Godavari the soil is deep and 
stiff, but near the hills it is of a lighter composition and more easily 
worked. Early and late crops are grown in about equal proportions. 
The principal manufacture is coarse cotton cloth of various kinds. 

Shiggaon. — Head-quarters of the Bankapur tdluka, Dharwar Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 14° 59' N. and 75° 13' E., on the Poona- 
Harihar road. Population (1901), 5,232. Shiggaon contains temples 
of Kalmeshwar and Basappa and ten inscriptions, one in the temple 
of Basappa being dated 1121. There are three schools, of which one 
is for girls. 

Shikarpur District.— Former District in Sind, Bombay, lying be- 
tween 27"^ and 29° N. and 67° and 70° E., and comprising the four 
subdivisions of Rohri, Sukkur, Larkana, and Mehar. Of these, the 
last two were detached in 1901 to form the new District of Larkana, 
and the other two now constitute Sukkur 1 )istrict. See Larkana and 
SuKKUR Districts. 

Shikarpur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Sukkur District, Sind, 
Bombay, composed of the Shikarpur, Naushahro Abro, and Suk- 
Ki'R talukas. 

Shikarpur T^Xm}^^.— Tdluka of Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 27° 55' and 28° 10' N. and 68° 25' and 69° 9' E., with 
an area of 492 square miles. The population rose from 86,932 in 
1891 to 108,097 in 1901. The tdluka contains one town, Shikarpur 
(population, 49,491), the head-quarters; and 88 villages. The density, 
220 persons per square mile, largely exceeds the District average. 
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-7 lakhs. 


The northern portion of the ii'duka is hut poorly irrigated, but excel- 
lent garden crops are raised near Shikarpur town and good early- 
crops in the tracts irrigated by the Sind Canal. 

Shikarpur Town (t). — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 2-j° ^f N. and 68*^ 40' 
E., and connected by good roads and the North-Western Railway with 
Jacobabad, from which it is distant 26 miles south-east, with Sukkur 
23 miles north-west, and Larkana 40 miles north-east. It stands 
in a tract of low-lying country, annually flooded by canals from the 
Indus, the nearest point of which river is 18 miles west. The elevation 
of the town is only 194 feet above sea-level. Two branches of the Sind 
Canal — the Chhota Begari and the Rais Wah— flow on either side of the 
town, the former to the south and the latter to the north. The soil in 
the immediate vicinity is very rich, and produces heavy crops of grain 
and fruit. Population: (1881) 42,496, (1891) 42,004, and (1901) 
49,491. Hindus number 31,589, Muhammadans 17,804. The Muni- 
cipal Act was brought into force in 1855, since which date great 
sanitary improvements have been effected. Before that time, Shikar- 
pur was notorious for its unsightly appearance. The Stewartganj 
market (so called after a popular District officer) is a continuation 
of the old bazar, and is a commodious structure. The great covered 
bazar of Shikarpur is famous throughout Asia. To the east of the 
town are three large tanks, known as Sarwar Khan's, the Gillespie, 
and the Hazari tank. Broad roads and avenues to the east of the town 
still mark the site of the old cantonment ; but most of the barracks and 
houses are now dilapidated. Other features of interest are the European 
cemetery, opened in 185 1 ; the Collector's residence, shortly to be 
converted into a circuit-house; a swimming bath near the Executive 
Engineer's house ; and the military farm buildings occupying the old 
police lines. The income of the municipality during the decade ending 
1901 averaged Rs. 1,14,270. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,28,000, 
derived chiefly from octroi (Rs. 81,000) and conservancy taxes 
(Rs. 12,000) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 74,000, including Rs. 32,000 
for conservancy, Rs. 18,000 for education, and Rs. 9,000 for lighting. 
The town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a civil hospital, and 
a dispensary. The schools, including a Government high school with 
330 pupils, number 16, of which 12 are for boys and 4 for girls. 
The boys' schools have 1,606 pupils ; and the girls' schools, of which 
2 arc for Muhammadans and 2 for Hindus, have 562 pupils. Besides 
these, there are several private schools, including an English school 
with 159 pupils. 

The trade of Shikarpur has long been famous, under both native 
and British rule. The town is situated on one of the great routes 
from Sind to Khorasan via the Bolan Pass; and its commerce in 1841, 


which in quality remains much the same to-day, was thus described by 
Postans : — 

' Shikarpur receives from Karachi, Marwar, Mullan, Hahawal[)ur, 
Khairpur, and Ludhiana, European piece-goods, raw silk, ivory, cochi- 
neal, spices of sorts, coarse cotton cloth, kinkhnbs, manufactured silk, 
sugar-candy, coco-nuts, metals, kirami (groceries), drugs of sorts, indigo 
and other dyes, opium, and saffron ; from Kachhi, Khorasan, and the 
north-west, raw silk (Turkestan), various kinds of fruit, madder, tur- 
quoises, antimony, medicinal herbs, sulphur, alum, saffron, asafoetida, 
gums, cochineal, and horses. The exports from Shikarpur are confined 
to the transmission of goods to Khorasan through the Bolan Pass, and 
a tolerable trade with Kachhi (Bagh, Gandava, Kotri, and Dadar). They 
consist of indigo (the most important), henna, metals of all kinds, 
country coarse and fine cloths, European piece-goods (chintzes, &c.), 
Multani coarse cloth, silks (manufactured), groceries and spices, raw 
cotton, coarse sugar, opium, hemp-seeds, shields, embroidered horse- 
cloths, and dry grains. The revenue of Shikarpur derivable from trade 
amounted in 1840 to Rs. 54,736, and other taxes and revenue from 
lands belonging to the town, Rs. 16,645, making a total of Rs. 71,381, 
which was divided among the Khairpur and Hyderabad Talpur Mirs in 
the proportion of three-sevenths and four-sevenths, respectively.' 

Since Postans wrote, Shikarpur has lost much of its commercial impor- 
tance, owing to the construction of the North- Western Railway and its 
extension to Quetta. The enterprise of its merchants, however, renders 
it still a considerable entrepot. The local traders deal largely with 
Central Asia, where many of them pass long periods, while others travel 
to Bombay and all parts of India, and even to Europe or Japan. The 
principal manufactures are carpets and coarse cotton cloth. In the 
Government jail, baskets, reed chairs covered with leather, carpets, 
shoes, &c., are made by .the prisoners. 

Shikarpur Taluk. — Northern taluk of Shimoga District, Mysore, 
lying between 14° 5' and 14° 31' N. and 75° 8' and 75° 32' E., with an 
area of 429 square miles. The population in 1901 was 63,604, com- 
pared with 64,404 in 1891. The /J/«>^ contains two towns, Shikarpur 
(population, 5,007), the head-quarters, and Siralkoppa (2,270); and 
202 villages. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,80,000. 
The idliik is crossed from south to north by the Choradi or Kumudvati, 
which forms the large Masur-Madag tank on the northern border. Lines 
of low hills on all sides, covered with jungle, give shelter to numerous 
tigers, leopards, and other wild animals. Malnad (' highland ') and 
Maidan (' lowland ') here meet, so that the country partakes of the 
character of both. The Jambu hills run down the middle ; but the rest 
is gently undulating, the uncultivated parts being covered with scrub 
jungle, which in the south and west rises into forest. The best soil is 
in the north, on the banks of the Choradi. ' Dry cultivation ' is most 
successful in the east. Sugar-cane and rice, especially the former. 


are the chief crops. Jaggery and rice are the principal exports, the 
former being sent mostly to Dharwar, and the latter in various directions. 
Siralkoppa is the chief market for grain, and Shikarpur for cloth. 

Shikarpur Town (2). — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Shimoga District, Mysore, situated in 14° 16' N. and 75° 21' 
E , 2>Z miles north-west of Shimoga town. Population (1901), 5,007. It 
was originally a village called Malenhalli. The Keladi chiefs on gain- 
ing possession changed the name to Mahadanpur. During the time of 
either Haidar or Tipu it received the present name of Shikarpur or 
Shikaripur, 'hunting or hunters' town,' from the abundance of game 
met with during a royal hunt. It has a thriving trade in cloth. The 
old fort, at the east end, is now in ruins. The municipality dates from 
1870. The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 2,800 and Rs. 2,400. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 4,500. 

Shikarpur Town (3). — Town in the District and /rrZ/jJ/ of Buland- 
shahr. United Provinces, situated in 28° 17' N. and 78° x' E., 13 miles 
south of Bulandshahr. Population (1901), 12,249. The present town 
owes its existence to Sikandar Lodl, who built a hunting-lodge here 
at the end of the fifteenth century, near the site of an older town now 
represented by a mound called the Talpat Nagarl or Anyai Khera. North 
of the site is a remarkable building of red sandstone called the Bara 
Khamba, or 'twelve pillars,' forming an unfinished tomb begun by 
Saiyid Fazl-ullah, son-in-law of the emperor Farrukh Siyar, about 1718. 
The town contains a fine walled sarai built in the seventeenth century, 
and many substantial brick houses and a few handsome mosques. The 
American Methodists have a branch mission here. The town is admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 4,500. 
The chief manufactures are cotton cloth and shoes, and excellent wood- 
carving is turned out on a small scale. There are a middle school with 
190 pupils, and an aided primary school with 30. 

Shikohabad Tahsil, — South-western tahsU of Mainpuri District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 26° 53' and 27° 11 N. and 78° 29' and 78° 50' E., with 
an area of 294 square miles. Population increased from 140,093 in 
1891 to 157,659 in 1901. There are 287 villages and two towns, the 
larger of which is Shikohabad (population, 10,798), the tahsil head- 
quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,71,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The density of population, 536 persons per 
square mile, is the highest in the District. On the south-west the tahsil 
is bounded by the Jumna, while the Sirsa flows through the centre. 
The Sengar crosses the northern portion, and the Aganga rises near 
Shikohabad. North of the Sirsa the soil, though light, is very fertile ; 
but south of this river it becomes sandy and continues to deteriorate till 
the Jumna ravines are reached. The tract south of the Sirsa is irri- 


gated by the Bhognipur branch of the Lower Ganges Canal. When first 
constructed this work interfered with drainage, but cuts have been made 
to improve this. In 1902-3 the cultivated area was 196 square miles, 
of which 160 were irrigated. Wells supply more than half of the irrigated 
area, and the canal about a third. The dry tract suffered t(j some 
extent during the scarcity of 1896-7. 

Shikohabad Town. — Head-quarters of the tahslloi the same name 
in Mainpuri District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 6' N. and 
78° 57' E., on the Agra branch of the grand trunk road, and 2 miles 
from the Shikohabad station on the East Indian Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 10,798. The town is said to have been first colonized 
by a Musalman emigrant from Rapri, named Muhammad, after whom 
it was called Muhammadabad. The name was changed to Shikoh- 
abad in honour of Dara Shikoh. The Marathas held the place and 
built a fort north of the site ; but during the eighteenth century it 
often changed hands, and belonged at different times to the Jats, the 
Rohillas, Himmat Bahadur, and Oudh. The British obtained i)0s- 
session in 1801 and established a cantonment south-west of the town, 
the garrison of which was surprised by a Maratha force under Eleury in 
1802, after which the troops were moved to Mainpuri. Besides the 
tahsili, a dispensary is situated here. The town is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,600. Shikohabad is 
celebrated for its sweetmeats and manufacture of country cloth. A 
steam cotton-gin employed about 100 hands in 1904. The tahsili 
school has about 140 pupils and a girls' school 45. 

Shillong Subdivision. — Subdivision of the Khasi and Jaintia 
Hills District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 25" 7' and 
26° 7' N. and 90° 45' and 92° 16' E., with an area of 3,941 square 
miles. It contains one town, Shillong (population, 8,384), the 
head-quarters of the Administration; and 1,199 villages. The sub- 
division is a section of the Assam Range, and consists of a high table- 
land, which rises sharply from the Surma Valley to a height of alxjut 
4,000 feet, and north of the Shillong peak, which is over 6,000 feet, 
gradually falls away in a succession of low hills towards the Brahma- 
putra. Almost the whole of this country is outside the limits of British 
India, and consists of a number of petty Native States under the politi- 
cal superintendence of the Deputy-Commissioner. The majority of 
the indigenous inhabitants are Khasis, a tribe of Tibeto-Burman origin, 
which is possibly connected with the Mons of Anam and Cambodia. 
Coal is found in both the Nunnnulitic and Cretaceous strata, and there 
are enormous deposits of limestone on the southern face of the hills. 
The rainfall in this region is extraordinary, the average annual fall at 
Cherrapunji being 458 inches. The clouds, however, quickly Icjse 
their moisture, and at Shillong, which is less than 30 miles away, the 


fall is l)Ul 82 inches. The population in 1901 was 134,329, com- 
pared with 133,383 in 1891, the density being only 34 persons per 
square mile. 

Shillong Town. — Head-quarters of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills 
District, and summer capital of the Government of Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, situated in 25° 34' N. and 91° 53' E. It is connected with Gau- 
hati by a metalled road, 63 miles in length, on which there is a daily 
tonga service, and which is continued to Cherrapunji, a village over- 
looking the plains of Sylhet. The population at the last three enume- 
rations was : (1881) 3,737, (1891) 6,720, and (1901) 8,384. 

Shillong first became the civil station of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills 
in 1864, in the place of Cherrapunji. In 1874, on the formation ot 
Assam into a separate Province, it was chosen as the head-quarters 
of the new Administration, on account of its salubrity and its con- 
venient position between the Brahmaputra and Surma Valleys. The 
climate is singularly mild and equable, and the thermometer seldom 
rises in the hottest weather above 80° Fahrenheit. In the winter 
shallow water freezes at night, but snow seldom falls. The average 
annual rainfall is 82 inches. The town has been laid out with great 
taste and judgement among the pine woods at the foot of the Shillong 
range, which rises to a height of 6,450 feet above the sea. It is sur- 
rounded with rolling downs ; and visitors enjoy facilities for riding 
and driving, polo, golf, and cricket, which cannot usually be obtained 
in the hill stations of the Himalayas. 

Prior to 1897 most of the public offices and private houses were built 
of rough-hewn masonry. The earthquake of June 12 in that year 
reduced them to a heap of ruins in the space of a few seconds, wrecked 
the water-supply, and destroyed the embankment which dammed up 
the waters of the lake near Government House. The shock occurred 
at 5 o'clock on Saturday afternoon, when nearly every one was out of 
doors, and only 2 Europeans and 27 natives were killed. Had it taken 
place at night, there would have been few survivors. The station has 
since been rebuilt, but the use of brick and stone has been sedulously 
avoided. The water-supply is derived from the neighbouring hill 
streams, and is distributed in pipes all over the town. Shillong is the 
head-quarters of the Officer Commanding the i\ssam Brigade, of the 
heads of all the departments of Government, and of the Welsh Presby- 
terian Mission, which has done much to promote the spread of educa- 
tion in the hills. The garrison consists of a regiment of native infantry 
and a volunteer corps, which in 1904 had a strength of 34. There 
are a large Government press and two small private presses. Three 
monthly papers appear in the Khasi vernacular. 

The jail contains acconuiiodation for 78 persons, and the charitable 
dispensary has 17 beds. Shillong is administered as a Station under 


(Bengal) Act V of 1876. The municipal receipts and expenditure 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 29,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 25,500, chiefly from taxes on houses and 
lands and water-rate (Rs. 17,100), while the expenditure of Rs. 22,800 
included conservancy (Rs. 10,100) and public works and water-supply 
(Rs. 7,100). The receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in 
1903-4 were Rs. 8,300 and Rs. 7,000 respectively. The bazar contains 
a few shops, at which both Europeans and natives can .satisfy most of 
their requirements, while the Khasi market is one of the principal 
centres of trade in the hills. The principal educational institution is 
a high school, which in 1903-4 had an average attendance of 135 boys. 

Shimoga District. — District in the north-west of the State of 
Mysore, lying between 13° 27' and 14° 39' N. and 74° 38' and 76° 4' E., 
with an area of 4,025 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
Dharwar District of Bombay; on the east by Chitaldroog ; on the 
south by Kadur ; and on the west by South and North Kanara Dis- 

The greater part of the District is Malnad (' hill country '), which 
includes the whole area west of a line drawn from Shikarpur to 
Gajanur ; the east is Maidan or Bayal-sTme (' plain 
country'). The first is a region of tropical forests asnects 

and mountain wilds. Trees of the largest size stand 
thickly together in miles of unbroken ranks, their giant trunks entwined 
with python-like creepers, their massive arms decked with a thousand 
bright blossoming' orchids. Birds of rare plumage flit from bough to 
bough. From the thick woods, which abruptly terminate on verdant 
swards, bison issue forth at dawn and afternoon to browse on the rich 
herbage, while large herds of sdmbar pass rapidly across the hill-sides. 
Packs of wild dogs cross the path, hunting in company, and the 
warning boom of the great langttr monkey is heard from the lofty trees. 
The bamboo forest has beauties of its own. The elegant areca-palms 
of Nagar ; the ka)is of Sorab, with the rich hues of wild cinnamon and 
the sombre green of the jack, intermingled with the truncated leaf of 
the /^f?,?/«-palm, and the waving branches of the pepper-vine ; the mag- 
nificent avenues of the ^///7/rt-tree in Sagar — all unite to vary the 
attractions of this region of natural beauty. The view from the head 
of the descent to the Gersoppa Falls is probably one of the choicest 
bits of scenery in the world. The features of the open country are 
tame in comparison with those of the woodland tracts, but there is 
much that is picturescjue in the fertile taluk of Channagiri, with its 
splendid Solekere tank. 

The main part of the District consists of the western slopes of the 
upper Tungabhadra valley. This river is formed by the union at 
Kadali in the Shimoga idluk of the twin streams Tunga and Bhadra, 


of which the former runs for iiiobt of its ccjurse within this District, 
in a north-easterly direction. From the point of confluence the united 
river runs north to the frontier. The Sharavati rises near Kavaledurga 
in tlie south-west, and runs north-west to the frontier, where it turns 
west and hurls itself down the Ghats in the Jog or far-famed Gersoppa 
Falls, a sheer descent of 830 feet. The streams between Kodachadri 
and Kavaledurga flow west or south-west into Kanara. The west of 
the District, resting upon the Ghats, is very mountainous, the high- 
est point being Kodachadri, 4,411 feet above the sea. Govardhan- 
giri and Chandragutti are also conspicuous hills, the latter rising 
to 2,794 feet. A chain of hills runs from Mandagadde on the Tunga 
north by Anantapur towards Sorab, with a ridge west from Atavadi 
to Talguppa. On the east are two lines of low stony hills stretching 
from the south of Channagiri to the frontier, one following the course 
of the Tungabhadra northwards, the other crossing the river near 
Holehonnur and passing near Shikarpur. The south-west around 
Nagar and Kavaledurga is full of hills. 

The Shimoga schist band is a southern continuation of that on 
which the town of Dharwar is situated. Crossing the Tungabhadra 
near Harihar, it extends southwards into Kadur District. Its western 
boundary is probably continuous from Anantapur to the Kudremukh. 
West from Anantapur to Talguppa the country is covered by a great 
spread of laterite, beneath which gneiss is exposed in deep nullahs. 
In places the laterite is over 100 feet in thickness. It is quarried in 
square blocks, which form the most common building material, being 
used not only for dwelling-houses but for bridges and other public 
structures. Broken up, it forms metal for roads. 

Magnificent evergreen forest covers the west, many of the hills being 
heavily wooded up to their summits. On all sides trunks with clear 
stems of from 80 to 100 feet to the first branch meet the eye. The 
more valuable kinds are poon {Calophylluin toinenfosum), wild jack, 
ebony, sofue {Soymida febrifuga), heigni {Hopea Wightiana), eruol, dhupa 
{Valeria indica), the large devaddram {Erythroxylo?i), gamboge, and 
a species of cedar. Farther east is a rich belt, in which the more 
important trees are teak, black-wood, honiie {Fterocarpus Marsupiuiii), 
inatii {TermifuiHa tonientosa), sa/iipagi {Michelia Cha/iipaca), arsentega 
{Adina iordifo/ia), alale ( Terniinalia Chebu/a), bdgi {Albizzia Lebbek), 
dindiga {Anogeissus /ati/olia), and others. Sorab abounds with kdns, 
apparently the remains of old forests. Many are cultivated with 
pepper-vines, and sometimes coffee. The sago-palm {Caryohi urens) 
is also grown for the sake of its toddy. From Mandagadde a long 
stretch of wooded country runs north, in which are found good teak, 
and much second-class timber, with a large quantity aS. Inga xylocarpa^ 
used for making charcoal for the iron mines. 


The rainfall rapidly diminishes eastwards from the Ghat region. 
Thus, while the annual fall at Nagar averages about 190 inches, 
at Tirthahalli 114, at Sagar 70, and at Sorab 57, it is only about 35 at 
Shimoga and 25 at Channagiri. For about 25 miles from the Ghats 
the south-west monsoon is felt in full force. At Shimoga town, which 
is 40 miles distant, it often produces nothing more than driving clouds, 
with occasional drizzle and a few days of moderately heavy rain. East 
of the Tungabhadra the wind blows with much force, but the clouds 
rarely break. The heaviest rains on this side are in May and October, 
and come in thunderstorms from the eastward. The mean temperature 
at Shimoga town may be stated as ranging from 55° to 87°. 'i'he sea- 
breeze relieves the heat in the hot season, and is distinctly felt at 

The Mauryas are said in inscriptions to have ruled over Kuntala, 
which included some parts of this District. A Chandra Gupta is 
described as having ruled Nagarakhanda (the Shikar- 
pur til/uk). Asoka sent a Buddhist missionary to 
Banavasi, on the north-west frontier, in the third century B.C. The 
next record is of the Satavahanas, containing a grant by Satakarni at 
Malavalli in the Shikarpur idluk, probably of the second century .\. o. 
They were followed by the Kadambas, whose capital was Banavasi, but 
their place of origin was Sthanakundur (Tillagunda in the Shikarpur 
fa/ifk), where the interesting story of their rise is recorded on a pillar. 
Their progenitor, who was a Brahman, went to the Pallava capital 
Kanchi (Conjeeveram) in order to complete his Vedic studies. While 
there, he had a violent quarrel with Pallava horsemen, and in order to 
be revenged adopted the life of a Kshattriya. Perfecting himself in the 
use of arms, he overcame the frontier guards, and established himself 
in the inaccessible forests near SrTparvata (Kurnool District), where he 
became so powerful that he levied tribute from the great Bana and 
other kings. The Pallavas tried to put him down, but he defeated 
them in various ways, till they were compelled to make peace with him, 
and recognize him as king of the Kadamba territory. These events 
must be assigned to the second or third century. Among his suc- 
cessors, Kakustha gave his daughter in marriage to the Gupta king, 
perhaps Samudra Gupta, whose expedition to the South in the fourth 
century is recorded on the [)illar m the fort at Allahabad. 

While the Kadambas were ruling in the west of the District, the 
Gangas were established in the east. The story of their rise is 
recorded in inscriptions at Humcha and near Shimoga. In the fourth 
century the Ganga king married the Kadamba king's sister. In the 
fifth century the Chalukyas from the north had subdued the whole of 
Kuntala, and made Vatapi (Badami in Bijapur District) their capital. 
They profess to have subjected the Kadambas in the sixth century. 



In the seventh century they separated into two famiUes, of whom the 
Western Chalukyas continued to rule from Badanii. Shimoga District 
was formed into the Banavase * twelve thousand ' ' province, with its 
seat of government at Belgami (Shikarpur tCxIuk). But in the eighth 
century they were overcome by the Rashtrakutas, and did not regain 
supremacy for 200 years. The Rashtrakutas had their capital at Manya- 
kheta (Malkhed in the Nizam's Dominions). They first seized and 
imprisoned the Ganga king, appointing their own viceroys to govern 
his territories. But eventually they reinstated him and entered into 
alliance with the Gangas. Intermarriages now took place between 
the two families ; and in the tenth century, in return for their help 
in defeating the Cholas, the Banavase ' twelve thousand ' and other 
provinces were again added to the Ganga kingdom by the Rashtra- 
kutas, Meanwhile, in the seventh or eighth century, a Jain principality 
was established at Pomburchchha or Honibucha (Humcha) by Jina- 
datta, a prince of the Ugra family and Solar race from Muttra. His 
line assumed the name of Santara ; and, bringing under their control 
all the country as far as Kalasa (Kadur District), they descended the 
Ghats to Sisila or Sisukali, and finally established their capital at 
Karkala (South Kanara), appointing lieutenants at Barkur, Bangadi, 
Mudu-Bidare, and Mulki. The territories thus acquired yielded a 
revenue of 9 lakhs of pagodas above and 9 lakhs below the Ghats. 
In course of time the kings became Lingayats, and under the name 
of Bhairarasa Wodeyars continued in power down to the sixteenth 
century, being subordinate in turn to the Chalukyas, Hoysalas, and 
Vijayanagar, till their territories were subdued by the Keladi chiefs. 

In 973 the Rashtrakutas were overthrown, and the Western 
Chalukyas regained their ascendancy. Their capital was now estab- 
lished at Kalyani. The Banavase * twelve thousand ' was one of the 
most important provinces of their empire. But in 11 55 the Chalukyas 
were supplanted by their minister Bijjala, of the Kalachuri family. 
In his reign the Lingayat religion, which prevails throughout the 
Kannada and Telugu countries, was founded by Basava, who was 
his minister, and who gave his sister to the king in marriage. But 
the dynasty lasted for only three generations, till 1183. By this time 
the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra (Halebid in Hassan District) had sub- 
dued the whole of Mysore, and Banavase was one of their provinces. 
They pushed on to the Kistna, and thus came into collision with the 
Seunas, or Yadavas, of Deogiri (Daulatabad). The latter made some 
head in the thirteenth century, and established themselves in parts 
of the north of the country. But in the next century, both Seunas 

' These miiiierical designations, almost invariably attached to the names of ancient ■ 

divisions in Mysore, apparently refer to their revenue capacity or to the number of M: 
their nads. 


and Hoysalas fell victims to the Musalman invasions fioiu Delhi. The 
Vijayanagar kingdom then arose, which ultimately ruled over all the 
countries south of the Kistna. Under it, in the sixteenth century, 
were established the line of the Keladi, Ikkeri, or Bednur chiefs in 
the west of the District, and of the Basavapatna or Tarikere chiefs 
in the east. The Keladi chiefs were Lingayats ; and their founder, 
Sadasiva Raya Naik, who took his name from his overlord, first 
received the government of Barkur, Mangalore, and Chandiagutti. 
His successor removed the capital to Ikkeri. After the fall of Vijaya- 
nagar, Venkatap[)a Naik (whom the Portuguese called Venkapor, 
king of Kanara) assumed independence, and in the next reign the 
capital was finally removed to Bednur (now Nagar). Sivappa Naik, 
who came to the throne in 1645, overran all the country east to 
Shimoga, south to Manjarabad, and west throughout the whole of 
Kanara. The fugitive king of Vijayanagar, who came to him for 
[)rotection, was established by him at Belur and Sakkarepatna, and 
he even attempted to besiege Seringapatam on his behalf. Sivappa 
Naik died in 1660; and his successors held the country till 1763, 
when Haidar All captured Bednur, and brought their power to an 
end. Haidar formed the design of making here a new ca[)ital for 
himself, and gave it the name of Haidarnagar, the present Nagar. 
The Basavapatna chiefs were driven from their seat by the Bijapur 
invasions, and retired first to Sante-Bennur, and finally to Tarikere 
(Kadur District). In 1783, in the war between the British and 
Mysore, troops from Bombay captured Bednur, but it was recovered 
by Tipu Sultan. After the fall of Seringapatam in 1799,3 Maratha 
chief named Dhundia Wagh ravaged Shimoga and the east, but 
was pursued and slain by a force under Colonel Wellesley (the future 
Duke of Wellington). In 1830 a rebellion broke out in the Nagar 
country, owing to the Raja's misrule, and the Tarikere chief 
escaped from Mysore to join the insurgents. When the insurrec- 
tion had been put down, the Mysore State was placed under a 
British Commission, which continued to govern the country till the 
rendition in 1881. 

The Shikarpur taluk is full of antiquities. The Satakarni inscription 
at Malavalli, perhaps of the second century, is the oldest, and on the 
same pillar, in the same Prakrit language, is a Kadamba inscription. 
But the remains at Belgami, the former capital of this Banavase 
province, throw all the others into the shade. They include many 
ruined temples remarkable for their carving, and numerous inscriptions, 
mostly of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The fine Bherundesvara 
pillar is an elegant monolith, 30^ feet high and i^ thick, with a double- 
headed eagle of human form, 4 feet high, at the top, called Ganda- 
bherunda. At Bandanikke, the chief city of Nagarakhanda, are also 

T 2 



richly carved temples, all in ruins. At Huniclia are the remains of 
what must have been splendid Jain temples, and at Ikkeri is a fine 
Aghoresvara temple. The latter is Dravidian, but the others are 
Chalukyan in style. The inscriptions of the District have been trans- 
lated and i)ublished. 

The population at each Census in the last thirty years was: (1871) 
507.856, (1881) 507,424, (1891) 528,996, and (1901) 53'>736- The 
decline in the first decade was due to the famine 
of 1876-8. By religion, in 1901 there were 468,435 
Hindus, 32,593 Musalmans, 9,506 Animists, 3,523 Jains, and 1,967 
Christians. The density is 132 persons per square mile, that for the 
State being 185. The number of towns is 14, and of villages 2,017. 
The largest place is Shlmoga Town, the head-cjuarters, with a popula- 
tion of 6,240 in 1901, reduced from 11,340 in 1891 owing to plague. 

The following table gives the principal statistics of population in 
1901 : — 


Number of 



"° ci - . 




ttc coc 

<» s 


a " o- 

u rt « u 







•-3 CQ 


nd I 








5,390 1 

Shimoga . 





- 2.8 







- 3-.7 






7 ',493 


+ 2-1 








— 1-2 


Honnali . 






+ 8.2 






8 ',453 


+ 8.3 








_ 2-8 


District total 













4 0.6 


Among castes, Lingayats preponderate, numbering 119,000; \\"ok- 
kaligas or cultivators number 90,000 ; the outcaste Holeyas and 
Madigas, 31,000 and 22,000; Kurubas or shepherds, 24,000; Bedas, 
23,000. The number of Brahmans is 26,000. Of Musalman sects 
the Shaikhs form three-fourths, being 24,000 in number. Among the 
nomad tribes Lambaiiis number 17,000; Iruligas, 4,000; and Koramas, 
3,800. By occupation, 72-5 per cent, arc engaged in agriculture and 
pasture, 10-9 per cent, in unskilled labour not agricultural, 7-2 per 
cent, in the preparation and supply of material substances, and 
2-8 per cent, in the State service. 

Christians number 1,967, of whom 1,897 are natives. The Roman 
Catholic and Wesleyan Missions are located at Shimoga town, and 
visit various out-stations. 

The general substratum of laterite in the western taluks, wherever 






it approaches the surfare, checks vegetation. The soil in the rice 

valleys, characteristic of the Mulnad, is loose and sandy, while that 

of garden lands is stiff and clayey. The richest soil 

is in the north-east, from the Sulekere ncjrthwards. 

The black soil prevails here, and also around \yamti and Belgutti 

in the Honnali taluk. 

The following table gives statistics of cultivation for 1903-4 : — 


Area, in square miles, shown in the revenue accounts. 





























Shikarpur . 
Channat^iri . 








Rice is the principal crop. Areca-nut is extensively grown in the 
Nagar, Sagar, and Tirthahalli taluks, that of the first-named tract 
being considered superior to any in the State. Sugar-cane is largely 
raised in Shikarpur. Honnali chiefly produces different kinds of 'dry' 
grains, as well as cotton. Pepper grows wild in the forests of Nagar 
and Sorab, while cardamoms are produced in the jungles about 
Agumbi, though they are not so good as those raised in areca gardens. 
All kinds of 'wet' cultivation are carried on from the Sulekere tank. 
The area occupied by rice in 1903-4 was 383 square miles: by ragi, 
141 ; gram, 72 ; other food-grains, 294 ; garden produce, 26 : oilseeds, 
27 ; sugar-cane, 14. 

During the twelve years ending 1904 a sum of R.s. 9,000 was 
advanced for land improvement, in addition to Rs. 14,300 for irri- 
gation wells, and Rs. 7,000 for field embankments. 

The area irrigated from channels is 7 square miles, from tanks and 
wells 232, and from other sources 187 square miles. The number 
of tanks is 8,358, of which 583 are classed as ' major.' 

The State forests cover an area of 343 square miles, ' reserved ' lands 
153, and plantations 4. Teak, other timber, bamboos, and sandal- 
wood are the chief sources of forest income. The receipts in 1903-4 
amounted to 4-6 lakhs. 

Iron is extracted in some parts. On the summit of the Ghats stones 
are frequently found possessing magnetic properties, as at Kodachadri. 
Laterite is abundant in the west, and extensively quarried for building 
purposes. Gold is widely diffused, and a broad auriferous tract extends 


throughout the eastern half of the District. The Honnali gold-mines, 
which were commenced some time ago, have suspended work, owing 
partly to the influx of water. The Mysore-Nagar Company started 
work near Benkipur, hut no good results have been obtained. 1 )eposiis 
of manganese have been discovered to the west of Shimoga, and large 
quantities have been raised. 

The District is noted for its beautiful sandal-wood carving, of which 
industry Sorab is the principal seat. The chief articles of manufac- 
ture are coarse cotton cloth, woollen blankets, iron 

coi^mtmicatfons. ^'■^'^^®^' ^""^^^ ^"^ copper vessels, earthenware, jag- 
gery, and oils. A few striped carpets are made at 
Shikarpur \ pieces of chintz at Shimoga and Ayanur ; stone jugs at 
Tlrthahalli ; handmills in the Honnali tdluk, and ropes of various 
kinds. There are reported to be 970 looms for cotton, 402 for wool, 
48 for other fibres, 424 iron-works, 12 brass and copper-works, 88 oil- 
mills, and 1,845 jaggery-mills. 

The recent opening of a branch railway from Shimoga to Birur will 
no doubt stimulate trade. The most important articles of export are 
jaggery, earthenware, leathern goods, woollen blankets, and oils. Of im- 
ported articles, piece-goods take the first place, then woollen blankets, 
oils, gold ornaments, and vessels of brass, copper, and bell-metal. 

A branch of the Southern Mahratta Railway runs from Birur (Kadur 
District) to Shimoga town, of which 16 miles lie in the south-east of 
this District. A short line from Shimoga westwards is proposed, for 
the transport of the manganese ore discovered there. The length of 
Provincial roads is 219 miles, and of District fund roads 450 miles. 

The District is divided into eight taluks : Channagiri, Honn.\li, 

Nagar, Sagar, Shikarpur, Shimoga, Sorab, and Tirthahalli. 

The following subdivisions were formed in 1903, 
Administration. ,, ,. , c \ • 1^ ^ r^ • • 

and placed in charge of Assistant Commissioners : 

Shimoga and Tirthahalli, with head-quarters at Shimoga; Honnali, 

Shikarpur, and Channagiri, with head-quarters at Shimoga ; Sagar, 

Sorab, and Nagar, with head-quarters at Sagar. 

The District court at Shimoga exercises jurisdiction over Shimoga, 
Kadur, and Chitaldroog Districts, while the Subordinate Judge's court 
at Shimoga deals with Shimoga District and a part of Kadur and 
Chitaldroog Districts. There are also Munsifs' courts at Shimoga 
and Honnali. In the border tract there is a certain amount of 
serious crime. 

The land revenue and total revenue are shown in the table on the 
next page, in thousands of rupees. 

The revenue survey and settlement were introduced into the north 
of the District between 1870 and 1874, and into the south between 
1875 and 1878. In 1903-4 the incidence of land revenue per acre 



of cultivated area was Rs. 1-14-1. The average rate of assessment 
per acre on 'dry' land is R. 0-11-5 (maximum scale Rs. 2-8, 
minimum scale R. 0-0-6) ; on 'wet' land, Rs. 3 (maximum scale 
Rs. 6-8, minimum scale R. 0-2) ; and on garden land, Rs. i 2-1 2-1 r 
(maximum scale Rs. 25, minimum scale Rs. 1-8). 





Land revenue 
Total revenue 






In 1903-4 there were ten municipalities — Shimoga, Kumsi, Chan- 
nagiri, Honnali, Nyamti, Shikarpur, Sorab, Sagar, Kalurkatte, and 
Tirthahalli— with a total income of Rs. 36,000 and an expenditure 
of Rs. 46,500. There were also four village Unions — Benkipur, Hole- 
honnur, Siralkoppa, and Nagar — whose income and expenditure were 
Rs. 6,000 and Rs, 15,000. The District and idhik boards had an 
income of Rs. 90,000 in 1903-4, chiefly derived from a share of the 
Local fund cess, and spent Rs. 78,000, including Rs. 70,000 on roads 
and buildings. 

The strength of the police force in 1904 was one superior officer, 
93 subordinate officers, and 493 constables, of whom 2 officers and 
30 constables formed the special reserve. In the 8 lock-ups the daily 
average of prisoners was 32. 

In 1901 the percentage of literate persons was 5-3 (9-6 males 
and 0-4 females). The number of schools increased from 369 with 
9,329 pupils in 1890-1 to 406 with 11,828 pupils in 1900-1. In 
1903-4 there were 359 schools (242 public and 117 private) with 
9,So2 pupils, of whom 1,418 were girls. 

Besides the civil hospital at Shimoga town, there are 13 dispen- 
saries, in which 101,732 patients were treated in 1904, of whom 
434 were in-patients, the number of beds available being 32 for men 
and 26 for women. The total expenditure was Rs. 34,000. 

There were 2,685 persons vaccinated in 1904, or 5 per 1,000 of the 

Shimoga Taluk. — South-eastern taluk of Shimoga District, Mysore, 
including the Kumsi sub-A?//<'/-, and lying between 13° 42' and 14'' 
8' N. and 75° 16' and 75° 53' E., with an area of 687 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 91,639, compared with 94,716 in 1891. 
The taluk contains four towns, Shimoga (population, 6,240), the Dis- 
trict and taluk head-quarters, Benkipur (2,676), Kumsi (2,001), and 
Holehonnur (1,931); and 401 villages. The land revenue demand 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,77,000. The twin rivers, the Tunga and the 
Bhadra, entering the taluk on the south, flow north and unite at 
Kudali, north of Shimoga town, whence the Tungabhadra continues 

290 SHIMOGA TAl.l'K 

north with a winding course. The greater part of the taluk in the 
west and south is covered with liills and forests, abounding in tigers, 
leopards, bears, and other wild animals. Cultivation is almost con- 
fined to the level valleys of the rivers, but the beds of these are too 
deep to be used for irrigation. On the other hand, timber is floated 
down, especially in the Tunga. The soils on either bank of the 
Tungabhadra to the north are very rich, and the climate is remark- 
ably favourable to ' dry ' cultivation. Rdgi is the staple crop on red 
soil, but the black soils produce jola, cotton, and oilseeds. The rice 
lands are poor. A little sugar-cane is grown, besides areca-nut, betel- 
leaf, and plantains. 

Shimoga Town. — Head-quarters of the District and taluk of the 
.same name, Mysore State, situated in 13° 56' N. and 75° 35' E., on 
the Tunga river, and terminus of the Birur-Shimoga railway line. 
Population fell to 6,240 in 1901 from 11,340 in 1891, chiefly owing 
to plague. In early times Mandali, a suburb to the south, was an 
important place under the Gangas. At a later period Shimoga was 
ruled by the Chalukyas and the Hoysalas, after which it came under 
Vijayanagar. From the sixteenth century it was held by the Keladi 
or Bednur kings, until Bednur was taken by Haidar All in 1763. 
The Marathas under Parasuram Bhao, in a battle near Shimoga in 
1798, forced Tipu Sultan's army under the Benki Nawab to retire 
on Bednur, and besieged Shimoga, which had to capitulate, and was 
plundered and burnt. After the fall of Tipil in 1799 it was again 
pillaged by Dhundia Wagh, and left a heap of ruins. The present 
town has mostly sprung up during the last half of the nineteenth 
century, the Tunga being here cro.ssed by a fine bridge. It is a prin- 
cipal station of the Roman Catholic and Wesleyan Missions. The 
municipality dates from 1870. The receipts and expenditure during 
the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 15,600 and Rs. 16,000. In 
T 903-4 they were Rs. 17,000 and Rs. 24,600. 

Shinaki. — A group of small republics in the valley of the Indus, 
lying west of Kashmir and south of Gilgit. The territory extends from 
the junction of the Astor river with the Indus to Seo on the right bank 
and Jalkot on the left bank of the latter river. Within this area the 
people are grouped in communities inhabiting one or more nullahs, 
each community f(^rming a separate republic. Starting from the junc- 
tion at Ramghat these are, in order : on the right bank, Gor, Kinergah, 
and Hodar ; and on the left bank, Bunar, Thak, Butogah, Giche, and 
Thor. They constitute the area known as the Chilas subdivision of 
the Gilgit Agency, while Chilas proper includes Kinergah, Butogah. 
and Giche. Lower down the river are Darel, Tangir, Khilli, and Seo 
on the right bank, and Harban, Sazin, and Jalkot on the left bank. 

After the conquest of Chilas by Kashmir in 1851, the Maharaja 

SHlRAXr cor. VTA')' 29 T 

imposed a trilnite in gold-dust, and arranged lor the administration 
of the country as part of the Gilgit district. A British Agency was 
re-estabUshed at Gilgit in 1889, which included, among other terri- 
tory, the Chilas subdivision described above except Thor. In 1892 
a British mission to Gor was attacked by the Chilasis, which led to 
the occupation of their country and the appointment of a Political 
officer at Chilas. The right of the Kashmir Darbar to construct 
roads and station a limited number of troops in the territory was 
secured, but the autonomy of the Chilasis was guaranteed. Under 
the revised arrangements made in 1897 the republics pay small fixed 
sums to the Maharaja, and in 1899 Thor was incorporated in Chilas. 
Darel has rendered a tribute of gold-dust to Kashmir since 1866, 
when the Maharaja's troops raided the country. The tribute is now 
paid through the Punial governor. Tangir pays a small tribute to the 
governor of Yasin. The remaining communities have no political 
relations with either Kashmir or British India, except Jalkot, which 
from its position dominates Thor and the head of the Kagan valley 
in the North-West Frontier Province. 

Shipki Pass.— A pass in Tibet at the eastern extremity of the 
Hindustan-Tibet road, situated in 31° 49' N. and 78° 44' E. Strictly 
speaking, Shipki is a large Tartar village, 10,000 feet above the sea, 
in Tibet, which is reached from the Kanawar valley, Bashahr State, 
Punjab, by two routes, one leading through the gorge by which the 
Sutlej enters India, the other over the Kang-wa La or pass, 15,000 feet 
in height. 

Shirani Country, — A tract on the western border of Dera Ismail 
Khan District, North- West Frontier Province, lying between 31° 30' 
and 32° N. and 69° 45' and 70° 20' E. It is bordered on the north 
by Wazlristan, on the west by Baluchistan, and on the south by the 
Usterana Afghans. The Sulaiman range, running from north to south, 
divides the country into two part.s, Largha or ' lowland,' and Bargha or 
'highland.' The former had a population of 12,371 in 1901, and is 
under the political control of the North-West Frontier Province; the 
latter is under that of Baluchistan. The Largha Shirani country is 
administered by an Extra-Assistant Commissioner with head-quarters 
at Drazinda, acting under the general supervision of the Deputy- 
Commissioner of Dera Ismail Khan. The country is poor, iht- 
lowlanders being dependent on agriculture, while the Bar Shiranis 
lead a pastoral life on the higher slopes of the Takht-i-Sulaiman, to 
which the flocks and herds of lx)th sections are sent in summer. 
The higher hills are covered with forests of the chil^oza {Finns 
gerarJiafia), in which each section of the tribe has a recognized share, 
and the profits from the sale of the fruit form a considerable item in 
their income. The Shiranis are Afghans, and intensely democratic, 


though each section has a nominal chief or 7ieka. Tribal cohesion is 
weak. Before annexation the Shiranis had been the terror of the 
frontier, carrying off cattle and men and women, whom they held to 
ransom. They sacked Draband, which was held by a small Sikh 
garrison, and by 1848 had laid waste the border for miles. In 1853 
a British expedition sent against the tribe secured their submission, 
but in 1890 a force had to be sent to coerce the Khiddarzai clan. 

In 1899 an agreement was concluded with the tribe, whereby they 
agreed to pay Rs. 2,000 as revenue, and the British undertook the 
internal administration of the country. This was carried on success- 
fully until 1902, when the Extra- Assistant Commissioner was murdered 
by a jamaddr in the Shirani levies. The murderer was joined by 
thirty or forty malcontents, mostly from the Khiddarzai section of the 
Oba Khel, and for some months evaded a military force in the higher 
ranges of the Takht-i-Sulaiman. He finally made good his escape to 
Afghanistan with his gang, whence they come raiding from time to 

Shirhatti. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in the Sangli State, Bombay, situated in 15° 14' N. and 75° 39' E., 
12 miles south-east of Gadag on the Southern Mahratta Railway. 
Population (1901), 4,393. The town is administered as a municipality 
with an income of Rs. 1,200, and contains a dispensary. The three 
most important places of interest are the fort, Avlingva's math, and 
Fakirswami's math. The fort, according to one account, was built by 
Khangavnda Desai, and according to another by Ankushkhan of 
Lakshmeshwar. At Shirhatti a fair in honour of Faklrswami is held 
in April-May, attended by about 30,000 people. 

Shirol. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name in 
the Kolhapur State, Bombay, situated in 16° 44' N. and 74° 38' E., 
about 4 miles north of the meeting of the Panchganga and Kistna, 
and about 6 miles from Shirol Road station on the Kolhapur State 
Railway. Population (1901), 7,864. Shirol is administered as a 
municipality, with an income of Rs. 2,000. It contains two large 
temples, two mosques, and a tower. Shirol is sometimes called 
Ghumat Shirol or ' Shirol-with-the-dome,' because it used to contain 
the large domed tomb of a Bijapur officer named Nur Khan, which 
Parasuram Bhau Patvardhan is said to have destroyed in 1779. The 
town is guarded b)- a ditch and a wall and is strengthened by an inner 
citadel. During the wars between Kolhapur and the Patvardhans in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century Shirol changed hands several 
times. In 1780 it was finally taken by Sivajl III, and has since 
remained under Kolhapur. At a suburb known as Narsoba Vadi a 
large fair, attended by 10,000 people, is held twice a year in honour 
of IJattatraya. 



Shirpur Taluka. — Ta/i/kn of West Khandesh District, Bombay, 
lying between 21° 11' and 21° 38' N. and 74" 42' and 75° 17' E., with 
an area of 651 square miles. It contains one town, Shirpur (popu- 
lation, 9,023), the head-quarters ; and 99 villages. The population 
in 1901 was 50,177, compared with 56,012 in 1891. The density, 
77 persons per square mile, is only about half the average for the 
District. 'I'he demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-9 lakhs, 
and for cesses Rs. 12,000. A broken range of the Satpuras, running 
from east to west, divides Shirpur into two parts, each with distinct 
natural features. The northern part comprises a wild and hilly 
country, sparsely peopled by Bhils. The southern is an unbroken 
plain, with no trees except near village sites. The population is dense 
near the banks of the Tapti, but becomes scanty as the hills are 
approached. Although the tdhtka has three rivers that flow throughout 
the year — the Tapti, and its tributaries the Anar and the Arunavatl — 
and numerous other streams from the Satpuras, the supply of surface 
water is on the whole scanty. The prevailing black soil is a rich loam 
resting on a yellowish subsoil. The annual rainfall averages nearly 
24 inches. 

Shirpur Tcwn. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
West Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 2i°2i'N. and 74° 53' E., 
on the Bombay-Agra road, 2iZ miles north of Dhulia. Population 
(1901), 9,023. Shirpur suffered severely from floods in 1875, when 
water stood in places 6 feet deep, destroying property to the value of 
Rs. 32,000. It has been a municipality since 1870, with an average 
income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 9,700. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 9,800. The town contains four cotton-ginning and 
pressing factories, a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, and five 
schools, with 552 pupils, of which one, with 20 pupils, is for girls. 

Shivaganga. — Zamindari tahsll, estate, and town in Madura 
District, Madras. See Sivaganga. 

Shivarajpur. — Tahstl of Cawnpore District, United Provinces, 
conterminous with the pargatia of the same name, lying along the 
Ganges between 26° 31'' and 26° 46' N. and 79° 55' and 80° 12' E., 
with an area of 276 square miles. Population increased very slightly 
from 147,823 in 1891 to 147,910 in 1901. There are 311 villages, but 
no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,75,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The density of population, 536 persons per 
square mile, is above the District average. Along the Ganges lies 
a high ridge of hard barren or sandy soil. A small river, called the 
Non, drains a fertile tract south of this area, and the rest of the iahsil 
is composed of rich loam through which the Pandu flows. In the west 
extensive swamps and clay land are found, where rice is grown. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 145 square miles, of which 80 


were irrigated. The Tawnpore branch of the Lower Ganges Canal 
supphes more than two-thirds of the irrigated area. 

Shivbara. Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Shivganga.— Valley in the Salt Range, Jhelum District, Punjab, 
situated in 32° 43' N. and 72° 53' E., 3 miles north-east of Malot. In 
it stands a small temple in the later Kashmir style ; and near Warala, 
a hamlet on the adjacent spur, a Buddhist sculpture was found by the 
villagers some years ago and set up by Hindus in a small temple at 
Shivganga. Having recently been broken and thus rendered useless 
for purposes of worship, the Hindus allowed its fragments to be sent to 
the Lahore Museum, where it was restored. The relief originally con- 
tained eighteen or nineteen figures, the central one, a Bodhisattva, 
carved in a somewhat late stage of Gandhara art. 

Shivner. — Hill fort of the town of Junnar, in the Junnar tdlnka of 
Poona District, Bombay, situated in 19° 12' N. and 73° 52' E., not far 
from Harischandragarh, and about 56 miles north of Poona city. The 
hill of Shivner rises over 1,000 feet, and stretches about a mile across 
the plain. It is triangular in shape, narrowing from a southern base of 
about 800 yards to a point of rock in the north. Near the south, the 
lower slopes of its eastern face are crossed by a belt of rock 40 or 
50 feet high. The south-west of the hill is broken, and about half-way 
up is strengthened by outworks and bastioned walls. During the first 
and second and probably the third centuries after Christ, the hill 
seems to have been a great Buddhist centre. About 50 cells and 
chapels remain. They are found on three sides of the hill, but most 
of them are cut in its eastern face. Shivner was granted in 1599 to 
SivajI's grandfather, MalojT Bhonsla; and here in 1627 Sivajl was born. 
It was often taken and retaken ; and once, in 1670, the forces of Sivajf 
himself were beaten back by its Mughal garrison. Besides its five 
gates and solid fortifications, it is celebrated for its deep springs. They 
rise in pillared tanks of great depth, supposed to be coeval with the 
series of Buddhist caves which pierce the lower portion of the scarp. 
The fort commands the road leading to the Nanaghat and Malsejghat, 
formerly the chief line of communication between this part of the 
I')eccan and the coast. 

[For further information respecting Shivner fort and caves, see the 
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, vol. xviii, part iii, pp. 153-63, 
184-201 (Bombay, 1885).] 

Shiyali Taluk.— North-eastern taluk of Tanjore District, Madras, 
lying between 11° 8' and ri° 25' N. and 79° 39' and 79° 52' E., with 
an area of 171 square miles. Its boundaries are the Coleroon, the 
sea, and the Mayavaram taluk. It contains one town, Shiyali (popu- 
lation, 9,722), the head-quarters; and 96 villages. The population fell 
from 119,803 in 1891 to 116,563 in 1901, and includes unusually few 


Muhammadans or Christians. The demand for land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,06,000. Being situated in the 
delta of the Cauvery river, Shiyali contains much more ' wet ' land than 
' dry ' ; but this is generally not of the best kind, because the irrigation 
channels have deposited most of their fertilizing silt before they reach 
land which extends so far towards the sea. The Coleroon channels 
from the Lower Anient give a better deposit, and some of these run 
through the taluk. Its position on the coast results in its receiving 
the large rainfall of 54 inches, and agriculturally it is prosperous 
on the whole, though nearly 20 per cent, of the cultivable area is 

Shiyali Town (^//-^r?//).— Head-quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Tanjore District, Madras, situated in 11° 14' N. and 79° 44' E., 
with a station on the main line of the South Indian Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 9,722. It was the birthplace of the famous Tamil poet 
and saint, Tirugnana Sambandha, who lived in the first half of the 
seventh century. In the Siva temple there is a shrine dedicated to 
this saint, with a Chola inscription recording a gift. There are two 
high schools, one maintained by the Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran 
Mission and the other by a native gentleman. Shiyali is noted for 
mats made of a kind of Cyperus. Cotton cloths are also woven of an 
inferior kind. 

Sholapur Agency.— .\ Political Charge, consisting of a single State 
lying south-east of Sholapur District, Bombay. See Akalkot. 

Sholapur District. — District in the Central Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between \f 8' and 18° ^t^ N. and 74^ 37' 
and id" 26' E., with an area of 4,541 square miles. Except the Barsi 
taluka, which is surrounded by the Nizam's territory, Sholapur is 
bounded on the north by Ahmadnagar District ; on the east by the 
Nizam's Dominions and the State of Akalkot ; on the south by Bija- 
pur District and the States of Jath and Miraj : and on the west by 
Aundh State, Satara District, Phaltan State, and Poona and Ahmadnagar 
Districts. On the west, in some places Miraj villages are included, 
and isolated Sholapur villages lie beyond the District limits. 

E.xcept north of Barsi, west of Madha, and south-west of Malsiras 
and of Karmala, where there is a good deal of hilly ground, the District 
is generally flat or undulating. Most of the surface . 

rolls in long low uplands separated by hollows, with aspects, 

an occasional level. The shallow soil of the uplands 
is suited for pasture, and the deep soil of the lowlands under care- 
ful tillage yields the richest crops. The uplands are gently rounded 
swellings of trap, overgrown with yellow stunted spear-grass. The 
District is somewhat bare of vegetation, and presents in many parts 
a bleak, treeless appearance. The chief rivers are the Bhima and its 


tributaries the Man, the Nira, and the Sina, all flowing towards the 
south-east, with the exception of the Man, which runs north-east for 
50 miles within the limits of the District. Besides these, there are 
several minor streams. Of the principal reservoirs, Ekruk and Siddh- 
eswar are near Sholapur city, one is at Ashti, one is at K(jregaon, 
and one at Pandharpur, and there are also water-supply works at Barsi 
and Karmala. The Ekruk lake is one of the largest artificial pieces of 
water in the Presidency. 

As in most of the Deccan, the geological formation is trap, covered 
in most places with a shallow layer of very light soil, and in parts 
with a good depth of rich loam suited for cotton. 

The flora of Sholapur is of the purely Deccan type. Babul, mango, 
nhn, and pipal are the only timber trees found. Among flowering 
plants the most common are Ckome, Capparis, Cassia, Wood/ordia, 
Vi'coa, Echinops, Celosia, and several species of Acacia. 

The District is too well tilled to leave much cover for wild beasts. 
The jackal, grey fox, antelope, and hare are, however, common. The 
commonest game-birds are : kalam {Anthropoides virgo), black and grey 
partridges, quail, and snipe. Bustard are scarce. The inaral is noted 
among river fish. 

The climate^ except from March to May, is healthy and agreeable. In 
the hot season, March to June, the mean temperature is 83°, very hot 
and oppressive in the day-time, but cool at night; it falls to 52° in 
November and rises to 108° in May : annual mean 80°. During the 
cold season, from November to February, the weather with keen easterly 
and north-easterly winds is clear and bracing. The rainy season is 
pleasant ; the sky is more or less overcast, and the rain falls in heavy 
showers, alternating with intervals of sunshine. The annual rainfall 
averages 26 inches, being on the whole scanty and uncertain. Barsi, 
owing to the proximity of the Balaghat hills, is comparatively well off 
with an average fall of 28 inches, while Madha and Karmala receive 26 
and 23 inches respectively, but so unevenly distributed that only one 
out of every four seasons can be adjudged really satisfactory. Malsiras 
has the lowest average, namely 22 inches. 

Sholapur is one of the Districts which formed the early home of the 
Marathas, and is still a great centre of the Maratha population. In the 
early centuries of the Christian era (90 b.c.-a.d. 230) 
it probably formed part of the territories of the Sata- 
vahana or Andhra dynasty, whose capital was Paithan on the Godavari, 
about 150 miles north-west of Sholapur city. During the nine hundred 
)ears previous to the overthrow of the I )eogiri Yadavas by the Muham- 
madans in the beginning of the fourteenth century, Sholapur, like the 
neighbouring Districts of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, and Poona, was held 
by the early Chalukyas from 550 to 750, by the RashtrakQtas to 973, by 


the revived or Western Chalukyas to 1 156, and by the Deogiri Yadavas 
till the Muhamiiiadan conquest of the Deccan. 

The first Muhunimadan invasion of the Deccan took place in 1294, 
but the power of the Deogiri Yadavas was not crushed till 13 18. From 
131 8 Maharashtra began to be ruled by governors appointed from Delhi 
and stationed at Deogiri, which name was changed in 1338 by Muham- 
mad bin Tughlak to Daulatabad, the 'abode of wealth.' In 1346 there 
was widespread disorder, and Delhi officers plundered and wasted 
the country. These cruelties led to the revolt of the Deccan nobles 
under the leadership of a soldier named Hasan Gangii. The nobles 
were successful, and freed the Deccan from dependence on Northern 
India. Hasan founded a dynasty, which he called Bahmani after the 
Persian from whom he claimed descent, and which held sway over the 
Deccan for nearly a hundred and fifty years. In 1489 Vusuf Adil Shah, 
governor of Bijapur, assumed independence, and overran all the country 
north of Bija[)ur as far as the Bhima. For nearly two hundred years 
Sholapur belonged either to the Bijapur or to the Ahmadnagar Sultans, 
as the one or the other succeeded in retaining it. In 1668, by the 
treaty concluded between Aurangzeb and Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur, 
the fort of Sholapur and territory yielding Rs. 6,30,000 of revenue was 
ceded to the Mughals as the price of peace. The general decay of the 
Mughal empire from 1700 to 1750 opened the way for Maratha supre- 
macy. In 1795 ^'"'^ Marathas wrested from the Nizam his Sholapur 
possessions. The greater part of the District formed a portion of the 
Peshwa's dominions. On the overthrow of the Peshwa 430 villages 
passed to the British, the decisive actions being the battles of Pan- 
dharpur and Ashta (181 7-8) and the siege of Sholapur (181 8). To 
the territory taken from the Marathas, 232 villages ceded by the Nizam 
were added in 1822, and 488 more villages which lapsed in 1848 on 
the death of the Raja of Satara brought the District to its pre.sent 
dimensions. It has been a Collectorate since 1838. 

Traces of Vadava rule are to be found in the Hemadpanti temples 
at Bavi, Mohol, Mai.siras, Nateputa, Velapur, Pandharpur, Pulunj, 
Kandalgaon, Kasegaon, and Marde. There is a fine old well dating 
from this period at Marde. Musalman architecture is represented 
by the tomb of one of the daughters of Aurangzeb at the village of 

There are 7 towns and 712 villages in the District. The popula- 
tion is approximately the same as it was in 1872. At the last four 
enumerations it has been: (1872) 720,203, (1881) 
583,411,(1891) 750,689, and (1901) 720,977. The ^^^^ 
decrease of 19 per cent, in 1881 was due to mortality or emigration 
in the famine of 1876-8; and the population decreased by 4 per cent, 
during the last decade owing to the famine years of 1896-1901. 



Part of this decrease has been made good by immigration since the 
famine. The distribution by tdlnkas, according to the Census of 1901, 
was : — 


Number of 


M= goo 

ble to 



rt n .rt rK 

a., rt rt « 





'Z 4; 

nd I 










Karinala . 



- 28 








- 5 


Malsiras . 







Madha . 





- 10 








+ I 








+ 13 


Sangola . 

District total 







+ 5 



- 4 


* The Agricultural department's returns give the total area 354,547 square miles and the 
total number of villages as 718. 

The chief towns are Sholapur, Pandharpur, Barsi, and Kar- 
MALA. The predominant language is Marathi, which is spoken by 
82 per cent, of the population. Kanarese is spoken in the south of 
the District on the Bijapur border. Of the total population, 91 per 
cent, are Hindus and 8 per cent. Musalmans. 

Among Hindus, Brahmans number 29,000. The most important and 
the oldest settlers of this caste are Deshasths (24,000). The Vaishya 
Vanis are the last remnant of the Hindu traders of the District, who 
are now mainly Lingayats (51,000) and are known as Lingayat Vanls. 
IMarathas (220,000) are the strongest caste numerically and are mo.stly 
agriculturists. Malls or gardeners (24,000), found throughout the Dis- 
trict, have two divisions, Khirsagur and Raut. Craftsmen include Salis, 
Koshtis, Devang and other weavers (23,000), and Chamars or shoe- 
makers (16,000). Dhangars or shepherds (74,000) have three divisions, 
Bargis, Hatgars, and Kutigars, which neither marry nor eat together. 
KolTs (10,000) are divided into Maratha KolTs and Panbhari Kolis. 
Mahars (66,000) and Mangs (28,000) are the watchmen and scavengers 
of die old village community. There are 37,000 Muhammadan converts 
from Hinduism, who describe themselves as Shaikhs. The population 
is supported mainly by agriculture (60 per cent.), industries and com- 
merce supporting 19 per cent, and one per cent, respectively. 

In 1 90 1, 1,555 native Christians were enumerated, most of whom are 
converts of the American Maratha Mission, which commenced work in 
the District in 1862. There are churches at Sholapur, Dhotre, Vatvat, 
and a few other places. The American Protestant Congregational 
Mission is at work in Karmala, and an inter-denominational village 
mission has a branch at Pandharpur. 



The soil of Sholapur is of three kinds : black, coarse grey, or reddish. 
Except in the Barsi idliika, where black soil is the rule and coarse grey 
is rare, most of the District is either grey or red. The . 

black soil is cliiefly confined to the banks of the rivers 
and large streams. On garden land manure is always used, and also on 
' dry-crop ' land when available. The usual mode of manuring a field 
is by turning into it a flock of sheep and goats, for whose services 
their owner is paid according to the length of their stay. Scarcity of 
manure is the main reason why so little land is watered, compared with 
the area commanded by the Ekruk lake and other water-works. An 
industrious farmer ploughs his land several times before he sows it, and 
weeds it several times while the crop is growing. An irregular rotation 
of crops is observed, and about a fifth or sixth part of the holding is 
often left fallow. As a rule, the poorer landholders neither weed nor 
manure their land. They run a light plough over it, sow the seed 
broadcast, and leave it to itself. They expect to get from it at best 
merely a bare food-supply for the year ; and while the crop is ripening, 
they supplement their field profits by the wages of labour. Much of the 
best land is in the hands of money-lenders, who have either bought it 
or taken it on mortgage. The tendency seems to be for the petty land- 
holders to diminish, and the land to fall into the hands of men of 
capital who employ the old holders as their tenants or labourers. It 
may be accepted that only about 10 per cent, of the agricultural classes 
are free from debt, and that the remaining 90 per cent, are involved, 
and require advances from time to time. The Dekkhan Agriculturists' 
Relief Act, by protecting their property from attachment and sale for 
debt, has rendered this necessity less urgent. 

The District is almost entirely ryotivari, only about 7 per cent, being 
held as i)iam ox jdglr land. The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 
are shown below, in square miles : — 









Karmala . 

Malsiras . 
Madha . 
Sholapur , 
Sangola . 












I I 






3 2 



127 24 


* The figures in this table are based on the latest information. 

The staple food-grain of the District is late >7fV7?- (1,521 square 
miles). In Malsiras and Sangola bajra (521 square miles) is equally 
important. Wheat (82 square miles) is chiefly an irrigated crop, and 

vol.. XXII. u 


is of inferior riuality. Of pulses, tur (155 square miles) and gram 
(104) are important; math and kulith occupy 64 and 37 square miles 
respectively. Oilseeds (292 square miles) are grown in rows among the 
jcnvdr. Of other crops, chillies (9 square miles), cotton (72 square 
miles), and i^a/z-hemp (45 square miles) are the most important. There 
has been a gradual tendency of late years to discard old forms of field- 
implements in favour of more modern appUances ; and especially is this 
the case with iron sugar-cane presses and iron ploughs. The latter were 
exhibited in Bombay in 1904, and have been ordered by several culti- 
vators. Iron lifts for wells have also taken the place of leathern bags 
in many places. The opening of cotton-mills in Sholapur city has led 
the people to pay more attention to seed-selection and staple ; while 
the better kinds of manure are now largely employed for sugar-cane 

During the ten years ending 1904, 18-3 lakhs was advanced to 
agriculturists under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans 
Acts. Of this sum 5 lakhs was advanced in 1896-7, and 9 lakhs 
during the three years ending 1 901-2. 

The chief breeds of cattle are the khildri, raised by Dhangars ; the 
desi, bred by Lamanis, and breeds from Malwa, Gujarat, and Gokak 
in Belgaum. The khildri breed is the best, and the desi is the 
commonest. Buffaloes are classed as gaulis or ' milkmen's,' and desi 
or 'local.' The famine of 1876 and the Afghan ^^'ar of 1879 combined 
to deprive Sholapur of its reputation as a pony-breeding District. The 
Civil Veterinary department, however, maintains 3 pony stallions at 
Sholapur, Sangola, and Karmala. The dry plains of the southern 
tdlukas are specially suited for rearing sheep and goats. The Dhangars 
breed flocks of sheep, and the poorer classes keep goats. Donkeys 
are bred by Beldars or quarrymen, and pigs are reared by Vaddars or 

The chief irrigation works in Sholapur District are the Koregaon, 
Ashti, Ekruk, and Mhasvad lakes. The first named is a pre-British 
work improved, and the three last are new works. Large projects 
have been undertaken at Patri, Budhihal, Bhamburda, Wadshivne, 
Hotgi, and Mangi. The total area under irrigation from various 
sources in 1903-4 was 127 square miles. Government works supplied 
12 square miles, private canals one square mile, wells in square 
miles, tanks one square mile, and other sources 2 square miles. 
Koregaon lake, 13 miles north-east of Barsi, is formed by throwing 
two earthen dams across two separate valleys. The lake has now 
a capacity of 81,000,000 cubic feet and supplies 282 acres of land, 
the estimated irrigable area being nearly 2 square miles. The Ashti 
lake lies in the Madha tdli/ka, 12 miles north-east of Pandharpur. 
The lake when full holds 1,419,000,000 cubic feet of water. It is 


estimated to irrigate 19 square miles, and actually supplies about 
2 square miles. The Ekruk lake, the largest artificial lake in the 
Bombay Presidency, lies 5 miles north-east of Sholapur city. The 
lake is 60 feet deep when full, and holds 3,310,000,000 cubic feet of 
water. It supplies 4 and commands 26 stjuarc miles. The Mhasvad 
tank in Satara District, recently constructed by throwing a dam across 
the Man river, supplies 7 square miles of land with water, and could 
irrigate 38 square miles. The capital outlay on these tanks has been 
(1903-4): Mhasvad 21 lakhs, Ekruk 13, Koregaon |, and Ashti 
8 lakhs. There are 24,629 wells in the District, with an average 
depth of 15 to 40 feet, of which 20,865 are used for irrigation. 

The dry, shallow soil of the uplands of Sholapur is ill-suited for 
trees. The District now possesses 219 square miles of 'reserved' land 

under the Forest department. The fodder reserves 

1 11-1 /• 1 T^ . Forests, 

and pasture land m charge of the Revenue depart- 
ment amount to 58 square miles. There are no ' protected ' forests. 
The forest area is much scattered. It may be roughly divided into 
two tracts : on the hills between Barsi and the Nizam's territories in 
the extreme north-east, and on the hills to the south of Malsiras and 
Sangola in the extreme south-west. Before December, 187 1, when 
forest conservancy was introduced, Sholapur was extremely bare of 
trees and brushwood. In the whole of the forest area, no timber- 
cutting rights are admitted to exist. The forest lands are of two 
classes : scrub forest and babul meadows. The scrub forest is found 
on the hills, and babiil meadows occur all over the District. 

Forest receipts are comparatively small, being only Rs. 18,000 in 
1903-4. About nineteen-twentieths of the Reserves are yearly leased 
for grazing ; the remainder are leased yearly for grass-cutting, and in 
these tree plantations are formed. The timber of the babul and the 
mm are used for fuel, and also for making beams, posts, doors, carts, 
ploughs, and other implements. The bark of the babul and of the 
tarvad (Cassia auricula/a) is used for tanning, and the pods as well 
as the flowers of the palas {Butea frondosa) for dyeing. The bark of 
the apta is made into ropes. The forests are in charge of an Extra- 
Assistant Conservator, 

Except trap or basalt used as building stone and for road-metal, 
and nodular limestone used in cement, Sholapur has no mineral 

The chief industries are spinning, weaving, and dyeing. Silks and 

the finer sorts of cotton cloth, such as dhotis and women's saris, 

prepared in Sholapur, bear a good name. Blankets 

are also woven in large numbers. Besides hand- ^„„I.* „^:^*„^:^„e 

o communications, 

loom weaving, 3 cotton-mills, with 144,520 spindles 
and 528 looms, have been established, which give employment to 

u 2 


5,239 hands, and turn out 14,000,000 pounds of yarn and 2,000,000 
pounds of cloth. The mill of the Sholapur Spinning and Weaving 
Company began working at Sholapur city in 1877 with a nominal 
capital of 8 lakhs. In addition to the cotton-mills, there are 2 ginning 
factories, employing about 174 operatives. Oil-presses of the native 
type are worked by TelTs in many places, and saltpetre is manufactured 
to some extent by Mahars and Mangs, 

Since the opening of the railway, trade has greatly increased. Next 
to cotton, a large proportion of which comes from other Districts, the 
chief exports are oil, oilseeds, ghl, turmeric, and cotton cloth. The 
imports are salt, piece-goods, yarn, gunny-bags, and iron-ware. Trade 
is carried on at the towns and in markets, fairs, village shops, and 
also by travelling carriers. The largest centres of internal trade are 
Sholapur city, Barsi, and Pandharpur ; and next to these Vairag, 
Madha, Mohol, Karmala, Akluj, Nateputa, and Sangola. The traders 
are chiefly Lingayats, Bhatias, Hindu Vanis, and Marwaris. 

The south-east line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, which 
connects with the Madras Railway at Raichur, passes through the 
District with a length of 115 miles. From Hotgi near Sholapur city, 
the eastern branch of the Southern Mahratta Railway runs south 
towards Bijapur, for a distance of about 8 miles within the District. 
At Barsi Road a pioneer enterprise in light railways connects Barsi 
town with the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. This line, which is 
on a 2 foot 6 inch gauge, was opened in 1897. Extensions of the 
Barsi Light Railway to Tadwalla, 27 miles from Barsi town, and 
to Pandharpur, were opened in 1906. There are (1904) 567 miles 
of roads in the District, of which 140 miles are metalled. Of these 
the Poona-Hyderabad trunk road is the most important, traversing 
the District in a south-easterly direction for 78 miles. Except 341 miles 
of unmetalled roads in charge of the local authorities, all these roads 
are maintained by the Public \\''orks department. The Barsi Light 
Railway Company maintains and repairs 21 miles of metalled road. 

The earliest recorded famine is the great Durga-devi famine, which 
began about 1396 and is said to have lasted nearly twelve years. 
. Next came the famine of 1460. About 1520 a great 

famine is said to have been caused by military hordes 
destroying and plundering the crops. The famine of 1791 was very 
severe, especially in the Carnatic, where the crops entirely failed. In 
the Deccan the yield was one-fourth to one-half the usual out-turn ; 
and as thousands flocked from the Carnatic to the Deccan for food, 
the distress became very severe. During this famine grain sold at 
3 seers a rupee. In 1802 the plunder and destruction of crops by 
Holkar and the Pindaris caused a serious scarcity, which the failure 
of the rains in October and November, 1803, turned into a famine of 


terrible severity. In 1818, owing partly to the ravages of the Peshwa's 
armies, and partly to the failure of crops, the District again suffered 
from famine, accompanied by cholera, which destroyed thousands. 
Other famines or scarcities occurred in 1824, 1832-3, 1845, 1854, 
1862, 1876-7, 1896-7, and 1899-1900, owing to scanty rainfall. 

In the famine of 1876-7 the District suffered very severely. Al 
the height of distress the largest number on works was 95,617 in 
January, 1877. A considerable number of people left the District 
and went to Berar and the Nizam's Dominions, and many cattle died. 
During the cold season of 1879, from January to March, swarms of 
rats and mice appeared and about seven-eighths of the crops were 
wholly destroyed. The scanty rainfall of 1896 caused a failure of the 
crops throughout the whole of the District, thus necessitating relief 
measures. The largest number on works was 124,800 in April. The 
maximum number on gratuitous relief was 15,600 in September. 
The distress continued till the end of November. The last scarcity, 
which extended over two consecutive years, was in 1899-1901. In 
October, 1S99, relief works were opened which continued till October, 
1902. The maximum on relief was reached in April, 1900, when 
nearly 156,000 persons were on works and 13,000 in receipt of 
gratuitous relief. By August, 1900, the number on gratuitous relief 
had reached 25,000. The excess of mortality over the normal in 
1 899-1900 was 18,800, and it is calculated that 70,000 cattle died. 
Including advances to agriculturists and weavers, and remissions of 
land revenue, the famine in this District alone cost the state 84 lakhs. 
More than loi lakhs was advanced under the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts. 

The District consists of seven tdlukas, in two subdivisions under 

an Assistant Collector and a Deputy-Collector. The ., . . ^ ,. 

,r- tV - n- Administration. 

talukas are Sholapuk, Madha, Karmala, Barsi, 

Pandharpur, Sangola, and Malsiras. The Collector is Political 

Agent of the State of Akalkot. 

The District and Sessions Judge at Sholaimr is assisted for civil 
business by six Subordinate Judges. There are twenty-eight officers 
to administer criminal justice in the District. The proximity of the 
Nizam's Dominions facilitates dacoities by small bands of bad characters, 
who take refuge across the frontier. The commonest forms of crime 
are theft and hurt. 

Sholapur is mainly ryotwdri. The revenue history of the District 
differs little from that of Ahmadnagar and Poona, of which many of 
the villages once formed a part. Like those Districts, Sholapur, after 
a few years of rapid advance after British annexation, suffered from 
1825 onwards from low prices, and large remissions had in consequence 
to be granted. In 1830 the old rates were replaced by Mr. Pringle's 



scUlcincnl ; but ihc new rales again proved excessive, inainly owing to 
the bad seasons whicii follcnved their introduction, and in consequence 
tem[)orary rates were granted between 1836 and 1839 on more favour- 
able terms. In 1 840 a regular revenue survey settlement was commenced 
by Captain Wingate, and was gradually introduced into the whole of the 
District. The revision survey of the Madha tdluka led to revised rates 
being introduced in that taluka in 1869 70 and extended to the whole 
of the District by 1874. In October, 1874, in consequence of the 
marked fall in produce prices during the three previous years, Govern- 
ment decided that it was advisable to limit, and in some cases to 
reduce, the amount of the enhancements made at the revised survey 
settlement. 'J'he reductions made w-ere from 74 to 38 per cent, in 
Madha, from 77 to 44 per cent, in Sholapur, from 76 to 46 per cent, 
in Pandharpur, and from 62 to 42 per cent, in Barsi. The revision 
survey of 1874-94 found an increase in the cultivated area of 0-4 per 
cent, and the settlement enhanced the total revenue by 27 per cent, 
in the three tahikas for which details are available. The average rates 
per acre fixed by this survey are : 'dry' land, 8 annas: garden land, 
15 annas ; and rice land, Rs. 1-6. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1 900-1. 


Land revenue 
T0t.1l revenue 





There are five municipalities— Sholapur, Barsi, Karmala, S.\n- 
(;0LA, and Pandharpur — with a total income averaging 2-8 lakhs. 
Among special sources of municipal income are a pilgrim tax at Pan- 
dharpur and a water rate at Sholapur. The District board and seven 
taluka boards had an income of 1-5 lakhs in 1903-4, the principal 
source being the land cess. The expenditure amounted to 1-2 lakhs, 
including Rs. 45,000 devoted to the maintenance and construction 
of roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is aided by two Assistants and 
one inspector. There are 1 2 police stations in the District. The total 
strength of the police force is 579 : namely, 9 chief constables, 109 
head constables, and 461 constables. The mounted police number 
7, under one daffadd)-. There are 8 subsidiary jails in the Di.strict, 
with accommodation for 197 |)risoners. The daily average number 
of i)risc)ners in 1904 was 70, of whom 5 were females. 

Sholapur stands fifteenth as regards literacy among the twenty-four 
Districts of the Presidency. In 1901 onl\ 4-7 per cent, of the popula- 


lion (8y males and 0-4 females) could read and write. In 1881 there 
were i 74 schools with 7,060 pupils. Ihc number of pupils increased 
to 14,711 in 1891 and to 14,984 in 1901. In 1903-4 the number 
of educational institutions was 297, comprising 2 high schools, 7 
middle, and 258 primary schools, one training school, 2 industrial 
schools, and one conuiiercial school ; and the number of pupils was 
6,162, including 547 girls. Of the 271 schools classed as public, 
one is managed by Government, 176 by local boards, 36 by munici- 
palities, 57 are aided, and 2 are unaided. The total expenditure on 
education in 1903-4 was \\ lakhs, of which Provincial revenues con- 
tributed Rs. 47,000, Local funds Rs. 27,000, and fees Rs. 16,000. 
Of the total, 70 per cent, was devoted to primary schools. 

The District contains two hospitals, including one for females, 
S dispensaries, one leper asylum, and 3 other medical institutions, 
with accommodation for 83 in-patients. Tn 1904 the number of 
patients treated was 151,682, of whom 1,118 were in-patients, and 
3,802 oiierations were performed. The total expenditure on the 
civil hospital and 8 dispensaries and the leper asylum was Rs. 24,667, 
of which Rs. 15,229 was met from Local and municipal funds. 

The number of people successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 18,000, 
representing 25 per 1,000 of population, which is slightly higher than 
the average of the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xx (1884) ; W. W . Loch, 
Historical Account of the Poofta, Sdtdra, and Sholdpitr Districts (1877).] 
Sholapur Taluka. — South-eastern tdliika of Sholapur District, 
Bombay, lying between 17° 22' and 17° 50' N. and 75° 33' and 
76° 26' E., with an area of 848 square miles. It contains one town, 
Sholapuk (population, 75,288), the head-quarters; and 151 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 203,905, compared with 180,630 in 
1 89 1. It is the most thickly populated taluka in the District, with 
a density of 240 persons per square mile. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was 2'6 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 18,000, The 
taluka is undulating and devoid of trees, rising in places into small 
hillocks showing bare rock. The climate is dry; the cold season 
is clear and bracing. The two chief rivers are the Bhima and the 
Sina. The Bhima forms the southern boundary for about 35 miles ; 
and the Sina runs south through the taluka for about 40 miles. 

Sholapur City (.S^/a/z/r = 'sixteen villages').— Head-quarters of 
Sholapur District, Bombay, situated in 17° 40' N. and 75° 54' E., 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1881), 61,281, 
(1891) 61,915, and (1901) 75,288. Hindus number 55,988; Muham- 
madans, 16,103; Jains, 1,206; and Christians, t,68i. 

The strong fort in the south-west corner of the city, surrounded 
by a ditch, is ascribed to Hasan Gangu, the founder of the Bahmani 


dynasty (1347). On the dissolution of that kingdom in 1489, Shola- 
pur was licld by Zain Khan ; Init during the minority of his son it was 
in 151 1 besieged and taken by Kamal Khan, who annexed it with the 
surrounding districts to the Bijapur kingdom. In 1523 Sholapur formed 
part of the dowry of Ismail Adil Shah's sister, given in marriage to 
the king of Ahmadnagar. But not being handed over to Ahmadnagar, 
it was for forty years a source of constant quarrels between the two 
dynasties, until it was given back to Bijapur as the dowry of the 
Ahmadnagar princess Chand Bib! (1562). In 1668, in accordance 
with the terms of the treaty of Agra, Sholapur fort passed to the 
Mughals, from whose possession it fell to the Nizam in 1723, at the 
time when Ramchandra Pant, the Maratha, threw off his allegiance 
to Muhammad Shah the emperor. In 1795 it was ceded by the 
Nizam to the Marathas, after the battle of Kharda. At the close of 
the war with the Peshwa in 1818, it was stormed by General Munro. 
Since then the city has been steadily increasing in importance. Its 
convenient situation between Poona and Hyderabad has made it, 
especially since the opening of the railway in 1859, the centre for 
the collection and distribution of goods over a large extent of coun- 
try. The chief industry of Sholapur is the manufacture of silk and 
cotton cloth, more than 12,000 persons being engaged as hand-loom 
weavers, spinners, and dyers. Sholapur has one spinning and weaving 
mill and two spinning-mills. The first mill, belonging to the Sholafjur 
Spinning and Weaving Company, was opened in 1877, with a capital 
of 8 lakhs. The three mills have 528 looms and 144,520 spindles, 
giving employment to more than 5,000 persons. The total capital 
invested is 30 lakhs, 

Sholapur is situated in the centre of a large plain 1,800 feet above 
sea-level, on the watershed of the Adila, a feeder of the Sina. To the 
south-west, close to the city wall, lies the fort, and farther on are the 
otificers' bungalows of the old cavalry lines, now mostly occupied by 
railway servants and the railway station. To the south is the Siddh- 
eswar lake, with a temple in the centre. On the south-east bank of the 
lake is the municipal garden ; and about 1,000 yards more to the 
south-east are the Collector's ofifice and bungalow. About 100 to 500 
yards south-west of the Collector's office stretch the officers' bungalows 
of the old cantonment ; to the west of the officers' bungalows are the 
Protestant church and the post office. The chief public building is 
the Ripon Hall. The old military cantonment of Sholapur has been 
transferred to the civil authorities, and is included within municipal 
limits. No troops are now stationed here. 

Sholapur was formerly enclosed by a wall 2\ miles in circuit. About 
1872, to give room to the growing town, the nmnicipality pulled down 
the whole of the east wall and parts on the south-west and north. The 


walls, where still standing, are 8 to to feet high, 4 to 6 feet wide at the 
base, and 3 to 4 feet wide at the top. 

The fort is an irregular oblong about 230 yards by 176, enclosed by 
a double line of lofty battlemented and towered walls of rough stone 
10 to 20 yards apart, and surrounded, except on the east or Siddheswar 
lake side, by a wet moat 100 to 150 feet broad and 15 to 30 deep. The 
whole work is Muhaniniadan, the outer wall dating fnjm the fourteenth 
century, and the inner wall and four great square towers from the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The outer wall, with battle- 
mented curtains and four corner and twenty-three side towers pierced 
for musketry, and with openings and vaulted chambers for cannon, rises 
20 to 30 feet from the edge of the moat. About 20 yards beiiind, the 
inner wall, also towered and battlemented, rises 5 to 10 feet above 
the outer wall. It has about twenty-five towers, exclusive of the four 
square towers. 

The houses in the city are mostly built of mud, but sometimes of 
stone and burnt bricks, and are covered with flat roofs. On account of 
the absence of any high ground in the neighbourhood, Sholapur is on 
all sides exposed to the winds. The climate, except during the months 
of March, April, and May, is agreeable and healthy. The municipality, 
established in 1853, had an average income during the decade end- 
ing 1901 of \\ lakhs. In 1903-4 the income was 2\ lakhs, including 
loans from Government (Rs. 45,000) and octroi dues (Rs. 60,000). 
Water-works, constructed by the municipality between 1879 and 1881, 
give a daily supply of about 1 3 gallons a head. The water is drawn 
from the Ekruk lower level canal through a line of lo-inch pipes into 
a settling tank, and thence pumped by steam-power. Sholapur has 
39 schools, attended by 1,425 boys and 638 girls, including a Govern- 
ment high school with 165 pupils, four middle schools, one normal 
school, an industrial and a commercial school. There is also a 
kindergarten class supported by the American Mission. Besides 
the chief revenue and judicial offices there are two Subordinate 
Judges' courts, two hospitals, of which one is for females, and four 
dispensaries. Sholapur is the head-quarters of the American Pro- 
testant Mission, which has branches at 8 villages in the ShoIa[)ur 

Sholinghur. — 'J'own in the Walajapet taluk of North Arcot District, 
Madras, situated in 13° 7'N. and 79°25'E. Population (1901), 6,442. 
The station of the same name on the Madras Railway is 7^ miles 
from the town. The name is said to be a contraction of the words 
Chola-linga-puram, and to have been given to it because one of the 
Chola kings here found a natural lingam and built a shrine over it 
called the Choleswara or Sholeswara temple. 'I'he town is extensive, 
and a brisk trade is carried on in its bazars and at its weekly fair ; 

3o8 SIlOfJNGnUR 

Inil the place derives its chief importance from its temples. Besides 
that of Sholeswara, another shrine uitliin the town is dedicated to 
Bhaktavatsala. This is of fine propf)rtions and is thought to have 
been built by one of the Vijayanagar kings. The other chief temples 
lie outside the town. The most celebrated is that of Narasimhaswami, 
situated upon the summit of the loftiest hill in the neighbourhood. 
From it a magnificent view may be obtained of the country round, 
with its reservoirs and fertile cultivation. Upon a lower hill to the 
east is a temple to Anjaneyaswami which, though not so pretentious 
as its neighbour architecturally, enjoys an equally wide reputation. 
Women suffering from dementia or hysteria (who are supposed to be 
possessed by evil spirits) are brought to it to be cured. Another fine 
shrine lies below the Narasimhaswami hill. It is now in ruins, having 
been struck, it would appear, by lightning, and its finely carved columns 
lie about in confusion. There are very many sacred pools or tirthatns 
round Sholinghur, the chief being the Brahma tirtham, in which people 
bathe on Thursdays. In the neighbourhood of Sholinghur, in 1781, 
was fought the battle between Sir Eyre Coote and Haidar All in 
which the latter lost heavily. Two large Muhammadan tombs by the 
side of the road on the south of the town mark the spot where the 
bodies of the slain of the Mysore army were interred in two common 

Shorapur. — Taluk and town of Gulbarga District, Hyderabad 
State. See Surapur. 

Shorarud. — Sub-Z^?/?.?// of Quetta-Pishin District, Baluchistan. See 
OuKTTA TahsIl. 

Shorkot Tahsil. — Trr/wi/of Jhang District, Punjab, lying between 
30° 35' and 31° 17' N. and 71° 37' and 72° 31' E., with an area of 
916 square miles. It lies on both banks of the Chenab. The popula- 
tion in 1 90 1 was 95,136, the density, 104 persons per square mile, 
being lower than in the more fully irrigated tahs'ils of the District. It 
contains 176 villages, including Shorkot, which is a place of some his- 
torical interest. The land revenue and cesses in 1905-6 amounted to 
1-8 lakhs. The north-west of the /«!//.?// occupies a corner of the great 
desert plateau of the Thai. The lowlands on either side of the Chenab 
are studded with prosperous villages, picturesquely situated among palm 
groves. Farther towards the east, past Shorkot town, the ancient site 
of which forms a conspicuous landmark, is a remnant of the old Jangal 
Bar, which soon gives place to the highly cultivated lands watered by 
the Chenab Canal. 

Shorkot Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Jhang District, Punjab, situated in 30*^48' N. and 72° 8' E., among the 
lowlands of the Chenab, about 4 miles from the left bank of the river, 
and 36 miles south-west of Jhang town. Population (1901), 3,907. 

S//U/A/1AD TAIISIL :^o^ 

Tlu' lutxlcni U)\vii stands at the fool c)r a huge iiiuund ol ruin?, 
marking the site of the ancient city, which is surrounded by a wall 
of large antique bricks, and so high as to be visible for 8 miles 
around. Gold coins are frecjuently washed out of the ruins after rain. 
Cunningham identified Shorkot with one of the towns of the Malli 
attacked and taken by Alexander. He also inferred, from the evidence 
of coins, that the town flourished under the Greek kings of Ariana and 
the Punjab, as well as under the Indo-Scythian dynasties up to.x.n. 250. 
It was probably destroyetl by the A\'hite Huns in the sixth century, 
and reoccupied in the tenth by the Brahman kings of Ohind and the 
Tunjab. The modern town is of little im[M)rtancc. It is surrounded 
b\ fine groves of date-palms. Many of the buildings arc U^fty, but most 
are more or less in ruins. Shorkot is now administered as a ' notified 

Shravan Belgola. — Village in Hassan District, Mysore. See 
Sr.wana Bklgoi.a. 

Shrigonda Taluka. —Southern tdliika of Ahmadnagar District, 
Bombay, lying between 18° 27' and 18° 54' N. and 74° 23' and 74° 
56' E., with an area of 615 square miles. It contains one town, ShrI- 
CONDA (population, 5,415), the head-quarters; and 83 villages. The 
population in 1901 was 61,240, compared with 66,658 in 1891. The 
density, 100 persons per square mile, is much below the District average. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-4 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 10,000. The greater part of the taluka lies in the valley of the 
Bhima, and has a gentle slope from the north-east towards that river on 
the south and its tributary the Ghod on the south-west. For the most 
part it is a level plain, with an average elevation of 1,900 feet above sea- 
level, skirted on the north-east by a chain of low hills with flat summits, 
ox /^afhars, which have a uniform elevation of about 2,500 feet. Towards 
the hills the soil is generally of a very poor description. That of the 
centre of the taluka is tolerably fertile : but in the neighbourhood of the 
Bhima deep clayey soils prevail which require much labour in their 
cultivation, and only yield good crops in years of plentiful rainfall. The 
old trunk road from Ahmadnagar enters the taluka on the north at the 
fifteenth mile from Ahmadnagar city and runs south. The Dhond- 
Manmad Railway completely traverses the taluka from north to south. 

Shrigonda Town (also called Chamargonda, from Ciovind, a pious 
Chamar). — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in Ahmad- 
nagar District, Bombay, situated in i8°37'N. and 74^42' E., 32 miles 
south of Ahmadnagar city. Population (1901), 5,415. It has four 
temples, and two mansions belonging to Maharaja Sindhia of Gwalior. 

Shujabad Tahsil. Tahsll of Multan District, Punjab, lying be- 
tween 29° 22' and 30° r' N. and 71° 2' and 71** 31' E., with an area of 
680 scjuare miles. The Chenab bounds it on its longest (north-west) 

3IO shujabAd tahsil 

border. Above the Chenab lowlands, which are subject to periodical 
inundation from the river, is a high-lying tract of Bar country mainly 
unirrigated. The surface of the country slopes away towards the 
junction of the Sutlej and the Chenab in the south-west corner. The 
population in 1901 was 124,907, compared with 114,714 in 1S91. It 
contains the towns of Shujadad (population, 5,880), the head-quarters, 
and Jai.alpur (5,149); and 148 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 3-2 lakhs. 

Shujabad Town.— Head-quarters of the tahsil oi the same name in 
Multan District, Punjab, situated in 29*^ 53' N. and 71° 18' E., 5 miles 
east of the Chenab, on the North-AVestern Railway. Population (1901), 
5,880. The town, which is surrounded by a wall, was founded in 
1750 by Nawab Shuja Khan, a kinsman of Ahmad Shah Durrani and 
STibahddr of Multan. His son, Muzaffar Khan, who governed Multan 
from 1779 to 1818, greatly advanced the prosperity of the town and 
built the Jahaz Mahal, which contains some curious frescoes said to 
represent Arabian cities, and had a beautiful marble floor, since 
removed to the public library at Multan. The building is now used 
as a tahsil cowxX.. Having capitulated to Edwardes in 1848 after the 
action at Kineri, it was used as a commissariat depot throughout the 
siege of Multan. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 10,500, and the expen- 
diture Rs. 10,700. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 11,700, chiefly from 
octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,100. The town has an Anglo- 
vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, and a dis- 
pensary. It contains one small cotton-ginning factory with 2 1 hands, 
but is of no commercial importance. 

Shujalpur (or Shujawalpur). — Head-quarters of \\\q. pargana of the 
same name in the Shajapur district of Gwalior State, Central India, 
situated in 23° 24' N. and 76° 43' E., on the Ujjain-Bhopal Railway. 
Population (1901), 5,731. The town was originally founded by a Jain 
merchant, and called after him Rai Karanpur, one of the wai^ds still 
bearing this title. The real interest of the place, however, lies in its 
connexion with Shujaat Khan, an active champion of Sher Shah, who 
raised the place from a small village into a flourishing town. Shujaat 
Khan was locally known as Shujawal Khan, and a further contraction 
has given the name of the town. Though Mandu and Ujjain were his 
official residences as governor of Malwa, Shujaat always had a predi- 
lection for this place. In 1808 it fell to the Pindari leader Karim Khan, 
as part of his jdgir. It was one of the places of which the revenues 
were assigned to the British Government by Article 5 of the treaty of 
184/], but was restored to Sindhia under the treaty of i860. Near 
Shujalpur is the cenotaph of Ranoji Sindhia, the founder of the Gwalior 
house, who died in 1745. Besides \\\'^ pargana offices, a police station, 


a school, a State post ofificc, a dispensary, and an inspection liungalow 
are situated here. 

Shujaota. — T/iakurdt'm the Mai.wa Agency, Central India. 

Shwebo District. -A dry zone District of the Sagaing Division ot 
Upper Burma, lying between 22° 11' and 23° 52' N. and 94° 50' and 
96° i' E., with an area of 5,634 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Katha ; on the east by the Ruby Mines and Mandalay Districts; 
on the south by Sagaing; and on the west by the Upper and Lower 
Chindwin Districts. The Mu, flowing down from the north, divides it 
into almost equal portions east and west, and the Irrawaddy forms 
the boundary on the east. It is for the most part a wide, almost 
rectangular plain running north and south, dotted 
with thin bushes and scrub jungle, with a low ridge aspec'tT 

of hills known as the Minwun range skirting the 
Irrawaddy in the east, and with small isolated clumps of rising ground 
in the north and north-east, and fringes of forest-clad upland in the west 
and north-west. The level is generally uniform and somewhat unin- 
teresting ; but the river-side villages with their pagodas and monasteries, 
and the interior plain, viewed from the crest of the Minwun range, are 
not without a picturesqueness of their own. The most important rivers 
are the Irrawaddy and the Mu. The former enters the District near 
its north-eastern corner, and flows due south till it reaches Kabwet, 
about half-way down the eastern border. Here it bends westwards 
for a few miles, and again turning, runs south for a further stretch till 
it enters Sagaing District. It is navigable all the year round by river 
steamers of the deepest draught. The Mu is full of snags, and, except 
in the rains, is navigable only in its lower reaches. Running in a tortuous 
channel through arid country, it dwindles away in the dry season to a 
rivulet fordable everywhere along its course, though at the appropriate 
season it is freely used for timber-floating. The principal lakes are the 
Mahananda, the Halin (or Thayaing), the Kadu, and the Thamantha. 
The first, north-east of Shwebo town, fed by the old Mu canal, is the 
largest. The other three, lying south of Shwebo, are shallow meres 
depending on the drainage from the adjacent country, but are rarely 
dry, though they seldom have much water in them. 

The surface of the District is, to a great extent, covered by the 
alluvium of the Mu river, from beneath which rise low undulating 
hills of sandstone of Upper Tertiary (pliocene) age. To the east these 
are brought down by a great fault against crystalline rocks, gneiss, 
granite, and crystalline limestone, which form the Minwun range. 
The alluvium is largely impregnated with salt. Coal occurs in the 
Tertiary beds. 

From a botanical point of view the District is very poor. Only 
three kinds of bamboos are found : namely, ihaikwa {Bamlntsa Tulda), 


m\i)iwa {De?id}-oc<iln)?ii/s sfrnii/s), and tifiwa I^Cephalostachyum per 
gracile). The most important trees are teak {Tettotia grandis), in 
Dipferocarpits tiiberatlatus), thitya {Shorea obtusa), thitsl {Melanorrhoea 
usitata), yinma {Chitkrassia tahtilaris), ingyin {Pe/ifaci/ie siamensis), 
pyingado {Xylia dolabriformis), ska {Acacia Catechu), and tanaung 
{Acacia Icucophloea). Further details regarding the vegetation will be 
found under the head of Forests. 

The wild animals are the elephant, the bison, the hsaing {Bos son- 
daicus), the hog deer, the sdmbar, the barking-deer, the brow-antlered 
deer {Cerviis eldi\ the wild hog, the hare, the jackal {Canis aureus), 
the jungle dog {Cyofi riitilans), and the common tree cat or palm civet 
{Paradoxurus hert/taphroditus). Tigers are scarce, but leopards are 
common everywhere ; and during the cold season water-fowl abound. 
Quail visit the District in the rains, and the jungle-fowl and francolin 
breed and are plentiful. 

The climate is good, except in the north and north-west, where it is 
malarious. The heat in the dry season is very great, as elsewhere in 
the dry zone, but is less intense in the north and north-west of the 
District. The mean temperature recorded at Shwebo is 80°, the ther- 
mometer readings varying from 56° in January to 104° in May. The 
rainfall is scanty and irregular, except in the north and north-west. 
The average varies from 29 to 49 inches, but the maximum would, no 
doubt, be higher if a record were kept in the hilly tracts. The rainfall 
follows the valleys of the Irrawaddy and Mu, and leaves the rest of the 
District comparatively dry. 

According to tradition, Shwebo town was founded by a hunter 
(Burmese, mokso) named Nga Po at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and was then called Moksongapoywa. It was from 
this hunter ancestor that Alaungpaya (Alompra), the 
redoubtable Burmese conqueror, traced his descent. The warrior king, 
who is said to have been born in the hunter's village, fortified the place 
after he had risen from obscurity to prominence, surrounded it with 
a moat and walls, and made it his capital after his successful rebellion 
against the Talaings. None of the successors of Alaungpaya ever u.sed 
Shwebo as a capital for any length of time ; but it was with the aid 
of men from this District that prince Tharrawaddy displaced Bagyidaw 
from the throne, and Mindon successfully rebelled against his half- 
brother Pagan Min ; while the Shwebo people maintained their charac- 
ter as king-makers by supporting Mindon against the futile rebellion 
of the Myingun and Padein princes. When the British force first 
marched into Shwebo, after the annexation of Upper Burma, the 
kayai?ig tvun (the chief official of the place) submitted with all his 
subordinates, and greatly assisted the administration by putting down 
tlie organized dacoit bands under the leadership of the notorious 



Hla U and others, which kept the District more or less disturbed for 
five years after the occupation. A good deal of the western portion of 
Shwebo then formed a separate District known as Ye-u, which was 
split up in 1895, the greater part of its area being incorporated in 

The principal pagodas are the Shwetaza at Shwebo, the Ingyindaw 
at Seikkun, the Shwekugyi at Myedu, and the Thihadaw at Kabwet. 
Shwebo is rich in archaeological remains, as the old walled towns, the 
ruined shrines, and the inscribed marble slabs that are found scattered 
all over the District testify ; but the country has not yet been 
thoroughly studied from an archaeological point of view. 

The population increased from 230,779 in 1891 to 286,891 in 1901. 
Its distribution in the latter year is shown in the 
following table : — 


Number of 


U--^ C^-; 
t^nC C X 

n - a 

f r of 
ible to 


- e = 




3 3 


nd I 














+ 12 


Kinu .... 



3 ',499 


+12 8,113 1 

Sheinmaga . 





+ 21 







+ 40 







+ 37 


Ye-u .... 





+ 20 







+ 19 







+ 42 


Taze .... 
District total 





+ 46 






+ 24 


The only town is Shwebo, the head-quarters. Ye-u is one of the 
most densely populated townships in Upper Burma ; and the other 
central townships, Shwebo and Kinu, are thickly inhabited, their 
density contrasting forcibly with that of the Kyunhla township, which 
occupies the north-west corner of the District. There has been con- 
siderable immigration from the Mandalay and Lower Chindwin Dis- 
tricts, and the number of persons born in India who were enumerated 
here in 1901 was about 2,600. This number constitutes a compara- 
tively small proportion of the representatives of the Indian religions, 
who in 1901 included 4,300 Musalmans and 1,600 Hindus. Shwebo 
town and cantonment contain between 1,000 and 1,500 natives of 
India ; but a large number of the Musalmans are indigenous Zairbadis, 
known sometimes as Myedu kalds, who are found here and there, 
especially in what used to be the Myedu township. The majority of 
the population is Buddhist, and nearly 99 per cent, talk Burmese. 

The Burman population in 1901 was 280,700, or over 97 per cent. 


of the total. The other indigenous races are represented by less than 
1,000 Shans in the northern areas. 

No less than 216,686 persons, or 75 per cent, of the total population, 
were in 1901 engaged in, or dependent upon, agriculture. Owing to 
the frequent failure of the rains, the cultivator has to supplement his 
income by selling firewood, bamboos, and timber, by extracting resin 
oil, by making mats and thatch, or by working as a cooly on the railway 
or on the Shwebo Canal, or as a field-labourer in other Districts ; but 
with the beginning of the monsoon he drifts back to his ancestral 

Christians are fairly numerous; their total in 1901 was 2,493, 
including 1,328 Roman Catholics. The Roman communion has long 
been at work in the District. It has its head-quarters at Monhla and 
Chanthaywa, possesses several churches, and ministers to 11 Chris- 
tian villages, in which it keeps up vernacular schools. The Anglican 
(S.P.G.) Mission at Shwebo was started in 1887. It maintains a church 
and an Anglo-vernacular school. Altogether, 1,555 of the Christians 
are natives. 

The soil varies from a stiff black cotton soil to light sand, and the 
surface from rich ravines annually fertilized by leaf-mould washed down 
from the neighbouring highlands to sterile ridges 
{kons) of alkali and gravel. The rainfall is precarious 
throughout the greater part of the District, but is fairly reliable in the 
hilly areas in the north and north-west. The husbandman in Shwebo 
is as conservative and short-sighted as elsewhere in Burma, and makes 
rice his main crop, in defiance of the varying soil and the fickle rain 
supply. On the southern and south-western borders, however, sesa- 
mum, millet, and a little cotton are grown ; and the alluvial formations 
of the rivers are covered in the dry season with island crops of various 
kinds, such as peas and beans, tobacco, onions, brinjals, tomatoes, 
gram, and the like. Rice is cultivated in the usual manner, except in 
the Tabayin and Ye-u townships, where the fields are ploughed dry, 
and the seed is sown broadcast and left to mature without trans- 

The area cultivated depends entirely upon the local rainfall, and thus 
varies very considerably from year to year. In 1 890-1 about 372 square 
miles were under crop, in 189 1-2 only 130 square miles, a total which 
increased steadily till 1897-8, excluding the bad year 1895-6. There 
was a large increase in 1 899-1900, and by 1900-1 the cultivated area 
had risen to 645 square miles, but this total fell to 239 square miles in 
1902-3. The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in the 
table on the next page, in square miles. 

The promise of the early rains caused the increase in 1903-4, but of 
the total shown above no less than 167 square miles failed to mature. 



Rice was sown on 432 square miles. (Comparatively little mayin (or 
hot-season) rice is grown. Peas of various kinds covered 15 square 
miles, and sesamum 42 square miles, and 1,200 acres were under 
cotton, a small area as compared with that in the neighbouring Dis- 
tricts of Sagaing and Lower Chindwin. Cultivation is increasing year 
by year, fallow lands ever being brought under cultivation ; and, but 
for climatic causes, the increase would have been by leaps and bounds. 


Total area. 


















Ye-u . 
Tamadaw . 
Taze . 






■ 2,702 





There is not much experimenting in new and untried products. 
Natives of India have attempted to cultivate gram on alluvial lands, 
but have failed hitherto, owing to want of rain. American maize and 
tobacco (Virginia and Havana) were tried on Shcinmaga Island in 
1900, and were fairly successful so far as out-turn was concerned; 
but they offered no inducement to the husbandman, as their quality 
was considered inferior to that of the local varieties. Agricultural 
advances are made regularly, the average for the four years ending 
1905 being about Rs. 16,000, but cultivators often find some difficulty 
in furnishing the required security. Instances in which borrowers have 
had to share the loan with their sureties have come to light ; and it is 
said that, without some accommodation of this kind, security would 
often not be forthcoming. Some villages have, however, benefited 
largely by means of Government loans, and on the whole the advances 
may be said to be popular. 

Oxen and buffiUoes are bred in the ordinary haphazard fashion. 
Not a single bull is kept for breeding. A few half-bred stallions are 
kept for stud purposes, but they are really unfit for breeding. Sheep 
and goats are reared exclusively by natives of India, and their numbers 
are trifling. 

Irrigation is at present effected by means of tlic old Mu canal and 
numerous tanks. The former used to take off from the Mu river, and 
crossed several streams which were temporarily dammed and diverted 
into it, but now only that portion of the canal is kept up which does 
not intersect the larger waterways. The present catchment area is 
comparatively small, and the water-supply depends on local rainfall, so 

vol.. xxir. X 


that when rain fails the work is of liitlc use. In a favourable year, on 
the other hand, it gets too full, and fear of a breach of the embankment 
occasionally makes it necessary to open the sluices, with the result that 
the water flows over and deluges the already inundated fields. The 
Shwebo Canal, opened in 1906, has been designed to draw a large 
quantity of water from the Mu ; and as it will be possible to control 
it effectually, it should prove an invaluable irrigation work. The cost 
of the work was 51 lakhs, and the area irrigable is 295 square miles. 
The principal tanks are at Hladaw, Payan, Palaing, Kywezin, Gyogya, 
Yinba, Pindin, Kanthaya, Yatha, and Taze. Their catchment area, 
like that of the old Mu canal, is small, and they depend solely on the 
rainfall and the drainage from the adjacent country. At certain times 
they have a reserve of water which may prove really useful, but such 
occasions are very rare. In 1903-4 about 97 square miles, mostly 
under rice, were irrigated. Of this total, 18,800 acres obtained their 
water-supply from tanks, 5,000 acres from wells, and 39,100 acres from 
Government canals. These last had irrigated only 4,000 acres in the 
previous year (1902-3), the increase in 1903-4 being due to the im- 
provements made in the old Mu canal, assisted by propitious rainfall. 
The irrigated lands lie almost entirely in the Shwebo subdivision and 
the Tabayin township. 

The only two large fisheries are the Bandiba and the Kyauksaung 
in the Irrawaddy. 

Shwebo is included in the Mu Poorest division, which also comprises 

Sagaing and a part of Katha. The forests are confined to the north 

and north-west, and are of two kinds, teak and cutch. 

In the former, padai/k {Pterocarptis indicus) and in 

{^Dipterocarpus tuberculatus) are also found to some extent. The Yabin 

and Kanbalu Reserves are the only ones in the District. In the former 

the planting of teak, to the extent of a square mile, has been carried 

out successfully. In the latter experiments have been tried with 

sandal-wood seed, which germinated well, though the young plants 

have suffered from the attacks of insects and rodents. The area of 

'reserved' forests is 595 square miles, of which 10 square miles are 

cutch, and the rest teak, with a sprinkling of padank and indaing. 

The area of the ' unclassed ' forests is 2,107 square miles; and it has 

been proposed to convert 83 square miles of these into a cutch 

Reserve, though the final settlement has not yet been completed. 

The chief minor forest products are thiisi (resin oil), cutch, and 

bamboos, all of which are abundant. Five Chinese firms are engaged 

in the cutch trade, and their business is brisk. The forest revenue 

in 1903-4 was nearly a lakh and a half. 

Coal was worked from 1892 to 1903 by the Burma Coal Mines 
Company at Letkokpin, 6 miles from Kabwet on the Irrawaddy, by 


means of sh;iriinLj;s, the h.uiliiiL; liciiiL; done !>)■ steam. I'lie mines 

were ca[)ablc of turning out 2,000 tons monthly, but the Burma 

Railways Company were the chief purchasers, consuming about 800 

tons a month. The mine has now been shut down. A prospecting 

licence for rubies, gold, and silver has been issued, and leases of land 

for the jnirpose of boring for earth-oil have been granted ; but though 

good petroleum has been obtained, the wells, which are in the Kyunhla 

township, have been abandoned owing to the unhealthiness of the 

place. Salt is extracted from brine-wells in the Kanbalu, Shwebo, 

and Sheinmagil townshi[)s. The average earnings of the workers are 

four annas a day, and the salt produced is used locally, besides being 

exported to other Districts. Pottery clay exists in places. Gravel, 

laterite, and sandstone are extracted, mostly by natives of India, to 

meet local demands on account of public works. 

Silk-weaving is carried on at Chiba and Seikkun in the Shwebo 

township. The produce of the village looms holds its own, in spite 

of the competition of imported fabrics, which, 

though cheaper, are far less strong and ilurable. ^^sl^ -^^t- 

J • communications. 

1 he method (jf workuig is purely Burmese, and the 

patterns have improved greatly in design of late. For weaving pur- 
poses raw silk (Indian or Chinese) is brought from Mandalay, and 
the articles turned out are mainly pasos (waistcloths) of various kinds. 
Articles other than pasos are woven only when special orders have 
been given. The dyeing of the raw silk is largely done on the spot. 
The manufacture of pottery is practised all the year round at Kyauk- 
myaung, Shwegun, Shwedaik, and a few other villages on the Irra- 
waddy by professional {x>tters ; elsewhere it is carried on only during 
the dry months of the year as a subsidiary occupation by agriculturists. 
Unglazed pottery is manufactured in the ordinary way from clay mixed 
with sand, and fired in heaps that are coated with clay. If black 
instead of the usual red ware is required, bran is poured on the burn- 
ing heap and the articles are coloured by the smoke. In the manu- 
facture of glazed pottery, the only essential difference is the smearing 
of the green pots with what is known as chaiv, the slag left after silver 
has been extracted from lead ore. The making of glazed pots is a 
more profitable industry than that of unglazed, as it is attended with 
less breakage. In the Kanbalu township a considerable section of the 
lX)pulation are engaged during the dry season in weaving mats and 
rough baskets of various kinds. Tantabin is the centre of the mat 
and basket industry. 

The principal exports are salt, which is taken by local traders in 
boats to Katha from Sheinmaga and Thitseingyi on the Irrawaddy, 
and cutch, sent by rail to Rangoon by a few Chinese firms which 
have been established in the District since the opening of the cutch 

X 2 

3t8 Sir ] DISTRICT 

forests. Pulse is sent out in boats by merchants living on the Irra- 
waddy and the Mu ; rice and European goods come in by rail, prin- 
cipally from Mandalay ; and sesamum oil in carts from the Sagaing 
and Lower Chindwin Districts. Boats fetch tobacco from Sagaing, 
Myingyan, and Pakokku ; ngapi (fish-paste) is brought by rail from 
Mandalay and in boats from the deltaic Districts of Lower Burma ; 
and rice comes by rail from Kawlin and Wuntho in the neighbouring 
District of Katha. As Shwebo District is poor, the wants of the people 
are confined for the most part to these main articles of consumption. 
The chief centres for boats are Kyaukmyaung, Thitseingyi, and Shein- 
maga on the Irrawaddy, and Mugan, Sinin, and Ye-u on the Mu. 
The jaggery sugar from the Ye-u subdivision is exported in carts to 
Katha, where it finds a ready sale owing to its damp-resisting pro- 
perties. Mandalay supplies the raw Chinese or Indian silk used by 
the silk-weavers of the District. 

The Burma Railway runs through the heart of Shwebo, linking 
Myitkyina with Mandalay, and serving the whole District, as from 
almost every station a road branches out either east to the Irra- 
waddy or west to the Mu. The Public ^^'orks department main- 
tains 48 miles of metalled, and 203 miles of unmetalled roads. The 
principal metalled roads are from Shwebo to Kyaukmyaung (17 miles), 
connecting the Mu valley with the Irrawaddy, and from Kinu to Ye-u 
(13 miles). The most important unmetalled tracks are from Kinu to 
Kabwet on the Irrawaddy g miles below Thabeikkyin, whence an 
important metalled road climbs to Mogok, the head-quarters of the 
Ruby Mines District ; from Ye-u to Paga on the Upper Chindwin 
border ; and from Ye-u to Saingbyin on the Lower Chindwin border. 
The District fund keeps up 86 miles of unmetalled roads. The Irra- 
waddy is navigable all the year round, and the Irrawaddy Flotilla 
Company's express and cargo steamers between Mandalay and Bhamo 
call at Kyaukmyaung and at Kabwet every week in each direction. 
The ferry steamer plying between Mandalay and Thabeikkyin also 
calls at those two stations, as well as at Sheinmaga and Thitseingyi, 
twice a week in each direction. The Mu is navigable in the rains by 
native craft to the borders of Katha District. There are five ferries 
across the Irrawaddy, and eleven across the Mu, at convenient dis- 
tances from each other. 

Its capricious rainfall always renders the District liable to partial 
scarcity, but the only serious failure of crops that has occurred in 
recent years was in 1891. Ye-u was then a separate 
ami . District, comprising the present Ye-u subdivision 

and the Kyunhla township, and it was in the former area that the 
distress was most acute. It was due to a series of bad harvests caused 
by deficient rainfall, and pressed all the more heavily on the people 



because they had not then fully recovered from the effects of the 
troublous times that followed close on annexation. Many of the vil- 
lagers were compelled to sell their cattle to procure food, to resort 
to roots as a means of subsistence, and to emigrate to the Lower 
province and to the Ruby Mines District for their living. Relief 
works were not o[)ened on the east of the Mu, as the railway afforded 
ample employment there for the able-bodied, but they were started in 
Ye-u. Advances were lilierally made to cultivators to enable them to 
buy seed and to retain their cattle, partial or total remissions and sus- 
pensions of revenue were granted, while rice was imported by Govern- 
ment and distributed at cost price, and gratuitous relief was given 
to the disabled. Fortunately the famine was of short duration. 

The District contains three subdivisions : Shwebo, Kanbalu, and 
Ye-u. The first comprises the Shwebo, Kinu, and Sheinmag.\ town- 
ships, the second the K.\nbalu and Kyunhla town- . ^ . . ^ ^. 
, . , , . • J , ^r rr. r,, Administratioii. 

ships, and the third the \e-u, Tap.avin, Iamauaw, 

and Taze townships. The subdivisions and townships are in charge 
of the usual executive officers, under whom are 884 village headmen. 
Of the latter, 258 are subordinate to circle headmen. Shwebo forms 
(with Sagaing District) a Public Works division, with two subdivisional 
officers in the District; and the forests are included in the Mu Forest 

As elsewhere, the subdivisional and township courts are presided 
over by the subdivisional and township officers concerned, but the 
latter do not try suits relating to immovable property or to any right 
or interest in such property. At District head-quarters, the treasury 
officer is additional judge of the Shwebo township court as well as 
head-quarters magistrate. Litigation is normal and crime is on the 
whole light. Dacoity, murder, and cattle-theft are infrequent, and 
opium cases are few. Ordinary thefts and excise and gambling cases, 
for the most part committed in Shwebo town and its suburbs, are, on 
the other hand, fairly numerous. 

Prior to the reign of Mindon Min there was no organized scheme 
of revenue collection in Shwebo; that monarch, however, introduced 
some kind of system into the methods of the rapacious officials. 
Thathameda was then for the first time levied, royal lands were taxed 
on a uniform scale of one-fourth of the produce, and imposts were 
placed on monopolies, carts, fisheries, and other sources of income. 
After annexation the thathameda continued to be levied on much the 
same system as before. The land revenue administration is at present 
in a state of transition. Most of the District is occupied under the 
ordinary bobabaing (non-state) and state land tenures, which are com- 
mon to all the dry zone Districts of Upper Burma. In the Kyunhla 
township the conditions werf at one time peculiar. Tradition relates 



that about three centuries ago the country here was waste, and that 
a number of enterprising hunters from the west of the low range of 
hills which now separates Shwebo from the Upper Chindwin District, 
finding the basin of the Mu more promising for cultivation than their 
own land in the neighbourhood of the Chindwin, moved over and 
established themselves in what afterwards became the Indaing and 
Kyunlila s/ntfehmu-s\\\\^?, and the Inhla, Mawke, and Mawton vivos. 
The descendants of these settlers were known as tawyathas, 'jungle- 
owners ' or ' natives,' and they alone acquired absolute ownership of 
land. Strangers who came afterwards to settle in this area are said 
to have been able to work land only with the permission of the native 
who owned it, and when they moved out of one jurisdiction into 
another they forfeited all claim to their fields. As a general rule, 
a native who moved elsewhere retained absolute ownership of his 
holdings, even after severing his connexion with the locality ; but in 
the northern areas of Indauktha, Seywa, and Mettaung he lost his 
proprietary right when he moved out of his myo. These peculiar 
tenures have now been swept away; the land in the three northern 
inxos having been made state land en bloc, that in the southern areas 
being treated partly as bobahaing and partly as state. The survey of 
the ]Jistrict was completed in 1895, in 3,090 square miles out of a 
total area of 5,634. Settlement operations were commenced at the 
end of 1900, and are still in progress. The average area of a holding 
is from 15 to 20 acres. The revenue history of Shwebo presents no 
marked features, except the continual reductions in the thathameda 
rates of assessment, and the frequent remissions of revenue rendered 
necessary by the precarious nature of the rainfall. At present only 
state land is assessed to revenue, the rate being one-third of the pro- 
duce in the Tantabin and Yatha circles of the Kanbalu township, 
one-sixth of the produce in the Kyunhla township, Rs. 2 an acre in the 
A'c u subdivision, and one-fourth of the produce in the rest of tlic 
District. AVater rate is taken from lands which receive water from 
a Governnienl irrigation work at from R. 1 to Rs. 2-8 per acre, 
according to the fertility of the land irrigated. 

The following table exhibits the fluctuations m the revenue since 
1890-1, in thousands of rupees. Thathameda is at present the main 
source of revenue. It rose from Rs. 4,64,000 in 1891 to Rs. 6,11,000 
in 1901, but fell to Rs. 5,17,000 in 1903-4. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue 





The income of the District fund, which provides for various local 


needs such as roads, </a/6-bungalows, &c., was Rs. 21,000 in 1903-4, 
and the chief item of expenditure was Rs. 21,000 on public works. 
The municipahty of Shwebo is the only one in the District. 

Soon after annexation, both European and Native troops were 
stationed at Shwebo, and at Kyaukniyaung on the Irrawaddy, which, 
previous to the building of the railway, was the key to the District ; 
and in 1888 a cantonment was established at Shwebo. It is situated 
to the north-east of the town on high ground and on a very healthy 
site. With the pacification of the country the Native troops were 
gradually withdrawn, and a reduction followed in the strength of the 
European troops, who during the last five years have numbered only 
five companies. Shwebo is the headquarters of a company of the 
Upper Burma Volunteer Rifles, drawn from the Shwebo, Katha, 
Bhamo, and Myitkyina Districts. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by subdivisional 
police officers, who are either Assistant Superintendents or inspectors, 
and by a head-quarters inspector. The sanctioned strength of the 
force is 473 men, consisting of 16 head constables, 37 sergeants, and 
420 constables, posted at 13 police stations and 18 outposts. Shwebo 
is the head-quarters of a military police battalion, and the sanctioned 
strength of the force serving within the limits of the District is 495 men, 
of whom 415 are stationed at Shwebo, 30 at Kanbalu, and 50 at Ve-u. 
There is a District jail at Shwebo, with accommodation for 237 males 
and 3 females. Wheat-grinding is the onl}- important industry carried 
on within its walls, the flour turned out by the prisoners being consumed 
by the military police. 

The proportion of literate persons in 1901 was 50 per cent, in the 
case of males and 2 per cent, in that of females, or 25 per cent, for 
both sexes together — figures which place Shwebo in the very front rank 
of the Districts of Burma from an educational point of view. The 
chief educational institution is the AH Saints' S.F.G. Mission school at 
Shwebo. Among the purely vernacular schools, which are mainly 
res[)(»nsible for the high standard of literacy, two lay institutions in 
Shwebo town and two monastic schools at Tabayin and Kanbauk 
deserve special mention. Altogether there were 1 1 secondary, 142 
primary, and 694 elementary (private) schools in the District in 1904, 
with a total of 9,175 male and 954 female scholars, as compared with 
1,678 pupils in 1891 and 6,583 in 1901. The expenditure on educa- 
tion in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 12,500. To this total Provincial funds 
contributed Rs. 9,000, fees Rs. 2,200, subscriptions Rs. 700, and the 
Shwebo municipality Rs. 600. 

There are 3 hospitals and one dispensary, with accommodation for 
62 inmates. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 15,890, includ- 
ing 662 in-paliciits, and 244 operations were performed. The annual 


cost is about Rs. 9,500, towards which niunicii)al funds contributed 
Rs. 3,300 in 1903 and Provincial funds Rs. 4,500, the dispensary being 
maintained by the railway. 

Vaccination is compulsory within Shwebo municipal limits. The 
operation is so popular among the people that the number of vaccina- 
tors has of late been increased from two to eight for the whole District. 
In 1903-4 the number of persons vaccinated was 11,799, representing 
41 per 1,000 of the population. 

Shwebo Subdivision. — Subdivision of Shwebo District, Upper 
Burma, containing the Shwebo, Kinu, and Sheinmaga townships. 

Shwebo Township. — South-eastern township of Shwebo District, 
Upper Burma, lying between 22° 26' and 22° 46' N. and 95° 27' and 
95° 59' E., with an area of 450 square miles. It stretches from the 
Irrawaddy on the east to the Mu river on the west, and is flat and dry 
throughout. The population was 45,713 in 1891, and 51,248 in 1901, 
distributed in one town, Shwebo (population, 9,626), the head-quarters, 
and 149 villages. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 35 square miles, 
and the land revenue and ihathameda amounted to Rs. 1,03,300. 

Shwebo Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Upper Burma, situated in 22° 35' N. and 95° 42' E., on the Sagaing- 
Myitkyina railway, 53 miles from Sagaing. The town occupies part 
of what was once a vast rice plain, the country north, south, and west 
adjoining the walls being still devoted to rice cultivation; and its 
surroundings are bare and not outwardly attractive. Away to the east 
beyond the Irrawaddy can be seen the Shan plateau \ while from the 
same direction a spur of the higher ground that forms the watershed 
between the Mu and the Irrawaddy runs down almost to the town, 
and on this spur are placed the present cantonments. The soil is poor 
and the water is brackish, so that there is little cause for surprise at 
the dreariness of the general prospect round Shwebo, and little hope 
for improvement until an efficient water scheme is in working order. 
The royal garden at Uyindaw, about a mile north of the town, and 
a smaller garden about half a mile beyond it, are the only plots of 
successful arboriculture in the neighbourhood ; for the rest, there is 
little to relieve the eye but the tamarinds and other trees in the urban 
area. Two conspicuous objects are the Roman Catholic church in 
the south-east corner of the town and the stone S.P.G. church in the 
north-west. The condition of the town has improved of late years, 
a succession of mat-walled, thatch-roofed houses, swept away in 
periodical conflagrations, having been replaced by more pretentious 
buildings with carved wooden fronts. The roofs of corrugated iron, 
if they do not add to the beauty of the town, at any rate contribute 
to its security from fire. In a few instances large brick buildings have 
been erected. 


The old town of Shwebo is of considerable historical interest, having 
been the birthplace and capital of Maung Aung Zeya, who seized the 
throne of Burma under the title of Alaungpaya, and founded the 
last dynasty of Burmese kings. In 1752 this monarch commenced 
serious operations against the Talaings, and in 1753 had made such 
progress that he had himself anointed king at his old home, and then 
proceeded to lay out and build a town there. This city, known as 
Moksobo, comprised an outer moat and wall, in the form of a square, 
over 2 miles each way, which exist to the present day, and a square 
inner citadel with a side of about 500 yards. Within this citadel was 
an inner wall, which contained in its turn the palace; but the palace 
and nearly the whole of the innermost wall have entirely disappeared. 
Alaungpaya also constructed the Shwechettho pagoda, a shrine still to 
be seen on the remains of the north inner wall ; the bahosin in front 
of the palace, on which was hung the big drum for beating the hours ; 
the natsin or spirit shrine of the nine evil spirits whom all kings feared 
and propitiated : and a royal lake north of the town. The natsin still 
stands near the south of the jail, and the lake is the Mahananda. The 
present town of Shwebo just includes the fringe of the eastern portion 
of the old town of Moksobo. 

After building the town described above, Alaungpaya turned his 
restless ambition towards Siam, but died during the course of a cam- 
paign in the south. His remains were brought back to Moksobo, and 
interred in the year 1760 near the entrance to the present courthc^use. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, who assumed the title of Naung- 
dawgyi, and whose successor and brother Sinbyushin, after reigning 
for two years at Moksobo, moved the capital to Ava in the year 1 766, 
taking with him some of the famous Moksobo soil. The town then 
began to decline, till 1837, in the reign of king Bagyidaw, when this 
monarch's brother, who was prince of Thayetmyo and Tharrawaddy, 
changed the name from Moksobo to Shwebo. In the same year he 
conspired against his elder brother and seized the throne. From the 
earliest days of its greatness the town had been named Yangyi-aung or 
' the victorious,' and to use Shwebo as a base of operations was thought 
to be a guarantee of success in any enterprise. Accordingly, in 1852 
king Tharrawaddy's son, Mindon, came to Shwebo when maturing his 
designs on the throne, which culminated in a successful conspiracy 
against his brother. Pagan Min. Again, in Mindon's reign his nephew, 
the Padein prince, came to Shwebo, and plotted for his uncle's over- 
throw ; but on this occasion the proverbial luck of the city fi\iled. It 
may be said, however, that the use of Shwebo as a capital ceased 
140 years ago. 

Immediately after the annexation of U})per Burma a detachment of 
British troops came up to Shwebo, but returned almost immediately 


lo Maudala)-. 'llii.s withdrawal stimulated the rebels wlio were abroad 
in the land, and a eonfedcra<:y of dacoit gangs, under a leader known 
as Mintha Hmat, devastated the town. On this the British troops 
returned and have held the place ever since. 

The population of the town was 9,368 in 1891, and 9,626 in 1901, 
the majority being Ikirmans. The Indian colony consists of 700 Musal- 
mans and more than 600 Hindus, about half of whom are military 
followers and other residents of the cantonment. The Christian 
population exceeds 1,000. A large proportion of the inhabitants are 
agriculturists, the rest work at the usual petty trades and crafts of the 
urban areas of Upper Burma. There are many special industries for 
which villages in the District are famous, but from an industrial and 
artistic point of view Shwebo itself is inconspicuous. A local black- 
smith trained in France does excellent work in steel and iron. He 
and his pupils, however, are the only artisans who have endowed 
Shwebo with anything approaching an industry of its own. 

The town was constituted a municipality in 1888. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1 900-1 averaged Rs. 20,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 36,000, of which bazar rents contributed 
Rs. 19,700, and a house and land tax Rs. 4,400. The expenditure 
amounted to Rs. 41,000, the chief ordinary items being lighting 
(Rs. 4,000), conservancy (Rs. 4,700), and roads (Rs. 11,500). The 
municipality contributes Rs. 600 annually to the S.P.G. Anglo-vernacular 
school, besides which there are two good lay schools. The municipal 
hospital has accommodation for 45 in-patients. The income and ex- 
penditure of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,000. 

Shwedaung Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Prome Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, containing two townships, Shwedaung and 

Shwedaung Township. — Townshij) in the Shwedaung subdivi- 
sion of Prome District, Lower Burma, lying along the eastern bank 
of the Irrawaddy, between 18° 18' and 18° 48' N. and 95° 4' and 
95° 2t' E., with an area of 300 square miles. The population was 
66,388 in 1891, and 66,743 in 1901, but the agricultural population 
increased from 25,700 to 36,300. There are 311 villages and one 
town, Shwedaung (population, 10,787), the head-quarters. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 87 square miles, paying Rs. 90,000 land 

Sh^wedaung Tow^n. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in Prome District, Lower Burma, situated in 18° 42' N. 
and 95° 13' E., on the Rangoon-Prome road, 8 miles due south of 
Prome town. Population (r9oi), 10,787. Shwedaung is adminis- 
tered by a town committee constituted in 1882. The income of the 
town fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 24,000 and the expenditure Rs. 29,000. 


'I'here is a hospital in tlie town witli 24 beds. A considerable amounl 
of silk is manufactured, almost every house in the town having its 

Shwegu. — Western subdivision and township of Bhanio District, 
Upper Burma, lying between 23° 37' and 24*^ 50' N. and 96° 34' 
and 97*^ 16' E., with an area of 2,423 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 21,943, Kachins numbering about 5,300, Shans about 
3,800, and Hurmans over 12,500. Tlie subdivision contains 185 vil 
lages, the head-quarters being at Shwegu (population, 2,493), ^ ''^"g 
straggling collection of villages on the high left bank of the Irrawaddy, 
a regular calling-place for the Flotilla steamers. Valuable forests are 
found in the township, and ample room for extension of cultivation 
exists in the almost-deserted Sinkan valley. The Kachin areas lie in 
the east of the township, north and south of the Irrawaddy. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 12 scjuarc miles, and the land revenue and 
ihafhameda amounted to Rs. 45,000. 

Shwegyin Subdivision. — Subdivision of 'I'oungoo District, Lower 
Hurma, containing the Kvaukkvi and Shwf.(;vin townships. 

Shwegyin Township.— Southernmost township of Toungoo Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, lying between 17° 33' and 18° 13' N. and 96° 48' 
and 97° 13' E., with an area of 493 square miles. It extends from the 
Sittang, which separates it from Pegu District, to the borders of Sal- 
ween District. The ]wpulalion was 30,628 in 1891, and 26,894 in 
1901 (nearly all Burnians or Talaings), residing in one town, Shwegyin 
(population, 7,616), the head-quarters, and 164 villages. The area 
cultivated in 1903-4 was 23 square miles, paying Rs. 22,000 land 

Shwegyin Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Toungoo District, Lower Burma, and formerly head-cpiarters 
of a District called after it. It is picturesquely situated in 17° 55' N. 
and 96** 53' E., close to the western slopes of the Paunglaung Hills, 
on the left bank of the Sittang river, immediately to llic north of the 
point where the Shwegyin stream enters it from the cast. It is well 
laid out, but is low lying and apt to be flooded during the rains. 
Shwegyin means in Burmese 'gold-washing,' and it is probable that 
gold was found in the neighbourhood at one time. The place has, 
however, no history, having grown from a small village in compara- 
tively recent times. Neither in the first nor the second Burmese War 
was any resistance offered to the British, who on both occasions occu- 
pied the town. Population (1901), 7,616. Shwegyin ceased to be 
a District head-quarters in 1895, and this accounts for part of the 
decrease in population during the last decade. The falling off had, 
however, begun earlier, and was largely caused by the remoteness of 
the town and its inaccessibilit\ from the railwav. 


The town was constituted a municipality in 1888, the present com- 
mittee consisting of 3 ex-officio and 8 nominated members. The 
municipal income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 20,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, of which 
Rs. 11,000 was derived from markets, and Rs. 3,300 from house and 
land tax; and the expenditure was Rs. 19,000, including Rs. 3,200 
spent on conservancy and Rs. 3,500 on education. The municipal 
school contains 95 pupils, and an American Baptist Karen school 
138. The municipal hospital has accommodation for 27 in-patients. 

Shweli. — River of Burma, called Nam Mao by the Shans, who in 
ancient days first established themselves in what is now Burma along 
the Shweli valley. The stream rises in China in the neighbourhood 
of Tengyiieh, and flows first in a south-westerly and then in a northerly 
direction past Namhkam village, through the Shan State of Mongmit 
and along the northern end of the Ruby Mines District into the Irra- 
waddy, which it reaches at a point 20 miles south of the town of 
Katha. The total length of the river is about 260 miles. It abounds 
in rapids, and is but little used for navigation, but is employed freely 
for floating timber. It has no tributaries of importance. 

Siahan. — Mountain range in Baluchistan, separating Makran 
from Kharan. The eastern part is known as Band. It runs south- 
south-west and east-north-east between 27° 7' and 28° 2' N. and 
63° 22' and 65° 42' E., and unites with the Jhalawan hills near 
Shireza, having a total length of 176 miles. It is the narrowest range 
in Western Baluchistan, the width nowhere exceeding 20 miles. North 
of Panjgur the general mass bifurcates, the spur on the south being 
known as the Koh-i-Sabz. Its general aspect is abrupt and rugged, 
and its geological formation a slaty shale. It has a mean elevation 
of about 5,000 feet. On the west are the two fine defiles of Tank-i- 
Grawag and Tank-i-Zurrati, through which the Rakhshan river passes. 

Sialkot District. — District in the Lahore Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 31° 43' and 32° 51' N. and 74° 11' and 75° i' E., with 
an area of 1,991 square miles. It is an oblong tract of country, occu- 
pying the submontane portion of the Rechna or Ravi-Chenab Doab, 
with a length from north-west to south-east of a little over 50 miles, 
and an average breadth of 44 miles, stretching from the valley of the 
Ravi on the south-east to that of the Chenab on the north-western 
border. On the north-east the District is bounded by the Jammu 
province of Kashmir ; on the east by Gurdaspur ; and on the west 
by Lahore and Gujranwala. Along the bank of both great boundary 
rivers, a narrow fringe of alluvial lowland marks 
^^ct^ the central depression in which they run ; while 

above them rise the high banks that form the limits 
uf their wider beds. Parallel to the Ravi, another stream, the Degh, 


which rises in the Janimu hills, traverses the centre of the District. 
A torrent in the rains, at other times the Degh dwindles to the merest 
trickle ; like the greater rivers it is fringed on either side by a strip of 
alluvial soil, but in the upper part of its course through the Zafarwal 
tahsil the shifting of its bed has covered a large area with barren sand. 
Several other minor streams, of which the Aik is the most important, 
traverse the District. Midway between the Ravi and the Chenab is 
a raised dorsal tract, which forms a slightly elevated plateau stretching 
from beyond the Jammu border far into the heart of the dodb. The 
upper portion of the District near the hills wears an aspect of remark- 
able greenness and fertility. The dorsal ridge, however, is dry and 
sandy ; and between the Degh and the Ravi the wild and unproductive 
upland grows more and more impregnated with saltpetre as it recedes 
from the hills, till near the Lahore border it merges into a tangled 
jungle of brushwood and reeds. The District also comprises a small 
tract of low hills, called the Bajwat, on the north of the Chenab, 
a country of green grass and flowing streams, which presents an 
agreeable change from the arid plains of the Punjab. 

There is nothing of geological interest in Sialkot, which is 
situated entirely on the alluvium. Cultivation is close, leaving little 
room for an indigenous flora of perennial plants. Towards the Jammu 
border, especially in the north-west of the District, plants of the Outer 
Himalayan fringe appear. Trees are rare, except where planted about 
wells, by roadsides, and in gardens. 

A few wolves are the only representatives of the camivora, while 
even hares and deer find little cover in so highly cultivated a tract. 
A few wild hog and nilgai are found, but no antelope have been 
shot in recent years. In the cold season wild geese, ducks, and other 
water-fowl abound in the marshes and on the river banks and islands ; 
quail are plentiful in spring, but partridges are scarce. 

The climate in summer is, for the plains, good ; and, though there 
are generally a few days of most intense heat, the neighbourhood of 
the hills prevents any long-continued spell. The cold season resem- 
bles that in the Punjab generally, but begins early and ends late. 
The low hills are cool but very malarious, as is also the waterlogged 
valley of the Degh, while other parts are decidedly healthy. Pneumonia 
is common in the winter and fever in the autumn. 

Owing to its submontane position the District has an abundant rain- 
fall, but this diminishes rapidly in amount as the distance from the 
hills increases. The average rainfall varies from 22 inches at Raya 
to 35 at Sialkot ; at the latter place 28 inches fall in the summer 
months, and 7 in the winter. The heaviest rainfall recorded during 
the twenty years ending 1901 was 64 inches at Sialkot in 188 1-2, 
and the lowest ro inches at Daska in 1891-2. 

.328 stAlkot d /strict 

The legendary liistory of the District is connected with Raja Sali- 
vahan, the reputed founder of the town of Sialkot, and his famous son 
Rasalu, and is described under Sialkot 'rowN. 
Pasrur is also an ancient place. At an early date 
the District fell to the Rajas of Jammu, and under the Mughals 
formed the Rechna Doab sarkCir of the Subah of Lahore. Under Shah 
Jahan the sarkCir was entrusted to Ali Mardan Khan, the famous engi- 
neer, who dug a canal through it to bring water from the Chenab to the 
imperial gardens at Lahore. On the decline of the Mughal empire 
Ranjit Singh Deo, Rajput, a hill chief, extended his sway over the low- 
lands, owning a nominal allegiance to Delhi, In 1 748 he transferred 
his allegiance to Ahmad Shah Durrani, who added Zafarwal and two 
other parganas to his fief. Before his death in 1773 Ranjit Deo had 
secured possession of the whole District, except Sialkot town and its 
dependencies, which were held by a Pathan family. After his death 
the Bhangi confederacy of the Sikhs took Sialkot from the Pathans, and 
eventually overran the whole country up to the foot of the Jammu 
hills, dividing it among a score of leaders. These petty States were, 
however, attached by Ranjit Singh in 1791 ; and his annexation of 
Pasrur in 1807 gave him control of the tract, after his general, Dlwan 
Mohkam Chand, had defeated the Sardars of Sialkot at Atari. 

In the Mutiny of 1857 the station was denuded of British troops; 
and the Native regiments which were left behind rose, and, after sacking 
the jail, treasury, and courthouse, and massacring several of the Euro- 
pean inhabitants, marched off towards Delhi, only to be destroyed 
by Nicholson at Trimmu Ghat. The rest of the Europeans took 
refuge in the fort, and on the morning after the departure of the 
mutineers order was restored. The only events of interest in the 
subsequent history of the District are the plague riots which occurred 
at the villages of Shahzada and Sankhatra in 1901. 

Numerous mounds are scattered about the District, which mark the 
sites of ancient villages and towns. None of them, except that on 
which the Sialkot fort stood, has been excavated, but silver and copper 
utensils and coins have been dug up from time to time by villagers. 
Most of the coins are those of Indo-Bactrian kings. The excavations 
in Sialkot revealed the existence of some old baths, with hot water 
pipes of solid masonry. The fort itself, of which very little now 
remains, is not more than 1,000 years old, and is said to have been 
rebuilt by Shahab-ud-din (Ihori at the end of the twelfth century. 
For further information, reference should be made to the articles on 
Sialkot Town and Pasrur Town. 

The District contains 7 towns and 2,348 villages. The population 
at the last four enumerations was : (1868) 1,004,695, (1881) 1,012,148, 
(1891) 1,119,847, and (1901) 1,083,909. It decreased by 3-2 percent. 




during tlie last decade, the decrease being greatest in tlie Raya tahsll 
and least in Daska. The Chenab Colony is responsible for this fall 
in population, no less than 103,000 persons having 

left to take land in the newly irrigated tracts. The 


District is divided into five tahs'ils — Siai.kot, I'asruk, Zafakwal, 
Rava, and Daska — the head-quarters of each being at the place from 
which it is named. The chief towns are the municipalities of Sialkoi', 
the administrative head-quarters of the District, Daska, Ja.mki, Pasrur, 
Kila Sobha Singh, Zafarwal, and Narowal. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 
1 90 1 : — 


Rava . 


District total 


Number of 1 

XT th 





— c 



rt ^ 













44.^ i 









2..M8 i 




O in 

MC Coo O 

rj O O — O 

^ « rt aj.^ 

u'u a ?^ c 

"1 rt D.S rt 

4; rt rt i 






1,083,909 I 644-4 - 3.2 


Note.— The figures for Uie areas o( /ahsi/s are taken from revenue returns. The total area 
of the District is that given in the Census Report. 

Muhammadans number 716,953, or over 66 per cent, of the total; 
Hindus, 302,012, or 28 per cent. ; and Sikhs, 50,982, or less than 
5 per cent. Sialkot town contains the famous shrine of Baba Nanak, 
the first Sikh Guru. The density of the population is high. The 
language of the people is Punjabi, but the dialect known as DogrI 
is largely .spoken by Hindus on the Jammu border. 

The Jats are in greater numerical strength in Sialkot than in any 
other District in the Province, numbering 258,000, or 24 per cent. 
of the total. Other agricultural tribes include the Arains (67,000), 
Rajputs (60,000), Awans (24,000), and (ifijars (10,000). The com- 
mercial classes are Khattris (19,000), Aroras (19,000), and Pahari 
Mahajans (11,000). The Bhatias (6,000) are stronger in Sialkot than 
anywhere else. Brahmans number 35,000 and Saiyids 15,000. Of 
the artisan classes, the most important are the Tarkhans (carpenters, 
44,000), Kumhars (potters, 32,000), Julahas (weavers, 28,000), Lobars 
(blacksmiths, 21,000), Mochls (shoemakers and leather-workers, 17,000), 
Telis (oil-pressers, 14,000), and Sonars (goldsmiths, 10,000). Kash- 
miris number 32,000. Of the menial classes, the Chuhras (sweepers, 
64,000) are the most numerous ; other large menial castes are J bin wars 
(water-carriers, 23,000), Nais (barbers, 22,000), Chhimbas and Dhobis 



(washermen, 17,000), Maclihis (fishermen and water-carriers, 15,000), 
Meghs (weavers, 34,000), Barwalas and Batwals (village watchmen, 
34,000), Mirasls (village minstrels, 12,000), and Changars (labourers, 
6,000). There are 22,000 Fakirs. About 46 per cent, of the popula- 
tion are supported by agriculture. 

The American United Presbyterian Mission, which was established 
at Sialkot in 1855, supports a theological seminary, a Christian training 
institute, a female hospital, and an Anglo-vernacular high school. The 
Established Church of Scotland maintains two European missionaries 
at Sialkot (branch established in 1857) and one in Daska, and also has 
a separate female mission, mainly occupied with work in zandnas. 
The Church of England Mission at Narowal was founded in 1859, 
and the Zanana Mission at that place in 1 884. The Roman Catholics, 
who entered the field in 1889, have now three stations. Sialkot has 
the largest number of native Christians in the Punjab, amounting to 
10,662, or I per cent, of the population, in 1901. 

The soil consists chiefly of loam, but clay is found in depressions, 

and the waste lands mostly consist of sandy or salt-impregnated soil. 

Owing to the abundant rainfall, and the very large 

Agriculture. proportion of the cultivated area which is served by 

wells, the District is secure against any serious failure of crops. 

The District is held almost entirely on the hhaiydchard ax\d patt'iddri 
tenures, zamlnddri lands covering only about 30,000 acres. The area 
for which details are available from the revenue record of 1903-4 is 
1,984 square miles, as shown below: — 







Sialkot . 
Pasrur . 
Daska . 
















Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, covering 601 square 
miles in 1903-4; barley and gram occupied 120 and 64 square miles 
respectively. Sugar is the most valuable crop of the autumn harvest, 
and the area planted (50 square miles) is surpassed only in Gurdaspur. 
Rice, maize, and great millet {jmvdr) are the chief autumn food-grains. 

The cultivated area has increased by 28 per cent, since 1854 and 
by I per cent, in the ten years ending 1901-2, the increase being due 
to the steady extension of well-cultivation and the great pressure of 
population on the soil. Nothing has been done in the way of im- 
proving the quality of the crops grown. Loans for the construction 


of wells are extremely popular, over Rs. 60,000 having been advanced 
during the five years ending 1903-4. 

Very few cattle are bred locally. Agricultural stock is purchased 
at the Amritsar fairs or at the Gulu Shah cattle fair in the Pasrur 
fahsll, and imported from Jhang, Gujranwala, and Gujrat. Horses 
and ponies are not common, and the indigenous breed is poor ; two 
pony and five donkey stallions are kept by the District board. Sheep 
and goats are numerous, and donkeys are largely used as pack animals, 
but camels are scarce. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 858 square miles, or 58 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 788 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, 16 from canals, and 54 from streams. In addition, 
135 square miles, or 9 per cent., are subject to inundation by the 
Chenab, Ravi, and minor streams. Irrigation from canals is confined 
to small private channels taken from the Degh and other streams ; 
irrigation from streams is either by lift or from the perennial brooks 
of the Bajwfit. U'ells are the mainstay of the cultivation, owing to the 
copious supply of subsoil water, and the fact that they can be con- 
structed at comparatively small cost. In 1903-4 the District possessed 
24,452 masonry wells worked with Persian wheels by cattle, besides 
1,450 unbricked wells, lever wells, and water-lifts. 

The District contains only one square mile of ' reserved ' forest under 
the Deputy-Conservator of the Chenab Forest division, 1-4 square miles 
of military reserve, and 7 of unclassed forest and Government waste 
under the Deputy-Commissioner. With the exception of one planta- 
tion these are chiefly grass reserves, and even an ordinary coppice can 
hardly be found. In 1904 the forest revenue was Rs. 1,500. 

The I )istrict contains several beds of kaiikar or nodular limestone, 
and saltpetre is prepared to a small extent. 

Sialkot town was once famous for its paper, hut the industry has 

much declined of recent years owing to the competition of mill-niade 

paper. It also possesses a recently introduced and 

flourishing industry in the manufacture of cricket Trade and 

° ^ communications, 

bats, polo and hockey sticks, and the like, which 

have a wide popularity all over India. Tents, tin boxes, and surgical 
instruments are made ; and three flour-inills, in one of which cotton- 
ginning is also carried on, employed 85 hands in 1904. Cotton is 
woven all over the District, and printed cotton stuffs are made at 
Pasrur; shawls oi pashm, the fine wool of the Tibetan goat, are pro- 
duced at Kila Sobha Singh. Damascened work on iron is made at the 
village of Kotli Loharan near Sialkot, and Daska and other places 
produce vessels of brass and white metal on a considerable scale. In 
1869 an undertaking was started at Sialkot under the name of the 
Belfast Flax Company, to encourage the growth of flax for export to 



England ; Inil, though an excellent fibre was raised in the District, 
the difficulty of procuring good seed and the apathy of the peasantry 
caused the enterprise to prove a failure after some years' trial. 

Sialkot town is the only important centre of commerce, and receives 
such surplus raw produce as the District produces, most of which is 
consumed in the town and cantonment. The chief exports are rice, 
sugar, paper, cotton, cloth, and brass vessels ; and the chief imports 
are grain, rice, tobacco, ghl, timber, and tea, besides the various neces- 
saries for the British troops in cantonments. There is a branch of the 
Alliance Bank of Simla at Sialkot. 

A branch of what is now the North-Western Railway from A\' azirabad 
to Sialkot, a distance of 27 miles, was opened for traffic in 1880, and 
its continuation to Jammu in 1890. The principal metalled road runs 
parallel to the railway from Wazirabad to Jamnm. An important 
metalled road connects Sialkot and Amritsar. The chief unmetalled 
roads are from Sialkot to Gurdaspur, to Gujranwala, and via Eminabad 
to Lahore. The total length of metalled roads is 56 miles, and of 
unmetalled roads 785 miles; of these, 24 miles of metalled and 29 
of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works department, and the 
rest are maintained by the District board. The Chenab is crossed by 
nine ferries and the Ravi by five, but there is little traffic on either 

The District was visited by famine in 1783, 1812, 1843, ^"^ 1861. 

Neither in 1870 nor 1878 did it suffer severely, and with the extension 

of well-irrigation that has taken place in the last 

twenty years it is believed to have become practically 

secure. The crops matured in the famine year 1899- 1900 amounted 

to 63 per cent, of the normal. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by five 
Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is in charge 
of the District treasury. The tahsils of Sialkot, 
Zafarwal, Raya, Daska, and Pasrur are each under 
a tahsilddr and a iiaib-tahsllddr. Sialkot is the head- quarters of 
a Superintending Engineer and two Executive Engineers of the Canal 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice, and civil judicial work is under a District Judge. 
Both officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge of the Sialkot 
Civil Division, who is also Sessions Judge. The District Judge has 
one Subordinate Judge and five Munsifs under him, one at head- 
quarters and one at each outlying iahslL A cantonment magistrate 
is posted to Sialkot cantonment. The District is singularly free from 
serious crime, despite the large number of Sansis and other criminal 
tribes domiciled in it. 


The revenue history in pre-annexution times presents no special 
features. A summary settlement was made in 1847 by the European 
Political officers under the Regency. The kind rents of the Sikhs were 
appraised and a reduction of 10 per cent, made, while all extra cesses 
were abolished. This assessment worked well until the fall in prices 
which followed annexation. Bad seasons and bad management aggra- 
vated the distress, and even large remissions failed to prevent the 
people from abandoning their holdings. In 1850 the Rechna l^oab 
settlement began, including the present Districts of Sialkot and Gujran- 
wala, and the tahslls of Shakargarh and Shahdara. The demand of 
the summary settlement was reduced from 15 lakhs to 13. ("esses 
were also reimposed at the rate of 16 per cent, on the demand. The 
settlement was revised in 1863-6, and a general reduction made, one- 
sixth of the gross produce being assumed as the equivalent of half the 
net 'assets.' The initial demand was slightly over 12 lakhs, and the 
ultimate demand \2\ lakhs. The sanctioned theoretical rates at the 
next revision (188S-93) indicated a revenue of i8-| lakhs, but the actual 
demand was 1 5 lakhs, an increase of 2 1 per cent. The average assess- 
ment on 'dry' land is Rs. 1-4-6 (maximum Rs. 1-14, minimum 
R. 0-1 1), and on 'wet' land Rs. 2-0-6 (maximum Rs. 3, minimum 
Rs. i-r). The demand in 1903-4, including cesses, was over 17-3 
lakhs. The average size of a proprietary holding is 7-6 acres. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are 
bhown below, in thousands of rupees : — 

1880-1. 1890-1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue . 






The District contains seven municipalities, Si.\lkot, D.\sKA-c///«-Kot 
Daska, Jamki, Pasruk, Kila Sobha Singh, Zafarwal, and Naro- 
WAL ; and nine ' notified areas.' Outside these, local affairs are 
managed by the District board, whose income, mainly derived from 
a local rate, amounted in 1903-4 to i-8 lakhs. The expenditure was 
also 1-8 lakhs, hospitals, schools, and public works forming the chief 
items. Sialkol is one of the few Districts in the Punjab in which local 
boards have answered expectations. 

The regular police force consists of 576 of all ranks, including 
59 cantonment and 146 municipal police, in charge of a Superinten- 
dent, who usually has 6 inspectors under him. The village watchmen 
number 2,149. There are 17 police stations. The District jail at 
Sialkot town has accommodation for 482 prisoners. 

Sialkot stands twenty-third among the twenty-eight Districts of 
the Punjab in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the 

V 2 



pioportiuii of literate persons was 2-8 per cent. (5'2 males and 0-3 
females). The number of pupils under instruction was 5,266 in 
1880-1, 13,300 in 1890-1, 13,745 in 1900-1, and 15,780 in 1903-4. 
In the last year there were one Arts college, 21 secondary, and 183 pri- 
mary (public) schools, besides 9 advanced and 228 elementary (private) 
schools, with 1,415 girls in the public and 278 in the private schools. 
The principal educational institutions are the Sialkot Arts college and 
5 high schools. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 
1-2 lakhs, of which Ks. 24,497 was contributed by municipalities, 
Rs. 42,000 came from fees, Rs. 7,000 from Government grants, and 
Rs. 35,000 from Local funds. 

Besides the civil hospital and a branch dispensary at head-quarters, 
local bodies maintain 7 outlying dispensaries. At these institutions in 
1904 a total of 139,968 out-patients and 1,872 in-patients were treated, 
and 7,562 operations were performed. A leper asylum and four Kot 
dispensaries, for the inmates of the ' Kot ' or reformatory for criminal 
tribes, are also maintained in the District. The Kot dispensaries treat a 
large number of out-patients. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 23,000, 
of which Rs. 11,000 was contributed by Local and Rs. 12,000 by 
municipal funds. The District also has four mission dispensaries, aided 
from Local and municipal funds, one for males and three for women 
and children \ and in Sialkot town a charitable dispensary is maintained 
by the representative of an old family of hakims or native physicians. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 34,609, re- 
presenting 32-3 per 1,000 of population. 

[J. R. Dunlop-Smith, District Gazetteer {i2)g/^-^} : Settlement Report 
(1895) ; and Customary Law of the Main Tribes in the Sialkot District 


Sialkot Tahsil. — Northern tahsll of Sialkot District, Punjab, lying 

between 32° 17' and 32° 51' N. and 74° i I'and 74° 43' E., with an area 
of 436 square miles. The Chenab forms part of the north-western 
boundar)' of the tahsll, which includes a submontane tract known as 
the Bajwat to the north of that river. The country is traversed by 
a number of hill torrents, and except in the south-east is extremely 
fertile and is fairly well supplied with irrigation wells. The population 
in 1901 was 312,688, compared with 302,866 in 1891. The head- 
quarters are at the town of Sialkot (population, 57,956), and it also 
contains 637 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 4,00,000. 

Sialkot Town. — Head-quarters of Sialkot District and tahsll, 
Punjab, situated in 2,2° 30' N. and 74^ 32' E., on the Wazirabad- 
Jammu branch of the North-Western Railway ; distant by rail from 
Calcutta 1,341 miles, from Bombay 1,369, and from Karachi 808. 
J'opulalion (1901), 57,956. Sialkot stands on the northern bank of 

S/A/.KOT TOlViV 3;, 5 

the Aik torrent, upon the edge of the high triangular ritlge whicli 
extends southward from the Jamniu hills, and is 72 miles from 

Popular legends attribute its foundation to Raja Sala, the uncle of 
the Pandavas, and say that it was refounded in the time of Vikramaditya 
by Raja Salivahan, who built the fort and city. Salivahan had two sons: 
one, Puran by name, was killed by the instrumentality of a wicked step- 
mother, and thrown into a well, still the resort of pilgrims, near Sialkot; 
the other, Rasalu, the great mythical hero of Punjab folk-tales, is said 
to have reigned at Sialkot. Towards the end of his reign Rasalu 
became involved in wars with Raja Hfidi, popularly stated to have 
been a Oakhar chieftain, lieing worsted in battle, Rasalu, as the 
price of peace, was forced to give his daughter in marriage to his 
conqueror, who gave the territory he had conquered to Rasalu's 
adopted son. According to a further legend related to Mr. Prinsep: — 

'After the death of Raja Rasalu, the country is said to have fallen 
under the curse of Puran (brother of Rasalu, who had become a 
fakir) for 300 years, lying totally devastated from famine and in- 
cessant plunder.' 

It has recently been suggested that Sialkot is the ancient site known 
as Sakala or Sagal. In a. d. 790 the fort and city were demolished by 
an army under Raja Xaraut, supported by the Ghandaurs of the 
Vusufzai country. Under the Mughal emperors, Sialkot became the 
head-quarters of a fiscal district {sarkdf). The country was afterwards 
occupied in the seventeenth century by the Rajput princes of Jammu. 
The mound which rises in the centre of the town, crowned with the 
remains of an ancient fort, is popularly believed to mark the site of the 
original stronghold of Raja Salivahan ; but the fort itself is not more 
than 1,000 years old, and is said to have been rebuilt by Shahab-ud- 
din at the end of the twelfth century. Some old baths with hot-water 
pipes of solid masonry have been discovered here. Other similar 
mounds stand among the outskirts of the town. In modern times, 
the old fort is of historical interest for its gallant defence by the few 
European residents who took refuge here during the Mutiny of 1857. 
It is now dismantled, and the few buildings it contains are used for 
public purposes. The town also contains the shrine of the first Sikh 
Gurii, Baba Nanak {see Amritsar District), the scene of an annual 
fair largely attended by Sikhs from all parts of the District ; the Darbar 
BaolT Sahib, a covered well, erected by a Rajput disciple of Baba 
Nanak, held high in religious consideration among the Sikhs : the 
Muhammadan shrine of Imam All-ul-hakk, a handsome building of 
ancient construction ; and a temple erected by Raja Tej Singh. The 
municipality was created in 1867. The income and expenditure during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged about a lakh. In 1903-4 the 


income was a lakh, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 80,500); and the 
expenditure was also a lakh, including conservancy (Rs. 13,200), 
education (Rs. 17,000), medical (Rs. 12,000), and administration 
(Rs. 25,900). 

The large military cantonment is situated about a mile and a half 
from the native town. The garrison, which belongs to the Rawalpindi 
division, consists of one battery and one ammunition column of horse 
artillery, one regiment of British cavalry, two regiments of Native 
cavalry, one battalion of Native infantry, and one company of sappers 
and miners. There is also a mounted infantry school. During the 
ten years ending 1902-3 the income and expenditure (A cantonment 
funds averaged Rs. 37,000. 

Sialkot is a flourishing trade centre and depot for agricultural pro- 
duce. It has an extensive manufacture of cricket and tennis bats, 
hockey sticks, &c., tents, surgical instruments, and tin boxes. Boots are 
also made, and various cotton stuffs, chiefly twill {susl\ The manufac- 
ture of paper is said to have been introduced four centuries ago, and 
under the Mughal emperors Sialkot paper was largely used at the 
Delhi court. The manufacture has now greatly declined, owing to the 
competition of mill-made paper. The town contains three flour-mills, 
in one of which cotton-ginning is also carried on. The number of 
employes in 1904 was 85. The Alliance Bank of Simla has a branch 
in the town. The principal educational institutions are the Sialkot 
Arts college and four Anglo-vernacular high schools, of which one is 
managed by the Educational department, two by the Scottish and 
American Missions, while the fourth is the Christian Training Insti- 
tute of the Scottish Mission. There are five middle schools for girls, 
one of which is attached to the convent. In the town are a civil 
hospital with a branch dispensary, an American Mission hospital for 
women and children, and a charitable dispensary maintained by a 
member of an old family of hakims or native physicians. 

Sibi District (Shm). — District of Baluchistan, lying between 27° 
55' and 30° 38' N. and 67° 17' and 69° 50' E. Its total area is 
11,281 square miles; but this includes the Marri-Buoti country 
(7,129 square miles), which is only under political control, leaving 
4,152 square miles of directly Administered territory. The Lahri 
7nabat of the Kalat State in Kachhi (1,282 square miles) is also 
politically controlled from Sibi. The District is bounded on the north 
by Loralai District ; on the south by the Upper Sind Frontier Dis- 
trict ; on the east by the Dera Cihazi Khan District of the Punjab ; 
and on the west by Kachhi, the Bolan Pass, and Quetta-Pishln. The 
portion under political control occupies the centre, east, and south of 
the District ; the areas under direct administration form protrusions in 
the north-western, north-eastern, and south-western corners. 


No area in Baluchistan presents such strongly marked variations, 
both physical and climatic, between its various parts as Sibi Dis- 
trict. Two portions of it, the Sibi and NasTrabad 
iahslls, consist of perfectly level plain, lying respec- .^^'^^ 

tively at the apex and base of Kachhi. The re- 
mainder of the District consists entirely of mountainous country, 
rising in a series of terraces from the lower hills of the Sulaiman 
range. These hills include Zen (3,625 feet) in the Bugti country, 
and Bambor (4,890 feet) and Dungan with Butur (about 6,000 feet) 
in the Marri country. North-westward the mountains stretch to the 
watershed of the ("entral Brahui range in Zarghun and Khalifat, at 
an elevation of 11,700 feet. With the exception of the eastern side 
of the Marri-Bugti country, the drainage of the whole of this area is 
carried off by the Nari, which in traversing the Marri country is known 
as the Beji. On the south it is joined by three considerable hill- 
torrents, the Chakar or Talli, the Lahri, and the (Jhhatr. All of these 
streams are subject to high floods, especially in July and August, when 
the fertile lands of Kachhi are irrigated from them. 

The Upper, Middle, and Lower Siwaliks (upper and middle miocene) ; 
Spintangi limestone and Ghazij group (middle eocene) ; volcanic agglo- 
merates and ash-beds of the Deccan trap ; the Dunghan group (Upper 
Cretaceous) ; belemnite beds (neocomian) ; and some massive lime- 
stone (Jurassic), as well as spreads of recent deposits, are exposed in 
the District. 

The vegetation of the District is as varied as its physical aspects. 
On the south it is similar to that of Sind, the uncultivated land pro- 
ducing Prosopis spicigera, Capparis aphylla, Salvadora okoides, Zizy- 
phus mnnmularia, Tamarix ifidica. Acacia arabica, and Acacia modesta. 
In the lower highlands the dwarf-palm {Nannorhops Kiichieana) 
abounds, and the blue gum {Eucalyptus) has been found to grow well. 
In the higher hills are found the juniper, pistachio, ash, wild almond, 
and Caragana. Cumin seed grows in the Ziarat hills, which also 
produce many varieties of grass. 

Mountain sheep and markhor are found in the higher ' hills,' where 
leopards and black bears are also sometimes seen. 'Ravine deer' or 
gazelle and hares occur in the plains. Large flocks of sand-grouse 
visit the District when there is a good mustard crop. Fair fishing 
is to be had in the Nari. 

While the highlands possess a climate which is pleasantly cool in 
summer and very cold in winter, the plains suffer from the great heat 
common in Sind. Naslrabad has a mean temperature in July of 96°, 
and is subject to the effects of the simoom. For five months alone, 
during the cold season, are the climatic conditions tolerable to 
Europeans. The Marri-Bugti country and the Shahrig tahsll (2,300 

33^ S//i/ DISTRICT 

to 4,000 feet) possess a climate intermediate between the extremes 
of the plains and the highlands. The annual rainfall varies with the 
altitude, from 3 inches in Naslrabad to 5 in Sibi and nearly 12 in 
Shahrig, where the vapour-bearing clouds strike Khalifat and empty 
their contents into the valley. 

Up to the end of the fifteenth century the District was always a 
dependency of Multan. It is known to have formed part of the 
Ghaznivid empire, and was ruled by a petty chief 
in the time of Nasir-ud-din Kubacha. About 1500, 
it was taken by Shah Beg, Arghun, and thus passed under Kandahar ; 
but, under the Mughal empire, it again became subordinate to Multan. 
It was taken by the Kalhoras of Sind in 17 14; but they had to 
retire before the power of the Durranis, by whom the local governors 
were generally selected from the Barozai clan of the Panni Afghans, 
which still retains much influence. During the last two years of the 
first Afghan War an Assistant Political Agent was posted to Sibi, and 
on its conclusion the District was handed over to Kalat, but again 
came under Barakzai rule in 1843. In the succeeding years the 
Marris acquired ground in the District ; and their depredations were 
not checked until Sibi, Shahrig, and Duki were assigned to the British, 
in 1879, by the Treaty of Gandamak. The Marris and Bugtis had 
been controlled from the Dera Ghazi Khan District of the Punjab 
previous to the establishment of the Baluchistan Agency in 1877 ; and 
this charge now devolved on the Political Agent in Thal-Chotiali, the 
name first given to the District on its establishment in 1879. The 
Kuat-Mandai valley, which belongs to the Marri tribe, has been held 
since 1881 as security for the payment of a fine inflicted after the Marri 
expedition of 1880. Owing to disputes between the Zarkun Afghans 
and the Marris, the Kohlu valley was brought under British protection 
in 1 89 1. Naslrabad was a Jiidbat of the Kalat State till 1903, when 
it was taken over on a perpetual lease for an annual payment of 
Rs. 1,15,000, increased by Rs. 2,500 in April, 1904. The name of 
the District was changed to Sibi in 1903, at which time the Sanjawi, 
Duki, and Barkhan iahslls, which had hitherto formed part of the old 
Thal-Chotiali District, were transferred to the new Loralai District. 

Sibi District proper possesses one town and 304 villages, and its 
population in 1901 amounted to 73,893, or 18 persons per square 
. mile. The Marri-Bugti country has 8 villages 

and a population of 38,919. The total population, 
Including tribal areas, is therefore 112,812. But this does not include 
the Dombkis (12,400), Umranis (1,100), and Kaheris (7,100), who 
live in that portion of Kachhi which is controlled from Sibi Dis- 
trict. The following table gives statistics of the area, &c., of the 
Administered territory by tahslls in 1901 : — 




Area in 



Number of 


Population ' 
per scjuarc 







Kohlu . 
Sibi . 
Naslrabad . 















* Includes 662 Marris enumerated in the Kohlu tahsil. 

In the Administered area 90 per cent, of the population are Muhani- 
niadans of the Sunni sect and 9 per cent, are Hindus ; in the Marri- 
Bugti country the Muhammadans number 99 per cent. About 43 per 
cent, of the people speak Baluchi ; the other languages sjjoken are 
Pashtu, Jatki, and SindT. A peculiar dialect, called 'I'arlno, is spoken 
in .Shahrig. The Baloch number about 48,000 ; Afghans follow with 
18,000. The Marris and Bugtis and the Dumars are large flock- 
owners ; the other inhabitants are cultivators. 

The soil of the plains is alluvium, locally known as pat ■, in the 
lower highlands it is sandy; in Kohlu it is much impregnated \\\\\\ 
salt. Clay and gravel occur at the higher elevations. 'I'he directly 
Administered area is well irrigated and fertile, hut the Marri and 
Bugti hills afford small opportunity for agriculture. Of all the ta/isl/s, 
Kohlu alone has not been surveyed. The total cultivable area in the 
remaining tahslls is 878 square miles, of which about 234 square miles 
are cultivated annually. The principal harvest is the sdnwant-i or 
autumn crop ; wheat and oilseeds compose the spring crop (arhari). 
The largest area is under Jmvdr, after which come oilseeds and wheat. 
Rice, millets, and gram are also grown. Cultivation has extended 
everywhere with the advent of peace and security ; in Naslrabad it has 
risen from 76 square miles in 1880-1 to 165 square miles in 1902-3, 
and in Sibi from about 7 square miles in 1879-80 to about 59 square 
miles in 1904. Quantities of vegetables are raised in Sibi for the 
Quetta market, and the cultivation of tobacco, potatoes, and melons 
is increasing. Between 1897 and 1904 advances for agricultural 
improvements were given to the amount of nearly Rs. 50,000. 

The class of catde in the plains is excellent. The ponies of the 
Marri and Bugti hills are light in limb and body, but carry heavy 
weights unshod over the roughest ground. In the plains larger 
animals are kept. The number of branded mares is 164. Govern- 
ment stallions are stationed at Sibi in the winter. Camels are bred 
in the southern part of the District. A horse and cattle fair is held 
at Sibi in February. 

The Naslrabad tahsil is irrigated by the Desert and Begnri branches 



of the Government canals in Sind. The water is brought to the land 
either by gravitation {moki) or by lift {charkhi). The area irrigated 
annually between 1893 and 1903 averaged 80,000 acres. In the Sibi 
tahsil a system of channels from the Nari river irrigates about 26,000 
acres. Elsewhere, excluding Kohlu, about 13,700 acres are irrigated 
from springs and streams. Wells are used for irrigation in NasTrabad, 
but their number is limited. Most of the irrigated land is allowed to 
lie fallow for a year or two. The kdrez number 14. 

' Reserved ' juniper forests number seven, with an area of 69 square 
miles; and mixed forests, nine in number, cover about 41 square 
miles. The former are situated in Shahrig, and seven of the latter 
are in the Sibi tahsil. The juniper forests contain an undergrowth 
of wild almond {Prunus ebumea) and mdkhi {Caragana) ; and the 
mixed forests grow Prosopis spicigera, Capparis aphy/ia, tamarisk, and 

Coal occurs in the Shahrig iahsil, and petroleum at Khattan in the 
Marri country. An